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Their feet grimed from the hearth : visual motifs in Aschenputtel, Catskin and Cap o’ Rushes MacMath, Russell D. 1993-09-15

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THEIR FEET GRIMED FROM THE HEARTH:VISUAL MOTIFS IN ASCHENPUTTEL,CATSKIN AND CAP 0' RUSHESbyRussell Duncan MacMathA THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASeptember 1993© Russ MacMathIn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of /A-A/6vA6-2( Ebt/4 4 -7/6 r-iThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, Canada--C...7rJ4. 7 1r3DateDE- 6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThis study is based on the hypothesis that the concept of literarymotifs logically includes the three subsets of textual motifs, visual motifsand oral motifs. This study has established the viability - the validity,practicality and usefulness - of a model of visual motifs for the analysis ofillustrated folktales.The validity of the concept was established two ways. First, aliterature review established that, while no formal models of visual motifanalysis were evident, discussion of illustrated folktales describedillustrators' conventions and practices in terms analogous to those used todescribe textual motifs. Second, the instrument, procedures anddefinitions developed in this thesis were based on the assumption that theconcept of visual motifs as a subset of literary motifs was supportable.That it was supportable was evidenced by its integrity in application.The practicality of the visual motif model as a basis for the analysisof illustrations was established three ways. First, the findings of this. thesisare based on a visual motif analysis of sixty-eight variations of threespecific folktales: Aschenputtel, Catskin and Cap o' Rushes. Second, aselection of eleven Key Books and four Notable Illustrations was identifiedto form a practical basis for the study of visual motifs with students.Third, the instrument and procedures developed for the collection andanalysis of data in this thesis became a model of visual motifs specific tothe folktales being studied.That the concept of visual motifs was useful was established fourways. First, the findings established that generally lamented stereotypicaliiportrayals of folktales do not preclude the existence of extensive, diverse,variations in visual interpretation.^Second, the findings established thatthe norms for the portrayal of visual motifs vary greatly betweenAschenputtel and Catskin / Cap o' Rushes. Even though all three tales arepart of the recognized Cinderella cycle, the markedly different portrayal ofthe protagonists and the principal motifs has implications for the study ofcultural variations in folktales. Third, the findings established that thereare significant variations in the portrayal of specific motifs duringdifferent chronological periods. The relative importance of different visualmotifs at different times as evidenced by the extent of their occurrencehas implications for the study of a folktale's changing role in changingtimes. Fourth, the diversity and evolving interpretations of a singlefolktale by different illustrators is a testament to both the living literatureof folklore and the role of the illustrator as storyteller, reinterpreting thetale for new audiences.This thesis has established the viability of the concept of visualmotifs and the effectiveness of the procedures and instrument therebydesigned.^Implications for theory, research, and practice have beenproposed to build on the availability of the diverse material analyzed, andto explore both the reasons for, and varied interpretations of, thephenomenon documented herein.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT ^  iiTABLE OF CONTENTS ^  i vLIST OF TABLES  xLIST OF FIGURES ^  xiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xiiCHAPTER ONE - PURPOSE OF THE STUDYINTRODUCTION ^  1PURPOSE ^  1RATIONALE AND PROCEDURE ^  3RESEARCH QUESTIONS ^  5SUMMARY ^  6CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEWINTRODUCTION ^  7MOTIF MODELS  9Shirley Rousseau Murphy ^  9Marian Roalfe Cox ^  1 2Anna Birgitta Rooth  1 3Antti Aarne - Stith Thompson ^  1 4R.D. Jameson ^  1 5ivNARRATIVE MOTIFS AND ILLUSTRATIONS ^  1 7SELECTION OF THE TALES ^  1 9SELECTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS ^ 2 2CONTENT IN THE ILLUSTRATIONS ^  2 5CONCLUSION ^  3 0CHAPTER THREE - PROCEDURES OF THE STUDYINTRODUCTION ^ 3 2SEARCH FOR INDIVIDUAL PICTURE BOOKS ^ 3 4ANALYSIS OF ASCHENPUTTEL: INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES^  37Section One - Motifs Derived From the Text(Content Illustrated) ^  3 8Section Two - Visual Motifs of Style andInterpretation ^  4 0SEARCH FOR ANTHOLOGIES  4 3RANGE OF THE SAMPLE - ASCHENPUTTEL ^ 4 5SEARCH FOR CATSKIN / CAP 0' RUSHES  4 6ANALYSIS OF CATSKIN AND CAP 0' RUSHES ^  5 1VALIDITY ^ 5 2SELECTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS ^  5 4CHAPTER FOUR - FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONINTRODUCTION ^ 5 7SECTION 1 - VISUAL MOTIFS AS A VIABLE CONCEPT FORTHE COMPARISON OF ILLUSTRATED FOLKTALES ^ 6 1Text-Based Visual Motifs ^ 6 2Non Text-Based Visual Motifs 6 4Norms^and^Range^in^the^Interpretation^ofVisual Motifs 6 5Specific Motif Analyses ^ 6 7Servitude 67Role of the Mother ^ 70Role of the Birds 7 1Dress Scene ^ 7 2Closing Scene 7 4Role of the Father ^ 7 5Flight from the Celebration ^ 7 8Slipper Test ^ 7 9Mutilation / Punishment ^ 7 9Sleeping by the Hearth 8 1Page ^ 8 5Cat 8 5Age of Aschenputtel ^ 8 6Hair ^ 8 9General Appearance - Aschenputtel ^ 9 2Comparative Appearance - Stepsisters ^ 9 4viHome ^  9 7Style  9 8Expressions - Aschenputtel ^  1 0 2Expressions - Stepsisters  1 0 4SECTION 2 - STOCK POSTURES / EFFECTIVE POSTURES /CREDIBLE CONVENTIONS ^  10 6SECTION 3 - TRENDS ^  1 1 1^Chronological Trends    1 1 2Shifting Norms ^  1 1 2Cyclic Portrayals  1 13Dormant Motifs ^  1 1 5Newer Motifs  1 1 5Borrowed and Vestigial Motifs ^  116Clichés / Integral Motifs ^  1 1 8SECTION 4 - CATSKIN / CAP 0' RUSHES ^ 12 2Age and Appearance  12 3Garments ^  12 4Expressions  12 5Style ^  12 6Role of the Father ^  1 2 7Predominant Motif  12 7Borrowed / Vestigial Motifs ^ 12 8SECTION 5 - COMPOSITION AS VISUAL MOTIF  1 2 9SUMMARY - VISUAL MOTIFS IN ASCHENPUTTEL ^ 1 3 3SUMMARY - VISUAL MOTIFS IN CATSKIN ANDCAP 0' RUSHES ^ 1 4 0viiCHAPTER FIVE - KEY BOOKS AND NOTABLE ILLUSTRATIONSINTRODUCTION ^  143KEY BOOKS  145Munzer, 1904 ^  145Klemke, 1965  146Klein, 1965 ^  148Rusjan, 1967  149Gongalov, 1967 ^  151Rusz, 1976  152Bernadette, 1977 ^  154Svend Otto S, 1978  155Elsãsser, 1978 ^  156Chretien, 1985  158Archipowa, 1990 ^  159NOTABLE ILLUSTRATIONS ^  160COMPARATIVE TEXTS  162CONCLUSIONS ^  164CHAPTER SIX - CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSINTRODUCTION ^ 16 6CONCLUSIONS 1 6 6Viability of the Concept of Visual Motifs ^ 16 6Demonstrated Characteristics of Visual Motifs ^ 1 68viiiVisual Motifs in Aschenputtel ^  170Visual Motifs in Catskin and Cap o' Rushes ^ 171Selection of Key Books and Notable Illustrations ^ 172Mitigating the Concerns of Schwarcz ^  172IMPLICATIONS ^  176Implications for Theory ^  176Implications for Practice  177Implications for Research ^  177POSTSCRIPT^  179REFERENCESINTRODUCTION ^  180PHOTO-BIBLIOGRAPHY - ASCHENPUTTEL ^  181^List of Illustrators - Aschenputtel   181PHOTO-BIBLIOGRPHY - CATSKIN / CAP 0' RUSHES ^ 241List of Illustrators - Catskin / Cap o' Rushes 241REFERENCES - COMPARATIVE TALES ^ 252BIBLIOGRAPHY - SECONDARY LITERATURE ^ 253APPENDIXAPPENDIX A. Discussion with Dr. Scherf ^  257ixLIST OF TABLESTable 1 - Rank Ordering of Motifs Analyzed from Aschenputtel Tales120xLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1 Catalogue Card ^ 3 5Figure 2 Visual Motif Analysis Instrument, Section One -Motifs Derived From the Text (Content Illustrated) 3 9Figure 3 Visual Motif Analysis Instrument, Section Two -Visual Motifs of Style and Interpretation 4 1Figure 4 Text-based Visual Motifs ^ 6 3Figure 5 Roles for the Father 7 7Figure 6 Allusions to Mutilation ^ 8 0Figure 7 Sleeping by the Hearth 8 2Figure 8 Age Range for Aschenputtel ^ 8 7Figure 9 Stock Postures - 'Working Hard' 10 7Figure 10 Stock Postures - 'Suffering' ^ 10 9Figure 11 Stock Postures - 'Disappointment' ^ 10 9Figure 12 Composition Motif - 'Birds and Sunlight' 13 0Figure 13 Composition Motif - 'Hounded to the Hearth' 13 1Figure 14^Composition Motif - 'Industrious Service' 13 2Chapter 5 Key Books ^ 145 -^159Notable Illustrations ^ 160 -^161Comparative Texts 162 -^163xiACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI am pleased to acknowledge those people whose influence at criticalpoints helped shape this thesis.Paula Hart, who was first and introduced me to Shirley RousseauMurphy's Silver Woven in My Hair which inspired the study.Wendy Sutton, who introduced me to the graduate world ofchildren's literature and Joseph Schwarcz's Ways of the Illustrator whichfocussed the study.Ronald Jobe, who introduced me to, literally, the world of children'sliterature, in particular the Internationale Jugendbibliothek which madepossible the study.Also, Irene Skorka of Munich, Martha Baker, and Erika vonEnglebrechten of the Internationale Jugendbibliothek whose hospitality,knowledge and assistance made the research for this study such a fruitful,rewarding experience, Kieran Kealy who took the time and interest tomake such encouraging suggestions, and Cathy, Tom, and Sandy whohelped get it done.xiiCHAPTER ONE - PURPOSE OF THE STUDYINTRODUCTIONFolktales have a rich and established heritage in the world ofliterature. The availability of so many folktales to students of diversecultural backgrounds makes them an ideal medium for beginning studiesin comparative literature. They are more than just readily available;folktales are one of the most effective forms of literature fordemonstrating both the diversity and the universality of humanexperience. An extensive body of literature exists concerned withcomparative folklore analysis; however, a much greater portion of thatliterature is concerned with the text of transcribed tales than with the oralconventions of storytellers or the visual conventions of illustrators. Theliterature concerned with textual analysis of folktales contains variousmotif models that provide a framework for analysis, discussion, andcomparison.It is a premise of this thesis that a similar concept of motif modelsfor illustrations would provide a similar framework for analysis,discussion, and comparison of illustration.PURPOSESix years of studying variations of the Cinderella cycle with studentshas convinced the author of this study that they inevitably, initially,perceive Cinderella as a hybrid Disney/Perrault creation. Motif-based1studies of related folktales have demonstrably enhanced students'understanding of folktales and the diversity of their own subsequentanalogous compositions. The study of literary motifs gave the students away-in, a tool, a framework for discussion, comparison, comprehension,and creation.A premise of this thesis is that a similar study of the visualinterpretation of a given folktale might similarly increase the students'understanding of the tale and encourage their own diversity of visualinterpretation. Opening their eyes to the myriad of possibilities woulddevelop their appreciation, and valuing, of the illustrators' contributions tothe illustrated folktale. This would be consistent with the view of picturebooks as books in which the text and illustrations work together to bringmore meaning to the story than either attribute on its own.There are recognizable literary motifs. There are also recognizablestereotypes in illustrations. Disney characters, for example, arerecognizably Disney characters regardless of the particular tale beingportrayed. The concern is not so much that those illustrations areinaccurate or inappropriate, but rather that owing to their saturation of themarket they come to be identified with a given tale as being the definitiveinterpretation. That perception contributes to a related concern thatperhaps folktales, and by extension all children's literature, ought not to beillustrated because illustrations inhibit the viewer/reader's owninterpretations.Another premise of this thesis is that if a single visual interpretationwas not perceived as being the only, or the correct, interpretation, then therelated question of whether folktales ought to be illustrated or not wouldbe less of an issue.2RATIONALE AND PROCEDUREA study of recognized motif models (Cox, 1893. Jameson, 1932. AarneThompson, 1961. Rooth, in Dundes, 1982.) reveals areas of consensus, areaswhere the interpretations differ, and most importantly, the nature of whatall those models mean by the term motif - portions of tales, not necessarilyidentical, but recognizable nonetheless from one tale to another.Analysis of the studies about comparative folklore illustration byrecognized authorities in the field of children's literature (Yolen, 1981.Schwarcz, 1982, 1991. Zipes, 1988) reveals that, while they do not usemotif models, they do analyze features of illustrations recognizable fromone version of a tale to another. It is the point of this thesis, to ascertainwhether analysis of folktales using the language and concepts of motifanalysis is supportable, valid and useful.Analysis of the literature reveals that the concept of visual motifswill apply to two conditions. The first is the visual representation oftextual motifs. Catskin, for example, takes leave of the young Lord threetimes after enigmatically telling him that she lives at 'the Sign of the Basinof Water', 'the Sign of the Broken Ladle', and 'the Sign of the CrookedCarving Fork.' If any of those details are portrayed by illustrators theywould be considered visual motifs derived from textual motifs.The second condition is that visual motifs apply to illustrators'conventions. The physical appearance of the young Lord in the British taleCatskin is not specified. If he were consistently illustrated as tall, orbearded, or in military dress then those conventions would be consideredvisual motifs.3The literature about comparative folklore does not appear to includeany motif models for illustrations. It is, therefore, necessary to analyze thecontent of multiple editions of a single folktale in order to develop one.That analysis will lead, in this thesis, to the development of an instrumentand procedure for the motif analysis of illustrated folktales. The motifanalysis instrument will be applicable to any illustrated versions ofAschenputtel, Catskin and Cap o' Rushes. The procedure for thedevelopment of the specific instrument, and the procedure for analysis,will be applicable to any illustrated folktale.To determine the viability of visual motif analysis for comparativefolklore study, it is necessary to analyze the content of multiple editions ofmore than one folktale in order to have a valid basis for comparison.The visual motif analysis instrument will be developed from theanalysis of the fifty-eight editions of Aschenputtel and ten editions ofCatskin / Cap o' Rushes in the collection of the InternationaleJugendbibliothek (International Youth Library) in Munich.The work of Joseph Schwarcz, of all the researcher/analysts whodiscuss comparative folklore illustrations, is especially relevant to thisstudy. Schwarcz's analysis of Perrault's Cinderella and Grimm'sAschenputtel provides both a suggestion of the sort of motifs one mightlook for in the analysis of the tales, and a basis of comparison for theresults of this study. His work (1982, 1991) thoroughly and clearlyarticulates the widely held concerns about the tendency in folktaleillustration towards stereotypical portrayals of cute protagonists in tritesituations. Schwarcz's study, however, was not a comparative study of theGrimm and Perrault tales as he analyzed only the motifs they held incommon.4RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe research questions are intended to look for support for theconcept of a visual motif model. That support will be evidenced bydemonstrating the existence of visual motifs through definition,description, and exhibition of examples; by analyzing illustrations using theconventions and language of literary motif analysis; and by using the motifmodels thereby developed to undertake a comparative folklore discussionof the illustrations for three related folktales. The literature review, aswell as the procedures of the study, are guided by the six researchquestions. They are:1) Does the analysis of the content of illustrations of a given folktalesupport the concept of visual motifs?2) Is the concept of visual motifs a viable basis for the comparison ofillustrated folktales?3) Do the representations of visual motifs .demonstrate the recognizablesimilarities of literary motifs?4) Do the representations of visual motifs demonstrate diversity ofinterpretation?5) Are chronological trends evident in the portrayal of specific visualmotifs?6) Do any visual motifs occur so consistently that they might beconsidered either cliched, of integral, to the story?5SUMMARYIn conclusions, this study is intended to establish the importance ofthe concept of visual motifs as a part of the recognized study ofcomparative folklore and to develop the instrument and procedures forthat visual motif analysis. This thesis will establish the viability of theconcept of visual motifs; establish a record of visual motifs found inAschenputtel, Catskin, and Cap o' Rushes to form a basis for comparativeanalysis; identify key books and notable illustrations to form a basis for astudy of visual motifs; and report on the relative occurrence, in the talesanalyzed, of concerns expressed by Schwarcz.6CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEWINTRODUCTIONTales recognizably a part of the Cinderella cycle abound, not only inacademic circles such as the seven hundred versions identified by Swedishfolklorist Anna Birgitta Rooth (Dundes, 1982), but also in our publiclibraries. The stories have been analyzed extensively in terms of literarymotifs. The quantity of identifiable variations and recognizable motifsmake the tales a rich source for a comparative literature study of folklore.The similarities are apparent to elementary school students in spite of, andas well as, the marked differences so that they come to realize how storiesbuild on and borrow from the conventions of earlier stories, and how theyincorporate local and contemporary concerns. This is a study in change, inunderlying values, and in making meaning for specific audiences.Illustrations have historically been a part of the storytelling process.Jane Yolen's essay in Touch Magic (1981), 'The Eye and the Ear', refutesBruno Bettleheim's (1976) contention that we should do withoutillustrations by making the case that they are well within the tradition oforal storytelling. 'Shamans and seer often accompanied tellings withdrawings, dolls, or puppets.' (p. 43) Modern storytellers hang pictures onlines in Brazil and in Arab bazaars storytellers make paintings in colouredsand as they tell their tales. Anne Pellowski (1978) has discussed theintegral historical role of pictures with storytelling from the secondcentury B.C. through Germany, Japan, and India to post-war Europe andNorth America.7Analysis of illustrations indicates the existence of conventionsanalagous to narrative motifs, the literal portrayal of what happens andthe symbolic portrayal of motivation, feeling, and consequence. As withthe narrative motifs there are recognizable, even stereotypical,conventions, and there are original, revisited, and thought provokingpresentations. There are not yet, however, the motif models that identifythe visual components.The research questions are intended to support the concept of such amotif model. That support will be evidenced by analyzing illustrationsusing the conventions and language of narrative motif analysis. Theliterature review, as well as the procedures of the study, are guided byascertaining the actual case with respect to each of the six researchquestions. The research questions being studied are:1) Does analysis of the content of illustrations of a given folktalesupport the concept of visual motifs?2) Is the concept of visual motifs a viable basis for the comparisonof illustrated folktales?3) Do the representations of visual motifs demonstrate therecognizable similarities of literary motifs?4) Do the representations of visual motifs demonstrate diversityof interpretation?5) Are chronological trends evident in the portrayal of specificvisual motifs?6) Do any visual motifs occur so consistently that they might beconsidered either clichdd, or integral, to the story?A summary of the literature on motif models provides a rationale forthe tales chosen for analysis, and for the aspects of the tales that will beanalyzed. A summary of the literature on the art of illustration as it8relates to motifs and conventions provides a foundation for developing theinstrument to analyze those illustrations.MOTIF MODELSShirley Rousseau MurphyRanking a novelist not only with, but first among, recognized scholarsmay appear presumptuous. It is not. She is placed first because herdefinition of the genre was the first one encountered by the researcherand because, to this day, it remains the closest thing to a definitiveassessment of the heart of the Cinderella stories. Not only that but it doesso without labeling them as 'Cinderella' stories, and it does so in a freshretelling that avoids the cloyingly cute conventions of the Perrault-derivedversions.The introductory sentence is not intended to diminish Mrs. Murphy'sscholarship. She cites, in fact, Marian Roalfe Cox's Cinderella: ThreeHundred and Forty-five Variants... (1893). Rather, it is to acknowledge herunique place amongst the references. It seems entirely appropriate thatan accomplished novelist, a person recognized for her ability to write in away that engages the imagination, should be the one to capture theessential, elusive, heart of the folktale in a way that no amount of chartsand cross-indexing could ever hope to.Silver Woven in My Hair, the title derived from the reworking of arhyme in Aschenputtel, is the story of Thursey who works in the kitchensof her late father's inn and is obliged to sleep in a closet wardrobe. There9is a ball, but Thursey has no particular interest in going; she is altogethermore concerned about her very special friend, a goatherd. This story isitself a variation of the Cinderella cycle and the analogies are notsuppressed. Thursey's active imagination expresses itself in her fears thatshe must not go to the ball. She loves Gillie, her goatherd, and fears thather story, should she attend the ball, may end as did Tattercoats' - withthe disappearance of the gooseherd. Thursey has no pretensions whatever.The book is an accomplishment for avoiding clichés and it is charming forThursey's wit and her incisive assessment of her stepsisters' superficiality,'Those two would go after anything that wore trousers she thoughtindignantly' (p. 10).There is no magic in this story beyond the enchantmentThursey derives from listening to travelers relate the stories theyhave heard, especially, 'stories of the kind Thursey loved best. Talesof girls who, their feet grimed from the hearth, were banished to thekitchen and stables and treated cruelly by their elders' (p. 12).The appeal of Thursey's definition is emotional and in that sensealone it is inarguably valid. It also works in its specifics. Insofar as'grimed' can include any degradation or decline in circumstances, insofar as'banished' can include self-exile, and insofar as 'hearth and stables' can beconsidered a general description of the working class or servant classworld, then they are constants and true to all versions of the tales. Thisdefinition is sufficient to include all the tales; what it lacks is the ability toexclude. Snow White, for example, falls within Thursey's definition; she isbanished and she is treated cruelly by her stepmother.^It is not generallyconsidered to be a tale in the Cinderella cycle because it differs from themin significant ways. Snow White does not live with her tormentors, and1 0there is no supportive role, either philosophically or symbolically, for hermother.Rousseau Murphy's definition, as expressed by Thursey, is one motifmodel to consider. The effect of the stories upon Thursey, as well as someof the inclusions, are also relevant in light of Bruno Bettleheim's (1975)case for the reassuring, comforting, therapeutic quality of the stories.Thursey's reaction to the tales supports her intuitive definition of thegroup, she reacts in a way that Bettleheim has suggested a reader wouldreact to the tales.In each there was a girl Thursey could not help but weepfor, Cendrillon or Rushencoatie, Vasilisa or Hajnalka or CariWoodencoat. She wept for Cinderella and for the Snow WhiteMaid, for Tattercoats and Cap-O-Rushes, for the King's Daughterin the Mound, and now she wept for Aschenputtel. ...The stepsisters would scoff and call her childish to beoccupied with such frippery ... but the stories freed Thurseyfrom her stepmother and stepsisters in a manner she could notexplain; it hurt no one, the strength she took from them. (pp.12, 13)In considering more restrictive definitions, that is, those with theability to exclude tales, it is prudent to heed Alan Dundes' chastisinglament in Cinderella: A Casebook (1982) and consider the recognizedauthorities.Any analysis of an item of folklore should begin whereprevious analyses have ended. This is why it is unfortunatethat so many of those who have written about Cinderella havefailed to make use of the abundant comparative materialsassembled so laboriously by Marian Roalfe Cox and later byAnna Birgitta Rooth. One need not accept or agree withprevious conclusions, but it is the height of parochial arroganceto assume that no one before has ever considered the problemunder investigation. (p. x)11Marian Roalfe CoxMarian Roalfe Cox, as the first of Dundes' recognized authorities,devised a system to distinguish between related forms of the Cinderellatale. This is an effective method for including a large number of relatedtales without devising a single definition so general that it would includeall of them, and a great many others as well. Her model has been the basisof other scholarly analyses from Sidney Hartland's (Dundes, 1982)refutation of India's claims to be the source of the tales in 1893, to ArcherTaylor's (Dundes) much more recent comparative study of the CinderellaCycle in 1969.Essentially, the Cox model defines five variants of the Cinderella tale.They may vary in many particulars but must include what she considersthe essential elements. These are also defined as differentiating elements.Type A - Cinderella^- Ill treated heroine.- Recognition by means of shoe.Type B - Catskin^- Unnatural father. (Euphemism for a hatefulor incestuous marriage proposal.)- Heroine flight.Type C - Cap o' Rushes - King Lear judgement.- Outcast heroine.12The existence of a great many stories which did not contain thepreceding as essential elements, but which otherwise conformed in manyincidents, were considered to be a Type D - Indeterminate. This categorywas further subdivided to indicate which of the above types each tale wasclosest to, thus: Type (Da), (Db), (Dc), and (De).The fifth category Type E - Hero Tales was defined as including thosetales in which the Cinderella role was filled by a hero rather than aheroine.Anna Birgitta RoothDundes' (1982) interpretation of Anna Birgitta Rooth's modelindicates that the salient points are that, together with the Aarne-Thompson model that follows, she considered the Catskin and Cap o'Rushes categories as one, and that one as a subset of the Cinderella tales.Furthermore she created a set that included all the Cinderella and theIndeterminate tales.Type A^parallels Cox's Indeterminate.Type B^parallels Cox's Cinderella.Type AB -^all of the above.Type B 1 -^a combination of Cox's Catskin and Cap o' Rushes.Type C^parallels Cox's Hero Tales.13Antti Aarne - Stith ThompsonStith Thompson's 1961 revision of The Types of the Folktale appearsto be a currently recognized model. It is the one cited by The Storyteller'sSourcebook (1982) a practical source of retellings. It also appears, basedon Dundes' interpretation, to parallel Rooth's model. While the categoriesare parallel, Stith Thompson has identified other motifs or titles as beingessential to his categories. (Chart based on Dundes, p. viii)C.a.3^Ranib^Aarne - ThompsonA - Cinderella^B^510 A - CinderellaB - Catskin B 1C - Cap o' Rushes^B 1^510 B - Dress of gold, silver and starsD - Indeterminate^A^511^- One-eyes, Two-eyes, Three-eyesE - Hero Tales^C^511 A - The Little Red OxAB^511 + 510 AThere is no doubt that these last three models are recognized, andworkable, although they are not particularly appealing to the researcher.They do have the advantage of being both inclusive, by virtue of theirmultiple categories, and exclusive, by virtue of their motif definitions.What they do, though, is label tales; they lack the emotional heart ofRousseau Murphy's definition. However, given the body of research thatexists on the Cinderella tales, it is necessary to be familiar with them. Ofall the models that seem to sub-divide categories, the most appealing isR.D. Jameson's.14R.D. JamesonIn preparing his 1932 paper on Chinese variations of the Cinderellatale Jameson developed his own model (Dundes, 1982). Its appeal for meis that it allows for the complete cycle of the story. Whereas the abovemodel/labels focus on the presence of an 'essential' motif, Jameson's modelprovides for combinations of incidents much like the choose-one-from-column-A-and-one-from-column-B models. He divided his stories intoabout five parts and allowed for variations as follows:A. A young girl is ill-treated:A 1 by her stepmother and stepsisters who are unkind to her;orA 2 by her father who wishes to marry her. She flees afterreceiving gifts of clothes; orA3 by her father whom she tells she loves as she loves saltand is driven from home; orA 4 by her entire family who wish to kill her.B. During a time of menial service at home or abroad:B1^she is advised, supported (fed) and given clothes by herdead mother, a tree on her mother's grave or asupernatural creature.B2^she is helped by birds.B3^goats, sheep or cow.B4 When the animal has been killed, a gift-bearing treegrows from its entrails, a box with clothes is found insideit or its ossuaries are otherwise useful in providingclothes.C She meets the prince.Cl^Disguised in her pretty clothes she goes to a ball anddances several times with the prince who tries in vain tofind out who she is, or he sees her as she goes to church.C2 Sometimes she hints to him about sufferings and thusboth mystifies and interests him.C3 Sometimes the prince peeps through a keyhole and seesher in her finery.D. She is identified by:D1^the shoe test.D2^the ring she leaves in his soup or bakes in his bread.D3^her ability to perform some difficult task such as pickingthe golden apples.15E She marries the prince.F. If her suffering is due to the fact that she told her father sheloves him as she loves salt, she now serves him unsaltedfood to prove how necessary salt is to human happiness.This model was prepared for a comparison of Chinese variations. Itsappeal is that, like the Cox, Rooth, and Thompson models, it is bothcomprehensive enough to be inclusive and specific enough to be exclusive.Its special advantage is that, by including the entire tale and multiplecombinations, it is flexible enough to accommodate new variations thatappear, intuitively, to belong.The term 'intuitively' is used guardedly. It is one that appears todemean the quantitative, verifiable nature of a well-developed premise,but that is not the intention here. It is, rather, to acknowledge that thereis an observable phenomenon when people encounter these variations forthe first time that they react to them with the exclamation, 'Why, this isjust like Cinderella!' The Cox, Rooth, and Thompson models show thatthere are categories that are significantly different from 'Cinderella' andyet there are various aspects of them that make the overall story 'likeCinderella'. Jameson is very close to capturing this with his overall storymodel that includes the heroine being ill treated (A), and forced to domenial work (B). She meets a prince (C) who is taken with her beauty andis identified (D). She inevitably marries the prince (E).16NARRATIVE MOTIFS AND ILLUSTRATIONSEven though there is not one definitive model, there is consensusthat narrative similarities - the motifs - exist. The areas of consensus innarrative analysis will form the basis for comparison in the visual analysisand for selection of specific tales.A consideration raised by Schwarcz (1982) is that in order toconsider visual interpretation among texts it is essential to choose motifsthat 'appear in any version or adaptation because they are essential to thefabric of the tex.' (p. 107). His point is well taken, otherwise one could findoneself identifying the presence or absence of illustrations of theprotagonist in specific situations when such situations did not arise in thetext. That would have relevance to the portrayal of illustrators'conventions, but it would not be relevant data for the question of theillustrative interpretation of given narrative motifs if the motifs were not,in fact, a part of some of the texts.Although even here, in being inclined to support Schwarcz's point, itis necessary to keep an open mind. It is conceivable that certain images,scenes, or motifs could become so associated with given folktales that anillustrator might deliberately choose to illustrate an aspect of a tale thatwas not part of the accompanying text. The illustrator might beembellishing the given work by alluding to a preferred version,acknowledging cultural roots by including the motifs/scenes ascounterpoint to the text, or drawing on stock responses.Change of status is a universal trait of all the tales. Bruno Bettleheimused the term degradation (1975, p. 247) to indicate the initial fall fromfavour that is characteristic of all variations. It is a term that is echoed by17Schwarcz's 'humiliation' in Ways of the Illustrator (1982, chap. 10) whenconsidering visual motifs. As a universal motif, the dichotomy betweenlatent expectation and manifest destiny is an appropriate basis forcomparison across the variations chosen - Aschenputtel, Catskin and Cap o'Rushes. Cognizant that one must be as aware of motifs that differentiate,as of those that are universal, these three variations have been chosenbecause of their significant narrative differences.While indebted to the points raised by Schwarcz, to the depth andclarity of his insight, and while the analysis in this study owes much to hiswork, there is a concern about the books that he chose to analyze. Themotifs he chose - Cinderella's humiliation which is a prolonged state, andher flight from the ball which he describes as a decisive turning point -allowed him to select illustrations from both the Grimms' version of thestory, Aschenputtel, and from Perrault's Cinderella. The concern with thatapproach is that there are so many significant differences in the twostories, that, even though both motifs are present in both versions, othermotifs not mentioned will influence the portrayal of the protagonist ineach version.For example, the flight from the ball is mandated by the fairygodmother in the Perrault version, happens only once, and the principal'content' of the scene is the panic over time and the loss of the glassslipper. In the Grimm version the flight is a matter of choice, happensthree times and the 'content' of the final flight is the prince's deliberateploy of tarring the step so as to capture her slipper. The motivation andcontent focus in the two versions are so different as to make directcomparisons as if they were from the same tale tenuous. Certain, specific,aspects of each scene can be considered together, but one must be careful18about then generalizing to either of the larger contexts: motivation in thescenes, or portrayal throughout either complete tale.The explanation for the selection of Aschenputtel over Cinderella,both of which fall into the same tale type in all of the models, will bepresented after explaining the choice of the other two tales, Catskin andCap o' Rushes.SELECTION OF THE TALESMarian Roalfe Cox's (types A, B, & C) and R.D. Jameson's (types Al,A2, & A3) motif models differentiate their first three categories asCinderella, Catskin and Cap o' Rushes explicitly and respectively. TheAarne-Thompson model does not explicitly include the Catskin type, andthe Rooth model combines Catskin and Cap o' Rushes. Each model, exceptfor Jameson's, also allows for a variation with a male protagonist. Thatcategory is not included in this study of visual motifs because this studyhas some relevance to the portrayal of women in folk tales, particularly inlight of concern about the patriarchalization of the tales and thedomestication of the protagonists that is decried by Zipes (1988, p. 142)and others (Tatar, 1992).The indeterminate category is also not included because thatcategory may be more an indication of the shortcomings of the Cox andRooth models than of any intrinsic common identity to the tales soclassified. Jameson's model does not require such a miscellaneouscategory.19It is important to include the Catskin and Cap o' Rushes tales in thisstudy, partly because they are so well-defined that they have given theirnames to sub-genres of the Cinderella tale type, but also because theessential difference in their narrative motifs has direct implications for theprotagonists' self-image and, potentially, for the portrayal of theprotagonists.Catskin fled home of her own volition, for various reasons in currentretellings but originally to avoid an incestuous proposal. She is ambitiousin wanting to attend the dances, is cheeky with the cook who inevitablydisallows her, witty in misleading the young lord and she earns her in-laws' favour by nursing their heartsick son back to health.Cap o' Rushes was banished from home and, while not portrayed asbeing particularly witty, was resourceful, found work, and attended thedances discreetly. She was not inclined to return the young Lord'saffection, 'Young men don't die of love. He will find someone else.' (Steel,1979) and eventually married him out of pity.Neither story features magic. The protagonists are much more incontrol of their own destiny and their characters are so strongly developedin the text that it possible that there will a noticeable difference in theillustration of the protagonists' emotional involvement in these tales, asopposed to the Aschneputtel tales.The selection of the Grimms' Aschenputtel over Perrault's Cinderellawas, initially, a matter of personal choice as this researcher found it a farricher retelling. Aschenputtel has a father and he has a role. The agent ofmagic is the much more satisfying spirit of her dead mother, which is morein the tradition of a 'folk' tale than the fairytale 'fairy' godmother. JackZipes (1988) also feels that for all the 'literary pre-emption of an oral tale20... in contrast to Perrault, the Brothers Grimm paid more homage to thematrilineal tradition of their version' (p. 142). Robert Darnton (1984)builds a compelling case that Perrault's tales generally owe very little tothe oral tradition, or at least to the oral tradition of peasant folk. WhileSchwarcz cites the two tales as if they are much the same tale, and theGrimm version has been considered a retelling of Perrault (Ellis, 1983),Maurice Saxby has expressed an opinion with which this researcherconcurs, referring to the Perrault-derived versions as 'candy-floss versionsof a simpering Cinderella.' (1979, p. 82)Maria Tatar (1987) offers a relevant admonition:Any attempt to unearth the hidden meaning of fairy tales isbound to fail unless it is preceded by a rigorous, if notexhaustive analysis of a tale type and its variants. Thatanalysis enables the interpreter to distinguish essentialfeatures from random embellishments and to identifyculturally determined elements that vary from one regionalversion of a tale to the next. (p. 43)Her point can support the dismissal of Perrault's tale. For all that hisCinderella has given its name to one of the three principle strands of thetale type, it is rich in motifs unique to his version. Without getting into thehistory of the European retellings, such as Giambattista Basile's CatCinderella, 1634, which predated both versions, it is sufficient to note thatBettleheim (1975, pp. 260-262) and the researcher (unpublished teachingunit) have documented so many motifs in Aschenputtel that are notpresent in Cinderella that they are, whatever their origins and similarities,very different stories.In discussing the protagonists' control of their destiny andmotivation, the hypothesis has been advanced that the types of emotional21involvement would not be the same in all three tales. Catskin and Cap o'Rushes have very well developed characters and clearly definedmotivations which may, in practice, constrain the range of the illustrators'interpretations. They may feel bound by the text. The Aschenputtelcharacter is more developed than Cinderella but her motivation in wantingto go to the ball on the one hand, and fleeing it on the other, is not nearlyso well developed as in the Catskin and Cap o' Rushes variants. Therelationship to Aschenputtel's stepmother and stepsisters has thedichotomy between the latent state of expectancy - Aschenputtel'srelegation to lowliness and isolation is a time of preparation for the future- and the manifest state of humiliation - she has reason to be downcastand unhappy about her fate - noted by Schwarcz. The ill-definedmotivation in the one case, and the clear dichotomy in the other, mayprovide more fertile ground for multiple interpretations than the moreexplicit text of the Catskin and Cap o' Rushes variations. That, at least, is ahypothesis and one more reason for selecting the tales that have beenchosen for analysis.SELECTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE ILLUSTRATIONSAnalysis of the illustrations, and to some extent even the selection ofillustrations, must be based on what is actually found to be illustrated.This concern in the development of an instrument to analyze illustrationsparallels a more general concern with analysis of literature expressed byPurves and Beach (1972) that a classification scheme would have to fallout of an analysis of what the data actually generated. Nevertheless, in22examining the illustrations, the researcher must be aware of the sort ofmotif analysis intended, the textual distinctions between the tales, and thesort of visual analysis that has taken place in the other studies on whichthis study has built and with which this study will be compared.The criteria that Schwarcz (1982) seemed to value must be aconsideration. He chose one motif, humiliation, that referred to aprolonged state and which was, therefore, not tied to the illustration of anyparticular scene or relationship, nor to any specific content. This wouldseem to be relevant to the concept of emotional involvement. The secondmotif he chose, however, Cinderella's flight from the ball, was brief andspecific. A similar single incident would provide specific points of contrastbetween all the versions of one tale. If any single incident could be foundthat is common to all three tales then it would provide a specific point ofcomparison among the tales.There are situations common to Aschenputtel, Catskin and Cap o'Rushes which are only coincidentally common to all three tales. As they allhave a father, their relationship to him could be a point of comparison.However Aschenputtel's relationship with her father is not as essential tothat tale as are Catskin's and Cap o' Rushes' to their fathers. Not evenBettleheim (1975, p. 249) was able to stretch the Oedipal point so far. Inthe latter two cases those relationships define the terms under which thegirls leave home and are addressed in the conclusions of both stories. Inthe case of Aschenputtel the inclusion of the father may be only one ofmany motifs that are inevitably tacked onto the cultural and historicalretellings of given folktales but that do not, in any profound way, alter thestory by either their inclusion or exclusion.A more relevant common point might be the protagonists' reaction to23the young Lord's, or the prince's, affections. Other relevant points couldinclude their initiative, more of a prolonged state than a specific incident,but it could possibly be tied to the way they handle their ambition toattend the dances.A case could be made for relationship to authority figures althoughthe given figure would have to vary somewhat from story to story. Thestepmother is the obvious candidate in Aschenputtel, as are both the cookand the prince's parents in Catskin. In the Cap o' Rushes variation,however, she is not denied permission to attend the ball. She is, in fact,encouraged but declines out of a fear that her aristocratic ability to dancewill be found out. This is the version in which she shows no ambition tomarry the prince and it isn't until she sees 'the poor young man so weakand worn with love for her (that) her heart melted' (Steel, 1979). In thisstory the only authority figure with whom there is any conflict is, possibly,her father when he banishes her - although even that is sympatheticallyportrayed as a misunderstanding - or her sisters who scorn her andeventually ruin her father.The three versions are so different that they ought to provide fertileground for various degrees of emotional involvement and self-determination, but those same differences may well preclude the existenceof many common, or similar, scenes. The strong dichotomy, though,between the manifest condition of the protagonists' servitude and thelatent expectation that they merit something better is not only common toall the versions, it is central.In choosing the illustrations to consider one must be cognizant notonly of the content of those illustrations, that is the extent to which theyare indicative of the girl's self-determination and the extent to which the24motif or scene they illustrate is present in at the least the text of the othertales, but also the number of those illustrations. Comparison of givenscenes is more likely to be possible in picture book versions of single talesbut a study of illustrated versions of the tales in collections of folk tales isequally important. Where only a handful of illustrations, or one,accompany the text, those illustrations bear the burden of revealing theillustrator's interpretation of the role of the protagonist.As well as choosing the illustrations to look for, it is necessary toconsider what to look for in the illustrations. As much as that must, tosome extent, come out of what is found in them, that analysis has beenvery much inspired by the work of Schwarcz (1982, 1991) and encouragedby somewhat similar discussions in Zipes (1988) and Yolen (1981).CONTENT IN THE ILLUSTRATIONSDetermining what to look for in the illustrations has been guided bythe earlier (1982) and posthumous (1991) work of Joseph Schwarcz who,in describing the value and qualities of illustration, defined them in termsidentical to those used to describe literature.Such is the nature of the superior aesthetic message that itinfluences the whole child. By heightening his sensibilities itdevelops his self-perception and his comprehension of theworld he lives in, his ability to understand his own intimateexperiences and to relate more meaningfully to others (1982,p. 195)Schwarcz cites Patricia Cianciolo's opinion that 'conformity inillustration is a vice,' (1991, p. 10) and specifies his concern with25illustrations that draw on stock responses by presenting stereotypicalchildren in stereotypical roles. Children 'are individual human beings.They do not act in undifferentiated fashions and should not be treated insuch fashions.' (1991, p. 10)Schwarcz's concerns about mediocrity echo the concerns of children'sliterature advocates. He can accept the existence of the mediocre and thebad. The problem comes with the quantity of predictable, repetitive, andsynthetically stylish illustrations. 'Their redundancy spans the globe andtheir quantity spells influence,' (1991, p. 9) which is not to say there oughtto be no familiarity. 'Stories for children should present both the typicaland the individual.' (1991, p. 9)It is apparent in all the articles reviewed that what is valued is notnon-conformity for non-conformity's sake, but art that enriches theliterary experience. That is made up, in some of the cases to be cited, ofreinforcing the traditional and, in others, of reinterpreting the traditional.That synthesis may appear to suggest a lack of agreement amongst theauthorities. On the contrary, they all value illustrations that add to thestory, that make you look at a story anew and they acknowledge that thatconsists of both evoking the familiar and of eliciting the original.That dichotomy is analogous to the motif models for the analysis offolklore which provide a framework for considering both the familiar andthe original, the common and the unique.Schwarcz (1982) provides the language for the analysis ofillustration. He breaks illustrations' functions down into those ofcongruency with text, and identifies methods such as reduction,elaboration (specifying, amplifying, extending, running ahead) andalternation; and those of deviation from the text including inspiration,26opposition/alienation and counterpoint. Other language is derived fromhow other sources describe similar comparisons. Implicit in the languageare values and an indication of what to look for.Jane Yolen (1981) compares three illustrated versions of Snow White,one by Nancy Ekholm Burkert, one by Trina Schart Hyman, and the Disneystudio's. Burkert's illustrations are praised for their depth, their evocationof period, the quality of 'asking questions rather than answering them,' (p.44) and for emphasizing the archetypes.Trina Schart Hyman's work is praised for being rooted in reality. Herprince, in his thirties 'no beardless adolescent this ... is the only prince inSnow White illustrations who looks as though he knows how to run akingdom and deal with wicked stepmothers' (p. 44). Hyman's version isconsidered to be less concerned with archetypes and more with light anddark, good and evil. 'Immediate, human, sensual ... with a hint of carnality.Quite simply, Ms. Hyman makes you hear the tale anew' (p. 45).Where both illustrators drew on the child's experience, Burkert withtradition and Hyman with reality, Disney's version, as might be expected,was devalued for robbing the protagonists of any real meaning in asentimentalized version of the story 'without true evil, (with) littleexcitement and no contrasting background against which to dramatizevirtue' (p. 45) - a hollow tale.Jack Zipes' (1988) chapter on mythification is an in-depthcomparison of variations in Sleeping Beauty. The initial part of the chapterconsiders textual variations, which is an integral part of this study as texthas bearing on illustration. There is also some very thoughtful analysis ofthe history and uses of illustration, particularly as commissioned, andproduced, by men at the turn of the century. (p. 156-159) There follows27an analysis of three current illustrators' work.Trina Schart Hyman is credited, once again, with a realistic prince,but is otherwise dismissed for adding nothing new to the traditionalpatriarchal myth of the tale. Mercer Mayer, on the other hand, is creditedwith reinterpreting the underlying assumptions of the story but not,interestingly, through his illustrations, which Zipes considers traditional,but through his rewriting of the text. Ruth Sanderson's work is considereda disappointment. The research was meticulous, the illustrations arefaithful to the text but 'her technique and composition are imitative andonly serve to repeat what we have always known to be true ...' (p. 163)None of these illustrations has brought anything new to the story.Of particular relevance is Zipes' analysis of Mercer Mayer's workwherein he noted that the illustrations which reinforced the traditionalpatriarchal interpretation of the story tended to undermine the text whichhad been explicitly rewritten to 'counter the sexist bias and myth.' (p.162) This validates a parenthetical concern raised earlier in NarrativeMotifs and Illustration. It may be the case that illustrators are drawing onconventions, or motifs, not found in the text. While the earlier hypothesiswas that that might enrich a story, here it is shown to undermine a text.Schwarcz's work (1982) relates most closely to the tales chosen forthis study, although he considered Cinderella and Aschenputtel as one. Hisanalysis of fifty versions found that they generally ignored the precisewording of the text to the point of incongruity. Whatever the degree ofdebasement and neglect in the text, the protagonist and everything nearher was, in most illustrations, colourful and clean. 'Hard and dirty work'tended to be some sewing or sweeping. Her clothes tended to be clean,tidy and neat except for a very neat, token, patch. Her hair was not28disheveled.The protagonist was too often illustrated in a routine way. Isolationtended to be represented by exaggerated physical distance betweenherself and the sisters - the group and the lonely girl. Degradation wasinevitably portrayed by showing the girl on a lower level in the house,doing housework, being dressed in simpler clothes, and with the sistersregarding her with scorn, derision or just plain satisfaction.Schwarcz found that in only 16/50 books did she reveal something ofa young girl's spirit and in only 18/50 did she really seem to be suffering.In short, he found the norm to be visual clichés, stereotyped standardpostures.Schwarcz did find more inspired work. A Romanian versionportrayed distance, but not open space, between the characters. In thisversion Aschenputtel was not shown to be meek but openly contemptuousof the silly sisters. Svend Otto S rendered a truly simple girl, disheveledand obviously downcast. Errol Le Cain used composition to create a moodof 'tension by contrast' between an industrious Cinderella and the forces ofchange looming around the borders. Anton Pieck portrayed expectation inthe fantastic faces hidden throughout his illustration. Schwarcz found that,these examples aside, very few illustrators portrayed expectancy. Thetendency was to illustrate the protagonist as reflective.His concept of 'standard postures' (1982) seemed to be anidentifiable, and measurable, way to compare stereotypical portrayals ofemotional involvement and self-determination of the protagonists.Schwarcz's posthumous publication (1991) contained material for only twoof three intended sections. It is ironic, in light of the intentions of thisstudy, that the third was to have been on 'the significance of body29language, styles of characterizing the individual, ways of expressingconsistency of personality, and facets of human interaction'. (1991, xiii)It is this researcher's intention to pursue a similar line of study.Furthermore, it is encouraging to the site selection for this study that theInternationale Jugendbibliothek (International Youth Library) wascredited as one of Joseph Schwarcz's crucial work havens (p. xiii). Erikavon Englebrechten, head librarian of the IJB, who was cited specifically bySchwarcz, also provided invaluable assistance for the field researchcomponent of this study at the Jugendbibliothek.CONCLUSIONLiterature of the first order is generally considered to expand,enlighten or reflect on the universality of experience. That the Cinderellatale type has endured for at least a thousand years is a testament that itaddresses an enduring part of the human experience. That it occurs in atleast seven hundred versions around the world testifies to the universalityof that experience.Motif models of literary content have demonstrated that they canaccount for both what is recognizably familiar in different tales and forwhat is unique. Analyses of illustrations have shown a similar value forboth illustrations that evoke the traditional and for illustrations that makethe reader see the story anew. There is a concomitant lament at theproliferation of stereotypical, trite images which 'constitute an exploitationof juvenile susceptibilities' (Schwarcz, 1991, p. 9).30In order to appreciate unique differences it is necessary to recognizethe conventions. As this researcher has not found a motif model forillustrations, it is necessary to determine what is the case in the illustrativeinterpretations in the folktales chosen. It is further intended in thatanalysis to include illustrations that give some indication of the emotionalinvolvement and degree of self-determination of the protagonist inAschenputtel, Catskin, and Cap o' Rushes.Mindful that any analysis must come out of what is actually found,the instrument developed during the analysis is based largely on the workof Joseph Schwarcz (1982, 1991) and supported by the writings of Yolen(1981), Zipes (1988) and Cianciolo (1976). It suggests the scenes to lookfor, the content to consider in those scenes, and the relationships toanalyze.31CHAPTER THREE - PROCEDURES OF THE STUDYINTRODUCTIONThe review of the literature, especially Cox (1893), Jameson (1932), Saxby(1979), Tatar (1987) and Zipes (1988), led to the decision to analyze thefolktales Aschenputtel, Catskin, and Cap o' Rushes as they representedthree principal divisions of the Cinderella tale type. Analyzing the contentof an extensive collection of folktales requires specific, focussedadjustments to the tales collected and to the actual, as opposed to thehypothetical, content of the illustrations uncovered. This chapter recordsthose adjustments.The site from which the tales were to be collected was theInternationale Jugendbibliothek in Munich, an extensive collection ofchildren's books from around the world with a particular emphasis onfolklore. The Internationale Jugendbibliothek has a unique cataloguingsystem that requires a concomitantly specific method of ensuring that thecollection has been fully searched. A particular challenge for retrievingpicture books is that titles are catalogued in the language of publication.Therefore, a simple search of the title 'Aschenputtel' would not uncoverforeign language editions.In spite of that limitation this chapter addresses the particularsuitability of the cataloguing system for locating those foreign languageeditions of books originally published in German, in this case the folktalesof the Brothers Grimm. Nevertheless, given the diversity of languages andthe size of the collection - over 400 000 children's books - many volumesthat included illustrated versions of Aschenputtel were identified by32specific reference to the illustrations rather than to their titles. Thus,ongoing analysis of the picture books had implications not only for theresearch questions but also for retrieving as many volumes as possible.The selection of Aschenputtel as one of the tales to be examined, andof the International Jugendbibliothek as the site, were also important forcomparisons to the earlier work of Joseph Schwarcz. The concept of visualmotifs was derived from a combination of the study of literary motifs andfrom a study of Joseph Schwarcz's work on illustrations. TheInternationale Jugendbibliothek was one of the principal sites for hisrelevant study, "Humiliation and Urgency in Two Key Scenes in Cinderella"(1982) in which he considered Perrault's Cinderella and Grimms'Aschenputtel together.This chapter outlines the procedure for a thorough, two-stage, sitesearch of the Internationale Jugendbibliothek that would be anappropriate search procedure for any folktale by the Brothers Grimm. Thischapter demonstrates how an analysis of the books found during the firststage of the search would be integral to the productivity of the secondstage of the search. This chapter also explains how instruments weredeveloped to record the analysis of the illustrations found. ^Also includedare an overview of the Aschenputtel editions found as well as proceduresfor the search and analysis of the illustrations in Catskin and Cap o' Rushes.As illustrations are integral to this thesis, the final portion of thischapter will be concerned with the methodology in selecting and recordingthe appropriate representative illustrations.33The research questions being studied are:1) Does analysis of the content of illustrations of a given folktalesupport the concept of visual motifs?2) Is the concept of visual motifs a viable basis for the comparisonof illustrated. folktales?3) Do the representations of visual motifs demonstrate therecognizable similarities of literary motifs?4) Do the representations of visual motifs demonstrate diversityof interpretation?5) Are chronological trends evident in the portrayal of specificvisual motifs?6) Do any visual motifs occur so consistently that they might beconsidered either clich6d, or integral, to the story?SEARCH FOR INDIVIDUAL PICTURE BOOKSThe collection of children's books in the InternationaleJugendbibliothek is shelved by country of publication. It is not, therefore,possible to proceed to a single non-fiction category for, say, folktales -German, and find the work of the Brothers Grimm from every country.That could be done on a country by country basis, but access to theprimary literature, books published for children, is generally restricted tostaff who retrieve books based on requests transcribed from cataloguecards.The cataloguing system includes books from all countries. Thecatalogues are alphabetical, but are typewritten in the language ofpublication. This precludes looking for individually illustrated volumes bytitle as there is no index to say that A skepott, Cenusareasa, Kopciuszek,Pepelka, and Tuhkatriinu are, for example, the titles for Aschenputtel inNorwegian, Romanian, Polish, Yugoslavian, and Estonian respectively.34What is possible is to find all books ascribed to the Brothers Grimm.That does not help in ascertaining which books are collections that maycontain Aschenputtel. What can be done, though, is to find all theindividual tale volumes. This is possible only, however, because theGrimm brothers originally published their tales in German. Any book inthe Internationale Jugendbibliothek which was originally published inGerman has the original German title noted. (figure 1) Thus, by reviewingall the cards for the Brothers Grimm, it was possible to ferret out theindividual picture book editions, those designated [Dt. Orig. Titel:Aschenputtel], from the complete collection.Figure 1 - Catalogue CardR378 Grimm, Jakob / Grimm,Gri^ WiThelmFratii Grimm:Cenuséreasa. [Dt.Orig.Titel:Aschenputtel.]Ilustr.de Rusz Livia.(Textprescurtat.)Bucure;ti:Ed.Ion CreangA 1976.4 S.Text,12 ungez.B1.78/3774 R77/6657In practice, the process was slightly more complicated. It wasactually necessary to repeat the search in a second incongruously namedcatalogue - the catalogue for uncatalogued books! Books arrive daily andmany remain uncatalogued in the main author, title, and illustratorcatalogues for a few years given the shortage of staff, a lack of computers35generally, and the specific lack of a computerized cataloguing system.Individual lektors - the language specialists of the InternationaleJugendbibliothek who administer correspondence and acquisitions, prepareexhibitions and booklists and assist researchers - try to assist thecataloguing process by recommending books for priority cataloguing.However, to the library's credit, as soon as each book arrives a briefauthor/title card is inserted in the 'uncatalogued' catalogue, thus the staffcan retrieve these books also, even though they have not yet been shelved.The procedure of searching the card catalogues produced virtually allof the single tale editions of Aschenputtel, but none of the anthologies thatmay, or may not, have included illustrated versions of the tale. It couldhave produced all the Grimm Brothers' anthologies, in all languages, in thecollection but could not have separated out the volumes that did notcontain Aschenputtel. A review of the contents would help with thoselanguages where the researcher had determined the name for theAschenputtel tale, Pepelka in Yugoslavian for example, but would not beproductive in languages where an individual picture book had not beenfound, so that the title for the tale in that language had not yet beenlearned. A more discriminating search of anthologies of tales by theBrothers Grimm was possible and eventually undertaken. As that eventualanthology search would require an individual examination of everyBrothers Grimm anthology in the library, it was important to becomefamiliar with as many of the illustrated motifs as possible so that it wouldbe possible to recognize the story by examining the illustrations.Therefore, the analysis of the illustrations began with the individual talevolumes and those anthologies known (Schwarcz, 1982) to containAschenputtel, a sample of 34 volumes altogether.36ANALYSIS OF ASCHENPUTTEL: INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURESIn formulating the concept of visual motifs four dichotomiesemerged. These dichotomies were instrumental in the development of aninstrument to record the analysis of the illustrations. The instrumentrecorded observations in two sections, the first of which tended to addressthe first aspect of each dichotomy, and the second of which tended toaddress the second aspect of each dichotomy. The apparent dichotomieswere:1) Motifs derived from text / Motifs derived from illustrators'conventionsA search for text-driven motifs would note the presence orabsence of specific scenes. Were, for example, the birds shownassisting Aschenputtel with the tasks her stepmother had set forher, were they shown bestowing the dress on her from the treeat her mother's grave, and were they shown warning the princeof the stepsisters duplicity in mutilating their feet?Were there recurring conventions in the illustrations thatwere not based in the text? Was, for example, Aschenputtelconsistently blond?2) Content / StyleA search, and recording, of only the choice of scenesillustrated - the content - such as the slipper test or the flightfrom the ball, would not address the way in which scenes wereillustrated - the style - such as the physical distance betweenAschenputtel and her stepsisters. Provision needed to be made37to record both types of data.3) Objective / SubjectiveAn objective analysis would note the presence or absenceof specific scenes. A subjective analysis would evaluate certainscenes such as the expressions attributed to Aschenputtel andher step-relations.4) Checklist I Anecdotal methods of record keepingIn the event the initial instrument for recording observations aboutthe illustrations consisted of a bibliographical section - the books wereexamined chronologically by date of publication - and categories that fellbroadly into two sections: Motifs Derived From The Text (ContentIllustrated), and Visual Motifs of Style and Interpretation.Section One - Motifs Derived From The Text(Content^Illustrated)The individual volumes were analyzed more than once. The firstanalysis was for the presence or absence of visual motifs derived from thetext (figure 2). This first section tends to incorporate the first attribute ofeach of the four dichotomies. The categories are largely an objectiveaccount of specific motifs derived from the text recorded, for the mostpart, in a checklist format. They generally record visual motifs that arethe illustrated representation of textual motifs. As they represented thepresence or absence of specific people, objects and scenes, the categorieswere expanded to include some motifs not present in the text.38Figure 2 - Visual Motif Analysis InstrumentSection One - Motifs Derived From the Text (Content Illustrated)1) Aschenputtel Chores type 1: Cleaning/Fetching:2) Aschenputtel Chores type 2: Attending tostepsisters.3) Mother (alive).4) Mother's grave.5) Birds - helping with tasks.6) Birds - presenting dress.7)^Birds - warning prince about stepsisters' duplicity.*^8)^Dress scene - presence of birds, tree, or grave.9) Father - twig motif.1 01 11 21 3))))Father - conferring with prince.Father - other.Flight.Tar on steps (complicity of prince).1 4 ) Hiding after ball.1 5 ) Slipper^test.1 6 ) Mutilation^of stepsisters'^feet.1 7 ) Punishment.1 8 ) Sleeping^at hearth.* 1 9 ) Closing Scene: Riding off together,^before or afterwedding - presence of birds, tree or grave.2 0 ) Page.2 1 ) Cat.While there is no reference in the text to the prince having a page,for example, one appears fairly often. The page is typically involved withthe prince and the slipper by finding either the slipper of its owner,Aschenputtel. The most well-developed role for the page is in the Rusz(1976) edition in which he and the prince are shown to be co-conspiratorsin spreading the tar on the steps to capture the slipper. The presence of apet cat was also an unexpected motif, appearing, in one case (Mauser-Lichtl, 1959), incongruously oblivious to all the birds.39Section Two - Visual Motifs of Style and InterpretationThe books were re-examined a number of times for motifs that were,broadly, a question of style (figure 3). This section incorporates the secondattribute of each of the dichotomies. They are generally anecdotal,somewhat subjective, records concerned more with style than with literalrepresentation of the text. The motifs in this second section were derivedfrom Schwarcz's areas of concern and address issues such as stockpostures. Schwarcz had noted a general absence of expression in theprotagonist and a tendency to suggest her feelings by the use of a stocktear or a stereotypical posture that suggests 'working hard' or 'suffering'.Categories were created to record any genuine expression towards herchores, her siblings, or range of expression generally.Other aspects of style include the representation of Aschenputtel'sappearance in relation to her stepsisters. Details noted included her hair,its colour and whether or not it was disheveled; her clothes and whether ornot it appeared that she really toiled in them. Were her clothes soiled andpractical, or were they spotless and fashionable? Furthermore, in all cases,how did the representation of Aschenputtel compare to that of thestepsisters? Was she older, younger, more or less attractive than hersisters? Was she dressed differently or were they, superficially, of a kind?The visual motifs of style and interpretation group of observationscontains notes on the apparent period in which the story has been set, therepresentation of Aschenputtel's home, and some comments regardingartistic style. These categories also address concerns of Schwarcz,specifically that the stories tended to be set in the 18th or 19th centuries,the floors she scrubbed tended to be spotless to begin with, and the tales40were inclined to inhabit a world that invoked fairyland rather than afeeling of realism.Figure 3 - Visual Motif Analysis InstrumentSection Two - Visual Motifs of Style and InterpretationAppearance22) Age: child (pre-teen), young teen, teen, young adult.23) Hair: colour, how worn, neat/disheveled.24) General: clean/ dirty, tired?25) Barefoot.26) Appearance of stepsisters: similar/different, how?27) Clothing (Aschenputtel): similar/different fromstepsisters, how?28) Patches.29) Home: spotless/dirty.30) Period (problematic): medieval, post-medieval.31) Mood/Style:realistic (common); realistic (exotic);fairytale (storybook); fairyland (cute);fantastic (unusual); abstract.Expression (Emotional Involvement)32) Meditative/Reflective (Aschenputtel): at grave,with birds, at tasks, other.33) General range.34) Towards step-family.35) Towards chores.36) By step-family towards Aschenputtel.The section two categories are more anecdotal than those in sectionone. In noting the appearance of Aschenputtel and her stepsisters, forexample, it was necessary to specify Aschenputtel's hair colour - shewasn't always blond - as well as her stepsisters' - they sometimes were.While her hair colour was a point in itself, especially the extent to which it41was rendered in predictable ways, so was the contrast. It would not havebeen as enlightening to know how often the sisters were blond as to knowif their hair was shown to be similar to Aschenputtel's, more well-groomed, or caricaturely less attractive.The two groups of categories could not be completely separated intoanecdotal and checklist distinctions. The largely anecdotal style motifs insection two also included checklist items such as the presence of token orauthentic patches on her dress and whether she was illustrated as barefootor not. Similarily, the largely checklist textual motif group in section onerequired anecdotal comments about the dress-from-tree scene, theportrayal of the father, and the portrayal of scenes influenced more by theillustrators' style and conventions than the text.The thirty-six categories in these two sections did not remain stable.As well as adding categories for non-text based motifs, the cat and thepage, categories were continually being refined and subdivided. Thepresentation of the dress was a frequently occurring scene. It did notalways include the birds, the tree, and her mother's grave and so it wasnecessary to re-examine those scenes. Those distinctions would aidanalysis of the relative importance of animal helpers, her mother's spirit,or the gift from her father (the tree) throughout the texts. Likewise, itbecame apparent that Aschenputtel was not always scrubbing floors andso the issue of her menial work had to be subdivided into attending to hersiblings, fetching/carrying, sweeping/washing/scrubbing and other formsof household maintenance. This was necessary as it became obvious thatin many cases the stepsisters were not illustrated at all and so her choresfell more into the category of a personal time of industrious waiting ratherthan a time of subservient oppression.42The re-examination of the texts and subdivision of categories was acontinual process, new observations obliging the researcher to re-examinepreviously analyzed volumes. Therefore, the analysis of the volumesfound during the initial search could not be considered finished before thesupplementary search was begun. Nevertheless, the analysis of the initialthirty-four volumes found by searching the card catalogues made possiblethe manual search of the underground 'Magazine' - the complete collectionof the Internationale Jugendbibliothek.SEARCH FOR ANTHOLOGIESThe second search varied from the first by being a search forcollections of tales that would include an illustrated version ofAschenputtel rather than a search for individual tale picture books. It hadtwo main components, the first was a check against Schwarcz's referencelist (1982), the second was a manual examination of the bookstacks.As many of the categories for analysis, and much of the motivationfor this study, were derived from the work of Schwarcz (1982, 1991), andsince the study's conclusions are liable to support, refute, or build upon hiswork, it was desirable to study as many as possible of the books he cited.Schwarcz listed fifty 'Cinderellas', although his collection included storiesderived from both the Grimms and Perrault. Sixteen of his versions wereclearly derived from Grimm and all of them were found and analyzed.Twenty-one were clearly derived from Perrault and not relevant to thisstudy. The remaining thirteen were not available at the InternationaleJugendbibliothek. Subsequent research indicated that two of those were43Italian versions derived from Perrault, and one was a Russian version alsoderived from Perrault. Of the remaining nine, one was published in Greeceand eight in Israel. While this researcher could not determine whether thelast nine were derived from Perrault or Grimm he is satisfied that all theGrimm versions considered by Schwarcz that are available at theInternationale Jugendbibliothek were examined.The more substantial part of the return search was a manualexamination of the collection. The return to the 'Magazine' - theunderground bookstacks containing the complete collection of primaryliterature - was intended to ensure that all versions of Aschenputtel heldby the International Jugendbibliothek had been located and examined.Given the nature of this research, and based on the research ethics andprotocol demonstrated during the initial stages of the study, permissionwas given for a manual examination of the collection. Under thesupervision of Frau von Engelbrechten, the head librarian, all the booksheld in 398 GRI were examined, one country at a time. The books in themagazine are arranged by country of publication.First, the contents of each volume were examined for recognizabletranslations of Aschenputtel. For some countries, such as Norway,Yugoslavia and Romania, it was now possible to identify the tale by title -Askepott, Pepelka, and Cenusareasa - as individual volumes from thosecountries had already been found.Second, as some volumes conveniently followed the same numberingsequence as in Kinder and Hausmarchen a quick check of tale number 21occasionally revealed it to be Aschenputtel.Third, it was necessary, in most cases, to resort to an examination ofall the illustrations in the volume. The presence or absence of44Aschenputtel in a volume could usually be determined by the presence orabsence of visual motifs identified in the analysis of the first thirty-fourvolumes, a rather practical validation of the entire concept of visual motifs.Fourth, and finally, it was necessary to take the volumes for whichthe presence or absence of Aschenputtel could not be determined to thelektors responsible for the given nationality. The difficulty in making thedetermination was, typically, because of the presence of stories that hadonly one illustration and that one was of a motif also present in otherstories - a grave, a tree or birds, for example. This final step, reference tothe lektors, was necessary for only five volumes, only one of whichactually contained an illustrated Aschenputtel.The illustrations in these volumes were analyzed in the same way asthe first thirty-four. The process of noting new categories, subdividingexisting ones, and the consequent re-examination of previously examinedvolumes continued.RANGE OF THE SAMPLE - ASCHENPUTTELThe analysis of fifty-seven Aschenputtel tales collected from theInternationale Jugendbibliothek includes nine volumes from the 1800'sand early 1900's, books which pre-date those in Schwarcz's study (1982),as well as thirteen volumes from the 80's and 90's which post-date hiswork. The historical range gives an indication of trends, cycles andprecedents. That is, when certain visual motifs first appeared, lastappeared, or re-appeared. The sample also contains twenty-three editionsfrom the 70's, 80's, and 90's in order to look at current interpretations.45The sample of Aschenputtel tales is not intended to be statisticallyrepresentative of all works in publications. While the sample does containbooks in nineteen languages from twenty countries, some countries,especially Germany, are more heavily represented than others. Ananalysis of all Aschenputtel tales from all countries is not necessary,however, as the sample studied provides ample evidence of visual motifs,conventions, historical cycles, and examples of both the banal and theoriginal. This study is less interested in what is, or was, widely availableand much more concerned with the range of possibilities.While the collection of the International Jugendbibliothek may notcontain all the published Aschenputtel tales, it is extensive. Thisresearcher endeavoured to see everything that it held, not for statisticalpurposes, but to be sure of having as great a range of illustrations aspossible.SEARCH FOR CATSKIN / CAP 0' RUSHESThe search for illustrated versions of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes tookplace during the search for Aschenputtel tales but became increasinglydisillusioning. Since neither Catskin nor Cap o' Rushes is closely associatedwith a German author or compiler, a search for foreign language editionscould not be undertaken by resorting to the author catalogue and thensearching for a [Dt. Orig. Titel: ...] as had been done with Aschenputtel. Anattempt, which subsequently turned out to be misguided, was made.Catskin, as a tale type, is very similar to the Grimms' Allerleirauh,variously translated as Thousandfurs, Many-furred Creature, or The Coat46of Many Furs. Therefore, all of the preceding searches were not only for[Dt. Orig. Titel: Aschenputtel], but also for [Dt. Orig. Titel: Allerleirauh].During the manual examination of the collected tales of Grimm throughoutthe magazine, the search, in those volumes that followed the numbering ofKinder and Hausmarchen, was not only for tale no. 21, but also for taleno. 65. Approximately a dozen anthologies contained illustrations forAllerleirauh but no individual volumes turned up.Had Allerleirauh turned out to have been useful, the analysis forvisual motifs would have been easy. In all versions but one the onlyillustrated scene was of the neighbouring king finding Allerleirauh hidingin the tree, in her fur coat.^There was only one version with more thanone illustration.There were folktale guides (Ashliman, 1987; Ireland, 1973, 1979) tothe English language editions of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes which seemed tobe of limited bibliographical value at this site because both the guides andthe collections indexed were available in Canada. They did not takeadvantage of the unique collection of the Internationale Jugendbibliothek,nor did they address any foreign language editions. This researcher waslooking for a more comprehensive index as a way in to the potentialtreasures of the Internationale Jugendbibliothek.It seemed necessary, at the time, to ascertain a German equivalentfor both tales in order to begin a series of interviews with the lektors. Bydescribing the tale in English, or by naming it in German, the lektors mighthave been able to provide the name of the tale in various other languages.The first effort in that process was to address a staff meeting of theBibliothek. While that was not fruitful with respect to Catskin or Cap o'Rushes it did turn up a wonderful Belgian Aschenputtel that would not47have been uncovered otherwise. (The volume was so recent as to be in the'uncatalogued' catalogue. It would not have been found because it was not,in this more limited catalogue, ascribed to the Brothers Grimm, but to thereteller.)The second effort to find a German equivalent for the tales wasassisted by Frau von Engelbrechten, the head librarian, who arranged aninterview with Dr.Walter Scherf. Dr.Scherf was a uniquely qualifiedauthority to consult on the research for this project.^Not only is he ascholar in the field of folklore generally, but he is intimately familiar withthe collection of the Internationale Jugendbibliothek. He was, in fact,instrumental in developing it. Dr.Scherf succeeded the founder of theInternationale Jugendbibliothek, Jella Lepman, and had been its directorfor the twenty-five years preceding Dr. Bode, 1957 - 1982. During thattime he was credited with instituting the current cataloguing system,expanding the collection to include Eastern bloc countries and wasparticularly cited (Bode, 1986) for his work with fairy tales. Dr. Scherf iscurrently an instructor at the Munich Universitat, Institut fiir Deutsche andVergleichende Volkskunde.The researcher attended Dr. Scherfs lecture on 'Persecuted Women'in the folktales of the Brothers Grimm, and had the first of severalinterviews afterwards. These led to a clarification of the relationshipbetween Catskin, Cap o' Rushes, Allerleirauh and various other folktales.The reasons for the initial difficulties in the search, and the course theinvestigation ought to take, also emerged. The development of thosepoints, and Dr. Scherfs role in clarifying them, are explained in theappendix.48The main points in directing the search are, in summary:1) First, an incorrect assumption was to consider the tales to berepresentative of separate tale types as defined in the folktaleguides. While some of the authorities cited (Cox, 1893;Jameson, 1932) make the case that Catskin and Cap o' Rushesdefine types, there is not consensus that they do. Whetherthey define types or not is, in any event, a distraction asexplained in point 3, below.2) Second, another incorrect assumption was that a search couldbe undertaken for analagous tales. A search for analagoustales had not been the case with Aschenputtel, even thoughGrimm's Aschenputtel and Perrault's Cinderella are frequentlyconsidered together. Schwarcz considered them as one tale, anunacceptable premise for this study as the text of the two talesis so substantially different that the protagonists' motivationscould not be considered to be the same. More pointedly,though, differences in illustration could not be attributedpurely to the illustrator where the texts were substantiallydifferent.3)^Third, it became evident that one of the stated reasons for theinclusion of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes in this study, to comparethe illustration of self-determination in three principalvariations of the Cinderella cycle, would likely need to be thesubject of a subsequent study, a study that could build on thework of this project - an analysis of the content andconventions in the illustrations.494 )^Fourth, since both Catskin and Cap o' Rushes are English talesrather than English variations of a tale, it was not unreasonableto revert to the folklore guides and study the versions of thestory gathered thereby. That is, Catskin in an English tale thatshares some motifs with Grimm's Allerleirauh and Perrault'sDonkey-Skin. They are not translations of the same tale.Furthermore, there are no indications that Catskin and Cap o'Rushes, unlike the Grimms' Aschenputtel, have even beentranslated.Ashliman (1987), a current guide, was particularly useful as itsorganization was based on the Aarne - Thompson classification system. Italso included a good bibliography of secondary literature and an index ofGrimms' tales identified by tale type number. Ireland's indexes (1973,1979) are, in fact, third and fourth supplements to Eastman's index,originally published in 1926. All the indexes list tales under types withthe titles as they appear in the various collections. It is not readilyapparent, therefore, if Catskin, Catskins, and Little Cat Skin are necessarilythe same tale or just of the same type, although that they were the sametale was a reasonable inference and eventually ascertained. Moreproblematic was the inclusion of Cap o' Rushes, Thousandfurs, Allerleirauh,Mossycoat, Like Meat Loves Salt, Princess in Disguise, Kari Woodengownand other tales in the same classification.Since texts for almost all of the titles in the indexes cited, that isAshliman (1987) and Ireland (1973, 1979), but not Eastman (1926, 1937,or 1952), were contained in Briggs' Dictionary of British Folktales (1970), itwas possible to read them and ascertain which were simply renamed50versions of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes and therefore to be included. A listof fourteen versions of the tales was derived from Ashliman and Ireland,nine of Cap o' Rushes and five of Catskin. Two versions were notillustrated, and two were unavailable at either the InternationalJugendbibliothek or through the inter-library loan at the University ofBritish Columbia leaving, then, ten illustrated versions of the tales. Thesample, therefore, includes six illustrated versions of Cap o' Rushes andfour of Catskin.ANALYSIS OF CATSKIN AND CAP 0' RUSHESThe four dichotomies discussed in the development of an instrumentfor the analysis of Aschenputtel are equally applicable to the analysis ofthese tales. Catskin and Cap o' Rushes were analyzed for the presence ofthe same two general categories of motifs:1) Motifs derived from the text (content illustrated), and2) Visual motifs of style and interpretation.There were so many illustrations in the volumes of the Aschenputtletales that a checklist was developed and certain motifs were selected,others were omitted. No record was kept, for example, of her appearanceor emotions while at the king's celebrations. With Catskin and Cap o'Rushes there was a total of eighteen illustrations for analysis, spreadacross ten versions of the tales. Therefore, rather than a checklist, anaccount was made of all the literary motifs (content) illustrated.51The motifs most relevant for a comparison with Aschenputtel are:1 )^Age2 )^Appearance3) Emotions, postures, and gestures exhibited.4) Activities (literary motifs illustrated.)5) Style.6) Presence of vestigal motifs.Results of the analysis for each tale were considered three ways:1) Individually, since they are separate tales.2) Combined, since some motif models (Rooth, in Dundes, 1982;Aarne-Thompson, 1961) consider them to be of a type.3) In comparison with Aschenputtel, since a purpose for theirinclusion in this study was to form a basis for comparison.VALIDITYThe objective of this thesis is to establish the viability of the conceptof visual motifs as a basis for comparing illustrative interpretation. Theresearch questions look for parallels between textual and visual motifs,similarity of interpretation, diversity of interpretation, chronologicaltrends, and indications of predominant motifs attached to specific tales.The viability of the concepts is demonstrated by finding andpresenting evidence of each case. Representative illustrations thatdemonstrate the existence of specific motifs, and the range of others, arereproduced in chapter four. A chronological photo-bibliography, with arepresentative illustration for each of the sixty-seven volumes studied, has52been included as a further check on the internal validity of the data.Each Aschenputtel edition was examined for thirty-six motifcategories (figures 2&3). Twenty-eight of those motifs were objectivecategories: her mother's grave was shown, or it wasn't; Aschenputtel'shair colour was identifiable or indeterminate. Only eight categoriesrequired subjective analysis: category 22 - age of the protagonist;categories 30 and 31 - mood and style in portraying the period and setting;and categories 32-36 - interpreting from expressions and postures theemotional involvement of the protagonist and step-relations.To increase the reliability of the subjective data collected, threeindependent analysts undertook a similar assessment. One analystcompleted her graduate program in the Department of Language Education,including in her work a similar study of illustrations in the Grimms'Sneewittchen (Snow White). The second analyst is a children's bookillustrator, the third an Art and History teacher with a Fine Arts degree.Each analyst received an overview of the motif analysis categories to bereviewed, photographs of the illustrations .assessed by the researcher, andsamples of the range of assessments made. The independent analystsevaluated each photograph for the most striking aspects of the eightsubjective categories, which were then recorded along with theresearcher's original observations. This information, and discussion withthe analysts, formed a basis of comparison for the researcher'sconsideration which sharpened and clarified the subjective analyses,corroborating the validity of the subjective content assessments.Statistical analysis of the volumes in this sample cannot be assumedto be applicable to any other collection of folktales, but the instrument andprocedures used should facilitate the development of similar studies.53SELECTION OF ILLUSTRATIONSThe selection of representative illustrations for the volumesanalyzed, and their inclusion, was integral to this thesis. It would havebeen incongruous to prepare a paper arguing for the validity and,implicitly, the value of illustrations in comparative literature withouteither including any or placing upon them the burden of supporting thepremises.The first consideration was to select illustrations that demonstratedpoints as they occurred in this report. Not every motif would require asample, discussing the colour of the protagonist's hair for example, but indeveloping the twin concept of a visual motif as derived from the text andas visual convention, it would be useful to have specific sampleillustrations to refer to.Certain motifs would require extensive photos, those implying arange of interpretations. Having noted Aschenputtel's apparent age rangesfrom a pre-teen, through young teen, teen and young adult, it is incumbentupon the researcher to provide examples of each stage so that the readerhas some basis to assess the validity of the classifications. Likewise,reference is made to ranges of emotional response, types of interactionwith the father, and artistic styles related to the period or mood of thestory.As well as illustrations for examples, and those to delineate ranges, itwas desirable to find examples of the banal - stock postures, stereotypicaltears and clothing, the lack of expression, and clich6d relationships - inorder to emphasize by contrast the quality of the outstanding.54In considering the outstanding it was necessary to choose multipleexamples from the designated key books. As those books most clearlydemonstrate the points this paper was intended to make, it was necessarythat there were illustrations to support all that would be attributed tothem. As the collection expanded to include anthologies it becamenecessary to expand the key book concept, creating an outstandingillustrations category to account for significant work occurring inanthologies that may have included only one illustration. All suchdesignated outstanding illustrations were collected.Finally, it was necessary to choose a representative illustration fromevery book, regardless of the researcher's opinion of the book's merit.Those illustrations are included in the photo-bibliography intended todemonstrate not only the banal and the wonderful, but the actual contentof the complete collection.Having chosen the illustrations to photograph, colour prints weretaken of almost everything except very clear black and white originalswhere higher resolution was obtained with photocopying. Colour slideswere taken of everything. All of this work on comparative illustrationshas immediate application to the researcher's classroom and for sharingwith colleagues which was one reason for taking slides as well as prints.Another was for quality control. Negative (print) film has a muchgreater latitude and so reference to positive (slide) film ensured that photofinishers in this country could match the colours of the original books stillin Germany. All film was processed in Munich to ensure that everythingturned out. In practice not all the shots did and so it was possible toreshoot the pictures.55All photographs were taken indoors using a Nikon F-601-M, 35-70mm Nikkor lens with close-up rings, copy stand, and cable release.Exposures were manually set using a Kodak neutral test (gray) card. Testrolls were shot using direct sunlight, diffused (north-facing windows)sunlight, and ambient light. In the event, diffused sunlight was chosen.Test rolls were also shot in order to test the quality control of photo-finishers. The second of three shops tested provided dependable, quality,results.56CHAPTER FOUR - FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONINTRODUCTIONThe study produced ample data to support conclusions with respectto the research questions. The data also support conclusions for relatedquestions derived from the search, the analyses, and the discussions.Furthermore, there are sample illustrations to demonstrate all the pointsthat will be discussed. Inevitably the inclusion of every sampleillustration, as it comes up in the text, would affect the flow, and cogency,of the case being made. Balancing the concerns of ensuring that all sampleillustrations are included in this thesis, that they are accessible to thereader, and that their inclusion not adversely affect the coherence andflow of the text, a hierarchy of reference to illustrations has beendeveloped.1) FigureFor illustrations that are either remarkable,essential to making the point, or make the pointmuch more effectively than just the text, 'figure'will refer to a sample illustration or illustrations onan adjacent page.2) Illustration page referenceFor illustrations that are particularly effective,unique, or at odds with convention, but that are notrequired to make the point and, in fact, theirimmediate presence might distract from the flow of57the case, illustration page references will be to thepagination in this thesis.3) Illustrator referenceFor all illustrations, so that the reader can check theveracity of assertions, but where actually seeingthe illustration is not essential to developing thecase, the standard illustrator reference will directthe reader to the reference list, which is arrangedby illustrator, and thereby to the chronologicalphoto-bibliography.The concept of visual motifs was developed out of a study of textualmotifs and a study of visual interpretations, especially those of JosephSchwarcz. The discussions in this chapter reflect the twin origins of thetheory of visual motifs.First, the analysis of the illustrations for all three folktales isintended to establish that the discussion of that analysis can be conductedin the language of literary motifs. This aspect of the discussions addressesthe second research question: Is the concept of visual motifs a viable basisfor the comparison of illustrated folktales? The analysis is also intended toshow that while visual motifs have attributes unique to illustrations they,nevertheless, 'behave' as literary motifs. They have recognizablecomponents and a wide range of interpretations and variations withinthose conventions.Second, the discussions will make comparisons with the results ofJoseph Schwarcz's work, drawing particular attention to motifs that wereintegral to his 1982 study.^Since one attribute of a motif is that it is abasis for comparison, and since Joseph Schwarcz has published an analysis58of visual interpretation in Cinderella and Aschenputtel tales, his work is alogical, and related, body of work for comparison.In his examination of two specific scenes in the Cinderella /Aschenputtel tales Schwarcz lamented the stereotyped portrayal of specificmotifs. Sixteen of the Aschenputtel tales he analyzed are also included inthis study which differs from Schwarcz's in three important ways. First,this study includes only Aschenputtel tales so it is possible that the generalresults of Schwarcz's study of the combined tales may not be transferableto the more specific study of the single tale. Second, while Schwarcz'sanalysis touched on many motifs, he focussed on two specific conditions,the presence of which in the illustrations was a requirement for a book'sinclusion in his study. The analysis in this study includes more scenesthan those two as well as books that do not necessarily include Schwarcz'stwo conditions. There is, therefore, a possibility that some of the lamentedstereotypes may be tied to the conditions Schwarcz studied. There may because for optimism in other areas of the illustrations. Third, this studyincludes twenty-two books which pre-date and post-date the books inSchwarcz's study. The possibility exists that stereotypes he noted mayhave chronological cycles of appearance, or may be giving way to a moreencouraging variety of interpretations.The discussion of the findings in this chapter are organized into fivesections. The first section, visual motifs as a viable concept for thecomparison of illustrated folktales, addresses two implicit aspects of thefirst research question; are there text-based visual motifs, and are therevisual conventions not based in the text? That the data from the analysisof Aschenputtel supports both premises answers the research question:1) Does the analysis of the content of illustrations of a59specific folktale support the concept of visual motifs?This section also addresses the third and fourth research questions withspecific reference to the Aschenputtel tales:3 ) Do the representations of visual motifs demonstratethe recognizable similarities of literary motifs?4) Do the representations of visual motifs demonstratediversity of interpretation?The second section defines and contrasts stock postures with moreeffective postures, and demonstrates how stereotyped motifs can bepresented in credible ways.The third section, a discussion of trends in the visual motifs inthe Aschenputtel tales, addresses the fifth and sixth researchquestions as well as the related issue of borrowed and vestigialmotifs:5) Are chronological trends evident in the portrayal ofspecific visual motifs?6) Do any visual motifs occur so consistently that theymight be considered either clich6d, or essential to thestory?The fourth section discusses the findings for the first four researchquestions with respect to the Catskin and Cap o' Rushes tales. It comparesthe results of the Catskin and Cap o' Rushes motif analyses with theAschenputtel motif analysis and addresses the second research question:2) Is the concept of visual motifs a viable basis for thecomparison of illustrated folktales?The fifth section demonstrates how the concept of visual motifsapplies not only to the content and style of illustrations, but to their layout60and composition as well.The intention of this thesis is to not only demonstrate that theanalysis of visual motifs is possible and useful in the comparison ofillustrated folktales, but that it is also practical. Key Books and NotableIllustrations have been identified that constitute a comprehensive basis forsuch a study with students. Because those books and illustrationscomprise a coherent subset of all the books in this study, and because theirselection was derived from the findings and discussion in the five sectionsof this chapter, they are included in a separate chapter, chapter five.Chapters four and five together constitute the findings and discussioncomponent of this thesis.Throughout this thesis all references to, and direct quotations from,the text of the folktale Aschenputtel are from Manheim's (1977) Englishtranslation, Grimms' Tales for Young and Old, which has been cited byMaria Tatar (1987), a professor of Germanic languages and literature atHarvard University, as the first 'reliable English version.'SECTION 1 - VISUAL MOTIFS AS A VIABLE CONCEPT FOR THECOMPARISON OF ILLUSTRATED FOLKTALESThis discussion of the analysis of the visual motifs in Aschenputtelrecognizes that there are two types of visual motifs, visual motifs derivedfrom textual motifs, and visual motifs derived from illustrators'conventions.61Text-Based Visual MotifsText-based visual motifs refer to illustrations that represent specificcharacters, relationships and events from the text: characters, relationshipsand events that would be recognizable literary motifs whether they hadbeen illustrated or not. Aschenputtel's father bringing her home a twig toplant on her mother's grave, for example, is a specific motif in the text thatclearly differentiates the story from Perrault's Cinderella. It is also arecognizable literary motif found in fairytales such as de Beaumont'sBeauty and the Beast.Text-based visual motifs that recur throughout the sample includeAschenputtel's chores such as sweeping, washing, scrubbing, carrying,fetching and attending to her stepsisters, the presence of her mother andher mother's grave, the birds as animal helpers, her father's role in gettingthe twig and conferring with the prince, the flight from the ball and hidingafterwards, the tar spread on the steps, the slipper test, the stepsisters'self-mutilation, their punishment by the birds, and Aschenputtel's sleepingby the hearth.Text-based visual motifs, illustrations that specifically allude to theovert text of the tale, are clearly apparent in Kemlein's (1949) silhouettes.(figure 4) The first three show Aschenputtel performing precisely thechores specified in the text, 'carrying water, lighting fires, cooking andwashing.'62T13111aLlFigure 4 - Text - based Visual MotifsSilhouettes from Kemlein (1949)Text from Manheim (1977)'She had to do all the work ... carrying water,lighting fires, cooking and washing.''Whereupon the bird (in the hazel tree) tosseddown a gold and silver dress and slippersembroidered with silk and silver.''She went to her mother's grave andplanted the hazel sprig over it.''So her mother handed her a knife and. said: "Cut your toe off. Once you'requeen you won't have to walk anymore.''He handed her the golden slipper and sat down^'He lifted Ashputtle up on his horse andon a footstool, took her foot out of her heavy rode away with her. As they passed thewooden shoe, and put it into the slipper. It^hazel tree, the two white doves calledfitted perfectly.'^ out...'63Non Text-Based Visual MotifsThe term 'non text-based visual motifs' refers to two conditions. Oneis motifs that are either not referred to, or not specified, in the text. Thesecond is motifs that are explicitly at odds with the text. An example ofthe first condition, a pet cat, is not referred to at all yet one is present innine of the fifty-seven books analyzed. Another, Aschenputtel's haircolour, is not specified, yet she is illustrated as explicitly blond or verylight in thirty-seven of the fifty-seven books. Hair colour is not, of itself, amotif, rather, the consistency with which it is presented in a predictableway, blond 65% of the time, makes that particular presentation a visualmotifOther motifs not referred to in the text include those motifs intendedto draw overt analogies. Erika Klein (1967) fills her sleeping-by-the-hearth scene with motifs often associated with Hallowe'en. Aschenputtel issurrounded by images of evil: spiders, bats, cats and rats. (illus. pg . 82)Her golden hair might be considered a religious halo protecting her fromthe pagan forces that dominate her daily existence, her manifest destiny.Another overt visual analogy is Wingen's (1963) portrayal of Aschenputtelas a young Madonna (illus. pg . 210). The analogy to the dichotomybetween Mary's manifest destiny - a predictable life as the wife of acommon carpenter - and our latent expectancy - that she will be themother of the son of God - effectively addresses a similar dichotomy forAschenputtel. If she regards her time of subservience as a period ofindustrious waiting, her reward will come.Non text-based motifs found in the sample include the above64analogies and the presence of a pet cat, a page for the prince, the colour ofAschenputtel's hair, and a setting that tends to fall between medievaltimes and the Renaissance.A second type of non text-based motif includes illustrationsthat are explicitly at odds with the text. The text specifies thatAschenputtel was given a gray dress and wooden shoes; however sheis frequently illustrated otherwise. Aschenputtel's name is given toher by the stepsisters specifically because 'she always looked dustyand dirty,' although she is portrayed as clean and well-groomed fullyhalf of the time, in 29 of the 58 volumes. The stepsisters are said tohave 'faces beautiful and lily-white,' yet they are occasionallyportrayed as caricaturely hideous.That these illustrations are at odds with the text is not tosuggest that they are incorrect, inappropriate, or misleading. It is therole of the illustrator to interpret the story and that may well bedone by the use of visual analogy. The caricaturely hideousstepsisters, for example, may be the illustrator's way of addressingthe second part of the same sentence that says they are beautiful andlily-white, 'but their hearts were ugly and black.' It is sufficient forthe purpose of defining visual motifs to note that there are motifswhich are manifestly at odds with the details of the text.Norms and Range in the Interpretation of Visual MotifsMotifs are recognizable in both their congruence with expectationsand their divergence from them. Textual motifs in literature enable65students to recognize Francis Hodgson Burnett's (1984) Miss Minchin as astepmother-like character because her behaviour conforms to expectationsfor the role in spite of the divergence that she is, explicitly, not astepmother. Visual motifs, as with textual motifs, display the same range.There are norms, standard portrayals, and variations from them. Thenorms in some cases define the motifs. Aschenputtel's hair colour is not, ofitself, a visual motif until such time as it is rendered in a predictable way- a 'norm' - or in a way intended to draw an allusion.A range of interpretations, while evident in motifs that are tightlydeliniated - Aschenputtel's dress is specified as gray but illustrated invarious colours - are particularly evident in motifs that are less tightlydeliniated. Aschenputtel's chores are said to be 'to do all the work,' andthe examples given are 'carrying water, lighting fires, cooking andwashing.' Those chores have been illustrated, although Aschenputtel wasnever shown actually lighting fires in any of the volumes in this study.Rather, her association with fires was alluded to by showing her eitherchopping firewood or carrying coal. Attending to her stepsisters is a chorespecified when the stepsisters are first invited to the king's celebrationand is frequently illustrated. Completing the 'range' of interpretations areillustrations that show Aschenputtel sweeping or washing floors, washingor cleaning walls and windows, and feeding fowl.The evidence for the existence of norms and range will be providedin the discussion of the specific visual motifs analyzed in this study, and inthe sample illustrations reproduced for these discussions.66Specific Motif AnalysesThe discussion of the findings with respect to each of the motifsanalyzed now follows. In some cases the motifs have been grouped intotopics where the concepts and discussion are closely related. Theappearance of Aschenputtel's hair and her general appearance, forexample, are logically the subject of one discussion. In each case thediscussion includes the range and norms of motifs which are subject tointerpretation, and the frequency of motifs which were noted for theirpresence or absence. They also include any specific attributes of theillustration of the particular motif.Reference to 'the books', and frequency of occurrence, are to thecomplete sample of fifty-eight books unless otherwise indicated.Servitude The text specifies that Aschenputtel's chores consisted of 'carryingwater, lighting fires, cooking and washing.' Later she is required to combher stepsisters' hair and scrub their shoes in preparation for the king'scelebration. Of the six specified chores, four have been illustratedexplicitly, one alluded to, and one not illustrated at all. None of the booksin the sample showed Aschenputtel cooking. There were also no explicitillustrations of her lighting fires although that chore was alluded to in theillustrations of her chopping or carrying firewood or carrying coal.Schwarcz (1982) pointed out that the tendency was to portrayCinderella scrubbing otherwise spotless floors, a task not specificallyreferred to in the Grimms' tale. The portrayal of Aschenputtel's tasks, as6 7an indicator of her servitude, is broken down into two types. One type isthose tasks specified in the text, carrying/washing/chopping, andattending to her stepsisters. The second type is those tasks not specified inthe text, chiefly, sweeping/washing/cleaning walls, windows, or floors.The distribution of the tasks in the total sample is:Tasks specified in the text:Carrying/washing/chopping^1 1Attending to stepsisters 10Tasks not specified in the text:Sweeping/washing/cleaning^1 1Other (feeding fowl)^ 1The types of tasks portrayed overlapped in nine books so thatAschenputtel was shown performing chores of labour or servitude in 41%of the books (24/58). Of those portrayals there was an approximatelyequal distribution between the specified tasks,carrying/washing/chopping, attending to the stepsisters, and oneparticular non-specified motif, sweeping/washing/cleaning floors, windowsand walls.Thus, in the sample, approximately two thirds of the illustrationsportraying chores illustrated motifs from the text, and one third portrayeda visual motif that is clearly an illustrators' convention - sweeping,washing or cleaning floors, windows or walls. In only one case(Bernadette, 1977) was there a unique portrayal of a chore, feeding fowl.68The portrayal of Aschenputtel at her chores has implications forviewing this as a time of servitude, or a time of expectancy and industriouswaiting. The motif, then, of meditation is appropriately considered here.In seven books she is shown, clearly and purposefully, to becontemplating, meditating or praying.As very little illustration of emotions or expressions is the norm, itis difficult to ascertain how Aschenputtel views her chores, as servitude orindustrious waiting. An indication may be the presence or absence ofstepsisters from the illustrations of Aschenputtel going about her chores.The stepsisters are present in over half the illustrations showingAschenputtel's chores and they are present in all twenty-four books whichillustrate Aschenputtel performing chores. They are not present in anyscenes in which Aschenputtel is meditative and in only one (Archipowa,1990) of those seven books do they appear at all. It may, therefore, bethat illustrators who intend to portray Aschenputtel's chores as servitudealso illustrate the stepsisters, whereas illustrators who view her chores asindustrious waiting - that is, those who have also illustrated Aschenputtelmeditating - do not illustrate stepsisters.The motif of Aschenputtel's servitude, performing chores, ischronologically distributed throughout the sample:Pre-war 3 / 9 33%1940's^and 1950's 4 /1 6 25%1 96 O's 4 / 9 45%1 97 O's 8 /1 1 73%1980'^and 1990's 5 /1 3 38%69The chronological trend tends to be a distribution similar to the caseof the entire sample. The motif of Aschenputtel's chores generally appearsin between a third and a half of the books in any time period, with amarkedly higher occurrence during the 70's.Role of the MotherThis motif has implications for considering the source of the magic, ofAschenputtel's guardian angel. Students typically attribute the source ofthe magic to either the tree on the mother's grave, the birds, or hermother's spirit. The role of the mother in the text is to adviseAschenputtel to, 'be good and say your prayers; God will help you, and Ishall look down on you from heaven and be with you.' Whereupon shedies.Analysis of the books reveals that she is shown only on her deathbedin five of the seven books where she is shown alive. In one (Chretien,1985) she is shown in the cast of characters. In only one (Bernadette,1977) is she shown sharing a positive experience with Aschenputtel,sitting together in a meadow.The mother's presence, as represented by her grave, is illustrated intwenty-eight books. In five of the seven books with a living mother, hergrave is also illustrated so that the mother or her grave are present in 50%of the books (29/58). Since the portrayal of the mother is on her deathbedin five of the seven books where she is shown alive, the norm is clearly toportray the role of the mother as being deceased.70The motif of the mother, or her grave, is chronologically distributedthroughout^the^sample:Pre-war 45%1940's 43%1950's^and 1960's 44%1970's 64%1980's^and 1990's 54%The chronological distribution is similar to the overall case. Thepresence of the mother or the grave are illustrated approximately half thetime, with a slightly greater occurrence in the books of the 1970's, 1980'sand 1990's than in the earlier books.Role of the Birds This motif also has implications for considering the source ofAschenputtel's magic as the birds may be her guardian angels. They areprominently illustrated in 81% of the books (47/58). The birds, animalhelpers, are shown helping Aschenputtel pick the lentils out of the ashes,at the grave when she is receiving the dress and slippers, near the gravereciting rhymes to warn the prince that he is riding off with the wrong girl,and in the final scene where the prince and Aschenputtel ride off togetherpast her mother's grave. The birds are also shown in other scenes wheretheir presence is less crucial.71Their appearance in the four analyzed scenes is distributed:Separating the lentils from the ashes^- 41/58 books,- 41/41 scenes illustrated,At the presentation of the dress^- 19/24 scenes illustrated,Warning the prince^- 6/6^scenes illustrated,Prince and Aschenputtel riding off^- 16/24 scenes illustrated.The birds are featured in one of the key scenes in eighteen of thetwenty-eight books with three or fewer illustrations. The eleven booksthat do not include one of the major motifs with the birds are ones thatcontain three or fewer illustrations. The birds are featured prominently inall of the single volume tales.Dress Scene - Presence of Birds. Tree and GraveIn considering the source of Aschenputtel's magic and the relativeimportance of the mother's spirit and the animal helpers, two scenes werechosen which inevitably included combinations of the birds, tree andgrave. One is the presentation of the dress so that Aschenputtel can attendthe celebration, the other is the closing scene.The dress scene specifies all three motifs in the text. Aschenputtel'went to her mother's grave,' pleaded in verse 'under the hazel tree,' andthe bird 'tossed down a gold and silver dress and slippers embroideredwith silk and silver.'^This scene was illustrated in 24/59 (41%) of thebooks. (The Baron-Raa/Heise edition, 1953, had different versions of thescene by both illustrators.)72The relative presence of birds, tree and grave is:Birds only, 1Grave only, 0Tree only, 2Birds and Tree, 8Birds and Grave, 1Tree and Grave, 2Birds, Tree and Grave 10The three individual motifs occur in the twenty-four illustratedscenes as follows:Birds 20 83%Trees 2 2 92%Grave 1 3 54%While the most common presentation for the dress scene is to showall three symbols (10/24), illustrations with just the birds and tree followa close second (8/24). Thus, birds or the tree are present in 80% to 90% ofthe illustrations while the grave is shown less frequently, 54% of the time.The one book which does not show the tree or the grave in the dressscene (Chretien, 1985) may show the birds as a vestigial or borrowedmotif, a concept which will be discussed. The two editions (Weber, 1942.Hogrogian, 1981) showing only a tree in the dress scene may support asimilarly infrequent hypothesis of the children, that the source of themagic is neither the mother's spirit nor the animal-helpers but the gift73from the father. The second most common version of the scene, just birdsand the tree without the grave, eight of twenty-four cases, could supportthe same interpretation.However it is not clear, nor is there any reason why it ought to beclear, whether the tree represents the mother's spirit since it grows overher grave, the father's thoughtfulness since it was his gift, orAschenputtel's own expectancy since she waters it with her tears. Thatrange of possibilities is a strength of the scene. The illustrators do not tellthe reader what to think, the illustrations are rich in allusion. Differentreaders of the illustration will make different meaning of it based on acombination of the text, whatever else the illustrator has chosen toillustrate, and the viewer/reader's own experiences.Closing Scene- Presence of Birds and GraveThe closing scene chosen for comparison with the dress scene is thatof Aschenputtel and the prince riding off together either just before or justafter their wedding. This scene was chosen as it inevitably containedallusions to either or both of the mother's spirit, the grave, or the animal-helpers, the birds. The two other most frequent closing scenes were thewedding, which would logically preclude showing the grave, and thepunishment which, since is was inflicted by the birds, almost requiredtheir presence.The distribution of the bird and grave motifs throughout the sixteenillustrations of the chosen closing scene is (overleaf):74Birds only, 13Grave only, 0Birds and Grave shown, 3While the mother's presence is strongly alluded to in the crucialdress scene by either the trees, 90% of the time, or her grave, 54% of thetime, it is significantly less so in the closing scenes. Two of three possibleclosing scenes, the wedding and the punishment, preclude the gravealtogether. The one scene which does not, riding off together, includes thegrave only 19% of the time.The change in the relative portrayal of the presence ofAschenputtel's mother's spirit may have implications for the concept ofgrowth and new beginnings. Aschenputtel has passed through heradolescent period of expectancy combining both independence, her solitaryservitude, and dependence on her friends, the birds, and her mother. Shehas arrived on the threshold of her new life as an adult.Role of the FatherAschenputtel's father has a recurring, if ineffectual, role in the text.Initially, he provides the hazel twig that Aschenputtel plants on hermother's grave. He is mentioned twice again, each time after the princefollows Aschenputtel home and then loses her in her yard. Each time theprince confers with the father he wonders if the mystery girl could beAschenputtel. He then takes an axe and breaks into her hiding place fromwhich she has already fled. The father is never shown, in any of the booksanalyzed, chopping the door to the dovecote or the pear tree. He is75illustrated in connection with the twig motif, conferring with the prince,and at the slipper test. (figure 5) While all three scenes are specified inthe text, the father's presence is only mentioned in the first two.The distribution for each variation of the motif is:Twig motif 6Conferring with prince 5Slipper^test 7The father appears in 21% of the books (12/57) and is equally likelyto be illustrated in any of the three scenes. In only three books (SvendOtto S, 1978; Bakai, 1991; Fiizesi, 1991) is the father shown in all threescenes.There is a definite chronological pattern evident in the illustrationsof the father. He appears in:5 books between 1904 and 1949,0 books in the 1950's, and 1960's,4 books in the 1970's,0 books in the 1980's , andall 3 books in the 1990's.During each period of appearance the father appears in each of thethree scenes. There is one illustrated allusion (Mauser-Lichtl, 1959) to thefather during the twenty-two year dearth of appearances, 1950 - 1972, ina painting overlooking Aschenputtel during the slipper test. (figure 5) Itis interesting to speculate if the fact that the father is shown faceless is76Figure 5 - Roles of the FatherMunzer, (1904).^Incredulous,^Mauser-Lichtl (1959). Ironic portrait may signifyminor figure in background. absence.Svend Otto S (1978). Angry with stepsister's^Archipowa (1990). Obviously concerneddeception.^ about Aschenputtel. Shown bringing gifts.77any sort of ironic comment on his limited role in either the Grimms' text, orin illustrated editions in particular.Flight from the CelebrationThe flight scene was one of the two scenes analyzed by Schwarcz(1982) and its presence was a requirement for a book being chosen. Arelated motif is whether or not Aschenputtel is shown hiding after herflight. There are two possibilities - after the first evening she hides in adovecote, after the second in a pear tree. Another related motif is whethertar is shown on the steps during her third flight from the celebrations. Thepresence of the tar is a visible representation of the prince's calculatingefforts to marry the mystery girl as it is deliberately spread there to catchher slipper.The relative representation of each motif is:Flight 2 9Hiding 1 0Tar on steps 8The tar on the steps motif is evenly distributed from 1904 -1976although it is not shown in any books from the 1800's and not again since1976. The Romanian (Rusz, 1976) edition most explicitly illustrates theprince's scheming as he is shown conspiring with his page who holds thebucket of black pitch.The hiding motif first appears in 1965 (Klemke) and is fairly evenlydistributed thereafter, four times in the 1960's, three in the 1970's, none78in the 1980's, but three again in the 1990's.The flight motif is the most widely illustrated of the three appearingin 50% of the books analyzed (29/58) and it is evenly distributed from1843 to date.Slipper TestThis is one motif that Grimms' Aschenputtel shares in common withPerrault's Cinderella. It is the second motif analyzed by Schwarcz that wasa requirement for a book being included in his study. It is only illustratedin 40% of the books analyzed in this study (23/58), and it is evenlydistributed throughout all periods of the sample.Mutilation / PunishmentMutilation and punishment are two, of many, motifs thatdifferentiate the Grimms' version from Perrault's. Mutilation refers to theattempts of the stepsisters to fit the golden slipper. The first sister cuts offher toe to make the slipper fit, the second sister cuts off her heel.(figure 6) In both cases the deception is exposed by the birds on themother's grave who warn the prince as he rides off with the wrong girl.Mutilation is illustrated in 24% of the books (14/58). In exactly halfof those cases it is illustrated in conjunction with the slipper test, in theother seven cases it is illustrated in lieu of the slipper test.Punishment refers to the fate of the stepsisters at Aschenputtel'swedding. The birds peck out their eyes 'so both sisters were punishedwith blindness to the end of their days for being so wicked and false.'79Figure 6 - Allusions to MutilationMunzer (1904). Stains on^Hegenbarth (1969).stepsisters heel and toe.Bernadette (1977). Trail of blood in snow.^Bakai (1991). Bandaged feet.80Punishment is illustrated in 12% of the books (7/58).The motifs are grouped together as they not only differentiate thetale from the Perrault version but because they do so in a particular way,by introducing an element of physical violence completely at odds with thePerrault tale. Both motifs are shown in two books, therefore one or theother of these explicitly violent motifs is illustrated in 33% of the books(19/58).Both motifs follow similar chronological patterns of appearance.Mutilation is depicted four times between 1904 and 1949, not again until1969 and then ten times until 1991. Punishment is shown four timesbetween 1941 and 1953, not again until 1978 and then three times until1985. Both motifs, then, disappear for at least twenty years, essentiallyduring the 1950's and 1960's.Sleeping by the HearthAschenputtel had 'no bed to sleep in but had to lie in the ashes bythe hearth,' thus she was given her name 'because she always looked dustyand dirty.' The range of allusions in the illustrations seems to be to eitherto show Aschenputtel sleeping by a hearth, to show her sleeping nearashes, or to show her sleeping in dusty and dirty conditions. (figure 7)The occurrence of those three versions of the motif throughout thesample is:Hearth 15Ashes 3Dusty and dirty conditions 581Figure 7 - Sleeping by the HearthRusz (1976). Typically clean Aschenputtel in ^Hegenbarth (1969). Allusion to ashesa spotless kitchen.^ (Ash-bin?)Klein (1967). Symbols - bats,rats, cats, and spider - alludeto dusty and dirty conditions.82Two books (Svend Otto S, 1978; Munzer, 1904) illustrate all threeassociations explicitly as described in the text. One book (Hegenbarth,1969) seems to draw allusions to ashes and to being dusty and dirty. Theallusions, individually or in combination, in the illustrations ofAschenputtel sleeping have been drawn in 31% of the books (18/58).Allusions to the hearth do not usually show her sleeping on it. Infact, the norm of the hearth-only allusions, 10/13, is to show a rather cleanAschenputtel in a spotless kitchen. Only Munzer (1904), Gongalov (1967)and Okas (1973) portray a rustic, earthy kitchen that might well be dustyand dirty.The three potentially dusty and dirty hearth-only illustrations canbe grouped with the two scenes that explicitly include all three textualmotifs of the hearth, ashes, and dusty and dirty conditions, as being visualmotifs derived from the text. Visual motifs not derived from the text fallinto the two previously identified categories: visual motifs not specified inthe text, and those manifestly at odds with the text.The three representations not specified in the text, Klemke (1965),Klein (1967) and Hegenbarth (1969) are also the three most creativeinterpretations in the sample. That they are the most creative mightalmost be expected by the definition of this category; they are neitherconstrained by being shown precisely as described in the text, nor are theyvisual 'conventions.' Klemke has a bedraggled Aschenputtel sleeping onstraw (illus. pg . 147), and Hegenbarth has an outrageously exhaustedAschenputtel sprawled in, and out of, an ash-bin. (figure 7) Klein has arelatively clean Aschenputtel sleeping in an apparently clean kitchen butsurrounded by traditional symbols of evil, darkness, and, presumably,filth: spiders, bats, cats and rats. (figure 7)83The clean Aschenputtel in a spotless kitchen with a symbolic hearthwould be the visual representations manifestly at odds with the text. Suchillustrations remove from the scene the explicit source of Aschenputtel'sname and, by implication, some degree of her degradation at herstepsisters' hands.Organized this second way the motifs are distributed:Motifs derived from the text.A) Dusty and dirty hearth scenes.^5/18Motifs not derived from the text.B) Type 1 - Original presentations.^3/18C)^Type 2 - At odds with the text.^10 /1 8Thus 28% of the scenes are explicit representations of the text and72% are not.The allusions can be regarded a third way. If categories A and C aregrouped together as visual motifs derived from the text in one case, andillustrators' conventions in the second, then conventional portrayals,whether textually accurate or not, are shown 83% of the time and originalportrayals 17% of the time.Fourthly, and finally, categories A and B might be grouped togetheras having textual fidelity, the former to the text's explicit wording, thelatter to Aschenputtel's explicit condition. In this case 44% of theillustrations are faithful to the latent meaning of the text and 56% are not.However the representations are categorized, and the last one is themost encouraging, the norm, or at least the majority of the cases, is stillthat the portrayal of Aschenputtel sleeping by the hearth is of a clean girl84in a spotless kitchen, a condition manifestly at odds with the text.PageThe presence of a page was not on the original motif analysisinstrument as there is no page in the text. In any event, a page wasillustrated in only 5% of the texts (3/58), which may or may not besufficient to define his presence as a motif - a recognizable component of astory, or illustration, present in similar stories, or illustrations.The motif of the page was included, and retained, since it is verylikely a borrowed motif from other versions of the Cinderella tales. Agentleman of the court has a role of some consequence in Perrault's tale forexample, searching out the lady who fits the glass slipper.In the Aschenputtel tales a page, when present, is also involved withthe prince and the slipper by finding either the slipper or its owner,Aschenputtel. The most well-developed role for the page is in the Rusz(1976) edition in which he and the prince are shown to be co-conspiratorsin spreading the tar on the steps to capture the slipper.CatThe presence of a cat, as with that of a page, is not part of the text.The cat motif may be illustrated to provide Aschenputtel with a friendsince, when illustrated, it is consistently shown as a pet. In some cases it isillustrated appearing startled by the birds who pick the lentils from theashes, in one case (Mauser-Lichtl, 1959), it is shown incongruouslyoblivious to the birds, and in other cases it is shown as a companion curled85up with Aschenputtel in the scenes where she is sleeping.The pet cat motif appears in 16% of the books (9/58). It appears inthe earliest book in the sample (Reimer, 1825), again in 1959 and thenseven times between 1972 and 1991.Age of Aschenputtel The apparent age range of Aschenputtel has been a preteen child (7-12 years), a young teen, teen, older teen, young adult, and a mature adult.(figure 8) In some cases the distinctions have been difficult to determineconsequently some illustrations have been categorized as borderlinepreteen/young teen or older teen/young adult.Assessing Aschenputtel's age was complicated by another motif, thatof the child-woman. In only a few cases was the representation of achildish face on a mature body incongruous (Heise, 1953; Klein, 1967;Rusjan, 1967; Fiizesi, 1991) but it was a tendency. For the most part theincongruities were less noticeable, or at least more plausible, as with thenipped-in waist of Klemke's (1965) preteen Aschenputtel. (illus. pg . 146)The child-women were classified, on the strength of their faces andexpressions, as young teens.In fifty-eight books there are fifty-nine distinguishable ages forAschenputtel. One book (Baron-Raa/Heise, 1953) was illustrated by twoseparate illustrators with clearly different representations of Aschenputtel,another (Bernadette, 1977) clearly showed her aging, and a third(Hegenbarth, 1969) was indeterminate.86e n p u t- r eFigure 8 - Age Range for AschenputtelChild (Thalman, 1983)^Young Teen (Mannhart, 1958)Young Adult (Okas, 1973) Adult (Ritzmann, 1948)87The distribution of ages for Aschenputtel is:Child^(preteen) 8Child/Young Teen 4Young Teen 8Teen 2 6Older Teen/Young Adult 5Young Adult 6Adult 2Organized into broader groups, the child and young teenrepresentations could be considered together as being generally young, ateen group could include all those designated as either young teen or teen,and a woman category could include the older teen, young adult and adultcategories.Young (child & young teen) 2 0Teen (young teen & teen) 3 5Woman (older teen & adult) 1 3Either organization clearly shows that the norm for the visual motifof Aschenputtel's age is to represent her as a teenager with a greaterprobability of being younger than older.Chronologically, Aschenputtel is represented as a young woman all ofthe time in the samples from the 1800's (4/4). There was a full range ofrepresentations to the 1940's with the first appearance of a preteen in1946 (Schott). The 1950's to date are predominantly teens in 30/42 books88with the greatest concentration of preteens in the 1960's, 3/9, and the1970's, 4/11. The 1980's and 1990's were solidly teen representationswith only 2/13 preteens and no adult representations. The trend wouldseem to have been from representing Aschenputtel as a young woman inthe 1800's, to a greater range in the 1940's with an approximately onethird proportion of preteens in the 1960's and 1970's, settling into a morelimited range of teens in the 1980's and 1990's with no adultrepresentations.The assessment of Aschenputtel's age was always based on herappearance at home for, in virtually every case where she wasrepresented both at home and at the king's celebration, she wasrepresented as older at the celebration.HairNo account of Aschenputtel's hair is given in the text but it has beenillustrated as short, long, straight, curly, tied up, let loose, well-combed,unkempt and various colours. So has the stepsisters' hair. A directcomparison of all possible combinations would provide more detail thanwould be relevant to the general purpose of these analyses, ascertainingnorms and ranges. Therefore Aschenputtel and her stepsisters' hair wasanalyzed for the specific detail of colour and for the more general one ofsimilarity.The hair colour distribution figures that follow are occurrences out ofthe 58 books. The percentage figures are a percentage of the identifiablecases. That is, as some illustrations are in black and white, Aschenputtel'shair colour is only identifiable in 46 cases. For the same reason, and89because the stepsisters are not illustrated in every book, and because insome cases both sisters' hair is the same and in other cases the sisters aredifferent from one another, the size of the sample for the stepsisters is 24cases. The distribution of hair colour is:Aschenputtel:^Blond^3 7^80%Light Brown^3^6%Dark/Black^6^13%Red^0Stepsisters:^Blond 10^42%Dark^5^21%Red 9^38%Aschenputtel's hair is straight in 95% of the identifiable cases(35/37). It was also analyzed for being neat or loose. Neat was taken toinclude well-combed straight hair and hair that was plaited, ponytailed,tied up, or tied in a scarf. Loose hair was taken to include uncombed andunkempt hair as well as hair that had previously been groomed but whichwas shown becoming unkempt, typically from strenuous work.Aschenputtel's hair is illustrated as:Neat^22^42%Loose or disheveled^30^58%Only two illustrators, Rusz (1976) and Bernadette (1977), illustratedher hair as both well-groomed and disheveled at various times. (Onceagain, all motif analyses are of Aschenputtel's time of industrious waiting,90and exclude her dressing for, and attending, the king's celebration. As thattime is a time of transformation it would skew the analysis of herappearance, clothing, and grooming just as it would have skewed theanalysis of her age.)Aschenputtel and her stepsisters' hair is taken to be similar inappearance if three of four attributes: colour, length, style, and groomingare close. That is, colour is considered close if one girl is dark blond andone is a light brunette. The style is considered close if both have straighthair but one girl's comes to the nape of her neck and the other's comes toher shoulders.By considering Aschenputtel and her stepsisters to have similar hairif only three of four attributes are close allows for anomalousdeterminations of similar appearance in cases such as Nast (1973) whereAschenputtel is a brunette, one stepsister is blond and the other has darkhair. Given that the hair, and appearance, of all three girls is in all otherrespects similar it is reasonable to assume that the hair colour is intendedto differentiate the girls without prejudice.. That is, the appearance of theirhair does not clearly divide Aschenputtel and her stepsisters into twodistinct groups.The stepsisters' hair, in comparison to Aschenputtel's, is shown to be:Similar in appearance 16/28^57%Different^12/28^43%91The case of the stepsisters' hair colour has been recorded but is nowcompared as being the same as, or different from, Aschenputtel's.Same colour^12/28^43%Different 16/28^57%Of the twelve cases where the stepsisters' hair is the same colour asAschenputtel's, in three cases they all have dark hair. (Ciuha, 1954.Grabianski, 1962. Rusjan, 1967) Of the sixteen cases where the stepsisters'hair is a different colour from Aschenputtel's, in three cases at least one ofthe stepsisters' hair is blond while Aschenputtel's is not. (Baron-Raa, 1953;Nast, 1973; Bernadette, 1977)The norm is definitely to illustrate Aschenputtel's hair as straight,95% of the time, and blond, 80% of the time. There is also a tendency toillustrate her hair as either loose and uncombed, or becoming disheveledfrom her chores, 58% of the time. The case of the stepsisters' hair is lesspronounced but the tendency is towards portraying their hair as similar toAschenputtel's 57% of the time, and to portraying at least one of thestepsisters as blond 42% of the time, or red-haired, 38% of the time.General Appearance - A schenputtelIn discussing the routine portrayal of Cinderella/Aschenputtel,Schwarcz (1982) noted that she was often almost artificial in appearance,colourful and clean with tidy clothes made of good material 'except for avery neat token patch.' The motifs of a clean Aschenputtel with well-groomed hair working in a spotless kitchen are at odds with textual92assertions of hard and dirty work. The books were analyzed for thegeneral motif of her overall appearance, and for the more specific one ofthe token patch, in those scenes where she is shown to be working at herchores.General appearance refers to Aschenputtel's condition, not to thespecific clothing that she wears. The norm is to show her and her clothingas clean, and her clothing is generally neat and pressed. Subtle allusions tothe effects of her work are illustrations where she remains neat and clean,but her clothing is rumpled, ragged about the edges, loose or ill-fitting. Abook is recorded as showing Aschenputtel as dirty, or her clothing asrumpled, even if she is only illustrated that way in one scene.Aschenputtel working at her chores is illustrated:Generally cleanClean, neat and pressed 2 3Clean, neat, but rumpled or ragged 6Somewhat soiledRumpled 5Dirty (clothes, hands or face) 5Rumpled and dirty 3Aschenputtel's general appearance, the condition of her hands, faceand clothing, is generally clean in 69% of the scenes, and somewhat soiledin the other 31%. If the otherwise clean, but rumpled, portrayals areincluded with the soiled, the ratio is still clean 55% of the time to soiled45% of the time. Only three books (Gongalov, 1967; Rusz, 1976; Archipowa,1990) show a soiled Aschenputtel in soiled clothes.93The norm is a clean and neat Aschenputtel, a condition at odds withher tasks, both as specified in the text and as illustrated, not a girl 'tiredout with work.'Another specific motif associated with Aschenputtel's appearance isthat of patched clothing. The motif of a patch is illustrated in 33% of thebooks (19/58). For the most part the patches merit Schwarcz's dismissalas 'token.' There is generally only one patch, and that is frequentlyattached to an otherwise immaculate dress or apron. In one case even abedspread (Bakai, 1991). The label 'token' has not been attached to themotif 'patch' however, because there are cases were it has been illustratedin a way that appears legitimate, especially Pieck (1959) where even thepatches have holes. That ability to breathe new life into disinspired clichésis the subject of a section in this chapter on stock postures, effectivepostures and credible conventions.Another specific motif associated with A schenputtel's appearance,identified by Schwarcz, is her being barefoot. This is the case in 17% of thebooks in this study (10/58).Comparative Appearance - StepsistersConventional wisdom, that is, of the researcher's elementary schoolstudents, has it that Cinderella/Aschenputtel has two ugly stepsisters.That perception is clearly at odds with the explicit text which describestheir faces as lily white. It may be a metaphorical allusion to their nature- in this case 'ugly' equals 'bad' - but it is, in any event, expressed as avisual motif.^In comparing the portrayal of the stepsisters with that ofAschenputtel, three attributes were considered: general physical94appearance, clothing, and hair. Hair has already been discussed and seento be similar to Aschenputtel's more than half of the time.Clothing is also a fairly specific way of denoting similarity or  difference, although the distinctions tend not to be exaggerated. Havingalready noted that Aschenputtel is usually illustrated as neat, clean andpressed, the difference from her stepsisters is that she tends to be wearinga markedly simpler dress, although generally of good fit. Aschenputtel'sclothing, as compared to her stepsisters', appears:Similar^3^15%Different 20^87%The three similar appearances occur earlier in the sample, 1825,1942, and 1953 and two of those (Reimer, 1825; Baron-Raa, 1953) showAschenputtel and her stepsisters as being dressed in quite fine clothes,presentations at odds with both debasement and benign neglect.Of the twenty books where the stepsisters are shown to wear finerclothes than Aschenputtel, five show the stepsisters as caricaturedexaggerations. The caricatures appear earlier and later in the sample and,although caricatured presentation of clothing is an infrequent motif, it isone of the motifs that disappears during the 1950's and 1960's.In comparing the physical appearance of Aschenputtel and herstepsisters, they are taken as similar if they appear to be of a similar ageand size, and if the stepsisters faces are not obviously intended to beunattractive. The latter point assumes, as is the case, that Aschenputtel isnever portrayed as physically unattractive. Determining if their faces aresimilar or dissimilar can be a fine distinction for many illustrators such as95Gongalov (1967, illus. pg . 151), clearly differentiate Aschenputtel from herstepsisters. In his case the stepsister have more pointed, harsher, features.While they lack the angelic roundness of Aschenputtel's features, and theirexpression denotes meanness of spirit, they are not unattractive and so,together with being of similar age and size, they are recorded as having asimilar physical appearance.The stepsisters that are illustrated as different from Aschenputtelmay be shown as larger, older, taller or heavier. There are no cases inwhich they appear smaller, younger, shorter, or more slender. They arealso shown as caricatures seven times, once in 1942 and then six timesfrom 1970 to date. The physical appearance of the stepsisters, incomparison with Aschenputtel, is shown as:Similar^12^39%Different 19^61%The chronological distribution shows that the tendency to portraythe stepsisters as physically different from Aschenputtel is greatest earlierand later in the sample:Different Similar1904 -^1949 4 11953 -^1978 2 161981 -^1991 6 2In summary, the stepsisters' hair has been shown to be illustrated assimilar to Aschenputtel's more than half, 57%, of the time. Their physical96appearance is illustrated as different from Aschenputtel's more than half,61%, of the time. Those two physical attributes somewhat balance out, theone tending towards similarity and the other towards difference. The mostmarked indication of similarity or difference in the appearance ofAschenputtel and her stepsisters is that of their clothes, which are shownto be markedly different 87% of the time.The attribute of hair colour appears to have an even chronologicaldistribution.^The attribute of physical portrayal appears to have a cyclicdistribution with early 1900's and current 1980/1990's favoring theportrayal of the stepsisters as physically different from Aschenputtel. Themotif of portraying the stepsisters' clothing as finer than Aschenputtel'shas supplanted the possibility of their clothing being similar, there beingno such cases since 1953 in this sample.HomeThe third aspect of the incongruous portrayal of Aschenputtelworking at her chores, after neat, clean clothing and having her hair well-combed, is that she is working in a spotless kitchen. That motif was alsoanalyzed in this sample. Home, therefore, refers to the rooms in which sheis working at her chores. They are illustrated as spotless and clean intwenty-eight of the twenty-nine books in which the scenes are illustrated.One floor (Gillar, 1949, illus. pg . 124) is so shiny there are reflections in it.Two of the twenty-eight books make allusions to dirt, Klein (1967) with aspider web, bats and rats, and Lore (1972) with a single fly. Only one book(Pieck, 1959) shows Aschenputtel in a room that is visibly deteriorating.Unlike the others, it is not a kitchen or a hallway but a cellar.97It is not clear if this is a motif manifestly at odds with the text, sincethe conditions in which Aschenputtel works are unspecified. Theconsistency of this portrayal, though, is clearly a visual convention, a nontext-based motif, precisely because those conditions are unspecified andsince it is reasonable to assume that out of twenty-nine illustrations of aperson cleaning, some of those illustrations might show a room thatactually needs cleaning.StyleThe concern with the appearance of the rooms where Aschenputtelworks is with specific setting and style. A related concern is with a moregeneral aspect of setting and style: Do the tales tend to inhabit a world thatinvokes fairyland more than a feeling of realism? Most of the books couldbe grouped into five general categories.1) Fairytale. The illustrations in these books evoke a sense ofstorybook, an appearance similar to that associated with thetype of mass-market picture books typically found insupermarkets. Attributes of the illustrations include strong,clear outlines, one-dimensional figures generally devoid ofshading, and single-tone colours likewise devoid of shading.This category also includes the sub-group fairytale(cartoon) in which the characters are more doll-like. The styleis reminiscent of Disney or Geissel.2) Fairyland. The illustrations in these books feature more delicatelines and colour with a greater likelihood of tonal range andshading. Overall, these books have an ephemeral quality98reminiscent of the style of Kate Greenaway.3) Fantasy. The illustrations in these books are stylizedrepresentations clearly intended to be unrealistic but areneither cartoons nor cute. They have an otherworldly qualityapproaching the surrealistic.4) Abstract. The illustrations in these books tend to be less sharplydefined than the other categories', books that invite, perhaps,more interpretation by the viewer/reader.5) Realistic. The illustrations in these books are shown as if theymight be real people in real settings. This category wassubdivided. Realistic-common are illustrations whereAschenputtel and her setting might be those of the archetype'everyman' of folklore. Realistic-fine are illustrations whereAschenputtel lives and works in the home of the very well off,possibly even aristocracy. Realistic-modern are theillustrations that look as if Aschenputtel might have been acontemporary of the viewer/reader.The designations, and representative illustrations, are found in thephoto-bibliography.Only five books defied inclusion in either these categories or withany other books in the study. Three of those five defy categorizationbecause the style of their illustrations overlaps categories. The other twoeach feature unique styles. The three illustrators whose books overlapcategories include Gongalov (1967) who combines realistic people infairytale type backgrounds. Bernadette (1977) uses a similar combination,and makes unique use of scale. Her illustrations are overwhelming,99Aschenputtel and all around her are surrounded by destiny, by latentexpectancy.^Chretien (1985) combines a fairytale style with qualities ofgraphic design and tonal shading more commonly associated withcommercial art than, at present, with book illustration. The fourth of thefive books features stark black and white illustrations that appear to bewoodcuts. The style, scenes, and overwhelming use of black in Wingen's(1963) woodcuts create a sense of awesome forces at work. The last of thefive, Elsasser's (1978), is an ethereal, mystic study in colour, shading, toneand suggestion with no clear lines.For this analysis there are considered to be fifty-nine books, sincethe cover and contents of the Baron-Raa/Heise (1953) edition were bydifferent illustrators working in diametrically opposed styles, the former'swork is classified realistic-common and the latter's fairytale (cartoon). Thecover of their book is a three-page cut-away montage so that bothillustrators have illustrated, differently, very many of the same scenes.The distribution for fifty-four versions that could be categorized is:Fairytale 1 0Fairytale^(cartoon) 10Fairyland 8Fantasy 6Abstract 4Realistic-common 1 1Realistic-fine 4Realistic-modern 1100In considering the question of whether the portrayal evokes a senseof fairyland or realism it is necessary to acknowledge that there may wellbe other possibilities. Those designated abstract and at least two of thebooks that are unclassified (Gongalov, 1967; Bernadette, 1977) requiremore of the viewer/reader than such straightforward classification. Thereare six such books in the sample and they are grouped together in a thirdcategory, abstract/ambiguous. Fairyland, fairytale and fantasy portrayalsoccur in thirty-four of the books, thirty-seven when we include Wingen(1963), Els4sser (1978) and Chretien (1985) from the uncategorized books.The clearly realistic portrayals occur in sixteen of the books. Organizedinto these broader categories the motifs of style occur, in rank order:Evocative of Fairyland^63%Realistic^ 27%Abstract/ambiguous^10%Analysis of style motifs revealed four chronological trends.Realistic portrayals are the case in all five of the earliest booksin the collection, 1825 - 1904.2) The cartoon type of fairytale presentation first occurs, in thissample, in 1937 and at least once in each decade thereafter.3) Abstract and fantasy are more recent categories. Abstractoccurs only between 1962 and 1970. Fantasy first occurs in1965 and then five more times until 1984.4)^There are no straightforward realistic portrayals between 1959and 1978. While they are evenly distributed throughout the101rest of the sample, and they are the second most commonportrayal overall, they essentially disappear for nineteen yearsduring the 1960's and 1970's.The results of the analysis of style reveal that the norm is toillustrate Aschenputtel, a folktale, as a fairytale more than half, 63%, of thetime. This is consistent with Schwarcz's (1982) concern that 'the problemlies in the fact that hackneyed illustrations proliferate and flood themarket... Neither from an aesthetic nor psychological point of view is thereany sense in the banal renderings of fairy tales accompanied by tritepictures.'The range, however, of styles is encouraging for it is indicative of theresistance of the folktale to sublimation by clich6d visual motifs. Theintroduction of new styles, abstract, fantasy, and graphic design, indicatethe willingness of illustrators to bring new ideas to bear on theconventions of folktale illustration. The return of dormant interpretations,such as the realistic portrayal, is indicative of the resilience of the tale'srelevance. It remains a tale of relevance to the lives of real folk, aspects ofwhich the viewer/reader can empathize with not just because theillustrations are of real people, but because of the shared universality ofhuman experience. The folktale has the substance to support multipleinterpretations, it has not become just a trite diversion.Expressions - AschenputtelThe concept of visual motifs was initially inspired by Schwarcz's(1982) observation that Cinderella/Aschenputtel's expressions tended to102be stereotyped and that standard postures were used to invoke stockresponses. The books in this study were analyzed for the occurrence andrange of illustrated expressions, both facial and body-language, toascertain if the relative portrayal would differentiate Aschenputtel fromPerrault's altogether more submissive protagonist (Bettleheim, 1975). Therange of expressions are also noted, demonstrating, as is the case withaspects of style, that they exhibit the diversity appropriate to includingthis motif in a comparative folklore study of illustrations.Aschenputtel is illustrated in all fifty-eight books and, with only twoexceptions (Hegenbarth, 1969; Elsasser, 1978), there was the opportunityto illustrate emotional involvement with some event in her life. Suchemotional involvement, excluding the stereotypical stock postures, occursin 43% of the books. The twenty-five books exhibiting some emotionalinvolvement are grouped into four categories. Some books indicate a rangeof emotions from pain to pleasure, other are expressive but without thatrange. Some books are categorized as minimal. The minimal category isfurther subdivided into minimal-one and minimal-slight. The minimal-onebooks are characterized by stock postures or a general absence ofexpression, with only one or two examples of emotional involvement. Theminimal-slight books have more illustrations of expressions, but they areall slight, a bit pleased, a little disappointed, somewhat sad. Categorizedthus, the indications of Aschenputtel's emotional involvement occur:Range of expressions 3Some^expressive^illustrations 7Minimal-one 3Minimal-slight 1 2103Since these illustrations represent only 43% of the illustrated books,the norm is to represent Aschenputtel as expressionless, consistent withSchwarcz's findings for Perrault's Cinderella. Even amongst the books thatdo depict expressions the case is predominantly minimal indication of anyemotional involvement with Aschenputtel's life.Only 17% of the books (10/58) are clearly evocative of emotionalinvolvement. The noteworthy books include four from the 'Someexpressive illustrations' category. Two feature perpetually cheerfulprotagonists, an indication of resilience completely at odds with the normfor the illustrations in this study (Sedej, 1957; Klemke, 1965). Two othersare featured in the Notable Illustrations section of chapter five, Tenggren(1923) because of remarkable posture and expressive hands, and Postma(1987) because of realistic awe and posture on receiving the dress.Other noteworthy books are the three from the 'Range of expressions'category. Munzer's (1904) Aschenputtel appears cowed, sad, supplicating,pleased and frightened. Gongalov's (1967) appears incredulous, sad,exhausted, and pleased. Fiizesi's (1991) is shown gleeful and alarmed.Expressions - StepsistersThe stepsisters' emotional involvement with Aschenputtel is moreevident in the illustrations than Aschenputtel's for, even though thestepsisters are only illustrated in thirty-one of the books, expressions areclearly indicated in twenty-five books. Decisions not to illustrate thestepsisters could be tantamount to choosing to downplay their emotionalinvolvement in the story. Nevertheless, the overwhelming impression onviewing all fifty-eight books is that Aschenputtel is only emotionally104engaged 43% of the time, whereas the stepsisters are usually illustrated asemotionally involved, 81% of the time (25/31), when they do appear.The specific expressions noted are being recorded under theappropriate categories. The largest category, mean-spirited, has therecorded expressions subdivided into three groups. The distribution of thetypes of the stepsisters' emotional involvement with Aschenputtel is:None^ 6Generally pleasant^ 1Mild neglect 4curious, askance, amused,indifferent, obliviousMean-spiritedSuperiority (16)scorn, mockery, contempt, disgust,smug, haughty, dismissive,demanding, critical, dissatisfiedMalicious intent (9)conspiratorial amusement,pleasure in ordering Aschenputtelabout, taunting, officious, ridicule,torment, provoking, vicious,gloatingAnger (2)fury, hostilityWhen the stepsisters are illustrated, the norm is definitely to showthem as mean-spirited. Noteworthy exceptions are Sedej (1957) wherethey are always pleasant except at the slipper test, and three of the bookscategorized as 'mild neglect', Rusz (1976), Bernadette (1977) and20105Archipowa (1990), for resisting the stereotypical portrayal. Rusz'sstepsisters are portrayed as vacuous and, in an interesting reversal ofconventional illustrated emotional involvement, are clearly the object ofAschenputtel's contempt.SECTION 2 - STOCK POSTURES / EFFECTIVE POSTURES /CREDIBLE CONVENTIONSStock posture is the term this thesis advocates for depictions ofstereotyped postures intended to invoke stock responses. A posture isstereotyped when it has become not only a standard, but hackneyed.Defining a posture thus, in a thesis of this nature, is a matter of degree.After all, the whole idea of a motif is that it is identifiable andrecognizable.A stock response is a superficial but expected reaction to a triteillustration, The viewer/reader cannot be .expected to have the sameemotional empathy, involvement, as with a character that demonstratestheir own involvement with what is, after all, their story. Bland, trite, orhackneyed illustrations contribute to bland viewing/reading experiences.Three stock postures have been selected to demonstrate the normand to be contrasted with outstanding examples that transcend thehackneyed attributes. The first is 'working hard' (figure 9) which ischaracterized by a lack of expression and downcast eyes. Both Nast andWallenta have illustrated Aschenputtel with her head bent from theadmittedly legitimate weight of the water buckets she is carrying. Theconcern is not that bending under the weight of her work is inaccurate,106Figure 9Stock Postures - 'Working Hard'Ivan Gongalov (1967)Livia Rusz (1976)107Bernhard Nast (1973)Emanuela Wallenta (1979)Effective Posturesrather that it is a convention and one that precludes showing any facialexpressions.Rusz and Gonagalov's depictions could, equally as legitimately, haveshown Aschenputtel with her head bent down looking at her work, but didnot. Instead, they chose to show Aschenputtel looking at her tormentors,who are part of the full scene in all four illustrations. Gongalov'sAschenputtel has stopped in her work, open-mouthed, with a deflatedexpression of surprise. She would be neither deflated, nor surprised, if shedid not hold some hope for more just conditions. Her spirit is not yetbroken.Rusz's Aschenputtel is tight-lipped and resentful. Resentment alsosprings from a sense of injustice and is indicative of anger. Rusz's andGongalov's Aschenputtels are in a different frame of mind from oneanother, but the reader has some sense of their frame of mind. The readerhas no indication of what is in the mind of Nast's and Wallenta'sAschenputtel and so falls back on more superficial, stock, responses - "Oh,they're working so hard."A second stock posture is that of 'suffering.' (figure 10) Lore'sAschenputtel demonstrates the use of a single, stock, tear, implausiblylarge and physically inaccurate. A tear of such magnitude could not lie sofar over on the cheek in such defiance of gravity. It is incongruous andunconvincing, a pathetic embellishment.Gongalov's Aschenputtel demonstrates a credible posture. Whilethere is no facial expression her body language is clear. It is too stiff forexhaustion, the tensenesss is of a body racked with crying, in the pain ofsuffering.108Figure 10 - Stock Posture - 'Suffering'Stock Tear (Lore, 1972)^Credible Posture (Gongalov, 1967)Figure 11 - Stock Posture - 'Disappointment'Visual Hyperbole (Hellman, 1986)^Credible posture (Nast, 1973)109A third stock posture is of 'disappointment.' (figure 11) BothHellman's and Nast's Aschenputtels have just learned that in spite ofcompleting the task of separating the lentils from the ashes, they will notbe allowed to go to the king's celebration. Taken out of context, as it is inthis figure, Hellman's portrayal of dejection, collapsed on the floor with herhands over her face, is credible. In context, however, it is typical of thevisual hyperbole of expression, the exaggerated body language, in herwork. In the context of the complete book it has become hackneyed andnot credible.Nast, also given to a general lack of expression, has produced in thisscene a credible posture and expression. Aschenputtel has been literally'left holding', if not the bag then at least the lentils. Her perplexed "Oh" isindicative of surprise and the erosion of faith. She has been disappointedand it is easier to empathize with her feelings than with the melodramaticconvolutions of Hellman's protagonist.Just as emotions can be suggested through stock postures or moreconvincing, credible, portrayals, the same is true of other motifs. Thetoken patch on Aschenputtel's clothing is the norm, there is typically onlyone and it is attached to an otherwise immaculate dress or apron. Pieck's(1959, illus pg. 207) patches are credible. They are illustrated onbedraggled, frayed clothing draped over a girl as worn out as hergarments. The patches are not decorations, in fact even some of thepatches have holes.Another motif illustrated with credibility is the presentation of thedress scene. Postma's (1987, illus. pg . 161) portrayal of awe and disbeliefare evocative of a girl opening a gift that she did not expect, the fullimplications of which have not yet registered. There are allusions and110subtlety in the posture and expression, as well as in the colouring andcontent of the illustration. Gongalov's (1967, illus pg. 151) Aschenputtelknows exactly what she has received. Her hands are together, perhaps inan effort to suppress the desire to reach out and seize the dress, perhapsclasped as if in answer to a prayer. In either case, the interpretations arecredible and consistent with the excitement in Aschenputtel's face.Postma and Gongalov's Aschenputtels have very different reactionsto the dress. Rusz and Gongalov's Aschenputtel are shown to havedifferent reactions to their chores. That diversity of interpretation is oneof the values in a study of comparative folklore illustrations. Exposure todiversity encourages thoughtful interpretation, in the same way thatexposure to stereotyped portrayals encourages superficial, stock,responses.SECTION 3 - TRENDSStudying the case of specific motifs, the norm, the range, and notableexamples, can be a foundation for a comparative folklore illustration study.Analyzing the case of several motifs could enable such a comparison tohave more depth. Attributes of a specific motif that might seeminconsequential when considered within the narrow confines of that onemotif could be of more consequence by being indicative of broader trendsor patterns, or could be more clearly understood within the larger context.This section draws together some aspects of the motifs alreadydiscussed into examples of the sort of trends that would enhance acomparative folklore illustration study.111Chronological TrendsThe motif analyses reveal four chronological patterns of portrayal:motifs that are shifting and evolving, the norm is not what it once was;motifs that appear, disappear, and then reappear again with somepredictability; dormant motifs that are not currently being illustrated;and newer motifs, motifs that seem to have first appeared at someidentifiable point.Shifting NormsThe four following motifs clearly exemplify cases where the normsare not now what they once were.The age of Aschenputtel has shifted from a nineteenth century normof being portrayed as an adult, in all five of the books between 1825 and1904. By 1946 there is a full range of ages depicted from preteen toadult. The furthest swing is during the 1960's and 1970's when thepreteen representation of Aschenputtel reached its greatest proportion atone third of the cases. The 1980's and 1990's shifted back somewhat withfewer preteens, but the norm has solidified around portrayal ofAschenputtel as a teen, there being no representations of her as an adultduring that time.Two other shifting norms are in the portrayal of Aschenputtelworking at her chores and of the presence of her mother. Illustrations ofAschenputtel performing chores appear at a rate of between 25% and 38%in all periods except the 1970's when the frequency is 73%. The relative112portrayal of the mother, or her grave, also shifts, although less remarkably,during the 1970's. Prior to that the mother is represented at rates ofaround 42%. In the 1970's the representation increases to 64% andremains over 50% to date.The portrayal of Aschenputtel's flight from the celebration has alsoshifted. The flight itself is steadily portrayed in all periods from 1825 todate. The depiction of the tar and, by extension, the prince's complicity insetting up the slipper test, appear between 1904 and 1976. Depictions ofAschenputtel hiding, in the dovecote and the pear tree, first appear in1965 and then regularly thereafter.These shifts are open to many interpretations. One interpretation forthe apparent decreased portrayal of the tar and the increased portrayal ofthe hiding is that there may be a shift in emphasis from external forcesover which Aschenputtel has no control, to illustrating scenes in which sheis demonstrating self-determination. That is, of course, conjecture, but it isthe sort of conjecture most likely to be resolved by a discussion of specificmotifs in the context of broader trends.Cyclic PortrayalsThe cycles of five motifs that are featured in this section vary. Theyall share one common attribute, however, they each disappear for a periodof twenty years, in four of the five cases during the 1950's and 1960's.The reason, or reasons, for so many motifs disappearing during essentiallythe same time period are beyond the scope of this study. It is unlikely,however, that they are coincidental.113a) The presence of the father occurs five times between 1904 and1949, disappears during the 1950's and 1960's, occurs fourtimes during the 1970's, disappears again during the 1980's,and reappears three times in the 1990's.b) The portrayal of the stepsisters mutilating their feet occursfour times between 1904 and 1949, disappears for twentyyears, essentially during the 1950's and 1960's, then reappearsten times from 1969 to 1991.c) The portrayal of the stepsisters' punishment occurs four timesbetween 1941 and 1953, disappears for twenty-five years,essentially during the 1950's, 1960's and 1970's, thenreappears three times between 1978 and 1985.d) The probability of the stepsisters being illustrated as lookingdifferent from Aschenputtel was the norm between 1904 and1949 at 4:1, and again between 1981 and 1991 at 3:1. For atwenty-five year period in between, 1953 to 1978, theprobability was dramatically reversed with the likelihood ofAschenputtel and her stepsisters being illustrated as similar inappearance at 8:1.e)^One of the styles of illustration, realistic, occurred throughoutthe sample with a nineteen year hiatus overlapping the sameperiod when the four other motifs became dormant, in thiscase 1959 to 1978.114Dormant MotifsA motif is considered to be dormant if it has not been illustrated forat least twenty years. A motif is considered dormant, rather than dead,because it may well be going through a cyclic pattern and is, at present, ina stage of non-representation. Furthermore, a motif might reappear atany time. The cat, for example, appears in 1825 and then again in 1959, agap of 134 years and twenty-three books in this sample. Aschenputtel isnot portrayed as an adult in any books after 1973, although in one book(Bernadette, 1977) she ages from a preteen to a young adult. Aschenputtelis not portrayed in clothing similar to that worn by her stepsisters in anybooks after 1953.Newer MotifsNewer motifs are those that first appeared at some identifiable time.The caution is repeated about generalizing from this study. The findings ofthis thesis form a legitimate basis for comparison with other samples, butit cannot be assumed that the results will automatically, or evennecessarily, transfer. The previously mentioned cat motif, for example,appears seven times between 1972 and 1991. Had only two books(Reimer, 1825; Mauser-Lichtl, 1959) not been included in this sample,then the cat motif would have been recorded as a new motif firstappearing in 1959. The motifs that follow may have been illustrated inearlier editions of Aschenputtel that are not part of this sample. They arepresented in order of occurrence.115a) The cartoon style first appears in 1937 and then at least onceeach decade thereafter.b) The caricature portrayal of the stepsisters first appears in1942, then seven times between 1970 and 1984.c) Aschenputtel is first portrayed as a preteen child in 1946.d) The abstract style, which may have become a dormant motif,first appears in 1962 then three more times until 1970.e) The fantasy style first appears in 1965 and then five moretimes until 1984.f) Aschenputtel is first shown hiding, after her flight from theking's celebration, in 1965.Borrowed and Vestigial MotifsThe Opies (1974) used the term vestigial to describe aspects of astory, superfluous to the plot, retained from some earlier version butwithout relevance to the present account of the tale. Jameson (1932,reprinted in Dundes, 1982) described a similar phenomenon. Illustratedmotifs not demonstrably a part of the story might fall into a similarcategory, that is motifs unintentionally borrowed from another tale ormotifs borrowed to no apparent purpose. On the other hand, the motifscould be deliberately borrowed with one of two intentions. They could beintended to draw an analogy to another tale, or to aspects of another tale, aconcept not unlike that of stock postures. They could also be included as adeliberate enrichment of the visual portrayal of the tale.116The motif of the prince's page demonstrates the difficulty ofclassifying a motif where the classification is a matter of intent andinterpretation. Three illustrators may have included a page because hisinclusion was thought to add to the veracity of the story. The page mayhave been included as a deliberate allusion to Perrault's tale, or because itwas an error of association. In only the third case could the motif beconsidered vestigial. It is more likely, since whenever the page isillustrated he is included to some purpose, that his presence is an exampleof a borrowed motif, but only the illustrator knows for certain.Accornero's (1982) fairy in the hearth is included to no apparentpurpose and is clearly derived from Perrault. It is likely, therefore, avestigial motif.A scene in one of the Cap o' Rushes tales (Bettina, 1959) appears tocontain a vestigial motif. Cap o' Rushes is shown dancing with the youngmaster while three women watch. The women are dressed in plain clothes,are grouped together and are huddled just behind Cap o' Rushes and theyoung master. While not openly hostile, they are not pleased and theirbody language, crossed arms, rigid arms, and pointing, clearly denotesresentment. Their presence, in short, is entirely consistent with the sort ofportrayal one would expect of the stepmother and stepsister inAschenputtel or Cinderella. In Cap o' Rushes, however, the cook andkitchen servants are not analogous to the stepmother and stepsisters, atleast not in the sense portrayed. The are not abusive of Cap o' Rushes, notjealous when she is revealed, and do not attempt to keep her fromattending the dance. In fact, they repeatedly encourage her to attend, andshare their experiences with her as if they were close friends. Theportrayal of three annoyed onlookers watching the protagonist dance117would appear to be a vestigial motif included to no purpose and, in fact, atodds with the text.Chretien's (1985) Aschenputtel is an explicit exercise in borrowedmotifs and is exquisitely executed. In his preface Bruno De La Salle, thereteller, states 'the versions that we offer to you have been assembledfrom a variety of tales collected throughout our history.' Aschenputtel isshown receiving her dress from the tree, but she receives a glass, ratherthan golden, slipper and there is a pumpkin at the base of the tree. Thereisn't a page in the book that is not rich in allusions to other versions of thetale. Those borrowed motifs are identified in the chapter five section, keybooks.Borrowed motifs arise from the fact that folktales are livingliterature, they evolve as storytellers combine elements in ways that aremeaningful for their audience. The presence of illustrated motifsborrowed from other tales, either intentionally or as vestigial motifs, is afurther attribute that this study of comparative folklore illustrationsshares with a study of folklore motifs, lending further credence to theconcept of visual motifs.Clichés / Integral MotifsThis section arises out of an interest in ascertaining if there is onemotif more often associated with Aschenputtel than any other. The idea isa bit of a conceit, after all the only motifs that can be tabulated are themotifs that were part of the analysis. Different researchers would likelyanalyze the books for different motifs, and all motifs associated with118Aschenputtel's time at the king's celebration were deliberately excluded tobegin with. But the concept of clichés as opposed to integral motifs raisesan interesting distinction, that of fidelity to the text.Only one book (Sedej, 1957) was cited for portraying the stepsistersas always pleasant in their relationship with Aschenputtel. While theillustrator can be commended for breaking with tradition, the portrayal iscompletely at odds with the text which attributes to the stepsistersdeliberate, continuous torment of Aschenputtel. Other illustrators cannotbe accused of cliched representation of mean stepsisters when thatcondition is integral to both the explicit wording of the text and the latentcondition of Aschenputtel's servitude. They could be accused of clichedrepresentation if the way in which they portrayed that meanness wasstereotyped.It is more likely that a visual motif could be considered cliched if itwere a motif not derived from the text such as constant washing of thefloor, an illustrators' convention.A rank ordering of the motifs analyzed (table 1) reveals that themost integral visual motif in the illustrations of Aschenputtel is portrayalof the animal-helper birds, at 81%. The second most frequently occurringmotif, at 71%, is the specific scene of the birds assisting Aschenputtel toseparate the lentils from the ashes, the task that was set for her in order toattend the king's celebration. The motifs of the birds are inarguablyintegral to the tale, especially as they occupy the top two positions, and areappropriate motifs to be considered integral as they are derived from thetext and differentiate the Grimms' tale from Perrault's.119Table 1 - Rank Ordering of Motifs Analyzed from Aschenputtel TalesMotif^ Occurrence FrequencyBirds  47^81%Birds,^assisting^Aschenputtelwith her tasks 41 71%0 Hair (Aschenputtel) - blond ^ 3 7 64%0 Style - evocative of Fairyland ^ 3 7 64%0 Age - teen ^ 3 5 60%0 Hair (Aschenputtel) - straight ^ 3 5 60%0 Aschenputtel - shows no emotions 3 3 57%0 Hair (Aschenputtel) - disheveled ^ 3 0 52%Flight ^ 2 9 50%+ Appearance (Aschenputtel)neat and clean ^ 2 9 50%Mother's grave 2 8 48%+ Home - spotless 2 8 48%0 Aschenputtel - shows someemotions ^ 2 5 43%0 Stepsisters - show someemotions 2 5 43%Servitude 2 4 41%Dress scene ^ 2 4 41%Slipper test 23 40%0 Hair (Aschenputtel) - neat ^ 2 2 23%Servitude - tasks specified in text 21 36%0 Age - young ^ 2 0 34%0 Clothing^(Stepsisters)^-^differentfrom Aschenputtel's 2 0 34%Birds - dress scene 19 33%0 Physical appearance (Stepsisters)- different from Aschenputtel ^ 1 9 33% Birds - closing scene ^ 16 28%Closing - Riding off together ^ 1 6 28%0 Hair^(Stepsisters)^-^similar toAschenputtel's 1 6 28%Hair^(Stepsisters)^-^different^colourfrom Aschenputtel's 1 6 28%0 Style - realistic 1 6 28%Sleeping by the hearth ^ 15 26%Mutilation (stepsisters' heels) ^ 14 24%+ Sleeping - at odds with the text ^ 13 22%0 Age - mature ^ 1 3 22%Appearance (Aschenputtel) -somewhat soiled ^ 13 22%0 Servitude - tasks not specifiedin the text 1 2 21%Father (appears at all) ^ 12 21%0 Hair^(Stepsisters)^-^differentfrom Aschenputtel's 1 2 21%0 Hair^(Stepsisters)^-^similarcolour to Aschenputtel's ^ 1 2 21%120Table 1^(continued)Motif^ Occurrence Frequency0 Physical^appearance^(stepsisters)- similar to Aschenputtel ^ 1 2 21%Flight - hiding 1 0 17%0 Cat 9 16%Flight - tar on steps ^ 8 14%Mother - shown alive 7 12%0 Father - at slipper test 7 12%Punishment - stepsisters' eyes ^ 7 12%Birds - warning prince ^ 6 10%Father - twig ^ 6 10%0 Hair (Aschenputtel) - dark/black ^ 6 10%0 Style - abstract/ambiguous ^ 6 10%0 Stepsisters - show no emotions ^ 6 10%Father - conferring with prince ^ 5 9%0 Page ^ 3 5%0 Hair (Aschenputtel) - light brown 3 5%+ Clothing^(stepsisters)^-^similarto Aschenputtel's 3 5%Father - chopping Aschenputtel'shiding place ^ 0 0%0^=^Visual conventions, motifs not derived from the text.+^=^Motifs manifestly at odds with the text.Occurrence = The number of books, out of 58, which include the visualmotif.Frequency = The occurrence figure, expressed as a percentage of thesample.121The third most frequent motif is also the most highly ranked motifthat is not derived from the text and, therefore, the most cliched.Aschenputtel's blond hair, at 64%, is the highest of the six motifs in the topten that are concerned with her appearance.One of the four motifs explicitly at odds with the text made it intothe ten most frequently occurring motifs. At 50%, and tied for ninth spot,was the portrayal of Aschenputtel as neat and clean.SECTION 4 - CATSKIN / CAP 0' RUSHESCatskin and Cap o' Rushes, British tales in the Cinderella cycle, sharewith Aschenputtel a time of servitude, induced through no fault of theprotagonists' own, a series of dances, marriage to a wealthy young manand a return to their former stature. They differ from Aschenputtel inseveral respects including a general absence of magic; they are each, insome significant way, the agents of their own destiny. The two storiesbear some similarity to one another. Both girls conceal themselves out offear their aristocratic heritage may motivate villainy. They both takework as a cook's helper, dance at the young Lord's ball three times in theirown finery, and flee his advances three times.The Catskin and Cap o' Rushes stories differ from one another inimportant ways. Catskin flees home, asks to attend the ball, is beaten bythe cook, and defies her anyway. Cap o' Rushes is banished from home, isin no way abused, feigns disinterest in the ball for fear her heritage will befound out, but sneaks off anyway. Catskin is happy to marry the younglord but his parents will not allow it because of her stature as a scullery-122maid. Cap o' Rushes is not interested in the young lord but is eventuallywon over by the sincerity of his despair. Both tales are resolved, post-wedding, by a return of the father.Given the similarities and differences, and since the Catskin and Capo' Rushes tales were included for comparative purposes, their motifs willbe considered together where they are, in fact, similar, and will beconsidered independently where they differ. In the discussion of eachmotif, its case will be analyzed and then the results will be compared tothe results .of related motifs from the Aschenputtel analysis. The sampleconsisted of six Cap o' Rushes and four Catskin tales for a total sample often. Seven of the books contained only one illustration, the other threecontained no more than four. There were no single tale picture books foreither tale.Age and AppearanceThe seven depictions for which an age can be determined are allteens or young women. There are none of the young teen or preteenportrayals found in Aschenputtel, nor is the child-woman phenomenonfound in these tales. The protagonists' bodies are proportionate and theirfaces look like the sort of faces one would find on an older teen or youngadult. In one Catskin (Batten, 1898) she is not illustrated. One otherCatskin (Gill, 1968) and one Cap o' Rushes (Gill, 1968) are too indistinct tomake out their age.A combination of no disproportionate child-women, and no reallyyoung protagonists, leaves the overall impression that Catskin and Cap o'Rushes are typically shown as being taller than Aschenputtel.123The distribution of apparent height for Catskin / Cap o' Rushes is:Not shown or indistinct 2Average (5'4"^- 5'6") 3Average to tall 3Tall (5'10" or more) 2Garments Like Aschenputtel, Catskin and Cap o' Rushes' names are derivedfrom their conditions and are, as well, indicative of another literary motif,that of lost name. 'Catskin' and 'cap o' rushes' describe the garments theywear to conceal their fine clothes and, as with Aschenputtel's gray dress,they tend to be formless garments. There are no illustrations manifestly atodds with the text, no neat, pressed dresses with a token bouquet of grass,or fur trim.^The distribution of garment types is:Not shown or indistinct 3Formless,^sack-like 4Some^shape, dress-like 2Stylish 1The one stylish representation (Rackham, 1918) shows Catskinwearing a fur cap and the skins draped like a wrap.124Expressions The opportunity to illustrate emotional involvement is dependant onthe scenes illustrated. The scene of Cap o' Rushes leaving home after beingbanished is illustrated in five of the six books. She is shown as unhappy,resigned, or in isolation overwhelmed by reeds in the foreground in four ofthe six books. In only one (Batten, 1898) is her expression neutral.Bettina (1959) subsequently shows a happy Cap o' Rushes enjoyingpositive experiences: dancing, and a reunion with her father. Baynes(1960) illustrates Cap o' Rushes with an ever-present slight smile inindustrious service, fleeing the dance, and in reunion with her father. Bothillustrators have presented scenes which are opportunities for Cap o'Rushes. She is making the most of her manifest destiny, she does notappear to be lamenting lost (latent) expectations.The four Catskin books contain only five illustrations of Catskin. Herface is concealed in one (Gill, 1968) where the focus is on the malevolentcook. Two of Kiddell-Monroe's (1954) illustrations also do not show herface. The only two that do show her face both portray emotions.Rackham's (1918) Catskin has an air of determined resignation. Kiddell-Monroe's third illustration is outstanding. It shows a confrontation withthe cook and illustrates the lively independence and spirit of a young girlwith a mind of her own.The distribution of perceived expressions amongst Catskin and Cap o'Rushes, out of all the illustrations in which one or the other appeared, is:Indeterminate^5Resigned 4Happy^ 6125In contrast to the portrayals of Aschenputtel, who shows emotion inonly 47% of the books, Catskin and Cap o' Rushes exhibit some expressionin 67% of the illustrations in which they appear (10/15). Furthermore, theexpressions exhibited are happy ones more often than not.Style For assessments of artistic style there are taken to be twelve cases.Kiddell-Monroe's (1954) Catskin features three illustrations, each leaving adifferent impression. The headpiece is fantasy, and the tailpiece isfairytale. The most outstanding illustration is of a realistic Catskin defyinga larger fairytale-like cook. The distribution of styles throughout thecombined sample of tales is:Indistinct (pen^and^ink) 1Realistic 2Realistic-common 4Fairytale 4Fantasy 1The Catskin illustrations are realistic or realistic-common four casesout of six. The Cap o' Rushes illustrations are fairytale three cases out ofsix. Overall, half of the representations are realistic or realistic-common.The predominant style in the Aschenputtel samples is evocative offairyland 63% of the time, with realistic portrayals only 27% of the time.The greater likelihood of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes being illustratedin a realistic style, combined with the absences of the child-woman motif,126and being shown as older and taller contribute to the overall perception ofthe British protagonists being less doll-like and more realistic thanAschenputtel.Role of the FatherThe presence of the father is as underdeveloped in theseillustrations, 20%, as in those from the Aschenputtel sample, 21%. Thefather is shown in only two of the Cap o' Rushes tales, both times duringthe final supper when he realizes that he misunderstood his daughter'sexpression of love, and his folly in banishing her, so long ago. The father isnot illustrated in any of the four Catskin books.Predominant MotifCatskin and Cap o' Rushes are shown leaving home, dressed in theirnamesake garments, in 70% of the books (7/10). Catskin has chosen toleave home dressed in the catskins she obtained by deception. Cap o'Rushes was banished from home and stops to weave her own garment toconceal her fine clothes. In both cases, the predominant motif is indicativeof the girl's name and, to some extent, their self-determination. They haveeach already taken a step towards changing their lot in life. This contrastswith the predominant motif in Aschenputtel, her animal helpers, the birds,at 81%. The birds are a more supernatural force for change, associatedwith the spirit of Aschenputtel's late mother.127Borrowed / Vestigial MotifsThe determination of a motif as borrowed, or vestigial has beenshown to be partly a matter of intent - was an analogy intended? - andpartly a matter of interpretation - was it included to any apparentpurpose? There are three visual motifs in the Catskin / Cap o' Rushestales, two of which are not derived from the text, recognizably a part ofother tales in the Cinderella cycle. It is likely that they are eitherdeliberately. borrowed motifs, or coincidentally vestigial motifs.The first is the three disgruntled observers of Cap o' Rushes dancingin Bettina (1959), a previously discussed allusion to the stepmother andstepsisters from both Perrault's and the Grimms' tales.The second is the presence of the birds around Howard's (1966) Capo' Rushes in her garment, a scene very evocative of the birds presentingAschenputtel with her gown for the celebration.The third is Kiddell-Monroe's final, fairytale style, illustration ofCatskin and her lord riding off in an elaborate carriage. The scene isprescribed in this particular version of the text and occurs post-wedding asthey set out to find Catskin's father and establish that she has thearistocratic roots so important to her in-laws. The illustration, however, isvery evocative of the carriage and wedding scenes usually associated withPerrault's tale.128SECTION 5 - COMPOSITION AS VISUAL MOTIFIt has been shown that both the content and the style of illustrationscan constitute visual motifs. The example just cited, from Kiddell-Monroe(1954), suggests that the layout and composition of a scene can also be amotif, a recognizable convention. This is clearly demonstrated in thefollowing three examples. Figure 12 is three scenes of Aschenputtelholding a bowl that needs to have the lentils separated from the seeds. Ineach case she is seated on a bench, near a hearth or a stove, while birdsand sunlight pour in through an open window. Each girl has blond, plaitedhair. While the kitchens and relative ages of the girls are different in allthree pictures, the composition is so similar as to constitute a stereotypedportrayal, a motif.Figurel3 shows a scene from two earlier books. Both Munzer (1904)and the unknown illustrator (c.1860) show Aschenputtel cowering by ahearth, being berated by her stepmother. The relative position ofAschenputtel, lower left, and her stepmother, upper right, are the sameand denote Aschenputtel's lower position in the household. Aschenputtelis surrounded by firewood, in Munzer's illustration because the stepmotheris throwing it at her. The unknown illustrator's stepmother is not hurlingwood, but is pointing down at Aschenputtel, a physical manifestation of'hurling' abuse. Specific differences of content, that one picture includesthe stepsisters and one does not, that one includes a staircase and theother does not, are almost irrelevant. The similar composition of bothillustrations is of Aschenputtel being hounded into her place.129Figure 12Composition Motif - 'Birds and Sunlight'Hans and Maria Mannhart, 1958Willy Knabe, 1949 Valerian Gillar, 1949130Ir.7-4bad 9/Zan-licitbieEdnifjet hereticfmutter,tutb gtaubte, 0 biirfte mot mit  - au bie..C.)udneit adieu. 9(hcr biejejprad): „Nein, 2thI)dtputter, ha Tylft eine Stfeiber, nub tam* unfit talleit;bit wirft aur att.e4cfacbt." e.?, mat weinte, fpracp lie: „caleititmit wci 3thiilidu Doff 2.infen itt einer E-tintbe uu her c.21fdie rein feleittrutuft, jo faith bit mitgeljeit," nab badjte, „be, taut e ja itimittermettr."23 r IL Der Uri clii , :iiober:Miuten.^ 3Figure 13Composition Motif: 'Hounded to the Hearth'Unknown (c.1860).Adolf Munzer (1904).131Figure 14Composition Motif - 'Industrious Service'Svend Otto S, 1978.^Aschenputtel scrubbing her stepsisters' shoes.Pauline Diana Baynes, 1960. Cap o' Rushes remaining behind to wash pots and pans.132The third example, figure 14, is a composition motif that crossestales. One illustration (Svend Otto S, 1978) is of Aschenputtel scrubbingshoes, the other (Baynes, 1960) is of Cap o' Rushes scraping a bowl. Inboth cases the horizontal compositions show the protagonist seated at awooden bench, hunched over her work, with raised elbows, andsurrounded by the evidence of her toil. Aschenputtel is surrounded byshoes, a bucket, and brushes, Cap o' Rushes by hot water, cutlery, anddishes. In spite of the difference in specific content, the layout of eachpicture, the physical posture of the girl at work, and the evidence of thescope of the task are consistent with the similar intent of each illustration,to show the protagonist hard at work in the service of others.SUMMARY - VISUAL MOTIFS IN ASCHENPUTTELAnalysis of the visual motifs in Aschenputtel reveals that theydemonstrate both the recognizable similarities and diversity ofinterpretations characteristic of textual motifs. Analysis also revealschronological trends in the depiction of those motifs and that some motifsoccur so consistently that they might well be considered cliched, orintegral, to the story. In determining the motifs in Aschenputtel, specificconclusions were reached with respect to various ones. Major findings intwenty-one areas are as follows.1)^The motif most frequently associated with the tale is the birds,appearing in 81% of the books. This is an appropriate motif to beconsidered integral as it is derived from the text and differentiates the133Grimms' tale from Perrault's.2) The most clich6d motif, that is one not derived from the text, isAschenputtel's blond hair, shown in 64% of the books. It is the third mostfrequently occurring motif.3) Of the four motifs explicitly at odds with the text, the portrayal ofAschenputtel as neat and clean occurred most frequently in 50% of thebooks.4)^There are four chronological patterns of portrayal: motifs where thenorms are shifting and evolving, cyclic motifs, dormant motifs, and newermotifs.A)^Shifting norms:i) Aschenputtel's age is an adult in all the nineteenth centurybooks, but by 1946 there is a full range of ages depicted frompreteen to adult. The furthest swing is during the 1960's and1970's when the preteen representation of Aschenputtelreached its greatest proportion at one third of the cases. The1980's and 1990's have fewer preteens, with the normsolidifying around the portrayal of Aschenputtel as a teen,there being no representations of her as an adult during thistime.ii) Aschenputtel performing chores appear in between 25% and38% of the books in all periods except the 1970's when thefrequency is 73%.134iii) The relative portrayal of the mother, or her grave, isrepresented at rates of around 42% up to the 1960's. In the1970's the representation increases to 64% and remains over50% to date.iv) Aschenputtel's flight from the celebration is steadily portrayedin all periods from 1825 to date, but the depiction of the tarand, by extension, the prince's complicity in setting up theslipper test, appear only between 1904 and 1976. Depictionsof Aschenputtel hiding first appear in 1965 and then regularlythereafter. This may represent a shift from portraying anevent over which Aschenputtel has no control, to one overwhich she does have control.B)^Five cyclic motifs each disappear for a period of twenty years, fourof them during the 1950's and 1960's.i) Presence of the father which reoccurs during the 1970's,disappears again during the 1980's, and reappears in the1990's.ii) The stepsisters mutilating their feet.iii) The stepsisters' punishment which disappears for twenty-fiveyears, essentially during the 1950's, 1960's and 1970's, thenreappears between 1978 and 1985.iv) Portraying the stepsisters as looking different thanAschenputtel. For the twenty-five year period 1953 to 1978,the probability was of their being illustrated as similar inappearance.v)^One of the styles of illustration, realistic, occurred throughout135the sample with a nineteen year hiatus during the 1960's and1970's.C)^There are at least two dormant motifs, those which are not presentduring the most recent twenty years.i) Aschenputtel is not portrayed as an adult in any books after1973, although in one book (Bernadette, 1977) she ages from apreteen to a young adult.ii) Aschenputtel is not portrayed in clothing similar to that wornby her stepsisters in any books after 1953.D)^Newer motifs:i) Cartoon style first appears in 1937 and then at least once eachdecade thereafter.ii) Caricature portrayal of the stepsisters first appears in 1942,then seven times between 1970 and 1984.iii) Pre-teen portrayal of Aschenputtel first occurs in 1946.iv) Abstract style, which may have become a dormant motif, firstappears in 1962 then three more times until 1970.v) Fantasy style first appears in 1965.vi) Aschenputtel hiding after her flight from the king's celebrationis first shown in 1965.5)^Mutilation is illustrated in 24% of the books. In exactly half of thosecases it is illustrated in conjunction with the slipper test, in the other halfit is illustrated in lieu of the slipper test.Punishment, which refers to the birds pecking out the stepsisters'eyes at Aschenputtel's wedding, is illustrated in 12% of the books.136The motifs of mutilation and punishment not only differentiate thetale from the Perrault version but they do so in a particular way, byintroducing an element of physical violence completely at odds with thePerrault tale. One or the other of these explicitly violent motifs isillustrated in 33% of the books.6) Aschenputtel sleeping by the hearth is portrayed, in the majority ofcases, as a clean girl in a spotless kitchen, a condition manifestly at oddswith the text.7) Aschenputtel's appearance tends to be neat and clean, a condition atodds with her tasks, both as specified in the text and as illustrated. She isnot shown as a girl 'tired out with work.'8) The rooms in which Aschenputtel is working at her chores areinevitably illustrated as spotless and clean in twenty-eight of the twenty-nine books in which the scenes are illustrated.9) Aschenputtel's hair is illustrated as straight, 95% of the time, andblond, 80% of the time. There is also a tendency to illustrate her hair asloose, uncombed, or becoming disheveled from her chores, 58% of thetime.10) The case of the stepsisters' hair is less pronounced but the tendencyis towards portraying their hair as similar to Aschenputtel's 57% of thetime, and to portraying at least one of the stepsisters as blond 42% of thetime, or red-haired, 38% of the time.1371 1 ) Aschenputtel's mother, or her grave, are present in 50% of the books.Since the portrayal of the mother shows her on her deathbed in five of theseven books where she is shown alive, the norm is clearly to portray therole of the mother as being deceased.1 2 ) The dress scene includes birds or the tree in 80% to 90% of theillustrations while the grave is shown less frequently, 54% of the time.1 3 ) While the mother's presence is strongly alluded to in the crucialdress scene by the portrayal of her grave 54% of the time, it is significantlyless so in the closing scene, only 19% of the time.The change in the relative portrayal of the presence ofAschenputtel's mother's spirit may have implications for the concept ofgrowth and new beginnings.1 4 ) Aschenputtel's father appears in 21% of the books and is equallylikely to be illustrated in any of three scenes: the twig motif, conferringwith the prince, or at the slipper test. There are no illustrations of thefather chopping down Aschenputtel's hiding places, the door to thedovecote or the pear tree.1 5 ) Borrowed or vestigial motifs noted are the prince's page, a fairy, aglass slipper and a pumpkin, all derived from Perrault.1 6 ) The most common style of illustration is to portray Aschenputtel, afolktale, as a fairytale more than half, 63%, of the time.The range of styles, however, is encouragingly diverse and includes138fairytale, fairylike, realistic, abstract, and fantasy.1 7 ) Aschenputtel's age is normally represented as teenage with a greaterprobability of being younger than older.Where Aschenputtel was represented both at home and at the king'scelebration she was represented, in virtually every case, as older at thecelebration.1 8 ) Clothing is the most marked indication of similarity or difference inthe appearance of Aschenputtel and her stepsisters. It is shown to besignificantly different 87% of the time. The stepsisters' physicalappearance is illustrated as different from Aschenputtel's 61% of the time.Their hair is illustrated as similar to Aschenputtel's 57% of the time.1 9 ) Aschenputtel's emotional involvement is normally expressionless.Even amongst the books that do depict expressions the case ispredominantly minimal indication. Only 17% of the books are clearlyevocative of emotional involvement.The stepsisters are normally shown as emotionally involved 81% ofthe time when they do appear (25/31), and as openly mean-spiritedtwenty of those twenty-five times.2 0 ) Two editions (Weber, 1942. Hogrogian, 1981) showing only a tree inthe dress scene may support an infrequent hypothesis by students, thatthe source of the magic is neither the mother's spirit (grave) nor theanimal-helpers (birds) but the gift from the father (tree). The second mostcommon version of the scene, just birds and the tree without the grave139could support the same interpretation.21) Aschenputtel's chores were illustrated motifs from the text twothirds of the time, and one third of the time were a visual motif that isclearly an illustrators' convention - sweeping, washing or cleaning floors,windows or walls.In only one case (Bernadette, 1977) was there a unique portrayal ofa chore, feeding fowl.Two specified chores were not illustrated, cooking or lighting fires,although the latter was alluded to in the illustrations of her chopping orcarrying firewood or carrying coal.SUMMARY - VISUAL MOTIFS IN CATSKIN AND CAP 0' RUSHESAnalysis of the visual motifs in Catskin and Cap o' Rushes wasundertaken as a basis for comparison with the results of the motif analysisof Aschenputtel, partly to establish the actual case of the motifs in thosetales, and partly to demonstrate that visual motifs provide a viable basisfor comparison of illustrated folktales. The results, and the comparativeresults, of those analyses are in nine areas as follows.1)^The age of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes is always teen or young adult inthe seven depictions for which an age can be determined. There are noneof the young teen or preteen portrayals found in Aschenputtel, nor is thechild-woman phenomenon found in these tales.1402)^Catskin and Cap o' Rushes are typically shown as being taller thanA sChenputtel.3 )^The style of illustration is realistic or realistic-common in half of theCatskin and Cap o' Rushes tales. The predominant style in theAschenputtel samples is evocative of fairyland 63% of the time, withrealistic portrayals only 27% of the time.4)^The greater likelihood of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes being illustratedin a realistic style, combined with the absence of the child-woman motif,and being shown as older and taller contribute to the overall perception ofthe British protagonists being less doll-like and more realistic thanAschenputtel.5 )^There are no illustrations of clothing manifestly at odds with the text,no neat, pressed dresses with a token bouquet of grass, or fur trim. Thedistribution of garment types is: Indistinct, formless or sack-like, 70%,some shape or style, 30%. Aschenputtel's clothing is shown as neat, clean,and pressed 55% of the time.6) Some expression is shown by Catskin and Cap o' Rushes in 67% of theillustrations in which they appear, in contrast to the portrayals ofAschenputtel, who shows emotion in only 47% of the books. Furthermore,the expressions exhibited are happy ones more often than not.7) The presence of the father is as underdeveloped in theseillustrations, 20%, as in those from the Aschenputtel sample, 21%. The141father is shown in only two of the Cap o' Rushes tales and is not illustratedin any of the four Catskin books.8) The predominant motif is of Catskin and Cap o' Rushes leaving home,dressed in their namesake garments, in 70% of the books (7/10). In bothcases, the predominant motif is indicative of the girl's name and, to someextent, their self-determination. They each have already taken a steptowards changing their lot in life. This contrasts with the predominantmotif in Aschenputtel which is her animal helpers, the birds, at 81%. Thebirds are a more supernatural agent of change, likely associated with thespirit of Aschenputtel's late mother.9) The borrowed or vestigial motifs noted were the three disgruntledobservers of Cap o Rushes at the dance, derived from Grimm and Perrault,the birds around Cap o' Rushes garment, derived from Grimm, and thestagecoach ride in Catskin derived from Perrault.Demonstrating that the concept of visual motifs is a viable basis forthe analysis of illustrated folktales was taken to mean that it is possible,practical, and useful. The findings and discussion in this chapterdemonstrate that the concept is possible, useful and, at least forresearchers, practical. That the concept, instrument, and proceduresdeveloped in this thesis have practical application for use with students isthe specific focus of chapter five which, together with this chapter,constitute the findings and discussion component of this thesis.142CHAPTER FIVE - KEY BOOKS AND NOTABLE ILLUSTRATIONSINTRODUCTIONPractical classroom experience has demonstrated that childrenperceive the tale Cinderella to be the hybrid Disney/Perrault creation.Units developed around different tales in the Cinderella cycle havesuccessfully developed an understanding of literary motifs, of similaritiesand differences which has been demonstrated in the students' ability torecognize motifs and their skill at incorporating them into their ownwritten work.One purpose of this study was to develop the basis for a similar,practical, study of visual motifs for use with students. Key Books havebeen identified that demonstrate a range of interpretations of visualmotifs. The criteria for their selection is that they demonstrate the fullrange of the motifs identified in this study; the norms for all the motifsanalyzed; and the notable exceptions to the norms. The books selectedexhibit quality illustrations exemplifying the strongest aspects of thefeatured motifs. The intention is that, by example, the selected bookswould open the students' eyes to the myriad of possibilities and, notcoincidentally, begin to develop an understanding, an appreciation, anawareness, and a valuing of the illustrators' contributions to the illustratedfolktale. The chosen books go beyond stereotypes and caricatures to showthat familiar scenes 'can be represented ever again in new ways, inpictures that generate human interest and call for the viewer'scompassion' (Schwarcz, 1982, p.110).143Each book is presented with representative illustrations thatdemonstrate outstanding, original, or non-traditional interpretations offamiliar motifs together with a short summary of the most strikingfeatures of the book. The identified qualities have been explained in detailin the discussions in chapter four.Eleven books are identified as Key Books. Four additionalillustrations are identified as Notable Illustrations, and three versions ofother folktales are included for comparison. The four Notable Illustrationsare not more notable than those in the Key Books, rather they aredifferentiated by being from anthologies which include only one or twoillustrations for Aschenputtel. The Key Books and Notable Illustrations,identified by illustrator, are indicated on the reference lists and here, inchronological^order.Key Books: Notable^Illustrations:Munzer 1904 Tenggren 1923Klemke 1965 Kaila 1980Klein 1967 Thalman 1983Rusjan 1967 Postma 1987Gongalov 1967Rusz 1976Bernadette 1977Svend Otto S^1978El sasser 1978Chretien 1985Archipowa 1990144KEY BOOKSMunzer, 1904Munzer's turn of the century work includes cyclic motifs such asmutilation, and Aschenputtel's father, not present in books from the 1950'sand 1960's. Her father is shown as a minor figure in the background whileAschenputtel pleads with her stepfamily which is typical of the minimalpresence of the father inthe tales generally. Hedoes, however, show someemotional involvement,appearing incredulous atthe slipper test.The book is alsonotable for the range ofAschenputtel's ownemotional involvement.She appears cowed inthe cellar, pleadingwith her stepsisters,pleased with theprince, andunbelieving at herown wedding.Additionalillustration onpages 131.1 4 5Klemke, 1965Klemke's work features the rare portrayal of an effusively cheerfulAschenputtel. She is illustrated as a childlike protagonist, especially herface and gestures, although her nipped-in waist, and hips, are mildlyindicative of the tendency towards portraying Aschenputtel as a child-woman. There is a generally childlike quality to all of the illustrations.The stepsisters engage in childish sticking out of tongues, and the prince isalso portrayed as a child.The tar on the steps scene is typical of the tendency to portrayAschenputtel as older at the celebration than during the rest of the tale.146There is a somewhat uniqueportrayal of Aschenputtel sleepingin dusty and dirty conditions byshowing her on straw rather thanby a hearth. Klemke's workcombines two styles of illustration,the black and white work issuggestive of scratchboard.147Klein, 1967in die Schnsscin. Und the tint batheStunde beruin war. waren sic urban,lertig und Ihua.en :die wieder binails.rug das Maidchen die Schitsscin,•,. der Stiefintitter. reutc rich und.11:111e. :run diir(te cc mit au( dieiudtzen iachen. Aber sic itprathi _Faft Mr :lilts• .ht^dens du hart keine I:kith,taIlletl: wit 111116(r/1ii1111 411126. -km au und elite 'T i nt/, &MCI' Ad1.1111CH." DArallf rehireKlein's Aschenputtel isshown as a child-woman, achildish face on a more maturebody. Once again they areportrayed as childlike, especiallytheir faces and hair. Klein'swork makes distinctive use ofgold colouring to connectAschenputtel and the prince..1,1  ewe , StOltet1 I i•chtern it'll148Klein's work also includes Hallowe'en imagery - bats, cat, rats andspider - to denote dirty sleeping conditions. His Aschenputtel doesn't fleefrom the celebration, she appears to take a leisurely exit and hisstepsisters are not abusive of Aschenputtel. They are portrayed asattractively as she is. Klein's illustrations also include an interestingopening scene with a well dressed, unhappy, Aschenputtel outside inWinter.Additional illustration on page 82.Rusjan, 1967Rusjan's style is slightly fantastic as with the castle spires and thestepsisters' distinctive cats' eyes. Her Aschenputtel has black hair incontrast to the norm. She is also shown with a dirty face and hands, againin contrast to the norm. Washing windows is a fairly original chorederived from neither the text nor illustrators' conventions. The flight fromthe celebration is original in that it is the only one in the sample that doesnot show Aschenputtel, or the prince, actually on the steps.1491 5 0Gongalov, 1967Gongalov's is one ofthe older protagonists,Aschenputtel is portrayed as an adult.His work features effective, credible,postures and expressions.Aschenputtel's emotional involvementranges from incredulity at herstepsisters' verbal abuse, through joy onreceipt of the dress, to credibleexhaustion.^The stepsisters arephysically similar to Aschenputtelwhich is in contrast to the overall norm,but is the tendency during the 1950's,1960's and 1970's, an example of acyclic motif.Sten padre. pnewnte• ell bathesh•d.. foe,t• Cenvn.nioleee either,volteva.ilin, ally pirtionaiel e• dentnon vi A ft.• netwogele go:unrollsum. Tornit a rase mu la oneglietN Additional illustration on page 109.151Rusz, 1976Rusz's work has aconspiratorial flavour:Aschenputtel smugly concealingher secret; her father appears tobe knowingly condemning her toa role of servitude; and theprince is shown plotting with hispage. This book also features thestrongest role for the prince inany of the books.152Rusz's is a fantasy styleand she makes effective use ofexpressive faces, restlesshands, and genuine, credible,postures.^Aschenputtelexhibits a range of emotionsincluding anger anddisappointment with her tasks,and the more unusual contemptfor her stepsisters.Additional illustrationson pages 82, 107, 222 and 224.153Bernadette,^1977Bernadette's work breaks with more conventions than any othersinge text: Aschenputtel has dark hair; her mother is not shown on herdeathbed, rather they are together in a meadow; feeding fowl is a uniquechore; there is a mix of styles - realistic characters in a fantasy setting withcartoon animal helpers; the stepsisters are physically similar toAschenputtel and, while occasionally indifferent, are never abusive.This book features all four seasons. Bernadette's scale tends tofeature diminutive characters set in a much larger, foreboding,background, more so in other illustrations than those included here.Additional illustrations on pages 80 and 223.154Svend Otto S, 1978Svend Otto S,together with Fiizesi(1991), feature themost comprehensivecollection of motifs inany one book includingshowing the father inall three potentialscenes: twig motif,conferring with theprince, and at the slipper test. Svend Otto S's stepsisters are physicallysimilar to Aschenputtel.There is a wide range of chores and situations illustrated withcredible emotional reactions to them.155Svend Otto S's Aschenputtel is the most widely co-published, orreprinted, version in the collection. The IJB has editions from eightcountries: Finland, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden,Switzerland, and the United States. His work features the reappearance ofthe cyclic motifs of mutilation and punishment.Additional illustrations on pages 77 and 225.Elsdsser, - 1978Elsasser's work is an ethereal, mystic study in colour, shading, toneand suggestion with no sharp lines.pg.1 Sad, grey tones. Aschenputtel has darker hair.pg.2 Tree on her mother's grave illuminates the scene with a golden glow.pg.3 The colours of the stepsisters mix into an embryonic shell aroundAschenputtel. She is a little spark.(pg.4 & 5 overleaf)pg.6 Aschenputtel and the prince share a golden touch in the sea ofsurrounding mauve, which in turn is similar to the darknesspreviously surrounding the stepsisters.pg.7 Hidden in the pear tree, Aschenputtel is an indistinct golden glow,the same as the fruit and the sun/moon.pg.8 Golden radiance of Aschenputtel's shoe.pg.9 The golden girl, golden crown, and golden slipper, are a golden aurain a forest of mauve that is breaking down into individual rainbowtones. A white horse matches the white dove.156pg.4 Birds have a natural,soft, blue and whiteradiance - blue fromthe sky and whitefrom the doves.pg.5 Golden illuminationfrom the tree on hermother's grave is thesame glow thatilluminatesAschenputtel and herdress.157II ne !allot citfune secondepour title Ic pied de Cendrillonte ch., dans le pent souk,.aussnin queue [cmeiie eourut au noisetterion.il devint rasonnantei ii transtorma Cendrillon''nine les trois lots,ceedentesun des midair s•cti alla iteanniMCCI Ia nouvelle ic Prince.I..., des gut celui.ci 1%ippra.tint au-devant de 'a hellequi. elle aussi. allatt sums luide cauche ereva Vizil drugde Ii cadent:Nt; poutant plus vonI^I entirillon les liClIN sieurschancerent tic eineI., 1111.1111:(1.7111., en protnerentpour 'cur creter l'autre int'AII.1 elle. des inrent ateuglescomnie retail diCia cur ctrur.^; Nlint. Cendrillon. vi; arriterIc prince qui t enalt vers clicet Ic Prince all, l'ilNrCUISur scs epaules sIetalent po,,:,,les deus punier tourterellestit les dens sours de Cendrillon^0110.....elle. :lutist tenasent :lice elle.Ce net:;!; pas par affectionqu . utter , r.laiellt,...Faccornpagner.ap,'c'etati de devil ct de rage.-' -.47.^c.o., pour pouvoir la tuer.", Laincereal t nit, a sa drone. la cadent: sur ■:1 gauche.^I I La tourierelle gum Cunt n drone I^A.„;de Cendrillon cies:. Vied gauche;t •I'"Ir^I du rainee et la tourterelle^;Chretien, 1985Chretien's work typifies theborrowed motifs inherent tofolklore. De La Salle's introductionclearly states his intention to callon different variations in compilinghis tale. Motifs noted from diversesources include: twig, dress fromthe tree, and mutilation (Grimm);glass slipper and pumpkin(Perrault); Prince ill, therefore theslipper test (Cap o' Rushes); ants asanimal helpers (?); and sewingfeathers onto the dress (Catskin).Chretien's style includes attributes more commonly associated withgraphic design than, at present, with book illustration such as his layout,artwork extending beyond the panels, skewed panels, and tonal shading.158Archipowa, 1990Archipowa's portrayal ofcommon realism in a plausiblymedieval setting contrasts with thecartoon cleanliness of common homesgenerally and of other books from the1990's particularly.^Aschenputtel isshown to be authentically grimy.Archipowa's is the second most widelyco-published, or reprinted, versionwith editions from five countries inthe collection of the IJB: Austria, Brazil,Germany, Norway, and Spain.Together with Rusz, Svend Otto S,and Chretien, she features thereappearance of a cyclic motif, a rolefor the father.159NOTABLE ILLUSTRATIONSTenggren, 1923A genuinely exhaustedAschenputtel with the mostauthentic body language in thecollection: slouched, splayed legs,head resting on hand, fingerslimply curled, bedraggled hairand ill-fitting, rumpled clothing.Kaila, 1980The Southern European,Mediterranean, fantasy, settingis unique in the collection.160Thalman, 1983A very life-like, veryyoung, very understated,Aschenputtel provokes genuinecompassion for her plight.Postma, 1987A credible portrayal of aweand disbelief, evocative of a girlopening a gift she did notexpect, the full implications ofwhich have not yet registered.There are allusions andsubtlety in the posture andexpression, as well as in thecolouring and the content.Postma is one of the fewillustrators who has shown nobirds in any of her illustrations.161Chou Ic; PciT:tultillumnert 'onRoberto InnocentiMickklhauveCOMPARATIVE TEXTSThe Key Books and Notable Illustrations have been selected todemonstrate something of the norms, but mostly to demonstrate the rangeof possibilities. A comprehensive study of comparative folklore shouldconsider not only what is, but also what might be. Three illustratedversions of other folktales demonstrate other possibilities.Roberto Innocenti's (1983) Cinderella sets Perrault's tale in 1920'sEurope. Cinderella cleans modern tiles and plumbing, her stepsisters areflappers, the prince is in military uniform, and the 'fairy' godmother livesdown the block. Cinderella and her relative station in life have beenupdated.162Anthony Browne's (1981)Hansel and Gretel is also set in thetwentieth century, although hehas not just updated the setting,he has also drawn an explicitlydark analogy. His vision of thetale is clearly one of child abuseand abandonment. The teller ofthe tale (the illustrator) hasinterpreted the tale for a latetwentieth century audience.■Donald Carrick's (1987)Moss Gown is Cap o' Rushes seton an American plantation.But for the addition of twoextraneous motifs - the mossgown is the gift of a swampwitch and its transformation toa beautiful gown is timelimited - it would be the onlypicture book version of Cap o'Rushes. The spirit of the storyis true, this is not a young girlwho aspires to the YoungMaster, she is moved by163compassion, 'It broke her heart to see how sad and discouraged helooked.' The setting is, again, an example of the illustrator interpreting histale for a new audience. The borrowed motifs, as with so many of thetales but especially Chretien's (1985) Cendrillon, are examples of the livingliterature of folktales.Contemporary settings and metaphorical allusions take advantage ofthe shared cultural experience of folklore to produce layers of meaning.They breathe new life, and new meaning, into both the old - the familiarfolktale which may have been dismissed as superficial - and the new - thenew settings that may, after all, be not so new at all. It may be the role ofthe illustrator, as with Alexander Pope's poet (1711), to add renewedclarity, insight, relevance, and life to literature, to 'what oft was thought,but ne'er so well expressed.'CONCLUSIONIn the multitudinous details of the motif analyses there is cause foroptimism. Motifs change: the role of the father; the portrayal of themother, mutilation and punishment; and Aschenputtel's physical similarityto or difference from her stepsisters. Regardless of the norms,Aschenputtel's character is not consistently restricted to standard postures,she is not universally blond, nor does she inevitably inhabit a fairytaleworld of the fantastic.On the other hand, there are conventions that have become almostinviolate. While a fairytale fantasy, or as realistic as the tale will allow,Aschenputtel is consistently set in a historic period vaguely medieval to164the nineteenth century. Where is the much more contemporary setting ofInnocenti's Cinderella? Where is the dark vision of Anthony Browne'sHansel and Gretel - children incarcerated in an abusive relationship?Where is the non-European setting of Carrick's Moss Gown?The point of view of this thesis is that educators ought not to wallowin what has not been, but rather to celebrate the diversity that does exist.By emphasizing what is possible we can enrich the understanding ofAschenputtel, we can return it to Dr. Scherfs realm of the 'open character' -loosely defined but familiar enough so that children can read into her whatthey will. They can make meaning of the tale without wallowing in thequagmire of stock responses. We can resist convention and encourageindividual interpretation. There is, in this collection of key books andnotable illustrations, much to encourage the validity of diverseinterpretations. There is, in the examples of the comparative texts,assurance that the possibilities have not been exhausted.165CHAPTER SIX - CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSINTRODUCTIONThe evidence of this study led to conclusions in four major areas:1) Established the viability of the concept of visual motifs.2) Established an analysis of visual motifs found in Aschenputtel,Catskin and Cap o' Rushes that form a basis for comparisonwith subsequent visual motif analysis of folktales.3) Identified key books and notable illustrations to form a basisfor a study of visual motifs.4) Mitigated the concerns expressed by Schwarcz.CONCLUSIONSViability of the Concept of Visual MotifsThis study was undertaken to establish if the concept of visual motifswould provide a viable basis for the comparison of illustrated folktales.Viable denotes three conditions: that the concept is legitimate, that it isvaluable, and that it is both possible and practical.The legitimacy was hypothesized by developing the concept asanalogous to textual motifs. It was further hypothesized that one of thetwo sources of visual motifs would be the visual interpretation of textualmotifs. The legitimacy of the concept was validated, throughout this study,166by conducting all analyses in terms of visual motifs, thereby calling on thelanguage, and the cognitive relationships, associated with textual motifs.The value of the concept was hypothesized by postulating that astudy of the range of visual interpretations possible within a single talecould overcome a viewer/reader's tendency to see the tale in stereotypicalterms. The value of the concept, with respect to textual motifs, was takenas a given in light of the researcher's six years of personal experience withsuch studies in public school classrooms, university children's literaturecourses, and professional workshops. The value of the concept, withrespect to visual motifs, was validated by the development of a core set ofkey books and notable illustrations which demonstrate the attributes ofvisual motifs.That the concept was possible, and practical, was hypothesized byselecting three related, but significantly different, tales so that an analysisof their visual motifs might reveal the areas in common between the tales,and highlight the differences between them. That the concept waspractical was demonstrated by undertaking a visual motif analysis, andcomparison, of the three tales Aschenputtel, Catskin and Cap o' Rushes.That the concept was shown to be possible and practical demonstrates theeffectiveness of the instrument and procedures developed in this thesis forthe analysis of folktale illustrations.167Demonstrated Characteristics of Visual MotifsAnalysis of the content of illustrations of a given folktale,Aschenputtel, supports the validity of the concept of visual motifs. Theterm 'visual motif has been shown to legitimately apply to five distinctconditions:1) Scenes chosen to be illustrated.eg. Separating the lentils from the ashes, the flight fromthe celebration, the slipper test.2) Specific content of illustrations.eg. The birds, trees, or mother's grave. Shown with herstepsisters, or solitary.3) Portrayal of specific elements in the illustrations.eg. Hair colour. Aschenputtel and her stepsisters shownas similar in appearance or not.4) Composition of illustrations.eg. Stock postures, sitting on a bench separating lentilsfrom the ashes with light and birds flooding in.Style of illustrations.eg. Realistic, fairytale, cartoon, abstract, fantasy.Visual motifs have been shown to have at least three different sources justas textual motifs also have varied sources, older versions of the tale, localor national variations and allusions, and chronological adjustments.168Sources of the visual motifs have been shown to be derived from:1) The specific text of the tale.eg. Aschenputtel's wooden shoes, her chores, andsleeping by the hearth.2) Illustrators' conventions, one sort of motif not derived from thetext.eg. Blond protagonists, washing floors, token patch.3^Borrowed or vestigial motifs, allusions to other tales, andtherefore another sort of motif not derived from the text.eg. The presence of a pumpkin, or a page, in the Grimms'tale.Motifs are recognizable in both their congruence with expectationsand their divergence from them. This is as true for visual motifs as fortextual motifs, although visual motifs may conform to, or deviate from,expectations associated with either the text of tales or with the illustrationof tales. The portrayal of motifs can be described in terms of norms,prevailing standard conventions, and range, the full scope of thedemonstrated possibilities regardless of the frequency of their occurrence.169Visual Motifs in AschenputtelAnalysis of the visual motifs in Aschenputtel led to measurablefindings in twenty-one areas, thereby establishing a basis of comparisonwith the results of Schwarcz's study (1982) and with subsequent studies ofillustrated folktales that may utilize the instrument and proceduresdeveloped in this thesis. The analysis of the visual motifs revealed thatthe most frequently occurring motifs, the portrayal of the birds generallyand the birds helping with the tasks specifically, clearly differentiate thetale from Perrault's. The explicitly violent motifs of mutilation andpunishment which also differentiate the tale from Perrault's are present in33% of the versions. The norm is for illustrators to portray motifs thatdifferentiate the Grimms' tale from Perrault's, an important considerationin selecting tales to help students recognize the validity of differentversions of familiar folktales.Four chronological patterns of portrayal were identified: motifswhere the norms are shifting, cyclic motifs, dormant motifs, and newermotifs. All four patterns support the role of illustrator as storyteller. Theillustrations change over time as illustrators interpret the tales for newaudiences in new times.Motifs were identified where the norms were clearly at odds withthe text such as a neat and clean Aschenputtel working and sleeping in aspotless kitchen. The existence of such motifs, together with motifs whichare not specified in the text such as Aschenputtel's hair colour, areevidence of visual motifs that are illustrators' conventions. There is aheritage of illustrated motifs that are part of the cultural background offolktales.170Ranges of interpretation were also identified for many motifs such asthe motif of artistic style: fairytale, fairylike, realistic, abstract, andfantasy. Those ranges are evidence of the diversity of interpretation invisual motifs.Comparative Motif Analysis with Catskin and Cap o' RushesThe comparative results of the motif analysis of Catskin and Cap o'Rushes led to major findings in nine areas. In seven of those areas thevisual motifs in Catskin and Cap o' Rushes clearly contrast with the relatedvisual motifs in Aschenputtel. The greater likelihood of Catskin andCap o' Rushes being illustrated in a realistic style, combined with theabsence of the child-woman motif, and being shown as older and tallercontribute to the overall perception of the British protagonists being lessdoll-like and more realistic than Aschenputtel. There are no illustrationsof clothing manifestly at odds with the text, no neat pressed dresses with atoken bouquet of grass, or fur, trim. In both cases the predominant motifleaving home dressed in their namesake garments - is indicative of theCatskin and Cap o' Rushes self-determination as opposed to the principalassociation in Aschenputtel, through the birds, with the spirit of her latemother.These findings clearly demonstrate the usefulness of visual motifanalysis for the comparative study of folktales, especially as all three talesare from the Cinderella cycle. Such analysis would inevitably lead toquestioning why the portrayal of the protagonists and principal motifs isso different in tales from the same cycle.171Selection of Key Books and Notable IllustrationsA further objective of this study, beyond demonstrating that a visualmotif comparative analysis of folklore illustrations was possible, was toprovide the basis for developing such a study for use with students. TheKey Books and Notable Illustrations section is included as a resource forspecifically that purpose. The conclusions of this thesis and thechronological photo-bibliography are also both valuable materials for sucha study.Mitigating the Concerns of SchwarczThe results of this study confirmed, from a quantitative perspective,the results of Schwarcz's, that the norm for most motifs tends to betowards stereotypical portrayals. However, from a qualitative perspective,the results of this study demonstrate an encouraging range and diversityof interpretations. Support for this encouraging conclusion comes in fourareas: from a slightly different reading of Schwarcz's own data; from thechronological trends noted in this study; from the restriction of this studyto the less textually-inhibiting Grimm Brothers' version; and to thedemonstrated range of both presentations and possible interpretations inthis study.Schwarcz's concern was with lack of diversity. Nevertheless, hemade a case that certain motifs are integral to the story. It may notnecessarily follow that they ought to be illustrated, but it should at leastnot be surprising when they are. Given the number of motifs in any of the172folktales, those that are illustrated achieve a significance or emphasis overthose not shown simply by virtue of their repeated appearance.Encouragement is offered by the chronological trends noted in chapterfour, specifically shifting norms and cyclic portrayals, dormant motifs andthe emergence of newer motifs. Since standard portrayals of the motifschange over time there is reason to believe that the visual interpretationsof the tales will not deteriorate into hackneyed clones of one another.Schwarcz's concern with diversity was not just with respect tothe choice of scenes but also with the way they were illustrated. That wasnot as much a cause for concern with the books in this study, perhapsbecause this study was restricted to Aschenputtel, whereas Schwarcz's alsoincluded Perrault's Cinderella. A specific example is with the banalrenderings of Aschenputtel/Cinderella's flight from the dance. Schwarcz'sconcern, however, can be mitigated on two counts.First, a rereading of Schwarcz's own work (1982) indicates that hecites a fairly even split amongst large spreads with the action runninghorizontally across the page; Aschenputtel/Cinderella running away fromthe viewer/reader; and her running towards the viewer/reader. Thatseems a fairly even distribution of possibilities. It seems to be Schwarcz'spoint that little was made in those portrayals of the prince's role. He does,though, indicate that the prince's taking up of the slipper, from any of thethree perspectives, indicate that the prince will now carry the actionforward. There is, therefore, some diversity in the portrayal of the sceneand there is, by Schwarcz's own account, an implied role for the prince.Second, by studying exclusively the Grimms' version of the tale,there is a greater probability of the prince's involvement than with thetales in Schwarcz's study. Perrault's prince shows even less initiative than173his protagonist. By studying only Aschenputtel it was possible to look fordirect evidence of the prince's complicity - the tar that he had spread onthe steps for the specific purpose of capturing the mystery girl's shoe.Therefore, this study found not only the same encouraging variety ofperspectives that Schwarcz found, but also found strong evidence, the tar,of the prince's active role in illustrations in which he was not even present!This illustrated allusion to the prince's role is a laudable approach tothe portrayal of an important, consistently illustrated visual motif. It isimportant because it indicates diversity, and it is important because itdraws the viewer/reader into aspects of the illustration, implications andallusions, that are not explicitly illustrated. It compels the viewer/readerto become involved with both the text and the illustrations.A range of implications and allusions are possible in theinterpretation of scenes and, while an author or illustrator may lead aviewer/reader toward an interpretation, interpretation is still very much acase of the viewer/reader's own meaning making. That range of possibleinterpretations is evident in the scenes involving the source ofAschenputtel's magic. On one level there are the tree and the grave whichmay signify the importance of the mother's spirit, and the birds which mayrepresent the motif of animal-helpers. On another level there is thequestion of what each of those symbols represents. The case has alreadybeen made that the tree could represent either the mother's spirit since itgrows over her grave, her father's thoughtfulness since it was his gift, orAschenputtel's own expectancy since she waters it with her tears.Furthermore, if the tree is taken to represent either the father orAschenputtel, then the three symbols form a trinity that supports thereligious analogies occasionally noted.174The range of interpretations is also facilitated by the range ofpresentations noted for so many of the motifs. It is especially encouragingthat credible postures stand in sharp contrast to stock postures and thatcredible conventions demonstrate, as Schwarcz noted (1982, p.109), thatscenes which have been illustrated in hackneyed ways can, nevertheless,'be represented ever again in new ways.' Exposure to diversity encouragesthoughtful interpretation, even reinterpretation. An exemplary model isthe role-reversal, not of actions but of the more challenging emotionalinvolvement with the tale, in Rusz's 1976 illustrations of Aschenputtelwith her stepsisters. The stepsisters are clearly the object ofAschenputtel's contempt which leads to an entirely new interpretation ofAschenputtel's view of her servitude.Thus this study finds optimistic grounds for mitigating Schwarcz'sconcerns three ways.1) By rereading his own results with a focus more on thequalitative range of presentations and interpretations he notedthan on the quantitative tendency towards trite, stereotypicalportrayals.2) By noting the chronological trends identified in this studywhich offer hope for continual change in the norms of visual- interpretations.3)^By selecting just the Aschenputtel tale over a combinedgrouping of both the Grimms' and Perrault versions. TheGrimms' version of the tale seems to have provided a richerbasis for identifying a variety of interpretations.175IMPLICATIONSImplications for TheoryThe major implication of this thesis is that the concept of visualmotifs deserves to be a recognized subgroup of literary motifs consideredon a par with textual motifs and with another analogous concept notdeveloped in this thesis, that of oral motifs. 'Visual motif is anappropriate term to define a versatile, workable concept for use incomparative studies of illustrated folktales. The term has been shown toapply to five distinct conditions, while the motifs themselves have beenshown to be derived from three legitimate sources. The concept isdemonstrably analagous to that of textual motifs, it is demonstrablyworkable, and it is demonstrably versatile - it is arguably a more versatileconcept than that of textual motifs.The concept of visual motifs is versatile, perhaps even more versatilethan the concept of textual motifs because of their relative applications.Textual motifs are used to compare different tales, or variations of talesthat have textual differences. (If there were not textual differences thenthe tales would be the same, exactly.) Visual motifs, on the other hand,can compare both tales with textual differences, that is different tales orversions of- tales, and tales without textual differences, that is differentillustrators' versions of the same tale.176Implications for Practice1) Educators wishing to encourage viewer/readers to see folktales lessin terms of stereotypical portrayals ought to more concerned with whatcan be, that is, exposure to the rich diversity that is available, than withwhat has been, that is, a focus on quantitative and qualitative mediocrity.2) Develop a study of comparative illustrated folklore using theresources that this thesis makes available, either in total or the selectedkey books, notable illustrations and comparataive tales of chapter five.3)^The instrument, procedures, and visual motif analyses developed inthis thesis ought to be adapted for the analysis of a wide variety offolktales.Implications for Research1) A study could be undertaken of visual motif analysis of other,individual, folktales using the concepts, instrument, and proceduresdeveloped in this thesis.2) Visual motif analyses undertaken utilizing the procedures andinstrument of this study could focus on national and cultural trends as wellas chronological trends.1773) The instrument and procedure for the analysis of folktaleillustrations developed in this thesis could form the basis for an analysis ofvisual motifs in any collection of illustrated literature, not just folktales.4) A visual motif study of Perrault's Cinderella could indicate if thatstory is the factor that inhibited the range of interpretations in Schwarcz'sstudy, or if the range in this study owed more to other considerations suchas its greater chronological scope.5) A methodical study of public school students' illustrations forAschenputtel could be undertaken to determine what visual motifs theyassociate with the tale.6) The development of a study based on the procedures and findings ofthis thesis and analysis of the students' subsequent visual interpretationsof the tale, could indicate the effectiveness of an approach based on thestudy of visual motifs for enhancing students' understanding andappreciation of folktale illustrations.7)^A study could be undertaken of visual motif analysis in multiplefolktales using the concepts, instrument and procedures developed in thisthesis. It might be more likely that such a study would focus more onillustrators' conventions than on text-derived motifs. There would besimilar visual motifs that would not necessarily be derived from textualmotifs as the different tales would have different texts and differentinterpretations.1788)^A concept of oral motifs could be developed which would make thesame connections as this thesis, that oral motifs would consist of bothmotifs derived from the actual 'text' of the tales, and from the conventionsand practices of oral storytellers.--- POSTSCRIPT ---Shirley Rousseau Murphy's protagonist was the young girl, Thursey,who took shelter in her wardrobe and enjoyed nothing more than to listento the travellers' tales of 'girls who, their feet grimed from the hearth,were banished to the kitchen and stables and treated cruelly by theirelders ... in each there was a girl Thursey could not help but weep for.' Inher wardrobe Thursey made books of the tales she loved and, in the end,Anwin the monk gave her a wooden chest. A carved wooden chest tohouse her precious books, a chest inscribed:ENCHANTMENT IS FOREVER.179REFERENCESINTRODUCTIONBibliographic data are recorded in four sections: Aschenputtel tales;Catskin / Cap o' Rushes tales; comparative tales; and secondary literature.The first two sections are organized as chronological photo-bibliographies,highlighting the illustrators. Each photo-bibliography includes, initially, analphabetical listing of the illustrators of the analyzed tales together withtheir publication dates. The photo-bibliographies then consist of one pageper book, arranged chronologically.Each photo-bibliography page includes: the full bibliography;emphazised illustrator, date and country of publication; a representativeillustration; a listing of visual motifs identified in the content analysis; andnotes made during the content analysis. The notes and visual motifs listedare brief and refer to the categories ultimatley analyzed for this thesis(Table 1) rather than the slightly different categories used for the initialdata collection (figures 2 and 3).Swc denotes 'sweeping, washing or cleaning' and is typically followedby the object of that activity thus: swc floors, swc windows, etc.The number of illustrations is only indicated for books where thereare less than ten providing a rough distinction between picture books andillustrated folktales.1 80PHOTO-BIBLIOGRPAHY - ASCHENPUTTELList^of^IllustratorsAbbot 1920 Hogrogian 1981 Reidel 1975Accornero 1982 Jalkotzy 1963 Reimer 1825Archipowa 1990 Kaila 1980 Ritzmann 1948Bakai 1991 Kemlein 1949 Rusjan 1967Baron-Raa, 1953 Klein 1967 Rusz (pb) 1976Bernadette 1977 Klemke 1965 Rusz (anth) 1978Chretien 1985 Knabe 1949 Schott 1946Ciuha 1954 Koser-Michaels 1937 Sedej 1957Elsasser 1978 Koser-Michaels 1941 Svend Otto S 1978Fischer 1957 Lemke 1965 Tenggren 1923Fiizesi 1991 Lore 1972 Thalman 1983Gehrts 1970 Mannhart 1958 Truchanowska1956Geissler 1843 Mauser-Lichtl 1959 Ubbelhode 1922Gillar 1949 Mayer 1982 unknown 1860Gongalov 1967 Munzer 1904 Wallenta 1979Grabianski 1962 Muller 1984 Weber 1942Haufmann 1985 Nast 1973 Wehnert 1870Hegenbarth 1969 Okas 1973 Werner 1956Heise 1953 Pieck 1959 Wingen 1963Hellman 1986 Postma 1987181Grimm, (1825, r.1911)Kinder and Haus MaerchenBerlin, Kleine Uusgabbe.Illustrator: G. ReimerMotifs:Birds helping with tasks, cat.Reimer1825 (r.1911)GermanyAge: young woman; Hair: dark, neatly tied back; General Appearance: clean;Home: clean; Style: realistic - fine; 1 illustration.Notes:182Geissler1843GermanySeifler, C.P., (1843)Mahrchenfranz fur Gute Kinder Stuttgart, HoffmannTcheBerlags, Buchhandlung.Illustrator:^Carl Peter GeisslerMotifs:Carrying, attending tostepsisters, grave, flight.( Sttlt1;,■1Age: young woman; Style: realistic - fine; 1 (8) illustrations.Notes:183unkownc. 1860GermanyGrimm, (c. 1860)Kinder Mãrchen Stuttgart, W. Effenberger.Illustrator:^various - unknownMotifs:Slipper test, harassed bystepmother at hearth.unb gfailtIte; a-blitite runt mit1.34zI:..9166.-biefefprat4;idlein, Dfc4e-n,. `_L:: bait feint Sitcibtr,_^fantit nitht -fatten;_   bn wirft_unr:ialitgefe. :^e4 nunnieinteiprad) fte:- ,Se-rtn2IIIC -3101^- Etunin-wllefWfthe rein l';L;ttanrift, foVift battte, baS fanne4ja nim:IETfilebr."etrilttm, Eirbt _Age: teen/ young woman; Hair: long, curly, tied back; General Appearance:clean, rumpled, Style: realistic - fine; 2 illustrations.Notes:184Wehnertc. 1870Great BritainGrimm, (c. 1870)Household Stories London, Geo. Routledge & Sons.Illustrator: E.H. WehnertMotifs:Grave.Age: teen/ young woman; Hair: long, curly, loose; General Appearance:clean; Style: realistic - common (peasant); 2 illustrations.Notes:185Munzer1904GermanyGrimm, (1904)Das deutsche BilderbuchSerie A: Mrchen No.3Aschenputtle Mainz, Jos. Scholz.Illustrator: Adolf MunzerMotifs:Swc floors, attending tostepsisters, grave, birds helpingwith tasks, dress (alluded to),father shown at slipper test,flight, tar, slipper test,mutilation, sleeping by hearth.Age: young teen; Hair: blond, tied out of way, falling; General Appearance:practical; Stepsisters: different - larger; Stepsisters' hair: different, red,dark; Home: clean; Aschenputtel's expressions: cowed (sad), supplicating,pleased (with prince), frightened at wedding; Stepsisters' expressions:scorn, mockery, fury; Dress scene: birds, tree, grave; Closing scene: birds;Style: realistic - fine.Notes:186Abbott1920 (r.1948)USAGrimm, (1920, r.1948)Grimm's Fairy Tales New York, Charles Scribner'sSons.Illustrator: Elenore AbbotMotifs:Birds helping with dress.Age: teen; Hair: blond, tied, long; Dress scene: birds, tree; Style: fairyland;1 illustration.Notes:187Ubbelhode1922Germany Grimm, (1922)Kinder and Hausmarchen gefammelt durch dieBrilder Grimm Weisbaden,Dr. Martin Sandig.Illustrator:Otto UbbelhodeMotifs:SWc floors, grave, father shown observing.Age: young woman; Hair: blond, tied in a bun; General Appearance: clean,patch; Stepsisters: different - older; Stepsisters' expressions: curious,askance; Style: realistic - fine; 3 illustrations.Notes:1 88Tenggren1923GermanyGrimm, (1923)Grimms' Marchenfchatz Berlin, Grunewald.Illustrator: G. TenggrenMotifs:Birds helping with tasks.Age: teen; Hair: blond, disheveled; General Appearance: clean, rumpled,barefoot; Style: realistic - common; 1 illustration.Notes:Designated notable illustration.189K,Oser-Michaels1937GermanyGrimm, (1937)Marchen Der Briider GrimmMunchen, Droemersche.Illustrator:Ruth Koser-MichaelsMotifs:Birds shown helping with tasks.Age: young teen; Hair: blond, plaited; General Appearance: barefoot;Home: clean; Style: fairytale (cartoon); 1 illustration.Notes:190Koser Michaels1941GermanyGrimm, (1941)A schenputtel Berlin, Winter-Hidfswerk desDeutschen Volkes.Illustrator:Ruth Koser-MichaelsMotifs:Grave, birds helping with tasks, father shown conferring with the princeabout the slipper test, mutilation, punishment, sleeps by hearth.Age: young teen; Style: fairytale (cartoon).Notes:Literally, a board book. Contains early 'cyclic' motifs.191-und_ schGrimm Briider, (1942)Aschenputtle Wittlich, George Fischer Verlag.Illustrator:^Berti WeberMotifs:She is shaking the tree, nobirds associated, father shownat slipper test, flight,slipper test, mutilation, page.Age: teen; Hair: blond, plaited; General Appearance: clean, unpressed,patch; Stepsisters: similar ; Stepsisters' hair: similar, blond; Home: clean;Aschenputtel's expressions: some joy shaking tree, otherwise none;Dress scene: tree only; Closing scene: birds;Style: realistic - common; 6 illustrations.Notes:Weber1942Germany192Schott.1946SwitzerlandGrimm, (1946)Aschenputtle  -DornrOschen Aurich, Verlag Papyria.Illustrator: Otto SchottMotifs:Birds helping with tasks, flight,tar, slipper test.Age: preteen; Hair: blond, curled, tied under scarf; General Appearance:clean, untidy, patch; Stepsisters' hair: different, straight; Home: clean;Aschenputtel's expressions: wonder; Style: fairytale (cartoon);3 illustrations.Notes:193Fd&zneuva1948SwitzerlandGrimm, (1948)MUrchen Der BriiderGrimm Zurich, Rascher.Illustrator: Jakob RitzmannMotifs:Birds helping with tasks,punishment .Age: woman (30ish) oldest in sample; Hair: dark, bun, falling, disheveled;General Appearance: soiled apron; Style: realistic - common; 2 illustrations.Notes:194Kemlein1949Germany Grimm, (1949)Aschenputtet Ein Màrchen der Gebruuder GrimmLengerich,Bischof & Klein.Illustrator:Gisela KemleinMotifs:Carrying water, washing clothes, chopping wood, grave, birds helping withtasks, flight, slipper test, mutilation.Age: young teen; Stepsisters: different - taller; Aschenputtel's expressions:stock popstures, obviously; Dress scene: tree, grave;Closing scene: birds, grave; Style: fairyland.Notes:195Gillar1949Austria Grimm, (1949)Grimm's MArchenWein, Verlag fiirJugend and Volk.Illustrator:Valerian GillarMotifs:Birds helping with tasks (sort of), father shown with twig, flight, tar,punishment.Age: teen/young woman; Hair: blond, plaited; General Appearance: patches;Style: fairytale; 4 illustrations.Notes:196Knabe1949GermanyGrimm, (1949)MârchetiGrehl, Sonthofen.Illustrator: Willy KnabeMotifs:Mother, grave, birds helpingwith tasks, dress, flight, tar.Age: young woman; Hair: blond, tied, a bit raggled; General Appearance:clean; Dress scene: birds, tree, grave; Style: fairytale; 4 illustrations.Notes:197Baron-Raa1953GermanyGrimm, (1953)Asehenputtel Esslingen, J.F. Schreiber.Illustrator:Charlotte Baron-RaaMotifs:Swc floors, grave,slipper test,punishment.Age: teen; Hair: light brown, clean; General Appearance: clean, smart;Stepsisters' hair: similar, blond; Home: clean; Aschenputtel's expressions:None not even stock postures; Dress scene: birds, tree (previous shot oftree and grave); Style: realistic - common.Notes:Another illustrator (Heise, page following) illustrated the cover.Incongruously different styles.198Grimm, (1953)Aschenputtel Esslingen,J.R. Schreiber.Illustrator:Edith HeiseHeise1953GermanyMotifs:Birds helping with tasks, dress, flight.Age: young teen (Child-woman); Hair: blond; General Appearance: patch;Dress scene: birds, grave; Style: fairytale (cartoon).Notes:Heise illustrated the covers only. Baron-Raa illustrated the text (previouspage).^Incongruously different styles.Cover is a four page, die-cut, overlay.1 9 9Ciuha1954Yugoslavia (s)Brata Grimm, (1954)Pepelka Prevedel, Fran Albreht.Illustrator: Jose CiuhaMotifs:Birds helping with tasks, flight,sleeping by hearth.Age: teen / young woman; Hair: dark straight; General Appearance: clean;Stepsisters' hair: similar, curled; Home: clean; Style: fairyland;6 illustrations.Notes:Illustrations appear to be out of order.200Grimm, (1956, r.1982)Grimm Basnie Warszawa, Nasza Ksiegarnia.Illustrator:Bozena TruchanowskaMotifs:Birds helping with tasks.Truchanowska1956 (r.1982)PolandAge: young teen; Hair: blond, curled, slightly disheveled; GeneralAppearance: clean patch; Stepsisters: similar; Style: fairytale;1 illustration.Notes:201Werner1956GermanyGrimm , (1956)Marchen DerBrader Grimm Stuttgart,Ferdinand Carl.Illustrator:Gisela WernerMotifs:Grave, birds helping with tasks, slipper test.Age: teen; Hair: straight; General Appearance: ragged, barefoot; Stepsisters:similar; Stepsisters' hair: buns; Style: fairytale; 3 illustrations.Notes:202SEKiBj1957Yugoslavia (s)Grimm, (1957)Pepelka qubliani,Mladinska Knjiga.Illustrator:Maksim SedejMotifs:Slight allusion to chores, mother, grave, birds helping with tasks, ^flight,slipper test, punishment alluded to, sits by hearth.Age: teen; Hair: lighter; General Appearance: clean; Stepsisters: similar -slightly taller; Home: clean; Aschenputtel's expressions: pleasant;Stepsisters' expressions: always pleasant except at slipper test;Style: fairytale.Notes:203Fischer1957GermanyGrimm, (1957)Die SchOnsten Mdrchen Der briider Grimm Gutersloh, C. Bertelsmann.Illustrator: Fritz FischerMotifs:Birds helping with tasks.Age: teen; Hair: straight, scraggly; General Appearance: ragged;Style: realistic - common; 2 illustrations.Notes:204Mannhart1958GermanyBriider Grimm,(1958)Schtinse Marchen Reutlingen, Ensslin& Laiblin Verlag.Illustrators:Hans and MariaMannhartMotifs:Birds helping with tasks, flight.Age: young teen; Hair: blond, plaited; General Appearance: clean; Home:clean, cobbled; Style: fairyland; 2 illustrations.Notes:205Mauser-Lichtl1959Austria Mauser-Lichtl, Gerti(bilder & verse),(1959)AschenbrOdel Wels, A. Muhlehner.Illustrator:Gerti Mauser-LichtlMotifs:Swc floors, attending to stepsisters, grave, birds helping with tasks, dress,father shown in an ironic portrait at the slipper test, flight, slipper test,sleeps on kitchen floor, page, cat.Age: teen; Hair: blond, plaited; General Appearance: neat, clean; Stepsisters:similar; Stepsisters' hair: similar; Home: spotless; Aschenputtel'sexpressions: smiles!, or nothing; Stepsisters' expressions:conspiratorial amusement, contempt (when Aschenputtel's sleeping);Dress scene: birds, grave, tree; Closing scene: birds; Style: fairytale.Notes:Pages alternate monochrome, colour. End papers feature very Disney-esque Sneewittchen.206Pieck1959NetherlandsGrimm, (1959)De Sprookjes van Grimm Antwerp, De Haan-Zeist.Illustrator: Anton PieckMotifs:Birds shown helping with tasks,tar.Age: teen / young woman; Hair: light, braided, becoming disheveled;General Appearance: ragged, tired, patch; Home: cellar is deteriorating;Style: realistic - common; 2 illustrations.Notes:207Grabianski1962AustriaBriider Grimm, (1962)Kinder - andHausmarch enWein, Buchgemeinschaft Jung-Donauland.Illustrator:^Janusz GrabianskiMotifs:Birds, flight, slipper test.Age: teen; Hair: brown; General Appearance: patch; Closing scene: birds;Style: abstract - sketch and wash; 7 illustrations.Notes:208Jalkotzy1963AustriaGrimm, (1963)ritnnfi Vf - t- hWein, Jungbrunnen.Illustrator: Alois JalkotzyMotifs:Birds helping with tasks, flight,slipper test.Age: pre-teen; Hair: dark, tied back; General Appearance: clean, barefoot;Style: fairtale (cartoon); 3 illustrations.Notes:209Pancrea1963BrazilGrimm, (1963)Contos De GrimmPorto Alegre,Editora Globa.Illustrator:Roswitha BitterlichWingenMotifs:Grave, birds helping with tasks.Age: teen; Hair: long, loose;General Appearance: neat;Home: clean;Style: stark black and whitewoodcuts;2 illustrations.Notes:210Klemke1965E . Germany (DDR)Briider Grimm, (1965)Die Kinder - and Hausmärchen der Bruder GrimmBerlin, Kinderbuchverlag.Illustrator: Werner KlemkeMotifs:Grave, birds helping with tasks,flight, tar, hiding, sleeps onstraw.Age: pre-teen; Hair: blond, straight, ribbon, very unkempt - in eyes;General Appearance: dirty face & hair, cheerful; Stepsisters: different -older, taller; Stepsisters' hair: different, curly; Home: clean; Aschenputtel'sexpressions: generally cheerful - one effusively happy (ecstatic!);Stepsisters' expressions: disgust (sticking out tongues);Closing scene: birds; Style: fantasy; 7 illustrations.Notes:211Lemke1965GermanyBriider Grimm, (1965)Die SchOnsten Marchender Briider GrimmDusseldorf, Hoch-Verlag.Illustrator: Horst LemkeMotifs:Carrying, birds helping withtasks.Frau krank. und als sit fahlre, dagrhr^ einnges_Todsterlein au silo ans-Bert and surad:^1 leibe hut= und gut, so wind dit der litheGott inuner^,r,^vorn-Ilimmel au( dicta herabidicken und,•'! um dui —^1;.; r AUgf 71 za and very hied. Das Mat"idrenAge: teen; Hair: blond, ponytail, unkempt; General Appearance: clean,barefoot; Home: clean; Stepsisters' expressions: amused, haughty (?);Closing scene: birds, grave; Style: abstract - sketch and wash;3 illustrations.Notes:212Klein1967E . Germany (DDR) Bruder Grimm,(1967)Aschenputtel ein Mãrchen der Bruder Grimm Berlin,Kinderbuchverlag.Illustrator:Erika KleinMotifs:Attending to stepsisters, grave alluded to: planting with birds, birdshelping with tasks, scarcely 'flight', more like a calculated exit - leisurely,reflective, hiding, slipper test, sleeps in kitchen.Age: child (child-woman), very childlike prince; Hair: blond, full, straight;General Appearance: clean; Stepsisters: similar - all very attractive;Stepsisters' hair: similar, attractive; Home: clean with nice spikderweb andbats; Aschenputtel's expressions: occasional smile, or sad;Stepsisters'expressions: one hand gesture ('be off), otherwise expressionless;Closing scene: birds; Style: fairyland.Notes:All characters are short and full bodied (except the prince) with lots ofhair, doll-like or child-like. Interesting opening scene: well-dressed,unhappy, in winter.213Rusjan1967Yugoslavia (U, S)Grimm Testeverek, (1967)Hamupipoke Forum, Novi Sad.Illustrator: Danica RusjanMotifs:Swc windows, grave, birdshelping with tasks, flight,hiding, slipper test.Age: young teen (child-woman); Hair: black, short, straight, clean, well-combed; General Appearance: clean, dirty face and hands in one scene,patch; Stepsisters: slightly taller; Stepsisters' hair: similar - brown, slightlylonger; Home: clean, colourful; Aschenputtel's expressions: sad once,generally none; Stepsisters' expressions: pleasure in ordering her about;Dress scene: birds, grave, tree;Style: fantasy.Notes:214Gongalov1967Italy Grimm, (1967)Le Fiabe Piii BelleMilane,Editrice AMZ.Illustrator:Ivan GongalovMotifs:Swc floors, grave, birds helping with dress, sits by hearth.Age: adult; Hair: blond, long, disheveled; General Appearance:hands dirty, rumpled, barefoot, ; Stepsisters: similar, slightly taller;Stepsisters' hair: similar, blond, red; Home: clean; Aschenputtel'sexpressions: incredulous, sad, or exhausted, pleased with dress; Stepsisters'expressions: amused contempt; Dress scene: birds, tree;Style: realistic people in a cartoon setting; 8 illustrations.Notes:215Hegenbarth1969GermanyGrimm, (1969)Marchen der Briider Grimm Leipzig, Insel -Verlag.Illustrator:Josef HegenbarthMotifs:Hiding, mutilation,sleeps in ash-bin.Style: abstract -indistinct black andwhite;3 illustrations.Notes:216Gehrts1970GermanyBriider Grimm, (1970)Sneewittchen and andere M5rchen derBriider Grimm Stuttgart, Spectrum.Illustrator:^Barbara GehrtsMotifs:Task.Age: teen; Hair: disheveled; General Appearance: soiled, rumpled, patch;Stepsisters: caricatures; stepmother - large, intimidatingly ugly;Stepsisters' hair: similar, curly; Aschenputtel's expressions:dejected, worn-out, exhausted; Stepsisters' expressions: smug;Style: abstract - caricature; 1 illustration.Notes:217Lore1972GermanyGrimm, (1972)Aschenputtel Bad Aibling, Siebert Verlag -Siebert Kinderbiicher.Illustrator:^LoreMotifs:Chores alluded to, grave, birdshelping with tasks, dress, flight,slipper test, cat.Age: child/young teen; Hair: blond, untied, loose; General Appearance:dirty, barefoot, patch; Stepsisters: similar; Stepsisters' hair:similar, blond, red; Home: clean, a fly; Aschenputtel's expressions: almostnever change except for occasional single tear; Stepsisters' expressions:bossy contempt (only appear once);Dress scene: birds, tree, grave; Style: fairytale.Notes:218Okas1973Russia (Estonia)Vennad Grimm, (1973)TuhkatriinuTallin, Kirjastus <Eest Raamat>.Illustrator: E. OkasMotifs:Attending to stepsisters, birdshelping with tasks, dress,father shown at slipper test,flight, slipper test, sleeps byhearth, cat.Age: young woman; Hair: blond, tied in a scarf, disheveled; GeneralAppearance: clean, rumpled; Stepsisters: similar; Stepsisters' hair:similar, attractive, red; Aschenputtel's expressions: almost none, slightdejection/pleasure; Stepsisters' expressions: superior, haughty;Dress scene: birds, tree; Closing scene: birds; Style: fairytale.Notes:219Nast1973E . Germany (DDR)Briider Grimm, (1973)Marehen der BriiderGrimm Berlin, Kinderbuchverlag.Illustrator:^Bernhard NastMotifs:Carrying, grave, birds helpingwith tasks, dress, warningprince, tar, hiding, slipper test,sleeps by hearth.Age: pre-teen; Hair: brunette, plaited; General Appearance: clean;Stepsisters: similar - attractive, slightly older (teens).; Stepsisters' hair:similar, blond & straight, dark & curly; Home: clean; Aschenputtel'sexpressions: downcast posture, expression generally shown with postureand with arms; Stepsisters' expressions: taunting;Dress scene: birds, tree, grave; Closing scene: birds; Style: fairytale.Notes:16 illustrations - lots for an anthology.220Reidel1975GermanyGrimm, (1975)Grimm MarchersMunchen, Annette Betz Verlag.Illustrator:^Marlene ReidelMotifs:Grave, flight.Age: teen; Hair: blond in one scene, red in the other.; General Appearance:patch; Aschenputtel's expressions: none (stock tear); Closing scene: birds;Style: fantasy; 3 illustrations.Notes:221Rust1976RomaniaFratti Grimm, (1976)CenusneasaBucaresti, Editura Ion Creanga.Illustrator: Livia RuszMotifs:Swc floors, attending tostepsisters, grave, birds helpingwith tasks, dress and carriage,father shown conspiratorial inopening scene, flight (2 shotsincluding scheming withprince), mutilation alluded to(blood in snow), shown byhearth, page.Age: teen; Hair: strawberry blond, long, matted, wispy, plaited (varies);General Appearance: exhausted, dark shadows under eyes, rumpled apron,patch; Stepsisters: similar - cartoon-like expressions; Stepsisters' hair:different, red, dark; Home: clean; Aschenputtel's expressions: resentful,conteimptuous, smug (return home), amused (with her secret), dejected(frontispiece); Stepsisters' expressions:^amused, oblivious, indifferent,stepmother is a vindictive hag; Dress scene: birds, tree; Style: fantasy.Notes:222Grimm, (1977)Aschenputtel MOnchaltorf & Hamburg,Nord-Sud Verlag.Illustrator:^Bernadette WattsMotifs:Carrying coal, feeding fowl,mother, grave, birds helpingwith dress, warning prince(blood in snow), father shownconferring with prince, flight,slipper test, shown by hearthon window seat.Bernadette1977SwitzerlandAge: child - teen - young woman; Hair: black, long, plaited, loose, wisps;General Appearance: clean, face smudged; Stepsisters: a little older, larger,heavier (not exaggerated); Stepsisters' hair: different, long-blond, curly-red; Home: clean; Aschenputtel's expressions: very few, tired gesture,genuinely content with mother; Stepsisters' expressions: oblivious;Dress scene: birds, tree; Closing scene: birds; Style: combinationfairytale/realistic, foreboding scale.Notes:Opens on a happy spring day, passes through seasons ending on a windywintery day or, perhaps, a harsh spring.223Rusz1978RomaniaFratti Grimm,(1978)PovestiBucaresti,Editura Ion Creanga.Illustrator:Livia RuszMotifs:Age: teen; Hair: light, falling from bonnet; General Appearance:clean, smudged face, rumpled apron, barefoot, patch; Stepsisters: similar;Home: clean; Aschenputtel's expressions: indifferent;Stepsisters' expressions: haughty;Style: fantasy; 1 illustration.Notes:224Svend Otto S1978DenmarkGrimm, (1978)AskepotKobenhavn,Glydendal.Illustrator:Svend Otto SMotifs:Carrying/cleaning shoes, attending to stepsisters, mother, grave, birdshelping with tasks, dress, warning prince, father shown (frequently)with twig, conferring with prince, flight, hiding, slipper test, mutilation,punishment, sleeps by hearth, cat.Age: teen; Hair: dirty blond, long, disheveled, unkempt; GeneralAppearance: dirty, tired; Stepsisters: similar, matronly step-mother;Stepsisters' hair: similar, dirty blond, long, straight; Home: clean;Aschenputtel's expressions:amused (with birds), exhausted, compliant,diligent, industrious (cleaning shoes); Stepsisters' expressions: officious,demanding, critical, contemptuous; Dress scene: birds, tree, grave;Style: realistic - common.225Briider Grimm,(1978)Aschenputtel Stuttgart, J.Ch.Mellinger Verlag.Illustrator:Ruth ElsasserElsasser1978GermanyMotifs:Attending to stepsisters, grave, birds helping with tasks, dress, flight,hiding.Age: pre-teen/young teen; Hair: radiant blond, long; Aschenputtel'sexpressions, Stepsisters' expressions: No expressions are evident, only atone indicated by colour, radiance and positioning; Dress scene:birds, tree, grave; Closing scene: birds; Style: ethereal/mystic;9 illustrations.Notes:226Wallenta1979AustriaBamberger, Richard, (1979)Grimm Marchen Mein Erstes Buch Wien, Jugend and Volk.Illustrator: Emanuela WallentaMotifs:Carrying, birds helping withtasks (implied), slipper test.Age: teen; Hair: blond, loose; General Appearance: neat; Aschenputtel'sexpressions: stock 'hang-dog' expressions; Stepsisters' expressions:torment, deliberately provoke; Closing scene: birds;Style: fairytale (cartoon); 5 illustrations.Notes:227Age: teen; Style: fairyland; 4 illustrations.Notes:Kaila1980FinlandGrimm, (1980)Punahilkka Ja Muita Grimm Satuja Keuruu, Otava.Illustrator: Kaarina KailaMotifs:Birds helping with tasks,punishment, cat.228Brothers Grimm, (1981)CinderellaNew York, Greenwillow.Illustrator: Nonny HogrogianMotifs:Wringing wash, mother, grave,birds helping with tasks, dress,father shown, flight, mutilation.Hogrogian1981USAAge: teen; Hair: long, blond, uncombed, scraggly; General Appearance:clean, patch; Stepsisters: different; Stepsisters' hair: different, brunettes innetting; Home: clean; Aschenputtel's expressions: slightly sad with mother,gestures for pain of treatment by sisters; Stepsisters' expressions:scorn, hostility; Dress scene: Tree - no birds, no grave!; Closing scene: birds;Style: fairyland.Notes:229Mayer1982USAGrimm, (1982)Favorite Tales from Grimm New York, Four Winds Press(Scholastic).Illustrator:^Mercer MayerMotifs:Birds helping with dress.Age: teen; Hair: long, strawberry-blond, scraggly; Aschenputtel'sexpressions: vague awe (at dress from tree); Dress scene: birds, tree;Style: fairyland; 1 illustration.Notes:230Accornero1982ItalyFratelli Grimm, (1982)Cinquanta Novelle Milano, Hoepli.Illustrator: Vittorio AccorneroMotifs:Cat.Age: teen; Hair: long, loose; Style: fairytale (cartoon); 1 illustration.Notes:Fairy is likely a borrowed or vestigial motif.231 Uluilnima1983SwitzerlandGrimm, (1983)Pe Fundevogel Marti de Breeder Grimm Frauenfeld, Huber.Illustrator: Roland ThalmanMotifs:Birds shown helping with tasks.Age: pre-teen; Hair: long, scraggly; Style: realistic - common; 1 illustration.Notes:232Mailer1984E . Germany (DDR)Grimm, (1984)Der Wolf 1st Tot! Der Wolf 1st Tot! Berlin, Der Kinderbuchverlag.Illustrator:^Dieter MullerMotifs:Birds helping with tasks(implied, lurking about'waiting').Age: teen; Hair: blond, tied in scarf; General Appearance: clean, barefoot;Stepsisters: caricatures - taller, affected, very fine;Stepsisters' hair: different; Aschenputtel's expressions: stock downcast;Stepsisters' expressions: haughty; Style: fantasy^caricature; 1 illustration.Notes:233Chretien1985Belgium de la Salle, Bruno,(1985)CendrillotiBelgique,Casterman.Illustrator:Sylvie ChretienMotifs:Swc floors, mother, birds (and ants) helping with dress, father shown,slipper test, mutilation, punishment. Age: teen; Hair: blond, long, loose,unkepmt - even as princess (mind you, so is everyone else); GeneralAppearance: clean, patch; Stepsisters: caricatures - long pointy noses;Stepsisters' hair: dark; Home: spotless; Aschenputtel's expressions:generally expressionless, slightly sad (chores), slight glee (dress), greatestsatisfaction with punishment; Stepsisters' expressions: ridicule, (gleefullyset up mess for her tasks); Dress scene: birds bring feathers for dress - nograve, no tree; Style: fairytale, graphic design, colourful.Notes:Borrows from various tales (Perrault, Cap o' Rushes) and includes newtasks and new animal helpers.234Haufmann1985SwitzerlandHauffman, Felix, (1985)Hundertundein Salzburg, Sauerlander.Illustrator:^Felix HaufmannMotifs:Grave, birds helping with dress.Age: teen (most modern); Hair: blond, plaited; General Appearance: clean,barefoot; Dress scene: birds, tree, grave;Style: realistic - modern; 1 illustration.Notes:235Hellman1986Germany Grimm, (1986)Aschenputtel Munchen, FranzSchneider Verlag.Illustrator:Lila LeokadiaHellmanMotifs:Swc floors, grave, birds helping with tasks, warning prince,flight,mutilation,shown by hearth for warmth.Age: teen; Hair: long, blond, uncombed; General Appearance: patch;Stepsisters: different - unattractively heavy, bulbous noses (caricatures);Stepmother: severe, beaked nose; Stepsisters' hair: frizzy; Home: clean;Stepsisters' expressions: superior, ridicule, dismissive;Style: fairytale (cartoon).Notes:Contemporary mass market edition, complete with games and puzzles.Insubstantial.236Postma1987GermanyGebriider Grimm, (1987)Der Goldene Vogel Stuttgart, Urachhaus.Illustrator: Lidia PostmaMotifs:Grave, birds helping with dress,slipper test, mutilation.Age: teen; Hair: blond, frizzy ends; Stepsisters: different - older; Stepsisters'hair: beehhive; Aschenputtel's expressions: realistic awe on receipt ofdress; Stepsisters' expressions: none; Dress scene: tree, grave - no birds,anywhere!; Style: realistic - fine; 2 illustrations.Notes:237Archipowa1990GermanyGrimm, (1990)Grimms Marchen Esslingen, Verlag J.F. Schreiber.Illustrator:Anastassija ArchipowaMotifs:Birds helping with tasks,warning prince, father shownwith twig, flight, hiding,mutilation.Age: teen; Hair: blond, pulled back in a curly scraggly pony-tail.; GeneralAppearance: dirty - grey soot and grime on hands and arms, unkempt;Stepsisters: similar; Stepsisters' hair: similar, straight, darker;Aschenputtel's expressions: sad, mild pleasure or consternation (flight);Stepsisters' expressions: appear to take no notice;Style: realistic - common; 10 illustrations.Notes:238Bakal1991HungaryGrimm, (1991)Ascii enputtel Budapest, Taltos.Illustrator: Piroska BakaiMotifs:Carrying, mother, grave, birdshelping with tasks, dress,warning prince, father shownconferring with prince, twigshown, no father, flight, hiding,mutilation, sleeps in spotlesskitchen, cat.Age: pre-teen; Hair: very long, blond, plaited, disheveled; GeneralAppearance: clean, patch; Stepsisters: similar; Stepsisters' hair:similar, red, attractive; Home: immaculate; Aschenputtel's expressions:slight smile, frown; Stepsisters' expressions: torment, haughty;Dress scene: birds, tree; Style: fairytale (cartoon).Notes:239Filzesi1991HungaryAlu n nun Abend war, furt., and dun KOniecathn gingthat nach and wditr sehnn, in AHa. es ging. Abet es _sprang turfand is dun Garter' hinter de_ Haus.ttarin stand ein sctiOnes-,-;=ton,Ar Baum, an dear die hetrliensteEntn,n hinges. Ez kkttertebeht nd w,Cmuldibtunchno, h,-n die Atte, und derg.on,-, tan wuBte nkh ,nuked...nuts-41.a,Grimm, (1991)Aschenputtel Budapest, Forma-Art.Illustrator: Zsuzsa FilzesiMotifs:Attending to stepsisters, grave,birds helping with tasks, dress,father shown with twig,conferring with prince (twice),flight, hiding, slipper test,mutilation, sleeps by hearth,cat.Age: young teen (child-woman); Hair: long, blond, plaited, dishelveled;General Appearance: clean, patch; Stepsisters: unattractive caricatures -freckles, moles, buck teeth; Stepsisters' hair: red curls; Home: clean;Aschenputtel's expressions: exagerated glee, alarm, incredulity, desperatefrustration; Stepsisters' expressions: vicious, gloating, dissatisfied;Dress scene: birds, tree, grave; Closing scene: birds, grave;Style: fairytale (cartoon).Notes:Big book format (28 x 41 cm.) Style similar to Geisel.240PHOTO-BIBLIOGRAPHY - CATSKIN / CAP 0' RUSHESList of IllustratorsCatskinBatten^1898Rackham^1918Kiddell-Monroe 1954Gill^1967Cap o' RushesBatten^1898Rackham^1918Bettina^1959Baynes^1960Howard^1966Gill 1967241CatskinBatten1898Jacobs, Joseph (ed.),(1898)English Fairy Tales New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons,David Nutt.Illustrator:John D. BattenMotifs:Lady Catskin's son playing with beggar's child.Style: realistic - common; 1 illustration.242Catskin Rackham1918Steel, Flora Annie,(1930, orig. pub. 1918)English Fairy Tales New York, MacMillan.Illustrator:Arthur RackhamMotifs:Travelling in catskins with clothing in bundle.Age: teen; Height: average; Appearance of catskins: attractive cap, skinsarranged like a wrap; Expressions: resigned;Style:^realistic; 1 illustration.243CatskinKiddell-Monroe1954Reeves, James,(1954)English Fables and Fairy Tales London, OxfordUniv. Press.Illustrator:Joan Kiddell-MonroeMotifs:Travelling in catskins, with clothing in bundle, to fine new castle; Cookhitting Catskin with ladle.Age: teen / young woman; Height: average - tall; Appearance of catskins:indistinct, but formfitting like a dress; Expressions: mischievous smile,amused indulgence; Vestigial or borrowed motifs: riding off in carriage(presented in a different style - fairytale elegance) Styles: Fantasy,fairytale (colour plate), realistic - common. Stark, powerful, fluid, blackand white; 3 illustrations.244CatskinGill1967Jacobs, Joseph(ed.),^(1967)English Fairy TalesNew York, Dover.Illustrator:Margery GillMotifs:Cook dashing basin of water into Catskin's face.Expressions: Hands up in gesture of protection.Style: realistic - common; 1 illustration.245Cap^RushesBatten1898Jacobs, Joseph(ed.), (1898)English FairyTalesNew York, G.P.Putnam's Sons,David Nutt.Illustrator:John D. BattenMotifs:Standing in cap of rushes.Age: young woman; Height: average - tall; Appearance of cap of rushes:formless, crude, scarecrow-like; Style: realistic - common; 1 illustration.246Cap o' RushesRackham1918Steel, Flora Annie,(1930, orig. pub. 1918)English Fairy Tales New York, MacMillan.Illustrator:Arthur RackhamMotifs:Sitting, plaiting overall and cap of rushes.Age: young woman; Height: tall; Expressions: focussed, resigned;Style:^realistic; 1 illustration.247Cap^RushesBettina1959Haviland, Virginia(retold by JosephJacobs), (1959)FavoriteFairytales Told In England New York, Dutton.Illustrator:BettinaMotifs:Fleeing in cap of rushes, dancing with young lord, ill young lord in bedquizzing cook, revelation to blind father at wedding feast.Age: teen; Height: average; Appearance of cap of rushes: formless, dark,indistinct; Expressions: unhappy, smiling while dancing a merry jig,amused; Father: anguished at dinner; Vestigial or borrowed motifs:Three observers at dance, as per stepmother/stepsisters in Perrault;Style: fairytale; 4 illustrations.248Cap^RushesBaynes1960Williams-Ellis, Amabel,(1960)Fairy Tales From theBritish Isles New York, Frederick Warneand Co.Illustrator:Pauline Diana BaynesMotifs:Scraping saucepans in cap of rushes, father quizzing daughters, fleeingdance, revelation to father at wedding feast.Age: teen - young woman; Height: tall; Appearance of cap of rushes:coarsely woven, like burlap, with hood; Expressions: slight smile, slightlysatisfied, smiling; Father shown: questioning, and with stock tear atdinner; Vestigial or borrowed motifs: fleeing the dance;Style: fairytale, somewhat derivative of medieval tapestries;4 illustrations.249Cap^RushesHoward1966Lines, Kathleen, (1966)Tales of a Magic and Enchantment London, Faber and Faber.Illustrator:Alan HowardMotifs:Standing in cap of rushes.Age: teen; Height: average - tall; Appearance of cap of rushes: shapely,like leaves, with a wig; Vestigial or borrowed motifs: birds;Style: indistinct, pen and ink; 1 illustration.250Cap^RushesGill1967Jacobs, Joseph(ed.),^(1967)English Fairy TalesNew York, Dover.Illustrator:Margery GillMotifs:Standing in cap of rushes.Height: average; Appearance of cap of rushes: formless, very indistinct;Style: indistinct, pen and ink; 1 illustration.251REFERENCES - COMPARATIVE TALESBurnett, Frances Hodgson (1984). A Little Princess. London, Puffin.(Original work published in 1905).Grimm, Brothers (1981). Hansel and Gretel. (Illustrated by AnthonyBrowne). London, Julia MacRae Books.Hooks, William H. (1987). Moss Gown. (Illustrated by Donald Carrick).New York, Clarion.Perrault, Charles (1983). Cinderella. (Illustrated by Roberto Innocenti).Mankato, Minn., Creative Education.252BIBLIOGRAPHY - SECONDARY LITERATUREAarne, Antti and Thompson, Stith (1961). The Types of the Folktale: A Classification and Bibliography. Helsinkni, Helsingin LiikekirjapainoOy.Alderson, Brian (1978). (Translator) Afterword. In The Brothers Grimm:Popular Folk Tales, London, Gollancz.Ashliman, D.L. (1987). A Guide to Folktales in the English Lanaguage: Based on the Aarne-Thompson Classification System. New York,Greenwood.Bettleheim, Bruno (1975). Life divined from the inside. Cinderella. In TheUses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales.New York, Knopf.Bode, Dr. Andreas (1986). The International Youth Library. Orana, 22,4 - 1 5 .Briggs, Katharine M. (1970). A Dictionary of British Folk-Tales in theEnglish Language: Incorporating the F.J. Norton Collection.  Part A,Volume 1. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.Cianciolo, Patricia (1976). Illustrations in Children's Books, (SecondEdition). Dubuque, Brown.Cox, Marian Roalfe (1893). Cinderella: Three hundred and forty-five Variants of Cinderella. Catskin and Cap 0' Rushes. Abstracted andTabulated. with a Discussion of Mediaeval Analogues, and Notes.London, Published for the Folk-Lore Society by David Nutt.Darnton, Robert (1984). Peasants Tell Tales: The Meaning of MotherGoose. In The Great Cat Massacre. New York, Random House.Dundes, Alan (1982). Introduction. In Cinderella: a Casebook. Madison,University of Wisconsin Press.253Eastman, Mary Huse (1926). Index to Fairy Tales. Myths and Legends,(Second edition). Boston, F.W. Faxon.(1937). Supplement.(1952). Second Supplement.Ellis, John M. (1983). One Fairy Story too Many: The Brothers Grimm andTheir Tales. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.Hartland, Sidney (1982). Notes on Cinderella. In Dundes, op. cit. (Originalwork published in 1893).Hearne, Befsy (1988). Beauty And The Beast: Visions and Revisions of anOld Tale: 1950-1985. The Lion and The Unicorn: A Critical Journal ofChildren's Literature, 12(2), 74-111.Hemphill, John (1985). What Makes Magic? The Advocate. 4, 154-180.Hirsch, Marianne (1986). Ideology, Form, and "Allerleirauh": Reflections onReading for the Plot. Children's Literature, 14, 163-168.Ireland, Norma Olin (1973). Index to Fairy Tales, 1949-1972 IncludingFolklore. Legends and Myths in Collections, (Third supplement toEastman, op. cit.). Westwood, F.W. Faxon.^ (1979). Fourth Supplement.Jameson, R.D. (1982). Cinderella in China. In Dundes, op. cit. (Originalwork published in 1932).Manheim, Ralph (1977). Grimms' Tales for Young and Old. New York,Doubleday. (Translation of the seventh edition of Kinder-und Hausmarchen by J.L.K. Grimm and W.K. Grimm, 1857).MacDonald, Margaret Read (1982). The Storyteller's Sourcebook. Detroit,Neal-Schuman Publishers.Murphy, Shirley Rousseau (1977). Silver Woven in My Hair. New York,Atheneum.254Opie, Iona and Peter (1974). The Classic Fairy Tales. London, OxfordUniversity Press.Pellowski, Anne (1978). Pictures used with storytelling. School Library Journal, 24(7), 97-101.Pope, Alexander (1973). An Essay on Criticism. In Bredvold, McKillop andWhitney (Eds.), Eighteenth Century Poetry and Prose, New York,Ronald Press. (Original work published 1711).Purves, Alan & Beach, Richard (1972). Foreward. In Literature and the Reader. Urbana, National Council of Teachers of English.Rooth, Anna Birgitta (1951). The Cinderella Cycle. Lund, C.W.K. Gleerup.Saxby, Maurice (1979). Six hundred Cinderellas. In Through Folklore to Literature. Sydney, IBBY Australia.Schwarcz, Joseph H. (1982). Introduction. Interplay of the literal and thefigurative. Humiliation and urgency in two key scenes in Cinderella.In Ways of the Illustrator. Chicago, American Library Association.Schwarcz, Joseph H. (1991). Visual communication in picture books. InThe Picture Book Comes of Age. Chicago, American LibraryAssociation.Stewig, John Warren (1992). Learning to Look at Pictures. The Five Owls,(5), 70-71Tatar, Maria (1987). Preface. Sex & Violence. Fact & Fantasy. In TheHard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. Princeton, PrincetonUniversity Press.Tatar, Maria (1992). Rewritten by Adults: The Inscription of Children'sLiterature. Tyranny at Home: "Catskin" and "Cinderella". In Off WithTheir Heads: Fairytales and the Culture of Childhood. Princeton,Princeton University Press.255Taylor, Archer (1982). The study of the Cinderella cycle. In Dundes, op.cit. (Original work written in 1969, 1970).Yolen, Jane (1981). The eye and the ear. In Touch Magic. New York,Philomel.Zipes, Jack (1986). A Second Gaze at Little Red Riding Hood's Trials andTribulations. In Don't Bet on the Prince: Contemporary FeministFairy Tales in North America and England. New York, Routledge.Zipes, Jack (1988a). The Changing Function of the Fairy Tale. The Lion andThe Unicorn, 12, op. cit.Zipes, Jack (1988b). Semantic shifts of power in folk and fairy tales. InThe Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World.New York, Routledge.256APPENDIXAppendix A.^Discussion with Dr. ScherfUndertaking a simultaneous search for variations of three folktalesconcealed a design flaw in the research procedure. Specifically, theprocedures undertaken to locate Aschenputtel were so successful that theyreinforced the misguided effort to locate Catskin by using virtuallyidentical methods. The realization of the design flaw in the researchprocedures led to the realization that an interpretation derived from theliterature review was not a matter of academic consensus. Nevertheless,the broad reasons for choosing Catskin and Cap o' Rushes, as originallydeveloped, remained valid but in terms of the tighter focus that this studydeveloped any variant of the Cinderella cycle might have served as well.The understanding, and clarification, of these points came about as aresult of an interview and ongoing consultations with Dr. Walter Scherf.The following synthesis combines previous knowledge with theperceptions of Dr. Scherf, explains the initial mis-direction of the study andclarifies its eventual direction and purpose.The initial incorrect assumption seems to have been in consideringthe stories to be representative of separate tale types. That perceptionflowed logically out of the literature review. Marian Roalfe Cox's modelsubdivides the Cinderella tale into five variants, three of which aredesignated: Type A - Cinderella, Type B - Catskin, and Type C - Cap o'Rushes. R.D. Jameson's model allowed for a similar distinction in itscategory A.257A. A young girl is ill-treatedAl by her step-mother and step-sisters whoher; orA2 by her father who wishes to marry her ...;A3 by her father whom she tells she loves asand is driven from home; orA4 by her entire family who wish to kill her.are unkind toorshe loves saltAl parallels Aschenputtel, A2 Catskin, and A3 Cap o' Rushes.On the other hand, both the Anna Birgitta Rooth and the Antti-Aarne- Stith Thompson models lump Catskin and Cap o' Rushes together, theformer into a category B 1, the latter into tale type 510B. Dr. Scherf alsoviewed both tales as related. When asked to assign them to types he didnot consider either story to be representative of a type, but rather toembody many motifs associated with other types. He saw Catskin as avariation on Allerleirauh with analogies to Perrault's Donkey-Skin. He sawCap o' Rushes as a hybrid of Catskin, Aarne - Thompson tale type 510B,and Love Like Salt, type 923, with analogies to Grimm's Gansemagd (GooseMaid), Perrault's Putemagd (Turkey Maid). He referred to Cap o' Rushes asthe Suffolk King Lear.Whether or not the stories represent separate tale types, they are verydistinct tales. It seems they are generally considered to be of a typebecause they both feature protagonists who have had to leave home. Theylack step-sisters and, more substantially, they lack magic except for briefvestigial motifs. In both cases the girls choose to conceal their birth statusand choose_ to earn their way in the world. In keeping with the Cinderellacycle they both regain their birth status and marry well. This researcherviewed them as different, however, because of motivation and behaviors.Catskin fled from the prospect of a hateful marriage and is portrayedas witty. Cap o' Rushes is banished from home because of themisunderstood 'As much as fresh meat loves salt' response. She is also258portrayed as witty and her love of dancing is similar. Yet her behaviour isdifferent from Catskin's as she is disinterested in the young Lord - 'Youngmen don't die of broken hearts' - until her feelings are swayed by hisdejection.The second incorrect assumption was searching for analagous tales.This had not been done with Aschenputtel. Aschenputtel and Cinderellawere generally considered as examples of the same tale type although thisresearcher took issue with that grouping because the text of the two taleswas so substantially different that the protagonists' motivation could notbe considered to be the same. Furthermore, differences in illustrationcould not be attributed purely to the illustrator where the texts weresubstantially different. Therefore, this study was not really interested inanalogous tales, or definitive representations of a type, it was the intentionto compare variations in the illustrations of specific tales.Catskin and Cap o' Rushes were not considered separate tales by thewidely recognized Aarne - Thompson motif model, nor by Dr. Scherf andso they may not be, as had been inferred, representative of two majordivisions of the Cinderella tale type which had been one of the reasons fortheir inclusion. However, they had also been included because of theirtextual differences from Aschenputtel in order to form a comparison.Would the motivation or behaviors of these protagonists, in stories inwhich both their manifest and latent destinies are analogous to those ofAschenputtel/Cinderella's, result in illustrations which would reflectdifferently on their sense of self-determination? Catskin and Cap o' Rushesremained, therefore, appropriate tales for analysis.In something of an anti-climax, however, it became apparent thatjust as it had been resolved what was being looked for in these tales, and259why they were chosen, it was also apparent that this study wouldprobably not get at the question, just stated, that begged their inclusion.This study was focussed on the analysis of what are the visual conventions,what are the noteworthy exceptions to those conventions, and is theconcept of visual motifs even supported by the evidence of contentanalysis. The analysis of self-determination in illustrations would have tobuild on the base of this study and might well be another questionaltogether.260


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