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The design, construction, instrumentation and initial response of a field-scale waste rock test pile Corazao Gallegos, Juan Carlos 2007

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T H E D E S I G N , C O N S T R U C T I O N , I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N A N D I N I T I A L R E S P O N S E O F A F I E L D - S C A L E W A S T E R O C K T E S T P I L E by J U A N C A R L O S C O R A Z A O G A L L E G O S B . S c , Universidad de Lima, 1997 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R OF A P P L I E D S C I E N C E in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( M I N I N G E N G I N E E R I N G ) U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A June 2007 © Juan Carlos Corazao Gallegos, 2007 A B S T R A C T The geochemical and hydrological behavior of waste rock systems is usually predicted by conducting laboratory scale tests such as humidity cells and small-scale barrel tests. While these test procedures for the prediction of geochemical behavior are well developed and widely adopted in practice, little is known i f the results obtained from these small scale tests can be used to describe and predict the full-scale behavior of waste rock impoundments under natural field conditions. Direct observations and measurements of water movement through waste rock dumps are necessary to improve the understanding of the hydrology of the dump and its influence on the geochemistry o f full-scale waste rock dumps. These observations of oxygen and water movement are possible through the implementation of field-scale experiments. Some field-scale experiments have been developed in the last few decades; all of them focus primarily on studying waste rock geochemistry and hydrology in acid production environments. However, some ore bodies are hosted in rock with high neutralization capacity such as carbonates, generating alkaline/neutral drainage from the waste rock dumps. This type o f drainage can also produce adverse effects on the environment. The alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps can limit the dissolution and mobility of some metals although other environmentally hazardous elements are not strongly attenuated at high p H . This thesis is part of an extensive research program currently undertaken by the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada in collaboration with Teck Cominco Limited, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada ( N S E R C ) and the Antamina mine in Peru to investigate waste rock hydrology and geochemistry in a neutral drainage environment. The field experimentation includes five field-scale waste rock test piles, a number of barrel-sized field cells and a cover study. The scope of this research involved the design, construction and instrumentation of a field-scale waste rock test pile constructed at the Antamina mine, which is hosted in rock with high ii neutralization capacity. The experimental data was used to analyze the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the constructed pile. The general conclusions are that: the test pile construction sequence and the meteorological conditions at the site during the construction and subsequent operation of the pile had a significant influence on the initial hydrological response of the test pile; the infiltration and drainage conditions in the test pile reached a semi-steady state in relatively short period of time; the effect of material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence of preferential flow paths appear to be evident; and, that the levels of electrical conductivity measured and the sulfates released along with concentrations of metals such as C u and Z n suggests that oxidation is taking place within the pile. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS A B S T R A C T 11 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S i v L I S T O F T A B L E S v i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S v i i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S x i i D E D I C A T I O N x i i i 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.1. Research Objectives 2 1.2. Organization o f Thesis 3 2. L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 5 2.1. Waste Rock Hydrology 5 2.2. Previous Research Investigating Waste Rock Hydrology and Geochemistry in Field-Scale Experiments 8 2.2.1. Field-Scale Kinetic Tests at the Red Mountain Gold-Silver Deposit 9 2.2.2. Large-Scale Column Leach Studies at New Mexico, U S A 10 2.2.3. A n Intermediate-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile at the Cluf f Lake Uranium Mine. . 11 2.2.4. Two Large-Scale Waste Rock Test Piles at the Diavik Diamond Mine 13 2.2.5. Full-Scale Trial Dump at the Grasberg Copper-Gold Mine 14 2.2.6. Summary of Waste Rock Field-Scale Experiments 16 2.3. Field-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile in a Neutral Environment .19 2.4. Summary 20 3. D A T A C O L L E C T I O N R E Q U I R E M E N T S A N D F I E L D I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N 21 3.1. Data Collection Requirements 21 3.2. Field Instrumentation 22 3.2.1. Procured Instrumentation 22 3.2.2. Designed and Constructed Instruments 25 3.3. Summary 41 4. T E S T P I L E D E S I G N , C O N S T R U C T I O N A N D I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N 42 4.1. Conceptual Design ..42 4.2. Construction Site Selection and Preparation 45 4.3. Lysimeter Construction and Instrumentation 47 4.3.1. Foundation 47 4.3.2. Berm Construction 49 4.3.3. Geomembrane Placement 55 4.3.4. Geomembrane Protective Layer 60 4.3.5. Water Collection Sump 66 4.3.6. Sub-Lysimeters 70 4.3.7. Lysimeter Drainage System 75 4.3.8. Installation of Basal Instrumentation 76 4.3.9. Protection of Lysimeter Drainage System and Basal Instrumentation 82 4.4. Waste Rock End-Dumping and Pile Instrumentation 85 4.4.1. End-Dumping Process 85 4.4.2. Installation and Protection of Instrumentation Lines along the Slope 89 4.5. Post-Construction Pile Size Adjustment 94 4.6. Instrumentation Hut 96 4.6.1. Layout o f the Instrumentation Hut 96 4.7. Summary 107 5. I N I T I A L H Y D R O L O G I C A L A N D G E O C H E M I C A L R E S P O N S E O F T H E C O N S T R U C T E D T E S T P I L E 108 5.1. Test Pile Hydrology 108 5.1.1. Weather Conditions at the Antamina Mine I l l 5.1.2. Test Pile Response 115 5.1.3. Lysimeter and Sub-Lysimeters Response 117 5.1.4. Pile Hydrology Summary 121 5.2. Test Pile Geochemistry 122 5.2.1. Lysimeter and Sub-Lysimeters Water Chemistry 121 5.2.2. Soil Water Samplers Water Chemistry 127 5.2.3. Vertical Evolution of Water Chemistry 129 5.2.4. Summary of Test Pile Geochemistry 132 5.3. Summary .....133 6. S U M M A R Y , C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 135 6.1. Summary 135 6.2. Conclusions.... 136 6.3. Recommendations for Future Research 138 R E F E R E N C E S 139 Appendix A . Water Chemistry Laboratory Parameters 143 Appendix B . Figures of Experimental Instrumentation 144 Appendix C. T D R Sensors Construction 154 Appendix D . T D R Sensors Calibration 163 Appendix E . Electrical Conductivity Sensors Construction 170 Appendix F. Electrical Conductivity Sensors Calibration 175 Appendix G . Large Tipping Bucket Calibration 178 Appendix H . Small Tipping Bucket Calibration 180 Appendix I. Material Characterization Test 184 Appendix J. Test Pile Construction and Instrumentation Figures 195 Appendix K . Calculation o f Flow-Through Protective Layer 220 Appendix L . CR1000 Datalogger Program 222 Appendix M . Water Chemistry Laboratory Results 230 vi LIST O F T A B L E S Table 2.1 Methods of construction of a waste rock pile adapted from Fala et al, 2003 6 Table 2.2 Summary profile of field-scale experiments 17 Table 4.1 In-situ density (protective layer) 64 Table 4.2 Summary of double-ring infiltrometer test results 66 Table 5.1 Sub-Lysimeters U B C 1 - A and U B C 1 - B water chemistry 122 Table 5.2 Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1-C and Lysimeter U B C 1-D water chemistry 123 Table 5.3 Soi l water samplers water chemistry 128 Table A . l Field parameters 143 Table A . 2 Laboratory parameters 143 Table C. 1 Materials required for assembly 155 Table C.2 Tools required for assembly 156 Table 1.1 Infiltrometer tests 192 Table M . 1 Water chemistry: lysimeter, sub-lysimeters, composite sample tank and water collection sump 231 Table M . 2 Water chemistry: soil water samplers 233 vii LIST O F FIGURES Figure 3.1 Soil water sampler 23 Figure 3.2 T D R sensor 27 Figure 3.3 Water conveyance system 29 Figure 3.4 Schematic diagram of the four-wire sensor 30 Figure 3.5 Schematic diagram o f the resistor circuit (Mayashi, 1999) 30 Figure 3.6 Electrical conductivity sensor 32 Figure 3.7 Large tipping bucket 34 Figure 3.8 Correlation between flow rate, and time per tip for the large tipping bucket 36 Figure 3.9 Small tipping bucket 37 Figure 3.10 Correlation between flow rate and time per tip for the small tipping buckets... 3 8 Figure 3.11 Water flow splitter 40 Figure 4.1 V i e w o f test pile 42 Figure 4.2 Simplified plan view of test pile 44 Figure 4.3 Simplified cross section of test pile 44 Figure 4.4 Side hi l l terrace (selected area for the research program) 46 Figure 4.5 Preparation of research program area 47 Figure 4.6 Construction of pile foundation 48 Figure 4.7 Photograph showing the construction of upper foundation layer 49 Figure 4.8 Watering of layer during berm construction 50 Figure 4.9 Compaction of lysimeter berm 51 Figure 4.10 Excavator cutting berm interior slope 51 Figure 4.11 Creating apex on top of berm 52 Figure 4.12 Photograph showing the compaction of both sides of berm apex 53 Figure 4.13 Photograph showing the compaction of the berm slope 53 Figure 4.14 Trench for anchoring geomembrane 54 Figure 4.15 Sub-lysimeter drainage pipes placed through the berm 55 Figure 4.16 Geomembrane deployment and installation 56 Figure 4.17 Photograph showing the lysimeter area covered with the geomembrane 57 Figure 4.18 Welding the geomembrane using a hot wedge welding machine 57 Figure 4.19 French drain at the back of the lysimeter 58 Figure 4.20 Geomembrane air pressure test 59 Figure 4.21 Drainage pipes placed through geomembrane 60 Figure 4.22 Placement of material onto the geomembrane 61 Figure 4.23 Material being spread over the geomembrane 62 Figure 4.24 Compaction of protective layer 63 Figure 4.25 Photograph showing a cone sand test of the protective layer 64 Figure 4.26 Double ring used for infiltration test on protective layer 65 Figure 4.27 Photograph showing the sump construction at lowest corner of lysimeter 67 Figure 4.28 Photograph showing the wrapped reinforced hose 67 Figure 4.29 Sump being filled with gravel 68 Figure 4.30 Sump filled with gravel (lowest corner of lysimeter) 69 Figure 4.31 Construction of sub-lysimeters 70 Figure 4.32 Drainage and protective pipes within the protective layer 71 Figure 4.33 Compaction of sub-lysimeter berm 72 Figure 4.34 Sub-lysimeter interior compaction 73 Figure 4.35 Installation of geomembrane on sub-lysimeters 74 Figure 4.36 Photograph of sub-lysimeters with their protective layer 75 Figure 4.37 Installation of lysimeter drainage system 76 Figure 4.38 Illustration showing the location of protective pipes along the pile base 78 Figure 4.39 Installation of protective Pipes for Basal Instrumentation 79 Figure 4.40 Installation of a T D R sensor 80 Figure 4.41 Installation of a gas sampling port 81 Figure 4.42 Installation of a thermistor 82 Figure 4.43 Protection of drainage system and basal instrumentation 83 Figure 4.44 V i e w showing a front-end loader placing the 1.5-m protective layer 84 Figure 4.45 Panoramic view showing the placement of the 1.5-m protective layer 84 Figure 4.46 Protection of instrumentation lines during the 1.5-m layer placement 85 Figure 4.47 End-Dump of class B waste rock 86 Figure 4.48 Side view during pile construction 87 Figure 4.49 Grain size distribution of class B waste rock 88 Figure 4.50 Excavator digging a trench along the test pile slope 89 Figure 4.51 Excavator finishing digging a trench along the test pile slope 90 Figure 4.52 Installation of sensors and sampling ports along the test pile slope 91 Figure 4.53 Photograph showing the installation of a Soil Water Sampler (I) 93 Figure 4.54 Photograph showing the installation of a Soil Water Sampler (II) 93 Figure 4.55 Excavator removing the safety berm (end of third end-dumping stage) 94 Figure 4.56 Photograph showing the removing material around the perimeter o f the pile. ..95 Figure 4.57 V i e w of instrumentation hut from top of the pile 96 Figure 4.58 Interior of instrumentation hut 97 Figure 4.59 V i e w of the three small tipping buckets 100 Figure 4.60 Concrete containment system and flow splitter 101 Figure 4.61 Photograph showing the composite sample tank installation 102 Figure 4.62 Installed composite sample tank 103 Figure 4.63 Photograph showing the gas sampling ports panel 104 Figure 4.64 Photograph showing the soil water samplers panel 104 Figure 4.65 Photograph showing the datalogging system 107 Figure 5.1 Test pile sequence of construction and precipitation over the area 110 Figure 5.2 Daily precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - A p r i l 2007) 112 Figure 5.3 Cumulative precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - A p r i l 2007) ... 113 Figure 5.4 Cumulative outflow and cumulative precipitation (Aug. 2006 to Apr . 2007) .115 Figure 5.5 Lysimeter and Sub-lysimeters Response 117 Figure 5.6 Time response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C (January 31, 2007) 119 Figure 5.7 Time response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C (Apri l 9, 2007) 120 Figure 5.8 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - A 124 Figure 5.9 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - B 125 Figure 5.10 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - C 125 Figure 5.11 Water Chemistry Evolution for Lysimeter U B C 1-D 126 Figure 5.12 Soil Water Samplers within the Test Pile (simplified cross-section) 127 Figure 5.13 Location of Soil Water Samplers U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - L 4 C 129 Figure 5.14 Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - B 130 Figure 5.15 Dissolved Cooper Evolution between U B C 1-L2C and U B C 1 - B 131 Figure 5.16 Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 4 C and U B C 1 - C ....131 Figure 5.17 Dissolved Copper Evolution between U B C 1-L4C and U B C 1 - C 132 Figure B . 1 Sensors and sampling ports: 146 Figure B.2 Water conveyance system 147 Figure B.3 Large tipping buckets 148 Figure B.4 Isometric view of large tipping bucket 149 Figure B.5 Large tipping bucket mechanism 150 Figure B.6 Large tipping bucket housing unit 151 Figure B.7 Small tipping bucket 152 Figure B.8 Flow splitter 153 Figure C. 1 Three steel rods with terminal blocks attached to either end 159 Figure C.2 Bottom view of P IN diode with formed leads 159 Figure C.3 P I N diode assembly 160 Figure C.4 F-connector and PIN diode assembly 160 Figure C . 5 A T D R probe ready for epoxy 161 Figure C.6 A n assembly Zegelin 3-rod T D R probe 162 Figure C.7 T D R probes set up for epoxy 162 Figure E . l 15.06-mm diameter P V C plug installed at the base of the sensor 172 Figure E.2 Washer placed inside a sensor 173 Figure E.3 Assembled sensors 173 Figure E.4 Pouring the epoxy 174 Figure E.5 Placing plug at the head of the sensor 174 Figure J. 1 Pile foundation 196 Figure J.2 Lysimeter Berm 197 Figure J.3 Lysimeter Berm design 198 Figure J.4 Water collection sump : 199 Figure J.5 Drainage and protective pipes 200 Figure J.6 Sub-lysimeter design 201 Figure J.7 Pile base - 3D 202 Figure J.8 Instrumentation lines 203 Figure J.9 Sensors and sampling ports installations 204 Figure J. 10 Protection of drainage systems and basal instrumentation 205 Figure J. 11 Pile base prior to end-dumping 206 Figure J.12 Instrumentation line 1 207 Figure J. 13 Instrumentation line 2 208 Figure J. 14 Instrumentation line 3 209 Figure J. 15 Instrumentation line 4 210 Figure J. 16 Instrumentation line - 3D 211 Figure J.17 Experimental pile - 3D 212 x Figure J. 18 Instrumentation hut (front view) 213 Figure J. 19 Instrumentation hut including (flow splitter) 214 Figure J.20 Instrumentation hut including (large tipping bucket) 215 Figure 5.21 Instrumentation hut (cross section A - A ) 216 Figure J.22 Instrumentation hut (cross section B - B ) 217 Figure J.23 Soil water sampler and gas line pipes 218 Figure J.24 Datalogging system wiring diagram 219 A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I would like to acknowledge the financial support of Teck Cominco Limited, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council o f Canada ( N S E R C ) and Compania Minera Antamina. I would like to express my special gratitude to Dr. Ward Wilson, my supervisor and Dr. Roger Beckie, my co-supervisor for their friendship, supervision and guidance as well as professors Bern Kle in , U l i Mayer and Leslie Smith from the University o f British Columbia. I would like to express my appreciation to Judy Andrina, Celedonio Aranda, Ciro Ascue, Daniel Bay, Dr. Stephane Brienne, Dr. Col in Fyfe, Carlos Garcia, Javier Garcia, Raul Jamanca, Dr. Fernando Junqueira, Henri Letient, Ross Lonergan, Joseph Marcoline, Matt Neuner, Roger Pak, Colleen Roche, Timothy Savage, Fabiola Sifuentes, Joern Unger, Bartolome Vargas and all the personnel from the Antamina mine for their collaboration. I would especially like to express my deep gratitude to Alexandra, for her love, patience, and support. x i i DEDICATION To my parents Hugo and Gilma 1. Introduction The mining industry provides the essential raw materials that people use to sustain and improve their standard of living. A t the same time it produces large quantities of waste materials as a consequence of ore extraction and processing activities to recover the metals or products of interest. The ore extraction activities imply the removal of waste rock in order to gain access to the ore. This waste rock is usually stockpiled in large waste rock dumps or piles, which in some cases can be several hundred meters long and a few hundred meters high. The climatic, hydrogeological and topographic conditions of each mine site can have a significant impact on the amount of water that infiltrates a waste rock system. When the infiltrated water in the presence of oxygen contacts the waste rock material, the leaching of metals can result; these metals in solution can produce negative impacts on the receiving environment. Usually people recognize this process as acid rock drainage ( A R D ) , which is primarily oxidation of sulfide minerals, the major source of poor water quality resulting from mining activities. As a consequence, A R D is the focus of a vast number of studies. However, some ore bodies are hosted in rock with high neutralization capacity such as carbonates, generating alkaline/neutral drainage from the waste rock dumps. This type of drainage can also produce adverse effects on the environment. The alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps can limit the dissolution and mobility of some metals such as aluminum, iron and copper although other environmentally hazardous elements such as arsenic, antimony, molybdenum, selenium, chromium and to a lesser extent, zinc, are not strongly attenuated at high pH. The geochemical and hydrological behavior of waste rock dumps usually is predicted by conducting laboratory scale tests such as humidity cells and small-scale barrel tests. These tests have been in use over the past few decades and the experimental procedures are well developed and adopted in practice. At the same time there is little confidence that the result of these tests can predict the full-scale behavior of waste rock dumps. Although there is already a well established understanding of geochemical processes, an accurate prediction of drainage quality evolution requires the characterization of the movement 1 Although there is already a well established understanding of geochemical processes, an accurate prediction of drainage quality evolution requires the characterization of the movement of oxygen and in particular the movement of water through a waste rock dump. Direct observations and measurements of water movement through waste rock dumps are necessary to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the dump and its influence on the geochemistry of full-scale waste rock dumps. These observations of oxygen and water movement are possible through the implementation of field-scale experiments. Some field-scale experiments have been developed in the last few decades; all of them focus primarily on studying waste rock geochemistry and hydrogeology in acid production environments. As mentioned previously, alkaline/neutral drainage can have adverse effects on the receiving environment and there is a need to improve the understanding of alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps through field-scale experiments. A field-scale waste rock test pile was designed and constructed at the Antamina mine in Peru for the present study. The global objective of this research wi l l be to provide an improved understanding of long-term evolution of water quality and metal loading from waste rock dumps in a alkaline/neutral environment. 1.1. Research Objectives This thesis is part of an extensive research program currently undertaken by the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada in collaboration with Teck Cominco Limited, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada ( N S E R C ) and the Antamina mine in Peru to investigate waste rock hydrology and geochemistry in a neutral drainage environment. The field experimentation includes five field-scale waste rock test piles, a number of barrel-sized field cells and a cover study. The primary research objective for this thesis was to design, construct, instrument, observe and analyze the initial response of the first constructed test pile for the extensive research program at Antamina. The material used for the construction of this pile was class B (according to Antamina's classification), which was composed of: marble, black marble, diopside marble. Class B material content limits are: between 700 - 1,500 ppm of Zn, less than 400 ppm of A s and less than 3% of sulphides. 2 The specific objectives of the design were to provide a reliable and practical plan for the construction of the test pile, to design specific components of the instrumentation according to the research objectives, to produce all the necessary drawings including plan views, side views, cross sections, etc, and to serve as a basis for the construction and instrumentation of the next four test piles. The goals of the construction process were to make efficient use of the resources available, to develop a methodology of construction by documenting the details of each step of the construction process including the type of materials, to characterize the waste rock by grain distribution tests, infiltrometer tests, etc, to place and ensure the operation and protection of the instrumentation within the pile and to allow the correlation of the experimental results with the details of the construction process. The objective of the analysis and discussion of the initial response of the test pile was to provide a preliminary assessment of the response for the pile based on the first three months of rainfall and outflow data recorded for the pile along with the results of water quality analyses. This initial response analysis w i l l not be sufficient to provide a comprehensive understanding of the response of the pile, nor to predict its long-term behavior, but w i l l provide insight into future monitoring requirements and improve the design and construction criteria for the subsequent test piles. 1.2. Organization of Thesis Chapter One provides an introduction to the research program. Chapter Two gives a summary of the hydrological aspects of waste rock piles and a review of previous research on waste rock hydrology and geochemistry in field-scale waste rock test piles. Chapter Three presents information for the field instrumentation used in the research program that was established by data collection requirements for the test pile. The design, construction and instrumentation of the constructed field-scale waste rock test pile are presented in Chapter Four. 3 A n analysis and discussion of the initial response of the constructed test pile is presented in Chapter Five. Finally, the lessons learned in the design, construction and instrumentation process as well as conclusions reached from the preliminary data analysis, along with a set of recommendations are contained in Chapter 6. 4 2. Literature Review Previous studies have recognized that the movement of water through waste rock is the primary mechanism for metals release from waste rock piles. The understanding of this process is, however, still limited. Most of the research has been done in laboratory scale tests or through simple observations at existing waste rock dumps, followed by the documenting of the deconstruction of a few selected waste rock dumps. More recently new field-scale experiments have been implemented to provide direct observations for solute movement through waste rock systems and the geochemical effects of this movement. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of recent literature regarding waste rock hydrology and its relation to metals release. The overview is followed by a summary of previous research related to waste rock hydrogeology and geochemistry in field-scale experiments. Finally, the research study of a field- scale waste rock test pile on which this thesis is based w i l l be introduced. 2.1. W a s t e R o c k H y d r o l o g y Waste rock dumps are an important component of any mining operation. They cover large areas of terrain and the water within a dump originates from a number of sources, such as: the water content of the material when placed, rainfall, snow melt, up-gradient runoff and groundwater seepage (Herasymuik, 1996). Water sources such as rainfall and snow melt cannot be prevented from infiltrating waste rock dumps due to the large area that they usually cover. A s Smith and Beckie (2003) pointed out, the grain size distribution of the waste rock and the proportion and spatial arrangement of matrix-supported and matrix-free zones within a pile (internal structure) are the two main factors in controlling the movement of air and water (hydrologic properties) within a waste rock pile. These two factors in turn are the result of the lithological properties of the ore deposit and its overburden, the mining method, and the construction technique used for the pile. The four principal methods of construction for a waste rock pile, which have a direct impact on the internal structure of the pile, were summarized by Fala et al. (2003). The method selected 5 generally depends on the specific site conditions and the type and size of equipment to be used in the construction of the pile. Each method produces a different waste rock distribution within a pile, as shown in Table 2.1. In addition, physical and chemical weathering processes can, over time, modify the original internal structure created during pile construction (Herasymuik, 1996). Table 2.1 Methods of construction of a waste rock pile (adapted from Fala et al, 2003) Method Process of Waste Rock Placement Waste Rock Segregation End-Dumping Trucks end-dump waste rock across the crest of the dump. Upper zone - fine particles. Intermediate zone - non-uniform. Lower zone - coarse material. Push-Dumping Trucks/conveyors dump waste rock near the crest and a bulldozer pushes the material over the crest. Upper zone - non-uniform. Lower zone - coarse material. Free-Dumping Waste rock is dumped in the form of individual stacks, and then the surface is leveled and compacted. Less pronounced segregation. Dragline/Bucket Excavator Waste rock is deposited directly by a dragline/bucket excavator. L o w segregation - more uniform material. The waste rock segregation described in Table 2.1 is based on the premise that the grain size distribution of the placed waste rock is relatively constant. During the relocation of part of a waste rock dump at the Golden Sunlight Mine in Montana, U S A , Herasymuik (1996) observed that the grain size distribution of the waste rock was highly variable. A s a result, coarse waste rock was found throughout the dump and was not limited to the basal region. 6 Many studies have identified the heterogeneity of waste rock materials and its influence on the development of preferential flow paths. In general, all waste rock piles have different levels of heterogeneity no matter what method was used in the construction process. A s Smith and Beckie (2003) indicated, "at least two types of fluid pathways are thought to be present in many waste rock piles: one involves flow in finer grained matrix materials, and the other involves a more rapid flow in so-called macropores [which are formed by the presence of coarse material]." It was also indicated that during high rainfall events, the layers of coarse material within a pile function as preferential flow paths, particularly in the region near the surface of the pile. When the macropore regions are interconnected they can form pathways for vertical infiltration through a pile. In these circumstances it is believed that the exchange of fluid with the finer-grained waste rock is limited. A s a result metal leaching may be less significant due to the limited fluid contact with finer-grained waste rock, which generally is more reactive. Newman (1999) conducted a waste rock column study to investigate the mechanisms for preferential flow in unsaturated systems. A two meter high column, vertically layered, was filled on one half with fine waste rock and the other side with coarse waste rock. Several infiltration rates were applied to study the development of preferential flow. The results of Newman's experiment indicated that when a steady-state surface flux greater than the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fine waste rock was applied to the column, the coarse material turned out to be the preferential flow path. The fine material became the preferential flow path when the surface flux was reduced to less than the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fine waste rock. There are a number of sources from which water w i l l infiltrate through waste rock piles. Infiltration from some of these sources can be prevented while infiltration from others, such as rainfall and snow melt need to be managed. There appears to be a consensus among researchers with regard to the importance of hydrological factors in the control of metal leaching and acid rock drainage ( A R D ) from waste rock piles. Grain size distribution and the 7 internal waste rock pile structure appear to be the main factors controlling air and water movement within a waste rock pile. Heterogeneity and the development of preferential flow paths are present to varying degrees within all waste rock piles. The interaction between layers of fine and coarse material is still not well understood. The geological and climatic conditions are specific for each site and play an important role in the results of studies of the hydrology of waste rock. Therefore numerous researchers have emphasized the necessity of confirming and expanding the current knowledge of hydrologic properties and behaviors in full-scale structures. 2.2. Previous Research Investigating Waste Rock Hydrology and Geochemistry in Field-Scale Experiments. Prior to the large-scale waste rock leaching experiment that Murr (1975) started, there were no direct large-scale observations of solution movement through waste rock. Most of the research had been based on laboratory scale tests as well as on common observations of waste rock dumps; therefore a lack of understanding of the hydrogeology of full-scale waste rock dumps was evident at that time. Later studies based on field measurements and observations as well as on the documentation of the deconstruction of some waste rock piles provided more information on the flow of water within a waste rock pile and the geochemical implications of that flow. In Smith et al. (1995), after analysis of data from four mines - Myra Falls, B . C . , Island Copper, B . C . , Elkview, B . C . and Golden Sunlight, Montana - it was concluded that "the most significant limitation of the existing database [collected in these four sites] is that no single site provided a complete data record of the important parameters required to characterize the hydrologic behavior of a waste rock pile, and the frequency of sampling was often insufficient." The statements and the conclusions of other studies described above prompted greater interest in hydrologic behavior, and the resulting allocation of resources has advanced the accuracy of findings, thus strengthening the characterization of the hydrological behavior of waste rock piles. In recent years field-scale experiments ranging from a 20-tonne field cells test at the Red Mountain gold-silver deposit in British Columbia, Canada (Frostad et al., 1999) to a 1.2-8 million-tonne full-scale trial dump at the Grasberg copper and gold mine located in Indonesia (Andrina et al., 2006) have been developed. These field-scale experiments have differed in terms of their location, altitude, climatic conditions, mineralogy, waste rock characteristics, design, size, instrumentation, methodology of construction, research objectives, etc. The main features of five notable large experiments are described below. 2 .2 .1 . Field-Scale Kinetic Tests at the Red Mountain Gold-Silver Deposit Frostad et al. (1999) carried out field-scale kinetic tests at the Red Mountain gold-silver deposit (porphyritic intrusion) located in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. The site, with an average annual temperature of 0°C, (m.a.s.l.) and an annual precipitation of 1,880 mm distributed evenly over the course of the year, is situated at 1,500 meters above sea level. The objective of the tests was to verify the scaling-up of laboratory results for the prediction of weathering processes within a waste rock dump. The two 20-tonne field cells were monitored for internal temperature, pH, conductivity, volume and rate of flow, and water quality. The material placed inside the field-scale cells contained 4-5% pyrite and 2-3% pyrrhotite. Grain size distribution tests and measurements of void ratio and specific surface area were conducted. The particle mass finer than 2 mm was around 3.2 % in each cell and the maximum particle size was 400 mm. The field cells consisted of two wooden cribs, each measuring 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.5 m. The base of each cell was sloped towards the front of the cell and was lined with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner 40 mm thick, while the slatted walls were lined with geotextile. Infiltrating water was collected in a 7.5-liter vessel. The lid of each vessel was fitted with probes to measure conductivity, p H and water temperature. The volume and flow rate of the water overflowing the vessel was measured by a tipping bucket. Temperature probes were buried within each crib to record the temperature within the cell; ambient temperature, humidity and precipitation were recorded as well . 9 As Frostad et al. (1999) concluded, it was not possible to scale up the laboratory weathering rates (corrected for surface area and temperature) with confidence to predict field results. Inadequate hydrological assumptions and deficiencies in experimental procedures may have been the cause. It was observed that the particle size used in the laboratory humidity cells influenced the sulfide oxidation rates. Due to the relatively small size of the field-scale cells compared to full-scale waste rock systems, the cells experienced greater fluctuations in internal temperatures, higher evaporation rates, and better aeration than an actual waste pile; to minimize these effects larger field test were recommended. 2.2.2. Large-Scale C o l u m n Leach Studies at New Mexico , U S A Murr (1980) conducted large-scale leach studies at the John D . Sullivan Center for In-Situ Min ing Research in the New Mexico , U S A . The objective was to study the process of copper leaching from waste rock as well as such flow characteristics as waste rock consolidation and permeability. Two large columns were used during the experimental process. The material placed inside the column, called the Kennecott column, was a quartzitic material containing chalcocite, pyrite (4 wt %) and carbonates (<0.1 wt %). The material for the other column (the Duval column) was a high carbonate intrusive rock (2 wt %) containing chalcopyrite and pyrite (3.3 wt %). Each column consisted of an insulated stainless steel tank 3.1 m diameter x 10.8 m high. 160 tonnes of waste rock were placed inside the Kennecott column. The material was sized and analyzed at the time it was loaded into the column; the placement of the material in the column was carefully conducted to ensure a homogeneous distribution of rock. The column was flooded with water and the outflow rate was recorded; from the outflow rate, water retention and void spaces were estimated. A s for the Duval column, with the exception of an additional 10 tonnes of waste rock and the installation of moisture probes, the construction and research methodologies were similar to those used for the Kennecott column. During the two years of operation of the columns several types of data, including copper recovery, oxygen consumption, temperature, solution composition, p H and Eh, and bacterial activity were collected. In the final application of solution to the Kennecott and Duval 1 0 columns a tracer (NaCl) to measure permeabilities and a rhodamine B dye to mark the final solution flow paths were added; pictures and specific details were recorded. Finally, both columns were completely drained and unloaded by hand. The unloaded material was coned, quartered, and screened to determine the post-leach rock size distribution. Murr (1980) observed that the permeability, of the Kennecott and Duval columns changed over time, increasing for the Kennecott column while decreasing for the Duval column. In the case of the Kennecott column, the changes in permeability suggested that the mineral dissolution increased the column permeability, whereas in the Duval column the limey material was initially dissolved and subsequently gypsum precipitation gradually reduced the column permeability. The observations indicated that for different waste rock types the same leaching process can generate different flow distributions. Another important observation was related to the contact of fluid with waste rock and to copper extraction. In the case of the Duval column, only 14% of the waste rock in the column was contacted by the fluid and the recovery of copper was just 4%; in the case of the Kennecott column, 60% of the waste rock in the column was contacted by the fluid and the recovery of copper was 40%. These results provided evidence of preferential flow and its relation with the leaching of metals from waste rock systems. 2.2.3. An Intermediate-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile at the Cluff Lake Uranium Mine Nichol et al. (2000), Nichol et al. (2003) and Nichol et al. (2005) described the construction of an intermediate-scale (8 m x 8 m x 5m) waste rock pile at the Cluff Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The objective was to study water flow and solute transport processes in waste rock. The mean annual temperature at Cluff Lake is 0 °C, the surface temperature of the constructed pile ranged from -22 to 28 °C and the average annual precipitation at the site was 439 mm. The pile was monitored for moisture content, matric suction, temperature, matrix water chemistry, gas chemistry, gas pressure, rainfall, evaporation, discharge volume and discharge chemistry. The waste rock placed in the constructed pile was composed of aluminous gneisses and granitoids associated with uranium mineralization and with sulphides of iron, copper, lead, 11 zinc and molybdenum. The material size ranged from boulders 1.5 m in diameter to clay; matrix supported and matrix-free material (cobbles and boulders) was observed in the pile. The waste rock was placed, using a large excavator, on a grid of 16 contiguous lysimeters (2 m x 2 m) located at the base of the pile. The outflow from each lysimeter was collected and the flow rate determined by using a tipping bucket rain gage. The core of the pile (8 m x 8 m x 5m) was isolated from its base to the top of the pile by vertically installing plywood panels lined with a 60-mil H D P E geomembrane; this allowed the calculation of a complete water balance, although the movement of gases was reduced to one dimension. During the construction of the pile several sensors and sampling ports were installed within the pile to measure moisture content, matric suction and temperature and to allow the extraction of water samples. During installation this instrumentation was surrounded with fine material for two reasons. First, the fine material protects the instrumentation from being damaged by coarser material. Second, the instrumentation must be in full contact with its surrounding material in order to effectively take measurements; as a result it was primarily the movement of soil water in the matrix that was monitored. Nichol et al. (2000) observed that the initial outflow response started in some lysimeters a few days/weeks following the first precipitation in the area; in other lysimeters, no outflow was recorded after 10 months and 120 mm of precipitation. This initial outflow response suggested that the heterogeneity of the pile led to different initial wetting rates. The initial outflow water chemistry showed a p H between 3 to 4 and high sulphate concentrations (up to 40,000 mg/L), indicating sulphate weathering; the rate of reaction was not significant enough to produce major temperature changes within the pile. A s Nichol et al. (2003) indicated, approximately one year following the completion of the pile construction, a tracer test was performed. The majority of the lysimeters exhibited breakthrough a few hours after the application of the tracer. This indicated the presence of preferential flow paths that were able to convey the water from a rainfall event through 5 m of waste rock within a few hours. The outflows from the lysimeters were different in timing, magnitude and volume due to the heterogeneity of the waste rock pile; this heterogeneity was 1 2 verified in the yearly net infiltration estimates for each lysimeter. The net infiltration estimates for each individual lysimeter ranged from 23% to 120% of precipitation; indicating that lysimeters of 2 m x 2 m would be not large enough to accurately estimate net infiltration. 2.2.4. T w o Large-Scale Waste Rock Test Piles at the Diav ik Diamond M i n e Blowes et al. (2006) describe the construction of two large-scale (60 m x 50 m x 15 m) waste rock piles at the Diavik Diamond Mine located in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The objective was to assess the long-term environmental implications of storing waste rock in regions with continuous permafrost. It is believed that in a short period of time, the temperature within these test piles would decrease and stay below 0 °C as was observed in waste rock piles at the nearby Ekati Diamond Mine. The construction of the two waste rock piles was still in progress at the time Blowes et al. (2006) described the project. As of the writing of this thesis (June 2007) the two piles have since been completed and are already in operation (Matt Neuner, personal communication). The research program at Diavik focuses on the evolution of the hydrology, geochemistry, temperature, and bio-geochemistry of waste rock piles over time in a region with continuous permafrost. The waste rock placed in one of the piles (granite) contains <0.04 wt% of Sulfur; the material of the other pile (biotite schist) contains >0.08 wt% of Sulfur. Both types of waste rock have low concentrations of carbonate minerals. Complementary studies involving conventional static and kinetic tests on small test samples have also been initiated. The base (60 m x 50 m) of each test pile was constructed and covered with a H D P E liner to make it impermeable. In total six lysimeters 4 m x 4 m and six lysimeters 2 m x 2 m were placed at the base of each pile to investigate scale effects in flow variability and solute loadings. The entire piping system contains heat trace to prevent the water from freezing. During construction, the waste rock was pushed or end-dumped from the top of a ramp. The instrumentation installed within each pile included thermistors, gas sampling ports, soil suction lysimeters, collection lysimeters, time domain reflectometry probes, and access ports for thermo-conductivity measurements and microbiological sampling. 13 The water collected on the base of each pile and in the lysimeters is piped separately to an instrumentation hut where the electrical conductivity is measured continuously, tipping bucket rain gauges are used to measure the volume and flow rate and water samples are taken. One of the piles w i l l be deconstructed in year four or five of the study, to allow internal examination of ice formation and to take samples of waste rock. Results of this research program are not available yet. However results are expected to provide a complete description of hydrologic conditions within the piles (spatial and temporal variations) and wi l l assess the quality of water released from sulfide-bearing waste rock piles in the Arctic environment. The final goal of the project is to develop a conceptual model of water flow in large unsaturated piles, to identify the physical mechanisms which lead to cooling of large stockpiles in cold climates, to assess the value of small-scale measurements in predicting the behavior of full-scale waste rock systems and to test the models that predict this behavior. 2.2.5. Full-Scale T r i a l D u m p at the Grasberg Copper -Gold M i n e Mi l l e r et al. (2003a), Mi l l e r et al. (2003b), Andrina et al. (2003), Mi l l e r et al. (2006) and Andrina et al. (2006) described the construction and response of a full-scale trial dump at the Grasberg copper and gold mine located in the Indonesian province of Papua. A research program was conducted to define the scale-up factors, to quantify metal leaching rates of waste rock piles and to assess different face treatments and cover systems, including operational strategies to mitigate A R D generation. A fifty-column laboratory test and eight test pads were commissioned in 1996, and a full-scale trial dump was completed in 2002 and operated until 2004. The daily average temperature in the area ranges approximately from 2°C to 14°C, and the annual rainfall in the area of the mine and waste rock piles is between 4000 mm and 5000 mm. The material used for the construction of the trial dump consisted of two types of waste rock, classified as blue and red, in addition to limestone. The pyrite content for the red and blue waste was 9% and 4% respectively. The distribution of sulfur in most of the overburden occurred principally as pyrite, anhydrite and chalcopyrite. 1 4 The trial dump consisted of a waste rock dump 480 m x 80 m x 20 m. The trial dump was divided into eight panels of 60 m x 80 m each; three leachate collection lysimeters 10 m x 10 m were installed at the base of each panel at distances of 15 m, 35 m and 65 m from the final toe of each panel. The back two thirds of each panel was a combination of red and blue waste. The front third of each of the first three panels was constructed with blue waste; a combination of blue waste and limestone using truck or conveyor/stacker blends was used for the front third of the remaining five panels. Various covers where placed on top of the panels; these included H D P E liners, road mud, weather/oxidized waste rock, run-of-mine limestone, etc. Instrumentation such as thermistors, gas sampling ports and tipping bucket flow meters were installed for each panel. Andrina et al. (2003) concluded that some waste rock types at Grasberg are very reactive when constructed using standard waste rock pile construction techniques. The metal leaching appeared to reach a maximum during the first 12 months, and was then followed by a long-term decline. Face treatments (material placed at the front third of each panel) appeared to have little or no impact in A R D generation beyond the immediate area of the face treatment. Mi l le r et al. (2006) concluded that after seven years of the A R D investigation program the results demonstrated feasible scale-up among laboratory columns, field test pads and the trial dump with regard to material geochemistry and A R D evolution trends. The water chemistry, temperature and oxygen data suggested that acid generation was occurring within the dump. It is believed that the gas and water moved mainly through the coarse and fine layers respectively. Andrina et al. (2006) indicated that using trucks for blending run-of-mine waste rock to build a dump was not effective enough in reducing acid production; on the other hand, stacker-built blended dumps are more effective in reducing acid production but the process is more expensive and time consuming. 15 2.2.6. Summary of Waste Rock Field-Scale Experiments Table 2.2 profiles a summary of each field-scale experiment is unique; thus in some cases site-specific conclusions have been generated. In other cases the conclusions were similar among the projects. Furthermore, the main objectives and research approaches were defined on a case-by-case basis; it seems that no defined or well established experimental protocols for this type of experiments were available. 16 Table 2.2 Summary profile of field-scale experiments M A I N F E A T U R E S P R O J E C T S J.D. Sullivan Centre Red Mountain CluffLake Grasberg Diavik Location New Mexico, U S A British Columbia, Canada Saskatchewan, Canada Papua, Indonesia Northwest Territories, Canada Altitude (m.a.s.l) N . A . 1,500 N .A . 3,700 N . A . Precipitation (mm/year) N . A . 1,880 439 4,000 to 5,000 N . A . Research Objectives Cu Leaching/ Flow Characteristics Scaling up weathering processes Water Flow/ Solute Transport Metal leaching / A R D mitigation Scaling up weathering processes Design Leach columns Large field cells (Cribs) Waste rock test pile Trial dump Waste rock test piles Dimensions (Length, width, height) 3.1 m diameter x 10.8 m high 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.5 m 8m x 8m x 5m 480 m x 80 m x 20 m 60 m x 50 m x 15m Methodology of Construction Loading elevator N . A . Large Excavator End-Dumping /Stacker Push/End-Dumping Waste Rock Characteristics Quartzitic material/high carbonate intrusive Feldspar porphyritic intrusive/bedded tuffaceous sedimentary rock Aluminous gneisses/granitoids Sulphides/limestone Granite/ biotite Instrumentation within the waste rock Moisture probes Thermistors Neutron/TDR probes, tensiometers, soil/water samplers, thermistors Thermistors, gas sampling ports Thermistors, soil/water samplers, TDR probes, gas sampling ports Quality of expected outflow Acidic/neutral Acidic Acidic Acidic Acidic Years of Operation 1975 - 1977 1994- 1996 1998 -2004 2002 -2004 2006-17 The weather conditions were different at each of the field-scale experiment sites; precipitation quantity and intensity and evaporation rates play an important role in the flow of water through waste rock and in the possibility of placing a compacted cover over a waste rock dump. A s Andrina et al. (2006) pointed out, the application of a relatively impermeable cover at Grasberg might not be a practical option due to the wet weather in the area and the impossibility of performing the compaction of a cover in these conditions. The presence and impact on metal leaching of preferential flow paths was demonstrated by the large-scale column leach studies carried out by Murr (1981). Murr also pointed out the impact of different waste rock characteristics such as mineralogy on flow distribution and metal leaching for different types of waste rock. The methodology of construction (waste rock placement) and dimensions of a field-scale experiment, as well as the monitored parameters and their sampling frequency have a significant influence on the results of field-scale experiments and on the possibility of scaling up laboratory test results to field-scale results and finally to results derived from actual waste rock piles. Frostad et al. (1999) found that it was not possible to scale up with confidence the laboratory weathering rates (corrected for surface area and temperature) to predict field results at the Red Mountain site. Contrary to Frostad et al., Mi l le r et al. (2006) concluded that at Grasberg it was feasible to scale up the geochemistry trends from laboratory results to a trial dump. Frostad et al. (1999) also concluded that inadequate hydrogeological assumptions (trying to represent a full-scale waste rock pile) and deficiencies in the experiment protocols are likely the reasons for the impossibility of scaling up results and recommended the use of larger field-scale experiments. As was observed in some of the field-scale experiments presented above, there was not a unique set of criteria for lysimeter dimensions; lysimeters of different dimensions were included in the design of waste rock field-scale experiments. Nichol et al. (2003) compared the response of the sixteen lysimeters installed at the Cluff Lake experimental pile. The heterogeneity of the waste rock and the presence of preferential flow paths were demonstrated 18 through the difference in timing, magnitude and volume of the response of the different lysimeters. Nichol et al. (2003) also concluded that the size of lysimeters is an important factor in the design of an experiment for obtaining accurate estimations of net infiltration. "The test pile data indicate larger lysimeters w i l l give better estimates of net infiltration in waste rock where high flow rate pathways are active, but require a longer period of time post-construction equilibration." Different quantities and types of instruments were installed for each field-scale experiment. The selection of instrumentation may have been based on research objectives, available technology and budgetary constraints. The technology for field-scale measurements is still not fully developed. A s Nichol et al. (2003) observed from the experience at Cluff Lake, during infiltration events the water bypassed the instrumentation along the fastest flowing pathways. A s a result, we can conclude that in-situ instrumentation provides more representative information of fluid fluxes during drying periods than during short-term wetting events. A s Table 2.2 shows, the outflow from all the field-scale experiments is predominantly acidic. The waste rock field-scale experiments have been focused on metal leaching from acidic rock drainage. The conclusion of several experiences dealing with neutral drainage is that even when neutral drainage can limit the transport of several metals from waste rock piles, other hazardous elements are not strongly attenuated at high p H . A s a consequence the necessity of the study of neutral drainage was established. 2.3. Field-Scale Waste Rock Test Pile in a Neutral Environment. A c i d rock drainage systems in waste rock piles have been studied for several decades through laboratory scale tests, field measurements, deconstruction observations and lately, field-scale experiments. A l l these studies made possible improvements in the understanding of the processes that control the generation of acidic drainage. 19 There are many mining operations and ore deposits hosted by carbonate rocks that tend to produce alkaline/neutral drainage from their waste rock systems. The alkaline/neutral drainages can convey dissolved metals such as arsenic, antimony, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, and to a lesser degree zinc, all of which can have an impact on the environment. Not many research programs for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms that control the release and mobility of metals in these alkaline/neutral conditions have been completed; in the specific case of field-scale experiments there is no specific previous experience. As the main task of the research project that forms the basis for this thesis, a field-scale waste rock test pile was designed, constructed and instrumented at the Antamina copper-zinc mine located in the Central Andes Mountains of Peru. The objective of the research program is to study and ultimately improve the understanding of hydrology and geochemistry of waste rock with high neutralization capacity. The mineral deposit formation at Antamina is a quartz monzonite intrusion hosted in cretaceous limestone, which accounts for the high neutralization potential observed. The site is located at approximately 4,200 meters above sea level. The temperature ranges from a few degrees Celsius below zero during the night to between 10 and 20 °C during the day. The precipitation is approximately 1,200 mm per year, which is primarily distributed during a six-month rainy season. 2.4. S u m m a r y The understanding of the movement of water through waste rock and the geochemical implications of this movement is still limited, especially in neutral drainage environments. This is due in part to the insufficiency of direct large-scale observations and instrumentation that can measure the different processes within a waste rock dump. The next chapter wi l l present the data collection requirements for this study and the field instrumentation installed within the constructed field-scale waste rock test pile at Antamina to study the long-term evolution of water quality and metal loading from waste rock with high neutralization capacity. 20 3. Data Collection Requirements and Field Instrumentation This chapter presents information about the field instrumentation that was deemed necessary to achieve the data collection requirements for the test pile. Some instruments were procured from suppliers while others were designed and constructed specifically for this project. The instrumentation installed within the pile and instrumentation hut measures properties and collects the data required to provide an improved understanding of the long-term evolution of water quality and metal loading from the test pile. 3.1. Data Collection Requirements Specific data is required to be collected from the test pile in order to develop a conceptual model of the thermal, hydrological and geochemical processes within the pile that control the release and attenuation of metals. The test pile was instrumented to characterize its complete water balance, the spatial and temporal variations in the discharge quantity and quality, as well as the moisture, temperature and gas state within the pile. The design of the pile allows the drainage collected in the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters to be metered and sampled for chemical composition. Thermistors (temperature sensors), gas sampling ports and soil-water solution samplers were placed within the pile to monitor the evolution of pore fluids (water and gases) through the pile. A s well , time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors were placed within the pile to monitor its water content. The drainage from the lysimeter and each of the three sub-lysimeters is conveyed by gravity to the instrumentation hut, where it w i l l flow through datalogged water conveyance systems. Each water conveyance system consists of an electrical conductivity sensor, a water sampling port and a thermistor. The collected water samples are analyzed for a full suite of relevant field and laboratory geochemical parameters including p H , alkalinity, major ions and metals (Appendix A ) . The continuously logged electrical conductivity, which is strongly correlated to total dissolved load, is used to estimate solute concentrations between sampling events. Following the installation of the water conveyance systems tipping buckets were installed to measure the water flow rate. The four tipping buckets discharge to a flow splitter. Once the 2 1 water passes through the splitter, roughly 6.25% of the water is stored in a 2.5-m tank buried next to the hut, while the rest of the water is discharged into the environment. Samples taken from the composite sample tank provide basic information that allows mass balance and mass loading calculations. In addition, a rain gauge to provide precipitation input data, and a datalogging system were installed. 3.2. F i e l d In s t rumen ta t i on The determination of the type and capacity of the sensors and devices installed within the test pile and in the instrumentation hut were was based on the specific data collection requirements and characteristics of the test pile. In the cases where the instrumentation required was commercially available and within the project budget, it was procured; in other cases it was designed and constructed according to the needs of the project. 3.2.1 . P r o c u r e d I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Thermistors Within the pile, 32 thermistors (temperature sensors) were installed at different depths and locations as part of instrumentation lines 1 to 6 (see Chapter 4, Section 4.3.8 and 4.4.2); in addition four thermistors were installed as part of the water conveyance system (see Section 3.2.2) inside the instrumentation hut. These thermistors are used to measure the temperature at different locations within the pile. (Appendix B , Figure B-01). The thermistors and their cables are R S T I N S T R U M E N T S Model Ns. TH001 and ELIC002 respectively. It was necessary to specify the cable length for each thermistor at the time the thermistors were ordered. The operating temperature range of the thermistors varies from -80 °C to 75 °C and the accuracy is 0.001 °C . Soil Water Samplers Within the pile, 15 soil water samplers, which have also been called "suction lysimeters," were installed at different depths as part of instrumentation lines 1, 2 and 4 (see Chapter 4, Section 22 4.4.2). The soil water samplers are used to collect instantaneous pore water samples from within the pile. The soil water samplers selected were Soilmoisture Equipment Model No. 1920F1L12-B02M2 (12" length) shown in Figure 3.1. The sampler consists of a 48.26 mm outside diameter (OD) P V C tube with a ceramic cup epoxy-bonded to one end (Appendix B , Figure B-01). The ceramic cup has a 200 kPa air-entry value; the outside diameter and length of the cup are 48.26 mm and 50 mm respectively. Two 6.35 mm tube connectors protrude from the top of the sampler (Figure 3.1). Attached to these two connectors are two 6.35 mm O D polyethylene access tubes used for pressurizing and recovering the sample; these polyethylene tubes are terminated in neoprene tubing. Clamping rings are used to clamp the neoprene in order to keep the sampler under negative pressure. A vacuum hand pump (Soilmoisture Equipment Model No. 2005G2) is used for pressurizing and recovering the sample. Figure 3.1 Soil water sampler 23 Rain Gauge A rain gauge with a 200 mm diameter collector was installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut; the cable of the gauge was connected to the datalogging system. The rain gauge was acquired from RainWise inc. Each tip of the rain gauge bucket corresponds to 0.25 mm of rain. Datalogging System A datalogging system was designed to be a reliable tool for collecting and storing measurements according to a defined frequency and format from twenty two T D R sensors, thirty six thermistors, a rain gauge, four tipping buckets, and four electrical conductivity sensors. During the design of the system the following aspects were considered: previous experience with the same type of instrumentation, new technology available and the reliability of that technology, cost of the equipment, and availability of technical support from the supplier. The datalogging system hardware and software consist of the following components: - A Campbell Scientific CR1000 ( 4 M R A M Memory) datalogger. A Campbell Scientific C F M 1 0 0 compact flash module. Three Campbell Scientific S D M X 5 0 multiplexers. - Four R S T I N S T R U M E N T S F M 2 0 4 2 A flexi-muxes (multiplexers). A Moisture Point MP-917 soil moisture measurement instrument. A power/comm cable A multiplexer probe Interface cable. Delay compensation cable. A Moisture Point interconnect module. LoggerNet 3.0 software. 24 3.2.2. Designed and Constructed Instruments Specialized types of instrumentation were required for specific applications. These instruments are described in the following sections. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Sensors Theory and Design Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a technique originally developed by the power and communication industries to locate faults and breaks in cables; the application of this technique was later extended to the agricultural sector. Today the technique has other applications, such as the measurement of volumetric water content of coarse mine waste rock, which is the application of the T D R technique in the present research project. The basic components of a T D R measurement system consist of a T D R instrument (which generates fast rise time pulses) and the T D R sensor, including its coaxial cable (transmission line). The T D R instrument transmits a fast rise time (time required for the amplitude of a pulse to experience a change) pulse into the coaxial cable. The pulse travels through the cable towards the T D R sensor embedded in the porous media; whenever the pulse encounters a change in impedance (measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating electric current), a pulse reflects back to the T D R instrument. The shape of the reflected waveform is controlled by the changes in impedance that the pulse encounters along the transmission line and T D R sensor; the changes in impedance are based on using the transmission line impedance as a reference. If the encountered impedance is higher, it is represented in the shape of the waveform as an upward or positive step; conversely, i f the encountered impedance is lower, the shape of the waveform has a downward or negative step (Moisture Point MP-917 Operation Manual, p. 40). These changes in the shape of the reflected waveform allow the T D R instrument to locate the position of each change in impedance along the transmission line and T D R probe and to determine the round trip propagation time for each of these changes. 25 In this technique, the travel time of an electromagnetic wave (pulse) passing along a T D R probe embedded in the soil is measured to determine the permittivity (dielectric constant) of this soil. There is a strong relationship between the permittivity of a soil and its water content. The permittivity (s) relates to a material's ability to transmit or "permit" an electric field or pulse, which ultimately has an impact on the pulse travel time. The technique takes advantage of the considerable disparity among the permittivities of water (ew= 81), air (s a= 1) and solid soil particles (s s= 3-5). A s a result the measured bulk permittivity of a soil is mainly controlled by the water phase. The travel time of a pulse along a T D R sensor embedded in the soil is correlated to the soil's volumetric water content using a formula derived in the Moisture Point Technical Brief 17 "Calibration of Profiling Probes" (G.D. Young). In this Technical Brief and as indicated by Nichol et al. (2002), some prior calculations are required to correct and account for the probe-design effects on travel time. The use of remote diode shorting was suggested as a method to improve the measurement of volumetric water content (Hook et al. 1992). The quality and intensity of the reflected wave forms in a T D R system can be impacted by the length of the transmission line, the electrical conductivity of the material surrounding the probe, etc. Installing remote shorting diodes inside the T D R sensor head and base of a three-rod Zegelin type probe design (Young, 1998a) produces significant changes in impedance that reflect back large amplitude signals to the T D R instrument, allowing the system to determine the precise time the pulse reaches the diode located at the head of the sensor and the two diodes located at the end of it. The pulse travel time between these two locations (through the rods exposed to the porous media) is used to calculate the volumetric water content of the material surrounding the probe. A diode is a component that restricts the direction of an electric current: it allows the electric current to flow in one direction (diode shorted), but blocks it in the opposite direction (diode open). When the diode is shorted, the pulse encounters low impedance and the reflected waveform shape has a downward or negative step at the diode location; conversely, i f the diode is open the encountered impedance is high and a flat or upward (positive) step is observed. To get a diode to act as a short or open circuit, the T D R instrument propagates a predetermined 26 direct current (DC) voltage applied as an alternating current (AC) fast rise time pulse; the constant and very fast changes in polarity of this pulse short and open a diode. Construction and Calibration A Moisture Point MP-917 soil moisture measurement instrument is used as a T D R instrument. Within the test pile, 22 T D R sensors (volumetric water content sensors) were installed at different depths and locations as part of instrumentation lines 1 to 6 (see Chapter 4, Sections 4.4.8 and 4.5.2). The design of the T D R sensors was based on a three-rod Zegelin type probe design (Young, 1998a). A diode at the sensor head, two diodes at the base and a central coated rod to reduce conductive losses in high conductivity systems were included (Nichol et al. 2002) (Appendix B , Figure B-01). A l l the T D R sensors (Figure 3.2) included a 50 m long coaxial cable regardless their location within the pile, it allows for the T D R instrument to capture the signal. Details of the construction of the probes are included in Appendix C . A s part of the calibration procedure for the T D R probes; the travel time between the head and base of each of them was measured in air, oven dry sand and deionized water, details of the calibration are presented in Appendix D . Figure 3.2 T D R sensor 27 Water Conveyance System Design and Construction Four plumbing systems, referred to as "water conveyance systems," were constructed and installed inside the instrumentation hut to convey the water coming from the lysimeter and three sub-lysimeters to the tipping buckets. The water conveyance systems were made of P V C 50 mm pipes and included ball valves, unions, elbows (90°), tees and caps (Appendix B , Figure B-02). The diameter and size of the conveyance systems were based on the expected flow of water and the size of the electrical conductivity sensor, thermistor and water sampling port which form part of the systems (Figure 3.3). The design and construction of each system included a water main pass and a by-pass. The main pass is a U-shaped subsystem housing a water sampling port, an electrical conductivity sensor and a thermistor. Besides the facilitation of water sampling and electrical conductivity and temperature measurement, the purpose of this U-shaped subsystem is to prevent gases from exiting and ambient air entering the test pile through the drainage system. The U-shaped subsystem does not drain fully, thus allowing a seal to form. The water conveyance system includes unions and valves that allow the main pass to be taken apart and the water diverted through the by-pass in the event of an inspection, maintenance or the replacement of sensors inside the main pass. It is recommended that an inspection of the main pass be conducted before and at the end of the rainy season. 28 Figure 3.3 Water conveyance system Electrical Conductivity Sensors Theory and Design Electrical conductivity (EC) is the capacity of a material to carry electrical current. In the case of water it is generally used as a measure of the ionic concentration. However, the electrical conductivity of water is only a quantitative measurement, accounting for all ionic content but unable to distinguish particular conductivity materials in the presence of others. Masaki Hayashi (1999) proposed a portable sensor to measure the E C based on the theory of surface-positioned Wenner array of electrodes. This sensor can be operated by a datalogger, making it possible to measure the E C continuously. The design of the sensor consists of four equidistant electrodes; this configuration is known as a Wenner array as shown in Figure 3.4. Each electrode is connected to a copper wire; the four 29 wires from the electrodes are connected to a datalogger. The schematic diagram for the connections to a datalogger is shown in Figure 3.5. A Ml N B d 1m Figure 3.4 Schematic diagram of the four-wire sensor and electrical field around the sensor. A , B , M and N are the electrodes (Mayashi, 1999) A M N Rf A / W - V i -v2 J B V, X Figure 3.5 Schematic diagram of the resistor circuit (Mayashi, 1999) 30 Once the sensor is in water, the datalogger provides an alternating current between the electrodes A and B, creating an electric field around the sensor (Figure 3.4). Electrode A is connected to ground through a reference resistor R/ (of which the resistant value is known), and electrode B receives an excitation voltage (V )^. When the alternating current is applied, the differential voltage (V]) between the two ends of the resistor is measured and the current through the system is calculated by applying Ohm's law. [3.1] V = IR V is the voltage between the two ends of the resistor measured by the datalogger (in this case V = V\), I is the current through the resistor measured in amperes, and R is the resistance of the resistor (Rf) measured in ohms. Given that the voltage V\ is measured by the datalogger and the resistance of the resistor is known, the current / can be calculated. The voltage (V2) between the electrodes M and N is measured by the datalogger as well. The current / is uniform throughout the system and was previously calculated. By again applying Ohm's law it is possible to calculate the resistance R of water (which is the material between electrodes M and N). The measured resistance R is inversely proportional to the bulk EC of the material: [3.2] R = k/aa In this formula k is a cell constant and <7A is the bulk EC of water. The value k is related to the geometry of the probe such as the diameter (d) of the support and the spacing (a) between electrodes. The cell constant k is determined using the following equation from Wong (1987): 2 f 4a + a / ] [3.3] k = —-— In K d \4a + nd/2J Electrical conductivity is affected by temperature since water becomes less viscous and ions can move more easily at higher temperatures. Conventionally conductivity measurements are 31 referenced to 25 °C; usually temperature sensors are part of electrical conductivity sensors and a correction is applied to account for the temperature of the water. Construction and Calibration Four electrical conductivity sensors were built and installed inside the water conveyance systems (Appendix B, Figure B-02); the conductivity sensors were built from the design proposed by Masaki Hayashi, 1999. A thermistor was installed in each water conveyance system to measure the water temperature so that this value can be included in the conductivity calculation. The conductivity sensors were made with a section of 21.3-mm OD PVC pipe and four stainless steel washers (electrodes) of the same diameter; the distance between electrodes is 30 mm (Figure 3.6). Each electrode was soldered to a copper wire; the four copper wires from the electrodes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger. The details of the construction of the electrical conductivity sensors are included in Appendix E. Figure 3.6 Electrical conductivity sensor 32 The calibration of the four conductivity sensors was performed in the following steps: a short program was developed for the calibration using the CR1000 datalogger; four solutions of known E C were prepared using deionized water and KC1; each sensor was introduced into each of the prepared solutions and measurements were obtained; the temperature of each solution was measured; and finally a correction factor was calculated to convert the datalogger readings into conductivity measurements at 25 °C (Appendix F). Tipping Buckets Four tipping buckets were installed in the instrumentation hut to measure the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters. A tipping bucket is a low-cost device, commonly used in rain gauges; however it has also been applied to characterize the water flow rates of outflows from waste rock test piles in various research programs. The basic design of a tipping bucket involves a triangular or trapezoidal shaped bucket with two symmetrical chambers separated by a central wall . The bucket is placed on an axle that allows it to freely tip when one chamber reaches its set capacity of water; the second chamber then starts to collect water, the same pattern is repeated over and over. A manual or automatic counter can be used to record the number of tips in a period of time. In this project, two different tipping bucket designs were used due to the difference between the maximum flow rates expected from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters. Based on the maximum precipitation registered at the Antamina mine during the years 2001 to 2004, the maximum water flow rate expected from the lysimeter and each sub-lysimeter is 36 1/m and 0.4 1/m respectively. One of the tipping buckets, referred to as "the large tipping bucket", was designed and constructed to characterize the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter. Smaller tipping buckets were installed to measure the flow rate discharging from the sub-lysimeters. 33 Large Tipping Bucket Construction and Calibration The large tipping bucket was designed and constructed for a maximum water flow rate of 60 1/m. The design of the large tipping bucket was based on the Khan and Ong (1997) design. The system consists of: a tray that collects the water draining from the lysimeter, the tipping bucket mechanism fixed below the tray and a housing unit, which houses the tray and the tipping bucket mechanism (Figure 3.7). Tipping bucket Tipping The tray is made of acrylic (12-mm thick). The main function of the tray is to collect the water coming from the lysimeter and to ensure as much as possible a uniform flow within the tray, preventing turbulence and rattling of the tipping bucket by splash. Five v-angles were installed inside the tray to prevent the rattling of the bucket. The two adjacent corners of the tray on the inlet side were tapered to prevent sedimentation. Initially two discharge slots were placed at the center of the tray; however, after some tests a small chamber with just one bigger slot was placed under the two slots. See details in Appendix B, Figure B-03. 34 The tray is secured on top of the tipping bucket mechanism with screws (Appendix B, Figure B-04). The tipping bucket mechanism is made of acrylic (0.12-m thick) and consists of two symmetrical chambers separated with a central wall; the bucket is placed on an aluminum axle that allows it to freely tip when one chamber fills up with water to a certain level. A switch activation magnet (Texas Electronics M2-101) was attached onto one side of the bucket and a reed switch (Texas Electronics Sl-128) was attached to the frame of the mechanism. Whenever the bucket tips, the magnet crosses over the reed switch and a tip is registered in the datalogging system. See details in Appendix B, Figure B-05). The tipping bucket mechanism, including the tray, was mounted on a housing unit; which also collects the water discharged when the bucket tips. The housing unit was made of fiberglass (0.01-m thick) and has an outlet of 4". See details in Appendix B, Figure B-06. Once the large tipping bucket was installed inside the instrumentation hut, it was calibrated using a 7-m3 water truck as a source of water. One end of a 3" hose was connected to an outflow valve on the truck; the other end of the hose was connected to a pipe that drained towards the large tipping bucket. The amount of water passing through the tipping bucket was controlled by the valve on the truck. To determine the flow rate passing through the tipping bucket several tests were performed at various discharge rates from the truck. During each test the datalogger recorded the start time, the stop time and the number of tips. Moreover, water discharged from the tipping bucket was collected to determine its volume. The flow rate was calculated by dividing the total volume of water by the total time for each test in correlation with the time per tip. Finally an equation shown in Figure 3.8 was derived allowing the flow rate to be determined from the time per tip (Figure 3.8). The details of field measurements for the calibration of the large tipping bucket are included in Appendix G. [3.4] y= 195.39X"' 0 3" 35 70.00 60.00 H 50.00 -40.00 -3 30.00 H 0.00 -1 1 1 i • i i » * 1 1 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00 Tip Time (sec/tip) Figure 3.8 Correlation between flow rate and time per tip for the large tipping bucket Small Tipping Buckets Construction and Calibration Three small tipping buckets were designed and constructed for a maximum water flow rate of 1.0 1/m. The tipping bucket design was based on some commercially available tipping buckets. Each small tipping bucket system consists of: a plastic funnel that collects the water draining from the sub-lysimeter, the tipping bucket mechanism installed below the funnel and a housing unit, which houses the funnel and the tipping bucket mechanism (see Figure 3.9 and Appendix B, Figure B-06). The funnel, which has a diameter of 200 mm, collects the water draining from a sub-lysimeter; the discharge end of the funnel is directly on top of the tipping bucket mechanism. The tipping bucket mechanism consists of a plastic bucket (two symmetrical chambers separated with a central wall) and a stainless steel axle on which the bucket is placed and allows it to freely tip 36 when one chamber of the bucket fills with water to a certain level. A switch activation magnet (Texas Electronics M2-101) was screwed onto one side of the bucket and a reed switch (Texas Electronics SI-128) was screwed onto the frame of the mechanism. Whenever the bucket tips, the magnet crosses over the reed switch and a tip is registered in the datalogging system. The tipping bucket mechanism, including the funnel, is mounted on a housing unit; which also collects the water discharged when the bucket tips. The housing unit is made of acrylic (5-mra m thick) and has an outlet of 50 mm. See details in Appendix B , Figure B-07. Figure 3.9 Small tipping bucket Once the small tipping buckets had been installed inside the instrumentation hut, a shelf was temporally installed adjacent to and above the small tipping buckets, and a 20 L bucket was placed on the shelf. The bucket, which has a valve and a hose at the bottom, was filled with water and used to calibrate the small tipping buckets. The other end of the hose was placed above the funnel of each tipping bucket. The amount of water passing through the tipping bucket was controlled by the valve on the bucket and the water in the bucket was maintained at a constant level by manually adding water to the bucket. 37 Several tests were performed at various discharge rates from the 20 L bucket in order to determine the flow rate passing through each tipping bucket. During each test the datalogger recorded the start time, the stop time and the number of tips. Moreover, water discharged from the tipping bucket was collected to determine its volume. The flow rate was calculated by dividing the total volume of water by the total time for each test in correlation with the time per tip. Finally an equation shown in Figure 3.10 was derived allowing the flow rate to be determined from the time per tip (Figure 3.10). The field measurements for the calibration of the small tipping buckets are included in Appendix H . [3.5] y = 25.375x •1.0478 18.00 16.00 14.00 12.00 5 E, 10.00 a> ro g 8.00 o Li. 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 y = 25.375X1 w R2 = 0.9985 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 180.00 200.00 Tip Time (sec/tip) Figure 3.10 Correlation between flow rate and time per tip for the small tipping buckets 38 Water Flow Splitter Design and Construction Water samples collected from the sampling ports located in each water conveyance system can provide information about the water quality at a specific point in time. However, water samples collected from the composite tank will provide basic information that will allow mass balance and mass loading calculations. Therefore, a water flow splitter was designed and built to receive and split the water discharged by the four tipping buckets (all the water draining from the test pile) so that 6.25% of the water is directed to the composite tank while the remaining water is discharged to the environment. The splitter as shown in Figure 3.11 consisted of two robust plastic compartments (a large one and a small one) installed in series and mounted in an aluminum frame (Appendix B, Figure B-08). The large compartment divides the water discharged by the tipping buckets into four equal parts; one of the flows (25% of the total) discharges to a 150 mm plastic funnel and is piped to the small compartment. Similarly, the small compartment divides the flow into four equal parts; one of these flows discharges to a 75 mm plastic funnel and is then piped to and stored in the composite tank. Finally, the composite tank stores approximately 6.25% of all the water draining from the test pile. 39 Figure 3.11 Water flow splitter Each compartment receives the flow through a 50 mm diameter PVC pipe connected to its base; above the base a plastic perforated panel slows down the water flowing through it, ensuring a uniform flow within the compartment. Four outlets are located at the upper portion of the side walls of each compartment; each outlet has an aluminum calibration plate secured with two stainless steel bolts. When the bolts of the calibration plates are loosened, they can slide upwards and downwards regulating the discharge of water from each outlet. The flow splitter was calibrated to ensure that the volume stored in the composite tank was approximately 6.25% of all the water draining from the test pile. Once the flow splitter was installed and leveled inside the instrumentation hut, water was fed into the flow splitter through the 50 mm PVC intake pipe until the outlets of the largest compartment began to discharge water (previously the calibration plates were fixed at the same level). When the water ceased to discharge from the outlets, a predetermined volume of water was fed into the intake pipe; immediately the water started to discharge from the outlets. The volume of water discharged by the outlet that would feed the small compartment was measured and compared to the expected volume (25% of the known volume). 40 The procedure was repeated several times until the volume measured was as close as possible to 25% of the known volume; this was achieved by moving the calibration plates upwards and downwards. The calibration process for the small compartment was similar to the process used for the large one. It was observed that the flow splitter is very effective for flow rates lower than 15 1/m.; higher flows produce turbulence inside the compartments and eventually the water overflows from them. 3.3. Summary Based on the project research objectives, specific data collection requirements were defined to characterize the hydrology and geochemistry of the constructed field-scale waste rock test pile at Antamina. The details of the instrumentation either procured or design and constructed to meet the collection requirements for the project were presented in this chapter. Next chapter wi l l present in detail the design, construction and instrumentation of the field-scale waste rock test pile. 41 4. Test Pile Design, Construction and Instrumentation A description of the site selection, design, construction and instrumentation of the first field-scale waste rock test pile (Figure 4.1) at the Antamina mine are presented in this chapter. The details of each step of the construction and instrumentation of the test pile provide an insight into the capabilities and flaws of the design. Long-range plans involve the construction of a total of five field- scale waste rock test piles. Figure 4.1 View of test pile 4.1. Conceptual Design The conceptual design involved a field-scale waste rock test pile 10 m high constructed on top of a 36 m x 36 m lysimeter (Figure 4.2). The selection of these pile dimensions was based on previous experiences (Nichol et al., 2000, 2003, 2005; Blowes et al., 2006; Mi l le r et al., 2003a, 2003b, 2006; Andrina et al., 2003, 2006) which indicated that the selected size provides results and observations that are representative of full-scale piles while still practical for research procedures. 42 The design and construction methodology of the basal lysimeter (drainage collection area) was based on similar designs for heap leach operations. During the end-dumping of waste rock into the basal lysimeter, three stages would be considered in order to install and protect the instrumentation lines along the slope within the pile (Figure 4.3). The instrumentation lines consisted would consist of thermistors (temperature sensors), T D R s (volumetric water content sensors), gas sampling ports and soil water samplers, which would monitor the evolution of pore fluids (water and gases). The instrumentation was selected to meet the specific conditions expected to exist within the test pile and to characterize the complete water balance, the variations in the discharge quantity and quality, as well as the moisture, temperature and gas state within the pile. The precipitation infiltrating into the pile would be captured by the lysimeter and three sub-lysimeters 4 m x 4 m placed within its 'footprint'. The position of the sub-lysimeters would allow for analysis of the spatial variability of flow and discharge chemistry, making it possible to observe whether or not oxygen limitations and flow path length affect water chemistry. The drainage from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters would be separately conveyed by gravity to an instrumentation hut located at the front of the pile. Once inside the hut the drainage would flow through a datalogged conveyance system that would include an electrical conductivity sensor, a thermistor, and a water sampling port. Finally the drainage would pass through a tipping bucket flow meter and a flow splitter. The experimental data would be used in future studies to develop a conceptual model of the thermal, hydrological and geochemical processes that control the release and attenuation of metals in a neutral drainage setting. 43 Figure 4.2 Simplified plan view of test pile Instrumentation Figure 4.3 Simplified cross section of test pile 44 4.2. Construction Site Selection and Preparation The location of the waste rock test pile at the Antamina minesite was determined by both logistical and experimental considerations. The experiment location had to meet the following criteria: enough space for the proposed research program, compatibility with future use of the area (long-term mine plan), close proximity to an existing haul road for 240-tonne trucks and to the open pit (avoiding long hauling distances), minimal interference with the current mining operations, and the water quality of seepage from the end-dumped waste rock used to prepare the area. The selected area was a side h i l l terrace (Figure 4.4). The site was prepared by end-dumping approximately 700,000 tonnes of waste rock into the terrace (Figure 4.5). Three platforms were subsequently built at different elevations on an area approximately 250 m long and 120 m wide. The top platform would serve as the "access ramp" and would be used for proposed cover studies and to end-dump waste rock during the construction of the test piles, which would be constructed on the platform directly below. The bottom platform would accommodate the instrumentation huts for each proposed test pile. The availability of the area to be used for the test piles was verified by reviewing Antamina's short and long-term mine plans. The area is adjacent to the haul road for 240-tonne trucks that leads from the open pit to the tailings dam; no other activities were being conducted on or near the selected area. Seepage from the waste rock used in the preparation of this site could be channeled: to the tailings impoundment or to a passive treatment system (wetland), both of which are located downstream of the selected area. Before the top platform "access ramp" was completed, the 240-tonne trucks continued to have access to the test piles platform; 26 loads of class B waste rock were hauled directly from the open pit were stockpiled in an area adjacent to where the first test pile would be constructed. This stockpiled material was used later to protect the basal lysimeter once it was ready to receive the end-dump of waste rock from the top platform (access ramp). 45 Two types of tests were performed on the stockpiled class B waste rock: a loose density test that yielded a dry density of approximately 1.845 kg/m3, and a particle size distribution test to determine the range of particle sizes and distribution of those particle sizes within the material. The details of both tests are shown in Appendix I. Figure 4.4 Side hill terrace (selected area for the research program) 4 6 Figure 4.5 Preparation of research program area 4.3. Lysimeter Construction and Instrumentation The details regarding the construction of the pile foundation, lysimeter berms, geomembrane placement, protective layer placement, water collection sump construction, sub-lysimeters construction, drainage system installation, basal instrumentation and protection of the base of the pile are presented in the following sections. 4.3.1. Foundation The foundation area of the first test pile, which is 42 m x 40 m, was surveyed according to the defined layout for the whole area. The foundation was constructed with a 3% gradient in two perpendicular directions as previous experience indicated that the 3% gradient was sufficient for infiltrating water collected at the base of the pile to flow quickly enough to the instrumentation hut to correlate the pile response to precipitation events. The creation of a 3% gradient in two perpendicular directions was facilitated by surveyors, ensuring careful placement of Lastre material (crushed material used in the mine for road 47 construction). The Lastre was brought to the site by 16-tonne dump trucks and spread over the foundation area using a grader; the area was then compacted in one layer using a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.6). Waste rock coming directly from the open pit could not be used in the construction of the foundation layer due to the presence in the waste rock of coarse material, including some boulders. The Lastre material, which is produced in Antamina's secondary crusher, had the advantage of being fine enough for the purpose of this foundation layer construction and of being cheaper than other materials available at the mine site. The grain size distribution of the Lastre material is shown in Appendix I. Figure 4.6 Construction of pile foundation A compacted upper foundation layer 0.20 m thick was built on top of the foundation (Appendix J, Figure J-01) by using approximately 320 m3 of 2B Rejected material that was a crushed non-reactive waste rock not suitable for the raising of the tailings dam (see grain size distribution in Appendix I). The material was hauled from the tertiary crusher to the construction site by 16-tonne dump trucks and spread over the area using a grader. Finally the material was compacted using a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.7) until the surface 48 smoothness was considered suitable, based on a visual inspection, to be in contact with the 60-mil (a mi l is used to describe a geomembrane and is defined as l/1000th of an inch. For example, a 60-mil membrane is equal to 1.5 mm thickness.) High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane that was later placed right above of this layer. Figure 4.7 Photograph showing the construction of upper foundation layer 4.3.2. Berm Construction A berm 0.8 m high was constructed around the perimeter of the pile foundation to create a 36 m x 36 m water catchment area for the lysimeter (Appendix J , Figure J-02). Two berm designs were used (as shown in Appendix J , Figure J-03), one for the sections at the right, left and front sides of the lysimeter, and the other one for the section at the back of the lysimeter; the difference in the design at the back of the lysimeter was due to the proximity of this berm section to the access ramp slope. The two designs took into consideration the five-tonne vibrating compactor available at the mine site; the berms may have been thinner i f the appropriate machinery had been available. 49 Each type of berm was constructed and compacted in three layers: two layers 0.3 m thick at the bottom and a layer 0.2 m thick at the top. The 0.3-m layers were made of a 1:1 ratio mix of 2B Rejected and Lastre materials due to the lower cost of the Lastre compared to 2B Rejected material; the top layer consisted only of 2B Rejected material due to its greater smoothness after compaction. A visual inspection of each layer was carried out to ensure adequate compaction; when necessary, water was added using a water truck (Figure 4.8). Each layer was compacted with a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.9). Upon completion of the compaction of the three layers; the interior berm slope was cut according to the design, using an excavator (Figure 4.10). Figure 4.8 Watering of layer during berm construction 50 Figure 4.9 Compaction of lysimeter berm It was necessary to create an apex around the top of the berm defining the water catchment area of 36 m x 36 m. A slope was produced on top of the berm by using a grader to cut angles on either side of the defined apex (Figure 4.11); both sides of the apex were compacted again using the five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.12). Finally, the interior berm slope was compacted with a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.13), and a trench 0.4 m x 0.4 m for anchoring the geomembrane, which was later placed on top, was dug on the exterior surface of the berm using a backhoe (Figure 4.14). Figure 4.11 Creating an apex on top of berm 52 Figure 4.14 Trench for anchoring geomembrane Following the completion of the berm and prior to laying the 60-mil H D P E geomembrane, four H D P E 100 mm ID (Internal Diameter) corrugated pipes to drain the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters were placed through the berm (Appendix J, Figure J-2). A pipe with a 3% gradient for draining the lysimeter was placed in a north-south orientation 0.35 m above the upper foundation layer by digging a trench through the berm at the lowest corner (southeast) of the lysimeter. Three pipes with a 3% gradient for draining the sub-lysimeters were placed in a west-east orientation 0.15 m above the upper foundation layer by digging a 0.6-m wide trench through the berm at the middle of the front side of the lysimeter. These areas were compacted using a manual compactor after all the pipes were in place through the berm and the trenches backfilled, (Figure 4.15). 54 Figure 4.15 Sub-lysimeter drainage pipes placed through the berm 4.3.3. Geomembrane Placement Upon completion of the foundation and the berm, a specialized contractor installed a 60-mil H D P E geomembrane directly above the upper foundation layer and extended over the berm. The installation of the geomembrane, a key activity during construction of the pile, was necessary to make the lysimeter impermeable. A leak from the geomembrane could have a significant impact on the results of the research program. Two rolls of geomembrane were delivered to the site; each roll was 7 m wide and 160 m long. The presence of any object or sharp piece of rock that can puncture the geomembrane was prevented by sweeping the area of the foundation and the berm with brooms before the geomembrane was deployed. Eight laborers unrolled and cut the geomembrane in panels 40 m long; the panels were placed one by one in a west-east orientation with an overlap of 0.15 between them (Figure 4.16); then sand bags were placed on top to prevent uplift by wind. 55 Figure 4.16 Geomembrane deployment and installation The position of the geomembrane panels and the overlap between them were determined taking into consideration the direction of the flow of water infiltrating the pile and flowing on top of the geomembrane from the highest corner to the lowest one (see Figure 4.17). The panels were welded using a hot wedge welding machine; the wedge melted the overlapped panels between pressure rollers; this process produced a double welded seam with an air channel for pressure testing (Figure 4.18). 56 57 Once all the panels had been welded, the edges were tucked into the trench already dug around the berm (Figure 4.14). The trench was subsequently backfilled with the same material excavated in its construction and compacted, with the exception of the section located at the back of the lysimeter, which was filled with gravel and served as a French drain (Figure 4.19). This French drain wi l l collect the infiltrated water within the access ramp, and prevent water from entering the lysimeter and affecting the results of the experiment. Figure 4.19 French drain at the back of the lysimeter Field tests were conducted on the geomembrane seams to verify that seaming conditions were satisfactory. The test applied is called " A i r Pressure Testing" and requires a manual air pump equipped with a pressure gauge and a sharp hollow needle (Figure 4.20). These test procedures were followed: the needle was inserted through the sealed end of a channel created by the double fusion weld; the pump was energized to a pressure of between 25 and 30 psi; two minutes were allowed to elapse until the injected air came to equilibrium in the channel. If the pressure decreased to below 25 psi, more air was injected and five additional minutes were allowed to elapse to determine if the loss of pressure exceeded 4 psi or i f the pressure did not 58 stabilize. Finally if the test results were satisfactory, the air channel was cut at the opposite end from the pressure gauge to allow the channel to deflate. Figure 4.20 Geomembrane air pressure test Around the drainage pipes installed through the berm for the lysimeter, sections were cut in the panels of geomembrane to allow the pipes to pass through; these sections were then carefully sealed with additional geomembrane and with the use of an extrusion welder (Figure 4.21), which is a machine suitable for repair work, odd corner welding and detailing. 59 Figure 4.21 Drainage pipes placed through geomembrane During installation of the geomembrane, a problem was encountered. Once the installation was completed it was observed that the geomembrane had not been laid with sufficient regard to thermal effects; specifically the geomembrane had been laid during a hot day and became too tight when it cooled. The solution to the problem was to reposition the geomembrane during the day and to use sand bags at the slope toes of the south and east berm sections; thus when contraction occurred at night, it occurred at the north and west berm sections. The geomembrane was then cut adjacent to its anchorages on the north and west sections and sand bags were placed at the slope toes of these sections. Finally, a gap of approximately 0.1 m opened up when the membrane was cut off; this gap was subsequently patched with another piece of geomembrane. 4.3.4. Geomembrane Protective Laye r Above the geomembrane, a 0.35-m compacted protective layer of 2B Rejected material was placed using a backhoe and subsequently compacted using a five-tonne vibrating compactor. The main purpose of the protective layer was to prevent the puncture or tear of the 60 geomembrane by avoiding direct contact between the geomembrane and the waste rock that was to be placed on the lysimeter. The placement of the protective layer was carefully conducted: no equipment was allowed directly on top of the geomembrane nor was any material dumped directly onto it. A ramp was constructed along the southern external edge of the lysimeter. 16-tonne dump trucks were used to dump material onto the ramp; the material was then gently pushed and spread onto the geomembrane using a rubber-tired backhoe (Figure 4 .22) . A s the material was being pushed and spread over the geomembrane (Figure 4 . 23 ) and its thickness was estimated to be sufficient (0.4 m), the dump trucks were permitted onto the 2 B Rejected material to place their loads at the edge of the extent of the 2 B Reject material front. Figure 4 . 2 2 Placement of material onto the geomembrane 61 Figure 4.23 Material being spread over the geomembrane Following careful spreading of the material over the lysimeter using the backhoe, a grader was used to level the surface. The area within the berm, the internal face and top of it, were compacted using a five-tonne vibrating compactor (Figure 4.24). Surveyors were in charge of controlling and verifying the final thickness of the protective layer (0.35 m) after compaction and its 3% gradient in two perpendicular directions. Figure 4.24 Compaction of protective layer Upon completion of the protective layer, it was necessary to create an apex around the top of the berm, defining the water catchment area for the lysimeter. A slope was constructed on top of the berm by laborers, who cut the angles on either side of the defined apex; the new exposed surface was compacted again using the five-tonne vibrating compactor. At three different locations on the protective layer (north, northwest and centre), the in-situ density was measured using the sand cone method (Figure 4.25) in accordance with the standardized procedure in A S T M D1556. The results of these measurements are summarized in Table 4.1; the full results from the testing are provided in Appendix I. The results indicated that the in-situ density of the protective layer was approximately 99% of the laboratory 63 Standard Proctor Test dry density. These results indicate that the compaction of the protective layer was approximately equal to the maximum compaction possible for 2B Rejected material. Table 4.1 In-situ density (protective layer) Test location (protective layer) North North Wes Centre In-situ dry density (g/cm 3) 2.341 2.338 2.327 M a x . Proctor dry density (g/cm 3) 2.356 2.356 2.356 Compact ion (%) 99.4 99.2 98.8 Figure 4.25 Photograph showing a cone sand test of the protective layer Four double-ring infiltrometer tests (Figure 4.26), to measure the one-dimensional (vertical) hydraulic conductivity of the compacted protective layer, were completed. Table 4.2 summarizes the results of the infiltrometer tests; further details are available in Appendix I. 64 The results show that the measured vertical hydraulic conductivity values vary from 1.1x10" to 2 .6xl0" 6 m/s . The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity was not low enough to completely prevent the water from infiltrating the protective layer and flowing through it as required by the design. Further analysis included in Appendix K showed that flow through the protective layer would be approximately 2% of the total amount of water that would infiltrate the pile; this value was considered sufficiently small to not significantly affect the results of the research. However, a collection sump was constructed in the southeast coiner of the pile (lowest corner) to capture and allow sampling of the water flowing through the protective layer. This wi l l allow subsequent verification of the calculations which anticipated 2% infiltration and flow through this layer and would also determine any geochemical effects due to interaction of water and the 2B Rejected protective layer. Figure 4.26 Double ring used for infiltration test on protective layer 65 Table 4.2 Summary of double-ring infiltrometer test results Location Description Test No. at Location Hydraulic Conductivity (m/s) Pile base centre 1 2.6E-06 2 2.3E-06 N E pile base 1 1.1E-06 S W pile base 1 2.6E-06 4.3.5. Water Collection Sump A water collection sump to capture and allow sampling of the water flowing through the protective layer was built at the southeast corner of the lysimeter (lowest corner). The southeast corner of the lysimeter, covering an area o f 2 . 1 0 m x 2 . 1 0 m , was not protected by the 0.35-m thick geomembrane protective layer; Instead the geomembrane was protected with a layer of geotextile (Figure 4.27). A 25 mm ID reinforced hose 12 m long was installed to allow samples of the water within the sump to be obtained and analyzed. Ten holes of 8 mm in diameter each were drilled along the first meter of the reinforced hose; the opening of this first meter was capped and sealed; subsequently this section was wrapped with a layer of geotextile to prevent sediment from getting into the hose (Figure 4.28). 66 Figure 4.27 Photograph showing the sump construction at lowest corner of lysimeter Figure 4.28 Photograph showing the wrapped reinforced hose The wrapped section of the hose was placed on top of the geotextile layer that protects the geomembrane (Figure 4.29) while the rest of the hose led to the outside of the pile, passing through the protective layer on the berm. Finally, the sump was filled with non reactive gravel. When the protective layer was placed on the berm of the lysimeter around the sump, pieces of geomembrane were positioned over the gravel of the lysimeter to prevent mixing of the 2B Rejected material with the gravel (Figure 4.30). Figure 4.29 Sump being filled with gravel 68 Figure 4.30 Sump filled with gravel (lowest corner of lysimeter) It should be noted that pieces of geomembrane (Figure 4.30) and sections of H D P E 100 mm ID perforated corrugated pipe were placed on the protective layer around the sump to ensure that the water running on top of the protective layer would not enter the sump; thus the surface flow was separated from the flow through the protective layer. Specific details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-4. Once the construction of the sump was finished, sections of H D P E 100 mm ID corrugated pipe were placed and connected on top of it (Figure 4.30). These pipes were part of the drainage system of the lysimeter described in section 4.4.7; further details appear in Appendix J, Figure J-5. A section of H D P E 100 mm ID corrugated perforated pipe six cm long was included in the pipes placed on top of the sump (Figure 4.30; see also Appendix J, Figure J-4). The purpose of this perforated section was to allow overflow from the sump to drain, thus allowing the water level in the sump to rise only to the level of the drainage system; otherwise the water could accumulate and ultimately overflow the berm. 69 4.3.6. Sub-Lysimeters Over the geomembrane protective layer, three sub-lysimeters 4 m x 4 m, with berms 0.5 m high were constructed. The sub-lysimeters were positioned along the center line (west to east) of the lysimeter (Figure 4.31). The initial stage in the construction of the sub-lysimeters involved accurately setting out the position and dimensions of the sub-lysimeters and the associated piping; the employment of surveyors was crucial at this stage. Figure 4.31 Construction of sub-lysimeters Laborers excavated a trench 0.2 m deep and 0.7 m wide along the center line (west to east) of the geomembrane protective layer; within this trench were placed drainage pipes ( H D P E 100 mm corrugated pipes) for each sub-lysimeter and protective pipes ( H D P E 50 mm corrugated pipes) for instrumentation lines 1 and 2 (two pipes for each line) (Figure 4.32). The 5.8 m H D P E 100 mm" ID corrugated pipes were joined together and sealed using silicone sealant to prevent the loss of water collected by the sub-lysimeters. The day after the pipe joints were sealed with silicone, they were covered with screened fine 2B Rejected material; 70 the trench was then completely filled with regular 2B Rejected material, which was compacted using a manual compactor. Details of the installation of protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 and 2 are provided in Section 4.4.8. Appendix J, Figure J-5 diagrams the installation of the drainage pipes of the sub-lysimeters and the protective pipes within the trench. Figure 4.32 Drainage and protective pipes within the protective layer 2B Rejected material was used to build up the 0.5-m-high berms that created the 4 m x 4 m water catchment areas for the sub-lysimeters. The berms were constructed and compacted in two layers of 0.25 m each, using a manual compactor; visual inspection of each layer was made to ensure adequate compaction (Figure 4.33). Appendix J, Figure J-06 shows details of the design and position of the sub-lysimeters. 71 Figure 4.33 Compaction of sub-lysimeter berm In order to create an apex around each berm, defining the catchment area of each sub-lysimiter, the upper layer was manually removed with rakes until the desired design was achieved. Additional 2B Rejected material was placed and compacted on the interior surface of each sub-lysimeter to create a 10% gradient towards the center, where a vertical section of geotextile-wrapped H D P E 100 mm corrugated perforated pipe was connected to the drainage pipes already buried within the geomembrane protective layer (Figure 4.34). 72 Figure 4.34 Sub-lysimeter interior compaction. The geomembrane installation for the sub-lysimeters was performed by the contractor who installed the geomembrane of the lysimeter. The 60-mil H D P E geomembrane was cut to the required size and placed so that it completely covered each sub-lysimeter (Figure 4.35). Additional cuts and welding were necessary to adjust the geomembrane to the shape of the sub-lysimeter. Finally the geomembrane edges were tucked into a trench 0.3 m deep and wide dug within the lysimeter geomembrane protective layer around the exterior face of the sub-lysimeter berm. Then the trench was backfilled with the same material excavated in its construction and compacted using a manual compactor. 73 Figure 4.35 Installation of geomembrane on sub-lysimeters A compacted protective layer of 2B Rejected material 0.25 m thick was placed to protect the geomembrane of the sub-lysimeters (Figure 4.36). This protective layer was compacted using a manual compactor. A n apex was created manually using rakes on top of the sub-lysimeters berms covered by the 0.25-m protective layer to define the catchment area of each sub-lysimeter. A three-dimensional view of the base of the pile is shown in Appendix J, Figure J-7. 74 Figure 4.36 Photograph of sub-lysimeters with their protective layer 4.3.7. Lysimeter Drainage System A system of H D P E 100 mm ID corrugated perforated pipes was placed above the geomembrane protective layer (Figure 4.37). The water that infiltrated the pile would be collected in this system and drained inside the pipes to the lowest corner (southeast) of the lysimeter; from there it would be piped to the instrumentation hut for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The pipes were joined together and placed in trenches 0.02 m deep dug in the protective layer to allow the water that would run on it to reach the perforated pipes more easily. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-5. 75 Figure 4.37 Installation of lysimeter drainage system 4.3.8. Installation of Basal Instrumentation Six instrumentation lines were installed within the pile; lines 1 to 4 were placed along the slope during pauses in the end-dumping process and lines 5 and 6 were installed along the pile base (see Figures 4.2 and 4.3). A l l sensors and sampling ports were connected to the instrumentation hut, located at the front of the pile, through cables and sampling lines. To protect these cables and sampling lines, they were passed through semi-flexible H D P E 50 mm ID corrugated pipes referred to as protective pipes; these protective pipes are supplied in coils of approximately 110 m and were cut according to the length of each instrumentation line. Each protective pipe consisted of one piece of tubing to avoid joints which would allow water and gases to get into the pipe and to reach the instrumentation hut. A s mentioned in Section 4.4.6, the protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 and 2 were buried together with the drainage pipes for the sub-lysimeters. The protective pipes were installed within the trench in such a way that one end could reach the instrumentation hut site 76 and the other end could reach the crest of the slope created by the different stages of the end-dumping process. A t the time of the installation of these protective pipes, neither the slope nor the instrumentation hut had been built. For this reason, the ends of the protective pipes that needed to reach the crest of each slope were coiled and placed 2 m west of the planned slope toe of the first end-dumping stage for instrumentation line 1 and 2 m west of the planned slope toe of the second end-dumping stage for instrumentation line 2 (Figure 4.36). The protective pipes for instrumentation lines 3 and 4 were installed in the same manner as lines 1 and 2 except that they were extended above the protective layer. The ends that needed to reach the crest of the slope were coiled at the planned slope toe of the second and third end-dumping stages respectively (see Figure 4.38). The protective pipes of instrumentation lines 1 to 4 were coiled 2 m west of the planned slope toes in order to be ready to extend along the slope once the 2-m deep trench for each instrumentation line had been excavated (more details in Section 4.4.2). Basal instrumentation lines 5 and 6 were installed in perpendicular directions over a layer 0.1 m high and 0.4 m wide of non-reactive gravel right above the protective layer (Figure 4.39). These layers were built to prevent contact between the instrumentation and the water flowing on top of the protective layer. Instrumentation line 5 was installed along the south-north direction and line 6 from east to west (Figure 4.2). 77 Pile (Lysimeter) Berm 36 m N 36 m 4.0 m Slope Toe (First End-Dumping Stage) O 4.0 2.0 m T Slope Toe (Second End-jDumping Stage) Berm Apex Coiled Protective Pipes (Instrumentation Line 1) iio • i Coiled Protective Pipes (Instr. Line 2 & Instr. Line 3) Berm Apex * The Lysimeter & Sub-Lysimeter Drainage Systems are not shown. ** Instrumentation Lines 5 & 6 are not shown. Protective Layer Sub-Lysimeter Buried Protective Pipes Protective Pipes Figure 4.38 Illustration showing the location of protective pipes along the pile base Time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) sensors, thermistors and gas sampling ports were included in lines 5 and 6. A l l sensors and sampling ports were connected to the instrumentation hut, through cables and sampling lines. Instrumentation line 5 consisted of two protective pipes, including one T D R sensor, five thermistors and ten gas sampling ports; instrumentation line 6 consisted of one protective pipe, including one T D R sensor, three thermistors and fourteen gas sampling ports. See details of instrumentation in Appendix J, Figure J-8. Figure 4.39 Installation of protective Pipes for Basal Instrumentation Installation of T D R Sensors Each of the sensors was installed within the protective layer by digging a hole 0.2 m deep by 0.5 m x 0.15 m (Figure 4.40). The sensor cables extended roughly 0.30 m from the protective pipe, and both the sensor and its cable were subsequently covered with screened 2B Rejected material fines, which was subsequently compacted as a part of the protective layer. Within the protective pipe the sensor cable ran through the pile and into the instrumentation hut where it was connected to the data collection system. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-9. 79 Figure 4.40 Installation of a T D R sensor Installation of Gas Sampling Ports The gas sampling ports consisted of 1.6 mm ID polyethylene tubes that ran from various locations within the pile, through the protective pipes, and into the instrumentation hut. The endpoint of each sampling tube extended approximately 0.1 m from the protective pipe, where it was covered with a fine piece of cloth to prevent particles from entering and obstructing the pathway (Appendix J, Figure J-9). The endpoint was oriented downwards to prevent water and fine particles from entering, and enclosed by pebble-sized material to allow for gas to pass freely (Figure 4.41). 80 Installation of Thermistors Thermistors are sensors used to measure temperature within the pile. Each sensor was placed in a cleared area and surrounded by a 0.1 m layer of screened waste rock fines (Figure 4.42). The thermistor and its wire extended roughly 0.1 m from the protective pipe. The sensors and their wires were subsequently covered with screened waste rock fines to protect them. Within the protective pipe the wire ran through the pile and into the instrumentation hut where it was connected to the data collection system. See details in Appendix J, Figure J-9. 81 Figure 4.42 Installation of a thermistor 4.3.9. Protection of Lysimeter Drainage System and Basal Instrumentation The lysimeter drainage system ( H D P E 100 mm ID corrugated perforated pipes) placed above the geomembrane protective layer, instrumentation lines 5 and 6 and the protective pipes for instrumentations line 3 were covered with non-reactive gravel in order to protect the piping and the sensors (Figure 4.43) during the subsequent placement of a 1.5-m-thick class B waste rock layer. Where the H D P E 4" ID corrugated perforated pipes were alone, they were covered by 0.3 m of gravel material. Where drainage and protective pipes were together; both were covered by 0.4 m of gravel material. Details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-10. 82 Figure 4.43 Protection of drainage system and basal instrumentation Above the geomembrane protective layer, sub-lysimeters and protected drainage system and basal instrumentation, a second protective layer, 1.5 m thick, of class B waste rock was placed using a front-end loader (Appendix J, Figure J - l l ) . This material had previously been transported (see Section 4.2) from the open pit using 240-tonne dump trucks and had been stockpiled in an area adjacent to the construction site. The waste rock was gently placed with a front-end loader, starting from one side of the base of the pile and advancing towards the opposite side; the front-end loader was always on top of the 1.5-m layer (Figures 4.44 and 4.45). In addition, the protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 to 4 were protected with sections of H D P E 100 mm ID solid pipe during the placement of the 1.5-m layer (Figure 4.46) and coiled again on top of this layer. 83 Figure 4.46 Protection of instrumentation lines during the 1.5-m layer placement 4.4. W a s t e R o c k E n d - D u m p i n g a n d P i l e In s t rumen ta t i on The following sub-sections present a detail description of: the end-dumping process of waste rock, the results of the performed grain size distribution tests, and the installation of instrumentation along the pile's slope. 4.4.1. End-Dumping Process Once the lysimeter (base of the pile) was covered with the second protective layer, end-dumping of class B waste rock from the top of the access ramp, which was approximately 10 m above, began. The waste rock was transported directly from the open pit in 240-tonne haul trucks. After each haul truck end-dumped directly onto the slope (Figure 4.47), a bulldozer was used to push the waste rock that fell onto the top surface of the pile towards the slope and to rebuild the safety berm for the haul trucks at the slope crest. S3 Figure 4.47 End-Dump of class B waste rock The end-dumping process was conducted in three stages. The first stage was completed after 27 240-tonne haul trucks had end-dumped their loads onto the protected lysimeter; the second stage required 26 loads and the final stage 41 loads. In the last stage approximately 30 loads were required but during the night shift mine operations end-dumped 41 loads; as a consequence some material was removed as a part of the post-construction pile size adjustment described in Section 4.5. After each stage and before commencing the next one, a period of one to two weeks was required to install and protect the instrumentation lines along the slope (Figure 4.3). In addition, before each end-dumping stage: survey stakes were placed to indicate the final slope toe of that stage. The protective pipes for instrumentation lines 1 during the first stage, 2 and 3 during the second stage and 4 during the third stage were protected with sections of H D P E 100 mm ID solid pipe, and a 2.0-m high safety berm made of waste rock was built using a front-end loader. Prior to building the safety berm before each end-dumping stage the protective pipes of the respective instrumentation line or lines were placed inside H D P E 100 ID solid pipes 6.0 m long and directed away from the end-dumping face; the berm was subsequently built on top of 86 these solid pipes. In each case the safety berm was built along the stakes (south-north direction); this berm prevented the boulders from going beyond the pile base area (Figure 4.48). Figure 4.48 Side view during pile construction. Grain Size Distribution of Class B Waste Rock Grain size distribution tests of class B waste rock were performed on the waste rock stockpiled before it was used for the construction of the 1.5-m protective layer and the waste rock end-dumped in the first and second stages. It was not possible to perform the test for the third stage of the end-dumping process due to the fact that mine operations personnel did not leave material outside of the pile for this purpose. In the case of the stockpiled material for the 1.5-m protective layer, samples for the grain size distribution test were taken from different locations from 26 loads of waste rock, which made up the stockpiled material. The samples from the first and second end- dumping stages for the grain size distributions tests were taken from different locations of one load of waste rock that 87 was placed out of the pile after each end-dumping stage. Each load was approximately 240 tonnes - the capacity of the haul trucks used - and the sampling process was made using an excavator. Figure 4.49 shows the grain size distribution of class B waste rock used for the 1.5-m protective layer and the first and second stages of end-dumping. Detailed results of the grain size distribution tests are presented in Appendix I. The grain size distributions curves show that the three materials have similar patterns under 10 mm grain size. Between 100 mm and 1000 mm grain size the 1.5-m protective layer material is to some extent coarser than the material of the first and second end-dumping, possibly due to the fact that the samples for the 1.5-m protective layer grain size distribution test were taken from 26 loads of waste rock and the samples of each of the other two materials were taken from one load. Figure 4.49 Grain size distribution of class B waste rock. 4.4.2. Installation and Protection of Instrumentation Lines along the Slope Subsequent to each end-dumping stage a number of procedures were carried out to install and protect the different instrumentation lines along the test pile slope. A n excavator with 1.5-m bucket capacity was used to dig a 2.0-m-deep trench along the slope, beginning from the top of the pile and extending to maximum boom reach (Figure 4.50). Then the excavator was relocated to the bottom of the pile to complete the trench (Figure 4.51). Once the trench was ready and the slope was stable, the protective pipes which were contained inside the H D P E 100 mm ID solid pipes (Figure 4.51) were excavated from the safety berm and extended along the slope as far as the crest. A rope was tied to the end of the pipes in order to pull them to the slope crest. Figure 4.50 Excavator digging a trench along the test pile slope. 89 Figure 4.51 Excavator finishing digging a trench along the test pile slope. The design of the pile defined the location of each sensor or sampling port along the slope; however the locations were slightly modified according to the field conditions. Laborers with safety harnesses drilled holes (10 to 15 mm in diameter) in the protective pipes at each sensor or sampling port location along the slope. Subsequently the sensors and sampling ports were installed (Figure 4.52) and their cables and tubing were passed through the protective pipes by pulling them to the instrumentation hut. Finally the holes drilled in the protective pipes were sealed with silicone. 90 Figure 4.52 Installation of sensors and sampling ports along the test pile slope. A 50-m steel wire, rigid enough to be pushed all the way through a protective pipe, was used to draw a 3.2 mm diameter pulling rope from the slope crest to the instrumentation hut. The sensors and sampling port cables and the tubing were individually tied to the pulling rope at each sensor or sampling port location along the slope and pulled through a protective pipe to the instrumentation hut. During the process of pulling cables and piping through the protective pipes, good practices were applied in order to ensure good results: walkie-talkies were used for communication between the person feeding and the one pulling; the pulling rope selected had minimal stretching capacity; generous amounts of cable-pulling lubricant were used; the cables and piping were pulled in a straight motion, with every effort made to avoid angles; and cable and piping protruding from the protective pipe were coiled and labeled. Instrumentation line 1 was installed after the completion of the first end-dumping stage. The line consisted of five T D R sensors, six thermistors, twelve gas sampling ports, and five soil water samplers (Appendix J, Figure J-12). Instrumentation lines 2 and 3 were installed after the completion of the second end-dumping stage. Line 2 was installed first as it was not possible to install both lines at the same time due to slope stability concerns. Instrumentation line 2 consisted of five T D R sensors, six thermistors, ten gas sampling ports, and five soil water samplers (Appendix J, Figure J-13). Instrumentation line 3 consisted of five T D R sensors, six thermistors, and ten gas sampling ports (Appendix J, Figure J-14). Instrumentation line 4 was installed after the completion of the third end-dumping stage. This line consisted of five T D R sensors, six thermistors, ten gas sampling ports, and five soil water samplers (Appendix J, Figure J-15). After each instrumentation line was installed along the slope, the U T M coordinates of the sensors and sampling ports were obtained; subsequently the instrumentation line installed along the slope was gently covered with the waste rock by laborers. A n effort was made to avoid using very coarse material in this process. Finally an excavator, starting from the bottom of the pile and extending to maximum boom reach, backfilled the trench with the same material extracted during the trench excavation. Then the excavator was relocated to the top of the pile to complete the backfilling of the trench. The installation of T D R sensors, thermistors and gas sampling ports was similar to the installation process for basal instrumentation described in section 4.3.8 , except that the screen waste rock fines covering the T D R sensors were not compacted. Most of the instrumentation lines along the slope unlike the basal instrumentation lines included soil water samplers (suction lysimeters). The soil water samplers were installed by clearing an area along the slope face and excavating a hole roughly 0.12 m wide and 0.12 m deep. Sil ica flour (200 mesh) and water were mixed to produce a slurry with a consistency of cement mortar to insure good soil contact with the porous ceramic cup of the sampler. This slurry was used to coat the ceramic cup and was also poured inside the excavated hole where the sampler was later set (Figure 4.53). The sampler was placed vertically, and screened waste rock fines were placed around the sampler to help maintain its position. The two 6.35 mm ID polyethylene tubes extended approximately 0.4 m from the protective pipe and were connected to the soil water sampler ports (Figure 4.54). Finally both the sampler and its tubes were covered with screened waste rock fines. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-9. 92 Figure 4.53 Photograph showing the installation of a Soil Water Sampler (I). Figure 4.54 Photograph showing the installation of a Soil Water Sampler (II) 4.5. Post-Construction Pile Size Adjustment The area originally conceived for the construction of the base of the pile, which included the 36 m x 36 m water catchment area (lysimeter) and its boundary berm, was 38.6 m x 38.6 m. During the construction of the lysimeter, the berm was widened based on the availability of materials, equipment (compaction machine) and best construction methodologies. The construction area was extended to 40 m x 42 m although the catchment area of the lysimeter remained at 36 m x 36m. Once the pile construction was completed, the perimeter was adjusted, first by removing the 2.0-m-high safety berm built at the slope toe of the third end-dumping stage (Figure 4.55) and then by cutting the exterior face of the berm and clearing material located around the perimeter of the pile (Figure 4.56). Finally the perimeter of the pile was restored to dimensions as close as possible to the original 38.6 m x 38.6 m; this would allow for the placement of subsequent piles as per the intended design. This restoration was accomplished using an excavator with a 1.5-m bucket capacity in conjunction with dump trucks with 16-m" capacity. The final three-dimensional view of the constructed pile is shown in Appendix J, Figures J-16 and J-17. Figure 4.55 Excavator removing the safety berm (end of third end-dumping stage). 9 4 Figure 4.56 Photograph showing the removing of material around the perimeter of the pile. 4.6. Instrumentation Hut A wooden instrumentation hut 2.8 m high by 3.5 m x 7 m was built at the front of the pile to house all of the drainage, sampling and monitoring equipment (Figure 4.57). A concrete slab 0.15 m thick by 4.5 m x 8.0 m formed the base of the instrumentation hut (Appendix J, Figure J-18). In addition a wooden structure was built at the back of the hut for the protective pipes coming from the pile. 95 Figure 4.57 View of instrumentation hut from top of the pile. 4.6.1. Layout of the Instrumentation Hut The layout of the instrumentation hut was planned and construction was executed to accomplish the following objectives: to allow the installation and accommodation of all the equipment, piping, electronic devices and sampling ports, and to allow easy access for sampling, inspections, and repairs. Inside the instrumentation hut, four water conveyance systems were installed to connect the drainage pipes coming from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters and the tipping buckets. These conveyance systems measure electrical conductivity, temperature, and have water sampling ports. Four tipping buckets were installed to measure the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter and three sub-lysimeters. After the tipping buckets measured the flow rate, the water would drain into a two-chamber flow splitter (Figure 4.58). Once the water passed through the splitter, roughly 7% would be stored in a 2.5-m3 composite sample tank buried next to the hut, while the rest of the water would be discharged into the environment. Samples taken from the composite tank would 96 provide basic information that would allow mass balance and mass loading calculations. A rain gauge was also installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut to provide precipitation input data. Figure 4.58 Interior of instrumentation hut. Tubing emerging from the gas sampling ports and soil water samplers within the pile were arranged on two plywood panels in order to facilitate sampling. Measurements from the thermistors, electrical conductivity sensors, tipping buckets, rain gauge, and T D R probes would all be automatically collected and stored in a data-logging system consisting of a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger used in conjunction with multiplexers and other electronic devices. This data collection system is powered by a 56W solar panel installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figures J-19, J-20, J-21 and J-22. Water Conveyance System The details of the water conveyance system were described in Chapter 3. Four of these systems were installed to connect the drainage pipes ( H D P E 100 mm ID corrugated pipes) exiting the 97 pile (from the lysimeter and three sub-lysimeters) to the four tipping buckets (Figure 4.58). A wooden structure was built parallel to each conveyance system for support and to prevent the system from shifting when full of water. During the installation process, the end of each corrugated drainage pipe was attached to the end of the conveyance system by heating and molding a P V C reduction (from 100 mm to 50 mm) piece. The conveyance system was installed with a (minimum) gradient towards the tipping bucket. Only in the case of the water conveyance system belonging to the large tipping bucket was a modification made. The by-pass of the system was placed at the same level as the main pass due to the low gradient of the drainage pipe coming from the pile which would not allow the water to flow through the by-pass. Tipping Buckets A s previously mentioned, four tipping buckets were installed to measure the flow rate of water discharging from the lysimeter (large tipping bucket) and the three sub-lysimeters (small tipping buckets). Large Tipping Bucket A level structure made of steel was constructed and a wooden shelf was placed on it to support the large tipping bucket and its housing unit which was secured to the shelf using screws (Figure 4.58). A hole was placed within the shelf to allow for the outlet (100 mm P V C pipe) of the housing to pass through. Based on the elevation of the drainage pipe coming from the pile and the height of the tipping bucket, the shelf was placed at an elevation that would provide a minimum gradient for the conveyance system moving water towards the tipping bucket. Once the housing system was secured to the counter, the tipping bucket mechanism was mounted in the housing using four screws. Once tightened, the screws were covered with silicon gel to prevent leakage from the housing unit. 98 Small Tipping Buckets Level structures made of steel were constructed and a wooden shelf was placed on each to support the three small tipping buckets and their housing units (Figure 4.59). During the construction of these structures, the legs were cemented onto the concrete slab, of the hut and the upper parts were screwed to the roof beam of the hut to minimize movement during the operation of each tipping bucket. Each of the wooden shelves has a 76 mm hole in the middle that allows the housing outlets to pass through and be connected to a plumbing system. The level of each shelf was determined considering a minimum gradient of the conveyance system towards a tipping bucket. The housing of each tipping bucket was leveled and secured to its respective shelf by using four screws. The outlet of each system was connected to a plumbing system that collects the water discharge of the three small tipping buckets and the large one. The tipping bucket mechanisms were mounted inside their housing and their cables connected to the datalogging system. Finally the water conveyance systems were connected to the inlets of the housing of the tipping buckets. 99 Plumbing system (collects water from t ipping buckets) Figure 4.59 View of the three small tipping buckets. Flow Splitter On the hut floor a concrete containment system was built under the large tipping bucket shelf to collect the water not captured by the flow splitter installed above (Figure 4.60). The base of the containment system had a gradient towards a built-in 100 mm corrugated pipe located in one of its sides; this pipe would discharge the excess water to the environment. Parallel to this pipe, a built-in 38 mm" P V C pipe would lead the water captured by the flow splitter to a composite tank buried next to the hut. Four cast-in-place bolts were positioned in the base of the concrete containment system. The flow splitter legs were screwed to those bolts; washers were used to level the splitter. The outlet of the flow splitter (50 mm P V C pipe) was connected to the 38 mm P V C pipe leading the flow to the composite tank. The intake of the splitter was connected to a plumbing system for collection of the water discharged from all four tipping buckets. 100 Figure 4.60 Concrete containment system and flow splitter Composite Sample Tank Four meters from the instrumentation hut, a hole 1.55 m deep and 2.10 m in diameter was excavated, along with a trench 13 m long and 1.55 m deep by 0.70 m wide leading east from the hole (Figure 4.61). The bases of the hole and the trench were compacted with a 3% downgradient to the east using a manual compactor. Figure 4.61 Photograph showing the composite sample tank installation. A reinforced (steel bars) concrete slab 0.1m thick was poured into the compacted base of the hole. Once the concrete slab solidified, a 2,500 L plastic tank 1.55 m high and 1.60 m in diameter, called a "composite sample tank," was placed on the slab. Two pipes 13 m long -one 38 mm P V C pipe for draining the tank and the other one 100 mm H D P E pipe for discharging the excess water captured by the concrete containment system installed inside the hut - were placed along the trench. The P V C pipe was connected to the outlet of the tank located at a low point on the side of the tank. At the end of the 13-m-long P V C pipe towards the east, a ball valve was installed inside a concrete box to control the discharge of the tank. The empty space between the hole and the walls of the tank was filled with fine material, leaving the l id of the tank uncovered. The pipes within the trench were protected with a 0.20-m layer of fine material and the trench was backfilled with the excavated material. The area where the tank was buried was protected by metal roofing panels mounted on a wooden structure. A ball valve was installed on the 38 mm P V C pipe connected to the intake of the tank to control (if necessary) the water coming from the flow splitter (Figure 4.62). 102 Figure 4.62 Installed composite sample tank Rain Gauge A rain gauge was secured to a horizontal plastic panel installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut (Figure 4.61) and the cable of the rain gauge was connected to the datalogging system. Gas and Soil Water Samplers Panels Tubing emerging from the gas sampling ports and soil water samplers within the pile was arranged on two plywood panels in order to facilitate sampling (Figures 4.63 and 4.64). Four gas lines were not long enough to reach the gas lines panel and their end points are located close to the datalogging system. Further details are provided in Appendix J, Figure J-23. 103 Figure 4.63 Photograph showing the gas sampling ports panel. Datalogging System A datalogging system was designed to be a reliable tool for collecting and storing measurements according to a defined frequency and format from 22 T D R sensors, 36 thermistors, a rain gauge, four tipping buckets, and four electrical conductivity sensors (Figure 4.65). During the design of the system the following aspects were considered: previous experience with the same type of instrumentation, new technology available and its reliability, cost of the equipment, and technical support from the supplier. The datalogging system hardware and software consists of the following components: 1. A Campbell Scientific CR1000 ( 4 M R A M Memory) datalogger 2. A Campbell Scientific C F M 1 0 0 compact flash module 3. Three Campbell Scientific S D M X 5 0 multiplexers 4. Four R S T I N S T R U M E N T S F M 2 0 4 2 A flexi-mux (multiplexers) 5. A Moisture Point MP-917 soil moisture measurement instrument 6. A power/comm cable 7. A multiplexer probe interface cable 8. Delay compensation cable 9. A Moisture Point interconnect module 10. LoggerNet 3.0 software A computer program was created using the LoggerNet 3.0 (CRBasic Editor) datalogger support software and downloaded to the CR1000 datalogger. The program included all the instructions that the datalogger required in order to provide the measurement and control functions to the datalogging system. A copy of the program used is listed in Appendix L . The system was set to take measurements with the following frequency: 1. T D R sensors: every 30 minutes. 2. Thermistors: every 30 minutes. 3. Electrical conductivity sensors: every 30 minutes. 4. Rain gauge: anytime there is a tip. 5. Tipping buckets: anytime there is a tip. 105 The 22 T D R sensors were connected to three 8-channel Campbell Scientific S D M X 5 0 multiplexers, that are devices designed to increase the number of sensors that can be measured with a datalogger. The three multiplexers are connected to each other as well as through the multiplexer probe interface cable to the MP-917 soil moisture measurement instrument; this instrument uses time domain reflectometry as a basis for measuring the moisture content of the soil surrounding each T D R sensor. A.Moisture Point interconnect module is connected through the power/comm cable to the M P -917 soil moisture measurement instrument. This module is connected as well to the CR1000 datalogger and the system power source (solar panel outlet). The functions of the interconnect module are to switch the MP-917 on and off according to the measurement frequency of the T D R sensors, established in the datalogger program, and to transmit the measurement information from the MP-917 to the datalogger. 30 thermistors and four electrical conductivity sensors were connected to the four R S T I N S T R U M E N T S F M 2 0 4 2 A flexi-mux multiplexers. A flexi-mux can sequentially multiplex five groups of four wire inputs or 10 groups of two wire inputs. The four flexi-mux multiplexers were connected to the power source (solar panel outlet) and to the CR1000 datalogger, which provides the instruments measurement frequency and storage of data. The four tipping buckets, the rain gauge and the remaining six thermistors were connected directly to the CR1000 datalogger. See Details in Appendix J, Figure J-24. 1 0 6 Figure 4.65 Photograph showing the datalogging system. Solar Panel A 56W solar panel was installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut (Figure 4.61). The panel was positioned at a slope of approximately 10 degrees dipping south according to the recommendation of some specialized technicians at the mine site. The panel was connected to a 12V battery and to a photovoltaic controller; both of which were located inside the hut. 4.7. Summary The details about the design, methodology of construction and the installation of instrumentation within the constructed waste rock test pile were presented in this chapter. The next chapter w i l l present an analysis of the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the constructed waste rock test pile. 107 5. Initial Hydrological and Geochemical Response of the Constructed Test Pile A n assessment for the first three months (January 2007 to Apr i l 2007) of rainfall and outflow data recorded for the test pile is presented here. The results also include water quality analyses of the outflow along with samples collected from the soil water samplers installed within the pile. However, measurements collected from the T D R sensors, the electrical conductivity sensors, gas sampling ports and the thermistors are not included in this analysis because they were not processed. The information is analyzed herein to provide a preliminary assessment of the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the test pile. It is important to note that the analysis described here must be considered preliminary and not sufficient to provide a comprehensive understanding of the hydrology and geochemistry of the pile, nor to predict its long-term behavior. 5.1. Test Pile Hydrology The test pile construction sequence and the meteorological conditions at the site during the construction and subsequent operation of the pile had a significant influence in the initial hydrological response of a test pile. A t the beginning of February 2006, waste rock hauled directly from the open pit was stockpiled in and area adjacent to where the first test pile would be constructed. This stockpiled material was used later to construct a 1.5-m basal layer to protect the basal lysimeter. The placement of this 1.5-m layer of waste rock on the base of the pile started during the first week of M a y 2006, followed by three end-dumping stages and the instrumentation of the pile. The test pile was completed by the beginning of August 2006 and the datalogging system started to collect and store the measurements of the different installed sensors since the third week of January 2007. Details regarding the sequence of construct ion of the test p i l e at A n t a m i n a and the precipi tat ion (most ly rainfal l ) that f e l l over the area are presented i n F i g u r e 5.1. Rainfall (mm) o o o o CO w w o 01 o o in 0 b b b b b b b o o o o o 0 0 1/1/2006 1/31/2006 3/2/2006 4/1/2006 5/1/2006 5/31/2006 6/30/2006 7/30/2006 8/29/2006 9/28/2006 10/2672006 11/27/2006 12/27/2006 1/26/2007 2/25/2007 3/27/2007 (Feb-2) Stockpile of Wfeste Rock next to the Pile's Construction Area • (Material for the 1.5 m Protective Layer) _ _ (Nfey-4) Placement of 1.5 layer of V\aste Rock| (May-10) First End-Dumping of V\feste Rock (Jun-27) Second End-Dumping of V\6ste Rock| (July-8) Third End-Dumping of Waste Rock I—Q 5.1.1. Weather Conditions at the Antamina Mine The Antamina mine located at 4,200 meters above sea level has a remarkably mild climate for a site at this elevation. The year round temperatures range from few degrees Celsius below zero at night to between 10 and 20 °C during the day. There are two well defined seasons; from mid Apr i l to mid September is the dry season, from mid September to mid A p r i l is the rainy season with approximately 1,200 mm of annual precipitation. The rainfall data provided in this section was obtained from two sources. For the period from August 1 s t 2006 (test pile was completed) to January 23 r d 2007, the data was obtained from the Yanacancha meteorological station, which is located four kilometers from the test pile. Rainfall data for the period of January 24 t h 2007 to Apr i l 20 t h 2007 was measured by the rain gauge installed on the roof of the instrumentation hut located next to the test pile. Pan evaporation data was collected for the entire period at the Yanacancha meteorological station. A summary of the precipitation and pan evaporation data collected for the period since the pile was completed (August 2006) up to the point in time used for the present analysis (Apri l 2007) is shown in Figure 5.2. 20.0 16.0 E E, S 12.0 £ & •£ o 1 a 5 UJ c n Q. Pan Evaporation: all the pan evaporation data was collected by the Yanacanacha metereological station 8.0 4.0 0.0 Yanacancha Meteorological Station Test Pile Rain Gauge Rainfall Pan Evaporation y y o / / / / / / / / / / / „ / / / / / Date (mm/dd/yy) Figure 5.2 Daily precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - Apr i l 2007) Pan evaporation measurements are commonly used to define "potential evaporation", which in the case of waste rock is significantly higher than the actual evaporation. Information regarding actual evaporation for this test pile is not available. A s was noted in Figure 5.2 the potential evaporation is usually higher during dry periods as compared to wet periods when the average potential evaporation is lower. Figure 5.3 presents the cumulative pan evaporation and cumulative rainfall for the period of August 2006 to Apr i l 2007. A s previously mentioned, it can be seen that the potential evaporation is greater than rainfall during the dry periods and less than the rainfall during the wet periods (Figure 5.3). 1200.00 GC 800.00 600.00 400.00 200.00 + 0.00 Date Figure 5.3 Cumulative precipitation and pan evaporation (August 2006 - A pr i l 2007) 5.1.2. Test Pile Response A n assessment of the initial hydrological response of the test pile was based primarily on the first three months (between January and A pr i l 2007) of rainfall and outflow data obtained for the pile. Outfall data was not recorded for the first five months (between August to December 2006) following the completion of the construction of the test pile because the automatic data collection system was not in operation prior to January 2007. However qualitative observations and water samples taken from the outflow of the pile indicated that: the outflow from the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C (located under the side slope at the front of the pile) began to flow during October 2006, while the outflow from sub-lysimeters B (center of the pile) and A (back of the pile) began in November and December 2006 respectively. The cumulative outflow from the pile, which includes the drainage from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters, and the cumulative rainfall for the period of January 24 to A p r i l 18 2007, is presented in Figure 5.4. During this period the total outflow from the pile was approximately 85% of the rainfall over the pile during the same period. It can be seen in Figure 5.4 that cumulative outflow was equal to cumulative rainfall for the period of January 24 to February 26 2007 with the exception of a few days between January 31 s t and February 4 t h , which coincided with a significantly large rainfall event on January 31 s t . On February 27 t h the cumulative rainfall started to exceed the cumulative outflow for the remaining period of analysis. 400 ' \;v Cumulative Rainfall 350 H • Cumulative Outflow 300 A Cumulative outflow includes: outflow from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters E E 250 j 200 DC "3 o 150 i 100 4 Date Figure 5.4 Cumulative outflow and cumulative precipitation for the period of August 2006 to Apr i l 2007 from the test pile During rainfall events at the pile site, it was observed that there was no run-off from the pile; as a result, it can be assumed that the run-off is negligible for this analysis. The direct field observations showing cumulative outflow and rainfall with negligible run-off, together with the assumption for very low actual evaporation, suggested the hypothesis that that test pile reached relatively steady state with respect to infiltration and drainage. Figure 5.4 shows that the same amount of water fell as rainfall, infiltrated and drained from the pile for the period of time prior to February 27 t h (relatively dry period). A s previously mentioned, the cumulative rainfall from February 27 t h started to exceed the cumulative outflow for the rest of the period of analysis, which coincided with the beginning of a period of significant rainfall. This indicates that not all of the additional precipitation infiltrated and drained from the pile; consequently this water could have been lost to evaporation or stored as a change in water content within the pile. 5.1.3. Lysimeter and Sub-Lysimeters Response As previously indicated, the outflow from the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C (located under the side slope at the front of the pile) began during October 2006 and the outflow from sub-lysimeters B (center of the pile) and A (back of the pile) began in November and December 2006 respectively. 16 E E c 0 E 3 o B 3 o Rainfall Sub-Lysimeters: A, B and C Lysimeter: D A .rA .r^ A .tA .rA .rA .rA .cA /jP O.^ O£> O £ O>P A° ^ A° A° o!P ^ / # / / / / / / # / / <# # ^ y ^ o o cr cr cr cr cr cr 0 3 cr c>3 cr cr o 3 cr cr cr cr Date (mm/dd/yy) Figure 5.5 Lysimeter and Sub-lysimeters Response Figure 5.5 shows the rainfall over the pile and the outflow in millimeters (volume divided by area) for the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters. The pattern of response in terms of flow and time for sub-lysimeters A and B was similar and less remarkable than the response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C . The responses for the lysimeter (D) and the sub-lysimeter C followed the same pattern; in the case of the sub-lysimeter C, its response was greater (higher flow) than the response of the lysimeter, but the response of the lysimeter was faster than the response of the sub-lysimeter C. Sub-Lysimeters A , B and C have the same size catchment area (4 m x 4 m), however Figure 5.5 shows that the response of sub-lysimeter C to variations in rainfall over the pile was significantly more sensitive (faster response) and greater (higher flow) than the response of sub-lysimeters A and B . The reasons for this difference in response are believed to be as follows: sub-lysimeters A and B are located approximately 1 1 m below the central flat surface at the top of the pile, while sub-lysimeter C is located approximately 8 m below the side slope at the front of the pile. The flat surface at the top of the pile was compacted by the 240-tonne trucks during the end-dumping process but the side slope surface is not compacted. It is believed that the presence of compacted fine material layer close to the surface of the pile, due to segregation during the end-dumping process and traffic of haul trucks, causes the ponding and retention of water for higher evaporation. Thus vertical infiltration of water through the pile is reduced. A s previously mentioned the responses of the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C followed the same pattern; however the response of the sub-lysimeter C was greater than the response of the lysimeter but the response of the lysimeter was faster than the response of the sub-lysimeter C . The reasons for this difference in response are believed to be as follows: Sub-lysimeter C is located approximately 8 m directly below the side slope at the front of the pile while the main lysimeter has 75% of its area located under the side slopes of the pile with the remaining 25% of the area below the compacted flat surface at the top of the pile. This would account for the difference in the quantity of response between the sub-lysimeter C and the main lysimeter. For example approximately 38% of the area of the lysimeter is located below the lower section of 118 the sides slopes of the pile (flow path length between 1.5 to 6.5 m and coarser material due to segregation), which would account for the faster response of the lysimeter. Figures 5.6 and 5.7 present a comparison between the delay time in response for the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeter C . The two largest rainfall events between January and A p r i l 2007 were selected for this comparison. Figure 5.6 shows the hourly response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C on January 31 s t (the rainfall at that day was 15.75 mm). The outflow from the lysimeter started to increase within two hours of the storm that occurred that day. However, in the case of the sub-lysimeter C, the increase in outflow started 20 hours later. xP xP „xP „xP fxP „xP „xP xP' ,xP „.cP xP xP rxP xP „xP xP xP J$> .6 A V A A A ' N0' & Nfc' & <i>' A N ' A * ' A A ' N°' N*' & A V A A A ' *T <& t& <& JS J> JS JS J$ J& & & A • A cS A A & J& A 4? 4? <p J> J> # <f ^ J> ^ rfP c^P . 0 ° ^ / > J$> Date & Time Figure 5.6 Time response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C (January 31, 2007). Sixty eight days later, another 15.75 mm day of rainfall occurred on A p r i l 9 t h . Figure 5.7 presents the hourly response for the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C on A p r i l 9 t h . It can be seen the outflow from the lysimeter started to increase within one hour following the main storm while the increase of outflow for sub-lysimeter C started nine hours later. H 9 The difference in time response between January 31 s t and A p r i l 9 t n is consistent with the reasoning mentioned in Section 5.1.2. For the period of time prior to February 27 t h (relatively dry period), the cumulative outflow was equal to the cumulative rainfall. The cumulative rainfall from February 27 t h started to exceed the cumulative outflow for the rest of the period of analysis, which coincided with the beginning of a period of significant rainfall. This would indicate that not all the additional infiltrated water could have exited the pile; consequently this water would have been stored within the pile as a change in water content or elevating the level of the water table at the base of the pile. The result was a faster response for the lysimeter compared to sub-lysimeter C . Figure 5.7 Time response of the lysimeter and sub-lysimeter C (Apr i l 9, 2007). 5.1.4. Pi le Hydrology Summary The previous analysis and discussion provides interesting insight of the initial response of the test pile. The different effects of the compacted flat area at the top of the pile and the side slopes on the hydrological response were confirmed. Based on the data available data it was 120 possible to hypothesize that that test pile reached a semi-steady state in a relatively short period of time. This implies the formation of a relatively constant water content profile and steady water table at the base of the pile. The spatial and temporal variations of response for the lysimeters and sub-lysimeters were confirmed. Finally the effects of material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence of preferential flow paths appear to be evident. 5.2. Test Pile Geochemistry The water chemistry within the pile and in its outflow are monitored at 21 water quality monitoring stations. A s part of the 21 water quality monitoring stations 15 soil water samplers were installed within the pile at different locations. Four water sampling ports were installed as part of the instrumentation lines 1, 2 and 4 (more details are provided in Chapter Four) to monitor the outflow from the lysimeter and the three sub-lysimeters. A monitoring station was established at the composite sample tank and the final monitoring station is the water collection sump located at the lowest coiner of the pile. The water samples collected from the monitoring stations were analyzed for a full suite of relevant geochemical parameters including p H , electrical conductivity, alkalinity, major ions and metals (laboratory results are provided in Appendix M ) . The test pile construction was completed during the dry season (August 2006) and the first water samples were collected in November 2006. 5.2.1. Lysimeter and Sub-Lysimeters Water Chemistry A summary of the water quality results for the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeters is presented in Tables 5.1 and 5.2. The cations included in this summary are the ones that generally are not strongly attenuated at neutral/alkaline conditions. Other parameters such as copper, alkalinity, dissolved sulfate, p H and electrical conductivity are also included. 121 Table 5.1 Sub-Lysimeters U B C 1 - A and U B C l - B Water Chemistry mg/1 Dissolved Metals (mg/l) p H E C (uS/cm) Tot. A l k . 3 S0 4 As C u C r M o Se Zn U B C 1 - A 1 02/20/07 6.7 6570 1372 0.009 0.016 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.063 1.180 03/07/07 6.9 6030 44 1492 < 0.001 0.012 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.056 1.452 03/15/07 7.4 5980 1328 0.011 0.016 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.054 1.501 03/20/07 7.3 5620 1047 0.009 0.011 < 0.002 0.01 0.059 1.490 03/29/07 7.3 5200 46 1514 0.006 0.013 < 0.002 0.01 0.040 1.033 04/04/07 6.8 4920 1633 0.008 < 0.001 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.052 1.181 04/11/07 7.7 4440 1477 0.009 0.013 < 0.002 0.01 0.044 0.916 04/19/07 7 4490 1488 0.01 < 0.001 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.039 0.879 U B C l - B 2 11/30/06 6.8 3860 1343 0.008 0.031 < 0.002 0.01 0.051 1.318 12/05/06 6.8 4500 1315 0.008 0.041 < 0.002 0.02 0.051 1.571 12/07/06 7.0 3920 1374 0.007 0.030 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.051 1.531 12/12/06 7.0 3990 1195 0.006 0.027 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.050 1.643 02/20/07 7.0 4120 1529 0.006 0.018 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.033 1.511 03/07/07 6.8 3700 65 1569 < 0.001 0.016 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.028 1.809 03/15/07 7.4 3700 1516 0.007 0.016 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.030 2.008 03/20/07 7.5 3330 1566 0.006 0.011 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.027 1.343 03/29/07 7.4 3270 58 1403 0.007 0.015 < 0.002 0.01 0.022 1.292 04/04/07 6.7 3180 1830 < 0.001 0.011 < 0.002 0.01 < 0.002 1.237 04/11/07 7.7 3030 1449 0.007 0.019 < 0.002 0.01 0.019 1.169 04/19/07 7.1 3170 1355 0.008 0.005 < 0.002 <0.01 0.019 1.254 1. Sub-Lysimeter located at the back of the pile. 2. Sub-Lysimeter located at the centre of the pile. 3. Mostly bi-carbonate. Table 5.2 Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - C and Lysimeter U B C 1 - D Water Chemistry mg/1 Dissolved Metals (mg/l) p H E C (uS/cm) Tot. Alk. 3 S 0 4 As C u C r M o Se Zn U B C 1 - C 1 11/16/06 6.9 4270 1832 0.011 0.012 < 0.002 0.02 0.113 1.053 11/23/06 6.9 4500 1253 0.009 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.02 0.102 0.948 11/30/06 6.9 4200 2034 0.009 0.013 < 0.002 0.02 0.109 1.055 12/05/06 7.2 4700 1206 0.009 0.017 < 0.002 0.02 0.105 0.960 12/07/06 6.8 4070 1216 0.010 0.010 < 0.002 0.01 0.107 0.954 12/12/06 7.1 4080 1203 < 0.001 0.014 < 0.002 0.01 0.091 1.081 02/20/07 7.1 3030 1057 0.009 0.014 < 0.002 0.02 0.061 0.910 03/07/07 7.1 2645 54 1228 0.010 0.012 < 0.002 0.02 0.049 1.106 03/15/07 7.6 2187 944 0.009 0.007 < 0.002 0.01 0.048 0.507 03/20/07 7.6 2115 943 0.007 0.007 < 0.002 0.01 0.062 0.477 03/29/07 7.6 1744 50 735 0.007 0.011 < 0.002 0.02 0.037 0.478 04/04/07 7 1805 927 0.008 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.02 0.041 0.417 04/11/07 7.9 1558 713 0.008 0.011 < 0.002 0.02 0.032 0.376 04/19/07 7.3 1859 689 0.008 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.033 0:537 U B C 1 - D 2 11/16/06 7.1 2545 1360 0.006 0.009 < 0.002 0.02 0.034 0.985 11/23/06 7.0 3050 1236 0.005 0.010 < 0.002 0.02 0.033 1.045 11/30/06 7.0 2810 1026 0.005 0.009 < 0.002 0.01 0.032 1.102 12/05/06 7.0 3370 738 0.005 0.015 < 0.002 0.02 0.032 1.134 12/07/06 7.3 3230 818 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.01 0.034 1.197 12/12/06 7.2 3640 1003 0.005 0.011 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.036 1.386 02/20/07 6.9 4010 1321 0.005 0.012 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.050 1.293 03/07/07 7.0 2565 63 934 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.032 0.984 03/15/07 7.5 2061 760 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.028 0.620 03/20/07 7.5 2384 944 < 0.001 0.007 < 0.002 0.01 0.034 1.060 04/04/07 7.0 2297 973 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.032 0.879 04/11/07 7.9 1988 875 0.004 0.012 < 0.002 0.01 0.021 0.706 04/19/07 7.2 2764 1055 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.01 0.028 0.995 1. Sub-Lysimeter located at the front of the pile. 2. Lysimeter of the pile. 3. Mostly bi-carbonate. In the case of the outflow from the sub-lysimeters and the lysimeter: the value of pH varied between 6.7 and 7.9. The electrical conductivity value (ranging from 1558 to 6570 uS/cm) for the sub-lysimeters decreased over time, while in the case of the lysimeter the values also decreased with the exception of short period of time. The total alkalinity (mostly bi-carbonate ranging from 44 to 65 mg/1) for both the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters was lower than expected for a material coming from a high carbonate content ore body. The concentrations of dissolved sulfates varied over time between 689.1 and 2033 mg/1. The concentrations of metals such as A s , Cr, M o and Se were found to be fairly stable and the concentrations of dissolved C u (very low concentrations) and Z n decreased over time. Further analysis of the water chemistry of the outflow from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters is presented in Figures 5.8, 5.9, 5.10 and 5.11. Four parameters were included for this analysis: volume of water (outflow), dissolved zinc (most variable concentrations during the period of analysis), sulfates and electrical conductivity. 1.80 1.60 A 1.40 ? E, ^ 1.20 o ° 1.00 - | - 0.80 rsi •o o o C O 0.40 0.20 A 0.00 Umm Outflow r~n Dissolved Zn r z = i S 0 4 - * - E C C F Date (dd/mm/yy) 7000.0 6000.0 5000.0 I 4000.0 3 u LU 3000.0 1 s tf) 2000.0 1000.0 -+ 0.0 Figure 5.8 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - A . 1 2 4 2 . 5 0 2 . 0 0 H 1.50 j * 1.00 0.00 / U f l 9 Outflow n a Dissolved Zn r r z : s o 4 * E C y y y y / y y y y y y / Date (dd/mm/yy) Figure 5.9 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - B . + 4000.0 3500.0 3000.0 35 o HI 2500.0 " 0.0 16.00 / / / / y / / • / / / / / / / •a" C r 7 Date (dd/mm/yy) Figure 5.10 Water Chemistry Evolution for Sub-Lysimeter U B C 1 - C . Figure 5.11 Water Chemistry Evolution for Lysimeter U B C 1 - D . Data presented in Figures 5.8, 5.9, 5.10 and 5.11 indicates that an increase in flow (infiltration after large rainfall events) had a direct and opposite effect on the electrical conductivity, which decreased with increasing flow rate. The effect of flow in electrical conductivity can be explained considering that at high flow rates water tends to flow through coarse material (less surface area) while at low flow rates water flows preferentially through fine material which is more reactive (larger surface area). The concentrations of dissolved Zn for the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters varied over time, however the general trend for the Zn concentrations was to decrease towards the end of the observation period for this analysis. It was not possible to define a specific pattern for the sulfates evolution. The evolution of Z n concentrations in the outflow from the sub-lysimeters U B C 1 - A , U B C l - B and U B C 1 - C after February 20 2007 followed the same pattern. The concentrations increased at the beginning until a point in time when the Z n concentration of the three sub-lysimeters started to decrease. This suggests that material with similar characteristics but with slightly 126 different oxidation states was placed on top of the sub-lysimeters. The information presented indicates that likely an oxidation process is occurring inside the test pile. 5.2.2. Soil Water Samplers Water Chemistry 15 soil water samplers were installed within the test pile. Weekly water samples were extracted from some o f the samplers, in other cases the samplers were dry or it was possible to collect only a small amount of water. The location of the soil water sampler within the pile is shown in Figure 5.12. A summary of the chemical analysis results for the water collected by the soil water samplers are shown in Table 5.3. The criterion for this summary was the same used to present the information from the lysimeter and sub-lysimeters; sulfates and alkalinity were not analyzed for the soil water samplers due to the lack of enough sample. 1* 2* 3* 36 m 1 * = Instrumentation Line 1 2* = Instrumentation Line 2 3* = Instrumentation Line 4 UBC1-A, B, C =Sub-lysimeters Figure 5.12 Soi l Water Samplers within the Test Pile (simplified cross-section). 127 Table 5.3 Soil Water Samplers Water Chemistry Dissolved Metals (mg/1) p H E C (uS/cm) Sb As C u C r M o Se Zn UBC1-L2B 3/7/07 7.25 4620 0.011 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.101 0.841 3/15/07 7.3 4260 0.014 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.02 0.097 0.945 3/20/07 7.19 4080 0.013 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.02 0.114 0.950 3/29/07 7.16 3820 0.013 < 0.001 0.007 < 0.002 0.02 0.083 0.791 4/11/07 7.1 3410 0.018 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.02 0.051 0.691 4/19/07 7.29 3920 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.01 0.049 0.891 UBC1-L2C 2/20/07 7.48 4160 0.013 0.006 0.009 < 0.002 0.02 0.108 0.560 3/7/07 7.56 3240 0.013 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.02 0.033 0.601 3/29/07 7.44 3440 0.013 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.02 0.036 0.660 UBC1-L2D 2/20/07 7.49 3330 0.012 < 0.001 0.008 < 0.002 0.02 0.071 0.727 UBC1-L4A 2/20/07 8.26 3790 0.019 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.017 0.081 UBC1-L4C 2/20/07 7.84 785 0.018 < 0.001 0.017 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.024 0.098 3/7/07 8.05 804 0.018 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.027 0.115 4/11/07 7.79 500 0.016 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.021 0.410 4/19/07 7.78 500 0.019 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.01 0.024 0.554 UBC1-L4D 4/11/07 7.67 800 0.022 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.002 0.01 0.023 0.669 The information presented in Table 5.3 indicates: that the p H value for the water collected by the soil water samplers varied between 7.1 and 8.26; the electrical conductivity ranging from 500 to 4620 uS/cm decreased over time; and the concentration of rest of the analyzed parameters remained very low and almost constant with the exception of Zn , which slightly decreased in same cases and increased in other ones. 128 5.2.3. Vertical Evolution of Water Chemistry The change in water chemistry along the vertical flow path was verified by studying the laboratory results of water collected by the soil water samplers U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - L 4 C located above the sub-lysimeters U B C 1 - B and U B C 1 - C respectively as shown in Figure 5.13. A s shown in Figure 5.13 the flow path length for water to reach the two soil water samplers is different; approximately 6 m for U B C 1 - L 2 C and 2 m for U B C 1 - L 4 C . The concentrations of C u and Z n were selected for this brief analysis for the reason that they varied the most. 1* 2* I U B C l - A UBC1-B UBC1-C j |« : : * 36 m 1 * = Instrumentation Line 2 2* = Instrumentation Line 4 U B C l - A , B, C =Sub-lysimeters U B C 1-L2C = Soil Water Sampler UBC1-L4C = Soil Water Sampler Figure 5.13 Location of Soil Water Samplers U B C 1-L2C and U B C 1-L4C within the Test Pile (simplified cross-section). The evolution over time of the concentrations of C u and Z n is presented in Figures 5.14, 5.15, 5.16 and 5.17. The concentrations of C u in both soil water samplers ( U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 -L 4 C ) and sub-lysimeters ( U B C 1 - B and U B C 1 - C ) decreased over time. However even while the C u concentrations decreased over time, it can be seen that relatively higher C u concentrations were measured at the sub-lysimeters compared to the concentrations measured at the soil water samplers. The longer flow path is considered the primary reason for the difference in C u concentrations between the soil water samplers and the sub-lysimeters. Another possible factor that could be contributing to this difference is the contact of the water 129 draining through the flow path with the 2B Rejected material used to protect the liner of the sub-lysimeters. Future laboratory results from water samples collected at the water collection sump installed at the lowest corner o f the pile can provide further information about the effects of the 2B Rejected material. In the case of Zn, there was an increase in the concentrations measured at the soil water samplers over time. The Z n concentrations for the sub-lysimeters varied over time following a non-specific pattern. In general the concentrations of Z n were higher at the sub-lysimeters, which can be the result of a longer flow path and possibly, the contact with the 2B Rejected material protecting the sub-lysimeters. 2.000 1.600 1.200 •5 8 0.800 0.400 0.000 / / Date UBC1-L2C • UBC1-B <a5 4 Figure 5.14 Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C 1 - B . 130 0.020 0.018 0.016 0.014 -£ 0.012 3 •g 0 0 1 0 > » 0.008 S 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.000 4 D a t e UBC1-L2C IUBC1-B Figure 5.15 Dissolved Cooper Evolution between U B C 1 - L 2 C and U B C l - B . 1.200 1.000 0.800 0.600 1 5 0.000 A* 4 o D a t e UBC1-L4C • UBC1-C 4^ Figure 5.16 Dissolved Zinc Evolution between U B C 1 - L 4 C and U B C 1 - C . 131 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.012 H I ~ 0.010 o V I 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 i 0.000 4? Date UBC1-L4C IUBC1-C Figure 5.17 Dissolved Copper Evolution between U B C 1-L4C and U B C 1 - C . 5.2.4. Summary of Test Pi le Geochemistry The objective of geochemistry assessment has been to provide a preliminary understanding of the initial response of the test pile. The information available for this analysis does not allow defining specific trends or conclusions. The levels of electrical conductivity measured and the sulfates released along with the variations of low concentrations of metals such as C u and Z n suggests that a slight oxidation process is taking place within the pile. Finally, it was verified that the flow path length does impact water chemistry. 5.3. Summary The preliminary analysis of the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the test pile indicates that: the physical configuration of the pile (side slopes and the compacted flat area at the top of the pile) plays an important role in the hydrology and geochemistry of the pile; the spatial and temporal variations of response for the lysimeters and sub-lysimeters were 132 confirmed; the effects of material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence of preferential flow paths appear to be evident; the collected geochemical information suggested that a slight oxidation process is taking place within the pile; and the length of flow paths has an impact in water chemistry. 133 6. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1. Summary The geochemical and hydrological behavior of waste rock dumps is usually predicted by conducting laboratory scale tests such as humidity cells and small-scale barrel tests. These tests have been in use over the past few decades and the experimental procedures are well developed and adopted in practice. A t the same time, there is little confidence that the result of these tests can predict the full-scale behavior of waste rock dumps. Although there is a well established understanding of the geochemical processes, accurate prediction of the evolution of drainage quality requires the characterization of the movement of oxygen and movement of water through a waste rock dump. Direct observations and measurements of water movement through waste rock dumps are necessary to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology and its influence on the geochemistry for full-scale waste rock systems. These observations of oxygen and water movement are only possible through the implementation of field-scale experiments. Some field-scale experiments have been developed in the past few years, however all of them have focused primarily on waste rock geochemistry and hydrology in acid producting environments. A c i d rock drainage is recognized as the major source of poor water quality resulting from mining activities and as a consequence, is the focus of a vast number of studies. Some ore bodies are hosted in rock with high neutralization capacity such as carbonates, generating alkaline/neutral drainage from the waste rock dumps. Alkal ine or neutral drainage from waste rock dumps can limit the dissolution and mobility of some metals such as aluminum, iron and copper although other environmentally hazardous elements such as arsenic, antimony, molybdenum, selenium, chromium and to a lesser extent, zinc, are not strongly attenuated at high p H and can be released to the environment causing adverse effects. Few research programs directed at understanding the mechanisms that control the release and mobility of metals in alkaline/neutral conditions have been completed, particularly in case of field-scale experiments were there is no specific previous experience. 134 The purpose of the current study has been to improve the understanding of alkaline/neutral drainage from waste rock dumps, through field-scale experiments. The mineral deposit formation at Antamina is a quartz monzonite intrusion hosted in Cretaceous limestone, which accounts for the high neutralization potential observed. The primary objective of the research project described in this thesis has been to design, construct and instrument a field-scale waste rock test pile at the Antamina mine in Peru. These objectives have been successfully achieved. In addition data were also obtained for the initial hydrological and geochemical response of the pile for a 3 month period, providing the opportunity to do a preliminary analysis. 6.2. Conclusions The key lessons learned, observations and conclusions resulting from the study are summarized as follows: • There is very little literature available regarding the design o f field- scale experiments. • Only few field-scale experiments have been conducted to provide direct observations of solution movement through waste rock and the geochemical effects of this movement, and virtually none have been conducted for an alkaline/neutral drainage system. • Review of the available information from past field-scale waste rock experiments indicates that the main focus of previous studies was on the analysis of the obtained data and less time was allocated to the design of the experiments and specifications for the construction and instrumentation details. • We l l developed and established criteria for the design, construction and instrumentation of field-scale waste rock experiments are not available for previous studies. • There is no specific instrumentation commercially available for field-scale waste rock experiments. • The design, construction and instrumentation of the field-scale waste rock test pile for the present study was successful. A t least 80% of the instrumentation is currently operational and the construction was made according to the original design, including small modifications. 135 • The test pile construction sequence and the meteorological conditions at the site during the construction and subsequent operation of the pile had a significant influence on the initial hydrological response of a test pile. The construction of the test pile began in February 2006 and was completed in August of the same year. During this time waste rock was stockpile next to construction site or end-dumped onto the pile, as a consequence the initial water content and oxidation state of the material placed in the pile was not uniform. • Based on the data available for this analysis, it was possible to hypothesize that infiltration and drainage conditions in the test pile reached a semi-steady state in a relatively short period of time. This implies the formation of a relatively constant water content profile and steady water table at the base of the pile. • The spatial and temporal variations of response in terms of flow and time for the lysimeter and the sub-lysimeters were verified. • The impact on the hydrological response of the compacted flat area at the top of the pile and the side slopes was confirmed. In this particular experiment 75% of the lysimeter area is covered by side slopes, the remaining 25% corresponds to the compacted flat area at the top of the pile. • The effect of material segregation, heterogeneity and the presence of preferential flow paths appear to be evident. • The levels of electrical conductivity measured and the sulfates released along with concentrations of metals such as C u and Z n suggests that oxidation is taking place within the pile. • The change in water chemistry along the vertical flow path was verified by reviewing the laboratory results of water collected at the soil water samplers located above the sub-lysimeters. • The analysis of the initial response of the test pile described in this thesis must be considered preliminary and not sufficient to provide a comprehensive understanding of the hydrology and geochemistry of the pile, nor to predict its long-term behavior. 136 6.3. Recommendations for Future Research The construction of field-scale experiments implies the use of significant financial resources and large quantities o f materials, personnel and machinery. Frequently, these field-scale experiments are developed in remote areas, where the resources are limited. However, the design and planning for these facilities are usually done at a research center located far away from the construction site. The key factor in the success of the design, construction and instrumentation of a field-scale experiment is to prepare the design and plan the construction according to the available resources. The construction and implementation of field-scale experiments requires the contribution of many people. It is very important that the person in charge of the field activities directly supervise all the details of the construction and installation of instrumentation to ensure that consistent standards are used through the entire project. A l l the details for the design, construction and operation of field-scale experiments and instrumentation should be recorded in drawings, pictures, field notes, etc. The availability of this information provides significant advantages and improves the use of time and resources that allows the correlation between experimental results and experimental design/construction. This information also allows on-going improvements and adjustments to be made to the experiment. Further long-term operation and data analysis is necessary for the constructed pile. Therefore collected data from the T D R sensors together with data from the thermistors, electrical conductivity sensors and gas sampling ports need to be included in future analysis. In addition, the analysis needs to be complemented with the mineralogical characterization of the waste rock and the results o f the field cells to provide a comprehensive understanding o f the long-term hydrological and geochemical behavior of the test pile. 137 REFERENCES Andrina, J . , Wilson, G .W. , and Mil ler , S. (2006). Performance of the acid rock drainage mitigation waste rock trial dump at Grasberg mine. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, St Louis, Missouri . 30-44. Andrina, J . , Mi l le r , S., & Neale, A . (2003). The design, construction, instrumentation and performance of a full-scale overburden stockpile trial for mitigation of acid rock drainage, Grasberg mine, Papua Province, Indonesia. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland. 123-132. Blowes, D . W. , Moncur, M . , Smith, L . , Sego, D. , Bennet, J . , and Garcie, A . , et al. (2006). Construction of two large-scale waste rock pile in a continuous permafrost region. In proceeding of the Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, St. Louis, Missouri . 187-199. Fala, O., Aubertin, M . , Molson, J . , Bussiere, B . , Wilson, G .W. , and Chapuis, R., et al. (2003). Numerical modeling of unsaturated flow in uniform and heteregenous waste rock piles. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland. 895-902. Frostad, S., K le in , B . , and Lawrence, R . W . (2005). Determining the weathering characteristics of a waste dump with field test. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 19(2) , 132 - 143. 138 Herasymuik, G . M . , Azam, S., Wilson, G .W. , Barbour, L .S . , and Nichol , C . (2006). Hydrological characterization of an unsaturated waste rock dump. In Proceedings of 59 t h Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia. 751-757. Khan, A . A . , and Ong, C . K . (1997). Design and calibration of tipping bucket system for field runoff and sediment quantification. . Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 52(6), 437-443. Mi l le r , S., Andrina, J., & Richards, D . (2003b). Overburden geochemistry and acid rock drainage scale-up investigations at Grasberg Mine, Papua Province, Indonesia. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference On Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland.. 111-121. Mi l le r , S., Rusdinar, Y . , Smart, R., Andrina, J., & Richards, D . (2006). Design and construction o f limestone blended waste rock dumps : Lesson learned from a 10-year study at Grasberg. In Proceedings of The Seventh International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, St. Louis, Missouri. 1287-1301. Mi l le r , S., Smart, R., Andrina, J., Neale, A . , & Richards, D . (2003a). Evaluation of limestone covers and blends for long-term acid rock drainage control at the Grasberg Mine , Papua Province, Indonesia. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference On Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland. 133-141. 139 Murr, L . E . , Schlitt, W.J . , Cathles L . M . (1981). Experimental observations of solution flow in the leaching of copper-bearing waste, In Proceedings of the 2nd SME-SPE International Solution Mining Symposium. Denver. Colorado. 271 - 290. Newman, L . (1999). A mechanism for preferential flow in vertical layered, unsaturated systems. M.Sc . thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.. Nichol , C , Smith, L . , and Beckie, R. (2000). Hydrogeologic behavior of unsaturated waste rock : A n experimental study. In Proceedings of The Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Denver, Colorado., 215-224. Nichol , C , Smith, L . , and Beckie, R. (2003). Water flow in uncover waste rock: A multi-year large lysimeter study. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Cairns, Queensland. 919-926. Nichol , C , Smith, L . , and Beckie, R. D . (2005). Field-scale experiments o f unsaturated flow and solute transport in a heterogeneous porous medium. Water Resources Research, 41(5), 1-11. Nichol , C , Beckie, R. D . , and Smith, L . (2002). Evaluation o f uncoated and coated time domain reflectometry probes for high electrical conductivity systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66,1454-1465. 140 Zhao, S.L., Dorsey, E . C , Gupta, S.C., Moncrief, J.F., and Huggins, D .R. (2001). Automated water sampling and flow measuring devices for runoff and subsurfaces drainage. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 56(4), 299-306. Young, G . D . (1996). Calibration of profiling probes. Moisture Point Technical Brief 17. 141 Appendix A. Water Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Table A . 1 Field Parameters PARAMETERS UNITS M E T H O D DETECTION RANGE DETECTION LIMIT pH U.E. Manually - 2 - 1 6 0.01 Temperature °C Manually -5-99.9 0.1 Conductivity uS/cm Manually 0 - 500 000 1 Disolved Oxygen mg/1 Manually 0-19 .9 0.01 Volumen 1 Manually 0 - 1 4 0 Table A . 2 Laboratory Parameters GRUP OF PARAMETERS PARAMETERS UNITS A N A L Y T I C A L M E T H O D DETECTION LIMIT PRESERVATIVE MAX. LIFE SPAN (DAYS) FISICOQUIMICOS G E N E R A L Acidez(si pH <4.5) mg/1 EPA 305.1 2 Refrigerate 14 Total Alkalinity mg/1 S M 2320B 0.1 Refrigerate 14 Carbonate mg/1 S M 4500CO 2-D 0.1 Refrigerate 14 Bi-carbonate mg/1 S M 4500CO 2 -D 0.1 Refrigerate 14 Chloride mg/1 E P A 325.3 1 Refrigerate 28 Conductivity uS/cm E P A 120.1 1 Refrigerate 28 Fluoride mg/1 EPA 340.2 0.01 Refrigerate 28 pH EPA 150.1 Refrigerate 24 hours Sulfates mg/1 EPA 375.4 0.5 Refrigerate 28 NUTRIENTS Ammonium Nitrogen mg/1 S M 4500 N H 3 - F 0.01 H 2 S0 4 (1 :1 ) p H < 2 , 28 Nitrogen-Nitrate mg/1 E P A 352.1 0.10 H 2 S0 4 (1 :1 ) p H < 2 , 28 NITRITE Nitrogen-Nitrite mg/I E P A 354.1 0.005 Refrigerate 48 hours Alkalini ty is not absolutely required. If sample volume is limited, skip alkalinity. Acidi ty is only required for samples with p H less than 4.5. Similarly, alkalinity is not required for samples with p H < 4.5. 143 Table A . 2 Laboratory Parameters (Cont'd) GRUPO DE PARAMETROS P A R A M E T E R UNITS A N A L Y T I C A L M E T H O D DETECTION LIMIT PRESERVATIVE MAX. LIFE SPAN (Months) M E T A L E S A l mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.02 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Sb mg/1 ICP-GH - E P A 200.7 0.01 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 As mg/1 ICP-GH - E P A 200.7 . 0.001 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Ba mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.003 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Be mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.001 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 B i mg/1 ICP/AES - EPA 200.7 0.1 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Bo mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.03 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 C d mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.003 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 C a mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.003 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 Co mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.005 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Cr mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.002 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Cu mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.01 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Sr mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.0003 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Sn mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.04 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 P mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.3 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 T O T A L M E T A L S (ICP) Fe mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.001 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 L i mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.02 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 M g mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.001 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 M n mg/1 ICP/AES - EPA 200.7 0.001 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Hg mg/1 C V A F S - E P A 1631 0.0002 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 1 M o mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.01 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 N i mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.01 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Po mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.20 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 A g mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.01 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Pb mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.015 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Se mg/1 ICP/GH - E P A 200.7 0.002 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 Na mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.02 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 Ta mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.04 H N 0 3 (1:1) pH<2 6 Ti mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.003 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 V mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 ' 0.007 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 Zn mg/1 ICP/AES - E P A 200.7 0.002 HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 DISSOLVED M E T A L S (ICP) Similar to total metals mg/1 Similar to total metals HN03(1:1) pH<2 6 SILICE Silica (Si0 2 ) mg/1 S M 4500 Si-D 0.5 Refirgerate 24 hours 144 Appendix B. Figures of Experimental Instrumentation 1/A" Tube Connector .006 Ceramic Cup PVC Tube J .324 .390 Soil Water Sampler Sc.=1:4 1 .060 h — .048 .051 .007 .007^ Coaxial Cable -T062 - .008 .008 J R.025 .320 .062-.065 .008 TDR Sc.=1:4 Isometric: Soil Water Sampler Isometric: TDR / 8 " 0 D Polyethylene Tubing Piece of Cloth Plastic Cable Tie Gas Sampling Port .010 H .060 Instrument Wire Thermistor Sc.= 1:2 £ T .006 .008 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA U B C w P R 0 J E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SENSORS AND SAMPLING PORTS ' FIGURE: D A T E : J u n e - 0 7 SCALE: INDICATED U N r r S : METERS 1.020 .220 Elbow 01 1/2 R 02" - 01 1/2" Discharge to Tipping Bucket PVC TUBE 02" Thermistor Union 02 Elbow 02' Water Conveyance System .09 a» t Union 02 Ball Value 02" Tee 02" .41 a - a .382 HDPE 04" ID Corrugated Pipe coming f rom Lysimeter or Sub-Lysimeter em by—pas f— .092 —j .232 Sc.=1:5 Conductivity Sensor .625 0 1 / 4 " 4 9 0 Water Sampling Port Valve L Thermistor • 03/4" PVC Tube .420"-Thermistor (Water Conveyance System) Sc.=1:4 Qmdoctiviry Sensor (Water Conveyance System) Sc.=1:4 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA U B C P R 0 J E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE WATER CONVEYANCE SYSTEM FIGURE: B-02 D A T E : J u n e - 0 7 SCALE: INDICATED U N r r S : METERS .414 ,.390, ISOMETRIC VIEW .012 — | | — PLAN VIEW T .012 i I I I I II i i i ,110 .124 £ .110 — PLAN VIEW .012 - * \ | — .012 0.010 .110 SIDE VIEW p—n—r 11 i i i .045 i - .044 0.010 .045 .045 PLAN VIEW SIDE VIEW Details Sc.-1:4 153 084 153 .007 .012 .192 .029 —H . H -043 .100 r -052 SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA U B C P R 0 J E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LARGE TIPPING BUCKET TRAY FIGURE: ^ 3 D A T E : June-07 SCALE: .j .5 U N I T S : METERS ^ 8 Iff UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE ISOMETRIC VIEW OF LARGE TIPPING BUCKET B44 D A T E : J u n e - 0 7 1 S C A L E : N/A UNITS: N / A .012 .298-ISOMETRICVffiW T .510 I .249 MAGNET .012 .0205 .092 150 .150 .092 .012 .387 .322 .0205 — \ - .012 / MAGNET y- REED SWITCH PLAN VIEW .044 140 .051 .127 .051 .141 BUCKET: PLAN AND SIDE VIEW MAGNET REED SWITCH 353 .035 035 — ' 1 — .012 FRONT VIEW .300 SIDE VIEW UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LARGE TIPPING BUCKET MECHANISM FIGURE: 345 | DATE: J u n e _ 0 7 | SCALE: 1.5 | UNITS: M E T E R S U B C | m .53 Tipping Bucket Anchors A 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 Lamp Outlet ( 0 4 " pvc Pipe) Housing Unit Base (Plan View) Sc. 1 / 2 0 CN 6 o 6 o d q d S = 2 % Tipping Bucket Leveling Mounts 0.55 o d Splash Guard Ramp c r o s s S e c t i o n A - A Esc. 1 / 2 0 Outlet ( 0 4 " pvc) Pipe o d UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA U B C P R 0 J E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LARGE TIPPING BUCKET HOUSING UNIT FIGURE: ^ J Q D A T E : J u n e - 0 7 SCALE: 1 ; 1 0 U N I T S : METERS 45\ ISOMETRIC VIEW .022 .127 .190 .366 .171 .005 .050 .010 .021 .227 .017 .127 .190 .366 Housing Basi .171 .005 .050 .010 .02 1— .227 S I D E V I E W .237 .005 .005 .227 i —H .050 II V v i / rTr\— •4 U " | 050 .017 Box Lid 021 048 .058 FRONT VIEW Housing Base .270 .270 0.050 .050 FLAN VIEW: HOUSING BASE SMALL TIPPING BUCKET Sc.=1:5 -H .062 .058 .055 .057 .040 -063 I — 0.006 0.016 .164 SIDE VIEW 0.006 0.016 MECHANISLM Sc.=1:5 .082 .06 .009 REED SWITCH .058 .055 i j j (— .010 057 .029 — ' *— .045 x — .029 FRONT VIEW .061 .034 ^ MAGNET 01 MAGNET _ £ T f— .040 I D64—4-T£)5£ .01 T064 .011 BUCKET: FRONT AND SIDE VIEW Sc.=1:5 Hinge Axis Cal ibrat ion Screw TIPPING BUCKET MECHANISIM Sc.=1:5 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC P R 0 J E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SMALL TIPPING BUCKET FIGURE: QJJ D A T E : J u n e - 0 7 SCALE: 1 ; 5 U N n 5 : METERS 0.15 Funnel Per fora ted Panel Per fo ra ted Pane L1 Al 102 .095 .102 PLAN VIEW Sc.-1:5 .240 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC PROJECT • ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE FLOW SPLITTER FIGURE: g^ g DATE: j u n e _ 0 7 S C A L £ : 1:5 U N I T S : METERS Appendix C. TDR Sensors Construction HOW TO CONSTRUCT A ZEGELIN 3-ROD TDR PROBE A Zegelin 3-rod time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe is used to measure the moisture level of a soil. The following is a list of the materials and tools required (refer to Table C . l and C.2) along with the step-by-step procedure taken to construct a Zegelin 3-rod T D R probe. Table C . l Materials required for assembly QTY DESCRIPTION MANUFACTURER PART NO. 3 1/8" stainless steel ro< (35cm) (standard welding rods 2 3 position flexible terminal blocks (12i pitch) W E C O 42.820.008 3 P IN diodes Motorola M P N 3404 1 chassis mount 5 connector Mode 21-061-0 15cm bus wire 20, 22, or 24 gauge 10cm solder 35cm 0 shrink tubing 8mm 0 shrink tubing 50m coax cable (.82 mm 2 ) Belden 2 beer cans epoxy resin Epoxies, Etc... 20-2365R epoxy catalyst Epoxies, Etc... 20-2365C 1 tube 5 minute epoxy 1 roll masking tape 155 Table C.2 Tools required for assembly QTY DESCRIPTION 1 soldering iron 1 heat gun 1 screw driver 1 cable cutter 1 pr Gloves cutting knife and cutti] board 1 multi-meter 1 electric dril l A few lab stands and clamps 2 pr pliers (needle nose) 1 disposable container Step-by-step Procedure The construction of a Zegelin 3-rod T D R probe is separated into three stages: the assembly stage, the testing stage and the epoxy stage. Assembly 1. Cut each terminal block into two blocks with five terminal positions each. T r im sides of terminal blocks. 2. Shrink 35cm length o f shrink tubing on one steel rod using heat gun. 3. Attach terminal blocks to both ends of the three steel rods, making sure rod with shrink tubing is attached to middle terminal position; tighten terminal screws. See Figure 1. 4. Bend and solder negative leads of two diodes together and insert into center position of terminal block, with body of diodes placed in gap between terminal positions. 156 ( W A R N I N G : D O N O T O V E R H E A T D I O D E S W H E N S O L D E R I N G ; O V E R H E A T I N G C A N C A U S E M E L T I N G OF D I O D E CIRCUIT . ) Tighten terminal screws. See Figure C.2 for P IN diode lead identification. 5. Cut two 2cm pieces of bus wire. Make 90° bends in the middle and place one bus wire in each outer terminal position. Tighten terminal screws. Solder bus wires to positive leads of diodes. See Figure C.3. 6. Shrink 8mm length of shrink tubing on positive lead of one diode. 7. Apply a quantity of solder to each diode lead to enlarge it so terminals w i l l grip properly. 8. Solder diode lead with shrink tubing to F-connector center pin. 9. Wind 10cm piece of bus wire once around F-connector so that it is centered with two pigtails and add washer and nut to cinch wire. A d d solder to wire and washer to ensure connection. 10. Solder other lead of diode to bus wire. 11. Tr im center terminal position. Bend and trim bus wire in order to fit into terminal block and insert diode between terminal positions and tighten terminal screws. See Figure C.4. Testing 1. Turn to diode setting on multi-metre. 2. Touch one lead to centre rod and other lead to each outer rod in turn. Reading should be 0.75+0.1 Volts. 157 3. Touch leads to either o f outer rod; multi-metre should beep to indicate connection. N O T E : IF T E S T S F A I L , C H E C K D I O D E C O N N E C T I O N S . IF A L L C I R C U I T C O N N E C T I O N S A R E S E C U R E , C H E C K T H A T D I O D E L E A D S A R E N O T R E V E R S E D . Epoxy 1. Cut off tops of beer cans. Dr i l l a hole with diameter slightly larger than cable on bottom of one beer can. 2. Thread one end of coax cable through beer can, strip cable and fit cable end to F-connector on probe. 3. Place small amount of 5 minute epoxy around hole. Wait t i l l epoxy hardens, then wrap masking tape around cable close to hole. See Figure C.5. 4. Hang probe vertically using lab stand and clamp with beer can at bottom. Make sure terminal block is N O T in contact with walls of beer can. 5. Measure epoxy resin and catalyst in ratio o f 5:1 by weight and place inside disposable container. M i x well . 6. Pour epoxy into beer can until terminal block is 5mm beneath the final epoxy level. Wait 12 hours for the epoxy to harden, and then remove the beer can using needle nose pliers. 7. Taking other beer can, repeat steps 4-6 for other end o f probe. 158 Figure C. 1 Three steel rods with terminal blocks attached to either end Positive lead Figure C.2 Bottom view of PIN diode with formed leads Figure C.3 PIN diode assembly Figure C.4 F-connector and PIN diode assembly Figure C.5 A TDR probe ready for epoxy Figure C.6 TDR probes set up for epoxy F i g u r e C .7 A n assembled Z e g e l i n 3-rod TDR probe Appendix D. TDR Sensors Calibration TDR Probes Calibration Profoel 320mm Afr OrySand Water 3.5490 4.8840 13.1630 3.8920 4.9130 131060 3,6490 4 8990 13.1630 3.6920 4.9130 131630 3 6770 4.9550 13.1630 3 6630 4.9130 13.1200 3 6350 4 9130 13.1630 3564D 4 9130 13.1060 3 5490 4.9130 13.1060 37480 4.9130 13.1060 3 6630 4.9130 13.1770 3.5640 4 9130 13.1340 3.6350 4.9130 13.1770 38490 4.9130 13.1910 3.6350 4.9270 13.1490 Ave 3 6376 4.9139 13.1458 std 0 0584 0.0146 00300 Probe2 313mm Air OrySand Water 3 5920 4.8990 12 4390 3 7200 4.8280 12.4250 3 5490 4 7850 12.4250 3 6210 4.7990 12.4390 3 6920 4.4D10 124950 3 7770 4 8700 124100 3 7910 4 8840 12 4250 3 7620 4.9130 12 4530 3 7480 4.7140 12 4530 3 7200 4.8840 12 4670 3 7060 4.8560 12 4250 3 7060 4.8700 12.4390 3 6630 4 8560 12 4250 3 6490 4 8700 12 4670 3 7060 4.9130 12 4390 Ave 38935 4 8228 12 4417 stet 0 0683 01282 0 0220 Probe3 31€htirrt Afr DrySand Water 3.5780 4.6280 12 2260 3 5490 4.8420 12.2680 3.621Q 4.7990 12.2120 3.6350 4,8130 12 2820 3.6060 4.8420 12.2540 3 6210 4.8420 12.2540 3 6350 4.8130 12.2540 3.6210 4826.0 12 2120 3.6210 4 8130 12 2680 3 6350 4.8280 12.2820 3 5780 4.8280 12.2680 36210 4.8260 12 2120 3 5780 4.6280 12.2540 3 6350 4 8420 12 2120 3 6060 4.8420 12.2400 Ave 3-6093 4.8277 12 2465 std 0 0266 0 0133 0 0259 Probe4 316mm l l l l i i i OrySand Water 3 2090 49840 13 0210 3 7060 49840 130490 36350 49840 13 0490 3.6920 4.9840 131060 3 6920 49700 13 0350 3 6350 49550 13 0780 3.6350 49700 13.0640 3.6920 4 9840 131060 3 6350 4 9840 13 0920 3.6920 4.9840 13 0210 3.6770 4.9700 13 0490 3.7060 4.9840 131060 3 6350 49700 13 0210 3.6350 4.9700 13 0490 3 6920' 4 9700 13 0490 Ave 3 6379 49765 13 0597 std 01223 0 0091 0 0311 TDR Probes Calibration Prdbe5 313mm Air DrySand Water 3.5490 4.9700 13.0350 3,6770 4.9840 13 0070 3.6630 4.S700 13.1490 3,6350 4.9840 13.0350 3.6630 4.9840 13.0070 3.6630 4 9840 12 9780 3.6630 4 9980 13 0070 3 5640 4.9700 13.0350 3.6210 4.9840 13.0490 3,5780 4.9700 13.0070 3 6490 4.9840 13 0210 3,6770 4 9840 13 0920 3.6210 4 9840 12 9930 3,5490 4 9840 13 0070 3 6630 49700 13.021O Ave 3.6290 4.9803 13 0295 std 0 0467 0 0083 0 0425 l l l l l p i i l i i ? ! 318mm Air DrySand Water 3.7060 5.0400 13.1340 3 7060 5.0400 13.1340 3.7340 5.0260 13,1490 3.6920 5.0120 13.1490 3,7340 4.9980 13,2060 3.706O 5.0260 13.1490 3.7200 5 0260 13,1630 3.7340 5.0120 13.1510 3,7340 5.0120 13,1630 3 7200 5.0120 13.1630 3 7200 5,0120 13,1910 3.7200 5.0260 13.1630 3.7200 5 0120 13,1630 3.7200 4.9900 13.1490 3 7200 5,0120 13.1910 3,7191 5 0171 13.1639 &td 0 0124 0 0138 0 0218 Probes 320mm Air DrySand Water 3 5490 4.8280 129210 3.5640 4.8560 12.8930 3,5640 4.8420 12.9360 3.6350 4.8420 12,9210 3,5920 4 8560 12 9070 3.5780 4 8280 12 8650 3 5780 4.8420 12 9210 3.6210 4.8560 12.9210 3.5490 4.8420 12.8650 3.5210 4 8420 12,8930 3.6350 4.8420 12.9070 3.578Q 4.8420 12,9070 3,5640 4.8420 12 9070 3.4930 4 8280 12 8930 3,5780 4.8280 12.9210 Ave 3,5733 4.8411 12 9052 std 0 0387 0 0099 0 0205 324mm Air DrySand Water 3 6630 4 7280 13.1630 3.8480 4.8990 13,1490 3.6630 4.9550 13 2200 3 6350 4.9410 13,1200 3.6920 4.9B40 13.2200 3,6630 4.1600 13,1490 3.6350 4.1460 13 1770 3,5920 4,1460 13 2060 3 5490 4.1460 131340 3.7060 4,1890 13,1340 3.5640 4.2030 13.0640 3,6060 4,1460 13.276D 3.6060 4.1460 131770 3.5070 4,1600 13,1770 3.5210 4.1320 13.1S1Q Ave 3.6300 4.4054 13.1705 std 0,0849 0 3675 0,0503 TDR Probes Calibration Probe9 316mm Air DrySand Water 3.8050 5.0120 12.7650 3 7770 5,0120 12.7650 3.6050 5 0400 12 7650 3,7480 5,0400 12.7510 3.7340 5 0550 12.8930 37770 50690 12 7080 3 7340 5 0690 12.7790 3 7340 5.0120 12.7370 3.6050 5.0400 12 7790 3.7480 5.0400 12.8080 3 7060 5.0120 12,6660 3.7910 5.0400 12 7370 3.7770 5 0550 12 7080 3 7910 5,0400 12.7940 37200 5.0120 12.7370 Ave 3.7635 5 0365 12 7595 std 0 0333 0 0205 0 0520 Probe11 319mm Air DrySand Water 3.5490 4.8130 12.8220 3.5350 4.8420 12.8080 3.5350 4.8130 12 8220 3.4930 4.8280 12.8790 3.5350 4.8280 12.8650 35350 4,8420 12.7370 3.5920 4.8280 12.6360 3.6770 4,8280 12.8220 3,6770 4.8280 12.6220 3.5350 4,8280 12.B360 3.5920 4.8280 12 7940 3.6770 4,8420 12 8510 3.4930 4.8280 12.8510 35920 4.8280 12.B360 3.5780 4-8420 12.6360 Ave 3.5730 4.8297 12.8278 std 0 0622 0 0092 0.0330 PrabeW 312mm Ait DrySand Water 3,6210 48560 12.7510 3.6490 4.8840 12 9780 3 7060 49130 12.9500 3.6490 4.8840 12 9360 36920 4,8840 12.9780 3 7060 4 8990 12 9360 36630 48990 12.9500 37620 4.8840 12.9210 36920 4 9130 12 9360 3.57B0 4 8840 12 9500 3 7340 48840 12 9640 3.6770 4.9130 13 0070 3 8190 48990 12 9360 3 7200 4.8990 12 9640 3 5780 48840 12.9210 Ave 36831 48919 12 9385 std 0 0647 0 0153 0 0569 Probe12 318mm Air OrySand Water 36210 4 8280 12 9780 3.6630 5.0120 12.9780 3.6770 4,9700 12 9780 3.7200 5.0260 13.1340 3.6770 5.0260 13.1340 3.6630 5.0120 128650 35640 4.9840 12.8650 3.6490 4.9840 12.9070 3,8050 4,9980 12 9070 3.7200 4.9840 12 8790 36060 4.9270 12.9070 3.6920 4.9550 12 9070 3.7060 4,9550 12 9070 3.7340 4.9550 12.9360 3 7200 4.9550 12 9070 Ave 3 6811 4,9714 12 9459 std 0 0586 0 0493 0.0848 166 TDR Probes Calibration ProbeM 320tTKt) Air DrySand Water 3.6920 49700 13.1200 3.6920 4.9980 13.1200 3.6920 5.0690 13.2340 3.7060 5.0260 131060 3 6630 5,1540 13.1200 3.7060 5.0260 130780 3.6630 4.529D 13 0920 3,7200 5 0550 131340 3.7060 4,7850 13.1060 3,7060 4.9410 131770 36490 4.9550 13.1770 3.7060 5.3100 13.1060 3 7060 6.0350 13.1200 3,6770 5.0550 131340 3 6630 4,8280 13.1340 Ave 3 6898 5.0491 131305 Std 0 0215 0 3242 0 0392 ProbeH 311 mm Air DrySand Water 3 6770 4.9410 12 9780 3.6770 4,9270 129210 3,6210 4 8840 12.9500 3 6770 4,9270 12.9070 3,6920 4.8B40 12.9360 3.6770 4 9270 12 8790 36770 4.9410 125070 3.6920 4,8990 12 9070 3,6920 4 9130 12 8930 3 6770 4.9130 12.8930 3,6920 4.9270 129070 3.6920 4,94io 12 8930 3 6770 4.9130 12 8220 3.6920 4,9270 129210 36920 4 9130 12 8790 A^e 3 6803 4.9185 129062 0 0180 0 0184 0.0353 Probe15 319mm Air DrySand Water 3.7340 5,0690 131770 3,7480 5.0260 13.1200 3.7620 5.0260 13.1830 3.734D 5.0260 13.1630 3.7480 45980 131340 3.7480 4.99B0 131490 3.7340 5.0260 13 0780 3.7480 5.0120 13.0920 3.7340 5.0120 13.1340 3.7340 5.0120 131490 3.7480 5.O120 13 0920 3,7060 5.0120 13.1490 3.6350 5.0120 131200 3.7620 5.0260 13.1200 3.7060 5.0120 13.0920 Ave 3 7321 5 0166 13.1288 std 0 0315 0 0168 0.0303 Probe16 318mm Air DrySand Water 3.7200 4.9700 13.1340 3.6770 4.9700 131340 37480 4.9840 13.0920 3.6920 45700 13 0920 3,7480 4.9840 13.1060 3.7200 4.9840 13,1430 37060 4.9840 13.1490 3.7480 45700 13.0640 37340 4.99B0 131340 3.7340 45840 131200 3,7200 4.9840 131490 3 7200 45980 13 1200 37200 4.9840 13.1340 3 6920 45980 131200 3 7340 4.9980 13.0920 Ave 3,7209 4 9840 13.1193 std 0 0216 0.0106 0 0253 167 TDR Probes Calibration Probe17 317mm Air DrySand 3.5640 4,9550 12 9360 3.5490 4.9410 12.9070 3.5490 4.8990 12 9360 36060 4.8990 12.9210 3.6060 4 8990 12 9500 3 6060 4,8990 12.9070 3.6060 4.8990 12.9210 3.5920 4 8990 12 9210 3.5920 4 9130 12 9500 3.5920 4.8990 12.9500 3.7340 4.9130 12,9210 3.5920 4.9130 12 9500 3.5350 49130 12 9360 3 5920 48990 12 9640 3 6060 4.8990 12,9640 Ave 3.5947 4 9093 12 9356 sld 0 0453 00171 0 0188 Probe19 310mm Afr DrySand Water 3,7340 5,0400 132200 3,6920 5.0550 13 0490 3,6350 5,0550 130070 38770 5.0550 13 0070 3.6770 5,0550 131630 3,8190 5.0550 13.0640 3,8190 5,0550 130490 3.7340 5.0260 13.0490 3.7200 5,0690 130640 3,8630 5.0550 13 0490 3.7200 5,0400 13,0920 36630 5.0550 12 9780 3.6350 5,0550 13 1340 3,6490 5.0690 13.0490 3.7200 5,0690 13,1630 Ave 3.7038 5.0539 13 0758 std 0 0576 00115 0 0668 ProbelB 316mm Air DrySand Water 3.6350 4.9550 13.0780 3 6770 4.9550 13.1490 36770 49700 13.1200 3 6920 4.9700 13 0780 3.6770 4,9550 13.0780 3.6350 4 9700 13,0490 35920 49700 131200 3 6920 4.9550 13.0640 3 7060 4.9700 13.1200 3.6630 4.9550 13,1340 3.6920 4 9980 13.0640 3.6920 4.9410 13,0780 3.6770 4,9550 13 0780 3.5920 4 9840 13,1200 3.6490 49550 13 0780 Ave 36632 4,9639 13 0939 std 0 0357 0 0142 0 0301 Probe20 32lmm Air DrySand Water 3.6060 4.9980 13 1630 3 5920 4,9840 13.1340 35920 4.9980 13 1630 3.6350 4,9980 13.1200 3.8630 4.9980 131200 3.6060 4,9980 13.0920 3.6060 4.9840 13.1200 36350 4,9980 13 0920 3,5780 4.9980 131060 3 6490 4,9980 131060 3,6210 4.9980 13.1630 3.6490 , 4,9700 13,1630 36490 4.9980 13 1630 3 6350 4,9980 131490 3,5920 4.9980 13.1490 Ave 3.6205 4.9943 131335 std 0.0264 0 0083 0 0272 168 TDR Probes Calibration Probe 21 322mm Air DrySand Water 3.6630 4.9550 i l l i l i i p 3.6210 4.9550 13.2480 3 7060 4 9980 13 2340 3.5920 4.9700 13.2200 3.5640 4.9840 13 2060 3.6490 4 9980 13 2200 36060 4.9550 13.2620 3.6350 4 9840 13.2340 3.6060 4.9700 13 2200 3.5780 4 9550 13.2480 3.5070 4.9980 13.2200 3.6350 4 9840 13 2480 3.6350 4.9550 13.2200 3.6210 4,9980 13 2200 37340 4.9840 13.22D0 Ave 3.623S 4 9762 13.2132 std 0 0550 0 0179 0.0669 Probe 22 321mm Air OrySand Water 3.9040 5.0690 131340 4.O180 5 069D 13.1770 3 9040 5 0830 13 1770 3.9190 5.0890 13.1490 3,8050 5.0690 13.1060 3.B900 • 5.0690 13.0920 3.6190 5.0400 13.0920 3.S610 5.055D 131200 3.7200 5.0550 131060 3 8620 5.0550 13.1060 3.8760 5 0690 131060 3 8900 5 0550 13.2760 3.6620 5.0690 13.1630 3.7770 5.012O 131630 3.8760 5 0550 130490 Ave 3.8722 5 0595 131344 std 0 0726 0 0167 0 0534 Probe 23 318mm Air DrySand Water 3649D 4.9130 20 8020 3.6490 4.9270 20.8450 3.5490 4.9270 20 8310 3.6490 4.9410 20,8450 3,6350 4.9410 20.8450 3,6350 4.9130 20 9160 3.6350 4.9270 20 8740 3 5780 4.3130 20 8310 3.6350 4.9410 20 9300 3.6490 43410 20,8310 3 6210 4.9270 20.7B80 3.6350 4.9410 20.859D 3.6210 4.9270 20 8310 3,5920 4.9130 20.8310 3,6210 49270 20.9D20 Ave 3,6235 4.0279 20.8507 std 0 0291 00112 0 039S 169 Appendix E. Electrical Conductivity Sensors Construction Construction of an Electrical Conductivity Sensor Materials • PVC pipe (21.3 mm OD, 15.06 mm ID) for potable water. • Stainless steel washers (SS316) 5/16" ID x 7/8"OD flat washers (2 mm thick). • PVC rod 3/16" diameter. • Epoxy • Copper cable Construction 1) Cut the PVC pipe into four 30 mm sections and one 150 mm long. 2) Machine the washers until their OD is similar to the OD of the PVC sections. 3) Drill four holes of 1/8" in each washer; one hole is for a copper wire to be soldered through and the other three to allow the epoxy to past through. 4) Solder a copper wire to a washer, using one of the holes. 5) Place a 30-mm PVC section as the head of the sensor followed by a washer; subsequently another PVC section is placed and the next copper wire is soldered on to the next washer. The same methodology is used until all the PVC sections (5 in total), washers (4) and copper wires (4) are in place. 6) Push the cable through a 15.06-mm PVC plug (tight fit) in order to prevent the epoxy to leak from this point. Then the plug is pushed into the PVC pipe section at the base of the sensor. 7) Hold the sections of the sensor together with two angled aluminum (90°) pieces and hose clamps. 171 8) Hold the assembled sensor vertically and start pouring the epoxy inside the sensor. During pouring, push the 3/16" P V C rod (9.5" long) down the sensor through the centre of the washers to increase sensor rigidity. 9) Pour the epoxy at intervals to allow the material to go down. 10) Add the epoxy as required until the sensor is completely filled. 11) Seal the sensor pushing a machined plug into the sensor head. This plug has a small hole that allows the excess epoxy to exit the sensor. Figure E. 1 15.06-mm diameter PVC plug (cable through) installed at the base of the sensor. 172 Figure E.2 Washer placed inside a sensor Figure E.4 Pouring the epoxy Appendix F. Electrical Conductivity Sensors Calibration Antamina Waste Rock Test Piles Project Pile 1 EC Sensor Calibration Date: 22 Dec, 2006 Calibration Tech Matt Neuner and Juan Carlos Corazao Programming and Calculations: Matt Neuner CAUTION: THE CALIBRATION BREAKS DOWN TO SOME DEGREE AT CONDUCTIVITIES HIGHER THAN 12 mS/cm. (norm to 25C) IF EC MEASUREMENTS BEGIN TO APPROACH THESE VALUES, A NEW CALIBRATION WILL BE NEEDED, AND A SMALLER REFERENCE RESISTOR MUST BE USED. mmhos/cm umhos/cm emp EC mS/cm uS/cm S/m Ohms Ohms Cell Constant k [mA-1] 1.884 cone / M KCI gKCI/Lsoln CA1/2 Ecactual* @ 25( EC @ 25C EC @ 25C Resist nee if k=1 Resistance if k»1.884 Rf [Ohms] 47.2 0.0001 0.007455 0.01 0.01489497 14.89497 0.001489497 671.3675825 1264.856525 rain 0.001 0.07455 0 031622777 0.146894888 146 8948875 0.014689489 68.0758886 128.2549741 stream 0.01 0.7455 0.1 1.40397 1403.97 0.140397 7.122659316 1341909015 marginal rivet (brackish 01 7.455 0316227766 11.98488754 11984 88754 1.198488754 0 834384133 1.571979707 saline 0.5 37.275 0.707106781 41 35182129 41351 82129 4.135182129 0.241827317 0 455602665 80% salintity of sea water ACTUAL=THEORETICAL EC01 cone / M KCI DATALOGGER MEASURED EXPECTED DATALOGGER MEASURED EXP AT TEMP RATIO EC fmS/cml me; ECactual @ 25C Temp 0.001 0.01 0.010430697 0.101078143 0.845534617 3 888411 0.146894888 1.40397 11.98488754 41.35182129 13,342735 13.957599 14.77836167 14.69888333 ECactual @ T* diff. (meas vs. a;j EC02 cone IM KCI 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.5 EC03 cone/M KCI 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.5 0.115160665 1.116667807 9.714700959 33.45800312 11.04055322 11.04756948 11.48941837 8.604543891 EC (mS/cml me: ECactual @ 25C Temp 0.010340843 0 146894888 12977335 01007079 1 40397 13.547425 0.855587933 11 98488754 14 31804222 3.949820857 41.35182129 14.1983675 EC [mS/cm] me ECactual @ 25C Temp 0.010181977 0146894888 1265216857 0098810474 1.40397 13.18989 0.86503995 11 98488754 1386414667 3802664182 41 35182129 1371498333 ECactual @ T* diff. (meas vs. a]| 0.114165664 11.04026676 1.105992644 10.98218356 9.612432462 11.2348855 33 07433028 8 373627939 ECactual @ T* diff. (meas vs. al| 0.11328022 11.12556219 1.096687459 11.09689883 9.511591152 10.99555131 32.70378981 8.600230851 0.116595702 1.129864764 9.451497051 43.46516911 0.1155913 1.12572614 9.563874346 44.15161656 101.2 101.2 97.3 129.9 101.2 101.8 99.5 133 5 5478 100 5 1.104516467 100.7 9 66953023 101.7 42.50667991 130.0 AVERAGE 1 d-avg logdy 11 19251369 stdev 0.257150929 %RSD 2 3 •j dx log slope 1.926125271 0.99 I d-avg log dy log dx log slope 11 0857786 1.917708712 1.925297796 1 00 stdev 0,13235582 %RSD 1.2 al)j%i'i d-avg logdy logdx log slope 11 07333744 1 929204047 1 924090091 iMWM stdev 0.068671289 %RSD 0.6 • Notes: 1. The calibration is applied with a single factor to 2. Temperature is accounted for in the calibration 3. The EC values output are the EC values at the i EC is generally normalized to a single tempera This normalization has been chosen to be dont 4. EC values for calibration solution, Source: 5. EC temperature correction equation source: EC04 cone IM KCI 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.5 EC [mS/cm] me, ECactual @ 25C Temp 0010081673 0146894888 12.3219225 0096512764 1.40397 12 7502525 0 804278656 11.98488754 13 374763 3733578357 41.35182129 13127794 ECactual @ T* diff. (meas vs • >'J EC v.*. «< 0.112380944 11.14705338 0.112694263 100 3 1.08524548 11.24457987 1.078832355 99.4 9.4028655 11.69105438 8.990332497 95.6 32.25367699 8.638810787 41.73442948 129.4 I d-avg logdy logdx log slope 11.36089588 1.901873948 1.922567548 0.99 stdev 0 290054016 %RSD 2.6 EC05 cone IM KCI 0.001 0.01 0.1 EC [mS/cml me ECactual @ 250 Temp 0.00929724 0.146894888 6.168880667 0 080010975 1.40397 6 007166667 0 690857888 11.98488754 6.0825835 ECactual @ T" diff. (meas vs. a;| 0.095625917 1028540935 0.909750337 11.37031941 7.782772668 1126537427 0.5 3.225288471 41.35182129 6.143108611 26.89953261 8.340194327 0.103925768 0.894373187 7.722500248 36.05269834 1087 98 3 99 2 1340 I d-avg log dy log dx log slope 1097370101 1.871034689 1010558733 0.98 stdev 0.598363178 %RSD WTW factory EC meter cone / M KCI 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.5 corrected to 25C* Temp corr subtracted EC [mS/cml me. Temp (WTW) EC [mS/cm] me. ECactual @ 25C Temp (thermistors) ECactual @ T* diff. (faclery meter vs. actual) (%1 0.171 7 1 0.114269459 0 146894888 6.963380781 0.09784384 116.8 1.471 7.1 0.982984642 1.40397 6 823570672 0.930996018 1056 13.32 7.2 8925681224 11.98488754 6.894903625 7.963244839 112.1 62.0 7.4 41.77582729 41.35182129 6.916415219 27.49231453 152.0 SUMMARY Probes d-avg avg d-av EC01 11.1925 EC02 110858 EC03 110733 V.RSD 0.133 15 'Note: EC05 is an extra sensor, ft has therefore been excluded from the avaerage calibration factor calculation. Electrical Conductivity and Temperature Relationship Sampling Notes: MattNeuner 19 Jan 2007 Samples taken 19 Jan 07 at time given in sample name * Meter calibrated to OuS/cm and 12.88mS/cm by Matt Neuner 19 Jan 07 ** Temp correction using equation provided by Blair Gibson during Diavik EC probe calibration units: EC - mS/cm; Temp - deg C *** 0% slope approximates a zero temperature compensation Sample CR1000 EC temp noTcorr WTW 340i field meter EC at 25C meas temp default slope EC at 25C 2% slope ECat20C 2% slope Coming 441 Lab meter * EC at 25C EC at 20C 0% slope*** 0% slope*** EC at 20C 10% slope meas temp CR1000" ECat2SC WTW standard 0.01 MKCI 1.638 16.5 1.629 UBC standard 0.01 MKCI 1.439 9.8 1.374 UBC standard 0.1 MKCI 12.87 UBC_1 11:16 4 134 11.38 5 55 13.3 5.48 4.94 4 87 4 88 5.23 ' 5.530 UBC_3 11:16 2.265: 13.225 2 85 14.4 2.78 2.50 2 46 2 46 2.70 2.897 UBC_4 11:19 2 435 8.555 3 55, 10.8 \ 349 3.14 3 13 3 13 3.20 19.8 3.503 UBC_1 12:02 4 25 12.67 5 58 17.4 i • 5.48 4.93 4 89 4 89 5.14 19.5 5.509 UBC_3 12:02 2:31 14.1 2 85 17.9 2.78 2.50 2 46 2 46 2.67 19.1 2.895 UBC_4 12:02 2 45 8.75 3 56 17.4 3.50 3.16 3 12 313 3.24 19.6 3.506 Std Dev. Between field and lab meter [mS/cm] 0.049 0.049 0.042 0.071 0.049 0.042 Avg Std Dev 0.051 0.520 0.138 0.491 0.453 0.106 0.474 0.364 Std Dev. Between CR1000 and lab meter [mS/cm] 0.035 0.083 0.009 0.020 0.081 0.004 Avg Std Dev 0.039 I.e. the WTW standard seems to be contaminated Appendix G. Large Tipping Bucket Calibration (raw data) U B C 1 - D ( la rge t i p p i n g b u c k e t ) CR1000 ports: C8, 5V Date: 17-Dec-06 Tech: Matt Neuner and Juan Carlos Corazao Low Flow method: constant head bucket supplies water to tipping bucket: flow controlled by a 1/2" steel ball-cock valve; tips counted with CR10 data logger flow rate measured by 500mL graduated cylander (+/- 2.5mL) and the time kept by the Trial 1 Trial 2 File: TBcal04a File: TBcal04b Time (s) 4:35:52 16552 Time (s) 0:00:00 462 Volume (L) 8.28 Volume (mL) Start time 13:37:40 Start time Stop time 18:13:32 Stop time Total tips 3 Total tips Tips/min 0.01 Tips/min 0.00 sec/tip 5517.33 sec/tip #DIV/0! Flow rate (Us) 0.0005 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.00 Flow rate (L/min) 0.030 L/tip 2.76 m L/tip #DIV/0! High Flow method: head maintained essentially constant in 7000L water truck which Trial 1 Trial 2 File: TB_4 HI. _01.dat File: TB_4HI 01.dat Time (s) 0:03:00 180 Time (s) 0:02:06 126 Volume (L) 51.05 Volume (L) 59.2 Start time 11:05:13 Start time 11:27:37 Stop time 11:08:13 Stop time 11:29:43 Total tips 17 Total tips 19 Tips/min 5.67 Tips/min 9.05 sec/tip 10.59 sec/tip 6.63 Flow rate (Us) 0.28 Flow rate (Us) 0.47 Flow rate (L/min) 17.02 Flow rate (L/min 28.19 L/tip 3.00 L/tip 3.12 Trial 6 Trial 7 File: TB 4 HI 01.dat File: TB 4 HI 01.dat Time (s) 0:04:02 242 Time (s) 0:11:25 685 Volume (L) 50.7 Volume (L) 33.85 Start time 14:34:06 Start time 15:07:39 Stop time 14:38:08 Stop time 15:19:04 Total tips 17 Total tips 12 Tips/min 4.21 Tips/min 1.05 sec/Up 14.24 sec/tip 57.08 Flow rate (Us) 0.21 Row rate (Us) 0.05 Flow rate (L/min) 12.57 Flow rate (L/min) 2.96 L/tip 2.98 L/tip 2.82 Trial 3 TBcal04c Time (s) 0:00:00 445 Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min 0.00 sec/tip #DIV/0! Flow rate (mL/s) 0.00 mL/tip #DIV/0! Trial 4 File: TBcal04d Time (s) 0:00:00 346 Volume (mL) Start time Stop time Total tips Tips/min 0.00 sec/tip #DIV/0! Flow rate (mL/s) 0.00 mL/tip #DIV/0! Trial 3 File: TB 4 HI 01.dat Time (s) 0:00:56 56 Volume (L) 60.65 Start time 11:43:59 Stop time 11:44:55 Total tips 19 Tips/min 20.36 sec/tip 2.95 Flow rate (Us) 1.08 Flow rate (L/min) 64.98 L/tip 3.19 Trial 8 File: TB_4HI_01.dat Time (s) 0:37:44 2264 Volume (L) 33.55 Start time 15:53:47 Stop time 16:31:31 Total tips 12 Tips/min 0.32 sec/tip 188.67 Flow rate (Us) 0.01 Flow rate (L/min) 0.89 L/tip 2.80 Trial 4 File: TB 4 HI 01.dat Time (s) 0:01:29 89 Volume (L) 68.85 Start time 12:01:17 Stop time 12:02:46 Total tips 22 Tips/min 14.83 sec/tip 4.05 Flow rate (Us) 0.77 Flow rate (L/min) 46.42 L/tip 3.13 Trial 8 File: TB 4 HI _01.dat Time (s) 0:44:03 2643 Volume (L) 22.1 Start time 16:59:37 Stop time 17:43:40 Total tips 8 Tips/min 0.18 sec/tip 330.38 Flow rate (Us) 0.01 Flow rate (L/min) 0.50 L/tip 2.76 Trials File: TBcal04e Time (s) 0:02:26 146 Volume (mL) 305 Start time 3:20:22 Stop time 3:22:48 Total tips 114 Tips/min 46.85 sec/tip 1.28 Flow rate (mL/s) 2.09 mL/tip 2.68 the instrument hut. Note water flow path Trial 5 File: TB_4HI_01.dat Time (s) 0:08:11 491 Volume (L) 54.45 Start time 12:24:34 Stop time 12:32:45 Total tips 19 Tips/min 2.32 sec/tip 25.84 Flow rate (Us) 0.11 Flow rate (L/min 6.65 L/tip 2.87 Appendix H. Small Tipping Buckets Calibration ( r a w da ta ) UBC1-A (small tipping bucket) CR100 ports: P2, G Date: 15-Dec-06 Tech: Mat Neuner and Juan Trial 1 File: TB_1 trial1.dat Time (s) 0:39:25 Volume (mL) 525 Start time 11:45:18 Stop time 12:24:43 Total tips 27 Tips/min 0.68 sec/tip 87.59 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.22 mL/tip 19.44 Corazao Trial 2 File: TB_2trial2.dat TBcalOlb Time (s) 0:09:00 540 Volume (mL) 380 Start time 12:42:48 Stop time 12:51:48 Total tips 19 Tips/min 2.11 sec/tip 28.42 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.70 mL/tip 20.0 Trial 6 File: TBCAL01F Time (s) 0:01:52 112 Volume (mL) 753 Start time 11:14:20 Stop time 11:16:12 Total tips 33 Tips/min 17.68 sec/tip 3.39 Flow rate (mL/s) 6.72 mL/tip 22.82 Trial 7 File: TBCAL01G Time (s) 0:01:35 95 Volume (mL) 938 Start time 11:25:12 Stop time 11:26:47 Total tips 38 Tips/min 24.00 sec/tip 2.50 Flow rate (mL/s) 9.87 mL/tip 24.68 Trial 3 TBcalOlc Time (s) 0:04:59 299 Volume (mL) 375 Start time 13:03:07 Stop time 13:08:06 Total tips 18 Tips/min 3.61 sec/tip 16.1 Flow rate (mL/s) 1.25 mL/tip 20.83 Trial 4 File: TBcalOld Time (s) 0:02:32 152 Volume (mL) 535 Start time 13:17:44 Stop time 13:20:16 Total tips 24 Tips/min 9.47 sec/tip 6.33 Flow rate (mL/s) 3.52 mL/tip 22.9 Trial 5 File: TBcalOle Time (s) 0:02:43 163 Volume (mL) 810 Start time 13:30:19 Stop time 13:33:02 Total tips 36 Tips/min 13.25 sec/tip 4.53 Flow rate (mL/s) 4.97 mL/tip 22.50 Trial 8 Trial 9 File: TBCAL01G File: TBCAL01G Time (s) 0:01:01 61 Time (s) 0:14:54 894 Volume (mL) 109  Volume (mL) 281 Start time 11:37:57 Start time 11:57:01 Stop time 11:38:58 Stop time 12:11:55 Total tips 41 Total tips 14 Tips/min 40.33 Tips/min 0.94 sec/tip 1.49 sec/tip 63.86 Flow rate (mL/s) 18.02 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.31 mL/tip 26.80 mL/tip 20.7 UBC1-B (small tipping bucket) CR1000 ports: C5.5V Date: 16-Dec-06 Tech: Matt Neuner, Juan Carlos Corazao Trial 1 File: TB_2trial01.dat TBcalOla Time (s) 0:28:07 1687 Volume (mL) 190 Start time 16:09:27 Stop time 16:37:34 Total tips 9 Tips/min 0.32 sec/tip 187.44 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.11 mL/tip 21.11 Trial 2 File: TB_2 trial02.dat. TBcalOlb Time (s) 0:18:32 1112 Volume (mL) 345 Start time 16:51:26 Stop time 17:09:58 Total tips 17 Tips/min 0.92 sec/tip 65.41 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.31 mL/tip 20.29 Trial 6 File: TBCAL01F Time (s) 0:02:13 133 Volume (mL) 574 Start time 18:04:23 Stop time 18:06:36 Total tips 25 Tips/min 11.28 sec/tip 5.32 Flow rate (mL/s) 4.32 mL/tip 22.96 Trial 7 File: TBCAL01G Time (s) 0:01:29 89 Volume (mL) 726 Start time 18:11:17 Stop time 18:12:46 Total tips 30 Tips/min 20.22 sec/tip 2.97 Flow rate (mL/s) 8.16 mL/tip 24.20 Trial 3 TBcalOlc Time (s) 0:16:07 967 Volume (mL) 615 Start time 17:17:58 Stop time 17:34:05 Total tips 30 Tips/min 1.86 sec/tip 32.23 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.64 mL/tip 20.50 Trial 8 File: TBCAL01G Time (s) 0:01:05 65 Volume (mL) 818 Start time 18:17:37 Stop time 18:18:42 Total tips 31 Tips/min 28.62 sec/tip 2.10 Flow rate (mL/s) 12.58 mL/tip 26.39 Trial 4 File: TBcalOld Time (s) 0:05:22 322 Volume (mL) 401 Start time 17:42:24 Stop-time 17:47:46 Total tips 19 Tips/min 3.54 sec/tip 16.95 Flow rate (mL/s) 1.25 mL/tip 21.11 Trial 5 File: TBcalOle Time (s) 0:05:09 309 Volume (mL) 637 Start time 17:51:30 Stop time 17:56:39 Total tips 29 Tips/min 5.63 sec/tip 10.66 Flow rate (mL/s) 2.06 mL/tip 21.97 UBC1-C (small tipping bucket) CR1000 ports: C6, 5V Date: 17-Dec-06 Tech: Matt Neuner and Juan Carlos Corazao Trial 1 File: TB_3trial01.dat Time (s) 0:27:43 1663 Volume (mL) 189 Start time 11:18:42 Stop time 11:46:25 Total tips 9 Tips/min 0.32 sec/tip 184.78 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.11 mL/tip 21.00 Trial 6 File: TB_3 trial06.dat Time (s) 0:06:29 389 Volume (mL) 729 Start time 15:40:07 Stop time 15:46:36 Total tips 34 Tips/min 5.24 sec/tip 11.44 Flow rate (mL/s) 1.87 mL/tip 21.44 Trial 2 File: TB_3 Time (s) 0:25:41 Volume (mL) 460 Start time 11:58:29 Stop time 12:24:10 Total tips 20 Tips/min 0.78 sec/tip 77.05 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.30 mL/tip 23.00 1541 Trial 7 File: TB_3 Time (s) 0:03:10 Volume (mL) 744 Start time 15:53:22 Stop time 15:56:32 Total tips 34 Tips/min 10.74 sec/tip 5.59 Flow rate (mL/s) 3.92 mL/tip 21.88 190 oo Trial 3 TBcal03c Time (s) 0:12:10 730 Volume (mL) 356 Start time 12:41:56 Stop time 12:54:06 Total tips 17 Tips/min 1.40 sec/tip 42.94 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.49 mL/tip 20.94 Trial 4 File: TBcal03d Time (s) 0:24:44 1484 Volume (mL) 385 Start time 14:36:21 Stop time 15:01:05 Total tips 17 Tips/min 0.69 sec/tip 87.29 Flow rate (mL/s) 0.26 mL/tip 22.65 Trial 8 File: TB_3 tnal07.dat Time (s) 0:02:51 171 Volume (mL) 1045 Start time 16:04:56 Stop time 16:07:47 Total tips 43 Tips/min 15.09 sec/tip 3.98 Flow rate (mL/s) 6.11 mL/tip 24.30 Trial 9 File: TB_3 trial07.dat Time (s) 0:01:07 67 Volume (mL) 1012 Start time 16:16:18 Stop time 16:17:25 Total tips 36 Tips/min 32.24 sec/tip 1.86 Flow rate (mL/s) 15.10 mL/tip 28.11 Appendix I. Material Characterization Tests Page Loose density test details 185 Grain size distribution test details (1.5 m layer material) ..186 Grain size distribution test details (Lastre material) 189 Grain size distribution test details (2B rejected material) 190 In-situ density (protective layer) - results 191 Infiltrometer test results 192 Grain size distribution test details (first end-dumping) 193 Grain size distribution test details (second end-dumping) 194 184 Loose Density Test ENSAYO DE DENSIDAD IN SITU POR REEMPLAZO DE AGUA MATERIAL : Roca tipo B DATE 10-Feb-03 UBICACION: Botadero - Punto B MUSTREADO: Luis Carruitero NUMERO DE ENSAYO: 1 ENSAYADO: A . Cabello / H. Villanueva ORSFRVACIONFS: Muestra sin compactar REVISADO: Luis Carruitero PESO DE MATERIAL + TARA (kg) 26530.0 OBSERVACIONES PESO DE TARA (kg) 15710.0 PESO DE MUESTRA (kg) 10820.0 VOLUMEN DE MUESTRA (Lit) 5725.9 DENSIDAD HUMEDA (Tn/m3) 1.890-HUMEDAD (%) 2.4 ::::::::: :::::::::;::::•<* : I M c:::::::::::::::::::::::: DENSIDAD S E C A (kg/m3) :::::::::T.O*IO:::::::::::::::::::::::: Luis Carruitero Calculo del Caudal Y Volumen Volumen: (Lit) 1100 Teimpo: (seg) 482 ( 8' 02") Q = (V/T) Lit/seg Tiempo total: (seg.) 2027 33' 47" Volumen registrado: QxT 4625.93 Volumen total: (Lit) 5725.93 185 1.5 m Layer GRAINSIZE TEST MATERIAL: UBICACION: MUESTRA N° OBSERVACIONES: Roca tipo B Botadero - Punto B M-1 Muestra obtenida del acopio DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO: 10-Feb-03 CMA - Medio Ambiente A . Cabello / H. Villanueva Luis Carruitero RET. WEIGHT V. RET. V.. ACUM. V. PASSING SPECIFICATION 86" 6.6 0 160 100 36" 1526.64 4629.1 336.5 230:5 241 241.5 313.5 16.7 16.7 83.3 16" 50.8 67.4 32.6 12" 3.7 71.1 28.9 t6" 2.5 73.6 26.4 8" 2.6 76.3 23.7 6" 2.6 78.9 21.1 4" 3.4 62.4 17.6 3" 4.628 2.1 64.5 15.5 2.6" 1.198 0.6 85.1 14.9 2" 3.862 1.6 66.6 13.2 VA" 4.437 2.0 88.9 11.1 i" 3.548 1.6 96.5 9.5 3/4" 2.032 6.9 91.5 8.5 Hi" 1.971 0.9 92.4 7.6 3/8" 0.862 6.4 62.8 7.2 #4 2.261 1.6 63.6 6.2 #16 50.3 6.6 94.3 5.7 #26 38.3 0.4 94.8 5.2 #46 31.5 6.4 95.1 4.9 #60 32.2 6.4 95.5 4.5 #106 42.1 6.5 96.6 4.0 #266 57.5 6.6 96.6 3.4 TOTAL WEIGHT : 9120.9 Kg. MOISTURE 2.4 % FRACTION < 4" : 38.242 Kg. WET DENSITY . Tn/m3 FINE FRACT. <#4 551.060 Kg. DRY DENSITY Tn/m3 GRADATION 1 0 0 ; 90 : 80 : o 70 : z (O 60 : (O < 50 : Q. >>S 40 : 30 : 20 : 10 : o : 10000 1000 100 10 1 PARTICLE SIZE (mm) 0.1 0.01 Observaciones: Muestredo por personal de CMA - Medio Ambiente y B.C.U de diferentes puntos del material acumulado Luis Carruitero 1.5 m Layer GRAIN SIZE TEST MATERIAL : UBICACION: MUESTRA N° OBSERVACIONES: Roca tipo B Botadero - Punto B M-2 Muestra obtenida de Density Test DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO: 10-Feb-03 Luis Carruitero/A. Cabello A . Cabello / H. Villanueva Luis Carruitero RET. WEIGHT V. RET. Vo. AcUM. V. PASSING SPECIFICATION SO" 0.0 0 100 100 36" 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 16" 1551.5 28.1 28.1 71.9 12" 336.5 6.1 34.2 65.8 10" 338.0 6.1 40.3 59.7 8" 531.0 9.6 49.9 50.1 6" 449:b 8.1 58.0 42.0 4" 396.5 7.2 65.2 34.8 3" 4.50 3.9 69.1 30.9 2.8" 3.69 3.0 72.1 27.9 2" 4.57 3.7 75.7 24.3 1%" 5.00 4.0 79.7 20.3 1" 4.10 3.3 83.0 17.0 3/4" 2.47 2.0 85.0 15.0 1/2" 2.29 1.8 86.8 13.2 3/8" 2.42 1.9 88.7 11.3 #4 2.49 2.0 90.7 9.3 #10 0.076 1.1 91.8 8.2 #20 0.059 0.8 92.6 7.4 #40 0.046 0.7 93.3 6.7 #60 0 . 0M 0.8 94.1 5.9 #100 0.076 1.1 95.2 4.8 #200 0.093 1.3 96.5 3.5 TOTAL WEIGHT : 5526.4 Kg. MOISTURE 2.4 % FRACTION < 4" : 43.539 Kg. WET DENSITY 1.890 . Tn/m3 FINEFRACT. < # 4 0.656 Kg. DRY DENSITY 1.845 Tn/m3 GRADATION 100 10 1 PARTICLE SIZE (mm) 0.01 Observasciones: Muestra obtenida de la excavation en el ensayo de densidad In Situ con reemplazo de agua. Luis Carruitero 1.5 m Layer GRAINSIZE TEST MATERIAL: UBICACION: MUESTRA N° OBSERVACIONES: Roca tipo B Botadero - Punto B M-3 Muestra obtenida del acopio DATE MUSTREADO: ENSAYADO: REVISADO: 10-Feb-03 Luis Carruitero A . Cabello / H. Villanueva Luis Carruitero RET. WEIGHT % RET. V , . A c U M . V. PASSING SPECIFICATION 86" 0.0 0 100 100 36" 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 16" 1264.5 16.7 18.7 81.3 12" 570.5 8.5 27.2 72.8 16" 389 5.8 33.0 67.0 8" 558.5 8.3 41.3 58.7 6" 562.5 8.3 49.6 50.4 4" 784.5 11.6 61.2 38.8 3" 4.121 3.7 64.9 35.1 2.5" 2.579 2.3 67.3 32.7 2" 5.17 4.7 71.9 28.1 IV," 5.365 4.8 76.8 23.2 1" 5.168 4.7 81.4 18.6 3/4" 2.154 1.9 83.4 16.6 ill" 2.281 2.1 85.4 14.6 3/8" 1.228 1.1 86.5 13.5 #4 2.205 2.0 88.5 11.5 #16 0.0655 1.2 89.7 10.3 #26 0.0567 1.0 90.7 9.3 #46 0.0479 0.9 91.6 8.4 #66 0.0567 1.0 92.6 7.4 #166 0.0694 1.3 93.9 6.1 #266 0.0645 1.5 95.4 4.6 TOTAL WEIGHT : FRACTION < 4" : FINE FRACT. <#4 674S.0 43.003 0.636 Kg. Kg. Kg. MOISTURE WET DENSITY DRY DENSITY 3.8 % Tn/m3 Tn/m3 GRADATION 100 10 1 PARTICLE SIZE (mm) 0.01 Observaciones: Muestreado por personal de Golder en diferentes puntos del material acumulado Luis Carruitero Lastre Material GRAINSIZE TEST PROYECTO: A - 108 PROFUNDIDAD: OBRA: Plan de manejo de aguas superf, Fase II DATE 20-Sep-05 MATERIAL: Para rell. De buzones Qda Antamina SAMPLE # M - 1 LOCATION: Chancadora Secundaria - Material de lastre TAMIZ # PESO RET. % RETENIDO % RET. ACUM. % Q' PASA ESPECIFIC. 4" 100.0 3" 2013 3.1 3.1 100.0 2" 1868 2.9 6.0 94.0 11/2" 5960 9.3 15.3 84.7 .1" 8401 13.1 28.4 71.6 3/4" 3693 5.8 34.2 65.8 1/2" 5645 8.8 43.0 57.0 3/8" 4128 6.4 49.4 50.6 #4 7100 11.1 60.5 39.5 # 10 139.7 6.6 67.0 33.0 #20 98.1 4.6 71.6 28.4 #40 70.3 3.3 74.9 25.1 #60 95.3 4.5 79.4 20.6 #100 141.9 6.7 86.1 13.9 #200 155.9 7.3 93.4 6.6 TOTAL WEIGHT 64195 CLASIFICATION: LIM. LIQ. FINE FRACTION 841 LIM. PLAST. MOISTURE: IND. PL. GRAINSIZE TEST - - - „ o o og X m »rr»--W"i.»--i*---«"* lrrr-i^^ 55 50 a. 40 3« 30 mm iiiiiiiii i i iiiiiiiii ii i v B p i ' i iiiii 1000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 SIZE PARTICLES Nota: 2B Rejected Material GRAINSIZE TEST PROYECTO: A - 1 0 8 PROFUNDIDAD: OBRA: Plan de manejo de aguas superf. Fase II DATE 5-Nov-05 MATERIAL : 2B rechazado para cama de geomembrana SAMPLE # M -1 LOCATION: Chancadora Terciario T A M I Z # P E S O R E T . % R E T E N I D O % R E T . A C U M . % Q' P A S A E S P E C I F I C . 4" 3" 2" 0 0.0 0.0 100.0 11/2" 0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1" 4547 7.4 7.4 92.6 3/4" 4181 6.8 14.1 85.9 1/2" 7797 12.6 26.8 73.2 3/8" 5009 8.1 34.9 65.1 #4 10516 17.0 51.9 48.1 #10 286.9 14.5 66.4 33.6 #20 180.7 9.1 75.5 24.5 #40 128.4 6.5 82.0 18.0 #60 39.1 2.0 84.0 16.0 #100 50 2.5 86.5 13.5 #200 64.6 3.3 89.7 10.3 TOTAL WEIGHT 61760 CLASIFICATION: LIM. LIQ. FINE FRACTION 953 LIM. PLAST. MOISTURE: IND. PL. GRAINSIZE TEST CO c *5 i-co o j#20 I #40 | #200 100 90 -h 80 -i} 70 --O en 60 --C/j 50 --< An 2 40 -30 -ji 20 -f i l l 10 -ii 0 -f-1000 • 100 10 1 SIZE PARTICLES 0.1 0.01 Nota: In Situ Density ENSAYO DE DENSIDAD IN SITU A.S.T.M D - 1556 P R O Y E C T O U.B.C. TEST PAD FECHA : 27-Mar-06 OBRA: CLIMA : Lluvioso ESTRUCTURA: Plataf. 30 cm con 2B Rechazado VALOR DENS. ESTANDAR 2.356 (gr/cc) CONTRATISTA: CMA - Operaciones VALOR HUMEDAD OPTIMA 6.00% ENSAYADO POR A. Cabello . REVISADO: L. CARRUITERO COMPACT. REQUEREDA: DENSIDAD HUMEDA 1 N° DE ENSAYO 1 2 3 2 UBICACION North North West Center 3 COTA 4 MATERIAL: 2B Rechazado CAPA 1 1 1 5 PROFUNDIDAD (m) 6 DENSIDAD ARENA CALIBRADA (gr/cc) 1.464 1.464 1.464 7 PESO DE ARENA + ENVASE (gr) 6000 6000 6000 8 PESO DEVUELTO (gr) 394 759 784 9 CORRECCION DEL CONO (gr) 1574 1574 1574 10 PESO DE ARENA EN EL HUECO (gr) iiiiiiiiii^&iiiiii 3642 11 VULOMEN DEL HUECO (cc) 2754 lH;yjJJJ2505lllllll!l; 2488 12 PESO DE MUESTRA HUMEDA (gr) 6620 6026 5973 13 DENSIDAD HUMEDA IN SITU (gr/cc) 2.404 2.406 2 401 CONTENIDO DE HUMEDAD 14 RECIPIENTE NUMERO 1 1 1 15 RECIPIENTE + SUELO HUMEDO (gr) 7618.0 7042.0 6991.0 16 RECIPIENTE + SUELO SECO (gr) 7446.0 6871.0 6807.0 17 AGUA (gr) 172.0 171.0 184.0 18 PESO DEL RECIPIENTE (gr) 998.0 1016.0 1018.0 19 PESO DEL SUELO SECO (gr) 6448.0 5855.0 5789.0 20 HUMEDAD IN SITU (gr) 2.7 2.9 3.2 COMPACTACION 21 DENSIDAD SECA MATERIAL IN SITU (gr/cc 2.341 2.338 2.327 22 MAX. DENSIDAD SECA (PROCTOR) (gr/cc) 2.356 2.356 2.356 23 GRADO DE COMPACTACION (%) 99.4 99.2 98.8 OBSERVACIONES: El ensayo se realizo en un acapa de 30 cm. de 2B rechazado. La capa fue compactada con rodillo de 10 Toneladas. Table 1.1 Infiltrometer tests Final reading on L Hydraulic Hydraulic Location Location Test No. at Initial reading on L- Shaped Ruler Difference Time Time Conductivity Conductivity No. Description Location Shaped Ruler (cm) (cm) (cm) (min) (s) (cm/s) (m/s) 1 20 21.9 1.9 120 7200 2.6E-04 2.6E-06 1 Pile Base Centre 2 18 20.8 2.8 199 11940 2.3E-04 2.3E-06 2 NE Pile Base 1 18 19.4 1.4 207 12420 1.1E-04 1.1E-06 3 SW Pile Base 1 18 20.3 2.3 145 8700 2.6E-04 2.6E-06 First End-Dumping GRAINSIZE TEST MATERIAL: Roca tipo B DATE 11-Jun-06 UBICACION: Botadero - Punto B MUSTREADO: Richard Fuentes MUESTRA N° M-4 ENSAYADO: W. Cabrera / R. Fuentes OBSERVACIONES: Muestra obtenida del acopio REVISADO: Luis Carruitero RET. WEIGHT % RET. %.ACUM. % PASSING SPECIFICATION 80" 0.0 0 100 100 36" 850.0 6.6 6.6 93.4 16" 1761 13.7 20.2 79.8 12" 1466 11.4 31.6 68.4 10" 893 6.9 38.5 61.5 8" 1479.5 11.5 50.0 50.0 6" 1016.5 7.9 57.9 42.1 4" 749 5.8 63.7 36.3 3" 598 4.6 68.3 31.7 2.5" 1.433 1.2 69.6 30.4 2" 4.101 3.5 73.0 27.0 vA" 4.365 3.7 76.7 23.3 1" 7.098 6.0 82.7 17.3 3/4" 2.357 2.0 84.7 15.3 1/2" 3.997 3.4 88.1 11.9 3/8" 1.653 1.4 89.5 10.5 #4 3.634 3.1 92.5 7.5 #10 0.195 1.8 94.3 5.7 #20 0.143 1.3 95.7 4.3 #40 0.079 0.7 96.4 3.6 #60 0.047 0.4 96.8 3.2 #100 0.0519 0.5 97.3 2.7 #200 0.0788 0.7 98.0 2.0 TOTAL WEIGHT : 12895.0 Kg. MOISTURE 2.1 % FRACTION < 4" : 37.474 Kg. WET DENSITY Tn/m3 FINE FRACT. <#4 0.807 Kg. DRY DENSITY Tn/m3 GRADATION PARTICLE SIZE (mm) Observaciones: Muestreado por indication y en conjunto con Juan Carlos De B.C.U Ing. Luis Carruitero Second End-Dumping GRAIN SIZE TEST MATERIAL: Rocatipo B DATE 29-Jun-06 UBICACION: Botadero - Punto B MUSTREADO: CMA - Medio Ambiente MUESTRA N° M-1 ENSAYADO: A . Cabello / R. Puican OBSERVACIONES: Muestra obtenida del acopio REVISADO: S. Suarez RET. WEIGHT % RET. % . ACUM. % PASSING SPECIFICATION 80'* 0.0 0 100 100 36" 4066 25.2 25.2 74.8 16" 1868 11.6 36.7 63.3 12" 1487 9.2 45.9 54.1 10- 1063 6.6 52.5 47.5 8" 983 6.1 58.6 41.4 6" 942 S.8 64.4 35.6 4" 1865 11.5 76.0 24.0 3" 889 5.5 81.5 18.5 2.5" 2.966 0.7 82.2 17.8 2" 1.814 0.4 82.6 17.4 V/,M 5.775 1.3 84.0 16.0 1" 14.005 3.3 87.2 12.8 3/4" 9.138 2.1 89.4 10.6 1/2" 12.872 3.0 92.4 7.6 3/8 " 5.751 1.3 93.7 6.3 #4 9.426 2.2 95.9- 4.1 #10 0.273 1.3 97.3 2.7 #20 0.171 0.8 98.1 1.9 #40 0.102 0.5 98.6 1.4 #60 0.064 0.3 98.9 1.1 #100 0.052 0.3 99.2 0.8 #200 0.046 0.2 99.4 0.6 TOTAL WEIGHT : 16154.0 Kg. MOISTURE 1.7 % FRACTION < 4" : 79.206 Kg. WET DENSITY Tn/m3 FINE FRACT. <#4 0.830 Kg. DRY DENSITY Tn/m3 GRADATION PARTICLE SIZE (mm) Observaciones: Muestredo por personal de CMA - Medio Ambiente y B.C.U Luis Carruitero Appendix J. Test Pile Construction and Instrumentation Fig Original Design Area ^/"Temporari ly Extended Area Pile Foundation Sc: 1/200 S=3% ,20 Cross Section A-A Sc: 1/200 Foundation Detail Sc.=1:40 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PILE FOUNDATION HGURE: DATE: J u n e _ 0 7 SCALE: | n < j icated U N I T S : METERS ON, . •* . ' . \ w 36.00» 40.00 ;-»|vV; ':V" V.**. HDPE 4" ID Corrugated Drainage Pipe (Lysimeter) r-:':^ '.';-...,;,v':.^ --S=3% to 111 c/) Berm Apex "HDPE 4" ID Corrugated Drainage Pipes (Sub-Lysimeters) S=3% B -36.00--42.00-LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200 Berm Apex Cross Section A-A Sc: 1/200 Cross Section B-B Sc: 1/200 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC IP R R 0 J E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LYSIMETER BERM FIGURE: DATE: J u n e _ 0 7 S C A L E : Indicated U N I T S : METERS . Pile Interior Pile Exterior . Geomenbrane Anchor Backfill Geomem Protecti (Compacted 2B Rejected Materi 1.45 1.46 1.81 .69 5.41 Front, Right and Left Berm of Lysimeter Sc.=1:40 Compacted Berm Layer 3 (2B Rejected Material) Compacted Berm Layer 2 (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Compacted Berm Layer 1 (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Upper Fundation Layer (Copacted 2B Rejected Material) Waste Rock Foundation .Pile Exterior Pile Interior. Compacted Berm Layer 3 (2B Rejected Material) Compacted Berm Layer 2" (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Compacted Berm Layer 1" (1:1, 2B Rejected : Lastre) Upper Fundation Layer" (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Waste Rock Foundation" Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Geomembrane (60 mil) Back Berm of Lysimeter Sc.=1:40 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE LYSIMETER BERM DESIGN FIGURE: J-03 DATE: June-07 S C A L £ : 1:40 U N I T S : METERS 2.10 HDPE 04" ID Corrugated Berm Lysimeter Drainage to Instrumentation Hut Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Gravel Tubing Collection Sump Eggress 7 m Section of Perforated Tubing with a Geotextile Screening HDPE 04 ID Corrugated Perforated Pipe 2.10 Collection Sump Sc.=1:25 Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Geomembrane Dam Collect Water Ponding Atop Protective Layer HDPE 04" ID Corrugated Perforated Pipe Geomembrane Anchoring 1m Section of Perforated Tubing with a Geotextile Screening Geotextile Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Cross Section C-C Geomembrane (60 mil) UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC m ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE WATER COLLECTION SUMP FIGURE: DATE: j u n e _ 0 7 SCALE: | N D | C A T E D U N I T S : METERS Berm Apex -Z-Draincge Instrumentation from liysim 10.90 10.90 18.65 f K I Ins 4.10 Collection Sump {Refer to Drawing J-04) ' str. Line 1 (Toe) Instr. Line 2(Toe) 9.15 S=3% ft? II Instr. Line 3(Toe) I I I I I I I 005 010 015 020 025 030 035 0+000 LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200 0 + 036 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC PROJECT • • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE DRAINAGE AND PROTECTIVE PIPES FIGURE: j^Jg DATE: J u n e _ 0 7 SCALE: ] . 2 Q Q UNITS: u n £ R S Qoo LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200 Cross Section A - A Sc.-1:50 Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) Geomembrane (60 mil) Compacted Berm Layer 2 (2B Rejected Material) Compacted Berm Layer 1 (2B Rejected Material) Protective Layer (Compacted 2B Rejected Material) HDPE 04" ID Corrugated Pipe UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC PROJECT : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SUB-LYSIMETERS DESIGN DRAWING: J^ JQ DATE: J u n e _ 0 7 SCALE: , . 2 0 0 UNITS: METERS Notes: Sub-Lysimeter A A\ Sub-Lysimeter B A Sub-Lysimeter C A Lysimetor (D) / § \ Instrumentation Hut UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC IP PROJECT * • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PILE BASE - 3D FIGURE: D A T E : June-07 SCALE: N / A U N r r S : METERS + o in I in*-cN"cr> m ro 1 Line Line Line Line Line | | 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 i i j i b -b 0 2 0 u) tn o l d (/) to 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 + 0 0 0 To Instrumentation Hut 0 + 0 3 6 LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200 L E G E N D SYMBOL DESCRIPTION G Gas Sampling Port T Thermistors TDR Time Domain Reflectrometry Sensor UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC m PROJECT : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINES FIGURE: DATE: j u n e _ 0 7 SCALE: INDICATED U N I T S : METERS 2 0 3 HDPE 02" ID Corrugated Pipe 0)4"OD Polyethylene Tubing To Instrumentation Hut HDPE 02" ID Corrugated Pipe To Instrumentation Hut Waste Rock Screened Waste Rock Fines Thermistor HDPE 02" ID Corrugated Pipe Screened Waste Rock Fines Instrument Wire 01/8"OD Polyethylene Tubing Piece of Cloth Plastic Cable Tie Gravel Waste Rock Schematic Outline of Thermistors and Gas Sampling Port Installation Screened Waste Rock Fines Waste Rock Waste Rock Screened Waste Rock Fines Ceramic Cup To Instrumentation Hut Silica Flour #200 Schematic Outline of Soil Water Sampler Installation Schematic Outline of TDR Installation UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SENSORS AND SAMPLING PORTS INSTALLATION FIGURE: J-09 D A T E : June-07 SCALE: N / A m f T S : METERS 2 o 4 LYSIMETER PLAN VIEW Sc: 1/200 Cross Sections Sc.=1:20 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC w PROJFCT • • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PROTECTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM AND BASAL INSTRUMENTATION FIGURE: j . 1 Q DATE: j u n e _ 0 7 S C A L E : INDICATED m n S : METERS 2o5 Cross Section A-A Sc: 1/200 Protective Layer Two Sc: 1/200 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC PROJECT : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE PILE BASE PRIOR TO END-DUMPING FIGURE; J . ^ D A T E : June-07 SCALE: 1 :20Q M N S : M E T E R S • 4388 4388 0+000 0+000 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0+060 Cross Section Sc: 1/200 0 0 5 0 1 0 L E G E N D 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0+060 SYMBOL DESCRIPTION G Gas Sampling Port Thermistors TDR Time Domain Reflectrometry Sensor SWSI Soil Water Sampler Instrumentation Line 1 Front View Sc: 1/200 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINE 1 FIGURE: J-12 DATE: June—07 SCALE: 1:200 UNITS: METERS 207 4388 4388 0+000 4388-4386-4384-4382-4380-4378-4376-4374-4372-0+000 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0+060 Cross Section Sc: 1/200 qiThi —[QHHTIBWSrreW-GTDRH mum -m JfitJ m — -HESS H I M Protective Layer Two -4388 -4386 -4384 -4382 -4380 -4378 -4376 -4374 -4372 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 L E G E N D 020 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 Instrumentation Line 2 Front View Sc: 1/200 0 4 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0+060 SYMBOL DESCRIPTION G Gas Sampling Port T Thermistors TDR Time Domain Reflectrometry Sensor SWS Soil Water Sampler UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINE 2 DRAWING: J-13 D A T E : June-07 S C A t £ : 1:200 U N I T S : METERS 2o& 4388 0+000 005 010 015 020 025 030 035 040 045 Cross Section Sc: 1/200 050 055 4388 0+060 4388 438& 0+000 005 010 015 020 025 030 035 040 045 050 055 0+060 L E G E N D Instrumentation Line 3 Front View Sc: 1/200 SYMBOL DESCRIPTION G Gas Sampling Port T Thermistors ITDFt Time Domain Reflectrometry Sensor ISWSI Soil Water Sampler UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINE 3 DRAWING: J-14 D A T E : June-07 ' S C A L E ' 1:200 UNITS: METERS •2oq 4388 4388 0+000 0+000 005 010 015 020 025 030 035 040 045 050 055 0+060 Cross Section Sc: 1/200 005 010 015 020 025 030 035 040 045 050 055 0+060 L E G E N D Instrumentation Line 4 Front View Sc: 1/200 SYMBOL DESCRIPTION G Gas Sampling Port T Thermistors TDR Time Domain Reflectrometry Sensor sws Soil Water Sampler UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINE 4 FIGURE: J-15 D A T E : J u n e - 0 7 S C A L E : 1:200 U N I T S : METERS 1 4 0 Notes: (T) Inst rumentat ion line 1 (2) Inst rumentat ion line 2 (5) Inst rumentat ion line 3 (4) Inst rumentat ion line 4 /JE\ Instrumentation Hut UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA U B C PROJECT • ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION LINES 3D FIGURE: j ^ g D A T E : June-07 SCALE: N / A U N I T 5 : METERS Notes: A S u b - L y s i m e t e r A © I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n line 1 A S u b - L y s i m e t e r B © I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n line 2 A S u b - L y s i m e t e r C © I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n line 3 A Lysimetor (D) © I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n line 4 A Instrumentation Hut UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC P R t W E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE EXPERIMENTAL PILE - 3D FIGURE: DATE: J u n e _ 0 7 SCALE: N / A UNPfS: m ^ R S o 7.00 I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N H U T F R O N T V I E W 2.80 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC P R 0 J E C T : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT (FRONT VIEW) FIGURE: j^g DATE: j u n e _ 0 7 SCALE: y 2 Q UNITS: M E J E R S '04" ID Corrugated Pipes coming from Sub-Lysimeters 04" ID Corrugated Pipe" coming from Lysimeter 8.00 Buried Composite Sample Tank (2500 L) •Water Conveyance Systems .50 •Instrumentation Wires and tubing coming from test pile (protective pipes) •Datalogging System Water Sampling Ports Soil Water Samplers Hanel Gas Lines Panel" Small Tipping Buckets .50 3.50 B .50 (A Discharge Discharge from Composite Sample Tank to the environment INSTRUMENTATION HUT PLAN VIEW UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC PROJECT • • CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT INCLUDING (FLOW SPLITTER) FIGURE: j^g D A T E : June-07 SCALE: U N I T S : METERS 2 - H ' 04" ID Corrugated Pipes coming from Sub-Lysimeters 04" ID Corrugated Pipe" coming from Lysimeter 1.00 Outlet to composi e sample Discharge to the environment B / / / / / / .50 Instrumentation Wires and tubing coming from test pile (protective pipes) 'Data Logging System Water Monitoring Ports Water Conveyance Systems Soil Water Sampler Panel Gas Line Panel" Small Tipping Buckets Tipping Bucket Large .50 B .50 INSTRUMENTATION HUT PLAN VIEW UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT INCLUDING LARGE TIPPING BUCKET FIGURE: j _ 2 0 | D A T E : June-07 I S C A L E : 1:20 | U N I T S : METERS 3.50 4.50 UBC 245 Rain Gauge Large Tipping Bucket 04" ID Corrugated Pipes coming from Sub-Lysimeter 04" ID Corrugated Pipe from Lysimeter nstrumentation Wires and tubing coming f rom test pile (protective pipes) Data logging system 0.50 3.50 0.50 CROSS SECTION A-A UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC PROJECT • ' CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT (CROSS SECTION A-A) FIGURE: j_2^  D A T E : June -07 SCALE: 1 *20 U N I T S : METERS Q.AC C R O S S S E C T I O N B - B 2500L Buried Composite Sample Tank UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE INSTRUMENTATION HUT CROSS SECTION B-B FIGURE: J-22 D A T E : June-07 S C A L E : 1:20 U N I T S : METERS U B C I m an 0.11 0.10 BOTTOM OF PILE TOP OF PILE LINElo 0 0 0 0 e 0 0 0 0 0 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G7 G8 G9 G10 LINE2o e 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e G1 G2 G3 G4 GS G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 LINE3o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e e 0 G1 G2 G3 G4 GS G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 LINE4o 0 e e 0 0 e e 0 0 0 61 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 LINE 5 . 0 0 e e 0 0 e e 0 e G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 LINE 6 . 0 0 0 0 e 0 0 0 0 e G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 LINE 6 . 0 0 0 e e 0 0 e e e G12 G13 G14 1.22 PANEL-GAS LINES Note: The following gas lines were not long enough to reach the Gas Lines Panel. They are located close to the panel. L1/G8/1 L1/G6 L1/G9/1 L1/G10/1 1.02 CN 0 3 O 0.1 LINE 1 TOP OF PILE LINE 2 LINE 4 UBC1-L2E 0 UBC1-L2E 0 UBC1-L4E 0 UBC1-L2B 0 UBC1-L2B 0 UBC1-L4B 0 UBC1-L26 0 UBC1-L26 0 UBC1-L46 0 UBC1-L2B 0 UBC1-L2B 0 UBC1-L4B 0 UBC1-L2A 0 UBC1-L2A 0 BOTTOM OF PILE UBC1-L4A 0 0.25 0.25 0.10 0.10 0.10 CN O LO 1 O 1 LO • o . LO • CD -LO • O • o CD 0.1 1 PANEL-SOIL WATER SAMPLERS UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA UBC PROJECT : CONSTRUCTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A FIELD-SCALE WASTE ROCK TEST PILE SOIL WATER SAMPLER AND GAS LINE PANELS ^ / FIGURE: j ^ g D A T E : June-07 SCALE: 1 : 1 Q U N I T S : METERS HQ 1 2 V P O W E R S U P P L Y 2 4 Appendix K. Calculation of Flow-Through Protective Layer (Calculated by Dr. Roger Beckie) Protective pad, 35 cm thick. If saturated, will have a gradient in head of 3%. How much water flows through the pad each instant and how does that compare with the amount of water coming from the top from infiltration? Infiltration from above: 1 m/yr or Q = qA = 1^ x 36 x 36 m2 = 3.6 m 3 Flow through the protective layer: Q = qA = K-Q- X A K = 0.2 f , f | = 0.03, Q = (0.2'f )(O03)(36'm)(0.35 m) Qprotect = 0.076 K=2E-6 m/s 36 m X 0.35 m thick The amount o f water coming from the top is 3.6 m A 3/d on average and the protective layer can transmit 0.076 m A 3/d so it cannot transmit the water away. Consequently, the water w i l l pond on the protective layer A F T E R it saturates, and then flow to the collection pipes. C O N C L U S I O N : use the original design, the K layer is low enough. ; : - V .- •> Appendix L. CR1000 Datalogger Program Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 ' CR1000 'ANTAMINA / UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Pilas Experimentales de Roca Desmonte ' Pila 1 Typo B t t l t l i t t t t t t t t t t i t t l r t t i r t i i i i i r r r i t i i l l i r i t t i r l t l t t t t t t t i i l i i t i t i t i l t i t t t i t l t i ' Written by: David Jones and Matt Neuner 2006 r t r t r t i t t i t i i t i t t i t t t i t i i i r f i i t t i f r f i t i t t i t t i i t i t i i t t i t i t r t i t t t i t t i t i t i i f i t t r t i 'IMPORTANT!! ! Collect 6 Data Tables ' • • • " • • • • " • • • • • • • • • " " " • ' " " • " < • " • ' tblSlow, tblTB_l, tblTB_2, tblTB_3, tblTB_4, tblRain r i r i t t i t t r i t i t i i i l t l i t t i i t t i t i t i t i t t t t t i t t t i t t i i f t i r i t i i t t i l f t t t i t i r t t t l i i i t t t i ' VERSION 2 ' Data Output to CFM100 *************************************** ' tipping buckets collected on-demand. All others collected every 30 min 'Data collection Rates: ' 30 min: TDR , Temperature, Conductivity ' hardware setup: ' 1)ESI Interconnect Module ' comME part of CS I/O ' SW12 as Power Control of MP-917 from Interconnect Module ' added 78L05 for level shift (12 to 5 v) ' 2). SDMX50 i t r t i t r f i i t t t r i r t f t t t i t t t t t r r t i T t t i t i t i t f t r r t t t r t t t t t i i r t t i r t r t t t t i t r t t r r i r f t t i i i i r t i i t i f t i ' 2) SDMX50' SMD protocol ' Portl = Data ' Port2 = Clock ' Port3 = Enable ' The multiplexer is serially addressed using an 8 bit clocked data stream. Four bits are us ' specify one of the 16 inputs and the other 4 bits are used to specify the address of the m ' The multiplexer may be set to one of 16 addresses by moving a jumper on the back (bottom o ' two printed circuit boards) ' ScanRate determined by 22 diodes * 30 sec/diode + Temperature +?? I l i t t i t i t l i t t t i r t l t l r t t t i i t l t i t l t i i t l t t l t r i t l l i t r t l t i l l l t l l i r t t t l f i f t l t l r i l t t t i i r t l i t l l t r i t l ' 3)RST flexi-mux set for 2 wire thermistors and 4 wire conductivity ' Port 4 = R e s e t for RST Thermistor Muxes ' Port 7 = Clock for RST Thermistor Muxes ' the are 3 muxes in parallel, so 3 thermistors can be measured each mux address cycle ' each mux can control 10 thermistors so 30 thermistors are available ' Half Bridge Resistor = 2255 ohms I I t t i t l t t l t t l l l l t t t t t f t l t t l t l t i t l t i r l l t l t l t t t i i t i t f i t t t i i t l l t i i t l t i i t i t i t t i i i t t t i t t i i t i i t i r ' Conductivity resistor - 1.8 k ohms ' cond cells are on RST mux configured as as a differential ' It is the last mux and is addressed by clocking thru the first mux ' 10 clocks will get to the cond I t , r r i r i r t i , t , f f i r , t t t i t t i r t i r t t i l t t i i r i ' r t l t r i l t l t i i i l t i i i t i t t i t t t t t t l r i t f t i i i f i i T t i t i i i i t ' debugging C o n s t m e a s C o n d = 1 C o n s t m e a s M o i s t = 1 C o n s t m e a s T e m p = 1 C o n s t O F F = 0 C o n s t ON = 1 C o n s t M a i n S c a n R a t e = 3 0 ' m i n u t e s c o l l e c t s all C o n s t L a s t D i o d e = 2 2 C o n s t D i o d e P o w e r = 9 'SW12 as MP917 power control C o n s t L a s t T h e r m = 3 0 ' t h e s e are on the RST mux last 6 are on the CR1000 Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 Const TReset = 4 ' Port 4 = Reset for Temperature Muxes Const TClock = 7 ' Port 7 = Clock for Temperature Muxes Const Rvalue = 2255 ' Half Bridge resistor for thermistors '. coefficients for RST Thermistor equation RST Work Order: Q04838 Const CO = .0014733 const C l = .0002372 const C3 = 1.074E-07 Const EC_Rf =47.2 ' Reference resistor [Ohms] (SE1 to SE2) for EC sensor Const k = -1.884 ' Cell constant for EC sensor [m"-ll P u b l i c TB_1 ' counts tips per sec in sublysimeter flow gauges (TB_1, TB_2, TB_3) P u b l i c T B _ l _ t o t a l P u b l i c TB_2 Pu b l i c TB_2_total P u b l i c TB_3 P u b l i c TB_3_total P u b l i c Drain ' counts t i p s per min i n basal drain (TB_4) P u b l i c D r a i n _ t o t a l P u b l i c Rain ' cummalitive daily precipitation, in mm of rain P u b l i c R a i n _ t o t a l 'Precipitation trigger P u b l i c ch ' Publ i c cch ' c o n d u c t i v i t y P u b l i c ten ' thermistor P u b l i c i c h 'Celcius P u b l i c i Pu b l i c Thermistor(4,10) 'thermistor P u b l i c TRatio(4,10) P u b l i c TResist P u b l i c LnR P u b l i c K e l v i n P u b l i c Moist(22) as f l o a t ' TDR moisture P u b l i c DiodeData as s t r i n g * 50 ' Diode string about 40 characters PUBLIC ParseStr(5) as s t r i n g * 15 Pu b l i c F u l l ( 4 ) 'conductivity full bridge output P u b l i c EC_V2_V1(4) P u b l i c EC_Rs(4) 'resistance through the water sample P u b l i c EC(4) ' E l e c t r i c a l Conductivity of the water sample P u b l i c Batt 'Declare Units Units Rain=tip Units Drain=tip Units TB_l=tip Units TB_2=tip Units TB_3=tip Units EC()=mS/cm Units Thermistor()=deg C Units MOIST()=ns ' IEEE4 = 4 bytes. Long = 4 bytes ' Thermistor, Conductivity, TDR Moisture, ' (40*4) + (4*4) + (22*4) = 300 or so bytes every hour or ? DataTable (tblRain,True,-1) CardOut(0,-1) Da t a l n t e r v a l (0,3,Sec,10) 224 Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 t o t a l i z e ( 1 , R a i n _ t o t a l , F P 2 , F a l s e ) . E n d T a b l e D a t a T a b l e ( t b l T B _ l , T r u e , - 1 ) C a r d O u t ( 0 , - l ) D a t a l n t e r v a l ( 0 , 3 , S e c , 1 0 ) t o t a l i z e ( 1 , T B _ 1 , F P 2 , F a l s e ) E n d T a b l e D a t a T a b l e ( t b l T B _ 2 , T r u e , - 1 ) C a r d O u t ( 0 , - 1 ) D a t a l n t e r v a l ( 0 , 3 , S e c , 1 0 ) t o t a l i z e ( 1 , T B _ 2 , F P 2 , F a l s e ) E n d T a b l e D a t a T a b l e ( t b l T B _ 3 , T r u e , - 1 ) C a r d O u t ( 0 , - 1 ) D a t a l n t e r v a l ( 0 , 3 , S e c , 1 0 ) t o t a l i z e ( 1 , T B _ 3 , F P 2 , F a l s e ) E n d T a b l e D a t a T a b l e ( t b l T B _ 4 , T r u e , - 1 ) C a r d O u t ( 0 , - 1 ) D a t a l n t e r v a l ( 0 , 3 , S e c , 1 0 ) t o t a l i z e ( 1 , D r a i n , F P 2 , F a l s e ) E n d T a b l e D a t a T a b l e ( t b l S l o w , T r u e , - 1 ) C a r d O u t ( 0 , - 1 ) D a t a l n t e r v a l ( 0 , 3 0 , M i n , 0 ) S a m p l e ( l , B a t t , F P 2 ) S a m p l e ( 4 0 , T h e r m i s t o r ( ) , I E E E 4 ) S a m p l e ( 4 , E C ( ) , I E E E 4 ) S a m p l e ( 2 2 , M O I S T ( ) , I E E E 4 ) E n d T a b l e tiitttittittitiitittitiiti 15ui)Rou t i n e s t ' ' ' ' t ' t ' ' ' , t i ' ' ' t , i , t , i , r ' S u b S e t M u x ( c h ) •3 of the SDMX50 set to 1,2,3 ' Muxl ch 7 connects Mux2 Common, Muxl ch8 connects Mux3 Common S e l e c t c a s e ( c h ) C a s e 1 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 1 ) C a s e 2 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 2 ) C a s e 3 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 3 ) C a s e 4 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 4 ) C a s e 5 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 5 ) C a s e 6 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 6 ) C a s e 7 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 1 ) C a s e 8 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 2 ) C a s e 9 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 3 ) C a s e 1 0 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 4 ) C a s e 1 1 " 225 Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 5 ) C a s e 1 2 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 6 ) C a s e 1 3 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 7 ) C a s e 14 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 7 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 2 , 8 ) c a s e 1 5 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 1 ) C a s e 1 6 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 2 ) C a s e 1 7 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 3 ) C a s e 1 8 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 4 ) C a s e 1 9 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 5 ) C a s e 2 0 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 6 ) C a s e 2 1 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 7 ) C a s e 2 2 S D M X 5 0 ( 1 , 8 ) S D M X 5 0 ( 3 , 8 ) e n d s e l e c t E n d S u b s u b C a l c C e l s i u s ( ) ' convert Voltage ratios to Temperature ' uses RST Thermistor equation RST Work Order: Q04838 f o r i = 1 t o 4 f o r i c h = 1 t o 1 0 T R e s i s t = R V a l u e * T R a t i o ( i , i c h ) / ( 1 - T R a t i o ( i , i c h ) ) L n R = L O G ( T R e s i s t ) K e l v i n = 1 / ( C 0 + C l * L n R + ( C 3 * L n R * L n R * L n R ) ) T h e r m i s t o r ( i , i c h ) = K e l v i n - 2 7 3 . 1 5 n e x t i c h n e x t i e n d s u b s u b C a l c E C O ' convert Full Bridge output to EC in mS/cm f o r c c h = 1 t o 4 E C _ V 2 _ V 1 ( c c h ) = F u l l ( c c h ) * 0 . 0 0 1 ' o u t p u t is 1000*V2/V1 E C _ R s ( c c h ) = E C _ V 2 _ V 1 ( c c h ) * E C _ R f E C ( c c h ) = k / E C _ R s ( c c h ) * 1 0 * 1 1 . 1 7 8 1 ' Units conversion [S/m] to [mS/cm] and Calibration Fact n e x t c c h e n d s u b ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' • ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' M a i n Program'••<•<<•'••••••'•>'••••••'••• B e g i n P r o g 226 Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 ' ' 'Flow Gauges " • " • " " < " " < " S c a n ( 1 , S e c , 0 , 0 ) ' Rain Gauge P u l s e C o u n t ( R a i n , 1 , 1 , 2 , 0 , 1 . 0 , 0 ) 'PI = Rain Gauge R a i n _ t o t a l = R a i n _ t o t a l + R a i n i f R a i n _ t o t a l > 0 t h e n C a l l T a b l e t b l R a i n e n d i f i f I f T i m e ( 0 , 3 , S e c ) ' R e s e t trigger R a i n _ t o t a l = 0 e n d i f ' Sublysimeters P u l s e C o u n t ( T B _ 1 , 1 , 2 , 2 , 0 , 1 . 0 , 0 ) 'P2 = TB_1 (sublysimeter 1) T B _ l _ t o t a l = T B _ l _ t o t a l + T B _ l i f T B _ l _ t o t a l > 0 t h e n C a l l T a b l e t b l T B _ l e n d i f i f I f T i m e ( 0 , 3 , S e c ) ' R e s e t t r i g g e r T B _ l _ t o t a l = 0 e n d i f P u l s e C o u n t ( T B _ 2 , 1 , 1 5 , 2 , 0 , 1 . 0 , 0 ) 'C5 = TBJ2 (sublysimeter 2) T B _ 2 _ t o t a l = T B _ 2 _ t o t a l + T B _ 2 i f T B _ 2 _ t o t a l > 0 t h e n C a l l T a b l e t b l T B _ 2 e n d i f i f I f T i m e ( 0 , 3 , S e c ) ' R e s e t trigger T B _ 2 _ t o t a l = 0 e n d i f P u l s e C o u n t ( T B _ 3 , 1 , 1 6 , 2 , 0 , 1 . 0 , 0 ) 'C6 = TB_3 (sublysimeter 3) T B _ 3 _ t o t a l = T B _ 3 _ t o t a l + T B _ 3 i f T B _ 3 _ t o t a l > 0 t h e n C a l l T a b l e t b l T B _ 3 e n d i f i f I f T i m e ( 0 , 3 , S e c ) 'Reset trigger -. T B _ 3 _ t o t a l = 0 e n d i f ' Basal Drain P u l s e C o u n t ( D r a i n , 1 , 1 8 , 2 , 0 , 1 . 0 , 0 ) ' C 8 = TB_4 (whole pile outflow) D r a i n _ t o t a l = D r a i n _ t o t a l + D r a i n i f D r a i n _ t o t a l > 0 t h e n C a l l T a b l e t b l T B _ 4 e n d i f i f I f T i m e ( 0 , 3 , S e c ) ' R e s e t t r i g g e r D r a i n _ t o t a l = 0 e n d i f N e x t S c a n S l o w S e q u e n c e ' S e g u e n t i a l M o d e S e r i a l O p e n ( c o m M E , 9 6 0 0 , 0 , 0 , 2 0 0 0 ) 'MP917 data on CS I/O serial port S e r i a l f l u s h ( c o m M E ) S c a n ( M a i n S c a n R a t e , m i n , 0 , 0 ) Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 'scan rate max = 30 minutes so for longer intervals use IfTime " " " " " " " " " 'get the moistures for ch = 1 to LastDiode do C a l l SetMux(ch) D e l a y d , l,Sec) PortSet (DiodePower,ON) Delay(1,1,Sec) 'SeriallnChk (comME) 'wait for Ascii 13 (up to 30 s) S e r i a l l n (DiodeData,comME,3000,13,100) PortSet (DiodePower,OFF ) 'Delay (1,1,Sec) s p l i t s t r (ParseStr(1),DiodeData,chr(44),5,6) ' chop on comma, keep suceeding var ' moist(ch) = parsestr(3) 'assignment to float S e r i a l f l u s h (comME) loop while moist(ch) = NAN 'test for parsing error next ch , , , , , , / , , , , , , g e t t h e temperatures ••••>"•>•"•••• PortSet(TReset,ON) 'turn on FlexiMux NOTE this resets mux Delay (0,100,mSec) 'clock mux NOTE first pulse sets to ADDRESS 0 then each pulse clocks 'first 30 thermistors are 10 on each of the three RST 'They are wired in parallel ; for t c h = 1 to 10 PortSet(TClock,ON) Delay (0,20,mSec) PortSet(TClock,OFF) 'get 3 thermistor readings BrHalf (TRatiod,tch) , l,mV2500, 14, Vx2,1,2500,True ,0,250, 1.0,0) BrHalf (TRatio(2,tch),l,mV2500,15,Vx2,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) BrHalf (TRatio(3,tch),l,mV2500,16,Vx2,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) Delay (0,500,mSec) next t ch PortSet(TReset,OFF) 'turn off FlexiMux • last 6 thermistors are on the crlOOO SE 7,8,9,10,11,12 BrHalf (TRatio(4,l),l,mV2500,7,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) BrHalf (TRatio(4,2),l,mV2500,8,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) BrHalf (TRatio(4,3),1,mV2500,9,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) BrHalf (TRatio(4,4),1,mV2500,10,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) BrHalf (TRatio(4,5),l,mV2500,11,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) BrHalf (TRatio(4,6),l,mV2500,12,Vx3,1,2500,True ,0,250,1.0,0) 'toss i n some dummy readings TRatio (4,7) = .5 TRatio(4,8) = .5 TRatio(4,9) = .5 TRatio(4,10) = .5 'convert these ratios to Temperatures C a l c C e l s i u s , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , t , , , , , , 'conductivity PortSet(TReset,ON) 'turn on FlexiMux NOTE this resets mux Delay (0,100,mSec) 'clock mux NOTE first pulse sets to ADDRESS 0 then each pulse clocks 'run through thermistors to cond for cch = 1 to 10 PortSet(TClock,ON) Delay (0,20,mSec) PortSet(TClock,OFF) next cch PortSet(TClock,ON) 228 Program: TODOS_V02_REC070119.CR1 D e l a y (0, 20 ,mSec) P o r t S e t ( T C l o c k , O F F ) D e l a y ( 0 , 2 0 , m S e c ) P o r t S e t ( T C l o c k , O N ) D e l a y ( 0 ,20 ,mSec ) P o r t S e t ( T C l o c k , O F F ) 'now mux is pointing at first cond channel ' do each channel twice (one as half bridge and one as Full Bridge) for c c h = 1 t o 4 B r F u l l 6 W ( F u l l ( c c h ) , l , m V 2 5 0 0 , m V 2 5 0 0 , 1 , V x l , 1 , 2 5 0 0 , T r u e , T r u e , 0 , 2 5 0 , 1 . 0 , 0 ) D e l a y ( 0 , 2 0 0 , m S e c ) •BrHalf4W (Hal f (cch) , 1 ,mV2500 ,mV2500,1 ,Vxl, 1,2500, True , True ,0,250,1.0,0) D e l a y ( 0 ,200 ,mSec ) 'clock to next channel P o r t S e t ( T C l o c k , O N ) D e l a y ( 0 , 2 0 , m S e c ) P o r t S e t ( T C l o c k , O F F ) D e l a y ( 0 ,200 ,mSec ) n e x t c c h C a l c E C P o r t S e t ( T R e s e t , O F F ) ' t u r n off FlexiMux ' • " ' • • " < " • ' • • • -put Therm, cond and TDR vars in table <><'•<>•<>'><><•>< B a t t e r y ( B a t t ) C a l l T a b l e t b l S l o w N e x t S c a n ' a t mainscanrate minutes E n d P r o g Appendix M. Water Chemistry Laboratory Results Table M.1 Water chemistry: lysimeter, sub-lysimeters, composite sample tank and water collection sump Sampling Point Date Field Para meters PH EC TDS TSS Hard. - Total Alkalinity Alkalinity CI-Total Diss. F Diss. S04 N-NH3 Cd Ca Co Cu Cr Sr p Tot Fe al Met, Li Is Mg Mn Hg Mo Ni Aq Pb K Se Na TI Ti V Zn Si Diss. Oxy mg/l T X EC ms/cm PH unit Time Volume L mg/l as Carbonate mg/l as Bicarbonate mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l -mg/l Sb mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l C J Z mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l UBC1-A 1/8/2007 4.33 1 1 . 2 4.47 7.58 16:10 2/20/2007 4.19 1 5 5.92 7.49 13:50 6.7 6570 4995 < 1 3025.0 0.2 41.8 790 0.63 1372.4 0.08 < 0.02 0.042 0.011 0.049 <0.O01 < ( ) . 1 ( ) 0.04 < 0 . 0 0 3 1130.0- < 0.005 0.017 < o.oo: < 0.04 7.384 <0.3 < 0.00 0.11 49.01 0.132 < 0.0002 <().0I 0.015 < 0.010 0.037 13.40 0.063 53.81 < 0.04 0.009 < 0.007 1.353 4.72 3/7/2007 5 . 0 9 10.6 5.77 7.22 16:30 2 6.9 6030 4525 1 3200.0 <0 .1 43.9 729 0.52 1491.5 0.04 < 0.02 0.043 0.009 0.049 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.07 < 0.003 1178 < 0.005 0.014 < o.oo: < o.oo: < 0.04 < 0.04 8.117 8.544 <0.3 < 0.3 < O.(X) < 0.00 0.04 0.05 55.86 57.08 0.100 0.106 < ().(XX)2 < 0-(XX)2 <().0I 0.01 0.015 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 0.011 < 0.010 16.36 15.51 0.058 0.057 57.70 61.22 < 0.04 < 0.04 < ().(X)3 < 0 . 1 X 1 3 < 0.007 < 0.007 1.557 1.651 5.10 5.91 3/15/2007 3/20/2007 4 . 9 5 1 1 . 5 8.4 1 2 . 5 5.77 5.37 7.47 7.32 17:00 13:40 7.4 7.3 5980 5620 4158 4510 < 1 2 2811.2 3100.0 0.1 0 . 1 46.7 46.5 700 658 0.83 0.51 1328.4 1046.5 0.03 <0.01 0.03 0.041 0.046 0.010 0.051 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.09 < 0.1X13 1208 < 0.005 0.021 < 0 . 0 0 : < 0.04 8.280 <0.3 0.034 0.04 53.90 0.097 < 0.0002 0.01 0.018 <().() 10 0.015 15.72 0.060 63.84 < 0.04 0 . 0 1 < 0 . 0 0 7 1.650 5.61 3/29/2007 5 . 2 5 6.8 5.27 7.47 9:00 7.3 52(H) 4012 1 3112.4 0 . 1 45.9 564 0.71 1514.4 0.02 < 0.02 0.020 0.006 0.053 < 0.(X)1 < ( ) . ! ( ) 0.06 < 0 . 1 X 1 3 1126.0 < 0.005 0.014 < o.oo; < 0 . 0 4 7.086 < 0.3 < O.(X) 0.05 54.41 0.099 < 0.0002 0 . 0 1 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 15.63 0.041 75.43 < 0.04 <0.(X)3- < ().(X)7 1.072 5.21 4/4/2007 5 . 6 4 10.6 4.86 7.49 10:50 6.8 4920 3920 4 2991.9 <0 .1 59.7 467 0.65 1632.5 0.26 0.04 0.026 0 . 0 0 9 0.058 < 0 . 0 0 1 < 0 . U ) 0.1 < 0.003 1 1 1 1 < 0.1X15 0.017 < o.oo: < 0.04 7.184 <0.3 < 0.00 0.04 55.77 0.077 < 0.001)2 0.01 0.01 < 0.010 < 0.010 17.22 0.063 82.4 < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.234 5.73 4/11/2007 5.38 13.1 4.54 7.48 13:00 7.7 4440 3820 6 2400.6 0.2 43.9 370 0.76 1477 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.009 0.052 < 0.001 <().I0 0.08 < 0.003 906.7 < 0.005 0.018 < o.oo: <0.04 5.767 <0.3 < 0.00 0.04 47.7 0.054 < 0.1XX12 0.01 0.009 < 0.010 < 0.010 15.01 0.046 69.98 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.005 4.82 4/19/2007 5.5 15.8 4.3 7.5 11:00 7 4490 3406 < 1 2016 <0 .1 40 285 0.65 1488 0.03 0.04 0.028 0.01 0.048 <0.00l < ( ) . ! ( ) 0.08 < 0.003 800.6 < 0.005 0.012 < o.(X): <0.04 5.835 <0.3 0.011 0.04 40.02 0.062 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.006 < 0.010 < 0.010 15.55 0.041 73.3 <0.04 < ().(X)3 < 0.007 0.879 4.85 4/24/2007 5 . 0 6 14.2 4.27 7.53 15:10 UBC1-B 11/30/2006 4 • 10.5 4 7.7 6.8 3860 2920 2 2309.2 <0.1 49.8 112 0.86 1343.3 0.08 < 0.02 0.058 0.009 0.038 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.12 < 0.003 804.5 < 0.005 0.039 <o.oo: <0.04 7.704 <0.3 0.060 0.04 33.87 0.171 < 0.0002 0.02 0.037 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.84 0.052 19.47 <0.04 0.014 < 0.007 1.356 5.28 12/5/2006 4 11 4.4 7.7 6.8 4500 4128 1 1920.0 <0.l 53.6 106 0.73 1315.0 0.06 < 0.02 0.060 0.008 0.037 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.11 < 0.003 778.8 0.009 0.042 <o.oo: < 0.04 < 0.04 7.109 7.356 <0.3 < 0.3 < 0.00 < 0.00 0.04 0.03 33.70 35.74 0.164 0.153 < 0.0002 < 0.0002 0.02 0.02 0.035 0.034 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 12.91 13.(X) 0.057 0.052 18.95 18.35 <0.04 <0.04 0.010 0.009 < 0.007 < 0.007 1.605 1.585 5.22 5.50 12/7/2006 12/12/2006 4.05 4 . 2 9 1 1 . 9 1 1 . 2 3.72 3.84 7.58 7.6 7.0 7.0 3920 3990 2921 2993 7 < 1 2249.0 2318.4 0.1 0.1 53.5 52.0 108 111 0.73 0.81 1374.3 1194.6 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.02 0.057 0.055 0.007 0.008 0.035 < 0.001 < ( ) . ! ( ) 0.12 < 0.003 852.3 < 0.005 0.029 <o.(X): <0.04 7.853 <0.3 < 0.00 0.04 37.61 0.158 < ().(XX)2 <0.0I 0.034 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.05 0.056 19.58 <0.04 0 . 0 0 9 < 0.007 1.662 5.57 1/8/2007 3.98 10.9 4.12 7.55 16:20 2/20/2007 3.84 !4.4 3.59 7.47 14:10 7.0 4120 2998 < 1 2020.0 0.1 60.6 123 0.79 1528.7 0.03 < 0.02 0.059 0.1X17 0.032 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.16 < 0.003 753.7 < 0.1X15 0.020 < o.(x): < 0.04 7.502 <0.3 < 0.00 0.08 33.97 0.123 < 0.0002 <0.()l 0.031 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.09 0.033 21.54 < 0.04 0.007 < 0.007 1.769 4.66 3/7/2007 4.18 10.4 3.57 7.45 16:40 2 6.8 3700 2780 1 20O0.0 <0.l 64.8 98 0.65 1568.8 0.03 0.04 0.061 0.005 0.032 < 0 . 0 0 1 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.16 < 0.003 755.9 < 0 . 0 0 5 0.016 < o.oo: < 0.04 7.267 < 0 . 3 < 0 . 0 0 0.03 34.06 0.115 < 0.0002 <0.()1 0.034 c 0.010 < 0.010 12.43 0.031 21.60 < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0-(X)7 1.821 4.95 3/15/2007 4 .6 8.1 3.59 7.49 17:05 7.4 3700 2692 < 1 1807.2 0.1 65.6 92 0.87 1515.5 0.03 0.03 0.058 0.(108 0.035 < 0.001 < ( ) . ! ( ) 0.17 < 0.003 730.5 < 0.005 0.017 < o.ixi: < 0.04 7.981 <0.3 < 0.(10 0.03 32.65 0.122 < 0.0002 0.01 0.037 < 0.010 < 0.010 12.91 0.030 19.52 < 0.04 < 0.(X)3 < 0.007 2.064 5.20 3/20/2007 4.05 12.6 3.24 7.56 13:45 7.5 3330 2910 21 2240.0 0.2 56.3 73 0.58 1566.1 < 0 . 0 I 0 . 0 6 0.051 0.1X18 0.034 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.26 < 0.003 793.9 < 0.005 0.022 < o.oo: < 0.04 6.252 <0.3 0.051 0.03 36.36 0.186 < 0.0002 0.01 0.021 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.80 0.027 37.23 < 0.04 0.008 < 0.007 1.543 6.59 3/29/2007 5.23 6.1 3.07 7.51 9:30 7.4 3270 2928 < 1 2108.4 0.1 57.9 51 0.72 1402.7 0.01 0.07 0.052 0.007 0.033 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.22 < ().(X)3 771.0 < 0.005 0.023 < o.ixi: <0.04 6.315 <0.3 0.028 0.03 38.04 0.176' < 0.0002 0.01 0.020 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.19 0.022 32.29 < 0.04 < 0.(X)3 < 0.007 1.320 6.02 4/4/2007 5.43 10.4 1.85 7.47 11:05 6.7 3180 2820 3 1988.0 <0.1 57.7 41 0.81 1829.8 <0.0I 0.12 0.054 0.008 0.032 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.25 < 0.003 735.8 < 0.005 0.022 < o.oo: <0.04 5.987 <0.3 0.099 0.03 38.54 0.169 < 0.0002 0.01 0.018 < 0.010 0.016 12.73 0.022 32.23 <0.()4 0.011 < 0.007 1.238 6.59 4/11/2007 5.2 11.6 3.12 7.56 13:05 7.7 3030 2754 3 1686.4 0.3 57.9 34 0.88 1449.1 0.01 0.08 0.060 0.008 0.030 < 0.001 <0.l() 0.22 < 0.003 640.7 < 0.005 0.020 < o.oo: <0.04 5.191 <0.3 < 0.00 0.03 32.08 0.138 < 0.OO02 0.01 0.020 < 0.010 0.012 11.11 0.021 25.18 < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.195 5.25 4/19/2007 5.61 13.4 3.05 7.55 11:00 7.1 3170 2563 1 1653.1 0.1 51.9 29 0.73 1354.8 0.05 0.05 0.056 0.009 0 . 0 2 9 <0.001 <0.1() 0.21 < 0.003 639.3 < 0.005 0.010 <o.oo: <0.04 5.500 <0.3 0.014 0.03 31.90 0.120 < 0.0002 <().0I 0.019 < 0.010 < 0.010 11.35 0.019 29.47 <0.04 < 0.O03 < 0.007 1.268 4.98 4/24/2007 5 . 1 1 12.9 3.09 7.39 15:15 UBC1-C 11/16/2006 4.4 9.2 4 7.6 6.9 4270 3328 < 1 3212.8 <0.l 40.9 149 0.71 1832.4 0.13 0.10 0.064 0.011 0.035 < 0.001 <0.1() 0.11 < 0.003 1187.0 < 0.005 0.020 <o.oo: <0.04 8.558 <0.3 0.043 0.06 46.50 0.110 < 0.0002 0.02 0.026 < 0.010 0.017 20.05 0.114 18.16 <0.04 0.012 < 0.0O7 1.176 6.29 11/23/2006 4.5 9 .1 4.5 7 6.9 4500 3358 < 1 2560.0 <0 .1 37.8 no 0.65 1253.4 0.09 < 0.02 0.044 0.009 0.036 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.08 < 0.003 979.0 < 0.005 <0.(X) < o.oo: <0.04 6.688 <0.3 < 0.00 0.05 47.26 0.084 < 0.(XX)2 0.02 0.018 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.66 0.131 11.28 <0.04 0.011 < 0.007 0.982 5.75 11/30/2006 4 . 7 6 10.5 4.3 7.5 6.9 4200 3982 < 1 2510.0 <0 .1 41.8 1(H) 0.67 2033.6 0.13 < 0.02 0.046 0.010 0.028 < 0.1X11 < ( ) . 1 ( ) 0.10 < 0.003 869.7 < 0.005 0.017 < o.oo: <0.04 5.271 <0.3 0.036 0.04 32.27 0.067 < 0.0002 0.02 0.020 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.89 0.109 12.95 <0.04 0.011 < 0.007 1.073 5.92 12/5/2006 4.76 10.8 4 7.5 7.2 4700 4142 1 2160.0 0.1 42.5 92 0.59 1205.9 0.03 < 0.02 0.042 0.010 0.027 < 0 . 0 0 1 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.09 < 0.003 809.8 0.005 0.018 < o.ixi: < 0.04 5.397 <0.3 < 0.00 0.04 31.08 0.069 < 0.0002 0.02 0.016 < 0.010 0.016 7.67 0.117 11.60 < 0.04 0.010 < 0.007 0.961 5.95 12/7/2006 4 . 7 6 1 1 . 6 3.93 7.67 6.8 4070 3025 2 2228.9 <0 .1 44.6 88 0.52 1215.6 0.02 < 0.02 0.042 0.010 0.023 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.09 < 0.003 821.1 < 0.005 0.011 < O . I X I : <0.04 5.471 <0.3 < 0 . 0 0 0.03 33.35 0.061 < 0.0002 0.01 0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.81 0.107 11.76 < 0.04 ().(X)9 < 0.007 0.987 6.20 12/12/2006 4 . 9 8 1 1 . 5 3.92 7.65 7.1 4080 3060 < 1 2338.6 <0 .1 43.1 90 0.70 1202.7 0.01 < 0.02 0.048 < 0 . 0 0 0.025 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.09 < 0.003 858.1 < 0.005 0.014 < o.oo: <0.04 5.781 <0.3 < 0 . 0 0 0.04 35.87 0.055 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.30 0.107 13.07 < 0.04 0.009 < 0.007 1.184 6.05 1/8/2007 4.54 9.3 3.24 7.69 16:30 2/20/2007 3 . 8 1 15.3 2.61 7.67 14:02 7.1 3030 2170 < 1 1520.0 <0 .1 51.6 27 0.83 1057.2 0.03 < 0.02 0.051 0.010 0.018 < 0.001 <().I0 0.08 < 0.003 576.7 < 0.005 0.014 < o.oo: < 0.04 3.869 <0.3 < O.(X) 0.05 20.48 0.1X19 < 0.0002 0.02 0.012 < 0.010 0.017 6.88 0.061 5.87 <0.04 0.006 < 0.007 0.977 5.07 3^ 7/2007 4.91 10 2.56 7.56 16:50 2 7.1 2645 1988 < 1 1480.0 0.1 53.7 24 0.67 1228.3 0.03 0.05 0.066 0.016 0.017 eO.OOl <0.I0 0.12 < 0.003 572.6 < 0.005 0.014 < o.ixi: <0.O4 4.411 <0.3 < 0.00 < 0.02 22.55 0.007 < 0.0002 0.02 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.18 0.056 7.37 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.187 5.25 3/15/2007 5.04 7.1 2.14 7.62 17:15 7.6 2187 1648 < 1 1144.6 0.2 44.7 15 0.77 943.8 0.03 0.06 0.026 0.009 0.014 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.12 < 0.003 440.8 < 0.005 0.009 <o.oo: <0.04 2.858 <0.3 <0.00 0.02 16.94 0.017 < 0.0002 0.02 0.005 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.32 0.048 4.16 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.512 5.46 3/20/2007 5.3 10.2 2.13 7.65 13:43 7.6 2115 1890 1 1200.0 0.2 44.4 17 0 . 6 0 943.3 0.04 0.06 0.025 0.008 0.011 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.11 < 0.003 471.7 < 0.005 0.007 <o.oo: <0.04 2.537 <0.3 <0.00 < 0.02 15.44 0.011 < 0.0002 0.01 0.004 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.66 0.062 3.84 <0.04 0.006 < 0.007 0.565 5.40 3/29/2007 5 . 1 8 7.9 1.8 7.72 9:35 7.6 1744 1205 1 1044.2 0.2 49.8 I I 0.72 735.3 <0.0I 0.10 0.028 0.007 0.011 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.15 < 0.003 409.0 < 0.005 0.016 <o.oo: <0.04 2.404 <0.3 0.028 <0.02 14.87 0.007 < 0.0002 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.76 0.038 4.30 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.495 5.18 4/4/2007 5.33 9.5 2.26 7.67 11:25 7 1805 1525 1 1184.7 <0.l 49.8 I I 0.82 927.2 0.05 0.08 0.025 0.009 0.010 <0.O01 <0.I0 0.12 < 0.003 450.5 < 0.005 < 0.00 <o.oo: <0.04 2.488 <0.3 <o.oo <0.02 15.39 0.003 < 0.0002 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.83 0.042 3.98 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.437 5.87 4/11/2007 4.6 12.4 3.72 7.84 13:10 7.9 1558 1364 < 1 837.0 0.4 49.8 8 1.01 712.5 0.02 0.09 0.028 0.008 0.010 < 0.001 <0.1() 0.12 < 0.003 337.8 < 0.005 0.013 <o.oo: <0.04 1.926 <0.3 < O.(X) < 0.02 12.00 0.006 < 0.0002 0.02 <O.O0l < 0.010 < 0.010 3.22 0.034 3.92 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.394 4.82 4/19/2007 4.77 13.7 1.8 7.67 1 1 : 1 5 7.3 1859 1469 < 1 927.4 0.1 51.9 9 0.73 689.1 0.05 0 . 0 6 0.036 0.010 0 . 0 0 9 <0.001 <0.I0 0.10 < 0.003 365.6 < 0.005 < 0.(X) < o.oo: <0.04 2.189 <0.3 < 0.00 < 0.02 11 .64 <0.00 < 0.0002 0.01 0.006 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.60 0.034 3.59 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.575 4.97 4/24/2007 4.85 13.1 1.7 7.68 15:20 UBC1-D 11/16/2006 4.5 10.8 3 7.5 7.1 2545 2086 1 1767.0 0 . 1 55.7 92 0.91 1359.6 0.01 0.02 0.062 0.007 0.026 < 0.001 < ( ) . 1 ( ) 0.17 < 0.003 660.9 < 0.005 0.016 < o.ixi: < 0.04 5.149 <0.3 0.039 0.04 25.48 0.066 < 0.IXXJ2 0.02 0.027 < 0.010 0.010 11.63 0.034 11.72 < 0.04 0.009 < 0.007 1.002 4.53 11/23/2006 4.6 10.8 3 7.5 7.0 3050 2268 < 1 1780.0 0.1 53.6 96 0.87 1236.0 < 0 . 0 1 < 0.02 0.051 0.005 0.030 < 0.001 < ( ) . 1 ( ) 0.08 < 0.003 691.3 < 0.005 0.010 < o.oo: <0.04 6.072 <0.3 <0.00 < 0.02 34.98 0.072 < 0.0002 0.02 0.027 < 0.010 < 0.010 11.18 0.041 10.74 < 0.04 0.009 < 0.007 1.046 4.26 11/30/2006 4 . 6 1 9 2.9 7 7.0 2810 1895 < 1 1506.0 0 . 1 53.6 98 0.96 1026.2 0.09 0.04 0.051 0.005 0.027 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.10 < 0.003 548.3 < 0.005 0.016 < O . I X I ; <0.04 4.200 <0.3 0.085 0.03 20.21 0.071 < 0.0002 0.01 0.028 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.84 0.032 9.24 < 0.04 0.013 < 0.007 1.170 4.50 12/5/2006 4.61 9.2 3.2 7 7.0 3370 3008 1 1480.0 0.1 54.4 114 0.85 737.7 0.01 <0.02 0.050 0.006 0.027 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.08 < 0.003 565.3 0.007 0.015 < O . IXM <0.04 4.664 <0.3 < O.(X) 0.03 22.88 0.065 < 0.0002 0.02 0.027 < 0.010 < 0.010 10.07 0.035 10.29 <0.04 0.009 < 0.007 1.330 4.34 12/7/2006 4 . 6 1 9.2 3.14 7.75 7.3 3230 2415 1 1787.1 0.1 54.5 135 0.79 818.1 <0.01 < 0.02 0.055 0.005 0.024 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.08 < 0.003 641.5 <0.O05 0 . 0 0 9 < 0.003 <0.04 5.182 <0.3 <0.00 0.03 25.19 0.064 < 0.0O02 0.01 0.028 < 0.010 < 0.010 10.88 0.034 11.70 <0.04 0.008 < 0.0O7 1.207 4.55 12/12/2006 4 92 9.4 3.52 7.73 7.2 3640 2737 < 1 2016.0 0.1 52.0 174 0.90 1003.3 <0.01 <0.02 0.053 0.O06 0.028 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.08 < 0.003 718.4 <0.005 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 6.009 <0.3 < 0.00 0.03 29.88 0.086 < 0.0002 <0.0I 0.029 < 0.010 < 0.010 11.95 0.041 13.28 <0.04 0 . 0 0 9 < 0.007 1.395 4.49 1/8/2007 4.59 7.3 3.79 7.3 16:35 2/20/2007 4.56 12.3 3.47 7.56 14:00 6.9 4010 2972 < 1 2120.0 <0.l 58.6 218 0.86 1320.8 0.04 <0.02 0.048 0.005 0.025 < 0.001 <0.l() 0.07 < 0.003 756.5 < 0.005 0.013 < 0.002 <0.O4 4.954 <0.3 < 0.00 0.07 30.02 0.050 < 0.0002 0.01 0.022 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.86 0.050 24.61 <0.04 0.007 < 0.007 1.386 4.27 3/7/2007 4.7 8.6 2 . 4 6 7.63 17:10 2 7.0 2565 1951 < 1 1440.0 0.1 62.7 83 0 . 7 8 933.5 0.04 0.06 0.044 <0.00 0.018 <O.O0l <0.I0 0.07 < 0.003 537.3 < 0.005 0.006 < o.oo: <0.04 3.816 <0.3 < 0.00 < 0.02 22.98 0.030 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.05 0.033 13.80 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.002 4.06 3/15/2007 4.59 7.1 2.14 7.62 17:15 7.5 2061 1431 < 1 1024.1 0.2 62.6 41 0.96 760.2 0.02 0.06 0.040 0.006 0.016 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.09 < 0.003 409.9 < 0.005 0.010 <o.oo: <0.04 3.018 <0.3 < 0.00 <0.02 16.01 0.026 < 0.0002 0.O2 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.95 0.028 9.75 < 0.04 < O.O03 < 0.007 0.779 4.35 3/20/2007 4.5 9 1.65 7.61 13:50 7.5 2384 1920 1 1300.0 0.2 58.3 61 0.76 944.4 0.02 0.05 0.041 < 0.00 0.018 < 0.001 <O.I0 0.10 < 0.003 519.8 < 0.005 0.008 < 0.1X12 <0.04 3.314 <0.3 <0.(X) <0.02 20.70 0.029 < 0.0002 0 . 0 1 0.016 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.02 0.034 16.29 <0.04 0.0O5 < 0.007 1.095 4.28 3/29/2007 4.8 7.5 2.37 7.62 10:00 4/4/2007 5.41 8.6 2.26 7.67 11 :25 7.0 2297 1850 3 1526.1 <0 .1 59.6 48 0.96 972.8 0.02 0.07 0.039 0 . 0 0 6 0.021 <().0()l <().!() 0 . 1 0 < 0.003 571.2 < 0.005 ().(X)7 <o.oo: < 0.04 3.590 <0.3 < 0.00 0.02 27.61 0.024 < 0.0002 0.01 0.013 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.66 0.032 16.98 < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.905 4.71 4/11/2007 5.45 8 ! 7.74 13:15 7.9 1988 1714 7 1131.0 0.4 61.7 39 1.03 874.9 0.02 0.09 0.037 0.005 0.016 < 0.001 <().I0 0.09 < 0.003 431.8 < 0.(X)5 0.015 < 0.1X12 <0.04 2.637 <0.3 0.026 < 0.02 19.40 0.044 < 0.0002 0.02 0.012 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.34 0.022 14.41 < 0.04 < 0.O03 < 0.1X17 0.762 3.97 4/19/2007 5.15 9.3 2 . 6 4 7.64 11 :20 7.2 2764 2157 < 1 1330.6 <0.l 56.0 55 0.89 1054.9 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.006 0.017 <0.001 < ( ) . ! ( ) 0.10 < 0.003 542.7 < 0.005 0.008 < 0 . 0 0 2 < 0.04 3.357 <0.3 0.017 < 0.02 23.20 0.013 < 0.(XX)2 0.01 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.44 0.030 18.98 < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.002 3.74 4/24/2007 5.2 9.1 2.44 7.62 15:30 UBC1-E 1/8/2007 4 . 6 3 6.8 2/20/2007 4.9 9.5 3.37 7.95 14:20 7.3 3800 2835 < 1 1800.0 0.1 54.6 167 0.94 1085.2 0.04 <0.02 0.045 0.006 0.023 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003 677.9 < 0.005 0.008 < 0 . 0 0 2 <0.04 4.548 <0.3 < O.OO 0.06 27.41 0.033 < 0.0002 0.01 0.019 < 0.010 <0.OI0 8.92 0.047 21.13 <0.04 0.007 < 0.007 1.210 3.83 3/7/2007 5.35 8.1 3.51 7.9 17:10 2 7.6 3650 2750 < 1 2100.0 0.2 57.6 174 0.70 1348.2 0.02 0.03 0.047 <0.00 0.026 < 0.001 <().I0 0.10 < 0.003 798.4 < 0.005 0.008 <0.00. <0.04 4.719 <0.3 <0.00 <0.02 30.29 0.038 < 0.0002 <0.0I 0.021 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.69 0.051 24.55 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.324 4 . 1 1 3/15/2007 5.6 8 3.18 7.94 17:40 7.8 3310 2325 < 1 1666.6 0.4 59.4 135 0.86 1124.8 0.04 0.05 0.043 0.006 0.028 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.10 < 0.003 610.2 < 0.005 0.008 < 0 . 0 0 2 <0.04 4.658 <0.3 < 0.00 0.03 24.29 0.033 < 0.0002 0.01 0.022 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.63 0.042 22.50 < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.288 4.75 3/20/2007 1 !.9I 8.5 2.14 7.93 14:05 7.9 2119 1810 2 1160.0 0.4 60.0 50 0.76 754.0 <0.0I 0.06 0.043 < 0.00 0 . 0 1 6 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 453.8 < 0.005 <0.(X) <0.00" <0.04 2.905 <0.3 < 0.<X> <0.02 17.32 0.020 < 0.0002 0.01 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.53 0.032 12.02 <0.04 0.005 < 0.007 0.823 4.35 3/29/2007 5 . 4 6 8.3 2.41 8.03 10:10 4/4/2007 6.07 8.2 2.56 7.92 11:40 7.2 2591 2028 3 1586.3 0.1 57.6 72 1.01 1267.3 <0.()l 0.06 0.042 0.006 < 0.003 < 0.001 < ( ) . 1 ( ) 0.1 < 0.003 595.4 < 0.005 < 0.00 < O.(X) <0.04 3.672 <0.3 < 0.00 0.02 27.27 0.023 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.84 0.038 18.39 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.076 4.56 4/11/2007 5.8 8.1 2.45 7.95 13:16 8 2364 2066 3 1468.2 0.6 57.6 61 0.98 1088.5 0.03 0.08 0.038 0.IH15 0.019 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 ( ) 0.1 < 0.003 558.3 < 0.005 0.012 < O.(X) < 0.04 3.747 <0.3 < 0.00 < 0.02 24.2 0.025 < 0.0002 0.02 0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.13 0.028 17.96 < 0.04 < ().(X)3 < 0.007 0.914 4.27 4/19/2007 5.8 8.1 7.94 7.85 11:25 7.5 2452 I960 < 1 1290.2 0.1 55.8 47 0.86 1109.1 0.03 0.03 0.04 0 . 0 0 6 0.016 <0.(X)l <().l() 0.1 < 0.003 520.3 < 0.005 < 0.(X) < 0.00" < 0.04 3.397 < 0 .3 < 0.00 < 0.02 23.06 0 . 0 0 8 < 0.0002 <().0I 0.013 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.37 0.026 17.48 < 0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.919 4.28 4/24/2007 5.8 8.2 2.4 7.8 15:40 UBC1-F 4/12/2007 5.2 8 4.2 7.8 15:24 0.65 0.053 0.011 0.026 < 0.001 < ( ) . ! ( ) 0.16 < 0.003 780.8 < 0.005 0.057 < 0.00 <0.04 4.963 <0.3 3.7 < 0.02 34.15 0.083 < 0.0002 0.01 0.022 < 0.010 0.032 17.49 0.022 24.92 < 0 . 0 4 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.583 5.31 Table M.1 Water chemistry: lysimeter, sub-lysimeters, composite sample tank and water collection sump (continued from previous page) Sampling Point Date Field Parameters Dissolved Metals Diss. Oxy. T EC PH Time Volume Al Sb As Ba Be Bi B Cd Ca Co Cu Cr Sn Sr P Fe Li Mg Mn Hg Mo Ni Ag Pb K Se Na Tl Ti V Zn Si mg/1 °C ms/cm unit L mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/l mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 UBC1 -A 1/8/2007 4.33 11.2 4.47 7.58 16:10 2/20/2007 4.19 15 5.92 7.49 13:50 <0.02 0.037 0.009 0.045 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.04 < 0.003 1094.0 < 0.005 0.016 < 0.002 <0.04 6.130 <0.3 < 0.001 0.05 47.90 0.131 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.011 < 0.010 0.029 13.40 0.063 53.80 <0.04 0.006 < 0.00 1.180 4.69 3/7/2007 5.09 10.6 5.77 7.22 16:30 2 <0.02 0.042 < 0.001 0.049 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003 1169 < 0.005 0.012 < 0.002 <0.04 8.028 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 54.99 0.100 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 16.32 0.056 57.70 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.00 1.452 5.10 3/15/2007 4.95 8.4 5.77 7.47 17:00 <0.02 0.039 0.011 0.050 < 0.001 <0.10 0.07 < 0.003 985.0 < 0.005 0.016 < 0.002 <0.04 8.525 <0.3 < 0.001 0.05 52.87 0.099- < 0.0002 <0.0I 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 15.13 0.054 61.06 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.00 1.501 5.43 3/20/2007 11.5 12.5 5.37 7.32 13:40 <0.02 0.042 0.009 0.047 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.06 < 0.003 1037 < 0.005 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 7.352 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 46.81 0.082 < 0.0002 0.01 0.016 <0.010 < 0.010 15.63 0.059 54.89 <0.04 0.01 < 0.00 1.490 5.01 3/29/2007 5.25 6.8 5.27 7.47 9:00 <0.02 0.018 0.006 0.053 < 0.001 <0.10 0.06 < 0.003 973.6 < 0.005 0.013 < 0.002 <0.04 6.327 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 50.46 0.094 < 0.0002 0.01 0.010 < 0.010 < 0.010 14.45 0.040 68.74 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.00 1.033 5.15 4/4/2007 5.64 10.6 4.86 7.49 10:50 0.03 0.026 0.008 0.054 < 0.001 <0.10 0.07 < 0.003 910.5 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 5.859 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 45.02 0.071 < 0.0002 < 0.01 0.008 < 0.010 < 0.010 15.07 0.052 69.8 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.00 1.181 5.28 4/11/2007 5.38 13.1 4.54 7.48 13:00 0.04 0.027 0.009 0.048 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.08 < 0.003 838.7 < 0.005 0.013 < 0.002 <0.04 5.38 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 45.3 0.051 < 0.0002 0.01 0.009 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.67 0.044 64.58 <0.04 < 0.003 < o.oo 0.916 4.54 4/19/2007 5.5 15.8 4.3 7.5 11:00 0.04 0.027 0.01 0.047 <0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 799.8 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 5.651 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 38.57 0.04 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.006 < 0.010 < 0.010 15.27 0.039 71.46 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.00 0.879 4.7 4/24/2007 5.06 14.2 4.27 7.53 15:10 UBC1 -B 11/30/2006 4 10.5 4 7.7 <0.02 0.055 0.008 0.035 < 0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 773.6 < 0.005 0.031 < 0.002 <0.04 6.939 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 30.27 0.171 < 0.0002 0.01 0.035 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.47 0.051 19.28 <0.04 0.009 <0.00 1.318 5.20 12/5/2006 4 11 4.4 7.7 <0.02 0.053 0.008 0.036 < 0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 772.0 0.009 0.041 < 0.002 <0.04 7.098 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 32.16 0.164 < 0.0002 0.02 0.035 < 0.010 < 0.010 12.86 0.051 18.90 <0.04 0.009 < 0.00 1.571 5.17 12/7/2006 4.05 11.9 3.72 7.58 <0.02 0.055 0.007 0.032 < 0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 776.9 < 0.005 0.030 < 0.002 <0.04 6.954 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 33.15 0.147 < 0.0002 <0.0l 0.034 <0.010 < 0.010 12.40 0.051 17.55 <0.04 0.009 <0.00 1.531 5.26 12/12/2006 4.29 11.2 3.84 7.6 <0.02 0.050 0.006 0.034 < 0.001 <0.10 0.11 < 0.003 847.8 < 0.005 0.027 < 0.002 <0.04 7.716 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 36.75 0.150 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.033 <0.010 < 0.010 12.90 0.050 18.92 <0.04 0.009 < o.oo 1.643 5.55 1/8/2007 3.98 10.9 4.12 7.55 16:20 2/20/2007 3.84 14.4 3.59 7.47 14:10 <0.02 0.054 0.006 0.029 < 0.001 <0.10 0.15 < 0.003 750.6 < 0.005 0.018 < 0.002 <0.04 5.340 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 29.46 0.117 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.026 < 0.010 < 0.010 11.54 0.033 18.85 <0.04 0.005 < 0.00 1.511 4.62 3/7/2007 • 4.18 10.4 3.57 7.45 16:40 2 0.03 0.060 < 0.001 0.031 < 0.001 <0.10 0.16 < 0.003 744.4 < 0.005 0.016 < 0.002 <0.04 7.147 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 32.97 0.115 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.033 < 0.010 < 0.010 12.41 0.028 21.60 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.809 4.95 3/15/2007 4.6 8.1 3.59 7.49 17:05 0.03 0.058 0.007 0.034 < 0.001 <0.10 0.16 < 0.003 723.0 < 0.005 0.016 < 0.002 <0.04 7.740 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 31.57 0.120 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.037 < 0.010 < 0.010 12.55 0.030 19.30 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 2.008 5.20 3/20/2007 4.05 12.6 3.24 7.56 13:45 0.03 0.046 0.006 0.029 < 0.001 <0.10 0.22 < 0.003 743.9 < 0.005 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 5.498 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 31.88 0.155 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.019 < 0.010 < 0.010 13.25 0.027 32.31 <0.04 0.006 <0.00 1.343 5.71 3/29/2007 5.23 6.1 3.07 7.51 9:30 0.05 0.052 0.007 0.031 < 0.001 <0.10 0.21 < 0.003 671.3 < 0.005 0.015 < 0.002 <0.04 5.496 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 34.13 0.162 < 0.0002 0.01 0.020 < 0.010 < 0.010 11.86 0.022 28.55 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.292 5.75 4/4/2007 5.43 10.4 1.85 7.47 11:05 0.05 < 0.010 < 0.001 0.031 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.24 < 0.003 735.2 < 0.005 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 5.947 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 38.31 0.165 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 <0.010 < 0.010 12.66 < o.oo: 31.24 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.237 6.50 4/11/2007 5.2 11.6 3.12 7.56 13:05 0.06 0.052 0.007 0.029 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.20 < 0.003 627.1 < 0.005 0.019 < 0.002 <0.04 4.941 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 30.71 0.134 < 0.0002 0.01 0.020 <0.010 < 0.010 10.54 0.019 23.60 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.169 5.13 4/19/2007 5.61 13.4 3.05 7.55 11:00 0.03 0.054 0.008 0.028 <0.001 <0.10 0.21 < 0.003 634.4 < 0.005 0.005 < 0.002 <0.04 5.498 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 31.33 0.120 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.018 < 0.010 < 0.010 11.25 0.019 25.30 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.254 4.79 4/24/2007 5.11 12.9 3.09 7.39 15:15 UBC1 -C 11/16/2006 4.4 9.2 4 7.6 <0.02 0.064 0.011 0.030 < 0.001 <0.10 0.07 < 0.003 1012.0 < 0.005 0.012 < 0.002 <0.04 6.847 <0.3 < 0.001 0.05 38.58 0.094 < 0.0002 0.02 0.023 < 0.010 0.011 16.39 0.113 14.90 <0.04 0.010 <0.00 1.053 5.36 11/23/2006 4.5 9.1 4.5 7 <0.02 0.039 0.009 0.033 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 957.2 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 5.988 <0.3 < 0.001 0.05 46.60 0.080 < 0.0002 0.02 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.60 0.102 10.76 <0.04 0.009 <0.00 0.948 5.47 11/30/2006 4.76 10.5 4.3 7.5 <0.02 0.043 0.009 0.026 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 865.9 < 0.005 0.013 < 0.002 <0.04 5.183 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 28.99 0.065 < 0.0002 0.02 0.018 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.49 0.109 12.48 <0.04 0.010 < 0.00 1.055 5.82 12/5/2006 4.76 10.8 4 7.5 <0.02 0.038 0.009 0.026 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 792.9 < 0.005 0.017 < 0.002 <0.04 5.300 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 30.16 0.069 < 0.0002 0.02 0.016 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.44 0.105 11.59 <0.04 0.009 < 0.00 0.960 5.87 12/7/2006 4.76 11.6 3.93 7.67 <0.02 0.042 0.010 0.022 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.08 < 0.003 791.3 < 0.005 0.010 < 0.002 <0.04 5.150 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 30.14 0.059 < 0.0002 0.01 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.43 0.107 11.22 <0.04 0.008 < 0.00 0.954 5.88 12/12/2006 4.98 11.5 3.92 7.65 <0.02 0.040 < 0.001 0.025 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 851.2 < 0.005 0.014 < 0.002 <0.04 5.763 <0.3 < 0.001 0.04 33.14 0.053 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.10 0.091 12.95 <0.04 0.009 <0.00 1.081 6.01 1/8/2007 4.54 9.3 3.24 7.69 16:30 2/20/2007 3.81 15.3 2.61 7.67 14:02 <0.02 0.050 0.009 0.017 < 0.001 <0.10 0.07 < 0.003 572.1 < 0.005 0.014 < 0.002 <0.04 3.364 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 19.83 0.009 < 0.0002 0.02 0.009 < 0.010 0.017 6.55 0.061 5.73 <0.04 0.004 <0.00 0.910 4.99 3/7/2007 4.91 10 2.56 7.56 16:50 2 0.04 0.060 0.010 0.017 < 0.001 <0.10 0.12 < 0.003 569.3 < 0.005 0.012 < 0.002 <0.04 4.310 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 21.25 0.006 < 0.0002 0.02 0.014 <0.010 < 0.010 6.87 0.049 7.28 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.106 5.14 3/15/2007 5.04 7.1 2.14 7.62 17:15 0.05 0.024 0.009 0.012 < 0.001 <0.10 0.12 < 0.003 424.7 < 0.005 0.007 < 0.002 <0.04 2.802 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 15.04 0.015 < 0.0002 0.01 0.005 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.13 0.048 4.01 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.507 5.39 3/20/2007 5.3 10.2 2.13 7.65 13:43 0.04 0.023 0.007 0.011 < 0.001 <0.10 0.11 < 0.003 460.0 < 0.005 0.007 < 0.002 <0.04 2.420 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 14.20 0.010 < 0.0002 0.01 0.004 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.43 0.062 3.80 <0.04 0.005 < 0.00' 0.477 4.78 3/29/2007 5.18 7.9 1.8 7.72 9:35 0.07 0.028 0.007 0.010 < 0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 378.0 < 0.005 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 2.194 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 13.70 0.006 < 0.0002 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.51 0.037 3.85 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.00 0.478 5.05 4/4/2007 5.33 9.5 2.26 7.67 11:25 0.07 0.025 0.008 0.010 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.11 < 0.003 408.3 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.302 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 14.91 0.003 < 0.0002 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.50 0.041 3.81 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.417 5.44 4/11/2007 4.6 12.4 3.72 7.84 13:10 0.08 0.026 0.008 0.009 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.11 < 0.003 325.2 < 0.005 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 1.830 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 11.37 0.006 < 0.0002 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.92 0.032 3.23 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.376 4.67 4/19/2007 4.77 13.7 1.8 7.67 11:15 0.04 0.035 0.008 0.008 <0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 351.3 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.164 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 11.31 < 0.001 < 0.0002 0.01 0.006 < 0.010 < 0.010 3.54 0.033 3.59 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.537 4.63 4/24/2007 4.85 13.1 1.7 7.68 15:20 UBC1-D 11/16/2006 4.5 10.8 3 7.5 <0.02 0.060 0.006 0.024 < 0.001 <0.10 0.07 < 0.003 608.8 < 0.005 0.009 < 0.002 <0.04 4.779 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 24.05 0.060 < 0.0002 0.02 0.025 < 0.010 < 0.010 10.75 0.034 10.87 <0.04 0.008 <0.00 0.985 4.20 11/23/2006 4.6 10.8 3 7.5 <0.02 0.047 0.005 0.029 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 680.5 < 0.005 0.010 < 0.002 <0.04 5.734 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 33.44 0.069 < 0.0002 0.02 0.027 < 0.010 < 0.010 10.92 0.033 10.44 <0.04 0.007 <0.00 1.045 4.21 11/30/2006 4.61 9 2.9 7 <0.02 0.049 0.005 0.022 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 542.8 < 0.005 0.009 < 0.002 <0.04 4.105 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 19.04 0.060 < 0.0002 0.01 0.024 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.64 0.032 9.14 <0.04 0.008 <0.00 1.102 4.24 12/5/2006 4.61 9.2 3.2 7 <0.02 0.050 0.005 0.026 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 563.2 < 0.005 0.015 < 0.002 <0.04 4.474 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 21.31 0.064 < 0.0002 0.02 0.027 <0.010 < 0.010 9.91 0.032 10.25 <0.04 0.009 <0.00 1.134 4.25 12/7/2006 4.61 9.2 3.14 7.75 <0.02 0.053 0.005 0.023 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.08 < 0.003 621.7 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 4.915 <0.3 < 0.001 0.02 23.33 0.063 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.026 < 0.010 <0.010 10.36 0.034 11.39 <0.04 0.007 <0.00 1.197 4.34 12/12/2006 4.92 9.4 3.52 7.73 <0.02 0.048 0.005 0.028 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.08 < 0.003 717.6 < 0.005 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 5.934 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 28.88 0.075 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.028 < 0.010 < 0.010 11.60 0.036 13.14 <0.04 0.009 <0.00 1.386 4.48 1/8/2007 4.59 7.3 3.79 7.3 16:35 2/20/2007 4.56 12.3 3.47 7.56 14:00 <0.02 0.046 0.005 0.025 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003 756.5 < 0.005 0.012 < 0.002 <0.04 4.223 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 29.76 0.049 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.019 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.79 0.050 24.55 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.293 4.10 3/7/2007 4.7 8.6 2.46 7.63 17:10 2 0.04 0.044 < 0.001 0.017 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003 530.3 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 3.736 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 21.49 0.028 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.05 0.032 13.36 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.984 4.06 3/15/2007 4.59 7.1 2.14 7.62 17:15 0.05 0.039 0.006 0.014 < 0.001 <0.10 0.06 < 0.003 396.2 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.939 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 15.05 0.024 < 0.0002 0.01 0.013 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.45 0.028 9.60 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.620 4.22 3/20/2007 4.5 9 1.65 7.61 13:50 0.03 0.038 < 0.001 0.018 < 0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 518.1 < 0.005 0.007 < 0.002 <0.04 3.262 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 20.51 0.028 < 0.0002 0.01 0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.90 0.034 15.81 <0.04 0.005 <0.00 1.060 4.10 3/29/2007 4.8 7.5 2.37 7.62 10:00 4/4/2007 5.41 8.6 2.26 7.67 11:25 0.06 0.039 0.006 0.020 < 0.001 <0.10 0.10 < 0.003 567.5 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 3.590 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 27.04 0.024 < 0.0002 0.01 0.013 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.52 0.032 14.62 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.879 4.65 4/11/2007 5.45 8 1 7.74 13:15 0.07 0.037 0.004 0.015 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 427.1 < 0.005 0.012 < 0.002 <0.04 2.625 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 19.40 0.043 < 0.0002 0.01 0.012 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.32 0.021 13.93 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.706 3.87 4/19/2007 5.15 9.3 2.64 7.64 11:20 0.03 0.038 0.006 0.016 <0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 525.0 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 3.193 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 22.63 0.013 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.05 0.028 17.78 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.995 3.71 4/24/2007 5.2 9.1 2.44 7.62 15:30 UBC1 -E 1/8/2007 4.63 6.8 2/20/2007 4.9 9.5 3.37 7.95 14:20 <0.02 0.045 0.005 0.021 < 0.001 <0.10 0.06 < 0.003 625.1 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 .3.799 <0.3 < 0.001 0.05 26.62 0.032 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.014 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.90 0.046 21.06 <0.04 0.005 <0.00 1.014 3.69 3/7/2007 5.35 8.1 3.51 7.9 17:10 2 0.03 0.046 < 0.001 0.025 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 794.6 < 0.005 0.007 < 0.002 <0.04 4.693 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 28.94 0.036 < 0.0002 <0.01 0.021 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.43 0.048 24.27 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.307 4.05 3/15/2007 5.6 8 3.18 7.94 17:40 0.04 0.041 0.006 0.023 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 597.0 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 4.627 <0.3 < 0.001 0.02 23.86 0.029 < 0.0002 0.01 0.019 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.38 0.041 22.24 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.198 4.08 3/20/2007 11.91 8.5 2.14 7.93 14:05 0.04 0.039 < 0.001 0.015 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 442.9 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.889 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 16.44 0.020 < 0.0002 0.01 0.013 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.24 0.032 11.72 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.794 4.05 3/29/2007 5.46 8.3 2.41 8.03 10:10 4/4/2007 6.07 8.2 2.56 7.92 11:40 0.06 0.042 0.006 < o.oo: < 0.001 < 0.10 0.1 < 0.00.3 573.3 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 3.64 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 26.51 0.022 < 0.0002 0.01 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.55 0.036 17.92 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.955 4.3 4/11/2007 5.8 8.1 2.45 7.95 13:16 0.07 0.037 0.004 0.018 < 0.001 <0.10 0.1 < 0.003 551.9 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 3.33 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 23.89 0.023 < 0.0002 0.0 i 0.014 < 0.010 <0.010 7.09 0.028 17.09 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.913 4.01 4/19/2007 5.8 8.1 7.94 7.85 11:25 0.03 0.037 0.005 0.015 <0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 518.9 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 3.357 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 22.72 0.007 < 0.0002 < 0.01 0.012 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.36 0.026 17.43 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 0.913 3.97 4/24/2007 5.8 8.2 2.4 7.8 15:40 UBC1 -F 4/12/2007 5.2 8 4.2 7.8 15:24 0.06 0.048 < 0.001 0.025 < 0.001 <0.10 0.15 < 0.003 770.1 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 4.855 <0.3 0.227 < 0.02 33.11 0.056 < 0.0002 <0.0I 0.02 < 0.010 < 0.010 9.96 0.022 24.87 <0.04 < 0.003 <0.00 1.315 4.44 2 3 2 M.2 Water chemistry: soil water samplers Sampling Point Date Field Parameters Total Metals Diss. Oxy. T EC pH Time Volume Al Sb As Ba Be Bi B Cd Ca Co Cu Cr Sn Sr P Fe Li Mg Mn Mo Ni Ag Pb K Se Na TI Ti V Zn Si mg/l °C ms/cm ml mg/1 mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/1 mg/l mg/l UBC1-L1A 1/8/2007 3.99 6.8 7.31 7.52 16:50 4/11/2007 5 12.5 6.57 7.47 15:05 100 4/24/2007 4.5 l l .4 5.51 7.28 16:06 UBC1-L1B 1/8/2007 3.93 6.4 5.98 7.49 17:03 4/11/2007 4.98 12.8 4.82 7.49 15:02 4/19/2007 5.3 12 4.26 7.22 16:45 4/24/2007 4.9 M.9 3.98 7.48 16:09 U B C 1 - L 1 C 3/7/2007 4.38 8.3 4.5 7.68 150 3/29/2007 4.65 8.4 4.68 7.65 9.42 150 4/24/2007 4.74 l l . 7 4.25 7:46 16:15 UBC1-L2A 1/9/2007 3.08 16.6 4.36 7.6 11:30 250 4/11/2007 4.8 12.4 3.71 7.4 15:10 4/24/2007 4.92 M.2 3.43 7.77 16:25 UBC1-L2B 1/9/2007 2.61 13.8 8.44 7.42 11:40 250 2/20/2007 2.96 16.1 8.08 7.33 11:20 200 3/7/2007 3.38 7.9 4.62 7.25 17:40 500 0.05 0.011 < 0.001 0.027 < 0.001 < 0 . 1 0 0.09 < 0.003 786.9 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.257 <0.3 < 0.001 0.08 78.54 4.705 < 0.0002 0.01 0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 46.13 0.110 97.76 <0.04 < 0.003 0.008 0.844 7.80 3/15/2007 4.84 6.9 4.26 7.3 17:40 300 3/20/2007 4.3 11.6 4.08 7.19 14:53 300 3/29/2007 4.I5 7.5 3.82 7.16 9:50 500 0.13 0.016 < 0.001 0.023 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.11 < 0.003 679.8 0.009 0.014 < 0.002 <0.04 1.858 <0.3 0.033 0.10 69.60 4.170 < 0.0002 0.02 0.017 < 0.010 < 0.010 43.66 0.086 86.52 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.808 7.57 4/4/2007 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 4.06 10.8 3.5 7.37 11:50 4.35 10.1 3.41 7.1 15:18 500 0.11 0.019 < 0.001 0.022 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 596.0 0.011 0.011 < 0.002 <0.04 1.579 <0.3 < 0.001 0.09 63.30 3.748 < 0.0002 0.02 0.018 < 0.010 < 0.010 38.61 0.053 78.75 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.755 6.82 4.55 9.9 3.92 7.29 16:59 100 4/24/2007 4.55 9.4 3.67 7.02 16:33 100 UBC1-L2C 1/9/2007 6.1I 13.8 6.04 7.51 11:50 300 2/20/2007 3.63 15.4 4.16 7.48 11:30 500 <0.02 0.013 0.006 0.026 < 0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 732.5 0.008 0.010 < 0.002 <0.04 2.121 <0.3 < 0.001 0.15 71.49 4.421 < 0.0002 0.02 0.031 < 0.010 < 0.010 59.41 0.108 88.63 <0.04 0.01 0.008 0.609 9.00 3/7/2007 3.79 8.2 3.24 7.56 17:50 250 3/15/2007 3.92 7 3.27 7.62 17:47 250 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/19/2007 4/24/2007 4.17 8.3 3.44 7.44 9:58 500 0.08 0.015 0.005 0.021 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.11 < 0.003 686.3 0.01 0.014 < 0.002 <0.04 1.693 <0.3 0.037 0.10 68.38 4.754 < 0.0002 0.02 0.033 < 0.010 < 0.010 40.44 0.036 77.24 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.739 9.19 4.I2 10.2 3.48 7.48 12:00 4.35 9.4 3.92 7.29 16:59 100 4.18 9.8 3.7 7.02 16:33 100 UBC1-L2D 1/9/2007 7.05 13.2 3.71 7.61 11:58 2/20/2007 3.05 15.4 3.33 7.49 11.35 250 3/29/2007 3.69 8.2 3.39 7.5 10:03 UBC1-L2E 1/9/2007 3.93 11 3.3 8.25 1:12 700 2/20/2007 4 13.3 3.79 8.26 11:42 750 4/11/2007 5.47 11.2 0.5 8.39 15:35 100 4/19/2007 5.2 10.1 0.9 7.86 17:03 150 UBC1-L4A 1/9/2007 3.93 11 3.3 8.25 1:12 700 2/20/2007 4 13.1 3.79 8.26 <0.02 0.020 < 0.001 < o.oo: < 0.001 <0.10 0.05 < 0.003 63.61 < o.oo: < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 0.536 <0.3 < 0.001 <o.o: 2.676 0.041 < 0.0002 0.02 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.23 0.019 1.68 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.108 8.25 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 5.47 11.2 0.5 8.39 15:35 100 5.2 10.1 0.9 7.86 17:03 150 4/24/2007 5.02 10.8 0.4 8.37 16:44 150 UBC1-L4B 1/9/2007 3.2 10.2 4.98 7.89 12:15 800 3/7/2007 4.27 8.2 0.384 8.52 17:58 150 3/15/2007 5.46 6.9 0.7 7.79 18:00 150 4/11/2007 4.8 11.6 0.7 7.82 15:40 80 4/24/2007 5.I5 10.8 0.4 7.82 16:48 250 UBC1-L4C 1/9/2007 3.28 9.4 8.55 7.84 12:28 900 2/20/2007 3.26 13.5 0.785 7.84 11:50 550 <0.02 0.019 < 0.001 0.032 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.12 < 0.003 155.9 < 0.005 0.02 < 0.002 <0.04 1.566 <0.3 < 0.001 0.03 6.577 0.139 < 0.0002 0.01 0.005 <0.0I0 < 0.010 7.51 0.024 2.9 <0.04 < 0.003 0.01 0.124 12 3/7/2007 4 8.1 0.804 8.05 18:00 250 3/29/2007 4.1 8.2 0.8 7.89 10:12 150 4/11/2007 5.45 10 0.5 7.79 15:43 500 0.11 0.018 < 0.001 0.016 < 0.001 <0.10 0.07 < 0.003 83.48 < o.oo; 0.007 < 0.002 <0.04 0.673 <0.3 < 0.001 <o.o; 3.568 0.084 < 0.0002 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.39 0.022 0.88 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.458 8.5 4/19/2007 4.47 8.1 0.5 7.78 17:15 300 UBC1-L4D 1/9/2007 3.87 11.5 12:32 2/20/2007 3.92 16.5 1.05 7.69 12:00 200 3/7/2007 7.54 8.1 0.946 7.8 18:10 120 3/15/2007 5.29 7.1 1 7.85 18:10 150 3/20/2007 5.2 10.7 1.2 7.64 15:10 100 3/29/2007 4.92 7.9 1 7.66 10:16 100 4/4/2007 5.58 10.8 0.9 7.69 12:10 4/11/2007 5.29 11.1 0.8 7.67 15:48 250 UBC1-L4E 2/20/2007 4.01 17.5 1.07 7.8 12:05 300 3/7/2007 5.45 8 0.985 7.8 18:15 150 3/15/2007 5.07 6.7 1 7.82 18:15 180 3/20/2007 3/29/2007 5.1 8.2 1.1 7.72 10:19 200 4/4/2007 5.I2 11.1 1 7.71 12:20 4/11/2007 5 11.2 0.8 7.69 15:52 250 -M.2 Water chemistry: soil water samplers (continued from previous page) Sampling Point Date Field Parameters Dissolved Metals Diss. Oxy. T EC pH Time Volume Al Sb As Ba Be Bo B Cd Ca Co Cu Cr Sn Sr P Fe Li Mg Mn Hg Mo Ni Ag Pb K Se Na Tl Ti V Zn Si mg/l °C ms/cm ml mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l UBC1-L1A 1/8/2007 3.99 6.8 7.31 7.52 16:50 4/11/2007 5 12.5 6.57 7.47 15:05 100 4/24/2007 4.5 11.4 5.51 7.28 16:06 UBC1-L1B 1/8/2007 3.93 6.4 5.98 7.49 17:03 4/11/2007 4.98 12.8 4.82 7.49 15:02 4/19/2007 5.3 12 4.26 7.22 16:45 4/24/2007 4.9 11.9 3.98 7.48 16:09 UBC1-L1C 3/7/2007 4.38 8.3 4.5 7.68 150 3/29/2007 4.65 8.4 4.68 7.65 9.42 150 4/24/2007 4.74 11.7 4.25 7.46 16:15 UBC1-L2A 1/9/2007 3.08 16.6 4.36 7.6 11:30 250 4/11/2007 4.8 12.4 3.71 7.4 15:10 4/24/2007 4.92 11.2 3.43 7.77 16:25 UBC1-L2B 1/9/2007 2.61 13.8 8.44 7.42 11:40 250 2/20/2007 2.96 16.1 8.08 7.33 11:20 200 3/7/2007 3.38 7.9 4.62 7.25 17:40 500 0.04 0.011 < 0.001 0.027 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 786.4 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.199 <0.3 < 0.001 0.08 75.34 4.705 < 0.0002 0.01 0.015 < 0.010 < 0.010 46.08 0.101 95.38 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.841 7.65 3/15/2007 4.84 6.9 4.26 7.3 17:40 300 0.04 0.014 0.005 0.026 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 701.5 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.310 <0.3 < 0.001 0.11 66.52 4.837 < 0.0002 0.02 0.018 < 0.010 < 0.010 54.19 0.097 106.90 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.945 9.42 3/20/2007 4.3 11.6 4.08 7.19 14:53 300 0.06 0.013 < 0.001 0.024 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 677.7 0.009 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.886 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 62.81 4.108 < 0.0002 0.02 0.019 < 0.010 < 0.010 48.55 0.114 85.40 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.950 7.34 3/29/2007 4.I5 7.5 3.82 7.16 9:50 500 0.09 0.013 < 0.001 0.021 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003 659.6 0.008 0.007 < 0.002 <0.04 1.784 <0.3 < 0.001 0.09 67.03 4.050 < 0.0002 0.02 0.016 < 0.010 < 0.010 42.20 0.083 82.77 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.791 7.35 4/4/2007 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 4.06 10.8 3.5 7.37 11:50 4.35 10.1 3.41 7.1 15:18 500 0.10 0.018 < 0.001 0.020 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.07 < 0.003 594.0 0.011 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.550 <0.3 < 0.001 0.08 61.70 3.660 < 0.0002 0.02 0.018 < 0.010 < 0.010 36.09 0.051 74.76 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.691 6.48 4.55 9.9 3.92 7.29 16:59 100 0.05 0.02 < 0.001 0.02 <0.001 <0.10 0.08 < 0.003 119.2 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.54 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 4.935 0.124 < 0.0002 <0.0I <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.49 0.049 1.68 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.89 9.53 4/24/2007 4.55 9.4 3.67 7.02 16:33 100 UBC1-L2C 1/9/2007 6.11 13.8 6.04 7.51 11:50 300 2/20/2007 3.63 15.4 4.16 7.48 11:30 500 <0.02 0.013 0.006 0.026 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.08 < 0.003 725.0 0.008 0.009 < 0.002 <0.04 1.780 <0.3 < 0.001 0.10 70.36 4.413 < 0.0002 0.02 0.028 < 0.010 < 0.010 58.49 0.108 88.59 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.560 8.87 3/7/2007 3.79 8.2 3.24 7.56 17:50 250 0.04 0.013 0.005 0.017 < 0.001 <0.10 0.11 < 0.003 588.1 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.522 <0.3 < 0.001 0.09 56.94 3.974 < 0.0002 0.02 0.025 < 0.010 < 0.010 40.40 0.033 80.46 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.601 8.71 3/15/2007 3.92 7 3.27 7.62 17:47 250 3/29/2007 4/4/2007 4/19/2007 4/24/2007 4.17 8.3 3.44 7.44 9:58 500 0.05 0.013 0.005 0.019 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.09 < 0.003 591.0 0.009 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.526 <0.3 < 0.001 0.09 62.99 4.440 < 0.0002 0.02 0.030 < 0.010 < 0.010 36.83 0.036 69.46 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.660 8.73 4.12 10.2 3.48 7.48 12:00 4.35 9.4 3.92 7.29 16:59 100 4.18 9.8 3.7 7.02 16:33 100 UBC1-L2D 1/9/2007 7.05 13.2 3.71 7.61 11:58 2/20/2007 3.05 15.4 3.33 7.49 11:35 250 <0.02 0.012 < 0.001 0.022 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.10 < 0.003 614.1 0.010 0.008 < 0.002 <0.04 1.390 <0.3 < 0.001 0.09 56.42 4.372 < 0.0002 0.02 0.033 < 0.010 < 0.010 42.26 0.071 71.25 <0.04 < 0.003 0.014 0.727 8.68 3/29/2007 3.69 8.2 3.39 7.5 10:03 UBC1-L2E 1/9/2007 3.93 II 3.3 8.25 1:12 700 2/20/2007 4 13.3 3.79 8.26 11:42 750 4/11/2007 5.47 11.2 0.5 8.39 15:35 100 4/19/2007 5.2 10.1 0.9 7.86 17:03 150 UBC1-L4A 1/9/2007 3.93 II 3.3 8.25 1:12 700 2/20/2007 4 13.1 3.79 8.26 <0.02 0.019 < 0.001 <0.00 < 0.001 < 0.10 <0.0 < 0.003 55.02 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 0.465 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 2.615 0.040 < 0.0002 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.13 0.017 1.05 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.081 8.25 4/11/2007 4/19/2007 5.47 11.2 0.5 8.39 15:35 100 5.2 10.1 0.9 7.86 17:03 150 4/24/2007 5.02 10.8 0.4 8.37 16:44 150 UBC1-L4B 1/9/2007 3.2 10.2 4.98 7.89 12:15 800 3/7/2007 4.27 8.2 0.384 8.52 17:58 150 3/15/2007 5.46 6.9 0.7 7.79 18:00 150 4/11/2007 4.8 11.6 0.7 7.82 15:40 80 4/24/2007 5.15 10.8 0.4 7.82 16:48 250 UBC1-L4C 1/9/2007 .3.28 9.4 8.55 7.84 12:28 900 2/20/2007 .3.26 13.5 0.785 7.84 11:50 550 <0.02 0.018 < 0.001 0.026 < 0.001 <0.I0 0.12 < 0.003 133.3 < 0.005 0.017 < 0.002 <0.04 1.165 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 5.811 0.131 < 0.0002 < 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.89 0.024 2.24 <0.04 < 0.003 0.01 0.098 11.42 3/7/2007 4 8.1 0.804 8.05 18:00 250 0.07 0.018 < 0.001 0.028 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.12 < 0.003 142.7 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.387 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 5.761 0.140 < 0.0002 < 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.28 0.027 2.63 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.115 11.51 3/29/2007 4.1 8.2 0.8 7.89 10:12 150 4/11/2007 5.45 10 0.5 7.79 15:43 500 0.09 0.016 < 0.001 0.014 < 0.001 <0.10 0.05 < 0.003 77.8 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 0.632 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 3.475 0.078 < 0.0002 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.08 0.021 0.86 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.410 7.98 4/19/2007 4.47 8.1 0.5 7.78 17:15 300 0.05 0.019 < 0.001 0.015 <0.00l <0.10 0.05 < 0.003 92.6 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 0.743 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 3.680 0.086 < 0.0002 <0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 2.49 0.024 0.98 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.554 8.58 UBC1-L4D 1/9/2007 3.87 11.5 12:32 2/20/2007 3.92 16.5 1.05 7.69 12:00 200 3/7/2007 7.54 8.1 0.946 7.8 18:10 120 3/15/2007 5.29 7.1 1 7.85 18:10 150 3/20/2007 5.2 10.7 1.2 7.64 15:10 100 3/29/2007 4.92 7.9 1 7.66 10:16 100 4/4/2007 5.58 10.8 0.9 7.69 12:10 4/11/2007 5.29 11.1 0.8 7.67 15:48 250 0.09 0.022 < 0.001 0.019 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.07 < 0.003 119.9 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.116 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 5.262 0.095 < 0.0002 0.01 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.62 0.023 1.37 <0.04 < 0.003 0.016 0.67 10.5 UBC1-L4E 2/20/2007 4.01 17.5 1.07 7.8 12:05 300 <0.02 0.021 < 0.001 0.028 < 0.001 < O.iO 0.17 < 0.003 185.9 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.187 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 9.368 0.093 < 0.0002 <0.0 <0.00 < 0.010 < 0.010 8.69 0.032 4.04 <0.04 < 0.003 0.01 0.11 11.91 3/7/2007 5.45 8 0.985 7.8 18:15 150 3/15/2007 5.07 6.7 1 7.82 18:15 180 3/20/2007 0.06 0.016 < 0.001 0.036 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.12 < 0.003 205.3 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.218 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 8.583 0.214 < 0.0002 <0.0 0.008 < 0.010 < 0.010 7.96 0.037 2.83 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.51 12.36 3/29/2007 5.1 8.2 I.I 7.72 10:19 200 0.08 0.018 < 0.001 0.035 < 0.001 <0.10 0.09 < 0.003 186.8 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 2.027 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 8.805 0.212 < 0.0002 0.0 i 0.007 < 0.010 < 0.010 6.84 0.038 2.35 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 1.34 10.14 4/4/2007 5.12 II.1 1 7.71 12:20 4/11/2007 5 11.2 0.8 7.69 15:52 250 0.09 0.019 < 0.001 0.024 < 0.001 < 0.10 0.08 < 0.003 137.1 < 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.002 <0.04 1.583 <0.3 < 0.001 <0.02 5.872 0.148 < 0.0002 0.01 0.005 < 0.010 < 0.010 4.77 0.025 1.81 <0.04 < 0.003 < 0.007 0.84 9.88 

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