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Space densities and unified models of AGN Gendre, Melanie A. 2006

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Space Densities and Unified Models of A G N by Melanie A. Gendre B.Sc, The University of Victoria, 2004 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF Master of Science in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Astronomy) The University Of British Columbia September, 2006 © Melanie A. Gendre 2006 A b s t r a c t Using combined information from both FIRST and NVSS radio surveys at 1.4GHz, a sample of 282 sources with Sum = 1.3 Jy was constructed. Radio morphological type were determined for each sources, and redshift information was found for 94% of the sample members, from databases such as S I M B A D and SDSS. A source count at 1.4 GHz was constructed from results in the literature. Space-density models using the Wall, Pearson k Longair (1980) technique werethen applied using the sample and the source count; parameters for these models were optimized for the entire sample, as well as for the sample of extended sources only. In both cases, it was found that an exponential evolution with Pt = alog(z) + b gave the best fit. In the case of the entire sample, the V/Vmax statistics was computed, where < V/Vmax >= 0.6113 with cr = 0.0174. This project was mainly a pilot study to determine if the modeling of the luminosity function and epoch dependence of radio A G N was possible, primarily using the FIRST and NVSS samples in a complementary manner. This is a further way in which these huge radio surveys may be exploited for cosmological purposes and physical understanding of A G N . Since this study was successful, future work will involve using samples from FIRST and NVSS at different flux limits and applying this and much more sophisticated modeling techniques to determine the evolutions of the F R I and FRII populations separately. Ultimately, the goal of such a project would be to compare these evolutions and to use them as bases to derive new versions of the dual-population unified model described by Wall & Jackson (1997). This unified model has been successful until now but these new data should provide a comprehensive test - which may reject the formulation; or may suggest modifications that further our physical insight into the hosting/beaming paradigm of powerful radio A G N . ii T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Abstract 1 1 Table of Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures v l Acknowledgements y i n 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Classification of Radio Objects 1 1.1.1 Radio Loud Objects 2 1.1.2 Radio Quiet Objects 3 1.2 Evolutionary scenarios and unified schemes 4 1.3 Definitions 7 1.3.1 Source Count 7 1.3.2 Miscellaneous 10 1.4 Surveys ^ 10 1.5 Overview of this thesis 11 2 Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count 13 2.1 Construction of the primary sample 13 2.1.1 Redshift estimate 14 2.1.2 Classification 22 2.2 Study of the sample 22 2.2.1 Luminosity distributions 23 2.2.2 Source Count 32 3 Modeling of the luminosity function 36 3.1 The Wall Pearson Longair modeling . . . : 36 3.1.1 The WPL technique 36 3.1.2 Description of the models 37 3.1.3 Parameters estimation 38 3.2 Modeling of the luminosity function on the entire primary sample . . 40 3.3 Modeling for extended sources only 52 4 Conclusion 59 iii Table of Contents Bibliography 61 A Data tables 6 3 A . l Primary sample 63 A.2 Luminosity distribution 74 A. 3 Source count 75 B Results tables - Local luminosity function 78 B. l Entire primary sample 78 B.2 Extended sources only 79 C Contour plots 8 0 D Comments on particular sources 105 L i s t o f T a b l e s 1.1 Extragalactic radio source populations 4 2.1 Sample types content 22 2.2 Primary Sample 24 2.3 Survey used to compute the relative differential source count . . . . 33 3.1 Results from modeling of the luminosity function on the entire pri-mary sample 40 3.2 Results from modeling of the luminosity function for extended sources only 52 A . l Primary sample 64 A.2 Data luminosity distribution for the entire sample 74 A . 3 Data source count at 1.4GHz for the entire sample 75 B . l Modeled local luminosity function for the entire primary sample . . 78 B.2 Modeled local luminosity function for the extended sources only . . . 79 v L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1.1 Example of FRI and FRII sources 3 1.2 Unified model scheme 6 1.3 Radio source counts at various frequencies 9 2.1 Distribution of B magnitude for the primary sample 16 2.2 Hubble diagram log(z) vs. B magnitude 17 2.3 Linear and polynomial fits to the Hubble diagram log(z) vs. B mag-nitude 18 2.4 Test of redshift estimate: log(z) vs. B magnitude and log(z) vs. V magnitude 20 2.5 Comparison of luminosity distributions computed using redshifts es-timated with B and V magnitudes 21 2.6 Map of the sources from the primary sample 25 2.7 Ratio of F IRST flux to NVSS flux for compact objects in the primary sample 26 2.8 Comparison of source counts computed from FIRST and from the primary sample 26 2.9 Redshift distributions for the primary sample and the sub-sample of extended sources 27 2.10 Luminosity distributions for the primary sample and the sub-sample of extended sources 28 2.11 Luminosity distributions for all the sources and A G N sources only in the 2dFGRS sample 29 2.12 Polynomial fit to the relative differential source count 30 2.13 Differential and integrated source counts 30 2.14 Combined luminosity distributions of FIRST and 2dFGRS distributions 31 2.15 Relative differential source count 34 2.16 Relative differential source count for extended and compact sources separately 35 2.17 Proportion of compact sources in each flux density bins from FIRST 35 3.1 Modeled redshift distribution for the entire primary sample 42 3.2 Modeled and data luminosity distributions for the entire primary sample 42 3.3 Evolution function for model 1 for the entire primary sample . . . . 43 3.4 Comparison of the data and modeled source count for model 1 for the entire primary sample 44 3.5 Close-up on the best fit plot for model 1 44 List of Figures 3.6 Modeled Luminosity function versus luminosity for the entire primary sample for model 1 45 3.7 Modeled Luminosity function versus redshift for the entire primary sample for model 1 46 3.8 Evolution function for model 3 for the entire primary sample . . . . 47 3.9 Comparison of the data and modeled source count for model 3 for the entire primary sample 47 3.10 Modeled Luminosity function versus luminosity for the entire primary sample for model 3 48 3.11 Modeled Luminosity function versus redshift for the entire primary sample for model 3 49 3.12 Comparison of local luminosity function for the different models for the entire primary sample 50 3.13 V/Vmax with respect to radio luminosity 51 3.14 V/Vmax with respect to redshift 51 3.15 Modeled redshift distribution for extended sources only 53 3.16 Modeled and data luminosity distributions for extended sources only 53 3.17 Comparison of the data and modeled source count for model 1 for extended sources only 54 3.18 Comparison of the data and modeled source count for model 2 for extended sources only 54 3.19 Evolution function for model 3 for extended sources only 55 3.20 Comparison of the data and modeled source count for model 3 for extended sources only : 55 3.21 Modeled Luminosity function versus luminosity for extended sources only for model 3 56 3.22 Modeled Luminosity function versus redshift for extended sources only for model 3 57 3.23 Comparison of local luminosity function for the different models for extended sources only 58 A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I would like to thank my supervisor, Jasper Wall, for his help and patience through-out these two years, as well as Chris Blake for always having been here to answer my questions. I would also like to thank Lara and Mya for their support and for accompanying me to my numerous and very much needed coffee breaks. Finally, I would like to thank Matt for fixing my computer and helping me through my T-broke-fortran-again" problems so many times. viii Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 A l l galaxies are sources of radio emission. Among them, the sources of higher radio luminosity are Seyfert galaxies, starburst galaxies and Active Galactic Nu-clei (AGN) galaxies. Because radio observations are not affected by intergalactic medium, radio surveys offer a large number of galaxies over a wide range of red-shifts (the median redshift of galaxies detected in radio surveys is typically z = l (Condon, 1989)), giving statistically complete samples with high accuracy position measurements. However, radio surveys ultimately rely on optical surveys to get the redshift and morphology of the host objects. It also frequently happens that no obvious optical counterpart is found, especially for sources with extended structure not showing an obvious core. More than 95% of sources at flux densities above 50mJy at 1.4GHz (the fre-quency of the sample used in this thesis) are classified as A G N and radio galaxies. Below 50mJy, the number of A G N declines and the proportion of starburst galaxies increases (Condon, 1989; Sadler et al., 2002). A G N are interesting to investigate extreme physics (collimation, black hole physics, plasma ejection, confinement, e tc . ) . They are also one of the most important probe in the study of the formation and evolution of our Universe. The later is precisely the subject of this thesis: determining the evolution of radio sources. In this introduction, the classification of radio galaxies will be described (§1.1), as well as the evolutionary scenario for radio galaxies and the unified schemes associ-ated with them (§1.2). Some key terms will then be defined (§1.3) before discussing the radio surveys used (§1.4) and giving an overview of the content of this thesis (§1-5). 1.1 Classification of Radio Objects The first analysis of radio sources classified AGNs into two populations based on their spectral type: "steep-spectrum" and "flat-spectrum". "Steep-spectrum!' type follows a power law, presumably corresponding to the electron distribution in the optically thin environment. "Flat-spectrum" type corresponds to all sources not falling into the "steep-spectrum" category. Their spectra show curvature and bumps, due to synchrotron self-absorption in the optically thick environment. throughout this thesis, the following appellations will be used: P for luminosity and S for flux. 1 Chapter 1. Introduction A number of papers, including Wall, Pearson & Longair (1980) and Dunlop & Peacock (1990), dealt with the evolution of "fiat" and "steep"-spectra separately. In particular, Dunlop & Peacock (1990) found that both types could be fitted indepen-dently by pure luminosity evolution (PLE) and free-form evolution models (where no preconceived assumptions is made as to the form of the evolution - see Peacock (1985)) and, most importantly, that both populations were undergoing very similar differential evolutions. Since then, the classification of AGN has changed. In general, AGN can be considered as being either radio loud or radio quiet objects. 1.1.1 Radio Loud Objects Radio loud objects are powerful sources with Pu8MHz>^022 WHz~l s r _ 1 , whose radio structure extends from pc to Mpc scales. The sources consist of a central black hole emitting collimated opposing jets of plasma, whose nature is unknown. The jets feed energy and highly relativistic particles into radio lobes (Rees, 1971) and are terminated by shock with the intergalactic medium, creating radio hot spots (Scheuer, 1974; Blandford k, Rees, 1974). In many cases, the ejected plasma blobs close to the nucleus show superluminal motion (their apparent motion exceeds the speed of light), probably as a result of relativistic bulk motion close to the line of sight of the observer (Rees, 1967). There are no sharp features in the radio spectrum of radio loud galaxies and QSOs. Their spectra is described by the spectral index a = d(lnS)/d(lnu), where —1.4 < a < —0.5 for extended radio sources and —0.5 < a < 0.5 for compact sources. The classification of radio loud object is based on radio morphology and opti-cal/UV characteristics. The Fanaroff-Riley (FR) scheme (Fanaroff & Riley, 1974) is based on the ratio R of the distance between the central maxima of the source and the overall size of the object (see Figure 1.1 for examples of FRI and FRII sources). F R I These sources have a ratio R < 0.5 and are of moderate radio luminosity with P\7%MHz < 3 x 10 2 5 WHz~ l sr _ 1 . They are lobe-dominated sources, with the lobes connected by smooth and continuous double-sided jets. The FRI class includes many disturbed and atypical radio structures (Parma et al., 1992). In the optical/UV, their spectrum is dominated by stellar emission, with only weak (or zero) narrow-line emission from the AGN. FRII These sources have a ratio R > 0.5 and are of higher radio luminosity with P178MHz > 3 x lCPWHz^sr-1. They are also lobe-dominated, with more collimated (smaller opening angle) and less smooth jets than FRIs. Contrary to FRIs, the steepest-spectrum part of the source is found in its innermost region. In the optical/UV, the spectrum of FRII sources generally shows only narrow or no emission lines of high excitation level. 2 Chapter 1. Introduction Q S O These sources are generally core-dominated. However, the differences are drastic: the outer lobes and hot spots are still visible although the central core and jets are very much more prominent. Their structure almost always appear one-sided in the milliarcsecond scale. In the optical/UV, QSOs show broad and narrow emission lines together with a bright blue continuum. B L L a c These sources are compact and have very strong and varying continuum emission at all wavelength. In the optical/UV, they show weak or no emission lines and no evidence of stellar spectrum. Figure 1.1: Radio images from the 3 C R R catalog (Laing, Riley & Longair, 1983). 3C272.1 (left) is a F R I type source, with diffuse, approximately symmetric jets whose surface brightness falls off away from the center. 3C457 (right) is a FRII type source, with sharp-edged lobes and bright hot spots.(www.jb.man.ac.ukatlas) 1.1.2 Radio Quiet Objects Objects found in radio surveys are classified as radio quiet if Pi78MHz< 10 2 2 WHz~l sr~l. Those are almost exclusively late type host galaxies which dominate radio surveys at low flux densities. Saunders et al. (1990) studied their evolution. Because there is no evidence for any Doppler beaming, they are outside of the unified scheme (see §1.1.2). S tarburs t galaxies These sources show diffuse radio emission from synchrotron radiation from supernovae remnants, bremsstrahlung and free-free emission from HII regions. Seyfert galaxies These sources have broad and narrow emission lines associated with radio quiet A G N (Seyfert, 1943). They are probably a miniature version of QSOs. 2BLsBroad Line, NL=Narrow Line 3 Chapter 1. Introduction Table 1.1: Extragalactic radio source populations (Jackson & Wall, 1999) Optical Radio Doppler emission spectrum beamed Population type v ~5 GHz version FRII high excitation B L 2 flat QSO radio galaxies BL steep -NL 2 steep -FRII low excitation none fiat BL-Lac radio galaxies weak NL/ none steep -FRI radio galaxies none flat BL-Lac weak N L / none steep -Starbursts and Seyferts BL steep -NL steep -Elliptical galaxies When the cores of elliptical galaxies are imaged at high res-olution, their nuclei often either show structures associated with FRI or simply a weak compact core. About 40% of NGC galaxies show non-thermal activity. 1.2 Evolutionary scenarios and unified schemes It is believed that radio sources undergo some kind of cosmic evolution3. All scenarios are a combination of two possible evolutions: luminosity evolution (where the luminosity changes with epoch) and density evolution (where the density changes with epoch). The two most popular forms of evolution model are the power law evolution and the exponential evolution. Power law evolution The main assumption of the power law evolution model is that whatever has caused the evolution goes as some power of (1+z), and is therefore cosmic time dependent. This also suggests some direct relation between the scale size of the Universe (dependent on the epoch) and the space density of sources, scaling as (1 + z)K. This form of evolution is fairly simple; however, it has to be terminated at some redshift cutoff to prevent the resultant source count from diverging. Exponential law evolution This form was first investigated by Doroshkevich et al. (1970). Here, the evolution scales as exp(Mr), where M is a measure of the 4 Chapter 1. Introduction e-folding rate and r is the look-back time as a fraction of the Hubble time. As stated in the previous section, investigation of the luminosity function of "fiat-" and "steep-" spectrum sources by Dunlop & Peacock (1990) showed that both types were undergoing the same evolution. Evidence accumulated that ob-served populations of radio loud A G N were strongly orientation dependent, giving rise to the concept of "unified schemes". These schemes assumed a parent radio source population, where the random orientation of the population to our line of sight was the cause of the different source types observed (Orr & Browne, 1982). A dual population model based on the sources radio power (FRI and FRII types) was then introduced (Jackson & Wall, 1999) . In this model, both population exhibit anisotropic radiations arising from Doppler beaming (superluminal motion of the radio jets), and obscuration by a dusty torus contributes to the orientation depen-dent appearance of the high power FRII (see figure 1.2). 3The term evolution used here implies either a change in the total number of sources (they are created or disappear) or a change in the luminosity of the sources (they become brighter or fainter). 5 Chapter 1. Introduction beamed, flot-spceintm (a) FHSl quasar or BL IM? / / j qvmw w BLRG slei'p-specintm FRII radio galuxij radio tebe 0» beamed, fiM-stmeirum Pltf BL £ I K \ A G N -V-relaiivbtic radim jet ratio lobe s teep-sped r?jm FBI radio \ Figure 1.2: Jackson & Wall (1999): Unified Scheme models (a) FRII radio sources; (b) FRI radio sources. Chapter 1. Introduction 1.3 Definitions 1.3.1 Source Count The source count is the surface density as a function of flux density at a given frequency. Because the cumulative source count N(> S) implies that points are not independent of each other, the differential form of the source count, AN/ANQ (where JVo = K ^ S 1 - 1 , 5 ) is usually used. In the case of an Euclidean universe4and constant space density, the integral count is observed to accord with N oc 5 ~ L 5 (Wall, 1983). However, the source count does not follow this simple Euclidean geometry (Ryle & Clark, 1961). Since there is no steady state, the radio population must therefore be evolving as a function of redshift. Longair (1966) showed that this evolution was differential: the lower-luminosity sources show little or no evolution whereas the most luminous sources undergo the most dramatic evolution. Radio source counts can therefore potentially yield important information on the cosmological evolution of both active and star-burst galaxies (Longair, 1966; Wall, Pearson & Longair, 1980). The first direct test of evolution, the V/Vmax test, was created by Schmidt in 1968 (Schmidt, 1968). For this test, the volume V between redshift 0 and redshift z of each source is compared to the volume Vmax between redshift 0 and the redshift where the source is pushed to the flux limit of the survey (note that in the case where both optical and radio surveys are involved, this flux limit corresponds to the first limit encountered). If the survey deals with non-evolving sources, V/Vmax values would be uniformly distributed between 0 and 1, implying {V/Vmax) = 0.5 5(with o = 1/V12N). If (V/Vmax) > 0.5, there are therefore more radio sources at greater distance. Using a sample of 33 QSOs from the 3C catalog, Schmidt found a value of (V/Vmax) = 0.7 (er = 0.05), implying an increasing number of sources with epoch, which is consistent with a strong cosmological evolution. Figure 1.3 (Jackson & Wall, 1999) shows differential source counts at different frequencies. The source counts can be split into four main regions6: 1. At high flux densities (logS > 0.5), the differential source count is near Euclidean, due to the mixture of nearby sources and distant bright objects (the evolving sources at high redshift are diluted by the more abundant local sources). 4 A n Euclidean universe is a flat, infinite universe. 5 Proof: The observed number of objects in the (P,z) plane is: N = f0p(P)dPK— %dz therefore: /V/V \ — J" ^ ,, ma-Dr = i \V Vmax/ — 7^53 rV-max 2 Jo ? ( p ) d p Jo d v This result is independent of the luminosity function p(P). 7 Chapter 1. Introduction 2. Between logS = - 1 and logS = 0.5, the differential count is dominated by powerful sources at high redshift, showing how extreme their evolution is. The bulge there hints at a sharp peak in density at some epoch, and the width of the plateau varies with frequency due to the increasing contribution of fiat-spectrum sources (Kellerman & Wall, 1987), which are predominantly QSOs. 3. In the next three orders of magnitude (-4 < logS < - 1 ) , the count is made up of lower power sources at intermediate redshift and drops away from the Euclidean prediction. 4. At low flux densities {logS < —4), the source count flatten back to near Euclidean and is made up mostly of "blue" starburst and "red" F R I type galaxies, which are seen at relatively small redshift (z < 0.4). 6 An interpretation of the different slopes of the relative differential source count can be found in Wall (1983). 8 Chapter 1. Introduction y T T - T Y | I I I | ;| | J 8 1 | I. I I | | I I I I j I I I I • | I [1-1 I | I I [ 1 I I 11 i i i i I ii i i I. t i t i i I i i i i i I i t i i I i i i I 11 i i i I t„,.i,,.„t,.„t„„l -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -t 0 1 2 iogM(fiLJX dens i ty / Jy ) Figure 1.3: Jackson & Wall (1999): Source counts at various frequencies in relative differential form where AiVo is the number of sources expected in a uniformly-filled Euclidean universe {No = KvSyZ/2). The dash curves are polynomial least square fits to the counts. 9 Chapter 1. Introduction 1.3.2 Miscellaneous Radio Luminosity Function p(P,z). Space density of radio sources at a given luminosity, per unit luminosity and at a particular epoch. At. the current epoch (z=0), the luminosity function is called the local luminosity function. It is usually expressed as the number of sources per unit volume (Mpc3) per unit Az per unit AlogPu. Evolution function F(P,z). Determines the evolution of the radio sources as a function of luminosity and redshift. In the models of radio luminosity function used in this thesis, the evolution function is used to modify the local luminosity function (LLF) to give the radio luminosity function (RLF) at a given epoch z \p<P,z)=F{P,z)xpo(P)]. Redshift cutoff zc. Maximum redshift at which a population exists (at larger redshift, its space density is zero). Luminosity distribution N(P). Distribution of intrinsic radio luminosities in a complete flux limited sample. Note that in the case of no evolution (i.e. F(P,z)=l) , each source in this distribution would contribute exactly 1/Vmax to the R L F (direct relation). For evolving sources, the contribution would be l/(F(P,z) x Vmax)-1.4 Surveys Two main radio surveys used in this work: FIRST and NVSS; two optical surveys were also used: SDSS and 2dF. 7 F I R S T The Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey (White et al., 1997) is a V L A survey at 1.4GHz containing over 800,000 sources with Sum=l mJy and covering 9030 deg 2 of the northern sky with a beam size of 5". The small angular beam size makes the FIRST survey highly reliable since it makes it easier to cross-correlate radio sources with their optical host galaxies (since more details are visible than with a larger beam size). It also means that the observations are not sensitive to extended radio structures and therefore the total radio luminosity of sources larger than a few arcsec is underestimated (Becker et al., 1995). In addition, many extended sources are split into multiple components in F IRST. N V S S The N R A O - V L A Sky Survey (Condon et al., 1998) at 1.4GHz covers the entire sky north of -40 degrees declination, contains about 1.8 million sources with Sum=2.3 mJy and has a beam size of 45". Contrary to the F IRST survey, most radio sources ( 93%) are contained within a single NVSS component due to the relatively large beam size. This made NVSS the first radio survey to permit automated cross-correlation with optical surveys. However, high angular beam size also implies low resolution, leading to significant uncertainties in cross-identifying the radio sources with their optical host galaxies. 10 Chapter 1. Introduction There is therefore a trade-off between the reliability of the optical identification and the completeness of the sample. SDSS The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al, 2000) is an optical imaging {u, g, r, i, z bands) and spectroscopic survey of about a quarter of the extragalactic sky (covering the same region as the FIRST survey) carried out at the Apache Point Observatory. 2dF The 2-degrees Field survey (Colless, 1999; Colless et al., 2001) is an Anglo-Australian Telescope spectroscopic survey covering 2000deg2 in southern hemisphere. The subsection of the 2dF survey used in this thesis is the 2dFGRS (2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (Sadler et al., 2002)), which contains about 256,000 sources with limit of bj = 19.45. Both FIRST and NVSS surveys are used in this thesis to select objects in the studied samples, as they are highly complementary surveys (Best et al. (2005) de-scribes in detail the advantages of combining both surveys). Indeed, if FIRST is the only primary catalog used, the fact that different components of the same source may be resolved as different objects for extended objects creates a bias in the sam-ple. NVSS is therefore used to maximize the completeness and reliability of the resulting sample, making sure that no extended sources are left out. The 2dF and SDSS catalogs are mostly used as support data for redshift deter-mination, essential in modeling the luminosity function and its epoch dependence. 1.5 Overview of this thesis The project has two main goals: • Determine the physical evolution parameters for the different populations (FRI and FRII) of extended radio AGN. • Due to the always increasing amount of available data permitting us to study both population separately, we can aim to answer the following questions: Is the dual-population unified scheme based on FRI and FRII objects as two separate host populations still acceptable? Or, where does it fail, and how do we modify it in a physically meaningful way to describe the data? Can a simpler single-population model (Snellen & Best, 2001) describe the evolution? This master's project is mainly a pilot study to determine if the goals described above can be met by samples defined by two existing radio surveys (namely, FIRST and NVSS). It lays the groundwork for a detailed study of the dual-population uni-fied model (Jackson & Wall, 1999). 7The surveys can be found at: FIRST: http:sundog.stsci.edu NVSS: http:www.cv.nrao.edunvss SDSS: http:cas.sdss.org 2dF: http:www.aao.gov.au2df 11 Chapter 1. Introduction This project was done in three main steps 1. Creating the primary sample of radio sources, complete to a given integrated flux density at 1.4GHz. This step included selecting the sources by combining information from FIRST and NVSS, finding redshift information and deter-mining the morphological type (FRI, FRII , unresolved, etc.) for each sources (§2.1). The luminosity distributions (for the entire sample as well as for ex-tended sources only) were then computed (§2.2.1). 2. Compiling a source count at 1.4GHz over a wide range of flux densities for both the entire sample and the sub-sample of extended sources only (§2.2.2). 3. Modeling the radio luminosity function using the Wall, Pearson & Longair (1980) technique (§3.1) for both the entire sample and the sample of extended sources only (§3.2 and §3.3). In this modeling, maximum likelihood and a downhill-simplex method were used to determine optimum model parameters. 12 Chapter 2 D a t a : T h e 1 . 4 G H z P r i m a r y S a m p l e a n d S o u r c e C o u n t In order to study the luminosity function of AGNs and its evolution, two types of data are needed: at least one luminosity distribution of a sample of sources chosen at a given limiting flux density and at least one source count compiled at the same frequency as the luminosity distribution. In this chapter, both data types used in this thesis will be described. First will be described the source selection criteria for the primary sample (§2.1.1) as well as the processes used to estimate redshifts and sort the sources into the different radio types (§2.1.2). The computation of the luminosity distribution used for the models will then be discussed (§2.2.1). Finally, the different source counts compiled will be presented (§2.2.2). 2.1 Construction of the primary sample The sample was constructed in several steps: 1. A l l sources from the FIRST catalog with Sint8 > 1.3Jy were selected. The value of the flux limit was chosen to produce a sample from the F IRST cat-alogue with a number of object not exceeding 200. Each source was then compared with its NVSS counterpart to ensure that it was an actual source and not one of the components of an extended source resolved in F IRST due to the small beam size. A total of 184 objects were selected during this first process. 2. As previously stated, some sources in the FIRST catalog are actually resolved components of more extended sources. These components might have an indi-vidual flux density lower than the 1.3Jy flux limit, but the actual source might have a flux density above 1.3Jy, when all its components are added. In order to account for these sources, sources from the FIRST survey with 0.5Jy<S<1.3Jy were compared with their NVSS counterpart. If the flux density of the coun-terpart was above the flux limit, a visual cross-check was done using contour plots of F IRST and NVSS radio flux density (to ensure the F IRST source is actually a component of the NVSS source and not a close-by but independent source). After cross-check, 92 sources9were added to the sample, raising the total number of sources to 276. 8Flux integrated over the entire area of the source. 13 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count 3. Finally, it was also necessary to account for the giant sources which might even be resolved in NVSS. Fortunately, these sources are well known: 9 of the 3CR sources located in the FIRST region not included in the sample were added, giving a final number of 285 sources for the primary sample. Those three steps ensured that no source above the flux limit in the F IRST region was left out, creating an unbiased sample of sources at S\AGHZ > 1-3Jy. 2.1.1 Redshift estimate For most of these bright sources, redshift information were obtained from the S I M B A D website 1 0. When it was not present, magnitude information (B and V magnitudes) were looked for and a Hubble diagram (redshift versus B magnitude) was used to estimate the photometric redshift of the source. In all cases, an attempt was made to find a counterpart in the SDSS catalog, to get magnitude (ugriz) information if none was available in the literature. However, only 143 sources appeared to have SDSS counterparts, with 25 of them possible but not confirmed 1 1. For 44 sources in the sample, no magnitude information was available in the literature, but the sources had a confirmed SDSS counterpart; the B magnitude was then estimated from the ugriz magnitude information following Fukugita, Shimasaku & Ichikawa (1995): B = g + 0.217 + 0.419(5 - r) (2.1) The distribution of B magnitude is shown in figure 2.1, where the ratio of the different optical types (QSOs, Seyferts, B L Lacs or galaxies) is represented. To complete the Hubble diagram, sources from 2dFGRS (Sadler et al., 1999) were used in addition to the data from our sample. This survey is suitable for our purpose because the optical hosts of radio galaxies are a very uniform population of massive elliptical galaxies such as the galaxies in 2dFGRS. Figure 2.2 shows the complete Hubble diagram, for all sources as well as for the sub-sample of galaxies only (excluding QSOs). Both diagrams include sources from our sample as well as sources from 2dFGRS. A polynomial was then fitted to the points to get the relation between redshift and B magnitude, as shown in figure 2.3: log(z) = 0.001LB 2 + 0.1385 - 3 . 7 (2.2) 9 One of the source found with NVSS was discarded as it was impossible to find the nature of the object in the literature. This object was possibly a globular cluster, therefore ignoring it has no impact on the sample. 10http:sirnbad.harvard.edu ""possible but not confirmed" means that a SDSS source was found in a 2" radius from the radio source, but there was no indication in the SDSS description of the source that it also belongs to the FIRST survey. 14 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count Out of the 285 sources in the sample, 49 had no redshift in S I M B A D or in the SDSS catalog. Estimates from the B magnitude were used for 39 of these sources; 10 sources remained unidentified. Note that redshifts estimated using the Hubble diagram correspond to photometric redshifts, which are close but different from the actual redshifts of the sources. 15 Chapter 2. Data:. The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count Figure 2.1: Distribution of the 275 B magnitudes for our sample. Each column shows the number of QSOs, Seyferts and BL Lacs (in red) and the number of galaxies (in light blue). The magnitudes were either found in SIMBAD or computed using the g and r magnitudes information from SDSS. 16 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count o 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 * * - ' ' - ! v. :> « / * * * * * * * A * A * « * * 4 t ** * * * j * * ' • i : * i! - -•k"': ^ l . i . l . l i . i . o CN I * * * I . » 15 20 25 Figure 2.2: Top Panel: Hubble diagram relating B magnitude and redshift for all sources from the FIRST and Sadler et al. (1999) 2dFGRS samples. Bottom Panel: Hubble diagram relating B magnitude and redshift for galaxies only. (red filled stars: FIRST galaxies; orange open stars/pink dotted circles: 2dFGRS galaxies; blue filled triangles: FIRST QSOs; open light blue triangles: 2dFGRS QSOs.) 17 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count CM i r i 15 20 B Figure 2.3: Linear (dash black line) and polynomial (red line) fit to the Hubble diagram relating B magnitude and redshift. Redshifts were estimated for 39 sources of the primary sample using this polynomial, (blue filled circles: FIRST data; pink open circles: 2dFGRS data). 18 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count Testing of the redshift estimate To make sure the redshift estimate used was valid, luminosity distributions were derived using redshift estimated from B and V magnitudes separately. For this purpose, only sources with both B and V magnitudes were used, to ensure that both distribution were done with the same number of objects. The polynomial fit for the log(z) vs. B magnitude diagram is (see figure 2.4, top panel): log(z) = -3.72 + 0.1345 + 0.0013B2 (2.3) and for the log(z) vs. V magnitude diagram (see figure 2.4, bottom panel): log(z) = -4.22 + 0.222V - 0.0014V2 (2.4) In both panels, only the sub-sample of galaxies is shown (excluding QSOs). • The resulting luminosity distributions are shown in figure 2.5. Since they look very similar, it was concluded that the redshift estimate done using B magnitudes was valid. 19 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count C N I i r , i , , , , i _ 1 5 2 0 B i r , , i , , , , i_ 1 5 2 0 V Figure 2.4: Polynomial fits to the Hubble diagram relating B magnitude and redshift (top panel) and relating V magnitude and redshift (bottom panel) used in comparing redshift estimates using one or the other magnitude. (blue filled circles: F IRST data; pink open circles: 2dFGRS data). Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count 22 24 26 28 i o g P , . 4 G H z [ w . m " 2 . H z - 1 ] Figure 2.5: Luminosity distributions (go = 0.5) derived using redshifts estimated from the B (solid black) and V (dash red) magnitudes. Since they both look very similar, it was concluded that the redshift estimate done using B magnitudes was valid. 21 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count 2.1.2 Classification Several processes were used to determine the type of each source in the sample. For some sources, type was specified in SIMBAD, especially sources from the 3CR catalog (Laing, Riley & Longair, 1983). For the other sources, type was deter-mined by looking at the contour plots (see Appendix C) of the FIRST and NVSS radio maps, downloaded in 10' x 10' format from the respective websites. In the case of compact sources (based on the major axis size given in the FIRST survey), they were labeled as compact (as opposed to resolved component of an extended source) if the FIRST and NVSS flux densities were similar12. Figure 2.7 illustrate this similarity between FIRST and NVSS fluxes for sources in our sample. If the contour plots were showing distinct hot spots at the edge of the lobes, and the lobes were aligned, the source was classified as an FRII. Most irregular looking sources were classified as FRI. In some cases, the morphological typing was more difficult; in 3 cases, the source was dropped from the primary sample after looking at the contour plots, reducing the total number of sources to 282. Those special sources are described in more details in Appendix D. Table 2.1: Number of source for each type radio type FRI FRII Compact Other number 39 94 145 4 % 13.8 33.3 51.4 1.4 This complete the construction of our sample. The complete table of information can be found in Appendix A . l (an sample of the table is shown in table 2.2). Figure 2.6 shows a map of the sources in the primary sample as well as the area of the FIRST survey. 2.2 S t u d y o f t h e s a m p l e Throughout this thesis, the following cosmology is used: c/o = 0.5 and Ho = 50 km/s/Mpcn. This provides the following relations between co-moving distance and redshift: D = £ ( l — ± = ) (2-5) as well as relation between flux density and luminosity (assuming a spectral index a = 0.7514, in the sense S oc v~a): 5 = i » ( i ( 2 ' 6 ) 120.9 < SFIRST/SNVSS < 1-1 1 3This cosmology was chosen for comparison with previous works, such as Wall, Pearson & Longair (1980). 22 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count 2.2.1 Luminosity distributions The relative differential source count for the sample is compared to the source count for the FIRST catalogue in figure 2.8. Note that the values of the source count for our sample are (in general) higher that the value of the source count derived from FIRST. This is due to the fact that the multiples components of extended sources resolved in FIRST have been combined to form one source, increasing the number of sources with S > 1.3 Jy. The luminosity (figure 2.9) and redshift (figure 2.10) distributions were also com-piled for the entire sample as well as for extended sources only (ie: FRI and FRII sources). Note that the range of luminosity for our sample goes from logP ~ 24 to logP ~ 28. A primary requirement for this type of analysis is a well-defined luminosity dis-tribution. However, the range of luminosities covered by the FIRST sample is quite small (24 < logP < 28). .To improve it at low powers, data from the 2dFGRS survey derived by Sadler et al. (2002) were used. Indeed, as seen on figure 2.11, the 2dFGRS distribution goes from logP ~ 22 to logP ~ 26, providing a better range in luminosity. This combination of the luminosity distribution of our sample with the 2dFGRS data is possible since no evolution is observed for source with logP < 24. In order to normalized the 2dFGRS data to the same flux limit of 1.3Jy as the primary sample, an integral source count (which represents the cumulative number of sources observed above a given flux limit) at 1.4GHz was derived by fitting a polynomial to the relative differential source count computed from the FIRST sur-vey (see §2.2.2) and integrating the result, as shown in figures 2.12 and 2.13. The ratio of the integrated count at 1.3Jy to its value at 3mJy (flux limit of the Sadler sample) gives the normalization factor. The combined luminosity distributions are shown on figure 2.14. The luminosity range now goes from logP ~ 22 to logP ~ 28. The contribution of the 2dFGRS sample to the luminosity distribution is small after normalization, but it is still enough to better define the distribution. The luminosity distribution data are tabulated in Appendix A.2. 1 4This assumed value of the spectral index is wrong for QSOs. Their luminosity was therefore overestimated in our sample. However, since compact objects will be taken out of the sample, this has no impact on our study. 23 Table 2.2: Primary Sample (the complete table can be found in Appendix A.l.) Columns 1 and 2 correspond to the right ascension and declination of the radio identification; column 3 gives the name of the source; columns 4 and 5 correspond to the flux density from FIRST and NVSS respectively, in mJy; column 6 and 7 correspond to the B and V magnitudes; column 8 describes the source morphology (Co for compact, I for FRI, II for FRII, U for other types); column 9 corresponds to redshift; column 10 gives information on the SDSS identification (c for confirmed identification, u for possible but not confirmed, n for none) as well as information on the magnitudes and redshift estimation (B and V when the magnitudes were estimated from SDSS, H when the redshift was estimated from the Hubble diagram). to RA DEC Name SFIRST SNVSS (mJy) B V morph. z 00 06 22.611 -00 04 24.48 3C 002 3879.24 3897.6 20.14 19.35 Co 1 0370 c 00 13 10.910 +00 51 42.40 3C 005 1600.68 1620.1 22.37 20.73 II 0 6060 u A 00 22 25.437 +00 14 56.08 PKS 0019-00 2938.88 3009.2 21.10 19.57 Co 0 3050 c V 00 37 04.060 -01 09 09.40 3C 015 3703.23 4067.1 15.34 17.33 I 0 0730 c V 00 38 20.410 -02 07 40.40 3C 017 6015.11 6187.8 18.02 0.00 I 0 2196 n 00 57 34.150 -01 22 58.40 3C 029 2087.33 5365.4 14.07 0.00 II 0 0448 n 00 59 05.511 +00 06 51.70 PKS 0056-00 2415.95 2508.8 17.53 17.33 Co 0 7170 c 01 25 28.853 -00 05 56.20 PKS 0122-00 1524.09 1540.2 16.50 16.70 Co 1 0700 c 01 26 4.670 -01 24 1.90 NGC 547 (3C 40) 106.29 2010.1 14.38 13.34 I 0 0185 n 02 20 54:052 -01 56 55.16 3C 063 3123.21 3419.2 18.50 0.00 I 0 1750 n 02 42 40.720 -00 00 47.70 M77 4261.56 4848.1 8.91 9.77 I 0 0038 c V 06 55 14.780 +54 09 00.00 3C 171 3636.91 3680.0 18.89 18.90 II 0 2384 n 07 02 53.639 +44 31 11.92 4C 44.15 2433.08 2397.4 0.00 0.00 Co 0 0000 n 07 06 48.083 +46 47 56.39 B3 0703+468 1589.99 1584.9 23.10 0.00 Co 1 4941 nH 07 13 38.169 +43 49 17.06 B0710+439 2032.11 2011.4 20.70 0.00 Co 0 5180 n 07 14 24.813 +35 34 39.70 B0711+35 1533.45 1467.1 18.20 17.00 Co 1 6260 n 07 16 41.090 +53 23 10.30 4C 53.16 1298.23 1501.4 14.55 14.00 II 0 0643 n 07 35 55.549 +33 07 9.44 4C 33.21 2423.09 2473.1 21.00 20.90 Co 0 5187 cHV 07 38 7.379 +17 42 19.60 J0738+1742 1101.95 2257.7 15.32 14.85 Co 0 4240 c 07 41 10.698 +31 12 0.31 J0741+3111 2071.27 2284.3 16.88 17.00 Co 0 6313 c B 07 45 42.131 +31 42 52.60 4C 31.30 1163.63 1357.8 15.92 16.00 II 0 4620 c B Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count Figure 2.6: Map of the sources (Aitoff projection) from the primary sample. The grey area corresponds to the area covered by the FIRST survey. The radius of each circle is proportional to the flux density of each source. 25 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count ^ I , , , , i , , , , i , , , , I ° 0 50 100 150 • s o u r c e § Figure 2.7: Ratio of F IRST flux to NVSS flux for objects clas-sified as compact. The yellow hatched region correspond to the 0.9 < SFIRST/SNVSS < 1-1 region. This figure illustrate that, in the case of compact sources (as opposed to resolved component of an extended source), the F IRST and NVSS fluxes are very similar. LO l o g ( S / J y ) Figure 2.8: Comparison of the relative differential source count for the F IRST catalogue (red open circles) and for the original 285 sources of the primary sample (green filled triangle). The error bars correspond to \/N. Note that the values of the source count for our sample are (in general) higher that the value of the source count derived from FIRST. This is due to the fact that the multiples components of extended sources resolved in F IRST have been combined to form one source, increasing the number of sources with S > 1.3Jy. 26 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count o C O O C N log(z) o o C N - 2 -1 0 log(z) Figure 2.9: Redshift distributions for the final 274 sources with redshift of the primary sample (top panel) and the 130 sources with redshift of the sub-sample of extended sources (bottom panel). 27 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count Figure 2.10: Luminosity distributions (qo = 0.5) for the 274 sources with redshift of primary sample (top panel) and for the 130 sources with redshift of the sub-sample of extended sources (bottom panel). In both cases, the range in luminosity goes from logP ~ 24 to logP ~ 28, which makes the distribution not well enough define for our analysis. Top panel: Red hatched correspond to object identified as compact, blue cross-hatched for objects identified as FRII, green hatched for objects identified as FRI, grey for other types of object. 28 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count o h o 22 24 26 l 0 < 3 P l . 4 G H z t W - m 2 - H z _ 1 ] Figure 2.11: Luminosity distributions for the 2dFGRS sample, AGN and starburst galaxies (top panel) and AGN only (bottom panel) (Sadler et al., 2002). In both cases, the range in luminosity goes from logP ~ 22 to logP ~ 26, making the 2dFGRS sample a good complementary sample to our luminosity distribution. This combina-tion of the luminosity distribution of our sample with the 2dFGRS data is possible since no evolution is observed for source with logP < 24. 29 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count o U , 1 , 1 , 1 1 - 4 - 2 0 2 log(S/Jy) Figure 2.12: Polynomial fit to the relative differential source count. The source count is actually fitted by two polynomials: one for logS < 0.5 and one for logS > 0.5. This polynomial fit is used to compute the integrated source count. U i I i I i u -4 - 2 0 2 log(S/Jy) Figure 2.13: Both the differential source count log(dN/dS) (dash line) and the integrated source count (solid line) are plotted. The value of the integrated count for the FIRST sample (Sum = 1.3Jy) is represented by the red star; the value of the integrated count for the 2dFGRS sample (Sum = 3mJy) is represented by the blue square. The ratio of the values of the integrated source count is used to normalize the flux limit of the 2dFGRS sample to the flux limit of our sample. 30 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count Q I i ^ -•- - i - I i l 1 as 22 24 26 28 l o 9 P i . 4 G H z [W.m" 2.Hz 1] l 0 9 P i . 4 G H z [W.m- 2 .Hz- 1 ] Figure 2.14: Combined luminosity distributions of the FIRST and 2dFGRS samples for the entire sample (top panel) and the extended sources only (bottom panel). The solid lines show the smoothed version of the distributions. The errors bars correspond to V~N. The luminosity range goes now from logP ~ 22 to logP ~ 28. The contribution of the 2dFGRS sample to the luminosity distribution is small after normalization, but it is still enough to better define the distribution. 31 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count 2.2.2 Source Count The relative differential source count AN/AN0 was computed for sources in the FIRST catalog, using AN0 = 1200A(5 - 1 5) as the source count expected in Eu-clidean space. Due to the low number of AGN sources at the lower and higher end of the source count, only sources with —2.6 < logS < 0.8 were used. To improve the lower and higher end of the source count, data from various other surveys were used. The complete list of all the 1.4GHz source count data used is described in table 2.3 and the count is tabulated in Appendix A.3. The resulting relative differential source count AN/AN0 is shown in figure 2.15. The relative differential source count was also computed with the FIRST data for extended and compact sources separately. For this purpose, each source with major axis majA > 1.5" in the FIRST catalog was considered extended; otherwise, a cross-check was performed using the NVSS catalog by comparing the flux densities of the source and its NVSS counterpart (defined as any source in NVSS less than 2" away from the FIRST source). Indeed, for compact sources, the flux densities in both surveys are very close (see figure 2.7). Therefore, if the ratio of the flux densities was in the range [0.9,1.1], the source was considered compact. If not, the source was denoted as extended. The resulting source counts (for the entire FIRST catalogue as well as for com-pact and extended sources separately) are shown in figure 2.16, and the proportion of compact sources in the FIRST survey is shown in figure 2.17. 32 Table 2.3: Survey used in the source count Survey Flux Approx. Approx. Reference density number area limit of objects (sr) 3CR 9Jy 250 10.22 Bridle et al. (1972) Westerbork-NRAO 2Jy 240 4.3 Fomalont et al. (1974) GB2 90mJy 1500 0.28 Machalski (1978) 5C12 9mJy 65 0.015 Benn et al. (1982) VLA 5mJy 160 3.610~3 Condon, Condon k. Hazard (1982) VLA 70/xJy 100 10"4 Mitchell & Condon (1985) Phoenix 60/xJy 1250 1.410"3 Hopkins et al. (2003) ATESP 0.5mJy 1600 810"3 Prandoni et al. (2001) FIRST lmJy 800,000 2.74 White et al. (1997) NVSS 2.3mJy 1.7 million 10.3 Condon et al. (1998) CO CO Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count 1 — i — i — r c o "O c o oo T> ^ ^ F <S> C O CL D c/) O -"ti O £ > _1 I I I oo .±± _n: o_ O • <! 0 •St ° 0 ^ o S oo CD O XJ E O 'C o a <U 00 a: _L J l I I I I I L • I i 5 ' 0 - i- S'L- . Z - ^'Z-( g - L x r L _ J S ° N V / N V ) B O I CM o in O CM Figure 2.15: Relative differential source count AN/AN0 where AN0 = 1200515. The error bars correspond to \/N. Each source count data used to compile this source count is represented by a different symbol. 34 Chapter 2. Data: The 1.4GHz Primary Sample and Source Count i i i i i i i i i i i i I_I - 2 - 1 0 1 l o g ( S / J y ) Figure 2.16: Relative differential source count for all sources in the FIRST catalogue (black squares), extended sources only (pink stars) and compact sources only (green triangles). The error bars correspond to y/N. To separate compact sources from extended ones, each source with major axis majA > 1.5" in the FIRST catalog was considered extended; otherwise, a cross-check was performed using the NVSS catalog by comparing the flux densities of the source and its NVSS counterpart. If the ratio of the flux densities was in the range [0.9,1.1], the source was considered compact. If not, the source was denoted as extended. - i — , — , — | — , — , — , — , — | — , — , — , — , — | — , — , — , , n l o g ( S / J y ) Figure 2.17: Proportion of compact sources to the total number of sources in each flux density bins for the FIRST catalogue. 35 Chapter 3 M o d e l i n g o f t h e l u m i n o s i t y f u n c t i o n 3.1 The Wall Pearson Longair modeling Early models used fixed local luminosity function (not changing with varying evolution functions) to derive the luminosity function at different epoch. However, the WPL modeling technique (Wall, Pearson 8z Longair, 1980) was based on the idea that the evolution function modifies the local luminosity function. 3.1.1 The W P L technique Steps in the WPL technique can be described as follow: 1. Define an evolution function F(P,z). 2. Assuming that the source count at a given frequency u is composed of a single source population (hence, for which a single spectral index is a good approx-imation and one luminosity function is applicable), factorize the luminosity function p(P, z) in the following way: p(P,z) = F(P,z)po(P) (3.1) where po(P) is the local luminosity function. 3. Assume a cosmology15, providing the relation between flux density and lumi-nosity S = P/D2(l + z)1+a (3.2) where a is the spectral index defined in the sense S oc u~a It also provides the relation between co-moving volume and redshift AV{z) = ^vrAD 3 (3.3) where the effective distance D goes according to the relation (in Friedman world models A = 0) D = " <n " 2 » « f i 2 + 1 ) 1 / 2 ~1)1 ( 3 - 4 ) 36 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function 4. Populate the P-z plane with F(P,z) and S(P, z), computed for each (APj, AZJ) bin. 5. Compute an estimate of po from the data luminosity distribution using J(So) Po(P)dP = mAPi/ Yi F(Pi, Zj)*V(zj) (3.5) J ' = I where is the value of the data luminosity distribution in the given APj bin and where j(So) is the redshift index at which a source with luminosity Pi has a flux density So, the flux limit of the sample used. 6. Compute the model source count and the model luminosity distribution where each (APi,Azj) bin contributes riij = ^-F(Pi,Zi)po(Pi)AV(zj) sources sr~l (3.6) 7. Compare the modeled source count and luminosity distribution with the data source count and luminosity distribution. If the results are unsatisfactory, go back to step 1 and adjust F(P,z). In this thesis, qo = 0.5 and Ho = 50km/s/Mpc was used. The P-z plane was divided into 1000 bins for 20 < logP < 30 and 1000 bins for 0 < log(l + z) < 1. Since our data luminosity distribution went only up to logP=27.8, the LLF for 27.8 < logP < 30 was extrapolated. For each model (described in the next section), the best parameters were found by fitting the modeled source count to the data using a maximum likelyhood method, assuming Poisson noise. 3.1.2 Description of the models Only the three models described as "satisfactory evolution models" in Wall, Pear-son & Longair (1980) were used in this thesis to model the RLF. The models are the following: model 1, Exponential law evolution. F = exp[M(P)(l - (1 +z)-3/2)} where 0 M(P) = I Mmax(logP1-logP)/{logPl -.lbgP2) Mmax This model has therefore 3 free parameters: Mmc P < Pi Pl<P< P2 P>P2 , Pi and P 2 . 15Note that as stated by Dunlop & Peacock (1990), it is not necessary to repeat the modeling for different cosmologies as the RLFs for two different geometries are related by: 37 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function model 2 Exponential law evolution, with redshift cut-off. p _ [ exp[M(P)(l - (1 + z)"3/2)] z < zc ~~ | 0 z > zc where M(P) is defined as in model 1. This model has therefore 4 free parameters: Mmax, Pi, Pi and zc. model 3 Exponential law evolution, with Pt = alog(z) + b. F = X1+<f>X2 where <f> = exp[M(l - (1 + z)-3/2)} *i = (^ ) n / [ i + (?On] x2 = i/[i + ftr] This model has therefore 4 free parameters: M, a, b and n. In each case, a normalization parameter was added, increasing the number of free parameter by one for each model. This extra parameter is multiplied to the modeled source count to get the best fit model. It does not change the shape of the modeled source count. 3.1.3 Parameters estimation The best fit parameters in each cases were determined by comparing the data and modeled relative differential source count using a maximum likelyhood technique (based on Poisson noise). £ = exp[-SCmodei] x (S C"^ e') (3.7) & Is data-where SCdata is the value of the data source count at a given flux density, SCmodei is the value of the modeled source count at the same flux density and C is the value of the likelyhood. The minimum value of the likelyhood was found using a downhill-simplex method. For each model, the reduced x2value for the best fitting parameters was com-puted. 2 ^2 _ (SCdata SCmodei \ ^ V SCmodei ) For the purpose of this thesis, these models were applied to two types of sample: the entire primary sample (all source types included - §3.2) and the extended sources from the primary sample (restricted to sources labeled as FRI and FRII - §3.3). In each case, a comparison plot of the modeled and data luminosity distribution is shown. Indeed, following the WPL modeling technique, the output luminosity dis-tribution should be identical to the input one, providing a way to test if the modeling 38 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function was done properly. However, data being sparse for logP < 24, a combination of local luminosity function found in Sadler et al. (2002) and of the modeled local luminos-ity function was used to improve the local luminosity function at low luminosities. Due to this fact, the modeled and data luminosity distributions differ for logP < 24. 39 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function 3.2 Modeling of the luminosity function on the entire primary sample Only the AGN part of the source count (logS > -3) was used to determine the best fit parameters for the models. Indeed, starburst galaxies do not follow the same evolution than AGNs, and can therefore not be taken into account in modeling AGN evolution. Finding the best fit parameters for model 2 was attempted, but the value of the redshift cutoff was quite high (zc = 8.55), making model 2 equivalent to model 1. The results of model 2 were therefore discarded. The modeled redshift distribution as well as the comparison of the modeled and data luminosity distribution for the entire primary sample are shown in figure 3.1 and 3.2. As discussed in section 3.1.3, both luminosity distributions being similar shows that the modeling was done successfully. For each model, contour plots of the evolution function as a function of redshift for different luminosities and contour plots of the evolution function in the (P,z) plane (figures 3.3 and 3.8) are shown, as well as plots of the best fit to the relative differential source count (figures 3.4 and 3.9) and of the luminosity function with respect to luminosity (figures 3.6 and 3.10) and redshift (figures 3.7 and 3.11). Table 3.1: Results from modeling of the luminosity function on the entire primary sample model # Best Fit Parameters X red (v = 29) 1 Mmax = 10.7827 Pi = 22.7029 P 2 = 28.4256 73.65 3 M = 9.8030 a = 3.8228 b = 26.4076 n = 0.6754 24.56 In both cases, the value of x2red is v e r y high1 6, indicating that the models are not suitable anymore to describe the data. Indeed, since Wall, Pearson & Longair (1980), the number of available radio data has increased tremendously, giving us the possibility to compute source count to a high level of accuracy. This implies that, when trying to fit the modeled source count to the data one, any point of the model not coinciding exactly with one of the recent source count data point will be many sigmas away from that point. This is illustrated in figure 3.5, showing a close-up of the source count fitting plot for model 1. The points located at logS = —2.35, logS = —1.95 and logS = —1.55 correspond to source count data computed from 40 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function FIRST, while the other points are source count data from previous surveys 7 . It is obvious from this figure that the contributions to x2of the model points associated with the FIRST source count points will be large. This shows that the models used by Wall, Pearson & Longair (1980) are now too simple to describe the data. Nevertheless, if the x2value for each models is only used as a comparison tool between them (the closer x2red to 1, the better the fit), then model 3 seems to be the best fitting model. A comparison plot of the local luminosity functions is given in figure 3.12. This illustrate very well the dependence of the local luminosity function on the evolution function. The comparison was done for logP > 24.6 as the local luminosity functions at lower powers are similar (no evolution). In addition to the modeling of the luminosity function, the V/Vmax statistics (Schmidt, 1968) was computed using the radio flux limit only. The results are shown in figures 3.13 and 3.14. The value of the statistics was found to be (V/Vmax) = 0.6113 with o = 0.0174, implying an increasing number of sources with epoch, as expected. The value of (V/Vmax) is a little be low though, probably due to errors induced by the fact that the redshifts estimated using the Hubble diagram are photometric redshifts and not the actual redshifts of the sources. BThe reduced x2'ls defined as: x 2red = \ 7see figure 2.15 or table 2.3 for details 41 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function l o g ( z ) Figure 3.1: Modeled redshift distribution for the entire primary sample. The distribution is constructed by adding the number of sources of each (APi,Azj) bins with Sy > 1.3Jy corresponding to each redshift bins. o 20 22 24 26 28 l o g P [W m 2 H z 1 ] Figure 3.2: Modeled (black) and data (dashed blue) luminosity distribu-tion (qo = 0.5) for the entire primary sample. The modeled distribution is constructed by adding the number of sources of each (APi,Azj) bins with Sij > 1.3Jy corresponding to each luminosity bins. As dis-cussed in section 3.1.3, both distributions being similar shows that the modeling was done successfully. 42 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function redshift log(z) Figure 3.3: Evolution function for model 1 for the entire primary sample. The left panel represents contours of the evolution function as a function of redshift for different luminosities. The right panel represents contours of the evolution function in the (P,z) plane. 43 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function o CN I < I 7 1 U" T T T T T contribution to X log(S/Jy) Figure 3.4: Modeled (pink filled circles) and data (black filled squares) relative differential source count for model 1 for the entire primary sample. The errors bars correspond to y/Nmoa: The bottom section shows the contribution to x 2 °f e a c h point of the model, where the arrows show a contribution to the reduced x2greater than 3. As seen in this section, only points for -3 > logS > 1.2 were used to compute the value of x2 • in ro I , , , , I , , J _ , I • . . , I , , I , , , , 1 , , , , I - 2 - 1 . 9 - 1 . 8 - 1 . 7 - 1 . 6 - 1 . 5 log(S/Jy) Figure 3.5: Close-up on the source count fitting plot for model 1. The points located at logS = —2.35, logS = —1.95 and logS = —1.55 cor-respond to source count data computed from FIRST, while the other points are source count data from previous surveys.lt is obvious from this figure that the contributions to x 2 °f the model points associated with the FIRST source count points will be large, indicating that the 44 model is not suitable anymore to describe the data. Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function 20 22 24 26 28 l 0 9 ( P i . 4 G H z / W . H z - 1 ) Figure 3.6: Modeled luminosity function versus luminosity for model 1, normal-ized to 47r sr. The pink stars represent the LLF from Sadler et al. (2002) and the black circles the final modeled LLF. The purple, red, green, blue and turquoise area correspond to the LLF (z=0.00), log(z+l)=0.2 (z=0.58), log(z+l)=0.4 (z=1.51), log(z+l)=0.6 (z=2.98) and log(z+l)=0.8 (z=5.31) respectively. Values of the lu-minosity function at the different redshifts were computed using p(P, z) = po(P) x F(P, z). The errors bars correspond to y/Nmod-45 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function log(z+1) Figure 3.7: Modeled luminosity function versus redshift for model 1 for the entire primary sample. The purple, red, green and blue area correspond to logP = 23, logP = 24, logP = 25 and logP = 26 respectively. Values of the luminosity function at the different luminosities were computed using p(P,z) = po(P) x F(P,z). The errors bars correspond to y/Nmoa> 46 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function 4 6 redshift - 0 . 5 0 log(z) 0.5 Figure 3.8: Evolution function for model 3 for the entire primary sample. The left panel represents contours of the evolution function as a function of redshift for different luminosities. The right panel represents contours of the evolution function in the (P,z) plane. i n 1 -> T in o C \ l Z 1 < .-' <, O i o 4 * contribution to X -f*- + + -f- + l o g ( S / J y ) Figure 3.9: Modeled (pink filled circles) and data (black filled squares) relative differential source count for model 3 for the entire primary sam-ple. The errors bars correspond to \ZNmod- The bottom section shows the contribution to x2of each point of the model, where the arrows show a contribution to the reduced %2greater than 3. As seen in this section, only points for —3 > logS > 1.2 were used to compute the value of x 2. Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function E 22 24 26 28 . ' ° g ( P 1 . 4 G H z / W - H Z 1 ) Figure 3.10: Modeled luminosity function versus luminosity for model 3, normal-ized to 47r sr. The pink stars represent the LLF from Sadler et al. (2002) and the black circles the final modeled LLF. The purple, red, green, blue and turquoise area correspond to the LLF (z=0.00), log(z+l)=0.2 (z=0.58), log(z+l)=0.4 (z=1.51), log(z+l)=0.6 (z=2.98) and log(z+l)=0.8 (z=5.31) respectively. Values of the lu-minosity function at the different redshifts were computed using p(P,z) = po{P) x F(P,z). The errors bars correspond to V^mod-48 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function log(z+1) Figure 3.11: Modeled luminosity function versus redshift for model 3 for the entire primary sample. The purple, red, green and blue area correspond to logP = 23, logP = 24, logP = 25 and logP = 26 respectively. Values of the luminosity function at the different luminosities were computed using p(P,z) = po(P) x F(P,z). The errors bars correspond to y/Nmod-49 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function CO CO I o I o Q_ o o I en o CN I 25 log(P 26 1.4GHz 27 / W . H z 1 ) 28 Figure 3.12: Comparison of LLF for the different models for the entire primary sample. The red dashed-dotted line and filled triangle correspond to the LLF for model 1, and the blue dotted line and filled stars correspond to the LLF for model 3. The errors bars correspond to \/Nmo(i. This illustrate very well the dependence of the local luminosity function on the evolution function. The comparison is done for logP > 24.6 as the local luminosity functions at lower powers are similar (no evolution). 50 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function o 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 • * , > ^ . " . ' V A -• « « * • * * * * . 0 * * **** \ V.!1 * • t <*•;,»»*» * * i * • » * . 1 +--22 24 2 6 28 l o 9 P 1 .4GHz Figure 3.13: V/Vmax with respect to radio luminosity for the FIRST sample. The black line correspond to < V/Vmax >= 0.5, the red dash line to < V/Vmax >= 0.6113 of the FIRST sample (implying an increasing number of sources with epoch), the blue stars to the value of V/Vmax for each extended sources, the orange filled triangles to the value of V/Vmax for each QSOs, the grey open circles to the value of V/Vmax for other sources. The green crosses to < V/Vmax > for bins of AlogP = 1.0. The value of (V/Vmax) is a little be low though, probably due to the error induced by the fact that the redshifts estimated using the Hubble diagram are photometric redshifts and not the actual redshifts of the sources. i i . i i | ' ****** \ * **"*» / v* - • '1« * , Y* h - * i | i i X -—-*•-« *.— + $ * j ^ \ ° *+" *r * \A" * * * * * • > * * * * * * * * ** • ****** s A ^ -o * i J i i i i I i i i 1 L 0 1 2 z Figure 3.14: V/Vmax with respect to redshift for the FIRST sample. Same legend as the previous figure, except for the green crosses now corresponding to < V/Vmax > for bins of Az = 0.5. 51 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function 3.3 Modeling for extended sources only The data luminosity distribution and source count computed for extended sources only are used here. The modeled redshift distribution as well as the comparison of the modeled and data luminosity distribution for the entire primary sample are shown in figure 3.15 and 3.16. As discussed in section 3.1.3, both luminosity distributions being similar shows that the modeling was done successfully. For each model, plots of the best fit of the relative differential source count (fig-ures 3.17, 3.18 and 3.20) are shown. In addition, for model 3 only (the best fitting model), contour plots of the evolution function as a function of redshift for different luminosities and contour plots of the evolution function in the (P,z) plane (figure 3.19), as well as the luminosity function with respect to luminosity (figure 3.21) and redshift (figure 3.22) are shown. Table 3.2: Results from modeling of the luminosity function for extended sources only model # Best Fit Parameters X red (u = 28) 1 Mmax = 8.8873 Pi = 24.5317 P 2 = 26.2872 110.77 2 Mmax = 9.4754 Pi = 23.1103 P 2 = 26.6565 zc = 1.3212 271.06 3 M = 9.6714 a = 2.4833 b = 26.2054 n = 0.9679 101.67 As in §3.2, the values of x2red are very high, implying that the models used are not suitable to describe the data. From the comparison of the x2 values, model 3 is once again the best fitting model, followed by model 1. Model 2 has the worst fit, and the redshift cutoff value of zc = 1.32 seems not realistic. A comparison plot of the LLF is given in figure 3.23. Again, this illustrate the dependence of the local luminosity function on the evolution function and the com-parison was done only for logP > 24.8 as the local luminosity functions at lower powers are similar (no evolution). 52 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function o l o g ( z ) Figure 3.15: Modeled redshift distribution for extended sources only. The distribution is constructed by adding the number of sources of each (APi,Azj) bins with Sij > 1.3Jy corresponding to each redshift bins. o 20 22 24 l o g P [W r r T 2 H z " 1 ] 26 28 Figure 3.16: Modeled (black) and data (dashed blue) luminosity dis-tribution for extended sources only. The modeled distribution is con-structed by adding the number of sources of each (APi,Azj) bins with Sij > 1.3Jy corresponding to each luminosity bins. As discussed in section 3.1.3, both distributions being similar shows that the modeling was done successfully. 53 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function in * 7 m o 1 <J^  z <, cr> CM o 1 m ol I contribution to X T t t t t t t t t - 2 -1 0 l o g ( S / J y ) Figure 3.17: Modeled (pink filled circles) and data (black filled squares) relative differential source count for model 1 for extended sources only.The errors bars correspond to V^mod- The bottom section shows the contribution to x 2 of each point of the model, where the arrows show a contribution to the reduced x2greater than 3. l o g ( S / J y ) Figure 3.18: Modeled (pink filled circles) and data (black filled squares) relative differential source count for model 2 for extended sources only.The errors bars correspond to \JNmod- The bottom section shows the contribution to x 2 of each point of the model, where the arrows show a contribution to the reduced %2 greater than 3. 54 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function iog(z) Figure 3.19: Evolution function for model 3 for extended sources only. The left panel represents contours of the evolution function as a function of redshift for different luminosities. The right panel represents contours of the evolution function in the (P,z) plane. l o g ( S / J y ) Figure 3.20: Modeled (pink filled circles) and data (black filled squares) relative differential source count for model 3 for extended sources only.The errors bars correspond to \/Nmo(i. The bottom section shows the contribution to x 2of each point of the model, where the arrows show a contribution to the reduced x2 greater than 3. 55 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function l o 9 ( P i . 4 G H z / W . H z - 1 ) Figure 3.21: Modeled luminosity function versus luminosity for model 3, normal-ized to 4-7T sr. The pink stars represent the L L F from Sadler et al. (2002) and the black circles the final modeled L L F . The purple, red, green, blue and turquoise area correspond to the L L F (z=0.00), log(z+l)=0.2 (z=0.58), log(z+l)=0.4 (z=1.51), log(z+l)=0.6 (z=2.98) and log(z+l)=0.8 (z=5.31) respectively. Values of the lu-minosity function at the different redshifts were computed using p(P,z) = po(P) x F(P, z). The errors bars correspond to \ZNmod-56 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function log(z+1) Figure 3.22: Modeled luminosity function versus redshift for model 3 for extended sources only. The purple, red, green and blue area correspond to logP = 23, logP = 24, logP = 25 and logP = 26 respectively. Values of the luminosity function at the different luminosities were computed using p(P,z) = po(P) x F(P,z). The errors bars correspond to y/Nm0(i. 57 Chapter 3. Modeling of the luminosity function LO I 1 2 I ro I O CL o C P o LO T log(P 1.4GHz / W . H z 1 ) Figure 3.23: Comparison of L L F for the different models for extended sources only. The red dotted-dashed line and filled triangle correspond to the L L F for model 1, the green dashed line and filled squares correspond to model 2 and the blue dotted line and filled stars correspond to the LLF for model 3. The errors bars correspond to \/Nm0d- Again, this illustrate the dependence of the local luminosity function on the evolution function and the comparison was done only for logP > 24.8 as the local luminosity functions at lower powers are similar (no evolution). 58 Chapter 4 C o n c l u s i o n Summary By combining both FIRST and NVSS data, a complete and unbiased sample of radio sources at S\AGHZ = L3Jy including morphological identification was con-structed. Redshift information was found for 94% of the sources in the sample, from databased such as SIMBAD or SDSS. Models described as "successful" by Wall, Pearson & Longair (1980) were ap-plied to this entire primary sample as well as to the sub-sample of extended sources only. Comparing the values of x2showed that the exponential law evolution, with Pt = alog(z) + b (model 3) was the "best" model to describe both data from the entire sample and from the sub-sample of extended sources. However, in both cases, values of x2red a r e v e r y high, implying that none of the models used are suitable anymore to describe the new, more accurate data available. Indeed, as stated in §3.2, when trying to fit the modeled and data source counts, any point of the model not coinciding exactly with one of the recent source count data point will be many sigmas away from that point and its contribution to %2 will therefore be very high. The conclusion that the models are too simple to describe the new data available is emphasized even more in the case of the sub-sample of extended sources only (the best fitting model has x2red=10L7), for which only FIRST data were used to compute the data source count. Overall, this pilot project was successful in showing that it was possible to model the luminosity function for a given type of sources using the primary sample se-lected with FIRST and NVSS. This represents a major new way in which to use the complementary nature of these surveys. However, it also showed that the modeling will not be as easy as it was first thought, especially since it will be of primary importance to compute the source count specific to the studied population to apply the WPL modeling technique. Future work In the follow up of this project, it would be interesting to try a different type of modeling such as the Marshall likelihood models (Marshall et al., 1983), on our sub-sample of extended sources only. All the models of the lumnosity function should be applied to different samples at various flux limits (a total of 3 or 4 different samples would provide a good range of flux limits), to provide maximum available constraints to the evolving luminosity function. 59 Chapter 4. Conclusion Another advantage of multiple samples at different flux limits would be to have a large number of sources from the FIRST survey with their morphological informa-tion (especially if each sample is taken over a different region of the survey, making sure all the sources in each surveys are different). Combining those samples would allow to compute a much more accurate source count for extended sources only, and even to compute the source counts for FRI and FRII sources respectively. Then, if it is possible to compute a source count for FRI and FRII populations separately, the radio luminosity functions should be modeled for both source types (using samples from the surveys at various flux limits). 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G. et a l , 2000, Astronomical Journal, 120:1579 62 Appendix A D a t a t a b l e s A . l Primary sample Columns 1 and 2 correspond to the right ascension and declination of the radio identification; column 3 gives the name of the source; columns 4 and 5 correspond to the flux density from FIRST and NVSS respectively, in mJy; column 6 and 7 correspond to the B and V magnitudes; column 8 describes the source morphology (Co for compact, I for FRI , II for FRII , U for other types); column 9 corresponds to redshift; column 10 gives information on the SDSS identification (c for confirmed identification, u for possible but not confirmed, n for none) as well as information on the magnitudes and redshift estimation (B and V when the magnitudes were estimated from SDSS, H when the redshift was estimated from the Hubble diagram). 63 Table A . 1: Primary sample RA DEC Name SFIRST SNVSS (mJy) B V morph. z 00 06 22.611 -00 04 24.48 3C002 3879.24 3897.6 20.14 19.35 Co 1 0370 c 00 13 10.910 +00 51 42.40 3C 005 1600.68 1620.1 22.37 20.73 II 0 6060 u A 00 22 25.437 +00 14 56.08 PKS 0019-00 2938.88 3009.2 21.10 19.57 Co 0 3050 c V 00 37 04.060 -01 09 09.40 3C 015 3703.23 4067.1 15.34 17.33 I 0 0730 c V 00 38 20.410 -02 07 40.40 3C 017 6015.11 6187.8 18.02 0.00 I 0 2196 n 00 57 34.150 -01 22 58.40 3C 029 2087.33 5365.4 14.07 0.00 II 0 0448 n 00 59 05.511 +00 06 51.70 PKS 0056-00 2415.95 2508.8 17.53 17.33 Co 0 7170 c 01 25 28.853 -00 05 56.20 PKS 0122-00 1524.09 1540.2 16.50 16.70 Co 1 0700 c 01 26 4.670 -01 24 1.90 NGC 547 (3C 40) 151.38 2891.1 14.38 13.34 I 0 0185 n 02 20 54.052 -01 56 55.16 3C 063 3123.21 3419.2 18.50 0.00 I 0 1750 n 02 42 40.720 -00 00 47.70 M77 4261.56 4848.1 8.91 9.77 I 0 0038 c V 06 55 14.780 +54 09 00.00 3C 171 3636.91 3680.0 18.89 18.90 II 0 2384 n 07 02 53.639 +44 31 11.92 4C 44.15 2433.08 2397.4 0.00 0.00 Co 0 0000 n 07 06 48.083 +46 47 56.39 B3 0703+468 1589.99 1584.9 23.10 0.00 Co 1 4941 nH 07 13 38.169 +43 49 17.06 B0710+439 2032.11 2011.4 20.70 0.00 Co 0 5180 n 07 14 24.813 +35 34 39.70 B0711+35 1533.45 1467.1 18.20 17.00 Co 1 6260 n 07 16 41.090 +53 23 10.30 4C 53.16 1298.23 1501.4 14.55 14.00 II 0 0643 n 07 35 55.549 +33 07 9.44 4C 33.21 2423.09 2473.1 21.00 20.90 Co 0 5187 cHV 07 38 7.379 +17 42 19.60 J0738+1742 1101.95 2257.7 15.32 14.85 Co 0 4240 c 07 41 10.698 +31 12 0.31 J0741+3111 2071.27 2284.3 16.88 17.00 Co 0 6313 c B 07 45 42.131 +31 42 52.60 4C 31.30 1163.63 1357.8 15.92 16.00 II 0 4620 c B 07 50 52.057 +12 31 4.64 PKS 0748+126 1543.06 1452.8 18.00 17.80 Co 0 8890 n 07 58 28.601 +37 47 13.80 NGC 2484 545.97 2717.9 14.15 14.90 I 0 0410 cH 07 59 47.259 +37 38 50.20 4C 37.21 1602.00 1691.2 16.40 15.20 II 0 0681 nH 08 01 33.507 +14 14 42.66 3C 190 2597.74 2734.1 21.20 20.00 Co 1 1950 n 08 01 35.320 +50 09 43.00 TXS 0757+503 1513.94 1471.7 22.41 21.17 II 0 .8811 uHA 08 04 47.970 +10 15 22.91 3C 191 1870.27 1849.3 18.65 18.40 Co 1 9560 n 08 05 31.310 +24 10 21.30 3C 192 1035.39 5330.6 15.46 0.00 II 0 0600 n 08 10 3.6701 +42 28 4.00 3C 194 2160.43 2056.6 24.00 23.47 Co 1 1840 u V 08 12 59.480 +32 43 5.60 4C 32.24 1230.17 1522.5 23.00 0.00 II 0 4700 n 08 13 36.037 +48 13 1.77 3C 196 14693.27 15010.0 18.36 17.79 II 0 8710 c 08 14 43.589 +12 58 10.00 4C 13.37 1370.77 1603.3 20.00 18.00 II 0 3226 nH 08 19 47.550 +52 32 29.50 4C 52.18 2049.12 2104.2 19.95 18.00 II 0 1890 u B 08 21 33.771 +47 02 35.70 3C 197.1 1711.27 1787.1 16.90 16.50 I 0 1300 c 08 21 44.034 +17 48 20.30 PKS 0818+17 1960.03 1875.1 19.00 0.00 Co 0 2044 nH 08 22 31.400 +05 57 24.00 3C 198 77.39 1965.5 16.78 0.00 I 0 0813 n 08 23 24.755 +22 23 3.27 PKS 0820+22 2163.90 2272.4 19.50 19.67 Co 0 9510 c V 08 24 47.239 +55 52 42.75 4C 56.16A 1404.55 1449.4 18.69 18.00 Co 1 4170 c B 08 24 55.475 +39 16 41.76 4C 39.23A 1456.09 1480.8 18.58 18.50 Co 1 2156 c B 08 25 50.370 +03 09 24.80 B0823+033 1178.73 1400.1 18.80 17.60 Co 0 5060 c B 08 27 25.398 +29 18 44.80 3C 200 1966.59 2043.1 20.00 19.85 II 0 4580 c V 08 31 10.032 +37 42 9.61 4C 37.24 2148.17 2259.6 18.53 18.11 Co 0 9140 c 08 33 18.801 +51 03 7.80 4C 51.25 1215.36 1313.5 20.00 0.00 II 0 4700 n 08 34 48.216 +17 00 42.81 3C 202 1642.16 1882.8 19.50 0.00 II 0 2562 nH 08 34 54.914 +55 34 20.96 4C 55.16 8254.60 8283.1 17.50 17.41 Co 0 2420 c V 08 39 6.500 +57 54 13.40 3C 205 2430.10 2257.7 17.62 17.62 II 1 5360 u 08 40 47.712 +13 12 23.64 3C 207 2777.47 2613.0 18.15 18.15 II 0 6840 n 08 43 31.653 +42 15 29.49 B3 0840+424A 1458.79 1409.7 23.54 22.00 Co 1 4390 cHA 08 47 53.831 +53 52 36.80 S4 0844+54 1114.29 1542.3 15.00 13.91 I 0 0453 c V 08 53 9.008 +13 52 55.83 3C 208 2465.40 2364.3 18.60 17.40 Co 1 1100 n 08 53 28.286 -03 41 6.77 PKS 0850-03 1445.69 1354.0 19.20 0.00 Co 0 2236 nH 08 54 39.387 +14 05 52.23 3C 208.1 2198.42 2163.8 20.85 20.00 Co 1 0200 n 08 54 48.871 +20 06 30.70 J0854+2006 1182.12 1511.8 14.39 14.00 Co 0 3060 n 08 57 40.638 +34 04 6.40 3C 211 1650.11 1798.4 0.00 0.00 II 0 7500 n 08 58 10.071 +27 50 50.80 3C 210 1805.28 1807.8 22.00 23.22 II 1 1690 c V OS UI 08 58 41.539 +14 09 43.24 3C 212 2482 35 2370 8 20.26 19.06 Co 1 0430 n B 09 01 5.321 +29 01 46.46 3C 213.1 1675 77 2003 4 19.00 20.00 I 0 1940 c V 09 03 3.979 +46 51 4.51 4C 47.29 1724 45 1754 9 18.90 18.70 Co 1 4620 c 09 06 31.879 +16 46 13.00 3C 215 1456 80 1586 2 18.48 18.27 II 0 4115 n 09 07 34.920 +41 34 53.80 4C 41.19 1245 85 1612 6 o.oo 0.00 II 0 0000 n 09 08 50.561 +37 48 20.20 3C 217 2138 72 2086 4 22.00 21.72 II 0 8980 u V 09 09 33.497 +42 53 46.54 3C 216 4009 50 4233 8 18.97 18.48 II 0 6702 c 09 12 3.999 +16 18 29.70 4C 16.27 1370 34 1374 6 19.70 18.50 Co 0 2808 nH 09 14 4.831 +17 15 52.40 4C 17.48 1383 73 1527 3 20.00 0.00 I 0 3226 nH 09 21 8.650 +45 38 57.40 3C 219 3734 27 8101 6 17.22 17.29 II 0 1744 c V 09 22 49.930 +53 02 21.20 4C 53.18 1560 73 1597 8 0.00 0.00 Co 0 0000 n 09 27 3.024 +39 02 20.72 4C 39.25 2958 51 2884 6 17.92 17.86 Co 0 6980 c 09 30 33.450 +36 01 23.60 3C 220.2 1851 78 1875 1 19.00 18.20 Co 1 1570 c 09 39 50.199 +35 55 53.10 3C 223 1326 33 3719 0 17.10 17.10 II 0 1368 n 09 41 25.700 +39 42 18.00 3C 223.1 1409 37 1976 8 16.36 16.40 II 0 1073 n 09 42 8.441 +13 51 53.66 3CR 225A 1357 48 1338 5 22.00 0.00 Co 1 5650 n • 09 42 15.365 +13 45 50.64 3C 225 3420 63 3336 4 19.00 20.00 Co 0 5800 n 09 43 12.739 +02 43 27.50 SDSS 1299 66 1331 5 0.00 22.99 I 0 5920 c B 09 44 16.401 +09 46 19.20 3C 226 2324 27 2393 7 19.50 0.00 II 0 8178 n 09 47 47.270 +07 25 13.81 3C 227 3117 11 7617 0 17.53 16.33 II 0 0865 n B 09 48 55.357 +40 39 44.67 4C 40.24 1537 07 1599 5 18.13 17.50 Co 1 2520 c B 09 50 10.566 +14 19 40.30 3C 228 3387 33 3711 6 21.00 0.00 II 0 5524 n 09 51 58.830 -00 01 26.80 3C 230 3263 32 3152 1 0.00 0.00 I 1 4870 n 09 52 0.519 +24 22 29.70 3C 229 1308 40 1788 6 18.50 0.00 II 0 1696 nH 09 52 6.090 +28 28 32.35 4C 28.24 1364 17 1362 7 23.13 21.06 Co 1 2035 cHA 09 57 38.155 +55 22 57.89 4C 55.17 3056 17 3079 2 18.90 17.70 Co 0 9090 c B 10 01 46.200 +28 46 54.69 3C 234 3200 60 5597 0 17.27 17.10 II 0 1849 n 10 06 1.738 +34 54 10.43 3C 236 3399 40 3236 6 15.97 15.81 II 0 0989 c V 10 08 0.033 +07 30 16.50 3C 237 6400 71 6522 1 21.00 21.31 Co 0 8770 c V OS 10 11 0.346 +06 24 40.75 3C 238 2883 45 2964 2 22.50 0.00 Co 1 4050 n 10 11 45.460 +46 28 20.10 3C 239 1573 93 1557 2 22.50 22.53 II 1 7900 c V 10 17 14.176 +39 01 22.79 B3 1014+392 1416 71 1392 2 19.50 21.76 Co 0 2060 c V 10 21 54.533 +21 59 30.50 3C 241 1733 51 1686 2 23.50 0.00 II 1 6170 n 10 23 38.792 +59 04 49.48 S4 1020+59 1592 35 1609 3 19.00 20.27 Co 0 2044 cHV 10 33 33.870 +58 14 37.90 3C 244.1 3850 49 4187 9 19.00 19.00 II 0 4300 u 10 34 17.888 +50 13 29.73 4C 50.30 1580 31 1545 2 22.77 20.83 Co 1 0294 uHA 10 35 7.069 +56 28 46.83 B1031+567 1890 63 1801 9 20.20 21.25 Co 0 4597 c V 10 41 17.175 +06 10 16.57 PKS 1038+064 1329 00 1405 2 16.97 16.81 Co 1 2700 c 10 41 39.026 +02 42 31.99 PKS 1039+02 2926 41 2710 1 23.11 21.09 Co 0 5350 c A 10 42 44.586 +12 03 31.32 3C 245 3326 87 3305 7 17.75 17.29 Co 1 0286 c 10 51 48.799 +21 19 52.36 PKS 1049+215 1474 34 1474 3 19.70 18.50 Co 1 3000 n 10 52 26.095 +20 29 48.07 4C 20.23 1672 18 1727 5 21.62 0.00 Co 0 6277 nH 10 58 17.461 +19 52 11.40 PKS 1055+20 2281 88 2143 0 17.51 17.07 Co 1 1100 n 10 58 29.565 +01 33 58.45 PKS 1055+01 3353 64 3220 2 18.46 18.00 Co 0 8900 n 10 58 58.360 +43 01 21.66 3C 247 2869 58 2875 1 21.50 22.31 Co 0 7489 c V 11 02 4.329 -01 16 24.09 3C 249 2834 24 2799 6 0.00 0.00 II 0 3110 n 11 08 8.277 +14 35 35.54 PKS 1105+14 1335 14 1348 7 20.00 0.00 Co 0 3226 nH 11 09 46.071 +10 43 43.56 PKS 1107+10 1540 81 1481 3 0.00 0.00 Co 0 5500 n 11 11 31.558 +35 40 45.50 3C 252 1179 48 1336 3 22.00 0.00 II 1 1050 n 11 13 32.130 -02 12 55.20 3C 253 1239 15 1595 6 20.90 0.00 II 0 4942 nH 11 14 38.814 +40 37 19.13 3C 254 3037 20 3127 9 18.13 17.98 II 0 7340 c 11 16 34.699 +29 15 20.50 4C 29.41 1400 13 1927 9 15.02 14.90 II 0 0487 n 11 18 57.297 +12 34 41.86 PKS 1116+12 2322 07 2322 1 19.39 19.25 Co 2 1180 c 11 19 25.273 -03 02 51.12 3C 255 1720 32 1730 4 24.20 23.00 Co 1 3550 n 11 20 27.810 +14 20 54.99 PKS 1117+14 2438 53 2446 9 20.00 20.94 Co 0 3620 c V 11 20 43.012 +23 27 55.32 3C 256 1382 33 1362 0 21.50 0.00 Co 1 8190 n 11 23 9.062 +05 30 20.58 3C 257 1580 13 1721 1 24.32 24.29 Co 2 4740 c A 11 26 23.674 +33 45 26.64 4C 33.26 1316 07 1376 8 23.55 22.66 Co 1 2300 u A 11 31 38.917 11 34 38.490 11 35 13.029 11 35 56.000 11 40 27.690 11 40 49.562 11 41 8.250 11 43 25.040 11 45 5.229 11 45 31.181 11 45 43.384 11 49 55.540 11 50 43.890 11 53 24.455 11 54 13.011 11 56 3.720 11 56 18.746 11 59 13.771 11 59 31.842 12 00 59.000 12 04 2.476 12 06 19.931 12 09 13.401 12 12 56.057 12 13 32.147 12 14 4.115 12 15 28.907 12 15 55.613 12 19 15.329 +45 14 51.00 +43 28 0.67 -00 21 18.75 +42 58 44.64 +12 03 7.60 +59 12 25.38 +01 14 17.74 +22 06 56.00 +19 36 37.80 +31 33 35.82 +49 46 7.90 +12 47 15.90 -00 23 54.00 +49 31 8.52 +29 16 8.50 +58 47 4.92 +31 28 4.74 +53 53 6.90 +29 14 43.94 +31 31 12.00 -04 22 41.24 +04 06 12.20 +43 39 16.89 +20 32 37.47 +13 07 20.44 +33 09 45.74 +53 36 7.16 +34 48 15.02 +05 49 40.40 B3 1128+455 4C 43.22 PKS 1132-000 B3 1133+432 BWE 1137+1219 4C 59.16 3C 262 3C 263.1 3C 264 3C 265 3C 266 3C 267 PKS 1148-00 4C 49.22 4C 29.44 S4 1153+590 4C 31.38 4C 54.25 4C 29.45 3C 268.2 PKS 1201-041 4C 04.40 3C 268.4 PKS 1210+20 PKS 1210+134 B1211+334 • 4C 53.24 4C 35.28 3C 270 2025.82 2048.8 20.00 20.22 Co 0.4040 c V 1631.67 1567.1 20.00 21.65 Co 0.5724 c V 1321.23 1321.2 0.00 0.00 Co 0.1600 n 1419.16 1448.8 21.39 23.66 Co 0.5690 u H A 669.63 1527.0 16.50 15.32 I 0.0810 c H V 2187.20 2179.4 0.00 0.00 Co 0.0000 n 2846.79 2690.8 21.38 19.85 Co 0.5666 c H A 3095.70 3128.7 20.00 0.00 Co 0.3660 n 2090.46 5689.0 12.74 13.67 I 0.0214 n 2442.03 2890.9 20.00 0.00 I I 0.8105 n 1471.82 1424.5 22.00 21.70 I I 1.2750 c V 2266.56 2519.9 22.50 0.00 I I 1.1440 n 2816.39 2773.9 17.77 17.60 Co 1.9762 c 1459.19 1572.2 17.40 16.10 Co 0.3339 c 1583.76 1620.3 19.20 18.00 I 0.3292 n 1569.85 1591.7 18.40 18.62 Co 0.1568 u H V 2954.65 2978.3 19.33 18.96 Co 0.4180 c 1719.68 1740.6 20.63 20.48 Co 0.4122 c H A 1952.59 2030.8 16.80 15.60 Co 0.7290 n 907.29 1301.6 19.00 0.00 I I 0.3620 n 1916.60 2141.3 18.00 0.00 I 0.1319 n H 1502.91 1501.2 22.06 20.94 I I 0.7579 u H A 2049.01 1979.9 19.00 18.42 I I 1.4000 c 1382.56 1417.9 19.70 18.50 Co 0.2808 n H 1356.25 1344.2 18.57 18.09 Co 1.1410 c 1417.99 1403.6 17.95 17.90 Co 1.5980 c B 1377.88 2755.0 18.92 17.90 I I 1.0650 c B 1407.90 1506.8 20.74 20.00 Co 0.8570 c B 316.39 10445.0 10.40 0.00 I 0.0073 n 12 20 33.888 +33 43 7.97 3C 270.1 2819.00 2845.9 18.80 18.61 Co 1 5190 u 12 24 30.200 +42 06 24.00 3C 272 1215.72 1352.3 22.00 0.00 II 0 9440 n 12 24 52.427 +03 30 50.35 PKS 1222+037 1348.77 1348.8 19.46 19.02 Co 0 9570 c 12 24 54.621 +21 22 47.20 4C 21.35 2024.87 2094.4 17.56 17.50 I 0 4350 n 12 25 3.781 +12 52 35.20 M84 (3C 272.1) 797.28 6012.8 10.80 8.67 I 0 0034 c 12 27 58.727 +36 35 11.96 B1225+368 2074.50 2098.4 21.50 21.50 Co 1 9730 c 12 29 6.410 +02 03-5.10 3C 273 53353.10 54991.2 13.07 12.86 Co 0 1583 c 12 30 49.460 +12 23 21.60 M87 (3C 274) 101109.16 138487.0 8.70 12.86 I 0 0043 c 12 31 59.955 -02 24 5.17 PKS 1229-02 1617.56 1646.7 17.23 16.75 Co 1 0450 c 12 35 22.971 +21 20 18.30 3C 274.1 1757.98 2918.5 20.00 0.00 II 0 4220 n 12 42 19.610 -04 46 20.45 3C 275 3600.19 3672.1 21.00 0.00 Co 0 4800 n 12 43 57.650 +16 22 48.13 3C 275.1 2819.51 2895.8 19.23 19.00 Co 0 5570 ri 12 44 49.201 +40 48 6.35 S4 1242+41 1369.08 1341.8 19.00 19.00 Co 0 8130 c 12 52 26.324 +56 34 19.65 3C 277.1 2442.12 2288.3 17.76 17.93 Co 0 3200 c 12 53 3.549 +02 38 22.30 4C 02.34 161045 1604.9 19.00 19.42 II 0 2044 uHV 12 53 32.425 +15 42 25.29 3C 277.2 1406.92 1952.2 21.50 0.00 II 0 7660 n 12 54 11.678 +27 37 32.70 3C 277.3 2567.56 2923.9 15.94 0.00 II 0 0858 n 12 56 11.163 -05 47 21.70 3C 279 10708.10 9711.2 18.01 17.75 Co 0 5362 n 12 56 57.380 +47 20 19.80 3C 280 5064.38 5099.6 22.00 21.58 II 0 9960 u V 13 00 32.870 +40 09 9.20 3C 280.1 1326.97 1368.9 19.31 19.44 Co 1 6670 u 13 05 36.051 +08 55 15.90 4C 09.45 1508.02 1461.8 19.05 18.79 Co 1 4090 c A 13 09 49.660 -00 12 36.60 4C 00.46 1329.61 1636.7 19.40 19.73 II 0 4190 u V 13 10 28.668 +32 20 43.95 B1308+326 1686.60 1686.6 17.00 19.00 Co 0 9960 c 13 11 6.600 +27 26 6.00 3C 284 1334.54 2044.6 18.00 0.00 II 0 2394 n 13 13 37.870 +54 58 23.89 TXS 1311+552 1319.71 1304.6 23.44 21.74 Co 0 6130 cHA 13 19 38.734 -00 49 39.98 PKS 1317-00 1536.50 1468.9 17.84 17.32 Co 0 8920 c 13 20 21.450 +17 43 12.40 4C 17.56 1652.75 1573.2 19.50 0.00 II 0 2566 nH 13 21 18.803 +11 06 48.79 PKS 1318+11 2233.52 2238.0 19.25 19.13 Co 2 1710 c 13 21 20.300 +42 36 0.00 3C 285 739.45 2085.0 15.99 16.00 II 0 0794 n CD B a. 93 So en C 5 13 26 16.513 +31 54 9.52 4C 32.44 4749.98 4861.9 19.00 19.00 Co 0 3700 c 13 27 31.709 +31 51 27.30 4C 32.44B 965.67 1415.1 18.50 18.25 I 0 2600 c V 13 30 37.694 +25 09 10.87 3C 287 6999.01 7052.2 18.30 17.67 Co 1 0550 n 13 31 8.285 +30 30 32.95 3C 286 15023.95 14902.7 17.51 17.25 II 0 8490 c 13 32 56.368 +02 00 46.50 3C 287.1 2029.13 2648.5 18.27 18.50 II 0 2155 n 13 38 8.071 -06 27 11.20 J1338-0627 2258.07 2958.5 17.82 17.68 I 0 6250 n 13 38 49.670 +38 51 11.10 3C 288 3195.65 3358.9 18.30 0.00 I 0 2460 n 13 42 13.085 +60 21 42.39 3C 288.1 1548.93 1493.3 18.51 18.12 Co 0 9610 c 13 42 43.570 +05 04 31.50 4C 05.57 1607.16 1600.9 17.80 16.86 I 0 1360 c V 13 44 23.749 +14 09 15.30 4C 14.49 1293.22 1302.8 20.00 0.00 Co 0 3226 nH 13 45 26.699 +49 46 31.39 3C 289 2405.00 2398.3 23.00 22.30 Co 0 9674 u V 13 47 1.736 -08 03 23.64 PKS 1344-07 1928.64 1906.3 0.00 0.00 I 0 3840 n 13 47 33.377 +12 17 24.09 PKS 1345+12 4859.88 5397.2 17.33 17.00 U 0 1217 c B 13 49 38.963 +21 07 28.89 3C 291 1346.66 1346.7 0.00 0.00 Co 0 0000 n 13 52 17.842 +31 26 46.48 3C 293 3709.14 4844.2 15.60 14.65 I 0 0450 c V 13 52 56.370 +11 07 7.67 PKS 1350+113 1566.65 1537.9 20.00 21.85 Co 0 6500 c V 13 57 1.510 +01 04 39.70 4C 01.39 2292.61 2400.4 24.48 22.17 II 0 8190 u A 13 57 4.437 +19 19 7.23 PKS 1354+19 2330.01 2585.6 16.20 16.02 I 0 7200 n 13 57 53.716 +00 46 33.46 PKS 1355+01 2000.43 1921.6 23.92 22.56 Co 1 6996 cHA 14 00 28.694 +62 10 38.41 4C 62.22 4374.44 4307.6 20.90 20.38 Co 0 4310 c V 14 06 44.101 +34 11 26.20 3C 294 1316.23 1316.1 23.49 23.64 II 1 7790 u A 14 11 20.592 +52 12 9.44 3C 295 22171.09 22720.1 20.10 19.25 II 0 4610 c V 14 13 48.342 -05 59 54.20 4C-05.60 1383.61 1520.8 0.00 0.00 II 1 0940 n 14 16 4.202 +34 44 36.60 S4 1413+34 1846.18 4445.3 0.00 0.00 Co 0 0000 n 14 16 53.499 +10 48 40.20 NGC 5532 387.20 1430.2 12.19 12.45 I 0 0240 c V 14 17 23.934 -04 00 46.66 3C 297 1539.82 1687.2 21.90 20.50 Co 1 4061 n 14 19 8.200 +06 28 34.74 3C 298 6155.57 6100.3 17.12 16.79 Co 1 4360 c 14 21 5.829 +41 44 49.98 3C 299 2886.19 3146.9 20.49 19.40 U 0 3670 u B 14 23 0.626 +19 35 17.41 3C 300 3069.12 3738.8 18.00 16.79 II 0 2720 n V o 14 24 56.928 +20 00 22.70 7C 1422+2013 1859.46 1808 5 18.30 17.86 Co 0 8710 n 14 25 50.669 +24 04 6.70 4C 24.31 1479.51 1558 7 18.40 17.20 Co 0 6490 c 14 28 31.220 -01 24 8.70 3C 300.1 3064.68 3157 4 19.00 0.00 II 1 1590 n 14 36 57.024 +03 24 11.14 PKS 1434+03 2874.59 2797 3 19.00 0.00 Co 1 4380 n 14 38 44.762 +62 11 54.12 B1437+6224 2397.69 2410 4 19.54 19.00 Co 1 0900 c B 14 43 1.012 +52 01 40.79 3C 303 2119.30 2543 0 17.01 17.00 II 0 1410 c 14 45 16.483 +09 58 36.30 PKS 1442+101 2422.90 2417 6 18.58 17.78 Co 3 5220 c 14 48 39.981 +00 18 17.90 4C 00.52 1722.13 1651 5 19.50 0.00 I 0 2562 nH 14 49 21.786 +63 16 14.27 3C 305 2922.87 3006 0 13.74 13.74 I 0 0416 c 15 04 9.231 +60 00 55.53 3C 311 1552.94 1553 1 20.65 18.00 Co 1 0220 c B 15 04 24.977 +10 29 38.82 PKS 1502+106 1753.33 1774 2 18.87 15.50 Co 1 8390 c B 15 04 58.979 +25 59 49.00 3C 310 429.48 7613 4 15.24 15.93 I 0 0535 u V 15 10 53.593 -05 43 6.89 PKS 1508-05 3328.40 3569 3 17.10 0.00 Co 1 1910 n 15 10 57.030 +07 51 24.80 3C 313 2365.36 3799 1 21.00 19.99 II 0 4610 u V 15 12 25.548 +01 21 11.03 4C 01.42 2313.15 2262 7 22.82 21.32 I 0 7920 c A 15 13 39.899 +26 07 33.70 3C 315 982.06 4332 7 16.30 17.28 I 0 1080 c V 15 13 40.180 +23 38 35.34 PKS 1511+23 1722.12 1767 5 20.00 22.25 Co 0 3226 cHV 15 16 44.566 +07 01 19.36 3C 317 4479.02 5499 3 13.50 13.34 u 0 0344 c V 15 16 56.588 +18 30 21.77 3C 316 1363.18 1335 2 20.20 19.00 Co 0 3542 nH 15 20 5.485 +20 16 5.74 3C 318 2778.47 2688 0 20.30 20.23 Co 1 5740 c V 15 21 14.415 +04 30 21.69 PKS 1518+047 3924.44 3927 2 18.20 0.00 Co 1 2960 n 15 24 5.639 +54 28 18.40 3C 319 2116.45 2624 0 18.50 0.00 II 0 1920 n 15 25 48.956 +03 08 25.93 4C 03.33 2124.95 1960 0 0.00 0.00 Co 0 0000 n 15 31 25.360 +35 33 40.60 3CR 320 1802.50 1820 7 18.00 0.00 Co 0 3420 n 15 31 50.622 +24 02 42.33 3C 321 1312.35 3577 3 16.00 0.00 II 0 0962 n 15 34 52.449 +01 31 3.30 B1532+016 1283.42 1320 4 19.00 18.50 Co 1 4350 n 15 35 1.269 +55 36 49.80 3C 322 1824.08 1846 9 23.00 0.00 II 1 6810 n 15 37 32.369 +13 44 48.47 4C 13.56 1755.96 1805 6 21.91 0.00 Co 0 7106 nH 15 40 49.492 +14 47 46.09 PKS 1538+149 1482.61 1386 8 16.02 15.50 Co 0 6050 n -a h-> 15 41 45.642 +60 15 36.20 3C 323 1304.37 1337 4 21 00 0.00 II 0 6790 n 15 46 9.531 +00 26 24.72 PKS 1543+005 1871.69 1830 3 22 78 21.12 Co 0 5500 c A 15 47 44.228 +20 52 41.00 3C 323.1 2082.57 2396 2 16 80 16.69 II 0 2640 n 15 49 49.170 +21 25 39.50 3C 324 2597.44 2522 0 21 50 21.92 II 1 2061 u V 15 49 59.206 +62 41 18.31 3C 325 3520.19 3563 7 22 20 21.00 Co 1 1350 n 15 50 35.266 +05 27 10.42 PKS 1548+056 2751.78 2303 3 18 50 17.70 Co 1 4220 c 15 52 26.800 +20 07 24.00 3C 326 111.07 3214 1 17 00 0.00 II 0 0900 n 15 56 9.984 +20 04 20.81 3C 326.1 2293.37 2313 7 21 20 20.00 Co 1 8250 n 15 56 36.351 +42 57 9.60 5C 13.42 1146.15 1656 4 22 59 0.00 II 0 9523 nH 16 02 7.228 +33 26 53.17 4C 33.38 2881.27 2990 6 24 20 23.00 Co 1 1000 n 16 02 17.212 +01 58 19.40 3C 327 5333.86 8298 7 15 88 0.00 II 0 1041 n 16 04 45.290 +01 17 51.70 3C 327.1 4446.05 4075 3 20 50 0.00 II 0 4630 n 16 05 46.571 +00 25 54.30 J1605+0025 1372.51 1376 6 21 00 19.90 II 0 4821 cHA 16 06 12.697 +00 00 27.40 4C 00.58 1987.34 2343 1 16 85 15.51 I 0 0590 c V 16 08 46.194 +10 29 7.70 PKS 1606+10 1402.43 1392 0 18 50 18.00 Co 1 2260 n 16 09 13.326 +26 41 29.00 PKS 1607+26 4845.05 4908 2 19 00 21.04 Co 0 4730 c V 16 12 18.971 +22 22 15.61 3C 331 1386.04 1401 9 22 35 20.85 Co 0 8586 cHA 16 13 41.058 +34 12 47.83 B1611+3420 3605.54 4024 1 17 98 17.50 Co 1 4010 c B 16 16 38.342 +26 47 1.40 PKS 1614+26 1412.82 1484 4 24 38 22.82 Co 2 0809 cHA 16 17 15.750 +21 07 29.40 3C 333 1718.15 1748 5 23 29 21.59 II 1 2903 uHA 16 17 43.277 +32 23 2.40 3C 332 2184.98 2598 5 16 00 16.00 II 0 1517 n 16 20 21.398 +17 36 29.30 3C 334 1700.01 1993 9 16 53 16.41 II 0 5550 n 16 24 39.695 +23 45 24.17 3C 336 2587.92 2612 7 17 91 17.47 II 0 9270 n 16 25 57.672 +41 34 40.60 4C 41.32 1717.27 1677 4 23 24 22.00 Co 2 5500 c B 16 28 3.572 +27 41 36.10 3C 341 1908.62 1998 6 19 00 0.00 . II 0 4480 n 16 28 38.337 +39 33 0.00 3C 338 1922.45 3678 7 13 90 12.61 I 0 0266 cH 16 28 53.870 +44 19 3.52 3C 337 2490.08 3155 8 20 00 0.00 II 0 6300 n 16 29 37.862 +23 20 14.41 3C 340 2337.66 2599 0 22 00 0.00 II 0 7754 n 16 31 45.260 +11 56 3.19 PKS 1629+120 1674.02 1733 7 18 48 18.50 Co 1 7950 n a. 95 95 CO to 16 34 33.772 +62 45 35.36 3C 343 4987.55 5001 9 21.05 20.60 II 0 9880 n 16 35 15.483 +38 08 4.56 4C 38.41 2694.06 2726 0 17.90 18.00 Co 1 8135 c B 16 36 37.382 +26 48 6.60 3C 342. 1347.66 1336 1 18.01 17.75 Co 0 5610 n 16 38 28.194 +62 34 43.95 3C 343.1 4740.74 4610 8 20.70 20.70 Co 0 7500 n 16 40 47.956 +12 20 2.08 4C 12.60 2159.37 2070 1 19.50 0.00 Co 1 1520 n 16 42 58.799 +39 48 37.16 3C 345 6598.61 7098 6 16.25 15.96 Co 0 5928 c 16 43 5.928 +37 29 34.40 3C 344 1365.92 1418 1 20.00 0.00 II 0 5200 n 16 43 48.696 +17 15 49.14 3C 346 3675.07 3666 2 17.20 0.00 I 0 1620 n 16 44 41.069 +13 05 15.10 4C 13.62 1358.49 1336 4 0.00 0.00 II 0 0000 n 16 47 41.835 +17 20 11.76 PKS 1645+17 2215.98 2130 2 18.50 0.00 Co 0 3140 n 16 53 52.214 +39 45 36.65 4C 39.49 1420.36 1558 0 14.54 13.80 B 0 0336 c 16 59 27.570 +47 03 13.10 3C 349 3104.99 3358 4 19.00 19.00 II 0 2050 n 17 04 7.198 +29 46 59.31 4C 29.50 1416.51 1413 9 19.29 19.14 Co 1 9270 c 17 04 43.427 +60 44 52.56 3C 351 2797.48 3259 0 15.41 15.28 II 0 3715 c 17 10 44.108 +46 01 30.30 3C 352 1956.83 1865 5 22.80 0.00 II 0 8060 n 17 19 8.937 +22 45 6.08 PKS 1717+22 1602.03 1574 9 19.50 18.30 Co 0 2528 n 17 24 18.400 +50 57 54.00 3C 356 1453.41 1509 1 21.50 0.00 II 1 0790 n 17 42 51.838 +61 45 51.00 4C 61.34 1343.28 1354 7 19.80 18.60 II 0 5230 n 21 34 10.335 -01 53 17.39 PKS 2131-021 1619.87 1689 5 18.60 19.00 Co 1 2850 n 21 36 38.600 +00 41 54.47 PKS 2134+004 3712.01 3472 5 17.10 16.79 Co 1 9320 c 22 23 48.000 -02 09 24.00 3C 445 744.57 4783 5 18.70 17.50 II 0 0564 n 23 26 54.468 -02 02 10.30 PKS 2324-02 538.48 2370 5 18.30 0.00 I 0 1880 n 23 32 25.585 -09 57 56.42 PKS 2329-10 1449.58 1425 7 19.50 19.06 Co 1 6800 c V 23 51 56.210 -01 09 16.30 B2349-0125 1460.41 1608 4 15.45 15.30 I 0 1740 c CO Appendix A. Data tables A.2 Luminosity distribution Column 1 correspond to the center of the luminosity bin, in W.m~2.Hz~l\ col-umn 2 corresponds to the number of sources in the given luminosity bin for the entire primary sample; column 3 corresponds to the number of sources in the given luminosity bin for the sub-sample of extended sources. Table A.2: Data luminosity distribution for the entire sample log(P) (W.m-2.Hz-1) Nall Next 22.2 2.0 2.0 22.6 0.0 0.0 23.0 0.0 0.0 23.4 2.0 2.0 23.8 5.0 4.0 24.2 6.0 5.0 24.6 8.0 8.0 25.0 13.0 11.0 25.4 25.0 18.0 25.8 25.0 15.0 26.2 43.0 20.0 26.6 42.0 19.0 27.0 59.0 15.0 27.4 34.0 10.0 27.8 9.0 2.0 28.2 1.0 0.0 28.6 0.0 0.0 74 Appendix A. Data tables A. 3 Source count Columns 1 and 2 correspond to the log of the lower and higher limit of the flux density bin, in Jy; column 3 correspond to the value of the relative differential source count for the given flux density bin; column 4 correspond to the number of sources, not normalized to 1 sr, for each bin. Table A .3 : Data source count at 1.4GHz for the entire sample SI S2 AN/ANQ N (Jy) 0.300 0.417 - 0 7 6 5 + u - U 4 1 V. <OO_().040 104 0.417 0.500 -o.87o±8:8g 41 0.500 0.615 -o.933±8:8t 35 0.615 0.810 _ n QQQ+0.069 34 1.000 1.752 - 1 . 0 6 2 ± ° : ° ™ 31 1.752 2.699 - 0 . 9 8 6 ™ 3 -0.152 0.026 n 7Q7+0.037 151 0.027 0.300 _ n 7Q1+0-048 U.IVl_0 92 -1.071 -0.979 -0.870±g;8g 433 -0.870 -0.757 -o.8io±8:8£ 340 -0.757 -0.611 -0.805±8;E? 292 -0.611 -0.403 - n 774+0 031 U ' ' M - 0 . 0 2 9 246 -0.403 -0.158 - n 7 1 4 + 0 - 0 3 5 U.f 1^-0.033 152 -2.658 -2.244 1 QO7+0.095 9 -1.830 -1.415 1 OQO+0.096 — i .zyo_ 0.079 8 -1.415 -1.000 8 -2.301 -2.000 i 7Q7+0.196 — 0.135 31 -2.000 -1.854 i 4e f i +0. i80 1-^00-0.127 25 -1.222 -0.824 n oo 9+0.104 -U .OS^_o.o84 22 -3.682 -3.553 — Z.O iU_ 0 .067 17 -3.206 -2.984 Z . ^ D Z _ 0 089 10 -2.984 -2.683 9 9 m + 0 . 1 0 5 — Z . Z U 1 _ 0 085 10 -4.051 -3.955 - 2 . 6 6 0 ™ 159 -3.955 -3.876 — Z.DZO_o.o84 157 -3.876 -3.799 9 6 n 6 + 0 0 4 2 — Z . O U D _ 0 039 154 -3.799 -3.730 9 c^o+0.044 — Z.OOO_oo40 157 -3.730 -3.644 9 C7Q+0.037 — Z.O(0_o,035 157 -3.644 -3.550 9 eoq+0.038 — Z . O O O _ 0 035 150 75 Appendix A. Data tables -3.550 -3.425 -2.609l 0 . 0 34 155 -3.425 -3.275 9 <-.S1 +0-038 — Z . O O l _ 0 0 3 5 151 -3.155 -3.004 9 +0.050 466 -3.000 -2.854 -2.456±8:8E 372 -2.854 -2.703 9 9QQ+ 0 . 0 5 3 Z . z y o _ 0 048 331 -2.703 -2.553 9 9t;fi+0.056 — Z.ZOD_ 0.050 222 -2.553 -2.402 — Z . U U _ 0 0 5 0 220 -2.600 -2.550 z . u o z _ 0 002 36028 -2.550 -2.500 9 n 1 9 +0.003 — Z.UlZ_o.oo2 33992 -2.500 -2.450 1 OC7+0-003 -1.967I0.o02 31749 -2.450 -2.400 Q 1 9+0.002 — i . y ± z _ 0 003 30348 -2.400 -2.350 -1.866_™8S 28365 -2.350 -2.300 i eie+o.003 - 1 . 8 i 8 _ 0 002 26636 -2.300 -2.250 1 7QO+0.002 — l . / M _ 0 Q03 23780 -2.250 -2.200 1 7,11+0.003 22551 -2.200 -2.150 1 7 n 9 + 0 0 0 3 — l . f U Z _ 0 . o 0 3 20754 -2.150 -2.100 1 ««V+0.004 -l .667lo .oo3. 18898 -2.100 -2.050 1.010_ o . o 0 3 17927 -2.050 -2.000 1 r7O+0.004 — ±.O(O_0.003 16615 -2.000 -1.950 1 t;Qs+0-004 — l.OOO_ 0.003 15159 -1.950 -1.900 -1 c:n5 + 0' 0 0 4 i .OUO_o.o04 13765 -1.900 -1.850 l.<±d 1 _o,003 12927 -1.850 -1.800 - 1 41 q+ 0- 0 0 4 11893 -1.800 -1.750 1 QQ-i+0.004 — 1.001_ o . o o 4 10905 -1.750 -1.700 1 q r n + 0 . 0 0 5 — 1 . 0 0 U _ Q 004 9852 -1.700 -1.650 1 o ir+0 .004 J-.010_o.o05 9000 -1.650 -1.600 1 9 f i Q+0 .005 — i . z o y _ 0 . o o 4 8403 -1.600 -1.550 1 9 r o + 0 . 0 0 5 — l . Z O O _ 0 005 7350 -1.550 -1.500 1 o n 8 + 0 - 0 0 6 - l . Z U 8 _ o . o o 5 6845 -1.500 -1.450 1 177+0.006 —1.11 ' - 0 .005 6190 -1.450 -1.400 1 1^+0.005 — 1.10D _ Q 006 5473 -1.400 -1.350 - 1 iin+°- 0 0 6 1.11U_O.O06 5114 -1.350 -1.300 - i n q o + 0 0 0 7 i . u y u _ o , o o 6 4503 -1.300 -1.250 l.UDO_o.o07 4039 -1.250 -1.200 — i . U 4 Z _ 0 .oo7 3564 -1.200 -1.150 -1 nnq+ 0 0 0 8 i . u u y _ 0 0 o 7 3233 -1.150 -1.100 f) QQ9+0.008 u . y y z _ 0 008 2830 Appendix A. Data tables -1.100 -1.050 —0.946±g;gg| 2645 -1.050 -1.000 -0.929to;oo8 2314 -1.000 -0.950 —0.919±g;gjg 1993 Appendix B R e s u l t s t a b l e s - L o c a l l u m i n o s i t y f u n c t i o n B . l Entire primary sample Column 1 correspond to the luminosity in W.m~2.Hz~1; columns 2 and 3 correspond to the value of the local luminosity function estimated using model 1 and 3 respectively, in Mpc~3. Table B . l : Modeled local luminosity function for the entire primary sample log(P) (W.m-2.Hz-1) log(po) (Mpc" 3) model 1 model 3 20.6 - 3 . 2 6 2 0 ™ - 3 . 2 6 2 0 ™ 21.0 -3.7420t 0;°° -3.7420l 0;°8 21.4 —3.5920±g;?g —3.5920±g:fg 21.8 -3.4920±8:S -3.4920i°;°0l 22.2 -3.70201^ -3.7020t°;°65 22.6 -4.1420l 0 0;° 5 5 -4.142012:81 23.0 -4.562018:81 -4.5620l°:81 23.4 -5.0440±g:g| -5.061918:81 23.8 -5 .3639l°° 4 -5.389918:81 24.2 -5.0167±8;g -5.20321818 24.6 -5.583912;^  -5.8415l8;f3 25.0 -6.0919±g:|l -6.43271818 25.4 -6.5344l°:3J -6.961918J1 25.8 -7.3112l°; 3 3i -7.807518'ji 26.2 -7.9107±g:ii -8.4286±g;|g 26.6 -8.8117±g:|g -9.274118:1 27.0 -9 .563l l° : 2 3 -9.872818:11 27.4 -10.6671±g:|| -10.730718;! 27.8 -12.0236±g:|^  -11.77231811 78 Appendix B. Results tables - Local luminosity function B.2 Extended sources only Column 1 correspond to the luminosity in W.m~2 .Hz~l; columns 2 and 3 correspond to the value of the local luminosity function estimated using model 1, 2 and 3 respectively, in M p c ~ 3 . Table B .2: Modeled local luminosity function for the extended sources only log(P) {W.m-z.Hz-1) log(po) (Mpc~3) model 1 model 2 model 3 21.8 -4.6920+8:23 -4.692018:23 -4.692018:^ 22.2 -4.5220+2:1! -4.5220I8I8 -4.522018:18 22.6 -4 .7320i° : 0 ° -4.7320l8:08 -4.7320l8;J8 23.0 -4.9820l8:8e -4.982018:8^  -4.9820l8;8e 23.4 -4.7267i°;88 -4.732818:88 -4.7993l8;88 23.8 -5.1738+8:85 -5.i905l8;8l -5.2536l8.8l 24.2 -4.5749i8;l -4.6522l8;l -4.824ll8;l 24.6 -5.2398+0J7 —5.3898^Q3y -5.6121±g;i; 25.0 -5.797818'Jl -5.9667l8il -6.237018J1 25.4 —6.5956±gJl -6.7578l8il -7.0589l8il 25.8 -7.6139i8i 7 -7 .7178l8i 7 -8 .0058l8i 7 26.2 -8.88741:811 -9.050718H 26.6 -io.488ii8:87 -io.5924l8.87 -10.5985l8:87 27.0 - 1 4 . 8 2 0 3 ^ -14.92261H -14.9590l l ; l 27.4 -14.8151+1833 - 1 4 . 2 6 9 4 ± | : g | -14.978111:81 27.8 -14.672711:^ 8 -13.6108ll;78 -14.8547ll:78 79 Appendix C C o n t o u r p l o t s Appendix C. Contour plots 0 0 0 6 2 2 . 6 1 1 - 0 0 0 4 2 4 . 4 8 0 0 3 8 2 0 . 4 1 0 - 0 2 0 7 4 0 . 4 0 0 1 2 6 4 . 6 7 0 - 0 1 2 4 1 . 9 0 3 C 0 0 2 3 C 0 1 7 N G C 5 4 7 0 0 1 3 1 0 . 9 1 0 + 0 0 5 1 4 2 . 4 0 3 C 0 0 5 0 0 5 7 3 4 . 1 5 0 - 0 1 2 2 5 8 . 4 0 3 C 0 2 9 0 2 2 0 5 4 . 0 5 2 - 0 1 5 6 5 5 . 1 6 3 C 0 6 3 0 0 2 2 2 5 . 4 3 7 + 0 0 1 4 5 6 . 0 8 P K S 0 0 1 9 - 0 0 0 0 5 9 0 5 . 5 1 1 + 0 0 0 6 5 1 . 7 0 P K S 0 0 5 6 - 0 0 0 2 4 2 4 0 . 7 2 0 - 0 0 0 0 4 7 . 7 0 M 7 7 0 0 3 7 04.066'-6"l 0 9 0 9 . 4 0 0 1 2 5 2 8 . 8 5 3 / - 0 0 0 5 5 6 . 2 0 0 6 5 5 1 4 . 7 8 0 + 5 4 0 9 0 0 . 0 0 3 C 0 1 5 P K S 0 1 2 2 - 0 0 3 C 1 7 1 81 Appendix C. Contour plots 07 02 53.639 +44 31 11.92 07 16 41.090 +53 23 10.30 07 45 42.131 +31 42 52.60 4C 44.15 4C 53.16 4C 31.30 07 06 48.083 +46 47 56.39 07 35 55.549' +33 07 9.44 07 50 52.057 +12 31 4.64 B3 0703+468 4C 33.21 PKS 0748+126 07 13 38.169 +43 49 17.06 07 38 7.379 +T7 42 19.60 07 58 28.601 +37 47 13.80 QSO B0710+439 QSO J0738+1742 N G C 2484 07 14 24.813 +35 34 39.70 07 41 10.698'+31 12 0.31 07 59 47.259 +37 38 50.20 QSO B0711+35 QSO J0741+3111 4C 37.21 82 Appendix C. Contour plots 8:J Appendix C. Contour plots 08 23 24.755 +22 23 3.27 08 27 25.398' +29 18 44.80 08 34 48.216 +17 00 42.81 PKS 0820+22 3C 200 3C 202 08 24 47.239 +55 52 42.75 4C 56.16A 08 30 4.120 +07 45 45.00 PKS 0830+0745 08 34 54.914 +55 34 20.96 4C 55.16 08 24 55.475 +39 16 41.76 08 31 10.032 +37 42 9.61 08 39 6.50o"+57 54 13.40 4C 39.23A 4C 37.24 3C 205 08 25 50.370 +03 09 24.80 08 33 18.80i'+51 03 7.80 08 40 47.712 +13 12 23.64 QSO B0823+033 4C 51.25 3C 207 84 Appendix C. Contour plots 08 43 31.653 +42 15 29.49 B3 0840+424A 08 54 39.387 +14 05 52.23 3C 208.1 08 58 41.539 +14 09 43.24 3C 212 08 47 53.831 +53 52 36.80 08 54 48.871 +20 06 30.70 09 01 5.32l'+29 01 46.46 S4 0844+54 QSO J0854+2006 3C 213.1 08 53 9.008"+13 52 55.83 08 57 40.638'+34 04 6.40 09 03 3.979 +46 51 4.51 3C 208 SC 211 4C 47.29 85 Appendix C. Contour plots 09 12 3.999' + i6 18 29.70 09 27 3.024 +39 02 20.72 09 42 8,44l"+°13 51 53.66 4C 16.27 4C 39.25 3CR 225A Appendix C. Contour plots 09 43 12.739 +02 43 27.50 09 50 10.566 +14 19 40.30 09 57 38.155 +55 22 57.89 SDSS J094312.82+024325.8 3C 228 4C 55.17 09 44 16.401 +09 46 19.20 09 51 58.830 -00 01 26.80 10 01 46.200 +28 46 54.69 3C 226 3C 230 3C 234 09 47 47.270 +07 25 13.81 09 52 0.519"+24 22 29.70 10 06 1.738"+34 54 10.43 3C 227 3C 229 3C 236 S 7 Appendix C. Contour plots Appendix C. Contour plots 10 51 48.799 +21 19 52.36 PKS 1049+215 10 58 58.360 +43 01 21.66 3C 247 11 11 31.558 +35 40 45.50 3C 252 10 52 26.095 +20 29 48.07 11 02 4.329 -01 16 24.09 11 13 32.130 -02 12 55.20 4C 20.23 3C 249 3C 253 89 Appendix C. Contour plots Appendix C Contour plots Appendix C. Contour plots 11 59 31.842 +29 14 43.94 12 09 13.401 '+43 39 16.89 12 15 28.907 +53 36 7.16 4C 29.45 3C 268.4 4C 53.24 l$lt 12 00 59.000 +31 31 12.00 3C 268.2 12 12 56.057 +20 32 37.47 PKS 1210+20 12 15 55.613 +34 48 15.02 4C 35.28 12 04 2.476 -04 22 41.24 PKS 1201-041 12 13 32.147 +13 07 20.44 PKS 1210+134 12 19 15.329 +05 49 40.40 3C 270 12 06 19.931 +04 06 12.20 12 14 4.115+33 09 45.74 12 20 33.888 +33 43 7.97 4C 04.40 QSO B1211+334 3C 270.1 92 Appendix C. Contour plots 12 24 30.200 +42 06 24.00 12 27 58.727 +36 35 11.96 12 35 22.971 +21 20 18.30 3C 272 QSO B1225+368 3C 274.1 12 24 52.427 +03 30 50.35 12 29 6.410 +02 03 5.10 12 42 19.610 -04 46 20.45 PKS 1222+037 3C 273 3C 275 12 24 54.621 +21 22 47.20 12 30 49.460 +12 23 21.60 12 43 57.650 '+16 22 48.13 4C 21.35 M87 3C 275.1 12 25 3.78l'+T2 52 35.20 12 31 59.955 -02 24 5.17 12 44 49.201 +40 48 6.35 M84 PKS 1229-02 S4 1242+41 93 Appendix C. Contour plots 12 52 26.324 +56 34 19.65 3C 277.1 12 56 11.163 -05 47 21.70 3C 279 13 09 49.660 -00 12 36.60 4C 00.46 12 53 3.549 +02 38 22.30 4C 02.34 12 56 57.380 +47 20 19.80 3C 280 13 10 28.668 +32 20 43.95 QSO B1308+326 12 53 32.425 +15 42 25.29 13 00 32.876'+40 09 9.20 13 11 6.600 +27 26 6.00 3C 277.2 3C 280.1 3C 284 12 54 11.678 +27 37 32.70 3C 277.3 13 05 36.051 +08 55 15.90 4C 09.45 13 13 37.870 +54 58 23.89 TXS 1311+552 94 Appendix C. Contour plots 13 19 38.734 -00 49 39.98 13 23 2.331 +29 41 34.00 13 31 8.285 +30 30 32.95 PKS 1317-00 FIRST J132302.6+294133 3C 286 13 20 21.450 +17 43 12.40 13 26 16.513 +31 54 9.52 13 32 56.368 +02 00 46.50 4C 17.56 4C 32.44 3C 287.1 13 21 18.803 '+11 06 48.79 13 27 31.709 +31 51 27.30 13 38 8.071 -06 27 11.20 PKS 1318+11 4C 32.44B QSO J1338-0627 13 21 20.300 +42 36 0.00 13 30 37.694 +25 09 10.87 13 38 49.670 + 38 51 11.10 3C 285 3C 287 3C 288 95 Appendix C. Contour plots 13 44 23.749 +14 09 15.30 4C 14.49 13 49 38.963 +21 07 28.89 3C 291 13 57 4.437 +19 19 7.23 PKS 1354+19 13 45 26.699 +49 46 31.39 13 52 17.842 +31 26 46.48 13 57 53.716 +00 46 33.46 3C 289 3C 293 PKS 1355+01 Appendix C. Contour plots Appendix C. Contour plots Appendix C. Contour plots 15 10 57.030 +07 51 24.80 15 16 44.566 +07 01 19.36 15 24 5.639'+54 28 18.40 3C 313 3C 317 3C 319 15 12 25.548 +01 21 11.03 4C 01.42 15 16 56.588 +18 30 21.77 3C 316 15 25 48.956 +03 08 25.93 4C 03.33 15 13 39.899 +26 07 33.70 3C 315 15 20 5.485 +20 16 5.74 3C 318 15 31 25.360 +35 33 40.60 3CR 320 15 13 40.180 +23 38 35.34 15 21 14.415 +04 30 21.69 15 31 50.622 +24 02 42.33 PKS 1511+23 PKS 1518+047 3C 321 99 Appendix C. Contour plots 15 37 32.369'+13 44 48.47 15 47 44.228 +20 52 41.00 15 52 26.800 +20 07 24.00 4 C 13.56 3 C 323.1 3 C 326 T 15 40 49.492 +14 47 46.09 P K S 1538+149 15 49 49.170 +21 25 39.50 3 C 324 15 56 9.984 +20 04 20.81 3 C 326.1 100 Appendix C Contour plots 15 56 36.351 +42 57 9.60 16 05 46.571 +00 25 54.30 16 12 18.971 +22 22 15.61 5C 13.42 PKS J1605+0025 3C 331 101 Appendix C. Contour plots Appendix C. Contour plots 16 43 5.928 +37 29 34.40 3C 344 16 53 52.214 +39 45 36.65 4C 39.49 17 10 44.108 +46 01 30.30 3C 352 103 Appendix C. Contour plots 17 19 8.937 +22 45 6.08 21 34 l&aaBJXL 53 17.39 23 26 54.468/-02 02 10.30 PKS 1717+22 PKS 2131-021 PKS 2324-02 17 24 18.400 +50 57 54.00 21 36 38.600 +00 41 54.47 23 32 25.585'-"09 57 56.42 3C 356 PKS 2134+004 PKS 2329-10 104 Appendix D C o m m e n t s o n p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e s 00 57 34.150 -01 22 58.40 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 01 26 4.670 -01 24 1.90 NGC 547, also known as 3C 040. Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 07 58 28.601 +37 47 13.80 This source shows no NVSS contours on the plot. 08 05 31.310 +24 10 21.30 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 08 22 31.400 +05 57 24.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. This is a large FRI source with only few FIRST detections. 08 30 4.120 +07 45 45.00 This source actually consists in 2 separate sources, both with S < 1.3Jy .It was taken out of the primary sample. 09 21 8.650 +45 38 57.40 This source is probably a FRII that has slightly rotated. 09 39 50.199 +35 55 53.10 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 09 41 25.700 +39 42 18.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 09 47 47.270 +07 25 13.81 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 10 01 46.200 +28 46 54.69 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 11 23 9.062 +05 30 20.58 This source actually consists in 2 separate sources, one of them with S > 1.3Jy. 11 45 5.229 +19 36 37.80 3C 264, also known as NGC 3862. 11 45 31.181 +31 33 35.82 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 12 00 59.000 +31 31 12.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 12 19 15.329 +05 49 40.40 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 12 24 30.200 +42 06 24.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 12 29 6.410 +02 03 5.10 Probable QSO with visible jets. 105 Appendix D. Comments on particular sources 12 35 22.971 +21 20 18.30 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 12 53 3.549 +02 38 22.30 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 13 11 6.600 +27 26 6.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 13 21 20.300 +42 36 0.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 13 23 2.331 +29 41 34.00 This source actually consists in 3 separate sources, all with S < 1.3Jy .It was taken out of the primary sample. 13 32 56.368 +02 00 46.50 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 13 52 17.842 +31 26 46.48 The jets being seen only on one side in the FIRST contours, the source was classified as FRI. 14 17 0.489 +07 10 50.20 This source actually consists in 2 separate sources, both with 5 < 1.3Jy .It was taken out of the primary sample. 15 04 58.979 +25 59 49.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 15 10 57.030 +07 51 24.80 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 15 31 50.622 +24 02 42.33 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 15 52 26.800 +20 07 24.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 15 56 36.351 +42 57 9.60 This is a known radio source, but no optical identification shows on the contour plot. 16 02 17.212 +01 58 19.40 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. 22 23 48.000 -02 09 24.00 Coordinates are not centered on the optical identification. Sources from the 3 C R R sample The following sources can be found in Laing, Riley k Longair (1983): 06 55 14.780 +54 09 00.00 3C 171 12 54 11.678 +27 37 32.70 3C 277.3 08 01 33.507 +14 14 42.66 3C 190 12 56 57.380 +47 20 19.80 3C 280 08 04 47.970 +10 15 22.91 3C 191 13 00 32.870 +40 09 9.20 3C 280.1 08 05 31.310 +24 10 21.30 3C 192 13 11 6.600 +27 26 6.00 3C 284 08 13 36.037 +48 13 1.77 3C 196 13 21 20.300 +42 36 0.00 3C 285 08 27 25.398 +29 18 44.80 3C 200 13 30 37.694 +25 09 10.87 3C 287 08 39 6.500 +57 54 13.40 3C 205 13 31 8.285 +30 30 32.95 3C 286 08 40 47.712 +13 12 23.64 3C 207 13 38 49.670 +38 51 11.10 3C 288 08 53 9.008 +13 52 55.83 3C 208 13 45 26.699 +49 46 31.39 3C 289 08 58 41.539 +14 09 43.24 3C 212 13 52 17.842 +31 26 46.48 3C 293 09 06 31.879 +16 46 13.00 3C 215 14 06 44.101 +34 11 26.20 3C 294 106 Appendix D. Comments on particular sources 09 08 50.561 +37 48 20.20 3C 217 09 09 33.497 +42 53 46.54 3C 216 09 21 8.650 +45 38 57.40 3C 219 09 39 50.199 +35 55 53.10 3C 223 09 44 16.401 +09 46 19.20 3C 226 09 50 10.566 +14 19 40.30 3C 228 10 01 46.200 +28 46 54.69 3C 234 10 06 1.738 +34 54 10:43 3C 236 10 11 45.460 +46 28 20.10 3C 239 10 21 54.533 +21 59 30.50 3C 241 10 33 33.870 +58 14 37.90 3C 244.1 10 42 44.586 +12 03 31.32 3C 245 10 58 58.360 +43 01 21.66 3C 247 11 11 31.558 +35 40 45.50 3C 252 11 14 38.814 +40 37 19.13 3C 254 11 43 25.040 +22 06 56.00 3C 263.1 11 45 5.229 +19 36 37.80 3C 264 11 45 31.181 +31 33 35.82 3C 265 11 45 43.384 +49 46 7.90 3C 266 11 49 55.540 +12 47 15.90 3C 267 12 09 13.401 +43 39 16.89 3C 268.4 12 20 33.888 +33 43 7.97 3C 270.1 12 24 30.200 +42 06 24.00 3C 272 12 25 3.781 +12 52 35.20 3C 272.1 12 30 49.460 +12 23 21.60 3C 274 12 35 22.971 +21 20 18.30 3C 274.1 12 43 57.650 +16 22 48.13 3C 275.1 12 53 32.425 +15 42 25.29 3C 277.2 14 11 20.592 +52 12 9.44 3C 295 14 21 5.829 +41 44 49.98 3C 299 14 23 0.626 +19 35 17.41 3C 300 14 43 1.012 +52 01 40.79 3C 303 14 49 21.786 +63 16 14.27 3C 305 15 04 58.979 +25 59 49.00 3C 310 15 13 39.899 +26 07 33.70 3C 315 15 20 5.485 +20 16 5.74 3C 318 15 24 5.639 +54 28 18.40 3C 319 15 31 50.622 +24 02 42.33 3C 321 15 35 1.269 +55 36 49.80 3C 322 15 49 49.170 +21 25 39.50 3C 324 15 49 59.206 +62 41 18.31 3C 325 15 52 26.800 +20 07 24.00 3C 326 16 20 21.398 +17 36 29.30 3C 334 16 24 39.695 +23 45 24.17 3C 336 16 28 3.572 +27 41 36.10 3C 341 16 28 38.337 +39 33 0.00 3C 338 16 28 53.870 +44 19 3.52 3C 337 16 29 37.862 +23 20 14.41 3C 340 16 34 33.772 +62 45 35.36 3C 343 16 38 28.194 +62 34 43.95 3C 343.1 16 42 58.799 +39 48 37.16 3C345 16 43 48.696 +17 15 49.14 3C 346 16 59 27.570 +47 03 13.10 3C 349 17 04 43.427 +60 44 52.56 3C 351 17 10 44.108 +46 01 30.30 3C 352 17 24 18.400 +50 57 54.00 3C 356 107 

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