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The spectra of indium Nodwell, Roy Andrew 1954

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TEE SPECTRA OF INDIUM by RQY ANDREW: NODWELL  A TRESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF TBE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE, i n the Department of PHYSICS  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard required from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE.  Members of the Department of Physics  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 195A  ABSTRACT  The spectra of Indium i n the region  1200, A  to; 690GL A  have  been investigated,. For t h i s purpose a vacuum spectrograph, equipped with two s l i t s a t angle of incidence o f 80? and 21? 3 4 S has been used.  Details  of the method of adjustment and c a l i b r a t i o n of the instrument are given.  An electrodeless discharge has been: used as a source, and methods of securing s a t i s f a c t o r y output from t h i s source are discussed. About 333 Indium l i n e s have been measured, o f which 62 have been previously reported*. Term value predictions f o r Indium I I I are discussed and from these predictions some new: l i n e s have been c l a s s i f i e d . . Several of the l i n e s previously c l a s s i f i e d as Indium III: have been found to be i n error by as much as 0.5 A .. I n addition a few- of the new: l i n e s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n the Indium I I spectra.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The author wishes to express h i s gratitude t o Dr. A.M. Crooker f o r suggesting t h i s project and f o r h i s continued i n t e r e s t and assistance throughout the course o f the research. The author i s also indebted t o the B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance.  CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION;  . .1 PART I  THEORY  2 PART II  THE SPECTROGRAPH  12 PART III  THE SOURCE  ...»  .21  PART IV RESULTS  . . . . . . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .24 .27  Following Page Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6  28  Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9  28  THE SPECTRA. OF INDIUM  INTRODUCTION; Although a great deal of work has been done on the analysis of Atomic Spectra and a completely adequate and convincing theory has been, developed to interpret these results, there are s t i l l a great many atoms, particularly i n the higher atomic numbers, which have not been completely analysed.  Table I gives a summary of the status of the spectra analysis of  a l l the atoms i n 1952.  A study of this table indicates that the second spark  spectrum of Indium i s inadequately known. An investigation! into the current literature reveals only nineteen wavelengths definitely assigned to this; spectrum and only eight term values estimated. In view of the fact that Indium I and Indium II have been very completely analysed by Faschen and Campbell (1,2) and since Shenstone (3,4) has done thorough analyses of the f i r s t two members of the iso-electronic sequence Agl and Cdll i t was f e l t that an analysis of Indium III at this time could be useful and f r u i t f u l .  Further i t seemed l i k e l y that the large nuclear  angular momentum of Indium would lead to some interesting fine structures, and that, i n studying these hyper-fine structures high resolution techniques could be developed which would prove useful i n later research into hyper-fine structure i n Hydrogen and Helium i n the vacuum ultraviolet region. Most of the interesting lines of Indium III are l i k e l y to be i n the vacuum ultraviolet region, and hence i t was decided that the major part of this work would be carried out on a vacuum spectrograph.  2 PART I THEORY  The theory of o p t i c a l spectra has been completely developed and discussed i n many text books (5,6).  I t i s our purpose, i n t h i s section, to  summarize the more prominent features of the theory, and to i n d i c a t e i n a general way the development of the formulae which we have used i n i n t e r preting the r e s u l t s of our experimental work. E a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n of atomic spectra revealed many r e g u l a r i t i e s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t features about those r e g u l a r i t i e s may be  summarized  as followst: 1.  The wave number of each U n e  i s conveniently rep-  resented as the difference between two numbers. These numbers are u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as terms.  2.  The terms can be divided i n t o two classes, even and odd, so that t r a n s i t i o n from one class t o the other are favoured while t r a n s i t i o n s between members of the same class are forbidden.  3.  The terms group themselves i n t o ordered sequences, the terms of each sequence converging to a l i m i t i n g value..  A»  Series of l i n e s having s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e s u l t from combinations of a single term i n one sequence with successive terms i n another sequence.  3 5.  These terms are very strong evidence: that atoms e x i s t i n stationary states and that o p t i c a l emission i s the r e s u l t o f a t r a n s i t i o n from one stationary state to another state of lover energy.  The f i r s t attempt to meet with any success i n establishing a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the structure o f an atom and the knovni r e g u l a r i t i e s i n i t s spectrum was made by Bohr (7).  As i s w e l l known he assumed that the  atom consisted of a heavy nucleus around which electrons revolve.  By  assuming that the electron revolved about the nucleus i n c e r t a i n d i s c r e t e o r b i t s , and that l i g h t was emitted when an e l e c t r o n dropped from an o r b i t of high energy to one of low energy, he vas able to calculate with surp r i s i n g accuracy the spectrum of the hydrogen atom.  However Bohr's theory  l e d t o serious discrepancies when applied to atoms with more than one electron and has been completely replaced by the much more complete and s a t i s f y i n g theory of quantum mechanics.  De Broglie ( 8 ) had speculated that matter might have either a copscular or undulatory form i n the same way that l i g h t exhibits a dual nature, and was l e d t o conclude that the mass and the wavelength of a p a r t i c l e are connected by the simple r e l a t i o n s h i p  ^  =  trTv •  Following  t h i s suggestion Schrodinger ( 9 ) attempted to f i n d a wave equation to describe the motion of a p a r t i c l e which would lead to a system o f standing waves corresponding to the Bohr o r b i t .  87r'm  v ¥  The equation which he developed i s  _____  4 This equation has proved very successful and i s the b a s i c equation i n quantum mechanics.  In general the p o t e n t i a l energy  V  i s not a function o f the time  and therefore Schrodinger's time dependent equation can be separated giving us the amplitude equation  v  2  * fyT ( ~ 8ir  and the time dependent equation.  The wave f u n c t i o n  TjF  *= °  £  ,p .  has no d i r e c t physical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but the  square o f the absolute value of the vave f u n c t i o n i s proportional to the p r o b a b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g the p a r t i c l e a t the p o s i t i o n given by the coordinates. I f one applies the boundary conditions that the wave function must be everywhere f i n i t e and continuous i t i s found that the k i n e t i c energy have only c e r t a i n d i s c r e t e values c a l l e d the eigenvalues.  E  may  Thus the  Schrodinger approach leads d i r e c t l y to the concept o f stationary energy l e v e l s or terms.  By analogy with the electromagnetic theory of dipole  r a d i a t i o n , Dirac has been able t o calculate the t r a n s i t i o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s between energy l e v e l s and has shown i t to be proportional to; A c t u a l l y analogous e l e c t r i c quadrupole r a d i a t i o n and magnetic dipole r a d i a t i o n may occur, but they are u s u a l l y very much weaker than the usual dipole radiation.. I t can be seen that a knowledge o f the wave f u n c t i o n i s necessary i n order to calculate the s e l e c t i o n r u l e s .  Except i n the  simplest cases the wave functions are not accurately known but the s e l e c t i o n rules may s t i l l be determined by consideration of the symmetry of the wave function.  THE HYDROGEN ATOM  I n the hydrogen atom the p o t e n t i a l energy of the e l e c t r o n i e v  ~  r  . I f t h i s i s substituted f o r  V  i n the Schrodinger equation  and the equation solved i n s p h e r i c a l co-ordinates i t may be shown that f o r a w e l l behaved s o l u t i o n  E. may assumeall p o s i t i v e values but only those  negative values f o r which V =  -  ~  c  yf*  R  =  ^  • -^z  j~z— 2  c a l l e d the p r i n c i p a l quantum number.  where  n  or  i s a p o s i t i v e integer,  These negative eigenvalues are u s u a l l y  degenerate, that i s f o r each eigenvalue there are several eigenfunctions which s a t i s f y the o r i g i n a l d i f f e r e n t i a l equation and whose form depends on two other quantum numbers, ^ £  . and  e l e c t r o n i s determined by the value of may be  0, 1  n-1.  m .  The angular momentum of the  ^  as  ]/MJrl)  ? TT  where  The component of t h i s angular momentum i n the  d i r e c t i o n of a reference axis i s given as rrt  •  The wave f u n c t i o n f o r the hydrogen atom has the form  where Rlr) and  i s the part of the wave function depending on the radius only  /-^"'cf-s &  i s the associated Legendre polynomial.  I f the t r a n s i t i o n  p r o b a b i l i t y formula mentioned previously i s applied to t h i s wave function, i t follows that the only cases i n which the t r a n s i t i o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s are not =  zero are those i n which  - I  A  m  =  °,-  *  Other one e l e c t r o n ions such as H e l l , Id.Ill, e t c . have spectra very s i m i l a r to that of hydrogenj the only changes being a large magnificat i o n I n scale due to the  -£  f a c t o r and a small change due to v a r i a t i o n s  i n the Rydberg constant.  The Rydberg constant v a r i e s s l i g h t l y because i t  i s dependent on the reduced mass of the atom and hence on the mass of the nucleus.  THE ALKALI METALS  The a l k a l i metals (Id, Na, K, etc..) have spectra which are very s i m i l a r t o those of the one electron spectra mentioned above due to the f a c t that they have a single electron moving about a central core whose charge i s Ze  -  (Z-l)e.  ( i . e . the charge of the nucleus minus the charge of the  electrons i n the inner s h e l l s )  However they are not exactly s i m i l a r because  the outer electron may penetrate the e l e c t r o n s h e l l , thus reducing the screening e f f e c t and giving a change i n the p o t e n t i a l .  This makes the  mathematics much more complicated but by assuming that the f i e l d i s noncoulomb and that the p o t e n t i a l may be represented by the approximation  v = z*(-  )  i t may be shown that the energy eigenvalues have the form where where  r? * A  y  = ^fZ  ±Q the e f f e c t i v e quantum number and i s equal t©j 77-  /r?  **  A  i s the quantum defect. The chief difference between t h i s r e s u l t and that f o r the hydrogen  atom i s that the term values are now dependent on the value of as  n, because the quantum defect i s a f u n c t i o n of  decreases with i n c r e a s i n g  1  1.  1  as w e l l  The quantum defect  because the l i k e l i h o o d of the electron: pene-  t r a t i n g the s h e l l decreases with increasing  1.  7 I n p r a c t i c e i t i s u s u a l l y found that terms given by the above formula are s p l i t i n t o doublets.  Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck (10) assumed that  t h i s s p l i t t i n g was due to an a d d i t i o n a l angular momentum coming from the electron i t s e l f .  According t o t h i s assumption each e l e c t r o n rotates about 1/  i t s own axis with an angular momentum equal t o quantized and may have only the value  * ^  h~  Vs(s+l) % jf  where  s  s is  . I n one e l e c t r o n spectra the  r e s u l t a n t angular momentum i s equal t o the vector sum o f the o r b i t a l and spin angular momentum and may therefore take on the values where  j  = yf  i  ~^jf  |/j(j+l)  s, and consequently we get a s p l i t t i n g o f the term i n t o  two terms.  SPECTRA OF ATOMS WITH MORE THAN ONE OUTER ELECTRON  So f a r we have discussed only one electron spectra.  One might  expect that with more than one e l e c t r o n the i n t e r a c t i o n between the electrons would tend to cause a further s p l i t t i n g o f the terms and t h i s a c t u a l l y i s found to be the case.  There i s no simple formula which w i l l account f o r  the coupling between the electrons but two systems, c a l l e d L-S and  j-j  coupling, have been i d e a l i z e d t o represent the term s p l i t t i n g a c t u a l l y found. pure  I t should be emphasized however that u s u a l l y the coupling i s neither  L-S  coupling nor pure  j - j coupling but some intermediate state  between them.  The Russel-Saunders (L-S) coupling predicts the s p l i t t i n g quite accurately i n the majority of cases, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l i g h t e r atomic weights (11).  I n t h i s coupling the i n t e r a c t i o n between  1  and s  for a  8 p a r t i c u l a r e l e c t r o n i s quite weak but the i n t e r a c t i o n between the and between the  s's  l's  of d i f f e r e n t electrons i s r e l a t i v e l y strong.  Thus;  the i n d i v i d u a l l ' s combine to give a t o t a l o r b i t a l angular equal to |/L(L+1)  where  the i n d i v i d u a l  L. i s the vector sum of ^  *  ,  Similarly  s's combine to give a t o t a l spin angular momentum equal to  ys(S+l)  where  S, i s equal to the vector sum of  The t o t a l angular momentum i s then computed as i s the vector sum of  L  and  v~ $2 t —  |/J(J+l) ~xir where  coupling, namely that the i n t e r a c t i o n between the  1  and  s  i s r e l a t i v e l y weak we get  j-j  coupling.  L-S  of the i n d i -  v i d u a l e l e c t r o n i s strong but that the i n t e r a c t i o n between the s's  J  S*  When we make the opposite assumption to that made f o r the  between the  ,  l's  and  I t should be  pointed out that the number of terms i n e i t h e r type of coupling i s the same. An example w i l l perhaps serve to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two types. i n which  Consider the configuration 1__  = G,  t h i s would give ua L  and  s__  =  1/2,  L = 1^  - 1, S2  I2  + I2  8 8  sp, that i s a two e l e c t r o n system  1,  Si =  88  1/2, + S£  s^  Si v e c t o r i a l l y we get the terms;  How, i n  said ^  /  *= 1 #  L-S  coupling  or 0 , and  adding  , the f i r s t o f these  being the combination of  L  with  S = 0 , the l a t t e r three terms r e s u l t i n g  from the combinations of  L  with  S = 1,  In  j-j  1/2 and  J2  ~  hand we f i n d  j_ =  1_  +  s_  and taking the vector sum of  = J_  +  j'2  w  e  J£  =  3/2.  Figure  +  s  2  =  1/2  or  Set four term values with  1, 1 or 2, the f i r s t two being combinations with; with  *2  coupling, on the other  .J_ =  3/2, J = 0,  1/2, the l a t t e r  1 shows the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of these terms.  two  THE PAULI PRINCIPLE  The Paul! p r i n c i p l e states that the t o t a l eigenfunction of an atom must be antisymmetric i n a l l i t s electrons.  I t may be shown that t h i s  statement i s i d e n t i c a l with the statement that no two electrons i n an atom can have the same set of values f o r the four quantum numbers.  The Heisenberg  theorem wnich i s a d i r e c t consequence of the P a u l i p r i n c i p l e , w i l l be made use of i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f the number and order of terms f o r c e r t a i n electron configurations. quantum number  (41 + 2)  as  This theorem states that  1 ( i . e . an  - x  l  x  x  electrons, each with  configuration) w i l l lead to the same states  electrons with quantum number  1.  Thus a  4d95s  2  configura-  t i o n , such as may be expected i n Indium I I I , w i l l lead to the same terms as a  ,2 4d5s^  -  configuration, namely  *  s/  z  MOSELEY DIAGRAMS  As was shown.previously the value of a term value i s given by the formula ^  V-  or rearranging \j  i s p l o t t e d against  =  .  Thus i t follows that i f  f o r a s e r i e s o f atoms i n an i s o e l e c t r o n i c  sequence we should get a s t r a i g h t l i n e whose slope i s n * .  Hence i t i s  possible, using known term values of some members of the i s o l e c t r o n i c sequence, to p r e d i c t g r a p h i c a l l y new term values f o r other atoms of the sequence. Conversely, having located a term i t i s possible t o assign i t s p r i n c i p a l quantum number by i n s i s t i n g that i t f i t the Moseley diagram.  10 IRREGULAR DOUBLET LAW  The i r r e g u l a r doublet l a v may be stated i n terms o f energy l e v e l s as f o l l o w s :  the difference between the square roots of the absolute term  values o f the l e v e l s having the same p r i n c i p a l quantum number independent o f the atomic number diagram with the same  n  Z.  I n other words, l i n e s on the Moseley  run p a r a l l e l to eaeh other*  that f o r t r a n s i t i o n s i n which A rr =  0  n is  I t follows from t h i s  the wave number increases l i n e a r l y  with i n c r e a s i n g atomic number i n the i s o l e c t r o n i c sequence*  Although t h i s  r u l e does not hold r i g o r o u s l y i t s successful use i n a large number o f cases has established i t as a very u s e f u l t o o l *  REGULAR DOUBLET LAW  This r u l e i s used t o estimate the separation o f doublets, that i s the s p l i t t i n g o f terms i n Russel-Saunders coupling. by the formula  =  R  This separation i s given;  ^  where«tf= ^ r i s the f i n e structure constant equal approximately to 1/137, and -5  i s the screening constant which cannot be determined t h e o r e t i c a l l y but  must be estimated from knowledge o f i t s value i n other atoms o f the i s o e l e c t r o n i c sequence*.  11 TERM VALUE PREDICTIONS It was mentioned i n the introduction that the term values of Agl and Cdll had been established very accurately by Shenstone.  Using  these term values i t has been possible to estimate term values for Indium III by means of Moseley diagrams and the Irregular Doublet Lav.  A summary  of the calculations i s given i n Tables.1 and 2 which i s self-explanatory* Graphs of the Moseley curves are given i n Fig. 3. Some term values have also been predicted by extending the n * sequences. Details of this calculation are given i n Table 3. Rydberg conversion tables, have been used to convert from term value to n  and  * from  n  to term value* In both the above mentioned tables newly predicted terms; for  Indium III are enclosed i n brackets* Finally, the doublet separation for the terms  tW5sr ^D , - W5-r-  ±  has been estimated by means of the regular  doublet law/as follows* Z_  Atom  A y  Z- s  j_  47  Agl  4471.9  23.31  23.69  48  Call  5363.7  24.69  23.31  49  Inlll  6921.0  26.00  23.00  12 PART I I THE SPECTROGRAPH  The spectrograph used was the Vacuum spectrograph designed by Lubzinski and described i n h i s thesis* arrangement are indicated i n F i g . 4.  The main d e t a i l s of the o p t i c a l Since the arrangement i s s l i g h t l y  unusual a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the method of c a l i b r a t i o n and adjustment would seem to be of i n t e r e s t .  I n order to make the procedure as clear as  possible I s h a l l describe the adjustments i n approximately chronological order.  TBE GRATING  The f i r s t step i n adjusting any grating spectrograph i s the accurate determination of the radius of curvature of the grating., This has been done by means of a Foucault k n i f e edge b u i l t e s p e c i a l l y f o r the purpose. The radius has been measured as  199.50 i .05 cm.  I n the course of  measuring the radius by the Foucault t e s t one also has an opportunity to study the q u a l i t y of the spherical surface.. The grating i s reasonably good although there i s a s l i g h t " h i l l " near the r i g h t hand side of the grating which appears to be about one f r i n g e high.  A sketch of the appearance of  the surface a t best focus i s given i n F i g . 2.  13 THE FIDUCIAL MARKS: The measurement of distances between the principal parts of a vacuum grating i s usually d i f f i c u l t because the parts are not readily accessible.  To overcome this d i f f i c u l t y ve established two accessible  fiducial marks; namely a pointer which i s attached to the grating mount and i s 1.81  cm. from the grating face, and a mark on the near edge of the  adjusting unit of the s l i t and which i s 6.17  cm. from the s l i t .  These  distances vere established by removing the parts: from the spectrograph and measuring them with a travelling microscope.  PLACING THE SLIT ON. THE ROWLAND CIRCLE Zernicke (12) and others (13) have shown that the equation for focus i n a concave grating i n which aberrations due to orders of higher power than the f i r s t are neglected i s  c os  vhere  * " c o s  -y.  cos  & _  cos  0  _  A  i s the angle of incidence  0  i s the angle of diffraction!  p  i s the distance from object to grating  Cf  i s the distance from image to grating  F{  i s the radius of curvature of the grating  n  An obvious solution to this equation i s the set of parametric: equations p - /Rcos-i, CJ= Rcos & which of course means that the object  H and image both l i e on a circle of radius Now for the direct reflected image  R  =~ &  (called tbe Rowland c i r c l e ) . and hence i f the s l i t i s on  the Rowland circle the distance from s l i t to grating must equal the distance from grating to image. This property has been used to set the s l i t on the Rowland circle i n the following manner: The grating and s l i t were located i n approximately the correct position and a pointer was accurately placed at the image of the s l i t by means of the parralax test with a low. power microscope. Owing to the vacuum tank and equipment i t was impossible to measure p  and <7 directly so  the measurement was made indirectly by triangulation with a precise theodolite kindly lent us by Mr. P. Demos of the Faculty of Engineering.  The  theodolite was used to measure the angles subtended by the s l i t fiducial mark, the grating fiducial mark, and the image at two arbitrary points and  B. From these angles and the accurately measured distance  distances  A  AB the  IG and SG were calculated thus determining how much p  differed from  q . Based on this the s l i t was moved the correct amount and  the measurements repeated u n t i l  SG + SS  = IG.  At the f i n a l setting these  r  distances were measured as SG = 135.17 and IG = 185.15.  ANGLE OF INCIDENCE AND SLIT DISTANCE  »  From measurements previously described we have the distance i  SG = 185.16,cm. and the distance we found that  i  calculated that  GG = 1.81 cm.  Also from the triangulation  = 20° A l ' and therefore from simple geometry i t may be SG « p = 186.85 cm. and i = 20° 30'. (See F i g . 1.)  15 LOCATION OF THE CENTRE OF THE ROWLAND CIRCIE  From the drawing i t can be seen that  a  =  R/2 - 66'  =  99.75 - 1*81  b  =  a sin i  =  97.94 s i n 20° 4 I  c  =  p - a cos i  =  «  97.94 em. 1  =  34.60 cm.  185.16 - 97.94 cos 20° 4 I '  and hence by measuring the distances  c  and  b  =  93.53 cm.  from the image  (establishing the l i n e of sight with the theodolite) the p o s i t i o n of the; centre of the Rowland c i r c l e may be located.  FOCUSSING  The plate holder was placed on the Rowland c i r c l e by making i t s ' distance from the centre equal to  R/2.  When t h i s was  completed a f i n a l  check on the focussing was made by photographing the i r o n a r c spectrum.  In  order t o increase the s e n s i t i v i t y of t h i s t e s t a mask was placed i n f r o n t of the grating masking o f f the central part of the grating so that the image was formed by two converging beams coming from opposite ends of the grating. With t h i s arrangement any small displacement  of the plate from true f o c a l  plane w i l l cause the image to become very blurred or even doubled, and hence the method i s very s e n s i t i v e .  I t was found with t h i s check that the plate holder had to be s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y to obtain the p o s i t i o n of best focus.  Although t h i s i s not  surprising i t i s worthwhile to estimate how much the plate would have to move to compensate f o r small errors i n the s l i t distance of incidence i .  p  and the angle  16 As stated previously the basic equation f o r focussing the grating  ._  ccs -< __ c o*s x  cos 6 _  -re  19  ~^r~ ~*r - °  Taking the derivative with respect to  p  <7  x  p  we get  77p "" .  2  or since we are close to the Rowland c i r c l e and therefore  cos & _ ^  x  p^= R^co^e,  c/q = - cfp> . Furthermore, as may be seen from the sketch,  the normal displacement of the plate i s given as Now  ^ coj-'t?  oY-x  =• c/<?  consider the error due to small errors i n the  of the angle of incidence.  cos 6  .  determination  D i f f e r e n t i a t e with respect to ^ h o l d i n g  p  constant  Assuming again that ve are very close to the Rcvland c i r c l e and s u b s t i t u t i n g for  p and q ve get ft  R  #  R  From the equation f o r constructive interference n 7\ = i t f o l l o v s that  = - ^ c  s  ^  f o r a constant  Substituting t i n s expression f o r  5  i n t o the above equation  ft cot * (tan &-^"^) p (TanB-tan  '"  nA  and s i m p l i f y i n g ve f i n d  or A. Cfq=  f  ei*  r  ^  17 DISPERSION  The dispersion was  determined i n two ways  —  first  by  c a l c u l a t i n g the dispersion from the data obtained i n focussing by means of the d i s p e r s i o n formula  4HL£}  =  A. cos  d s  e  R  Secondly by measuring the spectrum of an i r o n arc and determining the d i s persion experimentally.  I t was found that the dispersion obtained by the  two methods checked extremely w e l l .  A table of dispersions f o r various  wavelengths i s given i n Table 4. I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note the magnitude of error one might expect i n the dispersion i f the plate was  not located exactly i n the f o c a l plane.  D - ^J ^) d 3 e  The dispersion i s given by the formula D  therefore  but  ofx  ~  5  s  fa/^  cos  9  or  of Cf cos  as an example i f  n  0  of O  and hence  dx = 1 mm.,  the error i n dispersion i s .  =  b = 17.361 mm., .006  fa c/?c ' ^ R = 1995  mm.,  9 = 45°,  then  A/mm.  THE GRAZING INCIDENCE SLIT  In order to obtain the spectrum of very short wave lengths i t i s necessary to use a beam of l i g h t at nearly grazing Incidence to the grating.  (14,15)  A s l i t has been constructed  and mounted i n place to give an angle  18 of incidence o f approximately  80°.  This s l i t was set approximately i n  p o s i t i o n and the l i n e i n the v i s u a l region was measured and found t o be nearly 20 mm. behind the plate-holder.  By a- c a l c u l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o that  used above but i n which one assumes that & i s constant i t may be shown that  Substituting the values o f  and s i n i  the value of c/x Is found and  from t h i s the amount o f l a t e r a l s h i f t o f the s l i t needed i s estimated.  Final  adjustment was made by t e s t i n g photographically and s h i f t i n g the s l i t l o n g i t u d i n a l l y to give the best focus.  TBE RESOLVING POWER  When the adjustments had been completed photographs were taken t o check the r e s o l v i n g power.  This was found t o be very s a t i s f a c t o r y . F o r  example the t h e o r e t i c a l r e s o l v i n g power i n the t h i r d order i s 105*000, Nov i n the i r o n t r i p l e t a t 3100 A 0.03  a.  there i s a doublet vhose separation i s  These two l i n e s have been resolved quite e a s i l y , i n d i c a t i n g a  p r a c t i c a l r e s o l v i n g power greater than 60,000 A. A p r i n t o f t h i s t r i p l e t i s shown i n Plate 1.  THE TWO SLIT METHOD  A major problem i n determining wave lengths i n the vacuum region i s how to supply a standard wave length spectrum.  I t i s desirable, i n order  19 to avoid temperature  s h i f t and other movements, to expose the standard  during the exposure of the sample, or as seen before or a f t e r as p o s s i b l e . C e r t a i n l y i t i s not desirable to remove the sample source and replace i t with the standard source i n vacuum work as t h i s would Involve l e t t i n g i n the a i r and then pumping again before beginning the comparison exposure* We have overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y by placing the sample source at the s l i t with  i  80°' and the comparison source at the s l i t with  i = 2 0 ° 30 *. 1  By p l a c i n g the i r o n a r c well back from the s l i t near the Sirks focus, the l i n e s of the i r o n a r c are quite short thus making i t r e l a t i v e l y easy to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two spectra*  The equation f o r constructive interference f o r the standard source n, 7i, =  is  ^//?  * *'*  6 '" s  G  >)  and f o r the comparison source  I f we are working a t one point on the photographic plate so that 0  i s the same f o r both spectra we get  n. 71. Thus i n determining  71  1  /?„ A  L  ~~  ( "> s  ~  =  one measures i t as i f i t were a l i n e i n the i r o n  spectrum and one calculates i t s equivalent i r o n wave length. Subtracting t h i s value from the constant that a l l wave lengths above 2,000 A  then gives  .  I t should be noted  are given i n a i r and i t i s necessary to  convert these values to vacuum wave lengths when using these formulae.  As a preliminary check on t h i s method i r o n arcs were photographed from both s l i t s , the l i n e s i d e n t i f i e d and the constant f<, determined. r e s u l t s of t h i s measurement are as follows:  The  7939.50  3075.72  11,018.40  7651.0A  3366.87  11,018.50  6883.43  4132.06  11,018.61  6486.92  4529.89  11,018.60  6412.52  4602.94  11,018.52  5399.18  5615.65  11,018.40  21 PART I I I THE SOURCE  The source used was an electrodeless discharge. This type of source was chosen because i t could be expected to give high e x c i t a t i o n with very l i t t l e broadening of the l i n e s due either to Doppler, c o l l i s i o n or Stark e f f e c t s (16).  Some d i f f i c u l t y has been encountered i n adapting  t h i s source to Indium and hence i t i s f e l t that a f a i r l y d e t a i l e d discussion of our procedure w i l l be of i n t e r e s t .  The source was arranged as shown i n F i g . 6.  The spark gap was  set at about 1 l / A " and served t o b u i l d up the voltage on the condensers before the gap breaks down.  The sudden discharge then sets up a high voltage,  high frequency o s c i l l a t i o n i n the c o i l wrapped around the quarts tube. Measurement of the  Q  f a c t o r of the c o i l indicates that the frequency of  the o s c i l l a t i o n s i s approximately 20 megacycles.  The condensers, which must  be of high capacity and have high breakdown voltage, were Leyden j a r s .  In order to get a reasonably bright and continual discharge i t i s necessary to have a vapour pressure of Indium of about  IO"-*- to  10"^  mm.  Reference to Table 5 indicates that t h i s means that the temperature of the Indium must be about 10$0° C.  In our f i r s t arrangement the heating was done  e l e c t r i c a l l y but i t was d i f f i c u l t to maintain the temperature required because the elements burned out. oxygen torch was used.  The e l e c t r i c a l heat was abandoned and a gas and  This could maintain the temperature but i t was  now  found that the copper c o i l , which was necessarily heated to near the melting point of copper, corroded very r a p i d l y .  To overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y the  22 copper c o i l was n i c k e l plated.  An attempt was made to protect the c o i l by  p l a c i n g i t outside the oven, which was made as small as was  compatible  with  a proper f i r e chamber and adequate i n s u l a t i o n , but i t was found that the increased diameter very s e r i o u s l y reduced the e x c i t a t i o n .  Pressure i n s i d e the tube was  controlled by means of a v a r i a b l e  pinch cock between the vacuum pump and the tube.  I t i s necessary to adjust  the pressure because the e x c i t a t i o n obtained i s dependent on the pressure as the mean free path i s increased the average terminal v e l o c i t y of the electrons i s increased and hence higher energies are attained. hand, i f the pressure becomes too low there i s no discharge.  On the other  A direct  v i s i o n spectroscope was set up to look i n t o the back end of the discharge tube and the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s of known Indium I and Indium I I I l i n e s were watched and the pressure was adjusted to bring the Indium I I I l i n e up to maxiTrmni brightness.  The tube was made as long as p r a c t i c a l so the end windows were r e l a t i v e l y f a r from the heat and the Indium vapor condensed on the walls before reaching the windows.  This eliminated condensation  on the window  near the grating but the back window could not be as f a r from the furnace and t h i s window gradually became coated.  I t was necessary to play a flame  on t h i s window about every h a l f hour to evaporate the condensed metal.  Two  indentations were made i n the bottom of the tube and a t the  centre of i t s length. was thus prevented  The Indium was placed between these indentations and  from flowing down the tube (which could not be p r e c i s e l y  l e v e l l e d ) away from the heat.  23 With these precautions taken the source could be made to work very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .  However when the source was attached to the vacuum  spectrograph with no window the spectrograph vacuum pump removed the vapour from the tube more r a p i d l y than i t could be evaporated.  I t was found that  the oven had to be heated to 1500° G i n order to get a reasonably s a t i s f a c t o r y discharge.  Obviously the copper c o i l could not be used at t h i s  temperature so we substituted a n i c k e l plated i r o n c o i l , but i t was  still  impossible to keep the source running f o r more than a few minutes before the i r o n c o i l melted.  We f i n a l l y compromised by putting a t h i n f l u o r i t e  window between the tube and the s l i t .  The f l u o r i t e transmits down to  about 1200 A .  Two other types of sources were considered; a vacuum arc i n a weak magnetic f i e l d and a high voltage spark operated under a low pressure of helium gas.  The f i r s t of these was t r i e d but the e x c i t a t i o n d i d not  appear to be high so i t was abandoned.  We were not successful i n getting  r e s u l t s from the l a t t e r source but I f e e l that i t s t i l l holds promise and should be investigated further.  24  PART I? RESULTS. Several plates taken on the vacuum spectrograph have been measured with a Hilger comparator and the wave lengths computed as outlined i n the section on the two s l i t method. In addition, plates taken on a Hilger E l prism spectrograph have been measured. The Hartman formula was used to calculate the wave lengths. These calculated wave lengths were then adjusted to f i t a correction curve which was obtained by comparing several of the wave lengths; with the wave length obtained from the grating. A typical correction curve i s shown i n Fig. 5. About 338 lines, have been measured. Of these 62 are lines which have been reported previously and which have been classified. The remainder are new unclassified lines. A l l the lines* either confirmed or nev are listed i n Table 6 which also gives the intensity of each line as measured by us under various conditions and as given i n the M.I.T. wave length tables. Our measured wave lengths for Indium I and Indium II agree very well with the published values with one exception i n Indium I which w i l l be mentioned later. However i n Indium III we find a large number are quite different from those published.  INDIUM I The square array of Table 7 displays the term values and transitions for Indium I as measured by Sawyer and Lang (17).  We have found a l l term  25  5s5p 4Pi  values to be accurate with the exception of the should be 11,691 cm"  instead of 11,697 cm"  1  term, which  as given by them. A l l  1  transitions which we have measured and confirmed are marked with an asterisk.  The transitions involving  5s5p ^P^  are given our value which  differ from the published value by about 0.6 A .  INDIUM II As previously mentioned, Indium II has been completely and accurately analysed by Paschen and Campbell (2) and by others (18,19,20,21), The square array of Table 8 displays the term values and wave lengths found by them. Those values which we have confirmed are marked with an asterisk. Several of our new lines may be classified as Indium II lines and may be f i t t e d into the square array. A l l these newly classified lines are marked with a dagger  (T ) .  tions i s the one  Perhaps the most interesting of these new transi-  5s5p Po 3  -  5p  AJ =0 , J = 0, 4 5 = /  which has  2  and hence should be a strongly forbidden l i n e .  That this line i s actually  observed i s due to the interaction with the nucleus.  In addition to those  lines marked on the square array we have discovered two interesting odd-odd transitions; namely 1228.2 A  between  1650.07 A  -  between  very low intensities.  5s5p ^ i  5sAf ^  5s5p •  %o  "  5s4f ^ 3  and  these transitions have  26 INDIUM I I I  The r e s u l t s o f our measurements and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Indium I I I are given I n Table 9.  The energy o f the ground state  4d^° 5s  been taken as 226,133 c-T-L i n accordance with Rao's estimate*  %^  has  As previously  mentioned, we were unable t o confirm some o f the wave lengths found by Rao so t h i s square array i s based on our own measurements. a very strong l i n e f o r the t r a n s i t i o n  4d  1 0  5d  2  D  ? # i  Although we found -  4a  1 0  Af  2  F  3 / / i  ,  at 3008.23 A, we were unable to f i n d any trace o f a l i n e f o r the t r a n s i t i o n 4_L0  5  d  2_)_ _ //r  m  ^10  2p^ _ /;  9  which Rao measured as 3009.96 A.  Since t h i s leaves only one l i n e assigned to the ^zv^ term and only two l i n e s assigned to the ^3//^ term, these term values should tbe regarded with skepticism.  I have attempted to c l a s s i f y new terms based on the newly found wave lengths.  The two terms  l i s t e d with new l i n e s i n each*  4d9  5s  2  ,  4d?  5s D,^ 2 2  have been  Since these l i n e s are a l l quite weak the  term values given should be regarded as tentative, although they are reasonably close t o the predicted values*  27 BIBLIOGRAPHY  (1)  Paschen, F.., Ann. der Efaysik, __, 152, (1938).  (2)  Paschen, F. and Campbell, J.S.., Arm. der Physik,  (3)  Shenstone, A.G.., Phys. Rev., __> 894, (1940).  (4)  Shenstone, A.G., J.O.S.A., __, 219, (1949).  (5)  Herzberg, G., Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure. Dover Publications, New York, 1940.  (6)  White, H.E., Introduction t o Atomic Spectra. McGraw-Hill, New York,  29, (1938).  1934. (7)  Bohr, N., P h i l . Mag., 26, 476, (1913).  (8)  De Broglie, L., P h i l . Mag., _2, 446, (1924),  Am. de Phys., _, 22,  (1925). (9)  Schrodinger, E., Ann. de Phy., __, 361, 489, 734, (1926), Phy. Rev.,  28, 1049, (1926).  (10  Vhlonbeck and Goudsmidt, Nature, 117. 264, (1926).  (11  Russel, H.N. and Saunders, F.A., Astrophy. Jour., 6_, 38, (1925).  (12  Zerrdcke, F . von, Verhaudelihger, Op. 25 Mei, (1935), Aangobadon Aon Prof. Dr. P. Zeeman, (1935), 'S-Gravonhage, Martinus N i j h o f f .  (13  Beulter, H.G.., J.O.S.A., _5, 311, (1945).  (14  Mack, Stohn and Edlen, J.O.S.A., __>, 245, (1932).  (15  Mack, Stohn and Edlen, J.O.S.A., 2_, 184, (1933).  (16  Boyce, J.G.., Rev. Mod. Phy.., __, 1, (1941).  (17  Sawyer, R.A. and Lang, R.J.., Phys. Rev., __, 718, (1929).  (18  Sawyer, R.A. and Lang, R.J., Z.S.f. Phy.,, _a,» 453, (1933).  (19  Rao, K.R., Proc. London, Phys. S o c ,  (20  Lang, R.J., Phy. Rev., _0, 762, (1927).  (21  Green, J.B, and Loring, R.A., Ehys* Rev.,  161, (1927).  574, (1927).  (22)  Lang, R.J., Proc. Hat. Acad. Sci., 12, 341, (1927).  (23)  Lang, R.J., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 1£, 414. (1929).  (24)  Rao, K.R., Narayan A.L., Rao, A.S., Indian Journal Physics, g, 482, (1928).  OTHER PAPERS ON INDIUM SPECTRA NOT DIRECTLY REFERRED TO IN THE THESIS r  de Gramont, Compte Rondu. 171. 1106, (1920). Vhler and Tanch, Astrophy. Jour., j>5., 291, (1922). Frayne, Phys. Rev., J l , 152, (1928). Saunders, Astrophy. Jour., AJ, 24O, (1916). Weinberg, H., Proc. Roy. Soc., 122,  133, (1925).  Green, J.B. and Lang, R.T., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 14, 706, (1928). Lande, A., Zeits f . Physik, 80, 59, (1933). Sugiura, Jap. Journ. Ehys.,, J , 155, (1924). Hartree, D.R.,  Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., £2, 304, (1926).  Badami, E,., Proc. Phys. Soc., A2, 538, (1931). Jackson, D.A.., Zeits f . Physik, 80, 59, (1933). Schular and Schmidt, Zeits f . Physik, 104-5-6. 468, (1937). McLennan, A l l i n and Hall, P r o c Roy. Soc., 122, 333, (1931). Bacher, R.F. and Tomboulian, P.H., Phys. Rev., j£, 836, (1938). Hamilton, D.R.., Phys. Rev., jj6, 30, (1939).  3 I 2*2 /  / /  /  •  /  /  / 3  P  /  /  >?•  0 L-S  FIGURE  .  COUPLING  I - RELATIVE  FIGURE  /  0 "  2*2  -  COUPLING  POSITIONS OF TERMS  2 - THE GRATING SURFACE UNDER  FOUCAULT  TEST  FIGURE  3  TYPICAL  MOSELEY  DIAGRAMS  \  /  /  /  /  /R  /  G  GRATING  G  GRATING FIDUCIAL  S*  SLIT  S  SLIT  I  DIRECT  PP  PLATE  C  CENTRE  R  ROWLAND  FIDUCIAL  MAR  MARK  IMAGE HOLDER  CIRCLE  ERROR  to CO  o O  o  O  (ANGSTROMS)  TO  PUMP  1  0-4 /^F  l"  SPARK  50,000 V  110  FIGURE  6 —  THE  SOURCE  A PP.  V  PLATE  I  M 111 • » raaaum i« w  i» A i u m c  to  1  IU X-tl W W kill  T A B L E  AG  TERM ^ 5s  %  2  %  2  2  5S5P P  P 8s S 7d D 8 P 9s S « 8d D 2  4 9 04  5 6 0 3  74 8 5  2751  5245  • 82  • 672  73,700  • € 8  •  4 6 2  5$,700  • 3 6 0  3 9 , 5 0 0  •1671  • 4 0 8 7  •  2 0 0 4  0 4 0 5  2  0 9  •0 3 3  6  • 1832  • 0 2 7 9  • 1669  TERM  —  VALUE  M  PREDICTIONS  69  0  V  26,392  A v  5,16 2 61,106 P  4,8  2  —  • 51  • 260  2 8 , 5 0 0  • 3274  •49  MOSELEY  25 . 5 9 5  81  23^00 0  24.100  106,189  DOUBLET  BY LAW  00  948  120,825 48,  I 2 3  I 6 8,9 4 8  3 0,75 7 136,374  TERM VALUE PREDICTIONS  2 6,3  IN III  30,18 5 49,996  40  3,800  DIAGRAMS  2,238  6 1,4  2  168,  25,12 3 9  3 6 , 9 0 0  3 3 9 2  67,1 I 5  433  83  56,223  TABLE  24.  •336  3  92,238  31,554  P  9  CD II  31,554  z  •5  4  • 3 0 8  FROM  AG I  •60  40  •555  50  • 1072  ( 0 2 0  3 7 9 0  1436  30,864  53 5p  •391  •1532  0 2 2  0 4  TERM  l  114,1 0 0  2 4 0 5  2 2 4 4  *  10  6 116  • 0 5 0 4  2  120,800  303  0  035  1 0 7 2  5  •782  1  T  R  2813  4678  2  5 5s  T  •2188  2  s  V /  R  •2537  P  5  /  • 0 6 4 4  2  2  T  •2 1 1 0  2  TABLE I  vw  IN III  •0445  4  5P  CD II  1  48,000  THE  I I 4.09 I 5 4,8 5 7 226,133 7 1,933 154,200  IRREGULAR  i  Table  3  - - « S B O D V B QUANTUM MJMBER T E R M V A L U E P R E D I C T I O N S FROM E t F E C T I V J i Q M  SEQUENCES 8  6  5  a  1.0913  2.4322  1.0578  2.9505  1.0082  3.9900  1.3409  ° '/^ ?  1.8927  p ,  • „ 1.0178  2.9818  1.0W0  1.0034  3  .  1.0066 4  5  0  .  4  4  5  6  ^  6  0  i  3.S635  -  4  1.0019  4.9934  9  9  31  6  8  6 >  o  o  l  -«  9  7  3  1 m  p  1.0012  5.9953  6.9965  4.9957 4.9966 1.2518 1.5784  Cd I I X7941  1  2 l  z  '0714  D;'/  3.U/X*  2  4  >  9  4  7  - °  7  5  4  -  8  6  7  5  *P , 2  /2  I -  9  9  1  7  ^  —  "  ^  4.0988  -0X02  5  . «0 9  fi  3  —  1.0013  8  4.9478  2  5.9925  ^  •  1.0181 ,  8  4  5  8  '  1.0067  5  2  1.0074  8  7  0  .1090  6.9368  L006X  .  4  5  8  9  3  0  . 937 2  6  .1151  1  '  0  0  5  S -  9  <>.9890 -0034  8  9  6  ^ 7  .H85  9  0  IS rJC5..  4SO  ••• , * >  tarn -• *  ••" *4  "Xf  €9 ©  ' CM.  H  si i  O  ?3 o  o  H  <0  tB £*• 0> til  • • *• - *, * to 0> i0't>  *  «0  ca  o  0*;  *3  9.  m  05  I  am  S3  o •ft  5s  M H H 05  N &4  _  1°  I* 3  Table 4 DISPERSION  R «• 1995 mnu d(nA) = ds -  b = 17,361 A  b  ]/1 - s i n  2  9  1 = 20° 30'  sin 9  R 5000  0 25 50 75  sin i  b  •  =  .3502  sin i  6000  7000  8000  9000;  6.268 6.257 6.245 6.233  5.738 5.723 5-708 5.693  5.083 5.065 5.029  4*303 4.282 4.261 4.240  5.047  100 125 150 175  6.638 6.629 6.620 6.611  6.221 6.209 6.197 6.185  5.678 5.663 5.648 5.633  5.011 4.993 4.975 4.956  4.218 4.197 4.176 4.154  200 225 250 275  6.602: 6.593 6.584 6.575  6.172 6.160 6.148 6.135  5.617 5.602 5.587 5.571  4.937 4.919 4.900 4.881  4.132 4.111 4.089 4.067  300  6.565 6.556  6.122 6.110 6.097 6.084  5.555 5.539 5.523 5,507  4.862 4.343 4.824 4.805  4.045  6.-526 6.516 6.506 6.496  6.071 6.058  5.491 5.475 5.459 5.443  4.786 4.767 4.748 4.729  3.956 3.934 3.912 3.889  6.486  6.019 6.006 5.993 5.979  5.426;  4.709 4.690 4.670 4.650  3.866 3.844 3.821 3.798  4-630 4.610 4.590^ 4.570  3.775 3.752 3.729 3.706  325 350 375 400 425  450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675  6.546  6.536  6.476 6.466  6.456 6.445 6.435 6.425 6.414  6.045  6.032  5.965 5.952. 5.938 5.924  5.410  5.394 5.377 5.360  5.344 5.327 5.310  4.023 4,001 3.979  Table 4 Continued  5000  6000  7000  8000  9000  700 725 750: 775  6.403 6.392 6.331 6.370  5.910 5.896, 5.882 5.868  5.293 5.276 5.259 5.242  4.550 4.530 4.510 4.49©  3.683 3.660 3.637 3.613  300 825 850 875  6.359 6.348 6.337 6.326.  5.854 5.840 5.826 5.812  5.224 5.207 5.190 5.172  4.469 4.449 4.429 4.408  3.589  900 925 950 975  6.214 6.303 6.292 6.280  5.797 5.783 5*768 5.753  5.154 5.137 5.119 5.101  4.387 4.366 4.345 4.324  Table 5 VAPOR PRESSURE OF INDIUM  Vapor  Pressure  Temperature  Melting Point  157°C  10"5 mm  667°C  IO"" mm  746°C  10-3 mm  84Q C  IO" mm  952°C  IO"" mm  1088°C  1 mm  1260°C  4  2  1  6  Source - Tube Laboratory Manual M.I.T.  Table 6 [.I.T. P.F.. P.Q..  G.A.  G.V.  Ex.  i A  V  Class  20 12 12 5 5  7455.16 7425.82 7367.24 7279.76 7226.08  13409.9 13462.7 13570.3 13720.2 13768.8  30 5 12 5 5  7221.32 7181.10 7171.92 7167.86 6902.98  13844.1 13922.0 13939.4 13947.4 T/,/,82.4  6900.37 6891.63 6875.02 6847.73 6783.72  I4488.O 14506.4 I454I.4 14599.3 U737.1  I II  6751.78 6748.30 6746.89 6745.66 6679.44  I48O6.8 14814.5 14317.7 14820.2 14967.2  II  6664.12 6582.82 6578.16 6517.22 6512.18  15001.6 15186.9 15197.6 15339.7 15351.6  50 150 30 60 100 90  I II  200 50. 20  I II  5  II  1  1 1 5 10 5 12 5 30 120 20 80 25 • 100 60  150 200 15 1000  I II  300 200: 20 50 20  II III  6305.14 6197.19 6160.60 6147.88 6142.77  15855.7 16131.9 16227.7 16261.2 16274.6  II III  20 5W 100 5 10  II II II  6141*04 6128.11 6115.51 6097.02 6018.00  16279.4 16313.7 16347.4 16396.9 16612.2  II II II  5935.60 5918.70 5915*67 5905.04 5903.44  16844.5 16890.9 16899.6 16930.0 16934.6  100  0 100 2  II II  150  100  II  II II II  Table 6 Continued  M.I.T.. P.F. P.Q.  5  500 15 5 50  G.A.. 100 100 50 0 2 0  70  100  30 15 500 400  2. 0 100 0  2 3 1  250 5  300 300 200 300W  40  200  0 50 100 200  400  10 0 100  G.V.  Ex..  10 5 0 0  II III III  5  A 5854.58  Class 17075.9 17080.4 17178.9 17469,0 17509.8  II III III I  5679.08 5666.22 5662..50 5644.88  17553.2 17603.6 17643.5 17655.2 17710.3  III  5609.13 5528.35 5519.09 5512.91 5478.79  17823.1 18083.5 18113.9 18134.2 18247.1  0 0 . 1 0 0  5431.97 5431.33 . 5366.12 5349.07 5337.11  18404.4 18406.6 18630.4 18689.6 18731*5  0  5322.31 5317.14 5309.46 5248.77 5244.74  18783.6 18801.9 18829.1 19048.1 19061.4  5197,70 5184.25 5128.83 5117.37 5116.25  19233.9 19283.8 19492.2 19539.5 19540.1  5109.38 5105.70 5097.49 5085.98 5054.70  19566.4 19580.5 19612.0 19656.4 19778.1  5045.48 5030.72 5014*18 5012.01 5006.67  19814*0 19872.4 19937.9 19946*5 19967.8  0  0 2  1 20 1  II II II  II III  0 2. II II  5  2 1 0 00 00  5853.03  5819*48 5722.95 5709.50  5695.40  0 10  0 0 5  ii  II  II II II  II III  II II II  Table 6 Continued M.I.T. P.F* P.Q.  G.A.  G.V,  Ex.  111 A  V  Class  0 2 0 0 0  4972.35 4957.12 4949.08 4919.73 4874.44  20105.6 20167.4 20282.1 20320.7 20509.5  0  4819.87 4800.01 4778.49 4764.66, 4757.57  20741.7 20827.5 20921.3 20982.1 21013.3  4701.58 4684.65 4682.00 4681.U 4678.17  21263.5 21340.6 21352.4 21356.5 21369.9  4673.30 4660.00 4655.63 4644.6I 4638.86  21392.2 21453.2 21473.4 21524.3 21551.0  II  21554.5 21612.1 21675.9 21762.9 21831,2  II  5 150 20h 10  4638.ll 4625.74 4612.13 4593.70 4579.32  3h 5 10 10 10  4576.10 4535.50 4530.05 4523.57 4517.42  21846.6 22042.1 22068.6 22100.3 22130.4  4511.32 4505.42 4487.36 4415.69 4389.48  22189.3 22278.6 22640.2 22775.4  4383.76 4358.53 4252.66 4245.33 4223.57  22805.0 22937.1 23508.1 23548.7 23670.2  5  0 0 0  35 300 2500 200 30  OV 10W  II  100  II  5  ow  II  250 200 70  5000R 10 10 15h 5h 5h 2 5 5  500 100  0 100W 10  200  100  20  0  100  5 10  II II II  I  III III  II II  II II  I  II III  Table 6 Continued M.I.T. P.F. ?..Q. G.A..  5  100 10 15 8  G.V.  Ex.  20  II  2W, 15 200R 200Wh  20d • 1 8W  200 20 40  3  10  III  10  2  40 100  II III  lOWh  3  2  20:  III  100 15  1  5  II  o;  2  10  100  20 10  2  3  3  Z  I. Ill  30  l  1 1  18 50  1 20bh 20bh 50 lbh  3bh  8  100  10  150  200  20  500 1  II  10  100  II  10  10 40  II II  80 80)  3  150  5  II  1 50  5  100  100 15  Class 4215.90 4205.10 4196.99 4180.94 4158.08  23713.1 23774.0 23825.6 23911.4 2/,0/,?.8  4156.73 4132.90 4101.77 4072.68 4071.57  2405O.I 24189.3 24373.9 24547.0 24553.6  4062.23 4057.86 4056.99 4032.33 4031.95 4023.56  246IO.I 24636.7 24641.9 24792.6 24794.9 24846.6  3962.17 3957.46 3953.29 3941.33  25232.6 25261.6 25288.2 25365.0  II  3934.02 3932.30 3920.54 3913.98 3902.12.  25412.1 25423.2 25499.5 25542.C 25619.9  II  II  3890.26 3883.20 3871.30 3861.48 . 3853.00  25698.0 25744.7 25823.8 25889.5 25946;5  III  3850.00 3842.27 3835.18 3834.60 3799.38  25966.7 26018.9 26067.0 26071.0 26312.6  3795.22 3739.95 3718.49 3716.13; 3709.60  26341.5 26730.8 26885.0 26902.1 26949.4  3936.79  18  400 30 50  2  iv  II  I III III II III III  II II II II II II  Table 6 Continued  J.T. 5 25 10 15  P.F. P.Q. 1 10  .-.  G.A..  G.V.  Ex.  20  II  .-.  1  2  10 12  12 6  10 10 a 0  3649.95 3644.7 3642.7 3638.5 3628.9  27389.9 27436.8 27444.4  0 0  3612.86 3610.51 3602.88 3590.4 3586.0  27671 27689 27747.6 27844.7 27878.3  3584.0 3582.5 3576.2 3572.75 3550.37  27893.9 27905.5 27954.7 27981.7 28158.0  3546.83 3542.82 3542.08 3536.3 3535.71  28186.2 28218.0 28223.9 28270.1 28274.0  hh  3533.1 3517.6 3498.09 3483.70 3438.3  28295.7 28420*4 28579.6 28696.9 29076.7  bh bh II bh II  3433.4 3421.4 3404.12 3399.46 3376.63  29177.3 29219.5 29367.8 29408.0 29606.9  II  3370.98 3370.0 3363.0 3360.15 3358.0  29656.3 29665.1 29726.8 29752.0 29771.1  I  III  2  3  3Wh .OWh  1  10d 5d lOd  e 2  1 50  1  2  200  1  1 10  25 3 6 6  2 1 0 0 1 1 0  50  I II  10 0, 0 0 0  0 0  Class  26958.* 27063.5 27096.3 27140.3 27282.6  15  18 3  V  3708.3 3693.97 3689.5 3683.52 3664.3  Obh  10  A  II  27476a  II  II  I  Table 6 Continued M.I.T..  40 3  P.Q. G.A.. 50 00  1 20  G.V..  Ex.  A  V  50  II  3343.85 3338.67 3302.6 3293.0  29897.1 29943.5 29965 30270.5 30358.7  3281.8 3278.4 3272.9 3268.2 3267.1  30462.3 30493.9 30545.2 30589.1 30599.4  3264.12 3262.6 3260.6 3258.52 3256.07  30627.3 30641.6 30660.4 30680.0 30703.0  3250.4 3247.61 3245.9 3236.82 3198.22  30757" 30783' 30-799.2 30885.6 31258.4  II III II III II  3194.70 3187.03 3176.39 3160.20 3158.64  31292.8 31368J. 31473.2 31634.4 31650.0  II II II  3156.08 3147.04  31675.7 31766.7 31811.2 31849.0 31910  0  b  4d  4d  4d  4d 2d  500R 1000R  20 2d 2d 80 loo;  2 10 20  10 15  1 2003 500  1 50  5  802  10. 1  50 12 30  5 100 2 10W. 80  1 20  40  5 20  10  10 80  5 20  80  20  100 200 75 35  0 20 0 10  I I  II  80. 15  3  10  3  6 10  1  3  10 10  5  3336.26  3142.64 3138.91 3132.93  3 3  vi  II II  3121.55 3104.16 3100.92 3100.05 3083.84  32026  3081.05 3078.27 3067.73 3066.55 3056.58  32447 32476 32588  32205.5 32239.2 32248.2 32417.7  32600.4  32706.8  Class II  I I  II II II II II II II  II II  Table 6 Continued  vii  G.V.  Ex.  A  V  Class  40  I III  32764.0 32799.5 32809.7 32848.5 32891.5  I  I  3051.25 3047.94 3047.0 3043.40 3039.42  II  3038.67 3037.11 3034.12 3023.39 3022.86  32899.5 32916.7 32949.2 33066.9 33071.7  3017.78 3008.23 2999.60 2989*59 2986.92  33127.3 33232.5 33328.1 33439*7 33469*6  2983.99 2982.88 2979,58 2976.24 2970.89  33502.4 , 33515*P 33551*9 33589*7 33650.1  2966.20 2962.00 2959.72 2957.08 2941.03  33703.4 33751*1 33777.1 33807.3 33991.7  2939.36 2933,27 2932.57 2928.04 2927.08  34081.7 34089.7 34142.6 34153.8  2 2  5  2916.47 2911.45 2910,52 2907.93 2907.08  34277.9 34337.1 34348.1 34378.7 34388.7  2 12 60 2 2  2905.16 2900.56 2890.20 2884.08 2881.61  34411.4  M.I.T. P.F. P.Q,. 15  3  oh  3  1000R  G.A.  40 30  30, 20  IG  50  30  100  3 12 1  3  18  33  500W 50 2 2 2  30 10  25 2 50 80  2  3  200 10  40  100 III 0. - II  40  100  200  5  III  4W 2W  5 4  4  50 100  40  100  II hh 100 100  I II  10,  3  500 2 2  50  50;  10 3  2  1  200  50  40  I  II  200  II  I  II III II  III  II I II  34011.1  34466.0 34589.6 34663.0 34692.7  I  II  II  Table 6 Continued [.1..T. P.F., P.Q. G.A. 2 20 20 60 3  5 30  0 0 5  100  2 2 2 6 80  2  3  G.7..  Ex.  20  II  50  30  I  50  100  I  40  1  3 3  50 2 2 23  2 3  30  1  2  0 1  o; 3  80  II  0  0  2 8 80  II  2  II  0 40  40  I  20  I II II  3  300Wh 80 25Wh, 2  2  m  30 20 100  2¥ 1  10W 5W 15  0 0  1 20  40  viii A  V  Class  2873.50 2867.3 2866.46 2865.70 2864.23  34791 34865.8 34876.0 34885.3 34903.2  2860.52 2858.10 2844.51 2839.98 2839.33  34948.4 34978.0 35145.1 35201*2 35209.2  2838.87 2836.89 2835.95 2833.93 2833.06  35215.0 35239.5 35251.2 352763 35287.2  2823.99 2819.17 2811.93 2810.90 2805.12  35400.85  35460.9 35552*3 35565.3 35638.6  2803.18 2802.54 2802.01 2798.70 2795.36  35663*3 35671*4 35678.2 35720.4 35763.0  2792.74 2786.25 2783.48 2775.35 2773.04  35796.6 35880.0 35915.6 36020.9 36050.9  I I  2755.5 2753.65 2752.78 2749.70 2748.72  36280*4 36304.7 36316.1 36356.9  I II II  2747.9 2746.8 2740.01 2732.0 2726.27  36381 36395.3 36485.6 36592.4 36669.3  36369.8  II  I  I  II II  II  Table 6 Continued M.I.T.. P.F. P.Q.. G.A.  30 125 200Rh 5 2 30 50 80. 25 80  60  2 2  36 2 2 150 30 2 2 2 2 3 2 AO 50Rh 140 2 2 10 5 2 10 30 2  20 2. 50 80  Ex.  8W 8W 20 20  0 10 6  2 10 10  0 4 0  1 10 2  0  1  00 0 0 8 5  0 0  40 10  10 1  G.V.  4 10  20 50  2  0  I I  II II II  2709.2 2705.2 2704.41 2683.0 2674*55  36900.0 36955 36965.7 37260.7 37378.3  II II II  II II II  2672.10 2668.65> 2662.70 2634*70 2631.0  37412.6 37461.0 37544.7 37944 37998  II II II  II  2623.35 2614.31 2612.01 2601.91 2598.74  38107.8 38240 38273 38421.8 38468.6  II  2591.97 2589.5 2585.8 2584.6 2580.8  38567.2 38606 38661 38679 38736  2578.9 2570.3 2565.13 2560.25 2559.12  38765 38894 38972.7 39047.0 39064.2  2554.45 2552.0 2545.90 2541.6 2536.49  39135.8 39173 39367.1 39333 39412.7  2528.17 2527.50 2524.20 2523.00 2521.65 2521.32  39542 39552.9 39605 39623.4 39649.8 39644.6  III III  0 80 1  40  10  II I  50  40  10  II  20  2 5 0  10 20  20 30  2  Class  I I  2¥  15  V 36673.7 36681.8 36811.7 36836.O 36885.9  I II  50  A 2725.95 2725.34 2715.72 2713.93 2710.26  2W.  0  ix  LE I-  I 11 II  II I II  I I  Table 6 Continued M.I.T.  P.F.  P.Q.  G.A.  G..V.  Ex.  2  3 4 8 2  3  2 40 12  2Wh 2 5Wh 3  10 10.  10. 2  4  1 20  5  2  2  0  0  II HE  I II  0  2  3  2 10R  2:  20R  3 2 2  5  60  3  15  10 0 0.  1 4 1 10  50  1  I I II  5  I  3 8 4W. 5  A  20  20.  0, 1 00  II  I I  V  2519.41 2516.40 2510.41 2508.37 2505.04  39680 39727 39822.1 39854.5 39907.5  2497.20 2495.97 2486.17 2478.55 2475.56  40032.8 40052.5 40210.2 40333.9 40332.7  2470.64 2468.08 2466.47 2460.15 2455.68  40463.I 40505.O 40531.5 40635.6 40709.6  2455.35 2449.142438.75 2433.9 2430.99  40715.1 40883.3 40992 41074 41122.8  2429.86 2429 2428.4 242O.6O  /.Tl/,2.1 41156.7 41167 41260.0 41300  2417.66 2399.18 2389.54 2384.50 2382.63  41349.6 41668.1 41836.2 41924.7 41957.6  2358.70 2351.45 2350.78 2347.09 2346.02  42383.3 42514 42525.9 42592.7 42612*3  2341.84 2340.19 2339.72 2336.97 2332.74  42688.3 42718.4 42727.1 42777*2 42854.9  2422.92  15 20.1 20  20 0 0  x Class  II  I I  I I I  I I II II I II I I I I I  Table 6 Continued  M.I.T.  P.F..  100 1  5  G.V,  2 1 1  43  6  G.A.  10 0  100  200  2  7\  V  Glass  I II I  2324.36 2321..83 2315.09 2313.22 2309.42  43009..3 43057 43181.5 43216.4 43287.6  I II I  2306.10 2301.28 2298.37 2297.09 2292.8  43349.9 43440.7 43495,5 43520 43601  2290,27 2283.75 2273.23 2265.06 2261.26  43649,5  2260.25 2241,66 2230.67 2229.8 2227.50  44229a 44595,9 44815.6 44833.1 44879.4  2216.3 2211.40 2205.35 2203.57 2198.40  45106.2 45206.1 45330a 45366.7 45472.1  BE I  0 1 0 2 3 2  I I  1 1 1  I I I LE  2 2  Ex..  2  2  10 2  P.Q,  xl  4 3 7 7 4 a  43880.1 44134 44209.6  25  2: 1 0 00  1  0  2197.41 2177.7 2171.0 2158.4 2157.0  45494.0 45906 46047 463I6 46346  1 0 4  2154.36 2144.81 2078.70 2062.0 2025.44  46402.7 46609.4 48092.2 48481.0 49355.9  1977.36 1966.67 1942.433 1936.41 1930.60  50572.4 50847.3 51481.9 51641.9 51797.3  II  2 2 2 27 12 12 20 10 10 8  200  100 50 1 50 50  II II II II  II I  I I  I I  n  1  11  11 11 11 11  Table 6 Continued M.I.T. FJ.. P.Q.. G*A.  G.V..  Ex*  30  III  10 5  III  5 6 10.  uo  5  8 10  III  50: 0 20  III  20  III  0  5  6  1  5 9 10  0 0 0  2  II  xiii  Class 1530.18 1521.7 1494*1 1492.96 1487.59  65351.7 65715.9 66929.0 66981*0 67222*8  1469.36 1442*8 1434.85 1406.2 1403*1  68056.8 69309.6 69693*6 71113*6 71270.9  1381.35 1344.6 1330.9 1322.55 1320.2  72393.9 74371*5 75137.1 75611 75746.0  1296.0 1280*59 1265*66 1228.2 1158.0  77160*4 78089 79010.0 81419.9 86355.7  M.I.T.  Intensity from M.I.T. Tables.  P*P*  Intensity on Prism Spectrograph with Eastman F Plate.  P.Q..  Intensity on Prism Spectrograph with Ilford Q Plate.  G.A.  Intensity on Grating Spectrograph i n air..  G.V..  Intensity on Grating Spectrograph i n vacuum.  Ex.  Probable Excitation. Wavelength. Wave number.  Class  Classification.  III III III  III III  II  */= ^ Sf *P P<lz Sp 6f V /Op 'f? IOp> *7°I'/T. F 9P . <s-/9 6 960 3 780(> 8 3 *77ge 7 <-> *7*900 3 297 3 3?bi>9 C - T 30SO 2391 9 237O •ZZHO 97 Soz.3-oGO/7- S~ sz*,: ><y SZSS • 69OO 3 7_.*>i97 77_^ S 721 2-7 3-709. 7& 11, So 9. 1 ii,*vt9. o 11, S99.3 17, *6Z-S 19 997- S / 9 0 2 7 S 19902 9t 9i?Z<f. 7 ?  fSS-19,3 911 s *\ Viol 7Z ~VSt/-*7 22, 29M 83.1,373 1 * ZZ/bO S 3039.3-* 32SY-SZ. 13, 7 7S *3Z, %r91 1 * U(,.f,L7•?9*7, U  /3,7S{. 9 2BS  /jt  1*7,  3ZS6-0 3 30,7O3 f 8./C  *  30Sf- ZS~  * 31977 Z77S-3J ZV67O0 lO, bHS 36ozo r 33907 * ft, *  9/  *  9ZI 6 3SZ3<? Z7S3. gj 2932 bO 6* 7s % i * 3*7, o 89.-1 t0.3*t>.0 3(J30/ 8 Get0_y_ 2-713-9 S * * 39,oi%. 3 36, f3S27/0 Zg f bc< *o . 7S69. 6 3d 98S7 9s *s Zlbo Ob ZbOI. 7S" * 6 03/ a lO.b* 7 O3 e, izi. 2 Z389 S f c ^2SZ2 99 *993/ e i/l, f3S 939 bZ3C 7cl *Ds 2S2.I 3 b ¥806> 1 39, (.19 Z 23*70ZZ Z1b8ol 9s HZ, 7/7?*yo,sof> z. 39Y9 S 2306 7 z*Yz9 t>8 33Z? 3 t/3Z3i. k fl, 127 9 Z*Y3o 7 33/0 I *7/, "IS- o 23 99 /Oz * Z 7? 7 8 93, f 90 6 2  I  ef3  //x  /jt  9c7 *D„t 2Y*73 6 9c( Os-u 2 -Y lis zobf g  Z2t>0 s *1*1,  •  3 2379 66 t/2po99  x  2Z*i1 s ^ 1*7,^9 9- 1  /oc( Di/^ it/213 IS ss 123 •* J '/-. 221 9 z */•?, 06 9 it>oo z  lief  *Q  zz// 1 *vs ziz  TABLE-7  INDIUM 1  NOTE — ALL TERM AND TRANSITION VALUES ARE FROM SAWYER S LAN G ( ) EXCEPT THOSE INVOLING 5s5/o'% 'z * INDICATES A LINE CONFIRMED B Y US  S  2 P  P,  ,6 8, 9VS loo  2Z6,  133  6p  6p  /z  I6Z-3f  S7, '67  (,,,SZf o 1 HI  II8.ZOZ  ZiSIO  SI 3 to  ZS3  (,1,393.6 f */<?*.*  toO  Sfo^-88 WW  3  >°  77, Z 70 </ 6 6 9*1- 0  0,97,1  3Z,  7  SW877  '°°  Z9&Z88 17,169-0  lb, 13/ f  00  *  33,StS. O  17 178-9 zo qoZ3 S<<,  S6,69(,  '  S8'9-«8 '°°  (,7,ZZZ.8  7.5 *5'/t.  Z9, 8*ft> G 38S3 OO SS,  '  *"  l¥87Sf  <J7, 38Z  '  r 9,0*6/  63,3*' 7 2 0  1 f 'Fs'/*  6 y, if 8  69, IS 9  So 67 II  Sff8/f If3</.8S  Fz<^  37, 998  HC, lOZ 7 l  xo  Z  g  80, 2 Of  169, 6 Olf-  n«8 (.s  *Pi '/ H f  33, Z3Z.S 10  ?3so8 1 10 fOtZ Z3  S9S 100  SS,  H03Z 3 3  tit  2f  6 HOT,  si  2*7,S53 6  39, S9S  TABLE 9 -  INDIUM III  SQUARE  ARRAY  

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