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A comparative study of Arabic and Japanese Ellabban, Mona A. 1993

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY of ARABIC AND JAPANESEMona A EllabbanB.A. Cairo University, 1985.A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDEPARTMENT OF ASIAN STUDIESWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFebruary, 1993©Mona A Ellaban , 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of^)MD16The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate ^— DE-6 (2/88)AbstractThis thesis introduces and compares honorific systems, number, and gender of Arabic andJapanese. One of the purposes of this thesis is to introduce Japanese and Arabic from the viewpointsof each other. It is true that research has been done about each of them separately, but not much hasbeen done about them together. Thus, the topic of my thesis might be considered new to Japaneseand Arabic linguistics. Another purpose of this thesis is to be beneficial for both instructors andstudents of Arabic and Japanese, because it is always helpful to know about the language one islearning and/or teaching, as well as its culture.I have hypothesized that the Japanese honorific system would be confusing for Arab studentsbecause it is more complicated than the Arabic one. That is, Japanese honorific system is lexico-grammatical, while Arabic honorific system is mainly lexical. I have examined that, the Japanesehonorific system is hard for Arabs due to the following reasons: having various giving and receivingverbs, honorific and humble forms for verbs, neutral and honorific ones for some nouns, honorificadjectives, various kinds of imperatives, different levels of politeness, Japanese [in-group]/[out-group]social deixis and not having a subject present in Japanese sentence most of the time. On the otherhand, I have also pointed out that, there are some difficulties for Arabs when learning Japanesenumber and gender. They are: the ambiguity of Japanese nouns, verbs, and adjectives regardingnumber and gender, the use of different counters depending upon the objects to be counted, themixing of Sino-Japanese numerals with those of Japanese origin, and the distinction between maleand female speeches.I have also hypothesized that learning Arabic number and gender would be confusing for Japanesestudents. There are three numbers (singular, dual, and plural) and two genders (masculine andfeminine) in Arabic. Number and gender are marked in Arabic nouns and verbs requiring lots ofinflections, and this is not the case in Japanese. I have examined that having Arabic broken pluralthat is unpredictable makes Arabic number very confusing for Japanese, as well as having someIIexceptions to the rule of agreement in number and gender between subjects and verbs. Also, whatmakes it hard to learn Arabic gender, is having some nouns of tropical gender and some othersof common gender and the difficulties of distinguishing between the two, results in applying wrongagreements of subject/verb and noun/adjective agreements. The Arabic honorific system, on the otherhand, is not very hard for Japanese students to learn except the use of plural forms and the religiousinfluence on the language.111Table of ContentsAbstract^  iiAbbreviations  viiiAcknowledgment^  x1 Introduction I1.1 Background and Motivation for the Research Topic ^ 11.2 Adopted Presentation System^ 21.3 Main Topics of the Thesis 21.4 Thesis Outline ^ 42 Arabic Honorific 52.1 Introduction ^ 62.2 Plural Forms 72.3 Polite and Respectful Words ^ 122.4 Titles ^ 152.5 Polite Request ^ 242.6 Greetings 262.7 Sample Conversation ^ 372.8 Summary ^ 403 Japanese Honorific 443.1 Japanese Nominals ^ 443.1.1^Honorific nouns 443.1.2^Honorific Prefixes o- and go- ^ 453.1.3 Honorific Suffixes -san and -sama 45iv3.2 Honorific and Humble Verbs ^ 463.2.1 Honorific Verbs 463.2.2 Humble Verbs ^ 483.3 Imperatives ^ 493.3.1 Affirmative Imperative^ 503.3.2 Negative Imperative 523.4 Adjectives ^ 533.5 Giving and Receiving Verbs ^ 543.6 Desu-masu Style^ 583.7 Sample Conversations 583.7.1 Sample Conversation #1^ 593.7.1.1 Honorific Style 593.7.1.2 Plain Style ^ 593.7.13 Honorific Arabic Translation^ 603.7.1.4 Plain Arabic Translation 603.7.2 Sample Conversation #2^ 633.7.2.1 Honorific Style 633.7.2.2 Plain Style ^ 633.7.23 Honorific Arabic Translation^ 643.7.2.4 Plain Arabic Translation 653.73 Sample Conversation #3^ 673.73.1 Honorific style 673.73.2 Plain Style ^ 683.733 Honorific Arabic Translation^ 683.73.4 Plain Arabic Translation 693.7.4 Sample Conversation #4^ 713.7.4.1 Honorific Style 713.7.4.2 Plain Style ^ 713.7.4.3 Honorific Arabic Translation^ 723.7.4.4 Plain Arabic Translation 723.7.5 Sample Conversation #5^ 743.7.5.1 Honorific Style 743.7.5.2 Plain Style ^ 753.7.5.3 Honorific Arabic Translation^ 763.7.5.4 Plain Arabic Translation 763.7.6 Sample Conversation #6^ 773.7.6.1 Polite Style 783.7.6.2 Plain Style ^ 793.7.6.3 Arabic Polite Translation ^ 803.7.6.4 Arabic Plain Translation 813.8 Summary ^ 864 Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic^ 894.1 Number and Gender in Japanese^ 894.1.1 Japanese Number ^ 894.1.1.1 Japanese Noun 894.1.1.2 Japanese Adjective ^ 954.1.1.3 Japanese Verb 954.1.2 Japanese Gender ^ 964.1.2.1 Japanese Noun 964.1.2.2 Japanese Adjective ^ 994.1.2.3 Japanese Verb  100vi4.2 Number and Gender in Arabic ^  1044.2.1 Arabic Number ^  1044.2.1.1 Arabic Noun  1044.2.1.2 Arabic Adjective ^  1094.2.1.3 Arabic Verb  1104.2.2 Arabic Gender^  1204.2.2.1 Arabic Noun  1204.2.2.2 Arabic adjective^  1224.2.2.3 Arabic Verb  1244.3 Summary ^  1255 Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and Japanese^ 1305.1 Honorifics ^  1305.1.1 Predicted Japanese mistakes with Arabic Honorific System ^ 1305.1.2 Predicted Arabs mistakes with Japanese Honorific System  1315.2 Number and Gender ^  1345.2.1 Predicted Japanese mistakes with Arabic Number and Gender ^ 1355.2.2 Predicted Arabs' mistakes with Japanese Number and Gender  1385.3 Summary ^  1396 Concluding Remarks 1416.1 Summary of the work ^  1416.1.1 Japanese Language Peculiarities ^  1416.1.2 Arabic Language Peculiarities  1426.1.3 Japanese and Arabic Similarities ^  1426.2 Future Research Directions ^  143Bibliography^ 144I Appendix A Arabic Alphabets^ 148viiAbbreviationsThe following abbreviations are used throughout the thesis:Abbreviation Meaningacc.^accusative case (noun)conjunc.^conjunctiondat. dativefern.^feminineF.M. feminine gender markergen.^genitive case (noun)hon. honorificH.P.^honorific prefixH.S. honorific suffiximp., inaper.^imperativeindicat.^indicative (verb)inf. informallit.^literallyJap. Japanesejus.^jussive (verb)masc. masculineneg.^negativenom. nominative (noun)O.M.^object markerpl. pluralP.S.^plural suffixS. sentencesing.^singularS.M. subject markersubjunc.^subjunctive (verb)viiiT.M.^topic markerVOS verb, object, subjectVSO^verb, subject, objectixAcknowledgmentI would like to express my deep thanks and gratitude to my research supervisor, Prof. MatsuoSoga, for his guidance and supervision throughout my study. He helped me in selecting the topic ofmy M.A. thesis, and encouraged me to do it in relation to Arabic, my mother tongue. He inspired andencouraged me throughout the entire process of writing this thesis. Without his helpful suggestions,patience and time, I could not have completed the thesis in this final form.I would like to greatly thank Prof. Hanna Kassis for his time and for teaching me about myown language through our beneficial discussions. I also thank him for reviewing the Arabic of thethesis and providing me with helpful research materials.My appreciations also to my late father, who loved me deeply and whom I wanted to be proudof me today and my closest friend and mother for the good life she provided me, for trusting,encouraging and believing in me and for being always there for me. My thanks are also due to mybrother Sherif, who has always believed in me and has always been enthusiastic and proud of me.I also thank all my teachers in Egypt, Japan and Canada for assistance throughout my studentlife, my Egyptian friends in Canada for their moral support, concerns and helping me in many waysand to all the Arab friends who shared with me their ideas of the Arabic honorific system.To my little girl Miriam I give my thanks for the blessing and joy that came to my life withher, and for giving me the chance to observe her learning the language, applying her rules, makingher generalizations and also making her mistakes.Finally, my deep thanks go to my husband Ashraf, for his unlimited support, his encouragementand his belief in me. He has read the various versions of this thesis and has extended assistancein many ways. Our discussions in general have always been helpful, especially those about Arabic.Without his understanding, love and patience, I could never have been able to complete my thesisin its present form.Chapter 1: IntroductionChapter 1Introduction1.1 Background and Motivation for the Research TopicAs a native speaker of Arabic, learning Japanese language and culture was very challenging andinteresting. It was also very different to learn Japanese in that part of the world, Egypt, that is veryclose to Europe with a strong influence. It was, and still is, very common and popular for Arabs tolearn English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Hebrew, Persian or even Russian.Needless to say, the two languages, Arabic and Japanese, are very different and their cultures arepeculiar to each other. Maybe that is why I have always enjoyed learning more and more about boththe language and culture of Japan. Since the very beginning, I have always been doing comparisonsin my mind. As soon as I started to learn how to write Japanese, I compared writing. Arabic iswritten from right to left. Japanese is the same when written vertically, but it is from left to right,as in English, when written horizontally.In this thesis, I have chosen to do comparisons between the subjects that I thought would bemost confusing for both Arab students of Japanese and Japanese students of Arabic. In learningJapanese, the most difficult and confusing subject, for myself as well as for my colleagues, wasthe honorific system. For Japanese students of Arabic, number and gender would be the subjectsin which confusion might arise. I came to know this from communicating with some Japanesewho have studied Arabic. Also from my experience in teaching Arabic, both literary and colloquialArabic of Egypt, to some Japanese in Japan and Egypt, and also I may say that English speakerssometimes share having the same difficulties in learning Japanese as the Arab students. In suchcases, I intend to mention my predictions of some of English speakers' difficulties throughout thethesis. My experience as a teaching assistant in Japanese at both beginner and intermediate levels atUBC, as well as observations of some Japanese classes have helped me in recognizing some of theconfusing subjects for English students of Japanese.1Chapter I: Introduction1.2 Adopted Presentation SystemThe Arabic that is going to be used in this thesis is the literary Arabic (written Arabic), whichis understood throughout the Arab world. By contrast, the colloquial Arabic varies from one countryto another, even from one city or village to another.The transliteration system of the Library of Congress as outlined in Bulletin 91 (September,1970) of the Cataloging Service will be adopted. It is believed to be the most acceptable system andthe most respectable and the most widely used method in transliterating Arabic.Contrary to the convention according to which the diacritical endings are not transcribed, Ishall indicate these endings. The purpose behind this is simply to facilitate for the non-Arabist therecognition of the vocalic change that take place in a word (verb or noun) as it moves from onecase to another (nouns) or one tense, mood or voice to another (verbs). However, Arabic titles ofbooks are excluded from the above rule. Showing the diacritical ending is important, especiallywhen Arabic is written in its own alphabets, because it helps in distinguishing meaning as well asrecognizing constituent of a given sentence such as subject, object, adjective, adverb, etc.Japanese sentences will be written in the Roman alphabets, not in the phonological writingbecause the latter is not essential for the discussion of this thesis. In doing so, I think it will also beeasier for readers with non-linguistic background as well as for those with no pervious knowledgeof Japanese language. Throughout the discussions in the thesis, explanations of various phonologicalchanges and/or underlying and surface structure will be provided, unless they are outside the scopeof the thesis. For example, that -hon (counter for long cylindrical object) appears on the surface as-hon, -bon or -pon will not necessarily be discussed. The research method of this thesis is comparingthe two languages item by item through introduction of honorific system, number and gender systemsof Arabic and Japanese1.3 Main Topics of the ThesisThe main topics of my thesis, I believe, are new that not much research, from constructive pointof view, has been done about. They deal with some important subjects of both languages Arabic and2Chapter I: IntroductionJapanese. The following summarizes the main topics:1. Peculiarities of Japanese:a. Japanese honorific system and its lexico-grammatical nature.b. The subject/verb agreement for honorifics.c. Passive forms, used as respect language.d. Imperatives, and their honorific counterparts.e. Giving and receiving verbs.f. Greetings and weather expressions.g. Japanese counters.h. Male and female speeches.2. Peculiarities of Arabic:a. Arabic honorific system and its lexical nature.b. Religious influence on the language.c. Arabic number system and gender system.d. Nouns and verbs in relation to number and gender.e. Subject in Arabic sentences.3. Similarities of the two languages:a. Similar conditions for the use of honorific.b. Avoiding the use of second person pronoun.c. Formalities in public situations.d. Over-use of politeness is considered as insult or criticism.The comparisons indicate that Arab students would face more difficulties in the area of Japanesehonorifics, while Japanese students would find learning the Arabic number and gender systems con-fusing. Students and instructors of both languages could benefit from predicted students' difficultiesand expected mistakes presented in the thesis. The contrastive study of the thesis emphasized cross3Chapter I: Introductioncultural differences that play a very important role in teaching or learning any foreign language. Thatis, difficulties do not rely on structural differences only, but also, on the uniqueness of each culture.1.4 Thesis OutlineIn the following three chapters, my predictions of the difficulties that would face Japanesestudents and Arab students learning Arabic and Japanese respectively will be discussed together withmy reasons or explanations. To clarify the students difficulties and their degrees, there will be oneor two charts at the end of each chapter following the summary section, recapturing the points of mydiscussions throughout the chapters. The thesis is organized as follows:• In Chapter 2, Arabic honorific system will be introduced. There will be comparisons betweenJapanese and Arabic whenever comparable cases exist. For example, Japanese titles and greetingexpressions are introduced here and compared with the Arabic counterparts in the same chapter.• In Chapter 3, the incomparable cases that are peculiar to Japanese will be introduced, such ashonorific and humble verb forms, different levels of imperatives and giving and receiving verbs,etc.• Chapter 4 will be dealing with number and gender of both languages, providing comparisonsbetween nouns, adjectives and verbs.• Chapter 5 presents my prediction of ungrammatical and/or unacceptable sentences made bystudents of both languages.• Chapter 6 captures the conclusions of my thesis.• Appendix A provides information about Arabic alphabets and vowel system, etc. This is providedhere to facilitate, for non-Arabists, a general introduction of Arabic.4Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificChapter 2Arabic HonorificIn this chapter, Arabic honorific system will first be introduced for the purpose of comparison withits Japanese counterpart. Five rules for showing respect or politeness in Arabic will be explained.These are as follows:1. Plural forms2. Polite and respectful words3. Titles4. Polite request5. GreetingsSome comparisons between Arabic and Japanese honorific system will be made. For example,in the section that introduces Arabic titles, a Japanese chart for words used for family members andsome titles given by Soga, 1978, will be used for comparison. After the introduction of the five rules,a sample conversation taken from one of the short stories of Najib Maijfte entitled "al-Muqabalahal-Siimiyah (the distinguished meeting)" will be given as well as the English translation, of course.The polite expressions and titles used in the conversation will be examined in details.It is very interesting to notice and to know that Arabic grammar books used in schools, suchas Kite7b al-Nahw "the book of grammar", 1988 -1990 and al-Qawnd al -Asiisiyyah ft. al-Nahw wa-1Sad' "the basic rules of grammar and syntax" do not have a section for Arabic honorifics. Nor dothe books of Arabic grammar such as Wright's 1971, Wicken's 1980 and Malumid liasstm's 1985.So, one might ask how do Arabs learn their expressions of respect. The answer is that they learnthem indirectly. Firstly, of course, at home for the colloquial language. Secondly, at school incommunicating with their teachers, etc. Thirdly, from newspapers, magazines, books and TV andother means of public communication. So, although there is no separate chapter or section aboutArabic honorifics in grammar books, most of the rules of politeness are spread throughout books inthe formal and polite style used in writing.i^Najib Magri; is an Egyptian writer who won Noble prize in 19885Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificIn fact, the same may also be said about English honorifics. There is not much emphasis onteaching English honorific expressions as a separate topic by itself. English speakers learn themindirectly in a way very similar to that of the Arabs.Data used in this chapter was gathered from the following sources:1. I have gathered the data from some verses of the Koran, the Islamic holy book and one ofthe most important references for Arabic grammar. It may be safely said that the earliest, andtherefore the primary, text of Arabic is the Koran (Hanna 'Cassis, 1990).2. I have also reviewed some articles and interviews written in newspapers and magazines suchas al-Ahrlim and al-Akhbärdaily newspapers, .Sablitt al-Khair and Uktfibar weekly magazines,al-shumac monthly magazine and Kited)^monthly book, etc.3. Some data also come from famous Arab writers such as Najrb Malftz, Ihsän cAbdul Quddas,Yasuf Idris, Yasuf al -Sibacr and Ants Mangan4. I have also asked native speakers of Arabic from Egypt, Palestine, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria andSyria. The formal standard Arabic is used and understood all over the Arab world. However,the colloquial one is not (Hanna Kassis, 1990 and 1992).2.1 IntroductionNeustup4, 19782 says that honorifics are no more than one of the modes of communicationof politeness and together with nonverbal etiquette and speech etiquette, they constitute what iscalled politeness sector. He also gives the use of the English auxiliary on the one hand like "wouldyou . . . "or "may I . . . "etc. and titles on the other hand as examples that fulfil the same functionas honorific3 .To show respect or politeness in Arabic, there are many ways such as:1. PLURAL FORMS that are similar to French "tu (you, sing.)Ivous (you, p1.)"4, although their usein Arabic is slightly different as will be explained later.2^Fo.3 P.1924^For the benefit of some readers who may not know French, the following explanation is provided: In French, your (you, pl.) is oftenused instead of lu (you, sing.) with people that towards whom one does not feel endearment and/or with those whom one is being polite.6Chapter 2: Arabic Honorific2. POLITE AND RESPECTFUL WORDS that are used together with or instead of the pronounanta (you, sing.). For example siyadat-u-ka (your lordship), sacadat-u-ka (your Excellency), etc.3. TITLES: As has been mentioned above, the use of the right title is one of the ways for showingrespect. Arabic has lots of titles such as sayyid (Mr. or master), sayyid-ah (Mrs.), and shaykh(Sheikh; an old man, a religious figure or a man of wisdom).4. POLITE REQUEST: Arabic has many words or expressions that are used with the imperative toexpress polite request, and they are similar to Japanese "kudasai", English "please" and French"Si '1 vous plais".5. GREETINGS: In any language, as Neustupn5 states5, greetings occupy a central position inspeech to communicate politeness and are clearly linked with non-verbal systems of salutation.This is also true of Arabic where greetings play an important role in shaping rules of politeness.The above-mentioned rules will now be studied in details to show when they can, or cannotbe used.2.2 Plural FormsAs mentioned earlier, the use of plural forms for politeness in Arabic is similar to French"tu/vous". They are similar in using plural forms of the verbs instead of the logical singular forms,with a superior addressee for the sake of politeness. However, there are some differences. Thesecome from the fact that in Arabic, plural forms are not used with all levels of superiority. Theiruse also varies according to which form is being used, written form or spoken form. For example,in conversation, they are not used with school teachers or university professors although they areconsidered superiors. One can respect one's teacher or superior by using the right title or choosing theappropriate polite words, etc. The reason that plural forms are not used with those people could bethat although they are [+superior], they could also be [+in-group] who share features like [+socializingfriends], [+long standing co-workers], etc. However, plural forms are used with them in writing as5^P. 1967Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificin letters for example. In this case, they are considered [+out-group] and very common expressionsand greetings for formal and official letters will be used. For example:Example 1Wa tafrifejal-ii^bi-qabal-i^feilq-i^al-ilitiram-i.and do the favour of-(you pl. masc.)^with-acceptance-(gen)^excellent-(gen)^the-respect-(gen)Please accept the utmost respect.Notice that tafa(Pfal-a in which -a indicates the plural, has been used instead of the logicaltafacklal (sing. masc.) or tafaddal-r (sing. fem.) that is used with singular second person. Thus, theuse of the plural instead of the singular is what shows respect.In fact, even between very close friends, when it comes to writing letters some kind of formalityhas to be present. This could be due to the fact that physical distance between participants isevaluated in the same way as social distance. For example, writing the person's name and addresson an envelop, one is usually formal. The situation now is public. It is not between two persons,the sender and the receiver any more, but it is now in public and one has to keep the appropriatetitles. This rule applies also to Japanese in some way because no matter how informal a letter itselfmay be, its exterior has to be formal by using -sama (Mr., Mrs. or Miss). However, there are someexceptions such as the use of the informal -chan instead of the formal -san or -sama, although -chanand -san are not used for address on an envelop. Arabs use more than one title together with oneor more adjectives as will be discussed below.Before we continue, it should be mentioned that this use of plural expressions is found in theKoran. In the Koran, there are many verses that God speaks of Himself using plural forms. Thisdoes not indicate having more than one God as some people might incorrectly think or interpret.8Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificRather, the purpose and the interpretation of such use of plural forms is for people to respect, honor,admire and fear God, as in the following example:Example 2a. Wa wassay-na^al-insan-a^bi-walid-ay-hi^ihsean-an6.and enjoin(past)-we^the-man-(acc.)^to-father-(dual-gen)-his(gen)^kindness-ace.(lit.) And we have enjoined on man kindness to his parents.I, the Almighty, have enjoined on man kindness to his parents.b. Wa anzal-na^min^al-sama' -i^ma'-an,and send down (past)-we^from^the-sky-(gen.)^water-(acc.)(lit.) And we sent down rain from the sky,And I, the Almighty, sent down rain from the sky,fa-anbat-na^ft-ha^min kull- i^zawj-in^karim - in.7so-produce(past)-we^in-it^in^every-(gen)^pair-(gen)^noble-(gen)(lit.) And we produced on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairsand I, the Almighty, produced on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs.Notice the verbs wagay-na (we enjoined), anzal-na (we sent down) and anbat-na (we produced)have been used in the above example instead of the singular counterparts wassay-tu (I enjoined),anzal-tu (I sent down) and anbat-tu (I produced), respectively.The use of plural forms in Arabic is considered one of the highest levels of formality. Theseplural forms are found in the Koran, as well as in the Torah. In both, God refers to Himself by theplural to keep the distance between God and humans. The group that is implied by plural formsdoes not indicate the familiarity, the informality and the closeness that individuals might have. Plural6^Koran 46:157^Koran 31:109Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificforms are very respectful because they imply the power and solidarity of the group, the things thatone person alone could never have. There is a well known Arabic saying that shows how stronglyArabs feel about the power of the group. The saying is "al-kathrat-u taghlib-u al-shajdah" whichliterary means that solidarity overcomes courage. So, using plural forms when addressing a singleperson is meant for giving that person the power and the respect that the united and powerful groupdeserve. Although the use of plural forms for respect does not exist in Japanese, conditions for theuse of honorific seems to be rather similar to that in Arabic.Now back to the situations in which plural forms are used for the sake of respect or formality.They can be used in the following situations:1. In a very formal situation such as addressing a king, an emperor, a royal family member, apresident or an embassador in both spoken and written forms. For example, to address one ofthe above mentioned groups, one would say:Qad dhakar-tum^ ft Oath-in^sabiq-in^anna . . .mention(past)-you (pl. masc.)^in^talk-(gen.)^before-(gen.)^that . . .You have mentioned before that .In the above, the plural form dhakar-tum (you(pl.) mentioned) has been used instead of dhakar-ta(you(sing. mentioned) for the sake of exalting.2. In formal writing and/or for media interviews with one of the above groups or with respectfuland/or famous people with special expertise such as a famous linguist or professor, a well knownwriter or a cabinet minister, etc. For example, the following statements are used:Madhä kan-a shucar-u-kum cindawhat is(past)-he feeling-(nom.)-your(pl.masc.) at the time ofsamdc-i-kum bi-naba'-i al-fawz-i?hearing-(gen.)-your(pl.masc.) of-news-(gen.) the-winning-(gen.)What was your feeling like when you first heard of the winning?10Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificNotice that in this case, the plural form shucar-u-kum (your feeling) and samcr-i-lcum (yourhearing) are used instead of the singular counterparts shucar-u-ka and sanur-i-ka respectively.I have noted before that plural forms are used with a very high level of superiority. Yet, Iwrote that they are to be used in media interviews with a group of people that I have excludedpreviously. The explanation for this is that media interviews are meant for the public. Hence, ithas to be formal with high level of politeness involved. So, privately, plural forms are not used.Plural forms can also be used in job interviews, only if the interviewer is a very superior person.3. In giving orders or making decisions. For example, kings or emperors might say:Qarrar-na^nahnu^al-malik-u^andeciede(past) -we^we^the-king-(nom.)^thatnusa-yyn-a-ka^ wazi-r-an.we-appoint-(subjunc.)-you(sing. masc.)^minister-(acc.)I, the king, have decieded to appoint you as a minister.(Lit.) we, the king, have decieded on appointing you as a minister.In this example, although the king is one person, and logically the singular first personal pronounis to be used, he uses nahnu (we) instead of and (I). Also he uses the verbs qarrar-nti (we decided)and nusayyn-a-ka (we appoint you) instead of qarrar-tu (I decided) and "usayyn-a-ka (I appointyou) respectively. This is not ungrammatical because it is functioning as one of the polite styles.This is known as the plurali majestatis (plural of majesty) which is used by or about the king orqueen. Thus, the queen says: "We, Elizabeth, . . . "not "I, Elizabeth, . . . " .4. For humble reasons, instead of saying "I did" or "I accomplished", one would say "we did" or"we accomplished". The reason is because the use of anCt (I) may imply that one is bragging orbeing arrogant. Using the same form for both polite and humble reasons is common. A similarsituation exists in Japanese. For example, the Japanese copula desu has two polite forms; degozaimasu and de irasshaimasu, but the de gozaimasu form could be used for both polite andhumble forms (see Soga 1978 and Okada 1954).11Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificThe last point to mention here is that in Arabic the over-use of honorifics or polite style results incriticism or insults. For example, using plural forms that are considered one of the highest levelsof formality with a member of one's own family or a close friend would be strange and the personspoken to would be surprised with this unnecessary formality. Hence, this person would think that thewhole situation is funny, sarcastic and/or meant for insults or criticism. The same could be said aboutJapanese. For example, using honorific or humble forms of verbs or respectful titles with or aboutsomeone of the speaker's [in-group] members instead of the logical informal forms would make theperson uncomfortable, knowing that he is being made fun of or being kept psychologically "far away".Observe the following example in which Hanako is one of the [in-group] members of the speaker:Example 3* Hanako-sama^o-genki^de irassaimasu ka?Hanako-(H.S.)^(H.P.)-0.K.^are(honorific) interrogativeHanako, how are you? (intended for in-group members)2.3 Polite and Respectful WordsThere are some polite words and expressions that are used together with, or instead of, anta(you, sing. masc.) or anti (you, sing. fern.). Most of these words are quite formal. However, someof them could be used with older family members such as one's parents, aunts and uncles or withfriends' parents etc. These words, like other Arabic verbs, nouns and adjectives, are marked fornumber and gender. In the following example, some of the polite words that are used with a singularmodel addressee (second person) are listed:Example 4a. Siytidat-u-ka^ a-1 Scillib-u^al-siyadat-ilorelship(fem.)-(nom.)-your(sing. masc.)^owner of-(nom.)^the-mastery(fem.)-(gen.)you sir^ his lordship12Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificb. Macalr-ka^ b-1^Sahib-u^al-macalrhigh-your (sing. masc.)^ owner of-(nom.)^the-highyour highness his highnessc. Fakhamat-u-ka^ c- 1 Sahib-u^al-fakMinat-imagnificence(fem.)-(nom.)-your(sing. masc.)^owner of-(nom.)^the-magnificence(fem.)-(gen.)your Excellency^ his Excellencyd. Sac Mat-u -kafelicity(fem.)-(nom.)-your(sing. masc.)your Excellencye. liadrat-u-kapresence(fem.)-(nom.)-your(sing. masc.)your presenced-1 Stihib -u^al-saclidat-iowner of-(nom.)^the-felicity(fem.)-(gen.)his Excellencye-1 Sahib-u^al-hadrat-iowner of-(nom.)^the-presence(fem.)-(gen.)his presenceAll the words in the above example are very formally used, in both spoken and written forms,with very respectful superiors such as those mentioned in the previous section. These words can alsobe used in their plural forms for a higher level of respect or formality. However, the word luzdrat-u-ka(your presence) in the above example is commonly used with parents and older people in general.Although it is not quite the same, using these respectful words instead of or together with theArabic second personal pronoun anta (you, masc. sing.) is similar to using Japanese donata (who)instead of dare (who) as a more respectful alternative as the following examples show:13Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificExample 5a. ? Anata^wa^dare^desu ka.you^T.M. who^are^interrogativeWho are you?b. (Anata wa)^donata desu ka.you^T.M.^who^are^interrogativeWho are (you)?Example 6a. man^anta?who youWho are you?b. man^tiadrat-u-ka?who^presence(fem.)-(nom.)-your(sing. masc.)Who are you?With the use of donata (who) in Japanese and hadrat-u-ka(your presence) in Arabic, we gethigher level of politeness as Examples (5) and (6) indicate. Unlike Japanese, English and French, itis not necessary in Arabic to have a copula present in the sentence. However, notice that Japanesedoes not use anata (you) for polite or respect purposes. Similarly, Arabic does not use anta (you,masc., sing.) for the same purpose. Instead, the addressee's name followed by the right title is used14Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificin both languages. For example, a student speaking to his teacher would use the sentence in Example(7-a) instead of the one in (7-b).Example 7a. Tanaka -sensei^wa ashita^gakkoo e irasshaimasu^ka.^teacher^T.M. tomorrow school^to come (honorific)^interrogativeMr. Tanaka, are you coming to school tomorrow?b. * Anata^wa^ashita^gakkoo^e^irasshaimasu^ka.you^T.M.^tomorrow^school^to^come (honorific)^interrogative* Are you coming to school tomorrow? (intended for professor Tanaka)2.4 TitlesChoosing the right title for addressee and referent is a way of showing politeness or respect.Similar to Japanese honorific suffixes -san or -sama (Mr., Mrs. or Miss.) or sensei (used for teachers,lawyers, physicians, etc.), Arabic uses proper titles. Arabic titles are marked for number and genderas in the following example:Example 8a. sayyid (Mr.)a-1^Said-ah (Mrs.)Mr.-F.M.b. sayyid-T (Sir)Mr.-myb- 1^sayyid-at-T (Madam)Mr.-(fem.)-my15Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificc. shaykh (An old man or a religious figure or a master of a field of knowledge)c-1^shaykh-ah (An old woman)old man-F.M.d. rajul (man)d- 1^imra'-ah (woman)person-F.M.e. hajj (Pilgrim, also used for older man)e- 1^hajj-ah (Pilgrim, also used for older woman)pilgrim-F.M.f. abib (physician, male). Also Duknir (male doctor, loan word)f-1^tabrb-ah (physician, fem.). Also Dukair-ah (female doctor, loan word)physician-F.M.g. muhandis (engineer, male)g-1^muhandis -ah (engineer, fem.)engineer-F.M.h. bik (Mr.)8h- 1^afandr (Mr)g^both words in (h) and (h-1) are loan words of l'uridsh origin that are widely used16Chapter 2: Arabic Honorifici.^unun -u + given name (the mother of . . . )mother-(nom.)1- 1^ab-u + given name (the father of . . . )father-(nom.)J.^bint-u + given name (the daughter of . . . )daughter-(nom.)j-1^ibn -u + given name (the son of . . . )son-(nom.)Very often adjectives such as al-fachl (the-honorable) and al-muhtaram (the-respectable) are usedtogether with the above mentioned titles, such as al-sayyid al-fa4i1 and al-sayyid al-muhtaram. Tothe best of my knowledge, such a use of double honorific titles cannot be found in Japanese. Theclosest approximation is sensei-sama, but this may even be considered sub-standard. It is noteworthythat there are no limitations for the use of titles in Arabic, in both conversation and writing. Forexample, in letter writing, one could write as many titles as he wants. Not only could he write thesetitles in letters, but also on envelops, such as:Al-sayyid-u^al-ustaz-u^al-fa4U-uthe-Mr.-nom.^the-Mr.-nom.^the-honorable-nom.al-muhtaram-u^al-muhandis-u^al-wajr-u^cali-uthe-respectful-nom.^the-engineer-nom.^the-minister-nom.^Ali-nom.Although Arabic rule of having a group of adjectives and titles mixture before the person'sname does not seem to have comparable cases in Japanese, I do not think that the Japanese studentslearning Arabic would find this particularly difficult. This is because the multiple titles are simplyjuxtaposed without any particular structure. I assume, however, that they would rather find it strange.I assume that although they will learn Arabic titles and adjectives and they will be capable of using17Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificthem, the students will tend not to use as many as Arabs do since they are not used to that in theirown language. They may feel that using one or two titles is sufficient.Although Japanese and Arabic have their differences or peculiarities, they do share keeping theuse of proper titles when addressing a superior or even an older member of the person's [in-group].In fact, some Japanese use the honorific marker -san even with friends or colleagues. Thus, I thinkthat Japanese people would be surprised, just as I was when I first came to North America, to findthat in this part of the world many people often call their teachers and older people by their firstnames without titles. I presume that they would try to avoid the use of the person's name as asolution. I felt the same way because I could not think at the time that it was appropriate to doso, even if it was acceptable.In case of talking about someone, al- (the) is attached to the beginning of the title, as shownin Example (9).Example 9a. allabfb-u^yfisuf-u^hat/oar-a.the-doctor-(nom.)^(given name)-(nom.)^come(past)-(he)Dr. Yusuf came.b. al-half-at-14^ samTr-at-uthe-old man-(fem.)-(nom.)^(given name)-(fem.)-(nom.)markkat-un.9sick-(fem.)-(nom.)The old woman, Samira, is sick.When talking to an addressee, the vocative particle ya (oh) could be used with the above titlesas in Example 10-a and chart in Example 11.9^In Arabic, the indefinite nouns take what is called in Arabic tanwin, which means doubling of the vowels to give an effect of "thevowel plus nasal n". So, we get un, an and In for nominative, accusative and genitive cases respectively. However, I will not provide anyfurther explanation about this point since it is outside the scope of this thesis.18Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificIt is very common in Arabic to call people with their first son's or daughter's names saying "thefather of. .. "or "the mother of . . . ". Similarly, it is also common to call the son or daughter byreference to the father: "the son of . . . "and "the daughter of . . . "as in the following example:Example 10a. Yã unun-a^shatf-in^ismac - T.Oh mother of-(acc.)^(given name)-(gen.)^listen(imp., jus.)-you (sing. fern.)Oh mother of Sharif, listen.a- 1^Hadar-a^ab - fi^Ashraf- i.come (past)-(he)^father of-(nom.)^(given name)-(gen.)The father of Ashraf came.b. Wa^atay-nd^cad^ibn -a^matyam -a^al-baiyyinät- i.10and^give(past)-we Jesus^son of-(acc.)^Mary-(acc.)^the-clear signs -(acc.)and we gave Jesus, the son of Mary, clear signs.b-1 Wa^mwyam -a^ibn -at-a^cimran- -a^allati . 11and^Mary-(acc.)^son of-(fem.)-(acc)^Imran-(acc.)^who(sing. fern.) . . .And Mary, the daughter of Imran, who . . .The above phenomenon is very peculiar to Arabic. It has been used widely even in the jahiliyyahperiod (before Islam), almost 1400 years ago. Interestingly enough, it may be used even when theperson's first name is not known, especially in the case of "the father of . . . "or "the mother of . . . ".For instance, if a man or a woman have been introduced and/or known as abet Zayd- in (the father ofZayd) and umm-a Zayd-in (the mother of Zayd), they will be called by these titles as if they are their10^Koran 2:8711^Koran 66:1219Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificnames. In most cases, people would not think that it is necessary to know their given names. This isbecause people would, most likely, still use "the father of Zayd" and "the mother of Zayd" anyway.The use of the expressions mentioned above is meant for respect and they are used in speech as wellas in writing. There are, however, some other aspects that have to be put into consideration. The useof these expressions varies according to the place (rural or urban), the age and the sex. For example,the expressions are more commonly used in the countryside than in the cities, informally more thanformally. Also, this varies from one Arab country to another. They are also used more with olderpeople, especially women, who prefer not to be called by their first names. Generally speaking, olderpeople would prefer being entitled with the "mother of . . . "or the "father of . . . "which showsthat the speaker is proud of their children as well as showing respect. I think that this style of titlesin Arabic would cause some difficulties to Japanese learning Arabic. Not in the formation of theseexpressions, but rather in their usage. For example, when, where and with whom they should beused. This point will be further discussed in Chapter 5.The following charts list the words used with family members and some relatives as well as someprofessional titles in Arabic. The chart is so presented that it will be compared with the Japanesechart in Soga, 1978.20Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificExample 11ARABIC CHARTPOLITE FAMILIAR VOCATIVEfather al-wdlid12 willid-T yd wdlid-Tfather al-ab ab-r yd ab-Tmother al-wdlid-ah wdlid-at-T yd wdlid-at-Tmother al-umm umm-T yd umm-Tbrother al-akh akh-T yd akh-T or given namesister al-ukht ukht-T yd ukht-T or given nameson al-ibn or al-najl ibn-r yd ibn-r or given namedaughter al-ibn-ah or al-karim-ah ibn-at-r yd ibn-at-r or given nameuncle (mother side) al-khdl khal-T yd klull-Taunt (mother side) al-khdl-ah khdl-at-r yd khdl-at-runcle (father side) al-camm camm-t yd camm-raunt (father side) al-camm-ah catrun-at-T yd camm-at-rbrothers al-ikhwah ikhwat-T yd ikhwat-rsisters al-akhawdt akhawdt-7 yd akhawdt-Thusband al-zawj zawj-r yd given name oryd aba older child's namewife al-zawj-ah, al-tiaram oral-qarrn -ahzawj-at-T yt7 given name oryd umma older child's namefamily al-ahl ahl-rparents al-wdlid-ayni wdlid-ay-yadoctor (male) al-tabth tabrb-r yd tabth given namedoctor (female) al-tabib-ah tabrb-at-T yd tabrb-ah given namemanager al-sayyid al-mud& muar-T yd sayyid-T al-mudTrcabinet minister al-sayyid al-wazTr wazTr-T yd sayyid-T al-wazirpresident al-sayyid al-raTs ra'Ts-T yd sayyid-T al-ra'rs12 The words wölid and ab are synonym for father and similarly the words walid-ali and unvn for mother21Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificExample 12JAPANESE CHARTEXALTING ORPOLITEHUMBLE VOCATIVEfather otoo-san chichi otoo-sanmother o-kaa-san haha o-lcaa-sanolder brother o-nii-san ani o-nu-sanolder sister o-nee-san ane o-nee-sanyounger brother o-tooto-san o-tooto given nameyounger sister o-imoto-sanlimooto-san imooto given namedaughter o-joo-san or musume-san musume given nameson bocchan or musuko-san musuko given namechild o-ko-san kodomo given namegrandchild o-mago-san mago given namefamily go-kazoku lcazokuparents go-ryooshin ryooshinbrothers (siblings) go-kyoodai kyoodaihusband go-shujin shujin anata or given namewife oku-sama !canal given namedoctor (MD) o-isha-san (Tanaka) senseiteacher sensei (Tanaka) senseicompany president shachoo-san shachoo (Tanaka) shachoodefense lawyer bengoshi-san (Tanaka) senseichurch minister bokushi-san (Tanaka) senseifish dealer sakanaya-san (Tanaka) sanStudying both charts, the following can be noted:1. Most of the Japanese nouns under Exalting or Polite column have one of the following:Example 13a. perfix o^suffix san^as in o-too-san (father)b. suffix sama^as in oku-sama(wife)c.^perfix go^ as in go-kazoku (family)22Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificd. suffix san^as in shachoo-san (company president)e. just title^ as in senseiArabic nouns are different from Japanese nouns in that they do not have honorific or exaltingcountexparts except for karim-ah (your, his daughter) and haram (your, his wife). These twowords are originally associated with meaning of honorable or respectable for karfm-ah, andtaboo, sacred and unreachable for haram. It is noteworthy that the same word haram is the oneassociated with holy places, etc. So, these words are considered honorific words for one's owndaughter and wife more than ibn-ah and zawj-ah, since the former just means daughter and thelatter means partner. Having these honorific words for one's daughter and wife has to do withthe importance for them being honorable and respectable for the respect and pride of her fatherand husband. This matter is issentially important in Arabic culture.2. Japanese nouns have humble forms. They are:a. Nouns without the honorific prefixes or suffixes mentioned in Example (13), such as otooto(younger brother), mago (grand child) and shujin (husband).b. Nouns that are not formally related to their exalting counterparts such as chichi (my father),haha (my mother) and kanai (my wife).c. No humble forms exist for words such as sensei (teacher), bengoshi (defense lawyer) andsakanaya (fish dealer). The reason is that in Japanese they are professional titles and maybe considered [+ out-group]. However, for shachoo, which may even be used as shachoo-san (company president), he could be either [+ in-group] or [- in-group] depending on thesituation, although he is considered [+ superior].3. Most of the Arabic nouns, on the other hand, do not have honorific forms as has been mentionedearlier, nor do they have special humble forms either.23Chapter 2: Arabic Honorifica. However, the use of the definite article al- (the) that is attached to all the nouns under"POLITE" column is meant for respect. Hence, one would say: 01-a al-wälid-u (say(past)-he the-father-(nom.) (the father said/my father said (formal)).b. For less formal situations, possessive suffixes such as -r, -if (my -) as in akh-r (my brother)and ukh-ti (my sister), are attached to nouns. These nouns are formally associated with thepolite forms and used for "humble" designation. So, The following sentence would be anexample for the use of familiar words: qal-a walid-i (say(past)-he father-my) (my fathersaid (familiar)). In vocative situations, on the other hand, a son would address his fatheras : yä wälid-r (oh father-my) (oh my father (familiar, personal)), while other people wouldaddress him saying, for example: yä ab-a Sharrf-in (of father of-(acc.) sherif-(gen.)) (oh,father of Sherif (formal)).c. It is interesting to notice that Arabic can use familiar forms for the same professional titlesthat Japanese does not have humble forms for, such as: tabib -r (my doctor), wazfr-T (mycabinet minister), etc. This is considered one of the differences between the two culturesand their social situations.4. Japanese honorific suffixes -san or -sama and titles such as sensei and shachoo (companypresident) are used mostly after the family name as Tanaka -san (Mr. Tanaka) and Tanaka-sensei (Dr. Tanaka). Arabic titles on the other hand are used before the given names, such asal-said al-mudrr cillr (Mr. manager Ali). This may be related to the fact that Japanese is apost-positional language and Arabic is a prepositional one.5. The use of "the mother of . . . ", "the father of . . . ""the son of . . . "or "the daughter of . . . Ifas in Example (10) is peculiar to Arabic.2.5 Polite RequestArabic has some polite words and expressions that are used with imperative to express politerequests. They are equivalent to Japanese kudasai, English "please" and French "sr/ vous plais".24Chapter 2: Arabic HononficSome of these expressions are:Example 14a. Law^samalj-taif permit (past)-you(sing. masc.)If you permit . . .b. Bac d-a^idhn- i-ka . . .after-(acc.)^permission-(gen.)-your(sing. masc.)After asking (or getting) your permission . . .c.^Law^ta-fm-Mol- taif you(sing.)-do a favour(past)-you(sing. masc.)If you do me the favour of .. .d.^Min^fatll- i-kafrom^favour-(gen.)-your(sing. masc.)If you please . . .. . .I-beg-youI beg you .. .Because Japanese is a post-positional and verb final language, the Japanese word kudasai (please),which is a verb meaning "give (me)", has to come at the end of the sentence. In Arabic, on theother hand, the position of the equivalent word for kudasai is rather free. It is very much thesame as English "please" being sometimes at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. This isdemonstrated in the following example:25Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificExample 15a. Min^fadl-i-ka^ ifial.1^al-bab-a.from^favour-(gen.)-your(sing. masc.)^open (imper. jus.)^the-door-(acc.)Please open the door.b. Iftah^al-bab-a.^min^fadl- i-kaopen (imper^the-door-(acc.)^from^favour-(gen.)-your(sing. masc.)jus.)Open the door please.Regarding this matter, I predict that although Japanese students of Arabic have the two choicesfor the position of the word "please" in Arabic, they would tend to have it at the end of the sentence.This is due to having the Japanese kudasai (lit: give(imperative)) at the end of the sentence. So,it is logical, normal and easier for the Japanese to use it at the end of the sentence. On the otherhand, some of them may associate the Arabic min fadl- i-ka with the Japanese doozo, and they maytend to put it at the beginning of the sentence. In either case, it works, and the Japanese studentswill have little syntactic difficulty learning the Arabic imperative or polite request forms. Arabicstudents of Japanese, on the other hand, would not have to think about having kudasai at the endof the Japanese sentence because they are already familiar with using the Arabic equivalent at theend of the Arabic sentence.2.6 GreetingsArabic has the phrase al-saltim -u calay-kum (the-peace-(nom.) on-you(pl. masc.)) (peace beupon you) that is used widely. It is very convenient because it is used for "hello", "good-bye" oreven "good night". It is used formally and informally, in speech and in writing. It is used everywhere:home, school, store, business, etc. However, Arabic has also some other polite or honorific phrases26Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificthat are used in different occasions, as illustrated in the following example:Example 16a. Sabatt-u^al-khayr- i.morning-(nom.)^the-good-(gen.)Good morning.b. Masa' -u^al-khayr- i.evening-(nom.)^the-good-(gen.)Good evening.c. Rd^al- liqii' - i.to^the-meeting-(gen.)See you later.d. Mica^al-saltimat- i.with^the-safety(fem.)-(gen.)Good-bye.e.^Bi-sm-i^allah-i'3^al-rahmem-i^al-rah fm-i.In-name of-(gen.)^God-(gen.)^the-most kind-(gen.) the-merciful-(gen.)In the name of God (Usually said at the table before starting to eat.Also said before starting important things).13^According to the transliterating system by the Library of Congress that is adopted in this thesis, the above combination of hi-sm-iaddh - i (in the name of God) is written as bismilldh In the same way as it is pronounced. The reason that I wrote it as in the above exampleis to show the different elements of the combination in their separate meaning. The same is true for al- ljamd-u li-alldh - i in F. above thatis written lilldhi according to the adopted system.27Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificf.^al-hamd-uthe-thanks-(nom.)^to-God-(gen.)Thanks be to God (Usually said at the conclusion of certain actions including eating anddrinking).Japanese has lots of honorific greeting expressions that are commonly used in different situations.Some of these honorific phrases are:Example 17a. 0-hayoo^gozaimasu.^(Good morning)H.P.-early(hon.)^exist (humble)b. 0-samuu^gozaimasu.^(It is cold.)H.P.-cold(hon.)^exist (humble)c. 0-atsuu^gozaimasu.^(It is hot.)H.P.-hot (hon.)^exist (humble)d. Itadakimasu.^(said before eating, drinking or accepting gifts)to receive(hon.)e. 0-yasuminasai.^(Good night)H.P.-rest(polite imperative)f. Tadaima^kaerimashita.^(I am back Hello)now or hi come back (past)g.^Gochisoo-sama^deshita.^(Thank you for the nice meal.)introduction-H.S.^copula(past)h.^Sayoonara^(Good-bye)28Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificIt is very common that Japanese greetings are full of weather and season expressions. Evenin their letters, Japanese people write what is called kisetsu no aisatsu (season's greetings). Also,Japanese Haiku usually starts with kigo that is associated with seasons. Kindaichi, 1978, states thatit is widely known that the Japanese talk first about the weather when exchanging greetings. Andhe tells this incident about Commodore Perry, who came to Japan at the end of the Edo period.He criticized the inefficiency of the Japanese officials who did this season's greetings before theirdiscussions. Something similar happened to me when I visited Japan for the very first time. Then, Icould only say few sentences such as my name is . . . , good morning, etc. I could never understandwhy everybody kept telling me how hot it was. And the same person would say it more than once.I was surprised that Japanese people were complaining about their hot weather to someone like me,who comes from a country where the temperature could reach up to 47°. I realized, later on, thatthey were being nice to me, and expressions such as atsui-desu nee (it is hot), is meant for greeting.Thus, the use of season expressions in Japanese greeting would cause difficulties to Arabs learningJapanese in the beginning stage. The other difficulties that would face Arab students would be thedifferent levels of politeness that exist in greetings and other expressions such as yaru and ageru (togive) as going to be explained in the following chapter. The Japanese greeting for good morningis a good example for having different expressions for various levels of politeness. For example:o-hayoo (good morning) is used informally and is considered less polite than o-hayoo gozaimasu(good morning), the very polite counterpart. This point will be studied further in the next chapter.Speaking of the Arabic greetings in general, I do not think that Japanese students of Arabicwould find them difficult to learn. Especially that most of them are very similar to those of English,the second language that Japanese students learn from grade seven. However, I think that expressionsas those in Example (16-e) and (16-0 would be rather strange to Japanese students because they areassociated with, or of a religious origin or background, the thing that is not common among theJapanese. Especially if we know that religions, in general, in the middle east have a great influenceon people's way of life.The following example shows the expressions used for APPRECIATION:29Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificExample 18a. Jazli-ka^ alläh-u^lchayr-an.give(past)-you (sing. masc.)^God-(nom.)^good-(acc.)May God reward you.b. Jazez -nã^wa^iyya-kum.give(past)-us^and^Oh-you(plural)May God reward both of us (said in reply to a).c. Shukr-an^jazil-an.thanks-(acc.)^lots-(acc.)Thank you very much.d. cAfiv_an.pardon-(acc.)You are welcome. (said in reply to c)Here again, there are some expressions that are of a religious influence in (a) and (b) sentences.I predict that Japanese students of Arabic would prefer using expressions in (c) and (d) because theyare close in meaning to both Japanese arigatoo and English "thank you".Some Japanese expressions used for APPRECIATION are:Example 19a.^Doomo^arigatoo^gozainzashita.very^thanks^exist(humble past)Thanks a lot, for what you have done.30Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificb.^Doo^itashitnashite.how do(humble)You are welcome. (said in reply to (a))I do not think that the above expressions would be difficult for Arabs to learn because they areassociated with Arabic equivalents as in (18-c) and (18-d).And for WELCOMING GUEST, the following expressions can be used:Example 20a. Ahl-an^wa sahl-an.family-(acc.)^and easy land-(acc.)Welcome.b. Sharraf-tunui-na.honour(past)-you(pl. masc)-usWe are honoured by your visit.(Lit) You honoured us.c.^Artas-tuma-racheer(past)-you(pl. masc.)-usYou cheered us with your visit.d.^Mattab -an.welcome-(acc.)Welcome.The expression ahl-an wa said -an, as in (a), is very classical greeting for Arabs who used to live31Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificin desert with little water and much travelling. So, they were used to having strangers, as well asfriends, stopping by for a night or more. The welcoming expression usually was:Halal-ta^aid-an^wa nazal-ta^ sahl-an.come(past)-you(sing., masc.)^family-(acc)^and descend(past)-you(sing., masc.)^easy land-(acc.)which means "Feel like home and we are like your family and you will have no difficulty in ourgood and easy land". However, only the shorter form of the expression ahl-an wa said-an is usednow, which is very popular. Thus, I think that Japanese students would learn it and use it, simplyas using the English "welcome". Arab students also would learn Japanese's yoku irassyaitnashita(nice to see you) very easily.For INTRODUCTION,  the following expressions can be used:Example 21a. U-qaddim-u^la-kum^al-mudarris-a^al-jadid-a.I-introduce-(indicat.) to-your(masc. pl .)^the-teacher-(acc.)^the-new-(acc.)I introduce the new teacher to you.b. Isinaiz^ii^an u-qaddim -a^al-mtsdarris-a^al-jadrdi-a.allow(imp. jus.) me to I-introduce-(subjunc.) the-teacher-(acc.)^the-new-(acc.)Allow me to (May I) introduce the new teacherc.^Ahla-an^wa sahl-an^ta-sharraf-nd.family-(acc)^and easy land-(acc.)^we(pl.)-honour(past)-weWelcome, we are honoured.32Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificSome Japanese expressions used for INTRODUCTION are as follows:Example 22a-1^Atarashii^sensei^o^go-shookai-itashimasu.new^teacher^O.M.^(H.P.)-introduce-(humble)I introduce the new teacher.b-1^Atarashii^sensei^o^go-shookai-sasete-itadakimasu.new^teacher O.M. H.P.-introduce-to make someone do-get from out-groupof higher status(Lit.) Give me the favour of letting me introduce the new teacher.Allow me to introduce the new teacher.The Japanese expressions mentioned above are very similar in meaning to the Arabic ones in (21-a) and (21-b). However, the Arabic sentence in (21-a) is neutral concerning politeness but the (21-b)sentence is more polite. This is due to the use of ismall li (allow me) expression at the beginning ofthe sentence. The Japanese expressions on the other hand are very polite. First let us look at the (a-1)in Example (22). The honorific prefix go- appears before the verb, and the humble form itashimasuis used because of the grammatical agreement between subjects and verbs that Japanese has. In otherwords, the subject in Japanese mostly determines the verb form in the honorific sentence.In the sentences under discussion, by considering the underlying subject "r as the subject, wecan consider that it controls the appearance of the humble form of the verb for the sake of showingrespect to the speaker. Thus, the following agreement rule may be considered:subject^+^veil)^—,^subject^+^verb[+x] [+x] [+x]33Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificTo illustrate the above rule, sentence (a-1) is considered to have the following underlyingstructure:a-1'^Watakushi^ga^atarashii^sensei^o^shokai-suruS.M. new^teacher^O.M. introduce-doI (will) introduce the new teacher.The subject watakushi has the feature [+in-group] which is transferred to the verb producing thehumble form. Finally, the subject watakushi gets deleted.The different forms that Japanese verbs have such as honorific or humble, honorific prefixes andsuffixes, and the agreement of the subject or the indirect object and the verb forms plus separatewords for different levels of honorifics such as yaru and agem (to give) make the Japanese lexico-grammatical honorific system extremely difficult for Arabs learning Japanese. This is especially sobecause Arabic honorific system is mainly lexical. This point will be studied further in a later chapter.Thus, although both Arabic expressions and Japanese expressions in (21) are similar in meaning, theyare different in the rules that express politeness simply because we are dealing with two differenthonorific systems, as it has been mentioned above. I think that Arabists would have to learn theJapanese honorific system well in order to understand the purpose of each element in the sentenceand use these expressions correctly.For CONGRATULATIONS,  the following expressions are used:Example 23a.^Kull-u^Cã,,jfl^wa^antum^bi-khayr-Mevery-(nom.)^year-(gen.)^and^you (pl. masc.)^in-goodness-(gen.)Happy new year (said for annual events, like birthdays, feasts, etc.).34Chapter 2: Arabic Honorifica-1^Wa^antum^bi-khayr-in.and^you (pl. masc.)^in-goodness-(gen.)Same to you (in reply to a.)b.^MabnIk-un.congratulation-(nom.)Congratulation (said for marriage, engagement, graduation, etc.)b- 1^Al-caqibat-u^cinda-kum^ft al-masarrat- i.the-turn(fem.)-(nom.) at the time of-yours(pl. masc.) in the-happy times(fem)-(gen.)May we return the greeting to you in your happy times (in reply to (b.)).b-2^Cuqba^la-kum.turn^to-yours (masc. pl .)(same as b-1.)The following are some Japanese expressions used for GONGRATULATIONS:Example 24a.^Akemashite^omedetoo^gozaimasu.dawn or start^congratulation^exist(humble)Happy new year.35Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificb.^0-tanjoobi^omedetoo^gozaimasu.H.P.-birthday^congratulation^exist(humble)Happy birthday.I think that although some of the expressions mentioned in Example (23) are rather long comparedto Japanese omedetoo, they are convenient because they are used in multiple occasions. Thus,Japanese students might find learning these expressions a little difficult only at the beginning becausethey are used to their Japanese omedetoo gozainzasu which is shorter and used in every occasion.For the same reason, Arabists would find omedetoo gozaimasu very easy to learn.And finally, for APOLOGIES, one can use:Example 25a. Muta'assif-unRegretful (sing. masc.)-(nom.)I am sorry.b. Ana^a.ctadhiru.I-apologize-(indicat.)I apologize.The followings are the Japanese expressions used for APOLOGIES:Example 26a. Suminzasen.excuse me or I am sorry.b. Mooshiwake^arimasen.excuse^exist(neg.)I have no excuse or I am sorry.36Chapter 2: Arabic Honorificc. 0-yurushi-kudasai.H.P.-forgive-give(polite)Forgive me.d. Gomen^laidasai.excuse^give(polite)Excuse me or I big your pardon.My prediction is that Arabic students might have difficulty, at first, differentiating between theabove expressions. The reason is because they appear to have almost the same meaning, althoughthey are used differently according to the situation. Thus, I think that once the Arab students learnthem and the situations in which they are used, they will use them correctly.2.7 Sample ConversationThe following is an Arabic sample conversation to illustrate how some of the honorific phenomenaget manifested. It is taken from a short story written by Najib Ma/ft; entitled al-Mu qabalah al-Samiyah (The distinguished meeting). It is one of a group of short stories in one book namedal-Jarrmait (The crime). The story is about a very low ranked employee who has never been noticed.But he was lucky enough to be chosen as a written clerk for the committee that was looking for anew building for his firm to be moved to. One day while he was there, he ran into the manager ofthe firm himself who asked him to show him around. The employee considered himself very honoredand also very lucky that he could speak with the manager about his complaints as well as asking fora promotion. The following is a part of the conversation between the manger of the firm and theemployee to illustrate the actual use of some of the polite language in Arabic:al-Mudir-u:^Anta min taraf-i^aglab-i^al-cinuirat-i?the-manager-(nom.)^you^from party-(gen.)^owners of-(gen.)^the-building(fem.)-(gen.)Are you one of the building owners party?37Chapter 2: Arabic Honorifical-Muwagaf-u^Ana cudw-u^lajnat-i^al-nzaslahat-i^allatfThe-employee-(nom.)^I^member^committee(fem.)-^the-firm(fem.)-(gen) that(fem.)of-(nom.)^(gen.)ista'jara-t al-cimarat-a.ient(past)-(EM.)^ the-building(fem.)-(acc.)I'm a member of the commitee of the firm which rented this building.al-Muar-u: cA;Tm-un,^u-rid-u^an^u-lqf^na;rat-angreat-(nom.)^I-want-(indicat)^to^I-give^a look(fem.)-(acc.)camma-^t_an cam al-dakhil-igeneral(fem.)-(acc.)^at^the-inside-(gen.)Great, I want to have a general look at the inside.al-Muwagaf-u^Wa lakin,^man hadrat-u-ka?and but^who presence(fem.)-(nom.)-your(sing. masc.)But, who are you (hon.)?al-Mudir-u:^Ana mudir-u^al-maslahat-i.manager of-(nom.)^the-firm(fem.)-(gen.)I'm the manager of the firm.al-Muwagaf-u^La mu'akhadhah^ya^selhib-a^al-sacadat-i.no^blame^Oh^his-(acc.)^the-felicity(fem.)-(gen.)Excuse me your Excellency.al-MudTr-u:^Ta-qaddam-n1.you(sing. masc.)-preceed(imp. jus.)-meGo before me (or preceede me).38Chapter 2: Arabic Honorifical-Muwagapu Astaqid-u^yet^sahib-a^al-sacadat-i^annaI-think-(indicat.)^Oh^his-(acc.)^the-felicity(fem.)-(gen.)^thatal-dawr-a^al- thalith -a^huwa alyaq -uthe-floor-(acc.)^the-third-(acc)^is^the most suitable-(nom.)al-aduwar- i^bi-maqam- i-kum.the-floors-(acc.)^to- rank or standing-(gen.)-your(pl. masc.)I think, your Excellency, that the third floor is the most suitable one for your(hon.) rank (that you deserve).Hadhihi^hujrat-u-kum^wa mumkin-unthis(fem. sing.)^room(fem.)-(nom.) -your(masc. pl .)^and possible-(nom.)wasl-u-ha^bi-al-hujrat- i14connection-(nom.)- it^with-the-room(fem.)-(gen.)^the-next (fern.)- (gen.)This is your (hon.) room, and it is possible to connect it to the next one.The following could be illustrated about this sample conversation:1. Polite and respectful expressions are:a. The use of hadrat-u -ka in the second sentence of al-muwavraf-u (the employee) instead ofanta (you), and sahib al-sacadat- i (your Excellency) with third utterance by the employeein addressing the manager.b. The use of plural forms as in maqam- i-kum (your rank) and hujrat-u-kum (your room) insteadof the singular forms maqam - i-ka (your rank) and hujrat-u-ka (your room) respectively.2. One can easily tell that there was a big gap between the manager and the employee in status.The reason is due to the fact that although the employee kept using very respectful language, themanager was using the very plain and informal anta (you, sing. masc.) and he also gave orderswithout using any of the polite words such as min fadl-i-ka (please) as in asking the employeeto precede him in showing the new building as in ta-qaddam -nr (go before me). Also when hewanted to see the inside of the building he simply gave order. It would also help to know that14 Usualy bi+al becomes bil. Yet, I wrote it as bi+al for the purpose of showing each element meaning.39Chapter 2: Arabic Hononficin the story the manager was very arrogant. In such a situation, the manager is [+ superior] andthe employee would always be [-in group] and has to use very high level of respect.2.8 SummaryTo summarize this chapter, the following points must be recapitulated:1. Unlike Japanese, Arabic honorific system is not presented as a separate subject in Arabic grammarbooks.2. The five rules of politeness in Arabic, which are used in both spoken and written forms, are theuse of Plural Forms, Polite and Respectful Words, Titles, Polite Request, and Greetings.3. Although the use of plural forms in Arabic is very similar to the French one, the use of themin Arabic is very restricted to a very high level of superiority such as addressing a king or anemperor, etc. They are also used in media interviews or other interviews such as job interviews,only if the interviewer is a very superior person.4. The plural form is used by God in the Koran and Torah to keep the distance between God andhuman, also for people to honor, admire and fear God.5. Both Arabic and Japanese share having the same form for two purposes, polite and humble.Arabic uses plural forms for both honorific and humble. Japanese's de gozairnasu (more politeform of the copula desu) has two interpretations, polite and humble.6. Arabic and Japanese share avoiding the use of anta (you, Arabic) and anata (you, Japanese).Instead, they use more respectful alternatives such as ljadrat-u-ka (your presence) in Arabic andan addressee's name followed by a right title for both languages.7. The use of "the father of . . . ", "the mother of . . . ", "the son of . . . " and "the daughterof . . . " as respectful titles is peculiar to Arabic.8. In Arabic, when addressing someone, ya (Oh) is used before their names or titles. When speakingof someone, al- (the) is attached to the beginning of their titles.9. Arabic and Japanese share keeping formality of letters by using appropriate titles on envelops.40Chapter 2: Arabic Honorific10. Arabic has the possibility of using more than one title together with adjectives and personoccupation before his/her name. Japanese does not seem to have this possibility.11. The over-use of polite expressions would result in insults or criticism in both languages.12. Unlike Japanese nouns, Arabic nouns do not take honorific prefixes such as Japanese o - and go - .13. Most of the Arabic nouns do not have special honorific forms nor do they have special humbleones either. However, Japanese nouns do have humble counterparts as well as honorific ones.14. The honorific system in Arabic is mainly lexical, while the Japanese one is lexico-grammatical.15. Due to the fact that Japanese is a post-positional language, titles come after persons' names.On the other hand, Arabic's titles precede people's names because Arabic is a pre-positionallanguage. Also, because Japanese is a verb final language, Japanese kudasai (please) and theequivalents come after the verb at the end of the sentence. However, Arabic's words such as minfadl- i-ka (please) is rather position free, either at the beginning or at the end of the sentences,very similar to the English "please". Japanese doozo may be equated to Arabic min fadl- i-ka.16. Arabic has the very convenient phrase al-saltim-u cala-y-kum (peace on you), which is used forvarious purposes such as "hello", "good-bye" or even "good night". It also has other expressionsthat are used in different occasions such as appreciation, introduction, congratulation, etc.From the discussion above, the following charts are given to illustrate the students' difficultiesdue to the structural differences:41Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificJapanese students difficulties Reason1. The use of the plural forms in Arabicas means of respect.Japanese students would find such a use difficultbecause of the following reasons:1. Such a use does not exist in Japanese.2. The students are to use plural forms withsingular person, while might be acontradiction to what they will be taughtwhen they learn Arabic.3.^The plural forms are not used with alllevels of superiorities.2. Expressions such as "the fatherof . . . ", "the mother of . . . ", "theson of . . . "and "the daughterof . . . "are used as respectful titles inArabic.The use of these titles varies according to places(rural or urban), age and sex. The studentswould have to be very careful using these titlesbecause using them is a must, optional orinappropriate sometimes.. Arabic religious greeting expressions. Since, Japanese students are not necessarilyfamiliar with the religions of the Arabs, theseexpressions would be a little strange anddifficult to use at least at the beginning stage.42Chapter 2: Arabic HonorificArabic students difficulties Reason1. Japanese honorific system has:a. Honorific prefixes and suffixes.b. Separate words for differentlevels of honorific,c.^Grammatical agreement betweenthe subject and the verb form.The students are not familiar with having thehonorific system presents in grammar books as itis the case with Japanese honorific system.Thisis specially so because Arabic honorific systemis mainly lexical but the Japanese system islexico-grammatical. Thus, Arab students wouldfind the Japanese system extremely difficult,because they would have to deal with totallydifferent concept.2. Japanese greetings. Due to the fact that Japanese greetings are fullof season and weather expressions, the beginnerstudents would misunderstand the use of suchexpressions, not realizing that they are meant forgreeting.3. Most of the Japanese expressions usedfor apologies.The students would find it hard to differentiatebetween sumimasen and gomen laidasai untilthey learn the various situation in which they areused.43Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificChapter 3Japanese HonorificProper use of levels of respect or politeness is very important in Japanese. One has to be verycareful in selecting which form or style to use. This depends on the following factors: superior/inferior/ intimate/ non-intimate/ in-group/ out-group. So, the speaker determines which style to useaccording to his relationship to the person spoken to (the addressee) and/or the person spoken about(the referent). Neustupn uses the terms "addressee distance" and "referent distance" for the abovementioned relationships. Soga explains that the honorific forms can be sub-categorized into threekinds:1. Exalting Form2. Polite Neutral Form3. Humble Form.In this chapter, Japanese honorific will be briefly introduced. Then, six sample conversations willbe given in both honorific and plain or informal styles. The Arabic translation of the samples will begiven as well. This should help in comparing the use of respect language in Arabic and in Japanese.In NeustupnCr, 1978, it has been mentioned that Japanese Honorific system displays undeniableinflectional characteristics. This is very true for nominals, verbs, adjectives etc.3.1 Japanese Nominals3.1.1 Honorific nounsSome Japanese nouns have both honorific and neutral forms, as in the following chart:Neutral Honorific Meaning ,dareano hitoanata-tachidokodonata (sama)ano kataanata-gatadochirawhothat person (over there)you (plural)where44Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificI think that Japanese honorific nouns are rather easy to learn and will not cause much troublefor Arabs learning Japanese.3.1.2 Honorific Prefixes o- and go-Generally speaking, the honorific prefix o- is used with words of Japanese origin or with thosefelt to be of Japanese origin, while the prefix go- is used with words of Chinese origin. There aresome exceptions such as benkyoo that can take both prefixes. There are also some nouns that take thecompound honorific prefix o-mi that consists of prefix o- plus old honorific prefix mi-, as in o-mi-ashi(your foot). Although these Honorific prefixes are not to be used with foreign words, women whouse respect language more extensively would use prefix o- with foreign words such as o-biiru (beer)and o-toire (toilet). The following chart illustrates this point more:Prefix go- Meaning Prefix o- Meaninggo-hango-kekkongo-sotsugyoogo-benkyoocooked ricemarrigegraduationstudyingo-namaeo-kaneo-joozuo-benkyoonamemoneyskilfullstudyingLearning the above prefixes would need sometime, although they are very simple and easy touse once they are learned with the words they are prefixed to. The reason is because the students donot have an access of differentiating words of Japanese origin from those of Chinese. Arab studentsat the beginning level would tend to make mistakes such as using words with honorific prefixesin referring to themselves, because in Arabic such a use of prefixes does not exist. Examples ofimproper use by Arab students will be shown in Chapter 5.3.1.3 Honorific Suffixes -san and -samaHonorific suffixes are used such as in lcami-sama (God), Nakano-san (Mr. or Mrs. Nakano),otooto-san (your younger brother), etc. These suffixes are never used for the speaker's own name,although in English one may say "This is Mr. Nakano" in reference to oneself in a telephone45Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificconversation for example. There are also some nouns with both the prefix o-, go- and the suffix -san,-sama such as o-too-san (father), o-kaa-scut (mother), go-kazuku-sama (your family), etc. We shouldalso note here that too-san and kaa-san without prefix are sometimes used. Also, one may dialectallyuse o-too and o-kaa without the suffix. In this case, o-kaa tends to become o-kka. It must be stressedhere, however, that the forms with both the prefix and the suffix are most normal with kinship terms.As discussed in a previous chapter, those suffixes may also be used for more professional titles suchas o-isha-san (doctor), or sakanaya-san (fish dealer). In such a case, -san gives the meaning ofendearment. However, some professional titles are never used with -san. Some of these are: sensei(used with teacher, lawyer or physician), daijin (cabinet minister), kyooju (professor), etc. They seemto be the titles for which one may not have feelings of endearment very easily.I predict that Arab students of Japanese would tend to make mistakes very similar to the ones Iassumed for the use of the honorific prefixes above. Namely, they would use the suffixes in referringto themselves and their associates, especially at the beginners level.3.2 Honorific and Humble VerbsThe speaker can show respect to someone, either by thinking very highly of that person andhis [in-group] members or by lowering his own status and his associates with respect to that person.This is done by using the honorific polite forms for the former and the humble ones for the latter.First, let us look at the honorific ones:3.2.1 Honorific VerbsThe honorific forms of verbs are formed by one of the following ways:ni narimasu11. f° I -I- Verb Conjunctive Form +^nasaimasugoFor Example:desu46Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificSumisu-san ga^o-hanashiSmith-Mr.^S.M. H.P.-speak.Mr. Smith will speak. (exalting)ni — narimasu 15nasaimasudesu2. Sometimes passive forms are used in Japanese as a respect language. It is believed that they arecommonly used by men and are heard often in the world of business (Okada, 1954). In fact,all honorific forms are used very commonly in business. This may be due to the fact that therelations and the connections between business people are not personal, so they have got to beformal. In fact, they are really between firms, companies and associations, etc. in the sense thatbusiness people are representing their companies or firms. Thus, we find, for example, that theemployees of one firm treat employees of other firms as [+out-group] members. I do not thinkthat the above phenomena is peculiar to a specific culture. I rather think that it is a universalcharacteristic for the business world all over the world. The following sentence illustrates theuse of passive form as a respect language in Japanese:Example 27a.^Nakano-sensei ga^tegami^o^yomaremashita.teacher S.M.^letter^O.M.^read (passive past)Mr. Nakano read the letter. (Exalting)15 The form of the rule and the examples are from Soga, 197847{o 11^ shimasu }-I- Verb Conjunctive Form +go itashimasuChapter 3: Japanese Honorificb.^Tanaka-san ga^denwa^o^kakerareru^to^omoimasu.Mr.^S.M. telephone O.M.^telephone (passive past)^that thinkI think that Mr. Tanaka will phone. (Exalting)3.2.2 Humble VerbsVerbs are made into humble polite style by the following formulation:For example:watakushi ga^o-yomi^f shimasu 1 16I^S.M. H.P.-read^1 itashimasu JI will read it. (humble)Some verbs do have special forms for both exalting and humble, as in the following chart:Neutral Exalting Humble Meaningsuru nasaru itasu to doiu osshan‘ MOOSU to saymiru goran ni naru haiken-suru to look attaberu meshi-agaru itadaku to eatnomu meshi-agaru itadala4 to drinkiku irasshando-ide ni naru maindukagau to gokuru irasshando-ide ni naru maindukagau to come16^Soga, 197848Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificdalde irude an4de irassharu, de o-ide ni naru1de gozarude o—ide ni naru1de gozarude orude gozarucopula Due to the fact that both honorific and humble verbs have various forms as introduced above, Ipredict that Arabic speakers, as well as English speakers, would find learning and using them verydifficult. Students would have also to memorize the special honorific and exalting forms that someverbs have. As mentioned previously, the further difficulties would be to whom, when, how and inwhich situation they are used. Here, the superior/ inferior/ intimate/ non-intimate/ in-group/ out-groupsocial deixis are what have to be paid attention to, for the sake of good understanding and properuse of honorific language in Japanese.In Chapter 5, my predictions of ungrammatical sentences made by the Arab students will bepresented.3.3 ImperativesIn the following, some of the expressions used for Japanese imperatives will be introduced.Japanese imperatives have two forms: formal or polite, and informal forms. The formal form isformulated by adding -nasai to the conjunctive forms of verbs as in tabe-nasi (eat) and ne-nasai(sleep). This formal imperative is felt to be more polite than the informal one. The informalimperative is formulated as follows:1. Changing the vowel of the consonant verbs to the e line, as in kaku (write) —■ kake and yomu(read) —÷ yome.2. Replacing the final syllable ni with ro to the vowel verbs as in taberu (eat) -4 tabero.49Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.3.1 Affirmative ImperativeJapanese imperatives have two levels; higher level and lower level (these terms are used by P.G.O'Neil, 1966). The higher level is formed by:1. gerund of honorific verb + kudasai(mase), as in osshatte kudasai(mase) (please say)2. o -I- conjunctive form -I- kudasai(mase), as in o-machi kudasai(mase) (please wait)3. o + verb conjunctive form + nasai(mase), ,as in o-benkyoo nasai(mase) (study)I have to mention here that the underlying forms of kudasai, ladasaimase and nasaimase arethought to be as follows:1.kudasaru^ kudasare^ -4 kudasai(give, hon., informal)^(give, hon., inf., imperative)^imperativein which kudasare is supposed to be the informal imperative form of the honorific verb kudasaru.2. Similarly, the underlying form of kudasaimase (give) is something like:kudasaru^--0 kudasarimasu^--0 kudasarimase^kudasaimase(hon., informal)^(hon., formal) (hon., formal, imperative)^(imperative)in which the latter form is related to the informal imperative mentioned above by having thesound "r" deleted. The same "r" deletion can be observed in o-hayoo-gozarimasu --0 o-hayoo-gozaimasu:o-hayoo^gozarimasu^--0 o-hayoo^gozaimasuH.P.-early(hon.)^exist(humble)^H.P.-early^exist(humble)3. The form nasaimase from the verb nasaimasu (do, hon., formal) is also related to the informalimperative in very much the same way as kudasaimase in (2) above.50Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificHow the various kinds of imperative mentioned above are used varies with respect to the degreeof formality and politeness, etc. Also, forms used with superiors are different from those used withinferior, etc. For example, in addressing a teacher, one may request:Example 28a. Doozo^o-kusuri^o^o-nomi-kudasai(mase).please^H.P.-medicine^O.M.^H.P.-drink-give(hon.)a-1^Doozo^o-ktisuri^o^meshiagatte^kudasai(mase).please^H.P.-medicine^O.M.^drink(hon.)^give(hon.)(Lit.) Please (polite) take (hon.) the medicine (hon.).Please take the medicine.In addressing one's younger brother one may say:b. Kusuri^o^nome.medicine^O.M. drink(imperative).b-1^Kusuri^o^nomi-nasai.medicine^O.M. drink(imperative).Take the medicine.The lower imperative is formed by:o + verb conjunctive form -I- nasai, as in o — machi—nasai (wait).This lower form is very similar to the formal imperative. Yet, it can be said that it is more politebecause of the use of the honorific prefix o-.51Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.3.2 Negative ImperativeThe negative imperative is formed for both levels by using the "no negative" forms of the verbsused in the affirmative imperative, as in irassharu na (lower) and irasshaimasu na (higher) (do notgo). However, expressions such as . . . nai de kudasai (please do not . . . ), . . . te wa ikemasen (youmust not . . . ) and . . . masen yoo ni (I ask you not to . . . ) are preferred (O'Neil, 1966). In fact, theexpression . . . masen yoo rd is a shortened form of the original . . . masen yoo ni o -negai shimasu(I request you not to . . . ). The following chart has some examples of both kinds of imperative:Affemiative NegativeLowerLevelHigher Lever Lower Level Higher Leverkuru(to come)ill(to say)mini(to look at)taberu(to eat)nomu(to drink)irasshai,o-ide nasaiosshaigoran nasalo-agari nasaimeshi-agareirashite kudasai (Incise)o-ide kudasai (mare)osshatte kudasai (mase)goran kudasai (incise)o-agari kudocai (mare)meshi-agatte kudasai (mase)irasshani nao-ide nasani naossharu nagoran nasani noo-agari nasarsi nomeshi-agaru noirasshairnasu nao-ide nasimasu Piaosshaimasu nogoran nasaimasu noo-agari nasaimasu nameshi-agarirnasu noThe various forms and expressions that Japanese imperatives have, would be a problem for Arabstudents in terms of proper use according to the situation, level of politeness and formality etc. Thisis so because in Arabic, polite requests are simply formed by using polite words equivalent to English"please" with the imperative as has been introduced in the previous chapter. Also, because in Arabic,honorifics are decided by reference to superiors, there are no predicate differences, unlike Japanese.This point will be explained more in the sample conversation, later in this chapter. My predictionis that Arab students would be a little confused and tend to make mistakes. For example, there are52Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificsome forms of the imperative that have been introduced as polite or formal imperatives. However,they are not to be used with superiors. Instead, the high level imperatives are used. I assume thatArab students might use formal imperative with superiors, thinking that it is right to do so sinceit is called formal or polite. I also think that it would take sometime before they are used to thenew system and become able to use its expressions correctly. Sentences illustrating the predictedmistakes will appear in Chapter 5.3.4 AdjectivesSimilar to Japanese verbs and nouns, adjectives also have honorific forms. Honorific adjectivesare formed by one of the following ways:1. By attaching the prefix o- to the adjective only if it does not start with the syllable o, as ino-wakai (young), o-isogashii (busy), etc.2. Just like it is the case for some nouns to have respectful equivalent such as dare donata (who),so is the case for some adjectives as well. For example, ii has the more respectful form yoroshii.3. The nominal adjectives (no adjectives), in addition to having the honorific prefix, are made intohonorific by using the main word plus de gozaimasu, as in joobu de gozaimasu (is strong, orhealthy).4. In the case of the true adjectives used with gozairnasu, the adjectives are inflected as follows:17a. Adjectives ending in "-ii"ookii —+ ookyuu gozaimasu (big)kanashii kanashyuu gozabnasu (sad)atarashii atarashyuu gozaimasu (new)b. Adjectives ending in "-ai"akai akoo gozaimasu (red)hayai hayoo gozaimasu (early)17^The classification of the adjectives; their inflections and the examples are from Okada's, 195453Chapter 3: Japanese Honorifichukai^hukoo gozaimasu (deep)c. Adjectives ending in "-orshiroi^shiroo gozaimasu (white)osoi —+ osoo gozaimasu (late)aoi^aoo gozaimasu (blue)d. Adjectives ending in "-urwarui waruu gozaimasu (bad)hurui^huruu gozaimasu (old)usui^usuu gozaimasu (thin or pale)The above forms are felt to be derived in a very similar way. For example:ookii (big) :honorification^ phonological changeookiku arirnasu^ookiku gozaimasu^ ookyuu gozaimasuwarui (bad) :honorification^ phonological changewaruku arimasu^waruku gozaimasu^ waruu gozairnasuAlthough in Arabic a comparable case of honorific adjectives does not exist, I think that learningtheir forms would not be a problem for Arab students. Yet, the problem again would be rather towhom in what situations they are to be used. This point, I think, is the most important because itis the most confusing to Arabs. This might be an area in which social and cultural differences arethe main factors for such confusion.3.5 Giving and Receiving VerbsICindaichi, 197818, says that Japanese has produced a surprising number of verbs related to thereceiving and giving of things. This is due to "customary emphasis on the importance of exchanging54Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificpresents". Some of these verbs are introduced as follows:A gives to BB speakera.^Sashiageru:^give to out-group (of superior status)A < B19a-1^Ageru:^give to out-groupfm-group (of equal or higher status)A 5 Ba-2^Yaru:^give to out-group/in-group (of lower status)A > BB gives to AB speakerb.^Kudasaru:^give to in-group (from out-group of higher states)B > Ab-i^Kureru:^give to in-group (from in-group/out-group of equal or inferior status)B 5 AA receives from BB ^ speakerc.^Itadaku:^get from out-group (of higher status)A < B19 The signs A<B means that B is superior, A>B means that A is superior and AO means that B is equal or superior to A.55Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificc-1^Morau:^get from in-group/out-group (of equal or inferior status)A ^ BWhen transfer is moving in the direction of the speaker or speaker's [in-group], the verbskurerulkudasaru (give to [in-group]) or moraulitadaku (get from [in group]/[out-group]) are used.When transfer is in the opposite direction, away from the speaker or the speaker's [in-group], theverbs yarulagerulsashiageru are used (Wetzel, Patricia; 1985). The proper use of giving and receivingverbs is one of the serious problems that would face Arab students as well as English speakers, Ibelieve. This is due to the various situations they are used in. This use depends very much uponJapanese [in-group]/[out-group] deixis. We may say, that they are inherent in these verbs. Forexample, having just a single verb as a complete sentence without any reference to a subject, willhelp us distinguish between [in-group] and [out-group]. Observe:Example 29a. Hon^o^kureru.book^O.M.^give to in-group. (from in-group/out-group of equal or inferiorstatus)a-1^Hon^o^kudasaru.book^O.M.^give to in-group. (from out-group of higher status)b. Hon^o^ageru.book^O.M.^give to out-group/in-group. (of equal or higher status)b-1^Hon^o^sashiageru.book^O.M.^give to out-group. (of superior status)c.^Hon^o^morau.book^O.M.^get from in-group/out-group. (of equal or inferior status)56Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificc-1^Hon^o^itadaku.book^O.M.^get from out-group. (of higher status)Let us examine each pair of the above example: The (a) and (a-1) sentences can mean that"someone in the [out-group/in-group] for (a), and [out-group] for (a-1) will give a book to someonein the [in-group]". The giver is felt to be inferior or equal to the receiver and is superior to thereceiver in (a) and (a-1), respectively. The (b) and (b-1) sentences are contrasted with (a) and (a-1)in the sense that they are understood as "someone of the [in-group] gives a book to someone of the[out-group/in-group] for (b), and [out-group] for (b-1)", in which the giver is inferior or equal tothe receiver in (b) and is inferior to the receiver in (b-1). Similarly, (c) and (c-1) means "someoneof the in-group gets a book from [out-group/in-group] in (c), and [out-group] in (c-1)" in which thereceiver is superior or equal to the giver in (c) and is inferior in (c-1).I have to mention here that when the speaker or his [in-group] are participating in the discourse,the speaker will empathize with the hearer. For example, in a social situation in which the speaker'sfriend got a gift for his birthday from his friends, the speaker can say:a.^Ii^purezento^o^kuremashita^nee.nice present^O.M.^give to in-group^didn't they.They gave you nice presents didn't they.In (a), the speaker is telling the incident from the point of view of the receiver. The speaker cantell another incident from the listener's point of view if he had given a gift to his teacher, as follows:a-1^Ii^pure zento^o^agemashita.nice present^O.M.^give to [out-group].You gave him a nice present.The speaker identifies himself with the giver in this case. Thus, identifying social deixis togetherwith a good understanding of group identity in the Japanese culture is very important for a proper57Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificuse, not only of giving and receiving verbs, but also of the whole honorific system as well. Someungrammatical sentences of giving and receiving verbs formed by Arab students will appear in afollowing chapter.3.6 Desu-masu StyleWhat is called desu-masu style, desu-masu choo or desu-masu tai style in Japanese is classifiedas kei-tai, which means polite style. It is also called "Formal Style" as against "Informal Style" ofda and ru. The desu-masu is most commonly used among educated Japanese for polite conversation,correspondence and often in children's stories. On the other hand, the plain style is commonly usedin non-personal descriptions or discussions such as those in newspapers, novels, essays, thesis, etc.Also, it is used in informal speech.Desu-masu style is considered very convenient, especially for foreigners who are learningJapanese. That is if a foreigner uses the desu-masu style with no other honorific or humbleexpressions, he will still be appreciated and thought of as a polite person by the Japanese people.The desu-masu may be considered the result of transformation from da-ru form. That is, in the mindof the Japanese, da-ru is felt to be basic. For example:da + polite -4 desu.ru + polite masu.3.7 Sample ConversationsIn this section, six sample conversations of Japanese will be studied. The first four samples aretaken from Soga, 1978. The last two samples are from Japanese for Busy People II, 1990. Thesesamples are given in their original polite or honorific forms in the (a) rows. In the (a-1) rows,the corresponding plain forms are given. Arabic translations are given in the (b) and (b-1) rowsrespectively. After each sample, a comparison between the two styles, honorific and plain, will begiven by discussing the different expressions that have been used according to each style. This willgive a better and a closer look at respect language in Arabic and Japanese.58Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.7.1 Sample Conversation #1Convezsation between two men Ueda and Yamamoto:Honorific Stylea. Ueda:^0-taku no^o-ko-san^wa^Amerika de nani oH.P.-your (gen.)^H.P.-child-H.S.^T.M.^America^in^what^O.M.go-benkyoo nasatte-irasshaimasu^ka.H.P.-study is doing(honorific) interrogative(Lit.) What is your(hon.) child(hon.) studying(hon.) in America?Yamamoto: Amerika no^rekishi^o^benkyoo itashite-orimasu.America (gen.)^history^O.M.^study^is doing(humble)(Lit.) He is studying(humble) American history.3.7.1.2 Plain Stylea-1 Ueda: Kodomo wa Amerika de nani o^benkyoo shite-iru ka.^child^T.M. America^in what^O.M.^study^is doing^interrogative(Lit.) What is your son studying in America?^Yamamoto:^Amerika no^rekishi o^benkyo^shite-iru.America (gen.) history^O.M.^study^is-doing(Lit.) He is studying American history.59Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.7.1.3 Honorific Arabic Translationb.^Ueda: Madha^ya-drus-u^ najl-uwhat^he-is studying-(indicat.)^son(fonnal) of-(nom.)hadrat-i-ka^ .if^Amrika?presence-(gen.)-your(sing. masc.)^in^America(Lit) What is son(hon.) of yours(hon.) studying in America?Yamamoto:^Inna-hu ya-drus-u^tdrikh-a^Amrika.that-he^he-is studying-(indicat.)^history of-(acc.)^America(Lit) He studies the history of America.3.7.1.4 Plain Arabic Translationb-1 Ueda: Mddhd ya-drus-u^ibn-u-kawhat^he-is studying-(indicat.)^son-(nom.)-your(masc. sing.).fi'^Amrika?in^America?(Lit) What is son of yours studying in America?Yamamoto:^Inna-hu ya-drus-u^tiirikh-a^Amrika.that-he^he-study-(indicat.)^history of-(acc.)^America(Lit) He is studying the history of America.60Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificThe following are the expressions that appeared in this sample conversations and which are goingto be discussed. The informal expressions will be shown on the right hand side.Japanese expressionsHonorific Plaino-taku no o-ko-sanyour child(exalting)go-benkyoo nasatte-irasshaimasuis, are studying(honorific)benkyoo itashite orimasuam, is, are studying(humble)kodomoyour child(humble)benkyoo shite iruam, is, are studying(informal)benkyoo shite irisam, is, are studying(infonnal)Arabic expressionsHonorific Plainnajl-u hadrat-i-kayour child(exalting)ibn-u-kayour child(inforrnal)From =dying this conversation the following can be noticed:1. Japanese nouns have different forms according to style, whether it is honorific, plain or neutral.2. Japanese nouns have different forms for honorific or humble such as o-ko-san (honorific) andkodomo (humble).3. Japanese verbs have honorific, humble and neutral forms. For example:go- benkyoo nasatte irasshaimasu.^(is, are studying)^(honorific)H.P.-study is doingbenkyoo shite-iru.^(am, is, are studying)^(neutral)study is doing61Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificbenkyoo itashite-orimasu.^(am, is, are studying)^(humble)study is doingThe verb benkyoo-suru has honorific form, formed by the use of the prefix go- and the verb nasaruwhich is the honorific form of suru (to do). It also has the humble form benkyoo itashimasu,in which itasu is the humble form of suru (to do). Notice that the honorific prefix go- is notused with this form. It also is the case for the auxiliary ins. The honorific is irasshimasu andthe humble is orimasu.4. On the other hand, looking at both styles for Arabic in (b) and (b-1), we notice that there is nosuch difference between the two styles, unlike Japanese. The only difference between the twostyles of Arabic is the use of najl (the formal word for son) instead of ibn, the less formal word.Also, the use of hadratika together with najl is forming the very polite or formal expression najl-u hadrat-i-Ica (your son) shows that in Arabic, honorific is also payed by reference to pronoun.For plain style, ibn-u-ka (your son) is used. This suggests that an Arabic students studyingJapanese will have difficulties in the area of honorifics. The students would have to learn thevarious forms the verb has, and when to use them correctly according to the different levels ofpoliteness. So is the case, when the students are learning Japanese nouns. They have to be ableto differentiate between the humble form of a noun they can use when referring to themselvesor their associates, and the exalting forms that are to be used with a superior. The furtherdifficulty that I predict, and I think is the most important, has to do with the levels of honorificsthemselves. In the minds of the Arab students, and native speakers of English too I believe,the following kinds of questions may arise: "Is this person the one to use exalting style withhim/her?", "Would I be impolite if I did not use the humble forms?", "Can I be informal?", etc.Language itself has little to do with these questions, if we assume that the students have alreadylearned the honorific system well and now they are in the stage of applying its rules. I think thatwhat makes Arab students and the native speakers of English confused is what is called crosscultural difference. In the sense that what is appropriate in North America, for instance, could62Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificJapan. Hence, the different points of views are very important factors in this situation. In otherwords, the social deixis is what really counts.3.7.2 Sample Conversation #2Conversation between a company staff and the company president:3.7.2.1 Honorific Stylea. Shain:^Shachoo, kinoo^wa^Tookyoo^Daigaku de Yamanaka-Company^president^yesterday^T.M.^Tokyo^university^atstaffsensei^ni^awareta soo^desu^ga . . .professor (dat.) meet (passive, exalting, past) hear copula but(Lit.) I hear (polite) that you met(hon.) Professor Yamanaka(hon.) at Tokyo University yesterday but . ..Shacho: Ee, Yamanaka-sensei ni o-ai-shite kimashita yo.Company^un^professor (dat.) H.P.-meet-do come (past)^you knowpresident(Lit.) Yes, I met(humble) Professor Yamanaka(hon.) and came(polite), you know!3.7.2.2 Plain Style^a-1 Shain: Shachoo^kinoo^wa^Tookyoo Daigaku^de^Yamanaka^Companypresident^yesterday T.M. Tokyo^yesterday atstaffsensei^ni^atta^soo^da^ga . . .^professor^(dat.)^to meet (past)^hear^copula but(Lit.) I hear that you met Professor Yamanaka(hon.) at Tokyo University but . . .63Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificShachoo:^Un^Yamanaka-sensei ni^o-al-shite^Eta^yo.Company^Un professor (dat.) H.P.-meet-do^come (past)^you knowpresident(Lit.) Yes, I met(humble) professor Yamanaka(hon.) and came, you know!3.7.23 Honorific Arabic Translationb. Al-muwagaf:^Yã sayyid-T^al-muclir^sami c-tu^annacompany staff^0 Mr.-my^the-manager^hear(past)-I^thathadrat-a-ka^ qdbal-tapresence-(acc.)-your(sing. masc)^meet(past)-you(sing. masc.)al-ustddh-a^Yamanaka^ft^Amt.` at-ithe-professor-(acc) in^university-(gen.)kyti^Ams-a^ wa^kikin . . .Tokyo^yesterday-(acc.)^and^but . . .(Lit.) Oh, my master, the manager(hon.), I heard that you(hon.) met ProfessorYamanaka(hon.) at Tokyo University yesterday but . . .tut am qdbal-tu^hadrat-a-hu^wa^ji' -tu.company^Yes^meet(past)-I^presence-(acc.)-his^and^come(past)-Ipresident(Lit.) Yes, I met his presence and came.64Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.7.2.4 Plain Arabic 'franslationb- 1^Al-muwagat^Yã sayyid-f . . .^samic-tuCompany staff^0 Master-my . . .^hear(past)4anna-/ca^qabal-tathat-you(sing. masc.)^meet(past)-you(sing. masc.)al-ustildh-a^Yamanaka ft jamicat-i^Takylithe-professor-(acc.)^in university of-(gen.) Tokyo(Lit.) 0 Mr. . . . (polite), I heard that you met Professor Yamanaka(hon.) at TokyoUniversity.b- 1^Al-Mudir:^Nacam^qdbal-hi^1.zadrat-a-huCompany^yes^meet (past)-I^presence(fem.)-(acc.)-hispresidentwa^ji'-tu.and^com(past)-I(nom.)(Lit) yes, I met his presence and came.The expressions in this sample conversation are as follows:Japanese ExpressionsHonorific^ Plainsenseiprofessor (exalting or polite)65awaretato meet (past, passive, respect language)o-ai-shite kimashitato meet (humble), and to come (past, polite)desucopula (polite form)eeyes (polite)attato meet (past, informal)o-ai-shite kitato meet (humble), and to come (past,infonnal)dacopula (informal)unyes (informal)Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificArabic ExpressionsHonorific Plainyä sayyid-i al-mudir0 Mr. president (polite)anna hadrat-a-ka Obal-tathat you(hon.) meet (past)hadrat-a-hu.^.his presence (honorific)yã sayyidi . . .0 Mr. . . . (less formal)anna-ka qdbal-tayou (informal) meet (past)The informal expression is not used in the conversationFrom this sample conversation, we can notice:I. Sometimes "passive" form is used in Japanese as a respect language. This is illustrated with theuse of awareta (to meet, past, passive) instead of using aria (to meet, past). On the other hand,Arabic does not have such a use for respect language.2. The use of titles in Japanese, such as shachoo (president of a company) and sensei (professor),have been used in both (a) and (a-1). In Arabic, sayyid-t al-mudir (Mr. president) is used fora more formal use than when yã sayyidi (given name) is used. The title ustadh (professor) has66Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificbeen used in both (b) and (b-1) before the surname Yamanaka.3. Also in Arabic the use of hadrat-a-lca in (b) shows more respect than the use of anna-ka (thatyou) in (b-1). Notice here that honorification is carried out by pronoun.4. In (a), in responding to the question, the humble fonn of au (to meet) is used with the verbkimashita (come, past, polite). In (a-1), the same humble form is used but with the plain formkita (come, past). The reason that the humble fonn o-ai-shite is used in both (a) and (a-1)is because the subject is the speaker himself who is lowering his own status with respect toProfessor Yamanaka who has the feature [4-out-group]. Also, the speaker is being polite to thehearer using desu in (a), while being infonnal by using the plain countemart da in (a-1). In fact,(a-1) sentence may be unrealistic in the Japanese society. Notice that the use of the desu-masufonns of the verbs in the (a) row is what makes it a polite style.5. Arabic uses the expression hadrat-a-hu (his presence) in qdbal-tu hadrat-a-hu (met his presence)in (b) and (b-1) in order to pay respect to Professor Yamanaka, as in the Japanese conversations.It is interesting to notice that the respect in such expressions is payed in reference to honorificpronouns. The informal expression would be qadl-tu-hu (meet (past)-I-he).- 3.73 Sample Conversation #3Conversation between two men, Yamada and Nakada:3.7.3.1 Honorific stylea. Yamada: 0-hayoo^gozaimasu. Ii^o-tenki^de gozairnasu^nee.H.P.-early(hon.)^exist(humble)^nice H.P.-weather^copula(humble)^isn't it(Lit) Good morning (polite), nice weather (polite), isn't it?67Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific^Nakada: Ee^taihen atatakoo^gozaimasu^nee.^yes^very^warm(hon.)^exist(humble)^emphasis(Lit.) Yes, it is very warm (hon.) indeed.3.7.3.2 Plain Stylea-1^Yamada:^0-hayoo.^Ii^tenki^da^nee.H.P.-early(hon.)^nice^weather^copula^isn't it(Lit) Good morning(polite), nice weather, isn't it?Nakada:^Un^taihen atatakai^nee.yes^very^warm^emphasis(Lit.) Yes, it is very warm indeed.3.7.3.3 Honorific Arabic Translationb.^Yamada:^Sabah-u^al-khayr-i.^Al-jaww-umorning-(nom.)^the-good-(gen.)^the-weather-(nom.)jamil-un^a-laysa^ka-dhlilika?beautiful-(nom.)^(interrogative)-^as-that(Lit.) Good morning. Nice weather isn't it?Nakada:^Bala.^Inna-hu d4fi'-un.yes^that-he^warm-(nom.)(Lit): Yes. It is warm, indeed.68Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.73.4 Plain Arabic Translationb.^Yamada:^$abaku^al-lchayr-i.^Al-jaww-umoming-(nom.)^the-good-(gen.)^the-weather-(nom.)jamil-un^a-laysa^ka-dhalika?beautiful-(nom.)^(interrogative)-^as-that(Lit.) Good morning. Nice weather isn't it?Nakada:^Bald.^Inna-hu^-un.yes^that-he^warm-(nom.)(Lit.) Yes. It is warm, indeed.There is no Arabic expressions in this sample. The Japanese expressions are as follows:Japanese expressionsHonorific Plaino-hayoo gozaimasugood morning (polite)ii o-tenki de gozaimasugood weather (honorific)atatakoo gozaimasuwarm (honorific)eeyes (polite)o-hayoogood morning (informal)ii tenki dagood weather (informal)atatakaiwarm (informal)unyes (informal)69Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificThe following characteristics must be pointed out:1. In Japanese, the adjective also has an honorific form. An example is the regular morninggreeting, o-hayoo gozaimasu (good morning), as in (a). This greeting is related to the adjectivehayai (early). The prefix o- is attached to the adverbial form of the adjective of hayai, whichis hayalcu becoming hayoo, resulting in o-hayoo gozaimasu. Another example is atatalcoogozaimasu (warm), the honorific form of the adjective atatakai (warm). Notice that in (a-1)both adjectives have been used without gozaimasu for less formal style. But atatakai(wann) notatatakoo (warm, honorific) is used. Notice that o-hayoo without gozaimasu can also be used.In the case of o-hayoo, the honorific adjective (o+hayoo) cannot be used for noun modificationbecause it is meant only for greeting. Dialectally, hayoo without honorific prefix o- may beused as an adverb, as in hayoo shite (do it quickly). Honorific adjectives has been discussedearlier in this chapter.2. On the surface, Japanese language looks like paying respect to things talked about such as"weather", as in taihen atatakoo gozaimasu nee (it is very warm). However, this must beinterpreted as polite form directed to the hearer. To illustrate this point, sentence taiken atatakaidesu nee is considered to have the following underlying structure:Watakushi^wa^"taiken^atatakai^desu^nee"^to^iimasu.T.M. very^warm^copula isn't it^that sayI say to you "it is very warm".The subject watakushi (I) has the feature [+in-group] which is transferred to the adjective,producing the honorific form in order to show respect to the addressee who has the feature[+out-group]. Finally, it is considered that the subject watakushi and the verb to iimasu (I say)get deleted.3. It has been mentioned earlier that some nouns get either honorific prefix o- or go-. The nountenki (weather) takes the prefix o- as in (a), o-tenki and it is followed by the honorific form of70Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificthe copula de gozaimasu. On the other hand, the plain form of the copula is used in (a-1) withthe noun tenki (weather) but this time without the prefix o- as in tenki da.4. It is very interesting to notice that there is no difference between the Arabic two styles in (b)and (b-1). This implies that Arabic honorifics are decided on by reference to superiors. Sincethere was no indication to the addressee on the surface in the conversation above, they appearedto be identical.3.7.4 Sample Conversation #4Conversation between two men Suzuki and Tanaka:3.7.4.1 Honorific Style^a. Suzuki:^Oku-sama^wa^o-genki^de irasshaimasu^ka.your wife-H.S.^T.M. H.P.-well^copula(hon.)^interrogative(Lit) Is (hon.) your wife (hon.) well (hon.) ?^Tanaka:^Hai, kanai^wa^taihen^genki^desu.yes^my wife^T.M. very^well^is(Lit) Yes, my wife (humble) is (polite) very well.3.7.4.2 Plain Stylea-1^Suzuki:^Oku-san^wa^genki^ka.your wife-H.S.^T.M.^well^interrogative(Lit) Is your wife (polite) well?71Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificTanaka:^Un, kanai^wa^taihen genki da.yes^my wife T.M.^very^well^is(Lit.) Yes, my wife (humble) is very well3.7.4.3 Honorific Arabic Translationb. Suzuki:^Hal^al-sayyid-ah^harctm-uinterrogative^the-Mr.-F.M.^wife of-(nom.)bi-lchayr-in?presence(fem.)-(gen.)-your(sing masc.)^with-well-(gen.)(Lit.) Is your (hon.) wife (hon.) well?^Tanaka: Nacam^zawjat-i^bi-khayr-in^jiddan.yes^wife-my^with-well-(gen.)^very(Lit.) Yes, my wife (humble) is very well.3.7.4.4 Plain Arabic Translationb-1^Suzuki:^Hal^zawjat-u-ka^ bi-khayr-in?interrogative^wife-(nom.)-your(sing. masc.)^with-well-(gen.)(Lit.) Is your wife well?72Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificTanaka: Alte am^zawjat-i^bi-khayr-in.yes^wife-my^with-well-(gen.)(Lit.) Yes, my wife (humble) is very well.The expressions in this sample are as follows:Japanese expressionsHonorific Plainoku-samayour wife (honorific)o-genki de irasshaimasuhow are you (honorific)(no honorific for one's own wife)genki desufine (polite)oku-sanyour wife (less formal)genki kahow are you (informal)kanaimy wife (humble)genki dafine (informal)Arabic ExpressionsHonorific Plainal-sayyid-ah haram-u hadr-at-i-kayour wife (honorific)(no honorific form for one's own wife) _zawjat-u-kayour wife (informal)zawjat-imy wife (familiar)From this conversation, one can notice the following:73Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific1. Some nouns that have the suffix -san or -sama as in oku-sama (your wife) in (a) and the lessfonnal oku-san (your wife) in (a-1) and the humble form kanai (my wife) are used in both (a)and (a-1).2. Also, the noun genki (healthy) is used in (a) with the prefix o- and the more polite form ofthe copula de irasshaimasu forming o-genki de irasshaimasu ka (how are you). The informalcounterpart is used in (a-1), genki da.3. Studying the Arabic samples in (b) and (b-1) we find the use of al-sayyid-ah itaram-u hadrat-i-ka(your wife) as a very formal form compared to the use of zawj-at-u-ka (your wife) as in (b-1).Here, the respect is payed by reference to pronoun honorific.4. Japanese and Arabic share having only a humble form for Japanese and familiar form of Arabicfor one's own wife with no honorific counterpart. Usually because the speaker uses humbleexpressions when speaking about himself or his associates. Only does Arabic have one exceptionwhich is that a king or an emperor when speaking about his own wife may use the honorific formthat is usually used with the addressee (as was explained in the "plural form" in the previouschapter).5. The comparison between the Japanese conversations and their Arabic's translations above showsthat in Arabic, there is no predicate verb difference, while in Japanese it exists. This implies orsuggests that other difficulties for Arabs learning the Japanese language. This is again due tothe fact Arabic honorific system is mainly lexical.3.7.5 Sample Conversation #5Telephone conversation between two men:3.7.5.1 Honorific Stylea. Hayashi: Yaa^shibaraku^desu^ne.^Itsu^nihon^ehello for a while^copula^isn't it when^Japan^to74Chapter 3: Japanese Honorifico-ide ni narimashita^ka.H.P.-come (past, hon.)^interrogative(Lit.) well well, it's been a while (since I saw you last), hasn't it (hon.)?When did you come (hon.) to Japan?Kim: Mi-kka^mai ni^mairimashita.three-counter for days^before^come(past, humble)(Lit.) I got (humble) here three days ago.3.7.5.2 Plain Stylea-1^Hayashi:^Yaa.^shibaraku^da^ne.^itsu^nihon^ehello^for a while^copula^isn't it when^Japan^tokita^ka.to come (past)^interrogative(Lit.) Well well, it's been a while (since I saw you last) hasn't it (inf.)?When did you come (inf.) to Japan?Kim: Mi-kka^mai ni^kita.three-counter for days^before^come(past)(Lit): I came (inf.) here throe days ago.75Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.7.5.3 Honorific Arabic 'Translationb.^Hayashi: Mad^hadar-tum^ ild al-ydbd n?when^come (past)-you(pL masc)^to the-Japan(Lit.) When did you (hon.) come to Japan?Kim:^Mundhu^thaltithat-i^ayydm-in^hadar-&since^three-(gen.)^days-(gen.)^come(past)-I(Lit): I came here three days ago.3.7.5.4 Plain Arabic 'Translationb-1^Hayashi:^Maui^hadar-ta^ ild^al-ydban?when^come(past)-you(sing. masc.)^to^the-Japan(Lit): When did you come to Japan.Kim:^Mundhu^thaldthat-i^ayylim-in^hadar-tu.since^three-(gen.)^days-(gen.)^come(past)-I(Lit.) I came here three days ago.The expressions in the conversation are:76Charger 3: Japanese HonorificJapanese ExpressionsHonorific Plainshibaraku desuit has been long since we met (polite)o-ide ni narimashitato come (past, honorific)mairimashitato come(past, humble)shibaraku dait has been long since we met (informal)kitato come (past, informal)kitato come (past, informal)Arabic ExpressionsHonorific Plainhadar-tumcome(past, honorific)-you (pl.)hadar-tãcome (past, informal)-you(sing.)The verb kimasu (to come) has two forms, honorific form as in (a); o-ide ni narimashita andhumble form as in (a-1); mairimashita. For the Arabic sample in (b), the plural form has beenused; hadar-tum (you come, past), while the less formal singular counterpart has been used in (b-1);hadar-ta (you come, past). Here again, the Japanese has a predicate difference, but the Arabic hasno predicate difference.3.7.6 Sample Conversation #6Part of a telephone conversation between two women:3.7.6.1 Polite Stylea.^Sumisu-Fujin:^Kaki^o^takusan^itadakimashite^arigatooMrs. Smith:^persimmons^O.M.^lots^get(hon.)^thank you77Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificgozaimashita.^0-niwa^de^rippa na noexist(past, humble)^H.P.-garden^in^splendid^(gen.)ga^dekiru^n^desu^nee.S.M. grow emphasis^copula(polite)^emphasis(Lit.) We got (hon.) such a lot of persimmons, thank you (polite). (I am hnperessed that)such splendid persimmons grow (polite) in your garden (hon.).Katoo-Fujin:^Ni-san-nichi^tatsu to^motto^amaku narimasuMrs. Kato:^two-three-days^pass after more^sweet^becomekara^sorekara^meshiagatte^kudasi.because^then^eat(hon.)^give(polite)Dewa^doozo^mina-sama^ni^yoroshikuwell^please^everybody-H.S.^to^regardosshatte^latdasi.say (hon.)^give(polite)(Lit.) After two or three days (pass), they'll be (polite) sweeter so please (hon.) eat (hon.)them then. Please (polie) give (hon.) our best regards to everyone (hon.).Surnisu-Fujin: Hai doomo go-teinei ni^o-denwa^o^arigatoo^gozairnashita.Mrs. smith:^Yes^thank^H.P.-polite^H.P.-telephone^O.M. thank you^exist (past,humble)(Lit.) Certainly, thank you for your concern (hon.) to give us a call (hon.).78Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.7.6.2 Plain StyleI will change the names to Mr. Smith and Mr. Kato since the following kind of speech is notlikely to be common among ladies.a. Mr. Smith: Kaki^o^takusan moratte arigatoo.^NiwaMr. Smith:^persinunous^O.M. lots^get^thank you gardende rippa na no^ga^dekiru n^da^nee.in splendid^(gen.)^S.M.^grow^emphasis copula (inf.) emphasis(Lit.) We got (inf.) such a lot of persimmons, thank you. (I am impressed that) suchsplendid persimmons grow in your garden.Mr. Kato:^Ni-san-nichi^tatsu to^motto^amaku^naruMr. Kato:^two-three-days^pass when^more^sweeter become(inf.)kara^sore kara^tabete^kure.^Dewa^minnabecause^then^eat^give(inf.) well^everybodyni^yoroshiku^itte^kure.to^regards^say(inf.) give(inf.)(Lit.) After two or three days (pass), they'll become (inf.) sweeter, so please (inf.) eat(inf.) them then. Please give (ml.) our best regards to everyone (inf.).Mr. Smith:^Un^teinei ni^denwa^o^arigatoo.Mr. Smith^yes considerate^telephone^O.M. thanks(Lit.) Certainly, thank you for your concern to give us a call.79Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.7.6.3 Arabic Polite Translationb-1 Mrs. Smith: shukr-an^jazil-an^Ca al-kciki^allatithanks-(acc.)^a lot -(acc.)^for the-persimmon^that(fem.)tafaddal-turn bi-taqdim-i-hado the favor of (past)-you(pl. masc.)^with-offering-(gen.)-sheland.^Inna-häto us^that-she^such a (emphasis)-persimmonrit -at-un^ tilka^allatr^ta-nnuisplendid-(f.m.)-(nom.)^the one^that(fem.)^she-growft^hadiqat-i hadrat-i-kum.in^garden-(gen.) presence-(gen.)-your(masc. pl .)(Lit.) Thank you (hon.) for your favour of giving us such a lot of persimmons, (I amimperessed that) such splendid persimmons grow in your (hon.) garden.Mrs. Kato: bacd-a^yawm-in^aw ithnayni^sa-ta-ka n-uafter-(acc)^one day-(gen.) or two (gen.)^will -she-become-(indicat.)W.114^cinda' idhin^tafacktal-asweeter^then^do the favour of(imp. jus.)-you(pl. masc.)MM^fadl-i-kieat(imp. jus.)-you(pl.)-she from^favour-(gen.)-your(sing. fern)80Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificballigh-i^al-jamic-a^salcim-a-nãtell(imp. jus.)-you(sing.^the-everyone-(acc.) regards-(acc.)-ourfern.)(Lit) After a day or two (pass), they'll become sweeter, so please you(hon.) (give us thefavour and) eat them then. Please (do the favour and) give our regards to everyone.Mrs. Sumith:^sa-a-f al-u^shukr-an^'aidwill-I-do-I that^thanks-(acc.)^for^care-(gen.)hadrat-i-ki^bi- al-mukälamat-i.presence-(gen.)-your(sing. fern.)^with-the-telephone call(fem.)- (gen.)(Lit.) I will, thank you for your (hon.) concern to call.3.7.6.4 Arabic Plain Translationb-1 Mrs. Smith:^shukr-an^jazil-anthanks-(acc.)^a lot-(acc.)qaddam-ti-/zãoffer(past)-you(sing. fem.)-shela-kakisuch a(emphasis)- persimmoncilia al- 'kaki^allatifor the-persimmon^that(fem)land.^Inna-hãto us^that-sherit c-at-un^tilkasplendid-S.M.-(nom)^the oneallati^ta-nmii^ft hadiqat-i-kumthat(fem.) she-grow in garden(fem.)-(gen.)-your(pl. masc.)81Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific(Lit.) Thank you for giving us such a lot of persimmons, (I am imperessed that) suchsplendid persimmons grow in your garden.Mrs. Kato: beed-a^yawm-in^cnv ithnayniafter- (acc.)^a day-(gen.)^or^two-(gen.)^will-she-become-(iundicat.)alga^cinda' idhinsweeter^then^eat(imp. jus.)-you(pl.)-sheBalligh-f^ al-jamf -a^salam-a-nã.te,ll(imp.)-you(fem. sing.)^the-everyone-(acc.)^regards-(acc.)-our(Lit.) After a day or two (pass) they'll be sweeter, so eat them then. Give our regards toeveryone.Mrs. Smith:^sa-a-f al-u^dadika^shukr-an^ Caltiwill-I-do-I^that^thanks-(acc.) forbi-al-mukälamat- i.care-(gen.)-your(fem. sing.)^with-the-call(fem.)-(gen.)(Lit.) I will, thanks for your concern to call.Mrs. Kato: baccl-a^yawm- in^ow ithnayni^sa- ta-kan-uafter- (acc.)^a day-(gen.)^or^two-(gen.)^will-she-become-(indicat.)ahld^cinda' idhinsweeter^then^eagimp. jus.)-you(pl.)-she82Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificBalligh-i^ al-jamic-a^saleun-a-nd.tell(imp.)-you(fem. sing.)^the-everyone-(acc.)^regards-(acc.)-our(Lit.) After a day or two (pass) they'll be sweeter, so eat them then. Give our regards toeveryone.Mrs. Smith:^sa-afal-u^dhcilika^shukr-an^ camwill-I-do-I^that^thanks -(acc.) forihtimtim- i-ki bi-al-mukälamat- i.care-(gen.)-your(fem. sing.)^with-the-call(fem.)-(gen.)(Lit.) I will, thanks for your concern to call.The expressions for this sample are:Japanese ExpressionsHonorific^ Plainitadakimashite^ moratteto receive (honorific) to get or receive (informal)arigatoo gozaimashita^ arigatoothank you (honorific) thank you (informal)o-niwa^ niwagarden (honorific)^ garden (informal)desu^ dacopula (polite)^ copula (informal)83Honorific Plainhadiqat-i hadrat-i-kumyour(hon.) gardenhadiqat-i-kamyour garden(infomal)Arabic Expressionstafaddal-tum bi taqdim-i-hayou gave us the honor of offering (exalting)qaddamti-hayou offered us (informal)Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificnarimasuto become (polite)meshi agatte kudasaiplease eat (honorific)doozoplease (polite)mina-samaeveryone (exalting)osshatte kudasaiplease say (exalting)go-teineiconsiderate (excalting)o-denwatelephone (polite)nan4to become (informal)tabete kureplease eat (informal)-Minna —everyone (informal)itte kureplease say (informal)teineiconsiderate (informal)denwatelephone (informal) 84Chapter 3: Japanese Honorificmin fadlilc-ipleasehadrat-i-kiyour(hon.) concern-^your concern (informal) By studying this conversation the following could be noticed about the Japanese expressions:I. There are nouns that have prefix o- or go- or suffix -Kona such as o-niwa (you garden), go-teinei(considerate) and mina-sama (everyone).2. Verbs that have special honorific forms have been used such as:a. itadakimashite (to receive), the polite form of moratte,b. meshiagatte (eat), the honorific counterpart of tabete andc. osshatte (say), the honorific form of itte3. The formal desu-masu style as in desu (am, is, are) and narimasu (to become) is used in (a).On the other hand, da (am, is, are) and flans (to become) the informal counterparts have beenused in (a-1).4. Some polite words appeared in the (a) rows and did not appear in (a-1) rows, such as doozo(please) and gozaimashita of arigatoo (gozaimashita).5. Kure (please), the informal of kudasai, has been used in (a-1). lure and kudasai are fromkudasaru and kureru (to get) verbs respectively.And for the Arabic, we can notice that:1. The expression min facilik-i (please), appeared in (b) and not in (b-1)2. tafaddakum (you gave us the honor of) was used in (b) and not in (b-1). Instead, qaddam-ti-hcl(you offered it) has been used.3. Two expressions with honorific pronouns have appeared in (b) and not in (b-1). They are hadiqat-ihadrat-i-kum (your(hon.) garden) and ihtimilm-i hadrat-i-ki (your(hon.) concern). Their informalforms are hadiqat-i-kum (your garden) and (your concern) respectively.85Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific3.8 SummaryThe important points of this chapter can be summarized as follows:1. Japanese honorific system displays inflectional characteristics. It is also a lexico-grammaticalsystem, while the Arabic system is mainly lexical.2. Some Japanese nouns have honorific and neutral forms.3. Japanese has honorific prefixes and honorific suffixes, while Arabic does not.4. One could be polite in Japanese and show respect to the addressee or to the referent either byusing the honorific or the humble forms of the verb. On the other hand, Arabic verbs do not havethese kinds of forms. However, the use of the plural forms in Arabic is considered honorific style.5. Although there are some rules for the formation of honorific or humble Japanese verbs, someverbs do have special honorific and humble forms of their own.6. Passive form is used as a respect language in Japanese.7. Imperative in Japanese has honorific countemarts as well, in which there are two^lowerand higher. According to these levels, the negative imperative is formed. In Arabic, words withthe meaning of "please" are simply used with imperative, forming a polite request.8. Japanese nominal adjectives and true adjectives are made into honorific, while Arabic adjectivesare not made into honorific.9. Japanese has lots of giving and receiving verbs that have in-group/out-group deixis inherent inthem.10. Desu-masu style is considered vitally important for politeness in Japanese.11. In Arabic, honorifics are decided on by reference to superiors, while in Japanese there is asubject/verb agreement that governs the form of the verb.12. Japanese has predicate difference, while Arabic has not.13. In Arabic, respect is also payed by reference to pronoun honorific.The following chart illustrate the difficulties of Arabs learning Japanese honorific system:86Chapter 3: Japanese HonorificArab Students Difficulties Reason1. Japanese honorific system. The reason behind this is that Arabic honorific system ismainly lexical. Thus, the students are dealing with acompletely different system.2. Honorific prefixes o- and go-. The Arab students have no ability of differentiatingbetween words of Japanese origin and those of Chineseorigin to use o- and go- with them respectively. Also, thestudents might make mistakes and use such prefixes inreferring to themselves or their [in-group] membersbecause they do not have equivalents in Arabic.3. Honorific suffixes -san and-sama.Similar to (2) above, the students would tend to use themin referring to themselves or their associates.4. Honorific and humble verbs. The students will have to learn not only the verbs, butalso how to form their honorific and humblecounterparts. Besides, some verbs have their specialhonorific and humble forms that must be memorized.The further difficulties are in which social situation whatlevel of politeness and with whom these forms are used.5. Japanese imperative. Due to having different forms and various levels ofimperatives, the students will have trouble learning themand using them very similar to their troubles withhonorific and humble forms of the verbs and their usagementioned in (4) above.87Chapter 3: Japanese Honorific6. Honorific adjectives. Again, in what level and with whom one should usethese forms, will confuse Arab students.7. Giving and receiving verbs. This is due to the fact that, contrary to Arabic andEnglish, Japanese has so many of these verbs. Theirusage also varies according to Japanesein-group/out-group deixis, as well as the various levels ofpoliteness, etc. in which Arab students, as well asEnglish speakers, often make mistakes due to culturaldifference, etc.88Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicChapter 4Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicThis chapter deals with Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic. Number and gender inboth languages will be introduced and compared. My predictions of the difficulties that might faceJapanese learning Arabic and Arabs learning Japanese will be presented. The possible incorrect useof number and gender made by both students are kept for further discussions in Chapter 5.4.1 Number and Gender in JapaneseThe tenns "singularity" and "plurality" in Japanese are different from the English or the Arabicones. It is well known that all the countable nouns in English are either singular or plural as in penversus pens respectively. In Arabic, verbs, nouns and adjectives are marked for number and gender.There are three numbers in Arabic: singular, dual and plural. There are two genders: masculine andfeminine. On the other hand, Japanese nouns, verbs and adjectives are not marked for number andgender. However, there are some nouns that are semantically plural, such as minna (everybody),takusan (lots, many), sukunai (few), etc. There are also some nouns that are semantically femalesor males, such as o-kaa-san (mother), o-too-san (father), etc. Of course, it must be pointed out thatfemales or males or what is known as "natural gender" are of different concepts from grammaticalgenders such as masculine or feminine. However, since in Arabic nouns denoting females arefeminine, and those denoting males are masculine, and males and females in Japanese also havesome grammatical implications, as indicated by sentence particles wa or zo, I will use masculine andfeminine here in association with males and females.In the following, Japanese number and gender will be introduced.4.1.1 Japanese Number4.1.1.1 Japanese NounIn Japanese, some nouns get plural counterparts by using plural suffixes, such as -tachi, -gata89Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicand -ra, with words such as watakushi (I), anata (you) and kore (this one), respectively. Also, byusing reduplication, plural words are fonned as ware-ware (we). Observe the following example:Example 30a. Watakushi^ a-1^Watakushi-tachi (we)I^ I-(P.S.)b. Anata^ b-1^Anata-gata (you, pl.)you(sing.) you-(P.S.)c. Kare^ c-1^Kare-ra (they)he he-(P.S.)d. Kore^ d-1^Kore-ra (these ones)this one this one-(P.S.)e.^Ware^ e-1^Ware-ware (we)self we-(we)However, not all the nouns in Japanese can take a suffix or a reduplication as those in Example(30). In fact, most of the Japanese nouns do not take plural suffixes. Unless these nouns aremodified by a quantifier, it really depends on the context, whether they are singular or plural. Thisis illustrated in Examples (31) and (32).Example 31a.^Watakushi^wa^hon^ga^arimasu.I^T.M. book S.M. exista-1^I have a book. (As for me, book exits.)a-2^I have books. (As for me, books exist.)90Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicb. Watakushi^wa^hon^ga^is-satsu^arimasu.I^T.M. book S.M. one-counter for books^existI have one book.c. Watakushi^wa^hon^ga^san-satsu^arimasu.I^T.M. book S.M. three-counter for books^existI have three books.Example 32a.^Gakusei^ga^gakkoo^ni^imasu.student^S.M.^school^at^exista-1^There is a student at school.a-2^There are students at school.a-3^There are students at schools.b.^Gakusei^ga^hito-ri^galckoo ni^imasu.student^S.M.^one-counter for person^school^at^existOne student is at school.b-1^Gakusei^ga^futa-ri^gakkoo ni^imasu.student^S.M.^two-counter for person^school^at^existTwo students are at school.The noun hon (book) in Example (31-a) has two interpretations given in Example (31-a-1) and(31-a-2) corresponding to singular and plural, respectively. However, in Example (31-b) and Example(31-b-1), hon is not ambiguous at all because it is preceded by the quantifiers is-satsu (one book)and san-satsu (three books). The same situation applies for the nouns gakusei (student) and gakkoo91Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic(school) in Example (32-a). However, in Example (32-b) and (32-b-1), there is no ambiguity forgakusei (student) because of the quantifiers hito-ri (one person) and futa-ri (two persons), respectively.Also, having an adverb such as talassan (lots of) or an adjectives such as ooi (many), sukunai(few), . . . etc. will help clarifying the situation as illustrated in Example (33).Example 33a. Hon^ga^takusan^arimasu.book^S.M.^lots^existI have lots of books.b. Kyoo^wa^galcusei^ga^sukunai^desu.today^T.M.^students^S.M.^few^copulaThere are few students today.c.^Watakushi^ni wa^ii^tomodachi^ga^ooi^desu.I^for T.M. good friends^S.M.^lots^copulaI have lots of good friends.In Example (33) all the nouns, hon (book), gakusei (student) and tomodachi (friend), get theplural interpretation because of the adverb takusan and the adjectives sukunai (few) and ooi (many),respectively. In general, when a proper quantifier is used, there is no ambiguity with respect to thenumber interpretation.It must be mentioned that Japanese uses different counters according to the object to be counted.For example, the counter -nin is used for counting people, -satsu for books, -dai for machines, -honfor long cylindrical objects, -mai for thin flat objects, etc. Theoretically, this must be considered tobe an example of noun feature transfer in the manner of:92Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicNoun^+ Number -4 Noun^+ NumberEI^EI^ITThat is, one of the features of the noun gets attached to the co-occurring number. For example,for counting pencils, the feature of "long object" is attached to the number, and it is considered thatthe abstract unit, "number with the feature of long object" produces the quantifier such as san-hon,which manifests as san-bon on the surface. In the same way, chalk, river, street, etc., which are long,may all be counted by -lion, as in Kawa ga ip-pon soko o nagarete iris (one river flows there).Arabic counting system is different from Japanese counting system. Arabic does not have specialcounters for each kind of object to be counted as Japanese does. The noun itself can be singular,dual or plural, as in tedib (one student), tiilib-ãn (student-dual) and tu//c1b (more than two students).However, when we want to indicate the exact number in more than two, we just use numberssuch as arbac atu tulleib-in (four students). These differences between the counting systems in thetwo languages will cause some difficulties for Arabs learning Japanese because they have to learndifferent counters. The further difficulty that the Arab students would have is the mixing of theuse of the Sino-Japanese counting system and the native Japanese numeral system. For example,it has been mentioned previously that -nin is the counter for people, but we find that sometimesthe Native-Japanese numerals are used as hito-ri (one person) and futa-ri (two persons) as in (32-b)and (32-b-1), and in the other cases the Sino-Japanese numerals are used. I presume that the sameproblem would face native speakers of English as well. However, I think that these difficulties wouldonly be at the beginning stage. Once the students learn the system very well, they would tend tomake less mistakes. The degree of difficulty as well as predictions of some incorrect forms by Arabstudents will be discussed in another chapter.As for Japanese students learning the Arabic counting system, I think that at the beginning theywould find it simple because they do not have to learn special vocabularies to know how to count.After the beginning stage, they will be faced with the "Arabic broken plural" which is going to be93Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicintroduced in a following section. These difficulties as well as predictions of mistakes that Japanesestudents might make will be discussed in Chapter 5.So, in Japanese, having quantifiers or adverbs help in clarifying the ambiguity between singularand plural. However, in Arabic, this is not the same. The reason, again, is that the number is alreadymarked in the noun. Also, I must mention that numbers can still be used with the nouns sometimesfor emphasis reasons. Observe the following example:Example 34a. Qttbal-tu^al-walad-ayni.meet (past) -I^the-boy-two(acc.)I met the two boys.b. al-walad-ayni^al-ithnayni.meet (past) -I^the-boy-two(acc.)^the-two(acc.)I met the two boys.(Lit.) I met the two boys who are two._I have to mention here that the word al-ithnayni (the-two) in (34-b) is the Arabic word for thenumber two. This number al-ithnayni is the underlying fonn for the (acc./gen.) dual in Arabic. Also,al-ithain is the underlying form for nominative dual. Thus, the following rule may be considered:ithnayni[+ genfacc.]ithnan[-4- nom.]ayni I noun _r+ genfacc 1[ + sing.an^noun _r+ nom 1I.+ sing.]94Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic4.1.1.2 Japanese AdjectiveJapanese adjective precedes the noun it modifies. But it does not agree with it being singular orplural. As a matter of fact, Japanese adjective is neither marked for number nor for gender, as goingto be introduced later on. The following example illustrates this point:Example 35a. Yasui^enpitsu^o^ip-pon^ kaimashita.inexpensive^pencil^O.M.^one-counter for long object^buy (past)I bought an inexpensive pencil.b. Yasui^enpitsu^o^go-hon^ lcaimashita.inexpensive pencil^O.M. five-counter for long object^buy (past)I bought five inexpensive pencils.Notice that in both (a) and (b) above that the adjective yasui (inexpensive) is in the same fonnregardless of the number of the noun it modifies, whether it is singular as in enpitsu ip-pon (onepencil), or plural as in enpitsu go-hon (five pencils).On the other hand, Arabic adjective follows the noun it modifies and agrees with its number,gender and case. It also agrees with the definiteness and indefiniteness of the noun. These differencesbetween Japanese and Arabic adjectives would not cause much difficulties for Arabs learning Japanese.Yet, they will find that Japanese adjectives are not giving them the kind of information they are usedto get from the Arabic adjectives regarding the number and the gender of the nouns they modify.4.1.1.3 Japanese VerbExamples (31), (32) and (33) indicate that the Japanese verbs do not change their forms withrespect to number. Thus, the verb aru has always the same form aru, regardless of the quantity ofthe object counted. The same is true with the verb iru in Example (32).95Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicArabic verbs, on the other hand, are marked for person, number and gender, as in katab-a-t (write(past)-he-F.M.) (she wrote). This pattern gives us information such as that the doer of the action isa third person, feminine and singular by having-t attached to the verb in its past tense form. Bothindependent personal pronouns and pronominal suffixes and prefixes will be explained in detail inthe section "Arabic Number and Gender". Unlike the Arabic verb katab-a-t and all the informationit has in its form, the Japanese verb kaimashita (to buy (past)) by itself could mean "I bought","you bought" and "they bought", etc. This uncertainty of the doer of the action would be strangefor Arab students of Japanese. However, to some extent, the situation will indicate the identities ofthe speaker. But if they won't, as was stated in Saint-Jacques, 1971, "the various speech levels willsuggest who they are, by pointing out their respective position in the social group". I will comeback to this point subsequently4.1.2 Japanese Gender4.1.2.1 Japanese NounThe other characteristic that Japanese verb and noun have in common is gender, in the senseI mentioned previously. It may appear that gender has little grammatical significance in Japanese.However, we must be aware that the style of speech is often different, depending upon whether thespeaker is male or female. Even the choice of the verb forms may be different. That is, women oftentend to be more polite than men. In particular, sentence particles may often be exclusively male orfemale as in iku zo versus ikimasu wa, etc.Thus, in a narrative, for example, when the speaker is specified as a female, and if her speech isdirectly quoted, the quotation cannot be of a male speech. I consider therefore that it is important tospecify the gender difference in nouns in some cases. I will come back to this topic subsequently.First let us look at the Japanese noun. For inanimate nouns, there is no feminine nor masculine.However, some of the animate nouns have gender in them such as o-kaa-san (mother), o-too-san96Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic(father), otooto-san (younger brother) and o-yome-san (bride), etc. On the other hand, we have lotsof animate nouns without gender, as Example (36) demonstrates:Example 36a. A kachan^ga^nete-imasu.baby^S.M. is sleepingThe baby is sleeping.b. Sensei^ni^denwa^o^shimashita.teacher^to^telephone^O.M. make (past)I phoned the teacher.By studying the nouns in Example (36), we do not really know without the context wether theyare masculine or feminine. For example, is the akachan (baby) in Example (36-a) a baby boy or ababy girl? And is sensi (teacher) in Example (36-b) a female teacher or a male teacher?However, Japanese can specify gender by adding otoko no (male) or onna no (female) tosome nouns such as gakusei (student), sensei (teacher), hito (person), isha (doctor), tomdachi(friend), . . . etc. This is demonstrated in Example (37).Example 37a.^Otoko no hito^ a- 1^Onna no hitoman(gen.) person woman(gen) persona man^ a woman97Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicb. Otoko no ko^ b-1^Onna no Icoman(gen.) child woman(gen.) childa baby boy^ a baby girlc. Otoko no gakusei^ c-1^Onna no gakuseiman(gen.) student woman(gen.) studenta male student^ a female studentThe last point to mention here is about person's name. Of course it is almost quite clear thatthere are certain given names for females and some other names for males in any language. Forexample, in English, "Mary" is a female name and "John" is a male one. Also in Japanese, "Kazuko"is a female name and "Kazuo" is a male one. Differently from Arabic, "-san", the honorific suffixand the Japanese equivalent for "Mr.", "Mrs." and "Miss" keeps the gender ambiguous if used withsurnames. It is noteworthy that most of Japanese given names for women have the ending syllableko such as Hiroko, Tomoko, Elko, Sachiko, Noriko, Yasuko and many more. Observe the following:Example 38a. Nakano^Kazuko-san(surname)^(female name)-Miss or Mrs (H.S.)Miss. or Mrs. Kazuko Nakanob. Nakano^Kazuo-san(surname)^(male name)-Mr.(H.S.)Mr. Kazuo Nakano98Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicc.^Nakano-san(surname)-(H.S.)Mr. NakanoMrs. NakanoMiss. NakanoIn Example (38-a), it is clear that Nakano Kazuko-san is a female person (Miss. or Mrs.). AlsoNakano Kazuo-san (Mr. Kazuo Nakano) in Example (38-b) is a male person. However, Nakano-sanin Example (38-c) is quite ambiguous. Is it Mr. Nakano, Mrs. Nakano or Miss Nakano? Arabic,on the other hand, have words equivalent to English Mr. and Mrs. They are al-sayyid (the-Mr.)and al-sayyid-ah (the-Mrs.).Arabic nouns, unlike Japanese nouns, are either masculine or feminine and they do not have whatis called "neuter gender", as in English "it". Arabic gender is more complicated than the Japaneseone as going to be introduced in the Arabic section. Due to this difference, Arab students wouldwant to have some more information about the stated nouns. I predict that they will tend to askmany questions to get more information they are used to get from the Arabic nouns. For example,when they hear from a Japanese person a statement like gakusei ga kita (student S.M. come (past))(student(s) came), the Arab students would want to know if gakusei (student(s)) indicates one student,two students, or more, as well as being female student(s) or male one(s).4.1.2.2 Japanese AdjectiveJust as it is not marked for number, Japanese adjective is not marked for gender either. Observethe following:99Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicExample 39a. Kawaii onna no ko^ga^umaremashita.cute^woman(gen.)^(nom.)^be born (past)childA cute baby girl was born.b. Kawaii otoko no ko^ga^umaremashita.cute^man(gen.) child (nom.)^be born (past)A cute baby boy was born.Notice that the adjective kawaii (cute) has the same form in both (39-a) and (39-b) regardlessof the nouns it modifies denoting female, as in onna no kc) (baby girl) or denoting male, as in otokono ko (baby boy).Arabic adjectives are different from that of Japanese. They have to agree with the nouns theymodify in number, gender and case. What concerns us here is adjective agreements with the gender ofnouns. Adjectives in Arabic are grammatically treated in a similar way as nouns. So, my predictionis that there would be little confusion among Japanese students about the agreement itself betweenadjectives and nouns in Arabic. I rather predict that the confusion would arise from having to decidewhether the noun is masculine or feminine. There will be a further discussion on this point afterhaving Arabic gender introduced in Section 42.2.4.1.2.3 Japanese VerbWith the exception of some cases involving male/female speech style, the Japanese verb isgenerally neutral regarding gender, just like its relationship with numbers as we examined earlier.100Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicRecall that Japanese verbs are not marked for person, number and gender. This is shown in Example(40).Example 40a. Onna no ko^ga^nete-imasu.baby^girl^S.M. is sleepingThe baby girl is asleep.a-1^Otoico^no ko^ga^nete-imasu.baby^boy^S.M.^is sleepingThe baby boy is asleep.b. Haha^ga^hataraite-imasu.my mother^S.M.^is workingMy mother is working.b-1^Chichi^ga^hataraite-imasu.my father^S.M. is workingMy father is working.c.^Otooto-san^ ga^ashita^kimasu^Ica.your younger brother-H.S.^S.M. tomorrow come^interrogativeIs your younger brother coming tommorow?101Chapter 4: Number and Gender M Japanese and Arabicc-1^0-nee-san^ga^ashita^kimasu^ka.H.P.-your elder sister-H.P.^S.M. tomorrow^come^interrogativeIs your elder sister coming tommorow?Notice that the verbs in (40) have the same forms with both female and male subjects. AlthoughJapanese verbs, adjectives and the majority of the nouns are not marked for gender, Japanese hasgender characteristics with respect to style, which I referred to previously. From the style of sentences,one could guess if the speakers are two men, two women or one man and one woman. Also, onecan guess their approximate ages and what kind of relationship they have. This is due to the stylisticdifference in the language used by Japanese men and Japanese women. Kindaichi (1978) considersthis distinction between the speeches of men and women in Japan one of the peculiarities of Japaneselanguage. He also claims that this distinction is a recent one by giving us, as an example, theeleventh century classic Genji monogatari ( The Tale of Genji), in which people could hardly feelthe difference between the speeches of men and women. In writing, however, one could easily tell ifthe writer was a man or a woman. The reason is because men used to use kanji (Chinese characters)in their writing, while women used hiragana (Japanese syllable).There are some expressions and words that are used more by women and some others used moreby men. The sentences ending yo, (da)wa, no (yo) and no are characteristic of women speech. Men,on the other hand, use sentence endings such as zo, ze, sa and kai. Women would use atashi (I) andanata (you), while men would use boku (I) and kimi (you). The following is a part of an informalconversation taken from "Japanese for today", 1980:A:^Yaa^genki^kai?Hi^OK^interrogative(Lit) Are you well?102Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicB:^Ee^genki^yo.^Anata^mo^kuroku nattayes^OK^you know^you^too^tan^become (past)wa20 ne21.^Oyogi^ni^itta^no.swimming^to^go(past) nominalizerYes, I am OK. You look so tan. Did you go swimming?I omitted the names of the speakers of the above conversation. One can easily tell, however,that the conversation is between a man and a woman. The "A" sentence is for a man and sentence"B" is for a woman (named Taroo and Hanako in the original conversation). We get to know that"A" is a male speaker because of the use of yaa and kai. We could also guess that "B" is a femalespeaker because of the sentence endings wa ne, in which wa is used for "confirmation" by women.Also, having the nominalizer no with a rising intonation at the end of the interrogative sentence isone of the hints that the speaker is a woman.So, I think that Arab students have to be very careful in using these sentence endings andexpressions in their own conversation. Female students must not use male language and male studentsmust not use female style. This difference is one of the difficulties for Arabs learning Japanese. Ipresume that the situation is much the same for English speakers.For the sake of grammatical analysis of male and female styles, I must emphasize the centralimportance of the speaker, not the subject or the object of the sentence. Thus, if we depend onlyon a stated sentence, it may not be exactly clear how to characterize the maleness or femaleness ofthe sentence since Japanese nouns themselves are basically neutral with respect to gender. What Iwould like to suggest is to consider the underlying extra-sentential subject of "I" in much the sameway as "performative analysis", which is originally suggested by Austin (1961), and later by Ross(1970). By considering the underlying "I" as the subject, we can consider that the "maleness" or"femaleness" of the speaker "I" controls the occurrence of the sentence particles in much the same20 nuance particle used for confirmation by women only21^sentence particle used for getting listner's agreement103Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicway as an agreement transformation. More specifically, for wa and zo for example, it will have tobe something like:Watakushi+ malel+ femalegaS.M.to yuu—>to say4.2 Number and Gender in ArabicArabic nouns and verbs are different from those of Japanese regarding number and gender. InArabic, nouns and verbs have three numbers; singular, dual and plural. They also have two genders;masculine and feminine.4.2.1 Arabic NumberFirst let us look at Arabic nouns.4.2.1.1 Arabic Noun It has been mentioned earlier that Arabic nouns have singular, dual and plural forms. The dualform is formed by:1. Dropping the case ending of a singular noun.2. Adding one of the following endings: -an in the nominative case, -ayni in the accusative/genitivecase. These endings are also used with feminine nouns ending in what is called in Arabic tãmarbiltah (-ah) after changing it to a regular -t.104Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicFor example:CaseMasculine Noun Feminine Noun Feminine Noun endingwith -ahsingular dual singular dual singular dualnominativewalad-unboy-(nom.)a boywalad-anboy-dual (nom.)two boysbins-ungirl-(nom.)a girlbint-dngirl-dual (nom.)two girlshujrat-unroom-(nom.)a roomJusjrat-dnroom-dual (nom.)two momsaccusativewalad-anboy-(acc.)a boywalad-ayniboy-dual (acc.)two boysbins-angirl-(acc.)a girlbint-aynigirl-dual (acc.)two girlshujrat-anroom-(acc.)a roomhujrctt-aynimom-dual (acc.)two roomsgenetive,walad-inboy-(gen.)a boywalad-ayniboy-dual (gen.)two boysbins-ingirl-(gen)a girlbint-aynigirl-dual (gen.)two girlshujrat-inroom-(gen)a roomhujrat-aynimom-dual (gen)two roomsThere are two types of plurals in Arabic: a regular type and an irregular type which is widelyknown as "Arabic Broken Plural" unpredictable (irregular) and it has to be learned as a part of thevocabulary. The regular type is fonned by a regular pattern. The regular plural is formed by:1. Dropping the case ending of the singular masculine and feminine nouns and dropping the tãmarbsitah (-ah) of the feminine nouns.2. Adding one of the following suffixes:a. For masculine nouns; -Una in the nominative case and -Ma in the accusative/genitive case.b. For feminine nouns; -iltu in the nominative case and -cid in the accusative/genitive case.For example:105Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicMasculine Noun Feminine NounSingular Regular Plural Singular Regular Pluralmigriy-un.Egyptian-(nom.)an Egyptianmigiy-dna.Egyptain-pl. (nom)Egyptiansmaktabat-un.library-(nom.)a librarymaktab- dtun.library-(pl. nom.)librariesmigriy-an.Egyptian-(acc.)an Egyptianmigiy- ina.Egyptian-(pl. acc.)Egyptiansmaktabat-an.library-(acc)a librarymaktab-dtin.library-(pl. acc.)librariesmisr9- in.Egyptian-(gen.)an Egyptian^_migiy- ina.Egyptian-pl. (gen.)Egyptiansmaktabat-in.library-(gen.)a librarymaktab-d tin.library-(pl. gen)librariesHowever, the broken type, which contains the majority of nouns, is unpredictable. It has beensuggested by Hanna Kassis (1990 and 1992) to learn the plural of a noun at the same time as thesingular. This could be one of the biggest problems that might face foreigners learning Arabic, asgoing to be discussed in Chapter 5.In the following, I will introduce the Arabic separate or independent personal pronouns:(MASC.).^(FEM.)1 st person.andIandI.n2 nd personantayouantiyouSINGULAR,3 rd personhuwahehiyashe106Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic1 st person (same as the plural) (same as the plural)2 nd personantumdyou two.antumdyou two DUAL.3 rd personhumdthey twohumäthey two1 st personnahnuwenahnuwePLURAL2 nd person,antumyouantunnayou3 rd personhumtheyhunnatheyExample 41a. And^qara' - tu^kita-an.I^read(past)-I book-(acc.)I read a book.b. And^qara' - tu^kita-ayni.I^read(past)-I book-dual (acc.)I read two books.c.^And^qara' - tu^laaub-an.I^read(past)-I books-(acc.)I read books (more than two).107Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicExample 42a. And^qabal- tu^al-walad-a.meet(past)-I the-boy-(acc.)I met the boy (acc.).b. Ana^qcibal- tu^al-walad-ayni.meet(past)-I the-boy-dual(acc.)I met the two boys.c.^And qäbal- tumeet(past)-I^the-boys-(acc.)I met the boys. (more than two)Example 43a. And qabal- tumeet(past)-I^the-student-(F.M.)-(acc).I emt with the female student.b. Anä^qabal- tumeet(past)-I^the-student-(F.M.)-dual(acc).I met with the two female students.108Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicc.^And qdbal-tumeet(past)-I^the-student-(fem. pl . acc.).I met with the female students. (more than two)In the above, all the nouns are singular in the (a) sentences, dual in the (b) sentences and pluralin the (c) sentences. Notice that the plural nouns kutub-an (books) and al-awkid-a (the boys) inExamples (41-c) and (42-c) are examples of Arabic broken plural.Arabic number is more complicated than Japanese number in the sense that lots of changes andinflections are going on as well as having irregular plural. Japanese learning Arabic will have tolearn and apply the rules for the dual as well as for fonning the regular plural nouns. This would bethe first difficulty. The further difficulties would be with irregular plural or Arabic broken plural inwhich even some native speakers sometimes get confused.4.2.1.2 Arabic AdjectiveIn Arabic, the adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in number, gender and case, as well asbeing definite or indefinite. In other words, Arabic adjective forms depend upon the features of thenoun they modify. Thus, the following rule may be considered:Noun + Adj. -+ Noun + Adj.[+x]^[+x]^[+x]This is illustrated in the following example:Example 44a.^ al-saghir-u^nam-a.the-child-(nom.)^the-little-(nom.)^sleep(past)-heThe little child slept.109Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicb. Al-tffl-ani^al-saghir-äni^ntim-et.the-child-dual (nom.)^the-little-dual (nom.)^sleep(past)-they(dual)The two little children slept.c. A 1-a01-u^allighar-u^ntim-a.the-children-(nom.)^the-little(pl.)-(nom.)^sleep(past)-they(pl.)The little children slept.In Example (44), there are three forms of the adjectives: allaghir-u (the little), al-sae:Tr-4W (thelittle) and al-sighfir-u (the little), agreeing with singular, dual and broken plural nouns, respectively.Notice that the adjectives agree with the nouns being masculine and being in the nominative case.I assume that if Japanese students learn Arabic nouns well, they would not face much difficultieswith the adjective agreement with the number of the singular and dual nouns. The reason again isbecause adjectives in Arabic have been treated grammatically by Arab grammarians as nouns. So,they can apply the rules of noun to the adjectives as well. However, I predict that Japanese studentswould face more difficulties with the plural forms because the majority of nouns belong to the Arabicbroken plural which is going to be introduced in a following section.More details about this will be discussed in Chapter 5.4.2.1.3 Arabic VerbThe form of the Arabic verb changes according to the person, number and gender of its subject.The main change results from the addition of pronominal suffixes or prefixes to the verbs. In thefollowing these nominal prefixes or suffixes (attached to verbs) will be introduced:110Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic1. Pronominal suffixes, expressing the Nominative.(MASC.).^(FEM.)1 St person-tuI...-tuI„2 nd person-tayou-ti(-ina, 4)youSINGULAR3 rd person -a-tshe1 St person same as the plural same as the plural2 rid person-tuma (-it -ant)you two-tuma (-a, -ant)you two DUAL3 rd person,-a (-ant, -a)they two-tã (-a, -an)they two1 st person-näwe-nãwePLURAL2 nd person-turn (-ana, -12)you-tunna (-na)you3 rd person-a(-an, -11)they-natheyThe suffixes that are between brackets are those of Imperfect (the present) and Imperative. Therest are the Perfect (the past).2. Pronominal prefixes, expressing the Nominative attached to imperfect verb.22^Pronaninal suffixes and prefixed are from Wright (1971), arranged here in a different order.111Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic(MASC.).^(FEM.)1 at persona- a-I2 nd personta-youta-youSINGULAR3 rd personya-heta-sheI st person same as the plural same as the plural2 nd personta-you two or bothta-you two or both DUAL3 rd personya-they twota-they two1 st personno-wena-we ,PLURAL2 nd personta-youta-you'3 rd personya-theyya-theyThese forms are only for the Imperfect (present)In the following, different examples are given using different personal pronouns to show thevarious forms the verb would take. First, sentences with independent personal pronouns togetherwith suffixes attached to verbs in their perfect (past) form, are as follows:Example 45a.^And^katab-tu^kita-an.I^write (past)-I^a book-(acc.)I wrote a book.112Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicb. Anta^katab-ta^ kitab-an.you (sing. masc.)^write (past)-you (sing. masc.)^a book-(acc.)You wrote a book.b-1 Anti^katab-ti^ kitäb-an.you (sing. fern.)^write (past)-you (sing. fern.)^a book-(acc.)You wrote a book.c. Huwa^katab-a^kitäb-an.He^write (past)-he^a book-(acc.)He wrote a book.c-1^Hiya^katab-a-tshe^write (past)-he-(F.M.)^a book-(acc.)She wrote a book.d. Antumä^katab-tumä^ kiteib-an.You tow^write (past)-you (dual masc., fern.)^a book-(acc.)You two wrote a book.e. Humä^katab-aThey two (masc.)^write (past)-they (dual masc.)^a book-(acc.)They two wrote a book.113Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabice-1^Hunu1^katab-a-tä^ kik-Lb-an.They two (fem.)^write (past)-he-(dual fem.)^a book-(acc.)They two wrote a book.f. Nall=^katab-nä^ kitäb-an.We (masc., fern.)^write (past)-we (masc., fern.)^a book-(acc.)We wrote a book.g. Antum^katab-tum^ kitetb-an.You (masc. pl .)^write (past)-you (pl. masc.)^a book-(acc.)You wrote a book.g-1^antunna^Icatab-tunna^kitab-an.You (fern. pl .)^write (past)-you (pl. fem.).)^a book-(acc.)You wrote a book.h. Hum^katab-ii^ kitäb-an.They (masc. pl .)^write (past)-they (pl. masc.)^a book-(acc.)They wrote a book.h- 1^Hunna^katab-na^ kita-an.They (fem. pl .)^write (past)-they (pl. fern.)^a book-(acc.)They wrote a book.Sentences in Example (45) have both separate personal pronouns and suffixes attached to verbs114Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicin their perfect (past) forms.Arabic verb forms depend upon the features of the noun they predicate. Thus, the followingrule may be considered:Noun + Verb —> Noun + Verb[+x]^[+x]^[+x]We have examined a similar agreement between Arabic noun and adjective. Thus, this indicatesthe fact that nouns are central in agreement phenomena in an Arabic sentence. To a great extent, thesame can be said about Japanese sentence since subject often determines the verb form, for example,in an honorific sentence. Also, sentence particles such as wa, zo or ze are determined in the samemanner as it has been discussed in a previous chapter. I have to mention, however, that the aboverule has two exceptions:1. If the sentence begins with the verb in a V(0)S or a VS(0) order and the subject is in the thirdperson regardless of its numbers, the verb is always in the third person, singular form agreeingwith the subject's gender. Thus, the following rule may illustrate this:^Verb -->^Verb^/ —^Subject+ third person^[+ third person]a gender a gender+ sing.^± sing.2. If the subject is a non-human plural, then the verb appears in the feminine singular. This is due tothe fact that the plural of non-human nouns is always treated as feminine, singular. For example:Sitra-t^ al-jimäl-u.walk(sing. past 3rd person)-(fem.)^the-camel(pl. fem.)-(nom.)The camels walked.115Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicI assume that the above two exceptions might be confusing when they are first introduced toforeign students. Yet, I think that although they are called exceptions to the general agreement rule,they have within themselves their clear rules that are very simple to apply.Example sentences with independent personal pronouns, prefixed pronouns and suffixed pronounsattached to the imperfect "present" are going to be used with the verb ya-ktub-u (to write) which isthe simplest fonn of the present tense (third person, masculine, singular). I have to mention herethat the vowel on the second consonant of the root is not regular as it is the case with the verbunder discussion:kataba^---0 ya-ktub-uhe write(past)^he-write-(indicat.)He wrote.^He writes.This might cause some troubles for Japanese students of Arabic at the beginning stage and eachtime they are to use a new verb. It has been advised, however, for the students to be introduced tothe present forms of the verb at the time they learn them as Hanna Kassis (1992) suggested. Observethe following example:Example 46a. A-ktub-u^ kita-an.I-write(non past)-(indicat.)^ book-(acc.)I write a book.b. Ta-ktub-u^ kitäb-an.you(masc.)-1.vrite(non past)-(indicat.)^ book-(acc.)You write a book.116Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicb- 1^Ta-ktub-ina^ kitab-an.you(fem.)-write(non past)-you(fem. indica)^book-(acc.)You write a book.c. Ya-ktub-u^ kitab-an.he-write(non past)-(indicat.)^ book-(acc.)He writes a book.c-1^Ta-ktub-u^ kitab-an.she-write(non past)-(indicat.)^book-(acc.)She writes a book.d. Ta-Ictub-ani^ kitab-an.you(dual masc. fem.)-write(non past)-you(dual indica)^book-(acc.)You two write a book.e.^Ya-ktub-ani^ kitab-an.they(dual masc.)-write(non past)-they(dual masc. indica.)^book-(acc.)They two write a book.e-1^Ta-ktub-ani^kitab-an.they(dual fern.)-write(non past)-they(dual fern. indicat.)^book-(acc.)They two write a book.117Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicf. Na-ktub-u^ kitab-an.we-write(non. past)-(indicat.)^ book-(acc.)We write a book.g. Ta-ktub-iina^ kita-an.you(pl. masc.)-write(non past)-you(pl. indicat)^book-(acc.)You write a book.h.^Ya-ktub-zina^ kitäb-an.they(pl. masc.)-write(non past)-they(pl. masc. indica.)^book-(acc.)They write a book.h- 1^Ya-ktub-na^ kitäb-an. .they(pl. fem.)-write(non past)-they(pl. fern. indicat)^book-(acc.)They write a book.Notice that there are no separate pronouns on the surface of the sentences in (46). However, theyare all present on the underlying forms. In fact this is how the attached pronominal prefixes and/orsuffixes get decided, then the separate pronouns get deleted optionally. Yet, they may be added forputposes of emphasis. Thus, the following optional rule may be considered:separate personal pronoun + verb^separate personal pronoun + prefix- I23 verb / -suffix[+x]^ [+x]^[+x]23^The slash / in the rule means and/or.118Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicpersonal pronoun —> 4,^/ — prefix-/verb/-suffix[+x]So, by considering the underlying subject of (45-a) as and (I), we can apply the above rulesas followsand + laub^and a-ktub-uand .— 4)^/ — a-ktub-uIn Arabic, the simplest form of the verb is the form of the past tense, active third person,masculine and singular. This form is equivalent to English infinitive and Japanese dictionary form.The Arabic form, however, has lots of information within itself. For example, katab (write(past)),tells us that the tense is past, the voice is active, the person is a third person, the number is singularand the gender is masculine. Japanese dictionary form kaku (write) tells us that the tense is non-pastand the voice is active but it does not give us an exact answer about the number and the genderof the action.It is often the case that Japanese sentences lack the subject on the surface, especially the use ofthe pronoun. It is very interesting that most of the sentences given as examples in the exercise sectionin Japanese language textbooks do not have pronouns either. The interpretation of what the subjectsare is left to the students themselves. These characteristics would surprise Arabs learning Japanese.I predict that the Arab students would tend to have subjects always in their Japanese sentences bothspoken and written. I think that there would also be an over-use of the indirect object One of thethings that surprised me about Japanese as a native speaker of Arabic is the use of the person's ownname by the person himself instead of using the pronoun Watakushi (I). A friend of mine used tosay Hiromi ga ikimashita (Hiromi went), and Hiromi no 'camera (Hiromi's camera), instead of thelogical , in my opinion, Watalcushi ga ikimashita (I went) and Watakushi no kamera (my camera). Iremember that at the beginning when I learned these kinds of expressions from my friends, I thoughtthat she was talking about someone else, who happened to have the same name. Such a use of a119Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicproper name instead of the pronoun is rattly observed in Arabic. In this sense, It may contribute tomisunderstanding among Arabic students of Japanese at the beginning or intermediate level.One of the ways that might help in identifying the speakers is "the various speech levels thatwill suggest who the speakers are by pointing out their respective position in the social group".(Saint-Jacques, 1971). For example:Ee^o-ai-shite^kita.yes^H.P.-meet-do^come(past)(Lit) Yes, I met him and came.On the surface, this sentence does not have references expressed. For example, whom the speakerhas met or whom the speaker is talking to is not indicated. However, it provides us with lots ofinformation such as the social position of the speaker in the social group. The speaker is inferiorto the person he has met because of the use of the humble form of to meet verb, o-ai-shite. Onthe other hand, the speaker is superior or equal to the person he is talking to because of the use ofthe informal of the verb to come, kita (come(past)) instead of the polite kirnashita (come(past)). Inshort, the extra-sentential infomiation is the key to the form of the sentence. In this sense, again, theanalysis that incorporates performative notion seems to be most satisfactory.4.2.2 Arabic Gender'There are two genders in Arabic; masculine and feminine. The verb and the adjective agree withthe gender of the noun. First let us look at the Arabic nouns.4.2.2.1 Arabic Noun Arabic nouns are classified, regarding gender, as follows:1. Nouns that are only masculine, such as rajul (man) and walad (boy).2. Nouns that are only feminine. There are two kinds of feminine:a. Real or natural feminine such as imra'ah (a woman) and Mariam (Mary).b. Tropical feminine, such as al-shams (the sun), al-ard (the land) and al-när (the fire)120Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicAccording to Wright (1971), there are two ways on deciding that the noun is of the femininegendera. From its signification and they are:• All common nouns and proper names which denote females, such as umm (mother) andftizimah (a female given name).• The names of wind and different forms of fire, because of the common nouns di: (wind)and när (fire) are feminine. Examples are al-khamasin (wind that blows over Egypt inthe spring) and jahim (blazing fire)The names of many parts of the body, especially those existing in pairs such as yad(hand), rig (leg), qadam (foot) and Cain (eye). On the other hand, nouns like To's (head),wajh (face), anf (nose), famm (mouth) and zahr (back) are masculine.b. Feminine by fonn and they are:• Nouns ending in -ah, that is called tit marbatah24, such as silsilah (chain), sijjet-dah (rug)and hujrah (mom). However, there are some nouns that end with -ah but semanticallythey are masculine, such as Ustimah and ifamzah (the male names Usama and Hamza).So we say hadara Useima (Usama came) and not hadarat Usclmah.• Nouns ending in -á that are called alif maqsara such as dacwd (claim or demand),dhekrk (memory) and dunyd (life).• Nouns ending in -a' such as saharef (desert), darriE (harm) and kibryee (dignity).3. As an exception to the above two classes of gender that Arabic noun has, is that group of nounswhich are both masculine and feminine (common gender). There are many nouns that can befeminine or masculine according to their usage such as:al-khamr (the-wine, fern.)^al-jandh (the-wing, masc.)al-ibhätn (the-thumb, fem.)^al-stiq (the-market, masc.)al-tarfq (the-road, masc.)24^The id marbiatah, -oh, is changed into -at in different situations. One of them is for case ending such as in lutjrah (roan) —■hufrat-un (roan-(nan.)).121Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicSince the language has changed considerably over the years, it is not surprising to find wordsthat have been used in the past as feminine but now they are used as masculine and visa versa,for example al-tariq (the mad).I think that Arabic gender is far more complicated than Japanese gender. However, it is notimpossible to learn it. As a matter of fact, most of the rules or the hints given to identify the genderof the noun are systematic. There are still some cases that may be confusing for Japanese learningArabic. These cases are:1. The tropical (arbitrarily) feminine as mentioned in (2—b) above. Words such as al-shams (the-sun), al-arcl (the-earth) and al-nar (the-fire) were given as examples of tropical or arbitrarilyfeminine nouns. There is no rule for these nouns to identify them as feminine. I think that theyhave to be learned and memorized as feminine when they are first introduced to the Japanesestudents of Arabic. This way could be very similar to learning that in English, the sun is "he"and the moon is "she". The same could be said about French le soleil (the sun) being masculineand la lune being feminine.2. The nouns that could be both masculine and feminine (common gender) according to their usage.4.2.2.2 Arabic adjectiveIn Arabic, the adjective agrees with the gender, number and case of the noun. The agreementrule that can be applied in Arabic is basically the same as that given for the verb. Observe thefollowing examples:Example 47a.^Al-bint-u^jamil-at-un.the-girl-(nom.)^pretty-(F.M.)-(nom.)The girl is pretty.122Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabica-1^Al-walad-u^jamil-un.the-boy-(nom.)^pretty-(nom. fem.)The boy is good looking.b.^Al-shams-u^däfi' -at-un.the-sun-(nom.)^wann-(F.M.)-(nom.)The sun is warm.b-1^Al-laban-u^däfi' -un.the-milk-(nom.)^warm(masc.)-(nom.)The milk is warm.Notice that the adjective gender always agrees with the noun gender. In Example (47-a) and (47-a-1), the feminine adjective jamil-ah (pretty) is associated with the feminine noun al-bint (the-girl)and the masculine adjective jamil (good looking) is associated with the masculine noun al-walad (the-boy). In Example (47-b) and (47-b-1) the feminine noun al-shams (the-sun) takes a feminine adjectivedafi' -ah (warm), while the masculine noun al-laban (the-milk) takes the masculine adjective daft'(warm).That the adjective in Arabic agrees with the gender of the noun could be simple and systematicon the one hand, and complex on the other. First let us see how it could be simple. The singularadjective could be a feminine one by simply attaching the ending -ah to its fonn. For example;jamil (pretty (sing) (masc.)) becomes jamil-ah (pretty (sing.)-(fem.)), and kabir (big (sing.) (masc.))becomes kabir-ah (big (sing.)-(fem)). The singular adjective could be made into dual by applying thedual rule mentioned in Section 4.2.1.1. For example; jamil (pretty (sing) (masc.)) becomes jamil-tin(pretty(masc.)-(dual)), and jamil-ah (pretty (sing)-(fem.)) becomes jamil-at-an (pretty-(fem. dual)),Second, how the adjective-noun agreement in gender could be complex. To make this kind ofagreement one should decide first if the noun is a masculine or a feminine one. I have mentioned123Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicbefore that it is difficult for a foreigner to detennine tropical feminine nouns and nouns of commongender. They would face some difficulties regarding these two types of gender.The other matter that I assume would cause confusion in applying adjective-noun agreement ingender is the broken plural. The problem of broken plural of the noun has been discussed previously.Since the adjective is treated in Arabic grammatically in a similar way as a noun, I assume that thesuggestions mentioned about the noun would apply for the adjective as well. Mainly, the studentsare to learn the plural fonn together with the singular one and are to list plural forms together withthe singular ones for their own use.The following is an example of some singular adjectives and their corresponding plural fonns:singular (fern.) plural (fern.) singular (masc.) plural (masc.)saghir-ah (little)dhakiy-ah (smart)saghir-atdhakiy-at^_saghir-0dhakiy-0sightiradhkiya'4.2.2.3 Arabic VerbA similar agreement holds for the verb as well. If the subject is a feminine one, then the verbshould have a suffix that expresses that. This is illustrated in the following example.Example 48a.^al-rajul-u^Nam-a^cam^al-an/-i.the-man-(nom.)^sleep(past)-(he.)^on^the-floor-(gen.)The man slept on the floora-1 al-mar' -at-u^Nam-a-t^'aid^al-ard-i.the-person-(F.M.)-(nom.)^sleep(past)-(he.)-(fem.)^on^the-floor-(gen.)The woman slept on the floor.124Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabicb.^Al-talib-u^celd-a.the-student(masc.)-(nom.)^come back(past)-(he.)The student came back.b-1^Al-tillib-at-u^citcl-a-t.the-student-(F.M.)-(nom.)^come back(past)-he-(fem.)The student came back.In Example (48-a-1) and (48-b-1) the verb nlim-a-t (slept) and cad-a-t (came back) had whatis called in Arabic the feminine t. They are associated with the feminine subjects al-mar'-ah (thewoman) al-talib-ah (the female student), respectively. The verbs in Example (48-a) and (48-b) areassociated with masculine subjects and hence they do not have the feminine t.To apply verb and subject agreements, Japanese students would have first to know the genderof the subject. Again, there are some rules or hints to know the gender of a given noun. There arealso some nouns that are not clearly identified such as tropical feminine nouns and nouns of commongender, as discussed previously.I think that once the gender of the noun has been decided, applying the agreement with the verbis very systematic. The reason is because the students would simply use the pronominal suffixes andprefixes attached to verbs which they should know very well. Pronominal Suffixes and prefixes havebeen introduced in Section 42.1.1. These suffixes and prefixes are very useful because they carrylots of information within themselves, such as person, number, gender, tense and mood.4.3 SummaryTo summarize the Chapter, the following points must be recapitulated:1. Most of the Japanese nouns are not marked for number and gender. Arabic nouns, on the otherhand, are marked for number and gender.125Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic2. There are three numbers in Arabic; singular, dual and plural. There are two genders: masculineand feminine.3. Japanese adjective precedes the noun it modifies and is not required to agree with the number andgender of the noun. Arabic adjective, however, follows the noun and agrees with its number,gender, definitenesss and indefiniteness.4. Japanese verb is not marked for person, number and gender, while Arabic is.5. Japanese has different counters according to the objects to be counted. Arabic, however, doesnot have counters.6. The distinction between the speech of men and women in Japanese is one of the peculiaritiesof the Japanese language.7. In Arabic, having the subject, whether it is a noun or a pronoun, present in the sentence is amust. In Japanese, however, this is not always the case.8. The Arabic equivalent to the Japanese dictionary form is the form of the past tense, active, thirdperson, masculine, singular.9. Various speech levels in Japanese could help pointing to the position of the speakers in thesocial group.From the discussion above, the following charts may be useful for classification of students'difficulties because of the structural differences:Japanese students' diffuculties Reason1. Arabic has three numbers: singular, dualand plural.Due to having these three numbers, there are lotsof inflections going on, which Japanese studentsare not used to in their language and often makemistakes.2. Arabic broken (irregular) plural is one ofthe most difficult problems that wouldface foreigners studying Arabic.Simply because there is no way of predictinghow the plural form would be, just by looking atthe singular form.126Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic3. Arabic verb is marked for person,number and gender.The Japanese students would have to learn thedifferent prefixes and suffixes that can beattached to the verb to indicate the person,number and gender. They would have to getused to supplying lots of information that they donot necessarily have to do in their own language.4. If the order of the sentence is a VOS ora VSO and the subject is a third person,the verb is always in the third person,singular form agreeing with the subjectgender.The students would have to keep this exceptionalrule in mind in order to avoid making mistakesand not to get confused with the general rule ofagreement.5. The plural of non-human nouns (animalsor things) are always treated as femininesingular.This would be, again, another exception to theagreement rule that the students would tend toapply.6. Arabic tropical or arbitrary feminine. The students would find identifying thisarbitrarily feminine very difficult since there isno rule to identify them and they have to belearned as feminine when they are firstintroduced. This is specially important in orderto apply the agreement rule between nouns andadjectives or nouns and verbs.7. Arabic's common gender. This is due to the fact that blowing the genderof the noun is essential to apply the agreementwith the verb and/or the adjective correctly.Thus, having words with common gender,feminine or masculine according to their usagewould be confusing to the Japanese students.127Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and ArabicArabic students' difficulties Reason1. Japanese counting system. Because they would have to learn differentcounters and they are not used to that in Arabic.Also, because of mixing the use of two numeralsystems: Sino-Japanese and native Japanesenumerals.2. Japanese adjectives, and most nouns,are not marked for number and gender.The students would always feel that there aresome missing infonnation they are used to havefrom Arabic nouns and adjectives.3. The distinction between male speechand female speech.This is the problem that would face most of thebeginners because they have to be very carefulnot to use the wrong expressions which theyoften do, failing to distinguish between bothstyles.4. Japanese sentences lack having asubject on the surface, plus that theverb is not marked for person, numberand gender.The students would tend to ask more questionsabout the missing elements, in their opinions,because they are used to having certaininformation about the number and gender of thesubject of the verb. The subject that has to bepresent, either as a noun, separate pronoun, orpronominal prefixes and suffixes.128Chapter 4: Number and Gender in Japanese and Arabic5. The speaker's use of his own proper Such a use of proper name is rarely observed inname instead of the pronoun "I". Arabic. So, this would cause somemisunderstanding to the students at thebeginning or intermediate level.6. The honorific suffix -san. This is especially so because -san is ambigiousin gender when used with surnames. So, thestudents can not exactly tell what -san standsfor Mr., Mrs or Miss.As a generalization, one can say that most of the difficulties exist when there is over-differentiation in the target language.129Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and JapaneseChapter 5Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and JapaneseIn the previous chapters, I have introduced and compared honorific systems, number and genderof both languages, Japanese and Arabic. I have also discussed some of the difficulties that might faceboth Japanese and Arabs learning Arabic and Japanese, respectively. In this chapter, my predictionsof some incorrect usages or popular mistakes made by students of each language will be presentedthrough some samples of ungrammatical sentences.5.1 HonorificsFirst let us look at students' mistakes in the honorific system of each language.5.1.1 Predicted Japanese mistakes with Arabic Honorific SystemAs mentioned in Chapter 2, plural forms used in Arabic as respect language are restricted. to highlevels of superiorities. However, I predict that Japanese students of Arabic would tend to use themwith people they would normally show lots of respect in the Japanese society. Thus, they wouldthink of the social situation in very much the same way. Yet, this would result in an unacceptablesentence from the Arabic point of view. This is illustrated in the following example, in which thespeaker is addressing his friend's father.Example 49* Ahl-an^aid-an^kaifa häl-u^hadrat-i-kum?family-(acc.)^family-(acc.)^how^matter-(nom.)^presence-(gen.)-your(masc. pl .)Welcome, welcome, how are you (exalting)?Notice that the use of exalting plural form hadrat-i-laan (your presence) instead of the singularand polite hadrat-i-ka (your presence) is not only unacceptable, but it may even be consideredimpolite due to the over-use of exalting expression.130Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and JapaneseForming expressions such as "the father of . . . ", "the mother of . . . ", "the son of . . . "and"the daughter of . . . "is very easy. However, using them properly can be very confusing. Thedifficulty lies in determining in which social situation, to whom, and when to use them and whocan use them. Let me give an example of myself being called umm-a Mariam-a (the mother ofMariam). My reaction will vary depending on by whom I have been called. For example, if it camefrom someone from a rural area where the use of such titles is preferred and is considered polite,I would not be surprised and appreciate it. However, if it came from someone like a teacher or asuperior, I would be very surprised. I would also find it funny if it came from a friend who wastrying to be informal and close. Yet, this will vary from one country to another, one city or villageto another. Thus, it depends on where the students will be, and how much they know about theculture and customs of such a place.5.1.2 Predicted Arabs mistakes with Japanese Honorific SystemIn Chapter 3, I predicted some of the difficulties that would result concerning Japanese honorificexpressions by the Arab students. Observe the following example conversation:Example 50A: 0-Icaa-san^wa^o-genki^de irasshaimasu^ka.H.P.-mother-H.S.^T.M. 0.P.-healthy^copula(hon.)^interrogative.Is your mother well?B: * Hai,^o-kaa-san^wa^o-genki^de irasshaimasu.yes,^H.P.-mother-H.S.^T.M. 0.P.-healthy^copula(hon.).* Yes, my mother is well. (intended for [in-group])In this example, haha (my mother), genki (well) and desu (copula, formal) should have been usedin (B) instead of o-kaa-san, o-genki and de irasshaimasu, respectively. I predict such improper use asin (B) because the students at the beginning stage are not yet used to the use of honorific prefixes and131Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and Japanesesuffixes and humble and exalting verb forms according to different levels of politeness. Also, theymake such mistakes because they tend to repeat the elements of the questions without changing them.I have also assumed that the students would use various forms of greeting expressions inappro-priately. For example, they keep in their minds that the Japanese expressions for good morning areo-hayoo or o-hayoo gozaimasu. Thus they think that they can use either one, because Arabic, as wellas English, have only one expression for good morning. So, the students end up making mistakessuch as in the following example, in which the speaker is addressing a superior:Example 51* 0-hayoo,^o-genki^desu^ka.H.P.-early(hon.)^H.P.-healthy copula^interrogativeGood morning, how are you? (intended for a superior)The more polite expression o-hayoo gozaimasu is the right one to be used instead of o-hayooin the example above.Similarly, giving and receiving verbs have various forms that their usage varies according tohonorific or politeness levels. The area in which students often make mistakes because they associatethese Japanese verbs with verbs that mean to give and to receive that do not have more or less politeequivalent in their own language such as Arabic or English. Observe the following example:Example 52a.^* Otooto^ga^Tanaka-san ni hon^o^yarimashita.my younger brother^S.M.^H.S. to book O.M. give(past)My younger brother gave a book to Mr. Tanaka.a-1^* Tanaka-san ga^otooto^ni hon^o^kuremashita.H.S. S.M. my younger brother^to book^O.M. give(past)Mr. Tanaka gave my younger brother a book.132Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and JapaneseThe reason behind the ungrammaticality of (a) and (a-1) above is due to the improper use ofyarimashita and kuremashita, although both of them mean give (past), and their English translationsare perfectly acceptable and grammatical. However, social situations in Japanese are different, andvarious social levels between participants of the discourse are essential. In (a) the subject is oneof the in-group members and is inferior to Mr. Tanaka. Hence, the more polite and proper formagemashita or even sashiagemashita, has to be used. The situation is very similar to (a-1), althoughit is reversed. The giver is Mr. Tanaka who is superior to otooto. Hence, the more polite and properform klidosaimashita is to be used. I recall that the above are related to the subject/verb agreementof honorific constructions, discussed in previous chapters.The other problem that is connected with giving and receiving verbs has to do with the choiceof which one of these verbs to use. Observe the following example:Example 53a.^*Tanaka-san ga^ani^ni^tegami o^dashite itadakimashita.H.S. S.M.^my elder brother^from letter^O.M.^send^get(past, polite)Mr. Tanaka got my older brother to send the letter.The above sentence is ungrammatical because ani (my older brother), who is having the feature[+in-group], is involved in the itadaku construction that means "get from [out-group]" and requirefor the subject to be [+in-group]. So, the above sentence would be grammatical if the subject andthe indirect object reversed as follows:Example 54a-1 Am^ga^Tanaka-san ni tegami o^dashite itadakimashita.my older brother^S.M. H.S. from letter^0.M. send^get(past, polite)My older brother got Mr. Tanaka's favour to send the letter.133Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and JapaneseHowever, if we wanted to keep the meaning of (a), in which Mr. Tanaka gets the favour fromani, sentence such as the following will be the one to capture such a meaning:Example 55a^Ani^ga^Tanaka-san ni tegami o^dashite sashiagemashita.my older brother^S.M.^H.S. to letter^O.M. send^give(past,hon.)My older brother gave Mr. Tanaka the favour of sending the letter.The different levels of imperatives that Japanese has, and their usage could be one of the troublesthat would meet the Arab students. I have predicted that the students would be confused betweenthe use of what is called formal or polite imperative and high level imperative. In the sense that theymight use the former instead of the latter with superiors assuming that it is acceptable. Observe thefollowing sentence that is addressed to a superior:Example 56* Mado^o^ake-nasai.window^O.M.^open-imperativeOpen the window. (intended for a superior)The ungrammaticality of the above sentence is due to using ake-nasai instead of o-ake-kudasagmase), for example, when addressing a superior. That is considered improper lacking ofrespect.5.2 Number and Gender In this section, the students' predicted mistakes in number and gender will be presented.134Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and Japanese5.2.1 Predicted Japanese mistakes with Arabic Number and GenderArabic broken plural is one of the Japanese students' problems in learning Arabic. Simplybecause it is unpredictable. Thus, if the students did not learn the plural of a noun together with itssingular, they would tend to form incorrect plural form by trying to apply the rule of regular plural.Observe the following examples:Example 57Singular Noun Incorrect Plural Form Correct plural Formcalam-un * calam-iin If letm-unflag(masc.)-(nom.) flag-(P.S. nom.) flags(fem)-(nom.)malik-un * malik-an mulzik-unking(masc.)-(nom.) king-(P.S.-nom.) kings(masc.)-(nom.)Jabal-in * Jabal-in jibäl-inmountain(masc.)-(gen.) mountain-(P.S. gen.) motmtains(fem.)-(gen.)coin-an * cain-titin acwun-aneye(fem)-(acc.) eye-(P.S. acc.) eyes(fem.)-(acc.)Distinguishing tropical or arbitrary feminine nouns from the other masculine nouns in Arabic isvery difficult. The reason behind this is due to not having a certain rule or certain ending to identifythem as feminine. Thus, if the students are not introduced to these nouns as feminine when they firstlearn them, they will most likely make wrong judgements regarding the gender of such nouns. Thiswill result in applying wrong noun/adjective agreement such as in the following sentence:Example 58* Al-shams-u^tidfi'-un^ft^al-Qahirat-i.the-sun(fem.)-(nom.)^warm-(nom.)^in the-cairo-(gen.)The sun is warm in Cairo.135Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and JapaneseSince al-shams-u (the sun) is a tropical feminine noun, delfi' -at-un (warm-F.M.-(nom.)) notdäfi' -un (warm(masc.)-(nom.)) should have been used.Another related problem with gender is the common gender of some nouns, such as al-fanii(the-road) and al-siiq (the-maricet). My prediction is that the students will be confused between thenouns of common gender and those of tropical feminine gender. That is, they may think of arbitraryfeminine nouns as nouns of common gender that can be used as masculine or feminine such as inthe example below. However, such thoughts will result in ungrammatical sentences such as the onein the example above.Example 59a.^ fawil-un.the-road(masc.)-(nom.)^long-(nom.)The road is long.a- 1^A llariq-u^tawil-at-un.the-road(fem.)-(nom.)^long-F.M.-(nom.)The mad is long.Two exceptions of the general rule of the subject/verb agreement in person, number and genderhave been introduced previously. I assumed that the students would have troubles with theseexceptions, although we may say that such exceptions have rules within themselves that are easyto apply. Yet, the students would tend to apply the general rule of agreement instead. I recall thatthe two exceptions are:1. The plural fonn of non-human (animals or things) are treated as singular feminine nouns.2. When the order of the sentence is VS(0) or V(0)S and the subject is a third person, the verb isalways in the third person regardless of the number of the subject.136Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and JapaneseThe following are my predictions of ungrammatical sentences resulting from violating the abovetwo exceptions:Example 60a. * Al-jimal-u^ stir-11.the-camels(sing. fem.)-(nom.)^walk(past)-they(masc. pl .)The camels walked.b. * Qara'-na^al-talib-&-u^ al-kitäb-a.read(past)-they(fem. pl .)^the-student-(fem. pl .)-(nom.)^the-book-(nom.)The female students read the book.In order to make the above sentences grammatical, the correct forms sdra-t (walk(past)-(she)) andqara'a-t (read(past)-she) are to be used instead of setr-ti (walk(past)-they(masc., pl.)) and qara'-na(read(past)-they(fem., pl.)) in (a) and (b), respectively.The last point to be discussed here is about my prediction of a general difficulty about Arabicnumber and gender. Japanese students are not used to distinguishing or marking number and genderin verbs and pronouns, etc. Thus, until they get used to the system of the Arabic Language theyare learning, the Japanese students will make some mistakes in the proper use of the pronouns bothseparate and attached. Observe the following sentence:Example 61a.^* Ansa^akal-ti^ al-tzffälka.you(sing. masc.)^eat(past)-you(sing. fern.)^the-apples-(acc.)You eat the apples.137Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and Japaneseb.^* Nahnu dhahab-tu^ilawe^go(past)-I^to^the-park(fem.)-(gen.)We went to the park.The ungrammaticality of the above sentences is due to the wrong agreement between the subjectsand the verbs. Notice that the correct forms to be used are either anti (you(sing. fern.)) instead ofanta (you(sing. masc.)) or akal-ta (eat(past)-you(sing. masc.)) in the place of akal-ti (eat(past)-you(sing. fern.)) in (a) for the sake of a proper subject/verb agreement. The situation is very similarin (b), in which the right words are and (I) instead of nahnu (we) or dhahab-na (go(past)-we) insteadof dhahab-tu (go(past)-I).5.2.2 Predicted Arabs' mistakes with Japanese Number and GenderSince the two number systems, Sino-Japanese and native Japanese, are mixed when countingobject, Arab students will find it difficult to learn and will tend to make mistakes at the beginninglevel. Counting people in Japanese is an example for such mixture in which the counting goes ashito-ri (one-counter for people) (one person), futa-ri (two-counter for people) (two persons),san-nin(three-counter for people) (three person), yo-nin (four-counter for people) (four persons), etc. TheArab students would make mistakes as in the following example:Example 62* Tomodachi^ga^ichi-nin^kimashita.friend^S.M. one-counter for people^come(past)One friend came.The other problem that would face Arabs has to do with gender, which is marked in Japaneseby the use of female and male styles, represented in sentence particles such as wa and zo and the use138Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and Japaneseof some words as atashi (I) and boku (I) used by female and male, respectively. I assume that thedistinction between such styles will be confusing for the students, resulting in incorrect usage such as:Example 63a. *Boku^ga^ashita^gakoo^e^iku^zo.I^S.M. tomorrow^school to^goI'll go to school tomorrow. (Said by a female student)b. *Atashi o-naka^ga^suita^wa.I^H.P.-inside^S.M.^empty(past)I'm hungry. (Said by a male student)5.3 Summary1. The Japanese students tend to form ungrammatical sentences when using Arabic plural formsas respect language.2. The Japanese students find it difficult to use titles such as "the mother of . . . "and "the fatherof . . . "in the right social situations.3. Arabic students find many troubles with Japanese honorific system such as:a. Using honorific prefixes and suffixes correctly.b. Using various expressions of greetings and those of giving and receiving verbs appropriatelyas well as the use of honorific and humble verbs.c. Making the right choice, which of the giving and receiving verbs to use.d. Selecting the appropriate level of imperative, according to different levels of politeness.4. Japanese students face some troubles in the area of Arabic number and gender, such as:a. Using the correct plural form of Arabic broken plural.b. Recognizing the tropical feminine nouns.139Chapter 5: Expected mistakes of students Learning Arabic and Japanesec. Distinguishing nouns of common gender from tropical feminine nouns.d. Remembering that the plural of non-human nouns (animals and things) are treated as singularfeminine nouns.e. The exception rule of subject/verb agreement when the order of the sentence is V(0)S orVS(0) and the subject is in the third person.f. Getting used to the marking of number and gender in the Arabic verbs.5. Arab students make mistakes in using Japanese counting system due to the mixture of Sino-Japanese numerals and native Japanese numbers.6. Arab students find the distinction between female style and male style difficult to master.140Chapter 6: Concluding RemarksChapter 6Concluding Remarks6.1 Summary of the workIn this thesis, I have introduced and compared honorific system, number, and gender of Arabicand Japanese. Throughout the comparisons I have speculated some of the difficulties that might facelearners of both languages. I have also discussed the degree of those difficulties due to structuralor cultural differences. To show how Arabic rules of politeness are used in real situations, a pieceof Arabic literature written by Najib Mahfaz is presented as a model and its expressions regardingpoliteness have been analyzed. Also, to present how both Arabic and Japanese honorific systemsget manifested, six sample conversations have been compared in their honorific and plain styles forboth languages. Their expressions of politeness have been discussed and compared in detail. Havingmodels and samples of the two languages in this thesis have helped in highlighting their similaritiesand peculiarities. I have also provided some examples of expected ungrammatical or unacceptablesentences made by students of both languages, together with my explanations for such hypothesis.The results of the contrastive study of the thesis are summarized as follows:- 6.1.1 Japanese Language PeculiaritiesI. Japanese honorific system displays inflectional characteristics.2. Japanese honorific system is presented as a separate subject in Japanese grammar books.3. Subject/verb agreement is what decides the form of Japanese verbs.4. Giving and receiving verbs have [in-group] / [out-group] deixis inherent in them.5. Desu-masu style is very important in Japanese politeness.6. Japanese honorific has a predicate difference.7. Imperatives have honorific counterparts.8. Passive forms are used for respect language.9. Verbs have honorific and humble forms.141Chapter 6: Concluding Remarks10. Some nouns have honorific and neutral forms.11. Both nominal and true adjectives can be made into honorific12. Japanese has honorific prefixes and suffixes.13. Greetings are full of weather expressions.14. Japanese is a post-positional language.15. The distinction between male and female speeches is one of the language peculiarities.16. Japanese has different counters according to objects to be counted.6.1.2 Arabic Language Peculiarities1. There is a strong religious influence on the language.2. Arabic has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural.3. There are two genders, masculine and feminine.4. Arabic verbs are marked for person, number, and gender.5. Arabic nouns are marked for number and gender.6. Having subjects present in Arabic sentences is necessary.7. Arabic honorifics are decided on by reference to superior.8. Plurals' forms are used sometimes as mean of respect.9. Titles such as "the father of... "and "the mother of... "are peculiar to Arabic.10. Arabic has the possibilities of using numbers of titles together with adjectives before personsnames.11. Arabic is a pre-positional language.6.1.3 Japanese and Arabic Similarities1. Conditions for the use of honorific seem to be similar.2. They share using the same form for two purposes, honorific and humble.3. They share avoiding the use of second personal pronoun for politeness reason.4. They share keeping formalities of letters by using appropriate titles on envelops.5. They share considering the over-use of polite expressions as insults or criticism.142Chapter 6: Concluding Remarks6.2 Future Research DirectionsFurther research can be directed in doing more comparative study about Japanese and Arabiclanguages from the grammatical and structural points of view. For example, doing comparisons ofsentence structures, case marking, passivation, tense and aspect, etc., would achieve similar purposesto that of this thesis. That is, helping in gaining more understanding of both language and culture aswell as stimulating other researchers, and getting more people to learn about these languages.Lastly, I may state that Japanese students of Arabic tend to have more difficulties in the area ofnumber and gender because they seem to be more complicated in Arabic than they are in Japanese.Arab students of Japanese on the other hand, tend to be facing more difficulties in learning theJapanese honorific system that is lexico-grammatical and is more complicated than the Arabic one.I hope that both instructors and snider= of Arabic and Japanese will benefit from the study and theresults of my thesis. That is, having some infonnation about the language and the culture of the targetlanguage is always beneficial. This is especially so because most of language learners tend to dosome kind of comparisons with their mother tongues, trying to find similar cases for easier learning.Some other students-unconsciously- tend to apply their first language's rules to their second. I hopethat the analysis of my thesis will provide some kind of expectations about learning and/or teachingJapanese and/or Arabic honorific systems, number, and gender.1431Bibliography1. 'Abbas Hasan. 1987. al-Nahw al-wdfi". (Dar al-Macdrif, Cairo, Egypt)2. cAbdullah Yasuf CAR. 1977. The Holy Qur'an. Text, Translation and Commentary. (AmericanTrust Publications, USA)3. AnTs Mansar. 1976. Acjab al-Rahaldt fi al-Rs-rah. (Dar al-Shuraq , Cairo, Egypt.)4 ^ 1979. Anta .fi" al-Yelbein wa Bildd Ukhrd. (Ddr al-Shuraq , Cairo, Egypt.)5  1991. al-Baqiyyah fi" Ifayda. (Mir al-Shuraq, Cairo, Egypt.)6 ^ 1983. al-Khdlidan^Aczamahum Muhammad . (Dar al-Shuraq, Cairo,Egypt.)7 ^ 1985. al-Ladian cAcia ad al-Ard. (Dar al-Shuraq, Cairo, Egypt.)8  1982. al-Ladhin Habaul min al-Santd' (Air al-Shuraq , Cairo, Egypt.)9. ^ 1991. al-Sayyidah^(Ddr al-Shuraq, Cairo, Egypt.)10.  1980. ft Salün alsAqqäd Kdnat land Ayydm. (Ddr al-Shuraq , Cairo, Egypt.)11.^ 1981. liawl alskam fi 200 Yawm. (Där al-Shuraq, Cairo, Egypt.)12.  1984. lila Qalild. (Dar al-Shuraq, Cairo, Egypt.)13. Austin, J.L. 1961. Philosophical Papers. (Oxford at the Clarendon Press). pp. 220-23914. -Cataloging service. 1970. Bulletin 91. (library of Congress, Processing department, Washington,DC 20540.)15. Chejne, G. Anwar. 1969. The Arabic Language. Its Role in History. (University of MinnesotaPress. Minneapolis.) pp. 3-38, 145-169.16. Coulmas, Florian. 1992. "Linguistic Etiquette in Japanese Society." In Richard J. Watts, SachikoIde and Ehlich Konrad (eds.)  Trends in Linguistics Studies and Monographs. Politeness inLanguage. Studies in its History, Theory and Practice. (Mouton de Gruyter. Berlin, New York.)pp. 299-323.17. Egyptian Ministry of Education. 1988 al-Nahw. (Dell. al-kutub. Cairo, Egypt.)18.^  1989. Kittib al-Nahw. (Ddr al-kutub Cairo, Egypt.)14419 ^  1977. al-Qam 2' id al-Asassiyah ft al-Nahw wa-1 Scuf. (Dar al-kutub.Cairo, Egypt.)20. Finegan, Edward and Besnier, Niko. 1989. Language its Structure and Use. (Harcourt BraceJovanovich, Publishers. San Diego, New York Chicago, Austin, Washington, D.C., London,Sydney, Tokyo and Toronto.) pp. 1-170, 179-206, 245-269, 276-302, 312-317, 456-48521. Hall, Edward T.. 1982. The Hidden Dimension. (Anchor Books. Doubleday and Company,INC. Garden City, New York.) pp. 149-163.22. Kassis, E. Hanna. 1990. An Introduction to Classical Arabic. (U.B.C, Vancouver, BC)23.^ 1992. An Introduction to Classical Arabic. (U.B.C, Vancouver, BC)24. ICindaichi, Haruhiko. 1978. The Japanese Language. Translated and annotated by UmeyoHirano. (Charles, E. Tuttle Company Rutland. Valmont: Tokyo. Japan.) pp. 29-89, 156-207.25. Kokuritsu Kokugo Kenkyusha Publication. 1983. Keigo To Keigo Ishiki. (Sanseido PublishingCo., Tokyo.) pp. 370-37626. Kuno, Susumo. 1973. The Structure of the Japanese language. (Cambridge, Massachusetts:the MIT Press.)27. Makino, Seichi and Michiko, Tsutsui. 1986. A dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar. (Tokyo: The Japan Time.)28. Miller, Roy Andrew. 1967. The Japanese Language. (The University of Chicago Press: Chicagoand London.) pp. 1-59.29.^ 1977. The Japanese language in Contemporary Japan. Some Social Lin-guistic Observation. (American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Washington, D.C.Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Stanford University, Stanford, California.)pp. 9-59.30. Morcos, Hanna. 1967. The Phrase Structure of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. (Mouton and Co.N.V. Publishers, The Hague.)31. Nedil, Matft. 1977. al-Baqf min al-Zaman Sa ah. (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr Liltibirah, Cairo,Egypt.)32. ^ 1984. al-Jarimah. (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr^ah, Cairo, Egypt.)14533. ^ 1980. al-Liss wa-I Kilab. (Maktabat Misr, Där Misr Liltib(f ah, Cairo, Egypt.)34  1983. Iladrit al-Midyaram. (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr Liltiber ah , Cairo, Egypt.)35.^ 1987. Sabah al-Ward. Maktabat (Misr, Där Misr Liltibef ah, Cairo, Egypt.)36. Neustupny, J.V. 1978.  Post -Structural Approaches to Language. Language Theory in aJapanese Context. (University of Tokyo Press.) pp. 185-239.37. Niyekawa, M. Agnes. 1991. Minimum Essential Politeness. (Kodansha International, Tokyo,New York, London.)38. Okada, Miyo. 1954. Honorific speech in Japanese. (The Institute of Far Eastern Languages.Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.)39. O'neil, P.G. 1966. A programmed Course on Respect Language in Modem Japanese. (Charles,E. Tuttle Company.)40. Prideaux, Gary Dean. 1970. The Syntax of Japanese Honorifics. (Mouton: The Hage, Paris.)pp. 9-19.41. Recanati, Francois. 1987. Meaning and Force. The Pragmatics of Performative Utterance.(Cambridge University Press.) pp. 67-74.42. Rosenbaum, S. Peter and Jacobs, A. Roderick. 1968. English Transfonnation Grammar. (JohnWiley & Sons, Inc. NY)43. Ross, John Robert. 1967. On Declarative Sentences. In Jacobs, Rodrick and Peter S. Rosenbaum(ed.), Reading English Transformational Grammar.44. Saint-Jacques, Bernard. 1971. Structural Analysis of Modem Japanese. (University of BritishColumbia. Publication Centre. Vancouver.) pp. 83-102.45.^ 1985. "Kanojo, a Transfer from Third to Second Person." as it appearsin Matsu° Soga and Bernard Saint-Jacques.  Japanese Studies in Canada. (Canadian AsianStudies Association)46. Soga, Matsuo and Noriko Matsumoto. 1978. Foundation of Japanese Language. Tokyo:Taishukan Publishing Company.47. ^ 1988. "On Stativity in Japanese." Nitobe- Ohira Memorial Conference onJapanese Studies. Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp. 174-222.14648.^ 1985. "Japanese Verbs and Their Semantic Features." as it appears in Matsu°Soga and Bernard Saint-Jacques. Japanese Studies in Canada.. (Canadian Asian StudiesAssociation)49.^ 1971. "Similarities Between Japanese and English Verb Derivation." Lingua 25,pp. 268-290, North-Holland Publeshing Company.50.^ 1983. Tense and Aspect in Modern Colloquial Japanese. University of BritishColumbia Press. Vancouver.51. Spolsky, Bernard. 1989.  Condition for Second Language Learning. (Oxford University Press.)pp. 1-25, 83-113, 148-160.52. Suzuki, Kenji. 1978. Keigo ni tsuyokunaru hon. pp. 16-43, 164-177, 210-222.53. The Association for Japanese-Language Teaching. 1989. Japanese for Busy People. II pp.251-255.54. Wetzel, Patricia. 1985. "In-group/out-group Deixis: Situational Variation in the Verbs of Givingand Receiving in Japan." In J. Forgas (ed.), Language and Social Situations. (New York:Springer.) pp. 141-15655. Wickens. 1980. Arabic Grammar, a First Work Book. Cambridge University Press.56. Wright, W. 1971. Grammar of the Arabic Language. Translated from the German of Caspariand edited with numerous additions and corrections by W. Wright. LL. D. Cambridge UniversityPress.57. Yasuf al-Sibter. 1987. Layl la/us Á khir. vol. 2, (Lajnat al-Nashr Liljamciyyin, Cairo, Egypt.)58. YOsuf Idris. 1981. al-Lalgah al-ifarljah. (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr Liltilxrah, Cairo, Egypt.)59.^ 1985. Ahammiyat an Natathaqqaf yã Nit's. (Dar al-Mustaqbal al-'Arabi, Cairo,Egypt.)60^1970. Ntulha. (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr Liltibacah, Cairo, Egypt.)61 1971. Jabarti al-Sittinat. (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr Liltibac ah , Cairo, Egypt.)62^1975. liadithat Sham! (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr Liltib(ah , Cairo, Egypt.)63. ^^ 1981. Malik al-Qitn. Jumharyyat Farahat. (Maktabat Misr, Dar Misr Liltilk f ah,Cairo, Egypt.)147Appendix A Arabic AlphabetsThe material given here is taken, with permission, from Kassis (1992).Introduction:Arabic is an alphabetic language; it has twenty-nine consonants and three vowels: a, i, u.The vowels have long and short values and should be pronounced accordingly. In addition, thereare two diphthongs: aw and ay. It is written cursively from right to left and does not have anupper and a lower case. Not all Arabic consonants have English (or other European) equivalents.Similarly, not all English (or other European) phonemes have equivalents in Arabic. Forexample, there is no Arabic equivalent to the consonants p or v, or to the vowels e (as in set), o(as in note), u (as in but), etc.Letters of the Alphabet:Letter Transliteration Arabic Name^Pronunciation Commentalif qä'imah^A vowel, pronounced as a in man or father,depending on what precedes or follows it.Also used as seat of the hamzahb^bä^= English b4:- )^t ta^= English t‘5^th^thä^= English th in thinE^i jim^= English j in jamC^1)^IA^A pharyngeal; no English equivalentL^kb khä^Roughly equivalent to the ch in Bach..)^d^dal^= English d.3^dh^dhäl^= English th in this or thatr rä^= Spanish or Scots r (rolled)J^z^zayn^= English z148Letter Transliteration Arabic Name^Pronunciation Comments^sin^= English sLA^sh^shin^= English sh0°^f ãd^A velarized s; no English equivalentL.?^(I^clad^A velarized d; no English equivalent.13,^t^ta^A velarized t; no English equivalent..1::.^? ?a^A velarized th (as in that); no English equivalentL^c (raised)^Cayn^A voiced laryngeal; no equivalent.E._^gh^ghayn^Roughly equivalent to the French (Parisian) rLi^f^fa^= English f6^cl^qäf^A velarized k; no English equivalent.L.1^k kdf^= English kJ^1^Idm^= French /r^m^mim^= English m(:)^n^nun^= English n..c.^h ha^= English hwäw^as consonant = English w as in war ;as vowel = English oo as in moon;as part of the diphthongAlso used as seat of hamzahyd^as consonant = English y as in yes;as vowel = English ee as in feeas part of the diphthongAlso used as seat of hamzah149Short VowelsThere are three short vowels in Arabic; these are indicated by small diacritical markswritten above or below the consonant which they follow:fathah a slanting short line above the consonant:^(pronounced a as in cattle) bakasrah a slanting short line below the consonant: 4._.) (pronounced i as in bit)^bi•••clammah an inverted comma above the consonant: 4...J (pronounced u as in put) buThe absence of a vowel is indicated by a sukan , a small zero over the consonant, e.g. L..) .Long vowels:There are three long vowels in Arabic; these are written preceded by the correspondingshort vowel and followed by a sukzin :long a as in The man sat on his hat. (the sukan is not written over the alif 1..).0^long Ci pronounced oo as in Shoot the moon.long I pronounced as e, ee or ea in Pete, do you feel the heat in your feet?Diphthongs:There are two diphthongs; these are written as follows (from left to right):0^(a + w = aw) almost identical with ou in cloudy,0^(a + y = ay) almost identical with i in light.The hamzah:The hamzah is a glottal stop which may appear in any position in a word.It is the soundthat is expressed (though not written) at the opening of English, and even more so German,words beginning with a vowel. Depending on its position in the word, it is written:over an alif I or below itover a wa-cv jover a yäor by itself < .As a simple rule, it is placed on the seat equivalent to the short vowel that precedes it.Thus, is preceded by a tattle], it sits on an alit, if preceded by a kasrah, it sits on a yfi; ifpreceded by a dammah, it sits on a %yaw. It is written by itself if preceded by a long vowel. Atthe beginning of a word it is always seated on (or below) an alitOther diacritical marks:tan win: appears at the end of indefinite nouns (see below); it is pronounced with theaddition of the phoneme n to the vowel. There are three forms corresponding to the three shortvowels:4written above the consonant, as in 4%."^pronounced bun (u as oo in Kootenay).0written above the consonant, as in u^(an alit is usually added as a seat but notpronounced as a long vowel), pronouncedban (very short a).written below the consonant, as in^pronounced bin (very short .0.0-•■•waslab (=a link) appears over the elf I of the definite article when it is not beginninga sentence.••••^maddah (= lengthening) appears over an alifT to represent (from right to left) 1+1 .shaddah (=strengthening or doubling) may appear over any consonant (except the alit)to represent the doubling of that consonant which must be pronounced long, as the k in bookkeeper or the n in ten names.151

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