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Performance evaluation of cover systems constructed of Paste Rock material Miskolczi, Jozsef

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COVER SYSTEMS CONSTRUCTED OF PASTE ROCK MATERIAL by JOZSEF MISKOLCZI B . Sc. Universitatea de Nord, Baia Mare, 1999 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A P P L I E D S C I E N C E in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Mining Engineering) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A June, 2007 ©Jozsef Miskolcz i , 2007 A B S T R A C T Soil covers are accepted by the mining industry as being a possible solution for the long-term environmental problems associated with A c i d Rock Drainage during operations as well as post-mining. But given the wide differences between geographical and climatic conditions in which mines operate, it is impossible to create a universally usable recipe. To overcome the challenges posed by site specific temperature and precipitation regimes several types of covers were developed. The cover discussed in the present paper is of the "barrier covers" type. Following the example of success of a soil cover constructed of glacial t i l l at Equity Silver mine in B C (Weeks and Wilson 2005, 1615-1630) the decision was made to simulate the composition of the glacial t i l l by blending together waste rock, tailings and crushed slag. The mixture is referred to as Paste Rock. The initial laboratory testing was conducted at U B C and reported by (Fines and Wilson, 2002) while the filed testing was devised and constructed at Inco's Central Tailings Facility in Copper Cliff, Ontario. The field scale experiment is described by the current thesis. A five-pad lysimeter was constructed in 2004 in the R2 area of the Central Tailings Facility in Copper Cliff, O N and the cells were filled with tailings collected on site. Four of the cells were subsequently covered with covers constructed of Paste Rock material according to four different recipes determined during lab testing. One cell was filled up with tailings only and used as control. The scope of this phase of the experiment was the installation of field instruments and subsequent data collection and data analysis. Precipitation, infiltration, run-off, and net solar radiation data was collected between the beginning of Apr i l and mid-November 2006, over a period of 227 days. i i The conclusion of the data analysis is that Paste Rock covers are effectively reducing infiltration into the underlying tailings while maintaining low values of matric suction, and reducing oxygen ingress to zero. A threefold decrease in the infiltration volumes was observed in the case of the uncompacted covers, whereas the compacted covers reduced infiltration by as much as two orders of magnitude. i i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I would like to acknowledge here and thank, Dr. G . Ward Wilson for his guidance and support during the almost 3 years of our collaboration under this project. Dr. Wilson's always positive attitude was always a positive influence on me, especially at times when the field project was not working as planned. I would like to thank Lisa Lanteigne, Quentin Smith, and especially Mike Peters from Inco's Copper C l i f f office, and to all the guys from the Department of Decommissioning and Reclamation. Funding for this project was provided by Inco Ltd and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council iv TABLE OF CONTENT Abstract ii Acknowledgements iv Table of Contents v List of Figures v i i List of Tables ix List of Equation x Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Scope of research 3 Thesis outline 5 Chapter 2: Literature review 6 2.1 Soil covers 6 2.2 Equity Silver Glacial Till Cover 9 2.3 Co-Deposition 12 2.4 Lab testing and numerical modeling .' 14 2.5 Summary 19 Chapter 3 Field program 20 3.1 Description of experimental lysimeters 20 3.2 Water collection system 28 3.3 Description of the instrumentation 33 Chapter 4: Description of collected data 40 4.1 Weather data 40 4.1.1 Precipitation 40 4.1.2 Net Solar Radiation '. 43 4.2 Geotechnical data 46 4.2.1 Soil moisture content 46 4.2.2 Soil matric suction 49 4.2.3 Oxygen concentration 54 4.2.4 Saturated hydraulic conductivity 57 v 4.3 Hydrological data 58 Chapter 5: Discussion 63 5.1 Weather data 63 5.1.1 Rainfall data 63 5.1.2 Net radiation data 64 5.2 Hydrological Data 67 5.3 Geotechnical data 73 5.3.1 Saturated hydraulic conductivity .73 5.3.2 Soi l moisture content .75 5.3.3 Soil matric suction 82 5.3.4 Oxygen concentration 83 Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendations 84 References 87 Appendix A 91 Appendix B ...102 Appendix C 105 Appendix D 108 Appendix E 117 Appendix F 125 Appendix G 131 Appendix H 139 v i L I S T O F F I G U R E S Figure 1.1: Schematic of ARE) generation 2 Figure 3.1: Design schematic of an individual lysimeter 20 Figure 3.2: Construction of the lysimeters 22 Figure 3.3: Placement of Paste Rock cover as a high slump material 23 Figure 3.4: Cracks on the cover of L #5 25 Figure 3.5: Vegetated topsoil cover on L #4 26 Figure 3.6: Old collection tote of L#5 30 Figure 3.7: Plywood box housing the infiltration collection tote of L #3 31 Figure 3.8: Detail of drainage gutter 33 Figure 3.9: L #3 with the Net Radiometer in the middle and the weather station in the far right 35 Figure 3.10: Inside the box housing the data logger and other devices 35 Figure 4.1: Cumulated rainfall between A p r i l 3 and November 15, 2006 42 Figure 4.2: Rainfall frequency and intensity between A p r i l 3 and November 15,2006 43 Figure 4.3: Net Radiation measured on site, expressed in W / m 45 Figure 4.4: Net Radiation measured on site, expressed in MJ/m 2 /day 45 Figure 4.5: Gravimetric water content measured in each individual lysimeter cell...47 Figure 4.6: Schematic view of tensiometers installed in trench 51 Figure 4.7: Soil suction envelopes measured in each individual lysimeter 52 Figure 4.8: Photograph of gas sampling tubes during installation 56 Figure 4.9: Measured infiltration rates between Apr i l 3 r d 2006 and November 15 t h 2006 60 Figure 4.10: Cumulated Run-off between M a y 17 2006 and November 14 2006....62 Figure 5.1: Total daily values of net radiation 65 Figure 5.2: Energy density measured on site during 2006 66 Figure 5.3: Typical daily distribution of measured net radiation 66 Figure 5.4: Relationship between rainfall events and variations in measured flow rates 69 v i i Figure 5.5: Cumulated infiltration through lysimeters 72 Figure 5.6: Cumulated run-off from the surface of lysimeters 73 Figure 5.7: Gravimetric moisture content determined for tailings and Paste Rock covers 77 Figure 5.8: Volumetric water content determined for tailings and Paste Rock covers 78 Figure 5.9 : In-situ volumetric moisture content versus suction measured in L #2, L #4 and L #5 compared to laboratory S W C C 81 v i i i LIST OF T A B L E S Table 2.1: Field properties of the Equity Silver glacial t i l l cover 12 Table 3.1: Physical characteristics of the Paste Rock cover 21 Table 3.2: Comparison between the 30 year average and summer of 2005 24 Table 3.3: Design modifications of the covers after reworking 26 Table 3.4: Results of compaction of the Paste Rock covers 27 Table 3.5: Location of thermal conductivity sensors 37 Table 3.6: Calibration factors for tipping bucket flow gauges 39 Table 4.1: Comparison between precipitation data measured at two locations 41 Table 4.2: Measured values of Oxygen concentration inside the Paste Rock covers 57 Table 4.3: Hydraulic permeability measured on site 58 Table 4.4: Calibration factors of individual tipping bucket flow gauges 60 Table 5.1: Summary of water balance for each lysimeter 70 Table 5.2: Saturated hydraulic conductivity of various Paste Rock mixtures 74 Table 5.3: Measured Suction and Gravimetric Water Content 81 ix LIST OF E Q U A T I O N S Equation 4.1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION During its lifetime, a mining operation produces large volumes of waste material. This is especially true in the case of open pit mining, where strip-ratio can be high and ore grades are typically low. In general, the mining waste can be divided into waste rock and tailings, and the traditional approach o f mine waste management calls for the separate deposition of the two waste streams. Waste rock consists of a coarse, angular material, with high shear strength characteristics and virtually no water retention capacity. It may contain trace concentrations of the minerals of interest, but in general consists of the removed overburden or selectively mined gang minerals. The current management practice is to stack or dump the waste rock, constructing above grade structures that can reach considerable heights. The deposition technique, especially end-dumping on a steep slope, creates alternate layers of coarse and fine material, with a layer o f rubble at the base o f the dump. This stratification represents ideal conditions for oxygen penetrating the pile through convective mechanisms (Lefebvre et al. 2001) , while water from precipitation drains freely through the waste rock. In the cases when the waste rock contains sulphides, the oxidation process leads to the generation of A c i d Rock Drainage ( A R D ) and high dissolved metal loads in the effluents. A c i d Rock Drainage is considered today as being the single largest environmental liability of the mining industry. A simplified diagram o f A R D generation is presented in Figure 1.1. In order to occur, acid generation is dependent on the simultaneous presence o f 1 four elements: sulphur (in the form of sulphidic minerals), oxygen (from air), water (precipitation), and bacteria that are acting as catalysts o f the oxidation process. Water aste rock/Tailings A R i r Figure 1.1: Schematic of A R D generation Tailings are the waste product o f the ore mil l ing and processing, with grain size typically ranging from fine sand to silt material. Tailings are usually discharged in specially built impoundments at a solid content typically between 25% and 40%, and allowed to settle and consolidate with time. Often the pond created on the top o f the tailings impoundment is used as water storage for the processing plant. The retaining dykes are constructed from the coarse fraction of the tailings, separated through hydraulic segregation during deposition. Tailings have high water retention capacity and low shear strength, and are therefore prone to physical instability and liquefaction failure. Many examples of tailings dam failures are known, some of them highly publicized, such as the Aznalcollar, Spain or the Baia Mare, Romania events. In recent times, mitigating the acid generating processes is a constant preoccupat'on of the mining industry. Many technologies have been developed. The most successful in preventing acid generation is water capping or disposal of tailings and waste rock 2 submerged in natural or artificial lakes. Although effective, the environmental concerns arising from the extensive destruction of the ecosystem of a natural lake chosen as disposal site and/or concerns regarding the infiltration of the affected waters into the underground hydrological formations make this technique to be applied only in rare instances where the geomorphologic and environmental conditions are deemed optimal. Another widespread technique is to mix the potentially acid generating waste with alkaline minerals that w i l l neutralize the generated acid in discrete volumes of the waste dump. The technical challenges in the case of this technique are connected to the difficulty of intimate mixing between the potentially acid generating waste and the neutralizing medium and the possibility of formation of a chemical coating on the surface of the neutralizing minerals, (i.e. a drastic reduction in the available neutralizing reaction surface and therefore neutralizing potential). Constructing a cover over the waste material is another ARE) mitigation technique that is more and more applied by mining operations. This technology requires the construction of a cover from materials that ensure drastic limitation of the volumes of infiltrating air and/or water from precipitation. Challenges in this case are multiple: high cost for the transport of large volumes of cover material, development of a cover composition suitable for local precipitation regimes, concerns regarding the long-term physical stability of the cover layer are a few examples. Scope of research The current thesis is aimed to assess the capacity o f a soil cover developed by the team of Professor G . Ward Wilson at the University o f British Columbia and I N C O ' s 3 Reclamation and Decommissioning Department in Sudbury, O N to answer the concerns mentioned in the previous paragraph. For the purpose of studying the field performance of the covers a field scale experiment was built in the R2 area of I N C O ' s Central Tailings Facility in Copper Cliff, O N consisting of a 5-pad lysimeter containing tailings only in one of the cells as control and tailings underlying four different covers constructed according to four different mix designs that emerged during the lab trials. The cells have square shape at the upper lip, with a length of 17 meters and an inward slope of 2:1 reaching to a depth of 3 meters. A water collection system was put in place for collecting both seepage through the materials in the lysimeters and runoff from the surface o f the covers and direct it to collection vessels and volume measuring devices. Several types of instruments were installed on site for the purpose of monitoring the weather and the performance of the covers. The weather station consisted of a rain gauge and a net radiometer, while other instruments such as tipping bucket flow gauges were used to measure flow volumes of the infiltration and run-off, as wel l as thermal conductivity sensors and tensiometers to measure soil moisture and matric suction. A l l the mentioned gauges, with the exception of the tensiometers were connected to an automated data collection system consisting of a Campbell Scientific CR10 X Data Logger and some other peripheral electronic devices. The collected data was downloaded daily and transformed into Excel format files for easy processing. Flow data was collected during year 2006 over 227 days starting with A p r i l 3 r d and ending with November 15 t h . The specific objectives of the present study are as follows: 1. assessment of the capacity of the Paste Rock covers to reduce infiltration to the underlying tailings 4 2. 3. 4. study of the degree of saturation inside the cover profiles monitoring of the concentration of gaseous oxygen below the cover profiles comparison of the performance between the different Paste Rock mix designs Thesis outline Chapter 2 of the thesis provides a brief review of previous research in the area of A R D mitigation technologies, as well as a description of the results of the first two phases of the current research project, namely the laboratory testing of the various Paste Rock mixtures and the performance predictions based on numerical modeling. A description o f the construction of the filed scale lysimeters together with the instrumentation installed is provided in Chapter 3. Data collected over the 227 days period between A p r i l 3 2006 and November 15 2006 are presented in Chapter 4, including rainfall, net radiation, soil moisture content, soil matric suction, saturated hydraulic conductivity, run-off and infiltration volumes. The analysis of the collected data and the discussion is presented in Chapter 5, while Chapter 6 gives a summary of the conclusions of this research and recommendations for future research. 5 Chapter 2 L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW The current thesis describes the field testing phase of an extensive research project that had a broader scope, the development and testing of a soil cover constructed by mixing mine tailings and waste rock. It was therefore considered necessary that this literature review presents in detail the work done in the previous phases o f this project, namely the laboratory testing and the numerical modeling predicting the performance o f the tested material. The successful example of a cover constructed of natural glacial t i l l at Equity Silver mine is presented in detail. The literature review presented here w i l l also present previous research summarizing the mining industry's experience in constructing soil covers over the past decade, and the problems associated to different types of covers. 2.1 Soil covers The mining industry today is more and more oriented towards the development o f a long-term solution for the environmental problems associated with the waste produced during operation. In the case of existing waste piles and tailings dams, the most economic solution to slow down the oxidation processes that lead to generation of A R D is the construction of a cover system. Moreover, in the wake of new, more stringent, environmental guidelines applied at permitting stage, new operations are considering using soil covers as a progressive reclamation strategy to meet the requirements. 6 Soil covers in general are constructed to satisfy one or several o f the following functions: base for vegetation growth (esthetics), erosion control, chemical stabilization of the underlying waste, effluent release control ( M E N D 2004). This literature review w i l l concentrate on the description of barrier covers, without detailing the research work related to erosion control and esthetic. Barrier covers are effective in reducing A R D generation by reducing infiltration into the waste pile (infiltration barrier) and more important, by reducing oxygen ingress to the reactive waste (oxygen barrier). A vast amount of literature is available discussing the design and performance issues associated with infiltration barrier covers constructed of compacted clay (Kasir and Yanful 2001; Fox, De Battista, and Mast 2000; Mi l l e r and Lee 1999; Wijeyesekera, O'Connor, and Salmon 2001; Shang 1997). Compacted clay covers are one of the most common infiltration barrier covers. This technology emerged some 15 years ago, and some of the covers constructed failed to maintain designed performance. Recent papers discuss the unsuitability o f this type of covers to fulfill the designed purpose, due to the predisposition for cracking after repeated freeze-thaw cycles, volume change during desiccation, and failure to maintain integrity due to root penetration o f the clay material situated in the active zone. The hydraulic conductivity of such covers may increase three orders of magnitude from around 10"7 to 10"4 m/s in as little as 4 years after construction (Albright 2006). The unsuitability of plastic clay as covers is also discussed in (Wilson, Will iams, and Rykaart 2003), the paper stressing the fact that in some cases inadequate concepts are used to design clay covers. Alternative solutions were also used for infiltration limiting covers. In arid and semi-arid climates, the most suitable cover systems employ a store-and-release mechanism. The principle of this cover is that the precipitation is stored inside the cover, being 7 subsequently released through evapo-transpiration. Crucial factors in this case are sufficient storage capacity of the cover material, as well as the capacity o f the cover to sustain sufficiently dense vegetation to ensure adequate evapo-transpiration. The store-and-release cover at Kidston is described as a successful example in Will iams, Stolberg, and Currey 2006; Wilson, Will iams, and Rykaart 2003, while the failure o f the R u m Jungle cover constructed on the same principle is detailed in Taylor et al. 2003. The sensitivity of such covers to erosion and variations in vegetation density is also illustrated by Fayer and Gee 2006. Other types o f soil covers use the capillary barrier effect to reduce infiltration. The capillary barrier effect mechanism is caused by a sharp contrast in soil suction created between successive layers of dense fine grained material and layers of material with larger pore size. The small pore size material w i l l also act as an oxygen barrier, remaining saturated at all times (Aachib, Mbonimpa, and Aubertin 2004; Dagenais et al. 2005), but such covers constructed on the sloping sides of waste dumps may not be as effective due to dessaturation of the top portion (Bussiere, Aubertin, and Chapuis 2003). The most effective oxygen barrier is the so-called water capping. This technique requires maintaining a layer of water over the acid generating waste either by artificially creating and maintaining a pond on top of the waste dump (tailings pond), or by depositing the waste in a natural or artificial lake (open pit). Besides the obvious challenge of maintaining an adequate water layer in perpetuity, stability problems are also a major factor in limiting such solutions i f taken into account the high number of documented dam failures in the last five decades (http://www.wise-uranium.org/mdaf .html, accessed A p r i l 25, 2007). A more secure way of maintaining a water cover without the presence of free water was proposed by several authors. The use of a single layer o f desulphurised tailings as a 8 cover to create a saturated layer through elevated water table and the consumption of oxygen by residual sulphides is described by Sjoberg Dobchuk, Wilson, and Aubertin 2003. A different cover design proposed the use of wel l graded natural glacial t i l l to create a highly saturated cover with low hydraulic conductivity, which would act as oxygen barrier as well as water barrier (Swanson et al. 2003). 2.2 Equity Silver Glacial Till Cover One successful example of a soil cover constructed of glacial t i l l is described in several papers (O'Kane, Wilson, and Barbour 1998; Swanson et al. 2003; Weeks and Wilson 2005; Weeks and Wilson 2006). A good characterization of the site conditions and cover material properties can be found in O'Kane, Wilson, and Barbour 1998. The covers were constructed between 1991 and 1994 on three waste rock dumps at the Equity Silver Mine in the central interior of British Columbia. The cover design required a two layer system: a 500 mm thick compacted bottom layer, and a 300 mm thick loose layer, both constructed of locally available glacial t i l l . The analysis of the grain size distribution of the glacial t i l l shows that the material is well graded with approximately half of the material being coarse (mainly sand) and the other half being fine (silt and clay) (O'Kane, Wilson, and Barbour 1998). The saturated hydraulic conductivity measured in laboratory conditions was as low as 5 x 10" 1 0 m/s for the compacted t i l l and between 1 x 10 and 5 x 10" m/s for the non-compacted material respectively. A t the same time, the air entry value ( A E V ) was determined to be between 5 to 10 K P a for the non-compacted t i l l and 10 to 100 K P a for the compacted samples, showing the necessity of compaction for achieving the high saturation necessary to reduce oxygen ingress through the cover (O'Kane, Wilson, and Barbour 1998). A site 9 monitoring program was implemented starting with 1992, including: lysimeters and weirs for measuring run-off and infiltration; temperature probes; thermal conductivity sensors and jet f i l l tensiometers for measuring suction; neutron probe access tubes for measuring water content; a weather station for collecting atmospheric conditions. Processing of the collected data shows that a high degree o f saturation was maintained in the compacted layer for the entire duration o f the field program, while infiltration through the compacted layer was reduced to approximately 5% of precipitation. It is also shown that the non-compacted top layer offered an effective protection against freeze-thaw, desiccation and erosion while being a base for vegetation growth. Based on the data collected during the monitoring program started in 1992 and previously described, a numerical model was developed and tested for long-term predictions regarding the performance o f the cover system. The model was a one dimensional, fully coupled heat and water transport model, based on the Soi l Cover Version 1.0 computer model previously developed ( M E N D 1994). The simulation period considered in the model was chosen to be 153 days, between June 4 t h 1993 and November 4 t h 2003. The model set up was done using the field data previously collected (refer to (O'Kane, Wilson, and Barbour 1998) and calibration was also necessary in order to get predictions comparable to field measurements for soil suction and hydraulic conductivity. The paper describes the moisture content profiles and soil suction values predicted by the model as being in close agreement with the measured values, while saturated hydraulic conductivity was underestimated in the calibration and had to be adjusted to the value of 2 x 10"7 cm/sec. According to the authors, the model could be relied upon for predicting long-term hydraulic performance of soil covers. The long-term values predicted in the case of the Equity Silver glacial t i l l cover for infiltration through the cover is 2 to 4% of average 10 yearly precipitation, with most of it percolating through in the spring as a result of snow melt. The model also predicted a 98 % reduction in gaseous oxygen transport through the cover compared to the base case of no cover on the waste rock. The reduction in saturation for an extremely dry year was considered, predicting saturation of the non-compacted t i l l layer o f approximately 50%, while the compacted lower layer would maintain a saturation of approximately 80%. The results of the long term observations based on the monitoring program described above are presented in Weeks and Wilson 2005. The field properties of the glacial t i l l layers are presented in Table 1, adapted from Weeks and Wilson 2005. The instrumentation and sensors used for the measurement and recording of the data presented in this paper are same as previously described in O'Kane, Wilson, and Barbour 1998. According to the data collected and processed by the authors, the saturation in the lower compacted layer of the cover the saturation was maintained above 95% at all times, although the data collected using T C sensors shows brief periods o f suction higher than the A E V (200 KPa) . The upper non-compacted layer was acting as a store-and-release system with seasonal variations in saturation and matric suction values. Besides the normal seasonal variations, it is shown that suction and saturation are a function of fluctuations in precipitation regimes as well as variations in net solar radiation. The drying of the cover is more closely following the rainfall pattern, while the deeper layers are not directly related, but still a function of prolonged dry/wet periods. The average rainfall for the observed time period was found to be approximately 340 mm per annum, in the form of rain only, while the daily net radiation in 2002 peaks around day 200 ( Ju ly 19 t h) at the value of approximately 16 M J / m 2 . 11 Table 2.1: Field properties of the Equity Silver glacial t i l l cover — adapted from Weeks, 2005 Parameter Non-compacted upper layer Compacted lower layer Thickness [mm] 300 500 Saturated hydraulic conductivity [cm/sec] 1 x 10"5 1 x 10"8 A i r entry value [KPa] 10 200 Porosity [%] 38 33 Saturated water content [%] 22 18 2.3 Results of previous phases of the current Research Project A s previously mentioned, the current thesis describes the method and results of the third phase o f a larger research effort, aimed at designing, testing, and constructing the best possible cover using only locally available mine waste materials. Table 2.1 summarizes the research papers published to date that describe the first two phases of the project. The work described in Wickland and Wilson 2005 was also included, although was not part of the current research project, because it was deemed important to understanding the consolidation behavior of the Paste Rock material through detailed description of packing theory o f waste materials and a 100 days column study. 12 Table 2.2: Research papers presenting previous phases of the project Y e a r Authors Tit le Description Observation 2005 Wickland, B . E ; Wilson, G . W Self-weight consolidation of mixtures of mine waste rock and tailings Packing theory; self weight consolidation; column test 2002 Fines, P.; Wilson, G . W . Laboratory evaluation of co-mixed tailings, waste rock and slag for the construction of barrier cover systems at copper cl i ff Laboratory blending trials; K s a t testing; S W C C determined Phase I 2005 Levesque, I Numerical analysis evaluation of co-mixed tailings waste rock and slag for lysimeter cells at Copper C l i f f mines, Ontario Numerical modeling of infiltration, run-off, evaporation Phase II 2006 Wilson, G . W ; Misko lcz i , J.; Dagenais, A . M . ; Levesque, I.; Smith, Q.; Lanteigne, L . ; Hulett, L . ; Landriault, D ; The application of blended waste rock and tailings for cover systems in minewaste management Summary o f previous two phase of project; update on the construction of experimental lysimeters Phase III 2.3.1 Co-Deposition In response to the realization that most of the problems associated with mine wastes, such as A R D or dam failures, come from the very methods of waste management and deposition, (Wilson et al. 2003) advances the concept o f Co-Mix ing — the intimate blending of the two separate mine waste streams: waste rock and tailings. The result is a material that combines the shear strength of waste rock with the low hydraulic conductivity and high water retention capabilities of tailings. The knowledge-based system Soi l Vis ion 13 was used to model the behavior of the new material. Soil V i s ion applies the concept o f constitutive surface of water content in tailings as a three dimensional plot of the water content as a function o f net normal stress (volume change due to settling under own weight) and soil matric suction. This concept was applied to the new material obtained by Co-M i x i n g and the model shows that volume change due to soil suction is negligible, while compressibility is similar to that observed for waste rock. Furthermore, water retention characteristics of the new material are the same as in the case of the tailings, without the negative effect of volume change and cracking due to desiccation commonly associated with tailings. One of the first investigations into the practical use of a mixture of tailings and waste rock as a sealing layer for mine waste dumps is described by (Williams, Wilson, and Panidis 2003). The possibility of using a well graded mixture of trafficked non-acid forming waste rock and tailings as substitute for the clay cover was studied. The laboratory-based research aimed to assess the hydraulic and geotechnical characteristics o f candidate mixtures. It was found that a 5: 1 mixture of trafficked waste rock: thickened tailings on a g dry basis w i l l settle to high density and hydraulic conductivity as low as 1.27x10" m/s even without compaction. The best candidate for a barrier cover was considered to be a mixture ratio of 15:1 waste rock: tailings on a dry basis, with densities after compaction of 2.299 T/m3 and hydraulic conductivity of 4.87xl0" 9 m/s. Self weight consolidation of waste rock and tailings mixtures was studied in a 100 day column test described in (Wickland and Wilson 2005). Three mixture ratios of waste rock: tailings approximately equal to 5:1 were tested in meso-scale columns for settlement, hydraulic conductivity, and pore water pressure response over the 100 days of the experiment. The authors found that the mixtures had settlement characteristics similar to 14 those of tailings, while the drainage characteristics were similar to those of tailings, with the mixtures remaining saturated for the entire period of the experiment. The hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures was estimated between l x l 0"8 to l x l O " 7 m/s based on the free drainage of ponded water through the entire height of the columns. Based on the study of particle packing theory for binary mixtures of waste rock and tailings, (Wickland et al. 2006) describes that the highest density is achieved when the tailings just f i l l in the void space existing in the waste rock. This ratio was determined to be approximately 5:1 (waste rock:tailings) confirming previously published observations. The paper also presents a method to predict change in the structure of the mixture associated to compression. 2.3.2 Lab testing and numerical modeling Based on the success of the glacial t i l l cover, a research project was proposed with the scope of designing a blend ratio for a material produced o f broadly available mine wastes like waste rock and tailings, which replicates the grain size distribution and xhe geotechnical characteristics of the natural glacial t i l l . Lab testing and numerical modeling of candidate C o - M i x blends - renamed to Paste Rock - was the first phase of the extended project. The laboratory testing described in Fines 2002, while the numerical modeling is described in Levesque 2005. The laboratory work and the numerical modeling is summarized in Wilson et al 2006, which paper also presents some early observations about the cover performance. Following the conceptual design that showed the possibility of constructing high quality sealing covers by mixing waste rock and tailings (Williams, Wilson, and Panidis 15 2003), a laboratory testing program was started at the request and with the support o f Inco Ltd, described in detail in Fines 2002. The testing started with the waste material characterization of the waste material with respect to grain size distribution and soil water characteristic curve, followed by blending trials. Waste rock was collected from two sources: run-of-mine waste material from Inco's Copper C l i f f South mine, and weathered waste rock from Inco's Copper C l i f f North mine. Tailings were also retrieved from 2 sources: the R3 area o f the tailings pond complex, and whole tailings directly from the mi l l . The slag for the trials was selected from a fine-screened (25 mm minus) stockpile near the smelter. Various blend ratios were designed and tested, from a 1:1:1 mixture representing waste rock:slag:tailings to a 1:1:3 blending ratio, and also various treatments o f the blend like compaction, different initial water content, addition of bentonite. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured using a 150 mm permeameter for each of the blend ratios and treatments, with values ranging from 1 x 10~7 m/s for a 1:1:1 non-compacted, 50 mm slump mix to 5 x 10"9 m/s 1:1:2 compacted mix with additional 1.5% bentonite. It is also shown that the air entry value of whole tailings was approximately 30 K P a , same as that of a 1:1:2 mixture, and that addition of bentonite can increase the A E V with approximately 40%, to 50 K P a . The low A E V and the low hydraulic conductivity of the tailings would make them good candidates as material for barrier covers, but the significant volume change observed in the drying process o f the tailings is limiting their applicability. C o - M i x blends in exchange, show no measurable volume change associated with desiccation, while maintaining low values of hydraulic conductivity. A numerical modeling program was performed and described in (Levesque 2005) with the main purpose of comparing the behavior of the covers placed in the four test 16 lysimeters, as wel l as comparing the performance of the covers to the base case of tailings only in L #4. The numerical model chosen for the task was SoilCover 2000, a fully coupled mass-heat transport model capable of modeling soil-atmosphere interactions. The model was set up to represent a column of 100 cm thickness o f tailings, overlain by a layer of cover material 100 cm thick in the case of L#2 and L #3, reduced to 60 cm thickness in the case of L #4 and L #5. For the base case of tailings only, two layers of 100 cm of tailings were used as the conceptual model. The mesh used was 0.2 cm minimum and 3.0 cm maximum, with an expansion factor o f 1.5. A user defined node was placed at the cover-tailings interface to monitor the water flux from cover to tailings. Material characteristics in the model were defined by using the measured values o f initial moisture content in the tailings and the covers at the time of placement in the lysimeters (Dagenais 2005). Saturated hydraulic conductivity o f the different cover designs was estimated based on material properties, and the soil water characteristic curves determined in the laboratory and described in (Fines et al. 2003; Fines and Wilson 2002). For the base case o f L #1, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the tailings was set at 4.0 x 10"6 cm/sec. Initial temperature values were not available, therefore 1°C was chosen as initial temperature. Weather data used in the model was collected at the Detour Lake mine, near Timmins O N , and considered as being a good approximation of climatic condition of the site of the experimental lysimeters. According to the meteorological data available, the model was set up with -7°C and +33°C as minimum and maximum temperature boundaries, with a ±10 °C daily variation. The relative humidity was set between 15% and 97%, and cumulative precipitation of about 900 mm. The time frame was set to 208 days for each year with days 0—60 representing spring, 61—150 summer and 151—208 representing 17 fall. The model was run for a period of two consecutive years, with a blank period between days 209 and 365 for each of the five individual cells of the lysimeter pad. After running the simulation for 2 consecutive years, the predicted total precipitation was approximately 1800 mm, with potential evaporation about 1200 mm. Potential evaporation/evapo-transpiration was predicted to have values slightly less than 1200 mm. The model predicts run-off o f approximately 800 m m after two years, while infiltration in the tailings is shown to be well below 500 mm. A s it w i l l be shown further on, these model results are totally contradicted by the field observations made during the spring, summer and fall of 2006. Levels of saturation in the tailings are ranging between 5% and 100% as function of wet-dry periods, which creates ideal conditions for oxidation of the sulfides and ARE) generation. The predictions for L #2, where the cover is consisting of a 100 cm layer o f C o - M i x material overlaying 100 cm of tailings, were made by considering the saturated hydraulic conductivity equal to 5 x 10"6 cm/s. The cover consists of compacted 1:1:1 mixture with no bentonite added; the maximum size of waste rock used is minus 200 mm. In this case, the predicted run-off had values just below 500 mm after 2 years, while infiltration was predicted to be approximately 400 mm. Potential evaporation was predicted to be around 1200 mm after 2 years. Saturation of the cover layer is in general high (above 80%), with short periods of lower saturation (above 65%). Ce l l L #3 is consisting of a 100 cm layer of tailings, overlain by 100 cm of cover material consisting of non-compacted " C o - M i x 1" design (i.e. 1:1:2 mixture, no bentonite added, 50 mm minus waste rock) with hydraulic conductivity of 1 x 10"5 cm/s. The predicted values of infiltration (just below 500 mm after 2 years) exceed the values of run-off (approximately 400 mm), while actual evaporation slightly exceeds 1000 mm after 2 18 years. Saturation inside the cover is maintained high, above 85% for most of the lapsed time. Infiltration through the cover into the tailings underneath is slightly lower than in the case of L #2. The conceptual model of cell L #4 consists of a cover layer of 60 cm thickness with a layer of 100 cm of tailings underneath. The cover mixture was same as in the case of L #2, with the same hydraulic conductivity o f 5 x 10"6 cm/s. In this case, the predicted run-off wel l exceeded infiltration, with values of approximately 600 mm for run-off and about 300 mm for infiltration. Saturation was maintained high for almost the entire period of the simulation. In the case of L #5, the 60 cm compacted cover contained 1.5% bentonite, leading to a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 2 x 10"6 cm/s. Predicted run-off and infiltration levels were similar to the previous case (L #4), but there was virtually no flux between the cover and the tailings. Actual evaporation/evapo-transpiration values were well below 1000 mm after 2 years. Saturation inside the cover was high at all times, but the underlying tailings did not reach saturation in the two year period. In a paper presented at the 7 t h I C A R D , Wilson et al 2006 summarized the laboratory work described in Fines 2002, and Fines and Wilson, 2003. A short review of the theoretical issues considered in the mixture design process is performed, with reference to Wilson et al 2003 a. Results of the laboratory testing program are also presented in this paper, with emphasis on the hydraulic conductivity of the different C o - M i x blend ratios. The construction o f the field experiment is described as wel l , with details about the factors that lead to the decision of reworking the cover surfaces in the summer of 2005. In addition, early observations about the cover performance show that infiltration through the dry and cracked cover o f L #5 (i.e., the one containing bentonite) is similar to that of L #1 which 19 contains tailings only. Lysimeter L #2 yielded no water throughout the summer o f 2005, while infiltration through the covers of L #3 and L #4 was observed to be approximately half of the volumes of infiltration through the uncovered tailings. The paper further refines the model described in Levesque 2005, presenting somewhat different results. The predictions of the numerical model applied in the case of the C o - M i x covers presented in this paper show the results after 2 years, with the same cover characteristics and conceptual design as in Levesque 2005, with the exception of the hydraulic conductivity of tailings which is set to 2.5xl0" 5 m/s. In this case, the results show a drastic decrease in saturation of the tailings, which is typically below 50%, while run-off from the surface of the tailings was close to zero. In the base case of uncovered tailings in L #1, the model predicts no run-off, while infiltration was predicted to be approximately equal to 1000 mm. Potential evaporation was predicted to be slightly less than 1200 mm after 2 years. Results of simulations for cells L #2 and L #5 are also presented, with similar results as those shown in (Levesque 2005). 2.4 Summary The different types of covers currently in use were discussed in this section. It was shown that different concepts can be applied to reduce A R D generation, but the applicability o f one or another type o f cover is dependant on local climatic factors. One example of a successful soil cover was given, namely the Equity Silver site in northern British Columbia, constructed of natural, wel l graded glacial t i l l . The previous phases of the current research project were also presented, with accent on the modeling and laboratory testing that lead to the development of the Paste Rock mix designs tested on field as scope of the present thesis. 20 Chapter 3 FIELD PROGRAM The current chapter describes the field project implemented at I N C O ' s Central Tailings Facility in Copper Cliff, Ontario and presents the instrumentation and the data collected during the 2006 season. 3.1 Description of experimental lysimeters The field experiment is located on a beach in the easternmost corner of R2 area at I N C O ' s Central Tailings Facility, in Copper Cliff, Ontario. The test plot is constructed as a series o f five lysimeters approximately aligned on a north-south direction with the northernmost cell being L# l and the southernmost L#5. The lysimeters, as presented in Figure 3.1, are identical, inverted truncated square pyramids with the upper base being 17 meters long on the edge. The cells were constructed by excavating approximately half the height below the surface of the tailings beach and then placing the side embankments above the surface of the tailings along the perimeter of the cells. The inner walls of the cells were sloped at 2:1 (horizontal : vertical) and lined with a 2mm H D P E membrane to provide a watertight seal. 21 HDPE liner Top Soil protective cover Run-off col lect ion vessel \ 7 Infiltration col lect ion vessel * P Tailings X / Paste Rock cover j \ Sump h NOT TO SCALE Figure 3.1: Design schematic of an individual lysimeter For easy access to the lysimeters during construction and filling, the upper berm of the lysimeter pad was extended to a width o f approximately 3 meters and compacted to provide an access road for the heavy equipment. On the west side o f each lysimeter pad, a trench was dug to a level below the bottom of the lysimeters for the installation of a drainage pipe such that the water can drain freely from the sump o f each cell into the collection totes. The 5-pad lysimeter was constructed in the fall o f 2004, and the Paste Rock covers were put in place, according to different mix designs and thicknesses, as described in Table 3.1(Dagenais 2005). The filling of each lysimeter started with the placement of a 1,000 mm thick layer of coarse tailings. The covers were then placed on top of the tailings, to simulate real field conditions of a cover placed on tailings. In the case o f L #3 and L #5, the covers were placed as a high slump material, using a concrete mixing truck to mix the ingredients and place the final mixture. The covers in L #2 and L #4 were placed as a fairly dry mixture, using an excavator to mix the material and then place it in the cells as cover. The covers in L #2 and L #4 were designed as compacted covers, but because o f the meteorological 22 conditions, the compaction was not executed at the time of placement. Figures 3.2 and 3.3 are presenting the initial phase of construction and the placement of the high slump covers, respectively. Table 3.1: Physical characteristics of the Paste Rock cover (Dagenais 2005) Cell# Tailings thickness Cover Compaction Placement Bentonite Thickness Blend ratio WR:Slag:Tailings L # l 2 m — — ~ — — L # 2 1 m 1 m -1:1:1 200 mm minus W R Yes Dry — L#3 1 m l m 1:1:2 50 mm minus W R No Paste ~ L #4 1 m 60 cm 1:1:1 200 mm minus W R Yes Dry — L#5 1 m 60 cm 1:1:2 50 mm minus W R N o Paste 1.5 % The choice of maximum particle size for the waste rock reflects technical decisions made at the time of laboratory trials. The larger waste rock size (i.e. 200 mm minus) is a good sample of run-of-mine waste rock for underground operations in the Sudbury basin. The smaller waste rock size, 50 mm, for the covers on L #3 and L #5 is a result of mixing trials using a transit concrete mixer, in the sense that larger size waste rock was segregating during the wet mixing process. Another reason for choosing the 50 mm maximum size was the possibility of transporting the Paste Rock as a pumped paste. 23 Figure 3.2: Construction of the lysimeters (courtesy of Trevor Ross, Inco Ltd.) The experimental cells were constructed between October 4 and November 12 t h 2004. Because the construction phase began late in the fall, by the time the Paste Rock covers were placed the weather turned frosty, making it impractical to put in place the surface layer of top soil as protective cover. The summer o f 2005 was unusually hot and dry. The maximum temperatures were well above the normal, as shown in Table 3.2. Likewise, the total precipitation between 1 s t of June and 31 s t o f August totaled 156 mm, opposed to the 30 year average of 242 mm (www.theweathernetwork.com, 2005). Table 3.2: Comparison between the 30 year average and summer of 2005 Mont h M a y June Ju ly August M e a n Tota l Maximum Temperature [° C] Average 17 22 25 23 21.75 — 2005 31 32.2 34.6 33.2 32.75 — Precipitation [mm] Average 71 84 71 87 — 313 2005 100.7 27.5 60.6 67.9 — 256.7 Given these conditions, the Paste Rock covers were exposed to the effects o f the sun unprotected, with potential evaporative conditions well above the norms that were considered at the time of construction. The surface of the covers dried out developing cracks at various extents on L #3 and L #4, depending on the thickness of the cover and the mix design for the Paste Rock material. The covers on L #2 and L #3 developed only fine, superficial cracks, while the cover on L #5 shown in Figure 3.4 (the one containing 1.5 % bentonite) showed extensive cracking that was believed to extend through the full depth of 25 the cover. This assumption was later confirmed by the observation that the rain water was infiltrating through the cover into the collection tote at a much faster rate than the case of the other cells, confirming the existence of preferential flow paths To correct the imperfections of the covers represented by the cracks, in late July 2005 the decision was made to reinstate, as much as possible, the conditions in which the Paste Rock covers were put in place in the fall o f 2004. To ensure that the existing cracks in the covers are destroyed, the surface o f the covers was scarified using a backhoe to a depth of 800 mm for the Paste Rock covers on L #2 and L #3, and 500 mm on L #4 and L #5 respectively. Subsequently, the surface of L #2 and L #3 was flooded with 15 cubic meters of water, to achieve the wet, high slump conditions simulating the pumped material and to ensure an initial 100 % saturation of the Paste Rock material. The surface was then graded with an excavator and finished with a small plate tamper to eliminate the irregularities that may impede run-off. 26 Figure 3.4: Cracks on the cover o f L #5 After the Paste Rock covers on L #4 and L #5 were scarified, the cover material was replaced and compacted in two layers. A layer of 250 mm of material was removed, and deposited in one corner of the cell. The bottom layer was then compacted using a 500 K g plate tamper. Subsequently, the rest of the material was put back in place as a second layer, and compacted. A s a final step, the imperfections of the surface were corrected with the excavator, and finished with the same small (80 Kg) plate tamper used to finish the surface on L #2 and L #3. To make the installation of the Thermal Conductivity sensors easier and with minimum disturbance to the finished surface, sections of P V C pipe were inserted in 27 the cover of L #3, L #4 and L #5 prior to compaction. A s a result of the wet placement and reconsolidation of covers in L #2 and L #3, the density of the Paste Rock covers could not be controlled easily. In the case of compaction o f covers in L #4 and L #5, the number of passes with the 500 K g plate tamper was determined by observing the material's tendency to liquefy, thus making further compaction impossible. A s a result of reworking the covers, the design specifications got modified with respect to placement method and compaction requirements compared to the original construction plan, while the other elements of the cover design like blend ratio, grain size, cover thickness, and bentonite content are the same. The new specifications are presented in Table 3.3, while table 3.4 summarizes the final densities achieved in the Paste Rock covers. Table 3.3: Design modifications of the covers after reworking Lysimeter # Construction plan Placement Compaction Protective top-soil cover L # l Original Dry — — Modified ' Dry — L # 2 Original Dry Compacted 20 cm Modified Wet None L#3 Original Wet None 25 cm Modified Wet None L # 4 Original Dry Compacted 30 cm Modified Dry Compacted L#5 Original Wet None 30 cm Modified Dry Compacted 28 Table 3.4: Results of compaction of the Paste Rock covers Ce l l# 1 2 3 4 5 Proctor optimum density [Kg/m 3 ] - 2240 2230 2270 1980-Field density [Kg/m 3 ] 1599 2067 2098 2143 1944 Percent of optimum [%] - 92.27 94.1 94.4 98.2 Following the compaction and the finishing of the surface of the Paste Rock covers, a layer of top-soil was put in place as shown in Figure 3.5. The material for this protective cover is a fine clayey loam with 88% of the particles passing sieve #200 (0.075 mm). This was the same material, acquired from a local contractor, used by I N C O for reclamation purposes. The material was put in place with a front loader, leveled, and then graded in each cell with the bucket of an excavator. To ensure the maximum run-off, the surface was graded to gently slope towards the sides o f the cell, where the loam formed a ditch all around the cell to direct the run-off towards the discharge pipe. Subsequently the top-soil covers were hydroseeded with a mixture of 1 Vi bags of I N C O grass seed mix, 15 bags of Fibramulch, 6 bags of 624 type fertilizer (25 Kg/bag), 2 bags of peletized limestone (25 Kg/bag) dissolved in approximately 10,000 liters of water. The grass was observed to start growing three weeks after it was sown. In 2006, the maintenance of the grass cover consisted in a one time addition of fertilizer and mowing to 3 cm once a month. 29 Figure 3.5: Vegetated topsoil cover on L #4 3.2 Water collection system According to the original construction plan, the infiltration water was retained in 1,000 liter plastic totes fitted with galvanized pipe protection cages. These totes were attached to the drain pipes on the bottom of each cell (Dagenais 2005). The totes were put in place in a hole excavated in the tailings at the end o f the drain pipes. A s the cells were constructed from tailings that were dug up at the site, the ends of the drain pipes were situated in the trench at the base of the west slope o f the test plot. Over the winter of 2004/2005, most of the totes caved in because of pressure build up in the wet tailings due to frost. But the worst conditions were observed at the two extremities, namely L #1 and L #5, which had to withstand not only the pressure exerted by the expanding tailings but also static pressures build up at the base of the steep slopes of the trench. The pressure of the 30 sand caused caving and displaced the tote of cell #5, detaching it from the drain pipe, as shown in Figure 3.6. Replacing all five totes was necessary not only because some of them caved in, significantly reducing the storage capacity, but also because o f the advanced state o f corrosion of the protection cages as well . To protect the new totes against possible caving and against the corrosive tailings, a housing box was designed and constructed for each of the cells. The boxes were constructed using 25 mm plywood sheets and reinforced in the corners with 2x 4 softwood studs. The dimensions of the box were 2.4 m long, 1.2 m wide and 1.2 m high, thus large enough to house the tote and the flow gauges. The bottom of each box was lined with a layer of 50 mm minus crushed slag. Every box was fitted with a hinged l id covering the front half of the box, for easy access to the measuring equipment and the discharge valve o f the tote, as shown in Figure 3.7. The box of L #1 was 1.2 m longer than the rest of the boxes to house a second collection tote. Same considerations of protecting the totes lead to construction of semi-open boxes around the totes collecting the run-off. This semi-open box consisted of three sheets of 1.2 x 1.2 m plywood protecting the back and the sides of the totes against the pressure o f the expanding tailings. Every tote collecting the run-off water was fitted with a 20 mm P V C pipe which transported the water to the flow gage installed inside the housing box at the bottom o f each cell. The bottom totes were also fitted with a pipe system, to allow the water to discharge in a constant low rate from the tote into the flow gage. 31 Figure 3.6: Old collection tote of L#5 In the original construction plan, the totes were attached to the discharge pipe through a 90 degree P V C elbow, (i.e. sewer type.) This attachment had two inconveniences: first, it did not allow for any settling o f the tote with time and second, the rubber rings o f the elbow did not provide a water tight seal due to the spiral o f the thread of the tote's attachment. To correct these problems, the decision was made to replace the 90 degree elbows with a different type of attachment, which was water tight and flexible. The connection assembly consisted of 6 separate pieces. The central piece was a 60 cm long, 50 32 mm diameter rubber hose, which provided the necessary elasticity and allowed for a considerable displacement o f the tote. Figure 3.7: Plywood box housing the infiltration collection tote of L #3 The run-off water was collected from the surface of each lysimeter. During the construction o f the cells, to the H D P E liner for each lysimeter, an apron approximately 50 cm wide was added to serve as a water collection ditch around the perimeter of the Paste Rock covers. A top soil protective cover that was subsequently added had its entire thickness above the apron. Besides shaping the surface of the protective cover to slope towards the perimeter of the lysimeter to facilitate run-off, a gutter was created along the 33 entire perimeter of each lysimeter with its bottom being the apron and the sides consisting of the H D P E liner and the material o f the protective cover, as presented in Figure 3.8. On the west side of each lysimeter, where the discharge pipe for the run-off was inserted through the liner, the apron was consisting of a larger piece (2m x 2m) of H D P E liner. This allowed the creation of a small settling basin for the run-off water before discharge through the 15 cm P V C pipe into the run-off collection vessel. The large apron was important because it prevented stagnant water (which initially was run-off) to infiltrate into the cover. The run-off collection pipe was fitted at the intake end with a 10 mm mesh that trapped the debris carried by the run-off water. The discharge end o f the connector pipe was fitted to the collection vessel through a section of rubber tube cut from an automotive inner tube and stretched over the end of the pipe as well as the threaded mouth of the collection vessel. This method of connection proved to provide sufficient sealing and maximum flexibility to accommodate the settling of the tailings underneath the heavy collection vessel after rainfall events. From the collection vessel, the run-off water was directed to the measuring device (Tipping Bucket flow gages as in the case of infiltration) located in the same instrument housing box as the-infiltration collection vessel, and from there the water was allowed to freely infiltrate through the slag on the bottom of the housing box. 34 HOPE liner Top Soil protective coyer / Figure 3.8: Detail o f drainage gutter 3.3 Description of the instrumentation The site was instrumented to collect data for local meteorological conditions, infiltration / run-off, and matric suction, respectively. The central component o f the setup is a Campbell Scientific C R 1 0 X Data Logger, incased in a weather-proof instrument box. The data logger was capable of collecting and storing data from several different types of sensors through a number o f peripheral equipment connected to it. The C R 1 0 X Data Logger was programmed to periodically collect data from the peripheral equipment (pulse counters, multiplexer) or measuring devices (rain gauge, net radiometer). The power was supplied by a 1 2 V D C battery charged by a 20W solar panel. The ground was provided by a grounding plate buried in the tailings at 1 meter depth, at the outer edge of cell L #4, connected to the instrument box through a section of copper cable. The programming interface used to program the data logger was 35 Edlog, and is provided by Campbell Scientific as support software. The listing o f the program is attached as Appendix 1. Conceptually, the different types of sensors are divided in 3 modules: the weather station module, the soil matric suction module, and the flow stations module. The wiring diagrams for the modules are attached as Appendix 2. The weather station module consisted of a Campbell Scientific model CS700-L Rain Gage and a Kipp&Zonen model N R L i t e Net Radiometer. The rain gage was installed on the strip between L#3 and L#4, while the net radiometer was placed in the center of L#3, as shown in Figure 3.9. Figure 3.10 shows the internal components of the C R 10X Instrument Station. The rain gage and the net radiometer are connected directly to the C R 1 0 X data logger. This enabled continuous monitoring of the parameters measured by the two devices. The rain gage was constantly monitored, and the number of tips was totalized every hour. The resolution of the measurement was 0.2 mm of rain, with an accuracy of ± 2% (CS700 L Rain Gauge Instruction Manual, 2005). A n accurate measurement of the total precipitation on the site of the experiment was considered paramount, being the parameter that allows the calculation of a full water balance for each lysimeter. 36 37 The net radiation was measured in mil i -Volts , at 1 minute intervals using the net radiometer, and the value in W / m was calculated by dividing the value in Volts with a calibration factor of l x E - 6 V / W - m 2 (NR Lite Net Radiometer Instruction Manual, 200.5). The data stored in the data logger's memory (and subsequently downloaded into a laptop computer) represented a spatial average of 30 consecutive measurements i.e., an average of the last 30 minutes of net radiation observed directly beneath the net radiometer, on a radius of 10 meters. A series of six Thermal Conductivity Sensors were used for the Soi l M a t r i c Suction module. Thermal Conductivity (TC) Sensors are based on the principle that heat dissipation through a porous media is strongly influenced by the water content in the pore space. In the case o f the T C sensors used for this study, when the ceramic media is placed in a moist environment (in our particular case a soil), the pore space w i l l be filled partially with air and partially with water. Exactly how much water is dependent on the matric suction present in the surrounding soil. A t the same time, it is known to science that heat dissipates faster the denser the conductive medium is, thus the thermal conductivity of water is approximately 0.6 W-m^-K" 1 opposed to 0.026 W-nf ' -K" 1 which is the thermal conductivity of air (Nichol 2003). So a fixed amount of heat generated inside a ceramic cylinder (the T C sensor) w i l l dissipate faster i f the pores of the ceramic are filled with water than i f the pores are filled with air. In other words, the matric suction in the soil around the sensor is controlling the water content of the ceramic, which in turn determins the thermal conductivity through the porous ceramic and ultimately the output of the sensor. The T C sensors used for this experiment, manufactured at the University o f Saskatchewan, consisted of a cylindrical ceramic tip with a heating resistor and a 38 thermocouple sealed inside. A five gage lead wire is attached to the each tip. The gages are color coded, according to the wiring diagram presented in Appendix 2. The sensors were instated in groups o f three sensors inside the Paste Rock covers of L#3 and L#4, at depths according to Table 3.5. The measurement and control circuit of these sensors was fairly complex, since great accuracy was required to determine the exact heating time of the sensors. This system included an A 6 R E L - 1 2 Relay Driver, an A M 16/32 Relay Multiplexer (both Campbell Scientific make), as well as a Constant Current Device described by (Nichol, 2005). Unfortunately, the system proved to be unreliable so the measurements were taken manually, using a handheld device described in (Weeks, 2006 b). Table 3.5: Location of thermal conductivity sensors Depth of sensor Location Sensor # Total depth Thickness of Topsoil Cover Actual dept in Paste Rock Cover Channel # [mm] [mm] [mm] 1-6-89 950 220 730 1 L#3 1-6-52 660 200 460 2 1-7-69 370 170 200 3 1-6-58 400 200 200 4 L # 4 1-6-56 520 170 350 5 1-6-59 900 240 660 6 The flow stations module consisted of a number of nine tipping-bucket flow gauges installed for measuring the volumes of water representing infiltration through the Paste Rock covers and run-off from the surface of the top-soil cover. For each of the cells two flow gauges were installed: one for the run-off, and one for the infiltration, except for L # l where no run-off was anticipated, thus only one flow gauge was installed for 39 measuring infiltration. The number of tips of each of the flow gauges were registered on a separate channel of a Campbell Scientific S D M S W 8 A pulse counters, and transferred to the long term storage memory of the data logger every 8 hours. The flow gauges were constructed o f 9.5 cm Lexan sheets, as presented in Appendix 3. The sensing device was a Carlo Gavazzi type IA18ASF05POM1 magnetic proximity switch mounted on the base of the flow gauge, which senses a metallic target on the mobile part and closes the electrical circuit each time the target crosses the sensing field. The output of the proximity switch was a transistor signal, which was not compatible with the input capabilities of the S D M -S W 8 A pulse counters. To surmount this problem, a Phoenix type P L C - R S C - 1 2 D C / 2 1 relay was included, separating the circuit o f the proximity switch from the circuit o f the pulse counter. The proximity switches were powered by a circuit consisting of a set of two East Perm sealed 1 2 V D C gel batteries connected in series; two E T I 20W Solar Panels also connected in series, and one Momingstar 10A 24V power regulator. The batteries and the power regulator were contained in a weatherproof metal box mounted at the base of the solar panel's mounting pole, on the strip between L#3 and L#4. The tipping buckets were calibrated against 100 K g of cold water in the U B C laboratory, before deployment. The calibration factors are presented in Table 3.6. Table 3.6: Calibration factors for tipping bucket flow gauges T B # I II III IV V V I VI I VIII I X X Tips for 100 K g cold water 169 149 147 130 155 146 134 163 143 157 40 Chapter 4 DESCRIPTION OF COLLECTED DATA Data was collected at the site, during the period between April 4 t h 2006 and November 15 t h 2006. Conceptually, the collected data can be divided in three groups: weather data, geotechnical data, and hydrological data respectively. The current section presents the data according to this structure. 4.1 Weather data The data pertaining to this set was collected on site using the weather station described above and was composed of precipitation data and net solar radiation data. 4.1.1 Precipitation Precipitation was measured with a CSI Model CS700-L Rain Gage connected to a CR10X data logger. The Rain Gage was mounted on a stainless steel pole with the lip of the funnel at approximately 1 m from the ground. Observations regarding precipitation on site were made starting with April 3rd, using a simple rain gage consisting of a funnel and a plastic bottle taped together. After rainfall events, the volume of water from the bottle was measured using a graduated cylinder. The quantity of rainfall in mm was determined by dividing the volume of water expressed in liters to the surface of the funnel expressed in meters squared, according to equation 4.1. Eq. [4.1] Rainfall[mm]= Volume of water [L] / Area of funnel[m] 41 According to this method of measuring precipitation, a total amount of 84.68 mm of rainfall was observed during the period between March 31st and A p r i l 15th 2006. During the period between A p r i l the" 16 t h and M a y the 16 t h there is no reliable rainfall data observation because of failure of the automated data collection system and discontinuation of the manual rainfall data collection. Rainfall data for the aforementioned period was approximated based on data obtained from Environment Canada's website at http://historical.theweathemetwork.com/climate/historical.asp The meteorological data presented on the website was collected for the weather station located at the Sudbury Airport in Garson, which is approximately 30 kilometers north-east from the location of the test plots. The precipitation regimes at the two location — the airport in Garson and the test plots in Copper C l i f f — were observed to be slightly different. Nevertheless, it was considered that this data set is accurate enough to represent an approximation of rainfall amounts observed on the site of the experiment. For the purpose of comparison, the precipitation measured on site in Copper C l i f f and the airport is presented in table 4.1. A summary o f the precipitation data is also presented in Figures 4.1 and 4.2. Table 4.1: Comparison between precipitation data measured at two locations Observed period Precipitation [mm] Location March 31 st - A p r i l 15th 84.67 Test plots in Copper C l i f f 60.00 Airport in Garson M a y 17 t h - November 15th 443.60 Test plots in Copper C l i f f 490.00 Airport in Garson 42 Upon summation of the precipitation data collected through the different methods described above, the total precipitation (rainfall only) for the observed period — March 31st 2006 to November 15th 2006 — was determined to be 597.48 mm. Figure 4.1: Cumulated rainfall between A p r i l 3 and November 15, 2006 43 60 50 E 40 'in 30 c o c 20 c 10 0 i i H k A , I I - All! 3-Apr 23-May 12-Jul 31-Aug T i m e [day] 20-Oct Figure 4.2: Rainfall frequency and intensity between A p r i l 3 and November 15, 2006 4.1.2 Net Solar Radiation Net Solar Radiation represents the difference between the incident radiation (solar and far infra red) and the radiation reflected by the ground surface. Net radiation gives the observer a measure of the energy available for the evaporation mechanisms at the soil-atmosphere interface. The net radiation was measured on site using an N R L i t e Net Radiometer manufactured by Kipp & Zonen of Delft, The Nederland. The instrument was installed in the center of L #3, mounted on a stainless steel pole at a height of approximately 1.5 m. This type of net radiometer has the particularity of not being equipped with a plastic dome, as most net radiometers do. The sensor's thermopile is protected by a Teflon coat instead, 44 which eliminates many of the maintenance problems usually associated with net radiometers. The downside of this solution was that the measurements were more sensitive to variations in wind speed. However, for the purpose o f this experiment, the accuracy offered by this particular measuring device was considered to be sufficient. A l l the net radiation data was collected automatically, by integrating the net radiometer with the C R 1 0 X data logger. Data was collected starting on A p r i l 25 t h until November 15 t h when the system was decommissioned for winter storage. Initially, the data logger was programmed to take measurements every minute, and store the average of the last 15 measurements in the memory. Starting with June 28 t h , the program was modified to retain the 30 minute average, to save space in the memory of the data logger. To give a physical interpretation to the net radiation observed on site, the measured data is plotted in 2 * 2 two different units of measurement: W / m in the first graph (Figure 4.3), and M J / m /day in the second graph (Figure 4.4). The apparent inconsistency in the first part of the graph is due to the inadequate range and accuracy settings of the data logger 45 700 -i 600 -CM E 500 -400 -c o "•5 300 -CO s 200 -a> 100 -0 --100 -24-Apr 13-Jun 2-Aug Time [Day] 21-Sep 10-Nov 2 Figure 4.3: Net Radiation measured on site, expressed in W / m -5 25-Apr 14-Jun 3-Aug Time [day] 22-Sep 11-Nov Figure 4.4: Net Radiation measured on site, expressed in M J / m /day 46 4.2 Geotechnical data This section presents geotechnical data collected during the field trials and is consisting of moisture content, matric suction, oxygen content, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. 4.2.1 Soil moisture content Samples were collected from all five cells at the end of summer of 2006, to determine the moisture content profiles of the soil (cover and underlying tailings). A total number of 61 samples were collected and sealed on site, being subsequently transported to the Golder Associates Labs in Sudbury, for processing and testing. Ideally, the samples would have been collected the same day or at least in a short interval of time, in order to reflect the humidity profile through the covers and tailings, and to allow for a direct and accurate comparison between the conditions in the different cells. However, due to difficult conditions for the sampling, this was not possible. The samples were collected at intervals of approximately 10 cm depth, by digging a small trench through the full depth of the Paste Rock covers, until the underlying tailings were exposed. Depth was measured from the surface of the Paste Rock cover, after the topsoil cover was removed. The trenches served two different purposes: allowed for the collection of soil moisture samples, and in the same time allowed for the tensiometers to be installed at the specified depth, as described in the section 4.2.2, which deals with the tensiometric data. Samples that were collected through the full depth of the covers or to a depth o f 100 cm in the case o f L # l , allowed for drawing a soil moisture profile o f the different covers and tailings, respectively. Two sets of samples were collected from L#5, at three day 47 interval. For comparison, a plot o f the moisture content (expressed in per cent of dry mass of sample) of each lysimeter is presented in Figure 4.5 . Figure 4.5e) presents the moisture profile of L #5 using data collected at two different times. A list o f all the individual samples and depths is attached in Appendix 4. L#1 0 5 10 15 20 Gravimetric Water content [%] a) Uncovered tailings L#2 E Q 0 5 10 15 20 Gravimetric Water content [%] b) 1:1:1 non-compacted, 1000mm cover, 48 L#3 0 20 £ 40 u I" 60 80 100 0 5 10 15 . 20 Gravimetric water content [%] c) 1:1:2 non-compacted 1000 mm cover d) 1:1:1 compacted, 600 mm cover 49 L#5 Gravimetric water content [%] e) 1:1:2, compacted, 600 mm thick, 1.5% bentonite Figure 4.5: Gravimetric water content measured in each individual lysimeter cell 4.2.2 Soi l matric suction Soi l matric suction was measured on site using two different methods: direct method, with tensiometers that measure suction in soil, and indirect method, with Thermal Conductivity sensors. Tensiometers are instruments used for measuring the value of matric suction in the soil. Each instrument consists of a porous ceramic tip attached to a hollow.plastic tube 50 sealed at the other end and having a pressure gauge attached. The tube was filled with water, and the pressure inside the soil texture determines the rate at which the water is drawn out of the tube through the porous ceramic cup. The pressure indicated on the dial o f the pressure gauge is the actual "soil matric suction" present in the soil at the time of measurement. For the described research project, the type of tensiometer chosen was the Model 2725 Jet F i l l Tensiometers manufactured by Soilmoisture Equipment Corp. of Santa Barbara, California. The particularity of this type of tensiometer is the presence of a small water holding tank on the top end of the clear plastic tube for easy refill o f the tensiometer. The instruments were inserted in the Paste Rock covers and in the tailings at various depths, in such way that measurements taken simultaneously are giving a picture of the soil suction profile of the material. Figure 4.6 presents the method used to deploy the tensiometers at different depths. A t the time that the trenches were excavated for the deployment of the tensiometers, soil samples were collected to determine the soil water content. There was no possibility for obtaining soil suction measurements simultaneously from all the Paste Rock cover profiles and in the control cell for the tailings in L # l ; the measurements presented in this thesis were taken at different time intervals. The problem with the different time intervals and a given precipitation regime is that a direct comparison does not reflect the behavior of the different profiles of Paste Rock mixture under same conditions. The results are presented in the form of a depth dependent plot of the taken measurements in Figure 4.6. The profiles representing the highest and the lowest suction values respectively define a soil matric suction envelope for the given Paste Rock mixture. 51 52 Figure 4.7: Soi l suction envelopes measured in each individual lysimeter L#1 0 10 20 30 Suct ion [KPa] a) Uncovered tailings L#2 0 20 40 £ £ 60 Q. O 100 120 i i fx m • • 0 6 12 18 24 30 Suct ion [KPa] b) 1:1:1 non-compacted, 1000mm cover, 53 c) 1:1:2 non-compacted 1000 mm cover d) 1:1:1 compacted, 600 mm cover 54 L#5 70 H i n n 1 0 25 50 75 100 Suction [KPa] e) 1:1:2 mix, 1.5% bentonite, compacted 4.2.3 Oxygen concentration The analyzer used for this experiment was a battery operated model 320 W P Portable Flue Gas Oxygen Analyzer, manufactured by Nova Analytical Systems, o f Hamilton Ontario. The device was used to collect samples through a sampling pump that passed the gas through a fuel cell oxygen sensor and the data is displayed on L C D readout in per cent oxygen contained by the analyzed gas. 55 Gas samples for analyzing the oxygen concentration inside the covers and in the underlying tailings were collected through a sampling system consisting o f 6.5 mm P V C tubes. Initially the tubes were implanted.vertically, by driving a metal rod to the desired depth, inserting the tube, and then filling the remaining space with a mixture of sand and bentonite granules. This system proved not to offer the necessary sealing,. and many measurements showed signs of false air being drawn into the tube. The decision was made to replace the initial sampling tubes. The new sampling system consisted of the same type of tubing, with the difference that these tubes were inserted horizontally, at the time the trenches for the tensiometers were filled back. To ensure ah airtight seal around the tubes, the deep end was inserted in a short horizontal hole (approximately 10 cm) made by driving a metal rod into the walls of the still open trench, and then filling the space with a moist mixture of fine sand and 5% bentonite. The trench was then filled back with the same mixture of moist sand-bentonite to the level of the sampling tube and compacted. Another layer of approximately 10 centimeters sand-bentonite mixture was subsequently added, and compacted, to form a sealing encasement for the sampling tube. The tube was then redirected to a vertical position, and further layers were added and compacted up to the level of the next sampling tube as shown in Figure 4.8. To ensure that the deep end of the tube stays free of sand and debris a small chamber was added to the tube, consisting of 50 mm section of 12.5 mm diameter metal pipe fitted with a mesh. The free end of the tube is cut at approximately 20 mm from ground level, and fitted with a section of rubber tubing. The rubber tube has a double role: first, it is the connection between the sampling tube and the intake port of the oxygen analyzer and second, it is a reasonably airtight seal by tying a knot on it when the tube is not in use. 56 Figure 4.8: Photograph of gas sampling tubes during installation A set of sampling tubes was installed for each and every cell, and the results of Oxygen concentration measurements are presented in Table 4.2. The negative values of measured oxygen concentration are a result of the way the electronics of the oxygen meter is designed, and represent a value of zero per cent measured oxygen. 57 Table 4.2: Measured values of Oxygen concentration inside the Paste Rock covers Oxygen concentrations measured under draining conditions on January 5, 2007 Cel l# Depth [cm] Concentration [%] O B S E R V A T I O N S 10 18.3 1 25 10.1 65 8.4 90 7.2 120 3.9 2.2 % measured oh second attempt 2. 80 0.9 40 0.4. 20 2.3 120 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 3 70 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 30 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 10 0.0 sucking up water, no actual measurement taken 80 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 4 . 50 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 18 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 70 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 5 45 0.0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 20 0,0 negative value indicated by the oxygen meter 4.2.4 Saturated hydraulic conductivity Hydraulic conductivity is an important geotechnical characteristic of a soil, which gives a measure of how quickly water drains through a column of soil under saturated conditions. For the experiment described in this thesis, permeability measurements were 58 taken over a relatively long time period, using a Guelph Permeameter. The results are presented in Table 4.3. Table 4.3: Hydraulic permeability measured on site Date Location Ksat [m/sec] Jul-05 cell #1 Uncovered Tailings hole #1 5.16E-04 hole #2 3.86E-04 hole #3 6.41E-04 Jul-05 cell #2 1:1:1 non-compacted 1000 mm hole #1 1.17E-06 hole #3 1.83E-06 Aug-06 hole#l 8.61E-07 Jul-05 cell #3 1:1:2 non-compacted 1000 mm hole #1 1.93E-06 hole #2 1.37E-06 hole #3 2.62E-06 Aug-06 hole #1 9.63E-08 Jul-05 cell #4 1:1:1 compacted 600 mm hole #2 2.24E-06 hole #3 6.51E-06 Aug-06 hole #1 5.91E-07 Jul-05 cell #5 1:1:2 compacted 1.5% bentonite hole #1 1.70E-06 hole #2 5.83E-06 hole #3 2.38E-06 4.3 Hydrologica l data Hydrological data presented in the current chapter shows the measured values of run-off from the surface of the lysimeters and infiltration through the Paste Rock covers and pure tailings, respectively.- The data was collected during 2006, between A p r i l 3 r d and November 15 t h , over a period of 226 days. Due to technical difficulties in commissioning the automated data collection system during the period between A p r i l 3 r d and M a y 18 t h , flow data was collected manually by collecting and measuring the volume o f flow from the given cell and dividing it by the time 59 it took to collect it. Usually three measurements were taken, and the average of the three measurements was retained as the measured flow rate. The flow data was collected automatically starting on M a y 18 t h, in the form of total number of tips of a tipping bucket flow gauge for a given period of time. To this total number of tips the calibrated transformation factor was applied, to calculate the volume of flow over the given time period. For direct comparison with precipitation data, the flow volume was transformed into millimeters of flow by dividing the volume in Liters to the surface of the lysimeter expressed in meters squared. Graphs of the cumulated flow for each of the five lysimeters are presented in Figure 4.9. The measured infiltration from the five lysimeters was grouped in three graphs for ease of comparison. The difference of flow volumes between the three graphs is significant, but the flow volumes registered for two adjacent lysimeters are similar. Table 4.4 presents ths correspondence between the measured flow and the calibration factor for each individual tipping bucket flow gauge, in the order of its rank in the relay row. Reliable run-off data was only collected starting with M a y 18 t h , due to the fact that it was impossible to manually collect representative run-off flow rates because of the variability of flow rates, with high rates during and immediately after rainfall, and no flow during dry periods. The automated data collection system corrects this inconvenient by continuously monitoring of the flow stations. The flow stations were serviced on a weekly basis, to ensure fault free functioning of the tipping bucket flow gauges, while the data was downloaded daily, processed, and saved on three different support systems. 60 Figure 4.10 presents the cumulated run-off measured between M a y 17, 2006 and November 14, 2006. Table 4.4: Calibration factors of individual tipping bucket flow gauges Location Measured parameter Identifier Relay channel Calibration factor L # l Infiltration T B rv 0 130 Run-off — 1 — L#2 Infiltration T B I 2 169 Run-off T B III 3 147 L#3 Run-off T B V 4 155 Infiltration T B V I I 5 134 L#4 Run-off T B X 6 157 Infiltration T B I X 7 143 . L#5 Infiltration T B V I 8 146 Run-off T B V I I I 9 163 C#1 600 Time [day] a) Uncovered tailings in the control cell 61 C#2 & C#3 Time [day] b) non-compacted, 1000 mm thick Paste Rock covers C#4 & C#5 Time [day] c) compacted, 600 mm Paste Rock covers, 1.5% bentonite in L #5 Figure 4.9: Measured infiltration rates between A p r i l 3 r d 2006 and November 15 t h 2006 62 Cumulative run-off in 2006 E Time [day] Figure 4.10: Cumulated Run-off between M a y 17 2006 and November 14 2006 63 Chapter 5 DISCUSSION In the following section, the data collected on site during 2006 is analyzed and compared to the predicted results of the preliminary modeling and laboratory test program. 5.1 Weather data The rainfall data collect-ed on site between March 31,2006 and November 15, 2006 is presented and compared to the average annual precipitation for the same period obtained from the weather station of the Garson Airport, some 30 K m north-east of the test site. Net radiation data is also presented and compared to net radiation data collected at a site situated at comparable latitude in central British Columbia and presented in Weeks 2006,b . 5.1.1 Rainfall data The rainfall data collected on site using various methods is one of the most important factors in determining the performance of the studied covers. The hydrological data presented below is compared to the measured precipitation. The cumulative rainfall for the March 31, 2006 to November 15, 2006 period is presented in Figure 4.1 of the previous section. Total cumulated precipitation for the aforementioned period is 597.48 mm. This is approximately equal to 594.5 mm which represents the 30 year average precipitation for the same period offered on Environmfeht Canada's website for the region of Sudbury, Ontario (http://www.theweathernetwork. com/weather /stats/pages /C02038.htm). It needs to be mentioned though, that the compiled rainfall data has a gap of 30 days between A p r i l 16 and M a y 16 during which no 64 reliable rainfall data was collected. I f rainfall data for the missing period is considered to be equal to the 30 year average observed by Environment Canada as being 69.9 mm, the total precipitation becomes 667.38 mm i.e., significantly more. I f the amount of snow observed during the previous winter is also considered as being equal to 396.1 mm water equivalent between December 1, 2005 and March 30, 2006, the total precipitation becomes 1063.48 mm (data compiled from www.theweathernetwork.com). The snow data should be used with caution though, since no snow survey was done on the test plots themselves, and snow drifting is usually occurring in open areas exposed to winds, such as a tailings beach. Nevertheless, some of the water resulting from snowmelt was infiltrating, as observed during the early period of flow rate measuring. The data used for the model development by (Wilson 2006; Levesque 2005) accounts for approximately 900 mm of precipitation per year, which is perfectly plausible. 5.1.2 Net radiation data The importance of net radiation monitoring consists in the possibility of assessing the values of actual evaporation using the modified Penman equation in its fully coupled soil-atmosphere form applied in the Soil Cover numerical model. The net radiation data was collected between A p r i l 25, 2006 and November 12, 2006 for a total of 202 days. For analysis purposes, the total length of time for data collection was divided in three seasons: spring — between days 115 and 151(April 25 to M a y 31), summer — between days 152 and 243 (June 1 to August 31) and fall — between day 244 and day 316 (September 1 to November 12), as shown in figure 5.1 and 5.2. The highest daily net radiation — 16.191 M J / m 2 — was measured on M a y 30, representing the highest positive value of total daily energy balance, while the highest individual values of net radiation are distributed 65 throughout the months of June and July (see Figure 5.2), and start to decrease at the beginning of August. Figure 5.3 shows the typical daily distribution of the measured net radiation values. 25-Apr 14-Jun 3-Aug 22-Sep 11-Nov Time [day] Figure 5.1: Total daily values of net radiation 66 -100 4 — : , • , r" 25-Apr 14-Jun 3-Aug 22-Sep 11-Nov Time [Day] Figure 5.2: Energy density measured on site during 2006 E c o +5 .2 '•£ re a: 800 600 400 200 -200 • • • — • • • 0.00 3.00 6.00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 Time [hour :m inu te ] Figure 5.3: Typical daily distribution of measured net radiation 67 5.2 Hydrologica l Data The hydrological data collected on site describes the total volumes and measured flow rates of infiltration and run-off. F low data was collected manually starting with A p r i l 3, 2006 and represents measured flow rates of the infiltration water discharging from the collection totes o f each individual lysimeter. The measurements taken in this form were transformed into volumes expressed in mm by assuming constant flow rate over the entire period lapsed between two consecutive measurements and identical surface of 225 m 2 for each lysimeter. During the period of manual measurements of flow rates, it was impractical to collect run-off flow data due to the high variability o f run-off flow, (i.e. high flow rates) during rainfall decreasing to zero short time after the rain stopped. Thus, reliable run-off data was only collected using the automated data collection system, starting with M a y 17, by measuring volumes of flow discharging from the run-off and infiltration collection totes in a timely manner. The total number of tips on each of the channels of the S D M S W 8 A pulse counters, representing one individual tipping bucket flow gauge, was totalized over a 60 minutes interval, making it possible to reconstitute flow rate as wel l as total flow volume. Once the correct setup was achieved, the system proved to be reliable, with short periods of black-out, for which periods the flow data was extrapolated from the previous and immediately following available data, taking into account weather conditions (rainfall) or trend in flow rates (increasing or decreasing). There was one occasion, on M a y 21, when the system could not cope with the run-off volumes, after a prolonged period of high intensity rainfall. The drainage capacity o f the 10 cm layer of slag on the bottom of the housing box proved to be insufficient, the water discharged from the run-off collection totes inundating the housing boxes and covering the flow gauges, causing a short-circuit in the 68 2 4 V D C system that powered the reed switches. The situation was corrected by choking the 1.9 cm run-off transport pipe to reduce flow rates discharging into the flow gauges. N o run-off was anticipated from the control cell, lysimeter L #1, during 2005 and 2006 and no run-off was observed, not even after the surface of the tailings was sprayed with a layer of paper mulch at the time the cells were hydro-seeded. The storage capacity o f the tailings proved to be significant as illustrated by the following example. During the summer of 2005, no infiltration was observed after a period of rainfall (20 mm in total) between July 25 and August 4 (http://historical.theweathemetwork.com/climate/historical .asp, accessed A p r i l 16, 2007), prompting the possibility that the water collection system or the H D P E membrane is leaking. On August 5, after the integrity of the collection system was visually inspected and no obvious leaks were observed, a 1.5 m deep hole was dug in the middle of the cell with a backhoe, and about 500 L o f water was dumped in the hole. The water started discharging after approximately 20 minutes, with no significant losses being observed. Comparing the cumulated rainfall graph with the cumulated infiltration measured in L #1 it can be observed that the trend in the infiltration closely follows the precipitation. Figure 5.4 illustrates the relationship between precipitation events and measured flow rate. In the case of the covered lysimeters, the variation in flow rates is greatly diminished, and the trend is only evident following major rain periods. 69 5.00 4.50 4.00 + 3.50 -E 3.00 | 2.50 o 2.00 i 1.50 £ 1.00 0.50 0.00 rf y y . y J J» cj$ y - Rainfall • -L#1 a) Control cell, L #1 40 35 30 25 E, — 20 £ c f5 a: <0 5 0 2.00 1.20 1 0.80 0.40 0.00 ^ . / ^ ^ ^ p* y - Rainfall L #2 -m- L #3 b) Uncompacted covers, L #2 and L #3 40 35 30 25 a 20 10 5 0 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 J 0.30 j 0.25 | 0.20 S 0.15 I u. 0.10 0.05 0.00 y y - Rainfall --L #4 • -L#5 c) Comoacted covers. L #4 and L #5 gure 5.4: Relationship between rainfall events and variations in measured flow rates 70 In the case of L #1, the difference in the cumulated measured volumes of infiltration and cumulated rainfall is considered to be lost mainly to evaporation and in small part to storage, having no top-soil cover protective layer or vegetation that would draw water from the tailings. In al l the other lysimeters, protective clay borrow covers were constructed and a thick grass cover was observed to develop during the 2006 vegetative season. In the case of these lysimeters, based on model predictions (Levesque 2005), the losses are incurred mainly as evapo-transpiration due to plant activity. A n approximate water balance was calculated for each of the lysimeters for the period between M a y 17 and November 15, and the results are summarized in Table 5.1. The elements of the water balance taken into account are precipitation (rain), measured infiltration, measured run-off, and calculated evaporation/evapo-transpiration. N o significant losses of water were observed due to leaking water collection system, and therefore the difference between cumulated rainfall and the sum of infiltration and run-off is entirely accounted for as evaporation/evapo-transpiration. Table 5.1: Summary of water balance for each lysimeter Cumulated precipitation Lysimeter #1 Lysimeter #2 Lysimeter #3 Lysimeter #4 Lysimeter #5 = 443.6 mm c c fe o fe o ' fe ' o o fe o Measured o 1 c "is o 1 a a o 1 "3 f-l o 1 s a o s flow [mm] Infil Infil Pi Infil a- Infil a Infil 337.64 0.00 101.28 47.49 123.62 .18.64 2.48 138.17 0.41 114.41 Evapo- 105.54 294.83 301.34 301.92 328.78 transpiration 71 It can be observed from Table 5.3 that there is an important reduction in infiltration through the Paste Rock covers, compared to the uncovered tailings in the control cell. The cumulated volume of infiltration through the uncovered tailings represents 76% of the cumulated precipitation observed for the same period. The cumulated volumes of infiltration through the uncompacted Paste Rock covers of L #2 and L #3 represent 30% and 36% respectively of the infiltration measured in L #1. Comparing these values to volume of precipitation measured during the same period, it represents a reduction of 4.3 times in L #2 and 3.6 times in L #3. Compaction of the Paste Rock covers seems to significantly reduce the hydraulic permeability. The cumulated volume of infiltration through the covers in L #4 and L #5 represents less than 1% of the control value, while the reduction compared to precipitation is 178 times in the case of L #4 and 1082 times for the compacted cover containing 1.5% bentonite in L #5. Following spring melt in March 2006, flow rates close to 0.1 L/minute were observed for L #4 and 0.05 L/minute for L #5 while no infiltration was observed during most of the summer through the covers. Again, to verify the suspicions of leaks in the water collection system, the pipes and collection totes were visually inspected and no deficiencies could be observed. The observation that gave even more confidence in the integrity of the liner and water collection system is that in the 2005 season, when the cover was presenting extensive cracking, lysimeter #5 was responding Well to rainfall events with infiltration discharging immediately. On a closer inspection of the measured flow rates, it is evident that the big rain event at mid-May totaling almost 87 mm in ten days between M a y 11 and M a y 20 did not have a significant effect on the measured rates o f infiltration through the compacted covers of L #4 and L #5. 72 According to the water balance presented in Table 5.3, the water losses to evapo-transpiration are almost the same for all four of the covered lysimeters. This fact reinforced the confidence that the water balance is correct, since conditions influencing evapo-transpiration were identical for all o f the four cells. The analysis of infiltration data shows that hydraulic permeability is similar for the non-compacted covers as well as for the compacted covers. A t the same time, there is an important difference in the hydraulic performance of the non-compacted covers compared to the compacted covers, the non-compacted covers achieving a 3-fold decrease in infiltration compared to the control cell, while the compacted covers show a decrease in infiltration of about 2 orders of magnitude compared to the same control cell. Figure 5.5 illustrates best the difference between cumulative infiltration through the control cell and the covered cells, while figure 5.6 presents comparative run-off values. The total precipitation was estimated to be 897 mm. 900 800 700 Cummulated infiltration Precipitation C #2 and C #3 Time [day] -C#1 C#2 C#3 C#4 C#5 - - - - Precipitation Figure 5.5: Cumulated infiltration through lysimeters (estimated total precipitation approximately 900 mm) 73 Figure 5.6: Cumulated run-off from the surface of lysimeters (no run-off observed from L#l 5.3 Geotechnical data The geotechnical data collected on site reflects some of the characteristics of the Paste Rock covers and tailings. As in the previous section, the data pertaining to this group consists of saturated hydraulic conductivity, matric suction, soil moisture content, and gaseous Oxygen concentration. 74 5.3.1 Saturated hydraulic conductivity The in situ saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Paste Rock covers and the tailings was measured during the summer of 2005, before the reworking of the covers and again in 2006 after the covers were reinstated and the protective top-soil layer installed. The results are presented in Table 4.3 in the previous section. Compared to the findings of the laboratory testing conducted prior to the field experiment shown in Table 5.2, the conductivities measured in situ are considerably higher. The values measured in 2005 range between 3.86 x 10"4 and 6.41 x 10"4 m/s for the tailings in L #1, while the values for the covers are between 1.17xl0" 6 and 6.51xl0" 6 m/s. These values are strikingly different from the K s a t values of 2x10"7 to l x l 0 " 8 m/s determined in the lab for the same blending ratios and treatment (Fines, Wilson, and in conjunction with Golder Paste Technology Ltd. 2002, 1-21). The K s a t values measured in August 2006 show a better concordance with the 7 8 • * laboratory values, ranging between 5.9x10" and 9.6x10" m/s, but are still higher. Table 5.2: Saturated hydraulic conductivity of various Paste Rock mixtures (adapted from Fines, 2002) Mix (WR/Slag/Tails) Slump [cm] Compaction Bentonite Ksat [m/s] 1:1:1 5 None None 1 x 10"7 1:1:1 0 Standard Proctor None 5 x 10"8 1:1:2 0 Standard Proctor None 1 x 10"7 1:1:2 10 None None 2 x 10"7 1:1:2 18 None None 1 x 10"7 1:1:2 20 None None 2 x 10"7 , 1:1:2 >25 None None 3 x 10"7 1:1:2 n/a Standard Proctor None 4 x 10"8 1:1:2 10 None 1.5% 3 x 10' 8 1:1:2 n/a Standard Proctor 1.5% 5 x 10"9 1:1:2 18 None 1.5% 1 x 10"8 75 There are several possible causes for the observed differences in the laboratory and field values of K s a t . One possible explanation could be the fact that the covers installed in 2004 were not compacted as planned, but rather the surface was worked smooth with a small plate tamper thus no considerable compaction effort being applied to the deeper layers. Furthermore, as Table 4.3 shows, the measured values for cells L #4 and L #5 are highly variable, probably due to the increased heterogeneity o f the Paste Rock material. Another possible explanation to the generally high values measured for all covers could be the formation of micro-cracks that would enhance preferential flow paths and thus make the measured values of saturated hydraulic conductivity misleading. This is even more plausible in the conditions observed during the summer of 2005, when the surface of all o f the covers was observed to have developed cracks to various extents. This could lead to a top layer of high conductivity, while the deeper layers possibly maintained low K s a t . A l l the measurements were taken from shallow holes (typically 15 to 20 cm), so there is no indication of what the values of conductivity were at a higher depth. Furthermore, measurements were not repeated for the same location, so uncertainty is high with respect to possible errors o f measurement. 5.3.2 Soil moisture content Figure 5.7 presents the gravimetric moisture content of the Paste Rock covers and tailings, and shows the water content is typically between 9% and 13% for most o f the covers, except the case of cover in L#4. The measured gravimetric moisture content of the tailings is slightly lower, in the range of 6% to 8%. The difference between 10% and 12% water content was shown during lab testing to translate to a difference o f the slump from 10 76 cm to 20 cm (Fines, Wilson, and in conjunction with Golder Paste Technology Ltd. 2002, 1-21). Volumetric moisture content was determined by dividing the weight of each sample to the dry density determined in-situ using a nuclear density probe (see Appendix 4 for list o f soil moisture samples and Appendix 5 for in-situ density). Figure 5.8 shows the computed volumetric moisture content of the tailings and Paste Rock covers. In situ volumetric water content was determined using field measurements for soil suction and gravimetric water content determined in the lab. The gravimetric water contents were converted to volumetric water contents in order to be compatible with the plot of the S W C C determined by (Fines and Wilson, 2002) for the Paste Rock mixtures. Figure 5.9 presents the S W C C from (Fines and Wilson, 2002) with the data points representing water content versus suction, while Table 5.3 presents the data points with measured water content and suction. 77 E o a Q Measured Moisture Content o 20 40 60 80 120 4T 1 j t t k / % \ J£x i 1 F\/ _.« H I I I I I •L#1 •L#2 L#3 L#4 0 " 5 10 15 20 25 30 Gravimetr ic Moisture C o n t e n t [%] Figure 5.7: Gravimetric moisture content determined for tailings and Paste Rock covers 78 79 80 L#5 0 i 20 S 4 0 o a a 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 Water Content [%] e) compacted, 1.5% bentonite Figure 5.8: Volumetric water content determined for tailings and Paste Rock covers 81 Table 5.3: Measured Suction and Gravimetric Water Content Date Ce l l# Depth [cm] Gravimetric Water Content [%] Soi l Suction [KPa] 08/01/06 1 10 6.5 12 08/01/06 1 20 7.2 10 08/01/06 1 30 7.3 10.5 08/03/06 2 40 8.7 • 40 08/14/06 4 • 47 7.6 15 08/18/06 5 58 12.2 54 08/18/06 5 76 13.9 57 08/18/06 5 70 14 51 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 L#3 0.1 Laboratory data (Fines and Wilson, 2002 1 Matric Suction (kPa) 10 100 -•— 1:1:1 compacted — • — 1:1:2 compacted with bent. —X— 1:1:2 Blend —•—. L #2 •L#4 ® L #5 Figure 5.9: In-situ volumetric moisture content versus suction measured in L #2, L #4 and L #5 compared to laboratory S W C C 82 From Figure 5.9, it can be seen that the data points measured on field are situated above the S W C C determined in the lab. This indicates that the field compacted densities are higher, and that the Paste Rock covers are maintaining a higher water content than the samples used for determining the S W C C in the laboratory by (Fines and Wilson, 2002). 5.3.3 Soi l matric suction A s described in section 4, a series of tensiometers were installed for measuring soil matric suction. The range of measured values plotted in Figure 4.7 versus depth represents the suction envelopes for the given material (Paste Rock or tailings) for each cell. It can be observed that suction measured in tailings L #1 range between 3 and 12 K P a . A s a term of comparison, it was determined in the lab that the A E V (Air Entry Value) for tailings was approximately 30 K P a , and the A E V for a 1:1:2 blend (compacted as well as non-compacted) was approximately the same, 30 K P a , while the addition of bentonite increases the A E V to approximately 50 K P a (Fines, Wilson, and in conjunction with Golder Paste Technology Ltd. 2002, 1-21). Figures 4.7c) and 4.7d) show relatively high values o f suction in the covers of L #3 and L #4, possibly leading to unsaturated condition and oxygen entry through the cover, however, Figure 5.7 suggests that the in situ A E V may exceed the measured values of suction. Figure 4.7e) shows values of suction typically lower than the A E V and the cover in L #5 showed high values of saturation for the entire period during which suction measurements were taken. In summary, the in situ field measurements for matric suction indicate that the cover profiles for lysimeters L #2, L #3, L #4, and L #5 maintained high saturation through the entire study period. 83 5.3.4 Oxygen concentration Values o f Oxygen concentration greater than zero inside or under a soil cover is a clear indicator of the potential for oxidation processes. The design purpose of a soil cover constructed of Paste Rock material is to restrict oxygen ingress to the underlying tailings and thus reduce oxidation rates to minimum. The mechanism of reducing oxygen transport through the cover is related to the capacity of the cover to remain saturated at all times, hence maintaining the interconnected pores filled with water rather than air. It is known that maintaining a degree of saturation greater than 85% effectively reduces the gas transport through the cover. From the values of oxygen concentrations measured on site presented in Table 4.2 of the previous section, it can be observed that the concentration of oxygen below all Paste Rock covers was effectively reduced to zero, while the concentrations in the control lysimeter L #1 are well above zero. In summary, the measured zero values of gaseous oxygen content below the covers confirms that high levels o f saturation was maintained in the Paste Rock profiles, as summarized in the previous sections. 84 Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMANDATIONS In conclusion, it has been observed that the performance of the Paste Rock soil covers with respect to measured infiltration and run-off surpassed the predicted values advanced by the numerical models used to define the base case. In the case on the non-compacted covers of L #2 and L #3, the reduction in infiltration was 3-fold, compared to the uncovered control cell. Even better performance was observed in the case of the compacted covers in L #4 and L #5, and it seems that compaction caused a further reduction in infiltration compared to the non-compacted covers, with measured infiltration volumes representing less than 1 % of the infiltration through the tailings in the control cell. Saturation of the covers was determined to be adequate (i.e. above 85%) for the studied time period by comparing the measured values of soil suction to the A E V determined experimentally by Fines and Wilson, 2002 at the time when the best mixtures for Paste Rock covers were designed. Even though the collected data with respect to infiltration, run-off, precipitation and net radiation over the period of 219 days during 2006 was exhaustive, there are important limitations to the data characterizing other aspects of cover performance. Oxygen concentration was measured to be zero for three of the covers (L #3, L #4 and L #5) or close to zero in the cover of L #2, while in the tailings of L #1 the values present a depth dependent distribution, but these values represent only a single point in a time dependant scale, and therefore it is not possible to assess the oxygen reduction capacity of the covers on the longer term. 85 Saturation of the covers was deducted by plotting measured values of water content and suction on a S W C C determined in the lab by Fines{{96 Fines, P. 2003; }}. The data plot shows that the measured saturation is higher than the saturation expected based on laboratory measurements. Continued measurements would be required though, to observe the long-term behavior of the studied covers. Soi l matric suction was measured using a series of tensiometers installed at different depths in different covers for different time intervals. This method has the limitations of being sensitive to different precipitation events occurring at one time or another and not reflecting the behavior of the different covers under identical weather conditions. Gravimetric moisture content was determined with great accuracy by collecting soil samples and subsequently processing them in the lab, but samples were only collected at one time, and no data is available to determine the time-dependant moisture content of the Paste Rock material used for covers. A l l the above mentioned data was collected during the 2006 season, with some limited observations in the 2005 season. This quantity of data obviously does not allow drawing conclusions about the long-term performance o f the covers, but it represents a valuable initial performance for the continuation of the data collection and analysis. Although not part of the scope of this research project, geochemical characterization of the effluents collected from each cell could help in better defining the performance of the Paste Rock covers, especially on the longer term. Collecting water samples could be a challenge though in the case of L #4 and L #5 from which no infiltration was observed for most o f the summer and fall o f 2006. This thesis presents the beginning of the third phase of a research project that had as its scope the definition, design, and performance evaluation o f a new generation 86 of soil covers that brings a totally new approach to problems associated with mine waste management and deposition. 87 R E F E R E N C E S Aachib, M . , M . Mbonimpa, and M . Aubertin. 2004. Measurement and prediction of the oxygen diffusion coefficient in unsaturated media, with applications to soil covers. Water, A i r , and Soil Pollution 156, (1): 163-193. Albright, Wi l l i am H . 2006. Field performance of a compacted clay landfill final cover at a humid site. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 132, (11)-Bussiere, Bruno. Colloquium 2004: Hydro-geotechnical properties of hard rock tailings from metal mines and emerging geo-environmental disposal approaches. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. In print. Bussiere, Bruno, Miche l Aubertin, and Robert P. Chapuis. 2003. The behavior of inclined covers used as oxygen barriers . Canadian Geotechnical Journal 40, (3): 512-535, www.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca (accessed December 7, 2006). Dagenais, Anne-Marie. 2005. Final report - «Co-mix experimental cells - construction report». Unite de recherche et de service en technologie minerale,. Dagenais, Anne-Marie, Michel Aubertin, Bruno Bussiere, and Vincent Martin. 2005. Large scale applications of covers with capillary barrier effects to control the production of acid mine drainage. Paper presented at Proceedings of Post-Mining 2005, Nancy, France. Fayer, M . J., and G . W . Gee. 2006. Multiple-year water balance of soil covers in a semiarid setting. Journal of Environmental Quality 35, (1): 366-377. Fines, P., G . W . Wilson, and in conjunction with Golder Paste Technology Ltd. 2002. Laboratory evaluation of co-mixed tailings, waste rock and slag for the construction of barrier cover systems at copper cliff. University of British Columbia & Golder Paste Technology, 011-9929. Fines, P., G . W . Wilson, D . Landriault, L . Lariteigne, and L . Hulett. 2003. Co-mixing tailings, waste rock and slag to produce barrier cover systems. Paper presented a'c Proceedings of 6th International Conference on A c i d Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Fox, Patrick J., Daniel J. De Battista, and David G . Mast. 2000/4. Hydraulic performance of geosynthetic clay liners under gravel cover soils. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 18, (2-4): 179-201. 88 Kasir, Mansor, and Ernest K. Yanful . 2001. Hydraulic conductivity of bentonite permeated with acid mine drainage. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 38 , : 1034-1048, www.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca (accessed December 7 2006). Lefebvre, R., D. Hockley, J . Smolensky, and A . Lamontagne. 2001. Multiphase transfer processes in waste rock piles producing acid mine drainage. 2.application of . numerical simulation. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 52, (1-4): 165-186 (accessed May 4, 2007). Levesque, Isabelle. 2005. Numerical analysis evaluation of co-mixed tailings waste rock and slag for lysimeter cells at Copper Cliff mines, Ontario. Bachelor of Appl ied Science Thesis, University of Brit ish Columbia. M E N D . 2004. Design, construction and performance monitoring of cover systems for waste rock and tailings . M E N D , 2.21.4. 1994. Soil cover users manual version 2.0. M E N D website: M E N D , 1.25.1, http://www.mcan.gc.ca/mms/canmet-mtb/mmsl-lmsrn/mend/mendpubs-e.htm (accessed March 20, 2007). Mi l ler , Carol J . , and Jai-Young Lee. 1999/2. Response of landfill clay liners to extended periods of freezing. Engineering Geology 51, (4): 291-302. Nichol , Craig, Leslie Smith, and Roger Beckie. 2003. Long-term measurement of matric suction using thermal conductivity sensors. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 4 0 , : 587-597. Nichol , Craig. 2005. Personal communication. O'Kane, M . , G . W. Wi lson, and S. L. Barbour. 1998. Instrumentation and monitoring of an engineered soil cover system for mine waste rock. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 35, (5): 828-846. Shang, Julie Q. 1997. Electrokinetic dewatering of clay slurries as engineered soil covers. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 34 , : 78-86, www.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca (accessed December 5, 2006). Sjoberg Dobchuk, B., G. W. Wi lson, and M . Aubertin. 2003. Evaluation of a single-layer desulfurised tailings cover. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 6th International . Conference on Ac i d Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Swanson, D. A . , S. L. Barbour, G. W. Wi lson, and M . O'Kane. 2003. Soil-atmosphere modeling of an engineered soil cover for acid generating mine waste in a humid, alpine climate. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 40, (2): 276-292. Taylor, G . , A . Spain, A . Nefiodovas, G. Timms, V . Kuznetsov, and J. Bennett. 2003. Determination of the reasons for deterioration of the Rum Jungle waste rock cover. Australian Centre for Min ing Environmental Research,. 89 Weeks, Bjorn, and G. Ward Wilson. 2005. Variations in moisture content for a soil cover over a 10 year period. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 42, (6): 1615-1630, www.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca (accessed December 6, 2006). Weeks, B . , and G. W . Wilson. 2006. Prediction of evaporation from soil slopes. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 43, (8): 815-829. Weeks, Bjorn. 2006 a). Three dimensional flux boundary conditions for soil covers. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of British Columbia. Weeks, Bjorn. 2006. b) Personal communication Wickland, Benjamin E., G . Ward Wilson, Dharma Wijewickreme, and Bern Kle in . 2006. Design and evaluation of mixtures of mine waste rock and tailings. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 43, (9): 928-945, www.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca (accessed December 7, 2006). Wickland, Benjamin E., and G . Ward Wilson. 2005. Self-weight consolidation of mixtures of mine waste rock and tailings. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 42, (2). Wijeyesekera, D. C, K. O'Connor, and D. E. Salmon. 2001/6. Design and performance of a compacted clay barrier through a landfill. Engineering Geology 60, (1-4): 295-305. Williams, D. J., G. W. Wilson, and C. Panidis. 2003. Waste rock and tailings mixtures as a possible seal for potentially acid forming waste rock. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Williams, D. J., D. J. Stolberg, and N . A. Currey. 2006. Long-term performance of a "Store/Release" cover over potentially acid forming waste rock in a semi-arid climate. Wilson, G. W., D. J. Williams, and E. M. Rykaart. 2003. The integrity of cover systems -an update. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Wilson, G. W., H. D. Plewes, D. Williams, and J. Robertson. 2003. Concepts for co-mixing of tailings and waste rock. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland, Australia. 90 Appendix A Listing of the program written for the Campbell Scientific C R 10 X Data L o g and the automated data acquisition system 91 ; {CR10X} A p r i l 21, 2006 W r i t t e n by J o z s e f M i s k o l c z i , m o d i f i e d J u l y 4, 2006 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mining E n g i n e e r i n g 517, 6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4 phone: (604)822-3641; fax: (604)822-5599 Continuous m o n i t o r i n g of 10 t i p p i n g bucket flow gages c o n s t r u c t e d by UBC Continuous m o n i t o r i n g of m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s u s i n g one Campbell S c i e n t i f i c CS700-L Rain Gage,and one Kipp&Zonen NRLite Net Radiometer *Table 1 Program' 01 60 E x e c u t i o n i n t e r v a l <seconds> 1 : V o l t ( D i f f ) (P2) . 1 1 Reps 2 5 2500 mV Slow Range 3 4 DIFF Channel 4 2 Loc [ Rad ] 5 1 M u l t i p l i e r 6 0 . 0 O f f s e t ; net radiometer i s t a k i n g one measurements 2 : Pulse . (P3) 1 1 Reps 2 2 Pulse Channel 2 3 2 Switch C l o s u r e , A l l Counts 4 1 Loc [ P r e c i p mm ] 5 0.2 Mult 6 0 . 0 O f f s e t every t i p of the r a i n gage i s r e g i s t e r e d by the data l o g g e r . and w r i t t e n on the temporary memory every 60 seconds Do (P86) 1: 1 C a l l Subroutine 1 92 ; s u b r o u t i n e 1 i s c a l l i n g the SDM SW8A p u l s e counters to send ; data, to the f i n a l storage memory of the data l o g g e r ; the p u l s e counters are scanning the r e l a y s every 2 ; m i l l i s e c o n d s f o r s w i t c h c l o s u r e s , and are r e g i s t e r i n g ; the sum of a l l switch c l o s u r e s f o r the g i v e n p e r i o d of. ; time. ; s t a r t of the d a i l y time stamp (year, day, hour/minute, ; midnight i s 0000), s i g n a t u r e and b a t t e r y v o l t a g e 4: I f time i s (P92) 1: 0000 Minutes (Seconds --) i n t o a 2: 1440 • I n t e r v a l (same u n i t s as above) 3: 10 , Set Output F l a g High (Flag 0) 5: Set A c t i v e Storage Area (P80)^6826 1:1 F i n a l Storage Area 1 2: 1 A r r a y ID 6: Real Time (P77)^31957 1: 1110 Year,Day,Hour/Minute (midnight =0000) 7: I n t e r n a l Temperature (PI7) 1: 15 Loc [ CRIOXtemp ] 8: Signature (P19) 1: 16 Loc [ s i g n a t u r e ] 9: Sample (P70) A20417 1:1 Reps 2: 15 Loc [ CRIOXtemp ] ; end s t a r t of day d a i l y time stamp j * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -k * * * * * * * * * * ; OUTPUT NET RADIATION AND RAINFALL DATA ' j * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . i t * * * * * * ;at minute 1 of every h o u r . r a i n f a l l data ;ds w r i t t e n on the f i n a l storage memory of the data l o g g e r ; with a r r a y ID 10 10 1 2 I f time i s (P92) 1 60 Minutes (Seconds --) i n t o a I n t e r v a l (same u n i t s as above) 93 3: 10 Set Output F l a g High (Flag 0). 11: Set A c t i v e Storage Area (P80)"32653 1.: 1 F i n a l Storage Area 1 2: 10 A r r a y ID 12: Real Time (P77)"19694 1: 110 Day,Hour/Minute (midnight = 0000) 13: T o t a l i z e (P72)"12507 1: 1 Reps 2: 1 Loc [ Precip_mm ] ,-end of output of r a i n data at minute 5 o f , e v e r y 30 minutes of the hour (two times an hour at minute 5 and 35) the' l a s t 3 0 measured v a l u e s are averaged and s t o r e d i n the data l o g g e r ' s memory with a r r a y ID 2 0 14 If time i s (P92) 1 5 Minutes (Seconds --) i n t o a 2 30 I n t e r v a l (same u n i t s as above) 3 10 Set Output F l a g High (Flag .0) 15 Set A c t i v e Storage Area (P80) "23182 1 1 F i n a l Storage Area 1 2 20 A r r a y ID 16: Real Time (P77)"9955 1: 110 Day,Hour/Minute (midnight = 0000) 17: Average (P71)"11848 1 : 1 Reps 2 : 2 Loc .[ Rad ] ; end' of net r a d i a t i o n data output OUTPUT- OF THE FLOW DATA MEASURED BY THE TIPPING BUCKETS ;at minute 0 of every hour the switch c l o s u r e counts f o r the ; TB flow gages 94 ,-are t r a n s f e r r e d from the SDM SW8A's to the f i n a l storage ; memory of the data lo g g e r ;array ID 3 0 18: I f time i s (P92) 1: 0 Minutes (Seconds --) i n t o a 2: 60 I n t e r v a l (same u n i t s as above) 3: 10 Set Output F l a g High (Flag 0) 19: Set A c t i v e Storage Area (P80)"3552 • 1: 1 F i n a l Storage Area 1 2: 3 0 A r r a y ID 20: Real Time (P77)"29169 1: 11.0 Day, Hour/Minute (midnight = 0000)'; 21: Batt V o l t a g e (P10) 1: 14 Loc [ b a t _ v o l t ] 22: Sample . (P70)"32159 1: 1 Reps 2: 14 Loc [ b a t _ v o l t ] 23: T o t a l i z e (P72)"17519 1: 10 Reps 2: 3 Loc [ Flow ] ,-end of flow data ;######################################################### .********************************************************* * Table 2 Program 02': 1 Ex e c u t i o n i n t e r v a l <seconds> 1 : I f time i s (P92) 1 : 10 Minutes (Seconds --) i n t o a 2 : 480 I n t e r v a l (same u n i t s as above 3 : 30 Then Do 2 : Do (P86) 1 : 41 Set .Port 1 High probe=0 95 3: Beginning of Loop (P87) 1: 0000 Delay 2: 6 Loop Count 4: Batt V o l t a g e (P10) 1: 14 Loc [ b a t _ v o l t ] 5: I n t e r n a l Temperature (PI7) 1: 15 • Loc [ CRIOXtemp ] probe=probe+l 6 : Do (P86) 1 : 72 Pulse Port 2 7 : E x c i t a t i o n w i t h Delay (P22) 1 1 Ex Channel 2 0000 Delay W/Ex (0.01 sec u n i t s ) 3 500 Delay A f t e r Ex (0. 01 sec u n i t s 4 0000 mV E x c i t a t i o n 8 : Beginning of Loop (P87) 1 1 Delay 2 10 Loop.Count 9 : V o l t ( D i f f ) (P2) 1 1 Reps 2 5 2500 mV Slow Range 3 1 DIFF Channel 4 18 Loc [ P r e _ l . ] 5 1.0 M u l t i p l i e r 6 0.0 O f f s e t 10 End (P95) 11 S p a t i a l Average (P51) 1 10 Swath 2 18 F i r s t Loc [ Pre 1 ] 3 28 Avg Loc [ Pre Avg 1 12 Do (P86) 1 43 Set Port 3 High 13: E x c i t a t i o n w i t h Delay (P22) 96 .1 : 1 E x C h a n n e l 2 0 0 0 0 D e l a y W / E x ( 0 . 0 1 s e c u n i t s ) 3 1 0 0 D e l a y A f t e r E x ( 0 . 0 1 s e c u n i t s ) 4 0 0 0 0 mV E x c i t a t i o n 14 D o ( P 8 6 ) 1 4 4 S e t P o r t . 4 H i g h 1 5 B e g i n n i n g o f L o o p ( P 8 7 ) 1 1 D e l a y 2 2 L o o p C o u n t 1 6 E n d ( P 9 5 ) c o u n t = 0 1 7 T i m e ( P 1 8 ) 1 : 0 S e c o n d s i n t o c u r r e n t m i n u t e ( m a x i m u m 6 0 2 : 6 0 M o d / B y 3 : 1 6 2 L o c [ H S t a r t ] 1 8 D o ( P 8 6 ) 1 4 5 S e t P o r t 5 H i g h 1 9 B e g i n n i n g o f L o o p ( P 8 7 ) 1 1 D e l a y 2 5 1 L o o p C o u n t 2 0 V o l t ( D i f f ) ( P 2 ) 1 1 R e p s 2 5 2 5 0 0 mV S l o w R a n g e 3 1 D I F F C h a n n e l 4 2 9 L o c [ H e a t e r 0 ] 5 1 . 0 M u l t i p l i e r 6 0 . 0 O f f s e t 2 1 V o l t ( D i f f ) ( P 2 ) • 1 1 R e p s . 2 4 2 5 0 mV S l o w R a n g e 3 2 D I F F C h a n n e l 4 8 3 L o c [ C t r l _ 0 . ] 5 1 . 0 M u l t i p l i e r 6 0 . 0 O f f s e t 97 Count=Count +1 22: End (P95) 23: Do (P86). . 1 : 5 5 - Set Port 5 Low 24: Time (P18) 1: 0 Seconds i n t o c u r r e n t minute (maximum 2 : 60 Mod/By 3 : 163 Loc [ HEnd ] 25 Z=X -Y (P35) 1 8 0 X Loc [ Heater_5 0 2 28 Y Loc [ Pre Avg 3 135 Z Loc [ D i f f Dv 26 S p a t i a l Average (P51) 1 50 Swath 2 83 F i r s t Loc [ C t r l 0 3 136 Avg Loc [ C t r l Avg 27 Do (P86) 1 2 C a l l Subroutine 2 28 Z=X -Y (P35) 1 137 X Loc [ Last 2 28 Y Loc [ Pre Avg 3 138 Z Loc [ C a l c Dv 29: Do (P86) 1: 10 Set.Output F l a g High (Flag 0) 30: Set A c t i v e Storage Area (P80)"23639 1: 1 F i n a l Storage Area 1 2: 101 A r r a y ID 31: Sample (P70)"12805 ' 1:6 Reps 2: 13 9 . Loc [ Probe ] 32: Real Time.(P77)"8089 1: 0110 Day,Hour/Minute (midnight =. 0000) 98 33 1 2 34 1 2 Sample (P70)"24998 1 Reps 14 Loc [ b a t _ v o l t ] Sample (P70)"30112 1 Reps 15 Loc [ CRIOXtemp ] 35: Resolu-tion (P78.) 1: 1 High R e s o l u t i o n 36 1 2 37 1 2 38 1 2 39 1 2 40 1 2 Sample (P70)"26785 1 Reps 2 8 Loc [ Pre_Avg ] Sample (P70)"11229 1 Reps 80 Loc [ Heater_5 0 ] Sample (P70)"19561 1 Reps 14 0 Loc [ B2 ] Sample (P70)"18811 1 Reps 141 Loc [ BI . ] Sample (P70)"2191 1 Reps 142 Loc [BO ] 41: Do (P86) :1: 54 Set Port 4 Low 42: Do (P86) 1: 53 Set Port 3 Low 43: End (P95) 44: Do (P86) 1: 51 Set Port 1 Low 45: End (P95) 46: S e r i a l Out (P96) 99 1: 71 Storage Module ;######################################################### ;$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ^ * Table 3 Subroutines ;Subroutine to re g i s t e r flow data 1: Beginning of Subroutine (P85) 1: 1 Subroutine 1 2 : SDM-SW8A (P102) 1 : 10 Reps 2 : 01 SDM Address 3 : 2 Counts function 4 : 2 SDM-SW8A Starting Channel 5 : 3 Loc [ Flow ] 6 : 1 Mult 7 : 0 . 0 Offset 3: End (P95) 4: Beginning of Subroutine (P85) 1 : 2 Subroutine 2 5: Spatial Average (P51) 2 0 Swath 61 F i r s t Loc [ Heater_31 144 Avg Loc [ Mean_V ] SumTV=0 SumT2V=0 Time=31 6: Beginning of Loop (P87) 1: 0000 Delay 2 : 2 0 Loop Count 7: Z=X (P31) 1: 61 X Loc [ Heater_31 ] 2: 145 Z Loc [ Heat_Volt ] SumTV=SumTV+(Time*Heat_Volt) SumT2V=SumT2V+(Time*Time*Heat_Volt] Time=Time+l 100 8: End (P95) MeanT=4 0.5 MeanT2=1673.5 Denom=(11674*1000)+74 0 Sll=665 S12=53865 S22= (43806*100)+21 SlY=SumTV-(20*MeanT*MeanV) S2Y=SumT2V-(2 0*MeanT2*MeanV) Bl= ( (S1Y*S22)-(S2Y*S12))/Denom B2=((S2Y*S11)-(S1Y*S12))/Denom B0=MeanV-(Bl*Meant)-(B2*MeanT2) Last=B0+(Bl*50.225)+(B2*50.225*50.225) 9: End (P95) End Program 101 Appendix B Grain size distribution curve determined for the clay borrow used for the topsoil protective cover 102 SIEVE ANALYSIS p Golder Associates D A T E : 12/9/05 MATERIAL TYPE: Tailings PROJECT*: 05-1195-046 i_AB#: GA81 PROJECT: UBC/CELL COVERS TAILINGS "P" AREA GENERAL GRADATION SIEVE SIZE RETAINED PASSING (USS) (mm) (%) (%) 4" 100 0.0 100.0 1.5" 37.5 0.0 100.0 1.0" 26.5 0.0 100.0 3/4" 19 0.0 100.0 1/2" 13.2 0.0 100.0 3/8" 9.5 0.0 100.0 #4 4.75 0.1 99.9 #8 2.36 0.6 99.4 #16 1.18 1.3 98.7 #30 0.6 2.4 97.6 #50 0.3 4.6 95.4 #100 0.15 7.4 92.6 #200 0.075 12.0 88.0 Tina Gauthier Laboratory Manager PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION U B C / C E L L C O V E R S TAILINGS "P" A R E A 100 100 10 1 0.1 PARTICLE SIZE (mm) 0.01 0.001 0.0001 C O B B L E SIZE I I FINE COARSE| MEDIUM I FINE GRAVEL SIZE SAND SIZE FINE GRAINED I D A T E : smm M A T E R I A L T Y P E : Tailings P R O J E C T * : 05-1195-046 L A B # : GA81 P R O J E C T : UBC/CELL COVERS TAILINGS "P" AREA Golder Assoc ia tes Ltd. Appendix C Design drawings of a 705 m l per tip capacity tipping bucket flow 105 Design details of a 750 mL capacity Tipping Bucket Flow Gage Designed by: Jozsef Miskolczi Scale: 1:4 Date: November 2,2005 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA -DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING VANCOUVER. CANADA ' Figure C. 1: Dimensions o f the 750 m L per tip capacity tipping bucket flow gauge 106 .. J L .. . 7 if , L I. / • • Front and lateral view of a 750 mL capacity Tipping Bucket Flow Gage Designed by: Jbzsef Miskolczi Scale: 1:4 . Date: November 2, 2005 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING VANCOUVER, CANADA Figure C.2: Front and lateral view of a tipping bucket flow gauge 107 Appendix D Moisture content samples from the test lysimeters in Sudbury, Ontario 108 GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Project No. QCj-II^^'O 5TO UBC Date: 8/1/2006 Laboratory Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock ASTM D 2216-92 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#1 C#1 C#1 CUM C#1 C#1 SAMPLE NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 DEPTH OF SAMPLE Surface -10 cm -20 cm -30 cm -40 cm -50 cm MASS WET SOIL + TARE 248.5 105.2 196.5 312.2 180.4 209.9 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 246.1 99.1 183.6 291.2 166.4 196.4 MASS OF WATER 2.4 6.2 13.0 21.1 14.0 13.5 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 MASS OF DRY SOIL 242.3 95.1 179.7 287.3 162.6 192.6 WATER CONTENT W (%) 1.0 6.5 7.2 7.3 8.6 7.0 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#1 C#1 C#1 C#1 C#1 SAMPLE NUMBER 7 8 9 10 11 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -60 cm -70 cm -80 cm -90 cm •100 cm MASS WET SOIL + TARE 252.2 146.0 151.5 150.0 146.0 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 236.4 136.9 143.4 141.3 137.8 MASS OF WATER 15.8 9.1 8.0 8.7 8.1 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 MASS OF DRY SOIL 232.6 133.0 139.6 137.5 134.0 WATER CONTENT W (%) 6.8 6.9 5.8 6.3 6.1 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#2 C#2 C#2 SAMPLE NUMBER 12 13 14 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -15 cm -25 cm -20 cm MASS WET SOIL + TARE 91.5 94.1 150.5 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 84.9 82.5 136.6 MASS OF WATER 6.6 11.6 13.9 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.8 3.8 3.8 MASS OF DRY SOIL 81.1 78.7 132.8 WATER CONTENT W (%) 8.2 14.8 10.5 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#4 C#5 SAMPLE NUMBER 15 16 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -30 cm -30 cm MASS WET SOIL + TARE 101.0 137.0 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 86.9 118.7 MASS OF WATER 14.1 18.3 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.8 3.8 MASS OF DRY SOIL 83.1 114.9 WATER CONTENT W (%) 17.0 15.9 /O0 GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Project No. 06-1195-050 UBC Date: 8/3/2006 Laboratory Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock ASTM D 2216-92 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#2 C#2 C#2 C#2 SAMPLE NUMBER 17 18 19 20 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -30 cm -40 cm -34 cm -45 cm MASS WET SOIL + TARE 559.4 301.2 399.8 290.9 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 520.8 277.5 364.8 259.2 MASS OF WATER 38.7 23.7 35.0 31.7 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.9- 3.9 3.9 3.8 MASS OF DRY SOIL 516.9 273.6 361.0 255.3 WATER CONTENT W (%) 7.5 8.7 9.7 12.4 \ \ o GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Pro jec t No . 06-1195-050 UBC Date : 8/14/2006 Labora to ry Determinat ion of Water Con ten t of S o i l a n d R o c k A S T M D 2216-92 B O R E H O L E N U M B E R C#4 C#4 C#5 C#5 S A M P L E NUMBER 21 22 23 24 D E P T H OF S A M P L E -35 cm -47 cm -37 cm -48 cm MASS W E T SOIL + T A R E 475.3 866.1 665.9 698.8 MASS DRY SOIL + T A R E 454.1 818.0 617.7 642.1 MASS O F WATER 21.2 48.2 48.2 56.7 MASS OF CONTAINER 158.0 182.4 178.1 178.9 MASS OF DRY SOIL 296.1 635.6 439.6 463.3 W A T E R C O N T E N T W (%) 7.1 7.6 11.0 12.2 GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Project No . 06-1195-050 UBC D a t e : 8/17/2006 Labora to ry Determinat ion of Water Con ten t of S o i l and R o c k A S T M D 2216-92 B O R E H O L E NUMBER C#5 C#5 S A M P L E NUMBER 16 DEPTH OF S A M P L E -59cm -68 cm MASS W E T SOIL + T A R E 484.2 461.9 MASS DRY SOIL + T A R E 435.6 414.8 MASS OF WATER 48.5 47.1 MASS O F CONTAINER 3.9 3.9 MASS OF DRY SOIL 431.7 410.9 WATER CONTENT W (%) 11.2 11.5 f/2. GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Project No. 06-1195-050 U B C Date: 8/18/2006 Laboratory Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock ASTM D 2216-92 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#5 C#5 C#5 C#5 C#5 C#5 SAMPLE NUMBER 27 28 29 30 31 32 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -56+29 -68+29 -06+29 -17+29 -29+29 -39+29 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 578.7 625.9 432.2 349.9 340.4 261.4 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 519.7 551.9 389.2 312.1 299.4 233.8 MASS OF WATER 59.0 74.0 43.1 37.8 41.0 27.5 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 MASS OF DRY SOIL 515.9 548.1 385.3 308.3 295.5 230.0 WATER CONTENT W (%) 11.4 13.5 11.2 12.3 13.9 12.0 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#5 SAMPLE NUMBER 33 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -47+29 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 298.3 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 262.2 MASS OF WATER 36.1 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.8 MASS OF DRY SOIL 258.4 WATER CONTENT W (%) 14.0 GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Project No. 06-1195-050 U B C Date: %j IO/2C0C. Laboratory Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock ASTM D 2216-92 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#4 C#4 C#4 C#4 C#4 C#4 SAMPLE NUMBER 3(5 i f i * 3ft . ZQ DEPTH OF SAMPLE -8 cm -17cm -27 -37 -47 -57 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 758.2 1018.0 731.5 855.4 1100.0 986.1 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 719.0 975.8 694.2 822.7 1042.8 924.9 MASS OF WATER 39.2 42.2 37.3 32.7 57.3 61.3 MASS OF CONTAINER 181.7 179.6 177.9 175.6 182.4 178.2 MASS OF DRY SOIL 537.3 796.2 516.3 647.1 860.4 746.7 WATER CONTENT W (%) 7.3 5.3 7.2 5.1 6.7 8.2 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#4 C#4 SAMPLE NUMBER i¥0 4 / DEPTH OF SAMPLE -67 -40 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 999.3 878.6 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 929.6 855.1 MASS OF WATER 69.8" 23.5 MASS OF CONTAINER 175.1 174.9 MASS OF DRY SOIL 754.5 680.2 WATER CONTENT W (%) 9.2 3.5 H4 GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Project No. 06-1195-050 UBC Date : Sept. 12/06 Laboratory Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock ASTM D 2216-92 BOREHOLE NUMBER Cell #3 Cell #3 Cell #3 Cell #3 Cell #3 Cell #3 SAMPLE NUMBER 42 43 44 45 46 47 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -10 cm -20 cm -35 -50 -60 -70 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 858.9 961.4 1359.7 937.0 1045.2 1004.1 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 812.4 876.6 1264.5 866.1 950.3 924.6 MASS OF WATER 46.6 84.9 95.2 70.9 94.9 79.5 MASS OF CONTAINER 182.3 178.2 178.8 179.5 181.7 177.9 MASS OF DRY SOIL 630.0 698.4 1085.7 686.6 768.7 746.8 WATER CONTENT W (%) 7.4 12.2 8.8 10.3 12.3 10.6 BOREHOLE NUMBER Cell #3 Cell #3 Cell #3 SAMPLE NUMBER 48 49 50 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -80 -90 -100 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 835.3 1063.1 806.5 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 761.3 990.9 762.3 MASS OF WATER 74.0 72.2 44.2 MASS OF CONTAINER 174.9 175.6 158.0 MASS OF DRY SOIL 586.4 815.4 604.3 WATER CONTENT W (%) 12.6 8.9 7.3 lie GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS Project No. 06-1195-050 UBC Date : Sept. 20/06 Laboratory Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock ASTM D 2216-92 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#2 C#2 C#2 cn C#2 C#2 SAMPLE NUMBER 51 52 53 54 55 56 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -10 cm -20 cm -30 -40 -50 -60 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 434.6 1016.4 757.2 514.5 843.7 548.0 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 404.9 962.2 707.1 465.7 778.1 496.9 MASS OF WATER 29.7 54.2 50.1 48.8 65.6 51.1 MASS OF CONTAINER 3.9 175.3 175.6 3.9 179.6 4.1 MASS OF DRY SOIL 400.9 786.9 531.5 461.8 598.5 492.8 WATER CONTENT W (%) 7.4 6.9 9.4 10.6 11.0 10.4 BOREHOLE NUMBER C#2 C#2 C#2 C#2 C#2 SAMPLE NUMBER 57 58 59 60 61 DEPTH OF SAMPLE -70 -80 -90 -100 -115 MASS WET SOIL + TARE 1052.3 504.0 518.0 433.8 308.4 MASS DRY SOIL + TARE 974.8 453.9 464.7 388.7 289.5 MASS OF WATER 77.5 50.1 53.3 45.1 18.9 MASS OF CONTAINER 178.2 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 MASS OF DRY SOIL 796.5 450.0 460.8 384.9 285.5 WATER CONTENT W (%) 9.7 11.1 11.6 . 11.7 6.6 Appendix E Values of tensiometer reading 117 Values of suction measured in 2006 Paste Rock Project, Sudbury, O N Locat ion Date Depth [mm] Suction value [KPa] 10 10.5 07/25/06 20 10.0 30 12.0 10 8.0 07/26/06 20 6.0 30 6.0 10 6.0 07/27/06 20 5.0 30 5.0 10 7.0 07/28/06 20 6.0 30 5.0 cell L# l 10 10.0 07/31/06 20 8.0 30 8.0 10 12.0 08/01/06 20 10.0 30 10.5 10 6.0 08/02/06 20 5.0 30 6.0 10 6.0 08/03/06 20 4.0 30 5.0 58 9.0 08/04/06 58 10.0 07/25/06 10 36.0 18 28.0 07/26/06 10 60.0 10 44.0 07/27/06 18 54.0 cell L#2 07/28/06 10 46.0 18 51.0 07/31/06 10 64.0 08/01/06 10 69.0 W O / \J LI \J\J 18 6.0 08/02/06 10 28.0 08/03/06 40 40.0 118 Location Date Depth [mm] Suction value [KPa] 08/10/06 40 27.0 120 0.0 10/14/06 70 4.0 57 0.0 34 0.0 120 5.0 10/16/06 70 14.0 57 1.0 34 2.0 120 0.0 10/17/06 70 0.0 57 6.0 34 6.0 120 0.0 cell L#2 10/18/06 70 2.0 57 0.0 34 0.0 120 .2.0 10/19/06 70 5.0 57 0.0 34 0.0 120 4.0 10/20/06 70 12.0 57 0.0 34 0.0 120 4.0 10/22/06 70 5.0 57 0.0 34 0.0 46 32.6 06/26/06 71 25.0 86 18.5 46 33.6 06/27/06 71 25.1 86 18.1 07/25/06 27 32.0 cell L#3 07/26/06 27 67.0 07/27/06 27 64.0 07/28/06 27 60.0 07/31/06 27 59.0 08/01/06 27 60.0 08/02/06 27 58.0 08/03/06 - 27 46.0 \j\Ji \J\J 34 26.0 119 Locat ion Date Depth [mm] Suction value [KPa] 08/03/06 46 22.0 08/08/06 27 58.0 34 20.0 08/10/06 46 16.0 46 22.0 20 72.0 06/26/06 86 18.5 71 25.0 06/27/06 46 32.6 86 18.1 71 25.1 08/03/06 46 33.6 86 22.0 34 26.0 08/08/06 27 46.0 46 16.0 34 20.0 09/28/06 27 58.0 114 2.0 68 4.0 10/03/06 30 0.0 ce l l L#3 114 4.0 68 9.0 46 0.0 10/04/06 30 0.0 114 5.0 68 10.0 46 0.0 10/05/06 30 0.0 114 5.0 68 12.0 46 2.0 10/06/06 30 2.0 114 5.0 68 12.0 46 3.0 10/10/06 30 4.0 114 6.0 68 14.0 46 4.0 10/11/06 30 8.0 114 10.0 68 17.0 120 Location Date Depth [mm] Suction value [KPa] cell L#3 10/11/06 46 5.0 10/12/06 30 1.0 114 5.0 10/13/06 68 7.0 46 0.0 30 0.0 114 6.0 10/14/06 68 10.0 46 0.0 30 0.0 114 0.0 10/16/06 68 4.0 46 0.0 30 0.0 114 4.0 10/17/06 68 10.0 -46 0.0 30 0.0 114 0.0 10/18/06 68 5.0 46 0.0 30 0.0 114 0.0 10/19/06 68 5.0 46 0.0 30 0.0 114 4.0 10/20/06 68 5.0 46 0.0 30 0.0 114 4.0 cell L#4 07/25/06 68 9.0 46 0.0 30 0.0 10 22.0 07/27/06 27 30.5 10 8.0 07/28/06 10 62.0 27 56.0 08/01/06 27 57.0 08/02/06 27 34.0 08/03/06 27 57.0 08/08/06 27 8.0 121 Locat ion Date Depth [mm] Suction value [KPa] 08/09/06 27 46.0 08/10/06 35 55.0 08/14/06 47 38.0 35 60.0 47 15.0 08/16/06 35 59.0 08/31/06 80 15.0 74 25.0 61 60.0 09/12/06 40 20.0 34 68.0 77 . 16.0 66 53.0 45 46.0 09/13/06 30 69.0 77 20.0 66 53.0 45 48.0 09/14/06 30 69.0 77 19.0 cell L#4 66 52.0 45 52.0 09/15/06 30 70.0 77 22.0 66 50.0 45 50.0 09/16/06 30 72.0 77 23.0 66 52.0 45 53.0 09/17/06 30 72.0 77 26.0 66 55.0 45 54.0 09/18/06 30 70.0 77 25.0 66 55.0 45 54.0 09/19/06 30 70.0 77 20.0 66 53.0 09/20/06 45 55.0 30 72.0 122 L o c a t i o n D a t e D e p t h [mm] S u c t i o n va l ue [ K P a ] 09/20/06 77 28.0 66 60.0 45 53.0 09/21/06 30 82.0 77 28.0 09/22/06 66 59.0 45 51.0 30 83.0 09/25/06 77 30.0 66 60.0 ce l l L#4 45 53.0 30 80.0 09/26/06 77 0.0 66 4.0 45 14.0 30 16.0 06/28/06 77 0.0 66 12.0 45 22.0 30 33.0 06/29/06 11.5 46.2 25 45.5 69 42.5 11.5 19.2 08/14/06 25 10.8 69 14.3 50 54.0 08/16/06 44 54.0 50 46.0 08/18/06 44 54.0 58 57.0 08/21/06 76 51.0 c e l l L # 5 67 31.0 08/22/06 50 33.0 42 25.0 35 35.0 17 32.0 08/23/06 67 40.0 50 41.0 42 34.0 35 43.0 08/24/06 - 17 24.0 67 41.0 50 45.0 123 Locat ion Date Depth [mm] Suction value [KPa] ce l l L#5 08724/06 42 28.0 08/25/06 35 48.0 17 N / A 67 44.0 50 44.0 08/28/06 42 36.0 35 ' 45.0 17 43.0 67 44.0 50 40.0 08/29/06 42 43.0 35 55.0 17 43.0 50 34.0 42 34.0 35 46.0 17 16.0 67 45.0 50 30.0 42 N / A 35 50.0 17 10.0 124 Appendix F Field density measurements determined by Golder Associates) 125 , Golder Associates FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT PROJECT NO.: 05-1195-046 TEST DATE(S): September 9, 2005 TESTED BY: Tina Gauthier PROJECT: UBC / Covers / INCO Tailings DESCRIPTION: Cell # 1 (Co-mix Cover) CLIENT: UBC Mining Eng. OWNER: INCO FIELD COMPACTION METHOD: MATERIAL TYPE AND SOURCE: Tailings - 2m thick PROCTOR MAXIMUM DENSITY: N.A. OPTIMUM WATER CONTENT SPECI FIED COMPACTK )N: N.A. % TEST No. ELEV. OF TEST (m) DRY DENSITY (kg/m3) WATER CONTENT % %OF PROCTOR DENSITY ACTION LOCATION / REMARKS 1 6" (Top of Cover) 1559 3.3 N.A. N. A. Center of Cel l — 1 d f 0 \ B - TO BE RECOMPACTED GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD 1010 LORNE ST., SUDBURY ONTARIO P3C )• Golder Associates FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT PROJECT NO.: 05-1195-046 I TEST DATE(S): September 9,2005 PROJECT: UBC / Covers / INCO Tailings TESTED BY: Tina Gauthier DESCRIPTION: Cell # 2 (Co-mix Cover) CLIENT: UBC Mining Eng. OWNER: INCO FIELD COMPACTION METHOD: (Material 1m thick) MATERIAL TYPE AND SOURCE: 1:1:1 (Tailings: Slag: Waste Rock 8") PROCTOR MAXIMUM DENSITY: 2240 OPTIMUM WATER CONTENT: N.A. % SPECIFIED COMPACTION: N.A. % TEST No, ELEV. OF TEST (m) DRY DENSITY (kg/m3) WATER CONTENT % OF Z PROCTOR |2 DENSITY O < LOCATION / REMARKS Top of Cover 2118 9.1 94.5 4.5m N of S Edge / 5.5m W of E Edge 6 ' 2041 10.6 91.1 1.0m N of S Edge /1 .0m E of W Edge 2118 8.7 94.5 3.5m N of S Edge / 2.0m W of E Edge 2080 9.9 92.8 3.0m S of N Edge / 6.5m E of W Edge 1978 11.3 88.3 4.0m S of N Edge / 3.5m W of E Edge FACTION CODE: A - ACCEPTABLE B - TO BE RECOMPACTED GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD 1010 LORNE ST., SUDBURY ONTARIO P3C 4R9 / 2 f Cff Golder FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT 1 PROJECT NO.: 05-1195-046 TEST DATE(S): September 9, 2005 TESTED BY: Tina Gauthier PROJECT: UBC / Covers / INCO Tailings DESCRIPTION: Cell # 3 (Co-mix Cover) CLIENT: UBC Mining Eng. OWNER: INCO FIELD COMPACTION METHOD: (Material 1m thick) MATERIAL TYPE AND SOURCE: 2:1:1 (Tailings: Slag (2"-): Waste Rock) PROCTOR MAXIMUM DENSITY: 2230 | OPTIMUM WATER CONTENT: N.A. % SPECI FIED COMPACTK DN: N.A. % | TEST No. ELEV. OF TEST (m) DRY DENSITY (kg/m3) WATER CONTENT % % OF I Z PROCTOR £2 DENSITY O LOCATION / REMARKS 1 Top of Cover 2041 10.7 91.5 I 4.0m N of S Edge /1 .0m W of E Edge 2 6 " 2190 8.1 98.2 I 4.5m S of N Edge / 2.5m W of E Edge 3 6 " 2124 9.7 95.2 I 5.5m S of N Edge / 6.0m W of E Edge 4 6 " 2091 10.5 93.8 I 3.0m S of N Edge / 3.0m E of W Edge 5 6 " 2045 11.8 91.7 I 2.5m S of N Edge / 2.0m E of W Edge I FACTION CODE: A - ACCEPTABLE B - TO BE RECOMPACTED I GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD 1010 LORNE ST., SUDBURY ONTARIO P3C 4R9 " " V P Golder Associates FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT PROJECT NO.: 05-1195-046 TEST DATE(S): September 9, 2005 TESTED BY: Tina Gauthier PROJECT: UBC / Covers / INCO Tailings DESCRIPTION: Cell # 4 (Co-mix 90 cm Thick) CLIENT: UBC Mining Eng. OWNER: INCO FIELD COMPACTION METHOD: (Material 1m thick) MATERIAL TYPE AND SOURCE: 1:1:1 Waste Rock= 8" - No Bentonite PROCTOR MAXIMUM DENSITY: 2270 OPTIMUM WATER CONTENT: 7.8 % SPECII =IED COMPACTION: N.A. % TEST No. ELEV. OF TEST (m) DRY DENSITY (kg/m3) WATER CONTENT % %OF PROCTOR DENSITY ACTION LOCATION / REMARKS 1 Top of Cover 2177 7.8 95.9 7.0m S of N Edge / 3.0m W of E Edge 2 6 " 2154 8.7 94.9 2.0m N of S Edge / 2.0m E of W Edge 3 6 " 2153 7.8 94.8 2.5m S of N Edge / 4.5m W of E Edge 4 6 " 2145 8.2 94.5 1.5m N of S Edge / 5.5m E of W Edge 5 6 " 2086 9.4 91.9 7.0m S of N Edge / 2.0m W of E Edge q <4 FACTION CODE: A - ACCEPTABLE B - TO BE RECOMPACTED GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD 1010 LORNE ST., SUDBURY ONTARIO P3C 4R9 , Golder Associates FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT PROJECT NO.: 05-1195-046 TEST DATE(S): September 9, 2005 TESTED BY: Tina Gauthier PROJECT: UBC / Covers / INCO Tailings DESCRIPTION: Cell # 5 (Cover 60 cm Thick 2 Tailings) CLIENT: UBC Mining Eng. OWNER: INCO (P Area) FIELD COMPACTION METHOD: (Material 1m thick) MATERIAL TYPE AND SOURCE: 1 Waste Rock (2"-): 1 Crushed Slag: 1.5 % Bentonite PROCTOR MAXIMUM DENSITY: 2180 OPTIMUM WATER CONTENT: SPECIFIED COMPACTION: N.A. % TEST No. ELEV. OF TEST (m) DRY DENSITY (kg/m3) WATER CONTENT %OF PROCTOR DENSITY O LOCATION / REMARKS Top of Cover 2039 11.2 93.5 1-OmSof N Edge / 3.0m E of W Edge 6 " 1877 9.8 86.1 4.0m S of N Edge / 5.0m E of W Edge 6 " 1919 12.2 88.0 3.0m N of S Edge / 2.0m W of E Edge 1930 12.8 88.5 2.5m N of S Edge /1 .5m E of W Edge 6 " 1956 12.4 89.7 2.5m S of N Edge /1 .0m W of E Edge £1 FACTION CODE: A - ACCEPTABLE B - TO BE RECOMPACTED GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD 1010 LORNE ST., SUDBURY ONTARIO P3C 4R9 /So Appendix G Listing of daily cumulated infiltration, precipitation, and net radiation values measured on site between March 31, 2006 and November 15, 2006 131 Julian day Calendar date Cumulated infiltration [mm] Precipitation [mm](rain only) Cumulated Net Radiation L#l | _ L#2 I L#3 L#5 daily cumulated [W/m2] [MJ/m2/day] 92 31-Mar-06 N /A N /A N /A N /A N/A 0.0 0.0 N/A N/A . 92 1-Apr-06 N /A N /A N /A N/A N/A 0.0 0.0 N/A N/A 92 2-Apr-06 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 0.0 N /A N/A 93 3-Apr-06 7.5967 0.6331 0.8863 0.000000 0.000000 51.1 51.1 N/A N/A 94 4-Apr-06 15.1935 1.2661 1.7726 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 51.1 N/A N /A 95 5-Apr-06 22.7902 2.3423 3.0387 0.000000 0.000000 29.5 80.6 N/A N/A 96 6-Apr-06 29.1209 4.1782 4.3048 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 97 7-Apr-06 35.0083 6.5838 5.7609 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 98 8-Apr-06 40.0728 8.1032 6.8371 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 99 9-Apr-06 44.5676 9.2427 7.8500 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 100 10-Apr-06 48.4926 10.0024 8.7996 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 101 11-Apr-06 51.8478 10.6988 9.7492 0.000000 0.000000 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 102 12-Apr-06 54.6333 11.9016 10.6354 0.000000 0.063306 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 103 13-Apr-06 57.1655 12.6612 11.4584 0.000000 0.063306 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 104 14-Apr-06 60.0776 13.6741 12.4080 0.000000 0.063306 0.0 80.6 N/A N/A 105 15-Apr-06 62.9897 14.7504 13.4209 0.000000 0.063306 4.1 84.7 N/A N/A 106 16-Apr-06 65.9018 15.9278 14.6111 0.056976 0.107621 0.0 84.7 N/A N/A 107 17-Apr-06 68.2948 16.7382 15.7696 0.177257 0.170927 0.0 84.7 N/A N /A 108 18-Apr-06 70.6751 18.2069 16.9597 0.322862 0.297539 0.0 84.7 N/A N/A 109 19-Apr-06 72.9541 19.4034 17.8967 0.535571 0.390599 0.0 84.7 N/A N/A 110 20-Apr-06 75.0749 20.1567 18.6753 0.700167 1.650393 0.0 84.7 N/A N /A 111 21-Apr-06 77.0880 20.8531 19.3590 0.985045 1.773841 0.0 84.7 N/A N/A 112 22-Apr-06 78.7023 21.4608 19.9415 1.193956 1.805494 4.8 89.5 N/A N/A 113 23-Apr-06 80.1457 21.7520 20.4163 1.402866 1.875131 0.4 89.9 N/A • • . N/A 114 24-Apr-06 81.5321 22.2268 20.8404 1.611777 2.235976 3.4 93.3 N/A N/A 115 25-Apr-06 82.8932 22.6890 21.2329 2.111896 2.254968 0.0 93.3 N/A N/A 116 26-Apr-06 84.0580 23.0625 21.5874 2.244839 2.362589 0.2 93.5 N/A N/A 117 27-Apr-06 85.2229 23.2524 21.8850 2.504395 2.413234 0.0 93.5 N/A N/A 118 28-Apr-06 86.2421 23.5626 22.1319 2.751289 2.482870 0.0 93.5 -2182.721 -1.964 119 29-Apr-06 87.3943 23.7715 22.3534 2.934877 2.520854 0.0 93.5 5881.765 8.330 120 30-Apr-06 88.1666 23.8918 22.5560 3.080481 2.609483 0.0 93.5 14097.721 7.394 121 1-May-06 89.1605 24.0500 22.7586 3.194433 2.634805 0.0 93.5 23548.750 8.506 122 2-May-06 90.0531 24.1703 22.9548 3.491972 2.710773 0.0 93.5 33740.368 9.172 123 3-May-06 91.0090 24.4552 23.1258 3.650237 2.786740 1.6 95.1 34730.515 -0.402 124 4-May-06 91.5915 25.0503 23.2967 3.802172 3.331174 3.4 98.5 45438.529 9.637 125 5-May-06 92.2562 25.1073 23.3132 3.941446 3.388150 2.6 101.1 48510.294 2.765 126 6May-06 93.0855 25.2972 23.4651 4.163018 3.445125 0.0 101.1 59303.088 9.714 Julian day Calendar date Cumulated infiltration [mm] Precipitation [mm](rain only) Cumulated Net Radiation L#l L#2 L#3 L # 4 L#5 daily cumulated [W/m2] [MJ/m2/day] 127 7-May-06 93.7185 25.3731 23.6044 4.276969 3.508437 0.2 101.3 70141.691 9.755 128 8-May-06 94.4972 25.4998 23.7310 4.498541 3.552746 0.0 101.3 74546.397 3.964 129 9-May-06 95.1113 25.5187 23.8449 4.555517 3.609721 0.0 101.3 71473.971 -2.765 130 10-May-06 95.7443 25.6010 23.9462 4.688460 3.704681 0.0 101.3 75781.838 3.877 131 11-May-06 95.7443 25.6010 23.9462 4.688460 3.704681 21.6 122.9 79098.382 2.985 132 12-May-06 125.6597 25.6549 24.0412 4.796080 3.717342 13.6 136.5 86080.735 6.284 133 13-May-06 144.5851 25.6928 24.2485 4.878378 3.750578 14.2 150.7 85485.147 -0.536 134 14-May-06 155.0480 25.7329 25.1680 4.950125 3.778010 2.6 153.3 91921.250 5.792 135 15-May-06 162.9233 25.7899 26.5164 5.013432 3.797002 0.4 153.7 101806.250 8.896 136 16-May-06 169.6844 25.7899 27.6560 5.038754 3.797002 0.2 153.9 105680.735 3.487 137 17-May-06 175.3117 26.1021 28.2892 5.072572 3.803025 0.2 154.1 105426.765 -0.229 138 18-May-06 176.5979 26.1734 28.4354 5.080301 3.804401 21.6 175.7 116532.426 9.995 139 19-May-06 181.2275 26.7925 29.2551 5.147505 3.807098 12.0 187.7 120678.382 3.731 140 20-May-06 187.2707 27.6016 30.4974 5.220310 3.825978 0.4 188.1 128862.794 7.366 141 21-May-06 197.6526 30.1561 35.2312 5.279113 3.863737 3.8 191.9 142273.603 12.070 142 22-May-06 206.4891 34.3234 39.1453 5.332317 3.863737 0.0 191.9 155866.912 12.234 143 23-May-06 213.6584 37.9939 41.8256 5.396720 3.863737 0.0 191.9 171658.235 14.212 144 24-May-06 219.5528 40.9022 44.1188 5.458207 3.863737 0.0 191.9 182591.176 9.840 145 25-May-06 223.4621 42.6321 45.5821 5.519693 3.863737 0.0 191.9 198348.897 14.182 146 26-May-06 226.6680 43.9874 46.7402 5.587328 3.866434 0.0 191.9 214059.412 14.139 147 27-May-06 229.2787 44.9993 47.6883 5.658037 3.882617 0.0 191.9 231208.603 15.434 148 28-May-06 231.5140 45.7433 48.4331 5.731820 3.925770 4.6 196.5 248357.794 15.434 149 29-May-06 233.5904 46.3390 49.1024 5.811753 3.928468 0.4 196.9 265506.985 15.434 150 30-May-06 235.4537 46.8073 49.6732 5.894759 3.952741 0.0 196.9 282302.426 16.191 151 31-May-06 237.0815 47.1888 50.1632 5.976741 3.988703 0.0 196.9 296624.412 12.890 152 1-Jun-06 238.5593 47.5035 50.5798 6.065896 4.021068 0.0 196.9 310508.824 12.496 153 2-Jun-06 239.8748 47.7533 50.9177 6.151976 4.050736 0.0 196.9 326484.338 14.378 154 3-Jun-06 241.1463 47.9666 51.2261 6.241131 4.085798 0.0 196.9 342725.221 14.617 155 4-Jun-06 242.3130 48.1461 51.4952 6.333361 4.115466 0.0 196.9 357540.809 13.334 156 5-Jun-06 243.4087 48.2996 51.7412 6.419442 4.145134 0.0 196.9 371588.971 12.643 157 6-Jun-06 244.4233 48.4322 51.9676 6.511671 4.177499 0.0 196.9 379204.779 6.854 158 7-Jun-06 245.3904 48.4426 52.1710 6.595676 4.204470 0.0 196.9 389392.059 9.169 159 8-Jun-06 246.2866 48.4608 52.3580 6.671281 4.228744 31.4 228.3 397694.485 7.472 160 9-Jun-06 247.9978 48.5727 52.5385 6.744085 4.247624 0.8 229.1 405915.882 7.399 161 10-Jun-06 251.3930 48.6533 52.6861 6.811289 4.263806 0.0 229.1 422115.000 14.579 162 11-Jun-06 254.2574 48.7262 52.8304 6.872893 4.277292 0.2 229.3 436619.118 13.054 163 12-Jun-06 256.7024 48.7938 52,9617 6.934379 4.285383 0.0 229.3 452995.294 14.739 Julian day Calendar date Cumulated infiltration [mm] Precipitation [mm](rain only) Cumulated Net Radiation L#l L#2 L#3 L#4 L#5 daily cumulated [W/m2] [MJ/m2/day] 164 13-Jun-06 258.8701 48.8562 53.0995 6.998940 4.290777 0.0 229.3 468583.676 14.030 165 14-Jun-06 260.8010 48.8979 53.2307 7.060426 4.296172 0.0 229.3 477127.353 7.689 166 15-Jun-06 262.5393 48.8979 53.3422 7.118838 4.298869 0.0 229.3 492936.471 14.228 167 16-Jun-06 264.1456 48.9551 53.4800 7.171101 4.301880 0.0 229.3 500055.294 6.407 168 17-Jun-06 265.6099 49.0097 53.5949 7.220290 4.301880 0.0 229.3 513982.279 12.534 169 18-Jun-06 266.9423 49.0513 53.6605 7.266405 4.304577 12.8 242.1 524522.206 9.486 170 19-Jun-06 268.2197 49.1409 53.7084 7.311316 4.304577 8.0 250.1 531467.574 6.251 171 20-Jun-06 269.6400 49.1903 53.7543 7.351282 4.304577 0.2 250.3 545455.956 12.590 172 21-Jun-06 271.1415 49.2278 53.8016 7.388174 4.304577 0.0 250.3 562631.765 15.458 173 22-Jun-06 272.5097 49.2278 53.9366 7.419796 4.304577 1.0 251.3 570089.782 6.712 174 23-Jun-06 274.0247 49.2434 54.0251 7.450539 4.304577 0.2 251.5 578630.003 7.686 175 24-Jun-06 275.4518 49.2824 54.1072 7.478208 4.304577 0.0 251.5 593415.284 13.307 176 25-Jun-06 276.8180 49.3241 54.1826 7.502802 4.304577 0.0 251.5 599605.594 5.571 177 26-Jun-06 278.1060 49.3621 54.2545 7.525258 4.304577 0.0 251.5 604441.256 4.352 178 27-Jun-06 279.3235 49.4661 54.3289 7.549852 4.304577 13.8 265.3 611121.403 6.012 179 28-Jun-06 280.6336 49.4661 54.3908 7.570933 4.309201 0.8 266.1 617496.403 4.375 180 29-Jun-06 282.0641 49.5129 54.4498 7.589379 4.309201 16.2 282.3 623713.535 11.191 181 30-Jun-06 285.2768 49.5259 54.5089 7.604751 4.309201 0.2 282.5 630033.829 11.377 182 1-Jul-06 288.3271 49.5598 54.5745 7.626271 4.309201 20.6 303.1 636296.771 11.273 183 2-Jul-06 292.5171 49.5936 54.7123 7.641643 4.309201 0.0 303.1 642698.682 11.523 184 3-Jul-06 296.7071 49.6274 54.8501 7.657014 4.309201 0.0 303.1 647178.535 8.064 185 4-Jul-06 301.3545 50.1703 55.5793 7.669846 4.309201 0.2 303.3 654173.535 12.591 186 5-Jul-06 305.0406 50.8636 56.2092 7.685379 4.309201 0.4 303.7 660950.300 12.198 187 6-Jul-06 308.2600 51.3344 56.5799 7.694602 4.309201 0.2 303.9 668612.432 13.792 188 7-Jul-06 310.9755 51.7090 56.8719 7.706900 4.309201 0.0 303.9 672786.844 7.514 189 8-Jul-06 313.3258 52.0082 57.1179 7.716123 4.309201 0.0 303.9 675915.373 5.631 190 9-Jul-06 315.3414 52.2163 57.3246 7.722271 4.309201 1.0 304.9 682557.065 11.955 191 10-Jul-06 317.0593 52.4504 57.5051 7.728420 4.309201 5.6 310.5 689471.329 12.446 192 11-M-06 318.6622 52.6247 57.6724 7.734568 4.311898 0.0 310.5 697637.800 14.700 193 12-Jul-06 320.1198 52.7730 57.8266 7.740717 4.311898 0.0 310.5 705072.065 13.382 194 13-Jul-06 321.4386 52.9057 57.9677 7.740717 4.311898 0.2 310.7 712348.756 13.098 195 14-M-06 322.6594 53.0201 58.0989 7.743791 4.311898 0.0 310.7 716545.006 7.553 196 15-Jul-06 323.7822 53.1242 58.2236 7.749940 4.311898 0.0 310.7 720557.726 7.223 197 16-Jul-06 324.8271 53.2386 58.3384 7.753014 4.311898 7.4 318.1 726957.653 11.520 198 17-Jul-06 325.8078 53.3063 58.4401 7.756089 4.311898 1.0 319.1 734065.594 12.794 199 18-Jul-06 326.7378 53.3791 58.5385 7.759163 4.311898 0.0 319.1 736932.873 5.161 200 19-Jul-06 327 6272 53.4493 58.6304 7.762237 4.311898 0.0 319.1 743973.168 12.673 Julian day Calendar date Cumulated infiltration [mm] Precipitation [mm](rain only) Cumulated Net Radiation L#l L#2 L#3 L#4 L#5 daily cumulated [W/m2] [MJ/m2/day] 201 20-Jul-06 328.4693 53.5040 58.7190 7.765312 4.314595 10.2 329.3 749366.991 9.709 202 21-Jul-06 329.2640 53.5768 58.8010 7.768386 4.314595 0.2 329.5 755789.565 11.561 203 22-Jul-06 330.0080 53.6288 58.8863 7.771460 4.314595 0.0 329.5 756742.065 1.715 204 23-Jul-06 330.7114 53.6783 58.9585 7.774535 4.314595 0.0 329.5 764351.697 13.697 205 24-M-06 331.3911 53.7173 59.0274 7.777609 4.314595 3.2 332.7 764727.065 0.676 206 25-M-06 332.0607 53.7693 59.0963 7.777609 4.314595 0.2 332.9 769710.373 8.970 207 26-Jul-06 332.7235 53.8343 59.1619 7.777609 4.314595 21.8 354.7 777429.859 13.895 208 27-Jul-06 336.1797 53.8682 59.2242 7.780683 4.314595 3.0 357.7 779929.491 4.499 209 28-Jul-06 338.7329 53.8942 59.2833 7.780683 4.314595 0.0 357.7 781602.947 3.012 210 29-Jul-06 340.6605 53.9176 59.3555 7.780683 4.314595 0.0 357.7 785959.050 7.841 211 30-Jul-06 342.2194 53.9566 59.4539 7.780683 4.314595 0.0 357.7 791115.741 9.282 212 31-Jul-06 343.5451 53.9930 59.5720 7.783757 4.314595 1.0 358.7 791117.065 0.002 213 1-Aug-06 344.7050 54.0242 59.6967 7.783757 4.314595 0.0 358.7 798122.138 12.609 214 2-Aug-06 345.7939 54.0529 59.8180 7.783757 4.314595 19.4 378.1 804401.476 11.303 215 3-Aug-06 348.6887 54.0997 59.9362 7.783757 4.314595 2.4 380.5 811432.285 12.655 216 4-Aug-06 351.2994 54.1491 60.1363 7.783757 4.314595 0.0. 380.5 818155.521 12.102 217 5-Aug-06 353.2947 54.2375 60.4775 7.786832 4.314595 0.0 380.5 822558.829 7.926 218 6-Aug-06 354.9077 54.4457 60.7990 7.786832 4.314595 0.0 380.5 828956.035 11.515 219 7-Aug-06 356.2469 54.6720 61.0811 7.786832 4.314595 0.0 380.5 834909.491 10.716 220 8-Aug-06 357.3755 54.8831 61.3286 7.786832 4.314595 0.0 380.5 839300.079 7.903 221 9-Aug-06 358.3832 55.0755 61.5484 7.789906 4.314595 0.0 380.5 845286.771 10.776 222 10-Aug-06 359.2692 55.2446 61.7486 7.789906 4.314595 1.8 382.3 851186.771 10.620 223 11-Aug-06 360.1248 55.3981 61.9323 7.789906 4.314595 0.0 382.3 856493.609 9.552 224 12-Aug-06 361.1698 55.5334 62.0996 7.796055 4.314595 0.0 382.3 857802.432 2.356 225 13-Aug-06 362.0964 55.6530 62.2538 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 382.3 860542.579 4.932 226 14-Aug-06 362.9046 55.7623 62.3949 7.796055 4.317292 0.8 383.1 865386.403 8.719 227 15-Aug-06 363.5201 55.8638 62.5130 7.796055 ' 4.317292 0.0 383.1 869118.609 6.718 228 16-Aug-06 363.9632 55.9524 62.5446 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 383.1 ^873347.359 7.612 229 17-Aug-06 364.3014 56.0148 62.6070 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 383.1 873828.682 0.866 230 18-Aug-06 364.5618 56.0668 62.6759 7.796055 4.317292 0.2 383.3 880122.359 11.329 231 19-Aug-06 364.7106 56.1527 62.7349 7.796055 4.317292 21.0 404.3 884221.403 7.378 232 20-Aug-06 364.8019 56.2125 62.7776 7.796055 4.317292 1.6 405.9 888488.462 7.681 233 21-Aug-06 364.8898 56.2697 62.8038 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 405.9 891638.535 5.670 234 22-Aug-06 364.9947 56.3218 62.8137 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 405.9 896817.212 9.322 235 23-Aug-06 365.0724 56.3790 62.8268 7.796055 4.317292 0.2 406.1 900268.241 6.212 236 24-Aug-06 365.1232 56.4362 62.8333 7.796055 4.317292 0.2 406.3 902098.094 3.294 237 25-Aug-06 365.1604 56.4831 62.8333 7.796055 • 4.317292 0.2 406.5 907454.638 9.642 Julian day Calendar date Cumulated infiltration [mm] Precipitation [mm](rain only) Cumulated Net Radiation L#l L#2 L#3 L#4 L#5 daily cumulated [W/m2] [MJ/m2/day] 238 26-Aug-06 365.1874 56.5689 62.8333 7.796055 4.317292 2.0 408.5 912100.741 8.363 239 27-Aug-06 365.2111 56.6183 62.8399 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 408.5 916515.153 7.946 240 28-Aug-06 365.2381 56.6808 62.8465 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 408.5 921342.138 8.689 241 29-Aug-06 365.2665 56.7432 62.8543 7.796055 4.317292 0.0 408.5 925648.241 7.751 242 30-Aug-06 365.2787 56.7650 62.8740 7.814501 4.317292 0.2 408.7 930213.168 8.217 243 31-Aug-06 365.2950 56.8212 62.8858 7.814501 4.317292 0.2 408.9 931589.344 2.477 244 1-Sep-06 365.3112 56.8712 64.2835 7.818190 4.317292 0.2 409.1 933050.300 2.630 245 2-Sep-06 365.3274 56.9180 64.3819 7.818190 4.317292 0.0 409.1 936256.182 5.771 246 3-Sep-06 365.3437 56.9742 64.4685 7.818190 4.317292 10.2 419.3 940926.991 8.407 247 4-Sep-06 365.3599 57.0241 64.5551 7.818190 4.317292 0.2 419.5 945638.535 8.481 248 5-Sep-06 365.3761 57.0616 64.6378 7.818190 4.317292 0.2 419.7 949281.329 6.557 249 6-Sep-06 365.3923 57.1084 64.7086 7.818190 4.317292 0.0 419.7 950068.241 1.416 250 7-Sep-06 365.4045 57.1428 64.7835 7.818190 4.320528 0.0 419.7 953831.403 6.774 251 8-Sep-06 365.4167 57.2208 64.8504 7.818190 4.320528 4.2 423.9 957066.623 5.823 252 9-Sep-06 365.4289 57.2270 64.9173 7.818190 4.320528 0.4 424.3 960425.815 6.047 253 10-Sep-06 365.4410 57.2645 64.9803 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 424.3 961764.565 2.410 254 11-Sep-06 365.4532 57.2926 65.0433 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 424.3 963452.506 3.038 255 12-Sep-06 365.4654 57.3207 65.0984 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 424.3 967686.623 7.621 256 13-Sep-06 365.4776 57.3457 65.1575 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 424.3 971628.462 7.095 257 14-Sep-06 365.4861 57.3687 65.2196 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 424.3 975574.638 7.103 258 15-Sep-06 365.4983 57.3874 65.2747 7.821879 4.320528 0.2 424.5 978023.976 4.409 259 16-Sep-06 365.5064 57.4061 65.3259 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 424.5 977957.579 -0.120 260 17-Sep-06 365.5186 57.4249 65.3771 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 424.5 979649.050 3.045 261 18-Sep-06 365.5308 57.4529 65.4243 7.821879 4.320528 8.4 432.9 982281.918 4.739 262 19-Sep-06 365.5429 57.4810 65.4716 7.821879 4.320528 1.0 433.9 984391.035 3.796 263 20-Sep-06 365.5592 57.5060 65.5228 7.821879 4.320528 0.2 434.1 985424.418 1.860 264 21-Sep-06 365.5673 57.5247 65.5700 7.821879 4.320528 0.0 434.1 985368.241 -0.101 265 22-Sep-06 365.5754 57.5404 65.6133 7.821879 4.320528 0.6 434.7 986411.550 1.878 266 23-Sep-06 365.5835 57.6309 65.6606 7.821879 4.320528 3.8 438.5 986699.491 0.518 267 24-Sep-06 365.6038 57.6309 65.6999 7.829257 4.327001 36.2 474.7 989207.285 4.514 268 25-Sep-06 365.6200 57.6559 65.7393 7.832946 4.330238 6.6 481.3 988879.638 -0.590 269 26-Sep-06 365.6322 57.7245 67.0542 7.832946 4.330238 0.8 482.1 990112.065 2.218 270 27-Sep-06 371.3703 58.0024 68.5267 7.836636 4.330238 8.4 490.5 991646.623 2.762 271 28-Sep-06 376.4876 58.8639 69.9007 7.836636 4.333474 1.6 492.1 991377.212 -0.485 272 29-Sep-06 381.5724 60.3935 71.5896 7.844014 4.333474 0.2 492.3 991380.153 0.005 273 30-Sep-06 385.8577 62.2758 73.3691 7.844014 4.333474 9.0 501.3 994576.550 5.754 274 1-Oct-06 390.4556 64.1301 75.1093 7.844014 4.333474 4.2 505.5 997481.697 5.229 Julian day Calendar date Cumulated infiltration [mm] Precipitation [mm](rain only) Cumulated Net Radiation L#l L#2 L#3 L#4 L#5 daily cumulated [W/m2] [MJ/m2/day] 275 2-Oct-06 395.0047 66.4120 76.8061 7.844014 4.333474 0.2 505.7 998532.212 1.891 276 3-Oct-06 398.9735 69.0497 78.6683 7.844014 4.333474 0.0 505.7 998991.182 0.826 277 4-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 3.0 508.7 1001328.315 4.207 278 5-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 0.2 508.9 1003614.123 4.114 279 6-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 0.2 509.1 1005183.756 2.825 280 7-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 0.0 509.1 1006754.565 2.827 281 8-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 0.0 509.1 1008997.726 4.038 282 9-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 0.0 509.1 1008123.241 -1.574 283 10-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 0.2 509.3 1008961.697 1.509 284 11-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 20.4 529.7 1009028.829 0.121 285 12-Oct-06 400.2843 69.9238 79.4005 7.844014 4.333474 2.4 532.1 1010431.697 2.525 286 13-Oct-06 403.6159 70.7323 81.4163 7.844014 4.333474 4.6 536.7 1011649.859 2.193 287 14-Oct-06 406.6352 72.4773 83.4635 7.844014 4.333474 5.4 542.1 1012609.344 1.727 288 15-Oct-06 410.8921 75.3866 85.7193 7.844014 4.333474 0.0 542.1 1012050.962 -1.005 289 16-Oct-06 414.6061 78.6662 88.2666 7.844014 4.333474 0.0 542.1 1011874.197 -0.318 290 17-Oct-06 418.2379 81.7012 91.0783 7.866149 4.333474 12.4 554.5 1012486.476 1.102 291 18-Oct-06 424.9297 83.9550 93.9051 7.866149 4.333474 0.0 554.5 1012567.506 0.146 292 19-Oct-06 430.2174 86.7988 97.0625 7.888284 4.333474 3.2 557.7 1013638.682 1.928 293 20-Oct-06 435.3955 89.9673 101.9758 7.888284 4.336711 0.0 557.7 1013154.491 -0.872 294 21-Oct-06 440.0623 92.7673 105.6293 7.888284 4.336711 0.0 557.7 1012889.638 -0.477 295 22-Oct-06 444.0027 94.9369 108.9364 7.895662 4.343184 15.0 572.7 1013258.388 0.664 296 23-Oct-06 450.0412 96.7755 112.0820 7.899352 4.343184 1.4 574.1 1013107.138 -0.272 297 24-Oct-06 454.9433 99.2821 115.1725 7.899352 4.343184 1.0 575.1 1013361.844 0.458 298 25-Oct-06 459.3504 102.0572 118.3496 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 575.1 1014891.550 2.753 299 26-Oct-06 463.2340 104.5514 121.5267 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 575.1 1013912.285 -1.763 300 27-Oct-06 466.5495 106.5492 124.7472 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 575.1 1013272.800 -1.151 301 28-Oct-06 469.3536 108.1413 127.5542 7.899352 4.343184 6.0 581.1 1013333.241 0.109 302 29-Oct-06 471.8209 109.4274 129.3298 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 581.1 1013941.550 1.095 303 30-Oct-06 474.2599 110.5012 130.6683 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 581.1 1013297.800 -1.159 304 31-Oct-06 476.8814 111.4346 131.6920 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 581.1 1013380.962 0.150 305 1-Nov-06 480.3308 112.4678 132.7352 7.899352 4.343184 0.2 581.3 1012888.388 -0.887 306 2-Nov-06 483.4758 113.7945 133.9478 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 581.3 1013324.491 0.785 307 3-Nov-06 485.8173 115.1899 135.3258 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 581.3 1013330.447 0.011 308 4-Nov-06 487.8342 116.4884 136.7549 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 581.3 1014199.932 1.565 309 5-Nov-06 489.5994 117.5997 138.1131 7.899352 4.343184 2.0 583.3 1014854.050 1.177 310 6-Nov-06 491.1618 118.5362 139.4556 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 583.3 1014978.829 0.225 311 7-Nov-06 492.5497 119.3385 140.6918 7.899352 4.343184 • 0.0 583.3 1015242.800 0.475 Julian day Calendar date Cumulated infiltration [mm] Precipitation [min] (rain only) Cumulated Net Radiation L#l L#2 L#3 L#4 L#5 daily cumulated [W/m2] [MJ/m2/day] 312 8-Nov-06 493.8320 120.0315 141.8454 7.899352 4.343184 1.0 584.3 1015505.668 0.473 313 9-Nov-06 495.0251 120.6433 142.9359 7.899352 4.343184 7.0 591.3 1014760.668 -1.341 314 10-Nov-06 496.8918 121.0522 143.9477 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 591.3 1014251.329 -0.917 315 11-Nov-06 498.5232 121.2832 144.9004 7.899352 4.343184 4.0 595.3 1014349.638 0.177 316 12-Nov-06 500.0044 123.2061 145.8374 7.899352 4.343184 0.0 595.3 1014406.476 0.102 317 13-Nov-06 501.4247 124.3330 146.8453 7.899352 4.343184 1.8 597.1 N/A N/A 318 14-Nov-06 502.9343 125.5317 147.9201 7.899352 4.343184 0.2 597.3 N/A N/A 319 15-Nov-06 504.9566 126.8688 149.0093 7.954689 4.343184 0.2 597.5 N/A N/A Appendix H Wiring diagrams for the weather station and tipping bucket flow gauge system 139 : Reed Switch • | of Tipping Bucket. Black .Blue Brown S D M - S W 8 A • IN X C I C I + 12 i C 3 C 2 IN OUT • • _•»_.._• CR10X + 12* _!_. • • -C3« | C2»i C l . L Carlo Gavazzi IA18ASF05POM1 Proximity Switch Phoenix Contact PLC-RSC-12DC/21 Relay Campbell Scientific SDM-SW8A Pulse Counter Campbell Scientific CR1 OX Data Logger Date: October 14, 2005 Wiring Schematic Drawn by: J. Miskolczi Figure B . l : Wir ing diagram for the tipping bucket flow gauge system NRLite Net Radiometer Shield White Green C R I O X D a t a Logger \G 4H igh J4 Low AG^ G . P , CO O O lc CS700-L Rain G a g e Date: M a y 9, 2006 Wiring schemat i c Drawn by Jozsef Miskolczi C a m p b e l l Scientific CS700-L Rain G a g e Kipp&Zonen NRLite Net radiometer C a m p b e l l Scientific CR10X Da ta Logger Figure B .2 : Wir ing diagram for the rain gauge and the net radiometer 

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