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The design, construction, instrumentation and initial response of a field-scale waste rock test pile Corazao Gallegos, Juan Carlos 2007

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T H E DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N A N D INITIAL RESPONSE OF A FIELD-SCALE W A S T E R O C K TEST PILE  by  JUAN CARLOS CORAZAO GALLEGOS B . S c , Universidad de Lima, 1997  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A P P L I E D SCIENCE in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (MINING ENGINEERING)  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A June 2007  © Juan Carlos Corazao Gallegos, 2007  ABSTRACT The geochemical and hydrological behavior o f waste rock systems is usually predicted by conducting laboratory scale tests such as humidity cells and small-scale barrel tests.  While  these test procedures for the prediction o f geochemical behavior are well developed and widely adopted i n practice, little is known i f the results obtained from these small scale tests can be used to describe and predict the full-scale behavior o f waste rock impoundments under natural field conditions. Direct observations and measurements o f water movement through waste rock dumps are necessary to improve the understanding o f the hydrology o f the dump and its influence on the geochemistry o f full-scale waste rock dumps. These observations o f oxygen and water movement are possible through the implementation o f field-scale experiments. Some  field-  scale experiments have been developed in the last few decades; all o f them focus primarily on studying waste rock geochemistry and hydrology in acid production environments.  However, some ore bodies are hosted in rock with high neutralization capacity such as carbonates, generating alkaline/neutral drainage from the waste rock dumps. This type o f drainage can also produce adverse effects on the environment. The alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps can limit the dissolution and mobility o f some metals although other environmentally hazardous elements are not strongly attenuated at high p H .  This thesis is part o f an extensive research program currently undertaken by the University o f British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada in collaboration with Teck Cominco Limited, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council o f Canada ( N S E R C ) and the Antamina mine i n Peru to investigate waste rock hydrology and geochemistry i n a neutral drainage environment. The field experimentation includes five field-scale waste rock test piles, a number o f barrel-sized field cells and a cover study. The scope o f this research involved the design, construction and instrumentation o f a fieldscale waste rock test pile constructed at the Antamina mine, which is hosted i n rock with high  ii  neutralization capacity. The experimental data was used to analyze the initial hydrological and geochemical response o f the constructed pile. The general conclusions are that: the test pile construction sequence and the meteorological conditions at the site during the construction and subsequent operation o f the pile had a significant influence on the initial hydrological response o f the test pile; the infiltration and drainage conditions in the test pile reached a semi-steady state in relatively short period o f time; the effect o f material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence o f preferential flow paths appear to be evident; and, that the levels o f electrical conductivity measured and the sulfates released along with concentrations o f metals such as C u and Z n suggests that oxidation is taking place within the pile.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  11  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF T A B L E S  vii  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xii  DEDICATION  xiii  1.  2.  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1.  Research Objectives  2  1.2.  Organization o f Thesis  3  LITERATURE REVIEW  5  2.1.  Waste Rock Hydrology  5  2.2.  Previous Research Investigating Waste Rock Hydrology and Geochemistry in Field-Scale Experiments 2.2.1.  8  Field-Scale Kinetic Tests at the Red Mountain Gold-Silver Deposit  2.2.2. Large-Scale Column Leach Studies at N e w M e x i c o , U S A  9 10  2.2.3. A n Intermediate-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile at the C l u f f Lake Uranium Mine..  11  2.2.4. T w o Large-Scale Waste Rock Test Piles at the Diavik Diamond Mine  3.  13  2.2.5. Full-Scale Trial Dump at the Grasberg Copper-Gold M i n e  14  2.2.6.  16  Summary o f Waste Rock Field-Scale Experiments  2.3.  Field-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile in a Neutral Environment  2.4.  Summary  .19 20  D A T A COLLECTION REQUIREMENTS A N D FIELD INSTRUMENTATION  21  3.1.  Data Collection Requirements  21  3.2.  Field Instrumentation  22  3.3. 4.  3.2.1. Procured Instrumentation  22  3.2.2.  25  Designed and Constructed Instruments  Summary  TEST PILE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION A N D INSTRUMENTATION  41 42  4.1.  Conceptual Design  ..42  4.2.  Construction Site Selection and Preparation  45  4.3.  Lysimeter Construction and Instrumentation  47  4.3.1.  Foundation  47  4.3.2.  Berm Construction  49  4.3.3.  Geomembrane Placement  55  4.3.4.  Geomembrane Protective Layer  60  4.3.5.  Water Collection Sump  66  4.3.6.  Sub-Lysimeters  70  4.3.7.  Lysimeter Drainage System  75  4.3.8.  Installation o f Basal Instrumentation  76  4.3.9. Protection o f Lysimeter Drainage System and Basal Instrumentation 4.4.  Waste Rock End-Dumping and Pile Instrumentation  85  4.4.1.  End-Dumping Process  85  4.4.2.  Installation and Protection o f Instrumentation Lines along the Slope  89  4.5.  Post-Construction Pile Size Adjustment  94  4.6.  Instrumentation Hut  96  4.6.1. Layout o f the Instrumentation Hut  96  4.7. 5.  82  Summary  107  INITIAL H Y D R O L O G I C A L A N D G E O C H E M I C A L RESPONSE OF T H E CONSTRUCTED TEST PILE  108  5.1.  Test Pile Hydrology  108  5.1.1.  Weather Conditions at the Antamina M i n e  Ill  5.1.2.  Test Pile Response  115  5.1.3.  Lysimeter and Sub-Lysimeters Response  117  5.1.4. 5.2.  5.3. 6.  Pile Hydrology Summary  121  Test Pile Geochemistry  122  5.2.1. Lysimeter and Sub-Lysimeters Water Chemistry  121  5.2.2.  Soil Water Samplers Water Chemistry  127  5.2.3.  Vertical Evolution o f Water Chemistry  129  5.2.4.  Summary o f Test Pile Geochemistry  132  Summary  .....133  S U M M A R Y , CONCLUSIONS A N D RECOMMENDATIONS  135  6.1.  Summary  135  6.2.  Conclusions....  136  6.3.  Recommendations for Future Research  138  REFERENCES  139  Appendix A .  Water Chemistry Laboratory Parameters  143  Appendix B .  Figures o f Experimental Instrumentation  144  Appendix C .  T D R Sensors Construction  154  Appendix D .  T D R Sensors Calibration  163  Appendix E .  Electrical Conductivity Sensors Construction  170  Appendix F .  Electrical Conductivity Sensors Calibration  175  Appendix G .  Large Tipping Bucket Calibration  178  Appendix H .  Small Tipping Bucket Calibration  180  Appendix I.  Material Characterization Test  184  Appendix J.  Test Pile Construction and Instrumentation Figures  195  Appendix K .  Calculation o f Flow-Through Protective Layer  220  Appendix L .  CR1000 Datalogger Program  222  Appendix M .  Water Chemistry Laboratory Results  230  vi  LIST O F T A B L E S Table 2.1  Methods o f construction o f a waste rock pile adapted from Fala et al, 2003  6  Table 2.2  Summary profile o f field-scale experiments  17  Table 4.1  In-situ density (protective layer)  64  Table 4.2  Summary o f double-ring infiltrometer test results  66  Table 5.1  Sub-Lysimeters U B C 1 - A and U B C 1 - B water chemistry  122  Table 5.2  Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1-C and Lysimeter U B C 1-D water chemistry  123  Table 5.3  S o i l water samplers water chemistry  128  Table A . l  Field parameters  143  Table A . 2  Laboratory parameters  143  Table C. 1  Materials required for assembly  155  Table C.2  Tools required for assembly  156  Table 1.1  Infiltrometer tests  192  Table M . 1 Water chemistry: lysimeter, sub-lysimeters, composite sample tank and water collection sump  231  Table M . 2 Water chemistry: soil water samplers  233  vii  LIST O F F I G U R E S Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 3.11 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13 Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17 Figure 4.18 Figure 4.19 Figure 4.20 Figure 4.21 Figure 4.22 Figure 4.23 Figure 4.24 Figure 4.25 Figure 4.26 Figure 4.27 Figure 4.28 Figure 4.29 Figure 4.30 Figure 4.31  Soil water sampler 23 T D R sensor 27 Water conveyance system 29 Schematic diagram o f the four-wire sensor 30 Schematic diagram o f the resistor circuit (Mayashi, 1999) 30 Electrical conductivity sensor 32 Large tipping bucket 34 Correlation between flow rate, and time per tip for the large tipping bucket 36 Small tipping bucket 37 Correlation between flow rate and time per tip for the small tipping buckets... 3 8 Water flow splitter 40 V i e w o f test pile 42 Simplified plan view o f test pile 44 Simplified cross section o f test pile 44 Side hill terrace (selected area for the research program) 46 Preparation o f research program area 47 Construction o f pile foundation 48 Photograph showing the construction o f upper foundation layer 49 Watering o f layer during berm construction 50 Compaction o f lysimeter berm 51 Excavator cutting berm interior slope 51 Creating apex on top o f berm 52 Photograph showing the compaction o f both sides o f berm apex 53 Photograph showing the compaction o f the berm slope 53 Trench for anchoring geomembrane 54 Sub-lysimeter drainage pipes placed through the berm 55 Geomembrane deployment and installation 56 Photograph showing the lysimeter area covered with the geomembrane 57 Welding the geomembrane using a hot wedge welding machine 57 French drain at the back o f the lysimeter 58 Geomembrane air pressure test 59 Drainage pipes placed through geomembrane 60 Placement o f material onto the geomembrane 61 Material being spread over the geomembrane 62 Compaction o f protective layer 63 Photograph showing a cone sand test o f the protective layer 64 Double ring used for infiltration test on protective layer 65 Photograph showing the sump construction at lowest corner o f lysimeter 67 Photograph showing the wrapped reinforced hose 67 Sump being filled with gravel 68 Sump filled with gravel (lowest corner o f lysimeter) 69 Construction o f sub-lysimeters 70  Figure 4.32 Figure 4.33 Figure 4.34 Figure 4.35 Figure 4.36 Figure 4.37 Figure 4.38 Figure 4.39 Figure 4.40 Figure 4.41 Figure 4.42 Figure 4.43 Figure 4.44 Figure 4.45 Figure 4.46 Figure 4.47 Figure 4.48 Figure 4.49 Figure 4.50 Figure 4.51 Figure 4.52 Figure 4.53 Figure 4.54 Figure 4.55 Figure 4.56 Figure 4.57 Figure 4.58 Figure 4.59 Figure 4.60 Figure 4.61 Figure 4.62 Figure 4.63 Figure 4.64 Figure 4.65 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 5.9 Figure 5.10  Drainage and protective pipes within the protective layer 71 Compaction o f sub-lysimeter berm 72 Sub-lysimeter interior compaction 73 Installation o f geomembrane on sub-lysimeters 74 Photograph o f sub-lysimeters with their protective layer 75 Installation o f lysimeter drainage system 76 Illustration showing the location o f protective pipes along the pile base 78 Installation o f protective Pipes for Basal Instrumentation 79 Installation o f a T D R sensor 80 Installation o f a gas sampling port 81 Installation o f a thermistor 82 Protection o f drainage system and basal instrumentation 83 V i e w showing a front-end loader placing the 1.5-m protective layer 84 Panoramic view showing the placement o f the 1.5-m protective layer 84 Protection o f instrumentation lines during the 1.5-m layer placement 85 End-Dump o f class B waste rock 86 Side view during pile construction 87 Grain size distribution o f class B waste rock 88 Excavator digging a trench along the test pile slope 89 Excavator finishing digging a trench along the test pile slope 90 Installation o f sensors and sampling ports along the test pile slope 91 Photograph showing the installation o f a Soil Water Sampler (I) 93 Photograph showing the installation o f a Soil Water Sampler (II) 93 Excavator removing the safety berm (end o f third end-dumping stage) 94 Photograph showing the removing material around the perimeter o f the pile. ..95 V i e w o f instrumentation hut from top o f the pile 96 Interior o f instrumentation hut 97 V i e w o f the three small tipping buckets 100 Concrete containment system and flow splitter 101 Photograph showing the composite sample tank installation 102 Installed composite sample tank 103 Photograph showing the gas sampling ports panel 104 Photograph showing the soil water samplers panel 104 Photograph showing the datalogging system 107 Test pile sequence o f construction and precipitation over the area 110 Daily precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - A p r i l 2007) 112 Cumulative precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - A p r i l 2007) ... 113 Cumulative outflow and cumulative precipitation (Aug. 2006 to A p r . 2007) .115 Lysimeter and Sub-lysimeters Response 117 Time response o f the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C (January 31, 2007) 119 Time response o f the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C (April 9, 2007) 120 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - A 124 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - B 125 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - C 125  Figure 5.11 Figure 5.12 Figure 5.13 Figure 5.14 Figure 5.15 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.17 Figure B . 1 Figure B.2 Figure B.3 Figure B.4 Figure B.5 Figure B . 6 Figure B . 7 Figure B.8 Figure C . 1 Figure C.2 Figure C.3 Figure C.4 Figure C . 5 Figure C.6 Figure C.7 Figure E . l Figure E.2 Figure E.3 Figure E.4 Figure E.5 Figure J. 1 Figure J.2 Figure J.3 Figure J.4 Figure J.5 Figure J.6 Figure J.7 Figure J.8 Figure J.9 Figure J. 10 Figure J. 11 Figure J.12 Figure J. 13 Figure J. 14 Figure J. 15 Figure J. 16 Figure J.17  Water Chemistry Evolution for Lysimeter U B C 1-D Soil Water Samplers within the Test Pile (simplified cross-section) Location o f Soil Water Samplers U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - L 4 C Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - B Dissolved Cooper Evolution between U B C 1-L2C and U B C 1 - B Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 4 C and U B C 1 - C Dissolved Copper Evolution between U B C 1-L4C and U B C 1 - C Sensors and sampling ports: Water conveyance system Large tipping buckets Isometric view of large tipping bucket Large tipping bucket mechanism Large tipping bucket housing unit Small tipping bucket F l o w splitter Three steel rods with terminal blocks attached to either end Bottom view o f P I N diode with formed leads P I N diode assembly F-connector and P I N diode assembly A T D R probe ready for epoxy A n assembly Zegelin 3-rod T D R probe T D R probes set up for epoxy 15.06-mm diameter P V C plug installed at the base o f the sensor Washer placed inside a sensor Assembled sensors Pouring the epoxy Placing plug at the head of the sensor Pile foundation Lysimeter Berm Lysimeter Berm design Water collection sump : Drainage and protective pipes Sub-lysimeter design Pile base - 3 D Instrumentation lines Sensors and sampling ports installations Protection of drainage systems and basal instrumentation Pile base prior to end-dumping Instrumentation line 1 Instrumentation line 2 Instrumentation line 3 Instrumentation line 4 Instrumentation line - 3D Experimental pile - 3 D  126 127 129 130 131 ....131 132 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 172 173 173 174 174 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 x  Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  J. 18 J. 19 J.20 5.21 J.22 J.23 J.24  Instrumentation hut (front view) Instrumentation hut including (flow splitter) Instrumentation hut including (large tipping bucket) Instrumentation hut (cross section A - A ) Instrumentation hut (cross section B - B ) Soil water sampler and gas line pipes Datalogging system wiring diagram  213 214 215 216 217 218 219  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to acknowledge the financial support o f Teck Cominco Limited, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council o f Canada ( N S E R C ) and Compania Minera Antamina.  I would like to express my special gratitude to Dr. Ward Wilson, my supervisor and Dr. Roger Beckie, my co-supervisor for their friendship, supervision and guidance as well as professors Bern K l e i n , U l i Mayer and Leslie Smith from the University o f British Columbia.  I would like to express my appreciation to Judy Andrina, Celedonio Aranda, C i r o Ascue, Daniel Bay, Dr. Stephane Brienne, Dr. C o l i n Fyfe, Carlos Garcia, Javier Garcia, Raul Jamanca, Dr. Fernando Junqueira, Henri Letient, Ross Lonergan, Joseph Marcoline, Matt Neuner, Roger Pak, Colleen Roche, Timothy Savage, Fabiola Sifuentes, Joern Unger, Bartolome Vargas and all the personnel from the Antamina mine for their collaboration.  I would especially like to express my deep gratitude to Alexandra, for her love, patience, and support.  xii  DEDICATION  To my parents Hugo and Gilma  1.  Introduction  The mining industry provides the essential raw materials that people use to sustain and improve their standard of living. A t the same time it produces large quantities of waste materials as a consequence of ore extraction and processing activities to recover the metals or products of interest. The ore extraction activities imply the removal of waste rock in order to gain access to the ore. This waste rock is usually stockpiled i n large waste rock dumps or piles, which in some cases can be several hundred meters long and a few hundred meters high. The climatic, hydrogeological and topographic conditions of each mine site can have a significant impact on the amount of water that infiltrates a waste rock system. W h e n the infiltrated water in the presence of oxygen contacts the waste rock material, the leaching of metals can result; these metals in solution can produce negative impacts on the receiving environment. Usually people recognize this process as acid rock drainage ( A R D ) , which is primarily oxidation of sulfide minerals, the major source of poor water quality resulting from mining activities. A s a consequence, A R D is the focus of a vast number of studies. However, some ore bodies are hosted in rock with high neutralization capacity such as carbonates, generating alkaline/neutral drainage from the waste rock dumps. This type of drainage can also produce adverse effects on the environment. The alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps can limit the dissolution and mobility of some metals such as aluminum, iron and copper although other environmentally hazardous elements such as arsenic, antimony, molybdenum, selenium, chromium and to a lesser extent, zinc, are not strongly attenuated at high p H . The geochemical and hydrological behavior of waste rock dumps usually is predicted by conducting laboratory scale tests such as humidity cells and small-scale barrel tests. These tests have been in use over the past few decades and the experimental procedures are well developed and adopted in practice. A t the same time there is little confidence that the result of these tests can predict the full-scale behavior of waste rock dumps.  Although there is already a well established understanding o f geochemical processes, an accurate prediction of drainage quality evolution requires the characterization of the movement 1  Although there is already a well established understanding of geochemical processes, an accurate prediction of drainage quality evolution requires the characterization of the movement of oxygen and in particular the movement of water through a waste rock dump. Direct observations and measurements of water movement through waste rock dumps are necessary to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the dump and its influence on the geochemistry of full-scale waste rock dumps. These observations of oxygen and water movement are possible through the implementation of field-scale experiments. Some fieldscale experiments have been developed in the last few decades; all of them focus primarily on studying waste rock geochemistry and hydrogeology in acid production environments.  A s mentioned previously, alkaline/neutral drainage can have adverse effects on the receiving environment and there is a need to improve the understanding of alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps through field-scale experiments. A field-scale waste rock test pile was designed and constructed at the Antamina mine in Peru for the present study. The global objective of this research w i l l be to provide an improved understanding of long-term evolution of water quality and metal loading from waste rock dumps in a alkaline/neutral environment.  1.1. Research Objectives This thesis is part of an extensive research program currently undertaken by the University o f British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada in collaboration with Teck Cominco Limited, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada ( N S E R C ) and the Antamina mine in Peru to investigate waste rock hydrology and geochemistry in a neutral drainage environment. The field experimentation includes five field-scale waste rock test piles, a number of barrel-sized field cells and a cover study.  The primary research objective for this thesis was to design, construct, instrument, observe and analyze the initial response of the first constructed test pile for the extensive research program at Antamina. The material used for the construction of this pile was class B (according to Antamina's classification), which was composed of: marble, black marble, diopside marble. Class B material content limits are: between 700 - 1,500 ppm of Z n , less than 400 ppm of A s and less than 3% of sulphides.  2  The specific objectives of the design were to provide a reliable and practical plan for the construction of the test pile, to design specific components of the instrumentation according to the research objectives, to produce all the necessary drawings including plan views, side views, cross sections, etc, and to serve as a basis for the construction and instrumentation of the next four test piles.  The goals of the construction process were to make efficient use of the resources available, to develop a methodology of construction by documenting the details of each step of the construction process including the type of materials, to characterize the waste rock by grain distribution tests, infiltrometer tests, etc, to place and ensure the operation and protection of the instrumentation within the pile and to allow the correlation of the experimental results with the details of the construction process.  The objective of the analysis and discussion of the initial response of the test pile was to provide a preliminary assessment of the response for the pile based on the first three months of rainfall and outflow data recorded for the pile along with the results of water quality analyses. This initial response analysis w i l l not be sufficient to provide a comprehensive understanding of the response of the pile, nor to predict its long-term behavior, but w i l l provide insight into future monitoring requirements and improve the design and construction criteria for the subsequent test piles.  1.2.  Organization of Thesis  Chapter One provides an introduction to the research program. Chapter T w o gives a summary of the hydrological aspects of waste rock piles and a review of previous research on waste rock hydrology and geochemistry in field-scale waste rock test piles.  Chapter Three presents information for the field instrumentation used in the research program that was established by data collection requirements for the test pile. The design, construction and instrumentation of the constructed field-scale waste rock test pile are presented in Chapter Four.  3  A n analysis and discussion of the initial response of the constructed test pile is presented in Chapter Five. Finally, the lessons learned in the design, construction and instrumentation process as well as conclusions reached from the preliminary data analysis, along with a set of recommendations are contained in Chapter 6.  4  2.  Literature Review  Previous studies have recognized that the movement of water through waste rock is the primary mechanism for metals release from waste rock piles. The understanding of this process is, however, still limited. Most of the research has been done in laboratory scale tests or through simple observations at existing waste rock dumps, followed by the documenting of the deconstruction of a few selected waste rock dumps. More recently new field-scale experiments have been implemented to provide direct observations for solute movement through waste rock systems and the geochemical effects o f this movement.  The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of recent literature regarding waste rock hydrology and its relation to metals release. The overview is followed by a summary o f previous research related to waste rock hydrogeology and geochemistry in field-scale experiments. Finally, the research study of a field- scale waste rock test pile on which this thesis is based w i l l be introduced.  2.1. W a s t e R o c k H y d r o l o g y Waste rock dumps are an important component of any mining operation. They cover large areas of terrain and the water within a dump originates from a number of sources, such as: the water content of the material when placed, rainfall, snow melt, up-gradient runoff and groundwater seepage (Herasymuik, 1996). Water sources such as rainfall and snow melt cannot be prevented from infiltrating waste rock dumps due to the large area that they usually cover.  A s Smith and Beckie (2003) pointed out, the grain size distribution of the waste rock and the proportion and spatial arrangement of matrix-supported and matrix-free zones within a pile (internal structure) are the two main factors in controlling the movement of air and water (hydrologic properties) within a waste rock pile. These two factors in turn are the result of the lithological properties of the ore deposit and its overburden, the mining method, and the construction technique used for the pile.  The four principal methods of construction for a waste rock pile, which have a direct impact on the internal structure of the pile, were summarized by Fala et al. (2003). The method selected  5  generally depends on the specific site conditions and the type and size of equipment to be used in the construction of the pile. Each method produces a different waste rock distribution within a pile, as shown in Table 2.1. In addition, physical and chemical weathering processes can, over time, modify the original internal structure created during pile construction (Herasymuik, 1996). Table 2.1  Methods of construction of a waste rock pile (adapted from Fala et al, 2003)  Method  Process of Waste Rock Placement  Waste Rock Segregation  End-Dumping  Trucks end-dump waste rock across  Upper zone - fine particles.  the crest of the dump.  Intermediate zone - nonuniform. Lower zone - coarse material.  Push-Dumping  Trucks/conveyors  dump  waste rock  near the crest and a bulldozer pushes the material over the crest.  Free-Dumping  Upper zone - non-uniform. Lower zone - coarse material.  Waste rock is dumped in the form of  Less pronounced  individual stacks, and then the surface  segregation.  is leveled and compacted.  Dragline/Bucket Waste rock is deposited directly by a  L o w segregation - more  Excavator  uniform material.  dragline/bucket excavator.  The waste rock segregation described in Table 2.1 is based on the premise that the grain size distribution of the placed waste rock is relatively constant. During the relocation of part of a waste rock dump at the Golden Sunlight M i n e in Montana, U S A , Herasymuik (1996) observed that the grain size distribution of the waste rock was highly variable. A s a result, coarse waste rock was found throughout the dump and was not limited to the basal region.  6  M a n y studies have identified the heterogeneity of waste rock materials and its influence on the development of preferential flow paths. In general, all waste rock piles have different levels of heterogeneity no matter what method was used in the construction process. A s Smith and Beckie (2003) indicated, "at least two types of fluid pathways are thought to be present in many waste rock piles: one involves flow in finer grained matrix materials, and the other involves a more rapid flow in so-called macropores [which are formed by the presence of coarse material]." It was also indicated that during high rainfall events, the layers of coarse material within a pile function as preferential flow paths, particularly in the region near the surface of the pile.  When the macropore regions are interconnected they can form pathways for vertical infiltration through a pile. In these circumstances it is believed that the exchange of fluid with the finergrained waste rock is limited. A s a result metal leaching may be less significant due to the limited fluid contact with finer-grained waste rock, which generally is more reactive.  Newman (1999) conducted a waste rock column study to investigate the mechanisms for preferential flow in unsaturated systems. A two meter high column, vertically layered, was filled on one half with fine waste rock and the other side with coarse waste rock. Several infiltration rates were applied to study the development of preferential flow.  The results of Newman's experiment indicated that when a steady-state surface flux greater than the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fine waste rock was applied to the column, the coarse material turned out to be the preferential flow path. The fine material became the preferential flow path when the surface flux was reduced to less than the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fine waste rock.  There are a number of sources from which water w i l l infiltrate through waste rock piles. Infiltration from some of these sources can be prevented while infiltration from others, such as rainfall and snow melt need to be managed. There appears to be a consensus among researchers with regard to the importance of hydrological factors in the control of metal leaching and acid rock drainage ( A R D ) from waste rock piles. Grain size distribution and the  7  internal waste rock pile structure appear to be the main factors controlling air and water movement within a waste rock pile.  Heterogeneity and the development of preferential flow paths are present to varying degrees within all waste rock piles. The interaction between layers of fine and coarse material is still not well understood. The geological and climatic conditions are specific for each site and play an important role in the results of studies of the hydrology of waste rock. Therefore numerous researchers have emphasized the necessity of confirming and expanding the current knowledge of hydrologic properties and behaviors in full-scale structures.  2.2. Previous Research Investigating Waste Rock Hydrology and Geochemistry in Field-Scale Experiments. Prior to the large-scale waste rock leaching experiment that M u r r (1975) started, there were no direct large-scale observations of solution movement through waste rock. Most of the research had been based on laboratory scale tests as well as on common observations of waste rock dumps; therefore a lack of understanding of the hydrogeology of full-scale waste rock dumps was evident at that time. Later studies based on field measurements and observations as well as on the documentation of the deconstruction of some waste rock piles provided more information on the flow of water within a waste rock pile and the geochemical implications of that flow.  In Smith et al. (1995),  after analysis of data from four mines - M y r a Falls, B . C . , Island Copper, B . C . , Elkview, B . C . and Golden Sunlight, Montana - it was concluded that "the most significant limitation of the existing database [collected in these four sites] is that no single site provided a complete data record of the important parameters required to characterize the hydrologic behavior of a waste rock pile, and the frequency of sampling was often insufficient."  The statements and the conclusions of other studies described above prompted greater interest in hydrologic behavior, and the resulting allocation of resources has advanced the accuracy of findings, thus strengthening the characterization of the hydrological behavior of waste rock piles. In recent years field-scale experiments ranging from a 20-tonne field cells test at the R e d Mountain gold-silver deposit in British Columbia, Canada (Frostad et al., 1999) to a 1.28  million-tonne full-scale trial dump at the Grasberg copper and gold mine located in Indonesia (Andrina et al., 2006) have been developed.  These field-scale experiments have differed in terms of their location, altitude, climatic conditions, mineralogy, waste rock characteristics, design, size, instrumentation, methodology of construction, research objectives, etc. The main features of five notable large experiments are described below.  2.2.1.  Field-Scale Kinetic Tests at the Red Mountain Gold-Silver Deposit  Frostad et al. (1999) carried out field-scale kinetic tests at the Red Mountain gold-silver deposit (porphyritic intrusion) located in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. The site, with an average annual temperature o f 0 ° C , (m.a.s.l.) and an annual precipitation of 1,880 mm distributed evenly over the course of the year, is situated at 1,500 meters above sea level.  The objective of the tests was to verify the scaling-up of laboratory results for the prediction of weathering processes within a waste rock dump. The two 20-tonne field cells were monitored for internal temperature, p H , conductivity, volume and rate of flow, and water quality. The material placed inside the field-scale cells contained 4-5% pyrite and 2-3% pyrrhotite. Grain size distribution tests and measurements of void ratio and specific surface area were conducted. The particle mass finer than 2 m m was around 3.2 % in each cell and the maximum particle size was 400 mm.  The field cells consisted of two wooden cribs, each measuring 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.5 m. The base of each cell was sloped towards the front of the cell and was lined with a high-density polyethylene ( H D P E ) liner 40 m m thick, while the slatted walls were lined with geotextile. Infiltrating water was collected in a 7.5-liter vessel. The lid of each vessel was fitted with probes to measure conductivity, p H and water temperature. The volume and flow rate of the water overflowing the vessel was measured by a tipping bucket. Temperature probes were buried within each crib to record the temperature within the cell; ambient  temperature,  humidity and precipitation were recorded as well.  9  A s Frostad et al. (1999) concluded, it was not possible to scale up the laboratory weathering rates (corrected for surface area and temperature) with confidence to predict field results. Inadequate hydrological assumptions and deficiencies in experimental procedures may have been the cause. It was observed that the particle size used in the laboratory humidity cells influenced the sulfide oxidation rates. Due to the relatively small size of the field-scale cells compared to full-scale waste rock systems, the cells experienced greater fluctuations in internal temperatures, higher evaporation rates, and better aeration than an actual waste pile; to minimize these effects larger field test were recommended.  2.2.2.  Large-Scale C o l u m n L e a c h Studies at New M e x i c o , U S A  Murr (1980) conducted large-scale leach studies at the John D . Sullivan Center for In-Situ M i n i n g Research in the New M e x i c o , U S A . The objective was to study the process of copper leaching from waste rock as well as such flow characteristics as waste rock consolidation and permeability.  T w o large columns were used during the experimental process. The material placed inside the column, called the Kennecott column, was a quartzitic material containing chalcocite, pyrite (4 wt %) and carbonates (<0.1 wt %). The material for the other column (the Duval column) was a high carbonate intrusive rock (2 wt %) containing chalcopyrite and pyrite (3.3 wt %).  Each column consisted of an insulated stainless steel tank 3.1 m diameter x 10.8 m high. 160 tonnes of waste rock were placed inside the Kennecott column. The material was sized and analyzed at the time it was loaded into the column; the placement of the material in the column was carefully conducted to ensure a homogeneous distribution of rock. The column was flooded with water and the outflow rate was recorded; from the outflow rate, water retention and void spaces were estimated. A s for the Duval column, with the exception of an additional 10 tonnes of waste rock and the installation of moisture probes, the construction and research methodologies were similar to those used for the Kennecott column.  During the two years of operation of the columns several types of data, including copper recovery, oxygen consumption, temperature, solution composition, p H and E h , and bacterial activity were collected.  In the final application of solution to the Kennecott and Duval 10  columns a tracer (NaCl) to measure permeabilities and a rhodamine B dye to mark the final solution flow paths were added; pictures and specific details were recorded. Finally, both columns were completely drained and unloaded by hand. The unloaded material was coned, quartered, and screened to determine the post-leach rock size distribution.  M u r r (1980) observed that the permeability, of the Kennecott and Duval columns changed over time, increasing for the Kennecott column while decreasing for the Duval column. In the case of the Kennecott column, the changes in permeability suggested that the mineral dissolution increased the column permeability, whereas in the Duval column the limey material was initially dissolved and subsequently  gypsum precipitation gradually reduced the column  permeability. The observations indicated that for different waste rock types the same leaching process can generate different flow distributions.  Another important observation was related to the contact of fluid with waste rock and to copper extraction. In the case of the Duval column, only 14% of the waste rock in the column was contacted by the fluid and the recovery of copper was just 4%; in the case of the Kennecott column, 60% of the waste rock in the column was contacted by the fluid and the recovery of copper was 40%. These results provided evidence of preferential flow and its relation with the leaching of metals from waste rock systems.  2.2.3.  An Intermediate-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile at the Cluff Lake Uranium Mine  Nichol et al. (2000), Nichol et al. (2003) and Nichol et al. (2005) described the construction of an intermediate-scale (8 m x 8 m x 5m) waste rock pile at the Cluff Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The objective was to study water flow and solute transport processes in waste rock.  The mean annual temperature at Cluff Lake is 0 °C, the surface  temperature of the constructed pile ranged from -22 to 28 °C and the average annual precipitation at the site was 439 mm.  The pile was monitored for moisture content, matric suction, temperature, matrix water chemistry, gas chemistry, gas pressure, rainfall, evaporation, discharge volume and discharge chemistry. The waste rock placed in the constructed pile was composed of aluminous gneisses and granitoids associated with uranium mineralization and with sulphides of iron, copper, lead, 11  zinc and molybdenum. The material size ranged from boulders 1.5 m in diameter to clay; matrix supported and matrix-free material (cobbles and boulders) was observed in the pile.  The waste rock was placed, using a large excavator, on a grid of 16 contiguous lysimeters (2 m x 2 m) located at the base of the pile. The outflow from each lysimeter was collected and the flow rate determined by using a tipping bucket rain gage.  The core of the pile (8 m x 8 m x  5m) was isolated from its base to the top of the pile by vertically installing plywood panels lined with a 60-mil H D P E geomembrane; this allowed the calculation of a complete water balance, although the movement of gases was reduced to one dimension.  During the construction of the pile several sensors and sampling ports were installed within the pile to measure moisture content, matric suction and temperature and to allow the extraction of water samples. During installation this instrumentation was surrounded with fine material for two reasons.  First, the fine material protects the instrumentation from being damaged by  coarser material.  Second, the instrumentation must be in full contact with its surrounding  material in order to effectively take measurements; as a result it was primarily the movement of soil water in the matrix that was monitored.  Nichol et al. (2000) observed that the initial outflow response started in some lysimeters a few days/weeks following the first precipitation in the area; in other lysimeters, no outflow was recorded after 10 months and 120 m m of precipitation. This initial outflow response suggested that the heterogeneity of the pile led to different initial wetting rates.  The initial outflow water chemistry showed a p H between 3 to 4 and high sulphate concentrations (up to 40,000 mg/L), indicating sulphate weathering; the rate of reaction was not significant enough to produce major temperature changes within the pile.  A s Nichol et al. (2003) indicated, approximately one year following the completion of the pile construction,  a tracer  test was performed. The majority of the  lysimeters exhibited  breakthrough a few hours after the application of the tracer. This indicated the presence of preferential flow paths that were able to convey the water from a rainfall event through 5 m of waste rock within a few hours. The outflows from the lysimeters were different in timing, magnitude and volume due to the heterogeneity of the waste rock pile; this heterogeneity was 12  verified in the yearly net infiltration estimates for each lysimeter. The net infiltration estimates for each individual lysimeter ranged from 23% to 120% of precipitation; indicating that lysimeters of 2 m x 2 m would be not large enough to accurately estimate net infiltration.  2.2.4.  T w o Large-Scale Waste R o c k Test Piles at the D i a v i k D i a m o n d M i n e  Blowes et al. (2006) describe the construction of two large-scale (60 m x 50 m x 15 m) waste rock piles at the D i a v i k Diamond M i n e located in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The objective was to assess the long-term environmental implications of storing waste rock in regions with continuous permafrost. It is believed that in a short period of time, the temperature within these test piles would decrease and stay below 0 °C as was observed in waste rock piles at the nearby Ekati Diamond M i n e .  The construction of the two waste rock piles was still in progress at the time Blowes et al. (2006) described the project. A s of the writing of this thesis (June 2007) the two piles have since been completed and are already in operation (Matt Neuner, personal communication).  The research program at Diavik focuses on the evolution of the hydrology, geochemistry, temperature, and bio-geochemistry of waste rock piles over time in a region with continuous permafrost.  The waste rock placed in one of the piles (granite) contains <0.04 wt% of Sulfur;  the material of the other pile (biotite schist) contains >0.08 wt% of Sulfur. Both types o f waste rock have low concentrations  of carbonate  minerals. Complementary studies  involving  conventional static and kinetic tests on small test samples have also been initiated.  The base (60 m x 50 m) of each test pile was constructed and covered with a H D P E liner to make it impermeable. In total six lysimeters 4 m x 4 m and six lysimeters 2 m x 2 m were placed at the base of each pile to investigate scale effects in flow variability and solute loadings.  The entire piping system contains heat trace to prevent the water from freezing.  During construction, the waste rock was pushed or end-dumped from the top of a ramp. The instrumentation installed within each pile included thermistors, gas sampling ports, soil suction lysimeters, collection lysimeters, time domain reflectometry probes, and access ports for thermo-conductivity measurements and microbiological sampling.  13  The water collected on the base of each pile and in the lysimeters is piped separately to an instrumentation hut where the electrical conductivity is measured continuously, tipping bucket rain gauges are used to measure the volume and flow rate and water samples are taken. One of the piles w i l l be deconstructed in year four or five of the study, to allow internal examination of ice formation and to take samples of waste rock.  Results of this research program are not available yet. However results are expected to provide a complete description of hydrologic conditions within the piles (spatial and temporal variations) and w i l l assess the quality of water released from sulfide-bearing waste rock piles in the Arctic environment. The final goal of the project is to develop a conceptual model of water flow in large unsaturated piles, to identify the physical mechanisms which lead to cooling of large stockpiles in cold climates, to assess the value of small-scale measurements in predicting the behavior of full-scale waste rock systems and to test the models that predict this behavior.  2.2.5.  F u l l - S c a l e T r i a l D u m p at the G r a s b e r g C o p p e r - G o l d M i n e  M i l l e r et al. (2003a), M i l l e r et al. (2003b), Andrina et al. (2003), M i l l e r et al. (2006) and Andrina et al. (2006) described the construction and response of a full-scale trial dump at the Grasberg copper and gold mine located in the Indonesian province of Papua. A research program was conducted to define the scale-up factors, to quantify metal leaching rates of waste rock piles and to assess different face treatments and cover systems, including operational strategies to mitigate A R D generation. A fifty-column laboratory test and eight test pads were commissioned in 1996, and a full-scale trial dump was completed in 2002 and operated until 2004. The daily average temperature in the area ranges approximately from 2°C to 14°C, and the annual rainfall in the area of the mine and waste rock piles is between 4000 m m and 5000 mm.  The material used for the construction of the trial dump consisted of two types of waste rock, classified as blue and red, in addition to limestone. The pyrite content for the red and blue waste was 9% and 4% respectively. The distribution of sulfur in most of the overburden occurred principally as pyrite, anhydrite and chalcopyrite.  14  The trial dump consisted of a waste rock dump 480 m x 80 m x 20 m. The trial dump was divided into eight panels of 60 m x 80 m each; three leachate collection lysimeters 10 m x 10 m were installed at the base of each panel at distances of 15 m, 35 m and 65 m from the final toe of each panel. The back two thirds of each panel was a combination of red and blue waste. The front third of each of the first three panels was constructed with blue waste; a combination of blue waste and limestone using truck or conveyor/stacker blends was used for the front third of the remaining five panels. Various covers where placed on top of the panels; these included HDPE  liners,  road  mud,  weather/oxidized  waste  rock,  run-of-mine  limestone,  etc.  Instrumentation such as thermistors, gas sampling ports and tipping bucket flow meters were installed for each panel.  Andrina et al. (2003) concluded that some waste rock types at Grasberg are very reactive when constructed using standard waste rock pile construction techniques. The metal leaching appeared to reach a maximum during the first 12 months, and was then followed by a longterm decline.  Face treatments (material placed at the front third of each panel) appeared to have little or no impact in A R D generation beyond the immediate area of the face treatment. M i l l e r et al. (2006) concluded that after seven years of the A R D investigation program the results demonstrated feasible scale-up among laboratory columns, field test pads and the trial dump with regard to material geochemistry and A R D evolution trends. The water chemistry, temperature and oxygen data suggested that acid generation was occurring within the dump. It is believed that the gas and water moved mainly through the coarse and fine layers respectively. Andrina et al. (2006) indicated that using trucks for blending run-of-mine waste rock to build a dump was not effective enough in reducing acid production; on the other hand, stacker-built blended dumps are  more effective in reducing acid production but the process is more  expensive and time consuming.  15  2.2.6.  S u m m a r y of Waste R o c k Field-Scale Experiments  Table 2.2 profiles a summary of each field-scale experiment is unique; thus in some cases sitespecific conclusions have been generated. In other cases the conclusions were similar among the projects. Furthermore, the main objectives and research approaches were defined on a caseby-case basis; it seems that no defined or well established experimental protocols for this type of experiments were available.  16  Table 2.2  Summary profile o f field-scale experiments  MAIN  PROJECTS  FEATURES  Location  J.D. Sullivan  Red  Centre  Mountain  New  Mexico,  USA  CluffLake  Grasberg  Diavik  British  Saskatchewan,  Papua, Indonesia  Northwest  Columbia,  Canada  Territories,  Canada  Canada  Altitude (m.a.s.l)  N.A.  1,500  N.A.  3,700  N.A.  Precipitation  N.A.  1,880  439  4,000 to 5,000  N.A.  Water Flow/  Metal  Scaling  Solute Transport  / A R D mitigation  (mm/year) Research  Cu Leaching/  Scaling  Objectives  Flow  weathering  Characteristics  processes  Leach columns  Large field cells  Waste  (Cribs)  pile  3.1 m diameter x  2.5 m x 2.5 m x  8m x 8m x 5m  10.8 m high  1.5 m  Loading elevator  N.A.  Design Dimensions (Length,  width,  up  leaching  up  weathering processes  rock  test  Trial dump  Waste  rock  test piles 480 m x 80 m x  60 m x 50 m x  20 m  15m  End-Dumping  Push/End-  /Stacker  Dumping  Sulphides/limestone  Granite/  height) Methodology of  Large Excavator  Construction Waste  Rock  Characteristics  Quartzitic  Feldspar  Aluminous  material/high  porphyritic  gneisses/granitoids  carbonate  intrusive/bedded  intrusive  tuffaceous  biotite  sedimentary rock Neutron/TDR  Thermistors,  within the waste  probes,  sampling ports  rock  tensiometers,  samplers,  soil/water  TDR  samplers,  gas  thermistors  ports  Instrumentation  Quality of  Moisture probes  Thermistors  gas  Thermistors, soil/water  probes, sampling  Acidic/neutral  Acidic  Acidic  Acidic  Acidic  1975 - 1977  1994- 1996  1998 -2004  2002 -2004  2006-  expected outflow Years of Operation  17  The weather conditions were different at each of the field-scale experiment sites; precipitation quantity and intensity and evaporation rates play an important role in the flow of water through waste rock and in the possibility of placing a compacted cover over a waste rock dump. A s Andrina et al. (2006) pointed out, the application of a relatively impermeable cover at Grasberg might not be a practical option due to the wet weather in the area and the impossibility of performing the compaction of a cover in these conditions.  The presence and impact on metal leaching of preferential flow paths was demonstrated by the large-scale column leach studies carried out by M u r r (1981). M u r r also pointed out the impact of different waste rock characteristics such as mineralogy on flow distribution and metal leaching for different types of waste rock.  The methodology of construction (waste rock placement) and dimensions of a field-scale experiment, as well as the monitored parameters and their sampling frequency have a significant influence on the results of field-scale experiments and on the possibility of scaling up laboratory test results to field-scale results and finally to results derived from actual waste rock piles.  Frostad et al. (1999) found that it was not possible to scale up with confidence the laboratory weathering rates (corrected for surface area and temperature) to predict field results at the Red Mountain site. Contrary to Frostad et al., M i l l e r et al. (2006) concluded that at Grasberg it was feasible to scale up the geochemistry trends from laboratory results to a trial dump. Frostad et al. (1999) also concluded that inadequate hydrogeological assumptions (trying to represent a full-scale waste rock pile) and deficiencies in the experiment protocols are likely the reasons for the impossibility of scaling up results and recommended the use of larger field-scale experiments.  A s was observed in some of the field-scale experiments presented above, there was not a unique set of criteria for lysimeter dimensions; lysimeters of different dimensions were included in the design of waste rock field-scale experiments. Nichol et al. (2003) compared the response  of the sixteen lysimeters installed at the Cluff Lake experimental pile. The  heterogeneity of the waste rock and the presence of preferential flow paths were demonstrated  18  through the difference in timing, magnitude and volume of the response of the different lysimeters.  Nichol et al. (2003) also concluded that the size of lysimeters is an important factor in the design of an experiment for obtaining accurate estimations of net infiltration. "The test pile data indicate larger lysimeters w i l l give better estimates of net infiltration in waste rock where high flow rate pathways are active, but require a longer period of time post-construction equilibration."  Different quantities and types of instruments were installed for each field-scale experiment. The  selection of instrumentation may have been based on research objectives, available  technology and budgetary constraints. The technology for field-scale measurements is still not fully developed. A s Nichol et al. (2003) observed from the experience at Cluff Lake, during infiltration events the water bypassed the instrumentation along the fastest flowing pathways. A s a result, we can conclude that in-situ instrumentation provides more representative information of fluid fluxes during drying periods than during short-term wetting events.  A s Table 2.2 shows, the outflow from all the field-scale experiments is predominantly acidic. The waste rock field-scale experiments have been focused on metal leaching from acidic rock drainage. The conclusion of several experiences dealing with neutral drainage is that even when neutral drainage can limit the transport of several metals from waste rock piles, other hazardous elements are not strongly attenuated at high p H . A s a consequence the necessity of the study of neutral drainage was established.  2.3. Field-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile in a Neutral Environment. A c i d rock drainage systems in waste rock piles have been studied for several decades through laboratory scale tests, field measurements, deconstruction observations and lately, field-scale experiments. A l l these studies made possible improvements in the understanding of the processes that control the generation of acidic drainage.  19  There are many mining operations and ore deposits hosted by carbonate rocks that tend to produce alkaline/neutral drainage from their waste rock systems. The alkaline/neutral drainages can convey dissolved metals such as arsenic, antimony, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, and to a lesser degree zinc, all of which can have an impact on the environment. Not many research programs for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms that control the release and mobility of metals in these alkaline/neutral conditions have been completed; in the specific case of field-scale experiments there is no specific previous experience.  A s the main task of the research project that forms the basis for this thesis, a field-scale waste rock test pile was designed, constructed and instrumented at the Antamina copper-zinc mine located in the Central Andes Mountains of Peru. The objective of the research program is to study and ultimately improve the understanding of hydrology and geochemistry of waste rock with high neutralization capacity.  The mineral deposit formation at Antamina is a quartz monzonite intrusion hosted i n cretaceous limestone, which accounts for the high neutralization potential observed. The site is located at approximately 4,200 meters above sea level.  The temperature ranges from a few  degrees Celsius below zero during the night to between 10 and 20 °C during the day.  The  precipitation is approximately 1,200 m m per year, which is primarily distributed during a sixmonth rainy season.  2.4. S u m m a r y The understanding of the movement of water through waste rock and the geochemical implications of this movement is still limited, especially in neutral drainage environments. This is due in part to the insufficiency of direct large-scale observations and instrumentation that can measure the different processes within a waste rock dump.  The next chapter w i l l present the data collection requirements for this study and the field instrumentation installed within the constructed field-scale waste rock test pile at Antamina to study the long-term evolution of water quality and metal loading from waste rock with high neutralization capacity.  20  3.  Data Collection Requirements and Field Instrumentation  This chapter presents information about the field instrumentation that was deemed necessary to achieve the data collection requirements for the test pile. Some instruments were procured from suppliers while others were designed and constructed specifically for this project. The instrumentation installed within the pile and instrumentation hut measures properties and collects the data required to provide an improved understanding of the long-term evolution of water quality and metal loading from the test pile.  3.1. Data Collection Requirements Specific data is required to be collected from the test pile in order to develop a conceptual model of the thermal, hydrological and geochemical processes within the pile that control the release and attenuation of metals. The test pile was instrumented to characterize its complete water balance, the spatial and temporal variations in the discharge quantity and quality, as well as the moisture, temperature and gas state within the pile.  The design of the pile allows the drainage collected in the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters to be metered and sampled for chemical composition. Thermistors (temperature  sensors),  gas  sampling ports and soil-water solution samplers were placed within the pile to monitor the evolution of pore fluids (water and gases) through the pile. A s well, time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors were placed within the pile to monitor its water content.  The drainage from the lysimeter and each of the three sub-lysimeters is conveyed by gravity to the instrumentation hut, where it w i l l flow through datalogged water conveyance systems. Each water conveyance system consists of an electrical conductivity sensor, a water sampling port and a thermistor.  The collected water samples are analyzed for a full suite of relevant  field and laboratory geochemical parameters including p H , alkalinity, major ions and metals (Appendix A ) . The continuously logged electrical conductivity, which is strongly correlated to total dissolved load, is used to estimate solute concentrations between sampling events.  Following the installation of the water conveyance systems tipping buckets were installed to measure the water flow rate. The four tipping buckets discharge to a flow splitter. Once the 21  water passes through the splitter, roughly 6.25% of the water is stored in a 2.5-m tank buried next to the hut, while the rest of the water is discharged into the environment. Samples taken from the composite sample tank provide basic information that allows mass balance and mass loading calculations. In addition, a rain gauge to provide precipitation input data, and a datalogging system were installed.  3.2. F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The determination of the type and capacity of the sensors and devices installed within the test pile and in the instrumentation hut were was based on the specific data collection requirements and characteristics of the test pile. In the cases where the instrumentation required was commercially available and within the project budget, it was procured; in other cases it was designed and constructed according to the needs of the project.  3.2.1.  Procured Instrumentation  Thermistors Within the pile, 32 thermistors (temperature sensors) were installed at different depths and locations as part of instrumentation lines 1 to 6 (see Chapter 4, Section 4.3.8 and 4.4.2); in addition four thermistors were installed as part of the water conveyance system (see Section 3.2.2) inside the instrumentation hut. These thermistors are used to measure the temperature at different locations within the pile. (Appendix B , Figure B-01).  The thermistors and their cables are R S T I N S T R U M E N T S M o d e l Ns. TH001 and E L I C 0 0 2 respectively. It was necessary to specify the cable length for each thermistor at the time the thermistors were ordered. The operating temperature range of the thermistors varies from -80 °C to 75 °C and the accuracy is 0.001 °C .  Soil Water Samplers Within the pile, 15 soil water samplers, which have also been called "suction lysimeters," were installed at different depths as part of instrumentation lines 1, 2 and 4 (see Chapter 4, Section  22  4.4.2). The soil water samplers are used to collect instantaneous pore water samples from within the pile.  The soil water samplers selected were Soilmoisture Equipment Model N o . 1920F1L12-B02M2 (12" length) shown in Figure 3.1. The sampler consists of a 48.26 m m outside diameter (OD) P V C tube with a ceramic cup epoxy-bonded to one end (Appendix B , Figure B-01). The ceramic cup has a 200 k P a air-entry value; the outside diameter and length of the cup are 48.26 m m and 50 m m respectively. T w o 6.35 m m tube connectors protrude from the top of the sampler (Figure 3.1). Attached to these two connectors are two 6.35 m m O D polyethylene access tubes used for pressurizing and recovering the sample; these polyethylene tubes are terminated in neoprene tubing. Clamping rings are used to clamp the neoprene in order to keep the sampler under negative pressure. A vacuum hand pump (Soilmoisture Equipment M o d e l No. 2005G2) is used for pressurizing and recovering the sample.  Figure 3.1  Soil water sampler 23  Rain Gauge A rain gauge with a 200 m m diameter collector was installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut; the cable of the gauge was connected to the datalogging system. The rain gauge was acquired from RainWise inc. Each tip of the rain gauge bucket corresponds to 0.25 m m of rain.  Datalogging System A  datalogging system was designed to be a reliable tool for collecting and storing  measurements according to a defined frequency and format from twenty two T D R sensors, thirty six thermistors, a rain gauge, four tipping buckets, and four electrical conductivity sensors. During the design of the system the following aspects were considered: previous experience with the same type of instrumentation, new technology available and the reliability of that technology, cost of the equipment, and availability of technical support from the supplier.  The datalogging system hardware and software consist of the following components: -  A Campbell Scientific C R 1 0 0 0 ( 4 M R A M Memory) datalogger. A Campbell Scientific C F M 1 0 0 compact flash module. Three Campbell Scientific S D M X 5 0 multiplexers.  -  Four R S T I N S T R U M E N T S F M 2 0 4 2 A flexi-muxes (multiplexers). A Moisture Point M P - 9 1 7 soil moisture measurement instrument. A power/comm cable A multiplexer probe Interface cable. Delay compensation cable. A Moisture Point interconnect module. LoggerNet 3.0 software.  24  3.2.2. Designed and Constructed Instruments Specialized types of instrumentation were required for specific applications. These instruments are described in the following sections.  Time Domain Reflectometry ( T D R ) Sensors  Theory and Design Time domain reflectometry ( T D R ) is a technique originally developed by the power and communication industries to locate faults and breaks in cables; the application of this technique was later extended to the agricultural sector. Today the technique has other applications, such as the measurement of volumetric water content of coarse mine waste rock, which is the application of the T D R technique i n the present research project.  The basic components of a T D R measurement system consist of a T D R instrument (which generates fast rise time pulses) and the T D R sensor, including its coaxial cable (transmission line). The T D R instrument transmits a fast rise time (time required for the amplitude of a pulse to experience a change) pulse into the coaxial cable. The pulse travels through the cable towards the T D R sensor embedded i n the porous media; whenever the pulse encounters a change i n impedance (measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating electric current), a pulse reflects back to the T D R instrument.  The shape of the reflected waveform is controlled by the changes i n impedance that the pulse encounters along the transmission line and T D R sensor; the changes i n impedance are based on using the transmission line impedance as a reference. If the encountered impedance is higher, it is represented i n the shape of the waveform as an upward or positive step; conversely, i f the encountered impedance is lower, the shape of the waveform has a downward or negative step (Moisture Point M P - 9 1 7 Operation Manual, p. 40). These changes in the shape of the reflected waveform allow the T D R instrument to locate the position of each change in impedance along the transmission line and T D R probe and to determine the round trip propagation time for each of these changes.  25  In this technique, the travel time of an electromagnetic wave (pulse) passing along a T D R probe embedded in the soil is measured to determine the permittivity (dielectric constant) of this soil. There is a strong relationship between the permittivity of a soil and its water content. The permittivity (s) relates to a material's ability to transmit or "permit" an electric field or pulse, which ultimately has an impact on the pulse travel time. The technique takes advantage of the considerable disparity among the permittivities of water (e = 81), air (s = 1) and solid w  a  soil particles (s = 3-5). A s a result the measured bulk permittivity of a soil is mainly controlled s  by the water phase.  The travel time of a pulse along a T D R sensor embedded in the soil is correlated to the soil's volumetric water content using a formula derived in the Moisture Point Technical Brief 17 "Calibration of Profiling Probes" ( G . D . Young). In this Technical Brief and as indicated by Nichol et al. (2002), some prior calculations are required to correct and account for the probedesign effects on travel time.  The use of remote diode shorting was suggested as a method to improve the measurement of volumetric water content (Hook et al. 1992). The quality and intensity of the reflected wave forms in a T D R system can be impacted by the length of the transmission line, the electrical conductivity of the material surrounding the probe, etc.  Installing remote shorting diodes  inside the T D R sensor head and base of a three-rod Zegelin type probe design (Young, 1998a) produces significant changes in impedance that reflect back large amplitude signals to the T D R instrument, allowing the system to determine the precise time the pulse reaches the diode located at the head of the sensor and the two diodes located at the end of it. The pulse travel time between these two locations (through the rods exposed to the porous media) is used to calculate the volumetric water content of the material surrounding the probe.  A diode is a component that restricts the direction of an electric current: it allows the electric current to flow in one direction (diode shorted), but blocks it in the opposite direction (diode open).  When the diode is shorted, the pulse encounters low impedance and the reflected  waveform shape has a downward or negative step at the diode location; conversely, i f the diode is open the encountered impedance is high and a flat or upward (positive) step is observed. T o get a diode to act as a short or open circuit, the T D R instrument propagates a predetermined  26  direct current ( D C ) voltage applied as an alternating current ( A C ) fast rise time pulse; the constant and very fast changes in polarity of this pulse short and open a diode.  Construction and Calibration A Moisture Point MP-917 soil moisture measurement instrument is used as a T D R instrument. Within the test pile, 22 T D R sensors (volumetric water content sensors) were installed at different depths and locations as part of instrumentation lines 1 to 6 (see Chapter 4, Sections 4.4.8 and 4.5.2). The design of the T D R sensors was based on a three-rod Zegelin type probe design (Young, 1998a). A diode at the sensor head, two diodes at the base and a central coated rod to reduce conductive losses in high conductivity systems were included (Nichol et al. 2002) (Appendix B , Figure B-01). A l l the T D R sensors (Figure 3.2) included a 50 m long coaxial cable regardless their location within the pile, it allows for the T D R instrument to capture the signal. Details of the construction of the probes are included in Appendix C . A s part of the calibration procedure for the T D R probes; the travel time between the head and base of each of them was measured in air, oven dry sand and deionized water, details of the calibration are presented in Appendix D .  Figure 3.2  T D R sensor  27  Water Conveyance System  Design and Construction Four plumbing systems, referred to as "water conveyance systems," were constructed and installed inside the instrumentation hut to convey the water coming from the lysimeter and three sub-lysimeters to the tipping buckets. The water conveyance systems were made of P V C 50 mm pipes and included ball valves, unions, elbows (90°), tees and caps (Appendix B , Figure B-02). The diameter and size of the conveyance systems were based on the expected flow of water and the size o f the electrical conductivity sensor, thermistor and water sampling port which form part of the systems (Figure 3.3).  The design and construction of each system included a water main pass and a by-pass. The main pass is a U-shaped subsystem housing a water sampling port, an electrical conductivity sensor and a thermistor. Besides the facilitation of water sampling and electrical conductivity and temperature measurement, the purpose of this U-shaped subsystem is to prevent gases from exiting and ambient air entering the test pile through the drainage system. The U-shaped subsystem does not drain fully, thus allowing a seal to form.  The water conveyance system includes unions and valves that allow the main pass to be taken apart and the water diverted through the by-pass in the event of an inspection, maintenance or the replacement of sensors inside the main pass. It is recommended that an inspection of the main pass be conducted before and at the end of the rainy season.  28  Figure 3.3  Water conveyance system  Electrical Conductivity Sensors  Theory and Design  Electrical conductivity ( E C ) is the capacity of a material to carry electrical current. In the case of water it is generally used as a measure of the ionic concentration. However, the electrical conductivity of water is only a quantitative measurement, accounting for all ionic content but unable to distinguish particular conductivity materials in the presence of others.  Masaki Hayashi (1999) proposed a portable sensor to measure the E C based on the theory of surface-positioned Wenner array of electrodes. This sensor can be operated by a datalogger, making it possible to measure the E C continuously.  The design of the sensor consists of four equidistant electrodes; this configuration is known as a Wenner array as shown in Figure 3.4. Each electrode is connected to a copper wire; the four  29  wires from the electrodes are connected to a datalogger. The schematic diagram for the connections to a datalogger is shown in Figure 3.5.  A Ml  1m  N B d Figure 3.4  Schematic diagram of the four-wire sensor and electrical field around the sensor. A , B , M and N are the electrodes (Mayashi, 1999)  A M N B Figure 3.5  Rf  A/W - V i -  v  2  J  V,  X  Schematic diagram of the resistor circuit (Mayashi, 1999)  30  Once the sensor is in water, the datalogger provides an alternating current between the electrodes A and B, creating an electric field around the sensor (Figure 3.4). Electrode A is connected to ground through a reference resistor R/ (of which the resistant value is known), and electrode B receives an excitation voltage (V^). When the alternating current is applied, the differential voltage (V]) between the two ends of the resistor is measured and the current through the system is calculated by applying Ohm's law. [3.1]  V = IR  V is the voltage between the two ends of the resistor measured by the datalogger (in this case V = V\), I is the current through the resistor measured in amperes, and R is the resistance of the resistor (Rf) measured in ohms. Given that the voltage V\ is measured by the datalogger and the resistance of the resistor is known, the current / can be calculated.  The voltage (V2) between the electrodes M and N is measured by the datalogger as well. The current / is uniform throughout the system and was previously calculated. By again applying Ohm's law it is possible to calculate the resistance R of water (which is the material between electrodes M and N). The measured resistance R is inversely proportional to the bulk E C of the material:  [3.2]  R=  k/a  a  In this formula k is a cell constant and <7 is the bulk E C of water. The value k is related to the A  geometry of the probe such as the diameter (d) of the support and the spacing (a) between electrodes. The cell constant k is determined using the following equation from Wong (1987):  2 [3.3]  f 4a + a /  ]  k = —-— In K d  \4a + nd/2J  Electrical conductivity is affected by temperature since water becomes less viscous and ions can move more easily at higher temperatures. Conventionally conductivity measurements are  31  referenced to 25 °C; usually temperature sensors are part of electrical conductivity sensors and a correction is applied to account for the temperature of the water.  Construction and Calibration Four electrical conductivity sensors were built and installed inside the water conveyance systems (Appendix B, Figure B-02); the conductivity sensors were built from the design proposed by Masaki Hayashi, 1999.  A thermistor was installed in each water conveyance  system to measure the water temperature so that this value can be included in the conductivity calculation. The conductivity sensors were made with a section of 21.3-mm OD P V C pipe and four stainless steel washers (electrodes) of the same diameter; the distance between electrodes is 30 mm (Figure 3.6). Each electrode was soldered to a copper wire; the four copper wires from the electrodes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger. The details of the construction of the electrical conductivity sensors are included in Appendix E.  Figure 3.6  Electrical conductivity sensor  32  The calibration of the four conductivity sensors was performed in the following steps: a short program was developed for the calibration using the CR1000 datalogger; four solutions of known E C were prepared using deionized water and KC1; each sensor was introduced into each of the prepared solutions and measurements were obtained; the temperature of each solution was measured; and finally a correction factor was calculated to convert the datalogger readings into conductivity measurements at 25 °C (Appendix F).  Tipping Buckets  Four tipping buckets were installed in the instrumentation hut to measure the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters. A tipping bucket is a low-cost device, commonly used in rain gauges; however it has also been applied to characterize the water flow rates of outflows from waste rock test piles in various research programs.  The basic design of a tipping bucket involves a triangular or trapezoidal shaped bucket with two symmetrical chambers separated by a central wall. The bucket is placed on an axle that allows it to freely tip when one chamber reaches its set capacity of water; the second chamber then starts to collect water, the same pattern is repeated over and over. A manual or automatic counter can be used to record the number of tips in a period of time.  In this project, two different tipping bucket designs were used due to the difference between the maximum flow rates expected from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters. Based on the maximum precipitation registered at the Antamina mine during the years 2001 to 2004, the maximum water flow rate expected from the lysimeter and each sub-lysimeter is 36 1/m and 0.4 1/m respectively.  One of the tipping buckets, referred to as "the large tipping bucket", was designed and constructed to characterize the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter. Smaller tipping buckets were installed to measure the flow rate discharging from the sub-lysimeters.  33  Large Tipping Bucket Construction and Calibration The large tipping bucket was designed and constructed for a maximum water flow rate of 60 1/m. The design of the large tipping bucket was based on the Khan and Ong (1997) design. The system consists of: a tray that collects the water draining from the lysimeter, the tipping bucket mechanism fixed below the tray and a housing unit, which houses the tray and the tipping bucket mechanism (Figure 3.7).  Tipping bucket  Tipping  The tray is made of acrylic (12-mm thick). The main function of the tray is to collect the water coming from the lysimeter and to ensure as much as possible a uniform flow within the tray, preventing turbulence and rattling of the tipping bucket by splash. Five v-angles were installed inside the tray to prevent the rattling of the bucket. The two adjacent corners of the tray on the inlet side were tapered to prevent sedimentation. Initially two discharge slots were placed at the center of the tray; however, after some tests a small chamber with just one bigger slot was placed under the two slots. See details in Appendix B, Figure B-03.  34  The tray is secured on top of the tipping bucket mechanism with screws (Appendix B, Figure B-04). The tipping bucket mechanism is made of acrylic (0.12-m thick) and consists of two symmetrical chambers separated with a central wall; the bucket is placed on an aluminum axle that allows it to freely tip when one chamber fills up with water to a certain level. A switch activation magnet (Texas Electronics M2-101) was attached onto one side of the bucket and a reed switch (Texas Electronics Sl-128) was attached to the frame of the mechanism. Whenever the bucket tips, the magnet crosses over the reed switch and a tip is registered in the datalogging system. See details in Appendix B, Figure B-05). The tipping bucket mechanism, including the tray, was mounted on a housing unit; which also collects the water discharged when the bucket tips. The housing unit was made of fiberglass (0.01-m thick) and has an outlet of 4". See details in Appendix B, Figure B-06. Once the large tipping bucket was installed inside the instrumentation hut, it was calibrated using a 7-m water truck as a source of water. One end of a 3" hose was connected to an 3  outflow valve on the truck; the other end of the hose was connected to a pipe that drained towards the large tipping bucket. The amount of water passing through the tipping bucket was controlled by the valve on the truck.  To determine the flow rate passing through the tipping bucket several tests were performed at various discharge rates from the truck. During each test the datalogger recorded the start time, the stop time and the number of tips. Moreover, water discharged from the tipping bucket was collected to determine its volume. The flow rate was calculated by dividing the total volume of water by the total time for each test in correlation with the time per tip. Finally an equation shown in Figure 3.8 was derived allowing the flow rate to be determined from the time per tip (Figure 3.8). The details of field measurements for the calibration of the large tipping bucket are included in Appendix G.  [3.4]  y = 195.39X"' " 03  35  70.00  60.00 H  50.00 -  40.00 -  3 30.00 H  0.00 -1 0.00  1  1  50.00  100.00  i  150.00  •  i  i  »  200.00  250.00  300.00  *  1  350.00  1 400.00  Tip Time (sec/tip)  Figure 3.8  Correlation between flow rate and time per tip for the large tipping bucket  Small Tipping Buckets Construction and Calibration Three small tipping buckets were designed and constructed for a maximum water flow rate of 1.0 1/m. The tipping bucket design was based on some commercially available tipping buckets. Each small tipping bucket system consists of: a plastic funnel that collects the water draining from the sub-lysimeter, the tipping bucket mechanism installed below the funnel and a housing unit, which houses the funnel and the tipping bucket mechanism (see Figure 3.9 and Appendix B, Figure B-06).  The funnel, which has a diameter of 200 mm, collects the water draining from a sub-lysimeter; the discharge end of the funnel is directly on top of the tipping bucket mechanism. The tipping bucket mechanism consists of a plastic bucket (two symmetrical chambers separated with a central wall) and a stainless steel axle on which the bucket is placed and allows it to freely tip 36  when one chamber of the bucket fills with water to a certain level. A switch activation magnet (Texas Electronics M2-101) was screwed onto one side of the bucket and a reed switch (Texas Electronics SI-128) was screwed onto the frame of the mechanism. Whenever the bucket tips, the magnet crosses over the reed switch and a tip is registered in the datalogging system.  The tipping bucket mechanism, including the funnel, is mounted on a housing unit; which also collects the water discharged when the bucket tips. The housing unit is made of acrylic (5-mra m thick) and has an outlet of 50 mm. See details in Appendix B , Figure B-07.  Figure 3.9  Small tipping bucket  Once the small tipping buckets had been installed inside the instrumentation hut, a shelf was temporally installed adjacent to and above the small tipping buckets, and a 20 L bucket was placed on the shelf. The bucket, which has a valve and a hose at the bottom, was filled with water and used to calibrate the small tipping buckets. The other end of the hose was placed above the funnel of each tipping bucket. The amount of water passing through the tipping bucket was controlled by the valve on the bucket and the water in the bucket was maintained at a constant level by manually adding water to the bucket. 37  Several tests were performed at various discharge rates from the 20 L bucket in order to determine the flow rate passing through each tipping bucket. During each test the datalogger recorded the start time, the stop time and the number o f tips. Moreover, water discharged from the tipping bucket was collected to determine its volume. The flow rate was calculated by dividing the total volume of water by the total time for each test in correlation with the time per tip. Finally an equation shown i n Figure 3.10 was derived allowing the flow rate to be determined from the time per tip (Figure 3.10). The field measurements for the calibration of the small tipping buckets are included in Appendix H .  y = 25.375x  [3.5]  •1.0478  18.00 16.00 14.00 12.00  5 E, 10.00 a>  ro g o  8.00  Li. 6.00  y = 25.375X R = 0.9985 1  4.00  2.00 0.00 0.00  w  2  20.00  40.00  60.00  80.00  100.00  120.00  140.00  160.00  180.00  200.00  Tip Time (sec/tip)  Figure 3.10  Correlation between flow rate and time per tip for the small tipping buckets  38  Water Flow Splitter Design and Construction  Water samples collected from the sampling ports located in each water conveyance system can provide information about the water quality at a specific point in time. However, water samples collected from the composite tank will provide basic information that will allow mass balance and mass loading calculations. Therefore, a water flow splitter was designed and built to receive and split the water discharged by the four tipping buckets (all the water draining from the test pile) so that 6.25% of the water is directed to the composite tank while the remaining water is discharged to the environment. The splitter as shown in Figure 3.11 consisted of two robust plastic compartments (a large one and a small one) installed in series and mounted in an aluminum frame (Appendix B, Figure B08). The large compartment divides the water discharged by the tipping buckets into four equal parts; one of the flows (25% of the total) discharges to a 150 mm plastic funnel and is piped to the small compartment. Similarly, the small compartment divides the flow into four equal parts; one of these flows discharges to a 75 mm plastic funnel and is then piped to and stored in the composite tank. Finally, the composite tank stores approximately 6.25% of all the water draining from the test pile.  39  Figure 3.11 Water flow splitter  Each compartment receives the flow through a 50 mm diameter PVC pipe connected to its base; above the base a plastic perforated panel slows down the water flowing through it, ensuring a uniform flow within the compartment. Four outlets are located at the upper portion of the side walls of each compartment; each outlet has an aluminum calibration plate secured with two stainless steel bolts. When the bolts of the calibration plates are loosened, they can slide upwards and downwards regulating the discharge of water from each outlet.  The flow splitter was calibrated to ensure that the volume stored in the composite tank was approximately 6.25% of all the water draining from the test pile. Once the flow splitter was installed and leveled inside the instrumentation hut, water was fed into the flow splitter through the 50 mm PVC intake pipe until the outlets of the largest compartment began to discharge water (previously the calibration plates were fixed at the same level). When the water ceased to discharge from the outlets, a predetermined volume of water was fed into the intake pipe; immediately the water started to discharge from the outlets. The volume of water discharged by the outlet that would feed the small compartment was measured and compared to the expected volume (25% of the known volume).  40  The procedure was repeated several times until the volume measured was as close as possible to 25% of the known volume; this was achieved by moving the calibration plates upwards and downwards. The calibration process for the small compartment was similar to the process used for the large one. It was observed that the flow splitter is very effective for flow rates lower than 15 1/m.; higher flows produce turbulence inside the compartments and eventually the water overflows from them.  3.3. Summary Based on the project research objectives, specific data collection requirements were defined to characterize the hydrology and geochemistry of the constructed field-scale waste rock test pile at Antamina. The details of the instrumentation either procured or design and constructed to meet the collection requirements for the project were presented in this chapter. Next chapter w i l l present in detail the design, construction and instrumentation of the field-scale waste rock test pile.  41  4.  Test Pile Design, Construction and Instrumentation  A description of the site selection, design, construction and instrumentation of the first fieldscale waste rock test pile (Figure 4.1) at the Antamina mine are presented in this chapter. The details of each step of the construction and instrumentation of the test pile provide an insight into the capabilities and flaws of the design. Long-range plans involve the construction of a total of five field- scale waste rock test piles.  Figure 4.1  V i e w of test pile  4.1. Conceptual Design The conceptual design involved a field-scale waste rock test pile 10 m high constructed on top of a 36 m x 36 m lysimeter (Figure 4.2). The selection of these pile dimensions was based on previous experiences (Nichol et al., 2000, 2003, 2005; Blowes et al., 2006; M i l l e r et al., 2003a, 2003b, 2006; Andrina et al., 2003, 2006) which indicated that the selected size provides results and observations that are representative of full-scale piles while still practical for research procedures.  42  The design and construction methodology of the basal lysimeter (drainage collection area) was based on similar designs for heap leach operations. During the end-dumping of waste rock into the basal lysimeter, three stages would be considered in order to install and protect the instrumentation lines along the slope within the pile (Figure 4.3). The instrumentation lines consisted would consist of thermistors (temperature sensors), T D R s (volumetric water content sensors), gas sampling ports and soil water samplers, which would monitor the evolution of pore fluids (water and gases). The instrumentation was selected to meet the specific conditions expected to exist within the test pile and to characterize the complete water balance, the variations in the discharge quantity and quality, as well as the moisture, temperature and gas state within the pile.  The precipitation infiltrating into the pile would be captured by the lysimeter and three sublysimeters 4 m x 4 m placed within its 'footprint'. The position of the sub-lysimeters would allow for analysis of the spatial variability of flow and discharge chemistry, making it possible to observe whether or not oxygen limitations and flow path length affect water chemistry. The drainage from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters would be separately conveyed by gravity to an instrumentation hut located at the front of the pile. Once inside the hut the drainage would flow through a datalogged conveyance system that would include an electrical conductivity sensor, a thermistor, and a water sampling port. Finally the drainage would pass through a tipping bucket flow meter and a flow splitter.  The experimental data would be used in future studies to develop a conceptual model of the thermal, hydrological and geochemical processes that control the release and attenuation of metals in a neutral drainage setting.  43  Figure 4.2  Simplified plan view of test pile  Instrumentation  Figure 4.3  Simplified cross section of test pile  44  4.2. Construction Site Selection and Preparation  The location of the waste rock test pile at the Antamina minesite was determined by both logistical and experimental considerations. The experiment location had to meet the following criteria: enough space for the proposed research program, compatibility with future use of the area (long-term mine plan), close proximity to an existing haul road for 240-tonne trucks and to the open pit (avoiding long hauling distances), minimal interference with the current mining operations, and the water quality of seepage from the end-dumped waste rock used to prepare the area.  The selected area was a side h i l l terrace (Figure 4.4). The site was prepared by end-dumping approximately 700,000 tonnes of waste rock into the terrace (Figure 4.5). Three platforms were subsequently built at different elevations on an area approximately 250 m long and 120 m wide. The top platform would serve as the "access ramp" and would be used for proposed cover studies and to end-dump waste rock during the construction of the test piles, which would  be  constructed  on the  platform directly below. The bottom platform  would  accommodate the instrumentation huts for each proposed test pile.  The availability of the area to be used for the test piles was verified by reviewing Antamina's short and long-term mine plans. The area is adjacent to the haul road for 240-tonne trucks that leads from the open pit to the tailings dam; no other activities were being conducted on or near the selected area. Seepage from the waste rock used in the preparation of this site could be channeled: to the tailings impoundment or to a passive treatment system (wetland), both of which are located downstream of the selected area.  Before the top platform "access ramp" was completed, the 240-tonne trucks continued to have access to the test piles platform; 26 loads of class B waste rock were hauled directly from the open pit were stockpiled in an area adjacent to where the first test pile would be constructed. This stockpiled material was used later to protect the basal lysimeter once it was ready to receive the end-dump of waste rock from the top platform (access ramp).  45  Two types of tests were performed on the stockpiled class B waste rock: a loose density test that yielded a dry density of approximately 1.845 kg/m , and a particle size distribution test to 3  determine the range of particle sizes and distribution of those particle sizes within the material. The details of both tests are shown in Appendix I.  Figure 4.4  Side hill terrace (selected area for the research program)  46  Figure 4.5  4.3.  Preparation of research program area  Lysimeter Construction and Instrumentation  The details regarding the construction of the pile foundation, lysimeter berms, geomembrane placement, protective layer placement, water collection sump construction, sub-lysimeters construction, drainage system installation, basal instrumentation and protection of the base of the pile are presented in the following sections.  4.3.1. Foundation The foundation area of the first test pile, which is 42 m x 40 m, was surveyed according to the defined layout for the whole area. The foundation was constructed with a 3% gradient in two perpendicular directions as previous experience indicated that the 3% gradient was sufficient for infiltrating water collected at the base of the pile to flow quickly enough to the instrumentation hut to correlate the pile response to precipitation events. The creation of a 3% gradient in two perpendicular directions was facilitated by surveyors, ensuring careful placement of Lastre material (crushed material used in the mine for road  47  construction).  The Lastre was brought to the site by 16-tonne dump trucks and spread over the  foundation area using a grader; the area was then compacted in one layer using a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.6).  Waste rock coming directly from the open pit could not be used in the construction of the foundation layer due to the presence in the waste rock of coarse material, including some boulders. The Lastre material, which is produced in Antamina's secondary crusher, had the advantage of being fine enough for the purpose of this foundation layer construction and of being cheaper than other materials available at the mine site. The grain size distribution of the Lastre material is shown in Appendix I.  Figure 4.6  Construction of pile foundation  A compacted upper foundation layer 0.20 m thick was built on top of the foundation (Appendix J, Figure J-01) by using approximately 320 m3 of 2B Rejected material that was a crushed non-reactive waste rock not suitable for the raising of the tailings dam (see grain size distribution in Appendix I). The material was hauled from the tertiary crusher to the construction site by 16-tonne dump trucks and spread over the area using a grader. Finally the material was compacted using a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.7) until the surface  48  smoothness was considered suitable, based on a visual inspection, to be in contact with the 60mil (a m i l is used to describe a geomembrane and is defined as l/1000th of an inch. For example, a 60-mil membrane is equal to 1.5 m m thickness.) High Density Polyethylene ( H D P E ) geomembrane that was later placed right above of this layer.  Figure 4.7  Photograph showing the construction of upper foundation layer  4.3.2. Berm Construction A berm 0.8 m high was constructed around the perimeter of the pile foundation to create a 36 m x 36 m water catchment area for the lysimeter (Appendix J , Figure J-02).  T w o berm  designs were used (as shown in Appendix J , Figure J-03), one for the sections at the right, left and front sides of the lysimeter, and the other one for the section at the back of the lysimeter; the difference in the design at the back of the lysimeter was due to the proximity of this berm section to the access ramp slope. The two designs took into consideration the five-tonne vibrating compactor available at the mine site; the berms may have been thinner i f the appropriate machinery had been available.  49  Each type of berm was constructed and compacted in three layers: two layers 0.3 m thick at the bottom and a layer 0.2 m thick at the top. The 0.3-m layers were made of a 1:1 ratio mix of 2 B Rejected and Lastre materials due to the lower cost of the Lastre compared to 2 B Rejected material; the top layer consisted only of 2 B Rejected material due to its greater smoothness after compaction.  A visual inspection of each layer was carried out to ensure adequate compaction; when necessary, water was added using a water truck (Figure 4.8). Each layer was compacted with a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.9). Upon completion of the compaction of the three layers; the interior berm slope was cut according to the design, using an excavator (Figure 4.10).  Figure 4.8  Watering of layer during berm construction  50  Figure 4.9  Compaction of lysimeter berm  It was necessary to create an apex around the top of the berm defining the water catchment area of 36 m x 36 m. A slope was produced on top of the berm by using a grader to cut angles on either side of the defined apex (Figure 4.11); both sides of the apex were compacted again using the five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.12). Finally, the interior berm slope was compacted with a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.13), and a trench 0.4 m x 0.4 m for anchoring the geomembrane, which was later placed on top, was dug on the exterior surface of the berm using a backhoe (Figure 4.14).  Figure 4.11  Creating an apex on top of berm  52  Figure 4.14  Trench for anchoring geomembrane  Following the completion of the berm and prior to laying the 60-mil H D P E geomembrane, four H D P E 100 m m ID (Internal Diameter) corrugated pipes to drain the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters were placed through the berm (Appendix J, Figure J-2). A pipe with a 3% gradient for draining the lysimeter was placed in a north-south orientation 0.35 m above the upper foundation layer by digging a trench through the berm at the lowest corner (southeast) of the lysimeter. Three pipes with a 3% gradient for draining the sub-lysimeters were placed in a west-east orientation 0.15 m above the upper foundation layer by digging a 0.6-m wide trench through the berm at the middle of the front side of the lysimeter. These areas were compacted using a manual compactor after all the pipes were in place through the berm and the trenches backfilled, (Figure 4.15).  54  Figure 4.15  Sub-lysimeter drainage pipes placed through the berm  4.3.3. Geomembrane Placement Upon completion of the foundation and the berm, a specialized contractor installed a 60-mil H D P E geomembrane directly above the upper foundation layer and extended over the berm. The installation of the geomembrane, a key activity during construction of the pile, was necessary to make the lysimeter impermeable. A leak from the geomembrane could have a significant impact on the results of the research program.  Two rolls of geomembrane were delivered to the site; each roll was 7 m wide and 160 m long. The presence of any object or sharp piece of rock that can puncture the geomembrane was prevented by sweeping the area of the foundation and the berm with brooms before the geomembrane was deployed. Eight laborers unrolled and cut the geomembrane in panels 40 m long; the panels were placed one by one in a west-east orientation with an overlap of 0.15 between them (Figure 4.16); then sand bags were placed on top to prevent uplift by wind.  55  Figure 4.16  Geomembrane deployment and installation  The position of the geomembrane panels and the overlap between them were determined taking into consideration the direction of the flow of water infiltrating the pile and flowing on top of the geomembrane from the highest corner to the lowest one (see Figure 4.17). The panels were welded using a hot wedge welding machine; the wedge melted the overlapped panels between pressure rollers; this process produced a double welded seam with an air channel for pressure testing (Figure 4.18).  56  57  Once all the panels had been welded, the edges were tucked into the trench already dug around the berm (Figure 4.14). The trench was subsequently backfilled with the same material excavated in its construction and compacted, with the exception of the section located at the back of the lysimeter, which was filled with gravel and served as a French drain (Figure 4.19). This French drain w i l l collect the infiltrated water within the access ramp, and prevent water from entering the lysimeter and affecting the results of the experiment.  Figure 4.19  French drain at the back of the lysimeter  Field tests were conducted on the geomembrane seams to verify that seaming conditions were satisfactory. The test applied is called " A i r Pressure Testing" and requires a manual air pump equipped with a pressure gauge and a sharp hollow needle (Figure 4.20). These test procedures were followed: the needle was inserted through the sealed end of a channel created by the double fusion weld; the pump was energized to a pressure of between 25 and 30 psi; two minutes were allowed to elapse until the injected air came to equilibrium in the channel. If the pressure decreased to below 25 psi, more air was injected and five additional minutes were allowed to elapse to determine if the loss of pressure exceeded 4 psi or i f the pressure did not  58  stabilize. Finally if the test results were satisfactory, the air channel was cut at the opposite end from the pressure gauge to allow the channel to deflate.  Figure 4.20  Geomembrane air pressure test  Around the drainage pipes installed through the berm for the lysimeter, sections were cut in the panels of geomembrane to allow the pipes to pass through; these sections were then carefully sealed with additional geomembrane and with the use of an extrusion welder (Figure 4.21), which is a machine suitable for repair work, odd corner welding and detailing.  59  Figure 4.21  Drainage pipes placed through geomembrane  During installation of the geomembrane, a problem was encountered. Once the installation was completed it was observed that the geomembrane had not been laid with sufficient regard to thermal effects; specifically the geomembrane had been laid during a hot day and became too tight when it cooled. The solution to the problem was to reposition the geomembrane during the day and to use sand bags at the slope toes of the south and east berm sections; thus when contraction occurred at night, it occurred at the north and west berm sections.  The  geomembrane was then cut adjacent to its anchorages on the north and west sections and sand bags were placed at the slope toes of these sections. Finally, a gap of approximately 0.1 m opened up when the membrane was cut off; this gap was subsequently patched with another piece of geomembrane.  4.3.4.  Geomembrane Protective L a y e r  Above the geomembrane, a 0.35-m compacted protective layer of 2B Rejected material was placed using a backhoe and subsequently compacted using a five-tonne vibrating compactor. The main purpose of the protective layer was to prevent the puncture or tear of the  60  geomembrane by avoiding direct contact between the geomembrane and the waste rock that was to be placed on the lysimeter. The placement of the protective layer was carefully conducted: no equipment was allowed directly on top of the geomembrane nor was any material dumped directly onto it.  A ramp was constructed along the southern external edge of the lysimeter. 16-tonne dump trucks were used to dump material onto the ramp; the material was then gently pushed and spread onto the geomembrane using a rubber-tired backhoe (Figure  4.22).  A s the material was  being pushed and spread over the geomembrane (Figure 4 . 2 3 ) and its thickness was estimated to be sufficient ( 0 . 4 m), the dump trucks were permitted onto the 2 B Rejected material to place their loads at the edge of the extent of the 2 B Reject material front.  Figure 4 . 2 2  Placement of material onto the geomembrane  61  Figure 4.23  Material being spread over the geomembrane  Following careful spreading of the material over the lysimeter using the backhoe, a grader was used to level the surface.  The area within the berm, the internal face and top of it, were  compacted using a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.24).  Surveyors were in charge of  controlling and verifying the final thickness of the protective layer (0.35 m) after compaction and its 3% gradient in two perpendicular directions.  Figure 4.24  Compaction of protective layer  Upon completion of the protective layer, it was necessary to create an apex around the top of the berm, defining the water catchment area for the lysimeter. A slope was constructed on top of the berm by laborers, who cut the angles on either side of the defined apex; the new exposed surface was compacted again using the five-tonne vibrating compactor.  A t three different locations on the protective layer (north, northwest and centre), the in-situ density was measured using the sand cone method (Figure 4.25) in accordance with the standardized procedure in A S T M D1556. The results of these measurements are summarized in Table 4.1; the full results from the testing are provided in Appendix I. The results indicated that the in-situ density of the protective layer was approximately 99% of the laboratory  63  Standard Proctor Test dry density. These results indicate that the compaction of the protective layer was approximately equal to the maximum compaction possible for 2B Rejected material.  Table 4.1  In-situ density (protective layer)  Test location (protective layer)  North  North Wes  Centre  In-situ d r y density (g/cm )  2.341  2.338  2.327  M a x . P r o c t o r d r y density (g/cm )  2.356  2.356  2.356  C o m p a c t i o n (%)  99.4  99.2  98.8  3  3  Figure 4.25  Photograph showing a cone sand test of the protective layer  Four double-ring infiltrometer tests (Figure 4.26), to measure the one-dimensional (vertical) hydraulic conductivity of the compacted protective layer, were completed. Table 4.2 summarizes the results of the infiltrometer tests; further details are available in Appendix I.  64  The results show that the measured vertical hydraulic conductivity values vary from 1.1x10" to 2.6xl0" m/s. 6  The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity was not low enough to completely prevent the water from infiltrating the protective layer and flowing through it as required by the design. Further analysis included in Appendix K showed that flow through the protective layer would be approximately 2% of the total amount of water that would infiltrate the pile; this value was considered sufficiently small to not significantly affect the results of the research. However, a collection sump was constructed in the southeast coiner of the pile (lowest corner) to capture and allow sampling of the water flowing through the protective layer. This w i l l allow subsequent verification of the calculations which anticipated 2% infiltration and flow through this layer and would also determine any geochemical effects due to interaction of water and the 2B Rejected protective layer.  Figure 4.26  Double ring used for infiltration test on protective layer  65  Table 4.2  Summary o f double-ring infiltrometer test results  Location Description  Test No. at Location 1  2.6E-06  2  2.3E-06  N E pile base  1  1.1E-06  S W pile base  1  2.6E-06  Pile base centre  4.3.5.  Hydraulic Conductivity (m/s)  Water Collection Sump  A water collection sump to capture and allow sampling o f the water flowing through the protective layer was built at the southeast corner o f the lysimeter (lowest corner). The southeast corner o f the lysimeter, covering an area o f 2 . 1 0 m x 2 . 1 0 m , was not protected by the 0.35-m thick geomembrane protective layer; Instead the geomembrane  was  protected with a layer o f geotextile (Figure 4.27).  A 25 m m ID reinforced hose 12 m long was installed to allow samples o f the water within the sump to be obtained and analyzed. Ten holes o f 8 m m i n diameter each were drilled along the first meter o f the reinforced hose; the opening o f this first meter was capped and sealed; subsequently this section was wrapped with a layer o f geotextile to prevent sediment from getting into the hose (Figure 4.28).  66  Figure 4.27  Photograph showing the sump construction at lowest corner of lysimeter  Figure 4.28  Photograph showing the wrapped reinforced hose  The wrapped section of the hose was placed on top of the geotextile layer that protects the geomembrane (Figure 4.29) while the rest of the hose led to the outside of the pile, passing through the protective layer on the berm. Finally, the sump was filled with non reactive gravel. When the protective layer was placed on the berm of the lysimeter around the sump, pieces of geomembrane were positioned over the gravel of the lysimeter to prevent mixing of the 2B Rejected material with the gravel (Figure 4.30).  Figure 4.29  Sump being filled with gravel  68  Figure 4.30  Sump filled with gravel (lowest corner of lysimeter)  It should be noted that pieces of geomembrane (Figure 4.30) and sections of H D P E 100 m m ID perforated corrugated pipe were placed on the protective layer around the sump to ensure that the water running on top of the protective layer would not enter the sump; thus the surface flow was separated from the flow through the protective layer. Specific details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-4.  Once the construction of the sump was finished, sections of H D P E 100 mm ID corrugated pipe were placed and connected on top of it (Figure 4.30). These pipes were part of the drainage system of the lysimeter described in section 4.4.7; further details appear in Appendix J, Figure J-5. A section of H D P E 100 m m ID corrugated perforated pipe six c m long was included in the pipes placed on top of the sump (Figure 4.30; see also Appendix J, Figure J-4). The purpose of this perforated section was to allow overflow from the sump to drain, thus allowing the water level in the sump to rise only to the level of the drainage system; otherwise the water could accumulate and ultimately overflow the berm.  69  4.3.6.  Sub-Lysimeters  Over the geomembrane protective layer, three sub-lysimeters 4 m x 4 m, with berms 0.5 m high were constructed. The sub-lysimeters were positioned along the center line (west to east) of the lysimeter (Figure 4.31). The initial stage in the construction of the sub-lysimeters involved accurately setting out the position and dimensions of the sub-lysimeters and the associated piping; the employment of surveyors was crucial at this stage.  Figure 4.31  Construction of sub-lysimeters  Laborers excavated a trench 0.2 m deep and 0.7 m wide along the center line (west to east) of the geomembrane protective layer; within this trench were placed drainage pipes ( H D P E 100 m m corrugated pipes) for each sub-lysimeter and protective pipes ( H D P E 50 m m corrugated pipes) for instrumentation lines 1 and 2 (two pipes for each line) (Figure 4.32). The 5.8 m H D P E 100 m m " ID corrugated pipes were joined together and sealed using silicone sealant to prevent the loss of water collected by the sub-lysimeters. The day after the pipe joints were sealed with silicone, they were covered with screened fine 2B Rejected material;  70  the trench was then completely filled with regular 2B Rejected material, which was compacted using a manual compactor. Details of the installation of protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 and 2 are provided in Section 4.4.8. Appendix J, Figure J-5 diagrams the installation of the drainage pipes of the sub-lysimeters and the protective pipes within the trench.  Figure 4.32  Drainage and protective pipes within the protective layer  2B Rejected material was used to build up the 0.5-m-high berms that created the 4 m x 4 m water catchment areas for the sub-lysimeters. The berms were constructed and compacted in two layers of 0.25 m each, using a manual compactor; visual inspection of each layer was made to ensure adequate compaction (Figure 4.33). Appendix J, Figure J-06 shows details of the design and position of the sub-lysimeters.  71  Figure 4.33  Compaction of sub-lysimeter berm  In order to create an apex around each berm, defining the catchment area of each sub-lysimiter, the upper layer was manually removed with rakes until the desired design was achieved. Additional 2B Rejected material was placed and compacted on the interior surface of each sublysimeter to create a 10% gradient towards the center, where a vertical section of geotextilewrapped H D P E 100 mm corrugated perforated pipe was connected to the drainage pipes already buried within the geomembrane protective layer (Figure 4.34).  72  Figure 4.34  Sub-lysimeter interior compaction.  The geomembrane installation for the sub-lysimeters was performed by the contractor who installed the geomembrane of the lysimeter. The 60-mil H D P E geomembrane was cut to the required size and placed so that it completely covered each sub-lysimeter (Figure 4.35). Additional cuts and welding were necessary to adjust the geomembrane to the shape of the sublysimeter. Finally the geomembrane edges were tucked into a trench 0.3 m deep and wide dug within the lysimeter geomembrane  protective layer around the exterior face of the sub-  lysimeter berm. Then the trench was backfilled with the same material excavated in its construction and compacted using a manual compactor.  73  Figure 4.35  Installation of geomembrane on sub-lysimeters  A compacted protective layer of 2B Rejected material 0.25 m thick was placed to protect the geomembrane of the sub-lysimeters (Figure 4.36). This protective layer was compacted using a manual compactor. A n apex was created manually using rakes on top of the sub-lysimeters berms covered by the 0.25-m protective layer to define the catchment area of each sublysimeter. A three-dimensional view of the base of the pile is shown in Appendix J, Figure J-7.  74  Figure 4.36  Photograph of sub-lysimeters with their protective layer  4.3.7. L y s i m e t e r Drainage System  A  system of H D P E  100 m m ID corrugated perforated  pipes was placed above  the  geomembrane protective layer (Figure 4.37). The water that infiltrated the pile would be collected in this system and drained inside the pipes to the lowest corner (southeast) of the lysimeter; from there it would be piped to the instrumentation hut for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The pipes were joined together and placed in trenches 0.02 m deep dug in the protective layer to allow the water that would run on it to reach the perforated pipes more easily. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-5.  75  Figure 4.37  4.3.8.  Installation of lysimeter drainage system  Installation of Basal Instrumentation  Six instrumentation lines were installed within the pile; lines 1 to 4 were placed along the slope during pauses in the end-dumping process and lines 5 and 6 were installed along the pile base (see Figures 4.2 and 4.3). A l l sensors and sampling ports were connected to the instrumentation hut, located at the front of the pile, through cables and sampling lines. T o protect these cables and sampling lines, they were passed through semi-flexible H D P E 50 mm ID corrugated pipes referred to as protective pipes; these protective pipes are supplied in coils of approximately 110 m and were cut according to the length of each instrumentation line. Each protective pipe consisted of one piece of tubing to avoid joints which would allow water and gases to get into the pipe and to reach the instrumentation hut.  A s mentioned in Section 4.4.6, the protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 and 2 were buried together with the drainage pipes for the sub-lysimeters. The protective pipes were installed within the trench in such a way that one end could reach the instrumentation hut site  76  and the other end could reach the crest of the slope created by the different stages of the enddumping process.  A t the time of the  installation of these protective pipes, neither the slope nor  the  instrumentation hut had been built. For this reason, the ends of the protective pipes that needed to reach the crest of each slope were coiled and placed 2 m west of the planned slope toe of the first end-dumping stage for instrumentation line 1 and 2 m west of the planned slope toe of the second end-dumping stage for instrumentation line 2 (Figure 4.36). The protective pipes for instrumentation lines 3 and 4 were installed in the same manner as lines 1 and 2 except that they were extended above the protective layer. The ends that needed to reach the crest of the slope were coiled at the planned slope toe of the second and third end-dumping stages respectively (see Figure 4.38).  The protective pipes of instrumentation lines 1 to 4 were coiled 2 m west of the planned slope toes in order to be ready to extend along the slope once the 2-m deep trench for each instrumentation line had been excavated (more details in Section 4.4.2).  Basal instrumentation lines 5 and 6 were installed in perpendicular directions over a layer 0.1 m high and 0.4 m wide of non-reactive gravel right above the protective layer (Figure 4.39). These layers were built to prevent contact between the instrumentation and the water flowing on top of the protective layer. Instrumentation line 5 was installed along the south-north direction and line 6 from east to west (Figure 4.2).  77  36 m  Pile (Lysimeter) Berm  N  Berm Apex 4.0 m Slope Toe (First End-Dumping Stage)  2.0 m  36 m  ** Instrumentation Lines 5 & 6 are not shown.  Coiled Protective Pipes (Instrumentation Line 1)  4.0  T  Slope Toe (Second End-jDumping Stage)  * The Lysimeter & Sub-Lysimeter Drainage Systems are not shown.  O  Berm Apex  iio • i  Coiled Protective Pipes (Instr. Line 2 & Instr. Line 3)  Protective Layer Sub-Lysimeter Buried Pipes  Protective  Protective Pipes  Figure 4.38  Illustration showing the location of protective pipes along the pile base  Time-domain-reflectometry ( T D R ) sensors, thermistors and gas sampling ports were included in lines 5 and 6. A l l sensors and sampling ports were connected to the instrumentation hut, through cables and sampling lines. Instrumentation line 5 consisted of two protective pipes, including one T D R sensor, five thermistors and ten gas sampling ports; instrumentation line 6  consisted of one protective pipe, including one T D R sensor, three thermistors and fourteen gas sampling ports. See details of instrumentation in Appendix J, Figure J-8.  Figure 4.39  Installation of protective Pipes for Basal Instrumentation  Installation of T D R Sensors  Each of the sensors was installed within the protective layer by digging a hole 0.2 m deep by 0.5 m x 0.15 m (Figure 4.40). The sensor cables extended roughly 0.30 m from the protective pipe, and both the sensor and its cable were subsequently covered with screened 2B Rejected material fines, which was subsequently compacted as a part of the protective layer. Within the protective pipe the sensor cable ran through the pile and into the instrumentation hut where it was connected to the data collection system. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-9.  79  Figure 4.40  Installation of a T D R sensor  Installation of Gas Sampling Ports The gas sampling ports consisted of 1.6 m m ID polyethylene tubes that ran from various locations within the pile, through the protective pipes, and into the instrumentation hut.  The  endpoint of each sampling tube extended approximately 0.1 m from the protective pipe, where it was covered with a fine piece of cloth to prevent particles from entering and obstructing the pathway (Appendix J, Figure J-9). The endpoint was oriented downwards to prevent water and fine particles from entering, and enclosed by pebble-sized material to allow for gas to pass freely (Figure 4.41).  80  Installation of Thermistors Thermistors are sensors used to measure temperature within the pile. Each sensor was placed in a cleared area and surrounded by a 0.1 m layer of screened waste rock fines (Figure 4.42). The thermistor and its wire extended roughly 0.1 m from the protective pipe. The sensors and their wires were subsequently covered with screened waste rock fines to protect them. Within the protective pipe the wire ran through the pile and into the instrumentation hut where it was connected to the data collection system. See details in Appendix J, Figure J-9.  81  Figure 4.42  4.3.9.  Installation of a thermistor  Protection of L y s i m e t e r Drainage System a n d B a s a l Instrumentation  The lysimeter drainage system ( H D P E 100 m m ID corrugated perforated pipes) placed above the geomembrane protective layer, instrumentation lines 5 and 6 and the protective pipes for instrumentations line 3 were covered with non-reactive gravel in order to protect the piping and the sensors (Figure 4.43) during the subsequent placement of a 1.5-m-thick class B waste rock layer. Where the H D P E 4" ID corrugated perforated pipes were alone, they were covered by 0.3 m of gravel material. Where drainage and protective pipes were together; both were covered by 0.4 m of gravel material. Details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-10.  82  Figure 4.43  Protection of drainage system and basal instrumentation  Above the geomembrane protective layer, sub-lysimeters and protected drainage system and basal instrumentation, a second protective layer, 1.5 m thick, of class B waste rock was placed using a front-end loader (Appendix J, Figure J - l l ) . This material had previously been transported (see Section 4.2) from the open pit using 240-tonne dump trucks and had been stockpiled in an area adjacent to the construction site.  The waste rock was gently placed with a front-end loader, starting from one side of the base of the pile and advancing towards the opposite side; the front-end loader was always on top of the 1.5-m layer (Figures 4.44 and 4.45). In addition, the protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 to 4 were protected with sections of H D P E 100 m m ID solid pipe during the placement of the 1.5-m layer (Figure 4.46) and coiled again on top of this layer.  83  Figure 4.46  4.4.  Protection of instrumentation lines during the 1.5-m layer placement  Waste Rock E n d - D u m p i n g and Pile  Instrumentation  The following sub-sections present a detail description of: the end-dumping process of waste rock, the results of the performed  grain size distribution tests, and the installation of  instrumentation along the pile's slope.  4.4.1. E n d - D u m p i n g Process Once the lysimeter (base of the pile) was covered with the second protective layer, enddumping of class B waste rock from the top of the access ramp, which was approximately 10 m above, began. The waste rock was transported directly from the open pit in 240-tonne haul trucks. After each haul truck end-dumped directly onto the slope (Figure 4.47), a bulldozer was used to push the waste rock that fell onto the top surface of the pile towards the slope and to rebuild the safety berm for the haul trucks at the slope crest.  S3  Figure 4.47  End-Dump of class B waste rock  The end-dumping process was conducted in three stages. The first stage was completed after 27 240-tonne haul trucks had end-dumped their loads onto the protected lysimeter; the second stage required 26 loads and the final stage 41 loads. In the last stage approximately 30 loads were required but during the night shift mine operations end-dumped 41 loads; as a consequence some material was removed as a part of the post-construction pile size adjustment described in Section 4.5. After each stage and before commencing the next one, a period of one to two weeks was required to install and protect the instrumentation lines along the slope (Figure 4.3). In addition, before each end-dumping stage: survey stakes were placed to indicate the final slope toe of that stage. The protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 during the first stage, 2 and 3 during the second stage and 4 during the third stage were protected with sections of H D P E 100 m m ID solid pipe, and a 2.0-m high safety berm made of waste rock was built using a front-end loader. Prior to building the safety berm before each end-dumping stage the protective pipes of the respective instrumentation line or lines were placed inside H D P E 100 ID solid pipes 6.0 m long and directed away from the end-dumping face; the berm was subsequently built on top of  86  these solid pipes. In each case the safety berm was built along the stakes (south-north direction); this berm prevented the boulders from going beyond the pile base area (Figure 4.48).  Figure 4.48  Side view during pile construction.  Grain Size Distribution of Class B Waste Rock Grain size distribution tests of class B waste rock were performed on the waste rock stockpiled before it was used for the construction of the 1.5-m protective layer and the waste rock enddumped in the first and second stages. It was not possible to perform the test for the third stage of the end-dumping process due to the fact that mine operations personnel did not leave material outside of the pile for this purpose. In the case of the stockpiled material for the 1.5-m protective layer, samples for the grain size distribution test were taken from different locations from 26 loads of waste rock, which made up the stockpiled material. The samples from the first and second end- dumping stages for the grain size distributions tests were taken from different locations of one load of waste rock that  87  was placed out of the pile after each end-dumping stage. Each load was approximately 240 tonnes - the capacity of the haul trucks used - and the sampling process was made using an excavator. Figure 4.49 shows the grain size distribution of class B waste rock used for the protective layer and the first and second stages of end-dumping.  1.5-m  Detailed results of the grain  size distribution tests are presented in Appendix I. The grain size distributions curves show that the three materials have similar patterns under 10 m m grain size. Between 100 m m and 1000 m m grain size the 1.5-m protective layer material is to some extent coarser than the material of the first and second end-dumping, possibly due to the fact that the samples for the 1.5-m protective layer grain size distribution test were taken from 26 loads of waste rock and the samples of each of the other two materials were taken from one load.  Figure 4.49  Grain size distribution of class B waste rock.  4.4.2. Installation a n d Protection of Instrumentation L i n e s along the Slope Subsequent to each end-dumping stage a number of procedures were carried out to install and protect the different instrumentation lines along the test pile slope. A n excavator with 1.5-m bucket capacity was used to dig a 2.0-m-deep trench along the slope, beginning from the top of the pile and extending to maximum boom reach (Figure 4.50). Then the excavator was relocated to the bottom of the pile to complete the trench (Figure 4.51). Once the trench was ready and the slope was stable, the protective pipes which were contained inside the H D P E 100 m m ID solid pipes (Figure 4.51) were excavated from the safety berm and extended along the slope as far as the crest. A rope was tied to the end of the pipes in order to pull them to the slope crest.  Figure 4.50  Excavator digging a trench along the test pile slope.  89  Figure 4.51  Excavator finishing digging a trench along the test pile slope.  The design of the pile defined the location of each sensor or sampling port along the slope; however the locations were slightly modified according to the field conditions.  Laborers with  safety harnesses drilled holes (10 to 15 m m in diameter) in the protective pipes at each sensor or sampling port location along the slope. Subsequently the sensors and sampling ports were installed (Figure 4.52) and their cables and tubing were passed through the protective pipes by pulling them to the instrumentation hut. Finally the holes drilled in the protective pipes were sealed with silicone.  90  Figure 4.52  Installation of sensors and sampling ports along the test pile slope.  A 50-m steel wire, rigid enough to be pushed all the way through a protective pipe, was used to draw a 3.2 m m diameter pulling rope from the slope crest to the instrumentation hut.  The  sensors and sampling port cables and the tubing were individually tied to the pulling rope at each sensor or sampling port location along the slope and pulled through a protective pipe to the instrumentation hut. During the process of pulling cables and piping through the protective pipes, good practices were applied in order to ensure good results: walkie-talkies were used for communication between the person feeding and the one pulling; the pulling rope selected had minimal stretching capacity; generous amounts of cable-pulling lubricant were used; the cables and piping were pulled in a straight motion, with every effort made to avoid angles; and cable and piping protruding from the protective pipe were coiled and labeled. Instrumentation line 1 was installed after the completion of the first end-dumping stage. The line consisted of five T D R sensors, six thermistors, twelve gas sampling ports, and five soil water samplers (Appendix J, Figure J-12). Instrumentation lines 2 and 3 were installed after the completion of the second end-dumping stage.  Line 2 was installed first as it was not  possible to install both lines at the same time due to slope stability concerns.  Instrumentation  line 2 consisted of five T D R sensors, six thermistors, ten gas sampling ports, and five soil water samplers (Appendix J, Figure J-13).  Instrumentation line 3 consisted of five T D R  sensors, six thermistors, and ten gas sampling ports (Appendix J, Figure J-14). Instrumentation line 4 was installed after the completion of the third end-dumping stage. This line consisted of five T D R sensors, six thermistors, ten gas sampling ports, and five soil water samplers (Appendix J, Figure J-15). After each instrumentation line was installed along the slope, the U T M coordinates of the sensors and sampling ports were obtained; subsequently the instrumentation line installed along the slope was gently covered with the waste rock by laborers. A n effort was made to avoid using very coarse material in this process. Finally an excavator, starting from the bottom of the pile and extending to maximum boom reach, backfilled the trench with the same material extracted during the trench excavation. Then the excavator was relocated to the top of the pile to complete the backfilling of the trench. The installation of T D R sensors, thermistors and gas sampling ports was similar to the installation process for basal instrumentation described in section 4.3.8 , except that the screen waste rock fines covering the T D R sensors were not compacted. Most of the instrumentation lines along the slope unlike the basal instrumentation lines included soil water samplers (suction lysimeters). The soil water samplers were installed by clearing an area along the slope face and excavating a hole roughly 0.12 m wide and 0.12 m deep. Silica flour (200 mesh) and water were mixed to produce a slurry with a consistency of cement mortar to insure good soil contact with the porous ceramic cup of the sampler. This slurry was used to coat the ceramic cup and was also poured inside the excavated hole where the sampler was later set (Figure 4.53). The sampler was placed vertically, and screened waste rock fines were placed around the sampler to help maintain its position. The two 6.35 m m ID polyethylene tubes extended approximately 0.4 m from the protective pipe and were connected to the soil water sampler ports (Figure 4.54). Finally both the sampler and its tubes were covered with screened waste rock fines. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-9.  92  Figure 4.53  Photograph showing the installation of a Soil Water Sampler (I).  Figure 4.54  Photograph showing the installation of a Soil Water Sampler (II)  4.5.  Post-Construction Pile Size Adjustment  The area originally conceived for the construction of the base of the pile, which included the 36 m x 36 m water catchment area (lysimeter) and its boundary berm, was 38.6 m x 38.6 m. During the construction of the lysimeter, the berm was widened based on the availability of materials, equipment (compaction machine) and best construction methodologies.  The  construction area was extended to 40 m x 42 m although the catchment area of the lysimeter remained at 36 m x 36m. Once the pile construction was completed, the perimeter was adjusted, first by removing the 2.0-m-high safety berm built at the slope toe of the third end-dumping stage (Figure 4.55) and then by cutting the exterior face of the berm and clearing material located around the perimeter of the pile (Figure 4.56). Finally the perimeter of the pile was restored to dimensions as close as possible to the original 38.6 m x 38.6 m; this would allow for the placement of subsequent piles as per the intended design. This restoration was accomplished using an excavator with a 1.5-m bucket capacity in conjunction with dump trucks with 16-m" capacity. The final threedimensional view of the constructed pile is shown in Appendix J, Figures J-16 and J-17.  Figure 4.55  Excavator removing the safety berm (end of third end-dumping stage).  94  Figure 4.56  Photograph showing the removing of material around the perimeter of the pile.  4.6. Instrumentation Hut A wooden instrumentation hut 2.8 m high by 3.5 m x 7 m was built at the front of the pile to house all of the drainage, sampling and monitoring equipment (Figure 4.57). A concrete slab 0.15 m thick by 4.5 m x 8.0 m formed the base of the instrumentation hut (Appendix J, Figure J-18). In addition a wooden structure was built at the back of the hut for the protective pipes coming from the pile.  95  Figure 4.57  View of instrumentation hut from top of the pile.  4.6.1. Layout of the Instrumentation Hut The layout of the instrumentation hut was planned and construction was executed to accomplish the following objectives: to allow the installation and accommodation of all the equipment, piping, electronic devices and sampling ports, and to allow easy access for sampling, inspections, and repairs. Inside the instrumentation hut, four water conveyance systems were installed to connect the drainage pipes coming from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters and the tipping buckets. These conveyance systems measure electrical conductivity, temperature, and have water sampling ports. Four tipping buckets were installed to measure the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter and three sub-lysimeters. After the tipping buckets measured the flow rate, the water would drain into a two-chamber flow splitter (Figure 4.58). Once the water passed through the splitter, roughly 7% would be stored in a 2.5-m composite sample tank buried next to the hut, while the rest of the water 3  would be discharged into the environment.  Samples taken from the composite tank would  96  provide basic information that would allow mass balance and mass loading calculations. A rain gauge was also installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut to provide precipitation input data.  Figure 4.58  Interior of instrumentation hut.  Tubing emerging from the gas sampling ports and soil water samplers within the pile were arranged on two plywood panels in order to facilitate sampling. Measurements from the thermistors, electrical conductivity sensors, tipping buckets, rain gauge, and T D R probes would all be automatically collected and stored in a data-logging system consisting of a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger used in conjunction with multiplexers and other electronic devices. This data collection system is powered by a 5 6 W solar panel installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figures J-19, J20, J-21 and J-22.  Water Conveyance System The details of the water conveyance system were described in Chapter 3. Four of these systems were installed to connect the drainage pipes ( H D P E 100 m m ID corrugated pipes) exiting the 97  pile (from the lysimeter and three sub-lysimeters) to the four tipping buckets (Figure 4.58). A wooden structure was built parallel to each conveyance system for support and to prevent the system from shifting when full of water. During the installation process, the end of each corrugated drainage pipe was attached to the end of the conveyance system by heating and molding a P V C reduction (from 100 m m to 50 mm) piece. The conveyance system was installed with a (minimum) gradient towards the tipping bucket. Only in the case of the water conveyance system belonging to the large tipping bucket was a modification made. The by-pass of the system was placed at the same level as the main pass due to the low gradient of the drainage pipe coming from the pile which would not allow the water to flow through the by-pass.  Tipping Buckets A s previously mentioned, four tipping buckets were installed to measure the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter (large tipping bucket) and the three sub-lysimeters (small tipping buckets).  Large Tipping Bucket A level structure made of steel was constructed and a wooden shelf was placed on it to support the large tipping bucket and its housing unit which was secured to the shelf using screws (Figure 4.58). A hole was placed within the shelf to allow for the outlet (100 m m P V C pipe) of the housing to pass through. Based on the elevation of the drainage pipe coming from the pile and the height of the tipping bucket, the shelf was placed at an elevation that would provide a minimum gradient for the conveyance system moving water towards the tipping bucket. Once the housing system was secured to the counter, the tipping bucket mechanism was mounted in the housing using four screws. Once tightened, the screws were covered with silicon gel to prevent leakage from the housing unit.  98  Small Tipping Buckets Level structures made of steel were constructed and a wooden shelf was placed on each to support the three small tipping buckets and their housing units (Figure 4.59). During the construction of these structures, the legs were cemented onto the concrete slab, of the hut and the upper parts were screwed to the roof beam of the hut to minimize movement during the operation of each tipping bucket. Each of the wooden shelves has a 76 m m hole in the middle that allows the housing outlets to pass through and be connected to a plumbing system. The level of each shelf was determined considering a minimum gradient of the conveyance system towards a tipping bucket. The housing of each tipping bucket was leveled and secured to its respective shelf by using four screws. The outlet of each system was connected to a plumbing system that collects the water discharge of the three small tipping buckets and the large one. The tipping bucket mechanisms were mounted inside their housing and their cables connected to the datalogging system. Finally the water conveyance systems were connected to the inlets of the housing of the tipping buckets.  99  P l u m b i n g system (collects water from t i p p i n g buckets) Figure 4.59  V i e w of the three small tipping buckets.  Flow Splitter O n the hut floor a concrete containment system was built under the large tipping bucket shelf to collect the water not captured by the flow splitter installed above (Figure 4.60). The base of the containment system had a gradient towards a built-in 100 m m corrugated pipe located in one of its sides; this pipe would discharge the excess water to the environment. Parallel to this pipe, a built-in 38 m m " P V C pipe would lead the water captured by the flow splitter to a composite tank buried next to the hut. Four cast-in-place bolts were positioned in the base of the concrete containment system. The flow splitter legs were screwed to those bolts; washers were used to level the splitter. The outlet of the flow splitter (50 m m P V C pipe) was connected to the 38 m m P V C pipe leading the flow to the composite tank. The intake of the splitter was connected to a plumbing system for collection of the water discharged from all four tipping buckets.  100  Figure 4.60  Concrete containment system and flow splitter  Composite Sample Tank Four meters from the instrumentation hut, a hole 1.55 m deep and 2.10 m in diameter was excavated, along with a trench 13 m long and 1.55 m deep by 0.70 m wide leading east from the hole (Figure 4.61). The bases of the hole and the trench were compacted with a 3% downgradient to the east using a manual compactor.  Figure 4.61  Photograph showing the composite sample tank installation.  A reinforced (steel bars) concrete slab 0.1m thick was poured into the compacted base of the hole. Once the concrete slab solidified, a 2,500 L plastic tank 1.55 m high and 1.60 m in diameter, called a "composite sample tank," was placed on the slab. T w o pipes 13 m long one 38 m m P V C pipe for draining the tank and the other one 100 m m H D P E pipe for discharging the excess water captured by the concrete containment system installed inside the hut - were placed along the trench. The P V C pipe was connected to the outlet of the tank located at a low point on the side of the tank. A t the end of the 13-m-long P V C pipe towards the east, a ball valve was installed inside a concrete box to control the discharge of the tank. The empty space between the hole and the walls of the tank was filled with fine material, leaving the l i d of the tank uncovered. The pipes within the trench were protected with a 0.20-m layer of fine material and the trench was backfilled with the excavated material. The area where the tank was buried was protected by metal roofing panels mounted on a wooden structure. A ball valve was installed on the 38 m m P V C pipe connected to the intake of the tank to control (if necessary) the water coming from the flow splitter (Figure 4.62).  102  Figure 4.62  Installed composite sample tank  Rain Gauge A  rain gauge was secured to a horizontal plastic panel installed on the roof of the  instrumentation hut (Figure 4.61) and the cable of the rain gauge was connected to the datalogging system.  Gas and Soil Water Samplers Panels Tubing emerging from the gas sampling ports and soil water samplers within the pile was arranged on two plywood panels in order to facilitate sampling (Figures 4.63 and 4.64). Four gas lines were not long enough to reach the gas lines panel and their end points are located close to the datalogging system. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-23.  103  Figure 4.63  Photograph showing the gas sampling ports panel.  Datalogging System A  datalogging system was designed to be a reliable tool for collecting and storing  measurements according to a defined frequency and format from 22 T D R sensors, 36 thermistors, a rain gauge, four tipping buckets, and four electrical conductivity sensors (Figure 4.65). During the design of the system the following aspects were considered: previous experience with the same type of instrumentation, new technology available and its reliability, cost of the equipment, and technical support from the supplier. The datalogging system hardware and software consists of the following components: 1. A Campbell Scientific CR1000 ( 4 M R A M Memory) datalogger 2. A Campbell Scientific C F M 1 0 0 compact flash module 3. Three Campbell Scientific S D M X 5 0 multiplexers 4. Four R S T I N S T R U M E N T S F M 2 0 4 2 A flexi-mux (multiplexers) 5. A Moisture Point M P - 9 1 7 soil moisture measurement instrument 6. A power/comm cable 7. A multiplexer probe interface cable 8. Delay compensation cable 9. A Moisture Point interconnect module 10. LoggerNet 3.0 software  A computer program was created using the LoggerNet 3.0 (CRBasic Editor) datalogger support software and downloaded to the C R 1 0 0 0 datalogger. The program included all the instructions that the datalogger required in order to provide the measurement and control functions to the datalogging system. A copy of the program used is listed in Appendix L . The system was set to take measurements with the following frequency: 1. T D R sensors: every 30 minutes. 2. Thermistors: every 30 minutes. 3. Electrical conductivity sensors: every 30 minutes. 4. Rain gauge: anytime there is a tip. 5. Tipping buckets: anytime there is a tip.  105  The 22 T D R sensors were connected to three 8-channel Campbell Scientific  SDMX50  multiplexers, that are devices designed to increase the number of sensors that can be measured with a datalogger. The three multiplexers are connected to each other as well as through the multiplexer probe interface cable to the M P - 9 1 7 soil moisture measurement instrument; this instrument uses time domain reflectometry as a basis for measuring the moisture content of the soil surrounding each T D R sensor. A.Moisture Point interconnect module is connected through the power/comm cable to the M P 917 soil moisture measurement instrument. This module is connected as well to the C R 1 0 0 0 datalogger and the system power source (solar panel outlet). The functions of the interconnect module are to switch the MP-917 on and off according to the measurement frequency of the T D R sensors, established in the datalogger program, and to transmit the  measurement  information from the M P - 9 1 7 to the datalogger. 30 thermistors and four electrical conductivity sensors were connected to the four R S T I N S T R U M E N T S F M 2 0 4 2 A flexi-mux multiplexers. A flexi-mux can sequentially multiplex five groups of four wire inputs or 10 groups of two wire inputs. The four flexi-mux multiplexers were connected to the power source (solar panel outlet) and to the C R 1 0 0 0 datalogger, which provides the instruments measurement frequency and storage of data. The four tipping buckets, the rain gauge and the remaining six thermistors were connected directly to the C R 1 0 0 0 datalogger. See Details in Appendix J, Figure J-24.  106  Figure 4.65  Photograph showing the datalogging system.  Solar Panel A 5 6 W solar panel was installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut (Figure 4.61). The panel was positioned at a slope of approximately 10 degrees dipping south according to the recommendation of some specialized technicians at the mine site. The panel was connected to a 1 2 V battery and to a photovoltaic controller; both of which were located inside the hut.  4.7. Summary The  details  about  the  design,  methodology  of construction  and  the  installation of  instrumentation within the constructed waste rock test pile were presented in this chapter. The next chapter w i l l present an analysis o f the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the constructed waste rock test pile.  107  5. Initial Hydrological and Geochemical Response of the Constructed Test Pile A n assessment for the first three months (January 2007 to A p r i l 2007) of rainfall and outflow data recorded for the test pile is presented here. The results also include water quality analyses of the outflow along with samples collected from the soil water samplers installed within the pile. However, measurements collected from the T D R sensors, the electrical conductivity sensors, gas sampling ports and the thermistors are not included in this analysis because they were not processed.  The information is analyzed herein to provide a preliminary assessment of the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the test pile. It is important to note that the analysis described here must be considered preliminary and not sufficient to provide a comprehensive understanding of the hydrology and geochemistry of the pile, nor to predict its long-term behavior.  5.1.  Test Pile Hydrology  The test pile construction sequence and the meteorological conditions at the site during the construction and subsequent operation of the pile had a significant influence in the initial hydrological response of a test pile.  A t the beginning of February 2006, waste rock hauled directly from the open pit was stockpiled in and area adjacent to where the first test pile would be constructed. This stockpiled material was used later to construct a 1.5-m basal layer to protect the basal lysimeter. The placement of this 1.5-m layer of waste rock on the base of the pile started during the first week of M a y 2006, followed by three end-dumping stages and the instrumentation of the pile. The test pile was completed by the beginning of August 2006 and the datalogging system started to collect and store the measurements of the different installed sensors since the third week of January 2007. Details regarding the sequence of  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the test p i l e at A n t a m i n a and the p r e c i p i t a t i o n ( m o s t l y r a i n f a l l ) that f e l l o v e r the area are presented i n F i g u r e  5.1.  Rainfall (mm) o o  o o  o  CO  o  0b 1  b  o  b  o  o  w  w  b  b  o b  o  o  1/1/2006  in  0 0 b  0  (Feb-2) Stockpile of Wfeste Rock  1/31/2006  next to the Pile's Construction Area • (Material for the 1.5 m Protective Layer)  3/2/2006  4/1/2006  5/1/2006  _  _  (Nfey-4) Placement of 1.5 layer of V\aste Rock| (May-10) First End-Dumping of V\feste Rock  5/31/2006  6/30/2006  (Jun-27) Second End-Dumping of V\6ste Rock| (July-8) Third End-Dumping of Waste Rock  7/30/2006  8/29/2006  9/28/2006  10/2672006  11/27/2006 I—Q 12/27/2006  1/26/2007  2/25/2007  3/27/2007  5.1.1. Weather Conditions at the Antamina Mine The Antamina mine located at 4,200 meters above sea level has a remarkably mild climate for a site at this elevation. The year round temperatures range from few degrees Celsius below zero at night to between 10 and 20 °C during the day. There are two well defined seasons; from mid A p r i l to m i d September is the dry season, from m i d September to mid A p r i l is the rainy season with approximately 1,200 m m of annual precipitation.  The rainfall data provided in this section was obtained from two sources. For the period from August 1  st  2006 (test pile was completed) to January 2 3  rd  2007, the data was  obtained from the Yanacancha meteorological station, which is located four kilometers from the test pile. Rainfall data for the period of January 2 4 2007 to A p r i l 2 0 2007 was th  th  measured by the rain gauge installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut located next to the test pile. Pan evaporation data was collected for the entire period at the Yanacancha meteorological station. A summary of the precipitation and pan evaporation  data  collected for the period since the pile was completed (August 2006) up to the point in time used for the present analysis (April 2007) is shown in Figure 5.2.  20.0  Test Pile Rain Gauge  Yanacancha Meteorological Station Pan Evaporation: all the pan evaporation data was collected by the Yanacanacha metereological station 16.0  E E,  S£  Rainfall  12.0  &  •£ o  1  a  Pan Evaporation 8.0  5 UJ  c n Q. 4.0  0.0  y y  o /  /  /  /  /  /  /  /  /  /  Date (mm/dd/yy)  Figure 5.2  Daily precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - A p r i l 2007)  /  „  /  /  /  /  /  Pan evaporation measurements are commonly used to define "potential evaporation", which in the case of waste rock is significantly higher than the actual evaporation. Information regarding actual evaporation for this test pile is not available. A s was noted in Figure 5.2 the potential evaporation is usually higher during dry periods as compared to wet periods when the average potential evaporation is lower.  Figure 5.3 presents the cumulative pan evaporation and cumulative rainfall for the period of August 2006 to A p r i l 2007. A s previously mentioned, it can be seen that the potential evaporation is greater than rainfall during the dry periods and less than the rainfall during the wet periods (Figure 5.3).  1200.00  800.00  GC  600.00  400.00  200.00 +  0.00  Date  Figure 5.3  Cumulative precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - A p r i l 2007)  5.1.2. Test Pile Response A n assessment of the initial hydrological response of the test pile was based primarily on the first three months (between January and A p r i l 2007) of rainfall and outflow data obtained for the pile. Outfall data was not recorded for the first five months (between August to December 2006) following the completion of the construction of the test pile because the automatic data collection system was not in operation prior to January 2007. However qualitative observations and water samples taken from the outflow of the pile indicated that: the outflow from the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C (located under the side slope at the front of the pile) began to flow during October 2006, while the outflow from sub-lysimeters B (center of the pile) and A (back of the pile) began in November and December 2006 respectively.  The cumulative outflow from the pile, which includes the drainage from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters, and the cumulative rainfall for the period of January 24 to A p r i l 18 2007, is presented in Figure 5.4. During this period the total outflow from the pile was approximately 85% of the rainfall over the pile during the same period.  It can be seen in Figure 5.4 that cumulative outflow was equal to cumulative rainfall for the period of January 24 to February 26 2007 with the exception of a few days between January 3 1 and February 4 , which coincided with a significantly large rainfall event on st  th  January 3 1 . O n February 2 7 st  th  the cumulative rainfall started to exceed the cumulative  outflow for the remaining period of analysis.  400  ' \;v Cumulative Rainfall 350  H  300 A  E E  DC  250  •  Cumulative Outflow  Cumulative outflow includes: outflow from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters  j  200  "3 o  150  i  100 4  Date  Figure 5.4  Cumulative outflow and cumulative precipitation for the period of August 2006 to A p r i l 2007 from the test pile  During rainfall events at the pile site, it was observed that there was no run-off from the pile; as a result, it can be assumed that the run-off is negligible for this analysis. The direct field observations showing cumulative outflow and rainfall with negligible run-off, together with the assumption for very low actual evaporation, suggested the hypothesis that that test pile reached relatively steady state with respect to infiltration and drainage.  Figure 5.4 shows that the same amount of water fell as rainfall, infiltrated and drained from the pile for the period of time prior to February 2 7  th  (relatively dry period). A s  previously mentioned, the cumulative rainfall from February 2 7  th  started to exceed the  cumulative outflow for the rest of the period of analysis, which coincided with the beginning of a period of significant rainfall. This indicates that not all of the additional precipitation infiltrated and drained from the pile; consequently this water could have been lost to evaporation or stored as a change in water content within the pile.  5.1.3. L y s i m e t e r a n d Sub-Lysimeters Response As previously indicated, the outflow from the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C (located under the side slope at the front of the pile) began during October 2006 and the outflow from sub-lysimeters B (center of the pile) and A (back of the pile) began in November and December 2006 respectively.  16 Rainfall  Sub-Lysimeters: A, B and C Lysimeter: D  E E c 0  E 3  o B 3  o  /jP  / o  Figure 5.5  # o  O.^  O£>  A O>P  O£  /  /  /  /  /  /  cr  cr  cr  cr  cr  cr  Lysimeter and Sub-lysimeters Response  .rA  A°  # 0  3  .r^  ^  /  A  A°  /  <#  cr c> cr Date (mm/dd/yy) 3  .tA o!P  A°  #  ^  cr  o  .rA  .rA  y 3  cr  .rA  ^  .cA  ^  cr  cr  cr  Figure 5.5 shows the rainfall over the pile and the outflow in millimeters (volume divided by area) for the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters. The pattern of response in terms of flow and time for sub-lysimeters A and B was similar and less remarkable than the response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C . The responses for the lysimeter (D) and the sub-lysimeter C followed the same pattern; in the case of the sub-lysimeter C , its response was greater (higher flow) than the response of the lysimeter, but the response of the lysimeter was faster than the response of the sub-lysimeter C .  Sub-Lysimeters A , B and C have the same size catchment area (4 m x 4 m), however Figure 5.5 shows that the response of sub-lysimeter C to variations in rainfall over the pile was significantly more sensitive (faster response) and greater (higher flow) than the response of sub-lysimeters A and B .  The reasons for this difference in response are believed to be as follows: sub-lysimeters A and B are located approximately 1 1 m below the central flat surface at the top of the pile, while sub-lysimeter C is located approximately 8 m below the side slope at the front of the pile. The flat surface at the top of the pile was compacted by the 240-tonne trucks during the enddumping process but the side slope surface is not compacted. It is believed that the presence of compacted fine material layer close to the surface of the pile, due to segregation during the end-dumping process and traffic of haul trucks, causes the ponding and retention of water for higher evaporation. Thus vertical infiltration of water through the pile is reduced.  A s previously mentioned the responses of the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C followed the same pattern; however the response of the sub-lysimeter C was greater than the response of the lysimeter but the response of the lysimeter was faster than the response of the sub-lysimeter C .  The reasons for this difference in response are believed to be as follows: Sub-lysimeter C is located approximately 8 m directly below the side slope at the front of the pile while the main lysimeter has 75% of its area located under the side slopes of the pile with the remaining 2 5 % of the area below the compacted flat surface at the top of the pile. This would account for the difference in the quantity of response between the sub-lysimeter C and the main lysimeter. For example approximately 38% of the area of the lysimeter is located below the lower section of  118  the sides slopes of the pile (flow path length between 1.5 to 6.5 m and coarser material due to segregation), which would account for the faster response of the lysimeter.  Figures 5.6 and 5.7 present a comparison between the delay time in response for the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C . The two largest rainfall events between January and A p r i l 2007 were selected for this comparison. Figure 5.6 shows the hourly response of the lysimeter and sublysimeter C on January 3 1 (the rainfall at that day was 15.75 mm). The outflow from the st  lysimeter started to increase within two hours of the storm that occurred that day. However, in the case of the sub-lysimeter C , the increase in outflow started 20 hours later.  xP A  V  A  <& t&  xP „xP A  A  '  <& JS  „xP xP „xP „xP xP' ,xP „.cP xP xP xP xP „xP N ' & <i>' A ' A * ' A ' N°' N*' &  N' & 0  J>  f  JS  xP xP J$> .6  r  fc  N  JS  4? 4? <p J> J> #  J$  J&  <f ^  A  &  &  J> ^  A • A  rfP  cS  A  ^cP  .0°  A  A  V  A  A  J&  &  ^  A  />  '  A  *T  J$>  Date & Time  Figure 5.6  Time response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C (January 31, 2007).  Sixty eight days later, another 15.75 m m day of rainfall occurred on A p r i l 9 . Figure 5.7 th  presents the hourly response for the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C on A p r i l 9 . It can be seen th  the outflow from the lysimeter started to increase within one hour following the main storm while the increase of outflow for sub-lysimeter C started nine hours later.  H 9  The difference in time response between January 3 1  st  and A p r i l 9  tn  is consistent with the  reasoning mentioned in Section 5.1.2. For the period of time prior to February 2 7  th  (relatively  dry period), the cumulative outflow was equal to the cumulative rainfall. The cumulative rainfall from February 2 7 started to exceed the cumulative outflow for the rest of the period of th  analysis, which coincided with the beginning of a period of significant rainfall. This would indicate that not all the additional infiltrated water could have exited the pile; consequently this water would have been stored within the pile as a change in water content or elevating the level of the water table at the base of the pile. The result was a faster response for the lysimeter compared to sub-lysimeter C .  Figure 5.7  Time response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C ( A p r i l 9, 2007).  5.1.4. Pile H y d r o l o g y S u m m a r y The previous analysis and discussion provides interesting insight of the initial response of the test pile. The different effects of the compacted flat area at the top of the pile and the side slopes on the hydrological response were confirmed. Based on the data available data it was 120  possible to hypothesize that that test pile reached a semi-steady state in a relatively short period of time. This implies the formation of a relatively constant water content profile and steady water table at the base of the pile. The spatial and temporal variations of response for the lysimeters and sub-lysimeters were confirmed. Finally the effects of material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence of preferential flow paths appear to be evident.  5.2.  Test Pile Geochemistry  The water chemistry within the pile and in its outflow are monitored at 21 water quality monitoring stations. A s part of the 21 water quality monitoring stations 15 soil water samplers were installed within the pile at different locations. Four water sampling ports were installed as part of the instrumentation lines 1, 2 and 4 (more details are provided in Chapter Four) to monitor the outflow from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters. A monitoring station was established at the composite sample tank and the final monitoring station is the water collection sump located at the lowest coiner of the pile.  The water samples collected from the monitoring stations were analyzed for a full suite of relevant geochemical parameters including p H , electrical conductivity, alkalinity, major ions and metals (laboratory results are provided in Appendix M ) . The test pile construction was completed during the dry season (August 2006) and the first water samples were collected in November 2006.  5.2.1. Lysimeter and Sub-Lysimeters Water Chemistry A summary of the water quality results for the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeters is presented in Tables 5.1 and 5.2. The cations included in this summary are the ones that generally are not strongly attenuated at neutral/alkaline conditions. Other parameters such as copper, alkalinity, dissolved sulfate, p H and electrical conductivity are also included.  121  Sub-Lysimeters U B C 1 - A and U B C l - B Water Chemistry  Table 5.1  mg/1 EC  Tot.  pH  (uS/cm)  Alk.  02/20/07  6.7  6570  03/07/07  6.9  6030  03/15/07  7.4  03/20/07  S0  Dissolved Metals (mg/l)  As  Cu  Cr  Mo  Se  Zn  1372  0.009  0.016  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.063  1.180  1492  < 0.001  0.012  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.056  1.452  5980  1328  0.011  0.016  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.054  1.501  7.3  5620  1047  0.009  0.011  < 0.002  0.01  0.059  1.490  03/29/07  7.3  5200  1514  0.006  0.013  < 0.002  0.01  0.040  1.033  04/04/07  6.8  4920  1633  0.008  < 0.001  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.052  1.181  04/11/07  7.7  4440  1477  0.009  0.013  < 0.002  0.01  0.044  0.916  04/19/07  7  4490  1488  0.01  < 0.001  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.039  0.879  11/30/06  6.8  3860  1343  0.008  0.031  < 0.002  0.01  0.051  1.318  12/05/06  6.8  4500  1315  0.008  0.041  < 0.002  0.02  0.051  1.571  12/07/06  7.0  3920  1374  0.007  0.030  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.051  1.531  12/12/06  7.0  3990  1195  0.006  0.027  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.050  1.643  02/20/07  7.0  4120  1529  0.006  0.018  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.033  1.511  03/07/07  6.8  3700  1569  < 0.001  0.016  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.028  1.809  03/15/07  7.4  3700  1516  0.007  0.016  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.030  2.008  03/20/07  7.5  3330  1566  0.006  0.011  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.027  1.343  03/29/07  7.4  3270  1403  0.007  0.015  < 0.002  0.01  0.022  1.292  04/04/07  6.7  3180  1830  < 0.001  0.011  < 0.002  0.01  < 0.002  1.237  04/11/07  7.7  3030  1449  0.007  0.019  < 0.002  0.01  0.019  1.169  04/19/07  7.1  3170  1355  0.008  0.005  < 0.002  <0.01  0.019  1.254  UBC1-A  UBCl-B  3  4  1  44  46  2  65  58  1.  Sub-Lysimeter located at the back of the pile.  2.  Sub-Lysimeter located at the centre of the pile.  3.  Mostly bi-carbonate.  Table 5.2  Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - C and Lysimeter U B C 1 - D Water Chemistry Dissolved Metals (mg/l)  mg/1 EC  Tot.  pH  (uS/cm)  Alk.  11/16/06  6.9  4270  11/23/06  6.9  11/30/06  As  Cu  Cr  Mo  Se  Zn  1832  0.011  0.012  < 0.002  0.02  0.113  1.053  4500  1253  0.009  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.02  0.102  0.948  6.9  4200  2034  0.009  0.013  < 0.002  0.02  0.109  1.055  12/05/06  7.2  4700  1206  0.009  0.017  < 0.002  0.02  0.105  0.960  12/07/06  6.8  4070  1216  0.010  0.010  < 0.002  0.01  0.107  0.954  12/12/06  7.1  4080  1203  < 0.001  0.014  < 0.002  0.01  0.091  1.081  02/20/07  7.1  3030  1057  0.009  0.014  < 0.002  0.02  0.061  0.910  03/07/07  7.1  2645  1228  0.010  0.012  < 0.002  0.02  0.049  1.106  03/15/07  7.6  2187  944  0.009  0.007  < 0.002  0.01  0.048  0.507  03/20/07  7.6  2115  943  0.007  0.007  < 0.002  0.01  0.062  0.477  03/29/07  7.6  1744  735  0.007  0.011  < 0.002  0.02  0.037  0.478  04/04/07  7  1805  927  0.008  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.02  0.041  0.417  04/11/07  7.9  1558  713  0.008  0.011  < 0.002  0.02  0.032  0.376  04/19/07  7.3  1859  689  0.008  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.033  0:537  11/16/06  7.1  2545  1360  0.006  0.009  < 0.002  0.02  0.034  0.985  11/23/06  7.0  3050  1236  0.005  0.010  < 0.002  0.02  0.033  1.045  11/30/06  7.0  2810  1026  0.005  0.009  < 0.002  0.01  0.032  1.102  12/05/06  7.0  3370  738  0.005  0.015  < 0.002  0.02  0.032  1.134  12/07/06  7.3  3230  818  0.005  < 0.001  < 0.002  <0.01  0.034  1.197  12/12/06  7.2  3640  1003  0.005  0.011  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.036  1.386  02/20/07  6.9  4010  1321  0.005  0.012  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.050  1.293  03/07/07  7.0  2565  934  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.032  0.984  03/15/07  7.5  2061  760  0.006  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.028  0.620  03/20/07  7.5  2384  944  < 0.001  0.007  < 0.002  0.01  0.034  1.060  04/04/07  7.0  2297  973  0.006  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.032  0.879  04/11/07  7.9  1988  875  0.004  0.012  < 0.002  0.01  0.021  0.706  04/19/07  7.2  2764  1055  0.006  < 0.001  < 0.002  <0.01  0.028  0.995  UBC1-C  UBC1-D  3  S0  4  1  54  50  2  63  1.  Sub-Lysimeter located at the front of the pile.  2.  Lysimeter of the pile.  3.  Mostly bi-carbonate.  In the case of the outflow from the sub-lysimeters and the lysimeter: the value of p H varied between 6.7 and 7.9. The electrical conductivity value (ranging from 1558 to 6570 uS/cm) for the sub-lysimeters decreased over time, while in the case of the lysimeter the values also decreased with the exception of short period of time. The total alkalinity (mostly bi-carbonate ranging from 44 to 65 mg/1) for both the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters was lower than expected for a material coming from a high carbonate content ore body. The concentrations of dissolved sulfates varied over time between 689.1 and 2033 mg/1. The concentrations of metals such as A s , C r , M o and Se were found to be fairly stable and the concentrations of dissolved C u (very low concentrations) and Z n decreased over time. Further analysis of the water chemistry of the outflow from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters is presented in Figures 5.8, 5.9, 5.10 and 5.11. Four parameters were included for this analysis: volume of water (outflow), dissolved zinc (most  variable  concentrations  during the period of analysis),  sulfates  and electrical  conductivity.  7000.0  1.80 Umm Outflow r ~ n Dissolved Zn 1.60 A  rz=iS04 -*-EC  ? E,  1.40 5000.0  ^  1.20  °  1.00  o  6000.0  4000.0  I 3  u  LU  - | - 0.80 rsi  3000.0  •o  1 s  o  tf)  o CO  2000.0 0.40 1000.0 0.20 A  -+ 0.0  0.00  CF  Date (dd/mm/yy)  Figure 5.8  Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - A .  124  2.50 U f l 9 Outflow n a  Dissolved Zn  rrz:so4 *  H  2.00  EC  /  + 4000.0  3500.0  1.50  3000.0 35  j  o 2500.0  *  1.00  0.0  0.00  y  y  y  y  /  y  y  y  y  y  y  /  Date (dd/mm/yy)  Figure 5.9  Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - B .  16.00  /  /  /  /  y  /  /  •  •a"  /  Cr  7  /  /  /  /  /  Date (dd/mm/yy)  Figure 5.10  Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - C .  /  HI "  Figure 5.11  Water Chemistry Evolution for Lysimeter U B C 1 - D .  Data presented in Figures 5.8, 5.9, 5.10 and 5.11 indicates that an increase in flow (infiltration after large rainfall events) had a direct and opposite effect on the electrical conductivity, which decreased with increasing flow rate. The effect of flow in electrical conductivity can be explained considering that at high flow rates water tends to flow through coarse material (less surface area) while at low flow rates water flows preferentially through fine material which is more reactive (larger surface area). The concentrations of dissolved Z n for the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters varied over time, however the general trend for the Z n concentrations was to decrease towards the end of the observation period for this analysis. It was not possible to define a specific pattern for the sulfates evolution.  The evolution of Z n concentrations in the outflow from the sub-lysimeters U B C 1 - A , U B C l - B and U B C 1 - C after February 20 2007 followed the same pattern. The concentrations increased at the beginning until a point in time when the Z n concentration of the three sub-lysimeters started to decrease. This suggests that material with similar characteristics but with slightly  126  different oxidation states was placed on top o f the sub-lysimeters. The information presented indicates that likely an oxidation process is occurring inside the test pile.  5.2.2. Soil Water Samplers Water Chemistry 15 soil water samplers were installed within the test pile. Weekly water samples were extracted from some o f the samplers, in other cases the samplers were dry or it was possible to collect only a small amount o f water. The location o f the soil water sampler within the pile is shown in Figure 5.12. A summary o f the chemical analysis results for the water collected by the soil water samplers are shown in Table 5.3. The criterion for this summary was the same used to present the information from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters; sulfates and alkalinity were not analyzed for the soil water samplers due to the lack o f enough sample.  1*  2*  3*  36 m 1 * = Instrumentation Line 1 2* = Instrumentation Line 2 3* = Instrumentation Line 4 U B C 1 - A , B , C =Sub-lysimeters  Figure 5.12  Soil Water Samplers within the Test Pile (simplified cross-section).  127  Table 5.3  Soil Water Samplers Water Chemistry Dissolved Metals (mg/1) EC pH  (uS/cm)  Sb  As  Cu  Cr  Mo  Se  Zn  3/7/07  7.25  4620  0.011  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.101  0.841  3/15/07  7.3  4260  0.014  0.005  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.02  0.097  0.945  3/20/07  7.19  4080  0.013  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.02  0.114  0.950  3/29/07  7.16  3820  0.013  < 0.001  0.007  < 0.002  0.02  0.083  0.791  4/11/07  7.1  3410  0.018  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.02  0.051  0.691  4/19/07  7.29  3920  0.02  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  <0.01  0.049  0.891  2/20/07  7.48  4160  0.013  0.006  0.009  < 0.002  0.02  0.108  0.560  3/7/07  7.56  3240  0.013  0.005  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.02  0.033  0.601  3/29/07  7.44  3440  0.013  0.005  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.02  0.036  0.660  7.49  3330  0.012  < 0.001  0.008  < 0.002  0.02  0.071  0.727  8.26  3790  0.019  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.017  0.081  2/20/07  7.84  785  0.018  < 0.001  0.017  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.024  0.098  3/7/07  8.05  804  0.018  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  < 0.01  0.027  0.115  4/11/07  7.79  500  0.016  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.021  0.410  4/19/07  7.78  500  0.019  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  <0.01  0.024  0.554  7.67  800  0.022  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.002  0.01  0.023  0.669  UBC1-L2B  UBC1-L2C  UBC1-L2D 2/20/07  UBC1-L4A 2/20/07  UBC1-L4C  UBC1-L4D 4/11/07  The information presented in Table 5.3 indicates: that the p H value for the water collected by the soil water samplers varied between 7.1 and 8.26; the electrical conductivity ranging from 500 to 4620 uS/cm decreased over time; and the concentration o f rest o f the analyzed parameters remained very low and almost constant with the exception o f Z n , which slightly decreased in same cases and increased in other ones.  128  5.2.3. Vertical Evolution of Water Chemistry The change in water chemistry along the vertical flow path was verified by studying the laboratory results o f water collected by the soil water samplers U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - L 4 C located above the sub-lysimeters U B C 1 - B and U B C 1 - C respectively as shown i n Figure 5.13. A s shown i n Figure 5.13 the flow path length for water to reach the two soil water samplers is different; approximately 6 m for U B C 1 - L 2 C and 2 m for U B C 1 - L 4 C . The concentrations o f C u and Z n were selected for this brief analysis for the reason that they varied the most.  1*  I  |«  UBCl-A  2*  UBC1-B  :  UBC1-C  j  :  *  36 m 1 * = Instrumentation Line 2 2* = Instrumentation Line 4 U B C l - A , B, C =Sub-lysimeters U B C 1-L2C = Soil Water Sampler U B C 1 - L 4 C = Soil Water Sampler  Figure 5.13  Location o f Soil Water Samplers U B C 1-L2C and U B C 1-L4C within the Test Pile (simplified cross-section).  The evolution over time o f the concentrations o f C u and Z n is presented i n Figures 5.14, 5.15, 5.16 and 5.17. The concentrations o f C u in both soil water samplers ( U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 L 4 C ) and sub-lysimeters ( U B C 1 - B and U B C 1 - C ) decreased over time. However even while the C u concentrations decreased over time, it can be seen that relatively higher C u concentrations were measured at the sub-lysimeters compared to the concentrations measured at the soil water samplers. The longer flow path is considered the primary reason for the difference i n C u concentrations between the soil water samplers and the sub-lysimeters. Another possible factor that could be contributing to this difference is the contact o f the water  129  draining through the flow path with the 2 B Rejected material used to protect the liner o f the sub-lysimeters. Future laboratory results from water samples collected at the water collection sump installed at the lowest corner o f the pile can provide further information about the effects o f the 2 B Rejected material.  In the case o f Z n , there was an increase i n the concentrations measured at the soil water samplers over time. The Z n concentrations for the sub-lysimeters varied over time following a non-specific pattern. In general the concentrations o f Z n were higher at the sub-lysimeters, which can be the result o f a longer flow path and possibly, the contact with the 2 B Rejected material protecting the sub-lysimeters.  2.000 UBC1-L2C  •  UBC1-B  1.600  1.200  •5 8  0.800  0.400  0.000  / Figure 5.14  /  <a  5  4  Date  Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - B .  130  0.020 UBC1-L2C 0.018 IUBC1-B 0.016 0.014 £  3  •g > »  S  0.012 0  0  1  0  0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.000 4 Date  Figure 5.15  Dissolved Cooper Evolution between U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C l - B .  1.200 UBC1-L4C • UBC1-C  1.000  0.800  1  5  0.600  0.000  A*  4  o  4^  Date  Figure 5.16  Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 4 C and U B C 1 - C .  131  0.018 UBC1-L4C 0.016 IUBC1-C 0.014  0.012 H  I ~  0.010  o V  I  0.008 0.006  0.004  0.002 i 0.000  4? Date  Figure 5.17  Dissolved Copper Evolution between U B C 1-L4C and U B C 1 - C .  5.2.4. S u m m a r y of Test Pile Geochemistry The objective o f geochemistry assessment has been to provide a preliminary understanding of the initial response o f the test pile. The information available for this analysis does not allow defining specific trends or conclusions. The levels o f electrical conductivity measured and the sulfates released along with the variations o f low concentrations of metals such as C u and Z n suggests that a slight oxidation process is taking place within the pile. Finally, it was verified that the flow path length does impact water chemistry.  5.3.  Summary  The preliminary analysis of the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the test pile indicates that: the physical configuration o f the pile (side slopes and the compacted flat area at the top o f the pile) plays an important role in the hydrology and geochemistry o f the pile; the spatial and temporal variations of response for the lysimeters and sub-lysimeters  were  132  confirmed; the effects o f material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence o f preferential flow paths appear to be evident; the collected geochemical information suggested that a slight oxidation process is taking place within the pile; and the length o f flow paths has an impact in water chemistry.  133  6. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1.  Summary  The geochemical and hydrological behavior o f waste rock dumps is usually predicted by conducting laboratory scale tests such as humidity cells and small-scale barrel tests. These tests have been i n use over the past few decades and the experimental procedures are well developed and adopted in practice. A t the same time, there is little confidence that the result o f these tests can predict the full-scale behavior o f waste rock dumps.  Although there is a well established understanding o f the geochemical processes, accurate prediction o f the evolution o f drainage quality requires the characterization o f the movement o f oxygen and movement o f water through a waste rock dump. Direct observations and measurements o f water movement through waste rock dumps are necessary to improve the understanding o f the hydrogeology and its influence on the geochemistry for full-scale waste rock systems. These observations o f oxygen and water movement are only possible through the implementation o f field-scale experiments. Some field-scale experiments have been developed in the past few years, however all o f them have focused primarily on waste rock geochemistry and hydrology in acid producting environments. A c i d rock drainage is recognized as the major source o f poor water quality resulting from mining activities and as a consequence, is the focus o f a vast number o f studies.  Some ore bodies are hosted in rock with high neutralization capacity such as carbonates, generating alkaline/neutral drainage from the waste rock dumps. Alkaline or neutral drainage from waste rock dumps can limit the dissolution and mobility o f some metals such as aluminum, iron and copper although other environmentally hazardous elements such as arsenic, antimony, molybdenum, selenium, chromium and to a lesser extent, zinc, are not strongly attenuated at high p H and can be released to the environment causing adverse effects. Few research programs directed at understanding the mechanisms that control the release and mobility o f metals in alkaline/neutral conditions have been completed, particularly i n case o f field-scale experiments were there is no specific previous experience.  134  The purpose o f the current study has been to improve the understanding o f alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps, through  field-scale  experiments. The mineral deposit  formation at Antamina is a quartz monzonite intrusion hosted in Cretaceous limestone, which accounts for the high neutralization potential observed. The primary objective o f the research project described in this thesis has been to design, construct and instrument a field-scale waste rock test pile at the Antamina mine in Peru.  These objectives have been successfully achieved. In addition data were also obtained for the initial hydrological and geochemical response o f the pile for a 3 month period, providing the opportunity to do a preliminary analysis.  6.2.  Conclusions The key lessons learned, observations and conclusions resulting from the study are summarized as follows: •  There is very little literature available regarding the design o f field- scale experiments.  •  Only few field-scale experiments have been conducted to provide direct observations o f solution movement through waste rock and the geochemical effects o f this movement, and virtually none have been conducted for an alkaline/neutral drainage system.  •  Review o f the available information from past field-scale waste rock experiments indicates that the main focus o f previous studies was on the analysis o f the obtained data and less time was allocated to the design o f the experiments and specifications for the construction and instrumentation details.  •  W e l l developed and established criteria for the design, construction and instrumentation o f field-scale waste rock experiments are not available for previous studies.  •  There is no specific instrumentation commercially available for field-scale waste rock experiments.  •  The design, construction and instrumentation o f the field-scale waste rock test pile for the present study was successful. A t least 80% o f the instrumentation is currently operational and the construction was made according to the original design, including small modifications.  135  •  The test pile construction sequence and the meteorological conditions at the site during the construction and subsequent operation o f the pile had a significant influence on the initial hydrological response o f a test pile. The construction o f the test pile began in February 2006 and was completed in August o f the same year. During this time waste rock was stockpile next to construction site or end-dumped onto the pile, as a consequence the initial water content and oxidation state o f the material placed i n the pile was not uniform.  •  Based on the data available for this analysis, it was possible to hypothesize that infiltration and drainage conditions in the test pile reached a semi-steady state i n a relatively short period o f time. This implies the formation o f a relatively constant water content profile and steady water table at the base o f the pile.  •  The spatial and temporal variations o f response in terms o f flow and time for the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeters were verified.  •  The impact on the hydrological response o f the compacted flat area at the top o f the pile and the side slopes was confirmed. In this particular experiment 7 5 % o f the lysimeter area is covered by side slopes, the remaining 2 5 % corresponds to the compacted flat area at the top o f the pile.  •  The effect o f material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence o f preferential flow paths appear to be evident.  •  The levels o f electrical conductivity measured and the sulfates released along with concentrations o f metals such as C u and Z n suggests that oxidation is taking place within the pile.  •  The change in water chemistry along the vertical flow path was verified by reviewing the laboratory results o f water collected at the soil water samplers located above the sub-lysimeters.  •  The analysis o f the initial response o f the test pile described in this thesis must be considered preliminary and not sufficient to provide a comprehensive understanding o f the hydrology and geochemistry o f the pile, nor to predict its long-term behavior.  136  6.3.  Recommendations for Future Research  The construction o f field-scale experiments implies the use o f significant financial resources and large quantities o f materials, personnel and machinery. Frequently, these field-scale experiments are developed in remote areas, where the resources are limited. However, the design and planning for these facilities are usually done at a research center located far away from the construction site. The key factor in the success o f the design, construction and instrumentation o f a field-scale experiment is to prepare the design and plan the construction according to the available resources.  The construction and implementation o f field-scale experiments requires the contribution o f many people. It is very important that the person in charge o f the field activities directly supervise all the details o f the construction and installation o f instrumentation to ensure that consistent standards are used through the entire project.  A l l the details for the design, construction and operation o f field-scale experiments and instrumentation should be recorded i n drawings, pictures, field notes, etc. The availability o f this information provides significant advantages and improves the use o f time and resources that allows the correlation between experimental results and experimental design/construction. This information also allows on-going improvements and adjustments to be made to the experiment.  Further long-term operation and data analysis is necessary for the constructed pile. Therefore collected data from the T D R sensors together with data from the thermistors, electrical conductivity sensors and gas sampling ports need to be included in future analysis. In addition, the analysis needs to be complemented with the mineralogical characterization o f the waste rock and the results o f the field cells to provide a comprehensive understanding o f the longterm hydrological and geochemical behavior o f the test pile.  137  REFERENCES Andrina, J . , Wilson, G . W . , and Miller, S. (2006). Performance o f the acid rock drainage mitigation waste rock trial dump at Grasberg mine. In Proceedings International  of the Seventh  Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, St Louis, Missouri. 30-44.  Andrina, J . , M i l l e r , S., & Neale, A . (2003). The design, construction, instrumentation and performance o f a full-scale overburden stockpile trial for mitigation o f acid rock drainage, Grasberg mine, Papua Province, Indonesia. In Proceedings  of the Sixth  International  Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland. 123-132.  Blowes, D . W . , Moncur, M . , Smith, L . , Sego, D . , Bennet, J . , and Garcie, A . , et al. (2006). Construction o f two large-scale waste rock pile in a continuous permafrost region. In proceeding  of the Seventh International  Conference on Acid Rock Drainage,  St. Louis,  Missouri. 187-199.  Fala, O., Aubertin, M . , Molson, J . , Bussiere, B . , Wilson, G . W . , and Chapuis, R., et al. (2003). Numerical modeling o f unsaturated flow in uniform and heteregenous waste rock piles. In Proceedings  of the Sixth International  Conference  on Acid Rock Drainage,  Cairns,  Queensland. 895-902.  Frostad, S., K l e i n , B . , and Lawrence, R . W . (2005). Determining the weathering characteristics o f a waste dump with field test. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation Environment,  and  19(2) , 132 - 143.  138  Herasymuik, G . M . , A z a m , S., Wilson, G . W . , Barbour, L . S . , and N i c h o l , C . (2006). Hydrological characterization o f an unsaturated waste rock dump. In Proceedings of 5 9  th  Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia. 751-757.  Khan, A . A . , and Ong, C . K . (1997). Design and calibration o f tipping bucket system for field runoff and sediment quantification. . Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 52(6), 437443.  M i l l e r , S., Andrina, J., & Richards, D . (2003b). Overburden geochemistry and acid rock drainage  scale-up investigations at Grasberg M i n e , Papua Province, Indonesia. In  Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference On Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland.. 111-121.  M i l l e r , S., Rusdinar, Y . , Smart, R., Andrina, J., & Richards, D . (2006). Design and construction o f limestone blended waste rock dumps : Lesson learned from a 10-year study at Grasberg. In Proceedings of The Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, St. Louis, Missouri. 1287-1301.  M i l l e r , S., Smart, R . , Andrina, J., Neale, A . , & Richards, D . (2003a). Evaluation o f limestone covers and blends for long-term acid rock drainage control at the Grasberg M i n e , Papua Province, Indonesia. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference On Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland. 133-141.  139  Murr, L . E . , Schlitt, W . J . , Cathles L . M . (1981). Experimental observations o f solution flow in the leaching o f copper-bearing waste, In Proceedings  of the 2  nd  SME-SPE  International  Solution Mining Symposium. Denver. Colorado. 271 - 290.  Newman, L . (1999). A mechanism for preferential  flow in vertical  layered,  unsaturated  systems. M . S c . thesis, University o f Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan..  N i c h o l , C , Smith, L . , and Beckie, R. (2000). Hydrogeologic behavior o f unsaturated waste rock : A n experimental study. In Proceedings  of The Fifth International  Conference  on  Acid Rock Drainage, Denver, Colorado., 215-224.  N i c h o l , C , Smith, L . , and Beckie, R. (2003). Water flow i n uncover waste rock: A multi-year large lysimeter study. In Proceedings of the Sixth International  Conference on Acid Rock  Drainage, Cairns, Queensland. 919-926.  N i c h o l , C , Smith, L . , and Beckie, R. D . (2005). Field-scale experiments o f unsaturated flow and solute transport in a heterogeneous porous medium. Water Resources Research, 41(5), 1-11.  N i c h o l , C , Beckie, R . D . , and Smith, L . (2002). Evaluation o f  uncoated and coated time  domain reflectometry probes for high electrical conductivity systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal,  66,1454-1465.  140  Zhao, S.L., Dorsey, E . C , Gupta, S.C., Moncrief, J.F., and Huggins, D . R . (2001). Automated water sampling and flow measuring devices for runoff and subsurfaces drainage. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 56(4), 299-306.  Young, G . D . (1996). Calibration o f profiling probes. Moisture Point Technical Brief 17.  141  Appendix A.  Water Chemistry Laboratory Parameters  Table A . 1  Field Parameters  METHOD  DETECTION RANGE  D E T E C T I O N LIMIT  U.E.  Manually  -2-16  0.01  Temperature  °C  Manually  -5-99.9  0.1  Conductivity  uS/cm  0 - 500 000  1  Disolved Oxygen  mg/1  Manually  0-19.9  0.01  Volumen  1  Manually  0-14  0  PARAMETERS  UNITS  pH  Manually  Table A . 2 Laboratory Parameters  GRUP O F PARAMETERS  DETECTION LIMIT  PRESERVATIVE  MAX. LIFE SPAN (DAYS)  E P A 305.1  2  Refrigerate  14  ANALYTICAL METHOD  PARAMETERS  UNITS  Acidez(si p H <4.5)  mg/1  Total Alkalinity  mg/1  S M 2320B  0.1  Refrigerate  14  Carbonate  mg/1  S M 4500CO -D  0.1  Refrigerate  14  mg/1  S M 4500CO -D  0.1  Refrigerate  14  Chloride  mg/1  E P A 325.3  1  Refrigerate  28  Conductivity  uS/cm  E P A 120.1  1  Refrigerate  28  0.01  Refrigerate  28  FISICOQUIMICOS  Bi-carbonate GENERAL  Fluoride  mg/1  NITRITE  2  E P A 340.2  Refrigerate  24 hours  0.5  Refrigerate  28  E P A 150.1  pH  NUTRIENTS  2  Sulfates  mg/1  E P A 375.4  Ammonium Nitrogen  mg/1  S M 4500 N H - F  0.01  H S0 (1:1) pH<2,  28  Nitrogen-Nitrate  mg/1  E P A 352.1  0.10  H S0 (1:1) pH<2,  28  Nitrogen-Nitrite  mg/I  E P A 354.1  0.005  Refrigerate  48 hours  3  2  2  4  4  Alkalinity is not absolutely required. If sample volume is limited, skip alkalinity. Acidity is only required for samples with p H less than 4.5. Similarly, alkalinity is not required for samples with p H < 4.5.  143  Table A . 2 Laboratory Parameters (Cont'd)  GRUPO DE PARAMETROS  PARAMETER  UNITS  ANALYTICAL METHOD  DETECTION LIMIT  PRESERVATIVE  MAX. LIFE SPAN (Months)  0.02  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  METALES  TOTAL M E T A L S (ICP)  Al  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  Sb  mg/1  ICP-GH - E P A 200.7  As  mg/1  ICP-GH - E P A 200.7  Ba  mg/1  Be  0.01  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  0.001  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.003  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.001  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Bi  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.1  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Bo  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.03  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Cd  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.003  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  .  Ca  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.003  Co  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.005  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Cr  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.002  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Cu  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.01  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Sr  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.0003  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  0.04  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  Sn  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  P  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.3  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  Fe  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.001  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Li  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.02  Mg  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.001  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Mn  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.001  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Hg  mg/1  C V A F S - E P A 1631  0.0002  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  1  Mo  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.01  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  Ni  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.01  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Po  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.20  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Ag  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.01  Pb  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.015  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Se  mg/1  ICP/GH - E P A 200.7  0.002  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  0.02  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  Na  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  Ta  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.04  H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2  6  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Ti  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.003  V  mg/1  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  ' 0.007  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  ICP/AES - E P A 200.7  0.002  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  H N 0 3 ( 1 : 1 ) pH<2  6  Refirgerate  24 hours  Zn  mg/1  DISSOLVED M E T A L S (ICP)  Similar to total metals  mg/1  SILICE  Silica (Si0 )  mg/1  2  Similar to total metals S M 4500 Si-D  0.5  144  Appendix B.  Figures of Experimental Instrumentation  Coaxial Cable 1 /A"  Tube Connector Ceramic Cup PVC Tube  R.025  1 .048  J .006  .324 .390  .060  .007^  .051  .007  h—  .008  Soil Water Sampler  .065 .062-  .320  -T062  - .008  J .008  TDR Sc.=1:4  Sc.=1:4  Isometric: Soil Water Sampler Isometric: TDR /8"0D  Polyethylene Tubing .010  Piece of Cloth  H  .006  .060  £  Plastic Cable Tie Instrument Wire  .008  T  Thermistor Sc.= 1:2  Gas Sampling Port  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA P R 0 J E C T :  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SENSORS AND SAMPLING PORTS  FIGURE:  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE:  INDICATED  ' U N r r S :  METERS  w UBC  1.020  Union 02  PVC TUBE 02"  Thermistor  Ball Value  HDPE 0 4 " ID Corrugated Pipe coming f r o m Lysimeter or S u b - L y s i m e t e r  .382  02"  Tee 02"  .220 R 02" Elbow 01  01  Union  1/2" Elbow  1/2  02  em  02'  by—pas  .09  Discharge t o Tipping Bucket  .41  a» 01/4"  4 9 0  Water Sampling  t  Port  Valve  a-a  Conductivity Sensor  Water Conveyance System  f— .092 —j .232  Sc.=1:5 .625  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  L  Thermistor  • 03/4"  PVC Tube P R 0 J E C T :  .420"-  Thermistor (Water Conveyance System) Sc.=1:4  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE WATER CONVEYANCE SYSTEM  Qmdoctiviry Sensor (Water Conveyance System) Sc.=1:4  FIGURE:  B-02  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE: INDICATED  U N r r S :  METERS  UBC  153  084  .414 ,.390,  .007  043  .012 .192  .100  r  153 .029  —H .  -052  H-  SIDE VIEW  ISOMETRIC VIEW  .012 — |  PLAN VIEW  | —  .124  ,110 .012 i  I I I I II  i i  i  T  0.010 .110  —  PLAN VIEW  .110 SIDE VIEW  .012 - * \ | — .045  £  i-  .044  FRONT VIEW  .012 p—n—r  0.010  11 i i i  .045  .045 PLAN VIEW  SIDE VIEW  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA P R 0 J E C T :  Details  UBC  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LARGE TIPPING BUCKET TRAY  Sc.-1:4 FIGURE:  ^ 3  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE:  .j  .5  U N I T S :  METERS  ^8  Iff UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE ISOMETRIC VIEW OF LARGE TIPPING BUCKET  B44  D A T E :  June-07  1  S C A L E :  N/A  UNITS:  N/A  .0205  .387  .0205 — \  -  .012  MAGNET  .322  .012  REED SWITCH  .092  MAGNET  150  / y-  353  REED SWITCH  .150  035 — '  .035  1  — .012  .092  FRONT VIEW ISOMETRICVffiW .300  PLAN VIEW  .012  .044  .298-  .249  T  .510  SIDE VIEW  .012  I MAGNET  140  .051  .127  .051  .141  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE  BUCKET: PLAN AND SIDE VIEW  LARGE TIPPING BUCKET MECHANISM FIGURE:  345  | DATE:  J  u  n  e  _  0  7  | SCALE:  .5  1  | UNITS:  M  E  T  E  R  S  UBC|  m  .53  Tipping  Bucket  Anchors  Lamp Outlet  A  ( 0 4 " pvc Pipe)  Housing Unit Base (Plan View) Sc. 1 / 2 0  0.100.100.10  Splash  Ramp c r o s s S e c t i o n A - A  CN o 6  Guard  q d  d  Esc. 1 / 2 0  Outlet  0.55  ( 0 4 " p v c ) Pipe  S=2%  o 6  Tipping Leveling  Bucket Mounts  o d  o d  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA P R 0 J E C T :  UBC  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LARGE TIPPING BUCKET HOUSING UNIT  FIGURE:  ^JQ  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE:  1  ;  1  0  U N I T S :  METERS  45\  .227  .237 .005  .017  .022  .017  .005  .270  .227 Box Lid  i  021 II  v i /  .127  .127  V  048  Tr\—  r  •4  "|  U  .058  .270 0.050  .050  .190  .190  FLAN VIEW: HOUSING BASE  SMALL TIPPING BUCKET  .366  .366  Sc.=1:5  .171  .171  Housing  Housing  Basi  .005  .005  .050  .050  Base  .02 1— .010  .010 .021  ISOMETRIC VIEW  SIDE V I E W  .082  .040  -H  -063  .062  I—  0.006  .055  .058  j  FRONT VIEW  .034 ^ MAGNET  REED SWITCH  i  .055  Axis  Calibration  Screw  _ £ I  T (— .010  0.016  f— .040  D64—4-T£)5£  T064  .01  .057  Hinge  MAGNET  01  .061  j  0.016  050  .009  .06 0.006  .058  —H .050  .227  057  TIPPING BUCKET MECHANISIM  .011  Sc.=1:5  BUCKET: FRONT AND SIDE VIEW  .164  Sc.=1:5  SIDE VIEW .029 — '  * — .045  x  — .029  FRONT VIEW  MECHANISLM  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA P R 0 J E C T  Sc.=1:5  :  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SMALL TIPPING BUCKET  FIGURE:  QJJ  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE:  1  ;  5  U N n 5 :  METERS  UBC  0.15  Funnel Perforated  Perforated  Panel  Pane  L1  102  Al  .102  .095  PLAN VIEW Sc.-1:5  .240  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT •  ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE FLOW SPLITTER  FIGURE:  g^g  DATE: j  u n e  _07  S C A L £ :  1:5  U N I T S :  METERS  UBC  Appendix C.  TDR Sensors Construction  HOW T O CONSTRUCT A ZEGELIN 3-ROD TDR PROBE A Zegelin 3-rod time domain reflectometry ( T D R ) probe is used to measure the moisture level of a soil. The following is a list o f the materials and tools required (refer to Table C . l and C.2) along with the step-by-step procedure taken to construct a Zegelin 3-rod T D R probe. Table C . l Materials required for assembly  MANUFACTURER  QTY  DESCRIPTION  3  1/8" stainless steel ro< (standard welding rods (35cm) WECO 3 position flexible terminal blocks (12i pitch) Motorola P I N diodes Mode chassis mount 5 connector bus wire 20, 22, or 24 gauge solder 0 shrink tubing 0 shrink tubing Belden coax cable (.82 m m ) beer cans Epoxies, Etc... epoxy resin Epoxies, Etc... epoxy catalyst 5 minute epoxy masking tape  2  3 1 15cm 10cm 35cm 8mm 50m  PART NO.  42.820.008  M P N 3404 21-061-0  2  2  1 tube 1 roll  20-2365R 20-2365C  155  Table C.2 Tools required for assembly  QTY  DESCRIPTION  1 1 1 1 1 pr  soldering iron heat gun screw driver cable cutter Gloves cutting knife and cutti] board multi-meter electric drill lab stands and clamps pliers (needle nose) disposable container  1 1 A few 2 pr 1  Step-by-step Procedure The construction o f a Zegelin 3-rod T D R probe is separated into three stages: the assembly stage, the testing stage and the epoxy stage.  Assembly 1.  Cut each terminal block into two blocks with five terminal positions each. T r i m sides o f terminal blocks.  2.  Shrink 35cm length o f shrink tubing on one steel rod using heat gun.  3.  Attach terminal blocks to both ends o f the three steel rods, making sure rod with shrink tubing is attached to middle terminal position; tighten terminal screws. See Figure 1.  4. B e n d and solder negative leads o f two diodes together and insert into center position o f terminal block, with body o f diodes placed in gap between terminal positions.  156  (WARNING:  DO  NOT  OVER  HEAT  DIODES  WHEN  SOLDERING;  O V E R H E A T I N G C A N C A U S E M E L T I N G O F D I O D E C I R C U I T . ) Tighten terminal screws. See Figure C.2 for P I N diode lead identification. 5. Cut two 2cm pieces o f bus wire. M a k e 90° bends in the middle and place one bus wire in each outer terminal position. Tighten terminal screws. Solder bus wires to positive leads o f diodes. See Figure C.3. 6.  Shrink 8mm length o f shrink tubing on positive lead o f one diode.  7. A p p l y a quantity o f solder to each diode lead to enlarge it so terminals w i l l grip properly. 8.  Solder diode lead with shrink tubing to F-connector center pin.  9. W i n d 10cm piece o f bus wire once around F-connector so that it is centered with two pigtails and add washer and nut to cinch wire. A d d solder to wire and washer to ensure connection. 10. Solder other lead o f diode to bus wire. 11. T r i m center terminal position.  Bend and trim bus wire i n order to fit into terminal  block and insert diode between terminal positions and tighten terminal screws.  See  Figure C.4.  Testing  1. Turn to diode setting on multi-metre. 2.  Touch one lead to centre rod and other lead to each outer rod in turn. Reading should be 0.75+0.1 Volts.  157  3. Touch leads to either o f outer rod; multi-metre should beep to indicate connection. NOTE:  IF T E S T S F A I L ,  CONNECTIONS  CHECK  A R E SECURE,  DIODE  CONNECTIONS.  CHECK  THAT  DIODE  IF A L L C I R C U I T LEADS  A R E NOT  REVERSED.  Epoxy 1. Cut off tops o f beer cans.  D r i l l a hole with diameter slightly larger than cable on  bottom o f one beer can. 2. Thread one end o f coax cable through beer can, strip cable and fit cable end to F connector on probe. 3. Place small amount o f 5 minute epoxy around hole. Wait till epoxy hardens, then wrap masking tape around cable close to hole. See Figure C.5. 4. Hang probe vertically using lab stand and clamp with beer can at bottom. M a k e sure terminal block is N O T in contact with walls o f beer can. 5. Measure epoxy resin and catalyst i n ratio o f 5:1 by weight and place inside disposable container. M i x well. 6. Pour epoxy into beer can until terminal block is 5mm beneath the final epoxy level. Wait 12 hours for the epoxy to harden, and then remove the beer can using needle nose pliers. 7. Taking other beer can, repeat steps 4-6 for other end o f probe.  158  Figure C. 1 Three steel rods with terminal blocks attached to either end  Positive lead  Figure C.2 Bottom view of PIN diode with formed leads  Figure C.3 PIN diode assembly  Figure C.4 F-connector and PIN diode assembly  Figure C.5 A TDR probe ready for epoxy  Figure C.6 T D R probes set up for epoxy  F i g u r e C.7  A n a s s e m b l e d Z e g e l i n 3-rod TDR probe  Appendix D.  TDR Sensors Calibration  TDR Probes Calibration Afr  OrySand  Water  Afr  DrySand  Water  3.5490  4.8840  13.1630  3.5780  4.6280  12 2260  3.8920  4.9130  131060  3 5490  4.8420  12.2680  13.1630  3.621Q  4.7990  12.2120 12 2820  3,6490  std  3.6920  4.9130  131630  3.6350  3 6770  4.9550  13.1630  3.6060  4.8420  12.2540  3 6630  4.9130  13.1200  3 6210  4.8420  12.2540  3 6350  4 9130  13.1630  3 6350  4.8130  12.2540  3564D  4 9130  13.1060  3.6210  4826.0  12 2120  3 5490  4.9130  13.1060  3.6210  4 8130  12 2680  37480  4.9130  13.1060  3 6350  4.8280  12.2820  3 6630  4.9130  13.1770  3 5780  4.8280  12.2680  13.1340  36210  4.8260  12 2120 12.2540  3.6350  4.9130  13.1770  3 5780  38490  4.9130  13.1910  3 6350  4 8420  12 2120  3.6350  4.9270  13.1490  3 6060  4.8420  12.2400  3 6376 0 0584  4.9139  13.1458  Ave  3-6093  4.8277  12 2465  0.0146  00300  std  0 0266  0 0133  0 0259  OrySand  316mm  Probe4  313mm Air  lllliii  Water  OrySand  Water 13 0210  3 5920  4.8990  12 4390  3 2090  49840  3 7200  4.8280  12.4250  3 7060  49840  130490  3 5490  4 7850  12.4250  36350  49840  13 0490  3 6210  4.7990  12.4390  3.6920  4.9840  131060  3 6920  4.4D10  124950  3 6920  49700  13 0350  3 7770  4 8700  124100  3 6350  49550  13 0780  49700  13.0640  3 7910  4 8840  12 4250  3.6350  3 7620  4.9130  12 4530  3.6920  4 9840  131060  3 7480  4.7140  12 4530  3 6350  4 9840  13 0920  3 7200  4.8840  12 4670  3.6920  4.9840  13 0210  3 7060  4.8560  12 4250  3.6770  4.9700  13 0490  12.4390  3.7060  4.9840  131060  49700  13 0210  3 7060  stet  4 9130  4.6280  Probe2  Ave  4 8990  4,8130  3.5640  Ave  31€htirrt  Probe3  320mm  Profoel  4.8700  3 6630  4 8560  12 4250  3 6350  3 6490  4 8700  12 4670  3.6350  4.9700  13 0490  3 7060  4.9130  12 4390  3 6920'  4 9700  13 0490  38935  4 8228  12 4417  Ave  3 6379  49765  13 0597  0 0683  01282  0 0220  std  01223  0 0091  0 0311  TDR Probes Calibration  Air  DrySand  Water  Air  318mm DrySand  Water  3.5490  4.9700  13.0350  3.7060  5.0400  13.1340  3,6770  4.9840  13 0070  3 7060  5.0400  13.1340  4.S700  13.1490  3.7340  5.0260  13,1490  5.0120  13.1490  3.6630  Ave std  3,6350  4.9840  13.0350  3.6920  3.6630 3.6630  4.9840 4 9840  13.0070 12 9780  3,7340 3.706O  4.9980 5.0260  13,2060 13.1490  3.6630  4 9980  13 0070  3.7200  5 0260  13,1630  3 5640  4.9700  13.0350  4.9840  13.0490  3.7340 3,7340  5.0120  3.6210  5.0120  13.1510 13,1630  3,5780  4.9700  13.0070  3 7200  5.0120  13.1630  3 6490  4.9840  13 0210  3 7200  5,0120  13,1910  3,6770  4 9840  3.7200  5.0260  13.1630  3.6210  4 9840  13 0920 12 9930  3.7200  5 0120  13,1630  3,5490  4 9840  13 0070  3.7200  4.9900  13.1490  3 6630  49700  13.021O  3 7200  5,0120  13.1910  3.6290  4.9803  13 0295  3,7191  5 0171  13.1639  0 0124  0 0138  0 0218  std  0 0425  &td  0 0467  0 0083  Air  DrySand  Water  Air  DrySand  Water  3 5490  4.8280  129210  3 6630  4 7280  13.1630  3.5640  4.8560  12.8930  3.8480  4.8990  13,1490  3.6630 3 6350  4.9550  13 2200  4.9410  13,1200 13.2200  Probes  Ave  lllllpiilii?!  313mm  Prdbe5  324mm  320mm  3,5640  4.8420  12.9360  3.6350  4.8420  12,9210  3,5920  4 8560  12 9070  3.6920  4.9B40  3.5780  4 8280  12 8650  3,6630  4.1600  13,1490  3 5780  4.8420  12 9210  3.6350  4.1460  13 1770  3.6210  4.8560  12.9210  3,5920  4,1460  13 2060  3.5490  4.8420  12.8650  3 5490  4.1460  131340  3.5210  4 8420  12,8930  3.7060  4,1890  13,1340  4.2030  13.0640 13.276D  3.6350  4.8420  12.9070  3.5640  3.578Q  4.8420  12,9070  3,6060  4,1460  3,5640  4.8420  12 9070  3.6060  4.1460  131770  3.4930  4 8280  12 8930  3.5070  4,1600  13,1770  3,5780  4.8280  12.9210  3.5210  4.1320  13.1S1Q  3,5733  4.8411  12 9052  Ave  3.6300  4.4054  13.1705  0 0205  std  0,0849  0 3675  0,0503  0 0387  0 0099  TDR Probes Calibration Air  5.0120  12.7650  3.5490  4.8130  3 7770  5,0120  12.7650  3.5350  4.8420  12.8080  3.6050  5 0400  12 7650  3.5350  4.8130  12 8220  3,7480  5,0400  12.7510  3.4930  4.8280  12.8790  5 0550 50690  12.8930  4.8280  12.8650  12 7080  3.5350 35350  4,8420  12.7370  12.7790  3.5920  4.8280  12.6360 12.8220  3 7340 3 7340  5.0120  12.7370  3.6770  3.6050  5.0400  12 7790  3,6770  4.8280  12.6220  3.7480  5.0400  12.8080  3.5350  4,8280  12.B360  3 7060  12,6660 12 7370  3.5920  4.8280  12 7940  3.7910  5.0120 5.0400  3.6770  4,8420  12 8510  3.7770  5 0550  12 7080  4.8280  12.8510  3 7910  5,0400  12.7940  3.4930 35920  4.8280  12.B360  37200  5.0120  12.7370  3.5780  4-8420  12.6360  3.7635  5 0365  12 7595  Ave  3.5730  4.8297  12.8278  0 0520  std  0 0622  0 0092  0.0330  0 0333  0 0205  Ait  DrySand  Water  Air  OrySand  Water  3,6210  48560  12.7510  36210  4 8280  12 9780  3.6490  4.8840  12 9780  3.6630  5.0120  12.9780  3 7060  49130  12.9500  3.6770  4,9700  12 9780  3.6490  4.8840  12 9360  3.7200  5.0260  13.1340  5.0260  13.1340  318mm  Probe12  312mm  36920  4,8840  12.9780  3.6770  3 7060  4 8990  12 9360  3.6630  5.0120  128650  36630  48990  12.9500  35640  4.9840  12.8650  37620  4.8840  12.9210  3.6490  4.9840  12.9070  36920  4 9130  12 9360  3,8050  4,9980  12 9070  3.57B0  4 8840  12 9500  3.7200  4.9840  12 8790  12 9640  36060  4.9270  12.9070  13 0070  3.6920  4.9550  12 9070  12 9360  3.7060  4,9550  12 9070 12.9360  3 7340 3.6770 3 8190  std  5 0690  4,8280  PrabeW  Ave  Water  3.8050  37770  std  Air  Water  DrySand  12.8220  3.7340  Ave  DrySand  319mm  Probe11  316mm  Probe9  48840 4.9130 48990  3 7200  4.8990  12 9640  3.7340  4.9550  3 5780  48840  12.9210  3 7200  4.9550  12 9070  36831  48919  12 9385  Ave  3 6811  4,9714  12 9459  std  0 0586  0 0493  0.0848  0 0647  0 0153  0 0569  166  TDR Probes Calibration Air  DrySand  Water  49700  13.1200  3.7340  5,0690  131770  4.9980  13.1200  3,7480  5.0260  13.1200  3.6920  5.0690  13.2340  3.7620  5.0260  13.1830  5.0260  131060  3.734D  5.0260  13.1630  3.7480 3.7480  45980 4.99B0  131340 131490  3 6630 3.7060  5,1540 5.0260  13.1200 130780  3.6630  4.529D  13 0920  3.7340  5.0260  13 0780  131340  3.7480  5.0120  13.0920 13.1340  5 0550  3.7060  4,7850  13.1060  3.7340  5.0120  3,7060  4.9410  131770  3.7340  5.0120  131490  36490  4.9550  13.1770  3.7480  5.O120  13 0920  3.7060  5.3100  13.1060  3,7060  5.0120  13.1490  3 7060  6.0350  13.1200  3.6350  5.0120  131200  131340  3.7620  5.0260  13.1200  3.7060  5.0120  13.0920  3 7321  5 0166  13.1288  0 0315  0 0168  0.0303  3,6770  5.0550  3 6630  4,8280  13.1340  3 6898  5.0491  131305 0 0392  Ave std  0 0215  0 3242  Air 3 6770  DrySand  Water  Air  DrySand  Water  4.9410  12 9780  3.7200  4.9700  13.1340  3.6770  4,9270  129210  3.6770  4.9700  131340  12.9500  37480  4.9840  13.0920  12.9070  3.6920  45700  13 0920 13.1060  3,6210 3 6770  4 8840 4,9270  318mm  Probe16  311 mm  ProbeH  3,6920  4.8B40  12.9360  3,7480  4.9840  3.6770  4 9270  12 8790  3.7200  4.9840  13,1430  36770  4.9410  125070  37060  4.9840  13.1490  3.6920  4,8990  12 9070  3.7480  45700  13.0640  4 9130  12 8930  37340  4.99B0  131340  12.8930  3.7340  45840  131200  129070  3,7200  4.9840  131490 13 1200  3,6920 3 6770 3,6920  A^e  Air  3.6920  3,7200  Std  Water  3.6920 3.7060  Ave  DrySand  319mm  Probe15  320tTKt)  ProbeM  4.9130 4.9270  3.6920  4,94io  12 8930  3 7200  45980  3 6770  4.9130  12 8220  37200  4.9840  13.1340  3.6920  4,9270  129210  3 6920  45980  131200  36920  4 9130  12 8790  3 7340  4.9980  13.0920  3 6803  4.9185  129062  Ave  3,7209  4 9840  0.0353  std  0 0216  0.0106  13.1193 0 0253  0 0180  0 0184  167  TDR Probes Calibration Air  DrySand  3.5640  4,9550  3.5490  4.9410  3.5490  4.8990 4.8990  36060  310mm  Probe19  317mm  Probe17  Water  Afr  DrySand  12 9360  3,7340  5,0400  132200  12.9070  3,6920  5.0550  13 0490  12 9360  3,6350  5,0550  130070  12.9210  38770  5.0550  13 0070  12 9500  3.6770  5,0550  131630  5.0550  13.0640  3.6060 3 6060  4 8990 4,8990  12.9070  3,8190  3.6060  4.8990  12.9210  3,8190  5,0550  130490 13.0490  3.5920  4 8990  12 9210  3.7340  5.0260  3.5920  4 9130  12 9500  3.7200  5,0690  130640 13 0490  3.5920  4.8990  12.9500  3,8630  5.0550  3.7340  4.9130  12,9210  3.7200  5,0400  13,0920  3.5920  4.9130  12 9500  36630  5.0550  12 9780  3.5350  49130  12 9360  3.6350  5,0550  13 1340  3 5920  48990  12 9640  3,6490  5.0690  13.0490  3 6060  4.8990  12,9640  3.7200  5,0690  13,1630  Ave  3.5947  4 9093  12 9356  Ave  3.7038  5.0539  13 0758  sld  0 0453  00171  0 0188  std  0 0576  00115  0 0668  Air  DrySand  Water  Air  DrySand  Water  3.6350  4.9550  13.0780  3.6060  4.9980  13 1630  3 6770  4.9550  13.1490  3 5920  4,9840  13.1340  4.9980  13 1630  36770  49700  13.1200  35920  3 6920  4.9700  13 0780  3.6350  4,9980  13.1200 131200  3.6770  4,9550  13.0780  3.8630  4.9980  3.6350  4 9700  13,0490  3.6060  4,9980  13.0920  35920  49700  131200  3.6060  4.9840  13.1200  3 6920  4.9550  13.0640  36350  4,9980  13 0920  3 7060  4.9700  13.1200  3,5780  4.9980  131060  13,1340  3 6490  4,9980  131060  4.9980  13.1630  4,9700  13,1630 13 1630  3.6630  Ave std  32lmm  Probe20  316mm  ProbelB  4.9550  3.6920  4 9980  13.0640  3,6210  3.6920  4.9410  13,0780  3.6490  3.6770  4,9550  13 0780  36490  4.9980  3.5920  4 9840  13,1200  3 6350  4,9980  131490  3.6490  49550  13 0780  3,5920  4.9980  13.1490  36632  4,9639  13 0939  Ave  3.6205  4.9943  131335  std  0.0264  0 0083  0 0272  0 0357  0 0142  0 0301  ,  168  TDR Probes Calibration 318mm  Probe 23  322mm  Probe 21  Water  Air  DrySand  Water  4.9550 i l l i l i i p 13.2480 4.9550  3649D  4.9130  20 8020  3.6210  3.6490  4.9270  20.8450  3 7060  4 9980  13 2340  3.5490  4.9270  20 8310  13.2200  3.6490  4.9410  20,8450  13 2060 13 2200  3,6350 3,6350  4.9410 4.9130  20.8450  4.9270  20 8740  Air 3.6630  3.5920 3.5640 3.6490  DrySand  4.9700 4.9840 4 9980  20 9160  36060  4.9550  13.2620  3.6350  3.6350  4 9840  13.2340  3 5780  4.3130  20 8310  3.6060  4.9700  13 2200  3.6350  4.9410  20 9300  3.5780  4 9550  13.2480  3.6490  43410  20,8310  3.5070  4.9980  13.2200  3 6210  4.9270  20.7B80  4 9840  13 2480  3.6350  4.9410  20.859D  13.2200  3.6210  4.9270  20 8310  13 2200  3,5920  4.9130  20.8310  3,6210  49270  20.9D20  3,6235  4.0279  0 0291  00112  20.8507 0 039S  3.6350 3.6350 3.6210  4.9550 4,9980  37340  4.9840  13.22D0  Ave  3.623S  4 9762  13.2132  std  0 0550  0 0179  0.0669  Air  OrySand  Water  3.9040  5.0690  131340  4.O180  5 069D  13.1770  3 9040  5 0830  13 1770  3.9190  5.0890  13.1490  3,8050  5.0690  13.1060  3.B900  • 5.0690  13.0920  3.6190  5.0400  13.0920  3.S610  5.055D  131200  3.7200  5.0550  131060  3 8620  5.0550  13.1060  3.8760  5 0690  131060  3 8900  5 0550  13.2760  3.6620  5.0690  3.7770  5.012O  13.1630 131630  3.8760  5 0550  130490  Ave  3.8722  5 0595  131344  std  0 0726  0 0167  0 0534  Ave std  321mm  Probe 22  169  Appendix E.  Electrical Conductivity Sensors Construction  Construction of an Electrical Conductivity Sensor  Materials  •  PVC pipe (21.3 mm OD, 15.06 mm ID) for potable water.  •  Stainless steel washers (SS316) 5/16" ID x 7/8"OD flat washers (2 mm thick).  •  PVC rod 3/16" diameter.  • Epoxy •  Copper cable  Construction 1) Cut the PVC pipe into four 30 mm sections and one 150 mm long. 2) Machine the washers until their OD is similar to the OD of the PVC sections. 3) Drill four holes of 1/8" in each washer; one hole is for a copper wire to be soldered through and the other three to allow the epoxy to past through. 4) Solder a copper wire to a washer, using one of the holes. 5) Place a 30-mm PVC section as the head of the sensor followed by a washer; subsequently another PVC section is placed and the next copper wire is soldered on to the next washer. The same methodology is used until all the PVC sections (5 in total), washers (4) and copper wires (4) are in place. 6) Push the cable through a 15.06-mm PVC plug (tight fit) in order to prevent the epoxy to leak from this point. Then the plug is pushed into the PVC pipe section at the base of the sensor. 7) Hold the sections of the sensor together with two angled aluminum (90°) pieces and hose clamps.  171  8) Hold the assembled sensor vertically and start pouring the epoxy inside the sensor. During pouring, push the 3/16" P V C rod (9.5" long) down the sensor through the centre of the washers to increase sensor rigidity. 9) Pour the epoxy at intervals to allow the material to go down. 10) Add the epoxy as required until the sensor is completely filled. 11) Seal the sensor pushing a machined plug into the sensor head. This plug has a small hole that allows the excess epoxy to exit the sensor.  Figure E. 1  15.06-mm diameter P V C plug (cable through) installed at the base of the sensor.  172  Figure E.2  Washer placed inside a sensor  Figure E.4  Pouring the epoxy  Appendix F.  Electrical Conductivity Sensors Calibration  Antamina Waste Rock Test Piles Project  Pile 1 EC Sensor Calibration Date: 22 Dec, 2006 Calibration Tech Matt Neuner and Juan Carlos Corazao  Programming and Calculations: Matt Neuner  CAUTION: THE CALIBRATION BREAKS DOWN TO SOME DEGREE AT CONDUCTIVITIES HIGHER THAN 12 mS/cm. (norm to 25C) IF EC MEASUREMENTS BEGIN TO APPROACH THESE VALUES, A NEW CALIBRATION WILL BE NEEDED, AND A SMALLER REFERENCE RESISTOR MUST BE USED.  mmhos/cm umhos/cm emp EC mS/cm uS/cm S/m Ohms cone / M KCI gKCI/Lsoln C 1/2 Ecactual* @ 25( EC @ 25C EC @ 25C Resistnee if k=1 0.0001 0.007455 0.01 0.01489497 14.89497 0.001489497 671.3675825 0.001 0.07455 0 031622777 0.146894888 146 8948875 0.014689489 68.0758886 0.01 0.7455 0.1 1.40397 1403.97 0.140397 7.122659316 01 7.455 0316227766 11.98488754 11984 88754 1.198488754 0 834384133 0.5 37.275 0.707106781 41 35182129 41351 82129 4.135182129 0.241827317  Ohms Cell Constant k [m-1] Resistance if k»1.884 Rf [Ohms] 1264.856525 rain 128.2549741 stream 1341909015 marginalrivet(brackish 1.571979707 saline 0 455602665 80% salintity of sea water A  A  ACTUAL=THEORETICAL DATALOGGER MEASURED EXPECTED DATALOGGER EC01 EXP AT TEMP ATIO EC fmS/cml me; ECactual @ 2MEASURED 5C T13, em @ T* Rdiff. vs. a;j cone / M0.KCI 3p42735 ECactual 0.115160665 11.0(meas 4055322 0.116595702 001 0.010430697 0.146894888 1.129864764 1.40397 13.957599 1.116667807 11.04756948 0.01 0.101078143 9.451497051 0.845534617 11.98488754 14.77836167 9.714700959 11.48941837 43.46516911 3 888411 41.35182129 14.69888333 33.45800312 8.604543891  101.2 101.2 97.3 129.9  AVERAGE 1 d-avg logdy 11 19251369 stdev 0.257150929 %RSD 23  EC02 ECactual @ T* diff. (meas vs. a]| cone IM KCIEC (mS/cml me: ECactual @ 25C Temp 0.001 0.010340843 0 146894888 12977335 0.114165664 11.04026676 01007079 1 40397 13.547425 1.105992644 10.98218356 0.01 0.1 0.855587933 11 98488754 14 31804222 9.612432462 11.2348855 0.5 3.949820857 41.35182129 14.1983675 33 07433028 8 373627939  0.1155913 1.12572614 9.563874346 44.15161656  101.2 101.8 99.5 133 5  I d-avg log dy log dx log slope 11 0857786 1.917708712 1.925297796 1 00 stdev 0,13235582 %RSD 1.2  EC03 cone/M KCI EC [mS/cm] me 0.001 0.010181977 0.01 0098810474 0.1 0.86503995 0.5 3802664182  5478 1.104516467 9 66953023 42.50667991  100 5 100.7 101.7 130.0  ECactual @ 25C Temp ECactual @ T* diff. (meas vs. al| 0146894888 1265216857 0.11328022 11.12556219 1.40397 13.18989 1.096687459 11.09689883 11 98488754 1386414667 9.511591152 10.99555131 41 35182129 1371498333 32.70378981 8.600230851  EC04 cone IM KCIEC [mS/cm] me, ECactual @ 25C Temp ECactual @ T* diff. (meas vs • 0.001 0010081673 0146894888 12.3219225 0.112380944 11.14705338 1.40397 12 7502525 1.08524548 11.24457987 0.01 0096512764 13 374763 9.4028655 11.69105438 0.1 0 804278656 11.98488754 0.5 3733578357 41.35182129 13127794 32.25367699 8.638810787  0.112694263 1.078832355 8.990332497 41.73442948  EC05 cone IM KCIEC [mS/cml me 0.001 0.00929724 0.01 0 080010975 0.1 0 690857888 0.5 3.225288471  0.103925768 0.894373187 7.722500248 36.05269834  WTW factory EC meter cone / M KCI 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.5 SUMMARY  Probes EC01 EC02 EC03  d-avg  11.1925 110858 110733  ECactual @ 250 Temp ECactual @ T" 0.146894888 6.168880667 0.095625917 1.40397 6 007166667 0.909750337 11.98488754 6.0825835 7.782772668 41.35182129 6.143108611 26.89953261  diff. (meas vs. a;| 1028540935 11.37031941 1126537427 8.340194327  corrected to 25C* Temp corr subtracted EC [mS/cml me. Temp (WTW) EC [mS/cm] me. ECactual @ 25C Temp (thermistors) 0.171 7 1 0.114269459 0 146894888 6.963380781 1.471 7.1 0.982984642 1.40397 6 823570672 13.32 7.2 8925681224 11.98488754 6.894903625 62.0 7.4 41.77582729 41.35182129 6.916415219 avg d-av  0.133  V.RSD  15  •j dx 1.926125271  log slope 0.99  al)j%i'i d-avg logdy logdx log slope 11 07333744 1 929204047 1 924090091 iMWM stdev 0.068671289 %RSD 0.6  logdy logdx log slope >'J EC v.*. «< I d-avg 100 3 11.36089588 1.901873948 1.922567548 0.99 99.4 stdev 95.6 0 290054016 129.4 %RSD 2.6 1087 98 3 99 2 1340  I d-avg log dy log dx log slope 1097370101 1.871034689 1010558733 0.98 stdev 0.598363178 %RSD  ECactual @ T* 0.09784384 0.930996018 7.963244839 27.49231453  diff. (faclery meter vs. actual) (%1 116.8 1056 112.1 152.0  'Note: EC05 is an extra sensor, ft has therefore been excluded from the avaerage calibration factor calculation.  1.884 47.2  • Notes: 1. The calibration is applied with a single factor to 2. Temperature is accounted for in the calibration 3. The EC values output are the EC values at the i EC is generally normalized to a single tempera This normalization has been chosen to be dont 4. EC values for calibration solution, Source: 5. EC temperature correction equation source:  Electrical Conductivity and Temperature Relationship Sampling MattNeuner  Notes: Samples taken 19 Jan 07 at time given in sample name * Meter calibrated to OuS/cm and 12.88mS/cm by Matt Neuner 19 Jan 07 ** Temp correction using equation provided by Blair Gibson during Diavik EC probe calibration *** 0% slope approximates a zero temperature compensation  19 Jan 2007  units: EC - mS/cm; Temp - deg C Sample  WTW 340i field meter EC at 25C meas temp EC at 25C 2% slope default slope  CR1000 EC temp noTcorr  WTW standard 0.01 MKCI UBC standard 0.01 MKCI UBC standard 0.1 MKCI  meas temp  CR1000" ECat2SC  16.5 9.8  1.629 1.374 12.87 5.48 2.78 349  4.94 2.50 3.14  4 87 2 46 3 13  4 88 2 46 3 13  5.23 2.70 3.20  19.8  5.530 2.897 3.503  5.48 2.78 3.50  4.93 2.50 3.16  4 89 2 46 3 12  4 89 2 46 313  5.14 2.67 3.24  19.5 19.1 19.6  5.509 2.895 3.506  4 134 2.265: 2 435  11.38 13.225 8.555  5 55 2 85 3 55,  13.3 14.4 10.8  UBC_1 12:02 UBC_3 12:02 UBC_4 12:02  4 25 2:31 2 45  12.67 14.1 8.75  5 58 2 85 3 56  17.4 i 17.9 17.4  \ •  Std Dev. Between field and lab meter [mS/cm] 0.049 0.049 0.042  I.e. the WTW standard seems to be contaminated  Coming 441 Lab meter * EC at 25C EC at 20C EC at 20C 0% slope*** 0% slope*** 10% slope  1.638 1.439  UBC_1 11:16 UBC_3 11:16 UBC_4 11:19  Avg Std Dev  ECat20C 2% slope  0.520 0.138 0.491  0.071 0.049 0.042  0.453 0.106 0.474  0.051  0.364  '  Std Dev. Between CR1000 and lab meter [mS/cm] 0.035 0.083 0.009 0.020 0.081 0.004 Avg Std Dev  0.039  Appendix G.  Large Tipping Bucket Calibration (raw data)  UBC1-D (large tipping bucket) CR1000 ports: C8, 5V Date: 17-Dec-06  Tech: Matt Neuner and Juan Carlos Corazao L o w Flow  File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time  method: constant head bucket supplies water to tipping bucket: flow controlled by a 1/2" steel ball-cock valve; tips counted with CR10 data logger flow rate measured by 500mL graduated cylander (+/- 2.5mL) and the time kept by the  4:35:52 8.28 13:37:40 18:13:32  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip High Flow  File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time  Trial 2  Trial 1  TBcal04a 16552  3 0.01 5517.33 0.0005 0.030 2.76  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time  0:00:00  Trial 3 TBcal04b 462  Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time  Trials  Trial 4  0:00:00  TBcal04c 445  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time  0:00:00  TBcal04d 346  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s)  0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s)  0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s)  0.00 #DIV/0! 0.00  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s)  m L/tip  #DIV/0!  mL/tip  #DIV/0!  mL/tip  #DIV/0!  mL/tip  method: head maintained essentially constant in 7000L water truck which  TB_4 HI._01.dat 0:03:00 180 51.05 11:05:13 11:08:13  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip  17 5.67 10.59 0.28 17.02 3.00  File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min L/tip  Trial 6 File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/Up Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip  TB_4HI 01.dat 0:02:06 126 59.2 11:27:37 11:29:43 19 9.05 6.63 0.47 28.19 3.12  Trial 3 File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip  Trial 7  TB 4 HI 01.dat 0:04:02 242 50.7 14:34:06 14:38:08 17 4.21 14.24 0.21 12.57 2.98  File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Row rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip  TB 4 HI 01.dat 0:11:25 685 33.85 15:07:39 15:19:04 12 1.05 57.08 0.05 2.96 2.82  0:02:26 305 3:20:22 3:22:48  TBcal04e 146  114 46.85 1.28 2.09 2.68  the instrument hut. Note water flow path  Trial 2  Trial 1  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time  TB 4 HI 01.dat 0:00:56 56 60.65 11:43:59 11:44:55 19 20.36 2.95 1.08 64.98 3.19  Trial 4 File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip  Trial 8 File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip  TB_4HI_01.dat 0:37:44 2264 33.55 15:53:47 16:31:31 12 0.32 188.67 0.01 0.89 2.80  TB 4 HI 01.dat 0:01:29 89 68.85 12:01:17 12:02:46 22 14.83 4.05 0.77 46.42 3.13 Trial 8  File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min) L/tip  TB 4 HI _01.dat 0:44:03 2643 22.1 16:59:37 17:43:40 8 0.18 330.38 0.01 0.50 2.76  Trial 5 File: Time (s) Volume (L) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (Us) Flow rate (L/min L/tip  TB_4HI_01.dat 0:08:11 491 54.45 12:24:34 12:32:45 19 2.32 25.84 0.11 6.65 2.87  Appendix H.  Small Tipping Buckets Calibration (raw data)  UBC1-A (small tipping bucket) C R 10 00 ports1 :5-D Pe2c,-06G D a t e : Tech: Mat Neuner and Juan Corazao T riad lat1 Trial 2 F i l e : T B _ 1 t r i a l 1 . F i l e : T B _ 2 t r a i 2 ld .a0 t:09:00TBcaO l4b l Tm io ee(s)m 0:39 :2 5 T m i e ( s ) 5 0 V u l m ( L ) 5 2 5 V ou lrm eti m ( L) 2:42 388 0 S ap rt m tim S a tm Stto ti ee 1 11 2::4 25 4::1 48 3 Stto p m ti ee 1 12:51::4 48 Total tips 27 Total tips 19 T p i s m / n i 0 6 . 8 T p i s m / n i 2 1 . 1 sF eolw c/tiprate (mLs/) 80 72 5 ..2 9 sF eolw c/tiprate (mLs/) 20 87 4 ..0 2 mLp ti/ 194 .4 mLp ti/ 200 .0  Trial 3 TBca2 O l99 cl T m i e ( s ) 0 : 0 4 : 5 9 V o u lrm eti m ( L) 13:03 3:0 77 5 S t a t m e Stop m ti e 13:08:06 Total tips 18 T p i s m / n i 3 6 . 1 sF e c / t i p 1 6 6 . 1 o l w r a t e ( m L s / ) 1 2 . 5 mLp ti/ 208 .3  Trial 4 F i l e : TBcaO l15d l T m i e ( s ) 0 : 0 2 : 3 2 2 V o u lrm eti m ( L) 13:17 5:4 34 5 S t a t m e Stop m ti e 13:20:16 Total tips 24 T p i s m / n i 9 4 . sF eolw c/tiprate (mLs/) 6 3 .7 3 3 5 . 2 mLp ti/ 222 .9  Trial 6 F i l e : TBCA L 01F T m i e ( s ) 0 : 0 1 : 5 2 1 1 2 V o u lrm em m ( L) 11:14 7:2 50 3 S t a t t i e Stop m ti e 11:16:12 Total tips 33 T p i s m / n i 1 7 6 . 8 sF e c / t i p 3 3 . 9 olw ..2 m Lp ti/ rate (mLs/) 26 27 8 2  Trial 8 F i l e : TBCAL 01G T m io ee(s)m 0:01 1 :0 1 61 V u l m ( L ) 0 9 9 S ap rt m tim Stto ti ee 1 11 1::3 37 8::5 57 8 Total tips 41 T ics/m /ipn i 41 04 3 .9 3 sF eolp t . w 16 88 0 m Lp ti/ rate (mLs/) 2 ..2 0  Trial 9 F i l e : TBCA 01G Tm io ee(s)m 0:14 :5 4 8L 94 V u l m ( L ) 2 8 1 S ap rt m tim 12 1::1 51 7::5 05 1 Stto ti ee 1 Total tips 14 T p i s m / n i 0 9 . 4 sF eolw c/tiprate (mLs/)60 33 8 ..1 6 mLp ti/ 200 .7  Trial 7 F i l e : TBCAL 01G T m i e ( s ) 0 : 0 1 : 3 5 9 5 V ou lrm eti m ( L) 11:25 9:1 32 8 S t a t m e Stop m ti e 11:26:47 Total tips 38 T p i s m / n i 2 4 0 . 0 sF eolw c/tiprate (mLs/) 2 5 .7 0 9 8 . mLp ti/ 246 .8  Trial 5 F i l e : TBca1 O l63 el T m i e ( s ) 0 : 0 2 : 4 3 V ou lrm eti m ( L) 13:30 8:1 19 0 S t a t m e Stop m ti e 13:33:02 Total tips 36 T p i s m / n i 1 3 2 .3 5 sF eolw c/tiprate (mLs/) 4 5 . ..7 mLp ti/ 24 29 5 0  UBC1-B (small tipping bucket) CR1000 ports: Date: Tech:  C5.5V 16-Dec-06 Matt Neuner, Juan Carlos Corazao  Trial 1 File: TB_2trial01.dat TBcalOla Time (s) 0:28:07 1687 Volume (mL) 190 Start time 16:09:27 Stop time 16:37:34  Trial 2 File: TB_2 trial02.dat. TBcalOlb Time (s) 0:18:32 1112 Volume (mL) 345 Start time 16:51:26 Stop time 17:09:58  Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  9 0.32 187.44 0.11 21.11  Trial 6 File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  17 0.92 65.41 0.31 20.29  Trial 3  Trial 7  TBCAL01F 0:02:13 133 574 18:04:23 18:06:36 25 11.28 5.32 4.32 22.96  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  TBCAL01G 0:01:29 89 726 18:11:17 18:12:46 30 20.22 2.97 8.16 24.20  TBcalOlc 0:16:07 967 615 17:17:58 17:34:05 30 1.86 32.23 0.64 20.50  Trial 8 File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  TBCAL01G 0:01:05 65 818 18:17:37 18:18:42 31 28.62 2.10 12.58 26.39  Trial 4 File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop-time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  0:05:22 401 17:42:24 17:47:46 19 3.54 16.95 1.25 21.11  Trial 5 TBcalOld 322  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  0:05:09 637 17:51:30 17:56:39 29 5.63 10.66 2.06 21.97  TBcalOle 309  UBC1-C (small tipping bucket) CR1000 ports: C6, 5V Date: 17-Dec-06 Tech: Matt Neuner and Juan Carlos Corazao Trial 1 File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  TB_3trial01.dat 0:27:43 1663 189 11:18:42 11:46:25 9 0.32 184.78 0.11 21.00  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  Trial 6 File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  oo  TB_3 trial06.dat 0:06:29 389 729 15:40:07 15:46:36 34 5.24 11.44 1.87 21.44  Trial 3  Trial 2 TB_3 0:25:41 460 11:58:29 12:24:10  1541  20 0.78 77.05 0.30 23.00  Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  Trial 7 File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  TB_3 0:03:10 744 15:53:22 15:56:32 34 10.74 5.59 3.92 21.88  TBcal03c 0:12:10 730 356 12:41:56 12:54:06 17 1.40 42.94 0.49 20.94  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  Trial 8 190  File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  TB_3 tnal07.dat 0:02:51 171 1045 16:04:56 16:07:47 43 15.09 3.98 6.11 24.30  Trial 4 0:24:44 385 14:36:21 15:01:05  TBcal03d 1484  17 0.69 87.29 0.26 22.65  Trial 9 File: Time (s) Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min sec/tip Flow rate (mL/s) mL/tip  TB_3 trial07.dat 0:01:07 67 1012 16:16:18 16:17:25 36 32.24 1.86 15.10 28.11  Appendix I.  Material Characterization Tests Page  Loose density test details  Grain size distribution test details (1.5 m layer material)  185  ..186  Grain size distribution test details (Lastre material)  189  Grain size distribution test details (2B rejected material)  190  In-situ density (protective layer) - results  191  Infiltrometer test results  192  Grain size distribution test details (first end-dumping)  193  Grain size distribution test details (second end-dumping)  194  184  Loose Density Test  ENSAYO DE DENSIDAD IN SITU POR REEMPLAZO DE AGUA  MATERIAL : UBICACION: NUMERO DE ENSAYO: ORSFRVACIONFS:  P E S O DE MATERIAL + TARA (kg) P E S O DE TARA (kg) P E S O DE MUESTRA (kg) V O L U M E N DE MUESTRA (Lit) DENSIDAD HUMEDA (Tn/m3) HUMEDAD (%) DENSIDAD S E C A  DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO:  Roca tipo B Botadero - Punto B 1 Muestra sin compactar  (kg/m3)  10-Feb-03 Luis Carruitero A . Cabello / H. Villanueva Luis Carruitero  OBSERVACIONES  26530.0 15710.0 10820.0 5725.9 1.8902.4 ::::::::: :::::::::;::::•<* : I M c::::::::::::::::::::::::  :::::::::T.O*IO::::::::::::::::::::::::  Luis Carruitero Calculo del Caudal Y Volumen 1100 482 ( 8' 02") Lit/seg  Volumen: (Lit) Teimpo: (seg) Q = (V/T) Tiempo total: (seg.) Volumen registrado: Volumen total:  2027 QxT (Lit)  33' 47" 4625.93 5725.93  185  1.5 m Layer GRAINSIZE TEST DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO:  Roca tipo B MATERIAL: Botadero - Punto B UBICACION: M-1 MUESTRA N° Muestra obtenida del acopio OBSERVACIONES: 86" 36" 16" 12" t6" 8" 6" 4" 3"  6.6  2.6" 2" VA" i"  3/4"  Hi"  3/8" #4 #16 #26 #46 #60 #106 #266 TOTAL WEIGHT : FRACTION < 4" : FINE FRACT. <#4  1526.64 4629.1 336.5 230:5 241 241.5 313.5 4.628 1.198 3.862 4.437 3.548 2.032 1.971 0.862 2.261 50.3 38.3 31.5 32.2 42.1 57.5 9120.9 38.242 551.060  V.. ACUM. 160 16.7 67.4 71.1  V. RET. 0 16.7 50.8 3.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 3.4 2.1 0.6  RET. WEIGHT  73.6  76.3 78.9 62.4  0.9  91.5 92.4  1.6  63.6  6.4  7.6  94.3 94.8  95.1 95.5 96.6 96.6 MOISTURE WET DENSITY . DRY DENSITY  Kg. Kg. Kg.  26.4 23.7 21.1  13.2 11.1 9.5 8.5  62.8  6.6 0.4 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6  32.6 28.9  14.9  96.5  6.9  SPECIFICATION  15.5  66.6 88.9  2.0 1.6  V. PASSING 100 83.3  17.6  64.5 85.1  1.6  10-Feb-03 CMA - Medio Ambiente A . Cabello / H. Villanueva Luis Carruitero  7.2 6.2 5.7 5.2 4.9  4.5 4.0 3.4 2.4  % Tn/m3 Tn/m3  GRADATION  100;  90  :  80 : o z  70  :  (O (O  60  :  50  :  40  :  < Q.  >>S  30 : 20  :  10 : o 10000 :  1000  100  10  1  0.1  0.01  PARTICLE SIZE (mm)  O b s e r v a c i o n e s : Muestredo por personal de CMA - Medio Ambiente y B.C.U de diferentes puntos del material acumulado Luis Carruitero  1.5 m Layer GRAIN SIZE TEST MATERIAL : UBICACION:  MUESTRA N° OBSERVACIONES:  Roca tipo B Botadero - Punto B M-2  Muestra obtenida de Density Test  RET. WEIGHT SO" 36" 16"  12" 10"  8" 6" 4" 3" 2.8" 2"  V.  DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO:  RET.  Vo. AcUM. 100  0  0.0 0.0  0.0  0.0  1551.5  28.1 6.1  28.1 34.2 40.3 49.9  336.5  6.1 9.6  338.0 531.0  449:b  8.1 7.2  58.0  396.5 4.50  3.9  3.69  3.0 3.7  69.1 72.1 75.7 79.7  4.57 4.10  4.0 3.3  2.47  2.0  83.0 85.0  2.29 2.42 2.49  1.8  86.8  3/8" #4  88.7 90.7  #10  0.076  1.9 2.0 1.1  1%"  1" 3/4"  1/2"  5.00  65.2  #20 #40 #60  0.059  #100  0.076  #200 TOTAL WEIGHT : FRACTION < 4" : FINEFRACT. < # 4  0.046  0.0M 0.093 5526.4 43.539 0.656  91.8 92.6 93.3  0.8 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.3  Kg. Kg. Kg.  94.1 95.2  96.5 MOISTURE WET DENSITY DRY DENSITY  10-Feb-03 Luis Carruitero/A. Cabello A . Cabello / H. Villanueva Luis Carruitero V. PASSING 100 100.0 71.9 65.8 59.7 50.1 42.0 34.8 30.9 27.9 24.3 20.3 17.0 15.0 13.2 11.3 9.3 8.2 7.4 6.7 5.9 4.8 3.5 2.4 1.890 1.845  SPECIFICATION  % . Tn/m3 Tn/m3  GRADATION  100  10  1  0.01  PARTICLE SIZE (mm) Observasciones: Muestra obtenida de la excavation en el ensayo de densidad In Situ con reemplazo de agua. Luis Carruitero  1.5 m Layer GRAINSIZE TEST  MUESTRA N°  Roca tipo B Botadero - Punto B M-3  OBSERVACIONES:  Muestra obtenida del acopio  MATERIAL: UBICACION:  86" 36" 16" 12" 16" 8" 6" 4" 3" 2.5" 2" IV," 1" 3/4"  ill"  3/8" #4 #16 #26 #46 #66 #166 #266 TOTAL WEIGHT : FRACTION < 4" : FINE FRACT. <#4  RET. WEIGHT 0.0 0.0 1264.5 570.5 389 558.5 562.5 784.5 4.121 2.579 5.17 5.365 5.168 2.154 2.281 1.228 2.205 0.0655 0.0567 0.0479 0.0567 0.0694 0.0645 674S.0 43.003 0.636  DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO: V,.AcUM. 100 0.0 18.7 27.2 33.0 41.3 49.6 61.2 64.9 67.3 71.9 76.8 81.4 83.4 85.4 86.5 88.5 89.7 90.7 91.6 92.6 93.9 95.4 MOISTURE WET DENSITY DRY DENSITY  % RET. 0 0.0 16.7 8.5 5.8 8.3 8.3 11.6 3.7 2.3 4.7 4.8 4.7 1.9 2.1 1.1 2.0 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.5 Kg. Kg. Kg.  10-Feb-03 Luis Carruitero A . Cabello / H. Villanueva Luis Carruitero V. PASSING 100 100.0 81.3 72.8 67.0 58.7 50.4 38.8 35.1 32.7 28.1 23.2 18.6 16.6 14.6 13.5 11.5 10.3 9.3 8.4 7.4 6.1 4.6 3.8  SPECIFICATION  % Tn/m3 Tn/m3  GRADATION  100  10  1  0.01  PARTICLE SIZE (mm) O b s e r v a c i o n e s : Muestreado por personal de Golder en diferentes puntos del material acumulado  Luis Carruitero  Lastre Material  GRAINSIZE TEST PROYECTO: OBRA: MATERIAL: LOCATION:  TAMIZ #  4" 3" 2" 11/2" .1" 3/4" 1/2" 3/8" #4 # 10 #20 #40 #60 #100 #200  TOTAL WEIGHT FINE FRACTION MOISTURE:  A - 108 Plan de manejo de aguas superf, Fase II Para rell. De buzones Qda Antamina Chancadora Secundaria - Material de lastre  PESO RET.  2013 1868 5960 8401 3693 5645 4128 7100 139.7 98.1 70.3 95.3 141.9 155.9  64195 841  % RETENIDO  PROFUNDIDAD: DATE 20-Sep-05 SAMPLE # M-1  % RET. ACUM.  % Q' PASA  3.1 6.0 15.3 28.4 34.2 43.0 49.4 60.5 67.0 71.6 74.9 79.4 86.1 93.4  100.0 100.0 94.0 84.7 71.6 65.8 57.0 50.6 39.5 33.0 28.4 25.1 20.6 13.9 6.6  3.1 2.9 9.3 13.1 5.8 8.8 6.4 11.1 6.6 4.6 3.3 4.5 6.7 7.3  CLASIFICATION:  ESPECIFIC.  LIM. LIQ. LIM. PLAST. IND. PL.  GRAINSIZE TEST - --  „  o o  og  X  m »rr»--W"i.»--i*---«"* rrr-i^^ l  mm  iiiiiiiii i i iiiiiiiii ii i  55 50 a. 40 3« 30  v Bpi'i iiiii  1000  Nota:  100  10  1  SIZE PARTICLES  0.1  0.01  2B Rejected Material  GRAINSIZE TEST PROYECTO: OBRA: MATERIAL : LOCATION:  A-108 Plan de manejo de aguas superf. Fase II 2B rechazado para cama de geomembrana Chancadora Terciario  PROFUNDIDAD: DATE 5-Nov-05 SAMPLE # M -1  TAMIZ #  PESO RET.  % RETENIDO  % RET. ACUM.  % Q' P A S A  4" 3" 2" 11/2" 1" 3/4" 1/2" 3/8" #4 #10 #20 #40 #60 #100 #200  0 0 4547 4181 7797 5009 10516 286.9 180.7 128.4 39.1 50 64.6  0.0 0.0 7.4 6.8 12.6 8.1 17.0 14.5 9.1 6.5 2.0 2.5 3.3  0.0 0.0 7.4 14.1 26.8 34.9 51.9 66.4 75.5 82.0 84.0 86.5 89.7  100.0 100.0 92.6 85.9 73.2 65.1 48.1 33.6 24.5 18.0 16.0 13.5 10.3  TOTAL WEIGHT  61760  FINE FRACTION  953  CLASIFICATION:  ESPECIFIC.  LIM. LIQ. LIM. PLAST.  MOISTURE:  IND. PL.  100 90 80 70 O en 60 C/j 50  o c*5 i-co  | #200  CO  j#20 I #40  GRAINSIZE TEST -h -i}  ----  < 2 An 40 -  30 -ji 20 -f 10 -ii 0 -f1000  Nota:  ill  •  100  10  1  SIZE PARTICLES  0.1  0.01  In Situ Density E N S A Y O D E DENSIDAD IN SITU A.S.T.M D - 1556 PROYECTO  U.B.C. TEST PAD  OBRA:  FECHA :  27-Mar-06  CLIMA :  Lluvioso  Plataf. 30 cm con 2B Rechazado  VALOR DENS. ESTANDAR  2.356 (gr/cc)  CONTRATISTA:  CMA - Operaciones  VALOR HUMEDAD OPTIMA  6.00%  ENSAYADO POR  A. Cabello .  REVISADO:  L. CARRUITERO  ESTRUCTURA:  COMPACT. REQUEREDA: DENSIDAD HUMEDA 1  N° DE ENSAYO  2  UBICACION  1  2  3  North  North West  Center  1  1  1  3  COTA  4  MATERIAL:  5  PROFUNDIDAD  6  DENSIDAD ARENA CALIBRADA (gr/cc)  1.464  1.464  1.464  7  PESO DE ARENA + ENVASE  (gr)  6000  6000  6000  (gr)  394  759  784  1574  1574  1574  2B Rechazado  CAPA (m)  8  PESO DEVUELTO  9  CORRECCION DEL CONO  10  PESO DE ARENA EN EL HUECO (gr)  (gr)  iiiiiiiiii^&iiiiii  3642  lH;yjJJJ2505lllllll!l;  2488  11  VULOMEN DEL HUECO  (cc)  2754  12  PESO DE MUESTRA HUMEDA DENSIDAD HUMEDA IN SITU  (gr) (gr/cc)  6620  6026  5973  2.404  2.406  2 401  13  CONTENIDO DE HUMEDAD 14  RECIPIENTE NUMERO  1  1  1 6991.0  15  RECIPIENTE + SUELO HUMEDO (gr)  7618.0  7042.0  16  RECIPIENTE + SUELO SECO  7446.0  6871.0  6807.0  17  AGUA  172.0  171.0  184.0  18  PESO DEL RECIPIENTE  (gr) (gr) (gr)  998.0  1016.0  1018.0 5789.0  19  PESO DEL SUELO SECO  (gr)  6448.0  5855.0  20  HUMEDAD IN SITU  (gr)  2.7  2.9  3.2  COMPACTACION 21  DENSIDAD SECA MATERIAL IN SITU (gr/cc  2.341  2.338  2.327  22  MAX. DENSIDAD SECA (PROCTOR) (gr/cc)  2.356  2.356  2.356  99.4  99.2  98.8  23  GRADO DE COMPACTACION  OBSERVACIONES:  (%)  El ensayo se realizo en un acapa de 30 cm. de 2B rechazado. La capa fue compactada con rodillo de 10 Toneladas.  Table 1.1 Location No. 1 2 3  Infiltrometer tests  Location Description Pile Base Centre NE Pile Base SW Pile Base  Test No. at Location 1 2 1 1  Final reading on L Difference Time Initial reading on L- Shaped Ruler (min) (cm) Shaped Ruler (cm) (cm) 20 18 18 18  21.9 20.8 19.4 20.3  1.9 2.8  1.4  2.3  120 199 207 145  Time (s) 7200 11940 12420 8700  Hydraulic Conductivity (cm/s)  Hydraulic Conductivity (m/s)  2.6E-04 2.3E-04 1.1E-04 2.6E-04  2.6E-06 2.3E-06 1.1E-06 2.6E-06  First End-Dumping GRAINSIZE TEST MATERIAL: UBICACION:  MUESTRA N° OBSERVACIONES: 80" 36" 16" 12" 10" 8" 6" 4" 3" 2.5" 2"  vA"  1" 3/4" 1/2" 3/8" #4 #10 #20 #40 #60 #100 #200 TOTAL WEIGHT : FRACTION < 4" : FINE FRACT. <#4  DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO:  Roca tipo B Botadero - Punto B M-4  Muestra obtenida del acopio RET. WEIGHT 0.0 850.0 1761 1466 893 1479.5 1016.5 749 598 1.433 4.101 4.365 7.098 2.357 3.997 1.653 3.634 0.195 0.143 0.079 0.047 0.0519 0.0788 12895.0 37.474 0.807  % RET. 0 6.6 13.7 11.4 6.9  %.ACUM. 100 6.6 20.2 31.6 38.5 50.0 57.9 63.7 68.3 69.6 73.0 76.7 82.7 84.7 88.1  11.5 7.9 5.8 4.6 1.2  3.5 3.7 6.0 2.0 3.4 1.4 3.1 1.8 1.3 0.7 0.4  0.5 0.7 Kg. Kg. Kg.  89.5  92.5 94.3 95.7 96.4 96.8 97.3 98.0 MOISTURE WET DENSITY DRY DENSITY  11-Jun-06 Richard Fuentes W. Cabrera / R. Fuentes Luis Carruitero % PASSING 100 93.4 79.8 68.4 61.5 50.0 42.1 36.3 31.7 30.4 27.0 23.3 17.3 15.3 11.9 10.5 7.5 5.7 4.3 3.6 3.2 2.7 2.0 2.1  SPECIFICATION  % Tn/m3 Tn/m3  GRADATION  PARTICLE SIZE (mm) O b s e r v a c i o n e s : Muestreado por indication y en conjunto con Juan Carlos De B.C.U  Ing. Luis Carruitero  Second End-Dumping GRAIN SIZE TEST MATERIAL: UBICACION:  MUESTRA N° OBSERVACIONES: 80'* 36" 16" 12" 108" 6" 4" 3" 2.5" 2"  V/,  M  1"  3/4"  1/2" 3/8 " #4 #10 #20 #40 #60 #100 #200 TOTAL WEIGHT : FRACTION < 4" : FINE FRACT. <#4  DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO:  Rocatipo B Botadero - Punto B M-1  Muestra obtenida del acopio RET. WEIGHT 0.0 4066 1868 1487 1063 983 942 1865 889 2.966 1.814 5.775 14.005 9.138 12.872 5.751 9.426 0.273 0.171 0.102 0.064 0.052 0.046 16154.0 79.206 0.830  % RET. 0 25.2 11.6 9.2 6.6 6.1 S.8 11.5 5.5 0.7 0.4 1.3 3.3 2.1 3.0 1.3 2.2 1.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 Kg. Kg. Kg.  % . ACUM. 100 25.2 36.7 45.9 52.5 58.6 64.4 76.0 81.5 82.2 82.6 84.0 87.2 89.4 92.4 93.7 95.997.3 98.1 98.6 98.9 99.2 99.4 MOISTURE WET DENSITY DRY DENSITY  29-Jun-06 CMA - Medio Ambiente A . Cabello / R. Puican S. Suarez % PASSING 100 74.8 63.3 54.1 47.5 41.4 35.6 24.0 18.5 17.8 17.4 16.0 12.8 10.6 7.6 6.3 4.1 2.7 1.9 1.4 1.1 0.8 0.6 1.7  SPECIFICATION  % Tn/m3 Tn/m3  GRADATION  PARTICLE SIZE (mm) O b s e r v a c i o n e s : Muestredo por personal de CMA - Medio Ambiente y B.C.U  Luis Carruitero  Appendix J.  Test Pile Construction and Instrumentation Fig  Original Design Area  ^/"Temporarily Extended Area  Pile Foundation Sc:  1/200  S=3%  ,20  Cross Section A-A Sc:  Foundation Detail  1/200  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  Sc.=1:40  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PILE FOUNDATION HGURE:  ON,  DATE:  J  u  n  e  _  0  7  SCALE: | jicated n<  U N I T S :  METERS  . •* . ' . \  w  ;-»|vV; ':V"  V.**.  r-:':^'.';-...;,v':.^-,  S=3% to 1  11  c/)  Berm Apex  36.00» 40.00  HDPE 4" ID Corrugated Drainage Pipe (Lysimeter)  "HDPE 4" ID Corrugated Drainage Pipes (Sub-Lysimeters) S=3%  B -36.00-42.00-  LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200  Berm Apex  Cross Section A-A Sc: 1/200  Cross Section B-B Sc: 1/200  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA R R 0 J E C T :  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LYSIMETER BERM  FIGURE:  DATE:  J u n e  _ 7 0  S C A L E :  Indicated  U N I T S :  METERS  UBC  IP  Pile Exterior.  . Pile Interior  Geomenbrane Anchor Backfill Geomem Compacted Berm Layer 3 (2B Rejected Material)  Protecti (Compacted 2B Rejected Materi  Compacted Berm Layer 2 (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Compacted Berm Layer 1 (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Upper Fundation Layer (Copacted 2B Rejected Material) Waste Rock Foundation  1.81  1.46  1.45  .69  5.41  Front, Right and Left Berm of Lysimeter Sc.=1:40  .Pile Exterior  Pile Interior.  Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material)  Geomembrane (60 mil) Compacted Berm Layer 3 (2B Rejected Material) Compacted Berm Layer 2" (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Compacted Berm Layer 1" (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Upper Fundation Layer" (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Waste Rock Foundation"  Back Berm of Lysimeter Sc.=1:40  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LYSIMETER BERM DESIGN  FIGURE:  J-03  DATE:  June-07  S C A L £ :  1:40  U N I T S :  METERS  2.10 Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Gravel  m Section of Perforated Tubing with a Geotextile Screening  Tubing  HDPE 04" ID Corrugated Berm  HDPE 04 ID Corrugated Perforated Pipe 2.10  Lysimeter Drainage to Instrumentation Hut  Collection Sump Eggress  7  Collection Sump Sc.=1:25  Geomembrane Dam Collect Water Ponding Atop Protective Layer  Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material)  HDPE 04" ID Corrugated Perforated Pipe Geomembrane Anchoring 1m Section of Perforated Tubing with a Geotextile Screening Geotextile Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material)  Cross Section C-C  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE  Geomembrane (60 mil)  WATER COLLECTION SUMP FIGURE:  DATE: j  u  n  e  _  0  7  SCALE: | | A T E D N D  C  U N I T S :  METERS  UBC  m  -Z-  Berm Apex  S=3%  10.90  f K str.  ILine Ins 1 (Toe) ft? II  10.90 18.65  Instr. Line 2(Toe)  Instr. Line 3(Toe)  9.15 4.10  Draincge from liysim Instrumentation  Collection Sump {Refer to Drawing J-04) '  I 005  I  I  I  I  I  010  015  020  025  030  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  I 035 0 + 036  0+000  LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200  UBC  PROJECT •  • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE DRAINAGE AND PROTECTIVE PIPES  FIGURE: j^Jg  DATE:  J u n e  _  0 7  SCALE: . ]  2QQ  UNITS:  u n £ R S  Qoo  Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Geomembrane (60 mil) Compacted Berm Layer 2 (2B Rejected Material) Compacted Berm Layer 1 (2B Rejected Material)  Protective Layer  Cross Section A - A  (Compacted 2B Rejected Material)  Sc.-1:50  HDPE 04" ID Corrugated Pipe  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT :  LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc:  1/200  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SUB-LYSIMETERS DESIGN  DRAWING: J^JQ  DATE:  J  u  n  e  _  0  7  SCALE:  ,.  2  0  0  UNITS: METERS  UBC  Notes: Sub-Lysimeter A  /§\  Instrumentation  Hut  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  A\  Sub-Lysimeter B  PROJECT *  A  Sub-Lysimeter C Lysimetor (D)  FIGURE:  A  • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PILE BASE D A T E :  June-07  3D SCALE:  N  /  A  U N r r S :  METERS  UBC  IP  in I  L E G E N D DESCRIPTION  SYMBOL  G T TDR  1 005  01 0  015  i i j i b -b 0 2 0 u) tn o l d (/)  |  to  0+000  025  030  | 035  PROJECT :  0+036  To Instrumentation Hut  LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200  Gas Sampling Port Thermistors Time Domain Reflectrometry Sensor  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  ro  Line  in*-cN"cr> m  Line Line Line Line  +  o  FIGURE:  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINES DATE: j  u  n  e  _  0  7  SCALE: INDICATED  U N I T S :  METERS  UBC  m 203  HDPE 02" ID Corrugated Pipe 0)4"OD Polyethylene Tubing  To Instrumentation Hut  HDPE 0 2 " ID Corrugated Pipe HDPE 02" ID Corrugated Pipe To Instrumentation Hut Waste Rock Screened Waste Rock Fines Thermistor  Screened Waste Rock Fines 01/8"OD Polyethylene Tubing Piece of Cloth Plastic Cable Tie Gravel Waste Rock  Instrument Wire  Schematic Outline of Thermistors and Gas Sampling Port Installation Waste Rock Screened Waste Rock Fines Ceramic Cup Screened Waste Rock Fines  To Instrumentation Hut  Waste Rock Silica Flour #200  Schematic Outline of Soil Water Sampler Installation  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT  Schematic Outline of TDR Installation  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SENSORS AND SAMPLING PORTS INSTALLATION  FIGURE:  J-09  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE:  N/A  m f T S :  METERS  2o4  Cross Sections Sc.=1:20  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJFCT •  • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PROTECTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM AND BASAL INSTRUMENTATION  LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc:  1/200  FIGURE:  j.  1  Q  DATE:  j  u  n  e  _  S C A L E : 0  7  INDICATED  m n S :  UBC  w  METERS  2o5  Cross Section A-A Sc: 1/200  Protective Layer Two Sc: 1/200  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  UBC  PROJECT : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PILE BASE PRIOR TO END-DUMPING FIGURE; J . ^  DATE:  June-07 SCALE:  1:  20Q  M  N  S  :  METERS  •  4388  4388  0+000  010  005  015  020  025  030  035  040  045  050  055  0+060  Cross Section Sc:  0+000  005  010  015  020  025  030  Sc:  G  DESCRIPTION Gas Sampling  SWSI  Soil Water Sampler  045  0+060  055  050  1/200  PROJECT  Thermistors Time Domain Reflectrometry  040  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  Port  TDR  035  Instrumentation Line 1 Front View  L E G E N D SYMBOL  1/200  Sensor  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINE 1  FIGURE:  J-12  DATE:  June—07  SCALE:  1:200  UNITS:  METERS  207  4388  4388  0+000  005  010  015  020  025  030  035  040  045  050  055  0+060  Cross Section Sc: 1/200  4388-  -4388  4386-  -4386  qiThi —[QHHTIBWSrreW-  4384-  -4384  mum  4382-  -4382  -m  GTDRHm  4380-  -4380  —  -HESS JfitJ H I M  4378-  Protective Layer Two  -4378  4376-  -4376  4374-  -4374  4372-  -4372  0+000  005  010  020  015  025  030  035  040  045  050  0+060  055  Instrumentation Line 2 Front View Sc: 1/200  L E G E N D SYMBOL  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  DESCRIPTION  G T TDR  Thermistors  SWS  Soil Water Sampler  Gas Sampling  Port  Time Domain Reflectrometry  PROJECT  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE  Sensor  INSTRUMENTATION LINE 2 DRAWING:  J-13  DATE:  June-07  S C A t £ :  1:200  U N I T S :  METERS  2o&  4388  0+000  4388  005  010  015  020  025  030  035  040  045  050  055  0+060  Cross Section Sc: 1/200  4388 438&  0+000  005  010  015  G T  ITDFt  ISWSI  040  045  050  PROJECT  Thermistors  Soil Water Sampler  035  055  0+060  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  Port  Time Domain Reflectrometry  030  Sc: 1/200  DESCRIPTION Gas Sampling  025  Instrumentation Line 3 Front View  L E G E N D SYMBOL  020  Sensor  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINE 3  DRAWING: J-14  DATE:  June-07 '  S C A L E  '  1:200  UNITS: METERS  •2oq  4388  4388  0+000  005  010  015  020  025  030  035  040  045  0+060  055  050  Cross Section Sc: 1/200  0+000  005  010  015  020  025  030  035  040  045  0+060  055  050  Instrumentation Line 4 Front View Sc: 1/200  L E G E N D SYMBOL  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  DESCRIPTION  G T TDR  Thermistors  sws  Soil Water Sampler  Gas Sampling  Port  Time Domain Reflectrometry  PROJECT :  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINE 4  Sensor FIGURE:  J-15  D A T E :  June-07  S C A L E :  1:200  U N I T S :  METERS  140  Notes: (T) I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  line 1  (2) I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  line 2  (5) I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  line 3  (4) I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  line  4  /JE\  Instrumentation  Hut  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT •  ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINES 3D  FIGURE:  j^g  DATE:  June-07  SCALE:  N  /  A  U N I T 5 :  METERS  U B C  Notes:  © Instrumentation © Instrumentation © Instrumentation © Instrumentation  line  1  line  2  line  3  line  4  A A A A A  Sub-Lysimeter A Sub-Lysimeter  B  Sub-Lysimeter  C  Lysimetor  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA P R t W E C T :  (D)  Instrumentation  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE EXPERIMENTAL PILE -  Hut  FIGURE:  DATE:  J  u  n  e  _  0  7  SCALE:  N  /  A  3D UNPfS:  m  ^  R  S  UBC  2.80  o  7.00  INSTRUMENTATION  HUT FRONT VIEW  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA P R 0 J E C T :  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT (FRONT VIEW)  FIGURE:  j^g  DATE: j  u  n  e  _  0  7  SCALE:  y 2 Q  UNITS:  M E J E R S  UBC  ' 0 4 " ID Corrugated Pipes coming from Sub-Lysimeters 8.00 .50  04" ID Corrugated Pipe" coming from Lysimeter  •Instrumentation Wires and tubing coming from test pile (protective pipes)  .50  Buried Composite Sample Tank (2500 L)  •Datalogging System  Soil Water Samplers Hanel  Water Sampling Ports •Water Conveyance Systems  Gas Lines Panel" 3.50  Small Tipping Buckets  B  .50  (A Discharge to the environment  Discharge from Composite Sample Tank  INSTRUMENTATION HUT PLAN VIEW  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  UBC  PROJECT •  • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE  INSTRUMENTATION HUT INCLUDING (FLOW SPLITTER) FIGURE:  j^g  DATE:  June-07 SCALE:  U N I T S :  METERS  2-H  ' 0 4 " ID Corrugated Pipes coming from Sub-Lysimeters 1.00 .50  04" ID Corrugated Pipe" coming from Lysimeter  Instrumentation Wires and tubing coming from test pile (protective pipes)  'Data Logging System Water Monitoring  .50  Soil Water Sampler Panel  Ports  Water Conveyance Systems  Gas Line Panel" 3.50  4.50  Small Tipping Buckets Outlet to composi e sample Discharge to the  environment  Tipping Bucket Large  B  / / /  B  / /  /  .50  INSTRUMENTATION HUT PLAN VIEW  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT  UBC  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE  INSTRUMENTATION HUT INCLUDING LARGE TIPPING BUCKET FIGURE:  j_  2 0  |  D A T E :  June-07  I  S C A L E :  1:20  |  U N I T S :  METERS  245  Rain Gauge  04" ID Corrugated Pipes coming from Sub-Lysimeter 04" ID Corrugated Pipe from Lysimeter Large Tipping Bucket  nstrumentation Wires and tubing f r o m test pile (protective pipes) Data logging  0.50  3.50  coming  system  0.50  CROSS SECTION A-A  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  UBC  PROJECT •  ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT (CROSS SECTION A - A )  FIGURE:  j_2^  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE:  1 *20  U N I T S :  METERS  Q.AC  CROSS SECTION  2500L  B-B  Buried Composite Sample Tank  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT :  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT CROSS SECTION B-B  FIGURE:  J-22  DATE:  June-07  S C A L E :  1:20  U N I T S :  METERS  U B CI  m  an  0.11  0.10  1.02  CN O  LINE 1 G4  0  G5  e  0  0  0  LINElo G1  G2  G3  LINE2o G1  e G2  0  LINE3o G1  G2  G3  G4  GS  G6  G7  G8  0  e G3  e G4  0  0  e G7  e G8  0  0  0  G3 0  0  G4 0  GS 0  G6 0  0  0  0  0  0  e  G7  G8  G9  G10  0  0  0  0  G7 0  G8  G9  G10  0  e G9  e G10  0  0  0  0  UBC1-L2E  G2  G5  G6  G9  G10  0  G2  0  G3  e G4  e G5  0  G6  0  G7  e G8  e G9  0  G10  UBC1-L4E  0  0 1  O  UBC1-L2B  0  UBC1-L2B  UBC1-L4B  0  1  0 LO •  CN 03  o . UBC1-L26  0  UBC1-L26  UBC1-L46  0  0 LO •  CD UBC1-L2B  LINE 5 . G1  UBC1-L2E  0  LINE 4 LO  O  LINE4o 61  TOP OF PILE LINE 2  TOP OF PILE  BOTTOM OF PILE  0  UBC1-L2B  UBC1-L4B  0  0 LO •  e  O •  LINE 6 . G1  G2  LINE 6 . G12  G13  0  0  G3  G4  G5  e G6  0  0  e  e  0  G14  0  0  G7  G8  G9  G10  e G11  0  0  e  e  e  0  0  0  0  UBC1-L2A  0  UBC1-L2A  0  CD  BOTTOM OF PILE  0.25  0.25 0.1 1.22  UBC1-L4A  0  o  0.10  0.10  0.10  0.1 1  PANEL-SOIL WATER SAMPLERS  PANEL-GAS LINES  Note: The following gas lines were not long enough to reach the Gas Lines Panel. They are located close to the panel. L1/G8/1 L1/G6 L1/G9/1 L1/G10/1  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  UBC  PROJECT :  CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SOIL WATER SAMPLER AND GAS LINE PANELS FIGURE:  j^g  D A T E :  June-07  SCALE:  1  :  1  Q  U N I T S :  ^ /  METERS  HQ  12V  POWER  SUPPLY  2 4  Appendix K.  Calculation of Flow-Through Protective Layer (Calculated by Dr. Roger Beckie)  Protective pad, 35 cm thick. If saturated, will have a gradient in head of 3%. How much water flows through the pad each instant and how does that compare with the amount of water coming from the top from infiltration?  Infiltration from above: 1 m/yr or Q = qA = 1^ x 36 x 36 m = 3.6 m 2  Flow through the protective layer: Q = qA = K-Q- X A K = 0.2 f , f | = 0.03, Q = (0.2'f )(O03)(36'm)(0.35 m) Qprotect = 0.076  K=2E-6 m/s 36 m X 0.35 m thick  The amount o f water coming from the top is 3.6 m 3 / d on average and the protective layer can transmit 0.076 m 3 / d so it cannot transmit the water away. Consequently, the water w i l l pond on the protective layer A F T E R it saturates, and then flow to the collection pipes. C O N C L U S I O N : use the original design, the K layer is l o w enough. ; : V .- •> A  A  3  Appendix L.  CR1000  Datalogger Program  Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1  ' CR1000 'ANTAMINA '  Pila  /  1  UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  Pilas  Experimentales  de Roca  Desmonte  Typo B  t t l t l i t t t t t t t t t t i t t l r t t i r t i i i i i r r r i t i i l l i r i t t i r l t l t t t t t t t i i l i i t i t i t i l t i t t t i t l t i  '  Written  by:  David  Jones  and Matt  Neuner  2006  r t r t r t i t t i t i i t i t t i t t t i t i i i r f i i t t i f r f i t i t t i t t i i t i t i i t t i t i t r t i t t t i t t i t i t i i f i t t r t i  'IMPORTANT!!  ! Collect  6 Data  '  tblTB_l,  tblTB_2,  tblSlow,  Tables  '•••"••••"•••••••••"""•'""•"<•"•  tblTB_3,  tblTB_4,  tblRain  r i r i t t i t t r i t i t i i i l t l i t t i i t t i t i t i t i t t t t t i t t t i t t i i f t i r i t i i t t i l f t t t i t i r t t t l i i i t t t i  '  VERSION 2 '  '  tipping  Data  buckets  Output  to CFM100  collected  on-demand.  'Data collection Rates: ' 30 min: TDR , Temperature, ' ' ' ' '  *************************************** All  others  collected  every  30 min  Conductivity  hardware setup: 1)ESI Interconnect Module comME part of CS I/O SW12 as Power Control of MP-917 from Interconnect Module added 78L05 for level shift (12 to 5 v) ' 2). SDMX50  i  t r t i t r f i i t t t r i r t f t t t i t t t t t r r t i T t t i t i t i t f t r r t t t r t t t t t i i r t t i r t r t t t t i t r t t r r i r f t t i i i i r t i i t i f t i  ' 2) SDMX50' SMD protocol ' Portl = Data ' Port2 = Clock ' Port3 = Enable ' The multiplexer is serially addressed using an 8 bit clocked data stream. Four bits are us ' specify one of the 16 inputs and the other 4 bits are used to specify the address of the m ' The multiplexer may be set to one of 16 addresses by moving a jumper on the back (bottom o ' two printed circuit boards) ' ScanRate determined by 22 diodes * 30 sec/diode + Temperature +?? I l i t t i t i t l i t t t i r t l t l r t t t i i t l t i t l t i i t l t t l t r i t l l i t r t l t i l l l t l l i r t t t l f i f t l t l r i l t t t i i r t l i t l l t r i t l  '  3)RST  '  Port  4 = Reset  flexi-mux  for  RST Thermistor  Muxes  '  Port  7 = Clock  for  RST Thermistor  Muxes  '  the are 3 muxes  '  each  mux can control  10 thermistors  '  Half  Bridge  = 2255  I  set for  2 wire  in parallel,  Resistor  thermistors  and 4 wire  so 3 thermistors  conductivity  can be measured  so 30 thermistors  are  each  mux address  cycle  available  ohms  I t t i t l t t l t t l l l l t t t t t f t l t t l t l t i t l t i r l l t l t l t t t i i t i t f i t t t i i t l l t i i t l t i i t i t i t t i i i t t t i t t i i t i i t i r  ' ' '  Conductivity resistor - 1.8 k ohms cond cells are on RST mux configured It is the last mux and is addressed  '  10 clocks  I  will  get  to the  as as a by clocking  differential thru the first  mux  cond  t , r r i r i r t i , t , f f i r , t t t i t t i r t i r t t i l t t i i r i ' r t l t r i l t l t i i i l t i i i t i t t i t t t t t t l r i t f t i i i f i i T t i t i i i i t  ' debugging Const measCond = 1 Const measMoist = 1 C o n s t measTemp = 1 Const  OFF = 0  Const  ON = 1  Const  MainScanRate  Const  LastDiode  Const  DiodePower  Const  LastTherm = 30 'these  = 30 ' minutes  collects  all  =2 2 = 9 'SW12 as MP917 power  control  are on the RST mux last  6 are on the CR1000  Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1  4 = Reset  for  Temperature  Muxes  Const TClock = 7 ' Port 7 = Clock  for  Temperature  Muxes  Const TReset = 4  ' Port  Const Rvalue = 2255  '. coefficients  for  ' Half  Bridge RST Thermistor  resistor equation  for thermistors RST Work Order:  Q04838  Const CO = .0014733 const C l = .0002372 const C3 = 1.074E-07 Const EC_Rf =47.2  ' Reference resistor  Const k = -1.884  ' Cell  ' counts  P u b l i c TB_1  Public Public Public Public Public Public Public  tips  per  [Ohms]  for  sec  in  ' cummalitive  daily  sublysimeter  drain  gauges  (TB_1,  TB_2,  TB_3)  (TB_4) in  mm of  rain  'thermistor  ' TDR  P u b l i c DiodeData as s t r i n g  * 50  PUBLIC P a r s e S t r ( 5 )  moisture ' Diode  P u b l i c EC_Rs(4)  string  about  40  characters  as s t r i n g * 15  P u b l i c F u l l ( 4 ) ' c o n d u c t i v i t y full P u b l i c EC_V2_V1(4) 'resistance  through  bridge the  P u b l i c EC(4) ' E l e c t r i c a l C o n d u c t i v i t y of  ' ' '  flow  trigger  P u b l i c Moist(22) as f l o a t  'Declare  sensor  ch ' cch ' c o n d u c t i v i t y ten ' thermistor ich 'Celcius i  P u b l i c Thermistor(4,10) P u b l i c TRatio(4,10) Public TResist P u b l i c LnR Public Kelvin  Units Units Units Units Units Units Units Units  EC  [m"-ll  precipitation,  'Precipitation  Public Rain_total  Public  (SE1 to SE2) for  EC sensor  TB_l_total TB_2 TB_2_total TB_3 TB_3_total Drain ' counts t i p s p e r min i n basal Drain_total  Public Rain  Public Public Public Public Public  constant  output water  sample  the water  sample  Batt Units  Rain=tip Drain=tip TB_l=tip TB_2=tip TB_3=tip EC()=mS/cm Thermistor()=deg C MOIST()=ns  IEEE4 = 4 bytes. Long = 4 bytes Thermistor, Conductivity, TDR Moisture, (40*4) + (4*4) + (22*4) = 300 or so bytes  e v e r y hour o r ?  DataTable (tblRain,True,-1) CardOut(0,-1) D a t a l n t e r v a l (0,3,Sec,10)  224  Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 totalize  (1,Rain_total,FP2,False).  EndTable DataTable (tblTB_l,True,-1) CardOut(0,-l) Datalnterval(0,3,Sec,10) totalize(1,TB_1,FP2,False) EndTable DataTable (tblTB_2,True,-1) CardOut(0,-1) Datalnterval(0,3,Sec,10) totalize(1,TB_2,FP2, False) EndTable DataTable (tblTB_3,True,-1) CardOut (0,-1) Datalnterval(0,3,Sec,10) totalize(1,TB_3,FP2, False) EndTable DataTable  (tblTB_4,True,-1)  CardOut(0,-1) Datalnterval(0,3,Sec,10) totalize  (1,Drain,FP2,False)  EndTable DataTable(tblSlow,True,-1) CardOut(0,-1) D a t a l n t e r v a l ( 0 , 3 0 , M i n , 0) Sample (l,Batt,FP2) Sample(40,Thermistor() ,IEEE4) Sample (4,EC(),IEEE4) Sample(22,MOIST(),IEEE4) EndTable  tiitttittittitiitittitiiti Sub S e t M u x ( c h ) •3 of the SDMX50 set ' Muxl ch 7 connects Select Case  15ui)Rou t i n e s to 1,2,3 Mux2 Common, Muxl  t  ' ' ' '  t  '  t  ' ' '  ch8 connects  ,  t  i  ' ' '  t  ,  i  ,  t  ,  i  ,  r  '  Mux3 Common  case (ch) 1  SDMX50 ( 1 , 1 ) Case 2 SDMX50 ( 1 , 2 ) Case 3 SDMX50 ( 1 , 3 ) Case 4 SDMX50 ( 1 , 4 ) Case 5 SDMX50 ( 1 , 5 ) Case 6 SDMX50 ( 1 , 6 ) Case 7 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 1 ) Case 8 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 2 ) Case 9 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 3 ) Case 10 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 4 ) Case  11 "  225  Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 5 ) Case 12 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 6 ) Case 13 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 7 ) Case 14 SDMX50 ( 1 , 7 ) SDMX50 ( 2 , 8 ) case 15 SDMX50 ( 1 , 8 ) SDMX50 ( 3 , 1 ) Case 16 SDMX50 SDMX50 Case 17 SDMX50 SDMX50 Case 18  (1,8) (3,2) (1,8) (3,3)  SDMX50 ( 1 , 8 ) SDMX50 ( 3 , 4 ) Case 19 SDMX50 ( 1 , 8 ) SDMX50 ( 3 , 5 ) Case 2 0 SDMX50 ( 1 , 8 ) SDMX50 ( 3 , 6 ) Case 2 1 SDMX50 ( 1 , 8 ) SDMX50 ( 3 , 7 ) Case 2 2 SDMX50 ( 1 , 8 ) SDMX50 ( 3 , 8 ) endselect EndSub sub C a l c C e l s i u s ( ) ' convert Voltage ratios to ' uses RST Thermistor equation  Temperature RST Work Order:  Q04838  for i = 1 to 4 f o r i c h = 1 t o 10 TResist = RValue*TRatio(i,ich)/(1-TRatio(i,ich)) LnR =  LOG(TResist)  Kelvin  = 1/(C0+ Cl*LnR +  Thermistor(i,ich)  = Kelvin  (C3*LnR*LnR*LnR)) -  273.15  next i c h next  i  endsub sub CalcECO ' convert Full Bridge output to EC in mS/cm for cch= 1 to 4 E C _ V 2 _ V 1 ( c c h ) = F u l l ( c c h ) * 0 . 0 0 1 ' o u t p u t is EC_Rs(cch) = EC_V2_V1(cch)*EC_Rf EC(cch)  = k/EC_Rs(cch)*10*11.1781  ' Units  1000*V2/V1 conversion  [S/m]  to  [mS/cm]  and Calibration  Fact  next cch endsub ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' • ' ' ' ' ' ' '  'Main  Program'••<•<<•'••••••'•>'••••••'•••  BeginProg  226  Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1  ' ' 'Flow  Gauges  Scan  '  " • " • " " < " " < "  (1,Sec,0,0)  Rain  Gauge  PulseCount  'PI  (Rain,1,1,2,0,1.0,0)  = Rain  Gauge  Rain_total=Rain_total+Rain i f  Rain_total>0  CallTable  then  tblRain  endif if  IfTime  (0,3,Sec)  Rain_total  trigger  'Reset  = 0  endif  '  Sublysimeters PulseCount (TB_1,1,2  'P2 = TB_1 (sublysimeter  ,2,0,1.0,0)  1)  TB_l_total=TB_l_total+TB_l if  TB_l_total>0  CallTable  then  tblTB_l  endif if  IfTime  (0,3,Sec)  TB_l_total  'Reset  trigger  = 0  endif PulseCount  'C5 = TBJ2  (TB_2,1,15,2,0,1.0,0)  (sublysimeter  2)  'C6 = TB_3 (sublysimeter  3)  TB_2_total=TB_2_total+TB_2 if  TB_2_total>0  CallTable  then  tblTB_2  endif if  IfTime  (0,3,Sec)  TB_2_total  trigger  'Reset  = 0  endif PulseCount  (TB_3,1,16  ,2,0,1.0,0)  TB_3_total=TB_3_total+TB_3 i f  TB_3_total>0  CallTable  then  tblTB_3  endif if  IfTime  ( 0 , 3 , Sec)  TB_3_total  'Reset  trigger  -.  = 0  endif  '  Basal Drain PulseCount (Drain,1,18  ,2,0,1.0,0)  ' C 8 = TB_4 (whole  pile  outflow)  Drain_total=Drain_total+Drain if  Drain_total>0  CallTable  then  tblTB_4  endif if  IfTime  (0,3,Sec)  Drain_total  'Reset  trigger  = 0  endif NextScan SlowSequence 'SeguentialMode SerialOpen Serialflush Scan  (comME,9600,0,0,2000) (comME)  (MainScanRate,min,0,0)  'MP917  data  on CS I/O  serial  port  Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 'scan rate  max = 30 minutes  so for  Ascii  (comME) 13 (up  intervals  use  IfTime  moistures  " " " " " " " " " 'get the f o r ch = 1 t o L a s t D i o d e do C a l l SetMux(ch) D e l a y d , l,Sec) P o r t S e t (DiodePower,ON) Delay(1,1,Sec) 'SeriallnChk 'wait for  longer  to  30 s)  Serialln (DiodeData,comME,3000,13,100) P o r t S e t (DiodePower,OFF ) 'Delay  (1,1,Sec)  splitstr  (ParseStr(1),DiodeData,chr(44),5,6)  ' m o i s t ( c h ) = p a r s e s t r ( 3 ) 'assignment to S e r i a l f l u s h (comME) l o o p w h i l e m o i s t ( c h ) = NAN 'test for parsing next ch ,,,,,,/,,,,, ,  g  e  t  PortSet(TReset,ON)  t  h  e  temperatures  'turn on FlexiMux  ' chop  on comma,  keep  suceeding  var  float error  ••••>"•>•"•••• NOTE this  resets  mux  Delay (0,100,mSec) 'clock 'first 'They  mux NOTE first 30 thermistors are  wired  pulse sets to ADDRESS 0 then each are 10 on each of the three RST  pulse  clocks  in parallel  ;  f o r t c h = 1 t o 10 PortSet(TClock,ON) Delay (0,20,mSec) PortSet(TClock,OFF) 'get 3 thermistor  readings  B r H a l f ( T R a t i o d , t c h ) , l,mV2500, 14, Vx2,1,2500,True ,0,250, 1.0,0) B r H a l f (TRatio(2,tch),l,mV2500,15,Vx2,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) B r H a l f (TRatio(3,tch),l,mV2500,16,Vx2,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) Delay (0,500,mSec) next t c h PortSet(TReset,OFF) 'turn off • last  6 thermistors  are  FlexiMux  on the  crlOOO  SE  7,8,9,10,11,12  B r H a l f (TRatio(4,l),l,mV2500,7,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) B r H a l f (TRatio(4,2),l,mV2500,8,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) B r H a l f (TRatio(4,3),1,mV2500,9,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) B r H a l f (TRatio(4,4),1,mV2500,10,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) B r H a l f (TRatio(4,5),l,mV2500,11,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) B r H a l f (TRatio(4,6),l,mV2500,12,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) 'toss i n some dummy  readings  T R a t i o (4,7) = .5 TRatio(4,8) = .5 TRatio(4,9) = .5 TRatio(4,10) = .5 'convert these ratios to CalcCelsius  Temperatures  ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, t,,,,, , 'conductivity 'turn on FlexiMux NOTE this  PortSet(TReset,ON)  resets  mux  Delay (0,100,mSec) 'clock mux NOTE first pulse 'run through thermistors to  sets to cond  ADDRESS 0 then  each  pulse  clocks  f o r c c h = 1 t o 10 PortSet(TClock,ON) Delay (0,20,mSec) PortSet(TClock,OFF) next c c h PortSet(TClock,ON)  228  Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 D e l a y (0, 20,mSec) PortSet(TClock,OFF) Delay (0,20,mSec) PortSet(TClock,ON) Delay (0,20,mSec) PortSet(TClock,OFF)  'now ' for  mux is pointing do each  channel  at first twice  cond  channel  (one as half  bridge  and one as Full  Bridge)  cch = 1 to 4 BrFull6W  (Full(cch),l,mV2500,mV2500,1,Vxl,1,2500,True ,True  Delay (0,200,mSec) •BrHalf4W (Hal f (cch) , 1 ,mV2500 ,mV2500,1 Delay (0,200,mSec) 'clock to next channel PortSet(TClock,ON) Delay  ,Vxl, 1,2500, True  , True  ,0,250,1.0,0)  ,0,250,1.0,0)  (0,20,mSec)  PortSet(TClock,OFF) Delay  (0,200,mSec)  next c c h CalcEC P o r t S e t ( T R e s e t , O F F ) ' t u r n off FlexiMux ' • " ' • • " < " • ' • • • -put Therm, cond and TDR vars Battery  (Batt)  CallTable NextScan  EndProg  tblSlow  ' a t mainscanrate  minutes  in  table  <><'•<>•<>'><><•><  Appendix M.  Water Chemistry Laboratory Results  Table M.1  Water chemistry: lysimeter, sub-lysimeters, composite sample tank and water collection sump  Sampling Point  UBC1-A  Field Parameters  Date Diss. Oxy T mg/l X 11.2 1/8/2007 4.33 15 2/20/2007 4.19 3/7/2007 5 . 0 9 10.6 8.4 3/15/2007 4 . 9 5 3/20/2007 1 1 . 5 3/29/2007 5 . 2 5 4/4/2007 5.64 4/11/2007 5.38 4/19/2007 5.5 4/24/2007 5 . 0 6  UBC1-B  UBC1-C  UBC1-D  UBC1-E  UBC1-F  12.5  6.8 10.6 13.1 15.8 14.2  PH  EC ms/cm 4.47 5.92 5.77  PH unit  Time  7.58 7.49 7.22  16:10  5.77 5.37 5.27 4.86 4.54 4.3 4.27  7.47 7.32 7.47 7.49 7.48 7.5 7.53  17:00 13:40 9:00 10:50 13:00 11:00 15:10  13:50 16:30  EC  Volume L  2  TSS  TDS  6570 6030  4995 4525  <  7.4 7.3 7.3 6.8 7.7 7  5980 5620 52(H) 4920 4440 4490  4158 4510 4012 3920 3820 3406  <  2 1 4 6  1  1  <  1  1  CI-Total  Diss. F Diss. S04 N-NH3 Ca mg/l  as Bicarbonate mg/l  3025.0 3200.0  0.2 <0.1  41.8 43.9  790 729  0.63 0.52  1372.4 1491.5  0.08 0.04  < 0.02 0.042 < 0.02 0.043  0.011 0.049 0.009 0.049  <0.O01 < ( ) . 1 ( ) < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( )  0.04 0.07  < 0 . 0 0 3 1130.0-  2811.2 3100.0 3112.4 2991.9 2400.6 2016  0.1 0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1  46.7 46.5 45.9 59.7 40  700 658 564 467 370 285  0.83 0.51 0.71 0.65 0.76 0.65  1328.4 1046.5 1514.4 1632.5 1477 1488  0.03 <0.01 0.02 0.26 0.04 0.03  0.03 < 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04  0.041 0.046 0.020 0.026 0.03 0.028  0.010 0.051 0.006 0.053 0.058 0.009 0.009 0.052 0.01 0.048  < 0.001 < 0.(X)1 < 0.001 < 0.001 <0.00l  <().I0 <().!()  0.09 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.08  < 0.1X13 1208 < 0 . 1 X 1 3 1126.0 < 0.003 1 1 1 1 < 0.003 906.7 < 0.003 800.6  112  43.9  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  -mg/l  Sb mg/l  Cd mg/l  as Carbonate mg/l  mg/l 6.7 6.9  Alkalinity  Alkalinity  Hard. - Total  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  <0.1() <().!() <0.U)  mg/l  < 0.003 1178  p  Total Met, Is Li Mg mg/l mg/l  mg/l  Sr mg/l  < 0.005 0.017 < o.oo: < 0.04 < 0.005 0.014 < o.oo: < 0.04 < o.oo: < 0.04 < 0.005 0.021 < 0 . 0 0 : < 0.04 < 0.005 0.014 < o.oo; < 0 . 0 4 < 0.1X15 0.017 < o.oo: < 0.04 < 0.005 0.018 < o.oo: <0.04 < 0.005 0.012 < o.(X): <0.04  7.384 8.117 8.544 8.280 7.086 7.184 5.767 5.835  <0.3 <0.3 < 0.3 <0.3 < 0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.00 0.11 < O.(X) 0.04 < 0.00 0.05 0.034 0.04 < O.(X) 0.05 < 0.00 0.04 < 0.00 0.04 0.011 0.04  49.01 55.86 57.08 53.90 54.41 55.77 47.7 40.02  < 0.005 0.039 <o.oo: <0.04 0.042 <o.oo: < 0.04 0.009 < 0.04 < 0.005 0.029 <o.(X): <0.04  7.704  <0.3  7.109 7.356 7.853  <0.3 < 0.3 <0.3  < o.(x): < 0.04 < o.oo: < 0.04 < o.ixi: < 0.04 < o.oo: < 0.04 < o.ixi: <0.04 < o.oo: <0.04 < o.oo: <0.04 <o.oo: <0.04  7.502 7.267 7.981 6.252 6.315 5.987 5.191 5.500  <0.3  Co mg/l  Cu mg/l  Cr mg/l  mg/l  Fe mg/l  Hg mg/l  Mn mg/l 0.132 0.100 0.106 0.097  Mo mg/l  Ni mg/l  mg/l  Aq CJZ  Pb mg/l  0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 <().() 10  K mg/l  Se mg/l  Na mg/l  Ti mg/l  V mg/l  0.04 0.009 0.04 < ().(X)3 0.04 < 0 . 1 X 1 3 0.04 0 . 0 1  < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007  TI mg/l  <().0I <().0I 0.01 0.01  0.015 0.015 0.017 0.018  <  0.037 0.011 < 0.010 0.015  13.40 16.36 15.51 15.72  0.063 0.058 0.057 0.060  53.81 57.70 61.22 63.84  < < < <  0.099 0.077 0.054 0.062  < 0.0002 < ().(XX)2 < 0-(XX)2 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.001)2 < 0.1XX12 < 0.0002  0.01  0.01 0.01 <0.01  0.010 0.01 0.009 0.006  < < < <  0.010 < 0.010 15.63 0.010 < 0.010 17.22 0.010 < 0.010 15.01 0.010 < 0.010 15.55  0.041 0.063 0.046 0.041  75.43 82.4 69.98 73.3  < 0.04 < 0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.060 0.04  33.87 0.171  < 0.0002  0.02  0.037  < 0.010 < 0.010 13.84  0.052  19.47  < 0.00 0.04 < 0.00 0.03 < 0.00 0.04  33.70 0.164 35.74 0.153 37.61 0.158  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < ().(XX)2  0.02 0.02 <0.0I  0.035 0.034 0.034  < 0.010 < 0.010 12.91 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.(X) < 0.010 < 0.010 13.05  0.057 0.052 0.056  18.95 18.35 19.58  < 0.00 < 0.00 < 0.(10 0.051 0.028 0.099 < 0.00 0.014  0.08 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03  33.97 34.06 32.65 36.36 38.04 38.54 32.08 31.90  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.OO02 < 0.0002  <0.()l <0.()1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 <().0I  0.031 0.034 0.037 0.021 0.020 0.018 0.020 0.019  < 0.010 c 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  13.09 12.43 12.91 13.80 13.19 12.73 11.11 11.35  0.033 0.031 0.030 0.027 0.022 0.022 0.021 0.019  0.06  20.05  Zn mg/l  Si mg/l  0.007  1.353 1.557 1.651 1.650  4.72 5.10 5.91 5.61  < ().(X)7 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007  1.072 1.234 1.005 0.879  5.21 5.73 4.82 4.85  <0.04 0.014  < 0.007 1.356  5.28  <0.04 0.010 <0.04 0.009 <0.04 0 . 0 0 9  < 0.007 1.605 < 0.007 1.585 < 0.007 1.662  5.22 5.50 5.57  21.54 21.60 19.52 37.23 32.29 32.23 25.18 29.47  < 0.04 < 0.04 < 0.04 < 0.04 < 0.04 <0.()4 < 0.04 <0.04  < 0.007 < 0-(X)7 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007  1.769 1.821 2.064 1.543 1.320 1.238 1.195 1.268  4.66 4.95 5.20 6.59 6.02 6.59 5.25 4.98  0.114  18.16  <0.04 0.012  < 0.0O7 1.176  6.29  0.131 0.109 0.107 0.107  11.28 12.95 11.60 11.76 13.07  <0.04 <0.04 < 0.04 < 0.04 < 0.04  0.011 0.011 0.010 ().(X)9 0.009  < < < < <  0.007 0.007 0.007 0.007 0.007  0.982 1.073 0.961 0.987 1.184  5.75 5.92 5.95 6.20 6.05  6.88 7.18 4.32 3.66 3.76 3.83 3.22 3.60  0.061 0.056 0.048 0.062 0.038 0.042 0.034 0.034  5.87 7.37 4.16 3.84 4.30 3.98 3.92 3.59  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.006 < 0.003 < 0.003 0.006 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007  0.977 1.187 0.512 0.565 0.495 0.437 0.394 0.575  5.07 5.25 5.46 5.40 5.18 5.87 4.82 4.97  <0.(X)3< 0.003 < 0.003 < ().(X)3  <  11/30/2006 4 • 12/5/2006 4  10.5 11  4 4.4  7.7 7.7  6.8 6.8  3860 4500  2920 4128  2 1  2309.2 1920.0  <0.1 <0.l  49.8 53.6  106  0.86 0.73  1343.3 1315.0  0.08 0.06  < 0.02 0.058 < 0.02 0.060  0.009 0.038 0.008 0.037  < 0.001 <0.I0 < 0.001 <0.I0  0.12 0.11  < 0.003 804.5 < 0.003 778.8  12/7/2006 4.05 12/12/2006 4 . 2 9 1/8/2007 3.98 2/20/2007 3.84 3/7/2007 4.18 3/15/2007 4 . 6 3/20/2007 4.05 3/29/2007 5.23 4/4/2007 5.43 4/11/2007 5.2 4/19/2007 5.61 4/24/2007 5 . 1 1  11.9 11.2 10.9 !4.4 10.4 8.1 12.6 6.1 10.4 11.6 13.4 12.9  3.72 3.84 4.12 3.59 3.57 3.59 3.24 3.07 1.85 3.12 3.05 3.09  7.58 7.6 7.55 7.47 7.45 7.49 7.56 7.51 7.47 7.56 7.55 7.39  7.0 7.0  3920 3990  2921 2993  7 < 1  2249.0 2318.4  0.1 0.1  53.5 52.0  108 111  0.73 0.81  1374.3 1194.6  0.01 < 0.01  < 0.02 0.057 < 0.02 0.055  0.007 0.035 0.008  < 0.001 < ( ) . ! ( )  0.12  < 0.003 852.3  7.0 6.8 7.4 7.5 7.4 6.7 7.7 7.1  4120 3700 3700 3330 3270 3180 3030 3170  2998 2780 2692 2910 2928 2820 2754 2563  < 1 1 < 1 21 < 1 3 3 1  2020.0 20O0.0 1807.2 2240.0 2108.4 1988.0 1686.4 1653.1  0.1 <0.l 0.1 0.2  60.6 64.8 65.6 56.3 57.9 57.7 57.9 51.9  123 98 92 73 51 41 34 29  0.79 0.65 0.87 0.58 0.72 0.81 0.88 0.73  1528.7 1568.8 1515.5 1566.1 1402.7 1829.8 1449.1 1354.8  0.03 0.03 0.03 <0.0I 0.01 <0.0I 0.01 0.05  < 0.02 0.059 0.04 0.061 0.03 0.058 0.06 0.051 0.07 0.052 0.12 0.054 0.08 0.060 0.05 0.056  0.1X17 0.005 0.(108 0.1X18 0.007 0.008 0.008 0.009  0.032 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.030 0.029  < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) < 0 . 0 0 1 <0.1() < 0.001 < ( ) . ! ( ) < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) < 0.001 <0.I0 < 0.001 <0.I0 < 0.001 <0.l() <0.001 <0.1()  0.16 0.16 0.17 0.26 0.22 0.25 0.22 0.21  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < ().(X)3 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  753.7 755.9 730.5 793.9 771.0 735.8 640.7 639.3  < 0.1X15 0.020 < 0 . 0 0 5 0.016 < 0.005 0.017 < 0.005 0.022 < 0.005 0.023 < 0.005 0.022 < 0.005 0.020 < 0.005 0.010  0.71 0.65 0.67 0.59 0.52 0.70  1832.4 1253.4 2033.6 1205.9 1215.6 1202.7  0.13 0.09 0.13 0.03 0.02 0.01  0.10 < 0.02 < 0.02 < 0.02 < 0.02 < 0.02  0.064 0.044 0.046 0.042 0.042 0.048  0.011 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.010 < 0.00  0.035 0.036 0.028 0.027 0.023 0.025  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.1X11 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  <0.1() <0.1() <().1() <0.1() <0.1() <0.I0  0.11 0.08 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09  < < < < < <  0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003  1187.0 979.0 869.7 809.8 821.1 858.1  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.020 <o.oo: <0.04 <0.(X) < o.oo: <0.04 0.017 < o.oo: <0.04 0.018 < o.ixi: < 0.04 0.011 < O . I X I : <0.04 0.014 < o.oo: <0.04  8.558 6.688 5.271 5.397 5.471 5.781  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  0.043  46.50 0.110  < 0.0002  0.02  0.026  < 0.010 0.017  < 0.00 0.05 0.036 0.04 < 0.00 0.04 < 0 . 0 0 0.03 < 0 . 0 0 0.04  47.26 32.27 31.08 33.35 35.87  0.084 0.067 0.069 0.061 0.055  < 0.(XX)2 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01  0.018 0.020 0.016 0.015 0.017  < 0.010 < 0.010 8.66 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.89 < 0.010 0.016 7.67 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.81 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.30  0.83 0.67 0.77  1057.2 1228.3 943.8 943.3 735.3 927.2 712.5 689.1  0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 <0.0I 0.05 0.02 0.05  < 0.02 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.08 0.09  0.010 0.016 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.009 0.008 0.010  0.018 0.017 0.014 0.011 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.009  < 0.001 eO.OOl < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 <0.O01 < 0.001 <0.001  <().I0 <0.I0 <0.I0 <0.I0 <0.I0 <0.I0 <0.1() <0.I0  0.08 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.10  < < < < < < < <  0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003  576.7 572.6 440.8 471.7 409.0 450.5 337.8 365.6  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.014 0.014 0.009 0.007 0.016 < 0.00 0.013 < 0.(X)  < o.oo: < 0.04 < o.ixi: <0.O4 <o.oo: <0.04 <o.oo: <0.04 <o.oo: <0.04 <o.oo: <0.04 <o.oo: <0.04 < o.oo: <0.04  3.869 4.411 2.858 2.537 2.404 2.488 1.926 2.189  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < O.(X) 0.05 < 0.00 < 0.02 <0.00 0.02 <0.00 < 0.02 0.028 <0.02 <o.oo <0.02 < O.(X) < 0.02 < 0.00 < 0.02  20.48 22.55 16.94 15.44 14.87 15.39 12.00 11.64  0.1X19 0.007 0.017 0.011 0.007 0.003 0.006 <0.00  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01  0.012 0.014 0.005 0.004 < 0.001 < 0.001  0.06  0.051 0.066 0.026 0.025 0.028 0.025 0.028 0.036  0.01  0.02 < 0.02 0.04 <0.02 < 0.02 <0.02  0.062 0.051 0.051 0.050 0.055 0.053  0.007  0.026 0.030 0.027 0.027 0.024 0.028  < < < < < <  0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001  <().1() <().1() <0.1() <0.1() <0.I0 <0.I0  0.17 0.08 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.08  < 0.003 660.9 < 0.003 691.3 < 0.003 548.3 < 0.003 565.3 < 0.003 641.5 < 0.003 718.4  < 0.005 0.016 < 0.005 0.010 < 0.005 0.016 0.015 0.007 <0.O05 0 . 0 0 9 <0.005 0.011  < o.ixi: < 0.04 < o.oo: <0.04 < O . I X I ; <0.04 < O.IXM <0.04 < 0.003 <0.04 < 0.002 <0.04  5.149 6.072 4.200 4.664 5.182 6.009  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  0.039 0.04 <0.00 < 0.02 0.085 0.03 < O.(X) 0.03 <0.00 0.03 < 0.00 0.03  25.48 0.066  < 0.IXXJ2  0.02  0.027  < 0.010 0.010  11.63  0.034  11.72  < 0.04 0.009  < 0.007 1.002  4.53  0.005 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.O06  34.98 20.21 22.88 25.19 29.88  0.072 0.071 0.065 0.064 0.086  < < < < <  0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 <0.0I  0.027 0.028 0.027 0.028 0.029  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  < < < < <  11.18 9.84 10.07 10.88  10.74 9.24 10.29 11.70 13.28  < 0.04 < 0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.009 0.013 0.009 0.008  11.95  0.041 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.041  < 0.007 1.046 < 0.007 1.170 < 0.007 1.330 < 0.0O7 1.207 < 0.007 1.395  4.26 4.50 4.34 4.55 4.49  0.025 0.018 0.016 0.018  < 0.001 <O.O0l < 0.001 < 0.001  <0.l() <0.I0 <0.I0 <O.I0  0.07 0.07 0.09 0.10  < < < <  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  < 0.002 <0.O4 < o.oo:<0.04 <o.oo: <0.04 < 0.1X12 <0.04  4.954 3.816 3.018 3.314  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.00 < 0.00 < 0.00 <0.(X)  30.02 22.98 16.01 20.70  0.050 0.030 0.026 0.029  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  0.01 0.01  < < < <  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  9.86 7.05 6.95 8.02  0.050 0.033 0.028 0.034  24.61 13.80 9.75 16.29  <0.04 <0.04 < 0.04 <0.04  0.007 < 0.003  0.01  0.022 0.017 0.014 0.016  < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007 < 0.007  1.386 1.002 0.779 1.095  4.27 4.06 4.35 4.28  < 0.005 ().(X)7 <o.oo: < 0.04 < 0.(X)5 0.015 < 0.1X12 <0.04 < 0.005 0.008 < 0 . 0 0 2 < 0.04  3.590 2.637 3.357  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.00 0.02 27.61 0.024 0.026 < 0.02 19.40 0.044 0.017 < 0.02 23.20 0.013  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.(XX)2  0.01 0.02 0.01  0.013 0.012 0.014  < 0.010 < 0.010 7.66 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.34 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.44  0.032 0.022 0.030  16.98 14.41 18.98  < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0.04 < 0.O03 < 0.04 < 0.003  < 0.007 0.905 < 0.1X17 0.762 < 0.007 1.002  4.71 3.97 3.74  0.008 < 0 . 0 0 2 <0.04 0.008 <0.00. <0.04 0.008 < 0 . 0 0 2 <0.04 <0.(X) <0.00" <0.04  4.548 4.719 4.658 2.905  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < O.OO0.06 <0.00 <0.02 < 0.00 0.03 < 0.<X> <0.02  0.033 0.038 0.033 0.020  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  0.01 <0.0I 0.01 0.01  0.019 0.021 0.022 0.014  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  8.92 9.69 9.63 7.53  0.047 0.051 0.042 0.032  21.13 24.55 22.50 12.02  <0.04 <0.04 < 0.04 <0.04  < < < <  1.210 1.324 1.288 0.823  4.75 4.35  11/16/2006 4.4 11/23/2006 4.5 11/30/2006 4 . 7 6 12/5/2006 4.76 12/7/2006 4 . 7 6 12/12/2006 4 . 9 8 1/8/2007 4.54 2/20/2007 3 . 8 1 3^7/2007 4.91 3/15/2007 5.04 3/20/2007 5.3 3/29/2007 5 . 1 8 4/4/2007 5.33 4/11/2007 4.6 4/19/2007 4.77 4/24/2007 4.85  9.2 9.1 10.5 10.8 11.6 11.5 9.3 15.3 10 7.1 10.2 7.9 9.5 12.4 13.7 13.1 10.8  4 4.5 4.3 4 3.93 3.92 3.24 2.61 2.56 2.14 2.13 1.8 2.26 3.72 1.8 1.7  6.9  7.5 7.5 7.67 7.65 7.69 7.67 7.56 7.62 7.65 7.72 7.67 7.84 7.67 7.68  16:30 14:02 16:50 17:15 13:43  13:10 11:15  6.07 5.8 5.8 5.8  3.37 3.51 3.18 2.14 2.41 2.56 2.45 7.94 2.4  7.95 7.9 7.94 7.93 8.03 7.92 7.95 7.85 7.8  14:20 17:10 17:40 14:05 10:10 11:40 13:16  5.2  8  4.2  7.8  15:24  4.63  4/12/2007  4.9 5.35 5.6 1 !.9I 5.46  2.14 1.65 2.37 2.26 ! 2.64  3328  6.9 6.9 7.2 6.8 7.1  4270 4500 4200 4700 4070 4080  3358 3982 4142 3025 3060  7.1 7.1 7.6 7.6 7.6 7 7.9 7.3  3030 2645 2187 2115 1744 1805 1558 1859  2170 1988 1648 1890 1205 1525 1364 1469  < 1 < 1 <  1  1  2 <  1  <  1  <  1  <  1  1 1 1 < 1 < 1  0.1  <0.1 0.3 0.1  3212.8 2560.0 2510.0 2160.0 2228.9 2338.6  <0.l <0.1 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 <0.1  40.9  149  37.8 41.8 42.5 44.6 43.1  no 1(H) 92 88 90  1520.0 1480.0 1144.6 1200.0 1044.2 1184.7 837.0 927.4  <0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 <0.l 0.4  51.6 53.7 44.7 44.4 49.8 49.8 49.8 51.9  27 24 15 17 II II 8  0.1  0.60  9  0.72 0.82 1.01 0.73  92 96 98 114 135 174  0.91 0.87 0.96 0.85 0.79 0.90  1359.6 1236.0 1026.2 737.7 1003.3  0.09 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02  <0.02 0.06 0.06 0.05  0.048 0.044 0.040 0.041  0.005 <0.00 0.006 < 0.00  <0.3  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  0.123 0.115 0.122 0.186 0.176' 0.169 0.138 0.120  15:20  6.8 9.5 8.1 8 8.5 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.2  1/8/2007 2/20/2007 3/7/2007 3/15/2007 3/20/2007 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 4/24/2007  2.46  2  9:35 11:25  2.44  10.8 9 9.2 9.2 9.4 7.3 12.3 8.6 7.1 9 7.5 8.6 8 9.3 9.1  2  7.6 7  7.5 7.5 7 7 7.75 7.73 7.3 7.56 7.63 7.62 7.61 7.62 7.67 7.74 7.64 7.62  11/16/2006 4.5 11/23/2006 4.6 11/30/2006 4 . 6 1 12/5/2006 4.61 12/7/2006 4 . 6 1 12/12/2006 4 92 1/8/2007 4.59 2/20/2007 4.56 3/7/2007 4.7 3/15/2007 4.59 3/20/2007 4.5 3/29/2007 4.8 4/4/2007 5.41 4/11/2007 5.45 4/19/2007 5.15 4/24/2007 5.2  3 3 2.9 3.2 3.14 3.52 3.79 3.47  16:20 14:10 16:40 17:05 13:45 9:30 11:05 13:05 11:00 15:15  16:35 14:00 17:10 17:15 13:50 10:00 11:25 13:15 11:20 15:30  11:25  2  2  55.7  7.1 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.3 7.2  2545 3050 2810 3370 3230 3640  2086 2268 1895 3008 2415 2737  1 < 1 < 1 1 1 < 1  1767.0 1780.0 1506.0 1480.0 1787.1 2016.0  0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1  53.6 53.6 54.4 54.5 52.0  6.9 7.0 7.5 7.5  4010 2565 2061 2384  2972 1951 1431 1920  <  2120.0 1440.0 1024.1 1300.0  <0.l 0.1 0.2 0.2  58.6 62.7 62.6 58.3  218 83 41 61  0.86 0.96 0.76  1320.8 933.5 760.2 944.4  0.96 1.03 0.89  972.8 874.9 1054.9  0.02 0.02 0.06  0.07 0.09 0.04  0.039 0.037 0.04  0.006  0.021 0.005 0.016 0.006 0.017  <().0()l <().!() 0 . 1 0 < 0.001 <().I0 0.09 <0.001 < ( ) . ! ( ) 0.10  < < < <  1  < 1 < 1 1  0.78  818.1  <0.01  1526.1 1131.0 1330.6  <0.1 0.4 <0.l  59.6 61.7 56.0  48 39 55  2  1800.0 2100.0 1666.6 1160.0  0.1 0.2 0.4 0.4  54.6 57.6 59.4 60.0  167 174 135 50  0.94 0.70 0.86 0.76  1085.2 1348.2 1124.8 754.0  0.04 0.02 0.04 <0.0I  <0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06  0.045 0.047 0.043 0.043  0.006 0.023 <0.00 0.026 0.006 0.028 < 0.00 0 . 0 1 6  3 3 < 1  1586.3 1468.2 1290.2  0.1 0.6 0.1  57.6  72 61 47  1.01 0.98 0.86  1267.3 1088.5 1109.1  <0.()l 0.03 0.03  0.06 0.08 0.03  0.042 0.038 0.04  0.006 < 0.003 < 0.001 < ( ) . 1 ( ) 0.IH15 0.019 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.016 <0.(X)l <().l() 0.006  0.65  0.053  0.011 0.026  7.0 7.9 7.2  2297 1988 2764  1850 1714 2157  3 7 <  1  7.3 7.6 7.8 7.9  3800 3650 3310 2119  2835 2750 2325 1810  <  1  <  1  <  1  7.2 8 7.5  2591 2364 2452  2028 2066 I960  57.6  55.8  0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001  < 0.10 <().I0 <0.I0 <0.10  0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003  756.5 537.3 409.9 519.8  < 0.003 571.2 < 0.003 431.8 < 0.003 542.7  0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003  677.9 798.4 610.2 453.8  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.013 0.006 0.010 0.008  0.07 < 0.02 <0.02 <0.02  27.41 30.29 24.29 17.32  0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0O02 0.0002  0.O2  0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010  0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010  <0.OI0 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  0.117  0.007 < 0.003 < 0.(X)3 0.008 < 0.(X)3 0.011 < 0.003 < 0.O03  0.009  < O.O03 0.0O5  0.007 < 0.003 < 0.003 0.005  0.007 0.007 0.007 0.007  3.83  0.07 0.10 0.10 0.09  < < < <  0.1 0.1 0.1  < 0.003 595.4 < 0.003 558.3 < 0.003 520.3  < 0.005 < 0.00 < O.(X) <0.04 < 0.005 0.012 < O.(X) < 0.04 < 0.005 < 0.(X) < 0.00" < 0.04  3.672 3.747 3.397  <0.3 <0.3 < 0.3  < 0.00 0.02 27.27 0.023 < 0.00 < 0.02 24.2 0.025 < 0.00 < 0.02 23.06 0 . 0 0 8  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  0.01 0.02 <().0I  0.017 0.015 0.013  < 0.010 < 0.010 7.84 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.13 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.37  0.038 0.028 0.026  18.39 17.96 17.48  <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.04 < ().(X)3 < 0.04 < 0.003  < 0.007 1.076 < 0.007 0.914 < 0.007 0.919  4.56 4.27 4.28  0.16  < 0.003 780.8  < 0.005 0.057 < 0.00 <0.04  4.963  <0.3  3.7  < 0.0002  0.01  0.022  < 0.010 0.032  0.022  24.92  <0.04  < 0.007  5.31  15:40 < 0.001 < ( ) . ! ( )  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 <O.O0l < 0.010 0.006 < 0.010  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 0.016 0.012 < 0.010  < 0.02 34.15 0.083  17.49  < 0.003  1.583  4.11  Table M.1  Water chemistry: lysimeter, sub-lysimeters, composite sample tank and water collection sump (continued from previous page)  Sampling Point Date  UBC1-A  UBC1-B  UBC1-C  UBC1-D  UBC1-E  UBC1-F  Diss. Oxy. T mg/1 °C 1/8/2007 4.33 11.2 2/20/2007 4.19 15 3/7/2007 5.09 10.6 3/15/2007 4.95 8.4 3/20/2007 11.5 12.5 3/29/2007 5.25 6.8 4/4/2007 5.64 10.6 4/11/2007 5.38 13.1 4/19/2007 5.5 15.8 4/24/2007 5.06 14.2 11/30/2006 4 10.5 11 12/5/2006 4 12/7/2006 4.05 11.9 11.2 12/12/2006 4.29 1/8/2007 3.98 10.9 14.4 2/20/2007 3.84 3/7/2007 • 4.18 10.4 3/15/2007 4.6 8.1 3/20/2007 4.05 12.6 3/29/2007 5.23 6.1 10.4 4/4/2007 5.43 4/11/2007 5.2 11.6 13.4 4/19/2007 5.61 4/24/2007 5.11 12.9 11/16/2006 4.4 9.2 11/23/2006 4.5 9.1 11/30/2006 4.76 10.5 12/5/2006 4.76 10.8 12/7/2006 4.76 11.6 11.5 12/12/2006 4.98 1/8/2007 4.54 9.3 2/20/2007 3.81 15.3 3/7/2007 4.91 10 7.1 3/15/2007 5.04 3/20/2007 5.3 10.2 7.9 3/29/2007 5.18 4/4/2007 5.33 9.5 12.4 4/11/2007 4.6 13.7 4/19/2007 4.77 4/24/2007 4.85 13.1 10.8 11/16/2006 4.5 10.8 11/23/2006 4.6 9 11/30/2006 4.61 9.2 12/5/2006 4.61 9.2 12/7/2006 4.61 9.4 12/12/2006 4.92 1/8/2007 4.59 7.3 2/20/2007 4.56 12.3 3/7/2007 4.7 8.6 3/15/2007 4.59 7.1 9 3/20/2007 4.5 3/29/2007 4.8 7.5 4/4/2007 5.41 8.6 4/11/2007 5.45 8 4/19/2007 5.15 9.3 4/24/2007 5.2 9.1 1/8/2007 4.63 6.8 2/20/2007 4.9 9.5 3/7/2007 5.35 8.1 3/15/2007 5.6 8 3/20/2007 11.91 8.5 3/29/2007 5.46 8.3 8.2 4/4/2007 6.07 8.1 4/11/2007 5.8 4/19/2007 5.8 8.1 8.2 4/24/2007 5.8 8 4/12/2007 5.2  Field Parameters EC PH ms/cm unit 7.58 4.47 7.49 5.92 7.22 5.77 7.47 5.77 5.37 7.32 5.27 7.47 7.49 4.86 4.54 7.48 7.5 4.3 4.27 7.53 7.7 4 4.4 7.7 7.58 3.72 3.84 7.6 4.12 7.55 7.47 3.59 3.57 7.45 3.59 7.49 3.24 7.56 3.07 7.51 7.47 1.85 3.12 7.56 7.55 3.05 3.09 7.39 4 7.6 4.5 7 4.3 7.5 4 7.5 7.67 3.93 3.92 7.65 3.24 7.69 7.67 2.61 7.56 2.56 2.14 7.62 7.65 2.13 7.72 1.8 7.67 2.26 3.72 7.84 7.67 1.8 1.7 7.68 7.5 3 7.5 3 2.9 7 3.2 7 3.14 7.75 3.52 7.73 3.79 7.3 3.47 7.56 2.46 7.63 7.62 2.14 7.61 1.65 2.37 7.62 7.67 2.26 7.74 1 7.64 2.64 2.44 7.62 3.37 3.51 3.18 2.14 2.41 2.56 2.45 7.94 2.4 4.2  7.95 7.9 7.94 7.93 8.03 7.92 7.95 7.85 7.8 7.8  Time Volume L 16:10 13:50 16:30 2 17:00 13:40 9:00 10:50 13:00 11:00 15:10  16:20 14:10 16:40 17:05 13:45 9:30 11:05 13:05 11:00 15:15  2  16:30 14:02 16:50 2 17:15 13:43 9:35 11:25 13:10 11:15 15:20  16:35 14:00 17:10 17:15 13:50 10:00 11:25 13:15 11:20 15:30  2  14:20 17:10 2 17:40 14:05 10:10 11:40 13:16 11:25 15:40 15:24  Ca mg/1  Co mg/1  0.04 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  1094.0 1169 985.0 1037 973.6 910.5 838.7 799.8  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.016 0.012 0.016 0.011 0.013 < 0.001 0.013 < 0.001  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  6.130 8.028 8.525 7.352 6.327 5.859 5.38 5.651  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  0.05 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04  <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10  0.10 0.10 0.10 0.11  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  773.6 772.0 776.9 847.8  < 0.005 0.009 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.031 0.041 0.030 0.027  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  6.939 7.098 6.954 7.716  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 <0.001  <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 < 0.10 <0.I0 <0.10  0.15 0.16 0.16 0.22 0.21 0.24 0.20 0.21  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  750.6 744.4 723.0 743.9 671.3 735.2 627.1 634.4  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.018 0.016 0.016 0.011 0.015 0.011 0.019 0.005  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  5.340 7.147 7.740 5.498 5.496 5.947 4.941 5.498  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  0.011 0.030 0.009 0.033 0.009 0.026 0.009 0.026 0.010 0.022 < 0.001 0.025  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.I0 <0.10  0.07 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.09  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  1012.0 957.2 865.9 792.9 791.3 851.2  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.012 < 0.001 0.013 0.017 0.010 0.014  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  6.847 5.988 5.183 5.300 5.150 5.763  0.050 0.060 0.024 0.023 0.028 0.025 0.026 0.035  0.009 0.010 0.009 0.007 0.007 0.008 0.008 0.008  0.017 0.017 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.009 0.008  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 <0.001  <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 < 0.10 < 0.10 <0.10  0.07 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.10  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  572.1 569.3 424.7 460.0 378.0 408.3 325.2 351.3  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.014 0.012 0.007 0.007 0.011 < 0.001 0.011 < 0.001  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02  0.060 0.047 0.049 0.050 0.053 0.048  0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005  0.024 0.029 0.022 0.026 0.023 0.028  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 < 0.10 < 0.10  0.07 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  608.8 680.5 542.8 563.2 621.7 717.6  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.009 0.010 0.009 0.015 < 0.001 0.011  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  <0.02 0.04 0.05 0.03  0.046 0.044 0.039 0.038  0.005 0.025 < 0.001 0.017 0.006 0.014 < 0.001 0.018  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  < 0.10 < 0.10 <0.10 <0.10  0.07 0.07 0.06 0.10  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  756.5 530.3 396.2 518.1  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.012 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.007  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  0.06 0.07 0.03  0.039 0.006 0.020 < 0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 567.5 0.037 0.004 0.015 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 427.1 0.038 0.006 0.016 <0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 525.0  <0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04  0.045 0.046 0.041 0.039  0.06 0.07 0.03  < 0.00.3 573.3 0.042 0.006 < o.oo:< 0.001 < 0.10 0.1 < 0.003 551.9 0.037 0.004 0.018 < 0.001 <0.10 0.1 0.037 0.005 0.015 <0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 518.9  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  3.64 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 26.51 3.33 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 23.89 3.357 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 22.72  0.06  0.048 < 0.001 0.025 < 0.001 <0.10 0.15  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  4.855 <0.3 0.227  Bi mg/1  0.009 0.045 < 0.001 0.049 0.011 0.050 0.009 0.047 0.006 0.053 0.008 0.054 0.009 0.048 0.01 0.047  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 <0.001  < 0.10 < 0.10 <0.10 < 0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.I0 <0.10  0.008 0.008 0.007 0.006  0.035 0.036 0.032 0.034  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  <0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.03  0.054 0.006 0.029 0.060 < 0.001 0.031 0.058 0.007 0.034 0.046 0.006 0.029 0.052 0.007 0.031 < 0.010< 0.001 0.031 0.052 0.007 0.029 0.054 0.008 0.028  <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02  0.064 0.039 0.043 0.038 0.042 0.040  <0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.04  Sb mg/1  <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04  0.037 0.042 0.039 0.042 0.018 0.026 0.027 0.027  <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02  0.055 0.053 0.055 0.050  As mg/1  Ba mg/1  0.005 0.021 < 0.001 0.025 0.006 0.023 < 0.001 0.015  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10  B mg/1  0.06 0.09 0.08 0.08  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  625.1 794.6 597.0 442.9  < 0.003 770.1  Cu mg/1  Cr mg/1  Sn mg/1  Dissolved Metals Sr P Fe Li mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1  Cd mg/1  Be mg/1  Al mg/1  Hg mg/1  Mo mg/1  Ni mg/1  47.90 0.131 54.99 0.100 52.87 0.09946.81 0.082 50.46 0.094 45.02 0.071 45.3 0.051 38.57 0.04  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  <0.01 <0.01 <0.0I 0.01 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 <0.01  0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04  30.27 32.16 33.15 36.75  0.171 0.164 0.147 0.150  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03  29.46 0.117 32.97 0.115 31.57 0.120 31.88 0.155 34.13 0.162 38.31 0.165 30.71 0.134 31.33 0.120  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04  38.58 46.60 28.99 30.16 30.14 33.14  0.094 0.080 0.065 0.069 0.059 0.053  3.364 4.310 2.802 2.420 2.194 2.302 1.830 2.164  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  4.779 5.734 4.105 4.474 4.915 5.934  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  4.223 3.736 2.939 3.262  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 < 0.002 <0.04 < 0.005 0.012 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  < 0.001 0.007 < 0.001 < 0.001  < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.002  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  Mg mg/1  Mn mg/1  Ag mg/l  Pb mg/1  K mg/1  Se mg/1  Na mg/1  Tl mg/1  Ti mg/1  V Zn Si mg/1 mg/1 mg/1  0.011 0.015 0.017 0.016 0.010 0.008 0.009 0.006  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 <0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  0.029 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  13.40 16.32 15.13 15.63 14.45 15.07 13.67 15.27  0.063 0.056 0.054 0.059 0.040 0.052 0.044 0.039  53.80 57.70 61.06 54.89 68.74 69.8 64.58 71.46  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.006 < 0.003 < 0.003 0.01 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  < 0.00 1.180 < 0.00 1.452 < 0.00 1.501 < 0.00 1.490 < 0.00 1.033 < 0.00 1.181 < o.oo0.916 < 0.00 0.879  4.69 5.10 5.43 5.01 5.15 5.28 4.54 4.7  0.01 0.02 <0.0l <0.01  0.035 0.035 0.034 0.033  < 0.010 < 0.010 <0.010 <0.010  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  13.47 12.86 12.40 12.90  0.051 0.051 0.051 0.050  19.28 18.90 17.55 18.92  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009  <0.00 1.318 < 0.00 1.571 <0.00 1.531 < o.oo 1.643  5.20 5.17 5.26 5.55  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 <0.01  0.026 0.033 0.037 0.019 0.020 0.017 0.020 0.018  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 <0.010 <0.010 < 0.010  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  11.54 12.41 12.55 13.25 11.86 12.66 10.54 11.25  0.033 0.028 0.030 0.027 0.022  18.85 21.60 19.30 32.31 28.55 < o.oo:31.24 0.019 23.60 0.019 25.30  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.005 < 0.003 < 0.003 0.006 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  < 0.00 1.511 <0.00 1.809 <0.00 2.008 <0.00 1.343 <0.00 1.292 <0.00 1.237 <0.00 1.169 <0.00 1.254  4.62 4.95 5.20 5.71 5.75 6.50 5.13 4.79  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01  0.023 0.017 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.017  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  0.011 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  16.39 8.60 8.49 7.44 7.43 8.10  0.113 0.102 0.109 0.105 0.107 0.091  14.90 10.76 12.48 11.59 11.22 12.95  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.010 0.009 0.010 0.009 0.008 0.009  <0.00 1.053 <0.00 0.948 < 0.00 1.055 < 0.000.960 < 0.000.954 <0.00 1.081  5.36 5.47 5.82 5.87 5.88 6.01  0.03 19.83 <0.02 21.25 <0.02 15.04 <0.02 14.20 <0.02 13.70 <0.02 14.91 <0.02 11.37 <0.02 11.31  0.009 < 0.0002 0.006 < 0.0002 0.015 < 0.0002 0.010 < 0.0002 0.006 < 0.0002 0.003 < 0.0002 0.006 < 0.0002 < 0.001 < 0.0002  0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01  0.009 < 0.010 0.014 <0.010 0.005 < 0.010 0.004 < 0.010 < 0.001< 0.010 < 0.001< 0.010 < 0.001< 0.010 0.006 < 0.010  0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  6.55 6.87 4.13 3.43 3.51 3.50 2.92 3.54  0.061 0.049 0.048 0.062 0.037 0.041 0.032 0.033  5.73 7.28 4.01 3.80 3.85 3.81 3.23 3.59  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.004 < 0.003 < 0.003 0.005 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  <0.00 0.910 <0.00 1.106 <0.00 0.507 < 0.00'0.477 < 0.000.478 <0.00 0.417 <0.00 0.376 <0.00 0.537  4.99 5.14 5.39 4.78 5.05 5.44 4.67 4.63  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  0.03 24.05 <0.02 33.44 0.03 19.04 0.03 21.31 0.02 23.33 0.03 28.88  0.060 0.069 0.060 0.064 0.063 0.075  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 <0.01 <0.01  0.025 0.027 0.024 0.027 0.026 0.028  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 <0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 <0.010 < 0.010  10.75 10.92 9.64 9.91 10.36 11.60  0.034 0.033 0.032 0.032 0.034 0.036  10.87 10.44 9.14 10.25 11.39 13.14  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.008 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.007 0.009  <0.00 0.985 <0.00 1.045 <0.00 1.102 <0.00 1.134 <0.00 1.197 <0.00 1.386  4.20 4.21 4.24 4.25 4.34 4.48  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  0.03 29.76 <0.02 21.49 <0.02 15.05 <0.02 20.51  0.049 0.028 0.024 0.028  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  <0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01  0.019 0.017 0.013 0.015  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  9.79 7.05 6.45 7.90  0.050 0.032 0.028 0.034  24.55 13.36 9.60 15.81  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003 0.005  <0.00 1.293 <0.00 0.984 <0.00 0.620 <0.00 1.060  4.10 4.06 4.22 4.10  3.590 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 27.04 0.024 < 0.0002 0.01 0.013 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.52 2.625 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 19.40 0.043 < 0.0002 0.01 0.012 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.32 3.193 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 22.63 0.013 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.05  0.032 14.62 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.879 4.65 0.021 13.93 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.706 3.87 0.028 17.78 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.995 3.71  .3.799 4.693 4.627 2.889  0.046 0.048 0.041 0.032  <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3  < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001  0.05 26.62 <0.02 28.94 0.02 23.86 <0.02 16.44  < 0.0233.11  0.032 0.036 0.029 0.020  < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 < 0.0002  <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.01  0.014 0.021 0.019 0.013  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010  8.90 9.43 9.38 7.24  21.06 24.27 22.24 11.72  <0.04 <0.04 <0.04 <0.04  0.005 < 0.003 < 0.003 < 0.003  <0.00 1.014 <0.00 1.307 <0.00 1.198 <0.00 0.794  3.69 4.05 4.08 4.05  0.022 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.55 0.023 < 0.0002 0.0 i 0.014 < 0.010 <0.010 7.09 0.007 < 0.0002 < 0.01 0.012 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.36  0.036 17.92 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.955 4.3 0.028 17.09 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.913 4.01 0.026 17.43 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.913 3.97  < 0.010 < 0.010 9.96  0.022 24.87 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.315 4.44  0.056 < 0.0002 <0.0I 0.02  232  M.2 Water chemistry: soil water samplers Sampling Point  Date Diss. Oxy.T mg/l °C  UBC1-L1A  UBC1-L1B  1/8/2007 4/11/2007 4/24/2007 1/8/2007  3.99 5 4.5  6.8 12.5 ll.4 6.4  3/7/2007 3/29/2007 4/24/2007  3.93 4.98 5.3 4.9 4.38 4.65 4.74  UBC1-L2A  1/9/2007 4/11/2007 4/24/2007  3.08 4.8 4.92  UBC1-L2B  1/9/2007 2/20/2007 3/7/2007 3/15/2007 3/20/2007 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 4/24/2007  2.61 2.96 3.38 4.84 4.3 4.I5 4.06 4.35 4.55 4.55  1/9/2007 2/20/2007 3/7/2007 3/15/2007 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/19/2007 4/24/2007 1/9/2007 2/20/2007 3/29/2007 1/9/2007  6.1I 3.63 3.79 3.92 4.17 4.I2 4.35 4.18 7.05 3.05 3.69  13.8 15.4 8.2 7 8.3 10.2 9.4 9.8  3.93 4 5.47 5.2  11 13.3  3.93 4 5.47 5.2 5.02  11 13.1 11.2 10.1 10.8 10.2 8.2 6.9 11.6 10.8 9.4 13.5 8.1 8.2 10 8.1  4/11/2007 4/19/2007 4/24/2007 UBC1-L1C  UBC1-L2C  UBC1-L2D  UBC1-L2E  2/20/2007 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 UBC1-L4A  UBC1-L4B  UBC1-L4C  UBC1-L4D  UBC1-L4E  1/9/2007 2/20/2007 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 4/24/2007 1/9/2007 3/7/2007 3/15/2007 4/11/2007 4/24/2007 1/9/2007 2/20/2007 3/7/2007 3/29/2007 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 1/9/2007 2/20/2007 3/7/2007 3/15/2007 3/20/2007 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/11/2007 2/20/2007 3/7/2007 3/15/2007 3/20/2007 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/11/2007  3.2 4.27 5.46 4.8 5.I5 3.28 3.26 4 4.1 5.45 4.47 3.87 3.92 7.54 5.29 5.2 4.92 5.58 5.29  12.8 12 M.9 8.3 8.4 ll.7 16.6 12.4 M.2 13.8 16.1 7.9 6.9 11.6 7.5 10.8 10.1 9.9 9.4  13.2 15.4 8.2  11.2 10.1  11.5 16.5 8.1 7.1 10.7 7.9 10.8 11.1  4.01 5.45 5.07  17.5 8 6.7  5.1 5.I2 5  8.2 11.1 11.2  Field Parameters pH Time Volume EC ml ms/cm 7.31 7.52 6.57 7.47 5.51 7.28  16:50 15:05 16:06  5.98 4.82 4.26 3.98  7.49 7.49 7.22 7.48  17:03 15:02 16:45 16:09  4.5 4.68 4.25 4.36 3.71 3.43 8.44 8.08 4.62 4.26 4.08 3.82 3.5 3.41 3.92 3.67  7.68 7.65 7:46 7.6 7.4 7.77 7.42 7.33 7.25 7.3 7.19 7.16 7.37 7.1 7.29 7.02  6.04 4.16 3.24 3.27 3.44 3.48 3.92 3.7 3.71 3.33 3.39  7.51 7.48 7.56 7.62 7.44 7.48 7.29 7.02  9.42 16:15  Al Sb mg/1 mg/l  As mg/l  Ba mg/l  Be mg/l  Bi mg/l  B mg/l  Cd mg/l  Ca mg/l  Co mg/l  Cu mg/l  Cr mg/l  Sn mg/l  Sr mg/l  P mg/l  Total Metals Fe Li mg/l mg/l  Mg mg/l  Mn mg/l  mg/l  Mo Ni mg/l mg/l  Ag mg/l  Pb mg/l  K Se mg/l mg/l  Na mg/l  TI mg/l  Ti mg/l  V mg/1  Zn Si mg/l mg/l  100  150 150  11:30 15:10 16:25  250  11:40 11:20 17:40 17:40 14:53 9:50 11:50 15:18 16:59 16:33 11:50 11:30 17:50 17:47 9:58 12:00 16:59 16:33  250 200 500 0.05 300 300 500 0.13 500 0.11 100 100  0.011 < 0.001 0.027 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 0 0.09 < 0.003 786.9 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.257 <0.3 < 0.001 0.08 78.54 4.705 < 0.0002 0.01 0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 46.13 0.110 97.76 <0.04 < 0.003 0.008 0.016 < 0.001 0.023 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.11 < 0.003 679.8 0.009 0.014 < 0.002 <0.04 1.858 <0.3 0.033  0.10 69.60 4.170 < 0.0002 0.02 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 43.66 0.086 86.52 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.808 7.57  0.019 < 0.001 0.022 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 596.0 0.011 0.011 < 0.002<0.04 1.579 <0.3 < 0.001 0.09 63.30  300 500 <0.02 0.013 0.006 250 250 500 0.08 0.015 0.005  3.748 < 0.0002 0.02 0.018 < 0.010 < 0.010 38.61 0.053 78.75 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.755 6.82  0.026 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 732.5 0.008 0.010 < 0.002 <0.04 2.121 <0.3 < 0.001 0.15 71.49 4.421 < 0.0002 0.02 0.031 < 0.010 < 0.010 59.41 0.108 88.63 <0.04 0.01 0.021 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.11 < 0.003 686.3 0.01  0.014 < 0.002 <0.04 1.693 <0.3 0.037  0.844 7.80  0.10 68.38  0.008  0.609 9.00  4.754 < 0.0002 0.02 0.033 < 0.010 < 0.010 40.44 0.036 77.24 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.739 9.19  100 100  3.3 3.79 0.5 0.9  7.61 7.49 7.5 8.25 8.26 8.39 7.86  11:58 11.35 10:03 1:12 11:42 15:35 17:03  750 100 150  3.3 3.79 0.5 0.9 0.4  8.25 8.26 8.39 7.86 8.37  1:12  700  15:35 17:03 16:44  4.98 0.384 0.7 0.7 0.4  7.89 8.52 7.79 7.82 7.82  12:15 17:58 18:00 15:40 16:48  100 150 150 800 150 150 80 250  8.55 0.785 0.804 0.8 0.5 0.5  7.84 7.84 8.05 7.89 7.79 7.78  900 550 <0.02 0.019 < 0.001 0.032 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.12 < 0.003 155.9 < 0.0050.02 < 0.002 <0.04 1.566 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 6.577 0.139 < 0.0002 0.01 0.005 <0.0I0 < 0.010 7.51 0.024 2.9 250 150 500 0.11 0.018 < 0.001 0.016 < 0.001 <0.10 0.07 < 0.003 83.48 < o.oo;0.007 < 0.002 <0.04 0.673 <0.3 < 0.001 <o.o; 3.568 0.084 < 0.0002 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.39 0.022 0.88 300  1.05 0.946 1 1.2 1 0.9 0.8 1.07 0.985 1  7.69 7.8 7.85 7.64 7.66 7.69 7.67  12:28 11:50 18:00 10:12 15:43 17:15 12:32 12:00 18:10 18:10 15:10 10:16 12:10 15:48  7.8 7.8 7.82  12:05 18:15 18:15  300 150 180  1.1 7.72 1 7.71 0.8 7.69  10:19 12:20 15:52  200  250 700  <0.02 0.020 < 0.001 < o.oo:< 0.001 <0.10 0.05 < 0.003 63.61 < o.oo:< 0.001 < 0.002<0.04 0.536 <0.3 < 0.001 <o.o: 2.676  200 120 150 100 100 250  250  -  0.041 < 0.0002 0.02 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.23 0.019 1.68  <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.108 8.25  <0.04 < 0.003 0.01  0.124 12  <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.458 8.5  M.2 Water chemistry: soil water samplers (continued from previous page) Sampling Point  UBC1-L1A UBC1-L1B  UBC1-L1C UBC1-L2A UBC1-L2B  UBC1-L2C  UBC1-L2D UBC1-L2E  UBC1-L4A  UBC1-L4B  UBC1-L4C  UBC1-L4E  EC  mg/l  ms/cm  °C  pH  Time  Volume ml  3.99  6.8  7.52  16:50  5  12.5  6.57 7.47  15:05  4/24/2007  4.5  11.4  5.51  7.28  16:06  7.31  1/8/2007  3.93  6.4  5.98 7.49  17:03  4/11/2007  4.98  12.8  4.82 7.49  15:02  4/19/2007  5.3  12  4.26 7.22  16:45  4/24/2007  4.9  11.9  3.98 7.48  16:09  3/7/2007  4.38  8.3  4.5 7.68  3/29/2007  4.65  8.4  4.68 7.65  9.42  4/24/2007  4.74  11.7  4.25 7.46  16:15  1/9/2007  Al  Sb  As  Ba  Be  Bo  B  Cd  Ca  Co  Cu  Cr  Sn  Sr  P  Fe  Li  Mg  Mn  Hg  Mo  Ni  Ag  Pb  K  Se  Na  Tl  Ti  V  Zn  Si  mg/1  mg/1  mg/1  mg/1  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  mg/l  <0.3  < 0.001 0.08  75.34 4.705  < 0.0002 0.01  0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 46.08 0.101 95.38  <0.3  < 0.001 0.11  66.52 4.837  < 0.0002 0.02  0.018  < 0.010 < 0.010 54.19 0.097  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 62.81  4.108 < 0.0002 0.02  0.019  100  150 150  3.08  16.6  4.36  7.6  11:30  4/11/2007  4.8  12.4  3.71  7.4  15:10  4/24/2007  4.92  11.2  3.43 7.77  16:25  1/9/2007  2.61  13.8  8.44 7.42  11:40  250  2/20/2007  2.96  16.1  8.08 7.33  11:20  200  3/7/2007  3.38  7.9  4.62 7.25  17:40  500 0.04  0.011  3/15/2007  4.84  6.9  4.26  7.3  17:40  300 0.04  0.014  < 0.001 0.027 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 786.4 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.199 0.005 0.026 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 701.5 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.310  3/20/2007  4.3  11.6  4.08 7.19  14:53  300 0.06  0.013  < 0.001 0.024 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 677.7 0.009  3/29/2007  4.I5  7.5  3.82 7.16  9:50  500 0.09  0.013  < 0.001 0.021  4/4/2007  4.06  10.8  3.5 7.37  11:50  4/11/2007  4.35  10.1  7.1  15:18  500 0.10  0.018  < 0.001 0.020 < 0.001 <0.I0  0.07 < 0.003 594.0 0.011  4/19/2007  4.55  9.9  3.92 7.29  16:59  100 0.05  0.02  < 0.001 0.02  0.08 < 0.003  4/24/2007  4.55  9.4  3.67  7.02  16:33  100  3.41  250  < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003 659.6 0.008  <0.001 <0.10  119.2  1/9/2007  6.11  13.8  6.04 7.51  11:50  300  3.63  15.4  4.16 7.48  11:30  500 <0.02 0.013  0.006  0.026 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.08 < 0.003 725.0 0.008  3/7/2007  3.79  8.2  3.24 7.56  17:50  250 0.04  0.013  0.005  0.017  3/15/2007  3.92  7  3.27  17:47  250  3/29/2007  4.17  8.3  3.44 7.44  9:58  0.013  0.005  0.019 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.09 < 0.003 591.0  4/4/2007  4.12  10.2  3.48 7.48  12:00  4/19/2007  4.35  9.4  3.92 7.29  16:59  100  4/24/2007  4.18  9.8  3.7  7.02  16:33  100  1/9/2007  7.05  13.2  3.71  7.61  11:58  2/20/2007  3.05  15.4  3.33 7.49  11:35  < 0.001 0.022 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.10 < 0.003 614.1  3/29/2007  3.69  8.2  3.39  10:03  1/9/2007  7.62  7.5  II  1:12  700  4  13.3  3.79  3.3 8.25 8.26  11:42  750  4/11/2007  5.47  11.2  0.5  8.39  15:35  100  4/19/2007  5.2  10.1  0.9 7.86  17:03  150  3.3 8.25  1:12  700  < 0.002 <0.04  < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.841 7.65 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.945 9.42  < 0.010 < 0.010 48.55 0.114 85.40  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.950 7.34  1.784 <0.3  < 0.001 0.09  67.03 4.050 < 0.0002 0.02  0.016  < 0.010 < 0.010 42.20 0.083 82.77  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.791 7.35  1.550  <0.3  < 0.001 0.08  61.70 3.660 < 0.0002 0.02  0.018  < 0.010 < 0.010 36.09 0.051 74.76  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.691 6.48  1.54  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 4.935 0.124  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.89  < 0.0002 <0.0I <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.49  0.049 1.68  9.53  < 0.002 <0.04  1.780  <0.3  < 0.001 0.10  70.36 4.413 < 0.0002 0.02  0.028  < 0.010 < 0.010 58.49 0.108 88.59  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.560 8.87  1.522  <0.3  < 0.001 0.09  56.94 3.974 < 0.0002 0.02  0.025 < 0.010 < 0.010 40.40 0.033 80.46  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.601 8.71  0.009  < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  1.526  <0.3  < 0.001 0.09  62.99 4.440 < 0.0002 0.02  0.030  < 0.010 < 0.010 36.83 0.036 69.46  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.660 8.73  0.010  0.008  < 0.002 <0.04  1.390  <0.3  < 0.001 0.09  56.42 4.372  < 0.0002 0.02  0.033  < 0.010 < 0.010 42.26 0.071 71.25  <0.04  < 0.003 0.014  <0.02 0.019 < 0.001 <0.00 < 0.001 < 0.10 <0.0 < 0.003 55.02 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 0.465  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 2.615 0.040  < 0.0002 0.01  <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.13  1.05  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.081 8.25  250 <0.02 0.012  3.93  0.007  1.886  <0.04  106.90 <0.04  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  500 0.05  2/20/2007  < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  2/20/2007  < 0.001 <0.10  0.11 < 0.003 588.1  0.009  0.727 8.68  3.93  II  2/20/2007  4  13.1  3.79  8.26  4/11/2007  5.47  11.2  0.5  8.39  15:35  100  4/19/2007  5.2  10.1  0.9 7.86  17:03  150  4/24/2007  5.02  10.8  0.4  8.37  16:44  150  1/9/2007  3.2  10.2  4.98  7.89  12:15  800  3/7/2007  4.27  8.2  0.384 8.52  17:58  150  3/15/2007  5.46  6.9  0.7  7.79  18:00  150  4/11/2007  4.8  11.6  0.7  7.82  15:40  80  4/24/2007  5.15  10.8  0.4  7.82  16:48  250  1/9/2007  .3.28  9.4  8.55 7.84  12:28  900  2/20/2007  .3.26  13.5  0.785 7.84  11:50  550 <0.02 0.018  < 0.001 0.026 < 0.001 <0.I0  0.12 < 0.003  133.3  < 0.005 0.017  < 0.002 <0.04  1.165  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 5.811 0.131  < 0.0002 < 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.89  0.024 2.24  <0.04  < 0.003 0.01  4  8.1  0.804 8.05  18:00  250 0.07  0.018  < 0.001 0.028 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.12 < 0.003  142.7  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  1.387  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 5.761 0.140 < 0.0002 < 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.28  0.027 2.63  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.115 11.51  1/9/2007  3/7/2007  UBC1-L4D  Diss. Oxy. T  4/11/2007  1/8/2007  Dissolved Metals  Field Parameters  Date  0.017  0.098 11.42  3/29/2007  4.1  8.2  0.8 7.89  10:12  150  4/11/2007  5.45  10  0.5 7.79  15:43  500 0.09  0.016  < 0.001 0.014 < 0.001 <0.10  0.05 < 0.003 77.8  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 0.632  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 3.475 0.078  < 0.0002 0.01  <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.08  0.021 0.86  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.410 7.98  4/19/2007  4.47  8.1  0.5 7.78  17:15  300 0.05  0.019  < 0.001 0.015 <0.00l <0.10  0.05 < 0.003 92.6  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 0.743  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 3.680 0.086  < 0.0002 <0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.49  0.024 0.98  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.554 8.58  1/9/2007  3.87  11.5  2/20/2007  3.92  16.5  3/7/2007  7.54  8.1  3/15/2007  5.29  3/20/2007  0.022  < 0.001 0.019 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003  119.9  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  1.116  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 5.262 0.095 < 0.0002 0.01  <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.62  0.023 1.37  <0.04  < 0.003 0.016  0.67  10.5  185.9  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.187  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 9.368 0.093  < 0.0002 <0.0 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.69  0.032 4.04  <0.04  < 0.003 0.01  0.11  11.91  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 8.583 0.214 < 0.0002 <0.0 0.008  < 0.010 < 0.010 7.96  0.037 2.83  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 1.51  12.36  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 8.805 0.212  < 0.0002 0.0 i  0.007  < 0.010 < 0.010 6.84  0.038 2.35  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 1.34  10.14  <0.3  < 0.001 <0.02 5.872 0.148  < 0.0002 0.01  0.005 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.77  1.81  <0.04  < 0.003 < 0.007 0.84  9.88  12:32 1.05 7.69  12:00  200  7.8  18:10  120  7.1  1 7.85  18:10  150  5.2  10.7  1.2 7.64  15:10  100  3/29/2007  4.92  7.9  1 7.66  10:16  100  4/4/2007  5.58  10.8  0.9 7.69  12:10  4/11/2007  5.29  11.1  0.8 7.67  15:48  250 0.09  2/20/2007  4.01  17.5  1.07  7.8  12:05  300 <0.02 0.021  3/7/2007  5.45  8  0.985  7.8  18:15  150  3/15/2007  5.07  6.7  1 7.82  18:15  180 0.06  0.016  5.1  8.2  7.72  10:19  200 0.08  0.018  < 0.001 0.036 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.12 < 0.003 205.3 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.218 < 0.001 0.035 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 186.8 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.027  5.12  II.1  1 7.71  12:20  0.8 7.69  15:52  250 0.09  0.019  < 0.001 0.024 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.08 < 0.003  0.946  3/20/2007 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/11/2007  5  11.2  I.I  < 0.001 0.028 < 0.001  < O.iO  0.17 < 0.003  137.1  < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04  1.583  0.025  

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