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Evolution of Irish catholic nationalism, 1844-1846 :an analysis of the cultural conflict that evolved… Quigley, Kathleen Mary Molesworth 1970

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THE EVOLUTION OF I R I S H CATHOLIC NATIONALISM, 1844-1846 An A n a l y s i s o f t h e C u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t T h a t E v o l v e d Out o f B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i v e F a i l u r e i n I r e l a n d U nder t h e U n i o n , by K a t h l e e n Mary M o l e s w o r t h Q u i g l e y M. A., M o d e r a t o r i n Modern H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n , 1948. A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f HISTORY. We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date tZ CltrxL i f 1 0 THE EVOLUTION OF IRISH CATHOLIC NATIONALISM, 1844-184-6. by Kathleen M. M. Quigley. This inquiry analyzes the necessity for the I r i s h Repeal Party 's a l l i a n c e with the Catholic Church, especial ly during the two c r u c i a l years p r i o r to the Great Famine, The Repeal Party during th is time sought to defend the predom-inant l y r u r a l subsistence I r i s h society against B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s of coercion and a s s i m i l a t i o n . The main organization at the national and popular l e v e l to unify th is I r i s h resistance to B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s was the I r i s h Catholic Church. Daniel O'Connell acted as the bridge between the Parliamentary I r i s h Repeal party and the Catholic Church. This was c losely l i n k e d to h i s aims and methods which he conceived i n the immediate p r a c t i c a l terms of I r i s h surviva l against the threat of c u l t u r a l and economic ext inct ion . He therefore rejected as u n r e a l i s t i c the more absolutis t doc-t r ine of nat ional i ty of h i s Young Ireland c r i t i c s and r i v a l s within his party. He recognized that thei r ultimate ideals of physical resistance to the almost t o t a l m i l i t a r y control that B r i t a i n exercised over Ireland would be f u t i l e , and possibly disastrous for the I r i s h people. He i n s i s t e d , instead, on "moral force" and Const i tut ional methods to achieve peaceful co-existence with I re land's more dominant neighbour, B r i t a i n . His Catholic a l l ianpe was essential to these pragmatic and const i tut ional ends. The introductory chapters set the h i s t o r i c framework for t h i s most important phase of the B r i t i s h - I r i s h c o n f l i c t from iQkk to 18if6 which was centered around a struggle for control of the I r i s h Catholic Church. I re land's development i s traced from a p o s i t i o n of almost complete domination and control by B r i t a i n and a lack of organized resistance at the Act of Union i n 1800, to a p o l i t i c a l voice and organized resistance at a national and popular l e v e l i n 18A4« In t h i s h i s t o r i c a l process, Daniel 0*Connelly Repeal Party, supported by the I r i s h Cathol ic leaders, acted as a major ca ta lys t . Next, the t r i a l of Daniel O'Connell i n l8Mf on charges of sedi t ion against the B r i t i s h government i s examined as a model i n miniature of the B r i t i s h - I r i s h c o n f l i c t that had raged i n the preceding years. I t was the culmination of this c o n f l i c t , showing that the accused was a l so , i n a p o l i t i c a l sense, the accuser. O'Connel l 1 s a c q u i t t a l was a moral refuta t ion of B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s that supported the Protestant government o l i g a r c ^ % practice of discr imination against Catholic I reland. Furthermore, i t and the subsequent reper-cussions i n B r i t a i n , aggravated the growing dissension within the r u l i n g B r i t i s h Conservative party. From this point , the p o l i c y of the B r i t i s h government towards the I r i s h Repeal Party took a more devious turn, and never again d i r e c t l y challenged O'Connell . Rather, i t attempted to divide the I r i s h nation, and especial ly i t s Catholic leaders, by coercion and bribery . Also i n 1844, the B r i t i s h government f a i l e d to persuade the Papacy to compel the I r i s h Church leaders to abandon Repeal. Instead, i t only succeeded i n strengthening the bonds between Catholicism and the national movement of O'Connell , which had become a "cause celebre" i n the Catholic context of Europe. By 1845 the B r i t i s h pol icy towards the I r i s h Catholic Church had shif ted to belated recognition and half-hearted c o n c i l i a t i o n . The increased Maynooth Grant of 1845 was a prime example of an i s o l a t e d and l i m i t e d gesture. The goodwill engendered by t h i s was counteracted by the strength of the a n t i - C a t h o l i c opposition to the B i l l . In addi t ion , the immediate subsequent introduction of the Academical Ins t i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l , without consulting the I r i s h Church leaders, and with i t s implied threat to I r i s h culture and Catholic inf luence , further reduced the favourable impression that the B r i t i s h government had created among the I r i s h Catholic leaders by the Maynooth Grant. These B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s revealed the weakening of the government's e f for ts at i d e o l o g i c a l ass imi la t ion , and the strength of the Catholic base of I r i s h nationalism under the leadership of Daniel O'Connell . The ensuing controversy within the Repeal Party from 1845 between the more secular physical force Young Ireland nat ional is ts and O'Connell 's Catholic supporters served to i n t e n s i f y the l a t t e r ' s l i n k with his moral, force and const i tut ional object ives . I t was not h i s f a i l u r e of leadership i n h i s l a s t two years, as h i s c r i t i c s have supposed, that temporarily interrupted h i s cons t i tu t ional movement at h i s death. It was, rather, the major tragedy of the Great Famine, compounded by B r i t i s h administrative f a i l u r e and the consequent abortive Young Ireland r e b e l l i o n i n 18^-8, that l e f t the const i tut ional movement without a strong leader. O'Connell 's heritage and most permanent contribution was to give the I r i s h Catholic Church a more u n i f i e d and active p o l i t i c a l ro le within the national movement, and thus provide a base during those years from which the I r i s h cons t i tu t ional national movement i n the la te nineteenth century could be launched. PREFACE. The w r i t e r ' s in teres t i n t h i s subject stems from her family background and experience that have, i n a p r a c t i c a l way, deeply ref lec ted both the Engl ish and I r i s h t radi t ions expressed i n t h i s study, and the h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l r i f t s and cross-patterns between these two. Further, her residence abroad, i n both Europe and A s i a , and her studies i n Canada, have led her to re-examine some of the assumptions inculcated by her predominantly Engl ish , B r i t i s h Commonwealth, and non-Roman Catholic education. T h i s , i n turn, she bel ieves , has lent an o b j e c t i v i t y to her study of a highly controversial and important aspect of I r i s h h i s t o r y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS. Abstract . . . . . . • * . . i Table of Contents. . . . * . . i v L i s t of Tables ( i n Appendix). . . • . . v Introduction. . . . . . . . . ... • v i I . . I reland Subordinated to B r i t i s h Interests , 1800-1846. 1 I I . O'Connell and the I r i s h Party of Protest . . . 32 I I I . B r i t i s h Attempts to Divide Catholic Repealers From the I r i s h P u b l i c . . . . . .58 (The T r i a l of Daniel O'Connell , 1844) IV. B r i t i s h Attempts to Divide Catholic Repealers From the C l e r g y . . . . . . . . 85 The Charitable Bequests Act , 1844. . . . 8 6 Papal Rescript to I r i s h Clergy, 184%. . . -97 V. The Limits of A n g l o - I r i s h Co-operation. . . .110 The Maynooth Grant, May 1845* • • » .111 V I . Catholic Repealers as Defenders of I r i s h Catholic Cul ture . . . . . . . . .130 The Academical Ins t i tut ions B i l l , 1845- • .131 Conclusion. . . . . . . . .151 Annotated Bibliography: . . . . . .156 I . Books. A. Contemporary Sources. . . • .156 B. Secondary Sources. . . . . .162 I I . A r t i c l e s , Essays i n Learned Journals . . . .170 I I I . Public Documents. . . . . . . .175 IV. General Reference Works. . . . . . .177 V. P e r i o d i c a l s : A. Contemporary Newspapers and P e r i o d i c a l s . . 179 B. Secondary Periodicals and Learned Journals . . 180 Appendix (Tables). . . . . . . * 181 V LISO? OF TABLES. APPENDIX A. A-1 EXPORT DEPENDENCE OF IRELAND 181 A-4 Acreage and Crop Production. . . . . .184 A-4 Grain Exports to England, 1800-1846. . . .184 A-5 Cattle Exports to England, 1846. . . . .185 A-5 Cattle and Sheep Production i n Ireland. . . .185 A-6 IMPORT DEPENDENCE OF IRELAND 186 A-7 Value of I r i s h Exports and Imports, 1790-1846. . 187 A-8 Meat, Grain, Dairy, and Linen Exports to England, 1790-1845 188 A-9 FISCAL DEPENDENCE OF IRELAND 189 A-10 Revenue and Expenditure of Ireland. . . . 190 APPENDIX B. B-1 SPECIAL PRIVILEGES OF THE PROTESTANT ESTABLISHED CHURCH—1849. . . .191 B-2 Membership and Financial S t a t i s t i c s of Churches, by Denomination. . . . .192 STATISTICS: B-3 Established Church. . . . . . . .193 B-4 Roman Catholic Church. . . . . . .194 B-4 Presbyterian Church. . . . . . .194 B-4 Methodist Church. . . . . . . .194 B-5 Baptist Church. . . . . . . .195 B-5 TABLE OF GRANTS IN AID 195 To: Church of England. Church of Scotland. Church of Rome. Dissenters i n England. Dissenters i n Ireland. INTRODUCTION. The primary purpose of t h i s study i s to examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the I r i s h Repeal P a r t y under the l e a d e r -shi p of D a n i e l O'Connell, during the c r u c i a l l a s t two years of h i s l i f e , from l8i*4 to 1846, when the I r i s h n a t i o n he sought to defend was threatened with c u l t u r a l and economic e x t i n c t i o n . The p o l i c i e s and t a c t i c s employed by the Repeal Party as d i r e c t e d by D a n i e l O'Connell i n t h i s n a t i o n a l s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l have been the subject of considerable contro-versy both by h i s contemporaries and by modern A n g l o - I r i s h h i s t o r i a n s . Generally these have under-estimated and under-evaluated the r o l e played by O'Connell and h i s supporters. These have tended to assume, with the d e c l i n e of the more sp e c t a c u l a r mass demonstration d i r e c t i o n o f the Repeal Party under O'Connell's l e a d e r s h i p , that he had become e i t h e r over-awed by the power of B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l d o m , or had been e c l i p s e d as the leader of I r i s h Repeal b y the more n a t i o n a l i s t and m i l i t a n t Young I r e l a n d e r s within his own p a r t y . T h e i r c r i t i c i s m of the C a t h o l i c Repeal Party during t h i s l a s t phase of O'Connell's l i f e , from \8kk to 1846, has stemmed i n part from the greater n a t i o n a l i s t i c glamour of the Young I r e l a n d s e p a r a t i s t t r a d i t i o n that has provided j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the long h i s t o r y of v i o l e n c e that gave b i r t h to the v i i modern I r i s h p o l i t i c a l nation of 1921. On the other hand, modern I r i s h h i s t o r i a n s , d i s i l l u s i o n e d with the c l e r i c a l overtones that preceded and have survived twentieth century part i t ioned Ireland, have tended to blame O'Connell for what they regarded as i t s worst abuses. l e t other c r i t i c s of Cathol ic Repeal have rather blamed O'Connell ' s mental and physical decline for the f a i l u r e to rescue Ireland from the inevi table demoralization created by years of accumulated economic imbalance and p o l i t i c a l maladmini s t r a t i o n . Amongst the most recent scholarship, Kevin B. Nowlan i n The P o l i t i c s of Repeal gives the most thorough coverage of the p o l i t i c a l re la t ions during these l a s t years between Catholic Repeal and the B r i t i s h government, but the t o t a l i t y of the c u l t u r a l a l ienat ion of the I r i s h Lower Nation that Cathol ic Repeal embodied i s not emphasized i n h i s s tudies . Both Robert B. McDowell i n Public Qplnion and Government P o l r i r g y i S Ireland, and Theodore W. Moody i n Thomas Davis, and also i n "The I r i s h Universi ty Question", i n t h e i r admiration for the Young Ireland movement and thei r basic d is t rus t of c l e r i c a l i s m , have underplayed the importance of the Catholic a l l iance with Repeal from 184% to 184-6. Eminent biographers of Daniel O'Connell , such as Angus D. Macintyre and Denis R. Gwynn, have highlighted the success of O'Connell 's most vigorous years, forgett ing that the v i i i phi losophical and i d e o l o g i c a l values to which he was com-mitted, remained the most v a l i d expression of the " I r i s h Lower N a t i o n " * i n i t s hour of threatened c u l t u r a l and economic ex t inc t ion . Contemporary writers r e f l e c t e d more c l e a r l y the b e l i e f s and passions engendered by the c u l t u r a l gulf that existed between the Upper and Lower I r i s h Nations. Among these, both George Lefevre, the biographer of Peel and O'Connell . and Bernard O ' R e i l l y i n h i s biography of John MacHale, have emphasized the importance of Catholic Repeal i n defence of the I r i s h Lower Nation. In addi t ion , the very virulence of the contemporary c r i t i c s of O'Connel l ' s Catholic Party, and the basic contradictions of thei r p o s i t i o n , +provide ample evidence of the strength of Cathol ic Repeal. The main emphasis and theme of t h i s inquiry i s an examination of this neglected area of study. I t seeks to analyze the strength of Catholic Repeal which survived the onslaught of the B r i t i s h government i n the philosophical * T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine. XII (May 1845), P- 405-The I r i s h people (of the predominantly Catholic r u r a l subsistence economy society) whom O'Connell sought to defend have been defined within the I r i s h context by contemporaries, and w i l l be so defined i n this study, as the I r i s h Lower Nation. The Protestant landlord class to which he was opposed was defined as the I r i s h Upper Nation. + John Levy, e d . , A. F u l l and Revised Report on the Three Pays' Discussion i n the Corporation of Dublin on the. Repeal of the Union. (Dublin: James Duffy, 1843). p. 9-218. The p o l i c i e s of Repeal that the leadership of O'Connell implied w i l l be hereinafter defined as those representative of I r i s h Catholic nationalism, or the Catholic Repeal Party. i x and i d e o l o g i c a l arena during these l a s t years from 1844 to 1846. The deteriorat ing economic s i t u a t i o n i n Ireland, par-t i c u l a r l y marked from 1844 to 1847, heightened the ideo-l o g i c a l struggle. The Appendix, taken from Thorn's I r i s h Almanac. which i s one of the most thorough contemporary documentary sources, has analyzed the f u l l extent of the economic imbalance that i n t e n s i f i e d the Anglo- I r i sh c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . In the current language of the times, t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t was defined i n theological terms; the B r i t i s h pur-pose being "conversion", and the I r i s h purpose being r e s i s t -ance to t h i s . These theological disputations, s t e r i l e and passe' as they may sound to the secular modern scholar , were the meat and drink of though to the leaders, both of Catholic Ireland and t h e i r c r i t i c s i n the 1840 's. In t h i s area the B r i t i s h Protestant and commercial e f f o r t proved inept and amateurish i n these debates against the more subtle Catholic theologians. In addi t ion , i t s m a t e r i a l i s t i c approach was unable to persuade and influence the Catholic pr ies ts and the peasants, since i t offered cash nexus c u l t u r a l values that contradicted a l l the humanism and economic s i m p l i c i t y of the r u r a l and semi-feudal clan-environment of I r i s h Catholicism. Moreover, government propaganda i n s i s t e d that I r i s h Catholics , to be l o y a l , should be Protestant and B r i t i s h . In other words, i t i n v i t e d the I r i s h Lower Nation to commit c u l t u r a l suicide i n exchange for values they did not comprehend. X The i d e o l o g i c a l f a i l u r e of the B r i t i s h government i n Ireland was measured, above a l l , by just th is i n a b i l i t y to win the true core of the predominant r u r a l and Catholic I r i s h Lower Nation; namely, i t s t r a d i t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l leaders among the Roman Catholic c lergy, and the surviving remnant of the old Gaelic Catholic ar is tocracy . The measure of O'Connell«s success lay i n the very fact that h i s movement was so roundly based on I r i s h c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of which he was the inspi red leader, cast i n a purely I r i s h and Cathol ic , rather than an A n g l o - I r i s h and Protestant, mould. The writer has traced, i n the f i r s t two chapters, the evolution of i d e o l o g i c a l Catholic nationalism and i t s h i s t o r i c roots , and the contemporary set t ing of the 1840's are seen as part of a common pattern. I t i s traced as the necessary response, both at the national and at the popular l e v e l , to the f a i l u r e of B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s of coercion and ass imila t ion towards the I r i s h Lower Nation. The subsequent chapters examine i n depth the i d e o l o g i c a l struggle between the Repeal Party supported by the p o l i t i c a l arm of the Catholic nation; namely, the Catholic Church, and the B r i t i s h administration, which struggle was i n t e n s i f i e d during the years from 1844 to 1846. The v a l i d i t y of the Cathol ic Repeal Party 's claim to represent the I r i s h national movement during these years i s examined by comparing i t with i t s r i v a l s , which included the Young Ireland group within the Repeal Party, and the I r i s h Catholic Whig Party outside Repeal. C h a p t e r I . *IRELAND SUBORDINATED TO B R I T I S H INTERESTS, 1800-18^6. N o t h i n g b u t a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e U n i o n i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y c o u l d make me endure t h e s h o c k i n g t a s k w h i c h i s i m p o s e d u p on me. 1 — L o r d C o r n w a l l i s . "The U n i o n o f a s h a r k w i t h i t s p r e y . " — L o r d B y r o n . 1. W i l l i a m Edward H a r t p o l e L e c k y , A H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y . (5 v o l s . ; London: Longmans, G r e e n , 1909)» V o l . V, p. 289-Chapter I . IRELAND SUBORDINATED TO BRITISH INTERESTS, 1800-1846. The I r i s h Catholic Party led by Daniel O f Connell evolved natura l ly out of B r i t a i n ' s p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic attempt to assimilate and control the I r i s h Catholic "Lower Nation' 1 a f t e r the Union of 1800. 0 , C o n n e l l r s party remained the I r i s h "Lower Nation*s" most e f fec t ive and authentic means of defence during the two years immediately p r i o r to the famine of 1846 when the I r i s h Catholic nation was threatened with c u l t u r a l and economic ex t inc t ion . The arrest and t r i a l of i t s leaders on charges of s e d i t i o n , and the subseqment dissensions as to means and ends within i t s party ranks, despite outward appearances to the contrary, served to consolidate the leadership of O'Connell and his Catholic supporters within the party . A b r i e f glance at the h i s t o r i c background w i l l help to explain the reason f o r the evolution and effectiveness of the O'Connell Catholic party during those two years. The immediate o r i g i n of the 0 f Connell party was the I r i s h protest against the p o l i t i c a l framework established by the Acifc of Union which i t saw as one of the main obstacles against reform. The main l i n e s of B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s towards Ireland, however, which were implemented under the Union, had been consistently pursued since Tudor times. 2 These p o l i c i e s were based pr imar i ly on the geographical imperatives of defence. The map of Western Europe reveals that B r i t a i n i s , i n r e a l i t y , a western is land extension of Europe, and that her p o s i t i o n astr ide the narrow sea ap-proaches to the Continent gives heir a unique s trategic advantage. As an is land she had enjoyed a long h i s t o r y of immunity from the unrest and s t r i f e that was so often prevalent on the Continent, and her geographical loca t ion had enabled her to control the western approaches to the Continent. I t i s , then, evident that her p o l i c y was to maintain and enhance the advantages that physica l geography had given her . Thus, her diplomacy, supported by her naval power, was bent to t h i s end i n the European area. Her ac-q u i s i t i o n of G i b r a l t e r , and her a l l i a n c e with Portugal , were examples of th is p o l i c y . These a l l i a n c e s were aimed against those Continental powers that sought to challenge B r i t a i n ' s control of the seas around her, and consequently, sought to threaten her with invasion. The pos i t ion of Ireland i n t h i s scheme of defence was c r u c i a l . Indeed, Ireland was the " A c h i l l e s h e e l " of the B r i t i s h defence system. As the B r i t i s h Empire i n America and i n Asia grew i n the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, B r i t a i n ' s dependence on that Empire for raw materials became greater. Thus, the importance of c o n t r o l l i n g Ireland became ; even greater, for as B r i t a i n ' s geographical pos i t ion enabled her to blockade the Continent, so, i n reverse, could any i i I power c o n t r o l l i n g Ireland blockade the western approaches to B r i t a i n . Understanding t h i s harsh r e a l i t y , the B r i t i s h had, early i n t h e i r nat ional h i s t o r y , made the control of Ireland a cornerstone i n t h e i r defence p o l i c y . The loss of control of Ireland to a Continental power i n the event of war would have threatened B r i t a i n with an attack on two f ronts , and a blockaded condit ion . This fear was constantly i n the minds of both the B r i t i s h p o l i t i c i a n s and her m i l i t a r y experts. An illtmstration of t h i s occurred i n March 1844 when the I r i s h agi ta t ion of the 0*Connell party was at i t s height . Against the background of a French threat of invasion, the B r i t i s h Home Secretary, S i r James Graham, wrote to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Heytesbury: At t h i s moment Guizot 's administration i s t o t t e r i n g , and i f i t f a l l , our re la t ions with France may be suddenly broken; and then the f a t a l discovery w i l l be made, how dangerous i s the condition of Ireland, with m i l l i o n s of i t s inhabitants rebels att heart , and panting for our overthrow. 2. 2. Charles Stuart Parker, e d . , The L i f e and Letters of S i r James Graham. (2 v o l s . ; London: John Murray, 1907). V o l . I , p . 405. 'To Lord DeGrey, from S i r James Graham', February 4 , 1844. (Hereafter c i ted as "Parker, e d . , Graham"). Charles Stuart Parker, e d . , S i r Robert Peel from his Private Correspondence and Papers. 2d e d . , (3 v o l s . ; London: John Murray, 1889). V o l . I I , p . 492 f . (Hereafter c i ted as "Parker, e d . , P e e l " ) . Christopher John B a r t l e t t , Great B r i t a i n and Sea Power, I 8 I 5 - I 8 5 3 . (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963~)T~P~51 • 4 T h i s chronic f e a r of B r i t a i n t h a t I r e l a n d would be used as a base f o r f o r e i g n blockade and i n v a s i o n b l i n d e d her statesmen to the true nature of I r i s h demands f o r reform. I r i s h reformers, such as D a n i e l O'Connell, o f f e r e d t h e i r l o y a l t y to B r i t a i n i n r e t u r n f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of I r i s h g rievances, but B r i t a i n ' s a t t i t u d e of s u s p i c i o n aroused t h e i r impatience, and helped to create the very s i t u a t i o n of anarchy that she had endeavoured to avo i d . The I r i s h reformers, such as D a n i e l O'Connell, r a t h e r than the B r i t i s h government, i t may be argued, were the true c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s of that country.^ During the French i n v a s i o n scare of 1843 and 1844 B r i t i s h governments, while e x c e s s i v e l y cautious i n s o c i a l and economic reform programmes, nonetheless deployed such l a r g e numbers of troops to I r e l a n d that i t appeared almost l i k e an occupied country. In October 1843, the r e g u l a r m i l i t a r y troops i n Ireland t o t a l l e d 3^»0°0 which included an armed I r i s h Con-stabulary of 10,000 ( u n l i k e England), and a cav a l r y of 3 , 6 0 0 ; 1 and, i n a d d i t i o n : a b a t t a l i o n of each regiment of foot guards are i n readiness by t r a i n and steamer f o r shipment to Ir e l a n d . . . . . (And) the steamers are i n readiness to move a thousand from L i v e r p o o l to D u b l i n ... Peel i s r e s o l u t e ... Her Majesty i s w i l l i n g ... the Duke i s enchanted ... that some d e c i s i v e a c t i o n has been taken. 4. 3. J u s t i n McCarthy, I r i s h R e c o l l e c t i o n s (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1911), P. ?4. 4. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I I , p. 398 f . 'To Lord Stanley, from S i r James Graham' ( P r i v a t e ) , October 4, 1843. £ - l m g s (London), October 17, 1843. 5 A l s o , i n October, "the ships of war are sent to Cork and to Shannon . . . to overcome resistance and to prevent; bloodshed".-* The pretext f o r this p o l i c y was that the Repeal a g i t a t i o n led by Daniel O'Connell might i n v i t e foreign invasion . The B r i t i s h government d i d note question the fundamental l o y a l t y of the Engl ish population i n the case of foreign invasion, as she d i d i n Ireland, though England had her own share of c i v i l disturbances. The Rebecca Riots i n south Wales, the unrest i n Scotland which forced i t s clergy to be inducted into t h e i r churches under m i l i t a r y escort , and the potent ia l of m i l i t a n t Chartism i n England, were not treated with the same alarm as the I r i s h Repeal Movement.^ Troops at that time, according to government reports , were desperately needed i n England for defence purposes. This was because i t was believed a successful d i r e c t m i l i t a r y invasion on the southeast coast was possible i f war was declared on Prance. Lord Palmerston, usual ly o p t i m i s t i c , declared i n Parliament that : " 5« Times (London), October 17, 184-3. 6. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I I , p . 398 f . 'To Lord Stanley, from S i r James Graham' (Private) , October 4, 1843. 6 35»000 French troops could be transported over-n i g h t by steam bridge to land unopposed i n south England with every chance of occurpying London three days l a t e r . ?. S i r Robert P e e l , the B r i t i s h Prime M i n i s t e r , was e q u a l l y concerned over B r i t a i n ' s southeast c o a s t a l defences. He feared that Invasion might l e a d to the s u c c e s s f u l capture of B r i t a i n ' s sole arms depot, the Woolwich a r s e n a l outside London, by "a comparatively small m i l i t a r y f o r c e conveyed i n steam boats" up the r i v e r Thames. The seriousness with which I r e l a n d was viewed by the government at the time may be measured by the deployment there of such a l a r g e f o r c e of r e g u l a r troops that could be i l l spared from England. Wellington, i n the B r i t i s h Cabinet;, i n 1843 r e f l e c t e d the hard core of these government p o l i c i e s . As e a r l y as 1827, D a n i e l O'Connell had expressed "great a f f r i g h t " a t the consequences of these hard l i n e views of Wellington. 7. Great B r i t a i n . Parliament. Parliamentary Debates, (House of Commons), T h i r d S e r i e s , V o l . 82 (August 2, 1845), 1223-1234. ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Hansard.) The "steam b r i d g e " r e f e r s to the more advanced development by the French i n the use of steamships f o r t h e i r Navy. B a r t l e t t , Great B r i t a i n and Sea Power, pp. 170, I 7 3 . 8. Loo, c i t . 9. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I I , p. 399. 'To Lord Stanley, from S i r James Graham1 ( P r i v a t e ) , October 4, 1843. 7 10 "If so, a l l the horrors of actual massacre threaten u s . " In 1843, Wellington expressed what he believed were the simple demands of immediate m i l i t a r y expediency. He recommended that the " l o y a l i s t " Protestants should be armed for use against " r e b e l l i o u s " Catholics as they could, from a m i l i t a r y standpoint, be more e f f e c t i v e l y employed against a c i v i l i a n population. The regular troops would be at a disadvantage i n the event of c i v i l war i n h o s t i l e t e r r i t o r y , and could be better u t i l i z e d to r e s i s t d i rec t foreign 11 invasion. S i r Robert Peel feared that such measures might lead to the a l ienat ion of the whole Catholic population of Ireland, which might be disastrous to B r i t a i n i n the event of war, as the pressure upon you w i l l be so great that , as in 1793» concession would be deemed preferable to resistance . 12. He thits recognized the danger of the government assuming the more ruthless garrison role that had been forced on the Engl ish planters i n Ireland for centuries . He sensed the power of a h o s t i l e combination of native I r i s h t r a d i t i o n fused with the memories of a persecuted I r i s h Catholic Church, On the 10. William John F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell , the Liberator , V o l . I I . (London: John Murray, 1888), p . 333. , , n t n F i t z p a t r i c k was the personal aide of Daniel O'Connel l . 11. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I I , p . 410-412, 'To S i r James Graham, from the Duke of Wel l ington ' , October 5, 1843. 12. Hansard, 3d s e r . , 72 (February 23, 1844), 243-247.. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p . 106. Cabinet Memorandum, February 17, 1844. 8 grounds of expediency alone he attempted to avoid such a s i t u a t i o n . ^ Yet the B r i t i s h government he represented was caught, despite i t s best e f f o r t s , i n the web that i t s history 14 had woven around I t . The Plantations i n Ireland, o r i g i n a l l y born out of r a c i a l and religious distrust and anti-Jacobinism, created the perpetuation of a dominant cast©that prevented the assimilation or loyalty of those i t subjugated. The Penal Laws were to reinforce this situation by l e g a l i z i n g the separation of the dominant Protestant caste who owned the land from the Catholic I r i s h through rendering the l a t t e r "poor and helpless", so much so that one commentator remarked 15 that; "the chain of the Catholic clanks to his rags". J The economic advantagesgained by the ruling castfce, i n the name of r e l i g i o n , was not lessened by the relaxation of the Penal Laws. These were further enhanced by the close links 13. Patrick S a r s f i e l d O'Hegarty, A History of Ireland Under the Union. 1801-1922. (London: Methuen, 1952), P. 46 f. Wellington in 1808 recognized, l i k e Peel, the I r i s h Catholic movement as primarily p o l i t i c a l and national, opposed to the B r i t i s h interests of Protestant I r i s h . It should also be noted that Wellington i s the anglicized form of the Anglo-Irish family name of Marquis Wellesley of Trim, County Meath (where Dean Swift had his f i r s t I r i s h parish). 14. McCarthy, Irish Recollections, p. 75« 15. Loo, c i t . Constantia Maxwell, Country and Town in Ireland Under the Georges. (Dundalk: Dundalgan Press, 1949), p. 340. 9 forged between them and the r i s i n g i n d u s t r i a l and commercial interests of England i n the early stages of the Industrial Revolution. This l i n k was confirmed by the p o l i t i c a l Union of England and Ireland i n 1800. Thus, to the government of Ireland, Protestantism remained the badge of o f f i c e , and Catholicism the symbol of servitude and poverty. B r i t i s h governments were hampered in any endeavours to reconcile these disparate interests by the widening economic gap between the forces of i n d u s t r i a l change i n England and the subsistence Catholic peasant economy of Ireland. Any desire to repeal the Union and to restore Ireland's native Parliament, or alternatively, to give Ireland a more repre-sentative franchise, were regarded by the new i n d u s t r i a l interests, including the absentee Irish landlord class, as acts of disloyalty with dangerous consequences for the Empire. The economic trends that were to lead Ireland to recurring famine conditions in the 1830's and 1840*s, and which were at the roots of the I r i s h Catholic Repeal movement of O'Connell were already set i n the eighteenth century, but subsequent government l e g i s l a t i o n did l i t t l e to offset these. Natural disasters of population growth and poor harvests contributed, but the presence of l i t t l e r e s t r i c t e d human greed and Ineptitude compounded the calamities Nature provided. These trends were scarcely noticed in the pre-Union period as s u p e r f i c i a l l y Ireland presented to travellers and s t a t i s -cians a country of natural f e r t i l i t y and general prosperity. 1^ 16. Thorn's Irish Almanac and O f f i c i a l Directory ... for the year 1849. (Dublin: Thorn, 1849). p. 168. 10 She r e v e a l e d a g r o w i n g and b a l a n c e d economy t h a t c o u l d s u p p l y n o t o n l y h e r own n e e d s , b u t a l s o a n i n c r e a s i n g s u r p l u s o f v a r i o u s i t e m s w h i c h she e x p o r t e d a t a g r o w i n g r a t e * M o r e o v e r , she h a d a c h i e v e d h e r g e n e r a l l y p r o s p e r o u s p o s i t i o n a p a r t f r o m t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e C a t h o l i c p e a s a n t r y on t h e m a r g i n a l l a n d s , w h i l e t r i p l i n g h e r p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y . ^ ? I n r e a l i t y , t h e p i c t u r e was n o t a l l t h a t f a v o u r a b l e . P o s t e r ' s C o r n Laws o f 1784 were t o b e g i n a r e v e r s e t r e n d o f l a s t i n g e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e w h i o h B r i t i s h g o v e r n -ments were s u b s e q u e n t l y o f t e n u n a b l e a n d u n w i l l i n g t o h a l t . T h i s Law p r o v i d e d b o u n t i e s f o r t i l l a g e , a n d I r e l a n d t h u s became a g r e a t c o r n - g r o w i n g c o u n t r y , d e p e n d e n t u p o n s e l l i n g i t s s u r p l u s t o G r e a t B r i t a i n . T h e r e , t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n demanded t h e c o r n ,and c a t t l e o f I r e l a n d . A t t h e same t i m e t r a d e a g r e e m e n t s imposed r e s t r i c t i o n s on I r e l a n d by w h i c h G r e a t B r i t a i n r e t a i n e d t h e monopoly o f i m p e r i a l t r a d e , and p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t I r i s h m a n u f a c t u r i n g t r a d e w i t h E n g l a n d w i t h i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t economy o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . I r e l a n d was a l r e a d y b e c o m i n g a n a g r i c u l t u r a l d e p e n d e n c y , w i t h l i t t l e I n d u s t r y . O u t s i d e t h e c o r n - g r o w i n g e a s t , t h e w h o l e p h y s i c a l e n e r g y o f t h e n a t i o n was d i r e c t e d t o t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f l a n d , and t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l a n d e n c o u r a g e d a r e n t i e r , 17. Edmund C u r t i s , A H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d ( L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y P a p e r b a c k s , 19o"6)', p. 3217 11 absentee proprietorship which allowed constant subdivision, made further possible by the production of the potato as the staple diet, on a small portion of land. In the east there was a c a p i t a l i s t , corn-growing economy with a landlord class wedded to B r i t i s h export and commercial interests, while the remainder of Ireland had a subsistence economy almost entirely dependent upon the potato. The li n e s that separated these two economies did not become hardened and conspicuous u n t i l the Union had been i n operation for more than twenty years. Under the Union, Select Committees investigated the economic problems of Ireland, and i n so doing created the f i r s t extensive well-documented case of unbalanced economic development since the Industrial Revolution; and: as such, this I r i s h case may be regarded as a classic example. Strong recommendations were made to these committees by lo c a l leaders, such" as Dr. J. K. L. Doyle i n 1830. He insisted that without drastic intervention, starvation was inevitable. Among other remedies, he recommended halting the subdivision of land, and the public provision of employ-18 ment for the pauper population. It was already clear by 18- See Appendix A for an original analysis of this problem. R. Barry O'Brien, Dublin Castle and the Irish People. (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 63. William John Fitzpatrick, The L i f e , Times and Correspondence of the Right Reverend Dr. Doyle. Bishop of Kildare. New ed. (2 vols. Dublin: J. Duffy, 1880 ) . Vol. II, p. 281 . 12 then that c a p i t a l had outrun population, and that I r e l a n d was so sunk i n poverty and i n s e c u r i t y that p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s "now shunned" her, and c a r r i e d "even to f o r e i g n lands, that which 19 might have been her s a l v a t i o n " . T h i s l a c k of c a p i t a l was one of the c e n t r a l themes of Daniel O'Connell's Repeal of the Union speeches. He gave documentary evidence to prove that the Union had both bur-dened I r e l a n d with an excessive n a t i o n a l debt, and encouraged the d r a i n i n g of c a p i t a l out of I r e l a n d by aggravating c o n t r o l 20 by an absentee i n t e r e s t . The question, therefore, can be asked, why there were no massive o u t c r i e s from the l820's onwards against the economic i n j u s t i c e s so b l a t a n t l y perpetrated. Why were oft e n w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d and i m p a r t i a l B r i t i s h l eaders w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Parliament so o f t e n s i l e n t about the dramatic change from a r e l a t i v e l y b o u n t i f u l p o s i t i o n i n 1800 to a r a p i d l y growing I r i s h pauper population by the 1830's? 19. Henry L. Jephson, Notes on I r i s h Questions. (Dublin: McGee; London: Longman & Green, 1870), p. 49. I l l u s t r a t e s from reports by Committees on I r i s h Poor i n 1824-5 and 1830 the l a c k of employment and c a p i t a l of more than 50% of the population of I r e l a n d , that prevented them from r a i s i n g themselves out of t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . 20. John Levy, ed. , A. F u l l and Revised Report on the • • • Discussions i n ... Dublin on the Repeal of the Urn on, (Dublin: James Duffy, 1843), p. 48-50, 57-60. See also Appendix A. 13 A p o s s i b l e answer l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e c o n o m i s t s o f t h e t i m e , t h o u g h o f t e n p u b l i c - m i n d e d r e f o r m e r s , were c a u g h t up i n t h e d e b a t e b e t w e e n t h e e x p o n e n t s o f l a i s s e z -f a i r e and o f p r o t e c t i o n i s m ( m e r c a n t i l i s m ) . B o t h o f t h e s e economic m o d e l s were i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h were i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e economic p r o b l e m s o f I r e l a n d . I n t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e m o d e l t h e m a i n a s s u m p t i o n i s a n a b i l i t y f o r r e s o u r c e s ( o f l a n d , l a b o u r and c a p i t a l ) t o a d j u s t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o f i t i n c e n t i v e . T h i s assumed t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d no i n s i t u t i o n a l o r g e o g r a p h i c a l b a r r i e r s t o t h e movement o f r e s o u r c e s . I n t h e m e r c a n t i l i s t model t h e s t a t e i s t h e p r i m e mover, and a f a v o u r a b l e b a l a n c e o f t r a d e ( r e s u l t i n g i n g o l d a c c u m u l a t i o n ) i s t h e o n l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t r a d e . C o l o n i e s a r e m a r k e t s f o r m a n u f a c t u r e r s , and s o u r c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s . B r i t i s h p o l i c y t o w a r d s I r e l a n d , b o t h i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f I m p e r i a l d e f e n c e and economy, had been one o f m e r c a n t i l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n from v e r y e a r l y t i m e s . A i d e d by t h e P r o t e s t a n t ( o f t e n a b s e n t e e ) l a n d l o r d s s i n c e t h e T u d o r P l a n t a t i o n s o f I r e l a n d , t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e a s a n t r y had b een p u t i n t o a p e r -p e t u a l s t a t e o f " d r a w e r s o f w a t e r and h e w ers o f wood" w i t h i n t h e P l a n t a t i o n economy. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y i n t h e p u b l i c d e b a t e s o f t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was u s u a l l y b a s e d on t h e c u r r e n t d o c t r i n e s o f l a i s s e z -f a i r e t h a t were i n vogue a t t h e t i m e . These d o c t r i n e s were m a i n l y u s e d t o p r e v e n t any e f f e c t i v e government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e " s t a t u s quo" i n I r e l a n d . T h e r e t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e 14 d o c t r i n e was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e and provided the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l f i s c a l p o l i c y of f i n a n c i a l retrenchment which e n t a i l e d the c o l l e c t i o n of taxes from Ir e l a n d to help support the Empire. These b e l i e f s ignored the' major f a c t s that much of Ireland's c a p i t a l was going to B r i t a i n v i a t a x a t i o n , debt s e r v i c e , and rent to absentee l a n d l o r d s ; t h e r e f o r e , I r e l a n d could i l l a f f o r d t h i s 21 expenditure. The p o l i t i c i a n s and economists a l s o argued that the population d i s p l a c e d from the farms would migrate i n t o the towns and become a source of i n d u s t r i a l labour. T h i s argument was based on a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of what had happened grad-u a l l y i n B r i t a i n since the s i x t e e n t h century, and more r a p i d l y i n the eighteenth century. T h i s neglected the f a c t that the labour force d i s p l a c e d from the I r i s h land had to accumulate the necessary c a p i t a l f o r passage and sustenance during the migration across the water b a r r i e r of the I r i s h Sea. Migrations to B r i t a i n , both permanent and seasonal, though r e s i s t e d by l o c a l labour i n t e r e s t s , had already occurred. However, these were minor compared with the growth of popu-l a t i o n , so that the l a i s s e z - f a i r e model had neglected a prime f a c t o r — t h e d i f f i c u l t y of the m o b i l i t y of labour i n I r e l a n d . 21. Appendix A, pages A-9 f. 15 T h e r e were many o t h e r f l a w s I n t h e B r i t i s h economic t h i n k i n g , b u t t h e wh o l e p r o b l e m i s b e s t s ummarized by R. D. C. B l a c k i n h i s s t u d y o f i t . The m a j o r i t y o f w r i t e r s u n d o u b t e d l y r e g a r d e d ^ t h e d o c t r i n e s w h i c h had f i r s t b e e n d e v e l o p e d * f r o m E n g l i s h m o d e l s as h a v i n g g e n e r a l v a l i d i t y , and were t h u s l e d t o g i v e a d v i c e on p o l i c y w h i c h was, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o I r e l a n d ' s c o n d i t i o n and r e q u i r e m e n t s . 22. The I r i s h economy h ad been t i e d s o l i d l y t o B r i t a i n ' s n e e d s , and i n e f f e c t i n g t h i s , t h e i n j u s t i c e s o f t h e t r e n d w h i c h had a l r e a d y l e d t o a s p l i t i n t o a c a p i t a l i s t i c e x p o r t s e c t o r and a s u b s i s t e n c e s e c t o r i n I r e l a n d were n o t r e c o g n i z e d by E n g l i s h l e a d e r s . The n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o f t h e s u b s i s t e n c e s e c t o r , w h i c h was dependent on t h e p o t a t o , had made l a n d r e f o r m t h e m a i n s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r economic p r o b l e m s . Though t h i s l a n d r e f o r m m i g h t be o f f e r e d o n l y as a t e m p o r a r y measure o f r e l i e f , i t m i g h t p o s s i b l y have p r e v e n t e d t h e w o r s t c o n -s e q u e n c e s o f o v e r p o p u l a t i o n , and have g i v e n t i m e f o r o v e r s e a s m i g r a t i o n . However, s u c h a p o l i c y was r e g a r d e d by t h e com-m e r c i a l and l a n d e d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t i m e a s i m p o s s i b l e , s i n c e i t w o u l d have d e s t r o y e d t h e e x p o r t s e c t o r w h i c h gave i t s g r a i n s t o B r i t a i n ; and w o r s t o f a l l , v i o l a t e d t h e " s a c r e d " r i g h t s o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . A f l a g r a n t example o f t h i s was th e p e a s a n t e v i c t i o n s from l a n d s t h e y had h e l d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s 22. R. D. C o l l i n s o n B l a c k , Economic Thought and t h e I r i s h Q u e s t i o n . 1817-1870. ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p. 2i+2. 16 t o s a t i s f y t h e f o o d demands o f B r i t a i n ' s i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s , and t h e d e s i r e f o r p r o f i t o f t h e a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d c l a s s . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t I r e l a n d had become 2 5 a v i c t i m o f B r i t a i n ' s m i l i t a r y and economic n e e d s . v A p a r t f r o m t h e s p e e c h e s and w r i t i n g s o f t h e l e a d e r s who p r o t e s t e d t h i s i n j u s t i c e , Thorn 1s I r i s h A lmanac, w h i c h f o r i t s t i m e i s a most r e m a r k a b l e and c o m p l e t e work, r e i n f o r c e s t h i s v i e w and r e v e a l s t h e c o n s t a n t d e c l i n e o f I r e l a n d ' s p e r c a p i t a i n c ome u n d e r t h e U n i o n . A s h e r p o p u l a t i o n grew, h e r i n d u s -t r i e s d i m i n i s h e d , and h e r e x p o r t s were m o n o p o l i z e d by B r i t a i n . 2 i + I t was a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e I r i s h "Lower N a t i o n " was r e n d e r e d p o l i t i c a l l y h e l p l e s s by t h e A c t o f U n i o n , w h i c h was t o c o n s o l i d a t e f o r t h e n e x t c e n t u r y t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic a s c e n d a n c y o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l and l a n d o w n i n g c l a s s e s i n I r e l a n d . The d i s t i n c t l y c o m m e r c i a l and r e n t i e r c l a s s i n t e r e s t s t h a t p r e s s e d f o r t h e U n i o n were c o n f i r m e d a t t he t i m e by t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n b o t h l o y a l t o E n g l a n d and e x p e r i e n c e d i n I r i s h a f f a i r s . 23. A p p e n d i x A, pages A-1 t o A - 8 , i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r o w t h o f I r i s h dependence on B r i t a i n . 24. Thorn's I r i s h Almanac, p. 1 195-Economic " S t a t i s t i c s o f I r e l a n d " i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x A. 17 The S p e a k e r o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t I r i s h House o f Commons p r o p h e s i e d t h a t t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f B r i t i s h government u n d e r t h e U n i o n w o u l d " a t l e a s t l e a d t o t h e s e p a r a t i o n ( o f I r e l a n d ) , 25 t o i t s u t t e r r u i n , and t h e s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e E m p i r e " . L o r d E l y , t h e n o t a b l e E n g l i s h "borough-monger", s t a t e d t h a t t h e a d v o c a t e s o f " t h i s mad scheme ( o f U n i o n ) a r e men who do n o t b e l o n g t o u s , and a b s e n t e e s who n e v e r a g a i n i n t e n d t o v i s i t I r e l a n d " . 2 6 The 300-member I r i s h House o f Commons c o u l d m u s t e r o n l y 162 s u p p o r t e r s f o r U n i o n , o f w h i c h 116 were p l a c e m e n who w o u l d have b e e n s t r i p p e d o f t h e i r employment i f t h e y 27 had h e s i t a t e d t o s u p p o r t i t . I r i s h C a t h o l i c s u p p o r t , o u t s i d e t h e I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t , o n l y a c q u i e s c e d i n t h e U n i o n u n d e r t h e m i s t a k e n i m p r e s s i o n t h a t B r i t a i n , now g u a r a n t e e d o f t h e i r l o y a l t y , w o u l d g r a n t t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic op. r i g h t s she had so l o n g w i t h h e l d . Thus, i t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h e A c t o f U n i o n was p a s s e d o n l y by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t s t i f l e d , c o n f u s e d , o r b r i b e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o them. 25. L e c k y , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d , V o l . V, p. 226. L e c k y d e s c r i b e s J o h n F o s t e r , t h e S p e a k e r , a s a man o f o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t y . He was a l s o t h e a u t h o r o f t h e C o r n Law. 26. I b i d . . p. 209 f. 27. I b i d . , p. 2+06. 28. I b i d . , p. 287, and 325-328. 18 The Union thus doomed the I r i s h majority to he a minority i n the B r i t i s h Parliament, which b a s i c a l l y represented the paramount interests of the dominant English r u l i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The leading Engl ish newspapers tended to reinforce further these party interests and presented to the B r i t i s h public a distorted view of Ireland. Their lengthy commen-t a r i e s , though i n d i c a t i n g concern that there was d i s s a t i s -fac t ion i n Ireland, were bas ica l ly i r r i t a t e d that Ireland was not more l i k e England. The London Times ref lec ted this very c r i t i c a l att i tude towards Ireland when i t described the wide-spread I r i s h agi ta t ion of 1843 against the Union as cr iminal . . .outrageous falsehoods, impudent a b s u r d i t i e s — i t i s with unfeigned repugnance that we are pressed by circumstances to mention again "repealers" . 29. Such excessive language was not uncommon i n the early nineteenth century with i t s fine contempt for the law of l i b e l . However, the English Radical press alone, more sympathetic to Ireland, described the parliamentary party structure as, i n general, representative of a B r i t i s h class interes t , landed and commercially oriented. William Cobbett, 29. The Times. (London), October 30, 1843-30. Terence de Vere White, "English Opinion". In Michael Tierney, e d . , Daniel O'Connell : Nine Centenary Essavs. (Dublin*. Browne & Nolan, 1948), p. 206. 19 a B r i t i s h r a d i c a l , was of the opinion that the landowning c l a s s i n England was not c l e a r l y separated from the mer-c a n t i l e group, and that both of these were evenly spread between the two r u l i n g p a r t i e s i n Parliament, who were the one " p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n i n England i n control".-- 5 1 Cobbett's o p i n i o n was endorsed by T a i t ' s redlnhurgh Magazine which described the two main E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , Tory and Whig, as not so d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e towards I r e l a n d , i n that they shared a strong common E n g l i s h i n t e r e s t opposed to I r e l a n d . v Thus i n England, as the r a d i c a l press had affirmed, the government was c o n t r o l l e d by a narrow c l a s s i n t e r e s t , but i t was one with which the E n g l i s h population i d e n t i f i e d , both c u l t u r a l l y and i d e o l o g i c a l l y . In the case of I r e l a n d , how-ever, the c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n and economics o f the majority were s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i e n a t e d from England as to cut across c l a s s l i n e s and create a n a t i o n a l movement opposed to the government. The I r i s h party of Daniel O'Connell r e f l e c t e d t h i s n a t i o n a l need which was most immediately and d i r e c t l y con-cerned with removing the p o l i t i c a l obstacles to reform, 31. J . Oswald, "W. Cobbett and the Corn Laws", The H i s t o r i a n . XXIX, No. 2 (February 1967), p. 197 f . 32. T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine. X, (1843), 2-6. "Repeal Without Disunion". (Hereafter c i t e d as: T a i t ' s . ) 33. T a i t ' s . XI, (February 1, 1844), p. 238. "Sketch of the I r i s h Great Debate". 20 n a m e l y , t h e U n i o n government. A b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f t h a t government w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e why i t was r e g a r d e d w i t h s u c h odium i n I r e l a n d . As compared w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , t h e I r i s h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e U n i o n P a r l i a m e n t were p r o p o r -t i o n a t e l y few, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t b y 1841 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f I r e l a n d was o n e - t h i r d o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . I n 1844, t h e 105 I r i s h members o f P a r l i a m e n t r e p r e s e n t e d a p o p u l a t i o n o f 8i- m i l l i o n , compared w i t h 550 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r t h e s i x t e e n m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e r e s t o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . T h u s , I r e l a n d had more t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , b u t l e s s t h a n o n e - s i x t h o f t h e r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n i n t h e U n i o n P a r l i a m e n t . M o r e o v e r , a g r e a t number o f t h e I r i s h were d i s q u a l i f i e d f r o m v o t i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p o v e r t y , a s u n d e r t h e 1832 R e f o r m A c t , t h e minimum s t a n d a r d s o f £10 h o u s e h o l d e r s i n towns, and £10 f r e e h o l d e r s and £20 l e a s e h o l d e r s i n t h e c o u n t i e s , o n l y a l l o w e d one i n e v e r y e i g h t y i n h a b i t a n t s i n I r e l a n d t o v o t e , a s compared t o one i n n i n e t e e n i n t h e r e s t o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom. R a d i c a l o p i n i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , i n a d v o c a t i n g XL h o u s e h o l d s u f f r a g e f o r I r e l a n d ^ p o i n t e d o u t t h i s economic and e l e c t o r a l d i s c r e p a n c y b e t ween t h e two c o u n t r i e s . ^ 34 • C u r t i s , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d , p. 362. T a i t ' s . X (1843), P- 4 f . 35* Shaw's A u t h e n t i c a t e d R e p o r t o f t h e I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s . 1844. ( D u b l i n : Henry Shaw, 1844), p. 497-500. 21 S u c h a l i m i t e d f r a n c h i s e i n a c o u n t r y where many v o t e r s h a d o n l y i n s e c u r e t e n u r e o f t h e i r l a n d h o l d i n g s , e n c o u r a g e d f l a g r a n t " b r i b e r y and i n t i m i d a t i o n . I n t u r n , t h i s was f u r -t h e r a g g r a v a t e d by a d i s a f f e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n t h a t o f t e n 56 t u r n e d a n e l e c t i o n i n t o a " b l o o d y and r i o t o u s a f f a i r " . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e a s a n t r y , however, were t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e economic s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e on t h e n a r r o w m a r g i n between s u b s i s t e n c e and s t a r v a t i o n , a s t h e Devon R e p o r t o f 1845 so c o g e n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d , t o c o n c e r n them-s e l v e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . The p e a s a n t s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s and f a c t i o n s t h a t n a t u r a l l y a r o s e o u t o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s h a d no d i r e c t n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a i m s . The n e a r e s t t h e p e a s a n t s came t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p o l i t i c s , b e f o r e t h e i r numbers were m o b i l i z e d i n t h e R e p e a l c a m p a i g n o f t h e l840's, was d u r i n g t h e t i t h e a g i t a t i o n o f t h e 1830's. The House o f L o r d s , as e v i d e n c e d by i t s v e t o i n g o f I r i s h r e f o r m l e g i s l a t i o n , was even more d i v o r c e d f r o m I r i s h p o p u l a r C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t s . The l a r g e l a n d o w n i n g c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s were paramount. The I r i s h p e e r a g e , 93% P r o t e s t a n t , were opposed t o C a t h o l i c demands t h a t m i g h t t a x t h e i r w e a l t h . A l s o , 25% o f t h e p e e r a g e w i t h i n t h e House o f L o r d s a f t e r 1833 were a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d s who r e c e i v e d t h e i r w e a l t h d i r e c t l y 36. Angus D. M a c i n t y r e , The L i b e r a t o r ; D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l and the I r i s h P a r t y . 1850-1847. (London: Hamish H a m i l t o n , 1965), P» 117 f . 22 f r o m t h e i r e s t a t e s i n I r e l a n d . T h e s e were n a t u r a l l y r e l u c -t a n t t o c h a n g e t h e l a n d o w n i n g s y s t e m t h a t s e c u r e d t h e i r ^7 l i v e l i h o o d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c u l t u r a l r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t i n t h e House o f L o r d s was d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c m a j o r i t y . T h e - P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h was t h e e p i s c o p a l l i n k b e t w e e n E n g l a n d a n d I r e l a n d w i t h i n t h e U n i o n , a n d t h e o n l y -zo c h u r c h e n t i t l e d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A l t o g e t h e r , i t may be a r g u e d , t h e U n i o n P a r l i a m e n t was n o t o n l y u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e m a j o r i t y i n t e r e s t i n I r e l a n d , b u t e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y , was o f t e n o p p o s e d t o t h e m . - ^ What s m a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n I r e l a n d h a d w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g 37» D. L a r g e , " T h e House o f L o r d s and I r e l a n d i n t h e Age o f P e e l , 1832-1850". I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s . I X , (1955), 367-399. Thorn 's I r i s h A l m a n a c . 1 8 4 9 . p . 75-79-L e v y , e d . , D i s c u s s i o n o n R e p e a l , p . 65-O ' C o n n e l l u s i n g t h i s a rgumen t i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r e s t o r e d I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e I r i s h P r o t e s t a n t l a n d l o r d s t h r o u g h i t s House o f L o r d s . 38. L e c k y , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d . V o l . V , p . 238. 39- Thorn 1 s I r i s h A l m a n a c . 1 8 4 9 . p . 75-79-T h i s g i v e s a f u l l a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e House o f P e e r s . See a l s o p . 80-86 f o r a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e membe r sh ip o f t h e House o f Commons. M a c i n t y r e , The L i b e r a t o r , p . 299. See A p p e n d i x A — " I r i s h E l e c t o r a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1832-1837" f o r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g u n o p p o s e d and o p p o s e d c a n d i d a t e s , and f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l p a r t i e s , and t h e I r i s h R e p e a l P a r t y o f D a n i e l 0 ' C o n n e l l . 23 e l e c t o r a l framework c o u l d e x e r t l i t t l e p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t a government t h a t l e g i s l a t e d a g a i n s t them, a t t i m e s h a r s h l y and o p p r e s s i v e l y , a s t h e i r l e a d e r , D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , b l u n t l y e x p l a i n e d . • The P r o t e c t i o n o f L i f e ( I r e l a n d ) B i l l o f A p r i l 184-6 was s e e n by O ' C o n n e l l a s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n . He d e c l a r e d t h a t i t f a i l e d i n i t s avowed o b j e c t i v e o f r e d u c i n g a g r a r i a n c r i m e i n I r e l a n d . I n s t e a d , he e l a b o r a t e d , t h e r e a l c a u s e o f " o u t r a g e " i n I r e l a n d was a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e "most g r i e v o u s and i n e x c u s a b l e p o l i t i c a l m i s -g overnment" . I t i s t h e d u t y o f P a r l i a m e n t t o a d o p t s u c h measures a s w i l l t e n d t o e r a d i c a t e t h e c a u s e s w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h o s e c r i m e s , i n s t e a d o f r e -s o r t i n g t o l a w s w h i c h w i l l h a r a s s and o p p r e s s t h e i n n o c e n t w i t h o u t r e s t r a i n i n g t h e g u i l t y . 1+0. What D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l c r i t i c i z e d as f a i l u r e o f t h e U n i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was r e f l e c t e d d i r e c t l y i n l o c a l government i n I r e l a n d . T h i s was c a l l e d t h e C a s t l e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and was r e s p o n s i b l e t o W e s t m i n s t e r . I f I r i s h p u b l i c odium f e l l upon one o f i t s o f f i c i a l s , i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o d i s m i s s him as l o n g as he had t h e s u p p o r t 40. M. F. C u s a c k , S p e e c h e s and P u b l i c L e t t e r s o f t h e L i b e r a t o r . (2 v o l s . ; D u b l i n : M c G l a s h i n & G i l l , 1873), V o l . I I , p. 169. 24 o f t h e E n g l i s h m a j o r i t y p a r t i e s , w h i c h were o f t e n opposed t o I r i s h i n t e r e s t s i n t h e U n i o n P a r l i a m e n t The C a s t l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was e x p e c t e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s t a t u t e s o f t h e U n i o n P a r l i a m e n t i n t h e s p i r i t recom-mended by t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r and t h e Home S e c r e t a r y , t h r o u g h t h e i r c h i e f a g e n t i n I r e l a n d , t h e I r i s h C h i e f S e c r e t a r y , who was r e s i d e n t i n I r e l a n d f o r o n l y t h r e e months i n t h e y e a r . However, s u c h remote c o n t r o l f r o m W e s t m i n s t e r d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o i m p a r t i a l government. I n s t e a d , i t enhanced t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e E n g l i s h e x e c u t i v e t o a p p o i n t t h e i m p o r t a n t r e s i d e n t l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , s u c h a s t h e L o r d L i e u t e n a n t , t h e U n d er S e c r e t a r y , and t h e L o r d C h a n c e l l o r , f r o m a s m a l l p a r t y , removed f r o m t h e I r i s h m a j o r i t y , ... w h i c h had d e r i v e d a l l i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s f r o m ... and was e n t i r e l y d ependent on t h e B r i t i s h government. 42. T h e r e were o u t s t a n d i n g e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e g e n e r a l r u l e i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The I r i s h U n d e r S e c r e t a r y , Thomas Drummond, a p p o i n t e d b y t h e Whig a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1835, was n o t e d f o r h i s i m p a r t i a l and humane a t t e m p t 41. O ' B r i e n , D u b l i n C a s t l e , p. 8. C h a r l e s F. G r e v i l l e , The G r e v i l l e Memoirs o f George I V . W i l l i a m I V , and Queen V i c t o r i a . (5 v o l s . ; London: Longmans, 1903), V o l . V, p. 273. See e s p e c i a l l y f o o t n o t e 177. P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 56-59. 'To L o r d de G r e y , f r o m S i r R o b e r t P e e l ' , A u g u s t 22, 1843. 42. O ' B r i e n , D u b l i n C a s t l e , p. 43-L e c k y , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d . V o l . V, p. 486. I l l u s t r a t e s how p l a c e m e n v o t e d t h e U n i o n i n t o e x i s t e n c e . 25 t o c r e a t e " a permanent remedy f o r l o c a l d i s o r d e r s " . He d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h D a n i e l O'Connell»s I r i s h P a r t y , w h i c h a l a t e r government ( i n 1843) was t o a c c u s e o f s e d i t i o n . He i n e v i t a b l y a r o u s e d t h e i n d i g n a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l P r o t e s t a n t A s c e n d a n c y c l a s s when he d e c l a r e d t h a t " p r o p e r t y h a s i t s d u t i e s a s w e l l a s i t s r i g h t s " . ^ U n d e r t h e T o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e t w een 184-1 and 184-6, w h i c h i s t h e s p e c i a l c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y , t h a t A s c e n d a n c y c l a s s r e g a i n e d i t s monopoly o f power i n I r e l a n d . The d i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h e x e c u t i v e between West-m i n s t e r and i t s p u p p e t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n D u b l i n h a d o t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r I r e l a n d , a s i t e n a b l e d each o f t h e s e p a r t s t o h o l d t h e o t h e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n e p t e x e c u t i o n o f government p o l i c i e s . ^ I n a l e t t e r t o t h e 43' O ' B r i e n , D u b l i n C a s t l e , p. 63 f . O ' B r i e n a l s o g i v e s a f u l l r e p o r t o f D u b l i n C a s t l e a p p o i n t -ments i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and he i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y were E n g l i s h o r I r i s h P r o t e s t a n t s , o u t o f sympathy w i t h t h e l o c a l C a t h o l i c m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . 44. P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 41-43-•To L o r d E l i o t , f rom S i r R o b e r t P e e l ' , December 2 3 , 1 8 4 2 . I b i d . . p. 60-62. •To S i r James Graham, from S i r R o b e r t P e e l ' , December 2 3 , 1842. 26 L o r d L i e u t e n a n t , P e e l , d u r i n g h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f r o m 1841 t o 1846 r e f e r r e d t o t h e f a v o u r i t e d o c t r i n e o f D u b l i n C a s t l e o f p r e f e r r i n g t h e most z e a l o u s P r o t e s t a n t f r i e n d s r a t h e r t h a n ( a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n -c i l i a t e C a t h o l i c s ) , 45 • Y e t h i s own T o r y p a r t y , l a n d e d " c o u n t r y p a r t y " , a l l i e d t o E n g l i s h c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s , e n c o u r a g e d s u c h d o c t r i n e , de-s p i t e h i s p u b l i c d e c l a r a t i o n s t o t h e c o n t r a r y , when he a s k e d Why have P r o t e s t a n t s a p r e f e r a b l e c l a i m ? B e c a u s e t h e y have ... f o r a l o n g s e r i e s o f y e a r s t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e monopoly o f p r i v i l e g e s s e c u r e d b y l a w ... and f r o m c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e government.... What m o t i v e s c a n t h e y h o l d o u t t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s t o a b j u r e a g i t a t i o n ... i f h o n o u r a b l e and l e g i t i m a t e d i s t i n c t i o n a r e d e n i e d them? 46. P e e l , w r i t i n g t o t h e I r i s h L o r d C h a n c e l l o r , S i r Edward Sugden, commented on t h e t a c t l e s s d i s m i s s a l o f l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s un b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e R e p e a l Movement, ' b u t , i n r e a l i t y , l o c a l government u n d e r him c o n t i n u e d t o s t i f l e and oppose l o c a l p o p u l a r d i s s e n t . I t s t r i a l o f t h e R e p e a l l e a d e r s , i n c l u d i n g D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , i n 1844, was a n o u t -s t a n d i n g example o f t h i s . 45* P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 56-59. 'To L o r d de G r e y , from S i r R o b e r t P e e l ' , A u g u s t 22, 1843. G r e v i l l e , M e moirs. V o l . V, p. 273. F o o t n o t e 177. O ' B r i e n , D u b l i n C a s t l e , p. 8. 46. H a n s a r d . 3d S e r i e s , 73 ( F e b r u a r y 1844), 216. Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w ( E d i n b u r g h ) , LXXV (1844-45), p. 278. The w r i t e r d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t S i r R o b e r t P e e l went o u t o f h i s way t o g i v e a p p o i n t m e n t s t o Roman C a t h o l i c s . 47. P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 51. 27 The a s c e n d a n t p a r t y a l s o s t r o v e t o keep l o c a l p a t r o n a g e i n t h e i r hands by a p p o i n t i n g t h e C o u n t y H i g h S h e r i f f s f r o m t h e i r number. The H i g h S h e r i f f , i n t u r n , a p p o i n t e d t h e l o c a l G rand J u r i e s t h a t a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e p u b l i c w orks programme, w h i c h was t h e scene o f much j o b b i n g and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . T h i s was d e s p i t e t h e e n l i g h t e n e d e f f o r t s o f t h e Whig government t h a t i n 1836 c r e a t e d t h e C o n g e s t e d D i s t r i c t s B o a r d s t o promote t r a d e and i n d u s t r y t o r e l i e v e l o c a l unemployment, 7 and th e M u n i c i p a l R e f o r m A c t o f 1840 t o make l o c a l government more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e 50 t o l o c a l n e e d s . T h u s , i n g e n e r a l i n I r e l a n d , a n a l i e n s p i r i t o f g o v e r n -ment p r e v a i l e d , and r e n d e r e d i n o p e r a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t was o f t e n r e g a r d e d a s e n l i g h t e n e d w i t h i n t h e E n g l i s h c o n t e x t . Two o f t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g examples o f t h i s were t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1831> and t h e new P o o r Law o f 1837- The 1831 B o a r d o f N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n 47. P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 51. 'To S i r Edward Sugden, f r o m S i r R o b e r t P e e l ' , J u n e 1, 1843. J e p h s o n , N o t e s on I r i s h Q u e s t i o n s , p. 68-101. The c h a p t e r on " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e " . 48. O ' B r i e n , D u b l i n C a s t l e , p. 187 and 205. if9- I b i d . . p. 225 f . J e p h s o n , op_. e x t . , p. 200-214. 50. I b i d . , p. 2^Z-Z%. O ' B r i e n , £p_. c i t . . p. 226. 28 d i s p l a y e d a t e n d e n c y t o a n g l i c i z e t h e I r i s h w h i l e i g n o r i n g t h e l o c a l l a n g u a g e and t h e n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e I r i s h p e a s a n t r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , "by 1871 i l l i t e r a c y 51 r e m a i n e d u n i v e r s a l and u n d i m i n i s h e d " . *The new P o o r Law, i m p l e m e n t e d i n 1837, g e n e r a l l y i g -n o r e d l o c a l p o p u l a r o p i n i o n . D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l had recom-mended t h a t t h e P o o r Houses s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h o s e more i n t o u c h w i t h t h e p e o p l e ; t h a t i s , t h e I r i s h c l e r g y s h o u l d be e l i g i b l e f o r e l e c t i o n , and t h a t t h e g u a r d i a n s s h o u l d be c h o s e n o n a t o t a l l y e l e c t i v e and s e c r e t b a l l o t p r i n c i p l e . He a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e p o o r r a t e s s h o u l d f a l l more on t h e l a n d l o r d s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e a b s e n t e e p r o p r i e t o r s , t h a n on t h o s e s m a l l t e n a n t f a r m e r s l e a s t a b l e t o a f f o r d s u c h 52 t a x e s . I n s t e a d , t h e B r i t i s h government s i m p l y a p p l i e d t h e more c e n t r a l i z e d , and o n l y p a r t i a l l y e l e c t i v e , p r i n c i p l e o f t h e E n g l i s h s y s t e m o f 1834, and p l a c e d t h e b u r d e n o f p o o r r a t e s on t h e s m a l l f a r m e r s . I n g e n e r a l , l o c a l demands 51. O ' B r i e n , D u b l i n C a s t l e , p. 242. J e p h s o n , N o t e s on I r i s h Q u e s t i o n s , p. 193-196. D e a l s w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s p r o b l e m s . Thorn's I r i s h Almanac. 1849. p. 132. Census f i g u r e s f o r 1841 i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y 1,238,059 m a l e s and 678,097 f e m a l e s c o u l d r e a d and w r i t e ; w h i l e 1,623,856 m a l e s and 2,142,210 f e m a l e s c o u l d n e i t h e r r e a d n o r w r i t e . 52. C u s a c k , S p e e c h e s and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 490-515. P o o r Law ( I r e l a n d ) S p e e ch, A p r i l 28, 1837-53. O ' B r i e n , op_. c i t . , p. 225 f-29 t h a t "what t h e I r i s h needed was work, and n o t work h o u s e s " was r e p l a c e d "by t h e E n g l i s h s y s t e m o f o f f e r i n g o n l y I n d o o r 54 R e l i e f . ^ T h i s government a t t i t u d e was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g a s a Mr. N i c h o l l s was s e n t f r o m t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e t o " d i s p o s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n i n s i x w e e k s " . ^ The s u b s e q u e n t C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P e e l r e c o g n i z e d t h e monumental n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t had a c c u m u l a t e d , b u t i t was i m p r i s o n e d w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e o f t h e U n i t e d 56 Kingdom.-' U n i t e d E m p i r e p r i o r i t i e s r e m a i n e d t h e same, b u t 57 m a k e s h i f t r e f o r m s were t o be i n t r o d u c e d ^ ' t o a v o i d t h e 58 expense and d a n g e r o f c i v i l war, and o f g o v e r n i n g I r e l a n d 59 a s an o c c u p i e d c o u n t r y . P e e l ' s p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e 5k- O ' B r i e n , D u b l i n C a s t l e , p. 221 f . 55. I b i d . . p. 223. 56. P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 101. Memorandum f o r t h e C a b i n e t , F e b r u a r y 11, 1844. I l l u s t r a t e s government p o l i c y . 57. P a r k e r , e d . , Graham. V o l . I I , p. 39$ •To L o r d S t a n l e y , from S i r James Graham', O c t o b e r k, 1843. •To L o r d E l i o t , from S i r James Graham', O c t o b e r 20, 1843. 58. I b i d . , p. 409. •To t h e Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n , f r o m S i r James Graham', O c t o b e r 2, 1843-59. H a n s a r d . 3d S e r . , 73 ( F e b r u a r y 23, 1844), 243-247. P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 106. C a b i n e t Memorandum, F e b r u a r y 17, 1844* 30 f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n o f l a n d r e f o r m was a n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s . I n 1843 L o r d Devon was a p p o i n t e d t o p r e s i d e o v e r t h e i n q u i r y " i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s now s u b s i s t i n g between l a n d l o r d a n d t e n a n t " , b u t t h e s p i r i t b e h i n d t h i s i n q u i r y , n o t w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e government d i d n o t i n t e n d t o 60 e f f e c t any f u n d a m e n t a l change. The government's Arms A c t ( I r e l a n d ) o f 1843 was p a r t o f t h i s g e n e r a l p o l i c y t h a t had r e m a i n e d u n a l t e r e d s i n c e t h e U n i o n . I t gave c o n t i n u e d e v i d e n c e o f t h e h o l l o w n e s s o f government p r o m i s e s o f r e f o r m w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e m a c h i n e r y o f c i v i l government i n I r e l a n d was i n e f f e c t u a l . T h i s A c t was h a r d l y a d e t e r r e n t t o t h e g u i l t y , t h o u g h i t 61 " h a r a s s e d and o p p r e s s e d t h e i n n o c e n t " . Under t h e A c t t h e p e n a l t y f o r c a r r y i n g , o r b e i n g t r a i n e d t o c a r r y , arms was t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r l i f e . P e a s a n t s who f a c e d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e v i c t i o n f r o m t h e l a n d , d e a t h by s t a r v a t i o n , o r c o n f i n e m e n t i n t h e p r i s o n - l i k e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e I r i s h w o rk h o u s e , c o u l d h a r d l y be i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e p u n i s h m e n t 62 p r e s c r i b e d by t h e A c t . 60. P a r k e r , e d . , Graham. V o l . I I , p. LOO. 'To L o r d S t a n l e y , f r o m S i r James Graham', O c t o b e r 7> 1843. 61. C u s a c k , Speeches and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p.169. 62. Thorn's I r i s h Almanac. 1849. p. 137. " S t a t i s t i c s on C r i m e i n I r e l a n d " . J e p h s o n , N o t e s on I r i s h Q u e s t i o n s , p. 102-131. T h i s a c c o u n t on " C r i m e " e x p l a i n s t h e r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r a g r a r i a n c r i m e , and t h e i l l e g a l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p e a s a n t s , s u c h as t h e "White B o y s " and " R i b a n d i s m " . 3 1 Thus, government e f f o r t s a t r e f o r m i n I r e l a n d were ham-p e r e d b y b o t h I m p e r i a l and l o c a l A s c e n d a n c y c l a s s o p p o s i t i o n . P e e l ' s shrewd and a b l e p r a g m a t i s m was i n p a r t i c u l a r b l o c k e d b y t h e " m e d i o c r i t y and p r e j u d i c e " o f many o f h i s T o r y p a r t y f o l l o w e r s . ^ Among t h e s e were i n c l u d e d t h e n a r r o w P r o t e s t a n t l a n d e d o l i g a r c h y d o m i n a n t i n I r e l a n d . By 1843 t h e monumental economic and c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m s t h a t h a d a c c r u e d b y s u c h government p o l i c i e s s i n c e t h e U n i o n a r o u s e d a d i s s e n t i n g R e p e a l o f t h e U n i o n movement s u f f i c i e n t t o a l a r m t h e government. D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , i t s l e a d e r , p e r s o n i f i e d t h i s oppo-s i t i o n t o B r i t i s h r u l e i n I r e l a n d . He became t h e d e f e n d e r o f C a t h o l i c I r e l a n d a g a i n s t t h e dominant P r o t e s t a n t i m p e r i a l i n t e r e s t . He p r o c l a i m e d t h e u n p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t s i n I r e l a n d s i n c e t h e U n i o n . L i t t l e had changed, he i n s i s t e d , s i n c e "175JOOO b a y o n e t s had c a r r i e d t h e A c t 6 4 o f U n i o n i n 1800". ^ The p r o p a g a n d a o f P r o t e s t a n t l o y a l t y t o t h e U n i o n , s u p p o r t e d by t h e B r i t i s h government, c r y s t a l -l i z e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o i t w i t h i n t h e framework o f a n I r i s h n a t i o n a l C a t h o l i c movement, l e d b y D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . 63. G r e v i l l e , Memoirs. V o l . V, p. 273-64' C u s a c k , Speeches and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 113. C h a p t e r I I . O'CONNELL AND THE I R I S H PARTY OF PROTEST. G r a t t a n s a t by t h e c r a d l e o f h i s c o u n t r y , and f o l l o w e d h e r h e a r s e ; i t was l e f t f o r me t o sound t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n t r u m p e t , and t o show t h a t she was n o t dead, b u t s l e e p i n g . — D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . ^ He i s t h e p r i n c i p a l p a r t n e r i n t h e v i c e - r e g a l government, ... he i s m a s t e r o f a t a i l o f t h i r t y d o c i l e members o f P a r l i a m e n t . 66. 65. W i l l i a m Edward H a r t p o l e L e c k y , L e a d e r s o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n I r e l a n d . (2 v o l s . ; London: Longmans, G r e e n , 1912). V o l . I I . D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . p. 2i+8. 66. D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y M a g a z i n e . XXIX (M a r c h 1847), 386. C h a p t e r I I . O'CONNELL AND THE I R I S H PARTY OF PROTEST. The I r i s h r e s i s t a n c e t o a s s i m i l a t i o n by B r i t a i n , and t h e p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e b y - p r o d u c t o f s u f f e r i n g t h a t r e s u l t e d , r e c e i v e d i t s v o i c e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework i n t h e C a t h o l i c R e p e a l Movement l e d by D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . He was t o r e m a i n , u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1347, t h e most dominant and e f f e c t i v e c r i t i c o f B r i t i s h r u l e i n I r e l a n d , s i n c e h i s wh o l e l i f e h a d e v o l v e d t o a n u n u s u a l d e g r e e , b o t h p h i l o -s o p h i c a l l y and p r a g m a t i c a l l y , o u t o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h he s o u g h t t o e x p o s e . I n h i s e a r l y t w e n t i e s , O ' C o n n e l l was a l r e a d y c o n v e r t e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t l y t o g o v e r n h i s p o l i c i e s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g f i f t y y e a r s o f h i s l i f e ; n a mely, a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and m o r a l f o r c e movement t o a c h i e v e b e t t e r I r i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h r o u g h a R e p e a l o f t h e p o l i t i c a l 67 U n i o n w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n . O ' C o n n e l l , by b i r t h and a b i l i t y , by h i s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e , was p r e p a r e d t o a u n i q u e d e g r e e f o r t h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . By b i r t h he p o s s e s s e d t h e p r i d e o f t h e G a e l i c g e n t r y , w h i c h t h r o u g h h i s f a m i l y h e r i t a g e and c o n -n e c t i o n s a t D a r r y n a n e , C o u n t y K e r r y , was t o s u s t a i n and 67. L e v y , ed., D i s c u s s i o n on R e p e a l , p. 19. D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ' s s p e e c h . 34 ro f o r t i f y h i m t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e . 0 These e n t a i l e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p " o f a n o l d c l a n c h i e f t a i n ... w i t h h i s p e o p l e " , o f m u t u a l l o y a l t y and s e r v i c e i n k i n d , upon w h i c h was r i v e t e d b y c e n t u r i e s o f p e r s e c u t i o n , a C a t h o l i c c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , p e a c e f u l l y c o - e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a n a l i e n 69 P r o t e s t a n t s t a t e . y He was p a r t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r o y a l i s m o f t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c g e n t r y , w h i c h had e n a b l e d h i s u n c l e , C o u n t D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , t o o f f e r h i s s w o r d , a s C o l o n e l o f t h e I r i s h B r i g a d e i n F r a n c e , t o t h e B r i t i s h Crown, r a t h e r t h a n d e f e n d t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h he b e l i e v e d was, i n i t s r e p u b l i c a n s e n t i m e n t s , i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e l a w s o f God and man. O ' C o n n e l l c l u n g t o t h e more h u m a n i s t , p a t e r n a l i s t i c a s p e c t o f r o y a l i s m 70 and t h e c l a n r e l a t i o n s h i p , ' w h i c h l e d h i m t o r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f " t h e I r i s h p e a s a n t , a mere c o t t i e r , w i t h o u t p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s , w i t h o u t economic t e n u r e , and 71 w i t h o u t hope". He w i s h e d t o l i b e r a t e t h e s e p e a s a n t s 6 8 . Kennedy F. R o che, " R e v o l u t i o n and C o u n t e r -R e v o l u t i o n " . I n M i c h a e l T i e r n e y , e d . , N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s , p. 67. 69. G. Murphy, "The G a e l i c B a c k g r o u n d " . I n T i e r n e y , op_. c i t . . p. 15-18 . 70. A s e n a t h N i c h o l s o n , I r e l a n d ' s Welcome t o t h e S t r a n g e r ; o r . E x c u r s i o n s Through I r e l a n d i n 1844 and 1845. (London: G i l p i n , 1847), p. 327. A P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r y t o C a t h o l i c I r e l a n d , from t h e II. S. A. e x p l a i n s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l among h i s t e n a n t s ; f o r example, no e v i c t i o n s , and l a n d was- s o l d a t 5% o f the u s u a l p r i c e . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s t h e v i e w o f t h e h o s t i l e London Times. 71. T a i t ' s E d i n b u r g h M a g a z i n e . X I I I ( J a n u a r y 184-6), 1-10. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l i f e o f O ' C o n n e l l a t D a r r y n a n e , by W i l l i a m H o w i t t , a j o u r n a l i s t . 35 whom he saw around him, and whom Sean O'Eaolain, a modern biographer, described as "a repository of ancient riches ... a jumble of du l l and foolish ideas, interlaced with some 72 vintage wine". I t was to preserve the "vintage wine" that O'Connell was prepared to lead a peasantry of whom he had, generally, no sentimental i l l u s i o n s : "Nobody could ever believe the species of animals with whom I have to 73 carry on my warfare against the common enemy". O'Connell was f i r s t trained for such public l i f e through his c l a s s i c a l and Catholic education at the colleges of Louvain, St. Omer, and Douai, which gave him the weapons to do battle i n the f i e l d of public l i f e . Dr. Stapleton of the English College of St. Omer described the aim of education as the making of a good and pat r i o t i c citizen,, a wise and eloquent and accomplished public man, an orator capable of ready and effective expression with knowledge available for public service. Dr. Stapleton was to be amply j u s t i f i e d later, i n his description of O'Connell as one who would make a remarkable figure i n s o c i e t y . ^ His rhetorical g i f t s , already apparent at St. Omer, were partly consolidated i n the service of law from 1794 at 72. Sean O'Faolain, The I r i s h (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1947), p. 80. 73- Ibid.» p. 79. 74. Thomas Wall, "Louvain, St. Omer, and Bouai", -i n Tierney, ed., Nine Centenary Essays, p. 38. 36 L i n c o l n ' s I n n , London. L o n d o n a l s o m o d i f i e d h i s more r o y a l i s t a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e b a c k g r o u n d , and t r a n s f o r m e d h i m i n t o a r a d i c a l u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e B e n t h a m i t e s and J a c o b i n s . The f i n a l s y n t h e s i s o f h i s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s p u b l i c c a r e e r as t h e l e a d e r o f t h e I r i s h R e p e a l Movement was hammered o u t on h i s r e t u r n t o I r e l a n d where he became 75 a g r e a t l e g a l advocate.'-^ T h e r e were two m a j o r e v e n t s i n I r e l a n d t h a t were t o s e t t h e c o u r s e o f h i s f u t u r e c a r e e r . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , t h e 1798 R e b e l l i o n , w h i c h s t a r t e d i n t h e name o f p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y , d e s c e n d e d f r o m t h e s e h i g h hopes i n t o a b i t t e r p e a s a n t war w i t h r e l i g i o u s o v e r t o n e s . ' 7 ^ T h i s c o n -v i n c e d h i m o f t h e f u t i l i t y o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h government, and o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l e a d e r s who l e d t h e p e o p l e i n t o a r e b e l l i o n and i n t o s u f f e r i n g w i t h -o u t g a i n i n g any a d v a n t a g e s . I n t h e l a s t y e a r s o f h i s l i f e he was t o oppose, w i t h t h e same g r i m f o r e b o d i n g s , t h e more m i l i t a n t t a c t i c s o f t h e Young I r e l a n d g r o u p w i t h i n h i s own R e p e a l p a r t y . The o t h e r e v e n t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was t h e A c t o f U n i o n i n 1800, when t h e b e l l s o f S t . P a t r i c k ' s C a t h e d r a l i n D u b l i n r a n g o u t t h e end o f t h e I r i s h L e g i s l a t u r e . He was a l r e a d y 75. Kennedy F. Roche, " R e v o l u t i o n and C o u n t e r -R e v o l u t i o n " , i n T i e r n e y , ed., H i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s , p. 69-75-76. L e c k y , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d . V o l . : V, p. 250-473. T h i s i s C h a p t e r X — " T h e R e b e l l i o n " . See e s p e c i a l l y pages 470-473 on t h e h o r r o r o f t h e R e b e l l i o n . 37 c o n v i n c e d t h a t I r i s h admi n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d n o t be i m p r o v e d 77 by t h a t e v e n t , and he l a t e r d e c l a r e d t h a t " i t was t h e A c t o f U n i o n t h a t f i r s t s t i r r e d me up t o come f o r w a r d i n t o 78 p o l i t i c s " . The p o s i t i o n he t h e n t o o k t o p r o t e s t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e U n i o n r e m a i n e d c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e . I n h i s famous R e p e a l Speech f r o m t h e p l a t f o r m o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f D u b l i n i n 1843 n e a f f i r m e d h i s c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h a t " t h e t e n o r o f my p u b l i c l i f e shov/s t h a t I have n e v e r v a r i e d f r o m t h e s e n t i m e n t o f t h e s p e e c h made 79 a t t h e t i m e o f t h e U n i o n " . ' ' O ' C o n n e l l p r o c l a i m e d h i s t r u s t i n a government o f h i s f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n , r a t h e r t h a n i n 80 t h a t a t W e s t m i n s t e r . I f t h e r e was any p r e s e n t who c o u l d be so f a r men-t a l l y d e g r a d e d a s t o c o n s e n t t o t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e l i b e r t y , t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , and even t h e name o f I r e l a n d , he w o u l d c a l l on him n o t t o l e a v e t h e d i r e c t i o n and management o f h i s com-merce and p r o p e r t y t o s t r a n g e r s , o v e r whom he c o u l d have no c o n t r o l . " 8 1 . 77. L e c k y , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d . V o l . . V, p. 329 f . 78. Kennedy F. Roche, " R e v o l u t i o n and C o u n t e r -R e v o l u t i o n " , i n T i e r n e y , e d . N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s , p. 79. 79. ILoc. c i t . T h i s book o f e s s a y s g i v e s a t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f t h e C a t h o l i c r e v o l u t i o n a r y c r e e d o f O ' C o n n e l l w h i c h was c e n t r a l t o h i s l i f e . 80. L e c k y , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d . V o l . V, p. 329 f . 81. L e v y , ed., D i s c u s s i o n on R e p e a l , p. 19. 38 C e n t r a l t o O ' C o n n e l l ' s p r o t e s t was t h e demand f o r b e t t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n I r e l a n d on a more r a d i c a l b a s i s i n b o t h C h u r c h and S t a t e . T hese demands were r o o t e d i n t h e p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g t o c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l movement from t h e o n l y r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o h i m i n I r e l a n d . These were t h e n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , f u s e d w i t h a p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l i s m t h a t c o u l d i n s p i r e p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e p e a s a n t r y and t h e l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s . O ' C o n n e l l ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m , t h o u g h i n f l u e n c e d m a r k e d l y b y Jeremy Bentham, whom he r e g a r d e d a s Op one o f t h e g r e a t e s t b e n e f a c t o r s o f t h e human r a c e , was no mere m e c h a n i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . He b e l i e v e d , l i k e Bentham, t h a t "a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e m i s e r y o f man ... was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e form s o f government u n d e r w h i c h he l i v e d ... f o r t h e s e o p p r e s s e d and h a r a s s e d h i s f a c u l t i e s " . I n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h i s e v i l were t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s o f p r o p e r t y and w e a l t h t h a t b r e d a l o v e o f s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h e p o s s e s s o r s o f i t , and t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f t h o s e l e s s f o r t u n a t e . v O ' C o n n e l l ' s demands f o r C a t h o l i c e q u a l i t y i n I r e l a n d , and t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h 82. G i o v a n n i C o s t i g a n , The Makers o f Modern E n g l a n d ; F o r c e s o f I n d i v i d u a l G e n i u s . (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1967), P. 17. I n 1795 Bentham met O ' C o n n e l l , whom he t h e n r e f e r r e d t o as "Dan, d e a r c h i l d " . 83- K. F. Roche, " R e v o l u t i o n and C o u n t e r - R e v o l u t i o n " , i n T i e r n e y , ed., N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s , p. 75. 39 f r o m t h e S t a t e j p i s a l s o p a r t o f h i s same p r o t e s t a g a i n s t what he b e l i e v e d w a s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o p p r e s s i o n o f t h e U n i o n . B o t h he a n d Bentham c r i t i c i z e d what t h e y d e s c r i b e d a s t h e e v i l s o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h i n I r e l a n d , i n h e r e n t i n t h e U n i o n ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n I r e l a n d t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h d i d n o t f u l f i l l i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n w i t h t h e C a t h o l i c s , b e c a u s e t h e y were s e p a r a t e d f r o m i t . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h t o o k upon i t s e l f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e S t a t e a s t h e e x p o u n d e r o f t h e " S a c r e d Volume", and demanded i t s p r o t e c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o e x c l u s i v e p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h t h e members o f o t h e r c h u r c h e s d i d n o t s h a r e . ^ O ' C o n n e l l ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h C a t h o l i c i s m was p a r t o f h i s i n d i g n a n t p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e i n j u s t i c e s done them u n d e r s u c h a s y s t e m , whose m a i n r a t i o n a l e was t h a t t h e y were d i s -l o y a l and r e p r e s e n t e d a p e r s e c u t i n g r e l i g i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , he p o i n t e d o u t , I r i s h C a t h o l i c s have e x h i b i t e d t h e s t r a n g e i n s t a n c e , unknown t o any o t h e r p e o p l e on t h e f a c e o f t h e e a r t h , o f h a v i n g n e v e r been a c c u s e d o f p e r s e c u t i n g , t h o u g h t h r e e t i m e s r e s t o r e d from p e r s e c u t i o n i n t o power. ... I b e l o n g t o t h o s e p e o p l e . I am a d e s c e n d a n t o f them. T h e i r f e e l i n g s l i v e i n me, and I p r o n o u n c e t h e i r v o i c e s f r o m t h e g r a v e . 85. 8 4 . J o h n B o w r i n g , ed., The Works o f Jeremy Bentham. (11 v o l s . ; E d i n b u r g h : W i l l i a m T a i t , 1838-1843). V o l . I I , The Book o f F a l l a c i e s , p. 4 4 9 . 8 5 . L e v y , ed., D i s c u s s i o n on R e p e a l , p. 64 f« 40 B r i t i s h f e a r s o f C a t h o l i c d o m i n a t i o n , he e x p l a i n e d , were u n f o u n d e d / s i n c e t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t t h e C a t h o l i c m a j o r i t y i n I r e l a n d . These i n c l u d e d a P r o t e s t a n t monarch, and a P r o t e s t a n t P e e r a g e i n t h e House o f L o r d s t h a t c o u l d v e t o t h e a n t i - P r o t e s t a n t l e g i s l a t i o n or o f a r e s t o r e d I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t . O ' C o n n e l l u n t i m a t e l y hoped t o a r o u s e B r i t i s h l i b e r a l s %Q a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e a n a c h r o n i s t i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c C h u r c h w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h s t a t e . I n E n g l a n d and S c o t l a n d , he a r g u e d , " t h e c h u r c h o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e i s t h e endowed c h u r c h " , whereas, i n I r e l a n d i t was u n j u s t t h a t " t h e U n i o n ... c o m p e l l e d t h e m a j o r i t y ... t o 87 s u p p o r t t h e c h u r c h o f t h e m i n o r i t y " . ' P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , he e q u a l l y condemned t h e p o l i t i c a l l y m o n o p o l i s t i c p o s i t i o n o f any c h u r c h , e v e n t h o u g h i t r e p r e -s e n t e d t h e m a j o r i t y , f o r a s s u c h i t was o p p r e s s i v e a s i t e x c l u d e d t h e m i n o r i t y . These same p r i n c i p l e s made him i n s i s t t h a t t h e " C a t h o l i c Q u e s t i o n " was n o t a s e c t a r i a n i s s u e , b u t r a t h e r , was c o n c e r n e d w i t h " l i b e r t y f o r you a l l " , and t h e s e a r e " t h e s e n t i m e n t s ... w h i c h have c h a r a c t e r i z e d my whole l i f e " . 8 8 86. L e v y , ed., D i s c u s s i o n on R e p e a l , p. 55. 87. L o c . c i t . 88. I b i d . . p. 20. 41 " The i n d i g n a t i o n he f e l t a g a i n s t t h e i n j u s t i c e done h i s i C a t h o l i c c o u n t r y m e n was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e weak p o s i t i o n o f h i s m i n o r i t y p a r t y i n t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t . T h u s , h i s i n h e r e n t r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t c o m b i n e d w i t h h i s p o l i t i c a l p r a g m a t i s m d r o v e h i m t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e o n l y p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n I r e l a n d p o w e r f u l enough t o a c t a s a p r e s s u r e g r o u p a g a i n s t the . B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t ; n a m e l y , t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , w h i c h had c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e I r i s h p e a s a n t r y s i n c e t h e R e f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . O ' C o n n e l l f o u n d t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c C h u r c h e m i n e n t l y f i t t e d , b o t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n m o r a l i n f l u e n c e , t o p l a y t h e r o l e t h a t v/ould b e s t c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s movement . The P e n a l Law e r a had c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e C h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h t h e p e a s a n t r y , a s t h e y had s h a r e d a common p o l i t i c a l and e conomi c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by t h e E s t a b l i s h e d P r o t e s t a n t C h u r c h and s t a t e . The P r o t e s t a n t s t a t e h a d , b y d e p r i v i n g t h e C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y o f l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n and s t a t e endowments , i n c r e a s e d t h e d e m o c r a t i c s p i r i t and t h e d e - c e n t r a l i z i n g f o r c e s among t h e c l e r g y . The l o w e r c l e r g y became , i n c o n s e q u e n c e , more bound t o t he p e a s a n t r y t o whom t h e y owed t h e i r s o c i a l o r i g i n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . ^ 8 9 . E. L a r k i n , " C h u r c h and S t a t e i n I r e l a n d " . C h u r c h H i s t o r y . XXX I ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 2 9 4 - 3 0 6 . Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w ( Ed inbu rgh ) - , LXXV I ( 1 8 4 3 ) , p. 2 8 2 . P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I I , p . 65-' To S i r R o b e r t P e e l , f r o m S i r James G r a h a m ' , O c t o b e r 2 0 , 1843. 42 - I n a d d i t i o n , t h e C a t h o l i c p r e l a t e s , b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s t h e u n r e c o g n i z e d " C h u r c h o f I r e l a n d " t h a t had t o d e f e n d i t s m i s s i o n a r y r o l e a g a i n s t t h e i n t r u s i v e P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h m e n t , were a l s o c o m m i t t e d t o a d e f e n c e o f t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c p e o p l e w h e r e v e r n e c e s s a r y , and t h e y c o u l d n o t r i s k a l i e n a t i o n by i g n o r i n g t h e economic g r i e v a n c e s o f t h e i r f l o c k . The s y s t e m o f n o m i n a t i o n o f b i s h o p s p r a c t i c e d i n t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c C h u r c h s i n c e P e n a l days a l l o w e d them a measure o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , b o t h from t h e S t a t e and t h e P a p a c y , b u t t h i s , i n t u r n , had bound them more c l o s e l y t o t h e Lower C l e r g y and t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s t h e y s e r v e d . I n t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f b i s h o p s t h e Pope u s u a l l y c o n f o r m e d t o t h e most p o p u l a r v e r d i c t o f t h e 90 I r i s h c l e r g y . D u r i n g t h e 1840's t h e R e p e a l a g i t a t i o n o f O ' C o n n e l l had the s u p p o r t o f D r . M i c h a e l S l a t t e r y , who had e a r l i e r been n o m i n a t e d f o r A r c h b i s h o p o f C a s h e l t h r o u g h t h e w i s h e s o f h i s c l e r g y , and a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e 91 B r i t i s h government. Dr . J o h n MacHale, one o f t h e most a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r s o f O ' C o n n e l l , was a l s o e l e c t e d t o t h e 92 A r c h d i o c e s e o f Tuam a g a i n s t a h o s t i l e B r i t i s h o p p o s i t i o n . 90. J o h n H. Whyte, " A p p o i n t m e n t o f C a t h o l i c B i s h o p s i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y I r e l a n d " . C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , X L V I I I (1962/3), 32. 91. J o h n H. Whyte, "The I n f l u e n c e o f the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n E l e c t i o n s i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y I r e l a n d " . E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . LXXV ( i 9 6 0 ) , 239-259. G r e v i l l e , Memoirs, V o l . I I . (December 1843). C i t e d i n B e r n a r d O ' R e i l l y , J o h n MacHale. A r c h b i s h o p o f Tuam, H i s L i f e , T i m e s , and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . (2 v o l s . ; New Y o r k : F r . P u s t e t , 1890). V o l . I , p. 547 f . 92. Norman Moore, "MacHale, J o h n " , D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y . ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1917), X I I , 551. 43 These two a r c h d i o c e s e s l a y i n t h e P r o v i n c e s o f M u n s t e r and Connaught w h i c h were d e s c r i b e d a s p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h e I r i s h 9 3 "Lower N a t i o n " s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g a r e a , ^ and i t was f r o m t h e s e a r e a s t h a t t h e s t r o n g e s t s u p p o r t f o r R e p e a l was d e r i v e d I n d e e d , D r . J o h n MacHale o f Tuam was a l l i e d t o O ' C o n n e l l t o s u c h a n e x t e n t i n t h e R e p e a l Movement a f t e r 184-1 t h a t he gave h i s name t o t h e C a t h o l i c P a r t y o f MacHale w h i c h Oh s u p p o r t e d O ' C o n n e l l . ^ The r e s t o f I r e l a n d was d e s c r i b e d a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e "Upper N a t i o n " , so d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g more s u b j e c t t o E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e . The C a t h o l i c A r c h b i s h o p o f D u b l i n , D r . D a n i e l M u r r a y , and t h e C a t h o l i c A r c h b i s h o p o f Armagh, D r . W i l l i a m 9 5 C r o l l y , y were l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a , and were c o m p e l l e d t o be 93' N a s s a u S e n i o r , J o u r n a l s . C o n v e r s a t i o n s and E s s a y s R e l a t i n g t o I r e l a n d . (2 v o l s . ; London: Longman, G r e e n , 1 8 6 8 ) . V o l . 1, p. 23 f . He h e r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e "Lower N a t i o n " , a l s o i n c l u d i n g D o n e g a l i n U l s t e r , and some c o u n t i e s i n L e i n s t e r . T a i t ' s . X I I (May 1 8 4 5 ) , p. 4 0 5 -Here t h e E n g l i s h i d e n t i f i e d I r e l a n d as d i v i d e d i n t o " l o w e r " and " u p p e r " n a t i o n s . 94-- B e r n a r d O ' R e i l l y , J o h n MacHale. A r c h b i s h o p o f Tuam; H i s L i f e . T i m e s . and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . (2 v o l s . ; New Y o r k : 1890). V o l . I , p. 4 9 6 f f . See a l s o page 5 4 5 where, d e s p i t e s u p p o r t f o r R e p e a l , MacHal was f e a r f u l o f t h e "monster m e e t i n g s " o f O ' C o n n e l l . 95. C o o p e r , Thompson, " C r o l l y , W i l l i a m " , D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y , V, 135' W i l l i a m C r o l l y (1780-1849) was e d u c a t e d i n a grammar s c h o o l o p e r a t e d by U n i t a r i a n s and a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t . He was B i s h o p o f Armagh, 1835-1849. G i l b e r t , J o h n Thomas, "Mur r a y , D a n i e l " , D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y . X I I I , 1249-B o r n i n 1768, he was A r c h b i s h o p o f D u b l i n (1823-1852). Nowlan, K e v i n B., " M u r r a y , D a n i e l " , Hew C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1967), X, 86. 44 more a c q u i e s c e n t t o B r i t i s h r u l e "because o f t h i s . D r . C r o l l y , "because o f h i s r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n a s P r i m a t e o f t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , showed more p o l i t i c a l acumen t o w a r d s b o t h s i d e s t h a n many o f t h e o t h e r b i s h o p s . He embodied t h e more n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h b u r e a u c r a c y t o w a r d s t h e S t a t e . " I t w a t c h e s , w a i t s , and b a r g a i n s f o r t i m e , u s i n g 'human 96 methods f o r h e a v e n l y ends'". The P a r t y o f M a c H a l e , l i k e O ' C o n n e l l , b a s e d i t s s u p p o r t o f t h e R e p e a l Movement on h u m a n i t a r i a n g r o u n d s i n d e f e n c e o f t h e I r i s h Lower N a t i o n . I t b e l i e v e d R e p e a l w o u l d l e a d t o a government more o r i e n t a t e d t o w a r d s s o c i a l j u s t i c e i n I r e l a n d . The P i l o t , w h i c h became t h e most i m p o r t a n t C a t h o l i c newspaper 9 7 a d v o c a t e o f O ' C o n n e l l ' s s e n t i m e n t s on R e p e a l , e x p l a i n e d t h e e s s e n t i a l l e a d e r s h i p r o l e o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n I r e l a n d , s i n c e t h e C a t h o l i c m a j o r i t y had o f t e n an a l i e n o r a b s e n t e e s e c u l a r a r i s t o c r a c y . The C a t h o l i c C h u r c h was t h e o n l y o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d " p r e s e r v e t h e c o n f e d e r a c y o f t h e I r i s h mind", and p e a c e a b l y w i n c o n c e s s i o n s from G r e a t B r i t a i n . 98. T h i s C a t h o l i c R e p e a l P a r t y t h u s p r o v i d e d O ' C o n n e l l w i t h a v i t a l l i n k i n t h e R e p e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n between t h e p a r t y 96. O ' F a o l a i n , The I r i s h , p. 116 f . 97. M a c i n t y r e , The L i b e r a t o r , p. 83-85. I n d i c a t e s t h e use O ' C o n n e l l made o f t h e p r e s s . 98. The P i l o t ( D u b l i n ) , December 9, 1844. 45 h e a d q u a r t e r s i n D u b l i n and t h e p e o p l e o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h t h e l o c a l p a r i s h e s . ^ 9 i j r n e i r j _ s h p r i e s t s , t h r o u g h t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h e c h u r c h , and t h e p o s i t i o n o f t r u s t t h e y h e l d i n t h e l o c a l community, were i n f l u e n t i a l a g e n t s w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n t o p r o p a g a t e , and t o c o l l e c t " r e n t " f o r t h e P a r t y . A p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l had a l r e a d y b e e n formed d u r i n g t h e a g i t a t i o n f o r C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n b e f o r e 1829, and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n a f t e r 1829, a l l o w e d O ' C o n n e l l and o t h e r C a t h o l i c s , d e s c r i b e d b y t h e E n g l i s h p r e s s a s " d i s a g r e e a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e a v e r a g e E n g l i s h M. P.", f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t o l e a d t h e movement i n t h e B r i t i s h House o f P a r l i a m e n t , M c D o w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t s i n c e t h e A c t o f U n i o n , up t o t h e t i m e o f C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n , t h e I r i s h M. P.s s o c i a l l y were o f t e n r e l a t e d t o t h e g r e a t B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l f a m i l i e s , p r o d u c i n g a P r i m e M i n i s t e r , a F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y , a l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , a S e c r e t a r y o f War, and two o f t h e most a d m i r e d o r a t o r s . A t f i r s t , t h e E n g l i s h were s u r p r i s e d t h a t t h e s e I r i s h M. P.s l o o k e d so much l i k e t h e m s e l v e s . 1 ^ The D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y M a g a z i n e l o o k e d b a c k t o t h o s e e a r l y p o s t - U n i o n days w i t h C o n s e r v a t i v e n o s t a l g i a : t w e n t y y e a r s s i n c e , amongst our r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s were s e v e r a l members o f p o l i t i c a l marks ... i n 1827 we c o u l d p o i n t t o P l u n k e t t , ... t o S i r H e n r y P a r n e l l w i t h h i s c o p i o u s 99. M a c i n t y r e , The L i b e r a t o r , p. 88 and 91. 100. R o b e r t B r e n d a n M c D o w e l l , P u b l i c O p i n i o n and Government P o l i c y i n I r e l a n d . 1801 -1846. (London: F a b e r , 1952), p. 18 f . 46 knowledge ... t o Mr. N o r t h w i t h h i s uncommon e l o q u e n c e ... u n d o u b t e d l y a g e n i u s ... p r o -f i c i e n t i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f B u r k e , and a p u p i l i n t h e e l o q u e n c e o f C a n n i n g . 101. T h i s m a g a z i n e a l s o r e f e r r e d t o t h e o l d - s t y l e C a t h o l i c I r i s h g e n t r y who knew t h e i r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y : M o r r i s F i t z g e r a l d , K n i g h t o f K e r r y , t h e head o f a p r o u d r a c e t h a t l o o k e d down upon h a l f t h e p e e r a g e . . . . He was a h i g h - m i n d e d I r i s h c h i e f t a i n , w i t h t h e c o u r t l y manners o f an I r i s h m a n o f t h e good o l d s c h o o l . 102. The emergence o f t h e r a d i c a l O ' C o n n e l l C a t h o l i c - t o n e d p a r t y was r e g a r d e d w i t h d i s t a s t e . I t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a t t a c k e d "by t h e u l t r a - C o n s e r v a t i v e p r e s s a s " d e l e g a t e s o f P o p e r y " , and a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f an I r i s h p r i e s t h o o d t h a t " c o n t r o l l e d an i g n o r a n t p e a s a n t r y ... i n whom t h e v i r t u e s o f a savage a r e l o s t , and t h o s e o f a c i v i l i z e d man a r e n o t y e t 103 a c q u i r e d " . O ' C o n n e l l , as t h e l e a d e r from 1829 , became t h e c e n t r e o f s u c h a t t a c k s , and t h e r a d i c a l o v e r t o n e s o f h i s p a r t y were e s p e c i a l l y d e p l o r e d . I n no d e p a r t m e n t o f m o r a l o r i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r t i o n has I r e l a n d , d u r i n g t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , been so b a d l y r e p r e s e n t e d a s i n p o l i t i c s . . . . When we examine t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n we a r e p a i n f u l l y r e m i n d e d t h a t we have r e t r o g r a d e d . Mr. O ' C o n n e l l , d o u b t -l e s s , o c c u p i e s a v a s t space i n t h e news-p a p e r s . W i t h g l a r i n g e v i d e n c e b e f o r e us 101 . D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y M a g a z i n e . X X I X (March 1847 ) , 386. 102. L o c . c i t . 1 ° 3 ' B l a c k w o o d M a g a z i n e ( E d i n b u r g h ) , XL, p. 2 9 7 ; and X L V I , p. 190. 47 t h a t he i s a p r i n c i p a l p a r t n e r i n t h e v i c e - r e g a l government, he i s m a s t e r o f a t a i l o f t h i r t y -d o c i l e members o f P a r l i a m e n t To o b t a i n power o v e r t h e p o p u l a c e , and p o p u l a r i t y amongst the Roman C a t h o l i c m i d d l e c l a s s e s , h a s been t h e s o l e o b j e c t ( o f O ' C o n n e l l ) s i n c e E m a n c i p a t i o n was c o n c e d e d i n 1829. 10if. . P e e l r e g r e t t e d t h e emergence o f t h i s p a r t y t o w h i c h he a t t r i b u t e d t h e "mean, v i o l e n t e l e c t i o n c o n t e s t s now between Roman C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t , and t h e emergence o f a d i s t i n c t Roman C a t h o l i c P a r t y i n t h e House". I t was c l e a r t h a t t h e O ' C o n n e l l l e a d e r s h i p c h a l l e n g e d t h e P r o t e s t a n t a s c e n d a n c y , m a k i n g t h e C a t h o l i c q u e s t i o n a m a j o r i s s u e i n B r i t i s h p o l i t i c s , w h e r e a s , b e f o r e i t was a n o v e l and t i r e s o m e o n e .""^ More i m p o r t a n t , i t q u e s t i o n e d t r a d i t i o n , p r o v i d i n g a d i s t u r b i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f power w h i c h c o u l d be w i e l d e d by a p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n managed by m i d d l e c l a s s p o l i t i c i a n s . ^ T h i s was t o become, a t i t s g r a s s r o o t s i n I r e l a n d d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f t h e R e p e a l a g i t a t i o n , a n o r g a n i z a t i o n e x c e e d i n g a n y t h i n g o f t h e same k i n d d i r e c t e d so a s t o f o r m many o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a l e g i t i m a t e government ... i t s one great p u r p o s e b e i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . A g a i n s t i t were t h e r e s o u r c e s o f an e m p i r e — a r m i e s , f l e e t s , r a i l w a y s and s t e a m e r s . 107. T h i s mass movement, ac c o m p a n i e d by " m o n s t e r m e e t i n g s " , O ' C o n n e l l was c a r e f u l t o e x p l a i n , was s t r i c t l y p e a c e f u l , 10A. D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y M a g a z i n e . XXIX ( M a r c h 1847), 386 f . 105. M c D o w e l l , P u b l i c O p i n i o n , p. 86. He c i t e s P e e l ' s s p e e c h from: H a n s a r d . 3d S e r i e s , 36 (184D, 307-309. 106. I b i d . , p. 106. 107. The I l l u s t r a t e d London News. O c t o b e r 14, 1843. 48 and h a d had a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e c e d e n t o n a n a t i o n a l s c a l e i n B r i t a i n , i n t h e R e f o r m C l u b s o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y R e f o r m Movement o f 1 8 3 1 - 1 0 8 O ' C o n n e l l ' s t a c t i c s h e r e had s t r o n g p r a g m a t i c o v e r t o n e s . He r e c o g n i z e d t h a t P a r l i a m e n t a r y t a c t i c s were n o t enough, a s t h e I r i s h p a r t y i n t e r e s t s he r e p r e s e n t e d were a m i n o r i t y a t W e s t m i n s t e r ; b u t a t t h e p o p u l a r l e v e l , t h e y m i g h t be u s e d a s a p r e s s u r e g r o u p . He had p r e c e d e n t s i n t h e R e f o r m C l u b s o f 1831 and i n t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f 1828. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n 1844 P e e l had a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e power o f t h e movement when he s t a t e d t h a t , a s i n I r e l a n d i n 1793, " t h e p r e s s u r e upon y o u w i l l be so g r e a t t h a t c o n c e s s i o n s w o u l d be deemed p r e f e r a b l e t o r e s i s t a n c e " . O ' C o n n e l l ' s m a j o r p r o b l e m was t o m a i n t a i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e d and u n i f i e d a s p e c t o f h i s movement, s i n c e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o c i v i l war, he b e l i e v e d , w o u l d n o t o n l y weaken i t , b u t i n v i t e p u n i t i v e measures from t h e B r i t i s h government. On t h e s e g r o u n d s he weighed h i s c h o i c e h e a v i l y on t h e s i d e o f I r i s h C a t h o l i c i s m r a t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h r a d i c a l i s m . He f e l t f o r c e d 108. H. F e r g u s o n , "The Bi r m i n g h a m P o l i t i c a l U n i o n and t h e Government, 1831-1832 " . V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s . I l l , 3 , ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 6 1 - 2 7 6 . Shaw 1s I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 4 6 6 - 5 1 6 . O ' C o n n e l l c o n f i r m s t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f a g i t a t i o n u s e d by o t h e r c u r r e n t movements. Page 479 documents e v i d e n c e o f t h e s t r i c t l y n o n - v i o l e n t n a t u r e o f t h e R e p e a l Movement. 109. T a i t ' s . X ( 1 8 4 3 ) , 8 0 4 . 49 t o d i s s o c i a t e h i s I r i s h f o l l o w e r s from t h e C h a r t i s t s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r m i l i t a n t o v e r t o n e s , d e s p i t e t h e a l l i a n c e t h e y had e f f e c t e d between t h e p o l i t i c a l l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d r a d i c a l s among t h e E n g l i s h w o r k e r s and t h e b o l d e r d i s a f f e c t e d I r i s h m i g r a n t s t o E n g l a n d . 1 1 ^ O ' C o n n e l l a l s o f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o r e j e c t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s among h i s own c o u n t r y m e n f o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s , e ven a t t h e r i s k o f l o s i n g h i s own p o p u l a r i t y . An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s was t h e t r e a t m e n t meted o u t t o h i m by t h e O p e r a t i v e s i n D u b l i n on one o c c a s i o n . Then he d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t he was p r e p a r e d t o oppose l o c a l l a b o u r i n t e r e s t s i f he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e 111 n a t i o n a l movement. He was s a v e d from i n j u r y o n l y by c h a n c e . The g r o a n s and h i s s e s became l o u d e r ... O ' C o n n e l l c o u l d n o t o b t a i n a h e a r i n g ... even h i s s t r o n g v o i c e was drowned ... we saw h i m b o r n e down and onward by a f i e r c e mass ... a d r e a d f u l s u s p i c i o n p a s s e d t h r o u g h o u r minds ... b u t t h e n we h e a r d t h a t he was a l i v e i n t h e s t r e e t b e l o w . 112. O ' C o n n e l l r e c o g n i z e d p r i m a r i l y t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f a r a d i c a l a p p e a l t o t h e E n g l i s h w o r k i n g - c l a s s e s o u t s i d e P a r -l i a m e n t , and he t h e r e f o r e r e l i e d b a s i c a l l y on t h e C a t h o l i c 110. E. P. Thompson, The M a k i n g o f t h e E n g l i s h W o r k i n g C l a s s . ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1968), 483 f . H a n s a r d . 3d S e r i e s , 72 ( F e b r u a r y 13, 1844), 707-Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 4 9 7 - 5 0 0 . 111. D u b l i n 5 e v i e w . X V I I , (September 1844), P« 11 . E x p l a i n e d t h a t a s e l f i s h a g i t a t o r , i f n o t a c t u a l l y making common cause w i t h t h e C h a r t i s t s , v/ould have a t l e a s t a v o i d e d d e n o u n c i n g them and coming i n t o c o l l i s i o n w i t h them. 112. I b i d . , p. 9 f . 50 r a d i c a l i s m o f t h e I r i s h p e a s a n t r y and t h e l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s . The p l e a o f " J u s t i c e f o r I r e l a n d " was m a i n l y l i m i t e d i n E n g l a n d t o t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n t h e R a d i c a l and L i b e r a l p r e s s , y who b e l i e v e d t h a t ' d o i n g j u s t i c e t o I r e l a n d i s t h e c h e a p e s t and most e f f e c t i v e means t o m a i n t a i n t h e U n i o n and o f p l a c i n g E n g l a n d i n s u c h a p o s i t i o n as w o u l d e n a b l e h e r t o b i d d e f i a n c e t o a w o r l d i n arms. 114. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f E n g l i s h w o r k e r s were more a r o u s e d by t h e a n t i - I r i s h C a t h o l i c p r o p a g a n d a o f t h e T o r y and t h e Whig p r e s s e s , w h i c h p r e s e n t e d "a f o r m i d a b l e 1 1 5 o b s t a c l e t o r a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n " . A t t h e l o c a l government l e v e l i n I r e l a n d , O ' C o n n e l l 1 s r a d i c a l i s m a t t e m p t e d t o remedy t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e e x i s t i n g l a w i n I r e l a n d . The "shadow government" o f 1 1 fs R e p e a l M a g i s t r a t e s and R e p e a l A r b i t r a t i o n C o u r t s was e s t a b l i s h e d a s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e l a w had become i n e f f e c t i v e i n I r e l a n d b e c a u s e i t was n o t b a s e d on e q u i t y . A l s o p e s s i -m i s t i c a b o u t t h e s u c c e s s o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y t a c t i c s , he had once c o n t e m p l a t e d b r i n g i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r on t h e 113. T a i t ' s , X ( 1 8 4 3 ) , 2 - 6 . 114- T a i t ' s . X ( 1 8 4 3 ) , 804. 115. T a i t ' s . X I I ( J u n e 1845), 615. 116. The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, A u g u s t 2 6 , 1843, P. 155 f . 51 government t h r o u g h c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e i n t h e economic s e c t o r 117 t h a t w o u l d h u r t B r i t a i n ' s economy most. U l t i m a t e l y f r u s -t r a t e d i n h i s demands f o r r e f o r m , he p l a c e d h i s p a r t y u n d e r t h e b a n n e r o f R e p e a l . ' U l t i m a t e l y , O ' C o n n e l l s o u g h t t o p r e p a r e t h e I r i s h f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h t h e s e p o l i c i e s . R e p e a l , f o r him, n e v e r i n v o l v e d c o m p l e t e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m B r i t a i n . He n e v e r d e f i n e d c l e a r l y where i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t h e i m p e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f B r i t a i n w o u l d be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h o s e o f I r e l a n d . E s s e n t i a l f o r h i m , t h o u g h , was I r e l a n d ' s c o n -t r o l o v e r h e r own f i s c a l and t r a d e p o l i c i e s , a s he b e l i e v e d t h a t economic p o v e r t y was a g g r a v a t e d by i m p e r i a l c o n t r o l i n t h i s s p h e r e . T h i s was one o f h i s main i n d i c t m e n t s a g a i n s t l i f t t h e U n i o n , t h o u g h he was p r e p a r e d t o g i v e h i s t a c i t s u p p o r t o f B r i t i s h g overnments i f t h e y were p r e p a r e d t o 1 1 Q e f f e c t a remedy. 7 117- "B. E a s t o n , "An A p p r o a c h t o t h e A n a l y s i s o f P o l i t i c a l S y s t e m s " . W o r l d P o l i t i c s . I X ( 1957) , 383-4-00. M c D o w e l l , P u b l i c O p i n i o n , p. 18 f . C i t e s N a t i o n (September 9 , 1843)• O ' C o n n e l l s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p e o p l e r e f u s e t o c u t t h e h a r v e s t , and a b s t a i n f r o m b u y i n g e x c i s a b l e a r t i c l e s . 118. L e v y , e d . , D i s c u s s i o n on R e p e a l , p. 44 f . 119. A. H. Graham, "The L i c h f i e l d House Compact, 1835", I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s . X I I , 47 (March 1961), 209-225-F i t z p a t r i c k , e d., C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f 0 ' C o n n e l l . V o l . I I , p. 131, f o o t n o t e 1. O ' C o n n e l l c o n s e n t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e Whig government, b u t t h e r e i s no documented e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s o -c a l l e d " L i c h f i e l d House Compact" e x i s t e d , though i t s c o r d i a l a l l i a n c e was p u b l i c l y avowed. O ' C o n n e l l s a i d : " I j o i n e d t h e moment t h e y d i s p l a y e d an a n x i e t y t o do a t a r d y j u s t i c e t o I r e l a n d " . 52 U l t i m a t e l y p e s s i m i s t i c o f t h e s u c c e s s o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y t a c t i c s t o a c h i e v e r e f o r m , he demanded R e p e a l o f t h e U n i o n . He c l a i m e d t h a t t h e A c t o f U n i o n was i l l e g a l , p a r t l y b e c a u s e he d o u b t e d t h a t t h e A c t c o u l d be r e p e a l e d i n t h e E n g l i s h P a r l i a m e n t . H i s argument t o s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w o f t h e U n i o n was t o s u g g e s t t h a t i t was f o r c e d on t h e I r i s h p e o p l e , so 120 i t v/as no c o n t r a c t . From t h i s , he a r g u e d t h a t t h e I r i s h n a t i o n had no r i g h t t o t r a n s f e r t h e power o f m a k i n g l a w s i n t o o t h e r h a n d s — t h e power o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e b e i n g d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p e o p l e . To c o n f i r m t h i s s e c o n d o p i n i o n he q u o t e d t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r , J o h n L o c k e , from 121 w h i c h t h e modern B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n was d e r i v e d . As p a r t o f t h e s e same t a c t i c s , O ' C o n n e l l i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e Queen m i g h t i s s u e w r i t s t o convene t h e I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t , and w h a t e v e r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n w r i t , t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n w o u l d c u r e a l l o f them. He q u o t e d t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e E n g l i s h P a r l i a m e n t a f t e r t h e " G l o r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n " o f 1688 as a 122 p r e c e d e n t . A f u t u r e I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t , he b e l i e v e d , 120. L e v y , e d . , D i s c u s s i o n on R e p e a l , p. 37• 121. I b i d . , p. 35-' The I l l u s t r a t e d London News. A u g u s t 26, 1843. p. 135 f . A t t h e T a r a m e e t i n g , O ' C o n n e l l c l a i m e d t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e o f I r e l a n d was u s u r p e d by t h e A c t o f U n i o n , and h i s R e p e a l A s s o c i a t i o n c l a i m e d most o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e . 122. L e v y , OP_. c i t . . p. 63. 53 c o u l d be r e s t o r e d i n . t h e s p i r i t o f 1782 when l e g i t i m a c y and permanency was c l a i m e d f o r a n i n d e p e n d e n t I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t 123 r e s t o r e d by t h e Crown. The Crown was t h u s t o r e m a i n a s a v i t a l s y m b o l o f l o y a l t y and u n i t y . No o t h e r framework o f I r i s h s e p a r a t i s m , O ' C o n n e l l b e l i e v e d , was p o s s i b l e o r a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e s i s t e r i s l a n d , B r i t a i n . When t h e Young I r e l a n d g r oup i n h i s own p a r t y c a l l e d t h e Queen " a f o r e i g n p o t e n t a t e . . . . I f she w i l l v i s i t I r e l a n d she w i l l be met w i t h a c r y o f R e p e a l . . . . I t w i l l make h e r c o u r s e r s t r e m b l e , " he d i s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f f rom them, and i n d i c a t e d t h a t "no one 125 had more r e s p e c t t h a n he f o r t h e Queen". T h i s a t t i t u d e o f O ' C o n n e l l t o w a r d s t h e Crown e m p h a s i z e d t h e l e g i t i m a c y a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l n a t u r e o f h i s movement a b r o a d . B r i t a i n , , d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f t h e R e p e a l a g i t a t i o n , a t t e m p t e d t o p e r s u a d e t h e Pope t h a t t h e I r i s h c l e r g y s h o u l d r e f r a i n f r o m s u p p o r t i n g i t , b e c a u s e i t was s e d i t i o u s , and a g a i n s t t h r o n e s . The Pope p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e I r i s h R e p e a l e r s were c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t h e i r methods, and c o u l d n o t be a c c u s e d o f b e i n g r e b e l s o r a n a r c h i s t s , s i n c e " t h e I r i s h p r o t e s t e d l o y a l t y t o t h e Queen". T h e i r p r o f e s s e d a i m was n o t h i n g more t h a n t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n betwee] 123. C u r t i s , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d , p. 315. 124- S p e c t a t o r . May 3, 1845- P- 414. 125. S p e c t a t o r . May 10, 1845. P- 440. 54 two p a r t s o f t h e E m p i r e . They c l a i m e d t o c o n f i n e t h e m s e l v e s 126 t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l methods. O ' C o n n e l l ' s d i r e c t a p p e a l t o t h e t h r o n e d u r i n g t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f Queen V i c t o r i a ' s r e i g n was made a l s o i n t h e ' h o p e t h a t t h e young Queen m i g h t use h e r i n f l u e n c e f o r I r e l a n d , e v e n t h o u g h Queen V i c t o r i a , a s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarch, e x p l a i n e d , t h e government c o u l d h a r d l y a c t on h e r o p i n i o n . He was e n c o u r a g e d i n t h e hope t h a t "we a r e t o 1 PR "be t h e f r i e n d s o f t h e Queen", and w r o t e t h a t "we s h o u l d r a l l y r o u n d t h e t h r o n e , " b e c a u s e he hoped t h a t t h e Whig M i n i s t r y " d e s i r e d h o n e s t l y and f a i t h f u l l y t o s e r v e t h e p e o p l e o f I r e l a n d " . y D u r i n g 1837 some i n I r e l a n d f o n d l y r e g a r d e d t h e young Queen as " t h e b r i g h t s t a r o f hope". The l i b e r a l i t y o f h e r mother, t h e Duchess o f K e n t , had been a d v e r t i s e d . The D u b l i n E v e n i n g P o s t o f June 2 1 , 1836 a c -k n o w l e d g e d the h20 w h i c h had been s e n t by h e r t o t h e Tuam 1 30 C a t h o l i c C a t h e d r a l . ^ T h i s s m a l l g i f t t o t h e f a m i n e f r i n g e 126. J o h n F. B r o d e r i c k , H o l y See and t h e I r i s h Move-ment f o r t h e R e p e a l o f t h e U n i o n w i t h E n g l a n d . 1829-1847. (Romae: U n i v e r s i t a t i s G r e g o r i a n a e , 1951), P« 179 f . 127. A r t h u r Benson, ed., The L e t t e r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a (3 v o l s . ; London: J o h n M u r r a y , 1907). V o l . I I , p. 113. 128. F i t z p a t r i c k , ed., C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f O ' C o n n e l l . V o l . I I , p. 103. 'To P. F i t z p a t r i c k , from D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ' London, June 2 8 , 1837. 129. Loc.. c i t . 'To A r t h u r F r e n c h , S e c r e t a r y t o t h e G e n e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , f rom D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ' , London, June 2 8 , 1837-130. L o c . c i t . (same l e t t e r ) . 55 o f I r e l a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t r o y a l t y v/as b e n e v o l e n t , and i t f i t t e d w e l l w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g i d e a s o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y 1x i C a t h o l i c p e a s a n t r y who a t t e n d e d t h e R e p e a l m e e t i n g s . These b e l i e f s were u s e d by t h e C a t h o l i c l e a d e r s t o f u n n e l t h e move-ment' i n t o p e a c e f u l c h a n n e l s , a s was i l l u s t r a t e d a t a m e e t i n g a t T u l l a m o r e on S eptember 26, 1839 when, " a t t h e end o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s , t h e r e v/ere t h r e e c h e e r s f o r t h e Queen, and t h r e e 1 32 ' h a r t y ' c h e e r s f o r R e p e a l . y O ' C o n n e l l , who d e d i c a t e d h i s h i s t o r y , A. Memoir on I r e l a n d ; N a t i v e and S a x o n , t o t h e "Queen o f G r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d " , a p p e a l e d t o h e r i n h i s p r e f a c e , i n t h e name o f r o y a l j u s t i c e , a g a i n s t t h e T o r y l a n d l o r d c l a s s w h i c h t h r o u g h B r i t i s h p r o s p e r i t y ... i s g i v e n p r o t e c t i o n ... and s u p p o r t s t h a t a n t i - I r i s h f a c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d once a g a i n t r a n s p l a n t t h e C a t h o l i c s o f I r e l a n d t o t h e r e m o t e s t r e g i o n s . 134' The r e a c t i o n o f t h e Queen t o O ' C o n n e l l d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f h i s a g i t a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t she had o n l y a l i m i t e d g r a s p 131. S p e c t a t o r . A p r i l 12, 1845- p. 337-The w r i t e r h e r e made an i n d i r e c t t r i b u t e t o O ' C o n n e l l : " I f we a r e t o have R e p e a l , and a n I r i s h s o v e r e i g n , t h e l i v i n g O ' C o n n e l l , t h e l e a d e r o f a n a t i o n a l p a r t y , i s w o r t h a l l t h e B r i e n s t h a t e v e r b a r d s f a b l e d " . I n 1830 some o f t h e B e l g i a n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s hoped t h a t O ' C o n n e l l w o u l d o c c u p y t h e i r v a c a n t t h r o n e . 132. Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 201. 133. D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , A. Memoir on I r e l a n d ; N a t i v e and S axon. 1172-1660. ( D u b l i n : James D u f f y , 1854), P- v i i . T h i s i s t h e o n l y p u b l i s h e d h i s t o r y b y D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ; t h o u g h he p l a n n e d s e v e r a l v o l u m e s , o n l y one was c o m p l e t e d and p u b l i s h e d . 134. I b i d . . p. x - x i i . 56 o f I r i s h a f f a i r s . She had t h e m i s t a k e n v i e w t h a t O ' G o n n e l l h a d p e r s o n a l l y e n c o u r a g e d F r e n c h a i d f o r I r e l a n d i n 1843. The g r e a t e v e n t o f t h e day i s O ' C o n n e l l ' s a r r e s t . ... The c a s e a g a i n s t him i s v e r y s t r o n g , t h e l a w y e r s s a y . E v e r y t h i n g i s p e r f e c t l y q u i e t a t ' D u b l i n . You w i l l have s e e n how O ' C o n n e l l h a s ab u s e d (the K i n g o f F r a n c e , L o u i s P h i l i p p e ) . . . . I t i s a l l b e c a u s e o u r v i s i t t o you has p u t an end o f any hope o f any a s s i s t a n c e f r o m F r a n c e . 135. I n r e p l y t o V i c e r o y L o r d B e s s b o r o u g h ' s p r e s s i n g s u g g e s t i o n t h a t she v i s i t I r e l a n d , she e x p r e s s e d h e r d i s t a s t e and l a c k o f sympathy f o r t h e e n t e r p r i s e . I t i s a j o u r n e y w h i c h must one day o r o t h e r be u n d e r t a k e n , and w h i c h t h e Queen w o u l d be g l a d t o have a c c o m p l i s h e d , b e c a u s e i t must be d i s a g r e e a b l e t o h e r t h a t p e o p l e s h o u l d s p e c u l a t e w h e t h e r she d a r e v i s i t one p a r t o f h e r d o m i n i o n . . . . As t h i s i s n o t a j o u r n e y o f p l e a s u r e , l i k e t h e Queen's f o r m e r ones, b u t a S t a t e a c t ... i t c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e main expense o f i t s h o u l d f a l l upon t h e C i v i l L i s t . 136. L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l was c o m p e l l e d , as h e r P r i m e M i n i s t e r , t o e x p l a i n t h e famine c o n d i t i o n s o f I r e l a n d when he d o u b t e d t h e p r o p r i e t y o f e n c o u r a g i n g I r i s h p r o p r i e t o r s t o l a y o u t money i n show and ceremony a t a t i m e when t h e a c c o u n t s o f t h e p o t a t o c r o p e x h i b i t t h e m i s e r y and d i s -t r e s s o f the p e o p l e i n an a g g r a v a t e d s t a t e . 137. 135. B e n s o n , ed., L e t t e r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a . V o l . I , p. 621 . 'To t h e K i n g o f B e l g i u m , from Queen V i c t o r i a ' , W i n d s o r C a s t l e , O c t o b e r 17, 1843. 136. I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 111. 'To L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l , from Queen V i c t o r i a ' , B uckingham P a l a c e , A u g u s t 3> 184-6. 137. I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 112. 'To Queen V i c t o r i a , from L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l ' , Chesham P l a c e , A u g u s t 4 , 1846. 37 When she d i d v i s i t I r e l a n d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , i n 1849, m a j o r f a m i n e had i n t e r v e n e d . I n t h e l880's she was t o p r o v e a g a i n u n e q u a l t o t h e t a s k o f t h e Home R u l e T r a d i t i o n t h a t O ' C o n n e l l had l e f t t o t h e B r i t i s h L i b e r a l P r i m e M i n i -s t e r , W i l l i a m G l a d s t o n e , t o f u l f i l l . The E u r o p e a n fame o f D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , t h e l i b e r a l C a t h o l i c , i n t h e 1840's had a l r e a d y s h o c k e d G l a d s t o n e o u t o f h i s E n g l i s h i n s u l a r c o n -c e p t i o n o f t h e s e c t a r i a n n a t u r e o f t h e I r i s h movement. I t was t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e r a d i c a l t r a d i t i o n s o f B r i t a i n w i t h i n t h e framework o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarchy, combined w i t h t h e i r C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n a l h e r i t a g e , t h a t gave t h e I r i s h movement, l e d by D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , i t s d i s t i n c t i v e f o r c e , b o t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l and a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . 138. B e n s o n , ed., L e t t e r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a . V o l . I I , p. 269. •To S i r George G r e y , f r o m t h e E a r l o f C l a r e n d o n ' , V i c e r e g a l Lodge, D u b l i n , A u g u s t 14, 1849. 139. J o h n Lawrence L e B r e t o n Hammond, G l a d s t o n e and t h e I r i s h N a t i o n (London: Longmans, G r e e n , 1938), p. 738 f . Hammond a r g u e s t h a t G l a d s t o n e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n mind o f O ' C o n n e l l . They were men who l i v e d i n t h e wisdom o f t h e a g e s , and who had t o s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e c i r c l e o f an i s l a n d mind o f t h e E n g l i s h r u l i n g c l a s s . C h a p t e r I I I . B R I T I S H ATTEMPTS TO DIVIDE CATHOLIC REPEALERS FROM THE I R I S H PUBLIC. The T r i a l o f D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . 1844-. The T r a v e r s e r s s t a n d i n d i c t e d f o r h a v i n g c o n s p i r e d t o c r e a t e h a t r e d a g a i n s t t he C o n s t i t u t i o n and government, a s by l a w e s t a b l i s h e d , e s p e c i a l l y t o w a r d s H e r M a j e s t y ' s s u b j e c t s i n E n g l a n d . — A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l T. B. C. S m i t h . My c l i e n t s i n t h i s c a s e a r e t h e I r i s h p e o p l e - my c l i e n t i s I r e l a n d - and I s t a n d h e r e t h e a d v o c a t e o f t h e r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e s o f t h a t p e o p l e . — D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . 1 ' 140. Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 2. 141. I b i d . . p. 466. C h a p t e r I I I . B R ITISH ATTEMPTS TO DIVIDE CATHOLIC REPEALERS FROM THE I R I S H PUBLIC. The T r i a l o f D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . 1844. The t r i a l o f D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l and o t h e r l e a d e r s o f R e p e a l i n 1844 on " c h a r g e s o f t r e a s o n a b l e c o n s p i r a c y " was p a r t o f a g e n e r a l government p l a n t o d i v i d e and weaken t h e C a t h o l i c R e p e a l Movement i n I r e l a n d . ^ 2 I t i l l u s t r a t e d , 142. Thomas D o u b l e d a y , P o l i t i c a l L i f e o f t h e R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e S i r R o b e r t P e e l , B a r t . ; An A n a l y t i c a l B i o g r a p h y . (2 v o l s . ; London: S m i t h , E l d e r & Co., 1856). V o l . I I , p. 3 2 ? . T h i s s o u r c e g i v e s t h e T o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f 1841-1846, i n c l u d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g who a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s s t u d y : F i r s t L o r d o f t h e T r e a s u r y - S i r R o b e r t P e e l (was C h i e f S e c r e t a r y t o I r e l a n d , 1813-1S19) . L o r d C h a n c e l l o r - L o r d L y n d h u r s t . Home S e c r e t a r y - S i r James Graham. F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y - E a r l o f A b e r d e e n . C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y - L o r d S t a n l e y (was C h i e f S e c r e t a r y t o I r e l a n d , 1830-1833; moved t o House o f L o r d s , 1844). P r e s i d e n t o f B o a r d o f C o n t r o l - L o r d E l l e n b o r o u g h . V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f B o a r d o f T r a d e - W i l l i a m E w a r t G l a d s t o n e , ( i n 1844, r e s i g n e d o v e r Maynooth G r a n t ) . The Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n was L e a d e r o f t h e T o r y P a r t y i n t h e House o f L o r d s . The I r i s h C a s t l e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( D u b l i n ) i n c l u d e d : L o r d L i e u t e n a n t - E a r l de G r e y ( S e p t . 15, 1841 - J u l y 26 , 1844). L o r d H e y t e s b u r y ( J u l y 26, 1844 - J u l y 10, 1846). J o h n W i l l i a m Ponsonby, E a r l o f B e s s b o r o u g h , ( f r o m J u l y 10, 1846). C h i e f S e c r e t a r y - L o r d E l i o t ( 1841-1845) . S i r T. F r e e m a n t l e ( f r o m 1845). Under S e c r e t a r y - R i c h a r d P e n n e f a t h e r ( 1841-1845) . T. N. R e d i n g t o n ( f r o m 184-6). L o r d H i g h C h a n c e l l o r - S i r Edward Sugden ( O c t . 1841 - J u l y 1846) . A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l - T. B. C. S m i t h , S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l - R i c h a r d W i l s o n G r e e ne. R e c o r d e r , S t a t e T r i a l ( J a n u a r y 1844) - Henr y Shaw. 60 and was an a d m i s s i o n o f , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a i l u r e o f t h e B r i t i s h U n i o n government o f P e e l i n I r e l a n d . I t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e weakness o f a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t p r e f e r r e d methods o f c o e r c i o n r a t h e r t h a n " c o n c e s s i o n s " a g a i n s t t h e l e a d e r o f a movement t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e " b u r n i n g p a s s i o n o f ( t h e I r i s h ) o n e - t h i r d o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s " . 1 ^ P e e l ' s d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g O ' C o n n e l l t o t r i a l r e f l e c t e d h i s d e s p e r a t i o n . .He f e a r e d t h a t much h a r s h e r methods wou l d 1L5 be n e c e s s a r y i f O ' C o n n e l l were n o t m u z z l e d by i m p r i s o n m e n t . ^ E v e n s o , he a d m i t t e d t h a t w h o l e s a l e c o e r c i o n m i g h t be n e c e s -s a r y i n any c a s e , b e c a u s e " i f t h e p r o s e c u t i o n w i l l f a i l , t h e c a s e w i l l b r e a k down, o r i t w i l l be mismanaged, O ' C o n n e l l w i l l be t r i u m p h a n t " . D e s p i t e h i s f e a r s o f O ' C o n n e l l a s an a r c h a g i t a t o r , he was opposed t o t h e more " h a r d l i n e " p o l i c i e s o f s u c h C a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s a s t h e Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n and L o r d L y n d h u r s t . 143- H a n s a r d . 3d S e r i e s , 72 ( F e b r u a r y 23, 1844-) 243-24-7. P a r k e r , e d . . P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 106. C a b i n e t Memorandum, F e b r u a r y 17, 1844-144- T a i t ' s . X I I ( J a n u a r y 184-5), p. 65 f . 145' P a r k e r , e d . , Graham. V o l . I I , p. 399. 'To L o r d E l i o t , from S i r James Graham', O c t o b e r 14, 1843. See C h a p t e r I , page 4 above. 146. P a r k e r , ed., P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 68. 'To S i r R o b e r t P e e l , from S i r James Graham', O c t o b e r 25, 1843. 61 These w i s h e d t o p u t down R e p e a l w i t h f o r c e , i f n e c e s s a r y . P e e l and James Graham r e l i e d , i n s t e a d , on t h e d e s p e r a t e hope t h a t t h e R e p e a l l e a d e r s w o u l d "go on u n t i l t h e y commit them-s e l v e s t o H i g h T r e a s o n " . The t r i a l , t h e y hoped, was a t t h e o p p o r t u n e moment t o p r o v e t h i s . T h u s , P e e l s o u g h t t o d i s c r e d i t O ' C o n n e l l i n t h e e y e s o f t h e more C o n s e r v a t i v e C a t h o l i c o p i n i o n o f I r e l a n d , and he knew he c o u l d more e a s i l y do t h i s by i m p l i c a t i n g h i m i n a c h a r g e o f c o n s p i r a c y " w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r s " o f h i s l e s s c a u t i o u s f o l l o w e r s . ^ P e e l r e c o g n i z e d , a s d i d The T i m e s . t h a t R e p e a l was n o t o f " s o w h o l l y f a c t i t i o u s a c h a r a c t e r a s t o be b l o w n t o b i t s " , ^ ^ s i n c e i t w a s ^ o t w i t h o u t c a u s e " . S u c h a movement m i g h t , however, a s Graham e l a b o r a t e d , l e a d t o " i n t e r n a l d i s c o r d i n w h i c h f o l l y , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , i s h a r d l y l e s s d a n g e r o u s t h a n bad i n t e n t i o n s " , e s p e c i a l l y a s 1 51 " o u r d a n g e r s f r o m w i t h o u t a r e t h r e a t e n i n g enough". ^ 147. F i t z p a t r i c k , ed., C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f O ' C o n n e l l . V o l . I I , p. 333-The c o r r e s p o n d e n t was Andrew O ' R e i l l y , nephew o f Count O ' R e i l l y , a n A u s t r i a n f i e l d m a r s h a l . The s o u r c e o f t h i s pub-l i c a t i o n was The R e m i n i s c e n c e s o f An I m m i g r a n t M i l e s i a n . 148. Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 1 f . The i n d i c t m e n t was a g a i n s t s e v e n l e a d e r s o f R e p e a l . 149. The Times ( L o n d o n ) , O c t o b e r 16, 1843- p. 1. 150. S p e c t a t o r . J a n u a r y 27, 1844- p. 83-151- P a r k e r , ed., Graham. V o l . I , p. 397. 'To S i r R o b e r t P e e l , f rom S i r James Graham', September 8, 1843-62 P e e l ' s t a c t i c s h e r e had some m e r i t and s h r e w d n e s s . C o n s e r v a t i v e C a t h o l i c s u p p o r t e r s o f O ' C o n n e l l r e g a r d e d w i t h d i s f a v o u r t h o s e among t h e Young I r e l a n d w i n g o f t h e R e p e a l movement who d i s p l a y e d , n o t o n l y more m i l i t a n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , b u t a l s o a more i n d e p e n d e n t a t t i t u d e tov/ards t h e 1 52 C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . C h a r l e s Gavan D u f f y , the e d i t o r o f the Young I r e l a n d newspaper, t h e N a t i o n , who was a r r e s t e d w i t h O ' C o n n e l l , was t y p i c a l o f Young I r e l a n d i n t h i s r e s p e c t . He e x p l a i n e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e t r i a l , p e r h a p s w i t h some n a i v e t e , t h a t t h e r e was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f F r e n c h m i l i t a r y a i d f o r t h e I r i s h c a u s e . He w r o t e , l a t e r , i n h i s memoirs, t h a t d i s a f f e c t e d I r i s h m e n s e r v i n g i n t h e F r e n c h army d i s -c u s s e d t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n t o I r e l a n d . These p r o p o s a l s were n o t uncommon, as a son o f L o u i s P h i l i p p e , t w e l v e months b e f o r e O ' C o n n e l l ' s a r r e s t i n 1843* p u b l i s h e d a p a m p h l e t on t h e new navy o f F r a n c e i n w h i c h s u c h an " e x p e d i t i o n 1 5 3 was p r o p o s e d " . ^ D u f f y a t t a c k e d O ' C o n n e l l f o r r e j e c t i n g s u c h f o r e i g n m i l i t a r y a i d a s m i g h t be o f f e r e d t o him. I n v i e w o f t h i s p o s s i b l e b r e a c h between C a t h o l i c s and R e p e a l e r s o v e r method, P e e l c o n s i d e r e d t h a t w i t h O ' C o n n e l l o u t o f t h e way i t m i g h t be e a s i e r t o w i n o v e r t h e Roman C a t h o l i c 152. C h a r l e s Gavan D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d ; A. Fragment o f I r i s h H i s t o r y . 1840-1850, (London: C a s s e l l , P e t t e r & G a l p i n , 1880), p. 610. 153- I b i d . . p. 322 f . 63 clergy from Repeal. He no?/ considered their support essential i n governing Ireland. y ^ S i r James Graham, the Home Secretary, i n a l e t t e r to Lord E l i o t , the I r i s h Under Secretary, wrote: This i s the moment for tempering firmness with • reasonable concessions, and I am w i l l i n g and anxious to consider any measures of this char-acter which you may suggest, not excluding the reconstruction of Maynooth with an enlarged grant, and a scheme for the payment of the Catholic clergy i n some shape or other. 155« He knew, however, that such was the strength of Repeal among the clergy, and the limited nature of the concessions he was able to offer, that i t would require more than per-suasion to repress Catholic Repeal. Graham advised that the support of the Pope should be sought to condemn Repeal activ-i t i e s by Roman Catholic priests on the grounds that they were "dangerous to thrones i n Europe as well as i n England". 1-^ The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland also recommended this course 1 57 of action. Meanwhile, Peel's attempt to discredit O'Connell met with grave d i f f i c u l t i e s . The t r i a l procedures exposed the unpopularity of the Castle administration i n Ireland. These 154. Parker, ed., Graham. Vol. I, p. 409. 'To the Duke of Wellington, from S i r James Graham', October 2, 1845-153. Jbid., p. 399. 'To Lord E l i o t , from S i r James Graham', October 20, 1843. 156. Ibid.. p. 401 f. 'To S i r James Graham, from S i r Robert Peel', November 27, 1843-157. Loc. c i t . •To S i r Robert Peel, from S i r James Graham', October 30, 1843-64 a l s o a r o u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e sympathy f o r O ' C o n n e l l among t h e C a t h o l i c Whig g e n t r y and c l e r g y i n I r e l a n d who had f o r m e r l y b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o s u p p o r t h i s mass a g i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Whig o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h House o f Commons r a i s e d t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f I r e l a n d , w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e r e a l r o o t c a u s e o f I r i s h d i s -c o n t e n t , r a t h e r t h a n O ' C o n n e l l * s a g i t a t i o n . Thus, t h e s e t a c t i c s o f P e e l f a i l e d i n t h e i r p u r p o s e from t h e b e g i n n i n g . P e e l was aware t h a t t h i s m i g h t be t h e c a s e . The a n o m a l i e s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f E n g l i s h j u s t i c e i n I r e l a n d were a l r e a d y w e l l known, and^had been a n a l y z e d and c o n f i r m e d by some o f t h e l e a d i n g j u r i s t s o f h i s day i n E n g l a n d . "There e x i s t s i n I r e l a n d two s o r t s o f j u s t i c e , one f o r t h e r i c h , 1 58 and t h e o t h e r f o r t h e p o o r , b o t h e q u a l l y i l l - a d m i n i s t e r e d " . y He b e l i e v e d t h a t an e f f e c t i v e j u r y s y s t e m , i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e p r o p e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l a w , d i d n o t e x i s t i n I r e l a n d w h e r e " t h e m a j o r i t y a r e p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t t h e l a w " . 1 - ^ H i s h a n d l i n g o f t h e t r i a l , t h e r e f o r e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t he was p r e p a r e d t o r i s k t h e f a i l u r e o f h i s p r o p a g a n d a , but t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d i t e ven more e s s e n t i a l t o remove t h e l e a d e r s o f R e p e a l t h r o u g h i m p r i s o n m e n t , w h i l e g i v i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o r r e c t n e s s , s u f f i c i e n t t o d e c e i v e more c o n s e r v a t i v e and d o c i l e I r i s h o p i n i o n . These t a c t i c s , w h i c h 158. J e p h s o n , Motes on I r i s h Q u e s t i o n s , p. 69-Quoted by L o r d R e d e s d a l e , L o r d C h a n c e l l o r o f I r e l a n d , and c o n f i r m e d by L o r d Brougham, L o r d C h a n c e l l o r o f E n g l a n d . 159. P a r k e r , ed., P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 116. •To L o r d H e y t e s b u r y , from S i r R o b e r t P e e l ' , A u g u s t 8, I844. 65 he b e l i e v e d were demanded by i m p e r i a l n e c e s s i t y , were a l s o t o become b l u n d e r s . He had p l a c e d on t r i a l , n o t o n l y one 160 o f " t h e g r e a t e s t l e g a l a d v o c a t e s o f h i s day", b u t he a l s o * a r o u s e d t h e w h ole t r a d i t i o n o f e q u i t y embedded i n E n g l i s h law. 'However, o v e r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e j u r y a t t h e t r i a l , P e e l d i d n o t e x p e c t t h e C a s t l e government so t a c t l e s s l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e P r o t e s t a n t m i n o r i t y w i t h l o y a l t y , b y s e l e c t i n g a t o t a l l y P r o t e s t a n t p a n e l . The C a s t l e ' s a c t i o n , t h o u g h , was d e f e n d e d by C o n s e r v a t i v e o p i n i o n . . T h i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no i n t e n t i o n t o " p a c k " t h e j u r y , and t h a t t h e r e was no d e l i b -e r a t e a t t e m p t t o e x c l u d e Roman C a t h o l i c s . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l l i s t from w h i c h t h e j u r y was drawn happened t o c o n t a i n 388 P r o t e s t a n t s and o n l y 50 Roman C a t h o l i c s , and t h a t i t was s e l e c t e d l o n g b e f o r e t h e r e was any t h o u g h t o f a t r i a l . O ' C o n n e l l ' s s u p p o r t e r s and t h e Whig o p p o n e n t s o f t h e government were q u i c k t o a t t a c k t h e C a s t l e ' s a p p e a r a n c e o f p a r t i a l i t y . As t h e Whig, C h a r l e s F. G r e v i l l e , who a d m i r e d t h e a b i l i t y o f P e e l and Graham, b u t d e s p i s e d t h e g e n e r a l m e d i o c r i t y o f t h e T o r y government, m e n t i o n e d i n h i s d i a r y , t h e t r i a l was a c o n t i n u a l s e r i e s o f b l u n d e r s and mismanagement from t h e f i r s t t o t h e l a s t . T h e r e i s now an immense u p r o a r a b o u t t h e j u r y l i s t , and f a t e h a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e w o r s t a p p e a r a n c e s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e whole p r o c e e d i n g . Shaw, t h e R e c o r d e r , i s i m p l i c a t e d i n a manner w h i c h c a n 160. D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d , p. 390. 161. Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w ( E d i n b u r g h ) , LXXIV (1844), 247 f . " A r t i c l e I X " . 66 ' e a s i l y be made t o l o o k v e r y s u s p i c i o u s ... t h e l i s t , t h e r e f o r e , from w h i c h t h e j u r y was t a k e n , was an i m p e r f e c t l i s t ... and a l l t h e I r i s h w i l l b e l i e v e t h a t t h e m u t i l a t i o n was a c o n -c e r t e d a f f a i r between P e e l and Shaw. 162. G r e v i l l e b e l i e v e d t h a t i t w o u l d be b e t t e r u n d e r t h e c i r -c u m s t a n c e s t o have a c q u i t t e d O ' C o n n e l l by a m i x e d ( P r o t e s -t a n t and C a t h o l i c ^ j u r y t h a n t o have c o n v i c t e d him by one 163 a l l P r o t e s t a n t . L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l , t h e l e a d e r o f t h e Whig o p p o s i t i o n , was l a t e r t o use t h i s as a g e n e r a l i n d i c t -ment a g a i n s t t h e whole s p i r i t o f t h e t r i a l : The t r i a l was one e l a b o r a t e l y p u t t o g e t h e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o n v i c t i o n , and c h a r g e d by a judge who d i d n o t a l l o w any e v i d e n c e o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e t r a v e r s e r s t o come f a i r l y t o h i s mind. 164' I n a d e b a t e moved by t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e government on " t h e s t a t e o f I r e l a n d " on F e b r u a r y 13, 1844 R u s s e l l s t a t e d t h a t " I r e l a n d was o c c u p i e d , n o t g o v e r n e d " . Here he embodied t h e u n e a s i n e s s o f I r i s h Whig C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t o p i n i o n w h i c h , t h o u g h i t f e a r e d t h e d a n g e r s o f p o p u l a r R e p e a l a g i t a t i o n , b e l i e v e d a l s o t h a t t h e " s p i r i t and t h e l e t t e r o f t h e U n i o n had n o t been f u l f i l l e d ... i t s f r u i t s were I n s u r r e c t i o n A c t s " and a p a r t i s a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I r e l a n d t h a t l e d t o " t h e e x c l u s i o n o f c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s 165 o p i n i o n s u n d e r t h e s a n c t i o n o f government". ^ The r a d i c a l 162. G r e v i l l e , Memoirs. V o l . V, p. 222 f . ( J a n u a r y 14, 1844). 163. L o c . c i t . T r -, 164. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d., C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f O ' C o n n e l l . V 0 J-- I I , p. 325. 165. W. T o r r e n s M c C u l l a g h , Memoirs o f t h e R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e R i c h a r d L a l o r S h e l l . (2 v o l s . ; London: C o l b u r n , 1855). V o l . I I , p. 339 f . 67 newspaper, t h e (London) E x a m i n e r . summed up t h e s i t u a t i o n no more b l u n t l y t h a n L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l : The s i t u a t i o n i n I r e l a n d was t h a t a t r i a l had b e e n s e t up t o p r o v e t h e j u s t i c e o f t h e U n i o n , w h i c h was u p h e l d b y a m i n o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a - «rr t t i o n who a l o n e r e c e i v e d j u s t i c e u n d e r t h e U n i o n . Graham, t h e Home S e c r e t a r y , e x a s p e r a t e d by t h e I r i s h C a s t l e ' s c r u d e h a n d l i n g o f t h e c a s e , demanded an e x p l a n a t i o n f r o m t h e L o r d L i e u t e n a n t : I t i s h a r d l y c r e d i b l e t h a t s u c h a m i s t a k e a t s u c h a moment c o u l d have been a c c i d e n t a l . We e a r n e s t l y r e q u e s t t h a t you a s c e r t a i n who I s the p a r t y r e s p o n s i b l e . . . . I t i s h a r d t h a t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be endangered by s u c h g r o s s n e g l i g e n c e . A s u s p i c i o n w i l l a l w a y s r e m a i n t h a t t h e f i d e l i t y o f t h e p a r t i e s employed have been tampered w i t h . 167. L o r d E l i o t , t h e I r i s h Under S e c r e t a r y , a d m i t t e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f C a t h o l i c o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r o f O ' C o n n e l l , w h i c h he was n o t p r e p a r e d t o r i s k on t h e j u r y when, i n h i s r e p l y t o Graham, he s t a t e d " i t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e name o f no Roman 168 C a t h o l i c a n t i - R e p e a l e r was drawn". O ' C o n n e l l was q u i c k t o i d e n t i f y b o t h t h e C a t h o l i c cause and h i s own w i t h I r e l a n d . A t h i s t r i a l he s k i l f u l l y e x e r c i s e d h i s r i g h t s as an a c c u s e d t o be h e a r d and d e f e n d e d by t h e most 169 s k i l f u l a d v o c a t e s o f h i s day y w i t h i n a c o u r t t h a t he de-c l a r e d was an e x t e n s i o n o f a n a r r o w P r o t e s t a n t o l i g a r c h y . 166. E x a m i n e r ( L o n d o n ) , J a n u a r y 13, 1844. 167. P a r k e r , ed. , Graham. V o l . I,, p. 403-'To L o r d H e y t e s b u r y , from S i r James Graham*, J a n u a r y 9, 1844-168. L o c . c i t . 'To S i r James Graham, from L o r d E l i o t ' . 169. D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d , p. 390. 68 I n t h i s , a s Gavan D u f f y e x p l a i n e d , he a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f , n o t 170 so much t o t h e j u r y , a s t o t h e c o n s c i e n c e o f E n g l a n d . I t i s q u i t e c e r t a i n t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s -c r e p a n c y o f o p i n i o n b e t ween you and me ... we d i f f e r a s t o R e p e a l o f t h e U n i o n . . . . Y o u a l s o • d i f f e r ... on o u r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . . . . I f y o u had t h e same f a i t h a s me, n o t one o f y o u w o u l d be i n t h a t box ... I am ... a C a t h o l i c ... i n p u t t i n g down t h a t P r o t e s t a n t A s c e n d a n c y o f w h i c h , p e r h a p s , y o u a r e t h e c h a m p i o n s — c e r t a i n l y you a r e n o t t h e a n t a g o n i s t s ... and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y , a g a i n s t w h i c h some o f y o u c o n t e n d e d , - r , . . and a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l y o u r o p i n i o n s a r e formed. ' F u r t h e r , i f he was a c c u s e d o f " t r e a s o n a b l e c o n s p i r a c y " , s o were t h e p e o p l e o f I r e l a n d : My c l i e n t s i n t h i s c a s e a r e t h e I r i s h p e o p l e . My c l i e n t i s I r e l a n d . I s t a n d h e r e a s a n a d -v o c a t e o f t h e r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s ... o f t h a t p e o p l e . . . . My o n l y a n x i e t y i s t h a t t h e i r c a u s e ... s h o u l d be i n t h e s l i g h t e s t d e g r e e t a r n i s h e d o r impeded b y a n y t h i n g o f w h i c h I have been t h e i n s t r u m e n t . 172. T h e i r c a u s e , he e x p l a i n e d , had been a d v o c a t e d i n t h e same manner, and on t h e same b a s i s o f e q u i t y , as many o t h e r s w h i c h were f i n a l l y e x o n e r a t e d u n d e r E n g l i s h l a w . Among t h e s e were t h e s l a v e a b o l i t i o n i s t s , whom he had a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d b e f o r e t h e i r s u c c e s s i n 1807. He now c o n t i n u e d 170. D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d , p. 432. 171. I b i d . , p. 391 f . The l a w y e r s f o r t h e Crown a r e d e s c r i b e d . I b i d . , p. 435 f-S t a t e s t h a t t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e Queen's Bench d e m o n s t r a t e d p a r t i a l i t y . G r e v i l l e , Memoirs, p. 261. T h i s Whig v i e w s u p p o r t e d t h e o p i n i o n o f Gavan D u f f y . Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 467-172. I b i d . , p. 466. 69 t o condemn s l a v e r y i n A m e r i c a , even a t t h e r i s k o f a l i e n a t i n g A m e r i c a n sympathy f o r I r i s h R e p e a l , ^ and he now p l e a d e d i n t h e same s p i r i t : b e f o r e t h e E u r o p e a n w o r l d ... b e f o r e a j u r y ' o f P r o t e s t a n t g e n t l e m e n , i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e k i n g s and p e o p l e o f t h e u n i v e r s e , and w i t h what amazement w i l l t h e y gaze upon y o u , i f by a v e r d i c t ... y o u b r a n d a s f o o l s and d o t a r d s m i l l i o n s o f y o u r C a t h o l i c f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n , and w i t h them, many, v e r y many P r o t e s t a n t s . 174. On t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s , a f f i r m e d by t h e " G l o r i o u s R e v o l u -t i o n " o f 1688, and b a s e d on t h e " S o c i a l C o n t r a c t " t h e o r y o f J o h n L o c k e , from w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n had e v o l v e d , 1 176 he now made h i s s t a n d . ' T h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e c e d e n t a l l o w e d h i m t o i n s i s t t h a t : i f a l e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n s h o u l d be so f o r c e d upon t h i s c o u n t r y a g a i n s t t h e w i l l o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s ( a s i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e ) , r e s i s t a n c e t o i t w o u l d be a s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t u s u r p a t i o n , and n o t a r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t l a w . 177. 173. Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 473 f ., 482. O ' C o n n e l l d e s c r i b e d t h e s l a v e owners i n t h e fl. g. A. a s " c r i m i n a l s and p i c k p o c k e t s " . He a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h e c l a i m s o f B r i t a i n a g a i n s t P r e s i d e n t James P o l k i n t h e Oregon b o r d e r d i s p u t e . 174. I b i d . , p. 480. 175- I b i d . . p. 312. ( O ' C o n n e l l ' s s p e e c h ) 176. K. F. Roche, " R e v o l u t i o n and C o u n t e r - R e v o l u t i o n " , i n T i e r n e y , ed., N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s , p. 79. L e c k y , H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d . V o l . V, p. 329 f . L e v y , ed., D i s c u s s i o n on R e p e a l , p. 19. " P o s i t i o n Unchanged". p. 25. "A B r e a c h o f T r u s t " . 177. Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 511 f . I n t h e " G l o r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n " . 70 O'Connell , however, was careful to qual i fy that the methods he used to restore the I r i s h Parliament were s t r i c t l y const i tut ional , as he wished to appeal primari ly to I r i s h Catholic and B r i t i s h l i b e r a l and r a d i c a l opinions. He quoted the Attorney-General i n 1800, at the t r i a l of John Magee, to support his opinion: You may make the Union binding as a law, but you cannot make i t obligatory on conscience. It w i l l be obeyed so long as England i s strong, but resistance to i t w i l l be, i n the abstract, a duty; an exhibit ion of that resistance w i l l be a mere question of prudence. 178. He believed that, though i t was prudent to obey the l e t t e r of the law, no consti tution could make "an unjust law binding on conscience". He thus emphasized the importance of equity contained within the Consti tution, which had, i n his tory , prevented i t from becoming the tyrant of the people. In this h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n he had peacefully and openly pro-claimed his r ights under that Consti tut ion. In his defence he implied that such could hardly be described as seditious conspiracy. 7 He was r e a l i s t i c enough to grasp that this defence, which was a summation of h is l i f e , and for which he was now on t r i a l , was unl ikely to be l is tened to by those who 178. Shaw's I r i s h State T r i a l s , p. 512. 179. I b i d . , p. 472 f . 71 1 RO branded him as an a g i t a t o r , or r i d i c u l e d him as a 181 buffoon. Therefore, he appealed to a wider audience, and the s e t t i n g and the procedures of "the grand and s t a r t -182 l i n g drama of a monster meeting and t r i a l " were an e x c e l l e n t device to r e v e a l the i n t e r e s t s that had placed " C a t h o l i c I r e l a n d " i n o p p o s i t i o n to "Protestant England". The Attorney-General's evidence confirmed t h i s , both by design and by accident. The Crown Prosecution presented a narrow, l e g a l i s t i c approach, when i t attacked the r u s t i c , p i c t o r i a l humour and pathos of O'Connell's speeches at h i s mass meetings that "appealed to the i n s t a n t f e e l i n g s o f a 183 peasant audience". ^ O'Connell's actions at these Repeal meetings were i n t e r p r e t e d i n a fundamentalist and l i t e r a l manner i n order to obt a i n a c o n v i c t i o n ; whereas, O'Connell i n h i s defence at h i s t r i a l sought to convey t h e i r sacra-mental and symbolic nature. 180. Jephson, Notes on I r i s h Questions, p. 81. The author based t h i s extensive study of the I r i s h Question on reports of Parliamentary proceedings, and conversations with p o l i t i c i a n s from 1825 to 1870. "Men followed the p o l i t i c s of the case rather than the evidence". 181. Punch, VI (January-June 1844), p. 48. "The State T r i a l s i n I r e l a n d " . Punch. XII (January-June 1847), p. 64. "O'Connell's Objections to the Repeal of the Union". 182. T a i t ' s . XI (February 1844), p. 237 f. "Sketches of the I r i s h Great Debate". 183. Shaw's I r i s h State T r i a l s . p. 73-J u s t i n McCarthy, A H i s t o r y of Our Own Times from the Accession of Queen V i c t o r i a to the B e r l i n Congress. (4 v o l s . ; London: Chatto & Windus,"7o79). V o l . I, p. 287-289. 72 The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l u s e d O ' C o n n e l l ' s b e h a v i o u r a t t h e m o n s t e r m e e t i n g s a s e v i d e n c e o f h i s d e s i r e t o u s u r p t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f t h e B r i t i s h A n g l i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Monarchy i n t h e name o f t h e a n c i e n t i n d e p e n d e n t r o y a l t r a d i t i o n o f I r e l a n d . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t a c rown c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e I r i s h g o l d c r o w n , p r e s e r v e d i n t h e C o l l e g e Museum, was p l a c e d on Mr. O ' C o n n e l l ' s h e a d , a t M u l l a g h m a s t , and t h e r e O ' C o n n e l l had de-c l a r e d he " w o u l d wear i t t i l l h i s d y i n g day". The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s "was i n t e n d e d t o c r e a t e a n i m p r e s s i o n upon t h e m inds o f a n immense m u l t i t u d e " t h a t t h e y c o u l d d e f y l a w f u l a u t h o r i t y . The r e a l r e a s o n t h e B r i t i s h government condemned O ' C o n n e l l was h i s n o v e l a b i l i t y t o p e r s o n i f y t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f C a t h o l i c I r e l a n d , w h i c h he s o s y m b o l i c a l l y p o r t r a y e d i n h i s d e c l a r a t i o n a t t h e M u l l a g h m a s t m e e t i n g w h i c h t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l d e s c r i b e d a t t h e t r i a l . He was, i n d e e d , an e m b a r r a s s i n g r e m i n d e r t o t h e B r i t i s h government t h a t i t had abandoned t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h he f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o assume. I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e was some v a l i d i t y i n t h e c l a i m , p a r o d i e d by t h e Con-s e r v a t i v e p r e s s , t h a t he had become " t h e uncrowned K i n g o f I r e l a n d " . 184. Shaw's I r i s h S t a t e T r i a l s , p. 73 f . Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w . LXXV (December 1844-M a r c h 1845), P- 233-73 48 Punch's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of O'Connell's a r r i v a l a t the t r i a l i n the Lord Mayor o f D u b l i n ' s coach, cheered by a crowd of beg-gars, i l l u s t r a t e d u n w i t t i n g l y the d u a l r o l e he p e r s o n i f i e d i n the A n g l o - I r i s h c o n f l i c t . H i s enemies d e s c r i b e d him as "a beggar 185 k i n g of a beggar people", y but to h i s f r i e n d s he was the defender 186 of "the poor, oppressed people of I r e l a n d " . ^ n i N c n , OR T H E L O N D O N CIIARTVAIU. ' ; %\)Z State St1aT$ in XrcTantu 187-\Vr. always thought that the ordinary police van was" tlio proper vehicle for bunging up accused parties to Uic Court where they are to lake their trial. O'Connell, however, was fortunate enough to get tlio Lot J Mayor of Dublin's state coach, rtilh all the U9ual properties, Including thy mace, which was understood to have been fehuqucred, lest it elioulJ have been eclipsed by the more ubundant brass o f the chief traverser. If stale coaches are to he used for the purposo of bringing nlicged delinquents to trial, we should recommend tlio London Coiporatloll to let out the carriage of the Mayor to such defendants as may bo wealthy enough to pay for the accommodation. W e under?.'.and tho Lord Mayor of Dubl in has issued, or intends issuing, the following— C A R D . Tlio Lord M a y a i of D n b h " , ever anxious to meet the wishes of tho accused nhd fienSecu'led portion of Iho public, begs leavo to offer tho uso of Hie state coach on terms exceedingly moderate, Prisoners taken up at their own homes, and surrendered into the custody of tho Court on very reasonable charges. E v e r y defendant is ullo\fcd to carry one of hia bail as luggage on the coach box, and witnesses in footmen's liveries accommodated on the step behind, at a very low scale of prices. Prisoners in the habit of being tried repeatedly may contract for tho uso of the coach by the job, month or year, and convicted culprits called for at the Iltaj^eof Coilection on the expir-ation of their sentence. No fees to.coaclimen. : Parties of four, i f included in tho eamo indictment, token at a very reduced rate, and acquittals punctually attended to. No extra charge for taking the-mace ; but if the Lord Mayor attends personally in his gold chain, it> ia expected that the value of tho chain wi l l lib deposited at Ms L o r d ' sliip'ti house previous to starting, . > T H E M ON STE II T i l l A L i 185- Punch, V I I I (January-June, 1845), P- 185-18§. B r o d e r i c k , Holy See, p. 167. 187. Punch, VI (January-June, 1844), p. 48. O'Connell i s p o r t r a y e d as borne i n the coach of o f f i c e , but w i t h only beggars running at h i s h e e l s . 7k The verdict against O'Connell , i n the l i g h t of these d i s t i n c t i o n s between the accused and the prosecution, was a foregone conclusion, a l t e r i n g no posit ions of part ies , except that i t aroused sympathy and admiration for O'Connell 188 i n Ireland. O'Connell was found g u i l t y of unlawful conspiracy, and by means of int imidat ion , and by means of the exhibit ion of great physical force at meetings, of bringing changes and a l t e r -ations i n the government . . . and of seeking to accomplish a dissolut ion of the l e g i s l a t i v e union . QQ now subsist ing between Great B r i t a i n and Ireland. y * The Home Secretary, supporting th is verdict , stated that "the Counsel for the ' t raversers ' (the accused) had admitted the facts of their g u i l t " . He was correct , i f speaking against the Union was defined as sedit ious , and i f mass meetings with speeches r e f e r r i n g to Ireland's history were "displays of physical force" , and i f a p o l i t i c a l party with a democratic base was defined as usurping the power of 190 " c i v i l government". 7 O'Connell 's t r i a l , however, had placed the government i n an awkward p o s i t i o n . The reversal of the verdict of g u i l t y by the Appellate Tribunal of the House Of Lords further aggravated t h i s , and vindicated O'Connell 's f a i t h i n the Consti tution to which he had appealed at his t r i a l . 188. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p . 326. The Roman Catholic bishops unanimously composed a prayer for O'Connell 's deliverance so that he could continue to lead and protect the I r i s h people. 189. Shaw's I r i s h State T r i a l s , p. 676. 190. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I , p. kOk-'To Lord Stanley, from S i r James Graham', February k» 1844. 15 graham had the i n t e g r i t y during th is appeal to the Lords to uphold the time-honoured custom that l e f t such a decision 191 to the Law Lords. 7 He did so despite the fact that he had to defend h i s pos i t ion against the High Tory Peers, who formed the majority i n the House of Lords and were "exceed-i n g l y indignant" that they were prevented from voting to 192 uphold the v e r d i c t . This was also despite h is disapproval of Chief Just ice Denman, who, he stated, "loved popularity to dangerous excess". The House of Lords, Graham explained: would have been ruined by the i n t e r p o s i t i o n of a majority avowedly p o l i t i c a l i n a cr iminal case . . . and the Union would have been shaken to i t s foundations, i f , i n opposition to the casting vote of the Lord Chief Just ice of England, Mr. O'Connell had been kept a prisoner by the voices of English peers, h is p o l i t i c a l adversaries. 194. 191. George John Shaw Lefevre (Baron Eversley) , Peel and O'Connell . A. Review of the I r i s h Pol icy of Par-liament from the Act of Union to the Death of Sor Robert Peel, (London: Kegan Paul , 1887), p. 227. The author's name i s sometimes given as Shaw-Lefevre. 192. G r e v i l l e , Memoirs. V o l . V, p . 260. (September 14, 1844). 193. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I, p. 406. 'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', September 2, 1844« 194- I b i d . , p. 407. 'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', September 4, 1844« 76 Lord Penman, the Chief Just ice of England, "whose i n t e g r i t y " , according to Justice Whiteside, a Whig fr iend of O'Connell , "nobody can question", 7 ^ i n the Appellate Tribunal of the House of Lords, challenged the procedures of the whole t r i a l on t e c h n i c a l i t i e s on the grounds that the select ion of the jury had been unfa i r , and that many of the charges on which the prisoner had been arraigned were bad i n law. He thus concerned himself mainly with the i n correctness of the l e g a l procedures practiced at the t r i a l , 7 and his main c r i t i c i s m was that the government had used l e g a l procedures for partisan p o l i t i c s . In this sense, O'Connell was cleared of the charges against him. Denman's influence was important, as his casting vote represented the f i f t h i n the Appellate T r i b u n a l . The other 197 four were evenly divided on the question. J l It was also s i g n i f i c a n t because the decision he achieved by his casting vote was applauded by the more r a d i c a l press as "a triumph 195* F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p. 327. 'To Daniel O'Connell , from J . Whiteside' , September 5, 1844« Whiteside was a subsequent Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench i n Ireland. 196. Lefevre, Peel and O'Connell . p. 227. Great B r i t a i n . Parliament. House of Lords. (September 2, 1844), p. 701-703. In the five-member Appellate Tribunal of Law Lords, four were evenly divided on the question—not without some imputation of p o l i t i c a l bias along Whig and Tory party l i n e s . Lord Denman, the Chief Just ice , was i n a posi t ion more free from such consideration. 197. Loc.. c i t . 77 for the cause of p o l i t i c a l freedom, for public meetings and 198 discussion, and t h i s case could set a precedent". The acqui t ta l by the House of Lords, according to G r e v i l l e , l e f t both the government and O'Connell temporar-199 i l y - a t a loss as to t a c t i c s . y y In r e a l i t y , both of these seasoned antagonists had defined their positions more c l e a r l y . The government was compelled to continue i t s proposals of modest reform which had been set i n motion by the Repeal agi ta t ion of 1843 that had l e d to the t r i a l . These were to include an improved system of national education and increased grants to the Catholic Maynooth Seminary. A l s o , new Colleges were proposed to "elevate" Catholics into government service, and the franchise was to be equalized to include more Cathol ics . Peel hoped the Catholic middle class and clergy, who were " i n c l i n e d to Repeal because of the discrimination practiced against them", would learn to accept the two great p r i n c i p l e s , the maintenance of the Union, and the maintenance of the Church Es tabl ishment . . . . Every concession we can make, consistent with these p r i n c i p l e s , must be made. 200. 198. T a i t ' s . XI (September 1844), p. 677. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of 0 'Connell . V o l . I I , p . 327. 'To Daniel O'Connell , from James Whiteside' , September 5, 1844. 199. G r e v i l l e , Memoirs. V o l . V, p . 261. 200. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 106. Cabinet Memorandum, February 17, 1844. Hansard. 3d Series , 72 (February 23, 1844), 243-247. "Debate on the State of I reland" . 78 O'Connell emerged from the t r i a l , despite increasing old age, with a sharpened awareness of the necessity of checkmating Peel ' s endeavours i n this d i r e c t i o n . He recognized that national unity was to be sought on a more subtle front than simple Repeal or the mass agi tat ion methods that might i n v i t e further government coercion. In p a r t i c u l a r , he saw how easi ly the appeal of the English government to the middle and upper class Catholics might undo h i s work to make Repeal a t ru ly national move-ment. Here he was quick to recognize "the numbing effect " that any kind of Mconnection with the government" operated 201 on "the best minds without them perceiving i t " . His "Federal" overtures were part of this r e a l i z a t i o n , though these were c r i t i c i z e d by the more n a t i o n a l i s t i c Young Ire-landers i n h i s party on the grounds that they were too precipitous , and therefore, endangered the whole Repeal 202 Movement by weakening i t s uni ty . O'Connell , on the contrary, was concerned with the importance of e n l i s t i n g stronger Whig support against the Conservative government. He had already exasperatedly 201. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p. 327. 'To P. F i t z p a t r i c k , from Daniel O ' C o n n e l l ' , March 25, 1844. His reference to "the best minds" was to "the most excellent man, an exemplary clergyman, our Archbishop Murray" of Dublin . 202. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 602.. 79 written to one of h i s Whig fr iends, Hichard Lalor S h e i l , who was formerly a Repealer: "What i s the I r i s h section of the Whigs doing?" Addressing S h e i l , he declared: You are ca lcula t ing what you owe to the Whigs * for having given you a place, and forgetting the ten hundred claims Ireland has upon y o u . . . . The man who does not r a l l y with us against the Attorney-General and the T r i a l i s r e a l l y against us . 203. His attempt to form "The '82 C l u b » 2 0 i f of I r i s h gentlemen was part of th is desire for an a l l iance with the I r i s h Catholic gentry to revive I r i s h s o l i d a r i t y against the over-whelming strength of B r i t i s h off ic ia ldom. The r a d i c a l Examiner c r i t i c i z e d th is as " r i d i c u l o u s " , but showed some glimmerings of understanding when i t explained that "O'Connell clung to such I r i s h leadership . . . because no other hope had 205 been offered the people". y O'Connell 's proposal, af ter the reversal of the judgement against him, to impeach the Queen's Bench i n Ireland, was consistent with these ends. His attack was not on the I r i s h Catholic gentry, but on the English Castle influence i n Ireland. In a sense, this was also part 203. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p. 323. •To the Right Hon. S h e i l , from Daniel O ' C o n n e l l ' , June 19, 1844. 202+. "The '82 Club" was to commemorate the l e g i s l a t i v e independence of Ireland won by Grattan i n 1782, without com-mitting i t s members to the organization of Repeal, i n actual -i t y . At the same time, i t d i r e c t l y reinforced O'Connell 's hopes of restoring an I r i s h Parliament based on the ideals of 1782. 205. Examiner. September 21, 1844- P. 593. 80 of h i s direct appeal to the Crown on behalf of the aristocracy of the I r i s h nation against the partisanship of the I r i s h Protestant administration under the Union. He had already made th is appeal to the Crown as part of h is defence at h i s State t r i a l . 2 0 6 O'Connell launched h i s Federal campaign when he wrote to 207 the Repeal Associat ion h i s "Scheme of Federal Parliament" i n October l8Mt« He explained to them that he had never been "a simple Repealer". As early as 1843, during the height of the Repeal Movement, and before his arrest , i n reply to the Birmingham r a d i c a l , Mr. Sturge, he had already defined h i s Federal Scheme. Then he had elaborated that the administrative function of the I r i s h Parliament would be to control i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s only, and that the royal prerogative i n imperial matters must be vested i n the B r i t i s h Parliament. Now, i n l8Mf> O'Connell 's " long l e t t e r " 2 0 ^ on the Federal Scheme, 206. See above, pages 69 to 71, for O'Connell 's statement at his State T r i a l . 207. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p. 433-447. •To the Secretary of the Loyal National Repeal Association, from Daniel O 'Connel l ' , October 12, 1844. 208. McDowell, Public Opinion, p. 236 f . 209. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p. 433-447. 'To the Secretary of the Loyal National Repeal Association, from Daniel O ' C o n n e l l ' , October 12, 1844. Appendix: "Scheme of Federal Parliament", October 12, 1844. 81 o u t l i n i n g these ideas, was referred to by Peel as: an appeal to reason and argument. Force and int imidation seem to be abandoned. Now we must combat th is new attempt to promote the cause of Repeal, or we s h a l l suffer by for -bearance; and we can only combat i t by the weapons which i t employs. 210. Peel thus expressed his fear that the government i n Ireland was not being well supported by the press to counter-act O 'Connel l . He, therefore, proposed that a talented writer should be found who would explain to the I r i s h leaders that O 'Connel l ' s proposals, whether for Federalism or for Repeal, were an attack on the Protestant Establishment, and even more dangerous, an attack on property: Because an I r i s h Parliament, elected by household suffrage, and with b a l l o t or without i t . . . engenders the retrocession to barbarism. 211. A Conservative I r i s h lawyer, Isaac Butt, was com-missioned by Lord Heytesbury to undertake a series of a r t i c l e s "to be inserted i n the Morning Herald, attacking Mr. O 'Connel l ' s p i p pol icy and the newly-invented scheme of Federalism". (Isaac Butt was to promote Federalism under the Home Rule banner i n the 18?0'S.) 2 1^ Despite Peel ' s ef for ts to undermine O 'Connell and to attack his Federal Scheme, O 'Connell had grounds for hope. 210. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p . 122. 'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r Robert P e e l ' , October 1?, 1844. 211. Loc. c i t . 212. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p . 123. 'To S i r Robert Peel , from Lord Heytesbury', October 20, 1844. 213. David Thornley, Isaac Butt and Home Rule. (London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1964), P« 83 f f . 82 I n 1844 a few o f t h e more r a d i c a l o f t h e Whig l e a d e r s had moved f u r t h e r t o w a r d s O ' C o n n e l l ' s p o s i t i o n . L o r d H o w i c k , t h e e l d e s t s o n o f t h e f o r m e r P r i m e M i n i s t e r , L o r d G r e y , o p e n l y avowed h i m s e l f " t h e f r i e n d o f p e r f e c t r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y " . ^ L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l l e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n 21 5 p r o t e s t i n g t h a t O ' C o n n e l l had n o t had a f a i r t r i a l . v O ' C o n n e l l had f u r t h e r g r o u n d s f o r hope w h i c h had been r e i n f o r c e d b y h i s t r i a l . He was t h e n "warmly r e c e i v e d by 216 t h e L i b e r a l s ( R a d i c a l s ) and F r e e T r a d e r s " . I n J u n e 1844, w h i l e i n p r i s o n , O ' C o n n e l l d e c i d e d t o p r o p o s e F e d e r a l i s m i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t " L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l h a s behaved e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l r e s p e c t i n g t h e s e t r i a l s " , and " t h e I r i s h a r e p e a c e a b l y w a i t i n g t o be c o n c i l i a t e d " . We have opened t h e d o o r t o a d m i t F e d e r a l i s t s amongst u s , and I n e v e r knew any man i n p r i -v a t e , who was n o t a F e d e r a l i s t , a t l e a s t . 217-214. T a i t ' s . X I (September 1844), P. 677. " S k e t c h o f t h e I r i s h G r e a t D e b a t e " . 2 1 5 . G r e v i l l e , Memoirs. V o l . V, p. 2 3 7 . F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 1844-216. The Times ( L o n d o n ) , M a r c h 13 , 1844. O ' R e i l l y , J o h n M a c H a l e . V o l . I , p. 549-" D i s t i n g u i s h e d members o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y and g e n t r y , and p r o m i n e n t Orangemen were j o i n i n g t h e F e d e r a l i s t s " . 2 1 7 . F i t z p a t r i c k , ed., C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f O ' C o n n e l l . V o l . I I , p. 3 2 4 . 'To t h e R i g h t H o n o u r a b l e R i c h a r d L a l o r S h e i l , from D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ' , June 19 , 1844. S h e i l was t h e Whig l a w y e r who d e f e n d e d D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l a t h i s t r i a l . 83 In September when the Scheme was proposed to the Repeal Associat ion, the I r i s h Whigs became interested i n Federalism, P18 as the Young Ireland editor of The Nation pointed out. However, the r e a l problem with the Federalism tac t ic was that i t was a gamble, only. O'Connell , f a i l i n g to get a response from the I r i s h Federal is ts and the I r i s h Whigs outside the Repeal Associat ion, was faced with the disturbing opposition of the more n a t i o n a l i s t i c Young Irelanders within h i s own Associat ion, who apposed what they regarded as a break i n pi Q thei r ranks. The Young Irelanders were much more doctrinaire i n their approach to I r i s h nationalism, and they began to believe the hos t i le English propaganda about O'Connell . In the l8i+0's they began to interpret O'Connell 's pragmatism i n the harsh-est l i g h t . They saw O'Connell 's swing back to Federalism as 218. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 163 f . 219. I b i d . , p. 102-116. Elaborates on the need for simple Repeal as an expression of Ireland's n a t i o n a l i t y . I b i d . . p. 601 f . A harsh c r i t i c i s m of O'Connell 's precipitous action on Federalism. Quarterly Review. LXXV (December 1844), P. 268. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p . 345. 'To W. O ' N e i l l Daunt, from Daniel O ' C o n n e l l ' , November 1844. He expressed his fear of opposition to h i s Federal Scheme. 84 an i n d i c a t i o n that he had merely used Repeal to extort con-220 cessions from B r i t i s h p o l i t i c i a n s . They began to believe, a lso , that O'Connell 's use of the Catholic Church was part of 2 a c l e r i c a l " p l o t " against their advocacy of the secular state . They f a i l e d to understand the true nature of the founda-t ions O'Connell had so careful ly l a i d throughout his l i f e , and which he had re-affirmed during his t r i a l . They did not under-stand the d i v i s i v e nature of their doctrinaire middle-class nationalism, which had few roots among the Catholic I r i s h peasantry and lower middle c lass , and which, instead, reinforced the ef for ts of Peel to separate the Catholic 222 Church and gentry from Repeal nationalism. O'Connell , unlike them, understood the necessity of protecting and strengthening the only effect ive organization of I r i s h s o l i d a r i t y that had survived English i n f i l t r a t i o n and assimilation—that of a Catholic l i b e r a l national movement i n the name of s o c i a l j u s t i c e . 220. Lawrence J . McCaffrey, Daniel O'Connell and the Repeal Year. (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1966), p . 207. He c i tes The Nation. October 21, 1843. 221. McDowell, Public Opinion, p. 243 f» 222. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 106. Cabinet Memorandum, February 17, 1844« Chapter 17. BRITISH ATTEMPTS TO DIVIDE CATHOLIC REPEALERS FROM THE CLERGY. The Charitable Bequests A c t . 1844« Papal Rescript to I r i s h Clergy. 1844-I t i s a step to the complete subjection of the Catholic Church to the State, which, no doubt, i s your aim, that you have introduced that f a t a l Measure of the Bequests B i l l . — D r . John M a c H a l e , 2 2 ^ Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam. O'Connell . . . (has guided) the poor, oppressed people of Ireland through such d i f f i c u l t i e s without the v i o l a t i o n of the laws of the land, the peace of society, or the r ights of property. —Pope Gregory X V T . 2 2 Z f 223. O ' R e i l l y , John MacHale. V o l . I, p. 562. 'To S i r Robert Peel , from John MacHale% January 24, 1845< 224. Broderick, Holy £ e e , p. 167-Chapter IV. BRITISH ATTEMPTS TO DIVIDE CATHOLIC REPEALERS FROM THE CLERGY. The Charitable Bequests Act . 1844. The B r i t i s h government during the t r i a l of O'Connell i n January 1844, and especial ly after h is acqui t ta l i n the following September, came to recognize the f u t i l i t y of attempting to discredi t him l e g a l l y . They now sought, among other al ternat ives , to separate the main bulwark of Catholic leadership i n Ireland; namely, the clergy, from Repeal. They hoped, within the framework of the Union and the Protestant Establishment, to effect a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between "Roman Catholics and Protestants . . . f r iendly to the Roman Catholics" i n Ireland. Peel and Graham were responsible for this s l i g h t s h i f t towards Catholic c o n c i l i a t i o n within the Conservative Party. They knew that the u l t r a Tories i n their own ranks would oppose them over t h i s , but i n the i n i t i a l stage they sought to create a government party within the Roman Catholic Church i n Ireland strong enough to counterbalance such loss of sup-port . This was to be aided through the reorganization of Church Charitable Bequests under a centralized State Board. 225. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 106. Cabinet Memorandum, February 17> 1844* See Chapter III , page 77 a lso . 226. P. J . Welch, Blomfield and Peel : A Study i n Cooperation Between Church and State, 1841-1846". Journal of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l History . XII (1), ( A p r i l 1961), 81-83-On page 81 Welch also indicates that Peel was a f a i r l y "devout" Anglican. 87 The B o a r d o f B e q u e s t s s h o u l d be n o m i n a t e d b y t h e Queen i n C o u n c i l ... a Roman C a t h o l i c body w o u l d have b e e n formed u n d e r t h e d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Crown, and by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t , w h i c h w i l l c o m p r i s e two A r c h b i s h o p s , a B i s h o p , and two la y m e n ... a body w h i c h t h e e x e c u t i v e government may communicate w i t h on a l l q u e s t i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e , Roman C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n . 227. C a t h o l i c p r e l a t e s , t h r o u g h t h e a c t o f s e r v i n g on t h e B o a r d , w o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r d e f i a n c e o f t h e O ' C o n n e l l p a r t y , w h i c h , i n t h e C h u r c h , ¥/as l e d b y A r c h b i s h o p J o h n MacHale o f Tuam. P r e l a t e s " w i l l h a r d l y bend t h e i r a u t h o r i t y t o t h e w i l l o f Mr. O ' C o n n e l l on an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l q u e s t i o n " . The government had t o p r o c e e d w i t h c a u t i o n i n I r e l a n d a s i t f e a r e d i t m i g h t a r o u s e o p p o s i t i o n t h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m u l t r a - P r o t e s t a n t o p i n i o n . I t b e l i e v e d t h e C a t h o l i c s c o u l d be i g n o r e d more e a s i l y as t h e y d i d n o t have much i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e 32ory P a r t y i n power, t h o u g h i t was n e c e s s a r y t o w i n t h e i r p pQ a p p r o v a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r h o s t i l i t y , i f a government c o n t r o l p a r t y was t o have any e f f e c t i n I r e l a n d . The t o t a l p l a n o f a c t i o n was f i r s t d i s c l o s e d c o n f i d e n -t i a l l y t o t h e P r i m a t e o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h , t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Armagh, so a s t o f e e l o u t o p i n i o n 227. P a r k e r , e d . , Graham. V o l . I , p. 2+20 f . 'To L o r d H e y t e s b u r y , from S i r James Graham', November 3 0 , 182+2+. ( P r i v a t e and c o n f i d e n t i a l ) . H a n s a r d . 3d S e r i e s , 73 ( J u n e 182+2+), 1087 and 76 ( A u g u s t 182+4) 1511-1513* The o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e B i l l a r e f o u n d i n 1527-1530, w h i l e 1530-1537 r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o why t h e C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s were n o t c o n s u l t e d . 2 2 8 . S p e c t a t o r . F e b r u a r y 8 , I8k5- p. 125. The M a r q u i s o f Normandy on the f o l l o w i n g F e b r u a r y 8 , 182+5 s a i d h i s main o b j e c t i o n t o t h e C h a r i t a b l e B e q u e s t s B i l l was t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s were n o t c o n s u l t e d b e f o r e . 88 among the Protestant clergy i n Ireland. Then the Collegiate and Universi ty Question of state-financed education on a mixed Roman Catholic -Episcopal ian Protestant, and Presbyterian basis was also to be discussed, and presented i n a form accept-able to Protestant Dissenters and the Protestant Establishment. To quiet re l ig ious fears of secular education among both Catholics and Protestants, the state was to disclaim any power of i n t e r f e r i n g with the r e l i g i o u s doctrine or d i s c i p l i n e of the proposed colleges . The increased grant to the Roman Catholic Maynooth Seminary, a potent ia l ly unpopular measure to Protestants, was to be sandwiched into the discussion of the Collegiate Question so as not to arouse u l t r a Protestant h o s t i l i t y . 2 2 9 O'Connell already suspected, during his imprisonment, tk; the purpose behind this p lan . He prepared a newspaper a r t i c l e to warn the Catholics of " t h i s f i r s t essay of Her Majesty's ministers to place the Catholic clergy under the control of the S t a t e " . 2 ^ He was encouraged i n this attempt to outmaneuver his opponents i n the national struggle by the support he had, as Graham stated, from "a powerful party i n 229- Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I , p. 421. •To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', November 30, 1844 (Private and conf ident ia l ) . 230. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . II , p . 325. "A Catholic Church and State B i l l " . . 89 231 the Catholic Church represented by Archbishop MacHale". MacHale c losely i d e n t i f i e d Catholic Church interest with the Repeal Movement, and he feared that i f our hierarchy, so united t i l l n o w , . . . w i l l f a l l a s u n d e r , . . . i t s unseemly divis ions w i l l become i n i t s weakness, helplessness, and deformity, a subject of exultation for our enemies. 232. MacHale was one of the main leaders among the clergy i n th is campaign. He embodied the s e n s i t i v i t y that the Catholic bishops f e l t over the lowly status assigned them by the 233 B r i t i s h government. In par t i cular , he interpreted the B i l l as an affront to his "stewardship to care for C h r i s t ' s 234 poor". He was angered by the replacement of the more direct role of the bishop of the diocese by "hateful Boards of Commissioners, the creatures of the government, no matter whether composed of Protestant or C a t h o l i c " . H e feared also that the impersonal government by a committee at Dublin Castle would replace the more paternal is t i c and humanitarian role of the l o c a l church leaders. 231. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I, p . 423« 'To S i r Robert Peel , from S i r James Graham', December 23, 1844. 232. O ' R e i l l y , John MacHale. V o l . I, p. 556. 'To Cardinal Fransoni, from John MacHale', November 25, 1844. Cardinal Fransoni was the Minister of Propaganda for the Pope. 233. Ibid., V o l . I, p. 564. 'To S i r Robert Peel , from Dr. MacHale', January 24, 1845. 234. I b i d . . p . 554 and 557-It should also be noted that MacHale's Archdiocese of Tuam (Connaught) was the most economically destitute and over-populated i n Ireland. 235. Ibid., P. 554 f. 90 O'Connell , sharing with MacHale t h i s basic dis t rust of the Dublin Castle administration under the Union was deter-mined to r e s i s t by every const i tut ional means i n his power the "subtle influence of dependency that the long-established Protestant government exercised over the minds of the Catholic 236 gentry and clergy" a l i k e . - For him this came to include, by the autumn of 1844, the Young Ireland group within Repeal. Then the I r i s h press became more ac t ively involved i n one of i t s favourite pastimes—religious controversy. This time i t was between the so-cal led "pr ies t party" of Daniel O'Connell and the " a n t i - p r i e s t party" led by Thomas Davis, the Protestant 237 Young Irelander. The open clash between O'Connell and Davis over the Colleges B i l l on May 26, 1845 both symbolized and c r y s t a l l i z e d these differences which had begun to corrode and divide Repeal. The Young Ireland movement, despite i t s claim to I r i s h nat ional i ty above class and creed, unconsciously i d e n t i f i e d with the class attitudes of the Protestant Ascendancy which i t sought to overthrow. It found i t d i f f i c u l t , while 236. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p. 321. •To P. F i tzpat r i ck , from Daniel O ' C o n n e l l ' , March 25, 1844. This i s another reference to Archbishop Murray of Dublin (see Chapter III , page 78). 237. Denis Rolleston Gwynn, "Young Ireland", i n Tierney, e d . , Nine Centenary Essays, p. 187-196. A detailed account of the re l ig ious controversy which portrays O'Connell as an impatient, but seasoned, statesman used to host i le c r i t i c i s m , opposed by the young and sensitive Thomas Davis, who cannot recognize his Protestant bias . 91 acknowledging the strength of the Catholic organization of O ' C o n n e l l , 2 ^ to stomach the crude robustness of i t s grass-roots organization which Daniel O'Connell l e d . One of Young Ireland's ablest leaders, the Protestant, Smith O ' B r i e n , 2 ^ "shrank with wise forbearance from any contest with O'Connell" and was to prove himself wiser than Thomas Davis i n his under-standing of the r e l i g i o n of class and n a t i o n a l i t y , and of the subordinate ro le of Catholics i n Ireland. He had to remind Davis, who had not hesitated to support violent c r i t i c s of O'Connell 's C a t h o l i c i s m , 2 i f 1 not to be unduly sensit ive to the attacks of some of the popular Catholic press, since "you and I should remember that we are Protestants, and that the bulk of the I r i s h nation are Cathol ics" . 2 * 1 " 2 The r e l i g i o u s differences between O'Connell and Young Ireland revealed the whole tragedy of the I r i s h national movement, which embodied divergencies over methods and aims which were expressed through these deep-rooted divis ions of r e l i g i o n and class between the I r i s h "Catholic Lower Nation" and the "Protestant Upper Nation" . When Daniel O'Connell 238. Duffy, Young Ireland. p. 623. 239. I b i d . . p. 383-A description of Smith O'Brien. 21+0. I b i d . , p . 383 and 695. 22+1. Denis R. Gwynn, "Young Ireland", i n Tierney, e d . , Nine Centenary Essays. p. 187-196. 22+2. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 618. 92 c a l l e d o f f the 1843 Clontarf meeting, h is actions were i n t e r -preted by Xoung Irelanders as t imidi ty rather than as a necessary caution to protect the I r i s h Lower Nation. His subsequent 1844 Federalism, and h i s general desire to achieve jus t i ce through Whig a i d , was seen as the abandonment of Repeal. His const i tut ional and-peaceful conception of I r i s h protest was beginning to be viewed with impatience by the Young Irelanders who were beginning to seek more independent tac t i cs i n pursuit of an abstract idea of national independence The tone of their plea for I r i s h nat ional i ty found sym-pathetic echoes i n the I r i s h Conservative and Tory press which was host i le to O'Connell . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of th is Protestant Ascendancy class approach on nat ional i ty was revealed i n the Dublin Universi ty Magazine• O'Connell , i t was suggested, "pursued a habitual agi ta t ion" for personal aggrandizement, unlike the Young Irelanders who were prepared "to fight l i k e men and s o l d i e r s " . Thomas Davis was described as "an ardent 243- Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 687-695-R. Dudley Edwards and T . Desmond Williams, eds. , The Great Famine: Studies i n I r i s h History . 1845-52. (Dublin: Browne & Nolan, 1956), p. 144. Denis Rolleston Gwynn, Daniel O'Connell : The I r i s h Liberator (London: Hutchinson, 1929), p. 269 f . McDowell, Public Opinion, p. 248 f . Theodore William Moody, Thomas Davis. 1814-1845. (Dublin: Hodges, F i g g i s , (n. d . ) , p . 44. Kevin B. Nowlan, Charles Gavan Duffy and the Repeal Movement. (0'Donne11 Lecture, May 1963). (Dublin: University College, 1963). p. 8 f . 93 l o v e r of I r e l a n d ( l i k e themselves) ... and a gentleman". 2 i f i f Part of the t r i b u t e to Thomas Davis was a r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s y o u t h f u l I n s p i r a t i o n and personal q u a l i t i e s which have cap-tured the imagination of contemporaries ^ and h i s t o r i a n s a l i k e . There was a l s o i n t h i s the romantic appeal, l i k e the l a t e r r,Sword Speech" d e c l a r a t i o n o f the Young Irelander, Thomas Meagher, to which O'Connell was vehemently opposed, which spoke of the n a t i o n "purchased by the e f f u s i o n of 247 generous blood". ^ Above a l l , however, i t represented the exasperation of the Conservative Ascendancy c l a s s at the level-headed, pragmatic O'Connell's success at evading both l e g a l prosecution and the r e p r e s s i o n of h i s movement. Over the C h a r i t a b l e Bequests controversy the Nation, the prominent newspaper of the Young Ire l a n d e r s , remained si l e n t 2 * * " 8 and O'Connell, though he recognized the importance 244. Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Magazine. XXIX (February 1847) p. 190 f. "Our P o r t r a i t Gallery—Thomas Davis". 245. Duffy, Young I r e l a n d , p. 702-707-246. I b i d . , p. 759. Moody, Thomas Davis, p. 42. William B u t l e r Yeats, T r i b u t e to Thomas Davis. (Cork: U n i v e r s i t y , 1965), p. 17. 247. Denis R o l l e s t o n Gwynn, Thomas F r a n c i s Meagher. O'Donnell Lecture. (Dublin: National U n i v e r s i t y of Ireland, 1961), p. 8-14. 248. McDowell, Public Opinion, p. 245. 94 of the measure, agreed to keep the controversy out of the Repeal Associat ion. ^ At the same time he spoke eloquently against the B i l l at meetings of the Catholic clergy, and thus demonstrated his determination to maintain the v i t a l l i n k between the Party of MacHale and his own grass roots organiza-250 t i o n of Repeal, against the power of the English government. ^ O'Connell 's involvement i n the Charitable Bequests con-troversy as the Catholic champion of Ireland was unavoidable. I t was a secular and t a c t i c a l move to preserve the Catholic c l e r i c a l support of Repeal, and inseparable from this was h i s moral defence of the clergy of the Catholic Church against s o c i a l , economic and educational discrimination practiced 251 against them by the Protestant state. ^ McDowell has sug-gested that O'Connell 1 s primary purpose was to make ''a Catholic 252 embarrassed" to accept a seat on the new Board. ^ Consequently, the Act that had been pushed through a predominantly unsympa-thetic Protestant Parliament without consulting the I r i s h Catholic clergy would have been rendered inoperative by those 249. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 629 f . 'To Thomas Davis, from Daniel O 'Connel l ' , Darrynane, October 30, 1844. I l l u s t r a t e s the pains O'Connell took i n writ ing to Davis to clear up re l ig ious misunderstanding. D a v i s had provoked the Catholic Dublin Review c r i t i c by praising a book which was deliberately i n s u l t i n g to O'Connell , and he, then, had appealed to O'Connell for protection. 250. Spectator. December 24, 1844- P. 1181. A meeting i n Dublin to oppose the Charitable Bequests Act . 251. See Appendix B, pages B-1 to B-5« "Special Pr ivi leges of the Protestant Established Church". 252. McDowell, Public Opinion, p. 214 f . 95 same clergy, thus demonstrating the ineffect iveness of Peel ' s administration i n Ireland. However, i t would be a gross error to suggest that O'Connell 's objections were merely t a c t i c a l . There were strong moral objections to the Act , as w e l l . On the surface i t appeared as a progressive measure i n that i t sought to regularize Catholic charitable donations under a central ized committee on a s imilar l e g a l basis as that given to Protes tants . 2 -^ However, i t l e f t undefined the ambiguous l e g a l posi t ion of the regular clergy, who were one of the main dispensers of charity and education among the "middling or poor sort of c h i l d r e n " , while, according to MacHale, removing 25k them from the l e g a l protection of the bishops. To appre-ciate the importance of these objections from the I r i s h clergy (which the government chose to ignore) , the previous status of the Regulars, as l a s t defined under the 1829 Catholic Emancipation B i l l , should be examined. In 1829 the Duke of Wellington, then Prime Minister , supported by Peel , had assured a Regular, Dr. John Warren Doyle, the Bishop of K i l d a r e , that the government would not enforce the laws that deprived the Regulars of property r ights , under the Catholic R e l i e f Act of 1829, "except by the Attorney-General i n a contingency that" they believed would never take 253. Fraser 's Magazine. XXXI (March 1845), P. 373-The "Pol icy of Minister" Act legal ized Roman Catholic property r i g h t s . 23k' Loc. c i t . 96 p l a c e . S i n c e then, as Dr. MacHale pointed out, the Regular clergy had been protected i n their endowments and duties by becoming subject to those who were le g a l l y allowed to hold endowments; that i s , the bishop of their diocese, or a 256 superior of their own, resident i n Ireland. J John MacHale f e l t that the centralized Board removed this protective authority of the l o c a l bishops from the Regulars. He believed that i t would now be the duty of the Board to carry out the l e t t e r of the law, and "to sue for the recovery 2 5 7 of property given to the Catholic Regulars". y i These objec-tions of the I r i s h clergy, backed up by O'Connell, were also reinforced by the Whig press. The Spectator recommended that "the Legislature should restore the Regulars to f u l l c i v i l rights since they had done nothing to f o r f e i t this position". 2^ 0* 255. Fitzpatrick, ed., Correspondence of Dr. Doyle. Vol. I I , p. 129. 2%. Ibid.. Vol. I I , p. 123 and 126. 257. Ibid.. Vol. II, p. 355. 'fo Archbishop Murray, from Daniel O'Connell', (no date). 258. Spectator. December 28, 1844. P« 1229. 97 The authoritarian attempt of the government to enforce the Charitable Bequests Act without f u l l y weighing the ob-jections of the national leaders of the I r i s h Cathol ics , led i t to seek Papal influence to uphold i t s authority i n Ireland. I t chose to accept the simple view that the clergy would become more amenable i f they were compelled by the Pope to r e f r a i n from Repeal a c t i v i t i e s . This attack of the govern-ment on the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of the clergy compelled the Repeal Associat ion, including the Young Irelanders, to discuss Church a f f a i r s . 2 - ^ As early as October 1843» at the time of the arrest of Daniel O'Connell , the I r i s h Lord Lieutenant had requested that assistance be sought from the Pope to control the Repeal a c t i v i t i e s of the Roman Catholic hierarchy, who, he believed, "held i n subjection seven-eighths of the I r i s h people". Peel agreed to comply with this request. The Pope was to be given a documented case of I r i s h Catholic d is loyal ty to the Crown. The Repeal Movement was to be denounced to the Papal Court, and the Roman Catholic p r i e s t s ' involvement i n i t was to be presented as "not only disgraceful to r e l i g i o n , (but) dangerous to other thrones as well as to that of E n g l a n d " . 2 6 1 259. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 623. 260. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I , p. Z+02. 'To S i r Robert Peel , from S i r James Graham', October 30, 1843. 261. Loc. c i t . •To S i r James Graham, from S i r Robert P e e l ' , November 27, 1843. 98 I t was hoped that th is would persuade the conservative forces i n the ascendancy at the Papal Court to take action against p£Tp the I r i s h c lergy. Pope Gregory XVI was known to be a conservative, and had formed a powerful a l l iance with Metter-nich against what he believed was the l i b e r a l threat to 263 thrones and to established state r e l i g i o n . D The Papal Secretary of State (1836-184-6), Cardinal Lambruschini, was an appointee of the Austrian Court, and both he and Metternich regarded O'Connell 's l i b e r a l advocacy of the separation of the Church from the State as a dangerous revolutionary doctrine. Thus, Peel had reason to hope that the Papacy might be per-suaded to believe that the I r i s h Repeal Movement shared common roots with the l i b e r a l nationalism i t feared. However, the B r i t i s h re la t ions with the Papal Court, despite a mutual respect for conservative p o l i c i e s , were tenuous. The B r i t i s h government had never regularized i t s re la t ions with the Papal Court since the reign of Elizabeth I commenced i n 155$. The B i l l of Rights i n 1688, and the Act of Settlement i n 1703 that upheld the Protestant Consti tution, debarred the Crown from having normal diplomatic relat ions with the Pope, and B r i t i s h public opinion i n the 1840's would 262. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I , p. 4-02. 'To S i r Robert Peel , from S i r James Graham', November 29, 184-3* 263. Broderick, Holy See, p. 164-. Pope Gregory XVI was compelled to c a l l i n Austrian troops to repress armed revolts i n the Papal States. 264-. Ross Hoffman, "Whigs and L i b e r a l Pope". Thought. XIV (March 1949), p . 83-98. 99 have been aroused by any attempt at a concordat. Nonetheless, B r i t a i n had been forced to have u n o f f i c i a l dealings with the Pope because of the extent of the Roman Catholic population i n her Empire. Now i n 1844 the B r i t i s h government made a more d e f i n i t e move. It sent Mr. Petre, a s e m i - o f f i c i a l agent from Florence, the nearest B r i t i s h legat ion, to Rome, to exercise influence on i t s behalf . Mr. Petre was described by the Foreign Minister , Lord Aberdeen, as "one so l i t t l e a Catholik" that he could be trusted by B r i t a i n , and yet, "being a Catholik, h i s nomination i s agreeable to R o m e " . 2 6 I t was th is action of the government that aroused the alarm of the Repeal leaders and the I r i s h Catholic Repeal clergy, since they feared an agreement contrary to their interests might be 266 arranged between the government and Rome. The I r i s h movement, however, had subtle overtones that forced the Papacy into a more cautious at t i tude. Though the Pope did not dare antagonize the p o l i t i c a l leaders of the B r i t i s h Empire at Westminster, he could not re l inquish one of his primary duties—that of defending the r ights and 265. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 625. In a l e t t e r to Dr. C a n t r e l l , Catholic Bishop of Meath, from Daniel O'Connell , he wrote: "Mr. Petre, involved i n B r i t i s h double-dealing, might note that the B r i t i s h agent, backed by the Austrian, was almost i r r e s i s t a b l e with the p o l i t i c i a n s of the Court of Rome". 266. I b i d . . p. 622-624. McDowell, Public Opinion. p. 216. 100 temporalities of the I r i s h Catholics i n their protest against an English "here t i ca l state" . In a r e f l e c t i v e moment, above 267 the sophistr ies of the papal bureaucracy, ' the Pope ex-pressed admiration for the humanity of the cause which the I r i s h Repeal clergy espoused: I express i n the kindest way the convictions of Mr. O'Connell 's v i r t u e s , . . . and especially of his love for r e l i g i o n , and wisdom i n guid-ing the poor, oppressed people of Ireland through such d i f f i c u l t i e s without the v i o l a t i o n of the laws of the land, the peace of society, or the r ights of property. 268. Even Metternich, while disapproving of the O'Connell movement 269 "disguised i n a r e l i g i o u s garb", 7 recommended that drastic methods of reform i n Ireland, such as " restoring to the Catholic clergy the temporal goods of which they were formerly despoiled" , would help solve the soc ia l and p o l i t i c a l unrest there. 2 ^0 The Party of MacHale claimed i t was these moral and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to re l ieve "widespread misery and i n j u s t i c e " that made the support of Repeal "obligatory on the conscience" of the I r i s h clergy, above the purely p o l i t i c a l issues of the 2 7 1 day. ' I t was th is strong appeal to conscience that had 267. Broderick, Holy See, p. 168. 268. I b i d . , p. 167. A report made by the Rev. Tobias Kirby of conversations with Pope Gregory XVI. 269. I b i d . . p. 165. 270. I b i d . . p . 166. 271. Ibid . . , p.151 f . Explains the two main schools of thought on Repeal among the I r i s h clergy. The "government" party did not openly support Repeal, as they were sceptical of i t s success, or fearful of i t s radicalism. 101 strengthened the Repeal movement among the I r i s h Catholic clergy, and had consequently, weakened P e e l ' s p o s i t i o n . This was further aggravated by his defence of the Protestant Estab-lishment, which aroused Catholic h o s t i l i t y and Catholic con-tempt because of i t s pr iv i leged posi t ion and i t s increasingly 272 aggressive evangelical tendencies. Consequently, only seven of the Catholic bishops had not committed themselves openly to Repeal. Among these was Dr. Kennedy, Bishop of K i l l a l o e , one of the ablest , and the most powerful orator among the clergy, who openly supported 273 the government against O'Connell . A l s o , Drs Daniel Murray, Archbishop of Dublin, and Dr. William C r o l l y , Archbishop of Armagh, were w i l l i n g to be passive towards the government and 274 Repeal. ^ Many of the bishops had demonstrated their sym-pathy with O'Connell from the time of Catholic Emancipation onwards, and the Catholic pr iests generally supported him. This strong Repeal movement reinforced the I r i s h Catholic lobby headed by Cardinal Paul Cullen, the Rector of the I r i s h 272. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 120 f . 'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r Robert P e e l ' , September 5, 1844; and 'To S i r Robert Peel , from Lord Heytesbury', September 17, 1844. 273. Broderick, Holy See, p. 135. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , Correspondence of O'Connell . Vo3L I I , p. 378. Describes the Bishop of K i l l a l o e as one of the ablest . 274. I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 321. •To P. F i tzpat r i ck , from Daniel O'Connel l ' , March 23, 1844. 1 0 2 College ( la ter Primate of the I r i s h Church), at Rome. ( ^ This was s u f f i c i e n t l y active at the internat ional l e v e l to arouse the animosity of the English Conservative press. The Quarterly Review referred to: ' the O'Connelli te fact ion at Rome which has always been thought of by Father Routhan, the General of the Jesui ts , as being against a l l government a l i k e , i n Church and State, while assuming the mask of attacking only the supremacy of an here t i ca l church, has gained much support. That O'Connelli te fact ion, we grieve to say, has been taken up by a l l the English Roman Catholics resident i n Rome, and the admirers of Lemennais (a French radical) are talking more composedly . . . of throwing of f a l l connections with governments everywhere, and placing themselves at the head of the revolut ionis ts throughout Europe. 276. It was th is Catholic l i n k with the I r i s h Repeal movement that gave O'Connell an internat ional reputation, and strengthened the moral basis of h is cause on the international l e v e l . William E . Gladstone, the future advocate of I r i s h indepen-dence, i n 1844, was amazed by the internat ional sympathy that O'Connell had aroused through his l i b e r a l Catholic l i n k s with Europe. 2 ' ' ' ' ' In 1347, a p a t r i o t i c I t a l i a n p r i e s t , Father Ventura, described O'Connell as "the f i r s t i n the nineteenth century to revive and to put into practice the pr inciples of c i v i l independence and true l i b e r t y " . 2 ' ' 8 275- O ' R e i l l y , John MacHale. V o l . I , p. 557-559. Cullen expressed his h o s t i l i t y to the Charitable Bequests Board, and to having an English ambassador at Rome! 276. Quarterly Review. LXXIV (1844), P- 165-277. Macintyre, The Liberator , p. 297. 278. Broderick, Holy See, p. 219 f . Father Ventura (formerly General of the Congregation of Theatines) i n the funeral oration for O'Connell at the I r i s h College, Rome, 184-7• 103 Cardinal Lambruschini, the Metternich appointee, speaking on behalf of the Pope, cautiously balanced B r i t i s h imperial influence against the humanitarian appeal of Catholic Repeal i n Ireland, i n 1844, when he declared that: " I f we were to come forward i n a more public manner . . . we would embitter 27Q rather than soften the animosities of par t ies " . F i n a l l y , on October 15, 1844 a Papal Rescript was issued by Cardinal 280 Fransoni, Prefect of Propaganda, the ambiguity of which was guaranteed to s a t i s f y a l l the parties among the I r i s h clergy. In h i s studies from the Vatican archives, Broderick has explained the wide degree of interpretat ion allowed i n this Papal Rescript . I t admonished the I r i s h clergy not to deviate from the teaching of the Church over the necessity of "sub-ject ion to the temporal power i n c i v i l a f f a i r s " . However, the Repeal p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of the I r i s h Catholic l a i t y received no mention; nor did the Papacy define or pass judge-ment on the p o l i t i c a l aspect of the Repeal Movement. 279. Broderick, Holy See, p. 188. 280. I b i d . , p. 184. 281. I b i d . , p. 189 f f . 104 According to 0 ' B e i l l Daunt, a close confidant of Daniel O 'Connel l , i f the Papacy had condemned Repeal outright , i t would have faced a widespread r e b e l l i o n or evasion among the Catholics who supported the MacHale p o s i t i o n . Daunt declared i n the Repeal Association that " i f a rescr ipt emanated from Rome denouncing the national movement, the pQp Catholics of Ireland would treat i t as so much waste paper". The immediate reaction of both O'Connell and Gavan Duffy, when the Rescript was issued, was to assume that i t had de-manded that the Church r e f r a i n from supporting R e p e a l . 2 ^ O 'Connel l , therefore, used his favourite legal device to defend his Repeal party; namely, that of using the B r i t i s h Constitution against the B r i t i s h government. He pointed out that under the Catholic R e l i e f Act of 1829, Papal Rescripts were i l l e g a l , since under that Act , Catholics "abjured the temporal and c i v i l j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Pope within the R e a l m " . 2 ^ The (London) Times sarcas t i ca l ly described O 'Connell , who: with a l l the zeal of an Orangeman, i s lec turing a Protestant ministry on the obligations of their oaths of supremacy and allegiance . . . (while) the popish fact ion has taken up the cry, "No Popery". 285. 282. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 624. 283- I b i d . . p. 627. 284. Broderick, Holy See, p. 196. He ci tes the Weekly Freeman's Journal of Dublin, January 18, 1845. 285- The Times (London). January 16, 1845-105 This, unintentionally expressed the philosophic basis of O'Connell 's desire to separate the Church from the State. O'Connell had never been an ultra-montane papist , a d i s t i n c -t ion his enemies refused to recognize i n him. His s p i r i t u a l al legiance, he had always maintained, was to the Church; though i n temporal matters, he was a l o y a l subject of the Queen. O'Connell 's bold defiance of the Papal Rescript , canoni-c a l l y endorsed by the I r i s h Church Synod, could not go un-noticed by the I r i s h Catholic prelates . The Catholic Arch-bishop of Armagh reprimanded him for exceeding the authority p O / ; of the clergy i n this respect. O'Connell , i n his public apology to them, did not s h i f t ground though appearing to do so e admitted that he had misunderstood the nature of the Rescript . Now, he r e a l i z e d , that i t referred to s p i r i t u a l poo matters only. The i r o n i c flavour of his remarks was los t on the B r i t i s h press; "Mr. O'Connell himself has admitted 286. Broderick, Holy See, p . 195 f . An a r t i c l e published i n the Dublin Evening Post (a Whig paper), reprimanding O'Connell . 287. I b i d . . p. 196 f . 'To Dr . Cul len , from Dr. Walsh', Hal i fax , Nova Scotia , March 10, 1845. Here the Bishop of Halifax mentioned that he had told O'Connell i n a conversation how disrespectful he was to the Pope. He added that O'Connell "appeared thoughtful and mort i f ied" . 288. Loc. c i t . 106 the canonical character of the Pope's R e s c r i p t . . . . Mr. 289 O'Connell said—I am a very bad theologian". The London Times believed that the Catholic hierarchy was pledged to carry out the s p i r i t of the Rescript i n the 290 manner interpreted by the B r i t i s h government. 7 Peel o p t i -m i s t i c a l l y believed that the Rescript had been effect ive i n res t ra ining the clergy, and had l e d , at l a s t , to the o f f i c i a l acceptance by the Catholic Church of the Charitable Bequests Act of 1844. We have erected a barr ier—a l i n e of churchmen— behind which the well - thinking part of the Roman Catholic l a i t y w i l l conscientiously r a l l y . . . . O'Connell has been defeated . . . h is a l lusions to our proceedings at Rome, his reference to the V e t o — a l l mark h i s deep sense of the advantage we have gained. 291. In r e a l i t y , the Papal Court had l e f t the interpretat ion of the Rescript to the I r i s h clergy, and consequently, the positions of the Catholic parties remained unchanged. Despite the addit ional concession by the government i n o f f i c i a l l y recognizing the t i t l e s of the Catholic bishops for the f i r s t 292 time, 7 i t f a i l e d to win thei r genuine support. 289. Spectator. January 25, 1845. p . 78. 290. The Times (London), January 13, 1845. 291. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 132. •To S i r Robert Peel , from Lord Heytesbury', December 20, 1844. 292. Spectator. December 18, 1844. P. 1205. 107 Dr. Daniel Murray, Catholic Archbishop of Dublin , who accepted a seat on the Charitable Bequests Board, declared that "every Prelate i s to be l e f t at l i b e r t y to act accord-i n g to the dictates of his own conscience respecting" the 293 Bequests Act . Dr. William C r o l l y , Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, who was also appointed to the Board, expressed 294 h i s disapproval i n the same v e i n . 7 ^ Dr. Kennedy, Bishop of K i l l a l o e , resigned his appointment, and was replaced by 295 Dr . Denvir of Bel fas t , who accepted only condi t ional ly . 7 ^ Dr. John MacHale re-affirmed the moral r ight of h is party to protest against the Bequests Act , and to support 296 the Repeal movement, 7 which he believed compatible with the p a c i f i c role of the p r i e s t s , who, "when the influence of armed men and the law had f a i l e d . . . were sent to calm 297 the despair of the famine-stricken people". 7 ' I t may be argued that the church leaders' grudging acceptance of the Bequests Act was a t t r ibutable , not so much to government pressure, but to the fear that any mass agitatic 293- Spectator. December 28, 1844- P« 1229. 294. Spectator. December 14, 1844. P« 1l8l. 295. O ' R e i l l y , John MacHale. V o l . I, p. 580. 296. I b i d . . p. 547. 'To Dr. MacHale, from Dr. C u l l e n ' , January 4, 1844. 297. I b i d . . p. 622. 108 against the Act might further excite "the already grievously deranged s o c i a l conditions" created by poverty and by 298 "grinding oppression". The imperative needs of encroaching famine were beginn-i n g to over-ride the other issues by December 1844- In a meeting of the Repeal Associat ion, O'Connell declared: that famine was increasing - . . and the necessary consequence would be p e s t i l e n c e . . . . He was ready to support Peel i n any good measure he proposed for Ireland, no matter what i t was—whether to repeal the Corn Laws, or to cheapen provisions . . . . He had no preference for Whig over T o r y . . . . He announced his in tent ion to c a l l together a l l the I r i s h members who could assemble i n Dublin, i n order to agree upon a future l i n e of ac t ion. 299. I t was apparent that O'Connell aifc the end of 1844 was prepared to cooperate with Protestant and Catholic a l ike to "agree on a future l i n e of act ion to save Ireland from the worst consequences of 'famine' and ' p e s t i l e n c e ' " . Already, he had avoided a direct attack on the property of the land-l o r d class and the Protestant Church Establishment to achieve t h i s e n d . ^ ^ His Federal overtures and his abandonment of 301 mass agi tat ion-^ i n the c losing months of lakh- were also part of this same p o l i c y . 298. Spectator. March 8, 1845. p. 129. 299. Spectator. December 28, 1844- p. 1229. 300. Levy, e d . , Discussion on Repeal, p. 66. O'Connell had demanded addit ional taxation of the absentee landlord c lass . 301. F i t z p a t r i c k , ed . , Correspondence of O'Connell . V o l . I I , p. 331 f . 109 At the same time the B r i t i s h government's f a i l u r e to effect any drast ic remedies was to become increasingly evident, especial ly i n the early months of 1845« D i s i l l u -sioned, the Catholic base of the Repeal Movement, as already aligned during the Bequests Act controversy, re-emerged with addit ional strength i n 1845* In May 1845, i t was led into the Parliamentary arena by O'Connell when he defended the Catholic objections to the government's proposed Academical Ins t i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l . Chapter V. THE LIMITS OF ANGLO-IRISH COOPERATION. THE MAYNOOTH GRANT. Apri l -May, 1845. I t i s not honourable to Protestantism to see the bad and violent and bigoted passions displayed at th is moment. 302 —Queen V i c t o r i a . Peel . . . i s growing w i s e r . . . . Nothing was ever more f a i r and excellent i n a l l i t s deta i ls than his plan respecting Maynooth. —Daniel O'Connell . 302. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p . 176. •To S i r Robert Peel , from Queen V i c t o r i a ' , Buckingham Palace, A p r i l 15, 1845. 303. The Times (London), A p r i l 11, 1845. P« 4. Chapter V. THE LIMITS OF ANGLO-IRISH COOPERATION. The Maynooth Grant. April-May 1845. The background and controversy over the government's proposal to increase state a i d to the Catholic Seminary of Maynooth i n Ireland i n the early months of 1845 i l l u s t r a t e d c l e a r l y and dramatically the l imited extent of cooperation between Protestant B r i t a i n and Catholic Ireland. I t also served to emphasize the extent of the c u l t u r a l gap between the two countries which was to have such tragic economic implicat ions for Ireland because of the strength of the vested economic and s o c i a l interests that f e l t threatened by con-cessions, however s l i g h t , to the I r i s h Catholic Church. Early i n 1845 the increasing economic and s o c i a l gulf between England and Ireland, that O'Connell so poignantly protested, was explained to the B r i t i s h p u b l i c . The Spectator admitted the improved economic and s o c i a l climate of B r i t a i n , with "good harvests" and "greater quiet at home and abroad", and the revenue " r e f l e c t i n g the ease and busy commerce of the c o u n t r y " . B y contrast, i n Ireland the Catholic bishops revealed "the grievously deranged soc ia l conditions created by 305 poverty and grinding oppression". 504. Spectator. January 11, 1845.* P« 28. 305. Spectator. March 8, 1845- P- 129. 112 The Devon Commission Report published i n February 1845 starkly confirmed these near famine conditions of h a l f the population of I r e l a n d . ^ 0 6 By contrast, the export sector of Ireland i l l u s t r a t e d sharply the unhealthy imbalance of the I r i s h economy. Bumper com harvests and the decline i n the I r i s h domestic markets led i n 1845 to a doubling of the export 3 0 7 of corn to England as compared with the previous year. The country (agricultural ) interest within the Conserv-t ive Party f e l t threatened nonetheless, since t h e i r protected posi t ion under the Corn Laws was now being increasingly chal -lenged.-^ 0 8 Growing pressure from the manufacturing interests demanded the a b o l i t i o n of the Corn Laws to allow the import of cheap food from abroad. In Ireland the "country" party f e l t especial ly threatened by this trend towards free trade. There, any change i n the protected economic status quo i n favour of the Catholic "Lower Nation" would, i n addit ion, threaten their precarious Ascendancy status. In commenting 306. "Report from Her Majesty's Commission of Inquiry in to the State of Law and Practice i n Respect to the Occupa-t i o n of Land i n Ireland" . H. C. 1845 (605) XIX, p. 1-56. 307. Thorn's I r i s h Almanac, p. 172 f . " I r i s h Exports of Corn to B r i t a i n " . 1844 — 440,153 quarters. 1845 779,113 quarters. The export of cat t le and dairy products from Ireland remained steady. 308. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 169-173-'To S i r Robert Peel , from Mr. Gladstone of the Board of Trade' , February 3, 1845* 'To Mr. Croker, from S i r James Graham', February 23, 1845. 113 on their dilemma, Peel s a i d , "The tar i f f -drought—forty s h i l l i n g s a quarter for wheat, quickens the r e l i g i o u s xn Q apprehension of same". 7 Within the government, both Wellington and Graham, who were experienced i n I r i s h a f f a i r s , expressed the fears of t h i s Protestant landlord c lass . Wellington explained that since Catholic Emancipation they f e l t that they had l o s t p r i v i l e g e s while their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n l o c a l government had continued to increase. They feared that Catholic demands, despite O'Connell 's re-assurances to the contrary,-^ 1 would lead ultimately to a Catholic Ascendancy, which would resul t i n : the undoubted and immediate seizure of the landed property of the (Protestant) Church, the seizure of the t i thes and t h e i r applicat ion for f i s c a l purposes . . . the seizure of the property: f i r s t , of a l l the absentees; next, of a l l opposed to the new order of things; and even of those who have t i l l now been opposed to the Repeal of the Union. * Graham, the Home Secretary, hoped that such fears of the Protestant Ascendancy would lead them to place greater reliance on England, since: a l l who possessed property i n Ireland, began to be sensible of a danger to themselves of separation from Great B r i t a i n . . . th is whole , 1 p question i n Ireland i s the possession of land. - > ^ e L ' 309. McDowell, Public Opinion, p. 221. 310. Levy, e d . , Discussion on Repeal, p. 66. 311. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I, p. 418 f f . •To S i r James Graham, from the Duke of Wellington' , October 11, 1844. 312. IJOC_. c i t . 114 These government attitudes revealed basic contradictions. Peel and Graham, though w i l l i n g to use the Protestant control party i n Ireland against the Catholic Repeal agi ta t ion , v a c i l -lated between protecting them and part ly abandoning them to Catholic in teres ts . The rapid expansion of imperial trade had convinced Peel that Free Trade was the inevi table trend, but i n his endeavour to protect the "country" party, he l e f t their Corn Law interests untouched i n h i s second "Free Trade Budget" of February l845-^ 1 i t' At the same time he proposed the Stanley B i l l for the Compensation to Tenants (Ireland) which, however moderate, was bound to provoke the Country i n t e r e s t . They not only f e l t attacked i n their "sacred" r ights of property, but deeply resented what they regarded as the l a i s s e z - f a i r e attitude of the government i n placing the onus for economic and soc ia l reform i n Ireland on them. In a Parliament so unrepresentative of I r i s h peasant interests , i t was doubtful i f Peel was surprised when the B i l l was thrown out i n i t s 313. Spectator. May 24, 1845. P- 481. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p . 171. •To S i r Robert Peel , from S i r James Graham', February 23, 1845. 314. I b i d . , p. 169-173. 'To S i r Robert Peel , from Mr. Gladstone of the Board of Trade' , February 3, 1845. 'To Mr. Croker, from S i r James Graham',. February 23, 1845. 115 f i r s t stages. ' The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s r e j e c t i o n of land reform must not have escaped him, f o r , as Graham had ex-p l a i n e d , " i n I r e l a n d , the whole question i s the possession o f l a n d " . - ^ Upon the r e j e c t i o n of t h i s B i l l , the Repeal A s s o c i a t i o n was quick to a s s e r t "Tenant R i g h t s " a l l over I r e l a n d as part of the programme f o r a r e s t o r e d I r i s h Par-liament. Peel's c o n c l u s i o n was that the whole land question 317 would have to be shelved f o r the time being. Graham described the dilemma of these government p o l i c i of reform i n I r e l a n d when he summarized the d i f f i c u l t i e s of Peel's p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the Country Party, who, he explained: cannot be more ready to give us the death blow than we are to r e c e i v e i t . . . . le. have endeav-oured to save them, and they regard us as enemies for so doing. I f we have l o s t the confidence and good w i l l of the Country Party, our o f f i c i a l days are numbered. But the time w i l l come when t h i s party w i l l b i t t e r l y deplore the f a l l of S i r Robert P e e l . 3 1 8 . These problems were compounded, as G r e v i l l e remarked, by "the mediocrity i n " Peel's Cabinet. He had few men of a b i l i t y on whom he could r e l y . "They have l o s t Stanley to 315. The Times (London), February 24, 1845. Hansard. 3d S e r i e s , 80 (May 6, 1845) 226 f . ; 81 (June 26, 1845) 1195-1199; 82 'August 5, 1845) 1454-1481. 316. Parker, ed., Graham. Vo l . I, p. 418 f f . •To S i r James Graham, from the Duke of Wellington', October 11, 1844-317. Spectator. March 22, 1845- p. 273. 318. Parker, ed., P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 172. 'To Mr. Croker, from S i r James Graham', March 22, 1845. 116 the House of Lords . . . Gladstone resigned . . . and the whole weight w i l l f a l l on Peel and Graham". Peel was now more determined than ever to conci l ia te Catholic leadership more d i r e c t l y , as the "only alternative to martial law". Shaw-Lefevre contends that, had Peel shown as "much earnestness and determination" over the land question as he now was to devote to the r e l i g i o u s question, he might "even at the eleventh hour, have brought peace to 321 I r e l a n d . " v Even so, Peel 's church reforms, such as May-nooth, equally revealed the l imi ta t ions that beset him as leader of the B r i t i s h government. Early i n 1844 the I r i s h Catholic bishops explained that the Maynooth College might have to close down through lack of funds. Peel became convinced of the expediency of taking immediate steps to increase the o r i g i n a l state grant to the College, introduced i n 1795, and guaranteed under the Act of 322 Union. Peel rea l ized that as long as economic discrim-i n a t i o n was practiced by the government towards the t ra ining 319- G r e v i l l e , Memoirs. V o l . V, p. 273. Spectator. February 1, 1845« P« 97. 320. Fraser 's Magazine. XXXI (March 1845), p. 371. 321. Lefevre, Peel and O'Connell . p. 241. 322. Edward R. Norman, "The Maynooth Question of 1845". I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Studies. XV, No. 60 (September 1967) 413. He ci tes J . Healy, Maynooth College. -Its Centenary History . (Dublin, 1895), p . 408-410. 117 323 of Catholic pr ies ts at Maynooth, v i n marked contrast to the Protestant Establishment, their loyal ty would remain i n q u e s t i o n . I n d e e d , he considered c o n c i l i a t i o n i n the form of the increased grant to the Soman Catholic Maynooth Seminary so V i t a l that he was prepared to r i s k the fate of the govern-ment on the i ssue . Lefevre argued that i t was d i f f i c u l t to believe that "Peel seriously thought (though he defended his pol icy on this ground) that the increased grant to Maynooth would have much effect i n quietening public opinion i n I re land" . However, Edward R. Norman demonstrated i n his study of May-nooth, that Peel was convinced by 1844 of the p r a c t i c a l 327 necessity of the measure. ' From this i t may be inferred that Peel hoped, because he f e l t that he had no other choice, the I r i s h clergy might be persuaded to recognize the s i n -cer i ty of his motives and respond accordingly. 323. Quarterly Review. LXXVI (June-September 184-5) 269 f. 324-. See Appendix B, page B-1. 325. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 173. •To the Queen, from S i r Robert P e e l ' , A p r i l 9, 184-5. 326. Lefevre, Peel and O'Connell . p. 24-2 f. Kevin B. Nowlan, The P o l i t i c s of Repeal: A Study i n the Relations Between Great B r i t a i n and Ireland. 184-1-50. (Studies i n I r i s h History. Second Series , V o l . I I I . ) (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965). P« 63. 327. Edward R. Norman, "The Maynooth Question of 184-5". I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Studies. XV, No. 60 (September 1967) 4-07-4-37. 118 Peel's d i s c r e e t precautions-^ 2^ to sandwich the B i l l i n between other measures i n d i c a t e d h i s determination to pass i t without arousing too much o p p o s i t i o n from those h o s t i l e to C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t s . The ensuing debate, i n p a r t i c u l a r , d r a m a t i c a l l y unfolded both the l i m i t a t i o n s and hopes of Peel's future p o l i c i e s towards the I r i s h C a t h o l i c Church which h i s party i n t e r e s t s marked out f o r him. S i r Robert I n g l i s , one of the most ardent c r i t i c s of the B i l l w i t h i n h i s own party, r a i s e d the whole i s s u e that united strong p u b l i c opinion against the Maynooth grant. These represented both those Protestant Anglicans and Dissenters who objected to the State endowing "Popery", and those who demanded that 329 no r e l i g i o u s denomination should be endowed by the State. 7 I n g l i s challenged Peel d i r e c t l y to state whether the B i l l would e s t a b l i s h the precedent that h o s t i l e opinion feared; namely, future government endowment of the Roman C a t h o l i c priesthood. In r e p l y , Peel denied that the B i l l was "part of a preconcerted scheme", and he c a u t i o u s l y refused to bind 330 future administrations to any such pledge he might make. ^ 328. F i t z p a t r i c k , ed., Correspondence of Dr. Doyle. V o l . I I , p. 129. 329. Spectator. A p r i l 12, 1843- P. 349-"Topics of the Day—Maynooth". 330. Edward R. Norman, "The Maynooth Question of 1843". I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Studies. XV, No. 60 (September 196?) 420 f. 119 P e e l ' s d i s c r e e t diplomacy was not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e the B i l l , i n t r o d u c e d i n A p r i l 1845, aroused such h o s t i l i t y i n the country and i n debate i n P a r l i a m e n t , t h a t i t was d e s c r i b e d by the A,nnual R e g i s t e r ^ ^ as the most momentous debate o f the y e a r , and i n A p r i l the S p e c t a t o r gave i t prominence over a l l xxx o t h e r items o f news. The l e a d e r o f the I l l u s t r a t e d London Hews on A p r i l 1 9 t h d e c l a r e d : the whole week was occupied by the debate on May-nooth. P a r l i a m e n t has seemed more l i k e a s c h o o l o f theology ... than the l e g i s l a t u r e of a g r e a t n a t i o n and empire ... the f o u n t a i n s of g r e a t and deep r e l i g i o u s rancour and b i t t e r n e s s ... a deluge of d e n u n c i a t i o n s on the m i n i s t e r s ' heads ... each n i g h t from 4:30 t o 6:00 p. m. are e x t r a o r d i n a r y scenes ... and s c a r c e l y a member without a sheaf o f p e t i t i o n s ... some p i l e s ... and o t h e r s great s t a c k s ... the g r e a t i n f l u e n c e o f D i s s e n t e r s ... i n c r e a s e d a n x i e t y o f M. P.'s ... who would otherwise be i n d i f f e r e n t . 334. 331. Hansard, 3d S e r i e s , 79 ( A p r i l 3, 1845), 10-18. W i l l i a m Cooke T a y l o r , The L i f e and Times of S i r Robert P e e l (4 v o l s . ; London: P e t e r Jackson, 1851). V o l . I l l , p. 374-410. The Times (London), A p r i l 4, 1845« P« 5« S p e c t a t o r . A p r i l 5, 12, 19, 26, 1845-These i s s u e s g i v e very f u l l r e p o r t s on the debates. 332. The Annual R e g i s t e r , or A. View o f the H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c s o f the Year 1845. (London: R i v i n g t o n , 1846). Chapter IV, p. 101-140. " A f f a i r s o f I r e l a n d — M a y n o o t h Improvement B i l l " . 333. S p e c t a t o r . A p r i l 5, 12, 19; and May 24, 1845. 334. I l l u s t r a t e d London News. A p r i l 19, 1845. p. 242, 246. 120 These same papers reported the a c t i v i t y of a Protestant organization ca l led the Anti-Maynooth Committee. This com-mittee was the coordinating executive of a large network of l o c a l Protestant associations. It had previously used the cry of "No Popery" to harass the Melbourne government i n i t s p a c i f i c p o l i c i e s towards the I r i s h Catholics i n the late 1820' Now, i n 1845, i t turned the emotional force of "No Popery" against Peel over the Maynooth Grant, and s p l i t h is party one year before he was forced to resign over the repeal of the Corn L a w s . ^ ^ This "No Popery" cry had i t s roots i n the popular mythology of the Engl ish Protestant Reformation t r a d i t i o n of B r i t a i n , reinforced by the h i s t o r i c threat of Spanish and French Catholic invasion. I ts roots lay deep i n B r i t i s h nationalism which viewed the I r i s h Catholic demands for recognition and equal r ights as part of the same threat. These English attitudes were reinforced by the fear that loss of control over Ireland would endanger the unity of the Empire Peel was caught up i n this propaganda movement, which he had o r i g i n a l l y u t i l i z e d against Repeal, on the grounds that i t was sedit ious . In his attempt to win the Papacy against Repeal i n 1844» be had drawn up a documented case demonstra-t ing the seditious nature of I r i s h Roman Catholic p r i e s t l y 335. Gi lber t C a h i l l , "The Protestant Association and the Anti-Maynooth Agitat ion of 1845". Catholic H i s t o r i c a l Review. XLIII (1958) 273-308. 121 a c t i v i t y . J Now the f u l l force of t h i s propaganda of B r i t i s h Protestant dissent was turned against him— the majority of English Dissenters, and a l l the people of Scotland, who are possessed of a peculiar and vulgar terror of the Catholic r e l i g i o n , 337• —to j o i n forces with the I r i s h Protestant Establishment's portrayal of Catholicism as a threat to the enlightened " B r i t i s h Imperial eminence". ^ Their propaganda was an amalgam of Evangelical pie ty , threatened vested interests , and Engl ish patriot ism. Its central theme was that the theology of Maynooth preached s e d i t i o n . y 7 The I r i s h pr ies ts trained there were the vanguard of a plot to overthrow the Protestant state, and with i t , the Union. The evangelically 336. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I, p. 402. •To S i r Bobert Peel , from S i r James Graham', November 29, 1843. 337. T a i t ' s XI ( A p r i l 1844), P. 238. " P o l i t i c s of the Montj*". 338. Dublin University Magazine. XXVI (October 1845) 506. 339. Hansard. $d Series , 80 (June 2, 1845) Lords, 1189-1194 and 1212, and 1217-Speech i n the House of Lords by the Evangelical Reformer, Wilberforce. The Catholics persecuted i n the name of r e l i g i o n . Speech of the Duke of Manchester. "Maynooth taught the priests to be ardent Repealers". Dublin Universit y Magazine f XXVI (July 1845) 78 f . "Ireland—Her Evi^s and Remedies"; and XXVI (October 1845) 506. "Protestants of Ireland and S i r Robert P e e l " . Francis B. Head, A. Fortnight i n Ireland. (London: John Murray, 1852), p. 259 f f . Referred to Dens Theologia, V o l . VI, "taught i n Maynooth College. Head interprets th is Roman Catholic theology as investing priests with the power to preach defiance of the laws of the "here t i ca l " state. 122 f e r v e n t U l s t e r I r i s h l a n d l o r d , t h e E a r l o f Roden, who was a l s o one o f t h e p r o m i n e n t l e a d e r s o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t A s s o c i a -t i o n , - ^ 0 and t h e P r o t e s t a n t B i s h o p o f C a s h e l , among o t h e r s , r e - e c h o e d t h e s e i d e a s . P e e l , i n h i s d e f e n c e o f t h e A c t o f U n i o n , had d e f e n d e d t h i s P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . He saw i t a s " t h e p r i m a r y r e l i g i o n o f t h e l a n d o w n e r s " who were t h e 342 m a i n s t a y o f t h e U n i o n C o n s t i t u t i o n . The P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h m e n t u s e d s i m i l a r l e g a l i s t i c a rguments t o d e f e n d i t s p o s i t i o n , and t o oppose t h e Maynooth G r a n t . The I r i s h P r o t e s t a n t B i s h o p o f C a s h e l p r e s e n t e d t h e s e a r g u m e n t s i n t h e i r " d o c t r i n a l p u r i t y " : The f o r m u l a s o f o u r C h u r c h , and a l l l e g a l e n a c t -ments o f o u r C h u r c h and S t a t e , a l l spoke o f t h e C h u r c h and S t a t e a s a P r o t e s t a n t C h u r c h and S t a t e . The f i f t h a r t i c l e o f t h e A c t o f U n i o n d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e C h u r c h was one u n i t e d P r o t e s t a n t C h u r c h . Where wou l d t h e s t a t e s m a n now be f o u n d t o u n - P r o t e s t a n t i z e t h e c o u n t r y ? 343' The m i s s i o n a r y z e a l t h a t permeated t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y gave added e m o t i o n a l d r i v e t o t h e s e a r g u m e n t s . I t l e n t c r e d e n c e t o t h e v i e w t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c p e a s a n t r y were w a i t i n g t o be l i b e r a t e d from a r e p r e s s i v e and s u p e r s t i t i o u s C a t h o l i c p r i e s t h o o d t r a i n e d 340. H a n s a r d . 3d S e r i e s , 80 (June 2, 1845) 1177-1197. 341. I b i d . . 1227. 342. I b i d . , 72 ( F e b r u a r y 23, 1844) 243 f . 343- I b i d . . 80 (June 2, 1845) 1177-1197-123 i n Maynooth.-54'44' The Bishop of Cashel declared that among the established churches of our Empire, that of Ireland, i n the v i t a l and s p i r i t u a l sense of the term, i s the most prosperous of the three. While i t s outward man perishes. I t s inward man i s renewed, day by day. 345• Such r e l i g i o u s debates as these, according to J u s t i n McCarthy, a Catholic Whig who l i v e d through those times, produced a distorted view of Ireland, and consequently, England was deluded into bel ieving that the Protestant minority needed protection because of the supposed i r reconci lable hatred between Protestant and Catholic i n Ireland, and consequently success-ive governments, kept up the continuous effor ts for the exclusion of the Catholics . . . from any share whatever i n the making of the laws. 34-6. The supporters of the B i l l , i n marked contrast to i t s opponents, described i n v i v i d terms the "miserable and wretched" dest i tut ion of the Maynooth College, as Dean Horsley, a v i s i t o r to the College had declared: 344- Hansard. 3d Series , 80 (June 2, 1845) 1185. Wilberforce here referred to 800 Catholics being converted to Protestantism at Dingle, County Kerry. He also mentioned The Roman Catholic persecution. Asenath Nicholson, Ireland's Welcome to a Stranger; or, Excursions Through Ireland i n 1844 and 1845. (London: G i l p i n , 1847), p. 297. The story of a New England woman who served i n Ireland for the Hibernian Bible Society. She was impressed by her experiences that "chari ty" belonged to i n d i v i d u a l clergy among both Catholic and Protestant. 345- Hansard. 3d Series , 80 (May 26, 1845) 834. From a speech i n the House of Lords by the Bishop of Cashel. 346. McCarthy, I r i s h Recollections, p. 71. 124 I blush for the meanness of my countrymen that can dignify the pal t ry pittance of t h e i r govern-ment at present doled out to the i n s t i t u t i o n with the t i t l e of an Act of Bounty to the I r i s h Soman C a t h o l i c s . 347. Lord Beaumont, a Catholic peer, exposed the deeper economic root of the problem that created an ignorant p r i e s t -hood, ground down i n the poverty of the " f l o c k that they served" He protested that the Maynooth Grant was not enough. He recom-mended that the pr ies ts should be assisted f i n a n c i a l l y by the State as compensation for the arduous duty of h is mission, (since) . . . he who v i s i t s the cabin of the miser-able , braves i n f e c t i o n while affording r e l i g i o u s comfort to the s ick, and whispers hope i n the ear of the dying. 348. Sichard Whately, the Protestant Archbishop of Dublin, was honest enough to agree that the increased grant for Maynooth merely gave the Catholics what the Establishment owed them.-^"^ 347. Quarterly Beview. LXXVT (June-September 1845) 269 f-348. Hansard. 3d Series , 80 (June 2, 1845) 1219-1225. Lecky, History of Ireland. V o l . I , p. 302 f. Cites Viscount Bichard Molesworth, an I r i s h Protestant Peer, as having made an outstanding contribution to the history of r e l i g i o u s tolerance i n the publication i n 1723 of h is pamphlet ca l led Some Considerations for the Promotion of Agriculture and Employing the Poor i n which, among other things, he advocated payment of the priesthood by the State, r e l i g i o u s equality , extension of the franchise, and the establishment of public granaries to provide against agr icul tura l famine. 349. Spectator. June 1845- P« 532. Whately was one of a minority of Protestant Episcopalian and Roman Catholic bishops who s t i l l supported the idea of "mixed national education" i n Ireland. 125 The main hope behind the government advocates of economic reforms was that these would tend to soothe and soften the tone of the College towards the government. Lord Beaumont admitted that the College might have a n t i - G a l l i c a n at t i tudes, but denied the accusation of the anti-Popery fact ion that the College taught ultra-montane papist doctrines, or was d i s l o y a l to 350 the Crown. ^ The truth was that the College ref lected the economic and s o c i a l problems of the I r i s h Lower Nation with which O'Connell was so closely i d e n t i f i e d . Though these students were enjoined by Propaganda at Rome to give unswerving loyal ty to the Crown at a l l times and places, the in ternal tension between Irishmen and foreign professors, the ins is tent poverty, the naievetes and crudi t ies of the poor peasant p r i e s t s , who must have worn the patience of their teachers—at least once there was student riots—behind which one can fee l the p a t r i o t i c passion of peasant Ireland breaking through the French rigourisffl of the Seminary. 351• Lefevre, confirming t h i s , writes that " i n this small act of generosity" Peel was doomed "to disappointment". Maynooth, af ter the increased grant, continued to "foster a national s p i r i t among the pr ies ts there . . . (but) more host i le to the 352 government" than before . -^ 350. Hansard. 3d Series, 80 (June 2, 1845) 1219-1225-351. O'Faolain, The I r i s h , p. 111. O'Faolain i s Roman Cathol ic , but he i s opposed to c l e r i c a l domination, and the Church's attempt to censor publicat ions . 352. Lefevre, Peel and O'Connell . p. 245. 126 Peel ' s e f for t to increase the Maynooth Grant served to i l l u s t r a t e the "odium theologicum" that would be the fate of any Ministry that proposed to state-endow the I r i s h Catholic c l e r g y . T h e Maynooth Grant was merely a modification of an already-established custom, yet i t was passed by P a r l i a -ment only with the support of 165 Whigs and Radicals . Peel ' s Conservative Party, by a majority of 18, voted against the B i l l , and i n so doing, threatened his leadership and sharply divided therparty, indica t ing the power that ant i -Cathol ic 354 I r i s h sentiment could produce to prevent reforms. ^ "Hence-f o r t h , " Lefevre concluded, "there was only one solut ion of the r e l i g i o u s question i n Ireland; namely, that of l e v e l l i n g down the Protestant Church by disestablishment and disendowment" In Ireland, outside the small ul t ra-Tory and Anti-Maynooth fr inge, opinion generally, i n marked contrast to English public sentiments, welcomed Peel ' s efforts and deplored the host i le sentiment towards Catholic Ireland that had opposed him. A general p e t i t i o n from the Protestant enclave of Belfas t , 353. Lefevre, Peel and O'Connell . p. 243. 354. The Times (London), A p r i l 21, 1845-Hansard, 3d Series , 79 ( A p r i l 21, 1845), 1047-1053 and 1089-1092. For the debates on Maynooth, see Hansard. 3d Series , 79 ( A p r i l 3, 1845) 10, through 79 (June 1845). 355. Lefevre, op_. c i t . . p . 245. It should also be noted that i n 1871 the L ibera l government of William E . Gladstone disestablished the Church of Ireland. 127 signed by l e a d i n g Whigs and T o r i e s , h i g h l y approved the j u s t i c e of the Grant, and condemned the "clamorous o p p o s i t i o n " . T h e Repeal A s s o c i a t i o n i n Dublin expressed i t s " d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t " with the E n g l i s h p u b l i c who had so 357 s t r o n g l y p e t i t i o n e d and demonstrated against the B i l l . ^ 358 O'Connell applauded the good w i l l that P e e l ^ and Graham had shown. He stat e d that they had " r a i s e d hopes i n f i n i t e l y beyond the Maynooth Grant". In r e a l i t y , O'Connell's d i s p l a y of enthusiasm a l s o expressed h i s fear of the growing m i l i t a n c y of the Young Ire l a n d e r s i n h i s own ranks. They had now begun to b e l i e v e that concessions could only be wrung from the government 356. Spectator. A p r i l 26, 1845- P- 392. 357. Spectator. A p r i l 19, 1845. P- 369. 358. The Times (London), A p r i l 11, 1845. P« 4. "Report on O'Connell's Speech i n the Repeal A s s o c i a t i o n " . Terence DeVere White, " E n g l i s h Opinion", i n Tierney, ed., Nine Centenary Essays, p. 209. Cusack, Speeches and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I, p. x i i f. Peel was present at a d i s c u s s i o n on the merits of p u b l i c men, when O'Connell was dismissed as "a low broguing I r i s h f e llow". Peel s a i d : "I would, i f I wanted an eloquent advocate, r e a d i l y give up a l l ... for t h i s same broguing I r i s h fellow". 359. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I I , p. 9. 'To Mr. P a t r i c k Mahony, from Daniel O'Connell', A p r i l 19, 1845 A reference to the Repeal A s s o c i a t i o n Speech of O'Connell when he p u b l i c l y acknowledged h i s g r a t i t u d e . 128 through speeches and acts of bold defiance—as Gavan Duffy i r o n i c a l l y put i t , "Mr. O'Connell and Mr. Polk had made the government uneasy".-^ 6 0 Smith O'Brien expressed this attitude of Young Ireland at i t s boldest i n the Repeal Associat ion meeting of May 3, 1845-He analyzed the strength of the m i l i t a r y forces that would be arrayed against England—American, French and native I r i s h . These together, by destroying the B r i t i s h Empire, would 361 create an Independent I r i s h nation. O'Connell 's non-violent, appeal came to the opposite conclusion. "To America, I say, don't dare attack England. They are c o n c i l i a t i n g Ireland" . I t was regrettable for the immediate future of Ireland that the forces that separated her from B r i t a i n appeared so i r r e c o n c i l a b l e i n May 1845, despite the gestures of Peel and O'Connell . Even those who had r a l l i e d behind Peel over Maynooth showed no major awareness of the economic and s o c i a l disaster that was impending. B r i t i s h Parliamentary 360. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 649-A reference to O'Connell 's agi tat ion, and to the Oregon Dispute with the JJ. S. President, James Polk. 361. Spectator. May 3, 1845. P« 414 f . 362. Spectator, A p r i l 12, 1845- P. 345-129 a f f a i r s r e f l e c t e d a d r i f t t o w a r d s a f r e e t r a d e , l a i s s e z -f a i r e c o m m e r c i a l i s m . "The w o r l d " , G r e v i l l e w r o t e , " i s ab-s o r b e d b y i t s m a t e r i a l I n t e r e s t s and i t s r a i l r o a d s " . The S p e c t a t o r saw P e e l a s " t h e a r c h p r a g m a t i s t , who em-b o d i e d t h e r e f l e x p u b l i c mind ... T o r y and Whig a r e names o f t h i n g s gone".-"^ P e e l ' s p r o p o s a l o f t h e A c a d e m i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s ( I r e l a n d ) B i l l i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e Maynooth G r a n t f u l l y r e v e a l e d h i s dilemma, a s t h e r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e o f B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s . T h e s e c o m p e l l e d h i m t o c i r c u m v e n t t h e s o c i a l and economic b a s e s o f t h e C a t h o l i c R e p e a l Movement, and i n s t e a d , l e f t h i m w i t h no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o i m p o s e o n I r e l a n d a r e f o r m w h i c h w o u l d have been welcomed had i t been a p p l i e d w i t h more t a c t and c o n c e r n . 363. G r e v i l l e , Memoirs. V o l . V, p. 297. A p r i l 6, 1845. 364. S p e c t a t o r . A p r i l 19, 1845- p . 373 f . Chapter V I . THE CATHOLIC REPEALERS AS DEFENDERS OF IRISH CATHOLIC CULTURE. The Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l . May 1845. You miscalculate much i f you imagine that we s h a l l ever suffer the education of the people of Ireland to he planned or conducted by those who seem to have taken upon themselves the exclusive o f f i c e of the directors of the national mind. — D r . John MacHale, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam.-I f we succeed i n carrying the measure into p r a c t i c a l operation i t w i l l emancipate the r i s i n g generations from the thraldom of p r i e s t l y domination. — S i r James Graham, Home Secretary. 365. O ' R e i l l y , John MacHale. V o l . I , p. 570 f . To S i r Robert Peel , from John MacHale', January 24, 1845. 366. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I I , p. 12. To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', May 10, 1845. Chapter V I . THE CATHOLIC REPEALERS AS DEFENDERS OF IRISH CATHOLIC CULTURE. The Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l i n May 1845, that followed i n the wake of Maynooth, raised issues that were fundamental to the survival of the Catholic culture of Ireland, and which O'Connell grasped as essential to the success of h is movement. He saw the necessity of preserving intac t the aristocracy of the Catholic clergy as the most effec t ive leaders who could contain the increasing res t less -ness created by famine and aggravated by the more mil i tant and separatist appeal of the Young Irelanders, which he came to regard as a destructive force within the Repeal movement. O'Connell thus sought to preserve the non-violent and human-i s t i c s p i r i t of h is movement by retaining i t s a l l iance with the Catholic Church leaders of Ireland. The B r i t i s h response to this resistance of Catholic Ireland revealed many of the l imita t ions already evident i n the Charitable Bequests Act of 1844' O'Connell , already famil iar with these, sensed that the Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l was a grudging concession which t h i n l y vei led a scheme to separate the Catholic leadership from the Repeal Movement. This time, i n contrast to the Charitable Bequests Act , the Catholic l a i t y , rather than the clergy, were to be persuaded of the government's generous intentions, since 132 one of the prime intentions of the Act was to improve the Higher Education of the adult l a i t y i n I re land.^ The whole approach of the government towards the B i l l was cautious, as already indicated "by Graham i n the o r i g i n a l Catholic p a c i f i c a t i o n plan of 1844, when he explained that i t was necessary to "overcome the scruples and false im-pressions of the Protestants" while l u l l i n g the suspicions of the Roman Catholic prelate , before th is College B i l l could be p r o p o s e d . ^ 6 8 The Bequests Act had not produced as much control over the Roman Catholic bishops as the government had anticipated. Indeed, any acquiescence on their part was largely motivated by a fear that resistance might excite "the already grievously deranged s o c i a l conditions created by poverty and grinding o p p r e s s i o n " . H o w e v e r , May 1845 was thought to be the opportune moment, as the Catholic prelates had graciously accepted the Maynooth Grant of the previous month. Peel and Graham recognized the l imited nature of the concessions they offered to the I r i s h Cathol ics . They knew that this proposal for the State endowment of the college education on a secular basis , would arouse the h o s t i l i t y 367. Parker, e d . , Peel . V o l . I l l , p. 177. 'To Mr. H . Bulwer, from Sir ,Robert P e e l ' , May 12, 1845. 368. Parker, e d . , Graham. V o l . I, p. 421. •To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', November 30, 1844. 369. Spectator. March 8, 1845- p. 129. 133 of the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y , who wanted c o n t r o l of the educa-t i o n of t h e i r own l a i t y . They a l s o knew that these c l e r g y were only asking f o r the same p r i v i l e g e s that the Pr o t e s t a n t s 370 had always assumed to he t h e i r s p e c i a l r i g h t . Graham, though aware of the more subtle s o c i a l c l a s s i n t e r e s t s exercised against C a t h o l i c s i n I r e l a n d under the e x i s t i n g system of education, r e g r e t t e d that B r i t i s h p r i o r -i t i e s demanded such a s a c r i f i c e of C a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t s . H i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n was that I r i s h " C a t h o l i c l o y a l t y was, at best, p r e c a r i o u s , . . . (and) the concessions which ... would s a t i s f y them ... the Protestants of I r e l a n d would r e s i s t to the 371 l a s t extremity". Further, Graham admitted the a n t i - c l e r i c a l b i a s behind the B i l l , which was to "emancipate the r i s i n g generation from 372 the thraldom of p r i e s t l y domination". ' T h i s Protestant 370. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I I , p. 12. •To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', May 10, 1843. Parker, ed., P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 10$. Cabinet Memorandum, February 17, 1844. I b i d . . V o l . I l l , p. 183-'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r Robert Peel', J u l y 18, 1845. (These l a s t two references i l l u s t r a t e Peel's views.) 371. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I I , p. 19. 'To S i r Robert Peel, from S i r James Graham', September 30, 1845. 372. I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 12. 'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', May 10, 1845. 134 E n g l i s h N a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e towards C a t h o l i c I r e l a n d had already been expressed e a r l i e r by Peel when he had hoped that the Nat i o n a l Education Scheme would wean the I r i s h "away from the popular hedge schools sprung from the peeple, and inde-pendent of our (English) c o n t r o l " . p Q e l confirmed t h i s a t t i t u d e when he proposed the College B i l l without c o n s u l t i n g the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y of Ireland.-^''724' T h i s a n t i - s e c u l a r approach appeared, on the surface, to be l i b e r a l i n i n t e n t , since i t proposed "academical education free from the domination of the c l e r g y of any sect".-^-' The new C o l l e g e s ' non-sectarian character was to be protected by p l a c i n g them under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a C e n t r a l Board appointed by the government, and under the p r o t e c t i o n of the C r o w n . 6 However, t h i s d i d not imply that the r e l i g i o u s s u s c e p t i b i l -i t i e s of the students would not be protected as w e l l . Each r e l i g i o u s denomination was to be allowed "separate h a l l s f o r 3 7 7 r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n " . - " ' The Roman C a t h o l i c bishops, i n t h e i r demand f o r more C a t h o l i c c o n t r o l of the general c u r r i c -ulum of the C a t h o l i c students against "pantheism and 373- T. Corcoran, "Popular Education i n Protestant England", Thought, VIII (September 1933), p. 181-201. 374• Cusack, Speeches and Pu b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 133. 375. Spectator. May 31, 1845* P. 517. 376. Parker, ed., P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 110. Cabinet Memorandum, by S i r James Graham, A p r i l 12, 1844. 377. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I, p. 421. 'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', November 30, 1844 ( P r i v a t e and c o n f i d e n t i a l ) . 135 indifferentism, and much else besides", were represented as opposed to "academic freedom". This government proposal had already gained the support of a small group of Catholic and Protestant Whigs i n Ireland. Among these was a Catholic, S i r Thomas Wyse, who had already been i n f l u e n t i a l i n proposing the "mixed" national system of education i n 1834."^9 Also, among the Repealers, some of the Young Irelanders tended to be sympathetic. Their a n t i - c l e r i c a l attitudes had been reinforced by the attacks made on them by some of the I r i s h Catholic p r e s s . I t might also be argued that they had been infected by the clever tactics of the pervasive English government propaganda i n the name of liberalism, especially as they were a predominantly English-educated (Trinity College, Dublin) or Protestant group.^ 1 378. E. R. Norman, The Catholic Church and I r i s h P o l i t i c s i n the Eighteen Sixties• I r i s h History Series, No. 5« (Dundalk, Ireland: Dundalgan Press, 1965), p. 5. Henry Bettenson, ed., Documents of the Christian Church. (London: Oxford, 1943), p. 379-381. This refers to the Syllabus of Errors, i n 1864, which reaffirmed the Declaration of the Council of Trent, 1545-1563. (See also pages 365-374, especially pages 373 f.) 379. W. Torrens McCullagh, Memoirs of the Right Honourable Richard Laior Sheil. (2 vols.; London: Henry Colburn, Hurst & Blackett, 1855). Vol. II, p. 348. 380. Duffy, Young Ireland, p. 610-614. See also page 615 for a l e t t e r !To Smith O'Brien, from Thomas Davis', November (no day given), 1844* 381. Dublin University Magazine. XXIX (February, 1847), p. 190 f. This conservative magazine referred to the Young Ireland Protestant, Thomas Davis, as "a gentleman and an I r i s h patriot, unlike Daniel O'Connell". 136 Apart from t h i s I r i s h support, the government a l s o obtained a formidable a l l i a n c e i n Parliament of the more moderate E n g l i s h Conservatives and Whigs and R a d i c a l s . - ^ 2 I t was, therefore, prepared to push the B i l l through P a r l i a -ment,' despite the o p p o s i t i o n of the I r i s h C a t h o l i c bishops, hoping to obtain t h e i r acquiescence i n the f a i t accompli. In r e a l i t y , the subtle overtone of l i b e r a l i t y masked the i n s e n s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s of Peel's government towards the t r a d i t i o n s and struggles of the I r i s h C a t h o l i c s against the i n v i d i o u s and p a t r o n i z i n g i n f l u e n c e of the " p r o s e l y t i z e r s " o f the E n g l i s h Protestant A s c e n d a n c y O ' C o n n e l l , under-standing the d i v i s i v e nature of the l i b e r a l mask, was at f i r s t r e l u c t a n t to attack the scheme openly. Neither d i d he want "to show a d i s p o s i t i o n i n i m i c a l to education, and a determination not to be s a t i s f i e d with any concessions", since he was "most anxious" that I r i s h college., education 385 should be improved. x 382. Parker, ed., P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 177-'To Mr. Buiwer, from S i r Robert Peel', May 12, 1845. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I I , p. 11. •To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', May 10, 1845. 383- O' R e i l l y , John MacHale. V o l . I, p. 595-384. T a i t ' s . X (March 1845), P- 203. 385. Moody, Thomas Davis, p. 42. Cusack, Speeches and Pu b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 136. 137 Eventually, he f e l t compelled to p r o t e s t openly when Lord Lieutenant Heytesbury on May 23, 1345 ignored the obje c t i o n s of the unit e d voice of the I r i s h C a t h o l i c bishops, presented to him i n the form of a Memorial. T h e i r main, request was that the c e n t r a l i z e d s t a t e c o n t r o l i n the new c o l l e g e s should be replaced by: the bishops of each province who should be members of the Governing Board ... and that s p e c i f i e d subjects s h a l l be taught by Soman C a t h o l i c p r o f e s s o r s to t h e i r own l a i t y , 386. s i n c e , as they put i t , s t a t e c o n t r o l would be "dangerous to the f a i t h and morals of the C a t h o l i c p u p i l s " . ^ 8 ' 7 Dr. MacHale saw t h i s new attempt at state c o n t r o l as a con t i n u a t i o n of the B r i t i s h p o l i c y of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n already exercised through the National Schools f o r Elementary Education e s t a b l i s h e d i n I r e l a n d i n 1834' Consequently, he had protested against the a t t i t u d e of the Protestant Arch-bishop of Dublin, Richard Whately, who had attempted to expunge from the curriculum of the Nat i o n a l Schools, not only C a t h o l i c s e c u l a r teaching, but I r i s h n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r e , as w e l l . ^ 8 8 MacHale, both as a scholar t r a i n e d 386. O ' R e i l l y , John MacHale. V o l . I, p. 591. 387. I b i d . , p. 593 f . 388. O'Hegarty, I r e l a n d Under the Union, p. 390-398. On page 395 i s i l l u s t r a t e d , i r o n i c a l l y , how Scott's "Breathes there a man with soul so dead" was expunged; while the following verse remained: "I thank the goodness and the grace Which on my b i r t h has smiled, And made me, i n these C h r i s t i a n days, A happy E n g l i s h c h i l d . " 138 i n t h e G a e l i c t r a d i t i o n and as a C a t h o l i c c l e r i c opposed t o t h e P r o t e s t a n t A s c e n d a n c y i n I r e l a n d , a d v o c a t e d a n a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n f r e e d f rom any r e l i g i o u s a s c e n d a n c y . H i s b i o g r a p h e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e Young I r e l a n d e r s , t h o u g h e a g e r t o p u b l i c i z e t h e i r own c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l movement, showed an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h i s c o n -t r i b u t i o n o f one o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r s o f C a t h o l i c 389 p e a s a n t I r e l a n d . I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e Young I r e l a n d a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t e d , and was s y m p t o m a t i c o f , t h e whole u n e q u a l t r e a t m e n t B r i t a i n meted ou t i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t o t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c s . The g overnment, w h i l e p r o f e s s e d l y " d e s i r i n g e q u a l f u s i o n and u n i o n " had shown i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n s e c t a r i a n 390 a s c e n d a n c y and d i v i s i o n . 7 T. W. Moody, i n h i s s t u d i e s on t h e f ' I r i s h U n i v e r s i t y Q u e s t i o n " , e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e P r o t e s t a n t s r e g a r d e d t h e o f f i c e s and endowments o f t h e o n l y e x i s t i n g I r i s h U n i v e r s i t y up t i l l t h e n — - t h a t o f 391 T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n — a s t h e i r own s p e c i a l p r e s e r v e . y j 389. O ' R e i l l y , J o h n M a c H a l e . V o l . I , p. 635-He c i t e s Gavan D u f f y ' s b o o k s : Young I r e l a n d : A. Fragment o f I r i s h H i s t o r y . 1840-1830; and F o u r Y e a r s o f I r i s h H i s t o r y . 1845-1849. 390. T a i t ' s . X I I (May 1845), P- 54-2. " P o l i t i c s o f t h e M o n t h — A c a d e m i c a l C o l l e g e s " . 391. Theodore W i l l i a m Moody, "The I r i s h U n i v e r s i t y Q u e s t i o n o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y " . H i s t o r y . X L I I I ( 1958) , p. 97-100. 139 The r a d i c a l T a i t ' s i n t e r p r e t e d Peel's r e f u s a l to allow a Mr. Osborne to i n q u i r e i n t o the revenues of Dublin U n i v e r s i t y as i l l u s t r a t i n g "the great f a u l t " of the Academical I n s t i t u -te;? t i o n s B i l l , " p l a c i n g i t i n an odious l i g h t " . 7 I t was the sup e r i o r s o c i a l a t t r a c t i o n s of t h i s system, that i n c l u d e d the endowment of Protestant entrants to the U n i v e r s i t y through the promotion of Protestant Diocesan Schools, ^ that Dr. MacHale attacked as a p r o s e l y t i z i n g i n f l u e n c e among C a t h o l i c s . ^ The C a t h o l i c bishops i n t h e i r p r o t e s t d i d not demand the emoluments of the Protestant E s t a b l i s h e d Church. Neither did they wish to intrude on the monopolistic p r i v i l e g e s already granted to the Protestants i n t h e i r c o l l e g e at Dublin Univer-s i t y , though Graham l a t e r admitted the d e s i r a b i l i t y and j u s t i c e o f such a demand when he recommended that a C a t h o l i c College should be e s t a b l i s h e d under the auspices of the olde r Univer-395 s i t y of Dublin. y ^ The C a t h o l i c bishops requested that the new c o l l e g e s should place denominational education f o r C a t h o l i c s on an equal f o o t i n g with the Protestant Establishment. 392. T a i t ' s . XII (May 1845), p . 54-2. " P o l i t i c s of the Month—Academical Colleges". 393. Thorn's I r i s h Almanac. p. 136. 394- Spectator. J u l y 5, 1845- p. 630. 395. Parker, ed., Graham. V o l . I I , p . 15-'To Lord Heytesbury, from S i r James Graham', August 10, 1845. The o r i g i n a l foundation Charter, i n 1591, of T r i n i t y College, Dublin had already recommended the establishment of a number of c o l l e g e s . llfO E x p l a i n i n g t h e C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s ' s t a n d p o i n t , O ' C o n n e l l e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e s a f e g u a r d s f o r " s e p a r a t e h a l l s " f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n was no new d e p a r t u r e from t h e u n e q u a l s i t u a t i o n p r i o r t o t h e B i l l . ^ 9 ^ The C a t h o l i c C h u r c h had l o n g h a d t o s u p p o r t i t s own d e n o m i n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s and c o l -l e g e s f r o m v o l u n t a r y s u b s c r i p t i o n s . E a c h a r c h d i o c e s e had a l r e a d y f o u n d e d Roman C a t h o l i c c o l l e g e s t h r o u g h p r i v a t e endowment f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f p e r s o n s p r o f e s s i n g t h e Roman 3 9 7 C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n . - 7 7 i I t was w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e s u c h v o l u n -t a r y s u p p o r t . However, u n d e r t h i s B i l l , t h e government had now added i n s u l t t o u n e q u a l t r e a t m e n t , and had " g i v e n d i c -t a t o r i a l powers t o i t s v i s i t o r s , w h i l e i t d i d n o t h i n g t o w a r d s 398 t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f t h e a t t a c h e d r e l i g i o u s h a l l s ' ? . Thus t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c s were t o be c o m p e l l e d t o c o n t i n u e t o s u p -p o r t t h e r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , b u t now, i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t e d u c a t i o n was t o be s u p e r v i s e d b y S t a t e I n s p e c t o r s . As an added i n j u s t i c e , t h e economic pov-e r t y o f t h e C a t h o l i c s w o u l d r e i n f o r c e t h e i r u n e q u a l s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n t o P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h e new c o l l e g e s , a s O ' C o n n e l l e x p l a i n e d : 396. C u s a c k , S p eeches and P u b l i c L e t t e r s , . V o l . I I , p. 139. 397. Thorn's I r i s h A l m a n a c. p. 139. 398. I b i d . . p. 126. F i t z p a t r i c k , e d . , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f O ' C o n n e l l . V o l . I I , p. 358 f . •To P. F i t z p a t r i c k , f rom D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ' , June 27, 1845. S p e c t a t o r . J u l y 3, 1845. P. 626. 141 I f t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e c o l l e g e s i s p r i v a t e l y endowed, t h e w e a l t h o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t s w o u l d t r i u m p h o v e r t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e C a t h o l i c s . 399. R i c h a r d S h e i l , a p r o m i n e n t I r i s h Whig and P a r l i a m e n t a r y f r i e n d o f O ' C o n n e l l , who h a d f o r m e r l y abandoned R e p e a l b e c a u s e i n p a r t , he had d e s p a i r e d o f i t s a c h i e v e m e n t , s e n s e d t h e p a t r o n i z i n g t o n e t o w a r d s C a t h o l i c s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e B i l l . He f e a r e d t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o l l e g e s c o u l d n e v e r compete w i t h D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y i n p r e s t i g e . T h e r e f o r e , he d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e a d m i s s i o n o f C a t h o l i c s t o T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n on a n e q u a l s t a t u s w i t h P r o t e s t a n t s , w o u l d "do more t h a n t h e f o u n d -i n g o f a d o z e n new u n i v e r s i t i e s " . * 1 " 0 0 The C a t h o l i c r i g h t t o t h i s o l d u n i v e r s i t y was, f o r him, "an I r i s h C a t h o l i c g e n t l e -man's p o i n t o f honour".* 1" 0 1 To t h i s he opposed t h e E n g l i s h House o f Commons, w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d a s : more i n t e n s e l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o a r i s t o c r a t i c p r e j u -d i c e s t h a n any a s s e m b l y i n t h e c i v i l i z e d w o r l d . . . . You c a n n o t by any d e s c r i p t i o n make a West I n d i a n comprehend t h e s e n s a t i o n o f f r o s t u n t i l he h a s e n j o y e d i t ; t h e s e n s a t i o n f o r h i m e x i s t s n o t , n o r c a n he s y m p a t h i z e w i t h t h o s e who f e e l i t s p a i n f u l and numbing i n f l u e n c e . 4-02. 399. O ' R e i l l y , J o h n MacHale. V o l . I , p. 637. D r . MacHale had t r a n s l a t e d i n t o G a e l i c , Thomas Moore's M e l o d i e s and Homer's I l i a d . 400. T a i t ' s . X ( M a r c h 1845), p. 203. 401. Loc. c i t . M c C u l l a g h , Memoirs o f S h e i l . V o l . I I , p. 348-350. S h e i l was a p r o m i n e n t a d v o c a t e o f h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m . 402. I b i d . , p. 305-142 I t was t o t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t h a t O ' C o n n e l l added h i s f e a r s o f t h e I m p e t u o s i t y o f t h e Young I r e l a n d movement w i t h i n h i s own r a n k s . On May 3, 1845 S m i t h O ' B r i e n , one o f t h e i r l e a d e r s , h a d b o l d l y a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e f u t u r e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f I r e l a n d w o u l d be a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e a i d o f f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n . O ' C o n n e l l i n t e r p o s e d t h a t t h e c a u s e o f R e p e a l was n o t s e r v e d by " r e f u s i n g t o a t t e n d P a r l i a m e n t " . 4 ^ O ' C o n n e l l h a d a l r e a d y a r o u s e d t h e d i s a p p r o v a l o f t h e Young I r e l a n d e r s when he i n s i s t e d t h a t I r e l a n d d i d n o t need f o r e i g n a i d f r o m a n a t i o n s u c h a s A m e r i c a t h a t condoned t h e " s l a v e r y o f 3,200,000" 404 n e g r o e s . ^ O ' C o n n e l l ' s g r o w i n g f e a r s t h a t Young I r e l a n d m i g h t wreck t h e C a t h o l i c b ase o f t h e i . n a t i o n a l movement were i n t e n s i f i e d b y t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e p r o p o s e d new c o l l e g e s i n I r e l a n d . A l r e a d y , b e f o r e t h e c o l l e g e d e b a t e , t h e l i n e s had been drawn i n t h e I r i s h p r e s s between t h e s o - c a l l e d " p r i e s t p a r t y " o f O ' C o n n e l l and t h e " a n t i - p r i e s t p a r t y " s u p p o r t e d by the Young I r e l a n d e r , Thomas D a v i s . D a v i s had a l r e a d y shown h i m s e l f u n d u l y s e n s i t i v e t o C a t h o l i c c r i t i c i s m , t h o ugh he had n o t h e s i -t a t e d t o s u p p o r t v i o l e n t c r i t i c s o f O'Connell«s C a t h o l i c i s m . 4 - 0 - ^ 403. S p e c t a t o r . May 3, 1845- p. 414 f . 404. S p e c t a t o r . A p r i l 12, 1845- p. 344 f . 405. D e n i s R o l l e s t o n Gwynn, "Young I r e l a n d " , i n T i e r n e y , ed., N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s , p. 187-196. See a l s o C h a p t e r I V , page 9 0 . 143 Over t h e C o l l e g e B i l l , D a v i s , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h e r i g h t o f t h e C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s t o demand s a f e g u a r d s , 1 * ' 0 6 b e l i e v e d i n and s u p-p o r t e d t h e p r o f e s s e d l i b e r a l i s m o f t h o s e who a d v o c a t e d t h e B i l l . O ' C o n n e l l saw t h i s s o - c a l l e d l i b e r a l i s m , r a t h e r , a s a n a t t e m p t t o u n d e r m i n e t h e I r i s h n a t i o n a l movement; he t u r n e d , i n s t e a d , t o t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c C h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h he f e l t was t h e I r i s h " P r i m i t i v e Church's'* d e f e n c e a g a i n s t e v e r y o f f e r o f s t a t e s l a v e r y " , *+0'? and t h e m a i n s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h s t i l l l e f t t o p r o t e s t i n j u s t i c e and c o n t a i n v i o l e n c e . T h u s , " a s a C a t h o l i c , and f o r t h e C a t h o l i c s o f I r e l a n d , he u n h e s i -t a t i n g l y and e n t i r e l y , condemned t h i s e x e c r a b l e b i l l " . H i s a n g r y r e a c t i o n s t o D a v i s 1 d e f e n c e o f t h e C o l l e g e B i l l a t t h e memorable R e p e a l A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g o f May 3» 1845, i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s s e n t i m e n t s and f e a r s , a p p e a r u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and i n t e l l i g i b l e . i , ° 8 Tense e m o t i o n s were a r o u s e d by t h e r e l i g i o u s o v e r t o n e s o f d e b a t e on t h e C o l l e g e B i l l a t t h i s m e e t i n g . O ' C o n n e l l i n t e r r u p t e d D a v i s ' s p e e c h t o i n q u i r e " i f i t were a c r i m e t o be a C a t h o l i c " . L a t e r i n t h e d e b a t e , O ' C o n n e l l t u r n e d t h e 406. D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d , p. 704. MQ?. O ' R e i l l y , J o h n M a c H a l e . V o l . I , p. 572. He c i t e s The L i f e o f F r e d e r i c k L u c a s . Volume I , page 174 f . L u c a s was t h e e d i t o r o f t h e C a t h o l i c p a p e r , The T a b l e t . He was a n ex-Quaker and a l i b e r a l C a t h o l i c . 408. D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d , p. 698. 144 r e l i g i o u s i s s u e a g a i n s t t h e Young I r e l a n d e r s : The s e c t i o n o f p o l i t i c i a n s s t y l i n g t h e m s e l v e s t h e Young I r e l a n d P a r t y , a n x i o u s t o r u l e t h e d e s t i n i e s o f t h i s c o u n t r y , s t a r t up and s u p p o r t t h i s measure. T h e r e i s no s u c h p a r t y a s t h a t s t y l e d 'Young I r e l a n d ' . T h e r e may he a few . i n d i v i d u a l s who t a k e t h a t d e n o m i n a t i o n among t h e m s e l v e s . I am f o r O l d I r e l a n d . ' T i s t i m e t h a t t h i s d e l u s i o n s h o u l d be p u t an end t o . Young I r e l a n d s may p l a y what p r a n k s t h e y p l e a s e . I d o n ' t envy them t h e name t h e y r e j o i c e i n , I s h a l l s t a n d b y O l d I r e l a n d . And I have some n o t i o n t h a t O l d I r e l a n d w i l l l s t a n d by me. 409. Much was made o f t h i s i n c i d e n t a f t e r w a r d s i n t h e I r i s h and B r i t i s h p r e s s . A t t h e R e p e a l m e e t i n g , D a v i s had b r o k e n i n t o " i r r e p r e s s i b l e t e a r s " , and O ' C o n n e l l had i m m e d i a t e l y i n t e r p o s e d w i t h a warm e x p r e s s i o n o f good w i l l t o w a r d s h i m . Gavan D u f f y , t h e Young I r e l a n d e r , however, r e f e r r e d t o t h e p o i s o n o u s s e e d s o f d i s t r u s t and d i v i s i o n t h a t t h i s s c e n e l e f t b e h i n d i t , 4 ^ 0 a g g r a v a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s was a l m o s t t h e l a s t a p p e a r a n c e i n p u b l i c o f Thomas D a v i s b e f o r e h i s sudden d e a t h i n t h e same y e a r . The London Times i r o n i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a l i g n m e n t t h a t had been c r e a t e d w i t h i n R e p e a l , and t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e C a t h o l i c p a r t y t h a t O ' C o n n e l l r e p r e s e n t e d . O l d I r e l a n d h a s b e a t e n i t s young r i v a l . . . . The p r i e s t s have done i t . . . . The N a t i o n P a r t y h a s p r o v e d n o t t o be t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t y . The p e o p l e f o l l o w t h e i r p a s t o r s ; t h e i r p a s t o r s t h e i r p r e l a t e s ; t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e d e v o t e d t o O ' C o n n e l l . . . . The g r a n d s e c r e t o f O ' C o n n e l l ' s s u c c e s s must be fo u n d i n t h e r e l i g i o u s accompaniment o f h i s a g i t a t i o n . 411. 409. D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d , p. 705. 410. I b i d . . p. 704-708. 411. The Times ( L o n d o n ) , A u g u s t 13, 1845- p. 338-340. S p e c t a t o r . May 31, 1845- p . 513. 145 T a i t 1 s f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f O ' C o n n e l l ' s C a t h o l i c p o s i t i o n when i t a n a l y z e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l weakness o f t h e Young I r e l a n d movement when s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c "base o f O ' C o n n e l l . T a i t ' s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e was a g e n e r a l e x a g g e r a t i o n o f t h e t a l e n t s and s i n c e r i t y o f t h e Young I r e -l a n d e r s , whose " g r a n d o b j e c t s " i t saw a s " f u t i l e " . T h e i r c l a i m s t o p o s s e s s t h e w i l l t o a c t were t h e s p e c u l a t i o n s o f an i n t e l l i g e n t s i a w i t h o u t much g r a s p o f t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a r p a s s i o n s o f t h e " I r i s h Lower N a t i o n " . A t t h e same t i m e , " t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e f o m e n t e d p o p u l a r p a s s i o n , b u t a c i v i l w ar e n s u i n g , w o u l d l e a d , d e s p i t e them, t o t h e p r i e s t s t a k i n g o v e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p e o p l e " . ^ 2 W h i l e t h e Young I r e l a n d e r s r e f u s e d t o a t t e n d P a r l i a m e n t , t h e a g i n g O ' C o n n e l l d e c i d e d t o make a s p e c i a l j o u r n e y t o P a r l i a m e n t t o p l e a d t h e c a u s e o f t h e C a t h o l i c l e a d e r s and t h e i r s t a r v i n g p e o p l e . I n h i s s u b s e q u e n t s p e e c h he a t t a c k e d t h e p a t r o n i z i n g , t a c t l e s s way t h e government had i g n o r e d t h e o b j e c t i o n s o f t h e I r i s h C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s t o t h e A c a d e m i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s B i l l . ^ * * " L o r d J o h n R u s s e l l , t h o u g h s u p p o r t i n g t h e m a i n l i n e s o f t h e B i l l , a l s o d e c l a r e d , w i t h O ' C o n n e l l , 412. D u f f y , Young I r e l a n d , p. 618. 413. C u s a c k , S p e e c h e s and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 130-137. 414. I b i d . , p. 133. 12+6 t h a t t h e s u p p o r t o f "Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y m i g h t n o t humbly o r m e a n l y , b u t f a i r l y and h o a e s t l y , be s o u g h t " . y He a g r e e d w i t h O ' C o n n e l l ' s a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l w a r n i n g t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s s h o u l d n o t be t r e a t e d w i t h i n d i f f e r e n c e , s i n c e s i x m i l l i o n upwards o f t h e p e o p l e o f I r e l a n d t r e a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s w i t h p r o f o u n d r e s p e c t . When you come t o t a l k o f e d u c a t i n g t h e C a t h o l i c s you must n e c e s s a r i l y pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h a t w h i c h t h e y pay a t t e n t i o n — t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e i r b i s h o p s . If 16 . The m a i n t e n o r o f t h e r e s t o f O ' C o n n e l l ' s s p e e c h was t o i n d i c a t e t h a t " d i s a f f e c t i o n " i n I r e l a n d was n o t c a u s e d by c o n c i l i a t i n g C a t h o l i c i s m , i n f a c t , t h e c o n t r a r y was t h e c a s e . He e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between r e l i g i o n and e c o n o m i c s w h i c h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e government p r o p a g a n d a f a i l e d t o make. L o o k i n g b a c k i n h i s t o r y , h i s s u b s e q u e n t e l o q u e n t w a r n i n g now a p p e a r s p r o p h e t i c : t h e c a u s e o f d i s a f f e c t i o n ... i s n o t a r e l i g i o u s d i s a f f e c t i o n , b u t i t i s a p h y s i c a l d i s a f f e c t i o n . You g e n t l e m e n o f E n g l a n d have no n o t i o n o f i t s e x t e n t ... and though i t may n o t d i s p l a y i t s e l f a t t h i s moment s u f f i c i e n t t o a l a r m you o r a r o u s e y o u , s t i l l t h e t i m e may come, a f t e r some o f u s have gone t o o u r g r a v e s , when t h a t p h y s i c a l d i s a f f e c t i o n may have t h e most f r i g h t f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s . 417* 4 1 5 . O ' R e i l l y , J o h n MacHale. V o l . I , p. 622. S p e c t a t o r . J u n e 7, 1845 . p. 530 . " D e b a t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s i n P a r l i a m e n t " . 4 1 6 . C u s a c k , S p e e c h e s and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 133 . 4 1 7 . I b i d . , p. 130-137 . 147 John. A r t h u r Roebuck, an E n g l i s h R a d i c a l M. P. , comment-i n g on t h i s a p p e a l and w a r n i n g o f O ' C o n n e l l , was t o d e s c r i b e h i m as " p a n d e r i n g t o t h e bad p a s s i o n s o f t h e I r i s h i n o r d e r t o p r o c u r e s u p p l i e s f o r h i s u r g e n t n e c e s s i t i e s " . The g u l f b e t w een t h e two c u l t u r e s was a p p a r e n t . The C o l l e g e B i l l was t o p a s s w i t h o u t t h e b i s h o p s ' amendments, and t h e s e c o n d M e m o r i a l p r e s e n t e d by 19 o f t h e 23 b i s h o p s on September 15j 1845 was t r e a t e d by t h e L o r d L i e u t e n a n t w i t h t h e same i n d i f f e r -419 ence a s t h e f i r s t o f t h e p r e v i o u s May. -flaThe b i s h o p s ' a l l i a n c e w i t h MacHale and O ' C o n n e l l , L o r d H e y t e s b u r y had d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , a s " n o t h i n g b u t s h e e r p o l t r o o n e r y " O ' C o n n e l l was t h r o w n b a c k on t h i s C a t h o l i c base a s a l a s t r e s o r t and r e f u g e t o u n i t e I r e l a n d p e a c e f u l l y , i n o r d e r t o stem t h e g r o w i n g t i d e o f d e s p a i r and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n c r e a t e d by i n c r e a s i n g f a m i n e . Dr. M a c H a l e , f r o m t h e most e c o n o m i c a l l y d e s t i t u t e A r c h d i o c e s e o f Tuam, a p p e a l e d t o P a r l i a m e n t b e f o r e i t a d j o u r n e d I n A u g u s t 1845 f o r r e l i e f f o r " t h e s t a r v i n g p e o p l e i n I r e l a n d " . O ' C o n n e l l r a l l i e d 418. C u s a c k , S p e e c h e s and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 128-137. Roebuck r e f e r r e d t o O ' C o n n e l l ' s s p e e c h o f J u n e 2 3 , 1845 on t h e A c a d e m i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s ( I r e l a n d ) B i l l . S p e c t a t o r . June 2 1 , 1845- P- 577. 419. O ' R e i l l y , J o h n MacHale. V o l . I , p. 593 f . 4 2 0 . P a r k e r , e d . , P e e l . V o l . I l l , p. 179. •To S i r R o b e r t P e e l , from L o r d H e y t e s b u r y ' , J a n u a r y 3 1 , 184-5. 4 2 1 . O ' R e i l l y , op., c i t . , p. 622 f . 1i+8 l e a d i n g I r i s h c i t i z e n s t o a m e e t i n g i n D u b l i n on O c t o b e r 28, 184-5 t o r e q u e s t government economic a s s i s t a n c e . 4 ' 2 2 The V i c e r o y h a s t i l y bowed o u t o f h i s p r e s e n c e a d e p u t a t i o n o f t h e s e w i t h t h e words: S c i e n t i f i c men have been s e n t o v e r f r o m E n g l a n d . . . . They have n o t y e t t e r m i n a t e d t h e i r e n q u i r i e s . . . . To d e c i d e ... upon t h e p r o p e r measures t o be a d o p t e d , w o u l d be p r e m a t u r e . £f23-A g a i n s t s u c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a i l u r e , b o t h a t t h e c u l -t u r a l and a t t h e economic l e v e l , O ' C o n n e l l and t h e I r i s h c l e r g y f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o p r e v e n t t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f C a t h o l i c I r e l a n d f rom t h e B r i t i s h Crown. They a l s o f a c e d what t h e y f e a r e d m o s t — t h e i n c r e a s i n g m i l i t a n c y o f t h e Young I r e l a n d e r s . Among t h e s e , Thomas Meagher, i n h i s famous "Sword S p e e c h " i n t h e R e p e a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n June 1846, f i n a l l y s e v e r e d Young I r e l a n d ' s t i e s w i t h t h e p e a c e f u l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l movement o f O ' C o n n e l l . On t h a t o c c a s i o n Meagher s p o k e o f t h e n a t i o n " p u r c h a s e d by t h e e f f u s i o n o f g e n e r o u s b l o o d " . The a t t e m p t s o f O ' C o n n e l l ' s s u p p o r t e r s t o s i l e n c e Meagher l e d t o t h e Young I r e l a n d e r s , ( S m i t h O ' B r i e n , J o h n M i t c h e l l , P. J . S m i t h , Devon R e i l l y and Gavan D u f f y ) , l e a v i n g t h e R e p e a l A s s o c i a t i o n , n e v e r t o r e t u r n . 4 ' 2 4 ' i+22. O ' R e i l l y , J o h n MacHale. V o l . I , p. 623-629-D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e m e d i a l measures p r o p o s e d . 1+23. I b i d . , p. 630. i+2if. Gwynn, Thomas Meagher, p. 8-14* 149 D e s p e r a t e l y , O ' C o n n e l l warned them, a s he c o n t i n u e d t o a p p e a l t o t h e B r i t i s h government f o r economic a i d , n o t t o : make l i g h t o f t h i s p h y s i c a l f o r c e q u e s t i o n . • I t i n v o l v e s y o u r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y , w h i c h I am f r e e t o a d m i t , i s n o t a paramount c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n y o u r mind, b u t i t a l s o i n v o l v e s t h e s a f e t y o f o t h e r s engaged i n t h e same o b j e c t w h i c h y ou have i n v i e w . 425• A s he c o n f e s s e d t o Dr. B l a k e , t h e b i s h o p o f h i s home d i o c e s e o f Dromore, T h e r e i s no p r a c t i c a l s a c r i f i c e t h a t I w o u l d n o t make f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . ... I w o u l d c o n s e n t t h a t t h e s e c e d e r s ( t h a t i s , t h e Young I r e l a n d e r s ) s h o u l d s p i t i n my f a c e , i n s t e a d o f s h a k i n g hands, f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . 1+26. 1+25. F i t z p a t r i c k , ed., C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f O ' C o n n e l l . V o l . I I , p. 397. •To W i l l i a m S m i t h O ' B r i e n , M. P., from D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ' , December 17, 181+6. I n J u l y 181+8, S m i t h O ' B r i e n , Thomas Meagher, and o t h e r l e a d i n g members o f t h e Young I r e l a n d p a r t y were t r i e d f o r h i g h t r e a s o n and s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h — w h i c h s e n t e n c e t h e c o u r t commuted t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 1+26. C u s a c k , Speeches and P u b l i c L e t t e r s . V o l . I I , p. 543-545-•To Rev. D r . B l a k e , L o r d B i s h o p o f Dromore, f r o m D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l ' , November 21, 1846. 150 I t was u n f o r t u n a t e f o r t h e f u t u r e o f A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s t h a t t h e economic d i s a s t e r i n I r e l a n d , and t h e d e a t h o f D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , t e m p o r a r i l y d i s r u p t e d t h e c o n -s t i t u t i o n a l movement he r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e was "no commanding f i g u r e ( a f t e r O ' C o n n e l l ) t o s e i z e and e x p r e s s ( s o ) i m p e r a t i v e l y t h e c o u n t r y ' s f e e l i n g s and demands". He had no r i v a l s o r d i s c i p l e s a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l e q u a l 427 t o him i n t h i s r e s p e c t . I t was a d d i t i o n a l l y u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g t h r e e y e a r s f r o m t h e t r i a l o f O ' C o n n e l l i n 1844 u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1847 t h a t S i r R o b e r t P e e l was u n a b l e t o e f f e c t t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between t h e two c o u n t r i e s t h a t he d e s i r e d i n t h e end. I n s t e a d , he was bound t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h a t a d v o c a t e d a b a n k r u p t p o l i c y t o w a r d s I r e l a n d . 427. M c D o w e l l , P u b l i c O p i n i o n , p. 259. CONCLUSION. This study has analyzed the reasons the I r i s h national Repeal movement under the leadership of O'Connell emerged as the most authentic voice and most successful barr ier against B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s of assimilat ion and coercion towards Ireland between 1844 and 1846. The p o l i c i e s and tact ics employed by the Repeal Party under the di rec t ion of O'Connell have been documented, showing that these, more than those of h i s r i v a l s , f u l f i l l e d the most imperative I r i s h needs. The f i r s t two chapters have explained the h i s t o r i c forces from the Act of Union i n 1800 that f i n a l l y culminated i n this most important phase of the B r i t i s h - I r i s h c o n f l i c t from 1844 to 1846. Further, these have emphasized how O'Connell 's Repeal Party, just because i t understood the extent of both the ends and means that could be used against the B r i t i s h government, had by 1844 established an u n r i v a l l e d posi t ion i n the I r i s h national resistance movement. In emphasizing the realism, consistency and vigour with which O'Connell pursued his objectives, this study has shown that the c r i t i c s of O'Connell 's p o l i c i e s f a i l e d to appreciate f u l l y the great-ness of h is achievement within the l imited resources at his disposal . The remaining chapters show how, under O'Connell 's d i rec t ion and because of i t , the Repeal Party, between 1844 and 1846, remained the main focus of I r i s h national aspirat ions . 1 5 2 O'Connell perceived during these years that the core of the I r i s h people was the Lower Nation l e d by the leaders of t h e i r national church. His revolutionary view was a demand for these a more equitable land and s o c i a l system controlled by a more impart ia l administration, whose prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was to the I r i s h people, rather than, as was then the case, to the commercial interests of England. He thus conceived h i s mission within immediate p r a c t i c a l terms of I r i s h s u r v i v a l . His means had a direc t bearing on his ends. His revolutionary t a c t i c s , including his view of I r i s h n a t i o n a l i t y , were s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d by the r e a l i s t i c conviction that physical force could not achieve the ends he sought. The almost t o t a l m i l i t a r y control exercised over Ireland by the B r i t i s h government, which this study documents, added to Ireland's geographical i s o l a t i o n from foreign a i d , convinced him that any m i l i t a r y resistance would only hasten the destruction of the people he was committed to defend. Nor was he convinced that foreign a i d , even i f successful , would do anything more than exchange one a l i e n maladministration for another. Indeed, he had reason to hope that he could preserve the unity and d i s c i p l i n e of the I r i s h movement by i d e n t i f y i n g with the only effect ive underground organization available at the national l e v e l which could achieve these ends. The I r i s h Catholic Church, alone, had both the organization to act as a barr ier against B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s of assimilat ion and the moral influence to contain violence i n Ireland and demand s o c i a l just ice for the I r i s h people. 153 Daniel O'Connell 's p o l i c i e s and tac t i cs were c l e a r l y put to the test i n 1844" The B r i t i s h government, by placing him on t r i a l on charges of sedi t ion , created a model i n miniature of the B r i t i s h - I r i s h c o n f l i c t , showing that the accused ( in a p o l i t i c a l sense) was also the accuser. O'Connell 's acqui t ta l was a moral refutat ion of B r i t i s h p o l i c i e s towards I re land. Furthermore, i t and the subsequent repercussions created an i d e o l o g i c a l schism within the r u l i n g B r i t i s h Conservative Party. This i d e o l o g i c a l s p l i t came at a most c r u c i a l time for the B r i t i s h Conservatives since i t added to their growing dissensions, and eventually, to the bankruptcy of their I r i s h p o l i c i e s . From this point the pol icy of the B r i t i s h government towards the I r i s h Repeal Party took a more devious turn, and never again d i r e c t l y challenged O'Connell . Rather, i t attempted to divide the I r i s h nation by coercion and bribery, which demonstrated the weakening of i t s effor ts at ideologica l ass imi la t ion . This was a t a c i t admission of f a i l u r e , and of i t s recognition of the strength of the national movement that O'Connell l e d . Chapters IV, V and VI have i l l u s t r a t e d both this pol icy of coercion and bribery, and O'Connell 's response to i t . 154 In. 1844 the B r i t i s h government f a i l e d to persuade the Papacy to compel the I r i s h Church leaders to abandon Catholic Repeal. Instead, they only succeeded i n strengthening the bonds between Catholicism and the national movement of O'Connell , which, i n the Catholic context of Europe, had become a "cause celebre" . By 1845 B r i t i s h pol icy had shif ted from one of coercion and persecution of the I r i s h national church to one of belated recognition and attempted c o n c i l i a t i o n . However, t h i s c o n c i l i a t i o n f a i l e d to win the friendship of the I r i s h church leaders since i t was only half-hearted i n implementa-t i o n , and double-edged i n purpose. The increased Maynooth Grant of 1845 was a prime example of an i so la ted and l imi ted gesture. The goodwill engendered by this was counteracted by the strength of the ant i -Cathol ic opposition to the B i l l . In addit ion, the immediate subsequent introduction of the Academical Ins t i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l , without consulting the I r i s h Church leaders, and with i t s implied threat to Catholic influence , further reduced the favourable impression that the B r i t i s h government had created among the I r i s h Catholic leaders by the Maynooth Grant. Much of this i d e o l o g i c a l s t r i f e thus created between the B r i t i s h government and the I r i s h nat ional is ts during those l a s t years centered i t s e l f around the persons of S i r Robert Peel and Daniel O'Connell , who were ultimately to be s a c r i -f i c e d , and their plans and causes temporarily betrayed by the 155 lesser men who surrounded and succeeded them. Overwhelmed by the impending tragedy of famine, these two leaders by 1845 gradually began their f i r s t tentative ef for t s to undo the tragic errors of the past and to b u i l d a bridge towards future r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . S i r Robert Peel , a man of talent and s e n s i t i v i t y , attempted c o n c i l i a t i o n , however s l i g h t , towards Ireland at the r i s k of p o l i t i c a l suic ide . The tragedy for him lay i n that he was p o l i t i c a l l y bound to a party that represented a bankrupt p o l i c y of economic l a i s s e z - f a i r e and p o l i t i c a l coercion against the I r i s h , which hampered his p o l i c i e s and, eventually, was to bring him down. Daniel OlGonnell , the leader of Catholic Repeal, won the day only to lose the f ight because of h i s unworthy successors, both among his own Catholic supporters and among the Young Ireland mil i tants within Repeal. I t i s , nonetheless, a commentary on the greatness of s p i r i t and the innate gener-osi ty of O'Connell , and not h i s fa i lure of leadership, as h is c r i t i c s have supposed, that i n the l a s t years of h is l i f e , at the height of h is v ic tory , he was able to recognize the con-c i l i a t o r y moves of Peel and t r i e d to steer his party to receive them. But, as i n the case of the famine, these were too l i t t l e and too l a t e , and the tragedy was to be compounded by the abortive Young Ireland r e b e l l i o n i n 1848, that O'Connell , before his death i n 1847, had foreseen as doomed to fa i lure and f u t i l i t y , since i t was against the most powerful i n d u s t r i a l nation of the time. It was th is long and arduous f ight of the I r i s h for recognit ion, and for thei r national Church, i n p a r t i c u l a r , as expressed through the Catholic Party of O'Connell , that t h i s inquiry has endeavoured to document. Daniel O'Connell was the agent and catalyst of the movement. He won his case as jbhe I r i s h national leader, both f i g u r a t i v e l y and l i t e r a l l y , since he evaded defeat at h is personal p e r i l , and forced the Peel government to veer to a pol i cy of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . The success of the Catholic Repeal Party, i n immediate terms, may be measured by the fa i lure of the B r i t i s h attempt to convert the I r i s h and to understand the I r i s h outlook as encompassed by the philosophy and theology of their church. I ts more permanent contribution was to give the I r i s h Catholic Church a more u n i f i e d and active p o l i t i c a l role within the national movement, and thus provide a base from which the I r i s h const i tut ional national movement i n the la te nineteenth century could be launched. One of i t s most direct l i n k s with the future, i n this respect, was the National Association of Ireland, founded by the Church leaders i n 1864, to demonstrate that massive support existed i n Ireland for a programme of land, church, and education reform. Further, the 1880's witnessed the a l l iance of Catholic Repeal as expressed through the Home Rule Party with the more conci l ia tory aspects of the Peeli te t r a d i t i o n as personified i n William E . Glad-stone's leadership of the B r i t i s h L i b e r a l Party. 428. Macintyre, The Liberator , p. 297. In 1889, Gladstone, supporting Home Rule, praised Daniel O'Connell as a statesman who "never for a moment changed his end (and) never hesitated to change his means". Gladstone, as a Peel i te , ranked Daniel O'Connell as one of the greatest national leaders, above Kossuth and Mazzini . E P I L O G U E The greatness and success of Daniel O'Connell , and the v a l i d i t y of h is movement for the twentieth century, lay i n h i s determination to preserve an authentic t r a d i t i o n and culture that has survived to this day. This t r a d i t i o n remains the most permanent and p r a c t i c a l aspect of I r i s h Repeal to survive the I8if0's. O'Connell also strove to r e a l i z e the more p r a c t i c a l aspect of the I r i s h n a t i o n a l i t y that sought to co-exist peacefully within the framework of B r i t a i n and Europe. His hopes were almost f u l f i l l e d i n the Home Rule movement of the late nineteenth century that might have prevented the p a r t i t i o n of I re land. The success of the more m i l i t a n t republican t r a d i t i o n i n the twentieth century, and the subsequent p a r t i t i o n problem, was as much the con-sequence of the physical and moral support of the United States of America as the resul t of the decl ining B r i t i s h co lonia l empire. The trends of the 1960 ' s have already indicated that the European consciousness of the O'Connell movement of the 184-O's, and i t s desire for r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , may yet triumph over the d i v i s i v e legacy of bitterness l e f t by c o l o n i a l blindness and narrow separatism. A N N O T A T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y I . BOOKS. A. CONTEMPORARY SOURCES. Benson, Arthur Christopher, and Viscount Esher. The Letters of Queen V i c t o r i a . 3 v o l s . London: John Murray, 1907. V o l . I I . A selec t ion from Her Majesty's correspondence between the years 1837 and 1861. Bowring, John, ed. The Works of Jeremy Bentham. published under the superintendence of his executor, John Bowring. 11 v o l s . Edinburgh: William T a i t , 1838-1843-V o l . I I , The Book of F a l l a c i e s . This i s Bentham's handbook of p o l i t i c a l f a l l a c i e s . Carleton, Wil l iam. T r a i t s and Stories of I r i s h Peasantry• 7th ed. 2 v o l s . London: William Tegg, 1867-A c lass ic i n th is f i e l d . Cusack, M. F. Speeches and Public Letters of the Liberator . 2 vols . Dublin: McGlashin & G i l l , To75- V o l . I I . A compilation that indicated the wide and deep range of O'Connell 's p o l i t i c a l philosophy. Daunt, William J . O ' N e i l l . Personal Recollections of O'Connell . London: Chapman & H a l l , 184^. Daunt was a l o y a l supporter and close friend of O'Connell . Doheny, Michael. The Felon's Track; or . History of the Attempted Outbreaks i n Ireland Embracing the Leading Events i n the I r i s h Struggle from the Year 1845 to the Close of TH48. Dublin: G i l l & Son, 1951-Personal memoirs of a Young Irelander, giving the rationale for the use of physical force. Doubleday, Thomas. P o l i t i c a l L i f e of the Right Honourable* S i r Robert Peel , B a r t . ; An A n a l y t i c a l Biography. 2 v o l s . London: Smith, Elder , 1836. V o l . I I . Duffy, Charles Gavan. The League of the North and South: An Episode i n I r i s h History . 1850-1854? London: Chapman & H a l l , 1886-A sequel to the author's Young Ireland. 157 Duffy, Charles Gavan. Young Ireland; A Fragment of I r i s h History. 1840-1850. 2 vols. London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1880. The author was editor of the notable newspaper, The Nation, that embodied the opinions of the Young Irelanders within the Repeal Movement. Fitzpatrick, William John, ed. Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell. the Liberator. 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1888. Vol. I I . Fitzpatrick was the personal aide of Daniel O'Connell. Fitzpatrick, William John. The L i f e . Times. and Corres-pondence of the Right Reverend Dr. Doyle. Bishop of Kildare. New ed. 2 vols. Dublin: J . Duffy, 1880. Vol. I I . Fogarty, L., ed. James Fintan Lalor, Patriot and P o l i t i c a l Essayist. Collected writings with a Biographical Note. Rev. ed. Dublin: Talbot, 1918, 1947• Lalor was an advocate of land reform, and joined the Young Irelanders. Froude, James Anthony. The English i n Ireland i n the Eighteenth Century. 3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1881. Vol. I I I . A noted historian from the Protestant Unionist standpoint. Fulford, Roger, ed. The Greville Memoirs. 1821-1860. Rev. ed. London: Batsford, 1963-Gooch, G. P., ed. The Later Correspondence of Lord John Russell. TB40-1878. 2 vols. London: Longmans, 1925. Vol. I. Greville, Charles Cavendish Fulke. The Greville Memoirs of George IV. William IV. and Queen Victoria. 5 vols. London: Longmans, 1903. Vols. II, V. Greville was a Whig, closely involved i n Parliamentary c i r c l e s . 158 Head, Francis B. A Fortnight i n Ireland. London: John Murray, 1852. A cursory glance at the s o c i a l customs of the I r i s h , and the " b e n e f i c i a l influence of English Protestant c i v i l i z a t i o n " . Interesting insights into the English public view of I reland. Jephson, Henry L . Notes on I r i s h Questions. Dublin: McGee; London: Longman, Green, 1870. Very extensive, well-documented and sympathetic report on Ireland's problems. Jephson, Maurice Denham. An Anglo-Ir ish Miscellany; Some Records of the Jephsons of Mallow. Dublin : A. F i g g i s , 1964-Contemporary sketches of Smith O'Brien, the Young Irelander, and others. Lecky, William Edward Hartpole. A History of Ireland i n the Eighteenth Century. 5 v o l s . London: Longmans, Green, 1909-The outstanding h i s t o r i a n of the period. Combines l i t e r a r y s tyle with much detailed information. Lecky, William Edward Hartpole. Leaders of Public Opinion i n I reland. 2 v o l s . London: Longmans, Green, 1912. V o l . II i s L i f e of Daniel O'Connell . Li terary s t y l e . 159 Lefevre, George John Shaw (Baron Eversley) . Peel and O'Connell . A Review of the I r i s h Policy of Parliament from the Act of Union to the Death of S i r Robert Peel . London: Kegan Paul , 1887. The name i s sometimes given as Shaw-Lefevre. He was the younger brother of Charles Shaw-Lefevre, V i s -count Eversley. He was one of the commissioners of the new Poor-law Amendment Act . Levy, John, ed. A. F u l l and Revised Report on the Three Days' Discussion i n the Corporation of Dublin on the Repeal of the Union. Dublin: James Duffy, 1843-The f u l l report of the three-day debate, O'Connell 's speech, and Isaac Butt ' s rebut ta l . Most noteworthy. (Isaac Butt l a t e r became a Home R u l e r ) . Maynooth: The Crown and the Country. London: Rivington, 1845' An anonymous pamphlet attacking the " e v i l s of endowing Popery i n Ireland" . McCarthy, J u s t i n . A History of Our Own Times from the Accession of Queen V i c t o r i a to the B e r l i n Congress, if v o l s . London: Chatto & Windus, 1879- V o l . I . A sympathetic study of O'Connell by an I r i s h M. P. pa t r io t , showing his regret of English misunderstanding of Ireland. He analysed I r i s h nat ional i ty , not as a n t i - E n g l i s h , but as a consequence of the maladmini-s t ra t ion of Ireland. McCarthy, J u s t i n . I r i s h Recollect ions . London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1911. McCullagh, W. Torrens. Memoirs of the Right Honourable Richard Lalor S h e i l . 2 v o l s . London: Henry Colburn, 1855. V o l . I I . A sympathetic biography documented with verbatim reports of S h e l l ' s speeches. Nicholson, Asenath. Ireland's Welcome to the Stranger; or, Excursions Through Ireland i n 1844 and 18457 London: G i l p i n , 18^ -7. A Methodist colporteur from New England, amazed at both the poverty and the hospi ta l i ty of the I r i s h Catholic poor and their p r i e s t s . O'Brien, R. Barry. Dublin Castle and the I r i s h People. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1909* A documented analysis of a l i e n administration i n Ireland. 160 O'Callaghan, John Cornelius . History of the I r i s h Brigades i n the Service of France, from the Revolution i n Great B r i t a i n and Ireland under James I I , to the Revolution i n France under Louis XVI. Glasgow: Cameron & Ferguson, 1870. A study of the I r i s h Brigades i n France, commanded by the uncle of Daniel O'Connell . O'Connell , Danie l . A. Memoir of Ireland. Native and Saxon, 1172-1660. Dublin: James Duffy, 1854. 3d ed. V o l . I . The only published history by Daniel O'Connell . He planned to make this a work of several volumes, but only one volume was completed and published. I t demonstrated the "oppression" of B r i t i s h rule i n I re land. O'Connell , John. An Argument for Ireland. Dublin : Browne, 1844. John was the favourite son of Daniel O'Connell . O'Connell , John, ed. Select Speeches of Daniel O'Connell . H> P. 2 vols . Dublin: James Duffy, 1862. O'Connell , Mrs. Morgan John. The Last Colonel of the I r i s h Brigade• 2 v o l s . London: Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1892. Biography of Daniel O'Connell 's uncle, Count Daniel O'Connell , commander of the I r i s h Brigades i n France. O ' R e i l l y , Bernard. John MacHale. Archbishop of Tuam: His L i f e , Times, and Correspondence. 2 v o l s . New York, 1890. John MacHale i s represented as the greatest Church advocate of s o c i a l just ice and of Repeal. Barker, Charles Stuart , ed. L i f e and Letters of S i r James Graham. Second Baronet of Netherby. 2 v o l s . London: John Murray, 1907. V o l . I . Correspondence i n d e t a i l of S i r James Graham on Ireland when he was Home Secretary. Parker, Charles Stuart , ed. S i r Robert Peel from his Private Correspondence (Vol . I ) ; From his Private Papers (Vols. I I , I I I ) . 3 vols . London: John Murray, 1881, 1889- 2d ed. V o l . I I I . A primary source of correspondence of S i r Robert Peel . Peel , S i r Robert. Memoirs of the Right Honourable S i r Robert Peel . Published by the trustees of his papers—Lord Mahon, now E a r l Stanhope; and the Right Honourable Edward Cardwell. 2 vols . London: John Murray, 1856. Contains a sympathetic biography of S i r Robert Peel , and verbatim reports of some of h i s speeches. Senior, Nassau W. Journals, Conversations and Essays Relating to Ireland. 2 vols . London: Longman, Green, 1868. V o l . I . 161 Shaw's Authenticated Report of the I r i s h State T r i a l s , 1844-Dublin: Henry Shaw, 1844* Verbatim report of the t r i a l of O'Connell and his fellow "conspirators" i n 1844. Taylor, William Cooke. The L i f e and Times of S i r Robert Peel . % v o l s . London: Peter Jackson, 1851. V o l . I I I . (Volume IV i s by Charles Mackay). A useful chronicle of events. Tocquevil le , Alexis de. Journeys to England and Ireland. Translation by S. Lawrence and J . P. Mayer. Edited by J . P. Mayer. Harvard: 1958. Describes with great objec t iv i ty the double standard treatment of Protestant and Catholic i n Ireland. The journeys were i n 1835« Walpole, Spencer. The L i f e of Lord John R u s s e l l . 2 v o l s . London: Longman, TH89-Prints some of the l e t t e r s of Lord John R u s s e l l . 162 I . BOOKS. B. SECONDARY SOURCES. Bagehot, Walter. The English Consti tution and other P o l i t i c a l Essays. New York: D. Appleton, 1930. Of special use are the "other p o l i t i c a l essays": "The Character of S i r Robert Peel" (48 pages), and "The Character of Lord Brougham" (55 pages). B a r t l e t t , Christopher John. Great B r i t a i n and Sea Power. 1815-1853. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. Naval power to defend B r i t a i n against recurrent threat of French invasion. Beckett, James Camlin. The Making of Modern Ireland. 1605-1925. London: Faber & Faber, 196*6. The author i s Professor of I r i s h History i n the Queen's Universi ty of B e l f a s t . Beckett, James Camlin. A Short History of Ireland. 3d ed. London: Hutchinson (University Library History Series) , 1966. Bettenson, Henry, ed. Documents of the Chris t ian Church. London: Oxford, 1943. Espec ia l ly useful i n Part I I : Sections VII-XII , for understanding of Roman Catholic Church relat ions both to England and Ireland from 596 to date. Black, R. D. C o l l i n s o n . Economic Thought and the I r i s h Question. 1817-1870. Cambridge: University Press, I960. Describes economic theories. Indicates that B r i t i s h economic f a i l u r e i n Ireland was part ly because they f a i l e d to understand that the I r i s h model was different from that of England. An authoritat ive, scholarly study, complete with an exhaustive 44-page bibliography. Bolton, G. C. The Passing of the I r i s h Act of Union; A Study i n Parliamentary P o l i t i c s . Oxford: University Press, 1966. Emphasizes the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and commercial pressures of the r u l i n g interests that promoted the Union. Broderick, John F. Holy See and the I r i s h Movement for the Repeal of the Union with England. 1829-1%47. Romae: Univers i ta t is Gregorianae, 1951. Research from the Papal Archives, used impart ia l ly , to i l l u s t r a t e that the Papacy and the Catholic clergy did not hinder the Repeal Movement, as i t was peaceful and consti tutional i n i t s methods. 163 Carty, James, ed. Ireland from Grattan's Parliament to the Great Famine. 1783-1850. A Documentary Record. 2d ed. Dublin : C . J . F a l l o n , 1952. Clark, George K i t s o n . Peel and the Conservative Party; A Study i n Party P o l i t i c s . 1832-1841T" 2d ed. London: Frank Cass, 1964. A major h i s t o r i c a l study by the Professor of Consti tut ional History and Fellow of T r i n i t y College, Cambridge. The author also acknowledges the recent work on t h i s subject by Professors A s p i n a l l and Norman Gash. Cornish, F . W. History of the English Church i n the Nineteenth Century. Part I . London: Macmillan, 1910. Costigan, Giovanni. Makers of Modern England; Forces of Individual Genius. New York: Macmillan, 196*7-Literary h i s t o r i c a l studies of nine persons, ranging from Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart M i l l , through Benjamin D i s r a e l i and William Gladstone to Winston C h u r c h i l l , by a Professor of History at the Universi ty of Washington. Costigan, Giovanni. Telecourse Viewer's Guide to History of Ireland. Seat t le : University of Washington, 1967-Excellent l i t e r a r y s tyle of wri t ing . C u r t i s , Edmund. A History of Ireland to 1922. London: Methuen, 1936; University Paperbacks, No. 23; 1966. An impart ial standard p o l i t i c a l summary—one of the best of i t s k i n d , by the Lecky Professor of Modern History , T r i n i t y College, Dublin from 1939 u n t i l his death on March 25, 1943-C u r t i s , Edmund and McDowell, Robert Brendan, eds. I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Documents. 1172-1922. London: Methuen, 1943-Davis, Henry William Carless . The Age of Grey and Peel . The Ford Lectures for 1926, with an introduction by George Macaulay Trevelyan. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929-Lectures by the late Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford dealing with the statesmen who, from 1750-1850, ruled England, and brought Into being the modern state. 164 Day, E . B. Mr. Justice Day of Kerry, 1745-1841-Exeter: Pol lard , 1938. A study of a member of the Catholic gentry l i v i n g i n Daniel O'Connell 1 s home county. Dicey, A. V. Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Const i tut ion. New York: Macmillan, 1959* Helpful i n showing the f l e x i b i l i t y of the B r i t i s h Const i tut ion. Dowling, Patr ick John. The Hedge Schools of Ireland. Cork: Mercier Press, 1968. A paperback reprint of t h i s standard work, o r i g i n a l l y published by Longmans i n 1935-Early V i c t o r i a n England. 1830-1865. 2 v o l s . London: Oxford Universi ty Press, 1935* Socia l h is tory , with chapters by i n d i v i d u a l contributors on London, town l i f e , new towns, the press, emigration, and other topics . Edwards, R. Dudley and Williams, T. Desmond, eds. The Great Famine: Studies i n I r i s h History . 1845-52. Dublin: Browne & Nolan, 1956. Professors Edwards (Modern I r i s h History) and Williams (Modern History) of Universi ty College, Dublin have collected these studies by a group of s p e c i a l i s t s i n this period of I r i s h his tory . Out-standing among the contributors are R. B. McDowell of T r i n i t y College, Dublin and Kevin B. Nowlan of Universi ty College, Dublin . Fawcett (Mrs.) L i f e of the Right Honourable S i r William Molesworth. London: Macmillan, 1901. This colonial reformer and r a d i c a l i n the 1830's had Parliamentary associations with Daniel O'Connell . F i t z p a t r i c k , Paul Joseph and Dirksen, Cletus F. Bibliography of Economic Books and Pamphlets by. Catholic Authors. 1891-1941. Freeman, Thomas Walter. Pre-Famine Ireland: A. Study i n H i s t o r i c a l Geography. Manchester: University Press, 1956-A s o c i a l and economic geography that avoids a p o l i t i c a l interpretat ion of the s i tuat ion . Gallagher, S is ter Anthony Marie. Education i n Ireland. Washington, D. C : Catholic University of America Press, 1948. This thesis i s an apology for Catholic education i n Ireland. 165 Gash, Norman. P o l i t i c s i n the Age of Peel ; A Study i n the Technique of Parliamentary Representation, 1850-1850• London: Longmans, Green, 1953* Professor of History at the Universi ty of S t . Andrews here analyzes the e lec toral systems i n B r i t a i n and Ireland (chapter 2). He i s also the author of two la ter hooks—Mr. Secretary Peel (1961) and The Age of Peel"Tl968). Gwynn, Denis Rolleston. Daniel O'Connell : The I r i s h Liberator . London: Hutchinson, 1929. The leading I r i s h h i s t o r i a n i n th is f i e l d ; sympathetic to Daniel O'Connell . He i s the son of the la te Stephen Gwynn, and has received many honours, as well as being the author of many publicat ions . He was editor of Dublin Review (1933-1939), and of the Cork Universi ty Press, 1954-1963. Gwynn, Denis Rol les ton. O'Connell , Davis, and the Colleges B i l l . Cork: University Press; Oxford: Blackwell , 1948. Gwynn i s also a great grandson of Smith O'Brien, the Young Irelander. Gwynn feels that another Young Irelander, Gavan Duffy, has tended to treat O'Connell 's r o l e i n these events with scant jus t i ce . Gwynn, Denis Rolleston. Thomas Francis Meagher. (O'Donnell Lecture). Dublin: National Universi ty of Ireland, 1961 -Meagher was a Young Ireland revolutionary. Gwynn, Stephen Lucius . Henry Grattan and His Times. London: George G. Harrap, 1939• Author i s famous father of Denis R. Gwynn. Hammond, John Lawrence LeBreton. Gladstone and the I r i s h Nation. London: Longmans, Green, 1938. A standard, scholarly study. Harvey, John Hooper. Dublin; A Study i n Environment. (In "The B r i t i s h C i t i e s " series'!". London: Batsford, 1949. An i l l u s t r a t e d tourist guide which includes h i s t o r i c a l information. Hovel l , Mark. The Chartist Movement. 3d ed. Manchester: University Press, 1966. Ireland and the Commonwealth. Prepared for the (second) B r i t i s h Commonwealth Relations Conference. Sidney: 1938. Preface by Donal O'Sul l ivan , with a r t i c l e s by Michael Tierney and others. 166 Macintyre, Angus D. The Liberator; Daniel O'Connell and the I r i s h Party, 1850-1847. London; Hamish Hamilton, 1965-A l u c i d and scholarly treatment of O'Connell and his movement by a Fellow i n Modern History at Magdalen College, Oxford. Excellent 29-page bibliography, which includes many manuscript sources. Mansergh, Nicholas. B r i t a i n and Ireland. London: Longmans, Green, 1942. One of Longman's pamphlet series on "The B r i t i s h Commonwealth". No. 4« The author i s a Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and an Honorary Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford. U n t i l 1957 he taught I r i s h History at the National University of Ireland. Mansergh, Nicholas. The I r i s h Question. 1840-1921• A. Commentary on Anglo-Irish Relations and on Social and P o l i t i c a l Forces i n Ireland i n The Age of Re form and Revolution. New and rev. ed. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1965. An enlarged and complete revision of the author's Ireland i n the Age of Reform and Revolution (1940). A valuable study of contemporary Continental opinion of early nineteenth century Ireland. * Maxwell, Constantia. Country and Town i n Ireland Under the Georges. Dundalk: Dundalgan Press, 1949* Gives much insight into l o c a l social customs, especially the relationship between the I r i s h Protestant gentry and the Catholic priests and peasantry with many anecdotes. * Maxwell, Constantia. The Stranger i n Ireland; From the Reign of Elizabeth 1 to the Great Famine• London: George G. Harrap, 1954-The author i s a s p e c i a l i s t i n eighteenth century B r i t i s h and I r i s h social history. She was the late Lecky Professor of Modern History at T r i n i t y College, Dublin, succeeding Edmund Curtis i n that honour upon his death i n March 1943 t i l l her own death i n 1964. McCaffrey, Lawrence J . Daniel 0'Connell and the Repeal Year. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1966. A "chronicle", using limited source material. Includes an interesting description of Daniel O'Connell's opinion of American democracy and slavery. McCaffrey, Lawrence J . The I r i s h Question, 1800-1922. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1966. * The present writer studied under this Professor at T r i n i t y College, Dublin. 167 * McDowell, Robert Brendan. The I r i s h Administration, 1801-1914. (Studies i n I r i s h History , Second Series , V o l . II.1 London: Routledge and Kegan Paul , 1964-An authoritative anatomy of the government by a noted s p e c i a l i s t i n early nineteenth century I r i s h His tory . He succeeded Constantia Maxwell i n 1964 as Lecky Professor of Modern History at T r i n i t y College, Dubl in . * McDowell, Robert Brendan. Public Opinion and Government Pol icy i n Ireland. l801-l84bTL o n d o n : Faber, 1952. A well-documented and impart ia l study of Peel , O'Connell , and the Young Irelanders. (Studies i n I r i s h History , F i r s t Series , V o l . V.) * Moody, Theodore Wil l iam. Thomas Davis. 1814-45. Dublin : Hodges, F i g g i s , 1945* A short sympathetic biography of an exponent of Young Ireland nationalism by the noted Professor of Modern History (since 1939) at T r i n i t y College, Dublin. He has been joint editor of I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Studies since 1937, and editor of Studies i n I r i s h His tory . He has had many honours, and i n 1965 was a member of the School of H i s t o r i c a l Studies, Insti tute for Advance Study, Princeton. Moody, Theodore Will iam, and Beckett, James Camlin, eds. Uls ter Since 1800. A Social Survey. Second Ser ies . London: B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation, 1954. Twelve talks broadcast on BBC from October 6 to December 22, 1954. Moody, Theodore Will iam, and Martin, F. X . , eds. The Course of I r i s h History . Cork: Mercier Press, 1967. Norman, Edward R. Th£ Catholic Church and I r i s h P o l i t i c s i n the Eighteen S i x t i e s . ( I r ish History Series , No. 5«) Dundalk, Ireland: Dundalgan Press, 1965-Describes the survival of Daniel O'Connell 's influence i n the Catholic Church. Norman, Edward R. Catholic Church and Ireland i n the Age of Rebel l ion. 1859-1875. London: Longmans, 1965-Well-documented and scholarly . * The present writer studied under this Professor at T r i n i t y College, Dublin. 168 Nowlan, Kevin B. Charles Gavan Duffy and the Repeal Movement. (O'Donnell Lecture) . Dublin : National Universi ty of Ireland, 1963-Author has been Professor of History at Universi ty College, Dublin since 1953- He explains the impact of Duffy as one of the historians of the Repeal Movement. Nowlan, Kevin B. The P o l i t i c s of Repeal; A Study i n the Relations Between Great B r i t a i n and Ireland. 1841-50. (Studies i n I r i s h History, Second Series , V o l . IIlTT London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965. P o l i t i c a l approach, cholar ly , and with excellent 10-page bibliography, including many manuscript and printed source materials, and Parliamentary papers. O'Connor, James. 4. History of Ireland. 1798-1824. 2 v o l s . London: Butler & Tanner, 1925-Detai led, with chronicle approach. O'Faolain, Sean. King of the Beggars: A. L i f e of Daniel O'Connell . the I r i s h Liberator , i n a Study of the Rise of the Modern I r i s h Democracy Ti775-1847). London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1938. Literary approach. O'Faolain, Sean. The I r i s h . Middlesex: Penguin, 1947. Interesting study of the h i s t o r i c a l facets of the national character. O'Hegarty, Patr ick S a r s f i e l d . A History of Ireland Under the Union. 1801-1922. London: Methuen, 1952. A sympathetic study of modern I r i s h nationalism, with an epilogue carrying the story down to the acceptance i n 1927 by de Valera of the Anglo-Ir ish Treaty of 1921. Senior, Hereward. Orangeism i n Ireland and B r i t a i n . 1795-1836. (Studies i n I r i s h History, Second Series , V o l . I V . ; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966. Well-documented, with the latest material on the subject. Shaw, George Bernard. The Matter with Ireland. Edited with an introduction by David H. Greene and Dan H. Laurence. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1962. Strauss, E r i c . I r i s h Nationalism and B r i t i s h Democracy. London: Methuen, 1951-Especial ly helpful i n the economic aspects of the era. Thompson, Edward Palmer. The Making of the English Working Class, Middlesex: Penguin, 1968; London: Gollancz, 1963 * Devotes a section to the influence of I r i s h emigrants to England. 169 Thornley, David. Isaac Butt and Home Rule. London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1964-Interesting study of a Conservative I r i s h patr iot of the 1840*s who l a t e r became the leader of the Home Rule Movement. The author i s a p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t , and lecturer at T r i n i t y College, Dublin. Tierney, Michael, ed. Daniel O'Connell ; Nine Centenary Essays. Dublin: Browne & Nolan, 1948. An extensive compilation of essays by nine s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d of O'Connell 's l i f e and achievements. These include Gerard Murphy and Thomas Wall of Universi ty College, Dublin and Denis Gwynn and Kennedy F . Roche of Universi ty College, Cork. The editor was President of Universi ty College, Dublin from 1947 to 1964- He has also been a member of the D a i l Eireann (for North Mayo, 1925-1927; for the National Univers i ty , 1927-1932). T u r b e r v i l l e , Arthur Stanley. The House of Lords i n the Age of Reform. 178k-TE%7. London: Faber, 1958. Has an epilogue on "Aristocracy and the Advent of Democracy, 1837-1867". Ward, Bernard. The Sequel to Catholic Emancipation. V o l . I , 1830-1840; V o l . II , 1840-1850. London: Longmans, Green, 1915. Woodham-Smith, C e c i l . The Great Hunger: Ireland. 1845-49• London: Hamish Hamilton, 1962. Literary study of soc ia l conditions. Yeats, William But ler . Tribute to Thomas Davis. Cork: Universi ty Press, 1965* Rhetorical eulogy on Thomas Davis. 170 BIBLIOGRAPHY. I I . A r t i c l e s , Essays i n Learned Journals. etc . B l a c k h a l l , S i r Henry and Whyte, John H. "Correspondence on O'Connell and the Repeal Par ty . " I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Studies. XII , No. 46, (September 1960), 139-143. Broeker, G. "Robert Peel and Peace Preservation Force ." Journal of Modern History , XXXIII, No. 4, (1961), 363-373-Brose, Olive J . "The I r i s h Precedent for English Church Reform: Church Temporalities Act of 1833." Journal of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l History, VII , No. 2, (1936), 204-225. Brown, T . N. "Nationalism and the I r i s h Peasant, 1800-1848." Review of P o l i t i c s , XV (October 1953), 403-445-C a h i l l , Gi lber t A. 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"Mixed Education and the Synod of Uls ter , 1831- 4 0 . " I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Studies, IX, No. 35, (March 1955), 281-299-Oswald, J . "William Cobbett and the Corn Laws." The Histor ian, XXIX, No. 2 (February 1967), TSb"-199-173 R e a d , D. " F e a r g u s O'Connor: I r i s h m a n and C h a r t i s t . " H i s t o r y Today. I I (1961), 165-174-Roche, Kennedy F. " R e l a t i o n s o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h and t h e S t a t e i n E n g l a n d and I r e l a n d , 1800-1852." I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s . X I I (1961), 19-24-Roche, Kennedy F. " R e v o l u t i o n and C o u n t e r - R e v o l u t i o n . " ( I n T i e r n e y , e d . , N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s ) . 51-114. R o g e r s , P a t r i c k . " C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n . " ( I n T i e r n e y , e d . , N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s ) . 115-150. Rommen, Hans. " C h u r c h and S t a t e . " R e v i e w o f P o l i t i c s . X I I , (1950), 321-340. 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" B l o m f i e l d and P e e l : A S t u d y i n C o o p e r a t i o n Between C h u r c h and S t a t e , 1841-1846." J o u r n a l o f E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y . X I I , No. 1 ( A p r i l 1961), 81-83-W h i t e , R. J . "Lower C l a s s e s i n Regency E n g l a n d . " H i s t o r y Today. I V (1963), 594-604-W h i t e , T e r e n c e d e V e r e . " E n g l i s h O p i n i o n . " ( I n T i e r n e y , e d . , N i n e C e n t e n a r y E s s a y s ) . 206-234-Whyte, J o h n H. "Ap p o i n t m e n t o f C a t h o l i c B i s h o p s i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y I r e l a n d . " C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . X L V I I I (1962/63), 32. Whyte, J o h n H. " D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l and t h e R e p e a l P a r t y . I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s , X I , No. i|i+, ( S e p t e m b e r 1959), 297-316. Whyte, J o h n H. "The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e C a t h o l i c C l e r g y on E l e c t i o n s i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y I r e l a n d . " E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . LXXV, No. 295, ( A p r i l 1960), 239-259. Whyte, J o h n H. " L a n d l o r d I n f l u e n c e a t E l e c t i o n s i n I r e l a n d , 1760-1885." E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . LXXX (1965), 74-0-760. Whyte, J o h n H. "Newman i n D u b l i n . " Wiseman R e v i e w , (1961), 31-39-175 BIBLIOGRAPHY. I I I . PUBLIC DOCUMENTS. A. PARLIAMENT. The A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , o r A V i e w o f t h e H i s t o r y a n d P o l i t i c s o f t h e Y e a r 1845 (-1847)• London: R i v i n g t o n , TS44T-TH45). 1844 — C h a p t e r s I I I and I V ( p . 54-106) on " I r i s h A f f a i r s " . 1845 -- C h a p t e r I I I ( p . 63-100) on " C o r n Laws". C h a p t e r I V ( p . 101-140) on " A f f a i r s o f I r e l a n d — M a y n o o t h Im-provement B i l l " . C h a p t e r V ( p . 141-165) on " A c a d e m i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n I r e l a n d " . 1846 — C h a p t e r I ( p . 1-29) on " D i s s o l u t i o n o f P e e l ' s Government". C h a p t e r V ( p . 123-160) on " I r e l a n d -B i l l f o r P r o t e c t i o n o f L i f e i n I r e l a n d " . G r e a t B r i t a i n . P a r l i a m e n t . H a n s a r d ' s P a r l i a m e n t a r y D e b a t e s . T h i r d S e r i e s , Volumes 72-83 (1844-1846). C i t e d a s : H a n s a r d • ( I n K i n g - H a l l , S t e p h e n and Dewar, Ann, comps., H i s t o r y i n H a n s a r d , 1805-1900. London: C o n s t a b l e , 1952) The Volumes o f H a n s a r d a r e d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s e r i e s : 1st S e r i e s , 1803-1820. 2nd " , 1820-1830. 3rd " , 1830-1891. 4th " , 1892-1908. 5th » , 1909-176 I I I . PUBLIC DOCUMENTS. A. PARLIAMENT. H a n s a r d , T h i r d S e r i e s , Volumes 72-83 (1844-184-6). The f o l l o w i n g v o lumes a r e c i t e d : V o l . 72.. F e b r u a r y 1-21, 1844. 73. F e b r u a r y 22 - A p r i l 2, 1844-75- May 30 - Ju n e 26, 1844. 76. J u n e 27 - September 5, 1844. 79. A p r i l 3-30, 1845. 80. May 1 - J u n e 3, 1845-81. J u n e 4 - J u l y 3, 1845-82. J u l y 4 - A u g u s t 9, 1845-83« J a n u a r y 22 - F e b r u a r y 23, 184-6. B. REPORTS OF SELECT COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS. 1837 (69), L I ; 1837-38 (104, 126), X X X V I I I . F i r s t , S e c o n d , and T h i r d R e p o r t s o f George N i c h o l l s , E s q . on P o o r Laws ( I r e l a n d ) . 1845 (605), X I X ; 1845 (606), X I X ; (616), XX; (657), X X I ; (672 and 673), X X I I . R e p o r t from H. M. Commis-s i o n e r s o f I n q u i r y i n t o t h e S t a t e o f t h e Law and P r a c t i c e i n R e s p e c t t o t h e O c c u p a t i o n o f Land i n I r e l a n d . M i n u t e s o f E v i d e n c e t a k e n b e f o r e t h e same, w i t h A p p e n d i c e s and I n d e x . 1846 (694), X I . R e p o r t from t h e S e l e c t Committee o f t h e House o f L o r d s on t h e Laws R e l a t i n g t o t h e D e s t i t u t e P o o r and t h e O p e r a t i o n o f M e d i c a l C h a r i t i e s i n I r e l a n d , w i t h t h e M i n u t e s o f E v i d e n c e . 1846 (735), X X X V I I . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e E x p l a n a t o r y o f t h e Measures A d o p t e d by H. M. Government f o r t h e R e l i e f o f D i s t r e s s A r i s i n g from t h e F a i l u r e o f t h e P o t a t o C r o p i n I r e l a n d . 177 BIBLIOGRAPHY. IV. GENERAL REFERENCE WORKS. A. ALMANACS, DIRECTORIES. Thorn's I r i s h Almanac and O f f i c i a l Directory ... for the Year 1849- (Dublin: Alexander Thorn, 1849). B. ARTICLES i n ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, Etc. Cooper, Thompson, "Crolly, William", Dictionary Of National Biography, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917). V , 1 3 5 . William Crolly (1780-1849) was educated i n a grammar school operated by Unitarians and a Cath-o l i c priest. As a parish priest i n Belfast, he had over 1,000 converts to Roman Catholicism. He began the building of the cathedral at Armagh while he was Bishop of Armagh from 1835 t i l l his death i n 1849-Creighton, Mandell, "Graham, James Robert George ( S i r ) " , Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917), VIII, 328-332. S i r James Graham (1792-1861) was Home Secretary i n the administration of S i r Robert Peel from September 1841 to June 1846. D'Alton, E. A., "O'Connell, Daniel", Catholic Encyclopedia, (New York: Appleton, 1911), XI, 202-205. The author i s from Athenry, Ireland; and his a r t i c l e i s the most sympathetic of the available encyclopedia a r t i c l e s . Dunlop, Robert, "O'Connell, Daniel", Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 191'7T> XIV, 816-834-This extensive (19-page) a r t i c l e includes an excellent bibliography, especially for the more nearly contemporary sources. Special mention i s made of a r t i c l e s i n the Dublin Review for 1844. Edwards, R. Dudley, "O'Connell, Daniel", New Catholic • Encyclopedia, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967), X, 632-634-Gives a Catholic interpretation of his movement, and a brief statement of his si g n i f -icance, as well as an up-to-date bibliography. The author i s Professor of Modern Irish History at University College, Dublin.-178 G i l b e r t , John Thomas, "Murray, D a n i e l " , Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917), XIII , 1249. Daniel Murray (1768-1852) was Archbishop of Dublin (1823-1852) and an active supporter of the Catholic Association, though he served on the Charitable Bequests Board i n 1844-45 despite Daniel O'Connell 's opposition. Lyons, F . S. L . , "History—The Famine to the Treaty", Encyclopaedia of Ireland. (Dublin: A l l e n F i g g i s , 1968), 93-99. MacDonagh, Michael, "S la t tery , Michael" , Dictionary of National Biography. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917), XVIII, 371. Michael s la t tery (1785-1857) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cashel. Moore, Norman, "MacHale, John", Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917), X I I , 550-552. John MacHale (1791-1881) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam from 1834, and was one of O'Connell 's strongest supporters. Morris , W. O'Connor, "O'Connel l , Danie l " , Encyclopaedia Br i tannica . 9th e d . , XVII, 720-722. A more sympathetic a r t i c l e than i n the current (14th) e d i t i o n , although less so than the a r t i c l e i n the Catholic Encyclopedia. No bibliography i s given. Nowlan, Kevin B . , "History—1782-1847", Encyclopaedia of Ireland, (Dublin: A l l e n F i g g i s , 1968), 91-93. The author has been Professor of History at Universi ty College, Dublin since 1953« Nowlan, Kevin B . , "Murray, D a n i e l " , New Catholic Ency-clopedia, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967), X, 86. Smith, Goldwin and Parker, Charles Stuart, "Peel , S i r Robert", Encyclopaedia Bri tannica , 9th e d . , XVIII, 452-457. S i r Robert Peel (1788-1850) was twice Prime Minister of B r i t a i n , and for many years the leading statesman of England. 179 BIBLIOGRAPHY. V. PERIODICAL SOURCES. A. CONTEMPORARY NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS. B l a c k w o o d M a g a z i n e ( E d i n b u r g h ) , X L , X L v T . ( l & f 1 t 1844). D u b l i n R e v i e w ( L o n d o n ) , X V I I (1844). D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y M a g a z i n e , XXVI-XXIX (1844-1847). E x a m i n e r ( L o n d o n ) , ( a Sunday n e w s p a p e r ) . J a n u a r y 13 and September 21, 1844. F r a s e r ' s M a g a z i n e . XXXI (1845). I l l u s t r a t e d L o ndon News ( a w e e k l y p a p e r ) . A u g u s t 26 and O c t o b e r 14, 1843-P u n c h ( L o n d o n ) , VT ( J a n . - J u n e 1844), V I I I ( J a n . - J u n e 1845), X I I ( J a n . - J u n e 1847). Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w . L X X I V - L X X V I (1843-1845). S p e c t a t o r ( L o n d o n ) , ( a S a t u r d a y n e w s p a p e r ) . November 1843; J a n u a r y and December 1844; J a n u a r y - May 1845. T a i t ' s E d i n b u r g h M a g a z i n e . X - X I I I (1843-1846). The T i m e s ( L o n d o n ) , ( a d a i l y n e w s p a p e r ) . M a rc h 13; O c t o b e r 16, 30, 1843; J a n u a r y 13, 16, 1845: A p r i l 4, 1845; A u g u s t 13, 1846. 180 BIBLIOGRAPHY. V. PERIODICAL SOURCES. B. SECONDARY PERIODICALS AND LEARNED JOURNALS. C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . X L I I I (1957/8), X L V I I I (1962/3). C h u r c h H i s t o r y . X I X (1950), XXIX ( I 9 6 0 ) , XXXI (1962). Economic H i s t o r y R e v i e w . I V (1930). E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . LXXV (1960), LXXX (1965). The H i s t o r i a n . X X I X (1966/7). H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . I V (1961). H i s t o r y . XXV (194O/I), XXVI (1941/2), X L I I I (1958/9). H i s t o r y Today. I I ( 1 9 6 1 ) , I V (1963), V (1964), I X (1968). I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s . I l l - X V (1942-1967). (2 y e a r s / v o l u m e ) J o u r n a l o f B r i t i s h S t u d i e s . I l l (1964/66). J o u r n a l o f E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y . V I I (1956), X I I (1961). J o u r n a l o f Modern H i s t o r y . X X X I I I (1961). R e v i e w o f P o l i t i c s . X I I (1950), XV (1953), X I X (1957). S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w . X (1962). T h o u g h t . V I I I (1933), X I V (1939), X X I V (1949). V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s . I l l (196O). Wiseman R e v i e w (1961)'. ( r e p l a c e d t h e D u b l i n R e v i e w ) . W o r l d P o l i t i c s . I X (1957). 181 A-1 . APPENDIX A. EXPORT DEPENDENCE OF IRELAND. Ireland was made almost t o t a l l y dependent on the market i n B r i t a i n , and her economic surplus was almost exclusively sent to feed B r i t a i n . Furthermore, Ireland was forced to bear a heavy burden through taxation, most of which consisted i n being charged with a portion of the B r i t i s h public debt. Also Ireland' manufacturing industries had to compete with the technologically advanced B r i t i s h Industries, so that whatever small i n d u s t r i a l centres did arise i n Ireland could scarcely maintain themselves against the technologically superior B r i t i s h industry. Almost the only source of wealth or sustenance i n Ireland, thus, was the land—-which, i n turn, was increasingly being devoted to production for export. Ireland had been reduced to an agri-c u l t u r a l estate for the benefit of an absentee landlord class and a distant unresponsive government. In this situation, with the population growth, some disaster was inevitable. Ireland's fortunes were also tied to the fortunes of B r i t i s h agriculture which suffered considerably when the Corn Laws were repealed, and i n 184-6 Ireland (as any other agricultural estate) was obviously over-dependent on an a r t i f i c i a l market. 1 82 A - 2 . The l a n d and t e n a n c y q u e s t i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l ones t o t h e p e a s a n t , s i n c e l a n d was t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f s u s t e n a n c e he h a d , a nd t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f l i v e l i h o o d he c o u l d i m a g i n e a s e x i s t i n g , s o t h a t many o f I r e l a n d ' s p r o b l e m s were s e e n i n terms, o f l a n d . A few men, s u c h a s D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , saw t h e e x p o r t o f c a p i t a l v i a t a x e s , and t h e r e n t s p a i d t o a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d s , a s an e x t r a h e a v y burden.. The s t a t i s t i c s a r e e l o q u e n t i n d o c u m e n t i n g t h e c a s e o f I r e l a n d ' s unhappy s t a t e . T h e r e a r e many s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , b u t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e s e few s t a t i s t i c s s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o d e m o n s t r a t e b o t h t h e economic u n b a l a n c e c r e a t e d b y t h e A c t o f U n i o n , and t h e m a r k e t f o r c e s c r e a t e d by t h e C o r n Laws. Thorn's . I r i s h A l m a n a c * g i v e s t h e Land Usage T a b l e f r o m M c C u l l o c h ' s C o m m e r c i a l D i c t i o n a r y , w h i c h shows two m i l l i o n a c r e s u n d e r p o t a t o c u l t i v a t i o n , w h i c h was where t h e c r i t i c a l f a i l u r e o f I r i s h a g r i c u l t u r e o c c u r r e d . I t i s e a s y t o deduce t h a t when a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e i s b l i g h t e d b y d i s e a s e , a v e r y d e s p e r a t e s i t u a t i o n I s c r e a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e p o t a t o i n d i c a t e s t h a t much o f t h i s c r o p came from i n d i v i d u a l s m a l l f a r m s . T h i s , t h e n , i s c l e a r l y t h e i m m e d i a t e c a u s e o f t h e f a m i n e . * P a g e 172. .183 A-3. However, t o u n d e r s t a n d f u l l y what o t h e r f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e s p e r a t e s i t u a t i o n , i t i s w e l l t o r e f e r t o t h e f a c t t h a t e x p o r t f i g u r e s ( t o B r i t a i n ) shown f o r 1845 a r e 3,251,901 q u a r t e r s , one o f t h e h i g h e s t e x p o r t s o f f o o d s t u f f s s i n c e 1800. ,These f i g u r e s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e e x p o r t s e c t o r o f t h e economy h a d become u n r e s p o n s i v e t o l o c a l n e e d s , and r e s p o n s i v e o n l y t o B r i t i s h n e e d s . T h u s , . e v e n i n t h e m i d s t o f f a m i n e i n I r e l a n d , t h e r e was a peak i n t h e e x p o r t o f f o o d s t u f f s t o B r i t a i n . T h i s v/as t h e d r a m a t i c c u l m i n a t i o n o f a l o n g t e r m t r e n d t h a t had been f o s t e r e d by t h e B r i t i s h government and t h e I r i s h a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d s . A f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s same e x p o r t t a b l e r e v e a l s t h a t f r o m 1800 t o 1845 t h e t o t a l e x p o r t s o f wheat, b a r l e y , o a t s , r y e , p e a s , b e a n s , and m a l t h ad i n c r e a s e d f r o m 3,238 q u a r t e r s t o 3,251,901 q u a r t e r s — a d r a m a t i c I n c r e a s e o f more t h a n one t h o u s a n d t i m e s i n o n l y 4-5 y e a r s . A more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i g u r e w o u l d be from 1802 (4-61,371 q u a r t e r s ) t o 1845 (3,251,901 q u a r t e r s ) , s h o w i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y a n e i g h t - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n e x p o r t s , w h i c h i s a v e r y r e s p e c t a b l e i n c r e a s e f o r a p e r i o d o f 43 y e a r s ( a b o u t 20% i n c r e a s e p e r y e a r ) . When t h i s f a c t i s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e f o u r and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n t o e i g h t m i l l i o n , t h e p r e s s u r e on l a n d u s a g e may be s e n s e d . 173 STATISTICS O F I R E L A N D . M r . M<!ULLOCH, i n the last e d i t i o n of h i s v a l u a b l e Commercial Dictionary, g i v e , t h e f o l W i n e x t e n t o f f e n d m I r e l a n d u n d e r t i le p r i n c i p a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of c r o p s , the average rate of produce i> * W o o s t <*f U p r o d u c t ; , t h e a m o u n t of seed, t h e p r o d u c e u n d e r d e d u c t i o n f r o m seed, a n d t h e t o t a l v a l u e of s u c h prod Crops . \ F b c a t , I j a r l e j , O a t s , Potatoes F a l l o w , F f a x , G a r d e n s , A c r e i In Crop. . 450,000 . 400,000 . 2,500.000 5,000,000 . 300,000 . 100,000 is,ooo Prodarc JKr Acre. 0.rs, 3 SJ 5 ' £ 0 p e r acre . £ 1 5 p e r acre . £ 1 2 per acre . T o t a l , 6 ,765,000 Total Produce, ejrs. 1,350,000 1,400,000 12,500,000 15,250,000 Seed ( l-Glh of Produce under Produce.) deduction of Seed. Qr, Q n 225,000 2.'i:!,333 2,083,333 1,125,000 1,160.007 10,416,007 12,703,334 Price per <£r. 40*. 2Cs. 20J. IOOJ v , ^ . tt.56I.luo 10,11 C f,.; *2S,2O0,7M C a p t a i n LARCOM'S r e t u r n g i v e s the e x t e n t of l a n d u n d e r c r o p s , a n d t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t y of produce i n l ' . j -e h a v e a f f i x e d an e s t i m a t e of the p r i c e a n d t o t a l v a l u e , a t p r e s e n t rates . » L ^ Crops. W h e a t , H u r l e y a n d B c r e , O a t s , . K v e , . B e a n s , Pota toes , . T u r n i p s , 2dangel W u r z e l O t l i c r G r e e n C r o p s F l a x , H a v , . Quantity of Produce. 2,920,7.33 q r s . 1,053,045 „ 11,521,600 „ 03,094 „ 84,456 „ 2,04.3,195 tons. 5,760,616 „ 247,269 „ 729,064 , , 349,872 cwts. 2,190,317 tons. Estimated Price. 46s. p e r q r . 2SJ. ,, 20J. „ 2Ss. „ 25*. , , £ 4 p e r t o n 12s. ,, m . „ £ 1 2 p e r acre £ 1 5 „ 40j-. p e r t o n 6,238,575 T o t a l E s t i m a t e d V a l u e , T o U l V « l u e . £ 6 , 7 3 1 , 4 8 0 2,314,263 11,52),60S 88,331 105,570 8,192,780 3,450,3i;9 148,361 714,144 874,680 4,330,634 . 38,528,224 T h e f o l l o w i n g T a b l e g i v e s t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f g r a i n a n d m a l t i m p o r t e d i n t o E n g l a n d f r o m Ire land sine; 1'.' O a t s a n d o a t m e a l are b y m u c h the l a r g e s t a r t i c l e s of e x p o r t ; t h e n w h e a t a n d w h e a t i i o u r barley mi {-' k e a n s , a n d m a l t ; t h e q u a n t i t i e s of r y e a n d peas are i n c o n s i d e r a b l e . * " TYncat arid Wheat F lour . 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 J814 1615 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 IS22 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 J636 1837 1838 1839 1810 1811 1842 1813 1844 1815 1846 Q r s . 749 150 108,751 61,267 70,071 84,087 102,276 44.900 43,497 66,911 I2G,3SS 147,245 158,352 217,154 225,478 189,544 121,631 55,481 105,179 153,850 403,407 569,700 463,004 400,008 356,381 336,018 314,851 405,255 652,584 519.017 529,717 557.493 790.293 841,211 779,505 601,776 598,757 534,46.5 642,583 258,331 174,439 218,703 201,998 413,466 440,153 779,113 180,730 Barley, Including Here or Bigg. Q r s . 78 7,116 12.879 2.521 15,656 3,237 23,048 30,586 16,619 8,321 2,713 43,138 63,560 16,779 27,108 62,254 26,706 25,387 20,211 87,095 82,831 22,532 19,274 41,099 154,2.36 04,885 67,791 84,204 07,140 189,745 185.409 123,039 101,707 217,855 156,242 184,156 187,473 156,407 61,676 95.951 75,563 50,280 110,449 ! 90 ,0 .5 93,095 92,853 Q r s . 2,411 375 341,151 200,359 240,022 203,302 357,077 389,649 579,974 845,783 492,741 275,757 390,029 691,498 564,010 597,537 683,714 611,117 1,069,385 789,613 916,251 1,162,249 569,237 1,102,487 1,225,085 1,629.856 1,303,734 1,313,267 2,075,031 1,673,028 1,471.2,2 1,655,701 2,051.867 1,762,520 1,769.503 1,822,707 2,132,138 2,274,075 2,742,807 1,904,933 2,037.835 2,539,380 2,261,434 2,644,033 2,242,300 2,353,985 1,310,853 Total. 282 753 206 235 330 431 573 425 20 21 178 420 4 207 43 4 2 131 550 353 198 112 220 77 256 1,424 568 414 515 294 166 983 614 483 1,016 628 2,331 122 172 76 371 264 165 Q r s . 113 611 1,078 1,634 1,389 1,390 75 38 216 50 51 77 460 425 239 12 10 439 2,474 728 586 756 1,431 1,452 1,282 4,826 4,435 2,520 4,142 1,915 2,646 2,176 3,447 2,920 2,860 6,232 1,484 1,403 855 1,550 1,192 1,091 1,644 2,227 Q r s . 1,655 1,653 3,000 2,010 2,361 3,777 2,005 2,669 3,541 4,081 5,008 4,455 5,731 6,371 5,984 2,275 4,768 3,904 8,396 4,959 • 7,235 5,540 5.791 11,355 7,190 10,037 7,008 10,445 19,053 15,029 14,530 19,114 18,771 24,235 17,604 25.630 21,584 11,535 14,673 15,007 19,831 24,329 18.580 H . 7 4 5 14,668 Qrs. 10, 173 ',826 ,203 572 853 2,011 2,620 10,889 8,229 7,017 3.8G5 10,357 22,214 4,174 i . O O l 2,861 3,455 4,935 3,046 8 ,613 8,153 11,151 11,329 Qrs. 3,239 525 461,371 343,517 310,958 306,924 466,760 463,195 656,770 932,478 631,227 429,867 597,356 977,161 812,462 821,192 873,865 695,651 1,204,733 967,680 1,415,722 1,822,816 1,063.089 1,628,153 1,631,090 ! 2,203,962 1,093,392 I 1,823.460 ] 2,826.599 ! 2,307.211 2,215,521 2.429.1S2 2,990.767 2,737.111 2,792.663 2,679.433 2.958.272 3,030.293 3,474.302 2.243,151 2,327,783 2,855,525 2,538.221 3,206,183 2,801,19* 3,251,901 1,018,000 I A g i t t c u L T i n u L ] S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . ^ N u i l E E E . o f CATTLE e x p o r t e d f r o m I r e l a n d t o G r e a t B r i t a i n i n 1046-Oxen, B u l b , and Cows, Cnlve*. Y e a r ending 1st J a n u a r j r 1817, . . 130,433 6,363 T h o n u m b e r a n d v a l u e o f s t o c k i n 1841 were, e s t i m a t e d b y t h e C e n s u s C o m m i s s i o n e r s as f o l l o w s ; — 173 Sheep end Lambs. 259,257 Swine. 480,827 - S T O C K . Lcinsier. Slunster. Ulster. Connaugfc*. Ireland. NU.MTIERS. H o r s e s a n d M a l t a , . 179,002 107,200 160,172 69,732 576,115 AsSCS, 24,613 24,730 13,451 29,486 92.365 H o r n e d C a t t l e , 400,927 535,520 625,536 293,877 1,863,110 S * c c p , . 053,501 693,970 213,212 631,603 2,100,189 P i g s , 336,754 5(0 ,077 303,126 176,856 1,412,813 P o u l t r y , . 2,249,835 2,334,502 1,915,382 5,408,718 8 ,458 ,517 £ £ £ £ £ H o r s e s & M u l e s i t £ 6 1,432,016 1,337,072 1,231,370 657,856 4 ,608,920 A s s e s at £ 1 , . . 24,013 24,7>SO 13,451 29,436 92,365 C a t t l e at £ 0 10* . , . 3,230,020 3,480,010 3,401,800 1,937,498 12,110,250 Sheep at £ 1 2.T., 725,45.5 70S,867 234,531 637,953 2,316,806 P i g s at £ 1 5.-., 483,139 032,590 378,006 221,071 1,766,012 P o u l t r y at ed., 60,213 72,113 47,833 35,216 211,455 T o t a l v a l u e , £ 5 , 0 . 3 1 , 8 2 7 £ 0 , 3 0 0 , 0 4 7 £ 5 , 4 1 7 , 9 5 6 £ 3 , 3 0 9 , 0 7 8 ' £ 2 1 , 1 0 5 , 8 0 3 T h e n u m b e r o l s l ioe j i a n d h o r n e d c a t t l e o f f e r e d f o r s a l e a t t h e g r e a t s o l d , a n d t h e i r a v e r a g e p r i c e s "were, f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s — a t t l e f a i r o f B a l l i n a s l o c , w i t h t h e n u m b e r s 6HF.EP. Average Trice of IV adders. Average Price of Ewes. Years. Sold. Unsold. Total. 1st Class. 2nd Class. 3rJ Class. 4th Class. 1st Class. 2nd Class. 3rd Class. ith Class. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ 1. d. £ *. d. 1842, . 6M6.1 12,950 70,815 2 11 0 2 2 0 1 13 0 1 7 0 2 0 0 1 9 0 1 1 0 0 10 0 1843, . 09,238 • 1,998 C5.2S0 2 5 0 1 18 0 1 11 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 10 0 1 1 0 0 16 0 1844, . 02,033 8,545 '70,578 2 7 0 2 0 0 1 13 0 1 8 0 2 2 0 1 12 0 1 3 0 0 18 0 1845, . 00,061 2,922 69,583 2 12 0 2 6 0 1 18 0 — 2 6 0 1 18 0 1 10 0 1 6 6 18)6, . 65,424 10,530 76,010 2 15 0 2 7 6 2 2 0 — . 2 10 0 2 0 0 1817, . 63,095 27,424 80,519 2 14 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 — 2 7 0 2 0 0 • . , 1848, . 57,287 9,758 07,045 2 14 0 2 4 0 2 2 0 1 13 0 2 8 0 1 15 0 1 C 0 1 1 0 KOBNED CATTLE. Average Price of Oxen. Average Price &f Heifers. 1842, . 8,074 0,290 14,361 15 10 0 14 10 0 12 10 0 7 10 0 15 6 0 13 0 0 8 10 0 6 0 ~0 1843, . 8,767 1.041 9,103 16 10 0 15 10 0 13 10 0 8 10 0 16 0 0 14 0 0 9 10 0 7 0 0 1844, . T,l 44 3,727 10,871 15 5 0 14 5 0 12 5- 0 7 6 0 15 11 0 13 5 0 8 15 0 C 5 0 1845, . 8,423 1,214 9,637 16 16 0 ;15 0 0 12 12 0 9 9 0 12 12 0 11 10 0 10 10 0 9 0 0 1810, . 8,573 2,976 11,552 10 10 0 15 0 0 — — 16 15 0 12 12 0 11 10 0 0 0 0 1847. . 7,698 2,750 10,454 15 0 0 13 15 0 12 10 0 — 16 0 0 14 7 6 1 1 0 0 18 10 0 1818, . 7,297 805 8,162 16 0 0 14 10 0 13 10 0 — 16 10 0 15 5 0 12 0 0 9 10 0 T h e p r i n c i p a l d a i r y p r o d u c e o f I r e l a n d is b u t t o r , - w h i c h f o r m s a n i m p o r t a n t i t e m o f e x p o r t to G r e a t B r i t a i n ; e g g s are l i k e w i s e sent t h i t h e r i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s . T h e s t a t e o f a g r i c u l t u r e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p r o v e d t h r o u g h t h e e x e r t i o n s o f the s o c i e t i e s f o r m e d f o r i t s p r o m o t i o n , o r f o r o b j e c t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h i t . T h o p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s e a r c t h e R o y a l A g r i c u l t u r a l I m p r o v e m e n t S o c i e t y , w h i c h h a s 150 l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y c o n n e c t e d w i t h i t , t h e R o y a l H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y , a n d t h o P r a c t i c a l F l o r a l a n d H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y . Flax. T h e c r o p o f f l a x i n I r e l a n d i n I f i l f l h a s t u r n e d o u t a l u x u r i a n t o n e , t h e q u a l i t y a n d s t r e n g t h b e i n g v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y T h e p r o d u c e p e r a c r e i s e s t i m a t e d at o n e - f o u r t h m o r e t h a n l a s t y e a r , a n d t h e F l a x S o c i e t y c a l c u l a t e tho a m o u n t at I S . t i B U t o n s a g a i n s t 17,49-1 t o n s i n 1 8 4 7 . T h e d e c r e a s e d b r e a d t h s o w n is a t t r i b u t e d p a r t l y t o t h e i m m e n s e a d d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e o f p o t a t o e s , a n d p a r t l y to t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t r a d e , c a u s i n g the f i b r e t o b r i n g l o w p r i c e s . T h e S o c i e t y ha< c o n t i n u e d t o e x t e n d i t s o p e r a t i o n s t o t h e s o u t l i a n d w e s t , c h i e l l y i n t h e c o u n t i e s o f M a y o , C o r k , L i m e r i c k C l a r e , a n d T i p p e r a r y . T h e C o m m i s s a r y - G e n e r a l p l a c e d a t i t s d i s p o s a l , f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n a m o n g t h o p o o r e r c l a s s » ( f a n n e r s , BK6 b u s h e l s o f D u t c h f l a x s e e d , w h i c h w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d , at a v e r y r e d u c e d p r i c e , i n t h o c o m i t i e s o f ( V k , L i m e r i c k , C l a r e , a n d ( . a l w a y . T h e f l a x g r o w n i n t h e s o u t h a n d w e s t , h a s e n a b l e d t h o g r o w e r s to n a y r e n t a n d t a x e s , a m i to r e s e r v e as f o o d f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d t h e i r l i v e - s t o c k t h e g r a i n a n d r o o t s g r o w n o n the f i r m so t h a t i t s g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n i n s u c h l o c a l i t i e s i s l i k e l y t o a i d m a t e r i a l l y i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e u s e o f a g r a i n d i e t T h o h a n d - s c u t c h i n g o f f l a x h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o s o m e o f t h e w o r k h o u s e s o f t h e c o u n t y o f C o r k , as a ' m e a n s of e m p l o y i n g t h e p a u p e r s , w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h f r e e l a b o u r w i t h o u t t h e w a l l s , a n d t i n : c r o p l ias b e e n g r o w n o n l a n d ' a t t a c h e d to t h e w o r k h o u s e s . S h i p m e n t s o f f l a x h a v e b e e n m a d e d u r i n g t h e y e a r to F r a n c e a n d A m e r i c a a l t h o u g h t h e s c a r c i t y o f t h e h o m e g r o w n a r t i c l e h a s c a u s e d t h e i m p o r t o f t w e l v e c a r g o e s f r o m t h e B a l t i c i n t o B e l f a - t A m o d e o f s t e e p i n g f l a x i n v a t s f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r h e a t e d b y s t e a m , a n A m e r i c a n i n v e n t i o n , n o d p a t e n t e d for I r e l a n d , is i n o p e r a t i o n a t N e w p o r t , M a y o . I t is h i g h l y s p o k e n o f b y t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h o F l a x S o c i e t y i n a r e p o r t m a d e t o the C o m m i t t e e , as p o s s e s s i n g m a n y a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h o c o m m o n s y s t e m , a n d i t i s l i k e l y "to b e e x t e n s i v e l y a d o p t e d . H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e L o r d L i e u t e n a n t , i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e of f l a x c u l t u r e i n I r e l a n d , as w e l l i n a n a g r i c u l t u r a l as a m a n u f a c t u r i n g p o i n t o f v i e w , p l a c e d t h e s u m o f £ 1 , 0 0 0 i t t h e S o c i e t y ' s d i s p o s a l , i n a i d o f i t s o p e r a t i o n s . I n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n IS n o w e x c i t e d t h r o u g h o u t I r e l a n d t o w h a t i s a d m i t t e d o n a l l h a n d s ' t o b e o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t i n d u s t r i a l r e s o u r c e s of t h e c o u n t r y . W e a r e i p d e b t e d t o M r . I H ' C u M - O C I l ' s Commercial Diclwmin/ f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g i m p o r t a n t t a b l e s , s h o w i n g the q u a n t i t i e s , a n d v a l u e o f a r t i c l e s o f I r i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e i m p o r t e d i n t o t h e p o r t o f L i v e r p o o l d u r i n g e a c h Df the c k ' h t Y e a r , e n d i n g D e c e m b e r , 1845. M r . M--CUI.I.OC11 s l a t e s , t h a t " a b o u t £. '00,0011 a-vc.- .r m a y h e . a i d e d t o the total s u m s In t h e t a b i c , f o r the y e a r s HOT, IH.'W, 1HI0, 11)11, 111-12, RIMHHIS ; a n d ,£7011,(100 f o r t h o years K i l o arid l ' l - l - l , f o r c o t t o n s a n d l i n e n - , egga . s a l m o n , f f c c , o f w h i c h n o a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t c a n b e h a d . I n 1 8 4 4 I h e i o v a l u e s arc b e l i e v e d to h a v e b e e n n e a r l y as f o l l o w s : v i z , . , c o t t o n s a n d l i n e n s , £ 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; e g g s a n d p o u l t r y , 186 A - 6 . IMPORT DEPENDENCE OF IRELAND. T a b l e s i n flhom/s I r i s h , A.lma.nac_*, e s p e c i a l l y t h e f i r s t -t a b l e on page 190 o f t h e Almanac, show c l e a r l y how t h e i n c r e a s e o f i m p o r t s from B r i t a i n t o I r e l a n d b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1790 and 1&?6 r o s e f r o m £2,14-29,176 t o £6,102,975-By c o n t r a s t , f o r 1' o same p e r i o d , i m p o r t s f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s r o s e on"' a b o u t 2?^ from £,1,106,412 t o L1 ,388,915; i n d i e ; .'.ng how p r e d o m i n a n t l y B r i t a i n h ad become t h e s o u r c e o f i m p o r t s i n t o I r e l a n d . A g a i n , t h e t a b l e on t h e b o t t o m o f page 191 o f t h e Almanac r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e was a l s o a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h i n c r e a s e i n t h e t o n n a g e o f s h i p p i n g t h a t e n t e r e d I r e l a n d f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n . I n 1800, 544,732 t o n s e n t e r e d I r e l a n d from G r e a t B r i t a i n , w h i l e 97,754 t o n s e n t e r e d f r o m " f o r e i g n p o r t s " . I n 1845 s h i p p i n g f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n had more t h a n t r i p l e d , t o 1,861,621 t o n s ; w h i l e i t had o n l y l i t t l e more t h a n d o u b l e d , t o 207,441 t o n s f r o m a l l o t h e r -c o u n t r i e s . Thus, i n 1800 t h e f o r e i g n i m p o r t t o n n a g e was 15.2%, w h i l e i n 1845 i t was r e d u c e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10/o. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t a b l e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h i s d e c l i n e h ad been t a k i n g p l a c e s t e a d i l y , so t h a t by 184-3 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90% o f a l l t onnage e n t e r i n g I r e l a n d o r i g i n a t e d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . * Pages 190 f . 290 S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . [COMMERCE. COMMERCE AND SIIII'PIXG. The exportation of the agricultural produce of the country has always rSeen the principal commercial business carried on in Ireland, During the revolutionary war, this country furnished a large share of the provisions for the army and navy, and it still sends supplies to the colonial markets. But Great Bri tain is by far the beat and most extensive market fur all sorts of Iri.-h produce. B y much the greater j'art of the export trade is carried on by the cross channel navigation, chiefly to Liverpool, Bristol , and Glasgow, the staple articles being black cattle, sheep, swine, salted provisions, grain, Hour, butter, c-'^s, and linen. The trade with the colonies and with foreign parts is comparatively inconsiderable. The ine<pia!i ty is strikingly proved by the subjoined ollieial table*, •which show that the average amount of the exports to huvign parts, from 1/90 to IfWii, {.he only period admitting of comparison, were but one-eighth of those to Great Britain ; the amount of the former being £3,550,535, •while that of the latter was £"24/H)7,*i->7; and in the triennial periods ending January 5, Ib'-l-l, the tonnage of vessels from foreign parts was but onc-ttnth of the total tonnage of vessels inwards ; those from Groat Britain forming the oilier nine-tenths. 'The cessation of the collection of the duties on the cross-channel trade, which took place in ]b'2.>, has taken away the means of estimating the amounts of imports and exports to and from Great Britain since that period. . A.VNTAL AvrnAon AMOUNT of (ho IMTORTS and KxnORTS. of lr,ri,A.\D, for the Triefini.il Periods ending 25th March, 1750 s n d 1800, a n d 5th January, 1810, 1820, I82G, and 1830 ; Tor the Biennial Periods ending on 5th January, IS32 and 1S31 ; for the Triennial Periods ending on 5th January, 18-10 and 181-1; and for each of the Years ending 5th January, 18i5 and )816: distinguishing the Trade with Great Britain from the Trade with Foreign Parts. . Imports Into Ireland, from E sports from Ireland, to P E R I O D S . Great Bri ta in . Foreign Tarts. Total . Great Britain. Foreign P a r t i . Total . T h r o e Yearn e n d e d , 2 5 l h M a r c h , 1700, . 1800, . 5 th J a n u a r y , 1810, . „ 1820, . 1820, . . . 1830, . T w o years e n d e d , 5 l h J a n u a r y , 16.12, . . . „ ' 1834, . T h r e e years e n d e d , 5 t l i J a n u a r y , 1810, . „ 1841, . Y e a r s e n d e d , 6 t h J a n u a r y , 1815, . . . „ 1810, , £ 2,42.1,170 3,411,101 5,100,324 4,988,008 C,102,U75 £ 1,100,412 853,392 1,374,144 1,019.005 1,3X8,915 1,573,545 1,491,030 1,380,045 1,518,001 1,650,390 1,893,707 1,951,349 £ 3,535,588 4,299,403 0,535,008 0,008,273 7,491,690 £ 3,112,817 3,487,805 4,710,713 5,511,135 7,751,907 £ 1,012,516 528,111 559,758 747 ,140 703,011 839,014 635,909 410,715 359,480 358,612 207,977 273,421 £ 4,125,333 4,015,076 5,270,471 6,291,275 8,454,813 KoO>.~-Tho trade with Great Britain since the year 18:25 being governed by coasting regulations, there are no official documents recording tin Interchange ofgoods between the two eouutiies, except in so far as tha article of corn is concerned. STATKMCNT, s h o w i n g the A n n u a l A v e r a g e Q u a n t i t i e s o f W i n e , S p i r i t s , F o r e i g n a n d H o m e m a d e , T o b a c c o , T e a , Coffee, Sugar, F J a x Seed , C o t t o n Y a r n , C o t t o n W o o l , W o o l l e n a n d W o r s t e d Y a r n , S i l k , P a w a n d T h r o w n , I r o n U n w r o u g h t , T i m b e r , D e a l s , a n d C o a l s , r e t a i n e d for H o m e C o n s u m p t i o n in I r e l a n d , in the T r i e n n i a l P e r i o d s e n d i n g 25th M a r c h , l / i ' O a n d 1S00, a n d 5 th J a n u a r y , 1810, 1820, 1S2C, a n d 1 S30 ; t h e l l i e n n i a l P e r i o d s e n d i n g 5 t h J a n u a r y , 1832 a n d 1834, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; tho T r i e n n i a l P e r i o d s e n d i n g 5 th J a n u a r y , 18<i0 a n d ; a n d i n each o f the Y e a r s e n d i n g 5 t h J a n u a r y , 1345 a n d 18-iG. PERIODS. Wine of all «orti. SPIRITS. Tobacco. Tea. Coffee. SUGAR. Flu. So-J. S^ ,745 327,K;ll 4a',U43 168,45? 1<J7^ J4B 145,1 W 151,317 Sfi!i,7t-0 «i2,!P4 Forilfn of ||[qmcn)aJ(.. Eaw. Toial Raw. S years ending 25th Mutch, 17P°, • 1H(>0, . 5th Janunrv, IBlo, . ..* 1(1:20, . .. 1820, . .. 18.W, . £ year* ending Dth January, If!.!2, . .. um, . a years ending 5th January, 18-10, . .. Ui-l-l, . Yfan ending 5th January, Htl5, • .. UMf> . Imp. Cats. 1*127/200 W> l.u lfj 673,7C'J 600,079 757,527 771,45! 754,170 &Ui,l>,M fiiHl, I'-I fiuvni 1,120,071! 155,00:1 57 2/'.40 at, 1:11 S2,!)61 32, R ill S*i,5i'4. 60,fK'7 30,700 KI.Hl 8»,1 14 KI.7IT hup. (laU. a^ !M!i'l!!IJl ($,043,270 0,137,015 n!n:iJ7U .'i,77(1li^> (!,-ISI,i:.7 IM. 2,507 ,fi1!> 4,110,451 3,1113,C.JU 4, n(5:\077 4,15: V1"-' 4,449,547 5,12it,l'5<l 5, a:«),442 5,;'.7ii,-'ai Us. 1,732/174 2,773,070 3,.v»i,um 3/u<;,:t2l 3,51!l,2!tt 5 Jan. IX.'S 3, tl37,!t55 { - } 4, Wil,14l! 5,15(1,239 Lbs. 44.X. 0 4u:.',uV; 277,4';.) 570,2i>(i BJ(ll,:Vi3 rj'7,7!U H!!',2!2 I,i)3:i,'UM! 6,!Ul,5lt !>•>!, s 21 2J(j,fl34 OKI,(>S(i £<;yt4fiii 301,1103 321,199 342,701 841,52-. 331,!W7 34*1, U3 S-i-'l.'^ O 4t4,!'!»a Cicts. P,IU3 3O,05fi 2:1,431 Cirfjt. 210,106 211,224 +M,763 8I7,K30 406,789 PBHtODS, Cotton Turn Cotton Wool Woolen .n.l! Pilk, Htw *.uu. Thru w 11. | TlmW, 1 Iron e i K h t • T ' m b p r n < t Cnwroucht-juman- nuJ | f=j,liu Timber SH.TI or si-at. l>ctl F*JI, ™<* Citrus C<*Ut Ri.IIl-ll 3 yean ending £5th Miirvh, I7HO, , Ui'-<>, . 5tH January, lulu, . .. lHv">, , 1H2«, . .. llWO, , 8 jeart ending oth Jntiuriry, Ijta?, , 8 jrnrl ending Mil Jrttmrtry, 111]", . .. u m , ; . Ycnri ending 5th Jnm.nrY. im.*.. . IHl'i, . Lhl. (ill,/17 6J ; ,7LM l,n.|:i,(U7 1,270/174 E,510,3U3 IM. ] ,:V>J /wo l.lGlf.l'llf :i,;u:!,i!.H 2,»;a,i«;d 2,47iyJU3 ?,4.V>,l5n i>32,M4 C*\+J5 01,aw Lh.t. t.HtiO 0011,45:2 032,750 Lbs. 71),t:i!«) 77,rats 7a,'Kis £3,U'W 3, lye 1,202 «i)4 S 3 Tf»i).t. iV'.'l 10,241 i..,::.s I4,s(;t{ t);i 67 a 654 343 B,,V>7 6!>3 Loml.u n\i.ta «,N73 15,:M>J 6 .V> 75 Cl\202 7^ ,52-J ea,if.v! 1*r*vt.»u.\o to u<*i. 4,",lfc>0 Lotuls. 67.554 107,^ 1 Loa.ls. 127,5.^ ITuHt{re<ft 17.4P2 12,024 8,720 7.0in 0,417 1^,071 n,n;o 15,500 15, FTrv;..u, to 10 OH. Id 12. ia,9U 6-2 113 7"OHIi 3;tH,W4 3*;j,4!W 4jit,a;4 675,910 7U,fi;6 WI.4-M * Kar-lTn "f U>. I)MI/ on Tr» r*n W f..r IM-. [MTIM, D. T.-« IW r,^nmPrl^ In Trflan.l * *< rl,.rp-.l - En, Puty In f l m ! Hrlt.In r-i^ tlom to Id iUIU.ry fr, B tlx >ir~h«u«*4. T Tl.- « n ru . l U- ,a,U.I!,.|, Ih.-(V..-.inp !>UI. Ih.il trliv-l* 1 fcvlr.t l^,t. dl-cmttnUfJ * ?0W.r.«.,l lo VHI- P. l - l - T . I*-!?. II" rt) «11 titv t-lilitpd for hrmt «.ni<imrIUui .^TW lvs.li of T!ml*r avt « « 0 M ([.lit, usJ K,JL5 lv-*di Hwnnifl H-ltt: «bolS0bn»-4r..l. 1.1 UslUiu »uJ t'««'.t n.l-rtJ frj t«I». * 188 comiEKd—sitiprixc] S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . 1 9 1 A - 8 . T h e v i e w v / h i f h t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t a f f o r d s o f t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f i m p o r t e d c o m m o d i t i e s i n I r e l a n d , i s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t ( I t - f a r l i v e , i n a s m u c h as t h e c o a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , b y w h i c h t h e c r o s s - c h a n n e l t r a d e h a s b e e n g o v e r n e d s i n c e t h e y e a r Hl '25 , ] i r e \ e n t t h e k e e p i n g o f a n v r e c o r d o f g o o d s i m p o r t e d d u t y f r e e f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n , c i t h e r i n t l i c case o f B r i t i s h p r o d u c t i o n s o r o f f o r e i g n m e r c h a n d i s e u p o n w h i c h d u t y l i a s a l r e a d y b e e n p a i d i n a B r i t i s h p o r t . O f t h e a r t i c l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a c c o u n t , t h o s e f o r w h i c h t h e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h e a r l i e r y e a r s is m o s t a f f e c t e d b y t h i s c i re ii i n s t a n c e a r e , r c l i n e d s u g a r , l l a x - s c e d , c o t t o n w o o l , c o t t o n y a r n , w o o l l e n y a r n , r a w a n d t h r o w n s i l k , a n d i r o n u n - . v r o u ^ h t . S T A T E M E N T , s h o Y r m s ; the A D D u n l A v e r a g e Q u a n t i t i e s o f O x e n , S h e e p , S w i n e , H o r s e s , B a c o n a n d H a m s , B e e f a n d P o r k , B u t t e r , W i n at a n d W h e a t F l o u r , O a t s a n d O a t m e a l , I m h S p i r i t , L i n e n M a n u f a c t u r e . * , L i n e n V n n i , a n d C o t t o n M a n u -' fact tires e x e r t e d f r o m I r e l a n d i n tlie T i i e n m n l P e r i o d s e n d i n g 2 - i t h M a r c h , 1790 a n d 1800, a n d 5 th J a n u a r y , 1310, 1320, an.) Is.10 ; tin* B i e n n i a l I V r i o d x e n d i n g o t h J a n u a r y , a n d 1 S3 J ; the T r i e n n i a l P e r i o d s e n d i n g 5 t h J a n u a r y , ]t* tO a u d a n d i n each o f t h e years ending. 5 th J a n u a r y , 18 15 a n d 1S-1G: d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the E x p o r t s to G r e a t B r i t a i n f r o m these to F e a e i g n C o u n t r i e s . Three year* coding 25th M a r c h , 17.00, . . 1800, 6th January, 18(0, . . 1820, . . 1K26, .„ l83o, Two years ending 6th January, ia:)2, . . 1884, Three years ending 6th January, UMi), . . 1844, Years ending 6lh January-, 1845, . . 10-16, A~umber. 19,311) 14,lo5 10,3 7 6 51,880 tYionbcr Xitmbcr. A'uiiibcrl l Bacon and H a m s . Xuwbcr. 4.0K3 2,0<B I 2; Cures. 17,023 41,9-18 152,070 333,213 5,658 1,335 1,135 1,117 2.04S PERIODS. Beefand P o r t . Butter. W h e a t and Wheat Flour . Oats and Oatmeal. Irish Spirits. To Great Britain. T ° r J i r u ! " ' 1 To Croat Britain. To Foreign Parts. To Great Britain. To Foreign Tarn. To G rent Britain. To Forr-Ipn Parts. To Great Britain. Three years ending 25th J larch , 1790, . . 1(300, 5th January, lfilo, . . 18-'0, , . Ifl2f>, . . 1830, Two years ending fith January, 1C32, , . ' 1834, Three years ending 6th January, 1840, . . 1844, "years ending 6ih January, 1645, •.. 1846, Barrel*. 88,583 229,179 211,402 170.362 143,725 Barrels. 138,-081 41),807 6(>,R24 54,858 46,2irff 25,402 22,979 i;i,2J2 15,321 •4,123 2,150 2,023 CieU. 198,149 215,100 309,1/0 378,303 441,22(3 Cut;. 121,000 65,5-1.0 40,123 G.i.553 51,<W7 45,576 83,685 24,702 14,569 16,330 10,815 15,099 Quart-rs 41,616 24,077 6i,o<(7 113,110 375,781 535,010 6-13,618 817,252 445,126 £37,001 410,152 770,113 Quarters. 70,640 1,-V3 1.4U5 3,337 1,802 21 •487 41 m Qunrtos. 285,015 320,4/0 673,805 870,179 1,301,183 1,607,500 1,563,503 3,W 7,103 -',307,172 1,025,076 722,4:i0 2,353,005 ^ 27,078 3,550 3,5-13 4 '«70 3,625 1 ,032 4.533 3,249 5 , 1 « 202 2,019 Imj}, Ga7S. 8 291 821,fW3 35,463 527r0i8 C84.6SU 850,?01 1,102.046 P E B I O D S , Irish Spirits. Linen Manufactures. L inen Y a r n . C O T T O N XAXVTACTWREi, Entered by the Entered otherwise Y a r d . than by the Y a r d , To Foreign Tarts. To Grtat To Foreign Britain. FarU. To Or-at Britain. To Foreign Parts. To Grvat Britain. 1 Value, 1 Value. Three years ending 25th M a r c h , 171K), 1800, 6th January, IfilO, 182o, 11I2.J, . . . . lwao. Two years tndlng flth January, 18.12, . •• •• Three years ending 6th January, 1010, „ . . 1H41, Years ending fith January, i:<45, . . lU-MJ, Imp.Oali. 101 2,003 1,0^1 60,570 24,7t!S 10,420 10,065 io,ias 14,70-4 0.507 37,055 2,505 Yards. 3-1,410,840 32,930,029 37,012,060 43,330 49,031,073 Yards. 3,780,014 3,120" ,340 2,i).ifl,!»27 4,0;!4,K47 2,01b',340 3,205,233 2,884,302 1,873.854 729,353 6\n,sm 30._i,rti:o 359,45tf CirtJ. 2H,1<»7 10,434 17,177 10,000 3,101 CivU. 27 2 6 1 6 28,320 25,215 6,043 8,454 Yards. 150 10 103,713 5,097,918 Tarda. 1 £ a.d. — 47 18 0 8,033 19 16 11 77>4S«i 110 a 3 314,679 4,907 6 1 1,705.1*55 14,887 1 7 4,163,212] ~ 2,013,54!) — ],P,60,4HH — •ItJll, 153 244,fii»7, — 224,850 ~ 95,003 ~ £ s. <f. 8,213 18 0 0.-194 6 1 20,203 0 2 11,523 15 5 8,525 6 0 3,2118 16 2 1,870 0 0 1,127 Id 3 104 0 0 156 0 0 413 0 0 101 0 0 A N . v t ' A i . A r e c v o e N r M B K n a m ! I O S M O E o f V E S S E L S entered iinvnrrts i n the P o u t * o f I K E I . A M D , i n t l i c T r i e n n i a l PerirxJ? t l K l i n p Otli J a n u a r y , 17B0, 1800, 1SI0, 1820, 1H30, 1831, 1840, a n d 181-1; a n d in e a c h o f l h o Y e a r s e n d i n g 5 t h J a n u a r y ) 8 J 5 • n d 1840: d i s t i n g u i s h i n g tho T r a d e w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n f r o m the T r a d e w i t h F o r e i g n P a r t s . T h r e e ) earg e n d e d 6lli J a n u a r y , 1700, „ 1800, 1 9 1 0 , » , , 1820, 1*30, 1831, „ IHJO, „ 1811, Y e a r s e n d e d fith J a n u a r y , 181.-,, „ 1848, j Tonnage. clgn Tarts. dumber . | Tonnage. J T h o entries i n w a r d s f rom G r e a t l l r i t a i n a n d K o r e a n P a r t s arc not d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the C u s t o m s records of this j teriod. 6,523 7,711 10,018 12,320 14,245 16,4118 17,071 17.714 10,081 514,723 674,425 82.1,307 1,15S,!I.'17 1,3 18,1190 1,630,111 1,710,080 1,861,621 2,010,202 6.80 653 937 1,008 941 1,007 S!H 1,071 1,239 97,754 90,233 138.577 160,142 171,202 180,500 180,038 207,141 274,780 F r o m al! Tarts. Tonnage. 1,243 7.209 8,397 10,955 13,337 15,189 17,475 18,002 18,785 20,320 022,013 012.477 164,058 901,881 1,325.079 1,523,291 1.816,61! 1,899,118 2,009,002 2,320,082 T M i Is an a i c r a g e for two years o n l y , T ! Z . , 1803 a n d 1S09, the h o o k s for the year 1807 b e i n g d e f e c t i v e . A-9. 189 FISCAL DEPENDENCE OF ISELAND, Tables from Thorn's I r i s h Almanac* are quite revealing, since they show that taxation i n Ireland was based primarily on the turn-over type of taxes, such as the sales tax, which bear most heavily on the poorer segments of the population. (There i s no mention of "Income Tax" i n Table No. 1). Table No. 2 shows that Ireland paid a large portion of her taxes towards the maintenance of a B r i t i s h army on her s o i l , and thus paid the heavy expenses of the coercion p o l i c i e s of the B r i t i s h government that were practiced. Table No. 3 shows that i n taxation and disbursement p o l i c i e s , any surplus that was available was applied to debt service, so that Ireland was not only paying her own internal debt, but was also paying a portion of debts incurred by B r i t a i n . This Is revealed i n Table No. k which demonstrates the rapid increase i n debt from 1797 to 1817• This was the period of the Napoleonic Wars, and Ireland was doubtless made to pay her portion of these war debts. Table No. 3 shows that this debt service- was a considerable burden to Ireland, and consumed a l l her surplus. Again, i n this manner, Ireland had l o s t control of any opportunity to accumulate emergency funds. The picture that emerges i s one of a country being taxed and ruled by a government both unresponsive and distant. This government was also bent upon many international policies, for which the I r i s h had to pay, although these policies were alien to their interests. * Pages 182 f. A-10. 182 S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . [REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE • REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF IRELAND. The gross amount of tlie ordinary revenue and expenditure of Ireland, for various periods to the latest Pariia mertiary returns published, is given in the following tables : — TOTAL INCOME a n d EXPENDITURE o f I r e l a n d in end] year f r o m the 5 th J a n u a r y , 1792, to 5 t h J a n u a r y , I S O ] , (exclusive o s u m s a p p l i e d to t h e H c d u e t i e n o f D e b t . ? Year , Income. Expenditure. Year . Income. EipcndUur ; 1705, , . £ 1 , 7 8 7 , 4 1 3 £ 2 , 7 0 7 , 0 3 2 170S, . . £ 2 , 2 1 5 . 9 5 5 £ 5 , 5 1 5 , 0 2 ' 1790, . . 1,801,-179 3,179,51)7 1799, . . 3,131,833 5,810.29 1TJ1, . . 1,670,325 3,495,751 1800, . . 2,015,730 6,853,56 Year . 1792, 1793, 1794, Income. . £ 1 , 1 0 2 , 5 3 9 995.031 . 1,199,190 Expenditure. £1 ,107 ,836 1,371,827 2 ,253,190 REVENUE AND E x p E N D j ' r e r . E SINCE 1 S 4 7 . — [ House of Commons Pap'r, Ko. 1 9 2 , 1 8 ) 7 . ] N o . 1 .—AN ACCOUNT o f the N E T PRODUCE o f the REVENUE o f IRELAND, p a i d i n t o the E x c h e q u e r t h e r e , f r o m 1 8 1 7 to 1 S 1 0 d i s t i n g u i s h e d u m l e r the di f ferent heads o f R e v e n u e . Imprest and other al onevs. K e r a y -mentsof I J Advances ] for Public Works . 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 18215 1827 1823 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1830 1837 1838 1830 1810 1841 1842 1843 1841 1845 1810 £ 1,431,400 1,035,470 1,51 1,259 1,202,379 1,137,053 1,200.503 1,092,325 1,037,990 1,317,207 1,513,943 1,502,560 1,110,2*1 1,187,979 1,19G,761 1,179,556 1,235,109 1,201,950 1,405,831 1,743,742 1,709,832 1,711,019 1,091,515 1,743,784 2,030,159 1,999,257 1,91.9,831 1,960,498 2,120,149 2,091,651 2,258,043 1,683,912 1,835,309 1.707,151 1,565,129 1,631,636 1.535,908 1,356,369 1.651,757 1,479,855 1,422,716 1,409,142 2,059,310 1,790,289 1,748,610 1,972,150 1,953,810 1,702,749 1,725,960 1,703,806 1,810,219 1,624,931 1,763,057 1,557,333 1,177,407 1,097,918 1,110,342 1,082,722 1,147,940 1,408,471 1,467,060 £ 413,314 342,831 230,607 265,101 3 'H,223 221,836 13,056 £ 520,206 509,039 432,470 407,401 400.827 423,994 439,330 490,945 450,090 425,330 430,086 441,585 450,009 452,830 446,920 436,499 429,623 434,492 430,915 441,66s 437,037 437,655 430,520 432,7 22 425,771 491,851 521,981 5(5,898 55S.569 573,767 £ 57,231 40,154 53,538 59,077 65,533 69,231 75,092 70,615 78,402 74.000 78,000 108,000 105,000 108,000 139,200 133,000 127,800 129,400 122,300 132,700 123,811 131,994 107,298 0,061 3,000 3,000 16,000 22,000 29,000 9,928 ! 9,801 j 10,550 j 9,205 i 9,924 7,870 10,209 9.748 11,529 9,595 9,890 9.353 8,887 9,096 4,53.) 3,780 3,030 3,993 3,712 2,870 1,477 15,822 6,843 6,929 1,411 5,243 5,059 0,590 6,317 6,063 £ 110,791 97,092 101,778 20.147 7,894 30,225 35,824 187,750 .24 ,155 1S.588 13,603 | 20,865 105,786 15.455 I 17,474 ! 27,141 9,739 7 .9S6 ; 8,5(33 i 8,621 j 17,395 j 6,336 9,124 5,531 ' 5,635 j 2,210 1,677 i 2.6S3 9,816 6,8SS £ 09,944 101,530 100,016 71,003 133.228 132,310 141,332 1S2.275 232,8-10 158,331 172,984 212,031 2 U , 9 s 6 223,231 220,120 248,075 279,(00 311.355 327,267 3(9 ,662 304.823 313,060 355,231 353,633 413,4 11 371,878 384,791 420,470 381,938 352,042 4,334,816 4,577,286 4,250,980 3,605,416 3,099,924 3.690,973 3,199,128 3.690,090 3,024,800 3,622,593 3,032,312 3,961.433 3,860,595 3,753,933 3,979,953 4,0(2,429 3,S14,(01 4,079,034 4,310,350 4,515,572 4,226,151 4,394,495 4,210,130 4.013,100 3,909,633 3,934,309 3,959,731 4,265.730 4,478,792 4,092,463 N o . 2 . — A N ACCOUNT o f t h e EXPENDITURE o f IRELAND i n each Y e a r , ' f r o m 1 8 1 7 to I 8 4 G , b o t h i n c l u s i v e . Year . A r m y . Ordnance. Miscellaneous. Charges on Consolidated F u n d . Civil List . Advances for Public Works. Irish Treasury Bills paid off. TOTAL. £ £ £ £ £ £ 1 £ £ 1817 1,753,529 152,087 563,022 198,010 207,092 195,9S5 1,133,001 4.209.016 1818 1,528,277 92.308 375,172 193.652 207,092 130,553 1,080,553 3,604,207 1819 1,377,259 129,219 374,943 202,981 207,692 153,433 2,200,000 4,047.577 1820 1,484,348 117,151 399,360 182,999 213,979 198,504 2,109,000 4,690,347 1821 1,424.890 114,755 318 552 183.367 207,000 213,972 1,605,131 4,102,723 1822 1,393.772 88,613 532,721 243,253 207.000 333,734 1,000,000 3,854,096 1823 1,029 123 168,820 433,841 305,258 207,000 304,514 . 2,453.592 1824 1,047,906 1,019,279 292.902 426,320 301,034 207,000 533,258 — 2,808,530 1825 231/785 436,713 300,102 207,000 327,411 .— 2,525,290 132G 1,005,554 104,630 450,940 301,427 207,000 5(6 ,922 — 2.730.535 1827 1,020.820 367,323 303,200 207.000 437,754 2,342,103 1828 1,03>'349 362,228 300,959 207,000 424,691 .— 2,330,227 1829 980,209 360,871 377,969 207,000 330,317 .— 2,318,866 1830 869,006 „ s 345,714 300,311 03,382 395.702 .— 2,015,205 1831 933,620 45 4,279 293,077 = ^ r 423,750 — 2,109,432 1832 1,051,770 307.577 320,152 634,(02 .— 2,379,901 18.13 1,055,915 344.122 319.331 lis? 521,433 .— 2,280,800 1834 912,046 409,395 302.023 519,003 .— . 2,202,533 1835 990,100 £ - ^ 2 . 414,147 333.687 433.704 — 2,237,693 IK30 939,355 H 5c 3V>,229 394.377 521,955 — 2.211,(10 1K.17 639,128 87.300 3.33,200 691,803 * 2 § S 415.120 — 2,119,G11 1K33 l . O V V ' 3 " , 138,600 332,553 G(7,350 ! c ~ ^ ° 454.014 .— 2,673,502 1339 98- , ,000 113,330 342,870 590.525 1 "^i-C 301,225 — 2.340,050 IKK) 897.500 122.155 351,539 533.969 329,509 — 2,289.072 1811 910.000 110,420 331,739 675,932 ^ v> * 300,359 — 2.264,500 1K42 937.500 97,1)50 398.501 580,909 370.322 . .— . 3,390,281 1813 994.5110 81.870 332.033 561,329 350.304 2.32(,18'1 18(1 1,183.731) 93.100 375.527 58.'..350 "4 (3,330 2,081,917 1X4) 1,121..'.V, 90.050 3M.512 001,002 H < 2 - 1 392,347 . 2,523,426 1840 1,143,980 105,000 472,404 902,856 j. 790,214 '— 3,414,454 A -11 R S T E X U E A N D E X P E N D I T C H E . ] STATISTICS OF I R E L A N D . 183 Ko. 3 . — A n A c c o a s t o f the P r n i . r c I x r o i r B a n d E X P E N D I T U R E of I R E L A N D , f r o m 1 S 1 7 to 1 8 4 6 , s h o w i n g the E x c e s s o r D c f i -f i c n e r o f Incomi-, af ter p r o v i d i n g for t i n : E x i > r i i d i t u r c , e x c l u s i v e of the C h a r g e o f the F u n d e d D e b t , tho A n n u a l C h a r g e o f tho F u n d e d D ^ h t , a n d the D e f i c i e n c y of I n c o m e to m e e t that C h a r g e . Ineoii'T paid into the Excin^iut-r in Ireland las per Account,] K o . I). 1 1817, . 1SI8, . 1 8 1 0 , . 1820, . 1821, . 1822, . 1823, . 1324, . 1 8 2 5 , . 1820, . 1827, . 1828, . 1829, . 1 8 3 0 , , 1 8 3 1 , . 1 3 3 2 , . 1 8 3 3 , . 1 8 3 4 , . 1835, . 183G, . 1 8 3 7 , . 1638, . 1839, . 1 8 4 0 , . 1 8 4 1 , . 1842, . 1 8 4 3 , . 1844, . 1845, . 1810, . Expenditure In Irelmd.ere cluske ofthe charge of the Funded Debt (as per Account, £ 4,331,810 4,577,230 4,250,930 3 005,410 3.999,921 3,090.973 3,199,128 3,G90,090 3,024,800 3.622,593 3.682,312 3,901,433 3,806,595 3.753,983 3,979,959 4,012,420 3,314,401 4.079,031 4,310,370 4,515,572 4,226,151 4,394,495 4,210,186 4,013,100 3,969,633 3,934 369 • 3,959,731 4,267,730 4.473.702 4,602,463 4,209,016 3,664.207 4,645,577 4,690,317 4,102,723 3,854.090 2.453,592 2,803,536 2,525.2.90 2,736,535 2 .3(2 .103 2.330,227 2.31S.866 2,015,205 2.109.432 2,379,901 2,230,806 2,202.553 2,237,698 2,211,416 2,119,611 2,073,502 2,340,950 2,289,672 2,261,500 2,390,285 2,324,136 2,631,947 2.593,420 3,414,454 Tvseess or P e f eicney of Im-ou^, after defraying the Charges in preceding Column. £ 175.800 913,079 745,536 831,551 1,099.510 836,053 1,340,239 1.6.31,200 1,547.729 1.733,778 1,870.527 1,602.519 1,533,595 1,876,501 2,102.672 2,30-1,150 2,106,540 1,720,993 1,869.236 1,723,418 1,705,133 1 ,5 (4 ,08 ! 1,635,545 1,585,783 1,885,360 1,278,009 \r ,nual Charg, of Interest cn the Funded Dcbtof Ireland] (as per Account,c(o.5}. 394,597 1,090,901 102,799 163,123 Deficiency of Income pal-I into the Exchequer in re'.aml, to meet] tbe annual eleirge of Interest oa the Debt. £ 6,032,111 6.029,172 6,005,172 6,999.933 6,000.950 4,539.G54 4,539,562 4,505,842 4,505,842 4,505,845 4.453,845 4,345.S15 4,345,845 4,281,803 4,281.803 4,281,593 4,281,593 4,231,693 4,231,593 4,281,593 4,281,593 4,281,593 4.281,593 4,231,593 4,2GO,595 4,260,595 4,200,595 4,176,458 4,176,458 4,170,458 £ 5,856.311 5,116,093 6,309,769 7,090.339 6 ,103,749 4 ,702,777 3 ,794.02ii 3,624.2-SS 3,406,332 3,619,787 8 ,113,606 2,714,633 2,793,116 2,543.030 9.411,281 2,619,07-1 2 ,747 ,99* 2,405.0St3 2,173.92* 1,977.437 2,175,053 2 , 5 6 0 , ' " « ' 3 2 ,412,357 2,553,165 2,555,462 2,715.511 2 ,625-f iS* 2,590.6775 2,291,032 2 , 8 9 S , M 9 So. { . — A n A c c o u n t of rite T O T A L C A P I T A L of the D E B T o f I R E L A N D F U N D E D i n G R E A T B R I T A I N , a n d the D E B T o f I R E L A N D r r \ D E D i n I H E I A N D , as i t s t o o d on the 25th . M a r c h , 1st F e b r u a r y , or 6 t h J a n u a r y , i n each year, f r o m t h e 1 ear 1786, to (lie 5th J a n u a r y , 1817, i n c l u s i v e ; d i s t i n p u i s M n g (he A m o u n t R e d e e m e d a n d U n r e d e e m e d , a n d (ho T o t a l C h a r g e of tho s a i d l)cU, i n c l u d i n g A n n u i t i e s for L i v e s or Y e a r s ; a n d also d i s t i n g u i s h i n g tho p r o p o r t i o n o f tho s a i d C h a i g e p a i d to t h o C o m -missioners for the R e d u c t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l D e h t . 25th M a r c h / 1st F o h , a n d 1 25lli M a r c h , t ) 1st F e b . a n d t i l l J a n . * 1786, 1787, 1738, 1789, 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1791, 1795. 1796, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800, | 1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1803, 1809, 1810, 1811, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1810, 1817, £ 1,402,052 1,632,221 1.686,067 1,586,067 1.586,007 1.580,067 1,586,007 1.025,298 1,969,975 2,940,913 4.469,406 6,370,975 9,275,890 14,920,247 21,7*7,38.) T O T A L - D E B T . 73 ,870 318,636 687,305 951,756 1,444.281 1,907.810 2,051.932 3,413,451 4,467,151 5.032,1)77 0,929, (99 8,283,150 9,765,522 1 1,396,385 13. .-143.301 15,537,396 13,119,542 20,723.112 23.806.1 27,222,01 I £ 1,462,052 1,632,221 1,580,067 1,586.067 1,586,007 1,586.067 1.536.007 1,025,298 1,969.975 2,940,913 4,469.400 5,376,976 9,319,760 15,233,8S.1 22,347,190 32.226.312 36,499.023 39,710,1(6 49,190,037 53.856,637 59,742.790 65,213.333 70,250,175 75,240,790 82.820.762 R5.59il.915 94.920.454 107.311,839 1 18,029.292 131,590,077 134,692.709 Ctitrgu In reject Of UtrevdcenW Dctit; Including Annuiti^f* for *nil Jlfltiagctntnt. Charge iu respect of Re-deemed Debt, Including Sinking F u n d . T O T A L C H A S - : C K . £ £ £ 105,721 — 105,7721 112,604 — 112.304 110,658 — 1 1 0 , f S S 105,490 — I 0 5 , 4 » 6 105.496 — I05 .4S0 105,496 — 10S,(fSG 105,496 — 105,4(90 107,066 - 107,906 124,084 _ 124.ffl34 181,930 — I812S30 274 432 — 2741,432 341,277 — 3 4 1 ^ 7 7 607,030 108,246 615,320 717.933 178,061 895,904 959,098 259,877 1,215,575 1,157,004 327,834 1 , 4 8 4 » S 4 8 1,274.277 390.230 1,064.S07 1,338,316 452.122 1,34(1) 4!'GS 1,467,674 609,661 1.977.J335 1,752,286 633.863 2 . J 8 C . J S 9 1,941.901 721.650 2,(163.(617 2,094,831 813.190 2.913.021 2,229,015 913,278 3.142,1293 2.390.551 1,000.502 3,39t-B!53 2.523,102 1,113,181 3 ,636.230 2,1)70,025 1,271.926 3 . 9 4 1 , » ) . 5 I 2.697,201 1,309.031 4 , 0 S l » , 2 3 2 2,920,921 1,550.420 4 ,477,347 3,201,143 1,763.819 5,02t,5)G7 3.552,231 1 952 211 5,501.-842 3.9113,288 2,217,323 c . i soyrai 3 839,231 2.199,027 G , 0 3 c U i l 1 Thfl /\nmiftl account* of f l ic I V M o f I n - h i i In* C n i . - n , l„ tin- 5t»i J a n u a r y In carl , y< ' " * t l i r i u i n , c o m m e n c i n g lu \1'.>7, aro m.-ulo id f u n d e d in I r e f u n d , aro m a d n u p p r i o r to tho F r i l m i . to t h e 25tF» M a r c h , u n d -tr . f T l i o n n n m , l accounts of tlio D o b t o f I r c l a & d , f u n d e d i n u n to tlm l i t F e b . i n each j e . i r . B-1. 192 APPENDIX B. SPECIAL PRIVILEGES OF THE PROTESTANT ESTABLISHED CHURCH--1849• A p p e n d i x B, page 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 8 5 2 , 0 6 4 members, whereas t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h had 6,427,712 members. A p p e n d i x B, page 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e w h o l e o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y were " s u p p o r t e d by v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m t h e i r f l o c k ; " w h i l e t h e P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h was s u p p o r t e d f r o m S t a t e endowments, h a v i n g an a g g r e g a t e i ncome o f E l , 6 3 9 , 4 0 3 . I n Thomas I r i s h Almanac, pages 2 5 8 t o 2 7 4 , u n d e r : " C o l l e g e s : S c h o o l s o f M e d i c i n e and S u r g e r y " i n d i c a t e s t h e p r i v i l e g e d e d u c a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h m e n t C o l l e g e s compared w i t h t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C o l l e g e s . B-E S T A B L I S H E D C H V i l C I T . ] S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . 119 Krrr.KSixsnCAL D I V I S I O N - ? . — T h e a r r a n g e m e n t s a d o p t e d b y t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h , t h e I t o m a n C a t h o l i c s , F r c s b y t c r b a s s , a n d o t h e r D i s s e n t e r s , are. g i v e n u n d e r t h e h e a d E C C L E S I A S T I C A L D I I U - X T O R Y . T h e n u m b e r s i n . the p r i n c i p a l r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n ? , as a s c e r t a i n e d b y t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n I n }'>>'ri) w e r e — • N u m l v t . r r v j v . r l V n f 10L',OOJ. I N i i m r - r . P f v p ^ r t i m Vi ieC',000. F,etaWtsho(l C h u r c h , 8 5 2 , O G i 10.7*5 I ' r e s b v t r r b n s , . G42,3oC S,0S0 K o m a u C a t h o l i c s , . G , 4 2 7 , T i 2 80,913 | O t h e r ' D b i c n t e r s . 21,SOS 0,276 K^TMU - i s a r . n C i p j l t t i i . — P r e v i o u s l y to t h e C h u r c h T e m p o r a l i t i e s A c t , 3 & 4 " W m . I V . , c a p . 3 7 , t h e c o u n t r y was d i v i d e d tor I'>cIe>tu>tic;U p u r p o s e s i n t o F o u r A r e h h M i n p r i o , n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h t l i e F o u r C i v i l P r o v i n c e ? , b n t t a k i n g t h e i r n a m e s f r o m t h e c i t y w h i c h w a s t h e seat oi ' the S e e . B y t h a t A c t t h e A r c h h i s h o p r i c s o f C a s h e l a n d T u a m irerc- r e d u c e d t o B i s h o p r i e s , a n d the, w h o l e o f I r e l a n d d i v i d e d i n t o T w o P r o v i n c e ? , h y a l i n e d r a w n f r o m t h e no-rib, o f D u b l i n c o u u t v to t h e ? o u t b o f G a h v a v b a v , a n d t h e B i s h o p r i c s w e r e r e d u c e d t o T e n ; t h e a l t e r a -t i o n b e i n g to h e m n d e p r o g r e s s i v e l y u n t h e d e m i s e o f t h e B i s h o p s w h o s e S e e s w e r e t o b e u n i t e d t o t h o s e a l l o w e d to r e m a i n . T h e B i s h o p r i c s , w i t h t h e i r i n c o m e s , w e r e c l a s s e d t h u s , a c c o r d i n g to t h e f o r m e r a r r a n g e m e n t : - — U L S T E R . A r m a g h , . J l n l h a n d Cfeasmacnoi.se, Cfcghcr , I>.->*yn a n d Comvjr , * B e r r y , . K a p l v j e , , K i h n o r e , D r o m o r e , . L E I N S T E R . £ 1 7 GTO ^ ' d ' l i n a n d G h m d e l a g h , 5,220 K i M n . r o , i n , » 7 i . Ossory , . . . . 5 890 ^ " c r n 3 a u d L e i g h l i n , . . 14,103 M U N S T E R . 5,787 C a s h e l a n d E m l y , 7,-178 L i m e r i c k , Ardt 'e r t , a n d A g h a d u e , 4,813 W a t e r font a n d L U m o r e , C o r k a n d R o s s , . . • £ 4 , 3 4 6 . £ f i . 3 2 1 C l n v n e , . . . • 5.009 . 0,452 K i f l a l o c a n d K i l f e i i o r a , . . 4,041 3,850 C 0 N X A U 6 H T . . 6,550 T u a m a n d A r d a g h , . . 8,206* i K l p h i n , . . . * 7,034: 7 - i r . ' C l o i i f e r t & K i i m a c d u a g h , . 3 ,261 5 \ m K i l l a l a a n d A e n e m y , . . 4 ,082 4,323 | T o t a l I n c o m e , £ 1 5 0 , 6 3 5 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C h u r c h T e m p o r a l i t i e s A c t , t h e D i o c e s e s a n d t h e i r I n c o m e s w i l l b e t h u s r e g u l a t e d : — NORTHERN" P R O V I N C E . A r m a g h \.-'iih C l o b b e r , M c a t h a n d C f o n m a e n o l s c , B e r r y a n d R s p h o c , D o w n a n d C«nm>r , a n d D r o m o r e , . . K d m o r e , A n k g h , a n d K l p h i n , T u a m , K i t t i b , a n d A c l i o n r y , ! • SOUTHERN* P R O V I N C E . , £ 1 2 , 0 ' 3 7 , B u h ] t n , O l a n d t l a g l i , a n d K i h k r e , . . , £ 7 , 7 8 6 4,008 O s s o r y , L e i g h l i n , a n d K e r n s , . . . . 4,200 8 . 0 0 0 ' C a s h e l , F h n j y , W a t n l o r d , a n d L i s i n o r c , . . 6 ,000 4,201 C o r k . C l o y n c , a n d B o s s , . . . « 2,408 , 6 , 2 5 3 ' K i H a l o c , K i H ' e n o r a , C l o n f e r t , a n d K i i m a c d u a g h , ; 3 ,870 4,600 j L i m e r i c k , A r d i e r t , a n d A g h a d o o , . . , 4,973 £ 3 0 , 2 1 2 ! £ 2 8 , 3 2 7 T h e t o t a l i n c o m c o f t h e t w o a r c h b i s h o p s , a n d o f t h e i r t e n s u f f r a g a n b i s h o p s / w i l l t h e n b e £ 6 7 , 5 3 . 9 , b e i n g a n a v e r a g e of £ 5 , 0 * 2 8 t o e a c h . T h e r e v e n u e s o f t h e s u p p r e s s e d b i s h o p r i c s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e o f s u s p e n d e d d i g n i t i e s a n d b e n e f i c e s , a n d d i s a p -p r o p r i a t e d t i d i e s , h a v e b e e n v e s t e d h y t h e C h u r c h T e m p o r a l i t i e s A c t i n t h e b o a r d o f E c c l e s i a s t i c a l C o m m i s s i o n e r s to be a p p l i e d b y t h e m to t h e e r e c t i o n a n d r e p a i r s o f c h u r c h e s , to t h e p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e c h u r c h e x p e n s e s w h i c h h a d b e e n d e f r a y e d b y v e s t r y r a t e s , a n d t o o t h e r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p u r p o s e s . T h e r e v e n u e s o f the bees a l r e a d y s u p p r e s s e d , w e r e , i n t h e y e a r s e n d i n g 1st A u g u s t , 1 8 4 5 , 10-16, a n d 1 8 4 7 — A r d a i h , . . . . etmfert and XBaiacdaa^h C^rk anJ KUSJJ . . . Kadarev^BaaistTy of Chris t C h . 18 IS. £2,MH 8 2 3,'il<> 7 7 4,0-1-; 1 5 e Z,7Bf> ID 1 6,180 1 10 18*0. £2,1-31 7 1(4 l,x23 11) nj 4,'<U 0 flj 4,.*)3*t 0 10 7,163 10 n i 18-17. 1 £2t9W H 0 Ki l la la and Achonry, . 1, VM 3 9 O ^ i r v , . . . . 2, W( 7 11 Knphoc, . . . . " " Wuterlord and Lisraore, 1845. 4,«73 0 6,C4!) 11 6,10!) 18 1846. 5,254 13 0{ 5,041 11 0 8,324 !o 1 7 2 4,'X 17 r 1847. S,9PS 5 H 2,218 1 3 4,Si4 6 II 3,377 12 5 2,006 1.1 JO I Total , £-10,160 11 1 £42,770 15 113 £32 ,038 5 B y t h e d e a t h o f t h e L o r d B i s h o p o f K i l d a r e , i n A u g u s t , 18-16, t h a t d i o c e s e w a s u n i t e d t o t h e A r c h b i s h o p r i c of D u b l i n , a n d t h e t e m p o r a l i t i e s , e s t i m a t e d a t £ 6 , 1 5 6 % . llrf. p e r a n n u m , a n n e x e d to t h e r e v e n u e s o f t h e E c c l e -s i a s t i c a l C o m m i s s i o n e r s . O n t h e d e m i s e o f t h e p r e s e n t b i s h o p o f C o g h c r t h e r e v e n u e s o f t h a t s e e , e s t i m a t e d &t £ 1 0 , 0 0 0 p e r a n n u m , w i l l f a l l i n t o t h e h a n d s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s ; a n d 011 t h e n e x t v o i d a n c c o f i h e sees o f A r m a g h a n d D e r r y , a f u r t h e r i n c o m e w i l l b e d e r i v e d o f £ 4 , 5 0 1 ) f r o m t h e f o r m e r , a n d £fy0Q p e r a n n u m f r o m t h e l a t t e r sec . T h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l C o m m i s s i o n e r s ' r e c e i p t a n d e x p e n d i t u r e f o r t h e y e a r s e n d i n g 1st A u g u s t , 1 8 4 6 a u d 1 8 4 7 , ' w e r e — RFCFIPT.-. 1BJ6. B»Tftnc« of G o ' r a l and Perpetuity Pur-eliase Fund, £0,4-n 15 P Sdpf.res^il - « * * : a . t e s . . . . 4^,770 15 11 Bo*r*iKlpd d%n^it3 and benefice!', and "tMappTopriai-il tHlle*, . . . . 20,7C.T 13 F « ! c s o f pcrj-rtoitti^, . . . . S,44i} 10 Prn^tvilty n«*t,Ag«*s j.fild o(T, . . . P,CtM 4 ( b a n ^ on Tkn; -Ttee, . . . . . 2,"(to o lax on bi.-diojurtea:,™! ttctieficea, . - £>,-l'':t 17 ^JVIf-houic Wvi n-pa) intnti . . . 4,»l'.i 12 li.t-irstoiiewr^ol^A pfrpcimtj mort^atfes, 3,1 71 4 ^aio <>r COTISOK . . . . . . 7,;o ,i o IMsatc suV.s<T^eim!^f'.rc!nirch purjxjje:, 3,'-*n <~, B»(b.x ; ik-irt-rj , f,ne, A c . , . ' " " " l'n'Tri'Te we hw*, Jtc, . >l(hln dittt, fair,\c.t hKidenUil K w r i f U , . I* M,'7& 14 H i 2\ 11,Wl 1 10 | l U ' q u i ^ u s for dh ine s l 'a \ incuts to bi : bop* of Cork and K i l -. £2*vV>8 13 35,017 S 7,-^ 41 14 e,:tli 11 4,070 I 7 I 2,CO0 0 237 18 Total, 83 10 10 £118,674 15 1 £10^,474 0 4J stipends to incumbents, curatns, vlcara rboi'at, and dioec^an srlioiilTaa^ter'', alari^s to cotmiilisluiiers, treasurer, ckrl.s, A c , Po)k'itt>rs and cleric, . . . . . Intorrst on balant-e of £ICO,000 to Board of PuUu- Woiks Fv] a>un nt ' TI ner-ount ofloan to ditto, . piireha e iT cons-oW, Minor uisl'un-oirK-nts, * L'ulaoce iti gcm_ral and perpetuity pur-cliase fund, . . . . . . 2^38 0 11 7,233 13 2 2,400 o 0 lO.O.ifl f> 0 1«,!<M 19 @ a,:^!5 e 44 «,779 14 U J r27,o-i3 6 n ar.,030 a 10 2,288 0 10 6/>20 Id 11 10,000 0 0 lifiii 0 10 1,77J 17 6 Total, £ l l s t C 7 4 13 I £10:<,474 T h e receipt? o f P r i m a t e B o u l t e r a n d R o b i n s o n ' s f u n d s w e r e , f o r t h e y e a r 18-17, £ 6 . 6 5 6 )4$. fid., e x c l u s i v e o f ft b a l a n c e f r o m 18-16 o f £ 1 , 7 8 3 7*. 1 M . ; e x p e n d i t u r e i n s t i r e n d s i n a u g i n e n t a t i o n o f s m a l l b e n e f i c e s , £ 4 , 2 G l 6s, ; p u i c h a s c of S j s t o c k , £ 1 ^ 6 1 Us. S V . ; l e a v i n g a b a l a n c e i n b a n d o f £ ' i , 7 1 7 5jf. It/. I h e a u n m l e x p e n s e s o f c h u r c h r e p a i r s s i n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l C o m m i s s i o n , i s — Ordinary. Extraordinary. 1831, . f 1,152 0 ,1 WM, . 8 C 477 10 8 IHV,, . . 6 2 . S I U 1 10 am 11 3 1S.17, . 15 3 1)70 17 7 18 .H, . . 61,200 10 0 1,131 0 0 1B39. . . 41..122 C 3 6,040 2 0 . » 7 , ( i ' J l 1 7 , N « 14 1 1841, . . 21,778 VI 4 2,047 10 8 E.\tr:.or Jiri.u-y. 1842, . . £ 2 5 , 1 5 7 1(1 8 £2,505 12 4 1813, . . 23.437 15 1 1,491 19 0 1641, . . 11,7114 1 2 435 10 11 1845, . . 14.018 7 4 320 8 5 184C, . . 15,402 0 8 830 1 4 1817, . . 17,100 6 5 031 3 11 £ 3 9 . 1 , " t S 5 7 7 £ 2 7 , 0 3 7 1 11 J20 S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . B - 3 . [ESTABLISHED CHUECU. The aggregate income at the disposal of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and their annual expenditure from their establishment in 11)33 to 1817, has been as follows : — Tears. 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1833, 1839, 1819, 1811, Receipts. Disbursement Years. Receipts. Disbursemen ts. £68 ,728 10 8 £51 .012 17 9 1842, . . £ 5 2 906 18 3 £96 .330 6 0 163,027 8 10 120.252 17 6 184.1, . . 110,916 2 4 90,630 11 1 131,015 3 1 168.292 9 5 1S44, . . 105,913 0 1 119,721 12 2 103.221 0 7 103,359 12 5 1845, . . 116,104 11 2 125,248 3 10 100.497 0 0 114.255 17 9 1816, . . 112,195 19 4J 111,894 0 ) i 1-33.100 9 2 119,827 6 1 1847, . . 96,094 11 5 97,658 7 10 139.263 14 115,723 9 10 9 110,426 19 103,331 19 4 8 £1 ,639 ,403 0 « f £1 ,633 ,870 1 51 The amount of tlio expenses of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and their official establishment, for ten year* to 1st August, 18-17, is given in their returns to Pa-rliamcnt as follows: — Years. 1833, 1839, 1840, Amount. [Years. . £1 1,034 10 101:1S41, . 13,040 2 10 '1342, . 14,205 0 OS, IS 13, Amount. i 5"ears. . £15 .217 11 101 ' 1341, . 13.272 15 0 1645, . 13,587 17 3f| Amount. £8 .023 1 7,723 19 Years: 1846, 1847, Amotmt. £ 8 , 0 1 0 13 3 8,184 4 0 The sales already made of perpetuities of church estates vested in tlio Commissioners have produced upwards of £575,9o 1 I C J . , including jt'rt'2,681 l i s . Id. in\ested in mortgagees ; the value of the whole perpetuities, if sold, is estimated at £1,200,OOU. The following arc the amounts received from sales in each year ended 31st July 1834 to 18-17, and to 31st M a y , 1818:— Years. Amount [ Years. Amount Years 1831, . . £ 2 , 3 6 5 d 2 |1838, . . £51 .514 18 10 IS 12, 1835, . 1836, . . 89,552 19 10.1 |1S39, . . 65,697 4 1 1843, . 88,480 11 5 1840, . . 30,927 5 4 1844, 1837, . . 61,443 11 0 1841, . . 33,139 10 11 1845, Amount. . £20 ,084 1 . 31,187 19 . 18,227 3 . 16,022 18 Tears. Amount. IS4G, . , £11 ,373 li 10 1847, . . 14,913 17 3£ 184S(to31 May}, 8,711 1 1 According to returns made to Parliament in the last ; ession, the number of applications made since 1836 for the enlargement of cburehes^too small for the congregation, the re-building of those decayed, and the erection of new churches, together with the manner in which these applications have been disposed of up to the present timers as in the following sta'ement, which specifies the numbers acceded to, postponed for want of funds, and negatived, as not being approved by the Commissioners : — Acceded to. Postponed. Enlargements, , 49 £-13 Rc-buildinga, . . . . . . . 118 35 Additional Churches, gg Total. 292 161 98—551 Of 24 churches in progress of re-building during last year, 11 have been completed; these, "with the name? of their respective dioceses are :—Dromore, Clogher ; Ardkeen, Dotvn ; Kehawley, JJromore ; Bal ly cuslane, A rdferl; Camew Ferns; Kilcommon, Killala ; Shanrahan, Llsmore ; K i lmurry , Cork; Tynagh, Clonfcrl; Kilmacrenan, Raphoc ; and Dmrmnully , Clogher. The sums contributed by private subscriptions in aid ofthe expense ofthe erections of some of these were, Dromore, £ 4 0 0 ; Carnew, £ 5 0 0 ; Shanrahan, £ 3 0 0 ; K i l m u r r y , £ ' 274 ; the P u k e of Devonshire, one of the subscribers towards the erection of the last-named church, has also provided an endowment for the incumbent. Clonsillagli Church, Dublin, has been re-built chiefly by a contribution of £1 ,700 from private sources. The EUTQ appropriated to church works for the last year has been appropriated as follows : — Completion or commencement of re-buildings, , , t . t £5,3-31 External painting, 2,000 Enclosing church fences, . 1,000 Erection of stoves and hells provided by the parishioners, -. 180 Necessary repairs, : 13",377—£21,888' The following churches have been erected solely by private contributions;—Sallaghy, Clogher; Altedesert, Drumnaki l ly , and Carlingford, Armagh. Tho fund'for augmentation purposes has been increased, 1st, by a bonus of £ 1 , 9 3 5 on the Bank of Ireland Stock, standing to the credit of Primate Boulter's bequest; "2nd, by the interest of £ 4 8 0 , being the amount of Turnpike Debentures lately paid of f : and 3rd, by £ 5 0 0 , accruing from tithes disappropriated and transferred to the Commissioners, by order ofthe Lord Lieutenant and council. Tho present state of the loan from the Board of Public. Works stands Urns Pa id off, £60 ,000 principal, and £37,107 interest; total paid, £97,107, amounting together to nearly the whole ofthe original loan ; and there st i l l remains d u e £40 ,000 of principal, together v i l l i an accumulation of interest proportionate to the period at the c W e of -which the debt w i l l be cleared off. B y tho returns of promotions and otherwise, it appears.that 14 dignities, 13 prebends, and Gl parochial benefices have become vacant during the year, of which '20 are liable to tax. 'Hie appointment of clerks has been suspended as to Clonmammse deanery, Afr-ifh, annual value, £ 7 4 , and Laekeen prebend, Ctogne, £"23. The cases of the archdeaconries of Ki l la la and Cloul'ert, to neither of winch the cure of souls appears to have been annexed, have been referred tn tho Lord Lieutenant and council. KitleneHek prebend, ICnilij, having become vacant, B a l l i n -fftrry rectory and Ballinloudry rectory and vicarage have been disappropriated from it , and formed into a separate enefice, value £ 4 0 0 , to be named Ballinloudry parish ; Galbarry vicarage a l o n e , value £ 4 7 5 , is to form the coTps of the prebend of Kil lei iel ick. Glanore, or C-Jianworth prebend b e i n g vacant, the parishes of Derrivillone, Ktlgidlane, ami Ballindehmghy, annual value £'2.'5. have been disappropriated from it , leaving (tlanworth parish alone, \alup £(i00, to constitute the corps of the prebend; the occasional duties of the disappropriated parishes t o bo committed to the incumbent of the adjoining parish at a modern to stipend. The proceedings respecting Chvhmore prebend, Lisntorc, annual uiluc £.'W, have been suspended, and a reference niadc to the diocesan m consequence of doubts ft* to its vacancy '•" " - ~r , i . i the rectories of Shankhil l , Kilma'-urnsi t h e residue of the emolument*, tramfcrreu u> me r . c c i e s i a ^ u e a i v _ o m u i ! t u r n e r s , ami the appointment of a c l e r k authorized, subject to the severance o f it* emoluments. Capilanc, or Whitechurch rectory, Utsori/, being vacant, its case has- been referred to tbe Lord Lieutenant and council, whose determination has not yet been announced. Divine service not hnvitnr boon celebrated for tin- three years preceding February, 1033, in Kilbrodcran parish, JJmrrick, art. " i i value £17-' , the appointment of a clerk has been suspended, and ihc occasional duties committed to the curate of the adjoining parish. •y. The revenues of the precento^hip of K l p h m have V o n disappropriated; soy, and ( reeve, annual value £ 104, annexed to their respective vicarages • er d to th  K l vti l Commwioners. nd   r-WVB R . C J I S H . & WIESBYTEIIIAXCII-JIICIIES.] S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . 123 _ J t : o ? j , i N _ C A T U O L i c CHURCH.—The Roman Catholic Hierarchy consists of four Archbishops, 'whoso Sees are i a A r m a g h , Dubl in , Cashef^ud Tuam, and 23 Bishops; the present See of {-Jalway having been, unt i l lately, au exempt jurisdiction under a Warden. The Bishops are nominated by the Pope, generally out of a list of names submitted t" him by the Bithops of the Province and the Clergy of the vacant Diocese. In case of expected incafcfecily from age or infirmity, the IJiahop names a coadjutor, who is usually confivmed by the Pope. Every Diocese has a Dean and an Archdeacon, the former appointed by the Cardinal Protector at Rome, tha latter by the Bishop ; hut those dignities are without jurisdiction or emolument. .The^yhole of the Clergy aro 5JiC£^t^^L^iL e 'y by the voluntary contributions of their flocks. The Episcopal emoluments arise from the parish ii, «riiich~Ihe Bishop o(1Iaate?7Troin m a m age 1 i c ences7 andTro in the cathedmtteum, an annual sum varying from £'2 to £.10, paid hy each lucumheut in tho Diocese. Tlic parochial Clergy, whose number in 184) was 2,145, are ttsuninated exclusively by tlic Bishop. Their incomes arise from fees on marriages, baptisms, and deaths, on Easier and Christmas dues, and from incidental voluntary contributions! either in money or labour. A l l the places of public wm.-hip are built bv subscriptions. There are numerous monasteries and convents; the latter arc supported partly by sum?, usually from £3U0 to £ 5 0 0 , paid by those who take the vows in them, and partly by the ices for the education of the daughters of respectable Roman Catholics. The Friars and Nuns also devote themselves to the gratuitous education of the children of the poor. The candidates for clerical ordina-tion were formerlv under the necessity of obtaining their education in continental colleges and seminaries, but are now educated at fiome ; the principal clerical colleges are those of St. Patrick, Maynuoth, supported by grants of public money and by pensions from the students, and Carlow and St. Jarlath's, Tinini, by voluntary contributions. PBSSBYTEKIAN CHURCH.—The Presbyterians, who are found chiefly in Ulster, are formed into Congregations, each of which is under the ecclesiastical government of a court called a Session, consisting of the Minister and Elders of the Congregation. A.n iudeliiiite number of the Ministers of these Congregations, with a Lay Elder for fcach, constitutes a Presbytery, -which has the charge of the Congregations represented in i t . Delegates from each of these Presbyteries, consisting of all the Ministers, with a Lay Elder for each, constitute the General Assembly, which is presided over by a Moderator chosen annually, and regulates the Ecclesiastical concerns of the Body. The first Presbytery in Ireland was formed at Carrickfcrgus in "1642, and gave rise to the Synod of Uisicr. The Presbyterian Synod of Afuns/cr was formed about 16U0. The Presbytery of Antrim separated fromi the Synod of Ulster in 1727, and the Jian oust rant Synod in 1820. A number of Seceders formed them-selves into the Secession Synod of Ireland about 1780. Previously to 1840 tbe number of Presbyteries and - Congregations in each of these Bodies was— PreEb. Congrcg. Presbyterian Synod of Munstcr, 2 15 Presbytery of Antrim, . X 13 Presb. Congreg. Goaecal Synod of Ulster, , . 2-1 275 Secession Synod, . . « . 1 0 132 Remonstrant Synod, . ' . . 4 27 Is* 1840 the General and Secession Synods having united, assumed the name of the General Assembly of the Pre&*ftcrian Church hi Ireland^ comprising 433 Congregations, which were arranged under 'do Presbyteries. Another body, unconnected with the union, is the Uefonned Presbyterian Synod of Ireland, consisting in 1841 of 4 Presbyteries and 25 Congregations. The total number of Presbyterians in 1834 was 642,356. The Ministers are supported by voluntary contributions, the rents of seats or pews, and the Pefum Donum, or Royal Gif t , first granS-ed in 167- by Charles II . , who gave £ 6 0 0 of " secret service money" to be distributed in equal portions aruwBg them annually. The grant was discontinued towards the close of his reign and during that of James I I . , but was renewed by "William I I I . , who augmented it to £1,200 a year. In 1784 the amount was increased to £2,£!(d0; in 17^2 to £ 5 , 0 0 0 ; and in 1803 a classification was made according to the number of families in each Congregation and the amount of the Minister's voluntary stipend, by which those of the 1st class received £ 1 0 0 animal ly ; of the 2nd, £ 7 5 ; and of the 3rd, £ 5 0 . In 1831 the system of classification was altered, and 62 mittfeters now receive £ 1 0 0 each, and 423 £ 7 5 each per annum, late Irish currency. As the 62 ministers in the £I®0 class die, their successors w i l l only receive £ 7 5 each. The total grant for non-conforming and other mmisiers in Ireland, for the year ending 31st March, 1848, was £36,837. Mttemonstrant Synod of Ulster.—This Presbyterian Synod was formed in May, 1830, in consequence of tho sepssiation of seventeen Ministers, with their Congregations, from the General Synod of Ulster, on the ground tltaf,-contrary to its usages and code of discipline, it required from its members in 1827 and 1028, submission to certain doctrinal tests and overtures of human invention. Since the formation of the Remonstrant Synod, twelve congregations have been added to its numbers. United Prcsbyt'-ry or Synod of A/m/s/rr.—This Body was formed in the year 1809 by tiie junction of tbe Socrttlit-rn Presbytery of Dublin with the Presbytery of Minister, and is one of the three non-subscribing Pres-byterta.ri Bodies*of Ireland, the other two being tbe Pre;>b\tery of Antr im and tho Remonstrant Synod of Ulster. A few years ago these three Bodies united to form tho u General Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Association of Tit land, '" for the promotion of their common principles, the right of private judgment, and non-sub$cription to anze&s and confessions of faith. The General Association meets triennially for these objects, while the three BCKECS of which it is composed retain their respective names and independent existence, being governed by their own rules and regulations. Tbe nort lum Presbyterians are descendants of the Scotch settlers in Ulster, while the two Presbyteries now merged i n the Synod of Minister derive their origin from English Presbyterians who Bottled in Dublin and the south* of Ireland during the Protectorate of Cromwell . METHODIST CHURCH.—The Methodist body was founded by the Rev. John Wesley, i n 1/39. The ministers are itinerant, three years being the longest period they can remain in one place. Two are generally appointed to a Citxuity which comprises several Congregations; and they a r e assisted by lay preachers, leaders, and prayer leaser?. Out of these is formed the leaders1* meeting, at which the ministers attend, one of them, called tho Supi-rintniJaitf, presiding; and this board, which meets weekly, manages the afhurs of tho circuit. A number of circuits forms & J)i/trict. The (,'o/fvrrnce, composed exclusively of ministers, meets annually, and is tha s u p r e m e court ; but all financial matters a r e arranged by committees, one-half of each being .laymen. A Theo-logical Institution, having brandies at Richmond a n d Didsbury, in England, has lately b e e n established for tho c d K o i t i o n of candidates for tho ministry, a proportionate number being admitted from Ireland. The Weslcyau hody i n the United Kingdom forms one connexion, the President of the British Conference being also President rBBsainder.—» T h o Marquw of Downshiro (exclusive o f his m i l ^ m p t i o i i tn ihe general fund) contributes £ 1 0 : the trustees of rtw- E a r l r>f . A n n o s l r y , £ 1 0 ; L o r d C K n w i l l u u n , IT) ; R u b e r t U n i t , esq. . £-">; H o n . U e n c n t l M c a d c , £ 2 10*. ; tlic I n c u m b e n t f itttributr* tlic i c m a i m l ' o r ' T h e im-uiuhoiit pa) N thr r e m a i n d e r (.('the s t i p e n d . — h T h e trustee.! o f Evans" Fund h i v e h i t h e r t o e o n t r i l i i i t n l i l T i In a d d i t i o n , a m i tho i n c u m b e n t I'10.— 1 T h e inaimhrnt of K i l e n t h e e r i n c o n t r i b u t e s £ ' 2 f t ; o f K o n mare, £ ."5; am! J l r c h d e a r o u Foster , £ 5 a \ e a r . — k T h e b i s h o p of C l n p h e r appropr ia tes £ ' 2 5 o f hjs s u b s c r i p t i o n ; tho H o a r d o f T r i n i t y CoBe.gr subscribes £ 2 0 ; stud the K a r l of Emu £ 5 , to cum pie to tho s a l a r y — 1 £ ^ 0 a d d e d by tho Board of T r i n i t y C o l l e g e 124 . S T A T I S T I C S O F I R E L A N D . [ J U D I C I A L DIVISIONS. of the Irish one. Total number of ministers, including superannuated and supernumerary ministers, in Irc-Und is 16*2; total number of members, 27,546. The number of ministers in Great Br i ta in is 1,171; of men.d<-rs' 341,460. The number of ministers"dn foreign stations, 16*2, members, 100,050 ; making a total, under tbc care of the British and Irish Conferences, of 46^064. BAPTIST CHURCH-.—Baptist congregations were founded in D u b l i n and Some other parts bf the country about the years 1650-3. But as they gradually declined in influence and in active exertion, a society was fohni-'d ia London in 1814, t c t o emp'loy itinerants in Ireland, to establish schools, aiid to distribute Bibles and trau< gratuitously, or at reduced prices." A s the result of its labours, many of the churches mentioned in the List i j the ECCLESIASTICAL DIRECTORY, have been founded, and several thousands of children have been educated. AS present, upwards of 2,000 children are on its school rolls. The following Parliamentary Return gives the amount of the grants of public money for the support of all religious denominations in the United Kingdom, and for the building and repairing of churches and chapels, fur each year from 1830 to 1844, inclusive : — Tear*. Church 'of England. Churcl- of Scctlniid. 6s. ASTS IN J -.k I P tb or TVntfstaiit Dlsicnlers, Engl And. Protectant Di.-icnleM, Ireland. Expenses of UuilOlQEr and Repairing of Cburchc3 tad Chapels, Including Dmv.-baci of Duty <>u Materials uMtL Englned. j Scotland, j Ireland. Amount re-«tved t>y Church Building1 Commissioners tfcc Amount or Arrraji W Tkh«, Kai under Titlit 112-lion.tnd c i 'W Acts furiht r.tjjf of Iht Ckrjy loimlicd. £ 1. •A. £ 1. tt. £ £ t. d. £ *. d. £ S. d. £ t. d. £ i. d. £ t. d. / l.d. 1830, 230 9 0 24;365 1 s 8,928 1J783 14 0 20,931 6 3 2$~,400 10 7 15,526 0 2 — 6,960 O 2 1831, 230 8 0 22,290 6 9 8,028 1,783 14 0 21,793 13 1 1 16,903 14 10 3,762 0 0 — 4,965 8 0 _ 1832, 135 14 0 22,939 15 11 8,928 1,783 14 b 2-f ,:'90 7 3 18,103 4 6 1,859 11 U 3,190 15 5 1833, 135 14 0 23;432 19 10 8,923 ] ,7«3 14 0 24,025 18 2 PJ502 9 1 1,599 14 9 877 7 8 4,266 7 9 J- 33,493 13 1 lH34 ( 133 14 0 22, .95 17 2 8,023 1,783 1-1 0 24,653 8 13 2 13,113 14 2 3,804 3 f) — 4,960 12 4 657,fC9 13 10 1835, 439 18 0 23,'!75 n 11 8,9-'a 1,913 2 9 25,223 10 7,299 17 0 2,390 I! 10 ,— 3,484 11 6 6,412 13 0 1836, 208 2 8 22,453 I 0 8,928 1,7«3 3 a 25,527 6 6 7,347 9 1 2,674 16 3 3,540 18 1 312 o f 1837, 203 19 0 23,594 15 1 11,100 l,H-;2 0 e 25,-180 16 3 10,130 5 2 4,823 19 3 — 4,141 5 6 — 1838, 2"8 19 0 23;GI8 12 4 8,923 1,8'"2 9 6 29,521 13 0 12,537 5 6 6,410 5 7 — 3,809" 14 5 — 1X39, "OO 14 0 23,050 0 7 8,928 1,»02 9 0 31,552 2 1 15,2; 18 2 9 6,733 9 7 4,311 1 10 170,225 H J 1340, 208 4 3 23,908 18 e 8,928 l/li}2 9 0 30,71:0 12 5 2<i,l6t 13 7 5,593 10 4 — 3;440 5 5 83,485 1 1 1B-11, 200 14 0 22,700 4 i 8,023 1,362 9 0 36,436 15 D 10,579 6 8 3,927 16 6 — 4,092 2 3 6,047 U * 18-12, 18-1 4 0 23,8ID 15 2 8,9^8 1,862 9 6 35,15** 4 2 19,266 17 7 4,296 0 5 — 3,460 9 3 l/?-M 5 1 1843, 134 4 0 23,03:1 U 8 8,928 1,882 9 6 34,08'J 17 3 10,274 19 4 2//50 1 2 — 3,039 4 2 10* 19 0 tC44, 1,529 -4 0 2-1,283 17 11 8,928 1,882 9 0 34,629 10 16,019 14 3 633 9' 3 — 1,952 12 8 120 S 1 Tola!, 4,411 3 2 3-19,908 10 9 133,152 27J5U 12 3 424,261 1 0 220,953 i 0 65,791 6 9 277 7 9 59,665 8 a 957;4S6 13 7 197 INDEX. Aberdeen, E a r l of ( B r i t i s h Foreign Secretary), 59 (n.142), 99 (n.265) A b o l i t i o n i s t s — see Slavery. Absentees (see also Landlord c lass ) , 17 (n.26), 28 (n.52). Academic freedom, 135 (n.378). Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l , 109, 130-143, 147 ( n.iflS), 154-Acqui t ta l of O'Connell , 74-76. Act of Settlement (1703), 98. Act of Union (1800), 1, 16, 31, 36f. (n.78), 45, 52(n. 120, 121), 122 (n. 343), 151, 182. Administrative f a i l u r e (Brit ish) i n Ireland, 17 (n. 25, 26), 60, 64, 94f-, 147 f . (*. 422, 423). Administrative reform, 37-39, 152. Agricul ture , 181-185* See also Corn Laws, Exports, Imports, Land, Potato crop, Tenants. Promotion of , 124(n.348). Almanac - see Thorn1s I r i s h Almanac. Anglican Church - see Established Church. Annual Register . 119 (n.332). A n t i - G a l l i c a n teaching, 125 (n»350). Anti-Jacobinism, 8. Anti-Maynooth Committee, 120, 126. Anti-Popery, 46 (n.103), 104 (n.285), 118 (n.329), 120 (n.335), 125 (n.350). " A n t i - P r i e s t " party, 90 (n.237), 142 (n.405). Appellate Tribunal (House of Lords), 74-76. Archbishops (Catholic or Protestant) — see Armagh, Cashel, Dublin, Tuam. Aristocracy ( I r i s h ) , 44, 82 (n.216), 131. See also Gentry. Armagh, Catholic archbishop of - see C r o l l y , Will iam. Armagh, Protestant archbishop of, 87*" Arms Act (Ireland), 1843, 30. Ascendancy (Protestant) i n Ireland, 16, 25, 27, 31, 90f. (n.238), 92f. (n.244), 112 (n.309), 113 (n.312), 136 (n.384), 138. Assimilat ion , c u l t u r a l , 137 (n.388), 143 (n.407), 151-153. Attorney General ( in 1800), quoted by O'Connell , 70 (n.178). Attorney General ( i n 1844), 58 (n. 140), 59 (n. 142), 72 (n.184). See also T. B. C . Smith. Austrian Court, 98 (n.264). Austrian troops, 98 (n.263). B a r t l e t t , Christopher John, Great B r i t a i n and Sea Power. c i t e d , 3 (n.2), 6 (n.7, 8). Beaumont, Lord, 124f. (n. 348, 350). Belfast , 107 (n.295), 126f. (n.356). Belgian revolutionaries , 55 (n. 131). Belgium, King of ( le t ter from Queen V i c t o r i a ) , 56 (n.135). 198 INDEX. Benson, Arthur, e d . , Letters of Queen V i c t o r i a , c i t e d , 54 (n.127), 56f. (n. 135-138). Bentham, Jeremy, 38 (n.82), 39 (n. 84). Benthamites, 36. Bequests Act (and Board) - see Charitable Bequests Act . Bessborough (Lord), John William Ponsonby, Viceroy i n Ireland, 56 (n.136), 59 (n.142). Bettenson, Henry, e d . , Documents of the C h r i s t i a n Church. citied, 135 (n.378). B i l l of Rights (1688), 98f. B i l l s - see Academical Ins t i tu t ions , Charitable Bequests, Maynooth Grant. Birmingham P o l i t i c a l Union, 48 (n.108). Bishops, Catholic - see B e l f a s t ; Dromore; Hal i fax , Nova Scotia ; K i l d a r e ; K i l l a l o e j ^eath. Bishops, nomination of, 42 (n. 90-92). Black, R. D. C o l l i n s o n , fironomic Thought and the I r i s h Question, c i t e d , 15 (n . 22) . Blackwood Magazine (Edinburgh), c i t e d , 46 (n.103). Blake, Dr. (Bishop of Dromore), l e t t e r from O'Connell , 149 (n. 426). Boards - see Bequests, Congested D i s t r i c t s ; Colleges; Education, National ; Higher Education; Maynooth; Trade. Bowring, John, e d . , Works of Bentham. c i t e d , 39 (n.84). Bribery, 153* Broderick, John F . , Holy See, c i t e d , 54 (n.126), 73 (n.186), 85 (n.224), 98 (n.263), 100f. (n.267-271, 273), 102f. (n.278-281), 104f. (n. 284, 286-288). Brougham, Lord (Lord Chancellor of England), 64 (n.158). Buckingham Palace, 56 (n.136), 110 (n.302). Bulwer, Mr. ( le t ter from Peel) , 132 (n.367), 136 (n.382). Burke, Edmund, 45 (n.101). Butt , Isaac, 81 (n.212, 213). Byron, Lord, quoted, x i . Cabinet (Peel ' s ) , mediocrity of, 115f. (n. 318). Canning, George, 45 (n.101). C a n t r e l l , D r . , Bishop of Meath, ( le t ter from O'Connell) , 99 (n.265) Cardinals - see Cul len ; Fransoni. Cartoon of O'Connell i n State Coach, 73 (n.187). Cashel, Catholic Archbishop of - see Slat tery , Michael. Cashel, Protestant Bishop of, 122 (n.341, 343). Castle Administration (Dublin), 23f., 25f. (n.43, 45), 59 (n.142), 65, 79, 90 (n.236). Catholic Association (Irish) of 1828, 48. Catholic Church ( I r ish) , 7, 40 (n.87), 41f., 44 (n. 97, 98), 62 (n.152), 84 (n.221, 22E), 89 (n.231-235), 152, 194-196 Catholic H i s t o r i c a l Review, c i t e d , 42 (n.90). 199 INDEX. Catholic P a c i f i c a t i o n Plan (1844), 132. Catholic Party (of O'Connell) , 1, 84 (n.221, 222). See also MacHale, Party of; Repeal Party. Catholic Question - see Question, Cathol i c . Catholic R e l i e f Act (1829), 95*. (n.255), 104 (n.284). Catholic Repeal Party - see Repeal Party. Cathol ics , Engl ish , 102 (n.276). Charitable Bequests Act (1844), 85-96, 97, 131. Charitable Bequests Board, 87, 102 (n.275), 107 (n.293, 294). Chartism, Chart is ts , 5, 49 (n.110, 111). Chesham Place, 56 (n.137). Chief Secretaries to Ireland - see Bessborough (John William Ponsonby); E l i o t ; Heytesbury; Peel ; Stanley. Church History , c i t e d , 41 (n.89)• Church of England - see Established Church. Church of Ireland - see Established Church. C i v i l disobedience, 51 (n.117). Clarendon, E a r l of ( le t ter to Lord deGrey), 57 (n.138). Clergy, Catholic - (see also Bishops), 63 (n.155), 28, 85-109; divided on Repeal, 100 (n.271); 123f. (n.344, 348), 131, 133, 146 (n.416), 166. Clontarf meeting (1843), 92. Coach of Lord Mayor of Dublin, 73 (n.185-187). Cobbett, Will iam, I8f. (n.31). Coercion, (pol icy ) , 60f., 151, 153. Colleges B i l l - see Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l . Collegiate Question, 88 (n.229). (see also Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l . Colonial Secretary - see Stanley, Lord. Commerce -(see also Exports, Imports), 181-188. Commercialism - see L a i s s e z - f a i r e . Committees on the I r i s h Poor, 12 (n.19). C o n c i l i a t i o n - see also Maynooth Grant, 128 (n.362); see also Young Ireland, 149 (n.426), 154. Congested D i s t r i c t s Boards, 27. Connaught (Province i n Ireland), 43, 89 (n.234). Conservative Catholic opinion i n Ireland, 61 f . Conservative Party - see Tory Party. Conspiracy - see Treasonable conspiracy. Constabulary, I r i s h , 4« Consti tution, 37 (n.81), 40 (n.86), 51 f . (n.121), 69 (n.175), 70, 98f. Cooper, Thompson, c i t e d , 43 (n.95)« Corcoran, T . , c i t e d , 134 (n.373)• Cork (harbour), 5 (n.5). Corn Laws, 10, 19 , (n.3i), 108 (n.299), 112f.(n.307-309), 114 (n.314), 181. See also, - Foster. Cornwallis , Lord, quoted, x i . Corporation of Dublin - see Dublin. Costigan, Giovanni, Makers of Modern England, c i ted , 38 (n.82). 200 INDEX. "Country" party, 112 (n.308, 309), 114 (n.314), 115 (n.318). See also - Plantat ions. Crime, 30 (n.62). Croker, (Mr.) , l e t t e r from Graham, 112 (n.308), 114 (n.314), 115 (n.318). C r o l l y , William (Catholic Archbishop of Armagh), 43 (n.95), 44, 101 (n.274), 105 (n.286), 10? (n,294). Crown - see Queen. C u l l e n , Paul (Cardinal) , 101f. (n.275); l e t t e r from Dr. Walsh, 105 (n.287); l e t t e r from Dr. MacHale, 107 (n.296). C u r t i s , Edmund, History of Tr-elflnd. c i t e d , 10 (n.17), 20 (n.34), 53 (n.123). Cusack, M. F . . Speeches and Public Letters , c i t e d , 23 (n.40), 28 (n.52), 30 (n.61), 31 (n.64), 127 (n.358), 134 (n.374), 136 (n.385), 140 (n.396), 145 (n. 413, 414), 146f^n.4l6-4l8), 149 (n.426). Darrynane, County Kerry, 33f. (n.71), 94 (n.249). Daunt, W. O ' N e i l l ( le t ter from O'Connell) , 83 (n.219), 104 (n.282). Davis, Thomas, 90 (n.237), 91-93 (n.244), 94 (n.249), 135 (n.380, 381), 142-144 (n.405-411). Defence of B r i t a i n , 2-6. See also - Invasion threats; French navy. Denman, Lord (Chief Just ice) , 75 (n.193), 76f. (n.195-198). Denvir (Dr . ) , Bishop of Belfas t , 107 (n.295). DeValera, Eamon, 168. Devon, Lord, 30. Devon Report of 1845, 21. Dictionary o£ National Biography (DNB), c i ted , 42 (n.92), 43 (n.95). Dingle, County Kerry, 123 (n.344). Dissenters, 118 (n.329), 119 (n.334), 121 (n.337), 195f. Donegal, County, 43 (n.93). Douai (college) , 35 (n.74). Doubleday, Thomas, P o l i t i c a l L i f e of S i r Robert Peel . c i t e d , 59 (n.142). Doyle, ( J . K. L. ) John Warren, Bishop of Ki ldare , 11, 95 (n.255). Dromore, Bishop of - see Blake. Drummond, Thomas, 24. Dublin, 37 (n.79), 49 (n.111), 53 (n.135), 94 (n.250), 4 (n.4), 104 (n.284). Dublin Castle - see Castle Administration. Dublin, Catholic Archbishop of, - see Murray, Daniel . Dublin, Protestant Archbishop of, - see Whately, Richard. Dublin Evening Post, c i ted , 54 (n.130), 105 (n.286). Dublin Review, c i t e d , 49 (n.111, 112), 94 (n.249). 201 INDEX. Dublin Universi ty - see T r i n i t y College, Dublin. Dublin Universi ty Magazine, c i t e d , 32 (n.66), 45 (n.101, 102), 47(n.104), 92f .(n.244), 135 (n.381). Duchess of Kent - see Kent, Duchess of . Duffy, Charles Gavan, editor of The Nation; Young Ireland, c i ted , 62 (n.152, 153), 65 (n.160), 67 (n.167), 68 (n.170, 171), 78 (n.202), 83 (n.218, 219), 91-94 (n.238-240, 242-246), 94(n.2492, 97 (n.259), 99 (n.265, 266), 104 (n.282, 283), 128 (n.360), 135 (n.380), 143-145 (n. 406, 408-410, 412), 148 (.424). Easton, D . , c i t e d , 51 (n.117). \ Economic trends i n Ireland, 9-16 (n.16-24), 181-196. See also Corn Laws, Exports, F i s c a l p o l i c i e s , Free Trade, Labour, L a i s s e z - f a i r e , Land reform, Imports, Mercantilism, Migration, Taxation, Tenants, Trade. Edinburgh (Scotland) per iodicals - see Blackwood: T a i t ' s . Education, Board of National , 27. Education, Higher - see Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l ; Maynooth Grant. Education, National System of (1831), 27, 137 (n.388). Edwards, R. Dudley, e d . , The Great Famine, c i t e d , §2 (n.243). Elec tora l s t a t i s t i c s , 21 f . (n.39)» Elec tora l system - see Franchise. E l i o t , Lord ( I r i sh Chief Secretary), 24, 59 (n.142). Letters : from S i r James Graham, 29 (n.57), 60 (N.145), 63 (n.155); to Graham, 67 (n.168); from S i r Robert Peel , 25 (n.44). Elizabeth I , (Queen 1558), 98. Ellenborough, Lord (President of Board of Control) , 59 (n.142). E l y , Lord, 17. Emancipation, Catholic (1829), 45, 47 (n.104), 95, 101. Empire, 2. (•82 Club), 79f. (n.204, 205). English H i s t o r i c a l Review, c i ted , 42 (n.91)« Equity i n English law, 65, 68, 70. Established Church, 22, 25 (n.43), 39 (n.84), 40 (n.87, 88), 41 87 (n.228), 94 (n.25D, 107 (n.300), 110 (n.302), 118 (n.329), 139 (n.395), 192-196. Eversley (Baron) - see Lefevre, George John Shaw. E v i c t i o n of peasants, 15. Examiner (London), c i t e d , 67 (n.166), 79 (n.205). Exports to B r i t a i n , 112f.(n.307-309), 181-185. 202 INDEX. Famine, % (n.137), 57 (n.138), 107-109 (n.297-301), 124 (n.348), 145f.(n.413, 417), 147f.(n.422, 423), 155-Federal Parliament Scheme, 78 (n.202), 80-83 (n.207-213, 217), 108 (n.301). Ferguson, H . , c i t e d , 48 (n.108). F i s c a l p o l i c i e s , 51 (n.118), 189-191. F i t z p a t r i c k , P. ( le t ters from O'Connell) , 54 (n.128), 78 (n.201), 90 (n.236), 101 (n.274), 140 (n.398). F i t z p a t r i c k , William John, e d . , Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell . the Liberator , c i t e d , 7 (n.10), 51 (n.119), 54 (n.128-130), 61 (n. 147), 66 (n.164), 74 (n.188), 76 (n.195), 77 (n. 198), 78f. (n.201, 203), 80 (n.208, 209), 82f. (n.217, 219). 88 (n.230), 90 (n.236), 101 (n.273, 274), 108 (n.301), 140 (n.398), 149 (n.425). , Correspondence of Dr. Doyle. c i t e d , 11 (n.18), 96 (n.255-257), 118 (n.328). Florence, I t a l y — B r i t i s h legation at, 99 (n.265, 266). Foreign Secretary (Bri t ish) - see Aberdeen, E a r l of . Foster, John, 17(n.25). Foster 's Corn Laws (1784), 10, 17(n.25). Franchise, 20f. (n.34-36). See also - E lec tora l system. 124 (n.348). Fransoni (Cardinal) , l e t t e r from MacHale, 89 (n.232), 103 (n.280). Fraser 's Magazine, c i t e d , 95 (n.253, 254), 116 (n.319). Free Trade, 82 (n.216), 114 (n.313), 129 (n.363)• Freemantle, T. (Chief Secretary to Ireland from 1845), 59 (n.142). French army, Irishmen i n , 62. French, Arthur (Secretary of Repeal Association) , l e t t e r s from O'Connell , 54 (n. 129), 80 (n.208, 209). French m i l i t a r y a i d , 62. French navy, 6 (n.7), 62. French Revolution, 34. Gaelic Catholic aristocracy, x. Gaelic t r a d i t i o n , 138. Gaelic translations (by MacHale), 141 (n.399). Gentry ( I r i sh) , 46 (n.102), 64, 82 (n.216), 166. See also - Aristocracy. Gibra l ta r , 2. G i l b e r t , John Thomas, c i ted , 43 (n.95). Gladstone, William Ewart (Vice-President of Board of Trade), 57 (n.139), 59 (n.142); resigned over Maynooth Grant, 116 (n.319); 102 (n.277), l e t t e r to Peel , 112 (n.308), 114 (n.314); assessment of O'Connell , 155f- (n. 148); a Peel i te , 155f. "Glorious Revolution"of 1688 - see Revolution. "Government" party i n Catholic clergy, 100 (n.271). Graham, A. H . , c i t e d , 51 (n.119). 203 INDEX. Graham, S i r James ( B r i t i s h Home Secretary), 7 (n.11), 24, 59 (n.142), 116 (n.319); upholds acqui t ta l of Daniel O'Connell , 75 (n.191). Let ters : to Mr. Croker, 112 (n.308), 114 (n.314), 115 (n.318); to Lord DeGrey, 3 (n.2); from Lord E l i o t , 67 (n.168); to Lord E l i o t , 29 (n.57), 60 (n.145), 63 (n.155); to Lord Heytesbury, 67 (n.167), 75 (n.193, 194), 87f. (n.227, 229), 130 (n.366), 132 (n.368), 133 (n.370, 372), 134 (n.377), 136 (n.382), 139 (n.395); from S i r Robert Peel , 25 (n.44), 63 (n.156), 97 (n.261); to S i r Robert Peel , 41 (n.89), 60f. (n.146, 15D, 89 (n.231), 97f. (n.260, 262), 114 (n.313), 121 (n.336), 133 (n.371); to Lord Stanley, 4f. (n. 4, 6), 6 (n.9), 29 (n.57, 30 (n.60), 74 (n. 190); from Duke of Wellington, 7 (n. 11), 113 (n.311, 312), 115 (n.316); to Duke of Wellington, 29 (n.58), 63 (n.154). Grattan, Henry, 32, 79 (n.204). G r e v i l l e , Charles F . , G r e v i l l e Memoirs, c i t e d , 24 (n.41), 26 (n.45), 31 (n.63), 42 (n.9D, 65f. (n.162, 163), 68 (n.17D, 75 (n.192), 77 (n.199), 82 (n.215), 116 (n.319), 129 (n.363). Grey, George - see DeGrey, Lord. Greene, Richard Wilson ( S o l i c i t o r General, 59 (n.142). Guizot, Francois (French Premier), 3. Gwynn, Denis R . , c i t e d , 90 (n.237), 91 (n.24D, 142(n.405). , Daniel O'Connell . the I r i s h Liberator , c i t e d , v i i , 92 (n.243). , Thomas Francis Meagher, c i t e d , 93 (n.237), 148 (n.424). Hali fax , Nova Scotia (Bishop o f ) , 105 (n.287). Hammond, John Lawrence LeBreton, Gladstone and the I r i s h Nation, c i t e d , 57 (n.139). Hansard• ( B r i t i s h Parliamentary Debates), c i t e d , 6f. (n.7, 12), 26 (n.46), 29 (n.59), 47 (n.105, 106), 49 (n.110), 60 (n.143), 77 (n.200), 87 (n.227), 115 (n.315), 119 (n.331), 121 (n.339), 122f. (n.340-345), 124f. (n.348, 350), 126 (n.354). Healy, J . , Maynooth College; Its Centenary History, c i ted , 116 (n.322). Heytesbury, Lord (Lord Lieutenant to Ireland, 1844-1846), 3, 24, 59 (n.142), 137 (n.386, 387). Letters : from S i r James Graham, 67 (n.167), 75 (n.193, 194), 87f. (n.227, 229), 130 (n. 355), 132-134 (n.368, 370, 372, 377), 136 (n.382), 139 (395). Hibernian Bible Society, 122f. (n.344). Higher Education, - see Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l ; Maynooth Grant. INDEX. 204 The H i s t o r i a n , c i t e d , 19 (n.31). History , c i t e d , 138 (n.391). Hoffman, Ross, c i t e d , 98 (n.264). Home Rale party, 155*., 159, 169. Home Rule t r a d i t i o n , 57 (ft'<139). Home Secretary - see Graham, S i r James. Homer, I l i a d . Gaelic t ranslat ion , 141 (n.399)• Horsley, Dean, 123f. (n.347). House of Lords - Lords, House of . Howick, Lord, 82 (n.214). Howitt, William ( journal i s t ) , 34 (n.71). Humanitarianism, 141 (n.401). I l l i t e r a c y , 28 (n.51). I l l u s t r a t e d London News, c i t e d , 47 (n.107), 50 (n.116), 119 (n.334). Imports from B r i t a i n , 186-188. Industr ia l Revolution, 9-11. Indu stry , B r i t i sh, 181. I n g l i s , Robert, 118 (n.329). Insurrection Acts , 66. Invasion threats, French, 36, 120. Invasion threats, Spanish, 120. I r i s h Brigade i n France, 34• I r i s h Chief Secretary - see E l i o t , Lord. I r i s h College , Rome, 102 (n.2?8). I r i s h H i s t o r i c a l Studies, c i t e d , 22 (n.37), 51 (n.119). Jacobins, 36. See also - Anti-Jacobinism. Jephson, Henry L . , Notes on I r i s h Questions, c i ted , 12 (n.19), 27f. (n.47, 49-5D, 30 (n.62), 64 (n.158), 71 (n.180) Jesui ts , 106 (n.276). Journal of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l History, c i t e d , 85 (n.226). Jury (at O'Connell«s t r i a l ) , 66 (n.162, 163). "Justice for Ireland", 50 (n.113, 114), 64, 152. Kennedy (Dr . ) , Bishop of K i l l a l o e ) , 101 (n.273), 107 (n.295). Kent, Duchess of (Mother of Queen V i c t o r i a ) , 54 (n.130). Kildare , Catholic Bishop of - see Doyle, ( J . K. L. ) John Warren K i l l a l o e , Catholic Bishop of - see Kennedy. Kirby, Tobias (Rev.), 100 (n.268). Kossuth, Lajos (Hungarian pat r io t ) , 155f- (n.428). Labour, 14, 49 (n.110-112). See also - Working Class , Engl ish . L a i s s e z - f a i r e , 13, 129 (n.363). Lalor , James Fintan, 157. Lambruschini (Cardinal) , Papal Secretary of State (1836-1846), 98 (n.264), 103 (n.279). INDEX. 205 Land reform question, 116 (n.321), 152, 157, 181-184; Land Occupation i n Ireland (Commission Report), 112 (n.306); land usage table, 182, 184; Landlord class (Protestant), 13f. (n.21), 21 (n.37), 28 (n.52), 113 (n.310-312), 122 (n.340-342). Large, D . , c i t e d , 22 (n.37). L a r k i n , E . , c i t e d , 41 (n.89). Lecky, William Edward, History of Ireland i n the 18th Century. c i t e d , x i (n. 1), 17 (n.25-28), 22 (n.38), 24 (n.42), 32 (n.65), 36 (n.76), 37 (n.77, 80), 69 (n.176), 124 (n.348). Lefevre, George John Shaw, Peel and 0 'Connel l . c i t e d , v i i i , 75f. (n.191, 196), 1l6f. (n.321, 326), 125f. (n.352, 353, 355); as a Poor Law Commissioner, 159. Legislature , I r i s h - see Parliament of Ireland. Leinster (Province i n Ireland), 43 (n.93)« Lemennais (French r a d i c a l ) , 102 (n.276). Levy, John, e d . , Discussion on Repeal . . . i n Dublin, c i t e d , v i i i , 12 (n.20), 33 (n.67), 37 (n.81), 39f. (n.85-88), 51 (n.118), 69 (n.176), 108 (n.300), 113 (n.310). L i b e r a l Party administration of Gladstone (1880-1885), 57 (n.139), 155f. (n.428). L i c h f i e l d House Compact, 51 (n.119). L i n c o l n ' s Inn (London), 36. Liverpool , 4 (n.4). Locke, John, 52 (n.121), 69 (n.175). London periodicals - see I l lus t ra ted London Times. London Examiner. Punch. The Times. Lord Chancellor of England - see Brougham, Lord; Lyndhurst, Lord. Lord High Chancellor of Ireland - see Redesdale, Lord. Sugden, Edward. Lord Lieutenant - see DeGrey, E a r l ; Hentesbury, Lord. Lords, House of , 21f. (n.37), 40 (n.86), 74-76 (n.196), 116 (n.319). Louis Phil ippe (King of France), 56 (n.135), 62 (n.153). Louvain (College), 35 (n.74). Lower Nation ( I r ish) , v i i f . , 1, 16, 43f. (n.93), 91f. (n.243), 112 (n.309), 125 (n.350), 145, 152. Lucas, Frederick, editor of The Tablet . 143 (n.407). Lyndhurst, Lord (Lord Chancellor) , 59 (n.142); hard-line p o l i c i e s , 60. INDEX. 206 MacHale, John (Catholic Archbishop of Tuam), 42 (n.91, 92); 85 (n.223), 96 (n.256-258), 137 (n.388). Catholic Party of MacHale, 43 (n.94), 44 (n.97, 98), 87, 100 (n.271). Let ters : from Cardinal Paul Cul len , 107 (n.296); to Cardinal Fransoni, 89 (n.232); to S i r Robert Peel , 89 (n.233), 130 (n.365). Macintyre, Angus D . , The Liberator : Daniel O'Connell and the I r i s h Party, c i t e d , v i i , 21 (n.36), 22 (n.39), kk (n.97), 102 (n.277), 155f. (n.428). McCaffrey, Lawrence J . , Daniel O'Connell and the Repeal Year. c i t e d , 8k (n.220). McCarthy, Jus t in , A History of Our Own Times, c i t e d , 71 (n.183). , I r i s h Recollect ions, c i t e d , k (n.3), 0 (n.14, 15), 123 (n.346). McCullagh, W. Torrens, Memoirs of S h e i l . c i t e d , 66 (n.165), 135 (n.379), 141 (n./f01, 402). Mcculloch's Commercial Dict ionary. 182, 184. McDowell, Robert Brendan, Public Opinion and Government Pol icy i n Ireland, c i t e d , v i i , 45 (n.100), k7 (n.105, 106), 51 (n.117), 8k (n.221), 92 (n.243), 93 (n.248), 9k (n.252), 99 (n.266), 113 (n.309), 150 (n,427). Magee, John ( t r i a l i n 1800), 70 (n.178). Mahony, Patr ick, l e t t e r from O'Connell , 127 (n.359). Manufacturing, 181. Maxwell, Constantia, Country and Town i n Ireland. c i t e d , 8 (n.15). Maynooth, Catholic Seminary at, 88, 111. Maynooth Grant (April-May, 1845), 59 (n.142), 63 (n. 155), 88, 110-129, 131f-, 154. Mazzini , Giuseppe, ( I ta l ian pat r io t ) , 155f- (n.428). Meagher, Thomas (Young Irelander)—"Sword Speech", 93 (n.247), 148f. (n. 42§, 425). Meath, Catholic Bishop of, - see C a n t r e l l . Mercantilism (protectionism), 13* Methodist Church, 195. Metternich (Austrian Minister o f Foreign A f f a i r s , 1 8 0 9 - 1 8 4 8 ) , 98 (n.264), 100 (n.269, 270), 103 (n.279). Middle c lass , 50. Migration (Ireland to B r i t a i n ) , 14, 168. M i l i t a r y a i d , French - see French M i l i t a r y A i d . M i t c h e l l , John (Young Irelander) , 148 (n.424). "Mixed" education, 135 (n.379). Molesworth, Viscount Richard, (1723), 124 (n.348). Monarchy, B r i t i s h const i tut ional , 72. "Monster" meetings, 43 (n.94), 47, 71 (n.182). Moody, Theodore W., "The I r i s h University Question", c i t e d , v i i , 138 (n.391). , Thomas Davis, c i ted , v i i , 92 (n.243), 93 (n.246), 138 (n.385). INDEX. 207 Moore, Norman, c i t e d , 42 (n.92). Moore, Thomas, Melodies. 1 if! (n.399) • Morning Herald. 81. Mullaghmast meeting, 12 (n.184)• Municipal Reform Act (1840), 27-Munster (Province i n Ireland), 43* Murphy, G . , c i t e d , 34 (n.69). Murray, Daniel (Catholic Archbishop of Dublin) , 43 (n.95), 90 (n.236); l e t t e r s from O'Connell , 96 (n.257), 101 (n.274), 107 (n.293). Napoleonic Wars, 189. The Nation. (Young Irelander newspaper, edited by Charles Gavan Duffy) , c i t e d , 51 (n.117), 62 (n.153), 83f. (n. 218, 220), 93 (n. 248), 157-Nation party, 144 (n.411). National Association of Ireland (founded 1864), 155f« National Schools for Elementary Education, 137 (n.388). National System of Education - see Education, National System. Naval power - see Defence. Navy, French - see French navy. New Catholic Encyclopedia, c i t e d , 43 (n.95). New England, 123 (n.344). N i c h o l l s , (Mr.) , of Board of Trade), 29. Nicholson, Asenath, Ireland's Welcome to & Stranger. c i t e d , 34 (n.?0), 123 (n.344). Norman, Edward R. , The Catholic Church and I r i s h P o l i t i c s i n the 1860 's. c i t e d , 135 (n.378). f nrphe Maynooth Question of 1845", c i ted , 116 (n.322), 117 (n.327), 118 (n.330). Normandy, Marquis of, 87 (n.228). North (Mr.) , Anglo-Ir ish M. P . , 46 (n.101). Nowlan, Kevin B . , c i t e d , 43 (n.95), , Charles Gavan Duffy and the Repeal Moyeseni, c i t e d , 92 (n.243). , The P o l i t i c s of Repeal, c i ted , v i i , 117 (n.326). O'Brien, R. Barry, Dublin Castle and the I r i s h People. c i t e d , 11 (n.18), 24f. (n.41-43), 26 (n.45), 27-29 (n.48-51, 53-55). O'Brien, William Smith (Young Irelander) , 91 (n.239), 128 (n.361); Letters : from Thomas Davis, 135 (n.380), from Daniel O'Connell , 149 (n.425); opposes O'Connell over foreign intervention, 142 (n.403, 404), 148f. (n.424, 425); 158. O'Connell , Count Daniel (uncle), 34. INDEX. 208 O'Connell , Daniel (1775-1847), 1, 4-6, 20, 23, 31-57; on Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l , 0 o r Colleges B i l l , 109, 130-145. opposes Thomas Davis on B i l l , 142-144 (n.405-411); 145 (n.413); acqui t ta l of , 74-76; on administrative reform, 37-39; ca l led agitator and "buffoon, 71 (n.180, 181); arrest of , 56 (n.135); assessments of : by Gladstone, 154ff. (n.428); by McDowell, 150 (n.427); by Peel , 1.2? (n.358); by Pope Gregory XVI, 100 (n.268); by Father Ventura, 102 (n.278); Attorney General of 1800 quoted, 70 (n.178); bishops his supporters, 42 (n. 91, 92); on bishops, 146 (n.416); Catholic equali ty , demand for , 38f . ; Catholic Repeal Party leader - see Repeal Party; Coach cartoon i n Punch. 73 (n.187); consistency i n his p r i n c i p l e s , 37 (n.79), 40 (n.88); on Corn Law repeal , 108 (n.299); "crown" at Mullaghmast, 72 (n.184); Davis (Thomas) opposed on Academical Inst i tut ions B i l l , 142-144 (n.405-411); death of (1847), 102 (n.278), 155; on education -see Academical Ins t i tu t ions ; his education, 35 (n.74); the '82 Clubs, 79 (n.204); European fame, 57 (n.139), 154ff. (n.428); European world, appeal to, 69 (n.174); fac t ion at Rome, 102 (n.276); famine speech at Repeal meeting (Dec. 1844), 108 (n.299); famine r e l i e f appeal to Parliament, 145f. (n.413, 417); on foreign i n t e r -vention (opposes Smith O'Brien) , 142 (n.403, 404); funeral oration (1847) by Father Ventura, 102 (n.278); on Grattan, 32; Federal Parliamentary Scheme, 78 (n.202), 80-83 (n.207-213, 217); History of Ireland dedicated to Queen, 55 (n.133, 134); on landlords, absentee, 182; Memoir on Ireland. 55 (n.133), 160; on Maynooth, 110 (n.303); 127 (n.358, 359); "Monster" meetings, 43 (n.94); "Old Ireland" speech, 144 (n.411); Poor Law (Ireland) Speech, 28 (n.52); Pope, " d i s -respectful to" , 105 (n.287); Pope's admiration of, 100 (n.267, 268); Papal Rescript , reaction to, 104-106 (n.283-289); press, use of, 44 (n.97); "pr ies t " party, 90 (n.237), 142 (n.405); Queen V i c t o r i a , 54 (n.128-130); r e c o n c i l i a t i o n attempts: towards B r i t a i n , 128 (n.362), 154; towards Young Irelanders, 149 (n.425, 426); Repeal of the Union speeches, 12, 37 (n.79); on slavery i n United States, 68f. (n.173), 142 (n.404), 166; on taxation, 182; t r i a l , Jan. 1844, 26, 58-84; speech at t r i a l , 58 (n.14D, 68 (n.171, 172), 69 (n.174, 177); uncle of, 34, 160; Young Ireland (his attempts to c o n c i l i a t e ) , 149 (n.425, 426). For index of le t ters - see next page. i INDEX. 209 O'Connell , Daniel (1775-1847), Let ters : from Justice James Whiteside, 76f. (n.195, 198); to Dr . Blake, Bishop of Dromore, 149 (n.426); to Dr . C a n t r e l l , 99 (n.265); to W. O ' N e i l l Daunt, 83 (n.219); to Thomas Davis, 94 (n.249); to P. F i t z p a t r i c k , 5k (n.128), 78 (n.201), 90 (n.236), 101 (n.274), ^kO (n.398); to Arthur French., Secretary of Repeal Association, 5k (n.129)» 80 (n.208, 209); to Patrick Mahony, 127 (n.359); to Archbishop Daniel Murray, 96 (n.257); to William Smith O'Brien, 149 (n.425); to Richard Lalor S h e i l , 79 (n.203), 82 (n.217). O'Faolain , Sean, The I r i s h , c i t e d , 35 (n*72, 73), kk (n.96), 125 (n.35D. O'Hegarty, Patr ick S . , History of Ireland under the Union. c i t e d , 8 (n.13), 137 (n.388). Operatives ( in Dublin) , 49 (n.111, 112). Orangemen, 82 (n.216), 104 (n.285). Oregon border dispute, 69 (n.173), 128 (n.360). O ' R e i l l y , Andrew, 61 (n«147). O ' R e i l l y , Bernard, John MacHale. c i ted , v i i i , 42 (n.91), k3 (n.94), 82 (n.216), 85 (n.223), 89 (n.232-235), 102 (n.275), 107 (n.295-297), 130 (n.365), 136 (11.583), 137f. (n.386, 387, 389), 141 (n.399), 143 (n.407), 146 (n.415), 147f. (n.419, 421-423). Osborne, M r . , 139 (n.392). Oswald, J . , c i t e d , 19 (n.31). Palmerston, Lord, 5* Pantheism, 134f. (n.378). Papacy, 42, 154* Papal Court, 89 (n.232), 103 (n.280); re lat ions with B r i t a i n , 98f. Papal Rescript , to I r i s h clergy, 97-109. Parker, Charles Stuart , Graham Letters , c i t e d , 3 (n.2), 4f. (n.4, 6), 6f. (n.9, 11), 29f. (n.57, 58, 60), 60 (n.145), 61 (n.15D, 63 (n.154-157), 67 (n.167, 168), 74f. (n.190, 193, 194), 87ff. (n.227, 229, 231), 97f. (n.260-262), 112 (n-311, 312), 115 (n.316), 117 (n.325), 121 (n.336), 127 (n.359), 130 (n.366), 132f. (n.368, 370-372), 134 (n.377), 136 (n.382), 139 (n.395). , Peel P a p e r s , c i t e d , 3 (n.2), 7 (n.12), 24f. (n.41, 44), 26f. (n.45, k7), 29 (n.56, 59), 41 (n.89), 60 (n.143, 146), 64 (n.159), 77 (n.200), 81 (n.210-212), 84 (n.222), 86 (n.225), 101 (n.272), 106 (n.291), 110 (n.302), 112 (n.308), 114f. (n.313, 314, 318), 132 f. (n.367, 370), 134 (n.376), 136(n.382), 147 (n.420). i INDEX. 210 Parliament, B r i t i s h , 12, 18, 20, 23f•, 52 (n.120), 80 (n.208), 94*., 119 (n.334), 141 (n.402). , I r i s h representation i n , 20, 22 (n.39), 41, 45 (n.100), 47 (n.104). Parliament, I r i ^ h , 9, 17, 36, 40 (n.86), 52£(n. 122,123), 79 (n.204). See also - Federal Scheme. Parliamentary Debates - see Hansard. Parliamentary Reform Movement (1831), 48 (n.108). P a r n e l l , Henry, 45*. (n.101). Party of MacHale - see MacHale, John, Catholic Party of . Peasantry, 28, 55, 166. Peel , S i r Robert ( B r i t i s h Prime Minister , 1841-1846), 4 (n.4), 6f., 29, 59 (n.142), 65f. (n.162), 95*. (n.255), 116 (n.319). Assessment of , 154f.; Cabinet l i s t , 59 (n.142); on O'Connell , 127 (n.358); speech, 47 (n.105). Let ters : to Mr. Buiwer, 132 (n.367), 136 (n.382); to Lord DeGrey, 24 (n.4D, 26 (n.45); to Lord E l i o t , 25 (n.44); from William E . Glad-stone, 112 (n.308, 114 (n.314); from S i r James Graham, 41 (n.89), 60f. (n.146, 15D, 63 (n.157), 89 (n.231), 97f. (n.260, 262), 114 (n.313), 121 (n.33&), 133 (n.271); to S i r James Graham, 25 (n.44), 63 (n.156), 97 (n.261); from Lord Heytesbury, 81 (n.212), 101 (n.272), 106 (n.29D, 147 (n.420); to Lord Heytesbury, 64 (n.159), 81 (n.210), 101 (n.272), 133 (n.370); from John MacHale, 89 (n.233), 130 (n.365); from Queen V i c t o r i a , 110 (n.302); to Queen V i c t o r i a , 117 (n.325); to Sie Edward Sugden, 26f. (n»47). Peelite t r a d i t i o n , 155*. (n.428). Peerage, 21 (n.37), 40 (n.86); opposes O'Connell 's acqui t ta l , 75 (n.192, 194). Penal Laws, days of, 41 *« Pennefather, Richard (Under Secretary to Ireland, 59 (n.142). Petre, Mr. ( B r i t i s h consul at Florence, I t a l y ) , 99 (n.265, 266). P i l o t . The. (Catholic newspaper), 44 (n.98). Plantations, (Tudor) i n Ireland, 9, 17, 36, 40 (n.86), 52f. (n.122, 123). Plunkett , William C. (Baron), 45*. (n.101). Polk, James (President of U . S . ) , 69 (n.173), 128 (n.360). Ponsonby, John William (Earl of Bessborough), 56 (n.136), 59 (n.142). Poor Law Amendment Act, 159-Poor Law (Ireland) (1837), 28. Portugal, 2. Pope Gregory XVI, 53*. (n.126), 63 (n.156), 89 (n.232), 98 (n.263), appraisal of O'Connell , 85 (n.224), 100 (n.267, 268). Potato crop, 15, 56 (n.137). Prefect of Propaganda - see Cardinal Fransoni. INDEX. Presbyterian Church., 195. Press, 44 (n.97), 50 (n.115), 92, 102 (n.276), 105 (n.286). See also - Radical press, 18; Tory press; Whig press. " P r i e s t " party, 90 (n.237), 142 (n.l+05). Prime Ministers (Br i t ish) - see Gladstone; Peel ; R u s s e l l . Prosecution, Crown (at T r i a l of O'Connell) , 71 (n.183). Protection of L i f e (Ireland) B i l l , A p r i l 1846, 23. Protectionism - see Mercantilism. Protestant Ascendancy - see Ascendancy. Protestant Associat ion, 122 (n.340). Protestant Diocesan Schools, 139 (n.393)• Protestant Established Church - see Established Church. P r o v i n c i a l Colleges, 141 (n.400-402). Punch, c i t e d , 71 (n.181), 73 (n.185, 187). Quarterly Review (Edinburgh), c i t e d , 26 (n.46), 41 (n.89), 65 (n.161), 72 (n.184), 83 (n.219), 102 (n.276), 117 (n.323), 124 (n.347). Queen V i c t o r i a , 4(n.4), 24 (n.4D, 52f. (n.122-125), 54 (n.127-129), 55 (n.132, 133), 110 (n.302); mother of Queen (Duchess of Kent), 54 (n.130); v i s i t to Ireland, 56 (n.136), 57 (n.138, 139). Let ters : to King of Belgium, 56 (n.135); to S i r Robert Peel , 110 (n.302); from S i r Robert Peel , 117 (n.325); to Lord John Russel l , 56 (n.136); from Lord John R u s s e l l , 56 (n.137). Question, C a t h o l i c , 40 (n.88), 47 (n.105), 116 (n.321). Question, Col legiate - see Academical Inst i tut ions (Ireland) B i l l ; Col legiate Question; Maynooth Grant. Question, I r i s h , 71 (n.180). see also Jephson, Notes on . . . Question, Land - see Land Reform Question. Radical press (England), 18. Radicalism (England), 48f., 70, 82 (n.216), 126 (n.354), 147 (n.418). Railroads, 129 (n.363). Rebecca Riots ( i n South Wales), 5. Rebel l ion of 1798, 36 (n.76). Rebell ion (184-8) of Young Ireland, 149f. (n.425), 155-Recorder (State T r i a l , Jan. 1844) - see Shaw, Henry. Redesdale, Lord (Lord Chancellor of Ireland), 64 . Redington, T . N. (Under Secretary to Ireland, 184-6), 59 (n.142) Reform Act of 1832, 20. Reform Clubs, 48 (n.108). Reformation, 41, 120. R e i l l y , Devon (Young Irelander) , 148 (n.424). Reminiscences of an Immigrant Miles ian . 61 (n.147). Rent - see Land Reform Question; Tenants. "Rent, Cathol ic " (also "Repeal Rent"), 45. INDEX. 212 Repeal A r b i t r a t i o n Court®, 50 (n.1l6). Repeal Associat ion (secretary, Arthur French), 54 (n.129, 130), 80 (n.207, 209), 9k (n.249). Repeal discussion (meeting of Dec. 1844), 108 (n.299). See also - Levy, John, e d . , Discussion on R e p e a l . Repeal Magistrates, 50 (n.116). Repeal Movement (and Party) , v i i i , 5, 9, 19, 21, 25f . , 33, 42 (n.91, 92), 43f- (n.99), 46f. (n.103-105), 4 8 f . , 51f. (n.120-122), 53f . (n.126), 57, 59 (n.142) ; attempt to divide from I r i s h people, 62f.; 83 (n.219); attempt to divide from I r i s h clergy, 85-109; 89 (n.231-235), 131, loung Ireland s p l i t , 148 (n.424)» 151; permanent contr ibution, 155f • Repeal "rent" , 45. Repeal of the Union speeches by O'Connell : i n Corporation of Dublin i n 1843, 12 (n.20), 37 (n.79); at his T r i a l i n Dublin (Jan. 1844), 68 (n.171); at Repeal Associat ion meeting i n Dublin (Dec. 1844), 108 (n.299) Rescript - see Papal Rescript . Revolts i n Papal States, 98 (n.263)• Revolution, French, 34* Revolution, "Glor ious" , of 1688, 52 (n.122), 69 (n.175). Ribandism, 30 (n.62). Roche, Kennedy F . , c i t e d , 34 (n.68), 36 (n.75), 37 (n.78, 79), 38 (n.83), 69 (n.176). Roden, E a r l of , 122 (n.340). Roebuck, John Arthur, quoted, 147 (n.418). Rome, 99 (n.265), 102f. (n.275-281). See also - Papal Court. Routhan, Father (Jesuit General), 102 (n.276). R u s s e l l , Lord John ( B r i t i s h Prime Minister i n 1846), l e t t e r s : from Queen V i c t o r i a , 56 (n.136); to Queen V i c t o r i a , 56 (n.137); 66 (n.164, 165), 82 (n.215), 145f. (n.415, 416). S t . Omer (College), 35 (n.74). St . P a t r i c k ' s Cathedral, Dublin, 36. Scotland's Established Church, 40 (n.87), 195f. Scott , S i r Walter, quoted, 137 (n.388). Sea power - see Defence. Select Committees, 11. Senior, Nassau, Journals . . . Relating t o Ireland, c i t e d , 43 (n.93). 'Shadow government", 50 (n.116). Shannon, 5 (n.5)« 213 INDEX. Siiaw, Henry (Recorder at State T r i a l ) , 20 (n.35), 39 (n.142), 65f. (n.162). Shaw's I r i s h State T r i a l s , cited, 20 (n.33), 48f. (n.108, 110), 55 (n.132), 58 (n.140, 141), 61 (n.148), 68f. (n.171-175, 177), 70 (n.178, 179), 71f. (n.183, 184), 74 (n.189). Shaw-Lefevre (Baron Eversley) - see Lefevre, George John Shaw. Shell, Richard Lalor, 66 (n.165), 79 (n.203), 82 (n.217). Shipping - see Exports, Imports. Slattery, Michael (Catholic Archbishop of Cashel), 42 (n.91). Slavery, abolition of, 68f. (n.173), 142 (n.404). Smith, P. J . (Young Irelander), 148 (n.424). Smith, T. B. C. (Attorney General at T r i a l ) , 59 (n.142). "Social contract" theory (of John Locke), 52 (n.119), 69 (n.175). S o l i c i t o r General - see Richard Wilson Greene. Spectator (a London weekly), cited, 53 (n.124, 125), 55 (n.131), 61 (n.150), 87 (n.228), 94 (n.250), 96 (n.258), 106f. (n.289, 292-294), 108 (n.298, 299), 111 (n.304, 305), 114 (n.313), 115 (n.317), 116 (n. 319), 118 (n.329), 119 (n.331, 333), 124 (n.349), 127 (n.356, 357), 128 (n.361, 362), 129 (n.364), 132 (n.369), 134 (n.375), 139f. (n.394, 398), 142 (n.403, 404), 144 (n.411), 146 (n.415), 147 (n.418). Stanley B i l l (Compensation for Tenants (Ireland)), 114 (n.315, 316). Stanley, Lord (Chief Secretary to Ireland, 1830-1833; Colonial Secretary to 1844 (then moved to House of Lords), 115 (n.319)t l e t t e r s from S i r James Graham, 4 (n.4), 5 (n.6), 6 (n.9), 29f. (n.57, 60), 74 (n.190). Stapleton (Dr.), of St. Omer, 35 (n.74). Sugden, S i r Edward (Irish Lord High Chancellor), 24, l e t t e r from S i r Robert Peel, 26 (n.47); 59 (n.142). Swift, Dean Jonathan, 8 (n.13). "Sword speech" of Thomas Meagher, 93 (n.247), 148 (n.424). Syllabus of Errors. 135 (n.378). The Tablet (Catholic paper), 143 (n.407). T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine, c i t e d , v i i i , 19f. (n.32-34), 34 (n.71), 43 (n.93), 48 (n.109), 50 (n.113-115), 60 (n.144), 71 (n.182), 77 (n.198), 82 (n.214), 121 (n.337), 136 (n.384), 138 (n.390), 139 (n.392), 141 (n.400, 401), 145. Taxation, 181, 189-191. Taylor , William Cooke, The L i f e and Times of S i r Robert Peel . c i t e d , 119 (n.33D. Tenants (Ireland) B i l l , Compensation to, 11 iff. (n.315, 316). Tenants' Rights ( i n Repeal movement), 115 (n.317). Theatines, Congregation of, 102 (n.278). Thompson, E . P . , The Making of the English Working Class , c i t e d , 49 (n.110). INDEX. 214 Thorn's Irish Almanac. 1849. cited, ix, 9 (n.16), 16 (n.24), 22 (n.37, 39), 28 (n.5D, 30 (n.62), 112 (n.30?), 139 (n.393), 140 (n.397, 398), 181-196. Thornley, David, Isaac Butt and Home Rule, cited, 81 (n.213). Thought, cited, 98 (n.264), 134 (n.373). Tierney, Michael, Daniel O'Connell: Nine Centenary Essays. cited, 18 (n.30), 34 (n.68, 69), 35f. (n.74, 75), 37 (n.78, 79), 38 (n.83), 69 (n.176), 90f. (n.237, 241), 127 (n.358), 142 (n.405). The Times. (London), cited, 4f. (n.4, 5), 18 (n.29), 34 (n.70), 61 (n.149), 82 (n.216), 104 (n.285), 106 (n.290), 110 (n.303), 115 (n.315), 119 (n.33D, 126f. (n.354, 358), 144 (n.411). Tory administration (of Peel), 59 (n.142), 65£(n.l62, 163). Tory (Conservative) Party, 19, 26, 86f. (n.228), 126 (n.354), 129 (n.364). Tory press, 50 (n.115), 92, 102 (n.276). See also - Quarterly Review. Trade, Board of, 29, 59 (n.142), 112 (n.308). Trade policies, 51 (n.118). Treason, high, 61. Treasonable conspiracy, 59, 68. Treaty, Anglo-Irish (1921), 168. Trent, Council of (1545-1563), 135 (n.378). Tri a l of O'Connell and other Repeal leaders (Jan. 1844), 26, 58-84, 71 (n.182), 153. Trim, County Meath, 8 (n.13). Trinity College, Dublin, 135 (n.381), 139 (n.395), 141 (n.400-402). Tuam Archdiocese, 89 (n.234), 147 (n.421). Tuam Cathedral, 54 (n.130). Tuam, Catholic Archbishop of - see MacHale, John. Tullamore, meeting at, 55 (n.133). g*i3l>ftr, U3. (n.93), 122 (n.340). Under Secretary for Ireland, 24, 59 (n.142). See also - Pennefather, Richard; Redington, T. N. Union, The, 40 (n.87), 51 (n.118, 119), 121f. (340, 341). Union, Act of - see Act of Union. United States of America: Oregon border dispute, 128 (n.360); slavery, 69 (n.173), 142 (n.404)• Upper Nation (Protestant), v i i i , 43 (n.95), 91f. (n.243). V a t i c a n a r c h i v e s , 103 (n.281). V e n t u r a , F a t h e r , 102 (n.278). V i c e r e g a l Lodge ( D u b l i n ) , 57 (n.138). V i c e r o y t o I r e l a n d ( L o r d L i e u t e n a n t ) , 56 (n.136). See a l s o - L o r d B e s s b o r o u g h ; E a r l DeGray; L o r d H e y t e s b u r y . V i c t o r i a , Queen - see Queen V i c t o r i a . 24 (n.§1). V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , c i t e d , 48 (n.108). INDEX. 215 W a l l , Thomas, c i t e d , 35 (n.74). Walsh ( D r . ) , Bishop of H a l i f a x , Nova Scot ia ; l e t t e r from Cardinal C u l l e n , 105 (n.287). Weekly Freeman's Journal (of Dublin) , 104 (n.284). Welch, P. J . , c i t e d , 86 (n.226). Wellington, Duke of, (Leader of Tory P a r t y - i a House of Lords) , 4 (n.4), 6f., 8 (n.13), 59 (n.142); advocated a hard-l ine p o l i c y , 60; as Prime Minister i n 1829, 95*. (n.255); Let ters : from S i r James Graham, 29 (n.58), 63 (n.154); to S i r James Graham, 7 (n«11), 113 (n.311, 312), 115 (n.316). Westminster, 24f., 37 (n.80), 99f. See also Administrative f a i l u r e ; Parliament, B r i t i s h ; Tory administration. Whately, Richard (Protestant Archbishop of Dublin) , 124 (n.349), 137 (n.388). Whig administration (1835-36), 24, 27. Whig gentry ( I r i s h Cathol ic ) , 64, 66, 83 (n.218), 135 (n.379). Whig Party, 19, 64, 78f. (n.203), 98 (n.264), 126 (n.354), 129 (n.364). Whig press, 50 (n.115), 105 (n.286). White Boys, 30 (n.62). White, Terence DeVere, c i t e d , 18 (n.30), 127 (n.358). Whiteside, James (Lord Chief Justice i n Ireland), l e t t e r to O'Connell , 76 (n.195), 77 (n.198). Whyte, J o h n H . , c i t e d , 42 (n.90, 91). Wilberforce, Samuel, 122f. (n.344). Williams, T . Desmond, e d . , The Great Famine. c i t e d , 92 (n.243). Windsor Cast le , 56 (n.135)« Woolwich arsenal , 6. Working class (English) , 49f• (n.110), 50 (n.115). World P o l i t i c s , c i t e d , 51 (n.117). Wyse, Thomas, 135 (n.378). Yeats, William But ler , Tribute to Thomas Davis, c i t e d , 93 (n.246). Young Ireland (group within the Repeal movement), 36, 62 (n.152), 83 (n.219), 90 (n.237), 91-94, 127f. (n.360, 361), 131> 138 (n.389, 390), 142-145; "Sword speech" of Thomas Meagher, 148 (n.424); sentences, after Rebellion of 1848, 149 (n.425); Rebellion of 1848, 155; 157. See also - Thomas Davis; Charles Gavan Duffy; Thomas Meagher; James Fintan Lalor ; John M i t c h e l l ; The Nation: William Smith O'Brien; Devon R e i l l y ; P. J . Smith. 

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