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Electroslag casting of valve bodies Gupta, Deepak 1982

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ELECTROS LAG  CASTING  OF  VALVE  BODIES  by  DEEPAK B.Tech.,  Indian  Institute  A THESIS THE  of  SUBMITTED  Technology,  IN  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  OF  GUPTA Kanpur,  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT  FOR  D E G R E E OF  THE  APPLIED  India,  OF  SCIENCE  in THE  FACULTY  Department  We  accept to  THE  of  OF  Metallurgical  this  the  GRADUATE  thesis  required  UNIVERSITY  OF  Deepak  Engineering  conforming  standard  BRITISH  January  (c)  as  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1982  Gupta,  1982  3E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s or her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Da  (2/79)  t e  OOW- f8- , t^S2~-  Columbia  written  ii ABSTRACT  The used  in  steel  Electroslag the  castings.  tion  of  valve  the  alloy  and  tested  by  concluded  required valent  This  that  advantages  or  better  method  for  the  steel  with  and  (AISI  valve  the  there present  may  be  code  the  been  widely  of  high  quality  results  316  and  of  and  bodies  offers  of  were  conventional difficulties qualification  shaped  at  and U.B.C.  methods.  easily  Therefore  examina-  CF-8M)  made  distinct  properties  an  simple ACI  destructive  specifications. the  has  production  production  technique  than  process  presents  4340)  this  ASME/ASTM  to  work  the  non-destructive  i n g s H o w e v e r , the  (AISI  (ESC)  for  Stainless  steel  production  Union  ESC p r o c e s s  bodies.  low  is  Soviet  Casting  It  quality meet  and  the  they  are  equi-  castings  and  forc-  in  reconciling  requirements.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures Acknowledgements  — •  Chapter 1  INTRODUCTION  2  PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 2.1  E l e c t r o s l a g R e m e l t i n g P r o c e s s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .. Which A f f e c t the P r o p e r t i e s o f the M a t e r i a l s ... 2.1.1 2.1.2  3  Related to Related to  Chemical Solidification  PRESENT WORK 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4  4  Characteristics Refining Characteristics structure  Furnace Design V a l v e Mold Design Melting Procedure Selection of Slags for  ESC P r o c e s s  EVALUATION OF ESC VALVE CASTINGS A . S T A I N L E S S STEEL VALVE CASTINGS 4.1 4.2  R e m e l t i n g Log f o r S t a i n l e s s S t e e l N o n - D e s t r u c t i v e T e s t i n g (NDT) 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.,3  4.3  Dye P e n e t r a n t T e s t U l t r a s o n i c Test Radiography Test  Destructive 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3  Testing  (DT)  Macrostructures Microstructures D e l t a F e r r i t e Measurements  ESC V a l v e s  ...  4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7  4.4  Interdendritic Microsegregation C o m p o s i t i o n A n a l y s i s and M a c r o s e g r e g a t i o n . . . P r o b l e m s W i t h A l l o y i n g D u r i n g t h e ESC Operation P r o b l e m s W i t h U s i n g C a s t E l e c t r o d e s i n ESC Operation  Mechanical Properties 4.4.1  Tensile Testing  B . LOW ALLOY STEEL VALVE CASTINGS 4.5 4.6  R e m e l . t i n g L o g f o r A I S I 4340 ESC V a l v e s N o n - D e s t r u c t i v e T e s t i n g (NDT) 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3  4.7  Destructive 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.7.4 4.7.5 4.7.6  4.8  Dye P e n e t r a n t T e s t Ultrasonic Test Radiography Test Testing  (DT)  Macrostructures Sulphur Prints Interdendritic Microsegregation C o m p o s i t i o n A n a l y s i s and M a c r o s e g r e g a t i o n Heat T r e a t m e n t and M i c r o s t r u c t u r e s Dimensional Measurements  Mechanical Properties 4.8.1  Tensile Testing  4.8.2  Impact T e s t i n g  5  OTHER T R I A L S AND FUTURE WORK  6  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES TABLES^ FIGURES APPENDIX 1 - ASME/ASTM S p e c i f i c a t i o n s  ...  V  L I S T OF TABLES  Tables  Page  I  Remelting  Log f o r S t a i n l e s s  II  Ferrite  Numbers  of Stainless  III  Average  Ferrite  Numbers o f S t a i n l e s s  Determined  Steel Steel  ESC V a l v e s  83  Castings Steel  by Magne-Gage and S c h o e f e r ' s  Castings  Diagram  85  IV  Interdendtitic Microsegregation  V  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e No. 5 (CF-8M)  87  VI  Chemical  Composition  o f Valve No. 6 (316)  87  VII  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e N o . 7 (316+Cr)  88  VIII  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e No. 9 (CF-8M)  88  IX  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e N o . 10 (316+Cr+Mo)  89  X  Chemical  Composition  of Conventional  89  XI  Percent Parent  Composition  Ratios  84  o f CF-8M C a s t i n g s  Casting  ..  (CF-8M)  o f C r a n d Mo i n A r e a s 1 a n d 2 a n d t h e  V a l v e C a s t i n g N o . 10  90  XII  Tensile  XIII  T e n s i l e P r o p e r t i e s o f Valve No. 9 , Conventional Casting and ASME/ASTM S t a n d a r d s f o r A I S I 316 a n d A C I C F - 8 M T e n s i l e P r o p e r t i e s o f l a r g e specimens from V a l v e N o s . 6 and  91  9 and s m a l l  92  XIV  Properties  86  o f V a l v e N o s . 5 , 6 and 7  specimens  XV  Remelting  XVI  Interdendritic  from a l a r g e  90  specimen  L o g f o r A I S I 4 3 4 0 ESC V a l v e s Microsegregation  at the Centre  ESC V a l v e s  93 o f AISI  4340 94  XVII  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e N o . 3 (4340)  95  XVIII  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e No. 8 (4340)  96  XIX  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e No. 13 (4340)  97  XX  Chemical  Composition  o f V a l v e N o . 14 (4340.)  9  7  vi Page  Tables  XXI  Sulphur Contents of  XXII  Dimensional  XXIII  Tensile  XXIV  Tensile Properties Bar  XXV  XXVI  XXVII  XXVIIIa  t h e A I S I 4 3 4 0 E l e c t r o d e a n d ESC V a l v e s .  M e a s u r e m e n t s o n V a l v e N o s . 1 1 , 12 a n d 13  Properties  of AISI of  A I S I 4340 Hot  ...  99  Rolled 100  Transverse Tensile Properties M e l t e d A I S I 4340 S t e e l s 7 5  of Air-melted  Longitudinal Mechanical Properties R e m e l t e d A I S I 4340 S t e e l 7 5  and Vacuum-arc 100  of  B a r S t o c k Made From 100 l  M e c h a n i c a l P r o p e r t i e s o f ESR 4340 M a t e r i a l i n t h e T r a n s verse D i r e c t i o n Heat T r e a t e d t o D i f f e r e n t S t r e n g t h Levels^ ...  101  Tensile Properties ( A I S I 4340)  101  of  L a r g e S p e c i m e n s f r o m ESC V a l v e  X X V I l i b T e n s i l e P r o p e r t i e s o f Small Specimens from Large S p e c i m e n f r o m ESC V a l v e N o . 8 ( A I S I 4 3 4 0 ) XXIX  98  4340 E l e c t r o s l a g C a s t V a l v e s  Conventional  98  FATT V a l u e s E s t i m a t e d f r o m Ductile-Brittle-Transition C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e ESC and E l e c t r o d e M a t e r i a l  :i  No.8  101  102  VI 1  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  Page 8  1  E l e c t r o s l a g cast products  2  'YOZO'  3.  Schematic of  4 5  F r a c t u r e t o u g h n e s s o f ESC A I S I 4 3 4 0 s t e e l c o n t a i n i n g v a r y i n g amounts o f s u l p h u r ^ E l e c t r o s l a g casting i n s t a l l a t i o n at U.B.C  106 107  6  Orthogonal  108  7a  Plan views of  7b  Sections through  8  Assembled v a l v e mold  Ill  9  Slag melting  HI  10  103  process of Mitsubishi  Solidified  the  Heavy I n d u s t r i e s  Ltd.  1  1  '  1  2  ESC p r o c e s s  views of the  the  v a l v e mold segments  109  v a l v e mold segments  110  furnace  s l a g s k i n on t h e  104 105  v a l v e mold segments the  ...  casting  CaF^AjZ^-CaO  system  112 no  IT  Phase diagram f o r  113  12  Stainless steel  13  Longitudinal  holes in the  14  Schematic of  the  15  Macrostructure  of  V a l v e No. 5 (CF-8M)  16  Macrostructure  of  V a l v e No. 6 (316)  H7  17  Macrostructure  of  V a l v e No. 9 (CF-8M)  118  1.8  Macrostructure  of  V a l v e N o . 10 (316+Cr+Mo)  119  19  Macrostructure  of  conventional  120  20a  M i i c r o s t r u c t u r e o f CF-8M ESC v a l v e s b e f o r e ment ( e t c h a n t - o x a l i c a c i d )  ESC v a l v e  H4 c a s t i n g s due t o m o i s t u r e  sectioning  procedure of  casting  the  valves  (CF-8M) heat  H5 H6  treat121  20b  Microstructure ments ( e t c h a n t  21  M i c r o s t r u c t u r e o f a s - c a s t ESC V a l v e N o . 5 , 6 a n d 7 (etchant - o x a l i c acid)  22  Microstructure of heat-treated 7 (etchant - o x a l i c acid)  23  Microstructure of ( e t c h a n t - KOH)  24  M i c r o s t r u c t u r e of heat t r e a t e d c a s t i n g ( e t c h a n t - KOH)  25  Microstructure of ( e c h a n t - KOH)  V a l v e No. 9 i n  26  Microstructure of ( e t c h a n t - KOH)  V a l v e No. 9 i n h e a t - t r e a t e d  27  Microhardness indentations  28  S c h o e f e r ' s diagram f o r determination of s t a i n l e s s steel castings66  29a  V a r i a t i o n o f C r , Ni and:Mo a c r o s s t h e d e n d r i t i c d i r e c t i o n i n V a l v e No. 9 a t t h e edge  29b  V a r i a t i o n o f C r , N i and Mo a c r o s s t h e d e n d r i t i c d i r e c t i o n i n V a l v e No. 9 a t the c e n t r e . .  30a  V a r i a t i o n o f Cr'v.;Nf and ;Mo a c r o s s t h e ' d e n d r i t i c : '"' v: ; d i r e c t i o n i n c o n v e n t i o n a l c a s t i n g a t t h e edge  30b  V a r i a t i o n o f C r , N i , and Mo a c r o s s t h e d e n d r i t i c d i r e c t i o n i n conventinal c a s t i n g at the m i d - r a d i u s  30c  Variation of direction  o f C F - 8 M ESG v a l v e s a f t e r - oxalic acid)  heat  ESC V a l v e N o . 5 , 6 a n d  CF-8M s p e c i m e n h e a t e d t o  CF-8M  850°C  conventional  as-cast  condition  condition  on s i g m a and a u s t e n i t e p h a s e s . . of  C r , N i , and Mo a c r o s s t h e  in conventional  treat-  casting at  ferrite  dendritic  the  centre..  31  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e No. 5 (CF-8M)  32  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e No. 6 (316)  33  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e No. 7 (316+Cr)  numbers  .  '',*;  Figure  34  Composition v a r i a t i o n  in  V a l v e No. 9 (CF-8M)  35  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e N o . 10 (316+Cr+Mo)  36  Composition v a r i a t i o n  in  37  SEM p h o t o g r a p h s o f a g g l o m e r a t e d f e r r o a r e a 1 i n V a l v e N o . 10  alloy  powder  in  38  SEM p h o t o g r a p h s o f a g g l o m e r a t e d f e r r o a l l o y a r e a 2 i n V a l v e N o . 10  powder  in  39  EDXA p l o t s o f a g g l o m e r a t e d f e r r o a l l o y p o w d e r i n 1 and 2 and t h e p a r e n t m e t a l ( V a l v e N o . 1 0 ) 7.  conventional  casting  (CF-8M)  areas '.  40a  EDXA p l o t s powder  of  inclusions  i n a r e a s 1 and 2 and  Fe-Cr  40b  EDXA p l o t s  of  inclusions  i n a r e a s 1 a n d 2 and  Fe-Cr  of  inclusions  in  powder 40c  EDXA p l o t s  41  Macroporosity  42  Macrostructure V a l v e No. 9  of  the  electrode  43  Macrostructure  of  the  CF-8M e l e c t r o d e dropped  44  Inclusions in the and e l e c t r o d e t i p  45  I n c l u s i o n s i n the e l e c t r o d e p i e c e dropped i n V a l v e No. e l e c t r o d e t i p and t h e p a r e n t c a s t i n g ( V a l v e No. 9)  46a  EDXA p l o t s o f i n c l u s i o n s i n t h e e l e c t r o d e i n V a l v e No. 9 and t h e e l e c t r o d e t i p  46b  EDXA p l o t s o f ( V a l v e N o . 9)  47  Schematic to e x p l a i n the i n V a l v e No. 9  48  Macrostructure of i n V a l v e No. 9  in  the centre  F e - M o powder of  the  CF-8M e l e c t r o d e  piece t h a t dropped  in  e l e c t r o d e p i e c e dropped i n V a l v e No. 9 ( o p t i c a l photographs)  inclusions  the  in the  piece  parent  casting  p e c u l i a r pool  profile  peculiar  pool  profile  dropped  observed  observed  9,  Figure  49  Schematic of  the  tensile  specimens used  50  Variation stainless  51  Photograph of small t e n s i l e  t h e deformed and f r a c t u r e d specimen from V a l v e No. 6  areas  of  52  Photograph of large tensile  t h e d e f o r m e d and f r a c t u r e d specimen from V a l v e No. 6  areas  of  53  A I S I 4 3 4 0 ESC v a l v e  54  Cracks  55  Radiographs of  V a l v e No. 3  56  Macrostructure  of  of t e n s i l e properties steel castings  ..  with f e r r i t e  i n V a l v e N o . 14 r e v e a l e d b y d y e - p e n e t r a n t  V a l v e N o . 3 Top - HC£ e t c h Bottom ( N H ) S 0 4  2  57  Macrostructure  of  V a l v e N o . 8 (HC£ e t c h )  58  Macrostructure  of  V a l v e N o . 13 ( H C P . e t c h . ) ' - . , .  59  M a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f V a l v e N o . 14 (HC£ e t c h ) etched f o r a longer time)  60  Macrostructure steel  number  ESC v a l v e  of  the  4  (top  transverse section of  a  test  etch  part  mild  (HC£ e t c h )  structure  of  61  Dendritic  V a l v e No. 3  62  Sulphur prints  of  V a l v e No. 3  63  Sulphur prints  of  V a l v e No. 8  64  Variation direction  o f C r , N i , a n d Mo a c r o s s t h e i n V a l v e No. 8  65  Variation direction  o f C r , N i and Mo a c r o s s t h e i n V a l v e N o . 13  dendritic . —  66  Variation direction  o f C r , N i a n d Mo a c r o s s t h e i n V a l v e N o . 14  dendritic  67  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e No. 3  of  dendritic  Figure  68  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e No. 8  69  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e N o . 13  70  Composition v a r i a t i o n  i n V a l v e N o . 14  71  Machined AISI  72  Separated surfaces along a crack  73  Hardness v a r i a t i o n  in heat-treated  V a l v e N o . 13  74  Hardness v a r i a t i o n  in heat-treated  V a l v e N o . 14  75  M i c r o s t r u c t u r e s A I S I 4340 v a l v e i n a s - c a s t and h e a t treated conditions; electrode in heat-treated condition  76  M i c r o s t r u c t u r e of AISI treated condition  77  Fractographs of large t e n s i l e f r o m ESC v a l v e N o . 8  78  O r i e n t a t i o n of the V a l v e No. 8  79  Ductile b r i t t l e transition characteristics V a l v e No. 3 and t h e e l e c t r o d e  of  80  Ductile b r i t t l e V a l v e No. 8  transition  characteristics  of  81  Ductile b r i t t l e Valve No.13  transition  characteristics  of  82  O p t i c a l f r a c t o g r a p h s o f charpy specimens from v a l v e No. 8 t e s t e d a t d i f f e r e n t t e m p e r a t u r e s and o r i e n t a t i o n s a - TT b - TL c ~ E d - E .....  83  Optical fractographs A I S I 4340 e l e c t r o d e  84  SEM f r a c t o g r a p h s  85  4 3 4 0 ESC v a l v e  SEM f r a c t o g r a p h s charpy specimen  of  i n V a l v e N o . 14  4 3 4 0 ESC V a l v e N o . 13 i n  specimens of AISI  c h a r p y s p e c i m e n s and t h e ,  of  heat-  4340  notch  charpy specimens from  in  the  charpy specimen a - r i d g e area b - micro-cracks  of different  regions  of  a  ..  xi i Figure  Page  86  Soviet electroslag  cast valve  87  Schematic of  88  Electroslag casting of a flange  89  ESC v a l v e w i t h t h e w e l d e d i n s e r t  90  Macrostructure  193  t h e methods used f o r  of  the  making h o l l o w  for  ESC v a l v e s  use i n v a l v e bodies  ESC v a l v e w i t h t h e w e l d e d i n s e r t  ..  194 195 1  ...  9  5  196  xi i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  would  Professor guidance  Alec  The  the  are  assistance  And the  Canada  Mr.  and  of  the  of  of  course  my  technical  am  Sciences the  to  Sidla,  I  his  Metallurgy  the  Gus  sincerely  for  extended  finally,  Natural  thank  Mitchell,  Department  particular  of  to  throughout  Thanks of  like  is  and  American  research  friendly  of  this  fellow for  research  their  students  helpful  of  this  suggestions.  department,  in  appreciated.  financial  Engineering  Research  and  and  project.  the  Iron  for  supervisor,  assistance  graduate  staff  greatly  thankful  my  Steel  assistance Council  Institute.  of  1 Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION  With nuclear  the  industry,  ceptionally creased are  products  a  and  Remelting  other  process wide  process  years.  ESR h a s for  is been  the  trolled  overall  by  the  service. was has  only  The  been  high common  remelting  material The  processes' very  by  has  in-  components  result  i s ,  as  might  conventionally  used  Over  prior  the  early  (ESR) the  be  made  to  instal-  Vacuum  Arc  as  mid-  the  extensively  in  the  process,  last  on.  fifteen  industrially-viable  quality  material.in  objective  behind  processes  was  chemical  possible  high  advantages  of  low  ex-  the  as  an  with  for  Remelting  as  and  r e l i a b i l i t y  Although  new.  of  metals  testing  conceived  established  components,  of  rigorous  relatively  quality  the  yield.  pass  these  aerospace  and  The  rejection  range.  both  quality  Electroslag  s o l i d i f i c a t i o n .  offset of  high  it  the  specialty;  rigid.  production  composition of  in  of  of  specifications  more  to  when  hand,  producing  life  fail  century,  development  is  rate  (VAR)  thirty  years,  high  for  of  The  and  fail  nineteenth  the  standards  more  which  expansion  demand  tremendously.  expected,^..-  last  and  the  high  becoming  lation  growth  rejection  the  that  refining cost  of  of  and  con-  remelting  increased rates,  a  service  and  high  2 I n i t i a l l y , for of  upgrading ESR was  gained years  the  the  air-melted  extended  prominence it  ESR p r o c e s s  became or  to  in  evident  better  applications  the  cast  ihgs.  This  led  to  speculation  as  ESR  process  can  be  extended  produce  the  final  step  in  this  slag  Casting  or  logical (ESC)  Generally, ated  with  metallic  produce scale  only  the  increase cost  process  with  the  most  of  as  as  involve  heavy  defects  it  same the  and  equi-  and  forg-  the  very  close  shapes).  to  The  next  the  Electro-  components  are  associ-  porosity,  and  hence  of  these  can a  the  better  unattractive.  not  only  possible  defects  the  small  mentioned  to  ones,  above  The to  they  are  castto  a  hot  small working  eliminate material,  properties  produce  and  to  However,  but  and  possible  quality  mechanical  non-  recent  limited  applied  step  as  is  are  this  ease  it  poor  with  expense.  be  large  have  Although  capital  produce  anisotropy  is  was  of  squeeze-casting, castings,  makes  recent  not  emergence  cast  properties.  quality  in  net  shrinkage,  ( f o r g img :and r o l 1 i n g )  casting  shapes  the  segregation  such  and  the  ESC  such  mechanical  better  was  or  use  process  castings  whether  (near  conventionally  inclusions,  processes  extra  sequence  the  techniques,  to  the  the  During  conventional  product  Then  process.  defects  anisotropic ing  forged  U.S.S.R.  ESR m a t e r i a l  to  to  in  and  also.  valent  cast  the  used  material.  countries;  that  than  widely  quality  forging  other  was  with  large are  but  and the  castings  free  manufactured  from  3 at  a  comparatively  used of  low  The  E.O.  Paton  the  ESC p r o c e s s  applications.  grams  to  very  cost.  Institute to  in  produce  These  range  Kiev,  U.S.S.R.  components  from  large  valve  bodies,  gears,  etc.  weighing  for  dentures r o l l s ,  has a  extensively  wide  weighing  pressure  variety a  few  vessels, 1-2  crankshafts:,  ;  Figure  Numerous  1).  examples  of  several  these  are  tonnes  (see  published  in  the  3-23 literature. like  The  valves,  reactor  pumps,  nuclear  has  been  ESC  tubes  manufactured have HK  used  by  sections,  been  produced.  diesel  the  for  of  header  tubes  9 ' duty  for  diameter  to  area  boiling  several  produce with  some of  components  industry  of  J a p a n .  reformer  varying  'I'  industry 3-9  occasions.  beam  rolls  and  gears.  up  160  tonnes  have 1  0  -  sections is  The in  1  been They  2  tubes  section,  ESC a p p l i c a t i o n  to  water  petrochemical  Corporation  and  crankshafts  been r e p o r t e d Union. Heavy  on  Tubes  crankshafts,  engine  the  for  petrochemical  (YOZO)  Another  1 1  and  the  2).  fuel-hand!ing  fittings  Mitsubishi  Figure  of  Soviets  ESC m e t h o d  oval  of  the  (see  manufacture  by  steam  plants  fittings  the  alloys,  and  power  reported and  production  in elbows,  have  in  the  production  weight  has  4-7  6-7  meter  Raton a l s o reports' the  rolling Other  of  and t h e y a r e p r e s e n t l y i n use i n the Soviet kiln-ring g e a r s i n s i z e s up t o 1 5 0 t o n n e s 1 8 13  of  the  s t e e l .  reported  kilns  5  _  are  reported  manufacture 8  >  1  of  to  be  in  ESC r o l l s  service. for  use  4  ESC a p p l i c a t i o n s  include  die  blocks  in  ' in  '  4  alloys  similar  to  shape,  '  cast  ESC to  by  cision cast  a  hobbing  pressure  It  is  or  most  no  Hence  of  work it  cutters  from  is  or  of  for  cold  reports  has  been  the  done  in  of  determine  if  properties  ing  codes,  constraints.  from  Tl  shape,  above  available  aspect  ASME/ASTM  close  stainless  working  promising  the  made  the  l i s t  producing  considerable  the  cast  to  the  and  M2  17  gun  finished tool  tubes, o  steel,  and  steels 18  pre-  nozzles  vessels.  prospect hot  H13,  austenitic  evident  any  and  semi-finished  in  on  promising  that  the  dentures  without  Hll  finished  operation. are  this  of  ESC i n d e e d shape It  Soviet  is  also  origin  North  importance  to  investigate  of  the  North  American  l i t t l e  America.  process  ESC p r o d u c t s  obvious  and  in  Remelting  offers  components  field  Electroslag  given  that  this and  qualify  economic  to  under  manufactur-  5  Chapter  PROCESS  The vacuum  electroslag  arc  consumable  ature  process in  is  through  of  a  Detailed  electrode into  heating  an  liquid  process  region  the  arc,  slag  CHARACTERISTICS  process in  that  and  it  the  the  operation  use  the  a  high-temperHowever,  the  they  heating  resistance  and  of  a  the  WAR, w h e r e  uti1izes  electrode  to  processes  mold.  Unlike  ESR p r o c e s s  similar  through  a water-cooled  between of  is  both  melt  mechanism.  the  accounts  AND  remelting  remelting  solid  differ  DESCRIPTION  2  ingot  heating surface.  ESR p r o c e s s  are  avail-  24-29 able the  in  literature.  same  shaped in  as  as  copper heat  ESR p r o c e s s  water-cooled  Figure  made  the  The  3.  one or  mold.  of  a  aluminum:-  generated  in  high  shaped  the  slag  is  water-cooled  mold  in  directional,  formation  of  the  metal  pool,  in  the  liquid  and  uses  illustrated of  through  metal  the  the  inclusions drop, metal  as  the  it  pool.  a  slag  to  Joule  tip  and  the in  the  manner.  sulphur,  place  traverses  The  into  solidifies  respect  is  water-cooled  pole.  progressive  takes  composition  electrode  liquid  casting  with  and  other  a  schematically  desired  melts  which  non-metallic  ESC p r o c e s s  pool  from  and  the  the  pool  phorus  that  is  metal  the  is  mold  molten  of  ESC p r o c e s s  source  drops  refining  the  current  metal  a  of  electrode  molten  fective  fall  except This  A consumable pole  concept  during  through  A continuous  Efphosthe  the  shell  slag of  6 solid and  slag  this  casting  ,i s  gation;  built  smooth up  pattern. brings  the  the  progressively  by  a  All  this  Remelting  Almost  all  the  broadly  2.1.1  another, ones  which  large  of  under  sound s o l i d i -  macrosegreremoves  related  poro-  to  con-  virtues  the  the  chemical  those  related  to  solidification  quantities  of  low  in  the  starting  can  be  obtained that  by  one  reasonably  of  the  to  earned  its  name  even  when  isotropic  most  be  Refining  from  sulphur,  the  can  categories:  Chemical  important the  the  is  inherent  the  level  re-  removal  of  this  of is  31 '  highly  Of  structure.  most  using  process.  one  refining.  The  material.  at  properties  two  to  has  ESR, has,  mechanical  related  ESR p r o c e s s  on of  following  Related  Which  Materials  1iterature  30  and  and  defects  those  characteristics.  blished  eliminates  Characteristics  the  the  affect  Characteristics  fining  other  A  vertical  a minimum;  Process  existing  extolled  classified  The  and  casting.  casting  castings.  Properties  the  to  solidifying  nearly  effectively  cracks  the  these  the  to  Affect  or  and  surfaces  hot  Electroslag  point  mold  mierosegregation  shrinkage,  ventional  2.1  between  provides  fication  sity,  forms  Very basic  effective  mechanical  low  sulphur  slags. ways  It of  properties  is  levels well  obtaining is  through  estagood  7 32-35 sulphur  control.  results  of  a  amounts  of  sulphur.  series  fracture  in  sults  uniform  in  many  directions. in low  ladle  control deciding  steel  for  clusions the of  and  is  properties. literature  which  of  actual  mechanism  deal  inclusions  from  casting  is  the  by  exogenous  is  very  low.  be  in  obtaining  type,  the  are  size,  content few  de-  the  the  in-  also  mechanical in and  refer  to  inclusions  metal  and  level  controlling  available  very  Hence  other  optimum  inclusions  oxygen  of  are  in  achieve  important  inclusions  water-cooled  indigenous  to  and  electroslag  present  advances  improvement,  non-metallic  during  primary  sulphur  impurities,  the d i s t r i the are  remelting. mold,  the  remelted of  for  re-  control.  an  Removal  sulphide  dissolved  shape  overall  of  being  possible  to  step.  size  recent  the  ESR m a t e r i a l ,  a  is  sites  three  the  significant  f i r s t  the  in  process.  the  material  by  of  varying  and  ESR  with  inclusions  (formed  the  references  which  However,  it  many  in  shape  with  toughness  initiation  inclusion  residual  in  solidified  of  the  importance  Although  removed  most  distribution  bution  oxidation  the  detrimental  considerable  are  considered  against  only  containing  their  that  lowering  provides  and  shape  longer  or  fracture  characteristics  sulphide  although  sulphurisation  of  technologies,  no  the  steels  control  and  is  shows  sulphides  noteworthy  levels  However, the  cases,  is  4  ESR 4 3 4 0 Since  steelmaking  sulphur  of  of  fracture  It  sulphur  factor  Figure  either  As  the  chance material de-  deoxidants)  8 and/or s o l i d i f i c a t i o n cation) are present  (formed  by p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n ESR m a t e r i a l .  shows t h a t t h e e l e c t r o d e i n c l u s i o n elusion  content  of the i n g o t ,  during  solidifi-  Some o f t h e e a r l y  content  affects  but i t i s well  work  the  in-  accepted  now,  37 as are  Mitchell  points out, that  identifiable  metal  pool  there  deoxidation oxygen the  r a t e s a r e used.  metal  present,  The l i q u i d  content  inclusions  In t h e l i q u i d  unless  high  the s l a g .  characteristic  of the l i q u i d O C  very  has o n l y d i s s o l v e d  i n near e q u i l i b r i u m with  freezes, inclusions  and d e o x i d a n t  no i n g o t  electrode r e l i c s . '  a r e few i n c l u s i o n s  and d e o x i d a n t s  liquid  oxygen  as u n r e a c t e d  virtually  Of)  of the  a r e n u c l e a t e d and O ~l  grown  i n the ingot l i q u i d - s o l i d  zone.  gives  rise  o f s m a l l , g l o b u l a r and d i s -  persed lower  to a f i n e  inclusions. than  deformation formation  inclusions  (percent shape  importance  2.1.2  process  i n ESR i s much  inclusion  Characteristics  their  Related  upon  sulphide  u n i f o r m de-  of remelted mechanical  in rol-  Therefore, the  steels  i s o f prime  behaviour.  to S o l i d i f i c a t i o n  to the conventional  have an  inclusions  be a n i s o t r o p i c .  content  on n o n - u n i f o r m  I f the i n c l u s i o n s  (e.g. elongated will  effect  i n a r e a ) than  elongation).  i n determining  Contrary  This  fraction  have a g r e a t e r  reduction  material), ductility  non-metallic  volume  '  air-melting practice.  (percent  anisotropic led  The t o t a l  the best  Generally,  background  '  When  Structure  c a s t i n g processes  i n which  9 melting tional heat  and  casting  steps,  during  gradients blish  a  the  the  and  slow  rates  melt  character  thin  of  slag  dification free  of  f i r s t l y  which  due  levels  the  structure  or  microsegregation  to  low  mvcrosegregation  a  leads  rates  lead  pronounced Also  with  to  the  the  spot  to  esta-  condition rates).  Such  thermal  gra-  formation  of  metal.  which etc.  is  These  the s o l i -  practically  This  also  such  as  segregation,  efbanded  and  brings  minimum.  s o l i d i f i c a t i o n . structure  and  of  insulating  inhomogenities  macroscopic  melt is  to  hot-cracks,  macroscopic  freckles,  due  growth  off  to  shrinkage,  addition  controlled  the  wall  a  be  opera-  temperature  to  mold  lead  by  the  low  the  structure  rate  and  between  conditions  different  solidification  secondly  eliminates  melt  can  and  porosity,  equiaxed  rate  pool  fectively  librium  pool  and  Hence  gradients  possible  slag  the  Although  step.  directional  thermal  are  the  skin  and  separate  characterized  solidification  high  across  is  solidification  progressive by  two  ESR p r o c e s s  the  (obtained  dients  represent  as  a  the  very  increased  least  to  fine  dendritic  system  high  deviates  melt  rates  and  from  lead  microsegregation.  microsegregation  structure,  hence  An good  to  equian  optimum mechani-  38 cal  properties.  In  conclusion,  properties to  good  and  it  can  isotropic.,  chemical  refining  be  said  behaviour and  that of  the the  enhanced  mechanical  ESR m a t e r i a l  solidification  structure.  are  due  10 Chapter.  PRESENT  In Dr.  the  Alec  latter  part  of  Director  of  U.S.S.R.  Division  ESR T e c h n i c a l  A  10-inch  and  non-destructive  '  4  The  0  chemically nally  and  viability was  in  up  alloy  to  the  at  to  in-depth  U.B.C.  tonne.  stainless  The The  at  Medovar,  Institute,  in  the  valve  the  ASME  body  casting  Kiev,  U.S.S.R.  Evaluations  the  that  Boris  made  among  Westi nghouse  Paton  WEMD. of  initiated  of  are  destruca v a i l -  quality  requirements  and  as  failed origi-  workers.  the  a  Dr.  was  meet  Soviet  ESC p r o d u c t s ,  one  and  by  study  installed  ings  indicate  mechanically  to of  testing  results  predicted  Hence  U.B.C.  was  U . B . C ,  and  Development  and  tive  9  (WEMD)  at  evaluation  program  Metal lurgy  body  for  3  a  ESC v a l v e  sent  a b l e .  WORK  1974,  Mi t c h e l l , P r o f e s s o r of  Electro-mechanical  3  properties  simple  and  furnace  furnace  steels  from  is  has both  and  the  process  inexpensive capable made  of  ESC making  valve-body  wrought  furnace  and  cast-  castings  cast  elec-  trodes .  3.1  Furnace Detailed  has  been  Design account  reported  of  the  previously.  d e s i g n and 4  1  operation  of  this  furnace  11 The cooled  mechanical  electrode  aluminium of  a  rail  part  holder  I-beam  from  a  chain  this  in  electrode  The The  f i r s t  also  voltage 2.5  one The  is  at  variable  which  guides  from  having a  speed  0-163  part  rated  250  250  a  fixed  to  water-  the  is  suspended  controller  gives  a  (see  of  Figure  two  single  input 25V  -  down V  60V  of in  of  transformers.  input  phase  voltage  range  and  5).  step  12500  using  inside  reductor  is  of  vertically  carriage  KVA w i t h  range  can  move  a  speed  consists  at  of  variable  mm/min  KVA w i t h  over  a  consists  are  The  second transformer  rated  dry 600  and  600  type  and  V and  steps  of  V  output  about  V.  The panel  operating  which  not  parameters  only  shows  secondary  voltage  but  the  electrode  travel.  Also,  the  mold  cooling  Valve  Mold  Smooth vertical discussed directly  water  also  be  monitored  primary has  a  and  from  the  secondary  digital  a multichannel  counter  control  current to  thermometer  measure shows  temperatures.  Design  surface  f i n i s h ,  solidification unique  can  the  and  3.2  design  framework.  with  electrical  output. is  speeds  These  drive  conjunction  the  carriage  guides.  vertical single  of  and  features  of  flat  tops  shaped  and  bottoms,  products  ESR i n g o t s .  a t t r i b u t a b l e to or are s t r o n g l y  are  All  of  i nfl uenced  controlled  some  of  these by  mold  the are design  12 and  operating  ted  with  heat  the  parameters. manner  primarily  ingot  from  casting.  of  its  the  high  overall  also  for  into  and  to-shape viable  and  layer,  design  Cremesio  ESR m o l d s  et  used  are  the  a  the  mold  with  the  shape.  make  less  of  adds  to  some  ex-  to  because  substantially of  be  Since  molds  aluminum  the  solidified  copper  a  copper  formed  particularly  sections.  copper  costly  out  has  is  and  discussed  made  metal  associa-  dissipates  pool  Fabrication  This  contoured  fabrication of  as  is  42  This  product.  problem  been  al .  design  assembly  molten  has  cost  of  mold  mold  mold  and  d i f f i c u l t  the  inventory  unattractive,  was  to  considered  a to  castbe  a  alternative.  in  the  slag  the  conductivity.  mold  Gear fully  the  optimum  thermal  ESC m o l d s  costs  25  the  presents  welded  in  of  which  ESR m o l d  tent-.by Mi t c h e l 1  Most  in  The  castings U.B.C.  gear  using  The  mold  a  water  were  cast  aluminum  channel  roughly  mold  positions  calculated  to  were and  made  success-  dimensions  give  a maximum  hot-  43 face  temperature  this,  an  aluminum  of  300°C  mold  for  during  the  casting  ESC p r o c e s s .  of  valve  bodies  Following was  manu-  factured .  The pattern. Figure  valve The  6.  mold  was  orthogonal  Accordingly  cast views the  out of  of the  complete  aluminum valve valve  using  body mold  are was  a  steel given  divided  in into  13 four  segments  valve the  and  two  of  shows  the  3. 3  were  the  The  is  any at  is  There  the  In CaF^,  furnace  a  in  applied  ing  of  poured  CaF  the into  given  in  The  Figure  Besides  this,  one  top  the  on  and  the  accommodate  7a-b.  mold.  a  2  and  slag. the  base of  One  is  draw-  Figure  two  other  8  round at  the  molds  and  as  the  melting  crucible  all  CaF  2  an  to a  arcing  employed  Both  the  main  slag  plate. with  starter  'molten-slag'  furnace  and is  the  block to  i n i -  start  and  processes  were  arc  the  slag  mold  employs to  which is  a the  forms  through  (CaF )  and  2  the  component,  (see  added  heating  water-cooled  due  base  the  well.  start  the  copper  process,  start.  initiate  When  round  practices  known  equally  then  plate  the  different  slag  two  a water-cooled  system.  to  between  two  graphite  power  molten  sectional  the  'molten-slag'  electrode  of  valve.  the  'dry-slag'  graphite is  of  on  to  worked  melted has  of  to  initiation are  the  they  the  is  the  is  and  sides  depressions  placed  placed  process.  other  tried  is  damage  electrode  tiate  flat  mold.  mold  assembly  used.  -  the  Procedure  valve  prevent  used  for  cupped  are  valve  valve  Melting  whole  sections  assembled  of  molds  with  segments  molds  bottom  plate  molds  these  section  the  two  inlet/outlet  ings  To  -  has  Figure  i.e.  9).  This  single-phase 'furnace a  and  small  pool  resistance  heat-  melted,  is  electroslag  it  furnace  14  is  energized.  added  After  the  'dry-slag'  similar  to  and  electrode.  the of  these ses is  is  mold  applied  is CaF  the  and  is  2  the  continues  f i l l e d  mold,  tinuous  are  the  The  is the  up  components  are  t i l l  a  Either  of  one  that  it  the  the  energized,  CaF  is  established  by  melting  enough  volume  of  of  the  molten  After  components  dry  power  causes  slag  pres-  electrode  This  heating.  plate mix-  Then  path  metal  compressed  between is  a  starter  such  plate.  current  resistance  remaining  is  with  casting  solidifying  lowered  furnace  large  of  used.  annulus  electrode.  lowered  metal  and  being  have  solid  as  it  resolidified  terminated  of  is  be  of  the  pellet  starter  the  turnings  all  (CaO,  slag the  Ai^O^*  added.  castings  shell  the  a  short-circuit  sustain  electrode  power  utes.  to  melted,  etc.)  slowly run,  slag  between  can  electrode  When  of  placed  surrounding  walls.  generated  bed  turnings  against  the  across  The  the  metal  t u r n i n g s .under the  L^O.^  the  into  is  a  Alternatively  and  turnings  the  slag  remaining  start,  electrode  and  used  poured  the  the  CaF2  the  and  the  slowly.  In  ture  this  a  slag (see  the taken  smooth which Figure  melts  and  the  mold  metal.  At  the  end  is  withdrawn  electrode out  after  surface forms 10).  about  due  to  between  is of  the from  thirty  min-  thin,  con-  a the  mold  and  15 The  main  duction  of  operating  valve  castings  operating primary  3.4  melt  the a  slag  source, finer.' of  of  44  The  3000-4000  for  simultaneous  importance  choice  process.  It -  metal  correct  for  generation  most  functions  the  and  the  kg/min.  important is  it  choice ESR  component  required  must  act  container  successful  upon  A  Process  the  medium,  rests  (electrical  ESC  perhaps  remelting  Therefore  heat -  is  pro>  A  0.8-1.0  heat-transfer  prime  a)  current  pool  the  36-39V 200-260  Slags  during  follows:  current  of  electroslag  number  as  rate  Selection  The  were  established  voltage  secondary -  parameters  of  as  and  slag  to  in  ' f i l l  a  heat  metal  re-  . . composition  operation.  following:  transfer  characteristics  conductivity,  thermal  capacity  of  the  and  slag  thermal  conductivity). b)  slag  phase  perature, c)  The with  metal  more  properties viscosity,  refining  important  reference  to  -  (vapour  surface  slag  the  above  pressure,  tension  characteristics  of  . is  (chemical  points  selection.  and  are  liquidus  tem-  density). composition).  discussed  below  16  tant  The  ternary  and  universally  ESR.  Fluoride  CaF  and  t i v i t y  2  small  CaF  CaO -  +  additions  system  slag  decreases  the  solidus  and  A«-2 3-  It  has  been  to  pure  decrease  in  conductivity  Mitchell  and  Cameron  fluoride  ion  contribution  45  of  showed to  CaF the  liquid.  that the  this  a  The  occurs  total  ionic  of  liquidus conduc-  that  produces  impor-  field  electrical  observed 2  most  the  increases  A ^ O g  the  in  and  U  is  system  viscosity,  of  the  M^O^  applicable  generally  temperatures of  -  2  relatively substantial  work  of  because  mobility  the is  re-  3duced  by  through  complexing the 2  effect  rare  earth  fluoride ing  in  A&OF,,  and  A£0 F 2  2  .  This  would  be  reaction  A* .0  This  it  +  3  is  4F"  > A£0 F " 2  also  seen  oxides.  part  of  fluoride  +  A£0F~  +  2  2  A£0F~  addition  ions  charge  0 ~  +  addition  complex  as  A£0 F "  the  However,  the  ions  in  2  of  of  by  silicates  and  CaO r e p l a c e s  the  oxide  carriers,  ions  thus  of  releas-  e . g . ,  2  >  AJIO3"  +  2F~  0 "  >  AJ>0~  +  2F"  and  This  produces  an  2  increase  in  electrical  conductivity  but  this  44 increase the  is  addition  efficiency.  not of  substantial. A2- 0 2  3  leads  Low to  electrical  higher  melt  conductivity  rates  and  higher  by  17 It  has  Aj^Og  in  cause  A £  3  2°3  £  also  the  expecially  the  in  of  of  CaO.  an  of  by  the  dissolution This  acid/base  is  of be-  reaction:  a  slag  containing  overall  melting  CaO  time  and  efficiency.  temperatures  attained  directly  the .slag  components  by  faster  decreases  region  stability  slag  much  the  high  the  rate  2AiO"  This  increases  the  presence  essentially  dissolved  thus  that  the  2  CaF^ alone.  to  in  ° ~  than  Due  higher  +  is  46  noted  dissolves  n 2  hence  thermal  been  CaF^ is  A  and  also  should  below  the  components  have  a  low  during  the  melting,  electrode,  should  vapour  be  the  high  pressure.  i.e. Also  44 it  has  been  of  CaF^ through A£ 0 2  can  cause  Si0^  and  An melting  noted the +  3  that  2  3CaF  will  = =  2  shift  have  2A£F  in  similar  essential  requirement  medium  is  that  it  must  that  of  the  least  100°C  below  solid  phase  on  that  of  the  face  quality  freezing  m e t a l . of  of  CaO d u e  to  volatility  reaction  significant H 0  production  4  the  4  '  4  ' '  which These  castings.  +  3  3CaO  AJ^O^/CaO  ratio.  Presence  of  effects.  for  the  have metal, has  a  a  slag  to  liquidus but  must  melting  conditions  be  suitable  temperature also  point  lead  a  to  form higher good  at  a than sur-  18 The 11.  48  From  tures CaO  of  the  diagram  this  the  should  The of  phase  it  can  slag,  be  for  2  be  seen  in  the  refining  power  conditions,  deoxidation,  and  CaO i s  that  for  equal  primarily  of  as  (a.c.  a  Figure  liquidus  tempera-  of  A& 0 2  and  3  system.  are  course  used  in  proportions  slag  mode  shown  low  characteristics  composition,  is  3  ternary  slag  refined.  2  approximately  present  metal  CaF -A£ 0 -CaO  a  or  the  complex d . c ) ,  metal  function melting  that  desulphurising  is  being  agent.  44 It  has  been  suggested  that  (RE 0 )  to  the  ternary  regions  in  the  phase  2  3  compatible 20  with  diagram  of  a  rare-earth-oxide  CaF +CaO+A& 0 2  where  ESR p r o c e s s i n g .  of  2  the  leads  3  physical  Besides  to  wide  properties  strongly  are  complexing  and  presence basic  F~ of  Taking slag  (hence  are  with  steel  for  content  above  CaF  low  alloy  50%  2  CaF  0  ,  to  leads  sulphur  in  selected  (AISI  ,  for  15%  4340)  strongly Both  these  stainless steel  we  two  different  steel  and  low  had  A s ^  where  a  very  low  sulphur  had  15%  CaO  ,  the  ESR.  stainless  15% CaO  a  reactions.  consideration,  For  we  also  points  steel  required  r e s i s t i v i t y ) ,  for  were  ,  to  electrical  desirable  castings.  70%  is  respect  highly  the  the  complexes  n  compositions  alloy  increasing  (RE-0-S) ~  behaviour  conditions  and  system  addition  15% A £ 0 o  o  ,  20%  La 0 9  q  19 As the  the  castings  hydrogen  main  basic  slag,  and  the  one  is  low  electrode  so  hydrate  the  +  2  is  the to  to  basic  2  low  [0]+  partial  condition)  hydrogen  liquid  metal  pool,  would  Of  slags  are  ions  these  the  last  sufficiently by  (e.g.  today's slags  pick-up used  con-  from  because  the such  -  the  transferred  +  which  obtained  slags  (at  hygroscopic,  from  hydrogen  OH"  residual  to  [2H](at  slag  the  the  pressure promote  of  surface)  metal.  slag-metal  0^  in  transfer  Fe of  interface)  (as  in  hydrogen  metal  Careful molten  ^=^-0 "  a  Also  of  be  that  importance.  because  basic  ^ — 2 0 H "  2  two  can  Highly  formation  H 0  this  deoxidised the  contents  if  the  fact  of  the  electrode.  f i r s t  the  prime  ESR a r e  into  the  easily.  of  atmosphere  slag  the  subsequently  20H"  According  as  in  and  control  was  the  of  increased  promote  this  content  practice.  0 ~  and  of  basic  careful  castings  the  hydrogen  is  highly  hydrogen  serious  CaO)  atmosphere  of  through  melting  taining  the  humidity  hydrogen not  slags  in  the  were  deoxidised,  sources  transported  steel  used  were  content  Three  is  slags  slag  storage,  start  preheating,  technique  are  a  prefusing, few  ways  to  and  using  avoid  the  hydrogen  20 in  the  slag.  creating  a  the  by  on  slag a.c.  Hydrogen  dry  from  atmosphere  a  shielding  melting  has  the  by  atmosphere  simply  hood.  also  Application  been  during  ambiguous  electroslag  series  Utilizing lems  were  slag-start  was  severe  bottom  claimed  to  ternary  remelting,  molten-slag in  technique  of  slag  to  the in  diagram  was  create  dry  start  used,  2  2  70%CaF /15%Ca0/15%cU 0  tate  some  2  2  the  but  of d.c.  hydrogen  these  were  an  not  slag  3  the  did  prefused  of  solve  or  the in  this not  holes even  in  the  double The  11)  could  showed  precipi-  easily  eliminate  the  hydrogen  Figure  could  prob-  when  problem.  composition  and  slag  However,  problem  (shown  3  hydrogen  longitudinal  Using  solidified  prefusing  surface  50  technique,  the  several  did  that  Therefore  by  superimposed  reduce  castings.  CaF -A& 0 -Ca0  CaO w h e n  the  of  '  start  the  castings.  of  reduced  experiments.  encountered  enough  half  prefused  the  not  dry  of  be  protecting  49 content  can  rehydrate.  hydrogen  in  the  casting.  To in  the  avoid  dry-slag  ficiently so  hydrogen  high  susceptible  CaO  was  start,  used  ture  related  the  to  directly  moisture, and in  porosity  due  to  components  temperatures.  preheated  were  problems  CaF were  2  and  moisture were  La (C0 )  3  the  condition.  2  were  3  hot  was  observed.  heated  Aj^O^,  preheated  in  to  calcined No  the to  slag suf-  which  are  500°C  while  at  800°C.  traces  of  not  These mois-  21 Although  it  castings  were  taken  avoid  made  to of  sponge)  due  was  tion  of  hole,  argon  and  subjected  two  was  cast  ings the  next  and  has  steel  the  had  a  more  small  and  and  been  divided  steel  (AISI  valve  4340)  precaution  was  A  saffil  shielding  holes  at  the  side  one  additions  the  melting  made  in  (CF-8M).  testing  -  through  the for  addi-  the  other  operation.  low  alloy  All  the  (NDT),  steel  valves  (AISI were  macroexamination,  testing.  with  into  and  hood  ( A ^ O ^ > f i brous for  were  the  two  castings  valve  the  middle  steel  deals  with  in  the  mechanical  section  slag,  holes  in  during  stainless  the  the  hole  alloying  castings  that  atmosphere.  This  non-destructive  stainless  alloy  from  in  lined  passed  microexamination  The  moisture  and  valve  to  the  indication  steel  deoxidant  Several  clear  hydrogen  used.  and  a  to  stainless  electrode  4340)  was  evaluation  parts. while  castings.  Part part  of  valve  A deals  B deals  castwith  with  low  22 Chapter  EVALUATION  A.  STAINLESS  Five two  were  1.5%  STEEL  stainless made  from  OF  ESC VALVE  VALVE  steel CF-8M  max.  S i ,  0.04%  max.  9.0-12.0%  Ni,  2.0-3.0%  4  CASTINGS  CASTINGS  valves (0.08% S,  Mo)  were max.  0.04%  made. C,  max.  electrode,  Out  1.5% P,  of  max.  these  Mn,  18.0-21.0%  one  from  316  Cr,  (0.08%  max. C , 2.0% max. Mn, 0.03% max. S , 0.04% max. P , 1 .0% maxsi,' 10.0-14.0% from  316  chips  the  additions  of was  duce bar  who  CF-8M  bar  last  done  to  This does  was  with  316  and  have  rolled  addition  rolled  316  bar  bar  keeping  in  electrode  the  Mo)  of  view  controlled powder.  that  to even  316  The CF-8M  f a c i l i t y  available  one  chromium  chemistry  casting  readily  bar,  from  ferro-molybdenum  the  done  with  2.0-3.0%  controlled  change  not  a  manu-  can  pro-  rolled  composition.  this,  ventionally  cast  given  double  with  one  castings  Besides  The  with  Cr,  ferro-chrome  composition. facturer  16.0-18.0%  rolled  and  alloying  Ni,  was  a  properties  of  ESC v a l v e s .  a  CF-8M  after  block  refining  quenching this  (12" in  x  16%"  A0D.  The  treatment  conventional  from  casting  x  17")  heat  con-  treatment  1094°C were  was  (2000°F).  compared  23 A  typical  stainless  4.1  electroslag  steel  is  Remelting  Table  I  shown  casting  in  Figure  Log  for  Stainless  gives  the  melting  valves  made  by  istics  noticed  the  the  a  valve  ESC  conditions Some  melt  or  body  made  in  12.  Steel  ESC p r o c e s s .  during  of  in  Valves  for  of  5  the  the  stainless  special  castings  steel  character-  are  as  fol-  1ows : Valve (hence heard  no  hot  towards  section slag  and  crushed  large  tudinally  They  could  its  run.  avoid  any  porosity  in  However,  the  the  bottom  Figure  moisture also  1.3). being  be  for  due  to  As  of  a  of  due  a  slag  was for  moisture  in  was was  about  prefused sectioned,  running  longi-  8  inches  prefused, the  monoxide  in  slag  casting  of  discussed  the  pencil)  abrubtly  explosion  be  to  the  the  responsible carbon  minor  will  distance  the  interrupted  a  CaO),  when  diameter  be  This  (particularly  (about  were  the  holes  were  evolution  due  low. to  in-  deoxidation.  electrode  added  end  use.  Valve the  to  of  for  sufficient  had  the  from  of  Melting  because  To  observed.(see  -  cycle)  components  holes  chances  5  topping  4.3.7.  the  No.  the  No.  was  6  not  the  mold  over  the  slag.  was  The  long  beginning  Also  -  of  covered  The  casting  was  enough. the from  run the  incomplete  Extra to  aluminum  avoid  top  ;sectioned : casting  and  CO  powder  was  evolution  argon  again  because  was  passed  showed  24 longitudinal holes  were  holes. due  to  Valve to  increase  prefused were had  the  holes  -  point  content the  was  certain  However,  to  chromium  of  the  moisture the  considerably.  due  it  Electrolytic  avoid  holes.  were  7  chromium to  decreased  this  that  the  moisture.  No.  twice  some  At  size  As  rehydration  casting.  problem and  but  in  were  The  of  added  slag  again  density  mentioned  of  chips  was  there  these  holes  section  3.4  the  CaO i n  the  fused  precipitated  slag.  Valve temperature in  the  The  No was  Valve added  to  feeding  The  porosity  4. 2  the  feeding  was  powder  appropriate  does  the  and  -  slag  avoided  moisture  problem porosity  70%  Fe-Cr  and  Fe-Mo  and  rate  uneven  was  probably  segregated this  Testing  not  the  related  chromium  in  components  to of  high moisture  was  observed.  complete.  which  observed  U.B.C.  of  10  Non-Destructive  As the  No.  Heating before)  sound  arrangement  ferroalloy  -  trace  increase  casting.  9  (mentioned  slag.  casting  No.  have  ultrasonic  in  65%  molybdenum  contents  because  resulted  pockets  in  powder  of  in  an  was of  inadequate  clusters  the  the  of  casting.  No  casting.  (NDT)  the  f a c i l i t y  testing  for  for  heavy  radiography sections,  two  and  25 CF-8M and  valves  one  4.2.1  were  for  ultrasonic  Dye  The  externally  Penetrant  stainless  valves  were  the  surface  Ultrasonic  Ultrasonic then ing  on to  a  section  steel  ultrasonic  The  ASME  half  valve  steel  sonically  than  degree  attenuation  the  noise  too  most  instances  grained this was  a  to  three  tested  inch  with  It  and  showed  the  full  testing  a  that  the  note  that  are  more  d i f f i c u l t  attentuation these  section  1 MH,-  3/4  the  increases in  detection  of  of  low-alloy  or  to  one  for  heavy  'no  useable  (CF-8M)  austenitic ultra-  forgings.  section areas,  The  size; may  be-  indications. inherent  alloys:  machine  diameter  accord-  penetrate  steel  from  and  i n c h e s . . . : '  'heavy  with  austenitic  inch  7-3/4  discrete  results  with  that  isolated  of  done  austenitic  also  generally  was  indicate  from  or  ESC v a l v e  specification  depths  normally  thick  a  at  carbon  microstructure  The  388-71)  received  permit  this  on  results  casting  similar  great  A  Test  forgings  level,  come  longitudinally  used.  performed  (ASTM  was  stainless  and  was  casting.  specifications  of  radiography  sound.  forgings.  steel  sectioned  system  was  SA-388  resppnse  stainless  was  testing  ASME  for  Test  sectioned  the  one  Test  dye-penetrant  4.2.2  -  testing.  conventional internal  evaluated  1  cut  In  coarse Following surface  transducer.  The  26 penetration It  was  direction  s t i l l  was  questionable  transverse  to  whether  not  fine  defects  could  have  been  three  inch  section,  or  the  grain  orientation. could  be  detected.  Although in  the  a  better  direction  results  of  indicate  austenitic  the  that  4.2.3 ..Radiography  Radiography  could  be  4.3  in  a  ESC  testing  is  not  accomplished these  suitable  for  valves.  Test  was  performed a  in  cobalt-6'0  accordance  source.  with  No  ASTM  apparent  E  94-77  defects  detected.  The  Testing  conventional  longitudinally cut  4.3.1  steel  using  Destructive  were  grain  ultrasonic  stainless  specification  penetration  out  and  through (see  (DT)  ESC v a l v e  the  Figure  middle  14)  for  castings  and  half  were  inch  destructive  sectioned  thick  plates  tests.  Macrostructures  The etched about  half  vin  1  an  65-70°C  are  shown  in  the  chilling  inch  thick  acid  solution  for  1-2  Figures effect  plates (38%  hours. 15-19.  of  the  were  The The  surface  HC£,  ground  12% H S 0 , 2  4  macrostructures grain  water-cooled  structure mold  and  and  macro-  50% H 0 )  at  2  obtained clearly almost  shows  27 vertical  solidification  essentially  free  of  pattern.  Figure  the  This  of  topping change  the  casting.  cycle of  and  pool  can  be  profile  structure  in  piece  electrode  which  Figure This  18  shows  casting  was  ferro-molybdenum are  believed  two  eases  The tudinal  will  se.c.tiion o f 19.  though  there  casting. between the  feeder  be  due  the top or  The  the of  is  some  columnar  riser  and  of  the  area  columnar  This  placed  other  is at  plates tests.  the  of  equiaxed thought this  were  these  zones to  casting.  be  and  inclusions  of  casting  a  These  the  is  equiaxed the  and due  given  at to  cut  up  for  in  grains  edge  banded  longi-  of  the  structure an  angle  either  position.  then  a  subsequently.  near  shows  the  part  by  structure  be  operation.  additions.  quarter CF-8M  to  a  a  ferro-chrome  and  covered  also  in  shows  and  melting  discussed  top  is  corner  at hot-  17  believed  ferro-alloy and  the  Figure  is  melt  some  inclusion  scattered  the  are  interrupted  hand  during  conventional  and  slag  an  addition  the  macrostructure  macro-etched  examination  This  during  to  the  surface. a  centre..  identified  Most  This  structures  easily. right  the  a  to  top  with  macrostructure  Figure  to  be  due  inclusions  powders  to  shows  dropped  big  made  was  the  the  some  16  corrected  in  peculiar of  the  s o l i d i f i c a t i o n d e f e c t s. a l t h o u g h  p e c u l i a r i . t i es:'do e x i s t . top  Also,  micro-  a  28 4.3.2  Mi c r o s t r u c t u r e s  The by  ACI  austenitic  closely  stainless cast  wrought they  are  The  higher  alloy.  are  not  stainless  corresponds  steel.  alloy  cast  The  and  considerable  and  optimum  the  wrought  silicon  and  chromium  and  nickel  -  the  they  ductility  castability  composition,  but  also  on  on  ranging  in  perceptibly  amounts in  316) of  CF-8M)  to  ferrite can  Besides ferrite  be  for  hot  the  other.  lower  and  cold  be  magnetic  a  to  316  of  the  than  in  small  on  the but  one  hand  principally  lesser  (fully  (due the  type  working  to  CF-8M  forgeability  Depending  non-magnetic  in  may  optimum  history  present  AISI  contents  chemistry for  as  on  extent,  austenitic  as  substantial  austenitic  matrix,  as  produced.  production  improves  grade  content  provide  from  phase  in  thermal  microstructures Type  designated  to  variations  trivial  steel  of  sound  weldability  castings,  and  improves  presence the  of  delta-  resistance  to  51 hot  cracking  resistance  during  to  casting  corrosive  operation.  :media. such  It  as•  also  improves  sulphurous  and  acetic  52 acids,  to  intergranular  attack,  and  to  chloride  stress  53 corrosion stress  and  cracking. tensile  Delta strength  ferrite values  by  also a  increases  the  proof  dispersion-strengthen-  54 ing  effect.  reason  for  From CF-8M  (this higher the  castings  will  chromium  above is  be  we  see  essential  discussed content that to  in  later).  is  the  real  CF-8M.  presence obtain  This  of  good  delta-ferrite corrosion  in  29 resistance  and  mechanical  of  delta-ferrite  to  accelerate  in  properties.  austenitic  However,  stainless  steels  the  presence  has  been  shown 55  Sigma  phase  the  was  formation  f i r s t  of  an  intermetal1ic  detected  in  Fe-Cr-Ni  sigma  alloys  phase.  and  reported  56 in  1927.  It  has  been  magnetic,  intermediate  occurring  in  elements The  many  and  has  formation  of  r i t e - s t a b i l i z e r s Although  also  this  form  been  such  sigma of  by  a  formation  the  18-8  than  with  forms of  ferrite  being  sigma  ferrite  to  chromium formation  maximum  The about  percent  and  a  range  molybdenum  and  and  transforming  to  sigma  austenite  relatively  comparatively diffusion  where  sigma  surrounding  austenite.  short from  chromium  time  by  adjacent  This  is  The  a  in  in  alloys  about in  less  delta-  content,  concentration  chromium-rich depletion  eventually  shown  at  that  high  nucleated. ferrite  '  of  retained  occurs  region  tem-  transformation  600°C to 950°C  reported  can  and  formation  been  '  fer-  it  time-  temperature  and  59  s i l i c o n .  ferrite,  is  '  of  of  of  the  literature.  rate  a a  on  structure  theitransition 47 58  addition  formation  has  areas  of  3  by  from  described 61  as  of  the  non-  crystal  molybdenum  It  through  in  to  in  readily  curve.  regarded 2  alloys  enhanced  Sigma be  hard,brittle,  tetragonal  hour.  in  chromium  most 60  can  ' C  with  the  one-half  ferrite  is  type  delta-ferrite, 850°C  is  austenite.  typical  a  documented  chromium,  forms  and  a  ternary  phase as  as  with  and  well  sigma  perature-dependent  diagram  phase  binary  phase  from  identified  results  Figure  23.  of in  the  30 The tic  effects  stainless  of  sigma  steels  are  on  the  most  corrosion  serious  in  behaviour  highly  of  austeni-  oxidising  en-  59 vironments creases  such  the  decreases  in  CF-8  type  or  specimens  itic  of  and  at  low  room  particularly  severe  network  with  in-  strength,  around  the  the  but  and  ductility  when  above  discussion,  ferrite  and  sigma  phases  to  eliminate  condition  by  a  alloys  o i l .  identify  The  1120°C  ferrite pools.  Many  suitable  used  heating heat  for  at  heat  at  and  sigma austenite  have  differentiate  was  been sigma  austenitic  polishing  and  and  stainless  etching  sigma  phases  in  important  stainless phase  present  was  treated and  was  quenching  The con-  quenching  heating in  the  water.  essentially  thematrix  in  austen-  dis-  eliminated.  cited  in  phase  steels.  procedures  1150°C  adopted  throughout  is  treatment.  solution  treatment  phase  sigma  to  and  it  the  heat  the  1100  hours  distributed Sigma  in  treatment  1-2  after  techniques  and  are  in  any  were  the  from  63  ferrite  phase  temperature  the  microstructure  in  tensile  of  involves  to  continuous  ring  sigma  temperature  and  cast  which  water  The  both  continuous  castings  as-cast  dition in  the  valve  the  nearly  consequence  identify  steel  strength,  Loss  is  general  2  In to  a  In  strength,  resistance  forms  grains.^  impact  acid.  yield  temperatures.  corrosion phase  nitric  hardness,  the  elevated  as  literature other  to  phases  occur-  65 '  Two  used  to  ESC v a l v e s .  different identify  the  31  In to  the  f i r s t  5 microns,  (133  ml  8-10  minutes.  acid  solution  found etch the  then  acetic  to  attacks  outlined  present  within  only  of  and  is  a  left  the  microstructures  cast  and  heat-treated  1  the  micron  second  and  H 0)  several  were  etched  2  100  nu  solution  in  (56  from  to  gms the  to the  to  is  3  specimens  KOH, 100 sigma  conventional  oxalic  in and  shows  the  as-cast  it  is  severely. is  The  eliminated  F i g u r e s 2.1 a n d  valves  in  were  solution  the  22  as-  polished  (HNO^  disturbed  metal.  (5  1  m£HC£,  sigma were  phase.  gm  2.5  a  reddish-brown  Austenite  is  not  attacked.  was  kept  at  acid, faintly  10N  few  in  they  is  in  to  casting  HC£  pjicric  Ferrite  V for  to  Then  electro-etched at  and  yellow  CF-8M  acid  predominantly  phase  specimens  m£ w a t e r )  phase  sigma  was  respectively.  acid  the  is  Similarly  the  the  relief  for  oxalic  20a-b  valve  attacked  different  reagent  outline  in  V  wt.%  the  Figure  which  the  behind.  remove  28-30  10  and  CF-8M  up  phase  a mixed  bluish-grey.  the  from  that  This  rapidly.  conditions  in  at  3  clearly  shows  procedure,  Cr0 )  procedure  very  from  V i l e l l a ' s  Then  stains  ferrite men  times  ethanol)  outlined.  this  etched  gms  polished solution  seconds.  phase  show  chromic-acetic  in  sigma  ferrite  mechanically  electro-etched  phase  phase  were in  25  specimen  the  show  In  were  phase  specimens  ferrite  water,  ferrite  sigma  the  specimens  20-30  ferrite  clearly  and  the  the  The  they  6 V for  microstructure  treated  7 ml  Then at  the  electro-polished  acid,  outline  condition.  heat  one,  KOH  seconds,  and  the  One 850°C  specifor  32  14  hours  the  to  above  promote  sigma  procedure.  Figure  this  specimen.  grey  regions  are  the  grey  area  the  austenite.  formed was  is  from  received  CF-8M  within shows  in  the  given  austenite  are  in  the  treated  specimens  condition.  Microhardness ried sigma  out  to  confirm  phase  from  metallic  sigma  diamond  pyramid  phases.  The  what DPH.  also  than  Figure  9  This  24  the  As  as-cast  Sigma  tests  phase  on  that  Figure  has is  DPH v a l u e s  phase phase  but  the  DPH  obtained  be  in  for  and  phase .26  solution-  eliminated.  were  hard  and  also to  car-  be  and  inter-  of  the  austenite  from  sigma  the  of  Figure  identation  literature  because  trans-  Sigma  the  the  calculated  255.0  could  in  sigma  -  light  micro-  distinguished  DPH  the  microstructure  actually  on  dark  casting  ferrite  austenite  been  the  been  the  detected.  643.3  quoted  has  condition.  -  value  value  and  and  with  of  conventional  completely  shows  indentor  which  the  valve  is  27  phase,  only  easily  sigma  what  hardness  shows  same  etched  sigma-phase,  that  in  the  was  condition,  25  is  it  microstructure  the  Figure  from  difference  the  austenite  shows  the  then  ferrite  seen.  boundaries  phase.  the  are  solution-treated  microhardness  lower  shows  The  metallography  austenite  The  is  relative  sigma  and  untransformed  No.  ferrite  23  regions  present.  ESC v a l v e  the  black  ferrite  structures  a  The  formation  these  phase which  are  is is  indentation  -  some750 taken  33 here  is  value  over  is  a  within  Delta  4.3.3  The steel  network a  large  Ferrite  It  becomes  of  the  alloys  ferent  of  has  Quantimet.  -  Ferrite  sigma  delta  ferrite  while  the  literature  particle.  ferrite a  in  discussed  therefore,  The  instruments  particles  isolated  been  essential,  castings.  sigma  Measurements  importance  cast  of  content  briefly  in  to determine  content  Ferrite  austenitic  was  Indicator,  was  also  stainless  the  the  last  ferrite  measured  by  a  Gage,  ;Magne  estimated  from  section. content  three and  difa  the  66 Schoefer's  The ferrite piece  diagram.  Ferrite numbers  between  been  adopted  rite  content.  to  two as  ferrite  number  does  results  numbers  As content,  The due  obtained  the  were  Ferrite  done was  oxidation.  from  related  at  low  different  Indicator  a i M a g n e - G a g e was  used  on  content ferrite  which  correspond  surface to  The  index  closely  calibrated  ferrite  numbers.  accepted  not  magnets  the  particularly  Measurements  examination. eous  ferrite  Although  content,  uses  'bracket'  the  ferrite  rite.  Indicator  to  Table  II  to  to  in  out  has  the  fer-  percentage  used  the  the  the  fer-  for  avoid  the  'brackets'  find  test  percent  to  shows  locations  only  the  contents,  specimens polished  known  number  actual  precisely  rough  of  quantifies  ferrite  the  to  microerron-  ferrite  castings.  the  ferrite  specific  34 ferrite  content  magnetically pointer  and  which  were  similar  tents  obtained II.  the  than would  it  the  be  ferrite  can  be  enough ing.  in  as  was  Hence  the  stainless  bags  particular  duplex  and  in  the  as-cast  from bags  to  and  is the  were  quenched cycle  to  heat in  that  strongly  the  in  residual  influenced  subsequent  cooling  by  rate.  and  result within anomaly  were  heat-  oxidation.  not  fast  before  some  seems  From  are 1 ower  quench-  sigma  phase.  agaiin wi t h o u t that  ferrite ferrite  the  of  heat-treated  was  bags  lower  given  6  This  valves  the  It  5,  phase  excessive  treated  are  opposite  the  showed  water.  resulted  an  of  con-  number  numbers  specimens  s t i l l  even,  condition  three  open  an  castings  sigma  avoid  the cut  microstructure  specimens  these  numbers.  ferrite  condition.  history  a  conditions.  valve  of  The  ferrite  heat-treated  thermal  d i f f i c u l t  for  presence  of  provide  the  Normally,  the  steel  indicated*^  alloys  the  in  average  that  the  quenching  thermal  been  perature  to  specimens  that  the  has  due  stainless  it  in  to  to  indicates  ferrite  heat-treated  condition.  by  found  and  in  works  attached  specimens.  the  also  reading  grit  locations  noticed  bounda r i e s  Therefore  It  be  320 all  gives  contents  The  to  dial  specimen  to  as-cast  as-cast  specimens.  was  can  explained  treated  III  The  test  various  the  expected  the  It  in  d i a l .  surfaces  from  ferrite  in  spring  polished  Table  table  coil  the  and  this  calibrated  of  clean  casting  instrument  content  specimens  each  a  This  a  The  7,  has  castings.  on  ferrite  Table  the  moves  the  in  of  the this  content. content  solutioning  of tem-  35  ments the  Another  point  is  the  that  casting  is  probably  of  the  hot  is  slag tor  for  forms and  it  normal  a  to  mode to  this  accuracy  to  variable  cut  'snow' and  lower  the  technique  the  casting.  rate  of  the  has  been  terminated  as  thermal  acts  a  This  top  run  is  part  a  brief the  insula-  freeze.  also  done  using  by  the  using  was  found  in  the  Quantimet.  at  higher  the be  reduced  resolution, values use  that  it  or by  but  this  to  differrite  contents  using  in  any  considered  was  noise  which  of  de-  The  ferrite  'snow'  the  technique  It  not  of  there  The  was  of  part  run,  threshold  results.  topmost  measure-  the  to  out can  ferrite  of  done  section.  set  in the  mode  makes  turn  other be  the  more  necessary  study.  Theoretical was  was  the  bulk  and  were  particularly  The  sophisticated in  the  metal  the  cooling  end  slowly  etch  d i f f i c u l t  cut'  the  of  good  the  slow  after  part  work  d i f f i c u l t  leads  very  and  last  mode.  'ground it  the  net  than  measurements  get  is  lower  A stain  in  a  of  Towards  last  Quantimet.  to  content  solidifies  Ferrite  f i c u l t  ferrite  the  cycle  the  scribed  from  to  casting.  blanket  emerges  much  due  topping  which  also  estimation  carried  out  using  of the  the  ferrite  Schoefer's  content diagram.  66 Schoefer cast  has  Fe-Cr-Ni  developed alloys  with  a  one-line which  the  constitution ferrite  diagram  content  of  for the  36 alloy  can  be  position. metal.  estimated  It  The  was  derived  Schoefer's  ferrite-promoting all  austenite  through  the  of  in  Figure  28.  using  numbers  elements  use  austenitising  power  by  also  Schoefer's  estimated  obtained  each  Magne  from  the  alloy  requires  conversion  the  'chromium into  'nickel  element.  gives  the  diagram.  can  diagram  particularly  at  of  all  and  ferritising  diagram  calculated It  weld  equivalents' the  The  com-  for  equivalents'  representing  Schoefer's  Gage  only  diagram  elements  of  knowing  Schaeffler's  into  coefficients  Table M i l  the  from  diagram  promoting  or  tents  accurately  be  are  is  ferrite  seen  con-  the  higher  higher  shown  ferrite  than  ferrite  those  contents.  62 Tensile that  the  data  strength  generated levels  content.  Comparison  ventional  CF-8M  casting  tained  Magne  Gage  Also,  by  Schoefer's  heat-treated rite  as  the  is  diagram  are  4.3.4  It  has  been  microsegregation  the  to  mentioned  affected  results  to  the in  C.F-8M:; s h o w s the  obtained  by  as-cast  on  the  as  conob-  those rather  workers. than  residual  solutioning  twice  ferrite  content  found  earlier  by  to  ferrite  that  As  much  fer-  temperaferrite  Mi c r o s e g r e g a t i on  frequently in  levels  applicable  1300°C fi 7 1150°C.  Interdendritic  that  on  related  is  greatly  from  workers  strength  similar  Q u e n c h i n g f/runr  quenching  other  directly  showed  condition.  contents  ture.  of  are  by  c l a i m e d ^ ' ^  electroslag  9  remelted  that  interdendritic  material  is  greatly  37  reduced  from  casting. lead an  that  In  to  the  general,  low  optimum  in  equivalent  low  melt  rates  microsegregation. melt  rate  is  section  needed  and  in  conventional  small  As  mentioned  to  achieve  cross  in  sections  Section  least  2.1.2  microsegrega-  t i on .  Microsegregation analysis cast  of  samples  condition)  heat-treated areas  and  samples with  across  etched  they  were  ratio'  minimum  and  line  scan  concentration ratios Out  of  all of  the  of  the the  along  such  three  ratio  obtained elements  from  the  the of  along  while  they  and  analysis.  with  Table  The  molybdenum  is  the  in  selected  analysis were  apart!.  marked The  (Cr,  b and  con-  'segre-  gives  of  was  show solute  segrega-  show  most  to  Mo)  a-c  the  results the  Ni,  30  the  marked  5 mm  variation IV  as-  composition  elements 29a,  the  (in  were  maximum  analyses.  analysed,  traversed  etched  Figures  microprobe line,  the  casting  Before  that  alloying  samples.  the  in  before  the  be  (in  performed  direction.  samples  as  were  to  microprobe  castings  CF-8M  scans  lines  repolished  (defined  in  Line  electron  valve  conventional  indentations the  by  CF-8M  dendritic  composition)  determined  a)  the  photographing  gation  tion  the  studied  two  condition).  were  dition,  the  from  and  microhardness  After  was  t h a t -  highly  38 segregated b)  c)  the  from  the  conventional  castings  the  edge. of  This  has  a  is  a  Austenite  grows  i n i t i a l l y is  dendritic cludes  into as  ferrite  the  shows  a  the  and  So  phases  line  due  scans  from  it  at  and  the  does  seen  In  the  of  alloy  ferrite  been  by  of  delta  ferrite.  of  melt  ferrite  in  the  between a  directly  inter-  phase  in-  austenite  true  picture  from  the  one an  here  the  enrichment as  which  solidification  determined  present  chromium  the  solidification  end  an  stages  r e p o r t e d . ^  the  that  in  forming  Three  dendrites  solidification be  the  represent  the  elements  from  element.  interrupted  of  value  not  not  of  residual  alloying  depletion  phase.  at  segregation  can  is  in  segregation  does  have  precipitation most  the  .process.  end  than  distance  delta  steels  the  then  castings.  because  with  ratio  segregating  here,  ferrite  consumes  hence  to  corresponding austenite  of  and  to  from  the  partioning  microsegregation  and  ferrite  areas.  defined  delta  back  precipitated  the  From  of  the  equivalent  heavily  stainless  austenite  transition  ESC v a l v e s  the  solidification  18-8  segregation  in  structure  during  chromium.  of  depicted a  then  centre  an  is  and  the  microsegregation  precipitation of  for  as  duplex  in  lower  which  ratio,  or  the  clearly  interdendritic  f i r s t  ferrite  is  segregation  solidification  there  much  molybdenum  precipitation  in  to  is  interdendritical1y  and  edge  Microsegregation  consideration  form  nickel  increases  true  The  by  microsegregation  The  of  followed  Interdentritic  ratio  the  element  of  liquid.  of  nickel  would  expect  opposite  effect  39  is  noticed.  mined  from  4.3.5  the  to  valves  optical  a  and  the  emission  electrode is  bottom and  composition  of  tion  advantage  However,  volume  of  which  at  the  This  casting  regions  of  was V-X  the  comparison.  deter-  or  f e r r i t e .  analysis  carried show  can  between  average  seen  the  the  using  along  be  of  out  the  castings It  difference  longitudinal  in  the  slag  in  determined  above.  The  results  segregation  are  the  by  with  the  in  is  in  of  low  might  this  is  with that  the there  electrode  top  chromium,  in  31-36. the  s o l i d i f i c a relatively  macrosegregation. because  of  the  the  -  conventional  analysis bottom  mentioned and  side  molybdenum,  definite  castings  the  during  small.  nickel, No  rather  same  potential  and  to  the  these  also  composition to  in  occur  oxygen  is  the  radial  ESC v a l v e s  Figures  observed  gives  surface  and  respect  variation  given  trend  and  Generally  was  carbon  centre  segregation  1  material  approximately  composition  operation.^  composition  as-cast  results  casting  and  be  austenite  composition  Tables  ESR f o r  Macrosegregation  side  side  conventional  for  within  should  Macrosegregation  spectrograph,  sections.  melting  to  side  composition  conditions  change  and  ratio  casting.  pool  small  occurring  and  composition  The small  segregation  Analysis  different  negligible the  the  segregation  Composition  Top ESC  Therefore,  and  macroithe  to  40 variation be  of  noticed  chromium tive  elements  is  that  from  From 33)  it  can  obtained  be  by  operation.  nickel  from  the  of  chromium  seen  composition  chromium  during  a and  the  melt  variation  resulted  (see  is  in  due  unstable  the  feeding  a  to  the  ESC m o l d .  During  noticed  that  the  funnel  small  and  powder  be  the  dislodged  probably the  resulted  could  but  also  not  pockets  in  frequently  manually.  powders.  tion  was  melt the  This  was  in  This  sudden  not  only  agglomerated completely solid  of  used  the  to  to  to  casting.  vice  versa.  (see  Figure  easily the  be  melting  in  Valve  powder  with  No.  10.  was  the  in  was  appeared  as  latter  volume and  it flow  had rate  quantities  composition of  used.  operation  feeding  large a  were  the  funnel  uneven  magnetic  powders.from  in  the  Two  rate  the  of  mechanism  powders.  feeding  clusters  The  feeding  melting  an  resulted into  nega-  composition  handle  additions  and  in  feed  the  jammed led  7  can  observed  predetermined was  No.  during  inadequate  with  tube  of  35).  A  vnbrators  a  and  ferro-molybdenum  feeders  long  at  Valve  can  deviation  content  was  which  corresponding  variation  vibrator funnel  set  a  chromium  Figure  to  point  uniformity  of  and  is  in  molybdenum  ferro-chrome  only  positive  mean  variation that  a  there  reasonable  valve  which  content,  The  is  However,  In  The  there  addition  to  added  small.  controlled  respect this  mean  of  the  very  wherever  the  deviation  is  powders  to and of  varia-  which  large  inclusions  point  is  in  discussed  41 in  detail  later  The come can  use  this be  in  of  section  a  better  problem  produced  chips).  and  (as  feeding  a  in  sound Valve  It  is  firmly  composition  to  ACI  CF-8M  will  not  and  molybdenum  4.3.6.  arrangement  casting No.  believed  7  with  that  the  by  any  easily  uniform  of  of  AISI  addition  of  insuperable  over-  composition  addition  converting  composition present  with  would  chromium 316  chromium  production  prob-  lems.  4.3.6  Problems  As bdenum  With  outlined was  above  made  Nos.  while  ferro-chrome Although  could  be  could  not  be  that  the they  that  in the  the  were of  casting  addition with  easy  be  of  seen  and  Electron  clusters areas  1  alloy  of  were  and and  powder  with  2  at  did  not  No.  melt  10  been  (SEM)  From  Valve  7  No.  the  same  ferro-molybdenum  Observing  different  No.  composition  chips,  have  ferro alloy  38(a-d).  in  moly-  of  Valve  uniform  Valve  these  in  added  and  and  operation  added  were  Microscope the  chromium  casting  ferro-chrome of  Operation  of  chromium  identification.  F i g u r e s 37.(a-d) ferro  chips  macrostructure  can  Scanning  photographs shown  the  solid  ESC  addition  and f e r r o - m o l y b d e n u m  sound,  inclusions  the  electroslag  Chromium  achieved  for  the  10.  with  In  photograph under  a  made  additions. large  and  During  controlled  during  Valve  10.  7  Alloying  (Figure marked  these  it  on  The  obvious SEM  magnifications  these  it  can  completely  the  areas  became  powder.  18),  be but  are seen instead  42 were  loosely  cast  material.  as  a  dendritic  in  Figure  der,  The  areas  both  and  show  powder  To  areas very  1  shows  nounced  as  ones  the 1  and  2  be  2  are  shown  peaks  for  from  of in  Mo  1  2000X Fe-Cr  EDXA  peaks, 2.  in  'or  Fe-Mo  the  they  and  pow-  'parent Areas  1  Although  From  Cr  molten  magnification  39.  Cr.  the  Dispersive  on  Figure  in  partially  Energy  and  and  richer  at is  with.  Mo  and  areas  much  it  pockets'  been  observed  results  Cr  'small  have  analysed  both  are  to  whether  The  distinct  metal'  areas  were  and  'parent  that  can  (EDXA).  forming  seems  identify  shown  Analyser  metal'  together  structure  38(d).  the  X-ray  sintered  are  this Mo  than  2  the  not it  and  as  is  pro-  obvious  the  parent  metal.  To Cr  or  areas were  determine  Fe-Mo  powder,  1  2  and  in  shown  similar Fe-Mo  in  to  are  expected ferent  of  of as  the 1  in  the  2,  in  40.  Fe-Cr  with  Mg.  Fe-Cr  different  Fe-Mo  Fe-Cr basic  in  is  are  on  Fe-Cr  graphs  it  for  areas  in  1  and  powder.  by  lining other  and  powder  that is  the very  inclusions could  entirely in  hence is  inclusions  This  two  hand  2  The  generally  powder  Fe-Mo  seen  Fe-  in  Fe-Mo  the  be  is  present  and  and  can  produced  the  'pockets'  composition.  produced  dolomite  Fe-Mo,  in  the  inclusions  powder  these  present  present  and  EDXA  Fe-Cr  From  in  original  The  inclusions ones  material  non-metallic  completely  and  the  SEM.  and  processes.  Ca  the  also  Figure  the  furnace  contain  in  area  composition  arc  and  analysed  present are  whether  an the  in  be dif-  electricinclusions  produced  by  43 aluminothermic  reduction  morphology  and  composition  shows  the  material  that  consists  . To  of  Cr  the  in  and  the  1  Mo a r e  certain  and  that  metal  completely  One tion  as  (m.p. also  2  is, the  would  powder  did  it  not  the  the  inclusion  different.  pockets  to  melt  in  Table  also had  about  Cr 2  This  basically  =  because  1900°C,  heavier. and  that  m.p. So  formed  The  Cr  2  and  Mo  much  contents  more  valve  I n i t i a l l y , ferro-  show  From  which  Fe-Mo  the  results  13% M o .  that  this  Cr  did  were  obtained  and  it  than  not  Mo  melt  casting.  would  of  its  higher  of  70%  Fe-Cr  the  and  results  The  powder the  1  The  70% C r  and  in  areas  comparison.  contain  expect  Fe-Cr  for  65% M o .  54% and  XI.  given  pockets  normally  is  microprobe.  about  1  method,  ferro-chrome  formed  65% F e - M o  because  in  another  about  areas  compared  of  had  have  and  are  powder  that  it  by  shown  powder  and  hence  completely  present  electron  ferro-chrome  areas  is  and  powder.  this  the  parent  molybdenum  is  Fe-Cr  confirm  analysed for  of  process  question  agglomerates  as in  not  go  in  melting =  point  1650°C) to  why  solu-  and Fe-Cr  preference  to  44 Fe-Mo of  can  the  that  only  Fe-Cr  the  be  answered  powder  feeding  used  rate  F e - M o . ' ( 3 0 . 5.-. g m s / m i n . red  because  earlier  4.3.7  in  of  Problems  there  was  immediately could  have  mold  ever, the  no  and  in  porosity have  been  of  the  as  inside  a  leak  were  cleaned  trace  any  could  the was  have  was  of  ESR o p e r a t i o n ,  Another  this  the  particle powder  Fe-Cr  These  of  the  size  and  than  powders  also  for  inclusions  been  a  as  occur-  described  the  the  does  slag  not  however,  which  layer a  does  process  and  is  more  much  source  to  41).  should  electip  the  gases the to  be  must  explo-  the  certain  serious  of  the  When  threat  How-  secondary  causing  cause  the  near  pressurised  present it  Another  due  was  casting  leaks.  in  5,  mold  for  sectioned  Figure  No.  melting  the  porosity  probably  entrapped  Valve  The  removing  found.  (see  of  Operation  water-cooled  inspected  was  ESC  mold.  the  a macro  porosity  melting  problem  and  in  operation  After  electrode  under  Although  in  for  the  in  were  electrode  exposed,  released  s t a b i l i t i e s  leaks  the  cast  the  Fe-Mo  Electrodes  melting  surfaces  sion. the  Cast  effect.  there  than  higher  feeding  this  Therefore  that  gms/min).  caused  indeed  piping  4.5  explosion  of  fact  larger  much  Using  terminated  explosion  trode.  the  4.3.5.  end  a minor  was vs.  With  the  was  unstable  Section  Towards  the  the  by  safety in-  avoided.  was  encountered  45 when  a  cast  etching top  Valve  right  cture  electrode  part  was  a  into  the  the  this  shown  and  structure  the  parent  has  a  the  The to  the  the  different ones tip.  of  cast  therefore  by  piece a  inclusions  than  the  present  in  the  parent the  the  this  43),  went  through  alone  method,  electroslag  electrode,  to  rehas  the  thermal  enough  to  grains.  or  less  cannot  similar distinguish  However the  piece  casting  of  that  electrode  is  casting.  electrode  structure  casting'  Figure  more  and  different  (see  the  area  To  photograph  'parent  is  dropped  composed  polygonal  17).  thought  had  This  cast  into  is  this  the stru-  operation.  the  chemistry  the  is  in  Figure  it  entirely  piece  conventional in  from  is  electrode  and  (see  piece)  from  Although  piece  different  structure.  while  structure  electrode  was  non-metallic  rode  dendritic  cut  seen  electrode  electrode  and  be  structure  a  melting  piece  grains  dendritic this  can  the  structure.  composition  electrode  the  The  the was  reveal  noticed  casting  electrode  macro-  was  having  the  and  consideration,  an  electrode  polygonal  casting  between  the  dendritic  which  into  piece  It  profile  of  during  a  to  casting.  coarse  convert  pool  sectioning  body  centre  (possibly  42.  pool  foreign  point  etched  of  crystallised normal  a  the  metal  Figure  the  cycle  body  After  unusual  also in  used.  speculation  in  the  an  latter  liquid  repolished is  and  foreign  confirm  9,  observed  Taking that  No.  was  the  morphology  would but  particularly  as  at  be  much  similar the  of  to  elect-  46 So parent  the  casting,  optical from  inclusions  microscope  the  electrode  through  optical  (multi-phase) of  the  EDXA.  The  electrode The  b)  the  tip  from  type  and  the  of  The  shape  tic  the  entirely  tip  the  to  are  because  the  a  composite  average  examined was  size  in  under  determined  electrode  given  given  observed  larger.  the  are  an  inclusions  have  also  figures  very  in  piece,the  Figure  Figure  by  46.  45.  .  :  The  fol-  -  from much  the  electrode  alike  except  piece that  and  observed  the  nucleated they  size  in  is  the  much  parent  casting  smaller.  and  grown  in  the  intersect  delta  ferrite  Also  interdendriwhich  forms  interdendritical1y. c)  However,  the  piece  electrode  of  casting  is  point  the  •  latter.  inclusions  have  in  observed  the  is  in  the  as  inclusions  casting  these  tip  were  found  are  different  appear region  above  of  shows  although tip  piece,  examined  inclusions  electrode  inclusions  of  44  the  compositions  in  Figure  All  parent  bigger  were  electrode  inclusions  electrode  tip)  morphology  from  (electrode  the  mentioned  the  of  are  they  and  the  deduced  they  is  SEM.  composition  and  be  The  the  piece  areas  kind  can  and  areas  electrode  similar  corresponding  lowing  a)  and  three  SEM a n d  the  three  microscope.  inclusions  The the  and  from  which  confirms  that  sitting  in  the  composition  of  these  it  middle  is of  actually the  inclusions.  a  valve Figure  46  47 shows  that  both  inclusions In  fact  tion hand,  which  their  of  the  is  has  from  is  points in  and  the  the  is  very  from  the  peculiar  pool  profile  and  similar. on  have  manganese.  The  basically  speculation  electroslag  tip  the  composiother  alumina-type  absent.  the  dropped  silicon  casting,  are  completely  electrode  in  parent  They  confirm  the  rich  composition  different.  Silicon  these  piece  significantly  inclusions  observed  which  are  entirely  All  electrode  overall  inclusions;  body  the  casting  electrode  is  that  the  actually  during  the  foreign  a  piece  melting  opera-  tion.  The to  be  an  piece. the  event The  which  occurred  probable  dropping  events  as  a  which  th  electrode  piece  F i g u r e 4-7.(a-.c.). T h e  electrode  was  during  process  poor are  the  melting  profile common  served 59).  in At  as if  shown  the  such  a  valve  time  qui te  invariably piping)  electrode  being  a  and  is  a  centre  this  detached  to  the  is  fallen  thought electrode  before  are  shown  schematically  in  the  in  resulted  cast  in  of  an  This  4340  after  the  in mold  asymmetric  Asymmetric  AISI the  and  centre  off-centre.  pool  was  steel  profiles  also  (see  obFigure  electrode  fell  off.  This  electrodes.  The  cast  elect-  porosity  might  due  of  casting  place  not  from  with  the  took  47(4).  casting piece  in  result  this  Figure  common  have  secondary  in  and  electrode  another  i s apparently rodes  of  observed  have  (perhaps  resulted  melting  by  the  in  representing a  slag  piece  of  entering  48  the  porosity.  temperature 47(b). side  zone  As  was  After  a  was  result  suddenly  rapidly.  this  The  shifted of  cooled  pool  dritic  structure.  The  and  it  made  or  dus  on  the  file  area  oriented a  band  is  of  fine  side  shown  and  and  the  pool  profile  Figure  Figure  position  change  dendritic  the  can  structure  right  advanced the den-  the  left  and  affected  pro-  the  and  there  the  event.  s o l i -  pool  that  growing  is  the  and  to  notice  the  Figure  oriented  represents  through  on  off  high  (see  liquidus  The  stopped  which  cut  shifted  to  the  solidus  randomly  was  One  have  structure  and  47(c)).  48.  pool  was  and  off,  centre  metal  growth  fine  fell  the  liquidus  a  crystals  random  liquid  with  (see  unresolved front  the  no " d i f f e r e n c e  in  dendritic  fication a  solidified  electrode towards  dendritic  liquid  l i t t l e  of  more  this  oriented  left  piece  is  s o l i d i Above  observed.  It  this,  has  been  72 pointed ture  out  Jackson  refinement  changes  in  pattern. 300  by  primary Metals  series  flow  due  be  0).  d i f f i c u l t  small  with  changes  and  the  sudden  low  due  steels)  to  having However  to  detect  due  after  small the  to  in  a  growth  strucrate  change  in  of  growth  direction  renucleate the  change  growth  rate  segregation as  is  the  segregation  CF-8M  there  increase  will  sudden  in  that  anisotropy  immediately  case of elements C,S,P  Mitchell  direction  stainless  direction  position  to  and  they  in in  the  the heat  occur  heat  these  are  heat-  flow.  only  in  Comthe  (e.g.  elements  present  flow (e.g.  new  coefficients  of  and  in  would very  quantities.  It  would  be  worthwhile  to  mention  here  that  the  presence  49 of  the  electrode  detected which  by  are  nuclear  the  it  would  when  not  if  be  such  subjected  to  a  it  fatigue  crack  and  parent  'defect'  might  valves the  and  ASTM  gauge  the  diameter  verse  directions.  6  7  a  (e.g.  a  site  be  the of  would  it  is  the  which  landing  for  very  if  of  component  for  piece  even  properties  properties  would  were  carried  (ASTM  gear  valve.  How-  would  be  of  air-  an  nucleation  the  present  of  electrode  a piece  different.  given  for  49)  both  The  results  Table  for  in  XII  are  f e r r i t i c  and  (given  out  casting  A351-72  on  A370-376).  Figure  in  out  casting.  condition  carried  conventional  SA-351/ASTM  fatigue  (see  were  requirements  in  potential  conventional  Tests  the  the  castings  test),  Testing  standards  are  to  be  Ultrasonic  electrode but  not  Properties  tests  the  an  would  and  valve  machined,  occurs  casting  solution-treated  and  a  the  such  stressing  be  as  Tensile  Tensile  is  casting  Radiography  fact  valve  valve  qualify  detrimental  Mechanical  4.4.1  to  In  fatigue  craft),  the  the  the  (e.g.  used  applications.  removed  4.4  inside  NDT t e s t s  generally  be  ever  piece  the of  and  CF-8M)  The The  before  in  in  Table  for  for  for  forged  0.25"in the  the  trans-  Valve  Valve  Nos.  No.  The  castings or  to  4.3.2).  and  XIII.  steel  ESC  in  section  tests  those  were  tested  longitudinal these  the  conformed  samples were  austenitic and  from  tests  they  while  given  samples  rolled  9  5,  and  tensile (ASME alloy  50 steel  valves  ASTM  A182-74  plete  that  all  the  the  and  in  noted  given  given  in  in  except  for  valve The  strength.  bodies  The  following  ASTM/ASME  specifications  316  (low The  this  and  worked  cast  counterpart  the of  values  and  to  non-worked  the  These  cluded  two  tensile  ASME/ASTM are  in  met.  and  the  has  it  can  seen  (Valve  ASTM  No.  code  parts  short  be  for  forg-  in  high-  used  by  6)  about  2000  two  points  should  valve  bodies  and  be  are  for  rolled  strengths  not  for  a  parts  or  are  forged  for  cast  a  fine  material  rolled  been  in  or  forged  altered  to  give  order to  ihcrease  for  loss  the  in  316  is  a  the  CF-8M  large strength  strength  due  condition.  adequately the  316  is  also  explain  ESC v a l v e .  properties  specification This  steel  compensate  points  observed  that  of  delta-ferrite thus  com-  content).  composition  amount  for  specified  material  delta-ferrite  where  strength  the  in  The  -  stainless  Hence  and  falls  SA-182/  XIII.  valve  their  valve  The  of  and  316  to  out  316  ASME  (ASME  1.  tables,  the  of  reference  Table  Appendix  for  requirements  service  in  these  in  sized  ments  also  given  service.  condition.  the  are  ESC v a l v e s  tensile  temperature  are  results  castings  made  2)  high  316)  tensile  temperature  1)  for  the  satisfy ings  for  specifications  From  psi  etc.  of  the  provided evident  the So  lower it  can  tensile be  con-  ESC v a l v e s 1 i e w e l l the if  composition we  consider  within  requirethe  51 properties creased the  of  from  delta  (CF-8M)  and  be  that  seen  by  about  of  on  9  conventional the  in  cantly  has  This  be  rest  due  only  casting less  to  is  be  much  reduction  This in  area  can  cleaner  is  area  from  the  while  no  such  edge  (i.e.  by  has seen  more  decrease  a by  the is  compared,  of  9  it  can  is  higher  by  things.  Firstly  casting  The  grain  electroinclusions),  solidification  considering to  decrease of  observed  of  content,  the  non-metallic better  percent  part  ferrite that  the  s i g n i f i -  although  fact  ac-  hand  and  is  size  point  other  casting  the  higher  latter  the  and  is  the  elongation  centre  No.  strength  delta  the  Valve  is  sensitive  sharp to  9  are  latter  On  in  (w.r.t.  be  tion  9.  No.  of  secondly  percent  and  Therensa  No.  two  strength.  explained  which  in-  the  smaller.  difference  content.  casting  is  by  clusion in  to  casting  are  strength  24% a n d  ESC V a l v e  also  was  specification  results  casting  conventional  microsegregation  structure.  the  conventional  about  the  CF-8M  yield  due  the  the  the  the  be  yield  of  If  CF-8M  casting  content  conventional  tensile  demonstrated  than  can  by  to  the  while  of  higher  area)  lower  can  of  the  can  content  reduction  slag  average  No.  chromium  increased).  conventional  (as  the  properties  psi.  for  was  the  ductility  this  content  specifications.  ESC v a l v e  counts  the  specification  a b o u t 20QO p s i  4000  the  7 where  the  delta-ferrite than  No.  316  tensile  within  higher  the  ferrite  The also  Valve  the  percent  non-metallic  in  percent  the in  the  in-  reduc-  conventional ESC V a l v e  52 From  the  delta-ferrite  tensile content  results of  the  it  also  castings  became  evident  greatly  that  influences  the the  73 proof  stress  clude  that  and  delta-ferrite  sile  strength  rite  has  a  by  gives  to a  a  higher  concentration harden  tensile  a  in  strength,  about  increases  is  austenite,  yield the  softer  the  than  than  the  value.  increasing  phase  the  of carbon the  stress  work  a l .  case  of  fer-  the  it  0.2%,  ten-  The and  causes  con-  and  effect.  nominal In  et  austenite  strengthening  due to p a r t i t i Q h i n g  thereby  proof  the  austenite  stress  80% o f  the  Irvine  strengthening  stress  greater  proof  values.  increases  dispersion  strain  higher  strength  strain  to  work  and  therefore  the  tensile  due  to  delta-ferrite  and  nitrogen  hardening  to  the  rate.  62 Beck,  Schoefer  et  al .  c o n c l uded from t h e r e s u l ts from  62 C F - 8 M a n d 277 C F - 8 h e a t s t h a t t h e t e n s i l e a n d y i e l d directly of for  related  to the f e r r i t e  longitudinal the  tensile  ESC v a l v e s .  function  of  mined  percent  to  by  the  ferrite  strengths graph,  the  the  latter  the  line.  quite  the  of  It  ferrite  and  yield  can  be  elongation)  content. the  When  the  conventional lies  show  positive  a  This  significant  about  higher and  casting  has  not  1000  psi  deviation  be  a much  of  with  the  any  the  yield  explained smaller  the  about  by  is a (as  and  plotted  below  on  deter-  the  while psi  fact  size  relation  the  line  4000  direct  yield  strength  grain  number  definite  tensile  are  of  strength  are  variation  ferrite  ductility  show  average  casting  value  could  that  However,  does  strengths  F i g u r e 50 s h o w s t h e  strengths  seen  content.  former  conventional  content.  about  from is  that  than  the the  53 electroslag This  is  the  casting  also  obvious  samples  2-1.5%  from  higher  The tensile sized  and  the  this  results  from  the  edge  of  fact the  than  the  samples  fractured  and  deformed  samples  exhibited  material  (see  a  that  higher  the  from  areas  of  Coarse  stress.  strength  of  c a s t i n g is about :  the  edge.  the  0.25  characteristics  51).  yield  yield  conventional  away  the  Figure  in  of  grain  inch a  .  diameter  large  grain  materials  approach  64 more  closely  valid of  the of  result,  the  near  a  the  tin,  grains  of  1 to  the  the  also  done  on  grain  grained  speciments,  It  found  7 4  in  number  very  concluded rather  work  harden  is  similar,  and  limit  is  particularly  in  to of  the  is  the  absolute  substantially the  general  the  effect 75 marked.  particularly  In  from  the  strength the  case  of  rolled  number by  number grain  of  further of  grains  size  which  relationship.  shows  that  the  coarse  less  than  the  finer  form of  grains  appreciably  strength  also  a  section  free  increased  tensile  aluminum  in  present  cross  grains.  tensile  it  the  affect  increase  that  To  relatively  slightly  than  although  obvious,  the  the  60-100% with and  grains  that  that  curves  became  of  aggregate  polycrystal 1ine  specimens  elastic  few  crystals.  so  size/ultimate  grained  strain  number  whole  by  cross-section  controls  too  20-30,  He  single  required  are  increases  refinement. the  are  Pel 1-Walpole  for  of  sufficient  surface  properties  Work  behaviour  specimen  material  in  the  of  grain  the  316  the  stress-  size  on  tensile  the  54 samples, there  that  were  diameter small To  few  specimens  from  gauge  solution the  did  6  final  These  sectional  area  have  about  results  of  formed sence  16  of  clearly line.  Figure  and  average  value  that  of  To both  the  of  area  both  the  larger  speci-  49)„were  machined  No. as and  16  9  (CF-8M).  were  specimen  and  in  the  slip  on  surface broken the  ends  of  was  XIV.  an  the  preare  irregular  samples area  the.sample  taken  de-  grains  tensile  a  The  shows  the  shows  by  cross-  The  projected  measured  the  MTS  section.  s t i l l  lines  the  should  Table  surface  in  prior  therefore  cross  in  in  inch  were  before)  tested  larger  1  These  mentioned  times  given  ends  properties.  Figure  the  was  test  the  (see  measure the  to  of  of  fractured one  tensile  inch  diameter  fractured the  0.25  -gauge  grains  and  of  and  a  Valve  are  large  properties  bulk  decided  with  were  was  were  of  is the  photo-  planimeter.  as. t h e  out-  fractured  The area  sample.  Comparison specimens  52.  then  was  smaller  the  of  surface,  graphed  for  up  the  operation  more  The  tensile  same way  the  grains  visible.  fractured  and  specimens  near  the  inches  specimens  times  large  in  4  the  than  A close  shown  (in  these  region  it  ESC v a l v e s  cross-section  represent  machining  machine.  the  specimens of  the  result  (316)  treated  of  in  problem,  size  No.  a  not  length  Valve  size  grains As  this  Large  a  grain  samples.  mens..  to  very  overcome  and  the  (see  of  the  Tables  tensile XII,  XIII  results and  of  XIV)  the shows  large  and  small  that  the  yield  55  as  well  lower  as  the  tensile  strength  than  the  smaller  specimens  percent  elongation  smaller  specimens  of  CF-8M,  both  while  sized  expected. of  ment  which  the  in  the  the  the  is  possible  samples, could  was  and  in  the  mechanical  properties  were  machined  section In  all  the  of  the  three  centre)  that  the  tion  in  This  shows  from  a  occurred that  to  area  this  had  than  investigate  the  much  undeformed  in  large  tensile  specimens  from  tensile  samples  (two  the  were  yield area  and  large  cal  properties  only  the  specimen  The  ultimate  are-  that  and  tested.  results  tensile  marginally  difference is  rather  in  responsible than  the  higher  for  number  of  the samples  and  (CF-8M).  one  from  XIV)  percent  the  in  samples  the  difference  small  in  the  show reduc-  large  of  grains  grip  9  Table  treatment the  in  No.  and  in  the  quenching  threaded  edge  than  in  small  Valve  (given  was  treat-  grains  the  strength  heat  of  for  influence  possibility  region  from  or  greater  number  what  heat  heating  case  similar  to  the  the  the  difference  in  a much  The  to  in  was  opposite  the  this  lower  the  were  CF-8M.  similar  CF-8M  of  the  and  was  variation  during  specimens  316  for  because  specimens,  So  in  and  that  the  section.  316  completely  of  cross  both  is  there  have  larger  specimens  c a s e "of'  This  the  for  larger  reduction  specimens. It  size  of  of  mechanicross  section.  In  conclusion  of  the  ESC v a l v e s  if  the  chemical  range.  it can  can  be  said  that  easily  meet  the  composition  is  the  tensile  required  controlled  properties  ASME/ASTM  within  the  codes  required  56 B.  LOW A L L O Y  Six  valves  0.6-0.8%  Mn,  0.70-0.90%  4.5  STEEL  and  Remelting  Table Towards nected This and  was  the  top  so  most  of  cables  were  not  they  were  were  connected)  this  problem  3.  made  the  to  A  rare  Nos.  was  moisture.  these  valves.  A steel  typical is  shown  to  Only  12  electrode.  up  ESC  3,  the  cables  started with  by  such  the  No.  and  carried  for  the  high  currents  all  further  joining  the  base  {La^Q^)  oxide  had  composition  and to  Nos.  the  be  13  was  rejected  and  14  were  of  a  valve  These so  cables  and  of  starter  after  Valve  No.  was  sound.  could  also  plate  castings,  plate  because  measurements  the  Valve  was  con-  and  changed  used.  casting  casting 53.  (where  was  base  cables.  In  by  mold  valves.  smoking.  the  damaged.  slag  Figure  as  Ni ,  Valves  contact  carry  C,  1.65-2.00%  the  electroslag in  bar  Valve  lost  dimensional  Valve  S i ,  of  problems  and  (0.38-0.43%  conditions  heated  was  overcome The  ESC  in  inside  not  earth  any  11  were  designed  rolled  4340  melting  4340  0.20-0.35%  Mo)  casting  The  AISI  melting  current  heated.  without  Valve  the mold  pi ate w i t h s c r e w s . No.  S,  AISI  the  the  was  using  0.04%  for  of  because  CASTINGS  0.20-0.30%  Log  end  made  P,  XV g i v e s  the to  were  0.04%  Cr  VALVE  8  However,  porosity be  done  due on  sound.  body  in  AISI  4340  57 4.6  Non-Destructive  4.6.1  Dye  As the Nos. 14  3,  8  showed  valve were  Penetrant  Valve  other  was due  Nos.  were  and  13  did  not  cracks  all  over  to  improper  4.6.2  Ultrasonic,;  Unlike present  sonic  4.6.3  in  any  testing  Radiography  detected.  4.7  could two  The  crack.  section  one  whole  for  to  moisture,  cracks.  However,  (see  and  This  No.;.  54).  these  point  Valve  Valve  Figure  piece  treatment.  castings, in be  This  cracks  will  be  dis-  was  ultrasonic  4340  showed  valve  testing.  penetrated.  performed were  Testing  sectioning  AISI  The  that  castings The  results  they  were  did  full of  ultra-  sound.  Test  radiographs  Destructive  any  tested  the  castings  obtained The  and  due  chapter.  problems  on  porosity  Test  Radiography  radiographs  as  valve  thickness  showed  show  heat  this  CF-8M  12  sectioned  treated  later  section  and  valves  heat  (NPT)  Test  11  cussed  not  Testing  using  the  satisfactory of  Valve  No.  cobalt-60  and 3  source.  no  flaws  could  are  shown  in  The be  Figure  55.  (D.T.)  procedure  has  been  mentioned  in  Section  4.3.  58 4.7.1  Macrostructures  The ()50%  AISI  HC£,  4340  50% H 0 ) of  and  shown  from  are  Valve  tion.  No.  in  60  the  one  shows  a  All  the  from  The  top  part  the  cracks.  the  the  was  Also  slag  hot-topping pool  indications Valve  of  the  near  being  of  No.  (shown  transverse  the  edge  are  longer on  The  with noticed  Figure  section  it  of  the  be  seen  casting)  to  can  Cracks  be  seen.  clearly  shows  also  the  be  inshows  due  mold.  to Some  macrostructure  the  that  is  defects  59.  must  the  From  solu-  indicates  this  from  13  mild  of  time)  respect  a  Figure  top  and  57).  can  the  8,  section  free  macrostructure  assymmetric  also  in  (surface  a  entrapment  was  the  inter-dendritic)  for  off-centre  this  8  in  etched  macro-  3,  through  No.  shown  The  persulphate  are  cycle.  profile  electrode  of  a  section  as  solution  Nos.  of  macrostructures  (probably  (which  Valve  10% a n i m o n i u m  14  acid  hours.  One-half  transverse  Valve  an  1-2  from  56-59. in  in  for  sections  etched  longitudinally  that  65-70°C  Figures  running  sufficient  macroetched  about  3 was  ESC v a l v e .  except  was  longitudinal  Figure  steel  at  2  structures 14  steel  macrostructure the  grain  smaller  than  size in  centre.  Specimens No.  3 were  CuC£ , 2  0.5  distilled shown and  in  from  etched gms  in  become  mid-radius, centre  2  nu  reveal  61(and).  coarser  and  ;  Oberhoffer's  SnC£ ,350  water).to Figure  edge,  towards  HC£, the  The the  solution 500  nu  dendritic dendrites centre,  (30  ethyl  top  gms  but  Valve  F e C ^ *  2  alcohol,  structure. are  of  fine they  500  These  at  the  are  all  gm nu are  edge  59 oriented  directionally.  men  the  from  forming  4.7.2  top  Sulphur ingots were  shows  equiaxed  Sulphur  as  grains  printing as  from  do  any  than  those  tent  of  to  are  the  valve  or  very  the  in  of  random  slow  the  speci-  orientation  cooling  distribution  forged  Nos.  3  shown  sulphur  from  the  photograph  dendrites  reveals  Valve  These  show  (due  rolled  electrode. not  coarse  the  at  the  top.)  Prints  well  taken  However,  and in  8  is  in  Sulphur  prints  along  a  of  segregation  castings  sulphur  products.  Figures  electrode  of  with  62  and  and  the  piece  63.  The  prints  are  indicating  that  the  much  than  that  lower  valves lighter  sulphur of  con-  the  electrode.  4.7.3  Interdendritic  Using  the  same  technique  microsegregation  at  was  The  determined.  variation in  of  Figures  obtained tion Mo  64-66.  from  ratio  in  Valve count.  solute  is  Valve No.  14  The  the  Microsegregation  the  as low  centre  line  Also  the  of  scans  Table  analyses.  13  described  of  concentration  maximum  No.  as  is  XVI From  for  Mo.  low  while  the  Cr,  this  count  was  segregation  ratio  of  4340  Ni, the  we  the  value  minimum  Section ESC  microprobe  gives  Also, no  AISI  the of  in  and  valves  along Mo  are  segregation  see  that  the  segregation could  similar Mo  in  4.3.4,  be  with shown ratios segrega-  ratio  given  of  for  to  the  background  Valve  No.  13  could  60 be  due  was  to  the  located  4.7.4  heat-treatment  away  from  C om p o s - i - t i o n  Composition and  carbon  variation the XX  was of  give  the  electrode due  to  Besides  using  tent  the  mined The  by  the  4.7.5  of  Heat  The by All  the the  dition.  castings  Treatment  the  and  tests  that  the  specimen  machined  nickel,  hole.  height  67-70,  and  while of  appreciable in  molybdenum  ESC v a l v e s .  analyses  the  The  width  Tables  the  XVII  in  of  chemistry  sulphur.  the  sulphur  the  was  also  electrode  con-  deter-  using  Leco  Sulphur  Analyser.  XXI.  From  this  can  by  material, was  about even  to  starting  change case  of  spectroscopy,  material  and  the  decreased  we 70%  when  see  through the  sulphur  low.  Microstructures  properties  treatment  Unmachined  is  of  starting  mechanical  and  Table  content  mechanical  heat  in  the  4340  except  analysis"  processing the  No  emission  shown  sulphur  electroslag content  optical  valve  AISI  Figures  observed  to  chromium,  along  castings. is  are  in  fact  M a c r o s e g r e g a t i on  composition  "combustion  results  that  the  the  the  due  and  of  elements  complete  and  in  shown  remelting  of  variation  studied  are  centre  Ana 1 y s i s  these  castings  the  and/or  of  hence were  individual  steel  the  done  are  greatly  resulting in  the  specimens  affected  microstructure.  heat-treated from  Valve  con-  Nos.  3  61 and  8 were  austenitised  were  tempered  at  ment  done  each  for  property  diameter 2  and  and  No.  the  tised  in  a  tempered  the  Valve  test  given  done  that  the  cracks  square  quenched.  exact  in  the  The  (see were  They  heat  treat-  mechanical  much  heat  the  machined  casting  Instead  in  Figure  of  of  heat  valves  quenched.  this treat-  from  treated  treatment,  inch  protrusions)  testing)  heat  3  section  Valve  as  a  whole  were  austeni-  They  were  the  longitudinally,  showed  Figure  54)  59),  than cut  dendritic  side  of  valves  were  tests.  cut  force.  hole  shown  these  oil  on  and  also  they  valve  separated  not  was  show  very  fine  when  a  when  the  also  were  surface.  this  structure did  clearly  and  the  from The  up  Macroetching  interdendritic  section  and  and  the  Figure  cross  is  were  Both  cracks  rather  the  mechanical  845°C  (see  vertical  longitudinal  valves  was  a  valve  a  step.  casting  without  shiny  14  with  machined.  destructive  No.  macroetched  72).  oil  The  (through  (for  After  These  was  the  not  these  at  560°C.  were  and  are  shows  was  bath  observed.  crack  14  sectioning  for  When  a  and  550°C.  machined  71(b)  both  salt  at  sectioned  inch  tests  hole  specimens  14,  to  inside  845°C  and  machined  The  Figure  prior  trant  was  diameter.  Valve  13  were  of  horizontal  individual  Nos.  480°C  set  13  a  while  valve. ing  No.  inch  71(a),  about  about  section.  Valve  of  at  plates  with  separated  such  pene-  concentrated  surfaces  any  dye  revealed  A bar  revealed  cracks  along  were (see  0.5  smooth Figure  cracks.  62 From  the  cracks  above  in  results  Valve  No.  it  14  can  were  be  said  caused  conclusively  due  to  improper  that  the  heat  treat-  ment.  Hardness tion  of  hardness  valves.  These  shows  a  large  width  of  the  than not  the as  about  to  the  8  should  two  above  be  that  it  condition  Figures  No.  due  to  73  and  out of  the  heat-treated  Valve  particularly a  had  inches  in  hardness  cross  section Valve  14 the  variation  in  a  No.  along  higher  hardness  14  varia-  the  74.  difference  No. 2%  width  the  the  to  find  shows  13  Valve  compared  is  section thickness  No.  13  (due  hole).  strongly  machined  Beside  treating  and  surface  Valve is  to  hardness,  The  points  rough  in  valves.  inches  treatment.  and  This  done  height  in  casting.  machined  The  shown  In  were  the  variation  centre.  the  of  along  are  large.  between  heat  measurements  these,  cycle  would  to  due  be  because it  their  other  to  to  softer  that  final  cross  machine than  valve  shape  advantages  smaller  easier is  suggest  castings  prior  include  section  the  valve  to  heat  reduced  and in  weight, the  in  the  heat-treated  examination,  the  specimens  as-cast con-  dition.  For and cast  microstructural  etched and  in  2% n i t a l .  heat-treated  The  microstructures  conditions  are  shown  were  obtained in  Figure  in  polished as-  75(a-d).  63 The  as-cast  the  quenched  entirely and a  of  and  tempered  76.shows  it  from  that  is  structure site.  seen while  Some  material  (see  improper  ment  of  an  mented  in  valve  4.7.6  not  the  inner  the  casting  were  again  step  in  during  present  12  and  made,  taken.  At  the  test  higher  was  treatment  any  of  bainitic marten-  done is  on  this  largely  process. on  has might  Heat  treat-  mechanical  etc.)  that  due  segregation  'normalising'  effects  believe  a  microstructure  microstructure  normalising, we  have  mixed  area  magnifica-  presence  that  of  is  heat  well  docu-  treatment  of  problems.  Measurements  dimensions was  and  quenched  interdendritic  This  (homogenising  the  structure.Figure  (dendrites)  suggests  composed  microstructure  interdendritic  heat  measurements  11,  the  tensile  but  for  different  shows  This  This  steel  in  areas  when  literature,  Dimensional Nos.  The  present.  it.  overheating  would  electrode. a  while  structure  true  areas  also  a  dendrites.  XXIII) -  to  4340  the  Same  structure  is  light  treatment,  Dimensional  casting  is  shows  showed  the  darker  important  properties,  the 13  in  the  Table  heat  AISI  No.  ductility  contributed  become  ESC  that  bainitic  condition  from  that  the  low  coarse  microstructure  ferrite  is  also  the  a  martensite.  Valve  than  resulted  to  tempered  specimen  different  tion  has  tempered  specimen  is  condition  13.  between  were After  the  the  certain  measurements  Also  done  slag  on mold  points  between  thickness  the  mold  has  been  were the at  and  valve  assembled,  taken.  same these  After  points points  was  64 determined. 'pseudo below  From  percent  and  real  are  these  data,  shrinkage'  listed  percent  in  'real  were  Table  percent  shrinkage'  obtained.  These  are  and defined  XXII.  Di  shrinkage  -  Df  -  100  2Ts  Di  pseudo  percent  shrinkage  =. D i  -  Df  100  1  L where Di  -  inner  dimension  of  the  mold  Df  -  final  dimension  of  the  casting  T s - s l a g t h i c k n e s s .  The  'pseudo  percent  shrinkage',  practical  significance  mum  value  for  mum  'shrinkage'  this  This  is  slag  thickness  4.8  Mechanical  4.8.1  because  Tensile  As out  on  around  is  at  the  of  the  at  tudinal tempered  and  4.6%.  corners  very  these  determined  importance  is  high  to  It and  heat  here,  is  foundrymen.  was  found  edges  that  of The  maxi-  the  maxi-  of  the  castings.  transfer  and  hence  large  points.  Properties  Testing  mentioned AISI  and  as  4340  in  Section  ESC V a l v e  transverse  condition.  4.4,  Nos.  samples  The  tensile  3, were  details  of  8  and  tests 13.  tested the  in  heat  were  Both the  the  carried longi-  quenched  treatment  have  and  65 been  mentioned  Tests are  were  also  given  quoted  in  in  at  be a  are  not  achieved  certain  transverse sented  by  by  longitudinal  the  transverse  tion  rolled are  values  150%  at  is  vacuum  is  specimens.  area  less  However  if  we  level.  plastic  levels ductility  Obviously  deformation  repre-  elongation) to  of  that  the  the the  and  for  (as  of  conven-  o f % RA a n d than  and in  However,  similar  values  been  tensile  strength  consider  respectively  strength  and  percent  or  90% h i g h e r  have  remelted  ductility  more  longitudinal  results  particularly  the  and  XXIII.  included  yield  important,  the  which  been  treatments.  ESC v a l v e s , in  and  are  different  heat is  bar  Table  % Elonga-  transverse bar  hence  had  the  been ductility  a n i s o t r o p i c . ' .:.  The  mechanical  drastically  if  treatment.  When  tested, lower the  they  AISI  showed  the  (particularly  4340 , s t e e l  is  tensile  exhibited  strength  treated  properties  the  (Table  microstructure.  heat it  as  in  results  The  In  subjected to extensive  tensile  comparison.  specimens  same  rolled  also  level  the  given  have  reduction  and  the  4340  suitable  bar,  are  melted,  important  specimens.  the  tional  for  strength  percent  air  AISI  so  4340  Some  for  XXVII  results  AISI  XXIV.  remelted  XXV t o  The  on  literature  strengths can  done  Table  electroslag Tables  before.  as  one  very  specimens poor  XXIII). As  of  and  from  ductility  » .'The  mentioned  piece  presence  subjected  due  bainite,  drop  to  is  Valve  tempered  No.  Valve  were  at  much  related  No.  drop  heat  13  even  directly  inadequate  can  improper  values  earlier, to  ductility)  13  to  was  heat-treatment  martensite  and  66 some  ferrite  mens  were  pered)  (see  re-heat  the  structure  showed  sile  in  XXVI) 4340  and  to  that  steel  specimens tudinal verse  show  For tensile  the  specimens  the  small  optical  improvement eliminate  tion cut  The  etc. from  on the  the  AISI  steel  can  be  of  seen  values  as  obtain.  reasons  as  of  inch  0.75 9  stated  times  of  larger  these  forged  in  gauge  also  large in  possible  effect  the  mechanical region  the  4.4,  are  ESC  longi-  tensile  steel  are  larger Figure area  49) than  shown do  small  heat-treatment,  large  the  NITS m a c h i n e .  the  small  ESR  trans-  4340  XXVIII(a))  over  properties, of  the  (see  specimens  Table  of  the  ten-  the  cross-sectional  properties  any  AISI  Section  in  ESC  Table  transverse  diameter  tested  (given  tensile  for  the  in  that  ductility that  tem-  micro-  forged  similar  noteworthy  the  4340  (given  properties it  then  longitudinal  than  can  threaded  the  speci-  present.  values  results in  was  ductility  s p e c i m e n s , were  77.  tensile  XXVII  fractographs  to  ESR 4 3 4 0  Table  having  them  XXVII),  because  martensite  of  and  lower  is  one  same  therefore  Figure  in  best  and  To  but It  given  the  Table  slightly  specimens.  perhaps  hot-rolled  tensile  quenched  recovered  properties  comparing  transverse  specimens  were  tempered  tensile  in  individual  (austenitised,  only  and  of  (given  properties  any  the  the  When  properties  general,  properties  76).  treated  tensile  Considering valves  Figure  in  not  show  specimens. orienta-  specimens  tensile  The  were  specimens.  67 The  results  to  the  are  rest.  section  given  This  does  not  in  Table  shows  have  that  XXVII(b) , number  significant  and  of  they  grains  effect  on  in  the  are  similar  the  cross-  tensile  pro-  perties.  4.8.2  Impact  Testing  Standard  Charpy  V-Notch  E23-72  specifications  and  and  13  also  on  AISI  were  done  in  from  both  longitudinal  in  Valve  rode  the  Nos.  while  verse  in  tests  are  and  thus  ture  and  to  tempered  transverse  and  in  8  the  the  at  Figure  charpy in  3  surface  plot  percent  determine  the  from  electrode.  The  It  very  the  Specimens were  rolled  tested  longitudinal,  trans-  notch)  and  specimen results  Each  point  broken  fracture  from  and  of  notch  all  these  represents  d i f f i c u l t  irregular.  brittle  tests  elect-  The  was  8  bar  the  79-81.  from  Fracture  3,  4340  shows  tests.  was  Nos.  directions  specimens.  fracture  ESC V a l v e  transverse  78  Figures  least  brittle  and  ASTM  condition.  AISI  specimens  to  to  charpy Hence  versus  estimate specimens  it  was  also  temperature  Appearance  Transition  Tempera-  the  results  Valve  (FATT).  From 3  of  and  conforming  on  bar'  and  No.  tested.  out  rolled  longitudinal  fracture  d i f f i c u l t  13  presented  percent the  a  of  average  as  and  tests  carried  4340  quenched  Valve  were  orientation  the  3  (having  edge  an  the  were  impact  the  Figure  79  electrode,  which it  shows  can  be  seen  charpy that  at  the  of  same  No.  hardness  68  level,  the  better  toughness  the  longitudinal values  ESC v a l v e .  rode  are  much  lower  for  seems  higher  the  be  ESC  from  than  longitudinal  However,  temperature to  specimen  than  the  the  80  longitudinal  values  the  ESC v a l v e .  Also  for  the  shows  the  specimens  Charpy  seem  to  results  the  the  from  elect-  transition  the  electrode  specimens  have  of  specimens  with  a  the  transverse  specimens  with  transverse  toughness  tudinal  notch  difference  (TL),  could  ness.  However,  istics  of  shows  the  than  nothing  from  the  be  to  from  due  to  notch.  Although  with  longi-  can  be  said  as  this  difference  in  hard-  transition are  at  very  low  small  than  specimens  edge  the  values  show  the  toughness  The  (TT)  the  ductile-brittle  specimens  again  due  8.  notch  conclusive  be  No.  energy  longitudinal  transverse  entirely  reasonable  could  the  Valve  higher  transverse  This  of  from  longitudinal  the  it  specimens  transverse  specimens  exhibit  valve.  Figure  better  electrode  the  longitudinal than  the  grain  character-  much  superior  as  temperatures. size  at  the  edge.  The  ductile-brittle  No.  13  are  shown  No.  8,  but  the  Table  XXIX  in  transition  Figure  curves  gives  seem  the  81  and  to  have  FATT  characteristics they  are  shifted  valves  similar to  the  estimated  of to  Valve Valve  right.  from  the  69 ductile-brittle-transition the  FATT  is  The No.  8  with  electrode  the  are  smooth  istic  of  the  notch  shown  in  energy  electrode,  on  the  and  the  83.  ESC v a l v e  with  fracture.  The  other  hand  s h e a r 1','i-ps a r e  absent  mens  the  ESC v a l v e ,  the  different very  irregular  present shown at  The  low  the  and  the  Figure  are  surface  is  smooth  84(a).  These  speci-  show  lips  an  character-  samples  from  irregular"laminated at  The  100°C.  The  exhibit  fracture  where  ridges  the  difference  electrode  shear  hand,  and  from  electrode  an  Valve  Figures  great  transverse  other  areas  a  the  large  characteristics. there  is  even  in  ESC  are  entirely  surface  vertical  shiny.  speci-  is  ridges  This  is  are  clearly  predominantly  present  temperatures.  distinguish same  apparent.  in  Areas Figure  Four  mode  the  appearance  84(a).  shown  the  specimen,  general  Figure are  and  in  To of  fracture  that  specimens  the  show  and  on  show  from  shown  and  from  structure from  are  There  surface  the  specimens  transverse  specimens  fractured  high  of  Figure  between  They  material.  orientations  longitudinal  even,  ESC  longitudinal  fractography The  the  fractographs  various  and  mens.  for  optical  82(a-d)  in  lower  characteristics.  of  where 84(b).  different  of  failure  specimens a  broken  were charpy  'cracks' The areas  in  or  examined specimen  very  cleavage with  different  small  fracture  different  regions  u n d e r the SEM. is  shown  ridges is  appear  quite  fracture  in  70 characteristics them  as  were  identified.  ductile/brittle  'low',  'intermediate'  ferent  areas  Area ridge and  1  -  area.  faceted  areas  where  Area The  are  2  This  is  'intermediate  Area the  ridge due  s t i l l  to  areas.  3  and  4  mens due cast  from to  the  area  can  be  -  This  is  are  the  the  are  very as  sides  the  flat  some  round  dimples).  of  the  coarse  the  below:-  of  as  also  large  base  dif-  identified  fracture'  general  areas)  the  is  of  ridge  dimples  area. with  'transition  much  This  is  area  shows  here  energy  the  very  finer.  and  but  'high  comprises  much  The  as  zone'  fracture'.  lip  fracture  termed  vertical  (probably  termed  represents shear  and  There  shows  been  fractures.  energy  at  characterising  have  the  seen.  region  this  This  The  dimples  These  'low  is  of  85(a-d)  on  microvoid-coalescence  specimen.  fracture'  region  energy  the  energy'  observed  This  This  coarse.  Area  the  -  the  is  they  Figures  mode  fractograph..from  with  in  is  This  flat  'high  represents  tearing  some  is  or  fracture  -  fractures,  shown  This  Instead  (all  except  that  also  the  fracture'  fracture dimples  are  area.  shear  lips  area  like  Area  3,  also  the  on  but  'high  the  i  here energy  area. areas  are  ESC v a l v e s .  f i r s t l y  structure  the of  representative This  large the  ESC  kind  grain  of  size  material.  of  all  the  fracture and  charpy  is  secondly  speci-  probably due  to  the  71 Chapter  OTHER  Although ing  of  the  valve  needed  in  improved  TRIALS  two  is  major  f i r s t  of  cast  valves  Much  work  done  origin  the and  Paton  and  3-5 of  the  made tion.  The  with  the  mandrel in  the  with  Figure  87.  ingots  (not  cussed  to  provide  mentioned perties  of  useful  in  with  of  workers  86  lower  the  is  costs  ESC i s  have  of  and  hollow  centre  hole).  again  shown  the  shows  the  hollow  U.S.S.R.,  and  sent  by  in  the  an  the  upright  and  be  as  better.  solid  are  of  Soviet  feasibility  ESC  here the  position  position.  associated  different 78 79 Bhat '  by  Soviets  inverted  information  would  hollow  aspect  cast  extent  above  to  work  manufacture  this  problems  valves)  some  the  with  used  valve  The  some  is  valves  Institute,  being  the  lead  more  cast-  process.  Figure  methods  valve  electroslag  some  (i.e.  other  '  Paton two  on  the  77  process.  in  might  interest  electroslag of  the  that  process,  which  of  WORK  shows  viable  areas  area  FUTURE  work  a  capabilities  The  AND  present  bodies  5  with  valve for  evalua-  fixed  mandrel  and  the  These  casting  of  are  moving shown  hollow  techniques  have been dis80 Hoyle, and t h e s e might  and to  which  of  A comparative  ESC i n g o t s  of  the  the  two  study same  methods  of  size  prohas  been  81 done  by  Paton  ingots  have  a  hollow  valves  et  a l . ,  better would  and  their  structure lower  the  and  results  show  mechanical  machining  cost.  that  the  hollow  properties. Comparative  Also,  72  studies valves  should  therefore  taking  into  be  account  conducted the  on  hollow  economics  of  and  both  solid  the  ESC  process  routes.  The  other  area  technique  whereby  joined  fusion  or  process. outlet  By  shapes The  to  used  in  the  ESC p r o c e s s .  Then  segment  the  replaced  side.  An  in  section can  be  been  the  this  it  made  body.  during  is  possible  by  the  of  to  480  is  parts  body  the  the  are casting  to  join  inlet/  ESC p r o c e s s  more  product  technique  diameter  required  auxiliary  Hence  final  to  a  of  with  and  the  Figure of  seen  this that  work  was  A flange  a  electrode  insert  shown  main  technique  to  pin  preliminary  joined  an  a  the  are  complicated  could  produce mm.)  or  for  be  made.  very  large  diesel  engines  ships.**  castings  was  used  prepared  valve  close  have  to  have  main  (with  Some of  this  (which  are  Soviets  crankshaft  welded  the  which  investigations  separately  using  flanges  otherwise)  where  thick the  similar  valve  89.  The  casting the  mold  plate.  valve  piece  done  here was  was  placed  casting  was  fusion  shown of  in  the  to  shown  had  in  the  aspect  flange Figure  cupped  with  a  in  this  hole  made.  this  make  but  hole  in  to  the  act  as  casting  of  the  longitudinal  Figure  90.  insert  to  the  From main  88.  side  This  macrostructure is  is  which  segment  study  used  This  mold  to  is  this valve  it'  73 body  is  bably  possible.  be  corrected.  instead  of  work  needed  is  the  properties  Both if  they  perties the  The  of  A flange  insert  and  this  area  the  weld  region  appear  techniques to  be  ESC p r o c e s s  and  and  warrant  they  make  the  it  more  to  the  be  the  can  main and  pro-  be  placed  valve.  More  mechanical  studied.  further the  top  therefore  soundness  from  would  at  could  joined  should  acceptable  economics,  fusion  casting  hence  in  these  and  incomplete  investigation  point  certainly versatile.  of  widen  view the  and of  pro-  scope  of  74 Chapter  SUMMARY  The  results  electroslag  bodies.  sonic  testing  valves, steel  the  The ally  free  sity  in  same  used.  to  thus  of  which  their  corrosion  clearly a  viable  tests  the  to  inherent  of  that low  alloy  to  produce  although  grain  tool  the  to  austenitic  large  important  that  technique  show  case  applied  an  indicate  ultra-  steel  ESC  stainless  size.  Radio-  qualify  the  castings.  required  show  desired  to  avoid  to  the  when  becomes  microstructure  affects  the  secondly  also  Chemical  essential  that  defects.  f i r s t l y and  treatment  greatly is  in  be  become  properties.  ings  used  castings  the  is  solidification  are  Heat  achieve  be  cannot  due  steel  the  above  process  macrostructures  cautions  cal  can  would  stainless  CONCLUSIONS  Non-destructive  valves  graphy  reported  casting  valve  AND  6  an  obtain  good  However  cast  content,  pre-  electrodes  in  step  the  poroare  to  optimum  stainless  mechanical  essenti-;  related  important  of  are  special  moisture  resulting  composition ferrite  castings  mechani-  steel  presence properties  castof and  resistance.  Although  the  interdendritic  microsegregation  increases  75 from  the  duced  edge  from  castings.  tion  in  This It  in  casting  determined  noteworthy  in  the  (Cr,  Ni,  castings  achieved  by  melting  The easily tion  for  in  Mo  the  CF-8M  while  the  in  re-  stainless  valve  steel  casting  conventional  condition.  castings,  however,  occuring  is  conventional  treated  segregation  it  within  was CF-8M  The  segrega-  should  be  austenite  or  phases.  elements  the  steel  castings,  section  that  solution  Macrosegregation  valve  valve  true  condition  stainless  from  the  equivalent  as-cast  in  of  particularly  tested  ratio  centre  the  is is  the  was  ferrite  the  that  casting.  tested  to  Mo,  is  the  values  that  of  were  significantly  found  to  be  a  about  the  verse  ductility  same  with  a  the  CF-8M  strength of  AISI  were  Strength of  level, 4340  the  the  the  of  if  steel  during  ductility these  lower  the than  values  valves content.  longitudinal  can  composi-  Although  slightly  was  be  valves  chemical  range.  ferrite  ESC v a l v e s  can  the  arrangement.  s t a i nl ess codes  of  of  elements  feeding  casting.,  function  width  uniformity  required  ESC v a l v e s  variation  and  alloying  of. t h e  higher.  direct  of  proper  the  the  height  ASME/ASTM  within  conventional  the  addition  required  of  that  Composition  properties  controlled  show  along  small.  controlled  tensile  strength  C)  operation  meet  is  studies  and  was At trans-  significantly  76 higher led  than  bar  and  forged  equivalent  a  the  did  number  significant  perties  in  to  d u c t i l i t y the  these  not  of  alter  samples.  better  strength verse  of  surface  the  the  impact  estimated  grain  than  FATT  The  rolled  lower  for  the  ESC m a t e r i a l  size  and  as-cast  casting  operation  the  process  and  of  code  Although quality  this  need  point  and  applications  is  a  are  where  to  of  of  the  material.  higher  very  not  the material  The  than  impact  the  Also  due  transthe  The  irregular  pro-  that ESC  the  show-  does  show  material.  fractured to  large  for  the it  should  codes  valves  and  joining  of  main  valve  body  during  the  promising  potential  applications  of  investigation.  problems  casting,  therefore  area  tensile  ESC m a t e r i a l .  hollow  further  two  qualification it  of  components  the  At  was  the  structure.  casting  cast  much  the  of  results  rolled  was  of  cross-section  impact  r o l -  properties  measurement  of  the  individually  ductility  characteristics  of  Electroslag  conventional  measured  the  the  ESC m a t e r i a l  was  the  conventional  strength  the  cross-sectional  in  on  ductile-brittle-transition are  the  grains  effect  of  transverse  Increasing  specimens  that  have  transverse  ESR s t e e l .  tensile ing  the  need  attention:  ESC m a t e r i a l has be  been  shown  permitted  presently  must  require  to  to  be  The be be  problem  resolved. of  used  forgings.  a  high  in Also,  77 if  fabrication  casting  and  of  in  the  process be  be  on  alloying cause  tion  cannot  cess and  by  will  the  less  be  generic  be  that test  made  alloy of  are  therefore  and  forgings  we  to  may  on  from  cast  ESC v a l v e s  equivalent and  can  be  to  the  heat or  if  product the  can rather  d i f f i c u l t  if  operation  between a  might  ESC  stock  the  beelect-  code  qualifica-  become  economi-  costs.  electroslag  easily  in  electrodes. meet  than for  casting  shapes  treatment. better  this.  casting  be  such  wrought  substituted  can  casting  valve-body  can  -  is  differences  or  the  might  testing  steel  proper  This  high  simple  in  electrode  process  cast  with  lie  the  to  the  the  that  simultaneous  electroslag  However,  say  with  accommodate  not  the  appreciable  due  done  question  during  established,  used  does  castings?  are  feasible  specifications  penalty.  such  is  should  The  ESC a n a l y s e s .  be  properties  codes  control.  conclusion,  can low  a  shape  problem  individual  there  In  real  additions  and  the  controlled  the  rode  cally  the  process  qualified  than  final  welding,  However, but  the  the The  stainless The  required ESC  commercial  them  pro-  without  valves castings any  78 REFERENCES  1.  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B e r n s t e i n , p u b l i s h e d by M c G r a w - H i l l ,  of  Steel  p.143. In-  Stainless  G.V. Smith: 'The N a t u r e , Occurrence, S i g m a P h a s e ' , ASTM STP 1 10 , 1 9 5 0 , p.3.  Handbook, a l . :  8th  Edition,  'Journal  of  ' L. C o l o m b i e r and J . H o c h n i a u n : R e s i s t i n g S t e e l s ' , p u b l i s h e d by 1965, p.109.  vol.  Metals',  75,  Steel  J r . and K . G . B r i c k n e r : Advances in S t a i n l e s s S t e e l s ' , ASTM-STP369 , 1965 ,  62.  67.  AIME,  p.86.  R. B l o w e r stitute' ,  et  Institute',  Reviews',  61.  Gray  p.!86t.  of Stainp.l.  Steel  'Metallurgical  Progress',  1963,  Transactions  of  Sept.  p.433.  19,  and  9,  1,  p.419-422.  Nov.  1978,  D. P e c k n e r p.10-10.  and  ' S t a i n l e s s and Heat Edward A r n o l d Ltd.,  p.18. I.M.  82 68.  W. H o l z g r u b e r : Proc. Pittsburgh, eds. G.K.  69.  R.P. DeVries: Proc Pittsburgh, 1969.  70.  H. F r e d r i k s s o n : 'Metallurgical N o v . 1942 , p. 2 9 8 9 . .  71.  H. F r e d r i k s s o n and S e p t . 1971 , p.32.  72.  R.O. J a c k s o n and and T e c h n o l o g y , 1  5th I n t e r n a t i o n a l S y m p o s i u m on E S R , Bhat and A. S i m k o v i t c h , 1 9 7 4 , p.70.  2nd  0.  International  Symposium  Transactions',  Jarleborg:  Journal  of  on  ESR,  vol.  3,  Metals,  A. M i t c h e l l : ' J o u r n a l of Vacuum S c i e n c e V o l . 9, no. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1972, p.1301.  73.  K . J . I r v i n e et al . : 'The M e t a l l u r g i c a l Evolution of S t a i n l e s s S t e e l s ' , ASM M e t a l s S c i e n c e S o u r c e B o o k , p.379.  74.  W.T. vol.  75.  ASM M e t a l s  76.  ESR 4 3 4 0  77.  B . E . Paton et a l . : on E S R ; , P i t t s b u r g h ,  78.  G.K. Bhat: Pittsburgh,  Proc. 1971,  3rd I n t e r n a t i o n a l p.241.  Symposium  on  ESR,  79.  G.K. Bhat: Japan, June  Proc. 1973,  4th International p.196.  Symposium  on  ESR,  80.  G. H o y l e : Institute,  81.  B . E . Paton et Kiev, p.174.  Pell-Walpole: 'Journal, 69, 1943, p.131. Handbook,  steel  data  9th from  Institute  Edition, Cabot  Proc. 1969.  2nd  'Special  1,  Metals',  p.427-428.  Corporation,  Texas,  International  'Electroslag Refining', London, 1973, p.136. a l . :  vol.  of  Iron  and  1977.  Symposium  Steel  Electrometallurgy',  1972,  82a  TABLES  TA8i_E_I_ Rene'iting Log for Stainless Steel ESC Valves Valve No. 5 Valve Mo. 6 Valve No. 7 Valve No. 9 .Valve No. 10 Electrode Material CF-8M Rolled 316 Rolled 316 CF-8M Rolled 316 Electrode Diameter 3.5" (88.9 m m ) 3.0" (76.2 m m ). 3.0" (76.2 m m )3.5" (88.9 m m ) 3.0" (76.2 m m ) Slag Composition 702CaF/15%Al0/15%Ca0 70SCa/ F15%A!.„0,/15XCa070«CaF /l 5%A)i,/ 015XCaO70«CaF /15XAi 0 /"i 5SCa0702CaF /15ftU,u /153!CaO Slag Weight 6.8 kgs 6.8 kgs 6.6 kgs 6.8 kgs 6.8 kgs laegrageCondSietcioonndary Hot, dry, prefusedHot, dry, prefused.Hot, dry, prefused. Hot and dry Hot and dry ASv 3.72 KA 2.41 KA 3.50 KA 4.04 KA 3.71 KA Current Average Voltage 37.1V 38.0 V 38.0 V 33.4 V 37.0 V Average Melt RateC.942 kg/min 0.833 kg/min 0.868 kg/min 0.866 kg/min 0.888 kg/min 8 mins 101 mins 33 mins 117 mins 97 mins ToottalToMpaplitngTiCr.yecle8 H None 6.8 mins at 2.36. K 9 A mins at 2.16. K 1 A mins at 2.25KAmins at 2.2 KA Deoxidant A? powder Aa powder As. powder A2 powder Al powder Rate of Deoxidation1.2 grns/min 1.5 gms/min 1.6 gms/min 1.2 gms/min 1.3 gms/min Heltino Atmosphere Air Partial Argon Partial Argon Partial Argon PFaerCtri-a3l0;4Argo n g Al Joying Additions J None None Cr chips at 22.3 Ngo mn se /mir FeMo-<4.5 gm ms s/ /m mi in n 2  23  o  2  3  2  23  2  3  —  CO OJ  84 -TABLE  II  Ferrite  Valve  No.  5  -  Numbers  CF-8M Ferrite As C a s t  Location  10<F.N.<15 15<F.N.<20 15<F.N.<20  Top Centre Edge  Valve  No.  -  6  -  316  Castings  Magne-Gage  Indicator Heat  Treated  10<F.N.<15 7.5<F.N.<-10 10<F.N.< 15  (ii Ferri te  Location  As C a s t  Top Centre Mid-Radius Edge  7  Steel  As C a s t  (F.N.)*  Heat  Treated  1.56 10.6 11.5  9.1 16.51 17.18  F e r r i t e No.  Specimen  No.  Stainless  (i)  Specimen  *F.N.  of  -  316  Specimen Location Top Centre Bottom Mid-Radius Edge  ) Magne-Gage  Indicator Heat  Treated <  F.N.<2 Everywhere  +  Cr  F.N.<>2 Everywhere  As C a s t  (F.N.)  Heat  Treated  0.55 0.16 0.43 0.47  0.91 0.161 0.94 0.40  (iii) Ferrite  As C a s t 2<F.N.<5 2<F.N.<5 5<F.N.<7.5 5<F.N.<7.5 5<F.N.<7.5  Indicator Heat  Magne-Gage Treated  F.N<2 5<F.N.<7.5 5<F.N.<7.5 5<F.N.<7.5 2<F.N.<5  As C a s t 3.34 5.56 4.31 4.72 5.68  (F.N.)  Heat  Treated 1.37 5.29 5.75 5.05 3.28  85 TABLE  II  Ferrite  Valve  No  Numbers  Ferrite As  Conventional  Castings  Casting  -  Heat  Cast  Treated  CF-8M  As  Ferrite  Determined  by  5.00 15.35 12.62 19.46 15.81  Magne-Gage ( F . N . ) Heat I r e a t e d  Indicator Ireated  20.57 20.67 20.45 18.99 26.78 16.99 28.70  Numbers  of  Magne-Gage. Cast  Stainless and  Heat  Steel  Schoefer's Treated*  Castings Diagram  Schoefer's  16.85  10.80  16.8  (316)  0.65  0.35  <-!0  Valve No.7 -  (316+Cr)  5.07  4.84  4.5  Valve No.9 -  (CF-8M)  15.10  15.81  22  Conv.Cast  (CF-8M)  -  19.53  32  Valve No.5 -  (CF-8M)  Valve No.6 -  -  *From Magne-Gage  Treated  (v)  As  Casting  Heat  Cast  20'<F.N.<25 20<F.N.<25 20<F.N.<25 20<F.N.<25 F<N.<25 15<F.N.<20 20<F.N.<25  Top 3/4 Height Centre 1/4 H e i g h t Bottom Mid-Radius Edge  (F.N.)  6.33 14.85 14.71 16.09 14.75  5£F.N<.<7.5 15<F.N.<20 10<F.N.<15 20<F.N.<25 15<F.N.<20  Ferrite Heat  Specimen Location  Average  (Continued)  Magne-Gage  Indicator  5<F.N.<7.5 15<F.N.<20 15<F.N.<20 15<F.N.<20 15<F.N.<20  Top Centre Bottom Mid-Radius Edge  Steel  (iv)  Location  III  Stainless  CF-8M  Specimen  TABLE  of  Diagram  86 TABLE  IV  Interdentriti c Ratios  Casting  of  Mi  CF-8M  Castings  Segregation  and  Valve  Conv.  No. 5* Centre  (CF-8M)  No. 9* Edge Centre  (CF-8M)  Casting**(CF-8M) Edge Mi d - R a d i us Centre  *  in  as-cast  **  in  solution-treated  Ratio  (C m a x / C  min)  Ni c k e l  Molybdenum  1 .349  2 . 37  2.10  1 .25 1.18  2.19 2.48  1 .74 2.60  1 .167 1 .305 2.337  1 .625 2.178 2.587  3. 568 3.859 3.299  C h r o m i urn  Pos i t i on Valve  crosegregation  condition condition  87  TABLE V Chemical.Composition of Valve No. 5 (CF-8M) (wt.SS) C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Cu Mo Nb Co Ti Zr Electrode 0.066 0.33 1.190.0270.01610.1920.31 0.44 2.51 0.0730.1080.0080.006 Top 0.086 0.34 1.060.0210.01010.0819.480.37 2.55 0.0C50.115 NA* NA* Centre 0.0630.26 0.740.0190.010 9.8019.86 0.15 2.53 - 0.0600.150 Side (L)0.055 0.25 0.730.0190.009 9.8819.39 0.16 2.55 - 0.0600.150 Side (R)0.056 0.26 0.730.2200.010 9.9119.720.16 2.58 0.0610.158 hi  -  -  •  -  11  II  II  II  •••  II  N.A. - not analysed TABLE VI Chemical Composition of Value No. 6 (316) '(wt'.*) C Mn Si Ni .Cr . CuMo-. . NbCo Ti Zr Electrode 0.049 1.89 0.670.0300.03111.6017.56 0.09 1.98 - 0.0620.4450.0080.006 Top 0.0721.89 0.640.0310.01111.9116.840.13 2.11 - 0.0610.278N.A.* N.A.* Centre 0.073 1.85 0.640.0300.01111.8016.89 0.12 2.09 - 0.0590.266 Bottom 0.075.1.840.640.0330.01111.6517.09 0.12 2.12 - 0.059'0.263 " Side (L) 0.069 1.84 0.630.0340.01111.4216.740.12 2.05 - 0.0610.258 0.650.0310.01111.8017.080.13 2.08 - 0.0600.283 Side.(R) 0.070. 1.86 , P  s  A£  II  »  II  *N.A. - not analysed  II  11  II  II  88  TAG l E VII Chemical Composition of Valve No, 7 (316-tCr ) (w t. %) C tin Si P , SK i | CCur Ko . AN ib | CToi Zr Electrode 0.019 1.S9 0.670.0300.031 11.6017.. 56 0.09 1 .S3 0.0520.1950.0080.006 Top 0.074 1.87 0.610.0350.012 11 .11 88.91 0.12 2.01 0.0610.285 ( . ' . A . *N.A.* Centre 0.078 1.80 0.580.029-0.012 n.37'IS.93 O.o2 1.98 0.61 0.261 Bottom 0.072 1.79 0.5-50.0360.011 11.1319.25 0.12 2.00 0.60 0.256 Side (R) 0.062 1.81 0.570.0560.013 11.2619.880.12 2.01 0.61 0.290 -  -  -  II  -  »  -  *N.A. - not analysed TABLE VIII Chemical Composition of Valve Ho. 9 (CF-8H) (wt.,%) C Hn Si P S Ni Cr Cu Mo At Nb Co Ti Zr Electrode 0.066 0.33 1.190.0270.01619.1920.31 0.11 2.51 0.0730.1080.0080.006Top 0.0580.35 1.010.0280.00910.3319.87 0.10 2.51 0.0680.0890.0130.005 "Centre 0.036 0.19 0.660.018 0.00910.1519.67 0.13 2.55 0.0600.1590.0050.001 Bottom 0.0370.27 0.670.021 0.009 9.7320.12 0.15 2.11 0.0630.1760.0050.006 Side (L)0.039 0.21 0.720.021 0.009 9.6320.51 0.13 2.19 0.0610.1850.0050.006 Side (R)0.011 0.20 0.700.0200.009 9.9020.19 0.13 2.51 C.0630.1930.0010.006 -  -  -  -  -  -  89..  TABLE IX Chemical Composition of Valve No. 10 (316+Cr+Mo) C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Cu Mo At Nb Co Ti Zr Electrode 0.049 1.89 0.670.0300.031-11.6017.56 0.09 1.98 - 0.0620.4450.0080.004 Top 0.055 1.69 0.430.0300.01012.1018.470.10 2.32 0.0630.1020.0070.005 Centre 0.046 1.65 0.410.0270.01111.9119.140.07 2.32 - 0.0640.1340.0070.005 Bottom 0.051 1.62 0.280.0270.00912.1118.780.10 2.26 - 0.0640.1270.0070.005 Side (L)0.0481.65 0.400.0280.01111.9619.220.08 2.33 0.0650.1330.0070.005 Side (R)0.0401.61 0.390.0240.01011.9019.05 0.09 2.51 - 0.0650.1350.0070.006 {vit.%)  -  -  TABLE X Chemical Composition of the Conventional Casting (CF-8M) (wt.SS) C Mn Si . PS Ni Cr Cu Mo An Nb Co Ti Zr Top- 0.029 0.61 1.240.0270.010 9.1319.41 0.25 2.02 - 0.0870.0670.0090.003 Centre 0.023 0.62 1.210.0260.010 8.9019.800.22 2.00 - 0.0860.0710.0090.003 Bottom 0.019 0.65 1.240.0310.010 9.3419.670.23 2.06 - 0.0890.0680.0080.003 Mid-radius0.0240.63 1.250.0290.010 9.0519.85 0.23 2.04 - 0.0870.0720.0080.003 Side (R)0.0200.63 1.240.0310.010 9.5719.36 0.23 2.10 - 0.0870.0660.0080.003  TABLE  XI  Percent  c o m p o s i t i o n o f C r a n d Mo i n a r e a s  and  Parent  the  Valve  No.  XII  Tensile  C a s t i n g No. and Test D i r e c t i o n  1  54.88  12.56  Area  2  54.21  13.12.  22.10  1 .79  Properties  of  In Elonaation 1 i n c h ( 2 5 . 4 mm)  % Valve  Valve  Nos.  5,  6 and 7  Yield Strength, 2% o f f s e t , Ksi(KPa)  Ultimate Tensile Strength Ksi(MPa)  0  No. 5 (CF-8M)  Lonaitudinal  - 1  45 3  -  2  51 3  3  45 2  Transverse  Valve  Molybdenum (wt.%)  Area  Parent  TABLE  10  C h r o m i urn (wt.%)  Area Analysed  1 and 2  1  46 3  -  2  5 3'. 4  -  3  50 6  - 1  62 1  -  68 8  36 47 3  +  (251.7)  35 8 ( 2 4 6 . 8 ) 38 6 ( 2 6 6 . 1 )  77. 2 (532 ..3) 74 1 ( 5 1 0 . 9 )  37 0 255 \  f  82 I  36 2 ( 2 4 9 . 6 ) 39 0 ( 2 6 8 . 9 )  50  35 5 ( 2 4 4 , 8 )  (566.4)  77.8+ 536.4  71 7 ( 4 9 4 . 4 ) 36 9 254 4  1  75 3 ( 5 1 9 . 2 ) 70 7 ( 4 8 7 . 5 )  72.6 + 500.6  No. 6 ( 3 1 6 )  Longitudinal  Transverse  -  2  71 1 ( 4 9 4 . 4 )  34 1 ( 2 3 5 . 1 ) 64 8  +  31 1 ( 2 1 8 . 6 )  3  63 6  31 1 ( 2 1 4 . 4 )  1  69 6  32 3 ( 2 2 2 . 7 )  2  62 4  3  64 1  65 4  +  34 0  (234.4)  31 2 ( 2 1 5 . 1 )  J.  32 5 ' 224 1  69 7 ( 4 8 0 . 6 ) 64 1 ( 4 4 2 . 0 )  68. 3 470.9  +  68 0 ( 4 6 8 . 9 ) 32 5 224  +  1  69 4 ( 4 7 5 . 8 ) 70 6 ( 4 8 6 . 8 )  69. 3 477.8  +  Valve No. 7 (316+Cr) Longitudinal  - 1  51 1  34 9 ( 2 4 0 . 6 ) J.  _  •Transverse  + Average  2  68.6  3  54 0  1  56 0  -  2  53 4  -  3  74 5  value.  57 9 '  35. 2 ( 2 4 2 . 7 ) 33 9 ( 2 3 3 . 7 )  73 6 ( 5 0 7 . 5 ) 34 7 239 3  +  +  39 0 34 2  (268.9) (235.8)  +  73 2 ( 5 0 4 . 7 )  ' 34 0 ( 2 3 4 . 4 ) 61 3  68 .4 ( 4 7 1 . 6 )  71.7 494.4  66 3 ( 4 5 7 . 1 ) 35 7 246 2  +  75 3 ( 5 1 9 . 2 ) 70 7 ( 4 8 7 . 5 )  70.8 488.2  +  TABLE  XIII  Tensile Properties of Valve No. 9, Conventional Casting and ASME/ASTM Standards for AISI 316 and ACI CF-8H  Elongation In 1 Inch (25.4 mm) X  Reduction In Area,  Casting No. and Test Direction  %  Ultimate Tensile Strength Ks1 (MPa)  Yield Strength, 0.2% o f f s e t , Ks1 (MPa)  .Valve No. 9 (CF-8M) Lonqltudlnal  Transverse  Edge  - 1  80.0  - 2  82.0  70.7  - 1  82.4  70.0  - 2  78.7  73.0  71.3  Cl.O*  - 3  77.9  70.5  - 1  79.4  73.7  - 2  82.0  80.7*  .  69.0  71.0  f  71.2*  39.3  (271.0)  42.4  (292.3)  41.8  (288.2)  42.1 (290.3) 42.6  71.4  f  (293.7)  44.2  (304.8)  42.8  (Z95.1)  82.4 40.9 282.0  +  42.4 291.0  +  82.3  +  (567.5)  81.1 (559.2) 83.2  43.5 315070"  (568.1)  82.1 (566.1)  (573.7)  86.3  (595.0)  84.5  (582.6)  82.3 567.5  f  82.2 566.8  +  85.4 588.8  +  t Average value. Conventional Cast (CF-8M) Lonqltudlnal* 0.25 2.50  Inches from the edge "  »  -  •  74.3  46.6  57.0  (393.0)  82.5  (568.8)  72.6  52.0  45.0  (310.3)  82.0  (565.4)  4.25  "  "  "  "  70.1  58.9  46.7  (322.0)  85.2  (587.5)  6.00  "  "  "  "  62.0  53.Z  46.7  (322.0)  85.8  (591.6)  7.75  "  "  "  "  63.4  56.7  45.9  (316.5)  84.6  (583.3)  1.90 Inches from the edge 3.75  '  Transverse*  5.60  "  72.2  58.3  46.4  (319.9)  84.5  (582.6)  «  .  .  75.2  55.5  46.0  (317.2)  83.2  (573.7)  "  "  "  65.7  55.3  46.6  (321.3)  84.7  (584.0)  30 (207) m1n  70 (483) min  30 (207) m1n  70 (483) m1n  * Each value represents an average of 3 t e s t s .  ASME SA-182 or ASTM A-18Z-77a(316)  50 (m1n)  30 (min)*  ASME SA-351 or ASTM A-351 77(CF-8M)  not s p e c i f i e d  30 (min)*  r  .  * Elongation 1n 2 Inches (50.8 nm)  10  TABLE X I V .  Tensile  Properties  of  Large Specimens  Reduction  C a s t i n g No. and Test D i r e c t i o n  from V a l v e Nos.  6 and 9 and S m a l l  Elongation In 1 i n c h ( 2 5 . 4 mm)  In A r e a ,  %  %  Specimens  from a Large  Specimen.  Yield Strength 0.2% o f f s e t , K s i (MPa)  Ultimate Tensile Strength K s i (MPa)  32.6  (224.8)  66.8  (460.6)  29.0  (200.0)  61.8  (426.1)  31.0  (213.7)  62.6  (431.6)  36.2  (249.6)  73.0  (503.3)  37.1  (255.8)  38.7  (266.8)  38.4  (264.8)  37.0  (255.1)  V a l v e No. 6 ( 3 1 6 ) Longitudinal  V a l v e No. 9  No. 9  (From l a r g e  78.8  -  2  82.0  -  3  83.0  - 1  85.2  -  80.7  2  69.3  f  66.0  57.8  30.9+ 2  1  3  -  \  1  63.7+ 4  3  9  -  2  47.9 83.0  47.5  +  47.7  +  36.7+ 2  5  3  -  0  74.0 (510.2)  73.5+ 5  0  6  -  8  -1  - 1  87.0  Edge  - 2  87.1  t Average  81.3  +  (CF-8M) Longitudinal  Edge  Centre  70.9  (CF-8M)  Longitudinal  Valve  - 1  - 1  value.  24.2  • 86  35.8 73.1 84.5  71.1  +  78.2 38.0+ 2 6 2  -°  (539.2)  73.0 (503.3) 73.7  (508.2)  75.0+ 5  1  7  -  1  TABLE XV Remelting Log for AISI 4340 Steel ESC Valves Valve No. 3 Valve No. 8 Valve No. 11 Valve No. 12 Valve No. 13. Valve No. 14 MEalteecrtirao"d!e Rolled 4340 Rolled 4340 Rolled 4340 Soiled 4340 Rolled 4340 Rolled 4340 EDlieacmtertoedre 3.25" (82.6 m m )3.25" (82.6 m m )3.25" (82.6 m m )3.25" (82.6 m m )3.25" (82.6 m m ) 3.25" (82.6 m m ) 4 6 X C a F 2 / m A t 0 / 4 6 2 C a F / 1 7 3 ! A i 0 / 4 6 % C a F / 1 7 2 A t 0 / 4 6 % C a F / 1 7 « A t 0 / 4 6 % C a F / 1 7 » 0 / 1.75%CaF/26.5%M0/17%Ca0/20%La0 17%Ca0/20%La0 17SSCa0/202La Slag 6 0 mCaO/20XLa0 173XaO/20XLa0 11.75%Ca0 Soe lmaipggohstition9.1 kg CW 6.8 kg 6.8 kg 6.8 kg 6.8 kg 6.8 kg Slag Liquid CaF„, Hot and Dry Hot and Dry Hot and Dry .Hot and Dry Hot and Dry A v e rin atdgiaeorny H 3.72 KA 3.59 KA 3.60 KA 3.55 KA 3.60 KA .t 73AK S e c o C o n d «A0 and CaO | Current 2o j1AvVeorlatgaege'36.9 V 37.1 V 36.9 V 36.8 V 35.4 V 36.0 V A Mv eelrtageRate1.022 kg/min 0.938 kg/mins .0.967 kg/min 0.854 kg/min 0.785 kg/min 0.812 kg/min TMoetlatl Time87 mins 98 mins 98 mins • 112 mins 113 mins 110 mins H 7.2KAmins at 2.2 6.7-KAmins at 2.2 8.3KAmins at 2.2 6.7KAmins- at 2. 92 .2KA mins at 2.3 KA . Co yctleTopping3.2 mins at 2.6 Deoxidant At powder At powder At powder At powder At powder At powder R Oeaotxeidatoifon2.4 gms/min 1.2 gms/min 1.2 gms/min 1.2 gms/min 1.4 gms/min 1.4 gms/min Partial Argon Partial Argon' Partial Argon Air Air |MAetlmtoisnpghere Air 2  23  2  23 23  2  23 23  23  23  2  23 23  2  23 23  23  OJ  94 TABLE  XVI  Interdendritic AISI  4340  ESC  Microsegregation  No.  the  Centre  Valves  Segregation  V a l ve  at  Ratfo  (C ma x / C  min)  Chromium  Nickel  Molybdenum  Valve  No.  3*  1 .39  1.13  2.15  Valve  No.  8*  1 .34  1.14  2.21  Valve  No.  13**  1.12  1 .60  1 .24  1 .30  1 .05  (At  mid-radius)  Valve  No.  14**  *In  as-cast  **The  whole  condition valve  was  heat-treated.  of  TABLE XVII Chemical Composition of Valve No. 3 (4340) (wt.%) C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Cu Mo An Nb Co V B W Ti Zr Electrode0.42 0.770.370.0210.015 1.870.80 0.100.21 0.0130.0530.0290.0120.00060.0180.0110.003 Top 0.42 0.780.410.0210.0041.84 0.83 0.07 0.220.0950.0240.0330.0170.00140.026N.A.N.A. 00 .0190.0041.800.81 0.080.21 0.0820.0230.0310.0160.00110.026 Centre 0.40 0.76' 0.4 Bottom 0.40 0.73 0.370.0180.0041.79 0.80 0.080.21 0.1270.0200.0280.0160.00130.024, Side (L)0.40 0.75 0.380.0180.0031.81 0.81 0.080.21 0.0850.0H0.0280.0160.00090.022 Side (R)0.42 0.78 0.400.0190.003 1.830.82 0.080.220.0730.02;0.0310.016'0.00100.024 II  "  II  «  ••  i  *N.A. - not analysed  CO  TABLE XV11I Chemical Composition of Valve No. 8 (4340) (wt.%) C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Cu Mo Nb Co V B w Ti Zr Electrode 0.42 0.77 0.370.0210.015 1.87 0.80 0.100.210.031 0.0530.0290.0120.00060.018 0.011 0.003 Top 0.43 0.800.330.0300.004 1.90 0.81 0.11 0.220.0350.0560.0420.0130.00070.024 0.0050.004 Centre 0.41 0.77 0.340.0280.004 1.86 0.800.11 0.220.0480.0560.0390.0120.00070.023 0.0050.004 Bottom 0.40 0.75 0.200.29 0.003 1.74 0.76 0..100.210.051 0.0520.0300.0120.00050.016 0.0040.003 Side (L)0.41 0.75 0.340.29 0.003 1.80 0.78 0.100.210.0430.0530.0320.0120.00070.016 0.0050.004 1.79 0.340.280.002 1.87 0.81 0.11 0.220.0450.0510.0240.0120.00060.019 0.0040.003 Side (R)0 '.-40 M  LO CXl  TABLE XIX Chemical Composition of Valve No. 13 (1310) (wt.%) C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Cu Mo At Nb Co V B W Ti Zr Electrode0.42 0.77 0.370.0210.015•1.870.80 0.100.210.031 0.0530.0290.0120.006 0.018 0.0110.003 Top 0.43 0.84 0.180.0300.003 1.89 0.86 0.31 0.210.0200.0530.0550.0110.00040.041 0.0030.002 Centre 0.420.86 0.110.0300.001 1.880.86 0.3o 0.210.021 0.0530.0570.0110.00040.044 0.0020.002 Bottom 0.420.76 0.040.0300.001 1.790.83 0.300.210.0170.0520.0590.0100.00040.039 0.0030.003 Side (L)0.40 0.80 0.090.0290.0021.750.82 0.31 0.200.021 0.0520.0620.0110.00040.033 0.0040.003 Side (R)0.41 0.82 0.100.0300.0021.800.84 0.31 0.210.0220.0550.0650.0110.00040.037 0.0040.003 •  TABLE XX Chemical Composition of Valve No. 1 4 (4340) (wf.%) C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Cu Mo At Nb Co, V B w Ti Zr Electrode0.42 0.77 0.370.0210.015 1.870.84 0.10 0.210.031 0.0530.0290.0120.00060.018 0.011 0.003 Top 0.44 0.84 0.190.0330.0041.900.86 0.31 0.210.018 0.0580.0710.0120.00060.050 0.0030.004 Centre 0.45 0.88 0.140.0320.0021.980.880.30 0.220.022 0.0570.0660.0120.00060.056 0.001 0.003 Bottom 0.46 0.87 0.050.0330.0022.039.900.30 0.220.013 0.0590.0720.0120.00050.064 0.001 0.004 Side (L)0.45 0.89 0.090.0330.0021.94 0.870.31 0.220.018 0.0590.0880.0130.00060.050 0.0030.004 Side (R)0.45 0.89 0.090.0320.0021.970.880.30 0.220.016 0.0600.0900.0120.00060.055 0.001 0.004  to  98  TABLE XXI Sulphur Contents of AISI 4340 Electrode and ESC Valves Electrode Valve No. 3Valve No. 8 Valve No. 13Valve No. 14 SCuolnptheunrt 0.0146 0.0040 0.0037 0.0055 0.0053 (wt.%) TABLE  XXII  Dimensional  Measurements  on V a l v e N o s .  11,  12 and  13  and L o c a t i o n f e 9  h  1.97 3.09  2.55 4.55  1.48 4.34  1.67 4.17  1.92 4.12  1 .29 2.70  2.34 3.26  0.47 1.73  0.97 2.22  1.27 2.52  1.61 2.87  2.36 4.22  2.27 3.30  . 2.18 3.36  2.23 3.30  2.19 3.37  2.99 4.17  % Shrinkage d c  V a l ve No.  Shrinkage Type  a  b  Valve No.11  Real Pseudo  2.37 3.60  2.68 4.10  2.33 3.75  1.35 3.05  Valve No.12  Real Pseudo  1.87 3.36  1.07 2.31  1.72 2.80  Valve No. 13  Real Pseudo  2.43 4.64  2.01 4.26  2.53 4.25  ;  i  TACBaL E XXN Io I. I Tan ednsile Properties of AISEIlonga4t3i4 0 EInlectrYoiselladgStCraensgtthValveUsltimate Tensile o n s t i n g Reduction 1n Area,1 inch (25.4 mm Test Direction 0) et, SKtsirengt(hMPa) K., s2i% (oMfPfas) % Valve No. 3 (a) 1 8 5 . 1 ( 1 2 7 6 . 3 1 7 4 . 6 ( 1 1 9 72..01)) 17 17 0. 1 8 . 0 Longitudinal - 4 1 8 7 . 8 ( 1 2 9 2 . 8187.0 + 1 7 6 . 8 ( 1 2 1 6 . 2 + . 2 3 3 . 3 1 8 8 . 0 ( 1 2 9 6 . 3 1 7 9 . 1 ( 1 2 3 4 . 9 ) ' 8 . 6 + 8.5 30.1 37.1 1 289.4 1 8 4 . 1 ( 1 2 6 9 . 4 1 7 4 . 0 ( 1 1 9 9 1 7 ) 9 . 3 3 3 . 9 1 8 3 . 8 + 1 8 4 . 7 ( 1 2 7 3 . 5 1 72 1. .9 8 ((11118874. .3 6) ) 17 2 . 7 + 18 1. .2 3 7 . 8 Transverse 1 2 6 7 . 3 1 8 2 . 7 ( 1 2 5 9 . 7 1 7 9 . 1 + 4 36.4 36.0 Valve No. 8 (b) 1 4 9 . 9 ( 1 0 3 3 . 6 ) 14 64 4. .3 7 (11113320..88164.7+ 1 6 . 5 42 6. .2 0 Longitudinal - 4 1 4 9 . 3 ( 1 0 2 9 . 4 ) 1 0 0 6 ( 1 4 . 7 17.9 16.4+ 150.7 (1039.1) '165.1 (1138.14135.6 47.7 45.3 1 6 6 . 3 ((11114562..58166.4' 1 5 1 . 8 (1 10 05 44 6. .9 7) ) 1 5 . 5 4 1 .2 8 1 6 7 . 2 1 5 3 . 0 ( 1 7 . 0 4 4 . Transverse 65.8 (1143.12147.3 1)52. 1 $ 44.7 43.6 17.816.8 152.6 (1052.2 1 6 0 . 4 (11113096..10162.8 1 4 9 . 1 ( 1 0 2 8 . 0 ) 1 4 . 1 51.3 1 6 5 . 2 ( 150.5 (1037.7) 17.5 46.1 Edge 1122.5 1 4 9 . 8 1 5 . 8 4 8 . 7 ValLovnegituNdo 1032.9142.1(979.8 ( 8 2 8 . 1 ) 3 . 7 7. 1 1 2 0 . 1 i. nal 13- (c) 9 12 280..11 V 1 3 9 . 2 (828.1)8 4 . 2 ( 9 5 7 . 0 3 8 . 8 . 4 1 2 0 . 1 9 5 9 . 10.9 9.1' 5.8 4.6 + 120.1 (828.1) 136.6(941.9 8 ( 9 2 4 . 6 1 3 4 . 1 3 . 5 18 1. .7 13 35 . 4 + ( 9 3 3 . 62 9 1 3 5 . 4 1 2 2 . 4 ( 8 4 3 . 9 ) 4 . 9 7 Transverse 3 . 6 1 2 0 . t f ( 9 4 3 . 1 3 6 . 8 2 0 . 1 ( 8 2 8 . ) 9.4 9.9 + 4.5 4.3 + 1 8 3 1 2 0 . 1 ( 8 2 8 . 1 )3.6 ValLovnegituNdo . 1 3 ( d ) 1 509.. 6 1 4 7 . 7 ( 1 0 1 8 . 4 ) 1 6 . 7 32 9. 9 inal - 4 1 1 0 4 1 4 7 . 5 + 1 5 9 . 8 ( 1 1 0 1 . 8 4 7 . 3 ( 1 0 1 5 . 6 ) 8 . 5 17.6 1 .9 0 41.0 1 1 5 6 . 6 + 1 4 6 . 2 ( 1 0 0 8 . 0 ) 1 7 . 0 3 2 . 1 0 7 9 . 8 5.2 144.3 (994.1 0) 11 7. .80| ( . 31.7to32a.3hardness13o.f31 ee rm speered at 482°C 19 0 0 ((baTj)ransvTT 3 8 R c . 5.3+1 157.9 (1088.7 eh me peredwholaet v5 5 0 ° Cwa ts o aheath-atrredanteesds aonfd 3t5emperRecd. at 560°C. Aver1a4g 1a5r5dh .na3ersdsne(s1s0o7f0.o8fthe33tenRsc ((dc)) T a l v e eah il.e specimens was 31 Rc. T h e s p e c i m e n b a r s w e r e r e h e a t t r e a t e d a n d t e m p e r e d a t 5 6 0 ° C t o t Average value. 1  1214  9  T  1190,8  T  1034  1  1  T  3  105K5  T  T  T  T  T  T  15g3  1098  4  CD CD  TABLE XXIV Tensile Properties of CoEnlovnegnattiioonnalInAISIYie4 340StrenHgotth aRtolleLdoUwletriBmaarte Tensile l d S PoPian)t SKtsirengt(hMPa) m )YKiseild(M Tp ee sc timenDirecNto i. on and Reduction In Area,1 inch (25.4 m 1 64 2. .3 8( (1 11 13 22 2. .8 5) ) 163.6" 1 5 0 . 7 ( 1 0 3 9 . 1 ) 1 9 . 2 7 . 7 Lonqitudinal--21 5 1 6 15 0 . 0 ( 1 0 3 4 . 3 ) 1501. 8.6 (1128.0)'° 9 . 5 57 8. .5 2 57.8 1 6 3 5 1 . 8 ( 1 0 4 6 . 7 ) ' 19 6. .4 2 18.3 1 -3 5 1 61 2. .1 0( 1 1 1 7 . 0 ) 1 5 0. .1 3( 1 0 3 6 . 3 ) 1 . 9 Transverse --21 2 1 6 ( 1 1 1 0 . 8 ) 162.0 1 4 9 ( 1 0 2 8 . 0 ) 1 5 0 . 2 9 . 5 9 J S 2 2 , 7 2 2 . 7 1 6 2 . 8 ( 1 1 2 2 . 5 ) -° 1 5 1 . 3 ( 1 0 4 3 . 2 ) 10.5 - 3 23.5 (a) Tempered at 560°C to a hardness of 33.5 Rc' Diameter of the bar was 3.25 inches (82.6 m m ) t Average value. TABLE XXV Transverse Tensile PropertEileosngatoiofn AiIrn Melt,edYieladndStrV agctuhum ATrecnsileMeltSterdengt4 340 Steels e n h R e d u c t i o n T in Area, 2 inches (50.8 mm),Ksi (MPa) Ksi (MPa) Te em mp peerriantgure Air Melted 480°C 149 8.0 173 (1192.8) 200 (1379) 540°C 220 10.0 163 (1123.9) 180 (1241.1) Vacuum Arc Remelted 480°C 200 9.0 175 (1206.6) 200 (1379) 5 4 0 ° C 2 4 0 1 0 . 5 *werPeropenrottiesavlaiisltaebdle.are averages of several heats from the160same(110p3r.o2d)ucer;180 billet(12s4i1z.e1)and amount of hot redi TABLE XXVI Lonqitudinal Mechanical PropertiesYieldofStrBeanrgthSTteoncskileMa d e From Ree melted 4340 Steel H a r d n s s S t r e n g t h Melting Method Reduction In AreEal,ongation In 4D.Ksi (MPa) Ksi (MPa) (MRc) 3 7 1 71 5( 1 2 0 6 . 6 ) 1 6 3 ( 1 1 2 3 . 9 ) 1 6 . 4 6 1 . 2 V A R < > 3 7 1 7 ( 1 1 7 9 . 0 ) 158 (1089.4) 16.1 59.0 ESR< > (a)AllBarsspeciw e rs e tnaokremnalisefdromatmid9 0 0d°iCu,s. oil quenched from 845°C, and tempered 2 hrs. at 541°C. m e n r a (b) 3.62 inch round. (c) 4.625 inch round. %  %  b C  %  1039  8  1035  6  %  1,28  +  +  +  f  1  +  f  +  lll7  TABLE XXVII Mechanical Properties of ESR 4340 Material in the Transverse Direction HeatTreated to Different Strength Levels.* ra en)gth la d)StrengthTensKisile (SMtP T Reduction in Area, Elongation 0.K2s*i Y(iMeP Te em mp pe er ri antgure 8 0 . 6 ( 1 2 4 5 . 28)) 1 68 9. .3 4 ((11019618..50)) 1 1 2 . 9 4 5 . 1 5 3 8 ° C 1 7 3 . 0 ( 1 1 9 2 . 1 5 1 4 . 6 4 9 . 2 566°C * Data from Cabot Corporation. Notes (1d)iametTeernsilteransdvaetrasewe r e gteankeernatedfromfroma.a24-0i.n3.57diaimne.ter(9mm ) diinagmoetterforgteedstfears matcohined f.romdihaemaett-etrr.eated 1-in. b a r s E S R 3 : 1 1 4 i n (2)(83All 0°C)sampalneds twee mr pe erednoramtalisvedariouast t1e75 m0 p° eF ratur( e9 s5 .4°C) prior to heat-treating, then austenitized at 1525°F (3) Tensile values are average of five tests. Xo X. VIIan1d (a) RedTuecntisoinleInProApreerat,iesElonogfationLargIen SpecYiimeledn Stfrreonmgth,ESC UVltailmvaete ToefnsilAeISI 4340 Steel. CTTaeA ssB ttiLnEgDirN tM hP ,a) 0 2i% (oMfPfa s) et, SKstireng( 3 inches (76.2 m m ection K.s) VaLlovnegituNdo * 1 48.1. 47.9 160 17)) 1. 46 5.5'( 1 .5 7 18.1' 1 i. nal-8. 3 (1 11 10 07 5. .3 3) ) -160.5+ 14 44 6. .9 0 ((1909096.. - 160 19 6. 2 47.6 * TA ev mp + ee rr ae gd e avtalue5 .50°C to a hardness of 34.5 Rc. XXVITTIM Tensile Properties of Small Specimens Cut From Large Tensile Specimens Ym ie. l2d%Storfefnsgetth,, UltSimtarteengthT,ensile S 0 ) Tp ee sc timenDirecNto i. on and Reduction%In Area,1Elongiantcihon(2I5n.4 m Ksi (MPa) Ksi (MPa) Value No. 8 (LFr oo nEmgdigteudLianragle--1) 164.8 (1136.3) 1 4 9 . 7 (( 19 09 37 2. .7 2) 4 5 .6 2 46.5 16.7 1 1 4 4 . 7 ) 1 4 6 .3' 4 8 . E d g e 2 1 7 . 4 1 7 . 4 1 4 4 . 5 ( 9 9 6 . 3 ) ' 4 5 . 7 159.7 (11011 .1 11 )? 9 161.4 + Centre r 1 18.0 159.7 (1101.1) " + Average value. 67  %  -  %  %  %  1  1  1  1003  2  1008  7  1106  6  TARIF  %  f  1  1  U  o  102  TABLE  XXIX  FATT  Values  Estimated  Transition  Characteristics  Valves  Electrode,  Type  Valve  and  and O r i e n t a t i o n Specimen No.  3  Electrode  Notes:  (1) (2)  (3)  (4) (5)  from  of  --  Long.  -  Long. Trans.  •-  Long. . T r a n s . (T) T r a n s . (L) Edge  Valve  No.  8  Valve  No.  1 3 --  Long. Trans.  Ductile of  Brittle  AISI- 4340  ESC  Est i mated FATT -40°C 5°C 45°C -25°C -30°C -35°C -32°C 20°C 20°C  The FATT v a l u e s h a v e b e e n e s t i m a t e d according t o a s u g g e s t e d m e t h o d i n ASTM E 2 3 - 7 2 . FATT has been d e t e r m i n e d as t h e temperature c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e e n e r g y v a l u e 50% o f the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n v a l u e s o b t a i n e d a t 100% a n d 0% f i b r o u s fracture. T h e s p e c i m e n s h a v e b e e n a s s u m e d t o be 100% f i b r o u s a t 1 0 0 ° C a n d 0% f i b r o u s at -100°C. The l a t t e r i s n o t e x a c t l y t r u e as some a r e a s w e r e f o u n d t o be d u c t i l e e v e n a t -100°C. T h e h i g h FATT f o r V a l v e N o . 13 i s p r o b a b l y d u e the inadequate heat treatment. These a r e j u s t e s t i m a t e d v a l u e s and not exact because of the kind of f r a c t u r e d s u r f a c e (as mentioned in the text).  to  100a  FIGURES  \  (d) Figure  1 .  Electroslag  Cast  Products.  (a)  Valve Bodies;  (d)  Crankshaft  (b)  with pin  8  Rolls; diameter  (c) of  Dentures 480 mm.  104  1 straight tube, 2 source material, 3 ringtype mould, 4 molten-slag bath, 5 moltenmetal pool, 6 slag film, 7 start piece, 8 feed roller for source material, 9 drawing apparatus, 10 electric power source, 11 cooling water  Figure  2.  'Y0Z0'  process  products  p i pe ,  of  Mitsubishi 11 12 tube. '  Heavy  Industries  Ltd:  ELECTRODE  ^  .  „  „  „ .  i  ,  SLAG POOL METAL  POOL  SOLIDIFIED  POWER SUPPLY TRANSFORMER or RECTIFIER  SLAG  CASTING  SKIN  COOLING  WATER  CRUCIBLE  BASE  PLATE  X Figure  3.  Schematic  of  the  ESC p r o c e s s o  Figure  4.  Fracture  toughness  containing  varying  of  ESC A I S I  amounts  of  4340  steel  sulphur.  2  Figure  5.  Electroslag  casting  installation  at  U.B.C.  108  Figure  6.  Orthogonal  views  of  ESC v a l v e  body.  109  Figure  7(a).  Plan  views  of  the  valve  mold  segments.  110  Section A-A  Section  Figure  7(b).  Sections  through  A'-A  1  the v a l v e  mold  segments.  Figure  9.  Slag  melting  furnace.  Figure  10.  Solidified  slag  skin  on  the  casting.  113  Figure  12.  Stainless  steel  ESC  valve.  115  Figure  13.  Longitudinal to  moisture.  holes  in  the  castings  due  Figure  14.  Schematic the  of  valves.  the  sectioning  procedure  of  Figure  15.  Macrostructure  of  Valve  No.  5  (CF-8M)  Figure  16.  Macrostructure  of  Valve  No.  6  (316).  118  Figure  17.  Macrostructure  of  Valve  No.  9  (CF-8M).  Figure  18.  Macrostructure (316+Cr+Mo).  of  Valve  No.  10  120  Figure  19.  Macrostructure (CF-8M).  of  conventional  casting  640  Figure  20(a).  x  Microstructure  of  heat  (etchant  treatment  CF-8M  ESC v a l v e s -  oxalic  before  acid).  122  640  Figure  20(b).  x  Microstructure  of  heat  (etchant  treatment  CF-8M  ESC v a l v e s -  oxalic  after  acid).  210  Figure  x  540  21. Microstructure (etchant  of  - oxalic  as-cast  x  ESC V a l v e N o s . 5 ,  x  6 and 7  acid).  Top Row - V a l v e N o . 5 ( C F - 8 M ) , M i d d l e B o t t o m Row -  1100  V a l v e No. 7  (316+Cr).  Row - V a l v e N o . 6  (316),  124  210 Figure  x  540  22. Microstructure  of  (echant - o x a l i c Top Row -  x  1100  h e a t - t r e a t e d ESC V a l v e N o s . 5 ,  x  6 and 7  acid).  V a l v e No. 5 ( C F - 8 M ) , M i d d l e  B o t t o m Row - V a l v e N o . 7  (316+Cr).  Row -  Valve  No. 6  (316)  125  640 Figure  23.  x  1300  Microstructure  of  850°C  -  (etchant  light dark black  grey grey area  CF-8M  specimen  heated  KOH).  area area  -  austenite phase ferrite phase sigma phase  x to  Figure  24.  Microstructure conventional  of  heat-treated  casting  (etchant  CF-8M -  KOH).  127  Figure  25.  Microstructure  of  cast  (etchant  condition  Valve  No. -  9  in  KOH).  as-  128  Figure  26.  Microstructure treated  of  condition  Valve  No.  (etchant  9 -  in  heat-  KOH).  700  Figure  27.  Microhardness and  austenite  x  indentations phases.  on  sigma  Figure  28.  Schoefer's ferrite  diagram  numbers  of  for  determination  stainless  steel  of castings.  Figure  29(a).  Variation  of  C r , Ni and Mo a c r o s s  direction  in  V a l v e No. 9 a t  the  the  edge.  dendritic  132  • TRAVEL t  F i g u r e 29(b)  V a r i a t i o n of direction  1-0 mm  H  C r , N i and Mo a c r o s s t h e  i n V a l v e No. 9 a t  the  dendritic  centre.  135  • TRAVEL i 10 mm.  direction  in  conventional  1  c a s t i n g at the  centre  O.II6| 0.066 0.016 2.65 2.55 2.45 10.41 9.91 9.41 20.04 19.54 19.04  • —©  w  —8—  —9  6  O  8  9  • • •  •  •  0  0  o  o  O  • • • o  o  10  —A  II  .7  o o  0  12  13 14  C 0  —0—  Mo  Ni  Cr  o-  15  195 mm. I 2 3  E  4  in  e  / 8  10  Microprobe  12  13  14  15  _i_ ^ ^1" O IT) O oicrib  — ^. °! ^.  o^°^Q  _i_ iDiOuD ifilD  cJcvJcvj  _i_ — lO —  ri °  CM  Figure 31.  Composition variation (The s o l i d  line  i n V a l v e No. 5  shows t h e o v e r a l l  (CF-8M).  average  composition.)  °.  OO  • • •  •  •  9  • • • • • •  o  o  o —o  o o  o  O  o  • • • • 0  0 10  II  12  o  • •  #  W  o  o  o  16  3  17  0  o  o  13  14  15  u  o  • • o  18  o  o  19  20  m  \j  W  U  21  • o  - 0.089  •  0.069 0.049  o  2.13 2.08 2.03  •  12.19 11.69 11.19  o  o - 1732 16.82 - 16.32  22  23 ^ &  0 0  roCOrO  295 mm-  ^> ^  t:  CD ^  0 1  m rOCOro  <X> 22  r=  ™  Q C2  c\i  oj  12  13  14  15  Figure 32.  16  17  18  19  20 21  Composition variation (The s o l i d  line  22  23  0  i n Valve No. 6 (316)  shows t h e o v e r a l l  average  O Q Q  <\i o d d  o 10  cn <r> cr>  srtoco  composition.)  138  0.094 0.069 o 0.044 2.05 ZOO 1.95  _•  11.86 11.36 10.86 19.62 19.12 18.62  • 4  o  o o  o  •  •  *  u  CJ  • II  o  •  •  12  13  o  o  •  c  6  •  Mo  Ni  o  o  •  •  14  15  •  16  •  Cr  17  -155 mm.  12  13  14  Cr  16  Mo  Ni  C  17  e  £ m  O CVJ  8  8  9  9  10  10 C\JC\JC\I co ID co L Q C ; in CO CD COrOOO CT) CJ O _  crjcricT)  Figure 33.  Composition v a r i a t i o n (The s o l i d  line  i n V a l v e No. 7  shows t h e o v e r a l l  o — —  —  ^ ^  (316+Cr).  average  composition.)  "tf cn <3<X> <X>  ooo  boo  139  0-061 0041 0021  -  263  o o o  2-51 6  o o  0  o o  ^  n  n  0 —O— v  Mo  239 10-49 9-99 949 20-48 19 98 19-48  Ni  • • • °  o  n  -  0  o  o  Cr  o  I9|2C|2I |22|23|24|25ll0|26 27 28 29 30|3I 32  Cr  -295 mm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  e  microprobe  j2\|22|23l24|25 10 26|27|28|29l30|3l|32  E E in N  ro  9 10 11  Mo  Ni  o  •  >  0  •  o  m  0  o o o  <  0  0  o o  0  o ( 0  Composition v a r i a t i o n (The s o l i d  line  • •  •  a  0  14  o  >  o  15  3  •  16  0  •  0  o 0  •  I  -  i n V a l v e No. 9  shows t h e o v e r a l l  •  0  .  ?  oo oo oo cn cn cn ^- cn ? t cn if £ ch w o ch cn o  Figure 34.  0  o  t  i  1  ft X o do o oo  (CF-8M).  average  •  • •  0  12 13  17 18  •  • • • • •  composition.)  140  0-059 0O49 0-039  -  • •  •  o  • •  -  289 239 o I- 89 12-56 12-06 II- 56  -  1940 18-90 18-40  -  o  u  • • • •  15  n  o -o  "D  0  0 o  0  -A  W  w  O  O  u  • • • • o  o  •  Q 0  • o u  Mo  NI  Cr  o o  1-6 17  18 19 6 20 21 22 23 24 IQR  Cr  mrr 1  15 16 17 18 19  20 21 22 23 24  E 6 ID  o  4  c  5  <  6  o  • •  7  o  «  8  o  10  o 0  II  1 1 12  13  13  )  14  0 1 1 OOO  Composition v a r i a t i o n (The s o l i d l i n e  c  i n V a l v e N o . 10  shows t h e o v e r a l l  »  c  •  (»  0 1)  c  «  o  t o * cb cb  Figure 35.  »  c  12 14  • o • • • • •  <>  o  9 10  Mo  •  o  2 3  NI  c  (  c  • • • •  c  <  0  <  o  •  0  1 * 1 <£<0<£ "Opip  1< 1  •  1  ©0105 cbroeo — — OJ  1 »1 (  men g>  oo o  66 6  (316+Cr+Mo).  average  composition.)  141  • ••  0027 0022 0 017  O  208 203 O 1-98  o " . u.. ... o  9-65 9-15 8€5  Q  O  O  o  o ° o  Mo  • ••  2019 19-69 1919  o  Ni  o  o  o  o  Cr  17 18 19 2 0 2 1 22 23 2 4 25 26 27  Cr  230mm.-  Ni  Mo  1  •I  2  o  3  O  4  o  5 6  micro probe  o  o  8 17 18 19 20 21 2 2 23 2 4 25 2 6 27  9 10  o 10  o 0  II 12  12  o  13  13  o  14  14  o  15  15  16  16  Figure;36.  o  o  7  •  o  o  Composition v a r i a t i o n (The s o l i d  line  _l_  _L  L  S — 58  <p C® NQQ  5ch  cb cn ch  — CVICVJ  in conventional  shows t h e o v e r a l l  _i_  —$ — o  to  casting.  average  composition.)  r-CJ r SOU CCO O O  6  Figure  37.  SEM p h o t o g r a p h s  of  alloy  area  powder  in  agglomerated 1  in  Valve  ferro No.  10.  Figure  38.  SEM p h o t o g r a p h s  of  alloy  area  powder  in  agglomerated 2  in  Valve  ferro No.  10.  hi  • t' »•  # » r  ;  :  ..*  .  • J  Parent Metal  .'I . * •  1  Area I  to •E 3  o o o Area 2 •  ••  •  t. ••  • •  *  •  •  /K  Mo  /f\  /K  /N  /N  /K  Cr Cr Fe Fe Ni  39.  EDXA p l o t s the  of  ( V a l v e No.  • •  • •  Ni  agglomerated f e r r o  parent metal  •  • •  •  10).  • •  ••  • •  • •  •  •  •  • #M» •  •  • • • • •  •  •  * •  • •••  • M  • • « • • • • • •  A  -  • • *•  •  •  •  • • •  •  »»W  .  .  Mo X-ray  Figure  •» •  •  alloy  Energy  (K eV)  powder i n a r e a s 1 a n d 2 and  4^  Areas 18 2  o u  Fe-Cr Powder  o **  /N / K  /N  /N  Mg Al  Si  S  • •  :  A  •  Co X-ray  Ca  Ti  Cr  Mn  Fe  Fe  Energy (KeV)  cn F i g u r e 40 ( a ) .  EDXA p l o t s o f i n c l u s i o n s  i n a r e a s 1 and 2 and F e - C r - p o w d e r .  Areas I 8 2 •  -.v V*.-  (A C 3 O  o o  Fe-Cr v..V.-  Powder ••„.••.•. ^ *  ^  ^  ^  Mg Al Si  Ca  Co  X-ray  Ti Energy  /K  /ts.  /*>  Cr  Mn  Fe  •  *  *M  •  A •  Fe  (KeV)  CD  Figure 40(b).  EDXA p l o t s o f  i n c l u s i o n s in areas  1 a n d 2 and F e - C r  powder.  S  S  Co X-ray  Figure  40(c).  EDXA p l o t s  Co.  Energy of  Fe (KeV)  inclusions  in  Fe-Mo  powder.  Figure  41.  Macroporosity CF-8M  in  electrode.  the  Centre  of  the  149  Figure  43. M a c r o s t r u c t u r e of  the  CF-8M  electrode.  (5.5  x)  150  Figure  44.  Inclusions Valve  No.  graphs).  in 9  the  and  electrode  electrode  piece  tip  dropped  (optical  in  photo-  Electrode  Piece  Electrode Tip  2000 x  950 x  P a r e n t C a s t i n g 4000 x Figure  45.  Electrode  P i e c e 4000  Electrode  Tip  x  1900 x  P a r e n t C a s t i n g 8000  I n c l u s i o n s i n t h e e l e c t r o d e p i e c e dropped i n V a l v e No. e l e c t r o d e t i p and t h e p a r e n t c a s t i n g ( V a l v e N o . 9 ) .  9,  x  Electrode Piece  »  .* • •  *V* •••••• *.* •»... v.  c  o o  Electrode Tip  o . .. . *  4s  Al  A  ^  Si P  Ti X-ray  Energy  Cr  Mn Fe  Fe  Ni  (KeV) ro  Figure 46(a).  EDXA p l o t s  o f i n c l u s i o n s i n the e l e c t r o d e p i e c e dropped i n Valve No. 9  and t h e e l e c t r o d e t i p .  1 M  P  tt  4\ S  Co X-ray  Ti  Cr  ^  Mn Cr Fe  4*  4>  Fe  Ni  Energy (K eV) co  Figure 46(b).  EDXA p l o t s  o f i n c l u s i o n s i n the parent c a s t i n g (Valve No. 9),  154  Figure 47.  Schematic to e x p l a i n V a l v e No. 9 .  the  peculiar  pool  p r o f i l e observed  in  155  ure  48.  Macrostructure observed  in  of  the  peculiar  Valve  No.  9.  (5.5X)  pool  profile  156  I  I I  Large Specimen (316 a n d C F - 8 M )  Small Specimen (316..CF-8M and 4340)  1.00  inches  0.75  inches  D  0.25  6  1.00  "  4.00  "  3.00  "  A  1.25  "  5.00  "  3.75  "  R  3/16  "  3/4  9/16  "  T  3/8  2  2  Figure 49.  inches  Large Specimen (4340  Schematic of  the  t e n s i l e specimens  used.  600 80h 500 70  £ 60  400  o  a.  ca 50  3 UJ  300 S| or  40  CO  i  200  30  ca UJ  or »CO  20  O  Tensile Strength  •  Yield Strength  A  Elongation  100  10  8  10  _L  12  FERRITE Figure .50.  Variation steel  of  tensile  castings.  properties  14  16  20  18  NUMBER with  ferrite  number  of  stainless  Figure  51.  Photograph of  small  of  the  tensile  deformed specimen  and from  fractured  areas  Valve  6.  No.  Figure  52.  Photograph of  large  of  the  tensile  deformed specimen  and from  fractured  areas  Valve  6.  No.  Figure  53.  AISI  4340  ESC  valve.  Figure  55.  Radiographs  of  Valve  No.  3.  162  163  F i g u r e 57. M a c r o s t r u c t u r e  o f V a l v e N o . 8 (HC&  etch).  F i g u r e 58.  Macrostructure  of  V a l v e N o . 13 {HCz e t c h ) .  Figure 59.  Macrostructure of (top  part  V a l v e N o . 14 (Hc£  etched for  a longer  time).  etch)  Figure  61 .  Dendritic  structure  of  Valve  No.  (a)  edge  (b)  mid-radius  (c)  centre  (d)  top  3.  Figure  62.  Sulphur  prints  of  Valve  No.  3.  169  Figure  63.  Sulphur  Prints  of  Valve  No.  8.  170  Figure  64.  Variation  of  C r , Ni and Mo a c r o s s t h e  direction  i n V a l v e No.  8.  dendritic  171  i  Figure 65.  1  1-0 mm  Variation  of  C r , N i a n d Mo a c r o s s t h e  direction  in  V a l v e No.  13.  dendritic  173  O  2 »  3  1  5  15 16 17 18 19 _7_  'E 2 d 21 22 23 24 E 6 m rO  7  _8_  8  _9_  9  10  10 II  12  12  _I3  13  14  14  •  c  »  o  •  o  1  67.  Composition (The  solid  variation line  composition.]  shows  in the  I  0  i  I  (  3  <  3 <  1  (  J  <  J  1  <  i  4  (  »  3  o  3 3  o i  tO-r <£>1 00 QO  odd  Figure  o  4  microprobe  o  »  o  1  Valve  <  0  <  ^ t£>1 — tO fs_ 00 op  1  to — to  ^ CM CM  — — — odd  No.  overall  3. average  SQQlf) tO rj-  odd  046 0-41 0-36 0-27 0- 2 2 u 017  o  u  u  o  u  0  0  u  0  0  0  0  0  Mo  0  1- 9 4 1-84 1-74  Ni  0-84 0-79 0-74  O o o  0  u  0  0  ° o  r>  n  O  n  O  Cr  16 17 18 192 0 21 22 4 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 290 mm. 1 2 3  microprobe  16 17 18 19 20 21 22  23 2 4 2 5 26 27 28 29  4 5 6 _7 E E _8  O CD _9 C\J  JO II 12 13 14 •5  12  • o • o • 3 < • o • • • • 0 • • C 0 • • o • o • 0 _. 1 . 1 0  O  O  0)  f> r - co  o o o  Composition v a r i a t i o n (The s o l i d  line  in  V a l v e No.  shows t h e o v e r a l l  »  <)  <f  F i g u r e 68.  Ni  Cr  I  *t t 't co cn  —- -  Mo < <  > >  <)  () <  > >  ( < {  (  >  (  <  ( )  () >  (  c c o c 1°  r-OJ  1  p-  — c\i CVJ  °o 6  8. average  composition.)  1 * 1 -r CD  CO  ro *  *  6Qo  175  0-47 0-42 0-37 026 0- 21 XS—O—O— 016  9  O  9  —O  D—O  9  ©"  1-94 I 84 1-74  Mo  Ni  0-90 0-65 _o 0-80  o  o -e--e--e- o  o  o ~o  o  Cr  19 20 21 2 2 23 12 24 25 26 27 28 -220  Cr  mm.-  Ni  Mo  T"  D  8  8  0 D  10  o  20 21 2 2 2 3 12 24 25 26 2 7 2 8 13  Figure  12 13  14  14  15  15  16  S  0  10  microprobe  I. 6  17  17  18  18  _L  _L  _L  omo  tori co NCJ h-  §§§ III sSg 8 S S 69.  Composition (The  variation  sol id'1ine  composi t i o n  .)  shows  in the  Valve  No.  overall  13. average  176  050 0-45 040 027 0- 2 2 O 017  O  O  0  U  °  O  O  L  )  0  U  0  0  0  0  MO  202  Ni  1- 9 7 1-92 0-90 0-88 o 0-86 ho  o  o o  o  o  o  o  o  Cr  21122123^4125 262712 28 2 9 3 0 31 3233134  1 2  o o  3 4  o  5  o  2112212324 2 5 E 6 27 2J28|29|30|3l|32|33|34|  <>  <  8  <  1 Figure 70.  >  0 <  12 13  0  14  o  16  16  UJ  £  o  0 o o  19 20  1  ?  Sfi » Q CO CO CO  6 6 6  line  *  o  18  Composition v a r i a t i o n (The s o l i d  )  ) ()  15  J9J  c c  7  15  18  c  <  11  C  c  • • •  <>  10  Mo c  6  9 microprobe  • •  o  Ni  i  c  • • • • • • • • • •  i CM  r- CM cn c n o —  —Cvl  <  )  q 0 <  )  0  (> () <> < »  ci  () <> <>  i  i n Valve No. 14.  shows t h e o v e r a l l  average  i  040 045 0-50  Cr  017 022 0-27  •295 mm.  composition.)  (a)  Figure  71.  Machined  (b)  AISI  4340  ESC  valve  178  Figure  72.  Separated  surfaces  Valve  14.  No.  along  a  crack  in  gure  73.  Hardness Valve  No.  variation 13.  in  heat-treated  180  I  i  l  l  i  i  • BOTTOM I 29  I 30  I  I 31  I 32  HARDNESS  Figure  74.  Hardness Valve  No.  variation 14.  in  L_ 33  (Rc)  heat-treated  181  (c)  Figure  75.  640  x  (d)  Microstructure and  AISI  heat-treated  4340  conditions;  heat  treated  condition,  (a),  (b)  (c)  (d)  -  and  Electrode  valve  -  ESC V a l v e  in  800  as-cast  electrode  No.  8  in  x  (a)  (c)  Figure  76.  95  x  800  x  Microstructure in (b)  heat-treated -  of  AISI  4340  (b)  175  x  (d)  800  x  No.  13  ESC V a l v e  condition,  w h i t e a r e a ss grey areas black areas  -  ferrite bainite (shown i n M a r t e n s i t e (shown  (c)) in (d))  Figure  77.  Fractographs AISI  4340  of  from  large  tensile  ESC V a l v e  No.  specimens 8.  of  Figure  78.  Orientation the  notch  in  of  the  Valve  charpy No.  8.  specimens  and  185  T—i—r  T—r  i  i  i  60 40 50  30  40  ENERGY (Ft. Lbs.)  (Joules) 30  20  20  * • o  10  ESC Valve (Long.) Electrode (Long.) Electrode (Trans.)  J 1 1 1 L -100-80-60-40-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 1  1  1  TEMPERATURE (°C) Figure  79.  Ductile  Brittle  transition  characteristics  o f Valve No. 3  and t h e e l e c t r o d e . Meat T r e a t m e n t : 1 h o u r a t 845°C - o i l q u e n c h . Temper a t 482°C t o a h a r d n e s s o f 39 R c .  187  i—i  —i—i  1 — l — I — i — i — i — i — i — r  i  •  Trans.  i  i  -100-80-60-40-20  i  i  i  i  i  i  0 20 40 60 80 100  TEMPERATURE (°C) Figure 81.  Ductile  brittle  transition  characteristics  o f Valve No. 1 3 .  H e a t T r e a t m e n t : 1 h o u r a t 845°C - o i l q u e n c h . Temper a t 560°C t o a h a r d n e s s o f 35 R c .  65°C  Figure 82. Optical and c)  fractographs  orientations. -  L  d)  - E  100°C  of  24°C  c h a r p y specimens from V a l v e No. 8 t e s t e d  65°C  at  different  100°C  temperatures  Figure  83.  Optical  fractographs  from  the  a)  Long.  -  AISI  4340 b)  of  charpy  electrode,  Trans.  specimens  191  Figure  84.  SEM f r a c t o g r a p h s (a) (b)  ridge  area  micro-cracks.  of  charpy  specimen  192  (c) Figure  85.  2100  x  SEM f r a c t o g r a p h s  (d) of  different  (a)  Area 1 (Ridge A r e a ) ,  (b)  Area 2 (Base o f  the  (c)  Area 3 (General  Area),  (d)  Area 4 (Shear Lip A r e a ) ,  regions  'Low Energy  of  2000  a charpy  specimen.  Fracture . 1  R i d g e ) , Intermediate Energy 1  'High  Energy  'High  x  Fracture'.  Energy  Fracture'.  Fracture'.  Figure  8 6 .  Soviet  electroslag  cast  valve.  b  a  f i x e d (upside down) (a)  and moving (b) core d i e  1-Consumable electrode; 2-Watercooled mold ( c r y s t a l l i z e r ) ; 3-Slag bath; 4-Metal bath; 5c a s t i n g ; 6-Die; 7-Seed charge.  Figure  87.  Schematic hollow  ESC  of  the  methods  valves.  3  used  for  making  195  Figure  90.  Macrostructure the  welded  of  insert.  the  ESC v a l v e  with  DO  NOT  COPY LEAVES 1 9 7 - 2 1 2 .  APPENDIX 1  ASME/ASTM S P E C I F I C A T I O N S  197  4SI  [AMERICAN NATIONAL] iSlANDAHDl  ANSI/ASTM  A 351 - 77  Used in USAEC-RDT Standards  Standard Specification for AUSTENITIC  STEEL CASTINGS FOR  HIGH-TEMPERATURE  SERVICE  1  This Standard is issued under the fixed designation A 351; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last.revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last rcspproval.  1. Scope 1.1 This specification* covers austenilic steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, and oiher pressure-containing parts (Note 1) intended for high-temper2ture and corrosive service (Note 2). NOTE 1—Carbon steel castings for pressure-containing parts are covered by Specification A 2 1 6 , and low.alloy steel castings by Specification A 2 1 7 . NOTE 2 — T h e committee formulating this specification has included 1 7 grades of materials extensively used for the present purpose. It is not the intent that this specification should be limited to these grades. Other compositions will be considered for inclusion by the committee as the need arises. Since these grades possess varying degrees of suitability for high-temperature and corrosion-resistant service, it is the responsibility of the purchaser to determine which grade shall be furnished; due consideration being riven to the requirements of the applicable construction codes.  1.2 Eighteen grades of austenitic steel castings are included in this specification. Selection will depend on design and service conditions, mechanical properties, and the high-temperature and corrosion-resistant characteristics.  A 703 Specification for General Requirements Applicable to Steel Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts E 109 Dry Powder Magnetic Particle Inspection E 138 Wet Magnetic Particle Inspection E 165 Recommended Practice for Liquid Penetrant Inspection Method 3  5  5  5  2.2 Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry Standard: SP 55 Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves. Flanges and Fittings and Other Components (Visual Method)* 3. General Conditions for Delivery 3.1 Material furnished to this specification shall conform to the applicable requirements of Specification A 703, including the supplementary requirements that are indicated on the purchaser's order.  3.2 The post weld heat treatment requirements of Supplementary Requirement S l l may be specified when austenitic castings other than H K or H T are to be subjected NOTE 3—The values stated in U.S. customary units to severe corrosive service. are to be regarded as the standard. 2. Applicable Documents  2.1 AS^f Standards: A 216 Specification for Carbon-Steel Castings Suitable for Fusion Welding for HighTemperature Service* A 217 Specification for Martensitic Stainless Steel and Alloy Steel Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts Suitable for HighTemperature Service' A 488 Recommended Practice for Qualification of Procedures and Personnel for the Welding of Steel Castings 4  'This specification is under the jurisdiction of A S T M Committee A - l on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.1S on Castings. Current edition approved Oct. 28, 1977. Published December 1977. Originally published as A 351 - 52 T. Last previous edition A 351 - 76. ' F o r A S M E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related Specification SA-351 in Section II of that code.  ' Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Paris I and 2. 'Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 2. ' A nnuol Book of ASTM Standards. Part 11.  'Available from Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fillings Industry, 1815 N . Fort Meyer Drive, Arlington. Va. 22209.  1 9 8  A 351 4. Ordering Information 4.1 The inquiry and order shall include or indicaf the following: 4.1.1 A description of the casting by pattern number or drawing. Dimensional tolerances shall be included on the casting drawing. 4.1.2 Grade of steel. 4.1.3 Options in the specification. 4.1.4 The supplementary requirements desired including the standards of acceptance. 5. Process 5.1 Steel shall be made by the electric furnace process. 6. Heat Treatment 6.1 All castings shall receive a heat treatment proper to their design and chemical composition, except the HK and HT grades which shall be furnished in the as-cast condition. 6.2 Grade C D 4 M C u shall be healed to 2050°F (1120 C) for sufficient time to heat casting uniformly to temperature, furnace cooled to 1900°F (1040°C), held for a minimum of 15 min and quenched in water or rapidly cooled by other means so as to develop acceptable corrosion resistance. o  6.3 The austenitic grades, except Grades HK and HT. shall be solution-treated by the manufacturer. 7. Chemical Requirements 7.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as to chemical composition prescribed in Table 1. 8. Tensile Requirements 8.1 Steel used for the castings shall conform to the requirements as to tensile properties prescribed in Table 2.  castings shall not be furnished under this specification. 10. Quality 10.1 The surface of the casting shall be examined visually and shall be free of adhering sand, scale, cracks, and hot tears. Other surface discontinuities shall meet the visual acceptance standards specified in the order. Visual Method SP 55 or other visual standards may be used to define acceptable surface discontinuities and finish. Unacceptable visual surface discontinuities shall be removed and their removal verified by visual examination of the resultant cavities. 10.2 When additional inspection is desired, Supplementary Requirements S5, S6, and S10 may be ordered. 10.3 The castings shall not be peened, plugged, or impregnated to stop leaks. 11. Repair by Welding 11.1 Repairs shall be made using procedures and welders qualified under Recommended Practice A 488. 11.2 Weld repairs shall be inspected to the same quality standards that are used to inspect the castings. When castings are produced with Supplementary Requirement S5 specified, weld repairs on castings that have leaked on hydrostatic test, or on castings in which the depth of any cavity prepared for repair welding exceeds 20 % of the wall thickness or 1 in. (25 mm), whichever is smaller, or on castings in which any cavity prepared for w-elding is greater than approximately 10 in. (65 cm*), shall be radiographed to the same standards that are used to inspect the castings. When castings are produced with Supplementary Requirement S6 specified, weld repairs shall be inspected by liquid penetrant examination to the same standards that are used to inspect the castings. 8  NOTE 4—When austenitic steel castings are to be used in services where ihey will be subject to stress corrosion, the purchaser should so indicate in his 9.1 Flanged castings that have the flanges order and such castings should be solution-heat removed by machining to make welding end treated following all weld repairs. 9. Flanges  SUPPLEMENTARY  REQUIREMENTS  The following supplementary requirements shall not apply unless specified in the purchase order. A list of standardized supplementary requirements for use at the option of the purchaser is included in Specification A 703. Those which are ordinarily considered suitable for use with this specification are given below. Others enumerated in A 703 may be used with this specification upon agreement between the manufacturer and purchaser.  199  A 351 S2. Destruction Tests. 55. Radiographic Inspection. 56. Liquid Penetrant Inspection. S10. Examination of Weld Preparation. S10.1 The method of performing the magnetic particle or liquid penetrant test shall be in accordance with Method E 109, Method  E 138, or Recommended Practice E 165. S l l . Post Weld Heat Treatment. SI 1.1 All austenitic castings, except Grades HK and HT. which have been subjected to weld repairs shall be given a post weld solution heat treatment.  TAni.K. 1 Chemical Hcqiiircmrnls Klcmcnl. % (max. Hsccpt Where Range is (iiven) Carbon Manganese Silicon Sulfur Phosphorus Chromium Nickel  CI-'.', CI MA  Cl R. CI RA  CI'.'M. CF.1MA  0.03 1.50 2.00 0.040 0.040 17.021.0 8.012.0  0.0R I.JO 2.00 0.040 0.040 18.021.0 8.011.0  0.0.1 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 17.021.6 9.013.0 2.03.0 ... ...  r  Molybdenum Columbium Copper  . . . . ...  ... ...  CI-RM  0.08 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.021.0 9.012.0 203.0 ... . ...  CIRC  CI 18  CI 110  CI 120  CK20  0.08 1.50 2.00 0.040 0.040 18.021.0 9.012.0  0.08 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 22.026.0 12.015.0  0.10 1.50 2.01) 0.040 0.010 22.026.0 12.0..15.0  (1.20 1.50 2.00 0.040 0.040 22.026.0 12.015.0  0.20 1.50 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.027.0 19.022.0  0.25-0.35 1.50 1.75 0.040 0.O40 23.027.0 19.022.0  0.15-0.45 1.50 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.027.0 19.022.0  0.25-0.35 2.00 2.50 0.040 0.040  ' ...  ... ...  ... ...  ... ...  ... ...  ... ...  ... ...  ... ...  IIK40  11K .10  irr.m  1.1.017.0 33.037.0 0.50  CI I0MC  CN7M  C04MC  0.10 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 15.018.0 13.016.0 1.752.25  0.07 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 19.022.0 27.530.5 2.03.0  0.04 1.00 l.(X) 0.04 0.04 24.526.5 4.756.00 1.752.25  " . . .  ... J.04.0  ... 2.753.25  * Grade C F 8 C shall have a columbium contcnl of not less lhan R limes the carbon cnnlcnl but nol over 100 % . " Grade C F I 0 M C shall have a columbium conlenl of no! less lhan 10 limes the carbon content bul nol over 1.20 % . TABI.F. 2 CF3 70 Tensile .strength, min, ksi (4851 (MPa) Yield strength." min, ksi (MPa) 30 (205) 35.0 Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm. min. % Rcduclion of area. min. %  Tensile Requirement  CF3A'  CFR  CF8A'  CF3M  CT3MA  CIRM  CIRC  CUR  CI 110 CI 120 CK20  1IK30  77 (530) 35 (240) 35.0  70 (4R5) 30 (205) 35.0  77 (530) 35 (240) 35.0  70 (485) 30 (205) 30.0  •80 (550) 37 (255) 30.0  70 (485) 30 (205) 30.0  70 (485) 30 (205) 30.0  65 (450) 2R (195) 30 0  70 (4R5) 30 (205) 30.0  65 62 (4 50) (425) 35 35 (240) (240) 10.0 10.0  70 (4R5) 30 (205) 30.0  65 (450) 2K (195) 30.0  IIK40  11130  CI-I0MC  CN7M  CU 4MCu  65 (450) 28 (195) 15.0  70 (4R5) 30 (205) 20.0  62 (425) 25 (170) 35.0  100 (690) 70 (485) 16.0  * The properties shown are obtained by adjusting the composition within the limits shown in Table t to obtain a fcrritc-ausicnitc ratio that wilt result in the higher ultimate and yield strengths indicated. Because of the thermal instability of Grades C F 3 A , C F 3 M A . and C F K A , they arc not recommended for service at temperatures in excess of 800"F (425"C). * Determine by either 0.2 % offset method or 0.5 % cxlcnsion-undc'r-load mclhod.  The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility.  201  (AMERICAN NATIONAL") (STANDARD!  ANSI/ASTM A 182-77a  .Endorsed by Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Finings Industry Used in USAEC-RDT standards  Standard Specification for FORGED  OR R O L L E D  FORGED  FITTINGS, A N D  A L L O Y - S T E E L PIPE VALVES  HIGH-TEMPERATURE SERVICE  AND  FLANGES,  PARTS  FOR  1  This Standard is issued under the fixed designation A 182; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of iast reapprovaj. •  1, Scope 1.1 This specification covers forged low alloy and stainless steel piping components for use in pressure systems. Included are flanges, fittings, valves, and similar pans to specified dimensions or to dimensional standards such as the ANSI specifications that are referenced in Section 2. 1.2 Other forgings for other applications may be made to this specification. 1.3 Thirty-three grades are covered including sixteen ferritic or. martensitic steels and seventeen austenitic stainless steels. Selection will depend upon design and service requirements. 1.4 Supplementary requirements are provided for use when additional testing or inspection is desired. These shall apply only when specified individually by the purchaser in the order. N O T E 1—The values staled in U . S . customary units are to be regarded as the standard.  2. Applicable Documents  E 165 Recommended Practice for Liquid Penetrant Inspection Method E 353 Chemical Analysis of Stainless, Heat-Resisting, Maraging, and Other Similar, Chromium-Nickel-Iron Alloys E 381 Rating Macroetched Steel 6  5  3  2.2 Manufacturers' Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry Standard: 7  SP 25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings. Flanges and Unions.  2.3 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code:* Section IX Welding Qualifications SFA-5.4 Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Steel Covered Welding Electrodes SFA-5.5 Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes  2.4 American National Standards Institute Standards:' B16.5 Dimensional Standards for Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings This specification is under the jurisdiction of A S T M Committee A - l on Steel. Stainless Steel and Related A l loys, and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Valves and Finings. Current edition approved Oct. 28. 1977. Published December 1977. Originally published as A 182 - 35 T . Last previous edition A 182 - 77. ' Annual Book of A S T M Standards, Pan 1 . ' Annua! Book of A S T M Standards, Pan 5. ' Annual Book of A S T M Standards, Pans 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , and 10. • Annual Book of A S T M Standards, Pan 12. • Annual Book of A S T M Standards, Pan 1 ] . ' Available from Manufacturers' Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry. 1815 N. F o n Myer Drive, Arlington, V a . 22209. Available from American Societv of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York. N.Y. 10017. • Available from American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N. Y . 10018. 1  2.1 ASTM Standards: A 234 Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperatures A 275 Magnetic Particle Examination of Steel Forgings A 370 Mechanical Testing of Steel Products A 509 Definition of a Steel Forging E 30 Chemical Analysis of Steel, Cast Iron. Open-Hearth Iron, and Wrought Iron 5  5  4  3  5  6  1  202  A 162  -  '  ;  v  Vi-  (667°C). Grade F6a Class 1 shall be tern-* pered at not less than 132ST (717°C); Grade F6a Class'3 at not less than 1100°F (593°C); and F6a Class 4 at not less than lOOO'F-. (538°C). 3. Basis of Purchase 5.1.1 Grade F 6a (martensitic) Classes 1 3.1 Orders for material under this specifica- and 2 need be tempered only, provided the tempering temperature for Class 1 is not less tion shall include the following information, as necessary, to describe adequately the de-. than 1325T (667°C) and for Class 2, not less than 1250°F(667 C).... sired material: 5.1.2 Grade F 6NM shall be furnished in 3.1.1 Name of forging, 3.1.2 ASTM specification number includ- the normalized and tempered condition; the tempering temperature shallbe not less than • trig grade, 1040°F (560 C) nor greater than 1120°F 3.1.3 Size and pressure class or geometry, (600 C). 3.1.4 Quantity, 5.2 Liquid quenching followed by temper3.1.5 Test report if required, and ing shall be permitted when agreed to by the 3.1.6 Supplementary requirements, if any. purchaser. The same, minimum tempering temperature as specified in 5.1 shall be re4. Manufacture , 4.1 The low-alloy ferritic steels may be quired for each grade. Parts that are liquid made by the open-hearth, electric-furnace, or quenched and tempered shall be marked basic-oxygen process. The basic-oxygen "QT" and shall be inspected for quench process shall be limited to steels containing cracks by the magnetic particle method in accordance with Method A 275. less than 2 % chromium. 5.3 All austenitic material shall be fur4.2 The stainless steels shall be melted by one of the following processes: (a) electric- nished in the heat-treated condition. The heat furnace (with separate degassing and refining treatment shall consist of heating the material optional); (b) vacuum-furnace; or (c) one of to a minimum temperature of 1900'F (1040°C) the former followed by vacuum or electro- and quenching in water or rapidly cooling by slag-consumable remelting. Grade XM-27 may other means, except for grades F 321H. F 347H, and F 348H, which shall be solution be produced by electron-beam melting. 4.3 A sufficient discard shall be made to treated at 1925T (1050°C) min. 5.4 Heat treatment may be performed besecurefreedomfrom injurious piping and unfore machining. " due segregation. . 4.4 The material shall be forged as close as 6. Chemical Requirements practicable to the specified shape and size. 6.1 The steel shall conform to the requireForged or rolled bar may be used without ments as to chemical composition for the additional hot working for small cylindrically grade ordered as listed in Table 1. For referee shaped parts within the limits defined by purposes, Methods E 30 or E 353 shall be Specification A 234. used. 4.5 The finished product shall be a forging 6.2 Grades to which lead, selenium, or as defined by Definition A 509. other elements are added for the purpose of rendering the material free-machining shall 5. Heat Treatment not be used. 5.1 The ferritic grades and the martensitic grade shall be annealed, or normalized and 7. Cast or Heat (formerly Ladle) Analysis tempered, except as permitted in 5.2. If fur7.1 An analysis of each heat of steel shall nished in the normalized and tempered condibe made from samples taken preferably durtion, the tempering temperature for Grades F ing the pouring of the heat and the results 1, F 2, F 11 and F 12 shall be not less than shall conform to Table 1. 1150°F (620°C). The minimum tempering 8. Product Analysis temperature for Grades F5. F5a, F6a Class 2, F7, F9, F21, and F22 shall be 1250°F 8.1 The purchaser may make a product B16.ll Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Weld, and Threaded B16.10 Face-lo-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Ferrous Valves  e  e  o  ;  203  A 182 analysis on forgings supplied to this specification. Samples for analysis shall be taken from midway between the center and surface of solid forgings, midway between the inner and outer surfaces of hollow forgings, midway between the center and surface of full-size prolongations, or from broken mechanical test, specimens. The chemical composition thus determined shall conform to Table 1 with the tolerances as staled in Table 2 or 3. 9. Mechanical Requirements  9.5.2 Austenitic Stainless Steel Grades-  One tension test shall be made for each heat. N O T E 2 — "Type" in this case is used to describe the forging shape such as a flange, ell, tee, etc. .9.5.3 Testing shall be performed in accordance with Methods A 370 using the largest feasible of the round specimens. The gage length for measuring elongation shall be four, times the diameter of the test section.  9.6 Hardness Tests:  9.6.1 Sufficient number of hardness measurements shall be made in accordance with 9.1 The material shall conform to the reMethods A 370 to assure that the forgings are quirements as to mechanical properties for within the hardness limits given for each grade the grade ordered as listed in Table 4. in Table 4. The purchaser may verify that the 9.2 Mechanical test specimens shall be obrequirement has been met by testing at any tained from production forgings after heat location on the forging provided such testing treatment, or from separately forged test does not render the forging useless. blanks prepared from the stock used to make 9.6.2 When the reduced number of tension the finished product. Such test blanks shall tests permitted by 9.5.1.1 is applied, addireceive approximately the same working as tional hardness tests shall be made on forgings the finished product. The test blanks shall be or samples as defined in 9.2. scattered heat-treated with the finished product and throughout the load (Note 3). A t least.eight shall approximate the maximum cross section samples shall be checked from each batch load of the forgings they represent. and at least one check per hour shall be made 9.3 For normalized and tempered, or from a continuous run. When the furnace quenched and tempered forgings, the central batch is less than eight forgings, each forging axis of the specimen shall correspond to the shall be checked. If any check falls outside the 'I* t plane or deeper position in the thickest prescribed limits, the entire lot of forgings section, /, of the represented forgings and the shall be reheat treated and the requirements gage length shall be at least t distance from a of 9.5.1 shall apply. second heat-treated surface. When section N O T E 3—The tension test required in 9.5.1 is thickness or geometry interferes, the speciused to determine material capability and conformmen shall be positioned as near as possible to ance in addition to verifying the adequacy of the the prescribed location. heat-treatment cycle. Additional hardness tests in accordance with 9.6.2 are required when 9.5.1.1 is 9.4 For annealed ferritic and martensitic applied to assure the prescribed heat-treating cycle grades and also for austenitic stainless steels, and uniformity throughout the load. . . . the test, specimen may be taken from any 10. Retreatment convenient location, e : :  9.5 Tension Tests:] •• •* - ..• 10.1 If the results of the mechanical tests 9.5.1 Ferritic and Martensitic Grades — do not conform to the requirements specified,  One tension test shall be made for each heat in each heat treatment charge. 9.5.1.1 When the heat-treating cycles are the same and the furnaces (either batch or continuous type) are controlled within ± 25°F" (± 14°C) and equipped with recording pyrometers so that complete records of heat treatment are available, then only one tension test from each heat of each forging type (Note 2) and section size is required instead of one test from each heat in each heat-treatment charge. --i;.-.  the manufacturer may reheat treat the forgings and repeat the tests specified in Section 9.  11. Finish 11.1 The forgings shall be free of scale, machining burrs which might hinder fit-up, and other injurious imperfections as defined herein. The forgings shall have a workmanlike finish and machined surfaces (other than surfaces having special requirements) shall have a surface finish not to exceed 250 A A  204  A 182 (ariihmetic average) roughness height. 11.2 At the discretion of the inspector representing the purchaser, finished forgings shall be subject to rejection if surface imperfections acceptable under 11.4 are not scattered but appear over a large area in excess of what is considered to be a workmanlike finish.  IX of the A S M E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 12.1.2 The weld metal shall be deposited using the electrodes specified in Table 5. The electrodes shall be purchased in accordance with A S M E Specifications SFA-5.4 or SFA5.5. 12.1.3 Defects shall be completely re11.3 Depth of Injurious Imperfections— moved prior to welding by chipping or grindLinear imperfections shall be explored for ing to sound metal as verified by magnetic depth. When the depth encroaches on the particle inspection in accordance with minimum wall thickness of the finished forg- Method A 275 for the ferritic or martensitic ing, such imperfections shall be considered grades, or by liquid penetrant inspection in injurious. accordance with Recommended Practice 11.4 Machining or Grinding ImperfectionsE 165 for ferritic, martensitic, or austenitic Not Classified as Injurious—Surface imper- grades. 12.1.4 After repair welding, the welded fections not classified as injurious shall be area shall be ground smooth to the original treated as follows: contour and shall be completely free of de11.4.1 Seams, laps, tears, or slivers not fects as verified by magnetic-particle or liqdeeper than 5 % of the nominal wall thickness uid-peneirant inspection, as applicable. or Vi« in. (1.6 mm), whichever is less, need 12.1.5 The preheat, interpass temperanot be removed. If these imperfections are ture, and post-weld heat treatment requireremoved, they shall be removed by machinments given in Table 5 shall be met. ing or grinding. 12.1.6 Repair by welding shall not exceed 11.4.2 Mechanical marks or abrasions and 10 % of the surface area of the forging nor pits shall be acceptable without grinding or 33 >h % of the wall thickness of the finished machining provided the depth does not exceed the limitations set forth in 11.4.1. Imper- forging or lt in. (9.5 mm), whichever is less, without prior approval of the purchaser. fections that are deeper than '/it in. (1.6 mm), 12.1.7 When approval of the purchaser is but which do not encroach on the minimum obtained, the limitations set forth in 12.1.6 wall thickness of the forging shall be removed may be exceeded, but all other requirements by grinding to sound metal. of Section 12 shall apply. 11.4.3 When imperfections have been removed by grinding or machining, the outside dimension at the point of grinding or machin13. Marking ing may be reduced by the amount removed. 13.1 Identification marks consisting of the Should it be impracticable to secure a direct manufacturer's symbol or name, designation measurement, the wall thickness at the point of service rating, the specification number, of grinding, or at an imperfection not required the designation, F 1, F 2, etc.. showing the to be removed, shall be determined by deduct- grade of material, and the size shall be legibly ing the amount removed by grinding from the stamped on each forging or the forgings may nominal finished wall thickness of the forgbe marked in accordance with Standard SP 25 ing, and the remainder shall be not less than of the Manufacturers' Standardization Socithe minimum specified or required wall thickety of the Valve and Fittings Industry, and in ness. such position so as not to injure the usefulness of the forging. 12. Repair by Welding 13.1.1 Quenched and tempered ferritic or 12.1 Weld repairs shall be permitted (see martensitic forgings shall be stamped with the Supplementary Requirement S7) at the disletters QT following the A S T M designation. cretion of the manufacturer with the following 13.1.2 Forgings repaired by welding shall limitations and requirements: be marked with the letter "W" following the 12.1.1 The welding procedure and welders A S T M designation. shall be qualified in accordance with Section 13.1.3 When test reports are required, the l  205  0» markings shall consist of the manufacturer's symbol or name, the grade symbol, and such other markings as necessary to identify the part with the test report (13.1.1 and 13.1.2 shall apply). 14. Inspection 14.1 The manufacturer shall afford the purchaser's inspector all reasonable facilities necessary to satisfy him that the material is being furnished in accordance with the purchase order. Inspection by the purchaser shall not interfere unnecessarily with the manufacturer's operations. All tests and inspections shall be made at the place of manufacture unless otherwise agreed upon.  A 182 as required in 13.1 shall be the certification that the forgings have been furnished in accordance with the requirements of this specification. 15.2 Test reports, when required, shall include certification that all requirements of this specification have been met, the results of all required tests, and 'the type of heat treatment. 16. Rejection 16.1 Each forging that develops injurious defects during shop working operations or in service shall be rejected and the manufacturer notified. 17. Rehearing  15. Certification  17.1 Samples representing material re15.1 For forgings made to specified dimen- jected by the purchaser shall be preserved sions, when agreed upon by the purchaser, until disposition of the claim has been agreed and for forgings made to dimensional standupon by the manufacturer and the purchaser. ards, the application of identification marks  SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS The following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the purchaser in the inquiry, contract, and order. » 51. Macroetch Test S l . l A sample forging shall be sectioned and etched to show flow lines and internal imperfections. The test shall be conducted according to Method E 381. Details of the test shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer arid the purchaser. 52. Product Analysis S2.1 A product analysis in accordance with Section 8 shall be made from one randomly selected forging representing each size and type (Note 2) of forging on the order. If the analysis fails to comply, each forging shall be checked or the lot rejected. All results shall be reported to the purchaser. 53. Heat Identification and Tension Tests S3.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 9, the heat identification shall be marked on each forging and one tensile specimen shall be obtained from a representative forging from each heat at a location agreed upon  between the manufacturer and the purchaser. The results of the test shall comply with Table 4 and shall be reported to the purchaser. 54. Magnetic Particle Examination S4.1 All accessible surfaces of the finished forging shall be examined by a magnetic-particle method. The method shall be in accordance with Method A 275. Acceptance limits shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser. 55. Liquid Penetrant Examination S5.1 All accessible surfaces shall be examined by a liquid penetrant method in accordance with Recommended Practice E 165. Acceptance limits shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser. 56. Hydrostatic Testing S6.1 A hydrostatic test at a pressure agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser shall be applied by the manufacturer.  206  • 4SID A  182  S7. Repair Welding  S8. Heat Treatment Details  S7.1 No repair welding shall be permitted without prior approval of the purchaser. If permitted, the restrictions of Section 12 shall  S8.l The manufacturer shall furnish a de-' tailed test report containing the information required in 15.2 and shall include all pertinent details of the heat-treating cycle given the forgings. ;  apply-  TAM.F, I  Chemical Requirement* Composition. %  Identification Symbol  Grade Carbon  Manganese  Phosphorus. max  0.28 max 0.21 max  0.60-0.90 0.30-0.80  0.045 0.040  0.045 0.04(1  0.15-0.35 0.10-0.60  0.15 0.25 0.15 0.1S  0.30-0.60 0.60 max 1.00 max 1.00 max  0.030 0.040 0.040 0.02  0.030 0.0.30 0.030 0.02  0.50 max 0.50 max 1.00 max 1.0 max  0.06 max 0.15 max 0.15 max 0.10-0.20  0.50-1.00 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.80  0.030 0.030 0.030 0.040  0.030 0.030 0.030 0.040  0.10-0.20  0.30-0.80  0.040  0.15 max 0.15 max 0.010 max  0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.40 max  0.040 0.040 0.020  Sulfur, max  Silicon  Nickel  Chromium  Molybdenum  Columbium plus Tantalum  Tantalum, max  Titanium  Ferritic Steels F 1 F 2«  carbon-molybdenum 0.5 % chromium, 0.5 % molybdenum F3» 4 to 6 % chromium F 5a* 4 to 6 % chromium F6a 13 % chromium F6b 13 % chromium, 0.5 % molybdenum F 6NM 13 % chromium. 4 % nickel F7 6 to 8 % chromium F9 9 % chromium F 11 1.25 % chromium, 0.5 % molybdenum F 12 1 % chromium, 0.5 % molybdenum F 21 chromium-molybdenum F 22 chromium-molybdenum F XM-27* 27 chromium, 1 molybdenum  max max max max  0.50-0.81 0.50 max 0.50 max 0.50 max 1.0-2.0  0.44-0.65 0.44-0.65  4.0-6.0 4.0-6.0 11.5-13.5 11.5-13.5  0.44-0.65 0.44-0.65  0.30-0.60 3.50-4.50 0.50-1.00 0.50-1.00 0.50-1.00  12.00-14.00 6.0-8.0 8.0-10.0 1.00-1.50  0.30-0.70 (1.44-0.65 0.90-1.10 0.44-0.65  0.040  0.10-0.60  0.80-1.25  0.44-0.65  0.040 0.040 0.020  0.50 max 0.50 max 0.40 max  2.65-3.35 2.00-2.50 25.00-27.50  0.80-1.06 0.87-1.13 0.75-1.50  F 429 F430  15 chromium 17 chromium  0.12 max 0.12 max  F 304 F 30411 F304L  18 chromium, S nickel 18 chromium, 8 nickel 18 chromium, 8 nickel, low carbon 18 chromium, 8 nickel, modiTied with nitrogen 25 chromium, 20 nickel 18 chromium, 8 nickel, modiTied with molybdenum 18 chromium, 8 nickel, modified with molybdenum 18 chromium, 8 nickel, modiTied with molybdenum, low carbon  0.08 max 2.00 max 0.04-0.10 2.00 max 0.035 max 2.00 max  0.040 0.040 0.040  0.030 0.030 0.030  0.08 max  2.00 max  0.030  0.15 max 0.08 max  2.00 max 2.00 max  0.04-0.10  0.50 max  0.40-0.60  0.50 max 0.50 max  14.0-16.0 16.0-IR.O  1.00 max 1.00 max 1.00 max  8.00-11.00 8.00-11.00 8.00-13.00-  IR.00-20 00 IR.00-20 00 18.00-20. 00  . .. . .. ...  0.030  0.75 max  8.00-10.50  18.00-20..00  ...  0.040 0.040  0.030 0.030  1.00 max i.OOmax  19.00-22.00 24.00-26 .00 . . . 10.00-14.00 16.00-18, ,00. 2.00-3.00  2.00 max  0.04 0  0.030  I.OOmax  10.00-14.00 16.00-18  0.035 max 2.00 max  0.040  0.030  I.OOmax  10.00-15.00 16.00-18.  1.00 max 1.00 max  0.040 0.040  0.030 0.030  0.75 max 0.75 max  Other Elements Cu 0.50 max  Other F.lcmcnts N 0.015 max Cu 0.20 max  CO  to  Austenitic Steels  F304N' F.1I0 F316 F 31AM F3I6L  00  2.00-3.00  00  2.00-3.00  O <1  TAIiLF. i  Continued Composition. %  Identification Symbol  F316N'  F 321 F 32111 F347 F 34711 F348 F 348H FXM-19  F 10  Gnulc  18 chromium, 8 nickel, modified with molybdenum and nitrogen 18 chromium, 8 nickel modified with titanium ]R chromium, 8 nickel, modified with titanium 18 chromium, R nickel modified with columbium 18 chromium, 8 nickel, modified with columbiuni IR chromium, 8 nickel modified with columbium IR chromium, R nickel, modified with columbium 22 chromium, 13 nickel, 5 manganese 20 nickel, 8 chromium t  Carbon  Manganese  Phosphorus, max  SulHir. max  Silicon  0.08 max  2.00 max  0.030  0.030  0.75 max  11.00-14.00 16.00-18.00  0.08 max  2.00 max  0.030  0.030  1.00 max  9.00-12.00  17.00 min  0.04-0.10  2.00 max  0.030  0.030  1.00 max  9.00-12.00  17.00 min  0.08 max  2.00 max  0.030  0.030  1.00 max  9.00-13.00  17.00-20.00  0.04-0.10  2.00 max  0.030  0.030  1.00 max  9.00-13.00  17.00-20.00  0.08 max  2.00 max  0.030  0.030  1.00 max  9.00-13.00  17.00-20.00  0.04-0.10  2.Of) max  0.030  0.030  1.00 max  9.00-13.00  17.00-20.00  0.06 max  4.00-6.00  0.040  0.030  1.00 max  11.50-13.50 20.50-23.50  0.10-0.20  0.50-0.80  0.030  0.030  1.00-1.40 19.00-22.00 7.00-9.00  Nickel  Chromium  Molybdenum  Colli mbium plus 'Iantalum  Tantnlum, max  Tilnnium  -3.00  -3.00  0.10-0.30 Other Elements N 0.20-0.40 V 0.10-0.30  * Grade F 2 was formerly assigned lo the I % chromium, 0.5 % molybdenum grade which is now Grade F 12. * The present grade F 5a (0.25 max carbon) previous to 1955 was assigned the identificatiop symbol F 5. Identification symbol F 5 in 1955 was assigned lo the 0.15 max carbon grade to be consistent with A S T M specifications for other products such as pipe, lulling, boiling, welding fittings, etc. Grade F XM-27 shall have a nickel plus copper content of 0.50 max % . Product analysis tolerance over the maximum specified limit for carbon and nitrogen shall be 0.002 % . c  * Grades F 304N and F 3I6N shall have a nitrogen content of 0.10 to 0.16 % . ' Grade F 321 shall have a titanium content of not less than five times the carbon content and not more than 0.60%. ' G r a d e F 321H shall have a titanium content of not less lhan 4 times the carbon conlcnl and not more lhan 0.60 % . * Grades F 347 and F 348 shall have a columbium plus tantalum conlcnl of not less than ten limes the cnrbon content and not more lhan 1.00 % . * Grades F 34711 and F 348H shall have a columbium plus tantalum content of not less than 8 times Ihc carbon content and nor more lhan 1.00 % .  209  iSlI A 182 5  TABLE 2  Element  Limit or Maximum of Specified Range, %  Product Analysis Tolerances for Low-Alloy Steels Tolerance Over Maximum Limit or Under Minimum Limit for Size Ranges Shown. * • 100 in. (6.45 x 10* mm«). or less 1  Over 100 to 200 in.' (1.290 x lO* mm'), incl  Over 200 to 400 in.' (2.58! x 10= mm'), incl  Over 400 in.'  Manganese  to 0.90 incl over 0.90 to I.00 incl  0.03 0.04  0.04 0.05  0.05 0.06  0.06 0.07  Phosphorus  to 0.045 incl  0.005  0.010  0.0)0  0.010  Sulfur  to 0.045 incl  0.005  0.010  0.010  0.010  Silicon  to 0.40 incl over 0.40 to l.OO incl  0.02 0.05  0.02 0.06  0.03 0.06  0.04 0.07  Nickel  to 0.50  0.03  0.03  0.03  0.03  Chromium  to 0.90 incl over 0.90 to M O incl over 2.10 to 3.99 incl  0.03 0.05 0.10  0.04 0.06 0.10  0.04 0.06 0.12 '  0.05 0.07 0.14  Molybdenum  to 0.20 incl over 0.20 to 0.40 incl over 0.40 to LIS incl  0.01 0.02 0.03  0.01 0.03 0.04  0.02 0.03 0.05  0.03 0.04 0.06  •.Cross-seciionaJ area  210  lull? TABLE 4  r-.A- c. _ u , i Grade Symbol Fcrriiic Steels: F 1 F 2 F 5 F 5a F 6a Class 1 F 6a Class 2 F6a Class 3' F 6a Class 4' F 6b F 6NM F 7 F 9 F 11 F 12 F 21 F 22 F XM-27 F429 F 4 30 \usienitic Steels: F 304 F 304'H F 304L F 504 N F310 F 316 F 316H F 316L F 316N F 347 F 347H F 348 F 34SH F 321 F 321H F XM-19 F 10 • ' ' ' '  T.„,;I. c , , . „ „ - v tensile Mrenpin, . , cL, mm. ksi (MPa) w  ;  W  A  182  Tensile and Hardness Requirements  Yield Strencih. , . , mm. ksi (MPa) (0.2 * offset)  70 (483) 70(483) 70 (483) 90 (621) 70 (483) 85(586) 110 (758) 130 (896) 110-135 (758-930) 110-135(758-930) 70 (483) 85 (586) 70 (483) 70 (483) 75 (517) 75 (517) 60 (414) 60(414) 60(414)  40(276) 40 (276) 40 (276) 65 (44 S) 40 (276) 55 (379) 85 (586) 1 10 (758) 90 (621) 90 (621) 40(276) 55(379) 40 (276) 40(276) 45 (310) 45 (310) 35 (241) 35(241) 35 (241)  75 (517)" 75 (517f 70 (483)° 80 (552) 75 (517)75 (S17)r 75 (517F 70 (483^ 80 (552) 75 (517)" 75 (517)° 75 (517)" 75(517)" 75 (517f 75 (517)° 100 (690) 80(552)  30 (207) 30 (207) 25 (172) 35(241) 30 (207) 30 (207) 30 (207) 25 (172) 35 (241) 30 (207) 30 (207) 30(207) 30 (207) 30 (207) 30 (207) 55 (380) 30 (207)  Elongation in ., . « 2 in. or 50 mm. min,* r  . • , Reduction of Zj' A Area, min, %  c  25.0 20.0 20.0 " 22.0 18 IS 18 18 16 15 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0  35.0 30.0 35.0 50.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 45.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 45.0 45.0 45.0  30 30 30 30" 30 30 30 30 30" 30 30 30 30 30 30  50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50" 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 50  35 30  1  For sections over 5 in. in thickness, the minimum tensile strength shall be 70 ksi (483 MPa). For sections over 5 in. in thickness, the minimum tensile sttength shall be 65 ksi (448 M P a ) . Longitudinal. The transverse elongation shall be 25 % in 2 in. or 50 mm, min. Longitudinal. The transverse reduction of area shall be 45 % min. No weld repair is permitted for these classes.  Brinell HardX. , ness Number, m  a  x  143-192 143-192 143-217 187-248 143-187 167-229 207-302 263-321 235-285 235-285 143-217 179-217 143-207 143-207 156-207 156-207 190 max 190 max 190 max  211  iSlfr A182 TABLE 3 Product Analysis Tolerances for Higher A Do; and Stainless Steels"  Elements  Limit or Maximum of Specified Range, %  Tolerance Over the Maximum Limit or Under the Minimum Limit  Carbon  0.030, i n d over 0.030 to 0.20 ind  0.005 0.01  Manganese  to 1.00, ind over 1.00 to 2.00, i n d  0.03 0.04  Phosphorus  to 0.040, ind  0.005  Sulfur  to 0.030, ind  0.005  Silicon  to 1.00, ind over 1.00 to 1.40, ind  0.05 0.10  Chromium  over over over over  4.00 to 10.00, ind 10.00 to 15.00, ind 15.00 to 20.00, i n d 20.00 to 27.50, ind  0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25  Nickel  to 1.00, ind over 1.00 to 5.00, ind over 5.00 to 10.00, ind over 10.00 to 20.00, ind over 20.00 to 22.00, incl  0.03 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.20  .  Molybdenum  over 0.20 to 0.60, incl over 0.60 to 1.75. ind over 1.75 to 3.00, ind  0.03 0.05 ..10  Titanium Columbi urntantalum Tantalum Cobalt Nitrogen  aU ranges aU ranges  0.05 0.05  to 0.10, ind 0.05 to 0.20, ind to 0.16, ind  0.02 0.01» 0.01  « This table does not apply to heat analysis. ' Product analysis limits for cohalt under 0.05% have not been established and the producer should be consulted for those limits.  212  #  A 182  T A B L E 5 Repair Welding Requirements  Grade Symbol  Ferritic Steels: F 1 F2 F 5 F 5a F6a F 6b F 6NM F 7 F9 F 11 F 12 F 21 F 11 F XM-27 F429 F430 Austenitic Steels: F304 F 304L F 304H F 304N F 310 F316 F 316L F 316K F 31bN F 321' F321H' F347 F 347H F34S F34SH F XM-19 F 10* • • ' •  Electrodes*  Recommended Preheat and Interpass Temperature Range; F CO  E 7018-A 1 E 801 g-B 1 E 502-15 or 16 E 502-15 or 16 E 410-15 or 16 13 % C r , l'/j % N i , '/.- % M o 13 % C r , 4 % Ni E 7 Cr-15 E 505-15 or 16 E 8018-B 2 E 8018-B 2 E9018-B3 E 9018-B 3 26 * C r , 1 % M o E 430-16 E 430-16  0  200-400 (95-205) 300-600 (150-315) 400-700 (205-370) 400-700 (205-370) 400-700 (205-370) 400-700 (205-370) 300-700 (150-370) 400-700 (205-370) 400-700(205-370) 300-600(150-315) 300-600(150-315) 300-600(150-315) 300-*00(150-315) NR< 400-700 (205-370) NR  E 308-15 or 16 E 308L-15 or 16 E 308-15 or 16 E 308-15 or 16 E 310-15 or 16 E 316-15 or 16 E 3I6L-15 or 16 ~ E 316-15 or 16 E 316-15 or 16 E 347-15 or 16 E 347-15 or 16 E 347-15 or 16 E 347-15 or 16 E 347-15 or 16 E 347-15 or 16 XM-J9W  Electrodes shall comply with A S M E S F A 5.4 or S F A 5.5. Purchaser approval required. N R = not required. W Q = water quench.  TntArntricanSo^ryforTts,^  NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR  NR NR NR NR  Minimum Post Weld HeatTreatment Temperature ° F 0 Q  1150 (620) 1150(620) 1250 (677) 1250 (677) 1400 (760) 1150 (620) 1050 (565) 1250 (677) 1250 (677) 1150 (620) 1150 (620) 1250 (677) 1250 (677) NR 1400 (760) 1400 (760)  1900(1040) + WQ< 1900(1040) + WQ 1900(1040) + WQ 1900(1040) + W Q 1900(1040) + WQ 1900(1040) + W Q 1900(1040) + W Q 1900(1040) + W Q 1900(1040) + W Q 1900(1040) + WQ 1925 (1050) + WQ 1900(1040) + W Q 1925 (1050) + W Q 1900(1040) + W Q 1925 (1050) + WQ NR NR  

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