Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The formation of NGO inclusion policy in Japan’s official development assistance : the role of NGO’s… Ozaki, Sakura 2005

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_2005-0293.pdf [ 4.98MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0078409.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0078409-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0078409-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0078409-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0078409-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0078409-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0078409-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0078409-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0078409.ris

Full Text

T H E FORMATION OF N G O INCLUSION POLICY IN JAPAN'S OFFICIAL D E V E L O P M E N T ASSISTANCE: T H E ROLES OF N G O S , T H E FOREIGN MINISTRY A N D BUSINESS  by SAKURA OZAKI  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S  in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (ASIA PACIFIC POLICY STUDIES)  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A  April 2005 © Sakura Ozaki, 2005  ABSTRACT  Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become an integral part of Japan's official development assistance (ODA) program since the end of the 1980s. The government subsidizes their activities, supports their capacity-building efforts and cooperate with them in carrying out and evaluating aid projects. This thesis examines why the policy of NGO inclusion in O D A has been formed. It focuses on NGOs, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) and the business sector to reveal that their respective initiatives based on differing motives have contributed to the making of such a policy. Specifically, MOFA's intention to utilize ODA as a foreign policy tool in the changing aid context and the growing consciousness of good corporate citizenship on the part of the business sector have made it imperative for them to seek partnership with NGOs, who have grown considerably in the Japanese society. The thesis then looks to the interaction among these actors, that is, how they cooperate in some cases and disagree in others. Although the policy of NGO inclusion has been endorsed by official policy forums and statements, the endorsement is not government-wide, nor has the traditional aid system with priority on economic objectives changed. By studying specific cases in which NGOs' humanitarian principles collide with official and business motives, the thesis identifies difficulties in the cross-sectoral cooperation. However, considering the new aid context and the fact that O D A is Japan's major national program, the participation of NGOs and, more broadly, the general public is needed for greater effectiveness and accountability in ODA. The thesis concludes by presenting some issues facing Japanese NGOs for future consideration.  11  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  - ii  T a b l e of contents  iii  L i s t of a table a n d figures  iv  L i s t of abbreviations  v  Acknowledgements  vi  CHAPTER I C H A P T E R II 2.1  Introduction  1  Actors i n Japan's O D A p r o g r a m  10  NGOs  10  2.1.1  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of Japanese N G O s  13  2.1.2  H o w N G O s h a v e increased their presence i n the a i d s y s t e m  16  M i n i s t r y of F o r e i g n Affairs  20  2.2.1  Politicization of a i d  21  2.2.2  M O F A ' s endorsement of N G O s  27  2.2  2.3  Business  32  2.3.1  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of corporate p h i l a n t h r o p y  34  2.3.2  T h e e x p a n s i o n of corporate p h i l a n t h r o p y  40  C o n f l i c t of interests a m o n g actors  43  3.1  Successful collaboration - Japan Platform  43  3.2  C o n f l i c t of interests  47  3.2.1  MOFAvs. METI  47  3.2.2  M O F A vs. N G O s  52  3.2.3  Business vs. N G O s  57  Conclusion  64  C H A P T E R III  C H A P T E R IV Bibliography  74  iii  LIST O F A T A B L E A N D F I G U R E S  T a b l e 2.1  E a c h actor's i n v o l v e m e n t i n the  development  of the N G O c o m m u n i t y  12  F i g u r e 2.1  A n n u a l b u d g e t of activities  11  F i g u r e 2.2  N u m b e r of N G O s established  16  F i g u r e 2.3  B u d g e t of N G O Project S u b s i d y a n d G r a n t Assistance  F i g u r e 3.1  for Japanese N G O Projects  31  Interaction a m o n g actors  46  iv  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  CIDA  C a n a d i a n International A i d A g e n c y  DAC  Development Assistance Committee  JAHDS  J a p a n A l l i a n c e for H u m a n i t a r i a n D e m i n i n g S u p p o r t  JAIDO  Japan International Development Organization  JANIC  Japan N G O Center for International C o o p e r a t i o n  JBIC  Japan B a n k for International  JICA  Japan International Cooperation A g e n c y  JITCO  Japan International Training Cooperation O r g a n i z a t i o n  JOCV  Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers  JPF  Japan Platform  JVC  Japan International Volunteer Center  METI  M i n i s t r y of E c o n o m y , Trade a n d  MITI  M i n i s t r y of International Trade a n d  MOF  M i n i s t r y of Finance  MOFA  M i n i s t r y of F o r e i g n Affairs  NGO  Non-governmental  Cooperation  Industry Industry  organization  NPO  Non-profit organization  OECD  O r g a n i z a t i o n for E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t  OECF  Overseas Economic Cooperation F u n d  ODA  Official Development Assistance  U N  United Nations  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I a m i n d e b t e d to m a n y p e o p l e w h o h e l p e d m e c o m p l e t e this thesis. I w o u l d l i k e to express m y g r a t i t u d e to m y s u p e r v i s o r P r o f e s s o r J u l i a n D i e r k e s , whose stimulating suggestions and insightful comments helped m e  throughout  the process of m y research a n d w r i t i n g . I also a m grateful to P r o f e s s o r N a k a m u r a M a s a o , w h o h a s k i n d l y a g r e e d to s e r v e as m y s e c o n d s u p e r v i s o r a n d p r o v i d e d constructive comments a n d suggestions. W i t h o u t their k i n d support a n d timely feedbacks, I w o u l d not h a v e b e e n able to c o m p l e t e the thesis. M y sincere t h a n k s are d u e to Professor P a u l E v a n s , w h o g u i d e d m y interest to the s t u d y of c i v i l society. I t o o k his course o n h u m a n security i n the first year of m y master's p r o g r a m , a n d it w a s there that I l e a r n e d about the e v o l v i n g international discourse o n h u m a n security a n d recent Japanese initiatives b o t h i n the official a n d p r i v a t e sectors i n this field. I w o u l d also l i k e to g i v e m y t h a n k s to Professor Y v e s T i b e r g h i e n a n d T a m u r a A t s u k o , w h o r e a d m y thesis p r o p o s a l a n d gave m e m a n y c o m m e n t s that h e l p e d m e l a y o u t the entire thesis. Professor T i b e r g h i e n i n t r o d u c e d m e to the field of p o l i t i c a l science a n d major theoretical streams of Japanese p o l i t i c s , w h i c h are n o w m y t o o l to o b s e r v e m y o w n c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c s objectively. A t s u k o w a s m y c l a s s m a t e i n m o s t o f t h e c o u r s e s I t o o k at U B C , a n d I a l w a y s e n j o y e d s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s I h a d w i t h her o n the issues s u r r o u n d i n g Japanese politics. M y w a r m t h a n k s g o to m y father, w h o f o r m e d p a r t of m y v i s i o n a n d t a u g h t m e t o l o o k at t h i n g s c r i t i c a l l y . H i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d a d v i c e i n t h e c o u r s e o f m y s t u d y here m o t i v a t e d m e to m o v e f o r w a r d . L a s t l y , I a m grateful to m y partner W a n g C h a o for the i n s p i r a t i o n a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t he p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h o u t the entire process of research a n d w r i t i n g . H e w a s a critical a d v i s o r w h e n he w a s r e a d i n g m y earlier drafts a n d a patient supporter w h e n I was buried i n m y work.  V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 2005 Sakura Ozaki  vi  CHAPTER I  Background  INTRODUCTION  of Japan's  Aid  J a p a n ' s f o r e i g n a i d has e v o l v e d o v e r a b o u t five d e c a d e s since its i n c e p t i o n i n r e s p o n s e to d o m e s t i c e c o n o m i c needs, f o r e i g n p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n d f o r e i g n pressure. I n the process v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n p o i n t e d o u t b y journalists, academics, civic g r o u p s a n d f o r e i g n observers. D i s c u s s i o n s of Japan's a i d often focus o n the p r o b l e m s of diffuse p o l i c y m a n a g e m e n t , the e c o n o m i c p r o m o t i o n d i m e n s i o n of the p r o g r a m , the e m p h a s i s o n s u p p o r t for b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l infrastructure, a n d the r e g i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of effort i n A s i a . First of a l l , the p o l i c y of Japan's official d e v e l o p m e n t assistance ( O D A ) h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n m a d e u n d e r the c o n s u l t a t i o n a m o n g the E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g . A g e n c y , the M i n i s t r i e s of Finance, F o r e i g n Affairs ( M O F A ) , a n d International Trade a n d Industry (MITI). The four government departments also w o u l d a d m i n i s t e r a large v o l u m e of O D A f u n d a n d a n u m b e r of a i d projects, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of w h i c h w a s s h o u l d e r e d b y semi-official agencies, n a m e l y the J a p a n International C o o p e r a t i o n A g e n c y (JICA) for t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n a n d the O v e r s e a s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n F u n d ( O E C F ) for y e n loans. A lack of a u n i f i e d a i d m i n i s t r y a n d d i s p e r s e d a i d a u t h o r i t y a m o n g a n u m b e r of m i n i s t r i e s a n d agencies h a v e l e d to inefficient a i d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e the v o l u m e a n d v a r i e t y of O D A k e p t i n c r e a s i n g . W h e r e a s u n t i l the early 1960s project a i d w a s d o m i n a n t i n Japanese a i d , s t a r t i n g i n the latter h a l f of the decade, it s a i d p r o g r a m b e c a m e m o r e v a r i e d . J a p a n started p r o v i d i n g c o m m o d i t y l o a n s f o r c o u n t r i e s s u c h as I n d i a a n d I n d o n e s i a , w h i c h w e r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m i n f l a t i o n a n d t r a d e d e f i c i t . It i s a l s o i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 s t h a t g r a n t a i d c o m p l e t e l y separate f r o m w a r reparation w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n the Japanese a i d f r a m e w o r k . A n e w b u d g e t w a s a d d e d to the g o v e r n m e n t b u d g e t of 1969 to c o v e r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s s u c h as e d u c a t i o n a n d m e d i c a l c a r e . I n 1 9 7 7 , P r i m e  1  M i n i s t e r F u k u d a T a k e o a n n o u n c e d the first of a n u m b e r of a i d - d o u b l i n g plans that w o u l d eventually m a k e Japan the w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g p r o v i d e r of O D A .  1  S o m e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes w e r e m a d e i n the last d e c a d e i n a n attempt to a c c o m m o d a t e the changes a n d better coordinate a i d p r o g r a m s . I n the reshuffling of c e n t r a l m i n i s t r i e s i n J a n u a r y 2001, the E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g A g e n c y w a s m e r g e d w i t h t h e C a b i n e t O f f i c e a n d M I T I w a s r e n a m e d as t h e M i n i s t r y o f E c o n o m y , T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r y . J I C A , w h i c h w a s i n i t i a l l y s e t u p as a s p e c i a l p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n (tokushu hojiri) i n 1 9 7 4 , h a s g a i n e d t h e s t a t u s o f i n d e p e n d e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n (dokuritsu gyosei hojin) i n O c t o b e r 2 0 0 3 . I n 1 9 9 9 O E C F a n d another l o a n - p r o v i d i n g organization, the E x p o r t - I m p o r t B a n k of Japan, w e r e m e r g e d to f o r m J a p a n B a n k for International C o o p e r a t i o n (JBIC). In a d d i t i o n to the diffuse a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g systems, s t r u c t u r a l i n c l u s i o n o f the business sector has b e e n a source o f c r i t i c i s m against the a i d p r o g r a m . Japan's f o r e i g n a i d is often criticized for its " c o m m e r c i a l " orientation.  2  Historically, goes the accusation, the country's a i d p r o g r a m started  as w a r r e p a r a t i o n a n d h a s f u n c t i o n e d as d e f a c t o s u b s i d i e s f o r b u s i n e s s . J a p a n e s e businesses w e r e accused of c a u s i n g d a m a g e s to the e n v i r o n m e n t a n d c o m m u n i t i e s i n the recipient country a n d thereby i n h i b i t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n a true sense. This p r o b l e m originated i n the government's policy, w h i c h w a s d r i v e n b y e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s s u c h as e x p o r t p r o m o t i o n a n d s e c u r e s u p p l y o f r e s o u r c e s . T h e g o v e r n m e n t has v i g o r o u s l y p r o m o t e d a i d to d e v e l o p Japan's p r i v a t e sector a n d achieve the country's economic prosperity. S u c h a n intention of the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t is w e l l d e s c r i b e d i n M I T I ' s first e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n y e a r b o o k p u b l i s h e d i n 1958. R e c o g n i z i n g the i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n J a p a n a n d d e v e l o p i n g countries, then M I T I M i n i s t e r M a e o Shigesaburo writes i n the  ' The aid-doubling plans, formally named as ODA Medium-term Goals, were issuedfivetimes. The last one was announced in 1993 to set out numerical goals for the period of 1993-1997. For example, see Tatsuro Matsumae and Lincoln C. Chen, eds., In Pursuit of Common Values in Asia: Japan's ODA Charter Re-evaluated (Tokyo: Tokai University Press, 1997). 2  2  preface that J a p a n is w i l l i n g t o foster e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n to p r o m o t e Japanese exports at the s a m e t i m e of c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n Southeast A s i a n countries.  3  S u c h a stance w a s r e i n f o r c e d i n the 1960s as Japan's  aid d u r i n g that p e r i o d w a s almost totally confined to A s i a a n d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y s e r v e d c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s as M I T I p r o p o s e d i n its 1960 y e a r b o o k .  4  The consequence is geographical concentration of a i d o n A s i a , a n d sectoral preference o fa i d allocation to b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l infrastructures over satisfying social o r h u m a n i t a r i a n needs. M a r g e e M . Ensign, based o n her e m p i r i c a l s t u d y of Japanese a i d projects, a r g u e s that, despite the g o v e r n m e n t ' s recent statistics s h o w i n g Japan's a i d p r o g r a m m o v i n g a w a y from c o m m e r c i a l orientation, it is still b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d a n d p r i m a r i l y benefits Japanese c o r p o r a t i o n s .  5  David  A r a s e examines historical d e v e l o p m e n t of foreign a i d a n d reveals that the business prevalence i n official d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g processes as w e l l as i n project implementation. economic aid.  6  Other studies look into private-sector participation i n  7  The interlockingsystem ofpolicymaking ministries, implementation agencies, a n d b u s i n e s s circles started t o c h a n g e i n the 1980s, h o w e v e r . Journalists, scholars a n d civic groups began to voice their skepticism a n d criticism about the g o v e r n m e n t ' s a i d projects a n d the o v e r a r c h i n g p o l i c y . W h i l e their accusations s o m e t i m e s l a c k e d objective analysis a n d e m p i r i c a l p r e c i s i o n , i n the process of the p u b l i c debate they d i d reveal the p r o b l e m s that h a d p l a g u e d the a i d establishment - theenlarged a n d inefficient bureaucracy, the lack of transparency i n project i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the scarcity of financial a n d h u m a n  Hirohisa Kohama, ODA no keizaigaku [Economics of ODA] (Tokyo: Nihon Hyoronsha, 1992), 33-34. Ministry of International Trade and Industry, ed., Tsusho Sangyo Seisakushi [The history of international trade and industry], 17 vols. (Tokyo: Tsusho Sangyo Chosakai, 1990), 9: 154. Margee M. Ensign, Doing Good or Doing Well? : Japan's Foreign Aid Program (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992). David Arase, Buying Power: The Political Economy ofJapan's Foreign Aid (Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995). For example, see Shafiqul Islam, ed., Yen for Development: Japanese Foreign Aid and the Politics ofBurden-Sharing (New York: Council of Foreign Relations Press, 1991). 3  4  5  6  7  3  resources i n the field a n d so forth. T h eaccusing voice became l o u d e n o u g h to m a k e its w a y into D i e t debates b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d o p p o s i t i o n parties. It i s u n d e r t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t c r i t i c s s t a r t e d t o p a y a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the lack of a clear a i d ' p h i l o s o p h y ' b e h i n d Japan's a i d policy. C r i t i c i s m s w o u l d fall o n the p o i n t that there is the m o n e y , b u t n o t the v i s i o n . T h e v o l u n t a r y sector u r g e d the g o v e r n m e n t to establish c o m p r e h e n s i v e a i d objectives focused o n humanitarian a n d developmental principles. M O F A h a d included h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as o n e o f t h e f i v e m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r J a p a n ' s e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n p o l i c y i n 1978, b u t a p p a r e n t l y that w a s n o t e n o u g h t o satisfy the critics.  8  S o m e o p p o s i t i o n party leaders f o r m e d a g r o u p w i t h civil  activists to s t u d y the C a n a d i a n a i d system o u t of other d o n o r countries a n d c o n c l u d e d that Japan s h o u l d be e q u i p p e d w i t h a unified a n d streamlined a i d ministry a n d a comprehensive aid law.  9  O p p o s i t i o n parties, w i t h the s u p p o r t of  non-governmental organizations (NGOs) engaged i n development aid, s u b m i t t e d r e f o r m bills to the Diet several times to be b l o c k e d b y the reluctant government. A l t h o u g h the calls for the r e f o r m d i d n o t y i e l d the desired result of the advocates, they d i d p r o m p t s o m e changes i n official policies t o w a r d N G O s . First, the g o v e r n m e n t created s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t N G O s to f u n d their a c t i v i t i e s a n d assist t h e i r efforts o f c a p a c i t y - b u i l d i n g . M o s t o f t h e s u b s i d y p r o g r a m s are a d m i n i s t e r e d b y M O F A , b u t other ministries have i n t r o d u c e d s i m i l a r s y s t e m s as w e l l . S e c o n d , there are n o w r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s b e t w e e n N G O s a n d M O F A , J I C A a n d J B I C r e s p e c t i v e l y a i m e d at r e c e i v i n g i n p u t f r o m the v o l u n t a r y sector a n d i n c o r p o r a t i n g their v i e w s into policy. N G O s are also p r e s e n t at g o v e r n m e n t - h o s t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences t o h a v e a s a y o n a i d a n d  Marie Soderberg, ed., The Business ofJapanese Foreign Aid (London; New York: Routledge, 1996), 35. Takako Doi, Yoshinori Murai, and Keiichi Yoshimura, ODA kaikaku: Kanadagikai karano teigen to Nihon no genjo [ODA reform: recommendations by Canada's parliament and the current situation in Japan] (Tokyo: Shakai Shisosha, 1990). 9  4  d e v e l o p m e n t . I n o r d e r to further foster the g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p , M O F A established a N G O d i v i s i o n a n d a post of N G O a m b a s s a d o r w i t h i n the m i n i s t r y . T h i r d , i n response to the g r o w i n g presence of v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s n o t o n l y i n d e v e l o p m e n t b u t i n other fields of activity, the g o v e r n m e n t enacted the N P O L a w i n 1998 to g i v e l e g a l status to s m a l l - s c a l e c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e L a w w a s r e v i s e d i n 2001 to better serve the n e e d s of its beneficiaries. S u d d e n l y , N G O s are e v e r y w h e r e . N o t o n l y d o they receive official s u p p o r t , b u t also they are the focus of m u c h fanfare i n g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d p o l i c y p a p e r s . T h e b u s i n e s s sector j o i n s the g o v e r n m e n t i n c h e e r i n g N G O s . T h e i m p o r t a n t role of the p r i v a t e sector i n c l u d i n g N G O s is r a i s e d i n the recent p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d announcements m a d e b y N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n (Japan Business Federation), the largest corporate association i n Japan. Q u e s t i o n s a r i s e , t h e n , as t o w h y t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s r e f o r m i n g t h e a i d p r o g r a m a n d b e c o m i n g m o r e i n c l u s i v e of N G O s . W h a t is the d r i v i n g force of the n e w t r e n d ? D o e s it o r i g i n a t e i n the g r o w i n g presence of N G O s o r i n the interests of M O F A ? D o e s the g r o w i n g N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i c a t e that the " m e r c a n t i l i s t " Japanese a i d is g o i n g u n d e r f u n d a m e n t a l change? W h a t are the p o s i t i o n s of M E T I a n d the b u s i n e s s sector, the major e c o n o m i c actors i n the a i d p r o g r a m , o n this issue?  Foregoing  Studies on Japan's  Aid  M o s t of the extant w o r k s o n Japan's a i d focus o n either its e c o n o m i c o r p o l i t i c a l aspect. T h e r e is g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t that Japan's a i d has, f r o m the outset, b e e n m o r e c l o s e l y t i e d t o e c o n o m i c o b j e c t i v e s t h a n t o o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s s u c h as h u m a n i t a r i a n n e e d or social d e v e l o p m e n t , the g a p of w h i c h is a source of criticism o n Japanese O D A . The relationship between Japan's a i d a n d Japan's  5  e c o n o m i c interests has b e e n the focus of several i m p o r t a n t studies of Japan's a i d u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g the past f e w d e c a d e s .  1 0  U n s a t i s f i e d w i t h the e c o n o m y - c e n t r i c analyses, D e n n i s Y a s u t o m o w r o t e a b o u t the p o l i t i c a l aspects of Japan's a i d strategy, f o c u s i n g o n its p o l i t i c i z a t i o n a n d g l o b a l i z a t i o n a n d has c o n t i n u e d a n interest i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g Japan's m o t i v a t i o n for a i d .  1 1  I n h i s m o r e recent w o r k , Y a s u t o m o e x p a n d e d h i s s t u d y to  l o o k t o t h e a s c e n d a n c e o f m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m i n J a p a n ' s a i d p o l i c y , i.e., t h e i n c r e a s e d unity of c o o r d i n a t i n g O D A w i t h fellow donors a n d c h a n n e l l i n g a i d t h r o u g h international institutions.  1 2  A l a n R i x focuses m o r e o n the i n t e r n a l w o r k i n g of a i d politics a n d a n a l y z e s the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process of a i d p o l i c y . H e e m p h a s i z e s the role of the b u r e a u c r a t s rather t h a n b i g businesses, a n d a r g u e s that a i d p o l i c y is n o t the c h i l d of p o l i t i c a l pressures, elite d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g or d e v e l o p m e n t a r g u m e n t s , a n d that bureaucratic interests are the m a i n d o m i n a n t s of the a r t i c u l a t i o n of Japan's a i d and economic cooperation policies.  1 3  H i s analyses of the b u r e a u c r a t i c m o d e l is  further d e v e l o p e d i n h i s 1993 s t u d y to e x p l a i n h o w it h i n d e r s the g r o w t h of a n e q u a l g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p , a l t h o u g h it stops s h o r t of p r o v i d i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o s i d e s .  1 4  T a k i n g a c r i t i c a l l o o k at s o m e f o r e g o i n g s t u d i e s t h a t c l a i m t h a t J a p a n ' s a i d has m o v e d a w a y f r o m its e c o n o m i c - c e n t r i c p r o g r a m i n t o a m o r e p o l i t i c a l one, D a v i d A r a s e illustrates i n h i s 1995 w o r k the s t r u c t u r a l i n c l u s i o n of p r i v a t e sector actors i n O D A p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g system. B a s e d o n his m e t i c u l o u s s t u d y of the e v o l u t i o n of the O D A s y s t e m , A r a s e argues that the present s y s t e m  10  Ensign, Doing  God;  Islam, ed.,  Yen for Development;  Sukehiro Hasegawa, Japanese  Foreign Aid:  Policy and Practice (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975).  Dennis T. Yasutomo, The Manner of Giving: Strategic Aid and Japanese Foreign Policy (Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1986). Dennis T. Yasutomo, The New Multilateralism in Japan's Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995). f Alan Rix, Japan's Economic Aid: Policy-Making am/.Pofozcs (London: Croom Helm, 1980). Alan Rix, Japan's Foreign Aid Challenge: Policy Reform and Aid Leadership (London; New York: Routledge, 1993). 11  12  13  14  6  is v i r t u a l l y t h e s a m e as t h e o n e t h a t w a s o r g a n i z e d a n d s t r u c t u r a l l y d e f i n e d i n the 1950s a n d 1960s, w h i c h w a s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d i n d u s t r i a l a n d t r a d e p o l i c y goals. A t the s a m e t i m e of r e v e a l i n g the e c o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n of Japan's O D A , A r a s e p o i n t s to the p o l i t i c a l usage of a i d b y M O F A , f o c u s i n g o n t u r f battles b e t w e e n the f o r e i g n m i n i s t r y a n d M E T I . H e c o n c l u d e s that " a l t h o u g h Japan's O D A has b e e n of critical i m p o r t a n c e to M O F A ' s d i p l o m a c y , it s h o u l d n o t be v i e w e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h o s e t e r m s . N o r s h o u l d O D A b e v i e w e d e x c l u s i v e l y as a n i n s t r u m e n t of e c o n o m i c policy, a l t h o u g h this aspect of O D A has b e e n underappreciated."  1 5  A l t h o u g h these f o r e g o i n g studies p r o v i d e the o v e r a l l f r a m e w o r k of Japan's aid p o l i c y a n d roles of major actors - bureaucrats, private corporations a n d international organizations - i n policy formulation a n d implementation, they r a r e l y s h e d l i g h t o n a n e m e r g i n g actor, the v o l u n t a r y sector. E v e n w h e n they d o , the g r o w t h of the v o l u n t a r y sector is often a t t r i b u t e d to the  government's  i n c o m p e t e n c e to d e a l w i t h the c h a n g i n g d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d a set o f i l l - d e f i n e d " i n t e r n a t i o n a l n o r m s " t h a t t a k e c i v i l s o c i e t y m o r e seriously.  1 6  A s i d e f r o m f a c t o r s s u c h as N G O c a m p a i g n s o n a i d i s s u e s a n d  g r o w i n g p u b l i c interest i n v o l u n t e e r i s m , o t h e r factors are o f t e n left o u t f r o m t h e i r analyses. T h e literature that takes bureaucratic or c o m m e r c i a l approaches i n s t u d y i n g a i d p o l i c y , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , o n l y p r e s e n t s i n s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n as to w h y a n d h o w the v o l u n t a r y sector has i n c r e a s e d its p r e s e n c e i n the a i d c o m m u n i t y heretofore d o m i n a t e d b y central ministries a n d corporations.  Arase, Buying Power, 231. Keiko Hirata, Civil Society in Japan: The Growing Role of NGOs in Tokyo's Aid and Development Policy (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002); Kim Reimann, "Building Global Civil Society from the Outside In? Japanese International Development NGOs, the State, and International Norms," chap. 14 in The State of Civil Society in Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). 15  16  7  T h i s thesis focuses o n the roles of the b u r e a u c r a c y a n d business a n d s t u d y h o w t h e y h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e m a k i n g o f N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y . It a r g u e s t h a t , a l t h o u g h the g r o w t h of the N G O c o m m u n i t y itself has p r o v i d e d a p r e m i s e o n w h i c h bureaucrats a n d business leaders c a n c u l t i v a t e the t h i r d sector, the g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y to i n v o l v e N G O s d e r i v e s f r o m the official a n d c o r p o r a t e c o m m u n i t i e s . F i r s t o f a l l , M O F A ' s d e s i r e to r e s h a p e O D A as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l r e q u i r e s the m i n i s t r y to w o r k w i t h N G O s . I n o r d e r to r e s h a p e O D A f r o m a n i n d u s t r y - s t i m u l a t i n g tool, w h i c h has been M E T I ' s preference, into a m o r e politically c h a r g e d d i p l o m a t i c tool, M O F A expects N G O s to fulfill a certain role i n the a i d s y s t e m . S e c o n d , s u p p o r t for N G O s a n d a d v o c a c y for the r o b u s t v o l u n t a r y sector c o m i n g f r o m the business sector has p l a y e d a s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n this p o l i c y shift. A s is the case w i t h M O F A , the c o r p o r a t e w o r l d s u p p o r t s N G O s for its o w n reasons. B y t e a m i n g u p w i t h N G O s to w o r k o n s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l issues, c o r p o r a t i o n s c a n d e a l w i t h p u b l i c d e m a n d to c o m p l y w i t h g o o d corporate citizenship a n d fulfill their social responsibility. In the course of e x a m i n i n g these t w o factors, attention w i l l be p a i d to the issues that arise f r o m the p r o - N G O policies of M O F A a n d the business sector respectively. O n e of the issues concerns p o l i c y d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n M O F A a n d M E T I . W h i l e M O F A is eager to i n c o r p o r a t e N G O s i n t o its p o l i c y f r a m e w o r k , M E T I adheres to the t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n of e c o n o m y - o r i e n t e d O D A . T h e d i v e r g e n c e s h o w s that the N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y is n o t essentially g o v e r n m e n t - w i d e a n d that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f O D A as a n e c o n o m i c - p r o m o t i o n t o o l s t i l l r e m a i n s i m p o r t a n t . A n o t h e r issue is the i n h e r e n t g a p b e t w e e n M O F A a n d N G O s despite the o n g o i n g p a r t n e r s h i p f o r m a t i o n . W i t h a case s t u d y of the O D A C h a r t e r a n d its r e v i s i o n , the thesis is g o i n g to d i s c u s s f u n d a m e n t a l difficulties l y i n g i n the c o o p e r a t i o n . T h e t h i r d issue concerns the d u p l i c i t y of the business sector's a g e n d a . A t the same t i m e of a d v o c a t i n g for N G O s a n d p r o v i d i n g t h e m w i t h v a r i o u s assistances, businesses l o b b y the g o v e r n m e n t for i n d u s t r i a l p r i o r i t i e s i n O D A , w h i c h c o m e at o d d s w i t h o b j e c t i v e s p u r s u e d b y  8  N G O s . Since these issues are r o o t e d i n the differing p r i n c i p l e s a n d objectives of e a c h of these actors i n the a i d system, f i n d i n g a p o i n t of s o l u t i o n or c o m p r o m i s e is n o e a s y t a s k .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , c h a p t e r 2 w i l l l o o k at d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s of the Japanese society, first the v o l u n t a r y sector, next M O F A a n d t h e n the business sector, to e x a m i n e h o w each of t h e m has c o n t r i b u t e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n of the recent official p o l i c y to e n c o u r a g e N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O D A . C h a p t e r 3 t h e n studies the i n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g these actors - h o w they cooperate a n d h o w their interests conflict w i t h one another. T h e roles of political o p p o s i t i o n parties a n d t r a d e u n i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to N G O i n i t i a t i v e s w i l l b e m e n t i o n e d as w e l l . F i n a l l y , chapter 4 c o n c l u d e the thesis b y d i s c u s s i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O D A p o l i c y a n d p o i n t i n g to s o m e issues for future c o n s i d e r a t i o n . O n a s u p p l e m e n t a r y note, Japanese n a m e s i n the text are g i v e n i n Japanese style w i t h s u r n a m e first.  9  CHAPTER II  ACTORS IN JAPAN'S ODA PROGRAM  The p r i m a r y focus of this chapter is o n a n a l y z i n g h o w the p o l i c y of facilitating N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O D A has c o m e about. W h o has c o n t r i b u t e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n of s u c h a p o l i c y a n d for w h a t reason? T h r o u g h the analyses of N G O s , M O F A and.the b u s i n e s s sector, the chapter seeks to assess these actors' incentives a n d priorities i n O D A policy, a n d h o w they h a v e w o r k e d to achieve them.  2.1 NGOs  E x c e p t for a f e w r e l a t i v e l y large-scale N G O s , m o s t of Japanese N G O s are s m a l l a n d n e w a n d operate o n a v e r y s m a l l financial base. A 2003 s u r v e y b y a joint c o m m i t t e e of M O F A a n d N G O s s h o w s that n e a r l y half of the N G O s s u r v e y e d operate w i t h the a n n u a l project b u d g e t of less t h a n ¥ 1 0 m i l l i o n ( F i g u r e 2.1).  1 7  F u r t h e r m o r e , m o s t concentrate their activities o n A s i a , w i t h others  s p r e a d i n g their w o r k o v e r A f r i c a , the Pacific a n d L a t i n A m e r i c a . M o s t , h o w e v e r , d o operate i n m o r e than one region. Japan N G O Center for International C o o p e r a t i o n , a m a j o r N G O n e t w o r k i n J a p a n , i d e n t i f i e s as t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s facing N G O s those of restricted f u n d i n g , lack of technical skills, insufficient s u p p o r t f r o m the general p u b l i c , i m m a t u r e d o m e s t i c n e t w o r k s a n d the difficulty o f t r a i n i n g a n d k e e p i n g staff. D e s p i t e s u c h difficulties, N G O s i n J a p a n are n o w a part of the a i d system, i n that m a n y of t h e m receive g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t a n d that they are g i v e n a n i n c r e a s i n g l y a m o u n t o f w e i g h t as l e g i t i m a t e a c t o r s . T h o u g h s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y w e a k , they are i n c r e a s i n g l y o r g a n i z e d , h a v e a g r o w i n g p u b l i c profile a n d are b e c o m i n g  17  Committee for Promoting Partnership between NGO and MOFA (NGO-Gaimusho renkei suishin iinkai), Gaimusho NGO shiensaku ni kansuru chosakekka hokoku [The Survey on MOFA's NGO support programs] (28 March 2003), http://www. janic.org/res/mofareport.pdf.  10  recognized by the government especially MOFA and the business community alike as having a legitimate role to play in aid delivery. This section focuses on this emerging sector of society and looks at how they play their part in the ODA system. As the first part of the section reveals, the N G O community is increasingly gaining larger presence in the heretofore government and business-led development aid, with other encouraging movements in Japan to nurture the voluntary sector. NGOs engaging in aid cooperation won official recognition as critical actors when they campaigned against aid scandals and called for reform in the 1980s. More recently, the positive reputation they earned through their activities in a couple of major disasters in the 1990s and the following legislation of the NPO Law have given them societal and institutional backup, albeit still to a limited extent. How these cases have increased their profile in the aid system will be explored later in the chapter. Figure 2.1 Annual budget of activities 8  5 50-100million 6 100-300 million 7 300-500million 8 500million-1 billion 9 more than 1 billion  6 14%  2 16%  5 7%  3 14%  4 17%  11  1: less than 1 million 2: 1-5million 3: 5-10million 4: 10-50million (yen)  Table 2.1 Each actor's involvement in the development of the NGO community  1960s 1970s  1980s  1990s  MOFA  NGOs NGOs.in early years - Christian organizations lncbrporate*ci"Jassociations Citizens/residents movements Indochinese refugee crisis (79)  Business Corporate philanthropy: •Domestic factors  Politicization of aid -> "Comprehensive security" (70s-80s)  Japanese branches of international Japanese companies NGOs operation -> B^^BlPfcB ;H^B^H:;^^^^ByIII Wt$Sie I f Kokusaika" - civic groups becoming Corporate philanthropy: aware of international issues Extefriilifactors  overseas  Aid campaigns  NGO support programs (89-)  UN conferences NGO networking  Gulf War -> Debates on international contribution  Earthquake (95), shipwreck (97) NPO Law (98)  Politicization of aid -> "Human security": aid for conflict -> Partnership with NGOs prevention and peacebuilding Study mission to North America - Four Principles (91) - JAHDS etc. ODA Charter (92), revision (03)  12  Institutional backup for corporate philanthropy - One"Percent Club, CBCC (89) Charter of Corporate Behaviour (91) etc.  2.1.1 The Development  of Japanese  NGOs  T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e J a p a n e s e N G O s e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o t h e 1980s w e r e either C h r i s t i a n i n o r i g i n government.  1 9  1 8  o r i n c o r p o r a t e d associations w i t h s t r o n g ties t o the  M o s t early N G O s p r o v i d i n g international assistance r e m a i n e d  w i t h i n Japan a n d i n v i t e d people f r o m the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d , p r i m a r i l y f r o m A s i a , to J a p a n t o r e c e i v e t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . E x c e p t i o n s to this r u l e - n o n r e l i g i o u s , unincorporated N G O s include Shapla Neer Citizens' Committee for Overseas S u p p o r t ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 7 2 ) , t h e P a c i f i c A s i a R e s o u r c e C e n t e r ( P A R C ) (1973), a n d A m n e s t y I n t e r n a t i o n a l J a p a n (1970). D o m e s t i c v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s s p r a w l e d r a p i d l y d u r i n g this p e r i o d as w e l l . The citizens' or resident movements  (shimin o r jumin undo) m o b i l i z e d l a r g e  n u m b e r s o f o r d i n a r y a p o l i t i c a l Japanese f r o m t h e 1960s t h r o u g h t h e e a r l y 1970s, b u t these m o v e m e n t s t e n d e d to be locally based a n d l i m i t e d to protesting against specific grievances. A m e l i o r a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t policies d a m p e n e d their activity, a n d m a n y d i s b a n d e d once they achieved their i m m e d i a t e goals. C i v i c i n v o l v e m e n t e x p e r i e n c e d a r e s u r g e n c e i n t h e m i d - t o late 1980s, h o w e v e r , a n d has g r o w n substantially since then. S c h w a r t z attributes this resurgence to the lack of flexibility a n d resources to cope w i t h increasingly c o m p l e x socioeconomic issues, a n d t h e fact t h a t m o r e a n d m o r e c i t i z e n s h a v e r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e i r o w n initiatives.  2 0  O n e t r i g g e r i n g event that stimulated the creation of m o r e N G O s i n the e a r l y y e a r s w a s t h e I n d o c h i n e s e refugee c r i s i s i n t h e late 1970s a n d e a r l y 1980s as m a n y r e f u g e e s w e r e f l e e t i n g t o J a p a n after a s e r i e s o f w a r s b r o k e o u t i n Indochina, the mass m e d i a , particularly television, appealed to Japanese w i t h The Japan Overseas Christian Medical Cooperative Service, established in 1960 (the first Japanese NGO); the Asian Rural Institute, established in 1973; and the Christian Child Welfare Association International Sponsorship Program, established in 1975. The Organization for Industrial, Spiritual and Cultural Advancement International (OISCA), established in 1961 and incorporated in 1969 under the jurisdiction of MOFA, MITI, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and the Ministry of Labor; and JOICEF, established and incorporated in 1968 under the jurisdiction of MOFA and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Schwartz and Pharr, eds., The State of Civil Society, 8-9. 18  1 9  2 0  13  v i v i d i m a g e s of refugees, w h i c h m o v e d Japanese i n d i v i d u a l s to take a c t i o n to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e . T h u s s o m e N G O s e m e r g e d at t h e V i e t n a m - T h a i b o r d e r , s u c h as the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r C e n t e r ( J V C ) a n d the J a p a n S o t o s h u R e l i e f C o m m i t t e e . T h e c r i s i s a l s o g a v e b i r t h to the A s s o c i a t i o n to A i d R e f u g e e s , the first Japanese relief o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e c i a l i z i n g i n assistance to refugees i n 1979. Starting i n the mid-1980s, international organizations h e a d q u a r t e r e d  abroad  b e g a n to e s t a b l i s h their Japanese branches. F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1986, S a v e the C h i l d r e n Japan w a s established, followed b y C A R E Japan a n d W o r l d V i s i o n J a p a n i n the f o l l o w i n g year. G r e e n p e a c e J a p a n i n 1989, M e d e c i n s sans F r o n t i e r e s J a p a n i n 1992, a n d O x f a m J a p a n i n 1999 f o l l o w e d suit. A s J a p a n got integrated i n t o the g l o b a l e c o n o m y , Japanese i n v e s t m e n t overseas increased, b r i n g i n g a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of f o r e i g n w o r k e r s to the c o u n t r y . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " (kokusaika) b e c a m e a h o u s e h o l d t e r m a t t h e t i m e for d e s c r i b i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p a c t a n d d r a m a t i c c h a n g e i n Japanese society d u r i n g this p e r i o d . A l o t of grassroots o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a m e i n t o b e i n g to p r o v i d e s u p p o r t for f o r e i g n residents i n J a p a n o r to e n g a g e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e . T h u s the 1980s w i t n e s s e d a s u r g e i n the n u m b e r of J a p a n e s e N G O s . O t h e r d i v e r s e e x o g e n o u s factors h a v e i n f l u e n c e d the d e v e l o p m e n t of N G O s a t t h e t i m e . It i s w i d e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n 1992 i n R i o d e Janeiro w a s a w a t e r s h e d  event  for Japan's N G O m o v e m e n t . Japan's N G O s g a i n e d m o m e n t u m t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i v e U N c o n f e r e n c e s , s u c h as t h e W o r l d C o n f e r e n c e o n H u m a n R i g h t s i n V i e n n a i n 1993, the International C o n f e r e n c e o n P o p u l a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n C a i r o i n 1994, the W o r l d S u m m i t for S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t i n C o p e n h a g e n i n 1995, a n d F o u r t h W o r l d C o n f e r e n c e o n W o m e n i n Beijing i n 1995. W h e r e a s past U N conferences o n l y a d m i t t e d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of N G O s that operate internationally, these c o n f e r e n c e s i n the 1990s i n v i t e d s m a l l e r - s c a l e d o m e s t i c N G O s as o b s e r v e r s , w h i c h a l l o w e d tens of t h o u s a n d s of N G O officials to attend the meetings. A s a result, these conferences b r o u g h t together N G O s that h a d b e e n w o r k i n g  14  separately i n their o w n fields. N G O s w e r e b e c o m i n g a w a r e of the cross-cutting issues a n d c o m m o n concerns, a n d b e g a n to establish n e t w o r k s a m o n g themselves. T h i s t r e n d w a s w i t n e s s e d i n J a p a n as w e l l . U n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1990s, there h a d been only a f e w N G O networks i n Japan, i n c l u d i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n for Indochinese Refugees, Japan N G O Center for International C o o p e r a t i o n ( J A N I C ) , a n d several regional associations i n N a g o y a , O s a k a a n d K y o t o . Since the early 1990s, h o w e v e r , t h e n u m b e r a n d s c o p e o f n e t w o r k s s t a r t e d t o increase. R e g i o n a l n e t w o r k s w e r e c r e a t e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y i n c l u d i n g F u k u o k a (1993), S a i t a m a (1996), Y o k o h a m a (1997) a n d O k i n a w a (1999). N e t w o r k s f o c u s e d o n particular fields of activity include the N G O Conference o n International E m e r g e n c y R e l i e f (1992), J A N N E T (1993), J a p a n E m e r g e n c y N G O s (1994) a n d O D A R e f o r m N e t w o r k (1996). T h o s e o n s p e c i f i c c o u n t r i e s o r r e g i o n s i n c l u d e N i p p o n N G O N e t w o r k f o r N e p a l (1993), S h a n t i V o l u n t e e r A s s o c i a t i o n ( f o c u s e d o n C a m b o d i a , 1 9 9 3 ) a n d A f r i c a J a p a n F o r u m (1994). S t i l l o t h e r n e t w o r k s w e r e created a m o n g the N G O s participating i n international campaigns, i n c l u d i n g J a p a n C a m p a i g n t o B a n L a n d m i n e s (1997), K i k o N e t w o r k ( f o c u s e d o n g l o b a l w a r m i n g , 1998) a n d J u b i l e e 2000 J a p a n (1999).  Katsuji Imata and Katsuhiro Harada, eds., Kokusai NGOs] (Tokyo: Nihon Hyoronsha, 2004), 33-34.  15  21  Kyoryoku NGO  [International cooperation  Figure 2.2 Number of NGOs established 90r 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1  a  pre- 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 1969  A s a result, the n u m b e r of N G O s established for the p u r p o s e of e n g a g i n g i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y s i n c e the 1980s: 8 at the e n d o f the 1960s. W h e r e a s there h a d b e e n o n l y 8 s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r i o r t o 1969, 9 n e w o n e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y 1970s a n d 18 later i n t h e d e c a d e . T h e n u m b e r of n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s j u m p e d to 34 d u r i n g 1980-84,41 d u r i n g 1985-89, a n d 88 i n t h e first h a l f o f the 1990s ( F i g u r e 2.2).  2 2  H o w e v e r , statistics  s h o w that the international d e v e l o p m e n t N G O sector i n J a p a n is still r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n J a p a n b y i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards. O f the 230 o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a 2001 J A N I C survey, 40% operated w i t h annual revenue of n o m o r e than ¥ 2 0 million. O n a v e r a g e , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u r v e y e d r e l i e d 10.1 % o f t h e i r r e v e n u e o n g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s a n d c o n t r a c t s , 5.4% o n s u b s i d i e s f r o m p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s a n d 3.2% o n U N contracts. I n t e r m s o f p e r s o n n e l , 4 1 % o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d n o m o r e t h a n f i v e p a i d staff a n d 1 7 % h a d n o p a i d s t a f f a t a l l .  2.1.2 How NGOs Have Increased  Their Presence in the Aid  2 3  System  Aid Campaigns in the 1980s  2 2  Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation (JANIC), Directory (Tokyo: JANIC, 2002). Ibid.  Concerned with International Cooperation 2 3  16  ofJapanese NGOs  C r i t i c i s m s o f the a i d e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n the 1980s d i d m u c h to increase p u b l i c awareness a n d to give prominence to development N G O s a n d other advocacy groups, w h i c h until then h a d been marginalized a n d rarely heard. In some O D A projects, O D A m o n e y w a s s k i m m e d to g o into the pockets o f leaders o f c o r r u p t o r a u t h o r i t a r i a n g o v e r n m e n t s i n the r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s , as is the case w i t h S o u t h K o r e a a n d the P h i l i p p i n e s . I n other cases i n T h a i l a n d , B u r m a , I n d i a , B a n g l a d e s h a n d E g y p t , Japanese c o m p a n i e s w o n project contracts t h r o u g h d u b i o u s processes. Still others i n v o l v e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l destruction i n P a p u a N e w G u i n e a a n d other countries. T h e s e s c a n d a l s , m i s m a n a g e m e n t s a n d n e g a t i v e effects o n t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y w e r e c o v e r e d extensively b y the m a i n s t r e a m m e d i a . B y d o i n g so the m e d i a p l a y e d a crucial role i n e x p o s i n g some d e e p - r u n n i n g p r o b l e m s to p u b l i c attention. Japan's O D A first r e c e i v e d serious treatment b y journalists i n the early 1 9 7 0 s . Sankei Shimbun f o r m e d a n i n v e s t i g a t i v e g r o u p t o r e v e a l J a p a n e s e c o m m e r c i a l p r e d o m i n a n c e i n s o m e O D A projects i n Southeast A s i a w i t h little r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h e l p i n g t h e p o o r ; Y a m a m o t o M i t s u r u , a Japan Times j o u r n a l i s t , w r o t e that almost a l l the beneficiaries of Japan's " e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n " w e r e J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s rather t h a n r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s . I n t h e 1980s, m e d i a c o v e r a g e o f O D A i s s u e s b e c a m e e v e n m o r e e x t e n s i v e a n d s h a r p e r , a s e x e m p l i f i e d b y Asahi Shimbun a n d Mainichi  Shimbun r e s p e c t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h i n g i n v e s t i g a t i v e g r o u p s t o  s u r v e y c o n t e m p o r a r y a i d p o l i c y . T h e 1986 s c a n d a l o v e r t h e c o r r u p t i o n i n Japanese a i d to the P h i l i p p i n e s s p u r r e d another w a v e of m e d i a exposes, b r i n g i n g about calls for O D A r e f o r m .  2 4  A m i d s t the p o o l of scandals a n d m e d i a reports, the toughest critics came f r o m the a c a d e m i a . A c a d e m i c s are prolific a n d m a d e a s t r o n g case b a s e d o n p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a i d f i e l d . I n t h e 1990s, the m o s t w i d e l y c i t e d a r e S u m i  Arase, Buying  Power,  109-110.  17  Kazuo and Murai Yoshinori.  2 5  T h e i r criticism centered o n mercantilist objectives  of Japanese O D A , c o r r u p t i o n i n v o l v i n g elites b o t h i n J a p a n a n d r e c i p i e n t countries, O D A projects w i t h little r e g a r d to local i n h a b i t a n t s ' q u a l i t y of life, a n d lack o f effectiveness o f the O D A a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M e d i a coverage a n d publication described above stimulated N G O m o v e m e n t a i m e d at O D A r e f o r m . F o l l o w i n g the m e d i a r e v e l a t i o n a n d publications, Japanese citizens started f o r m i n g grassroots groups to investigate how  the g o v e r n m e n t m a n a g e s t h e a i d projects. O n e s u c h g r o u p is t h e R e c o n s i d e r  A i d C i t i z e n s ' L e a g u e ( R E A L ) , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1986 b y M u r a i Y o s h i n o r i . R E A L i s Japan's first N G O d e d i c a t e d to r e f o r m i n g Japanese a i d . T o further  promote  investigation o na i d , M u r a i a n d others established another g r o u p called the O D A I n v e s t i g a t i o n S t u d y G r o u p i n 1988. T h e J a p a n T r o p i c a l N e t w o r k ( J A T A N ) i s y e t a n o t h e r N G O n e t w o r k set u p b y t w e l v e l i k e - m i n d e d N G O s i n 1987. J A T A N l a u n c h e d c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l a i d p r o j e c t s t h a t h a d n e g a t i v e effect o n local e n v i r o n m e n t a n d residents' welfare. These events illustrate a n u m b e r ofimportant developments i n the a i d scene i n J a p a n i n recent years: first, t h e e m p h a s i s i n p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m o n p a r t i c u l a r aspects ofa i d p r o g r a m ; second, theappearance ofpressure g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g N G O s w o r k i n g o n the field, s u p p o r t i n g o r attacking parts of the a i d p r o g r a m ; a n d t h i r d , t h e increase i n p u b l i c interest b o t h i n the a i d p o l i c y as a w h o l e a n d i n civic o r g a n i z a t i o n s e n g a g e d i n this issue.  )  The 1995 Earthquake: An Impetus The 1990s s a w a series o f events that l e d t o p o p u l a r i z e , l e g i t i m i z e , a n d p r o m o t e v o l u n t a r y w o r k b y e x p o s i n g the importance of v o l u n t e e r i s m to the  Kazuo Sumi, ODA Enjo no Genjitsu [The reality of ODA aid] (Tokyo: Iwanami Shinsho, 1990); Sumi, Kirawareru Enjo: Segin-Nihon no Enjo to Narumada Damn [Unappreciated aid: aid by the World Bank and Japan for Narmada Dam] (Tokyo: Tsukiji Shokan, 1990); and Sumi, No Moa O D A ; Baramaki Enjo [No more ODA, an aid spree] (Tokyo: JICC Shuppan Kyoku, 1992); Yoshinori Murai, Nippon no ODA [Japan's ODA] (Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo, 1992); and Murai, Musekinin Enjo Taikoku Nippon [Japan, the irresponsible aid donor] (Tokyo: JICC Shuppan Kyoku, 1989). 2 5  18  national livelihood. N G O s a n d thousands of i n d i v i d u a l volunteers r e s p o n d e d q u i c k l y to disasters of the G r e a t H a n s h i n e a r t h q u a k e i n 1995 a n d the s h i p w r e c k i n 1997, a n d o r g a n i z e d themselves to p r o v i d e relief a n d assistance to the affected c o m m u n i t i e s . W h e n b o t h the central a n d local g o v e r n m e n t s w e r e p a r a l y z e d b y official r e d tape a n d e x p o s e d their inability a n d inefficiency i n s u c h situations, the w o r k of the v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s attracted attention of politicians, business leaders a n d the general p u b l i c . N G O s w e r e n o w g a i n i n g the p u b l i c a n d official s u p p o r t essential to s u s t a i n i n g their w o r k . D i s c u s s i o n s o n the necessity to i m p r o v e the l e g a l s t a n d i n g of m a n y N G O s g a i n e d m o m e n t u m after these events. P u t u n d e r the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f the century-old C i v i l Code, m a n y N G O s were operating w i t h o u t legal standing, w h i c h h a d p u t t h e m at d i s a d v a n t a g e i n c o l l e c t i n g f u n d s a n d d o n a t i o n s f r o m t h e public a n d consolidating their organizational bases.  2 6  Citizen groups and N G O s  e s t a b l i s h e d a c o a l i t i o n i n 1994 to s u p p o r t n e w l e g i s l a t i o n that w o u l d e n a b l e p r i v a t e g r o u p s to i n c o r p o r a t e o u t s i d e the j u r i s d i c t i o n o r i n f l u e n c e of g o v e r n m e n t agencies. B e t w e e n 1995 a n d 1998, the d r a f t i n g p r o c e s s of the l e g i s l a t i o n i n v o l v e d political parties, D i e t m e m b e r s a n d citizen g r o u p s , a l l of w h o m are u s u a l l y o u t s i d e the b u r e a u c r a t s - d o m i n a t e d p r o c e s s . C i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as J a p a n N P O C e n t e r a n d the C o a l i t i o n for L e g i s l a t i o n to S u p p o r t C i t i z e n s ' O r g a n i z a t i o n s  This problem originates in the more than a century-old stipulation of the Civil Code, which was promulgated in 1896 and is still in effect. Article 33 of the code requires that all legal persons be formed in accordance with its regulations. And while Article 35 provides for the establishment of for-profit organizations, Article 34, instead of providing for a corresponding category of non-profit organizations, only provided for the much narrower category of "public interest corporations" (koeki hojin). Specifically, "an incorporated association or foundation relating to worship, religion, charity, science, art or otherwise relating to public interests and not having for its object the acquisition of gain may be made a juridical person subject to the permission of the competent authorities." Besides having to go through the lengthy application process of the competent state authority, groups that are to have legal recognition must have solid financial base. The Civil Code stipulates that successful applicants have to have a "sound financial basis," and government agencies generally interpreted that clause to require an endowment of at least ¥300 million (about $3 million), which exceeds most NGOs' budget. For most groups that are nonprofit but not in the "public interest," the code creates a legal blind spot since there is no legal category for them to exist. As a result, they are reduced to operating as informal, voluntary groups.  19  l o b b i e d f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a n d at the s a m e t i m e f u n c t i o n e d as o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e N G O c o m m u n i t y b y gathering a n d disseminating information. After the l o n g a n d heated deliberations, the so-called N P O L a w ( L a w to P r o m o t e Specified N o n p r o f i t Activities) passed the Diet o n M a r c h 25,1998 a n d w e n t i n t o effect i n D e c e m b e r o f t h a t y e a r . U n d e r t h e n e w l a w , P r e f e c t u r a l authorities h a v e to grant corporate status to n o n p r o f i t g r o u p s w h e n they are e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e l a w ; i t i s n o l o n g e r left t o the d i s c r e t i o n of n a t i o n a l m i n i s t r i e s .  2 7  2.2 Ministry of Foreign Affairs G i v e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f J a p a n e s e N G O s as d e t a i l e d a b o v e , t h i s s e c t i o n l o o k s at M O F A a n d its incentives b e h i n d the m o v e m e n t to i n v o l v e N G O s i n the aid p r o g r a m . S o m e studies suggest that the government's role is d i m i n i s h i n gi n the p o s t - C o l d W a r era. P u r n e n d r a J a i n a r g u e s that f o r e i g n p o l i c y is n o l o n g e r the sole preserve of Japan's central g o v e r n m e n t a n d that nonstate actors are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l affairs  2 8  W h i l e s u c h a n a r g u m e n t h o l d s true to  some extent a n d p r o v i d e s partial explanation for M O F A ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e policy, it d o e s n o t s h o w t h e m i n i s t r y ' s u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v e s . A m i x t u r e o f d o m e s t i c a n d international factors explains the rise o f N G O s i n Japan's f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a n d w h y M O F A has come to encourage their participation to m a k e t h e m serve the m i n i s t r y ' s interests. M O F A ' s p r i m a r y goal i n O D A is m o r e political than economic. M o r e specifically, the m i n i s t r y first a n d foremost seeks to i m p r o v e Japan's profile a n d g a i n d i p l o m a t i c leverage i n the international arena, a n d to u t i l i z e O D A for that  The NPO Law offers no tax privileges because of the opposition from the bureaucracy to granting tax deductibility fro contributions to NPOs. The law, however, provided for a review of the issue within three years of the time it went into effect, and the government finally began to permit the deductibility of contributions to "approved specified nonprofit corporations" (nintei NPO hojin). Purnendra Jain, "Emerging Foreign Policy Actors: Subnational Governments and Nongovernmental Organization," chap. 2 in Japanese Foreign Policy Today: A Reader (New York: Palgrave, 2000). 2 8  20  purpose. A s a consequence, internationally, M O F A has always been sensitive to the issues a n d p r i o r i t i e s e n d o r s e d b y s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s ( U N ) a n dthe O r g a n i z a t i o n for E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( O E C D ) , w h i l e d o m e s t i c a l l y it is c o m m i t t e d to g a r n e r i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t for a i d . T o satisfy s u c h p o l i t i c a l d e m a n d s , M O F A h a s f o u n d p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s useful. T h e first p a r t o f this s e c t i o n focuses o n M O F A ' s efforts t o a t t a c h p o l i t i c a l importance to O D A . M O F A carefully observes the international context of a i d a n d tries t o c o n f o r m t o it. T h e s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t w o cases o f a i d p o l i t i c i z a t i o n b y M O F A , o n e i n t h e 1970s a n d t h e o t h e r i n t h e 1990s a n d o n w a r d . T h e politicization of a i d i n the past t w o decades has m a d e it i n c u m b e n t for M O F A to i n v o l v e N G O s i n its O D A p r o g r a m s . The second part then looks to h o w the politicization is translated into actual policies. T h e first part o f the section studies h o w M O F A ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y is d i s c u s s e d a n d d e v e l o p e d at v a r i o u s official f o r u m s . T h e s e c o n d p a r t reviews M O F A - l e d support programs for N G O s .  2.2.1 Politicization  of Aid  U t i l i z i n g f o r e i g n a i d as a d i p l o m a t i c t o o l d i d n o t s u d d e n l y b e g i n i n t h e 1 9 9 0 s . I n fact, p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f a i d s t a r t e d t o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s a n d accelerated i n the next decade. A t that time, T o k y o r e d u c e d o r w i t h h e l d a i d to the Socialist R e p u b l i c o f V i e t n a m , C a m b o d i a , C u b a , A n g o l a , A f g h a n i s t a n a n d E t h i o p i a for political reasons.  2 9  I n d e e d , as Y a s u t o m o m a i n t a i n s , i n t h e 1980s  " f o r e i g n a i d p o l i c y h a s e m e r g e d as the c e n t e r p i e c e o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y ' s non-military components a n d a central pillar of overall foreign p o l i c y . "  3 0  Japan joined boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and instituted economic sanctions against the Soviet Union following the invasion of Afghanistan; it froze aid to Vietnam after the invasion and occupation of Kampuchea; it instituted economic sanctions against Iran for the taking of American hostages in 1979; it refused economic assistance to Poland for the treatment of the labor union Solidarity. 2 9  30  Yasutomo, The Manner, 5. 21  Early Discussion of ODA as a Foreign Policy Tool: The Study Group on Comprehensive Security T h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d p r o v i d i n g O D A has e v o l v e d over time. After c o m p l e t i n g its r e p a r a t i o n s w i t h its f i n a l p a y m e n t to the P h i l i p p i n e s i n J u l y 1976, i n 1 9 7 8 " J a p a n ' s r o l e as. a n e c o n o m i c c i v i l i a n p o w e r i n a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y " w a s a d d e d to J a p a n ' s a i d rationale, w h i c h h a d i n c l u d e d export p r o m o t i o n and interdependence  i n the p r e v i o u s d e c a d e s .  3 1  The  g o v e r n m e n t e x p a n d e d O D A v o l u m e t h r o u g h a series of m e d i u m - t e r m O D A p l a n s that d o u b l e d the O D A d i s b u r s e m e n t i n five-year intervals. A l o n g w i t h these quantitative leaps i n O D A d i s b u r s e m e n t s c a m e p o l i c y articulations. O n e of s u c h early m o v e s c a n be seen i n the creation of the concept " c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y . " I n 1978 P r i m e M i n i s t e r O h i r a M a s a y o s h i c o m m i s s i o n e d the Research G r o u p o n C o m p r e h e n s i v e Security to r e c o m m e n d l o n g - t e r m n a t i o n a l policies to the e n d of the century. I n the m i d s t of the S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n a n d the s u b s e q u e n t U . S . p r e s s u r e o n J a p a n to i n c r e a s e its m i l i t a r y role i n W e s t e r n security, the s t u d y g r o u p ' s r e p o r t p u t f o r t h a n e w concept of " c o m p r e h e n s i v e security"  (sogo anzen hosho), w h i c h w a s m e a n t t o  p r o v i d e "the p r o t e c t i o n of the p e o p l e ' s l i v e l i h o o d against v a r i o u s threats." A c c o r d i n g to the s t u d y g r o u p , the concept w o u l d r e q u i r e the c o o r d i n a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , a n d m i l i t a r y p o l i c i e s at v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f J a p a n ' s d i p l o m a c y . F o r this e n d the r e p o r t s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e s the n e e d to use O D A i n the n e w c o m p r e h e n s i v e security s t r a t e g y .  3 2  T h e " c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y " d e b a t e at t h e s t u d y g r o u p  encouraged  M O F A to suggest the r e o r i e n t a t i o n of a i d w i t h m o r e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n . M O F A f o r m e d a s t u d y g r o u p w i t h i n the m i n i s t r y ' s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u , w h i c h p r o d u c e d a r e p o r t i n N o v e m b e r 1990 to a r g u e for a n O D A w i t h m o r e  Akiko Fukushima, "Official Development Assistance (ODA) as a Japanese Foreign Policy Tool," chap. 9 in Japanese Foreign Policy Today: A Reader (New York: Palgrave, 2000). Arase, Buying Power, 227.  31  3 2  22  strategic p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , the r e p o r t states that O D A c o u l d be u s e d t o e n h a n c e t h e s e c u r i t y o f J a p a n ' s sea-lanes b y t a r g e t i n g l i t t o r a l states. The report also argues for " O D A d i p l o m a c y , " w i t h w h i c h concept Japan c o u l d expect to cultivate political influence i n the n o n - W e s t e r n w o r l d . I n other w o r d s , w i t h this report M O F A began to diverge f r o m the traditional, economic-based O D A favoured by METI. M O F A ' s d i v e r g e c a n be t r a c e d i n the w o r d i n g c h a n g e at the t i m e as w e l l . I n the e a r l y 1980s, M O F A started i n t r o d u c i n g s e m a n t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s t o d i s t i n g u i s h O D A from  keizai kyoryoku, t h e t e r n f a v o u r e d b y M E T I . W h e r e a s i n 1 9 7 8 M O F A  w a s still u s i n g the t e r m  seifu-beesu keizai kyoryoku ( g o v e r n m e n t - b a s e d e c o n o m i c  c o o p e r a t i o n ) to refer to O D A , this t e r m w o u l d d i s a p p e a r f r o m M O F A ' s u s a g e b y 1980, t o b e r e p l a c e d b y  seifu ka.ih.atsu enjo ( o f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t a n c e ) .  3 3  The  titles o f a n n u a l w h i t e p a p e r s p u b l i s h e d b y M E T I a n d M O F A r e s p e c t i v e l y are clear e x a m p l e s of the t e r m i n o l o g i c a l difference. W h i l e M E T I titled its w h i t e paper as  Keizai Kyoryoku no Genjo to Mondaiten ( T h e C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n a n d I s s u e s o f  Economic Cooperation),  3 4  M O F A has chosen  Seifu Kaihatsu Enjo Hakusho ( W h i t e  P a p e r o n Official D e v e l o p m e n t Assistance) for its a n n u a l p u b l i c a t i o n .  Politicization in the 1990s and Onward: Gulf War, Search for Aid Principles, and the Announcement of the Guidelines I n t e r n a t i o n a l events i n the 1990s p r o m p t e d d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n t h e government, especially M O F A , o n the direction to w h i c h a i d s h o u l d be oriented. After the G u l f W a r , d i s c u s s i o n o n the q u e s t i o n of h o w J a p a n c o u l d best contribute to global peace a n d security, a n d enhance its profile i n the international c o m m u n i t y focused o n the possibilities of Japanese participation i n U N peacekeeping operations. H o w e v e r , the scope of this d i s c u s s i o n s o o n  Ibid., 228-29. METI's keizai kyoryoku white paper was first published in 1958. After publishing the last one in 2000, METI has incorporated it into another white paper on more general economic and trade issues, Tsusho Hakusho (White Paper on International Economy and Trade).  33  3 4  23  i n c l u d e d J a p a n ' s O D A . O D A c a m e i n t o t h e s p o t l i g h t as o n e o f o n l y a f e w m e a n s b y w h i c h J a p a n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y . D o m e s t i c debates r e v e a l e d g r o w i n g frustrations w i t h i n the m e d i a , o p p o s i t i o n parties, a n d s o m e parts of the g o v e r n m e n t that Japan's a i d o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d e c o n o m i c criteria a n d p a i d insufficient a t t e n t i o n to p o l i t i c a l c r i t e r i a .  3 5  S u c h f r u s t r a t i o n w a s m o s t k e e n l y felt i n M O F A , w h o s e d i p l o m a t i c interests h a d often conflicted w i t h M E T I ' s economic orientation i n d e s i g n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g a i d . A f o r m e r a i d official i n M O F A reflects the p a s t d e c a d e s a n d d e s c r i b e s J a p a n e s e a i d p o l i c y at t h a t t i m e as f o l l o w s : " T h e p r i m a r y p o l i c y g o a l o f J a p a n , w h i c h w a s r e c o v e r i n g f r o m t h e d e v a s t a t i o n o f W o r l d W a r II, w a s t o b e a g o o d b o y to be a c c e p t e d b y the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y . J a p a n ' s a c c e s s i o n to O E C D w a s based o n s u c h t h i n k i n g . J a p a n w a s desperate to catch u p w i t h A m e r i c a n a n d E u r o p e a n countries a n d to b e c o m e a n a i d d o n o r just l i k e t h e m . W e s i m p l y d i d n o t h a v e c a p a c i t y to take l e a d e r s h i p i n the a i d c o m m u n i t y d u r i n g the 1970s a n d 1 9 8 0 s . "  3 6  O t h e r officials h a v e m a d e s i m i l a r r e m a r k s , a n d they a l l  agree that Japan h a d been reactive a n d b u s y catching u p w i t h others a n d that Japan's past a i d p o l i c y l a c k e d o v e r a r c h i n g v i e w s . W i t h the o n g o i n g c h a n g e s o u t s i d e J a p a n , the c o u n t r y w a s c h a l l e n g e d to a r t i c u l a t e a v i s i o n o f its i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e - n o t s i m p l y as a n a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c t r a n s a c t i o n s ,  but  s o m e t h i n g m o r e . A s M O F A s o u g h t to d i s c o v e r w h a t that r o l e w o u l d be, the m i n i s t r y w a s w e l l a w a r e t h a t O D A is a n i m p o r t a n t t o o l to c u l t i v a t e its international political leadership.  Development Assistance for Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding: An International Context  Bruce M. Koppel and Robert M. Orr, Jr., eds., Japan's Foreign Aid: Power and Policy in a Era (Boulder, Colorado; Oxford: Westview Press, 1993), 360. "ODA purojekuto seiko no joken toha nanika" [Conditions for successful ODA projects], Forum (February 1995): 50-59. 3 6  24  New  Gaiko  A n e w m o v e i n the p o s t - C o l d W a r d o n o r c o m m u n i t y has g i v e n M O F A a n o p p o r t u n i t y to cultivate a n d politicize O D A i n a n e w framework. Since the e n d of the C o l d W a r , the D e v e l o p m e n t Assistance C o m m i t t e e ( D A C ) of O E C D has a n n o u n c e d a n u m b e r of policy statements o n the link b e t w e e n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d peace.  3 7  A series of D A C statements a n d g u i d e l i n e s u n d e r s c o r e the role of  d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n i n conflict p r e v e n t i o n a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g . D A C calls o n governments, intergovernmental a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations to address the root causes of the p o s t - C o l d W a r crises a n d to c o o r d i n a t e their w o r k for that purpose.  3 8  D A C further spells out the role of d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n i n  d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f c o n f l i c t a n d p e a c e i n t h e 2001  guidelines.  International financial institutions i n c l u d i n g the W o r l d B a n k a n d the International M o n e t a r y F u n d also a c k n o w l e d g e the n e e d to address c o n f l i c t  3 9  S i m i l a r l y , d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n as a n effective t o o l f o r c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n h a s b e e n o n the a g e n d a at the G r o u p o f E i g h t (G8) m e e t i n g s .  4 0  Major statements are as follows: Development Co-operation in the 1990s: Policy Statement by DAC Aid Ministers and Heads of Aid Agencies, December 1989; Shaping the 21 ' Century: The Contribution of Development Co-operation, 1996; Conflict, Peace, and Development Co-operation on the Threshold of the 21 ' Century, May 1997; The DAC Guidelines: Poverty Reduction, 2001; The DAC Guidelines: Helping Prevent Violent Conflict, 2001. s  s  In its 1997 guidelines, for instance, DAC states that economic growth alone, for which traditional aid has been allocated, does not prevent or resolve conflict. The 2001 guidelines stresses the important role of development assistance in every phase of violent conflict. In the pre-conflict phase, development assistance can promote democracy and good governance. One a conflict breaks out, development cooperation agencies can provide humanitarian relief, at the same time of supporting longer-term development processes. In the transitional period of post-conflict, development assistance can facilitate transformation of the fragile situation into stability and promote reconciliation among the local people The World Bank established the Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit to conduct research and analysis on conflict and poverty, the two factors which in many latest developing countries form a vicious cycle and disrupt the Bank's financing activities. The IMF works with the World Bank to break the chains of underdevelopment and conflict in what it terms as "Low Income Countries under Stress." In the G8 summit meeting June 1999 in Cologne and the foreign ministers' meeting six months later in Berlin, conflict prevention was an issue of high priority. In the 2000 meeting in Miyazaki, the issue was highlighted again; development assistance was included among the five G8 initiatives to be implemented for "addressing root causes of conflict," "extending flexible, quick assistance" to prevent conflict, and "ensuring a smooth transitionfromemergency humanitarian assistance to development in the post-conflict stage." Cooperation with NGOs is also stressed in implementing these initiatives (G8 2000). 3 8  3 9  4 0  25  I n s p i r e d b y the i n t e r n a t i o n a l context, M O F A , u n d e r the n e w c o n c e p t of " h u m a n s e c u r i t y , " h a s b e g u n to r e s h a p e its a i d p r o g r a m i n o r d e r to p o s i t i o n c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g as i n t e g r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f O D A . T h e r e v i s i o n of the O D A C h a r t e r w e l l illustrates this p o i n t . W h e n the charter w a s first i n t r o d u c e d i n 1992, it w a s n o t d e s i g n e d to d e a l w i t h c o n f l i c t - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s ; it o n l y m e n t i o n e d briefly that the "use of O D A for m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s or for a g g r a v a t i o n of international conflicts s h o u l d be a v o i d e d " a n d that "full attention s h o u l d be p a i d to trends i n recipient countries' m i l i t a r y expenditures, their d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n of w e a p o n s of mass destruction a n d missiles, a n d export a n d i m p o r t of arms. "  4 1  W h e n it w a s r e v i s e d i n 2003, therefore, o n e of the  p r i m a r y focuses of the r e v i s i o n w a s to u t i l i z e d e v e l o p m e n t assistance for p e a c e b u i l d i n g . I n the n e w charter, c o n f l i c t is i n c l u d e d a m o n g the f o u r m a j o r target areas for w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t assistance is to be p r o v i d e d . T h e charter spells o u t other target areas, i n c l u d i n g p o v e r t y e l i m i n a t i o n , that are c o n d u c i v e to c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n a n d states that the O D A s h o u l d be u s e d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a n n e r t o w a r d s that g o a l .  4 2  B y p r i o r i t i z i n g these issues, M O F A i n t e n d s to i n c r e a s e J a p a n ' s p r o f i l e as a m a j o r p l a y e r i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y , as N i s h i d a T s u n e o , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f the E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u a r t i c u l a t e s as f o l l o w s :  " W e are i n a b i g s t a d i u m c a l l e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l society, a n d see c o u n t r i e s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d N G O s a l i k e , c o m p e t i n g to o u t d o e a c h other o n the issue of d e v e l o p m e n t . W h e t h e r J a p a n , as a p l a y e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n this g a m e , is g o i n g to w i n the g o l d m e d a l or lose at a n e a r l y stage - w h e t h e r J a p a n is g o i n g to be a n i m p o r t a n t a n d p r o m i s i n g p l a y e r - is a n i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n . "  4 3  MOFA, Japan's ODA Annual Report 1999, htt43://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/summary/1999. MOFA, Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter (August 2003), htt4)://www.mofa.go.ip/policy/oda/reform/revision0308.pdf. Tsuneo Nishida, "Oru Japan no ODA wo mezashite" [Toward an all-Japan ODA], Gaiko Forum (May 2002): 48. 4 2  4 3  26  I n s u m , i n the d e c a d e s o f its s e a r c h of a i d p r i n c i p l e s o t h e r t h a n e c o n o m i c gains, M O F A has i n c r e a s i n g l y b e c o m e a w a r e of p r o j e c t i n g its o w n i d e a s m o r e forcefully. T h e focus of attention has shifted f r o m c o m p r e h e n s i v e security i n the 1970s a n d 1980s to h u m a n s e c u r i t y i n the 1990s a n d 2000s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , b u t M O F A ' s desire to p u r s u e p o l i t i c a l objectives i n a i d has n o t c h a n g e d . A n d s i n c e the e a r l y 1990s, M O F A h a s c o m e to r e c o g n i z e the u t i l i t y of t e a m i n g u p w i t h N G O s i n its a t t e m p t to p o l i t i c i z e a i d , w h i c h is the subject of the f o l l o w i n g section.  2.2.2 MOFA's  Endorsement of NGOs  In the process of p h i l o s o p h i z i n g a i d p r i n c i p l e s a n d strategies that a l l o w J a p a n to contribute not o n l y m o n e y b u t also ideas, M O F A has a l w a y s b e e n c o n s c i o u s of g a i n i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t a n d i n v o l v i n g t h e m i n a i d d i s c o u r s e to a c e r t a i n extent since d o i n g so is necessary for a c h i e v i n g the p o l i t i c a l goals. I n other w o r d s , p r o m o t i n g h i g h politics agenda a n d encouraging p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n constitute M O F A ' s t w o - t i e r e d p o l i c y to i n c o r p o r a t e N G O s i n t o the aid system.  Involving NGOs: MOFA's  Views  W h a t differentiates a i d p o l i t i c i z a t i o n i n the 1990s f r o m t h a t i n the 1970s a n d 1980s is that the N G O c o m m u n i t y is a n essential c o m p o n e n t of the n e w p o l i t i c i z a t i o n . T h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s o f p o l i t i c i z a t i o n , M O F A a i m s to r e t a i n its a u t h o r i t y to h a n d l e the c o u n t r y ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l relations. M O F A ' s i n t e n t i o n to u s e O D A as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l b e c o m e s o b v i o u s b y t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 1 9 9 0 s . T h e w o r d " n a t i o n a l interests"  (kokueki) s t a r t s t o a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e a i d  d i s c o u r s e at t h i s t i m e . H i r a b a y a s h i H i r o s h i , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f t h e E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u states the o b j e c t i v e o f f o r e i g n a i d as f o l l o w s :  " S p e c i f i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , the r e w a r d for a i d - g i v i n g c a n be seen i n the o v e r w h e l m i n g s u p p o r t for J a p a n i n the elections at i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  27  i n c l u d i n g the U n i t e d N a t i o n s . . . . A i d p o l i c y f o r m s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t of o u r country's diplomacy."  4 4  A n o t h e r official i n the b u r e a u c o n f i r m s this v i e w r e f e r r i n g to J a p a n ' s n a t i o n a l interests m o r e explicitly:  " W e t h i n k O D A is q u i t e u s e f u l i n c u l t i v a t i n g the f i e l d of d i p l o m a c y . O r w e c a n say O D A is d i p l o m a c y itself. . . . A i d d i s b u r s e m e n t c a n c o n t r i b u t e to a c h i e v i n g J a p a n ' s n a t i o n a l interests i n a b r o a d s e n s e . "  45  H o w , then, d o e s this p e r t a i n to M O F A ' s a p p r o a c h t o w a r d s N G O s ? O n e p a r t i c u l a r b e n e f i t t h a t J a p a n e s e p o l i c y m a k e r s see i n i n v o l v i n g J a p a n e s e N G O s c o n c e r n s their a b i l i t y to " h u m a n i z e " Japan's a i d . N G O p e o p l e w o r k i n g o n the f i e l d w i t h the locals to d e l i v e r h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d m a k e a contrast w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n a l i m a g e of Japanese a i d of corporate giants b u i l d i n g r o a d s a n d d a m s . N G O w o r k e r s b r i n g h u m a n faces i n t o the a r e a o f a i d . F a c e d w i t h l o n g - s t a n d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m against the "facelessness" of Japan's O D A p r o g r a m , M O F A recognizes that s u c h a n aspect of N G O activity c a n e n h a n c e international r e p u t a t i o n o f J a p a n ' s a i d . S e n i o r o f f i c i a l s i n t h e E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u , as w e l l as W a t a n a b e T a k e s h i , w h o h a s w o r k e d i n M O F a n d p r e s i d e d o v e r t h e A s i a D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k , a l l r e c o g n i z e t h e s e effects o f h a v i n g N G O p r e s e n c e o n t h e field.  4 6  W o r k i n g w i t h N G O s mitigates not only criticism f r o m overseas but also that w i t h i n Japan. F o r M O F A , N G O s c o u l d p r o v i d e a l i n k b e t w e e n the o f f i c i a l d o m a n d the critical p u b l i c , a n d increase p u b l i c s u p p o r t of a i d . K a w a k a m i T a k a o , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l of the E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u describes the  Hiroshi Hirabayashi, "Atarashii jidai no wagakuni no seihu kaihatsu enjo wo motomete" [In pursuit of official development assistance in Japan of new era], Gaiko Forum (February, 1995): 7. "ODApurojekuto,"59. "Koka aru enjo no tameni NGO katsudo no issou no hatten wo" [NGO activities needed for effective aid], Gaiko Forum (April 1990): 34, 55.  4 5  4 6  28  M O F A - N G O r e l a t i o n s h i p as " c o m p l i m e n t a r y , n o t a d v e r s a r i a l " a n d s a y s h e expects the bilateral " d i a l o g u e " w i l l result i n g a r n e r i n g m o r e p u b l i c s u p p o r t .  4 7  A n o t h e r benefit that the i n v o l v e m e n t of N G O s i n O D A b r i n g s to M O F A c o n c e r n s t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t l a c k s . T h e y a r e at t i m e able to act w h e n the central g o v e r n m e n t cannot, because t h e y h a v e f l e x i b i l i t y , m o b i l i t y a n d grassroots orientation. A M O F A official a d m i t s that n e w a i d needs i n the 1990s s u c h as p o v e r t y r e d u c t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a n d p u b l i c h e a l t h are the areas w h e r e Japan does not have sufficient experience a n d expertise. H e points out that s o f t w a r e , r a t h e r t h a n h a r d w a r e , is r e q u i r e d i n these areas, a n d states t h a t the g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d l i k e to d r a w o n N G O s ' k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e  4 8  A n d the  refugee assistance efforts m a d e b y Japanese N G O s i n K o s o v o i n 1999 p r o v e d that t h i s is s u r e l y the case. E x c e p t f o r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h w a s m a d e p r o m p t l y at t h e o u t s e t o f t h e r e f u g e e c r i s i s , t h e J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d n o t d i s p a t c h m i l i t a r y or m e d i c a l p e r s o n n e l d u e to l e g a l constraints. N G O s f i l l e d the v a c u u m at t h a t t i m e a n d c a r r i e d o u t g r a s s r o o t s o p e r a t i o n t o a s s i s t  refugees.  4 9  T h i r d benefit, w h i c h is s o m e w h a t r e l a t e d to the first a n d s e c o n d benefits, is t h a t N G O s fits w e l l w i t h the n e w a i d p r i n c i p l e s o f M O F A - h u m a n s e c u r i t y a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g . A s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , M O F A i d e n t i f i e s O D A as a t o o l f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p o s t - c o n f l i c t r e g i o n s as w e l l a s f o r p r e v e n t i o n o f potential conflicts. D o n o r s , h o w e v e r , cannot carry out these tasks w i t h o u t g e t t i n g d e e p into the local c o m m u n i t y a n d w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h the p e o p l e there w i n n i n g their trust. Q u i t e often M O F A needs to r e l y o n the c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s that N G O s h a v e d e v e l o p e d w i t h the l o c a l c o m m u n i t y o v e r the years a n d their local k n o w l e d g e a c c u m u l a t e d d u r i n g the time. T h i s m a k e s c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h N G O s w o r t h w h i l e i n the eyes of M O F A .  Takao Kawakami, "21seiki ni muketa Nihon no enjo seisaku" [Japan's aid policy toward the 21 century], Gaiko Forum (March 1993): 14. Ibid. 49 „ • NGO to ODA no intaafeesu" [The interface between NGOs and ODA], Gaiko Forum (May 2002): 49-55. 4 7  st  48  29  Official Programs to Support NGOs The strengthening of cooperation w i t h N G O s w a s a n i m p o r t a n t theme i n the F o u r t h M e d i u m - T e r m T a r g e t for Japanese O D A , a p p r o v e d i n 1988. S i n c e t h e n , s u b s t a n t i a l efforts h a v e b e e n m a d e b y the g o v e r n m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y M O F A , to increase l i n k s w i t h N G O s . S t a r t i n g i n 1989, m i n i s t r i e s b e g a n to establish f u n d i n g s c h e m e s for N G O projects i n d e v e l o p i n g countries. I n a d d i t i o n to these p r o g r a m s , m u c h s m a l l e r p r o g r a m s for N G O s - t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , joint s t u d y m i s s i o n s , a n d s m a l l p r o j e c t g r a n t s - w e r e a l s o set u p i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 9 0 s a t t h e M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , Forestry a n d Fisheries, the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e , a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f C o n s t r u c t i o n , as w e l l a s b y l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s c o o r d i n a t e d b y the M i n i s t r y of H o m e Affairs. O f a l l t h e m i n i s t r i e s , M O F A h a s b e e n t h e m o s t e a g e r t o set u p a n u m b e r o f p r o g r a m s to s u p p o r t N G O s e n g a g e d i n d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n a n d to e x p a n d t h e s e p r o g r a m s s i n c e t h e l a t e 1980s. T h e m i n i s t r y p r o v i d e s s u b s i d i e s t o N G O s f o r their d e v e l o p m e n t a l w o r k i n d e v e l o p i n g countries. The s u b s i d y system, called N G O P r o j e c t S u b s i d y , w a s set u p i n 1 9 8 9 w i t h a m o d e s t b u d g e t o f ¥ 1 1 0 m i l l i o n . M O F A h a d p r o v i d e d funds to a s m a l l g r o u p of N G O s w i t h the legal status of public-interest corporation  (koeki hojin) p r i o r t o 1 9 8 9 , a n d t h e n e w s u b s i d y  p r o g r a m w a s to e x p a n d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t for the large m a j o r i t y of N G O s w i t h n o legal status. T h e b u d g e t of the p r o g r a m w a s increased m o r e t h a n t e n f o l d to ¥ 1 , 2 0 0 m i l l i o n i n 1997. A f t e r r e a c h i n g its p e a k i n 1997, h o w e v e r , the b u d g e t of the N G O Project S u b s i d y has b e e n d e c r e a s i n g since 1998, f a l l i n g d o w n to ¥ 5 4 2 m i l l i o n i n 2003. T h i s is d u e to M O F A ' s p o l i c y to shift the focus to a n o t h e r s u b s i d y s y s t e m , the G r a n t A s s i s t a n c e for Japanese N G O Projects. A b o u t o n e - t h i r d of N G O s that h a v e r e c e i v e d the N G O Project S u b s i d y c o m p l a i n a b o u t  30  inflexibilities ofthe system, a n d some e v e n say they never w a n t to use the system again.  5 0  Figure 2.3 Budget of NGO Project Subsidy and Grant Assistance for Japanese NGO Projects  94  95  96  97  98  99  00  01  02  03  ••§— Grant Assistance —•— Project Subsidy  O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s F i g u r e 2.3 s h o w s , t h e b u d g e t o f a n o t h e r s u b s i d y system, the G r a n t Assistance for Japanese N G O Projects, has b e e n g r o w i n g since i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1 9 8 9 . It w a s r e n o v a t e d i n 1 9 9 5 t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r smaller-scale N G O projects, a n d g e n e r a l l y receives f a v o u r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n f r o m the N G O c o m m u n i t y . A m o n g the recipients of the s u b s i d y that i n c l u d e official agencies, academic institutions a n d hospitals, N G O s have g r o w n t o b e the largest b e n e f i c i a r y r e c e i v i n g m o r e t h a n fifty p e r c e n t o f t h e G r a n t A s s i s t a n c e f u n d s .  5 1  Committee for Promoting Partnership between NGO and MOFA (NGO-Gaimusho renkei suishin iinkai), Gaimusho NGO shiensaku ni kansuru chosakekka hokoku [The Survey on MOFA's NGO support programs] (28 March 2003), http://www.ianic.org/res/mofareport.pdf. MOFA, White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2001 (May 2002), http ://www.mofa. go.ip/mofai/gaiko/oda/shirvo/hakusyo/01 hakusho/OD A2001/html/zuhyo/index.htm ; White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2002 (April 2003), http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofai/gaiko/oda/shirvo/hakusyo/02 hakusho/ODA2002/html/zuhyo/index.htm 5 0  5 1  31  The budget of the Grant Assistance has grown substantially from ¥300 million in 1989 to ¥15 billion in 2004.  52  M O F A also introduced programs to strengthen N G O capacity and enhance communication between itself and the NGO community. Three programs for capacity-building were established in 1999, including the consultant system, the seminar system, and the researcher system. As a communication channel, M O F A set up the NGO-MOFA periodic conference in 1996. Conference members meet four times annually to discuss ways in which the ministry can support NGOs and identify new areas for cooperation. It aims to build a relationship of mutual trust while coordinating the interests and capacities of both sides. In addition, MOFA makes effort in building its own institutional framework to deal with NGOs by establishing the N G O Assistance Division within the ministry's Economic Cooperation Bureau in 1994 and creating a new post of N G O Ambassador in 2002. These moves were significant since the government's tight program of administrative reform made it almost impossible for any ministry to establish a new division.  2-3: Business Much has been written about the formidable influence that the business community has had on Japan's aid policymaking as well as on implementation. Industrialists and executives of multinational firms, according to many foregoing accounts, find specific aid projects in recipient countries, shape the aid proposals to be submitted to their own government, and then lobby in Tokyo for the projects that would require procurement orders from these multinationals. The aid bureaucrats then accept and carry out aid allocations to these projects.  53  MOFA, White Paper on Official http:/Ayww.mofa.go.jp/mofaj^ 52  Development Assistance 2004  (October 2004),  Ken Matsui, Keizai kyoryoku: towareru Nihon no keizai gaiko [Economic cooperation: Japan's economic diplomacy questioned] (Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1983). 53  32  S u c h m a n i p u l a t i o n s w e r e possible since Japan's b i g businesses  have  permeated the government's p o l i c y m a k i n g processes i n a n u m b e r of w a y s . Y a n a g a e x p l a i n s that, since i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade are inseparable, g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y is of f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e r n to business, w h i l e the g o v e r n m e n t is also concerned w i t h p r o b l e m s of business a n d i n d u s t r y . T h u s , the " p o w e r o f o r g a n i z e d business is m a n i f e s t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s - i n the legislative p r o g r a m , i n the choice of P r i m e Minister, a n d i n the m a k e u p of the government's advisory councils a n d administrative commissions."  5 4  Business  influence o n economic a i d has been exerted m a i n l y t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of official a d v i s o r y councils a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m committees, a n d l o b b y i n g b y the Japan Business Federation, or N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n . B u s i n e s s h a s p u s h e d f o r a n effective c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a i d , t r a d e a n d p r i v a t e investment. L a r g e r role s h o u l d be g i v e n i n a i d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , goes the a r g u m e n t , to the p r i v a t e sector, w h i c h h a s a b u n d a n t resources a n d expertise to b e u t i l i z e d . Its r e q u e s t s h a v e b e e n p e r s i s t e n t , d e b a t e d a t t h e c o u n c i l s a n d c o m m i t t e e s its representatives participate i n . T h e S e c o n d P r o v i s i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n for A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e f o r m established u n d e r P r i m e Minister N a k a s o n e Y a s u h i r o i n 1981, for instance, calls for strengthened g o v e r n m e n t - p r i v a t e sector c o o p e r a t i o n i n a i d as f o l l o w s : " B a s e d o n a n a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r b e t w e e n O D A a n d the p r i v a t e sector i n e c o n o m i c cooperation, the h a r m o n y a n d complementality between b o t h sides s h o u l d m u l t i p l y t h e effect o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t y l e o f e c o n o m i c a i d . "  5 5  The Advisory  C o u n c i l o n Overseas E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n , another official a i d f o r u m w i t h h e a v y business presence, issued a report that p u t f o r w a r d the three-into-one e c o n o m i c cooperation, i n w h i c h a i d , investment a n d i m p o r t s are to be combined.  5 6  Chitoshi Yanaga,  Big Business in Japanese Politics  Arase, Buying Power, 122.  Ibid., 141.  33  (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), 32.  H o w e v e r , b u s i n e s s i n f l u e n c e has n o t s o l e l y b e e n e x e r t e d to a d v a n c e its i n d u s t r i a l interests. D r i v e n b y the n e e d to be c o n s c i o u s of g o o d corporate b e h a v i o u r , Japanese businesses h a v e c o m e to g i v e c o l l e c t i v e s u p p o r t for v o l u n t e e r i s m . T h e f o l l o w i n g part of this section e x a m i n e s h o w corporate p h i l a n t h r o p y p r e v a i l e d i n the Japanese business sector, a n d h o w that has e m p o w e r e d N G O activities b o t h w i t h i n a n d outside the c o u n t r y . B y d o i n g so this section reveals that business p l a y s a substantial r o l e i n r a i s i n g N G O status i n the O D A system.  2.3.1 The Development  of Corporate  Philanthropy  Japanese businesses have increasingly d e v e l o p e d philanthropic activities u n d e r the concepts of " g o o d corporate c i t i z e n s h i p " a n d " c o r p o r a t e social r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " o v e r the past decades. I n the course of their c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n , d e a l i n g w i t h the c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n of society a n d b e i n g c o n s c i o u s of the e m e r g i n g values a n d v i e w p o i n t s i n society have become essential for corporate m a n a g e r s to m a i n t a i n the possibilities for the n e w d e v e l o p m e n t i n business. B y e n g a g i n g i n p h i l a n t h r o p i c activities, c o m p a n i e s c a n also expect to boost their r e p u t a t i o n , w h i c h i n d i r e c t l y affects t h e i r s a l e s r e c o r d . A n d s u c h c o r p o r a t e initiatives h a v e sustained m a n y N G O s w i t h scarce financial resources i n early y e a r s o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l a n d p e r s o n n e l , as w e l l as' financial, assistance w i t h t h e m m o r e recently.  Background of Corporate Philanthropy T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n corporations a n d N G O s u s e d to be confrontational. Social m o v e m e n t s l i k e the peace m o v e m e n t , the anti-nuclear m o v e m e n t , a n d h u m a n r i g h t s m o v e m e n t s i n the 1950s a n d 1960s w e r e anti-establishment a n d a n t i - A m e r i c a n i n character, w h o s e idealistic but confrontational style l e d to a deep-seated distrust of m o v e m e n t - b a s e d n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s o n the part of the business c o m m u n i t y . W h e n J a p a n h a d b e c o m e  34  o n e o f the l e a d i n g e c o n o m i c p o w e r s b y t h e late 1960s a n d t h e r a p i d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h c a u s e d s e r i o u s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h as i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n a n d neglect of social infrastructure, local residents m o b i l i z e d against the large corporations a n d the g o v e r n m e n t .  5 7  P r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y i n J a p a n started t o d e v e l o p i n t h e 1960s a n d 1970s, w h e n a n u m b e r of major corporations established foundations. Philanthropic d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g this p e r i o d reflected concerns of Japanese corporations, w h i c h c a m e u n d e r attack for negative aspects of r a p i d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h as e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n a n d a steep rise i n l a n d prices a n d stocks d u e to the excessive l i q u i d i t y p r o d u c e d b y a large trade s u r p l u s . T h e t e r m "corporate social responsibility" came into thev o c a b u l a r y of business leaders, a n d this n e w l y acquired consciousness became them o t i v e for theestablishment of corporate foundations a n d increased corporate giving. Besides these d o m e s t i c factors, the d e v e l o p m e n t o f corporate p h i l a n t h r o p y has also b e e n s t i m u l a t e d b y e x t e r n a l factors. A s Japanese c o m p a n i e s m o v e d o v e r s e a s f o r p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e 1970s a n d m o r e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g decades, they became conscious ofthe e m e r g i n g economic friction, p r i m a r i l y i n the U n i t e d States. F a c e d w i t h n e g a t i v e reactions a g a i n s t Japanese e c o n o m i c activities abroad, N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n began to coordinate f u n d r a i s i n g for foreign institutions. This w a s possible since corporations b e g a n to have theability to a p p l y s u r p l u s c a p i t a l t o w a r d p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s after p r o f i t s r o s e d u e t o t h e g o o d p e r f o r m a n c e o f the Japanese e c o n o m y i n the late 1980s.  5 8  M o s t of the  c o r p o r a t e f o u n d a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e 1970s a n d e a r l y 1980s e m p h a s i z e d international outreach activities.  5 9  Takayoshi Amenomori, "Defining the Nonprofit Sector: Japan," Working Papers of the Johns Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, no. 15, edited by L. M. Salamon and H. K. Anheir (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies, 1993), 5. Nippon Keidanren, White Paper on Corporate Philanthropy in Japan 1999 (September 1999), http://wvv^.keidanren.or.ip/english/policv/200Q/Q63.whitepaper.htiri Tadashi Yamamoto and Hitomi Komatsu, "Japan's Philanthropic Development in An Asia Pacific Context," in Emerging Civil Society in the Asia Pacific Community: Nongovernmental Underpinnings  Hopkins  5 8  5 9  35  S i n c e t h e e a r l y 1990s, a m i d s t t h e e c o n o m i c d o w n t u r n , c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y has been suffering f r o m budget restrictions over f u n d i n g a n d personnel. H o w e v e r , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n d i d not stop philanthropic advocacy a n d activities; o n t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i n c r e a s e d t h e i n t e n s i t y o f its efforts i n this f i e l d . H i r a i w a Gaishi, president of N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n introduced the concept of i n 1991 as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e o f c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t i e s .  6 0  The w o r d  kyosei  kyosei c a n b e  t r a n s l a t e d as " s y m b i o s i s " a n d refers t o t h e Japanese b u s i n e s s c o n c e p t o f interdependence a n d m u t u a l prosperity - hence, i n this context, a need to promote g o o d corporate citizenship. Philanthropy managers of i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s g a t h e r e d at N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n a r o u n d this t i m e t o discuss corporate p h i l a n t h r o p y a n d d e f i n e d it as " t o notice a n d t o v o l u n t a r i l y take a c t i o n f o r t h e urgent issues o f the society, to w h i c h corporate resources are d o n a t e d w i t h o u t seeking direct pay-off."  6 1  N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n subsequently adopted the Charter  of C o r p o r a t e B e h a v i o r i n 1991 t o set g u i d e l i n e s f o r m e m b e r c o m p a n i e s . B e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f a series o f i n c i d e n t s a n d scandals at that t i m e , t h e charter u p h o l d s seven principles of corporate operation i n c l u d i n g environmental protection a n d contribution to society t h r o u g h philanthropic activities.  6 2  Stimulated b ysuch movements f r o m above, N i p p o n Keidanren's institutional b a c k u p to promote corporate social responsibility got i nfull s w i n g d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1 9 8 0 s a n d 1 9 9 0 s . It l a u n c h e d t h e O n e P e r c e n t C l u b w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a t i o n i n 1989, w i t h T o y o d a S h o i c h i r o , t h e p r e s i d e n t a n d c h a i r m a n o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n as its h e a d . T h e C l u b e n c o u r a g e s m e m b e r c o r p o r a t i o n s as w e l l as their i n d i v i d u a l e m p l o y e e s t o c o n t r i b u t e o n e p e r c e n t o f p r e t a x  revenues  Asia Pacific Regional Community: A 25 Anniversary ofJCIE (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, and Japan Center for International Exchange, 1995): 561-82. Tadashi Yamamoto, ed., Deciding the Public Good: Governance and Civil Society in Japan (/Tokyo: Japan Center for International Exchange, 1999), 101. Kyoko Shimada, "Overview of the Japanese Corporate Philanthropy in 1990's" (July 2001), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/profile/lp-club/book200107e/prologue.html. Nippon Keidanren, Charter of Corporate Behavior (14 September 1991), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/english/policy/cgcb.html. The charter has been revised three times since it wasfirstestablished, in 1996, 2002 and 2004, respectively. of the Emerging  6 0  6 2  36  or i n c o m e s to w o r t h y social causes. I n the s a m e year, N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n also o r g a n i z e d a n affiliate o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d the C o u n c i l for Better C o r p o r a t e Citizenship w i t h M o r i t a A k i o , then c h a i r m a n of S o n y C o r p o r a t i o n , to promote g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p i n the U n i t e d States. I n a d d i t i o n , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n established t w o committees to p r o m o t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c activities a m o n g s t its member companies. T h eCommittee o n Corporate Philanthropy established i n 1990 w a s g i v e n the task to e n h a n c e c o r p o r a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of g r a n t m a k i n g through seminars a n d information dissemination about corporate philanthropy. T h e P h i l a n t h r o p i c D e p a r t m e n t e s t a b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1991 serves as a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t center to assist m e m b e r c o r p o r a t i o n s . T h e r e h a s also b e e n effort t o i n d u c e c o r p o r a t e s u p p o r t f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n as s e e n i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the K e i d a n r e n N a t u r e C o n s e r v a t i o n F u n d i n 1992. T h e f u n d p r o v i d e s assistance for v a r i o u s activities, i n c l u d i n g a i d for n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n projects c o n d u c t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g countries b y Japanese a n d f o r e i g n N G O s . T h e business federation has also started c o n d u c t i n g s u r v e y s o n corporate p h i l a n t h r o p i c activities e v e r y three years since 1991, a n d p u b l i s h e d a w h i t e p a p e r o n c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y i n 1999. S u r v e y results s h o w that c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c activities h a v e e x p a n d e d i n t o d i v e r s e projects r a n g i n g f r o m e d u c a t i o n , arts a n d c u l t u r e to international c o o p e r a t i o n a n d disaster relief.  6 3  Corporate Partnership with NGOs It i s a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k d r o p t h a t b u s i n e s s h a s i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m e t o p a y attention to N G O s a n d seek p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t h e m i n corporate p h i l a n t h r o p i c activities. T h e G r e a t H a n s h i n earthquake that struck the K o b e - O s a k a area o n 17 J a n u a r y 1995 w a s a f o r c e f u l r e m i n d e r to the b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y as w e l l as t o other sectors of society, of the g r o w i n g p r o m i n e n c e o f c i v i l society. D e s p i t e the d e v a s t a t i o n i n w h i c h 6,430 p e o p l e w e r e k i l l e d a n d a n o t h e r 3 1 0 , 0 0 0 w e r e f o r c e d t o  Nippon Keidanren, Synopsis of the Survey on Corporate Philanthropic (January 2004), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/english/policy/2004/004.pdf. 6 3  37  Activities  in Fiscal  2002  evacuate their h o m e s , j u r i s d i c t i o n disputes a n d r e d tape p a r a l y z e d the g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e l i e f e f f o r t s . A b o u t 1.3 m i l l i o n v o l u n t e e r s c o n v e r g e d o n t h e affected area a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y o r g a n i z e d themselves. G a l v a n i z e d b y the v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , s o m e c o m p a n i e s o r g a n i z e d r e l i e f a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . A n o t h e r i n c i d e n t t h a t i m p r e s s e d b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s is a s h i p w r e c k i n 1997. W h e n thousands of tons of crude o i l leaked f r o m a w r e c k e d R u s s i a n tanker d r i f t e d a s h o r e o n the Sea of J a p a n coast, 270,000 v o l u n t e e r w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c l e a n i n g the shore a n d p r o t e c t i n g a n i m a l s . F a v o u r a b l e a r g u m e n t for N G O s w a s b e c o m i n g d o m i n a n t . A s a result, m o r e a n d m o r e c o r p o r a t i o n s started to f i n d p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s to be a u s e f u l a p p r o a c h to d e m o n s t r a t i n g their g o o d corporate citizenship.  N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s White Paper on Corporate Philanthropy in Japan 1999 s t a t e s as f o l l o w s :  " I n a d d i t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n a l sectors of the g o v e r n m e n t a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s , there is the necessity of p l a c i n g n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s as a n e w t h i r d sector w i t h i n society. O n l y b y so d o i n g , w i l l w e be able to s o l v e societal p r o b l e m s that w i l l g r o w ever m o r e c o m p l e x a n d be able to o v e r c o m e the o b s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e of Japanese society." T h e w h i t e p a p e r t h e n l i s t s t h r e e r o l e s t h a t c o r p o r a t i o n s e x p e c t o f N G O s as: (1) t o p r o v i d e c o r p o r a t i o n s w i t h f e e d b a c k c o n c e r n i n g efforts to p r o m o t e b u s i n e s s i n a n o u t l y i n g district w h i c h w i l l b e c o m e the f o u n d a t i o n for l o c a l corporate activities; (2) t o e s t a b l i s h a n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o n d u c i v e f o r b u s i n e s s i n i n f o r m a t i o n i n d u s t r y ; a n d (3) t o s c r u t i n i z e c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t i e s a n d c o l l e c t e v a l u a t i o n s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l c o n s u m e r s .  6 4  The aforementioned corporate p h i l a n t h r o p y survey has i n t r o d u c e d n e w q u e s t i o n s since 1996 to investigate the d e g r e e of c o o p e r a t i o n a n d assistance b e t w e e n c o m p a n i e s a n d N G O s . T h e 2 0 0 2 s u r v e y f o u n d t h a t c o m p a n i e s see N G O s as " d r i v e r s f o r c r e a t i o n o f a d i v e r s i f i e d c i v i l s o c i e t y " (69.5%) a n d " p a r t n e r s  Nippon Keidanren, White Paper.  38  f o r p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t y p r o m o t i o n " (50.9%). A n o t h e r n e w set o f q u e s t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the s u r v e y i n 2002 reveals that m a j o r i t y of the r e s p o n d e n t s are e n g a g e d i n b u i l d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h N G O s i n s u c h w a y s as m a k i n g c a s h c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d o f f e r i n g f a c i l i t y u s a g e (44.1%), c o n d u c t i n g j o i n t projects (26.3%) a n d d i s p a t c h i n g e m p l o y e e s f r o m t h e c o m p a n y ( 8 . 6 % ) .  65  F u r t h e r m o r e ; p h i l a n t h r o p i c activities of m a n y c o m p a n i e s - g o b e y o n d financial contributions. T h e y h a v e established a special d i v i s i o n to p r o m o t e p h i l a n t h r o p y w i t h i n the c o m p a n y , a n d m o s t of t h e m post p h i l a n t h r o p y e x p e n d i t u r e s as p a r t o f t h e i r a n n u a l b u d g e t . C o m p a n i e s a l s o s u p p o r t t h e i r e m p l o y e e s ' v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g h u m a n a n d m a t e r i a l resources to grassroots organizations. Specific policies that h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n these c o m p a n i e s to encourage v o l u n t e e r activities i n c l u d e : v o l u n t e e r c o m m e n d a t i o n systems, p a i d h o l i d a y s for v o l u n t e e r activities, t e m p o r a r y leave of absence for v o l u n t e e r activities, a n d v o l u n t e e r m a t c h i n g gift s y s t e m s .  6 6  A t the same t i m e of establishing p h i l a n t h r o p i c organizations a n d e n c o u r a g i n g m e m b e r c o m p a n i e s , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n acts as a c o o r d i n a t o r between those w h o give a n d those w h o receive. N G O s seeking d o n o r s w o u l d first a p p r o a c h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , n o t i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s , b e c a u s e its a p p r o v a l assures easier access to p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e r s of f u n d s . T h u s m a n y requests of d o n a t i o n are f o r w a r d e d to Japanese c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d i n d u s t r i e s t h r o u g h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , w h i c h then facilitates corporate c o n t r i b u t i o n s to certain institutions a n d p r o g r a m s . S u c h a facilitating role c a n take the f o r m of g i v i n g the institutions i n v o l v e d i n f u n d - r a i s i n g a list of N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n m e m b e r s w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s of w h o m to a p p r o a c h for w h a t l e v e l of f u n d i n g , o r it m a y take a m o r e direct f o r m , w i t h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n w r i t i n g to m e m b e r corporations i n t r o d u c i n g f u n d raisers, a n d tactfully e n c o u r a g i n g their cooperation.  6 5  Nippon Keidanren, Synopsis of the Survey, 19.  6 6  Yamamoto and Komatsu, "Japan's Philanthropic Development," 565-67.  39  2.3.2 The Expansion  of Corporate  Philanthropy  N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n has e x p a n d e d its p h i l a n t h r o p i c p r o g r a m s to N G O s w o r k i n g o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l issues i n c l u d i n g a i d a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e the 1990s. S u c h a n e x p a n s i o n w a s necessary to create b u s i n e s s - c o n d u c i v e e n v i r o n m e n t overseas. T h e r e h a v e b e e n a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f cases o f N G O s s t u d y i n g a n d r e p o r t i n g the i m p a c t of foreign business operations o n the local c o m m u n i t y . T h e y often organize m o v e m e n t s to address the issues caused b y business activities, i n v o l v i n g local residents a n d other N G O s . Business leaders have b e c o m e a w a r e that r e s p o n d i n g to these m o v e m e n t s a n d c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h the local voices is the k e y to the successful o p e r a t i o n a m i d s t the i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t . G l o b a l issues s u c h as t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , i f left unattended, c o u l d i m p e d e their c o m m e r c i a l activities. A n d i n order to address s u c h issues, they n e e d to w o r k w i t h N G O s . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the G l o b a l E n v i r o n m e n t C h a r t e r i n 1991 a n d the K e i d a n r e n N a t u r e C o n s e r v a t i o n F u n d i n the f o l l o w i n g year are a n e m b o d i m e n t of s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n e s t a b l i s h e d the f u n d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e g r o w i n g concern for ecosystem protection a n d resource conservation amidst of Japanese c o m p a n i e s ' advance overseas. T h e f u n d supports the activities a n d projects of f o r e i g n a n d Japanese N G O s w o r k i n g o n nature c o n s e r v a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . It a l s o d i s p a t c h e s m e m b e r c o m p a n y e m p l o y e e s t o t h e s e organizations to help t h e m d e v e l o p their organizational capacities. O k u d a H i r o s h i , c h a i r m a n o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , stated i n h i s s p e e c h at a s y m p o s i u m h o s t e d b y the f u n d i n M a r c h 2003 that c o m p a n i e s s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n w o r k i n a positive m a n n e r since it w i l l create business opportunities a n d l e a d to the g r o w t h of the c o m p a n i e s i n the l o n g r u n .  6 7  Naotake Okubo, '"Keizaikai ga shizen hogo katsudo wo susumerutameni - NGO tono renkei wo motomete' wo kaisai" [A symposium on the partnership with NGOs for promoting nature conservation activity by the business sector], Keizai Trend (May 2003): 42-44.  40  I n 1994 N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n sent a s t u d y m i s s i o n to the U n i t e d States a n d C a n a d a , w h e r e Japanese business leaders visited international d e v e l o p m e n t institutions, g o v e r n m e n t s , a i d agencies a n d N G O s . Before the m i s s i o n m a n y of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d p e r c e i v e d N G O s as c h a r i t y g r o u p s s t a f f e d b y h o u s e w i v e s a n d retired workers, but meeting w i t h major N G O s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a greatly c h a n g e d s u c h a p e r c e p t i o n . Y o n e k u r a Isao, w h o h e a d e d the m i s s i o n , a c k n o w l e d g e d that N G O s h a v e p o t e n t i a l to constitute a p i l l a r a l o n g w i t h the g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t o r i n O D A , as t h e c u r r e n t a i d s y s t e m w a s s h i f t i n g its f o c u s f r o m " h a r d w a r e " to " s o f t w a r e . "  6 8  I n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s w o r k w i t h Japanese N G O s o n v a r i o u s projects i n d e v e l o p i n g countries. A j i n o m o t o , a major food-processing c o m p a n y , has been i n v o l v e d i n p r o g r a m s , i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s , a i m e d at e n h a n c i n g f o o d , nutrition a n d health situations i n d e v e l o p i n g countries. N i s s a n M o t o r provides s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r i n t e r n s w o r k i n g at J a p a n e s e N G O s to d e v e l o p h u m a n  resources  i n the v o l u n t a r y sector. T o k y o M a r i n e a n d N i c h i d o , a n i n s u r a n c e c o r p o r a t i o n , w o r k s w i t h a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l N G O to preserve m a n g r o v e forests i n Southeast Asian countries.  6 9  Y e t another e x a m p l e of c o r p o r a t e - N G O c o l l a b o r a t i o n is the J a p a n A l l i a n c e for H u m a n i t a r i a n D e m i n i n g S u p p o r t ( J A H D S ) , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n a c o m p a n y called G e o Search that h a d been d e v e l o p i n g systems for s c a n n i n g roads w i t h g r o u n d p e n e t r a t i n g r a d a r to spot s i n k h o l e s . A p p r o a c h e d b y a U N official i n charge of d e - m i n i n g , the c o m p a n y started d e v e l o p i n g a p o r t a b l e m i n e detector i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 9 0 s . I n 1 9 9 8 , J A H D S w a s f o u n d e d as a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h O m r o n , S h a r p a n d I B M J a p a n j o i n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n to d e v e l o p m i n e - d e t e c t i n g technology together. Other corporations i n c l u d i n g T o y o t a , H o n d a , a n d N i p p o n  "Posuto reisenki ni okeru keizai kyoryoku" [Economic cooperation in the post-Cold War era], Keidanren (December 1994): 6-17. Emiko Nagasawa, "Kokusai NGO to kigyo no setten" [The interface between international NGOs and corporations], chap. 13 in Kokusaikyoryoku NGO [International cooperation NGOs] (Tokyo: Nihon Hyoryonsha, 2004). Gekkan  6 9  41  Y u s e n K a b u s h i k i K a i s h a ( N Y K Line) participate i n J A H D S ' project b y p r o v i d i n g logistical support. M O F A has b e e n w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h this c o r p o r a t e - b a s e d N G O i n its a n t i - l a n d m i n e c a m p a i g n , one of the m i n i s t r y ' s recent O D A a g e n d a items. M O F A s e n d s s e v e r a l s e n i o r officials to J A H D S , i n c l u d i n g O w a d a H i s a s h i , the f o r m e r U N a m b a s s a d o r , as a d i r e c t o r o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  T h i s c h a p t e r h a s l o o k e d at m a j o r a c t o r s i n J a p a n ' s a i d s y s t e m - N G O s , M O F A a n d the business c o m m u n i t y - to f i n d o u t h o w these p l a y e r s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d , either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , to the m a k i n g of the g o v e r n m e n t ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e a i d policy. T h e y each have their o w n objectives a n d incentives i n i n v o l v i n g the p u b l i c i n t o the a i d scheme, N G O s p r o t e c t i n g their grassroots orientation a n d addressing humanitarian concerns, M O F A p u r s u i n g political objectives a n d l o o k i n g for p u b l i c s u p p o r t for it, a n d b u s i n e s s d e a l i n g w i t h the social aspect of c o r p o r a t e activities. N o matter w h a t the u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v e s are, it is t r u e that t h e y n o w t u r n m o r e a t t e n t i o n to N G O s a n d t a k e t h e m m o r e seriously t h a n ever before, b o o s t i n g their r e p u t a t i o n a n d status i n the p o l i c y m a k i n g circles. T h e r e are, h o w e v e r , tensions a n d conflict of interests that are h a r d to r e c o n c i l e a m o n g these actors, w h i c h w i l l be the subject of the n e x t chapter.  42  CHAPTER III  CONFLICT OF INTERESTS AMONG ACTORS  As the previous chapter has illustrated, initiatives of differing actors based on differing objectives have made NGOs an integral part of foreign aid. Whereas in chapter 2 the focus was on the individual initiatives, this chapter turns attention to the interaction among the actors involved. Although there are some successful cases of collaboration, their interaction embraces inherent conflict of interests (Figure 3.1). The chapter first takes up a case of Japan Platform (JPF) and studies the new form of inter-sectoral cooperation it embodies, as well as some problems that JPF has. Following this the chapter examines how MOFA's policy causes frictions between the ministry and METI, another ministry involved in the aid policymaking, and NGOs, respectively, and then looks at frictions between the business initiatives and NGOs.  3.1 Successful Collaboration - Japan Platform JPF, which was established in 2000, presents a relatively successful case of the NGO-business-government partnership. Originated in a proposal made by several NGOs, the new program provides a systemic support of the government and corporations for NGOs involved in emergency relief activities in natural disasters and refugee situations. Official fund of ¥500 million and assistance from the One Percent Club of Nippon Keidanren form a solid financial base for the new system. JPF maintains a pool of resources - funds, equipment, personnel, information and so forth - provided by the official and business sectors. These resources are available to NGOs to mobilize and carry out relief activities promptly and effectively. JPF is different from other forms of inter-sectoral partnership in that NGOs took initiative in its establishment. In addition to that, JPF also benefited from positive responses from government t ministries and Nippon Keidanren. JPF consists of the N G O Unit, Secretariat, and the Council. The N G O Unit makes  43  p r o p o s a l s a n d u n d e r t a k e s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f projects. T h e C o u n c i l f u n c t i o n s as the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y , a n d consists of representatives f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t , private corporations a n d N G O s , w h i c h m a k e u p themajority ofthe council. C u r r e n t l y eighteen N G O s participate i n J P F selected b y rather strict criteria. M e m b e r s h i p o f J P F r e q u i r e s N G O s t o : (1) h a v e a l e g a l p e r s o n s t a n d i n g s u c h a s N P O h o j i n , s h a d a n h o j i n , o r z a i d a n h o j i n ; (2) h a v e a r e c o r d o f o v e r s e a s o p e r a t i o n s w i t h n o less t h a n ¥ 5 0 m i l l i o n o f contract r e v e n u e o n a n n u a l average i n t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s ; (3) h a v e o p e r a t e d i n m o r e t h a n t h r e e c o u n t r i e s o r r e g i o n s ; a n d (4) h a v e m o r e t h a n t h r e e p a i d f u l l t i m e s t a f f .  70  A l t h o u g h it w a s apparent that  majority of Japanese N G O s w o u l d n o t be.able to meet these criteria, they w e r e nonetheless m a i n t a i n e d to m a k e JPF competitive w i t h W e s t e r n major N G O s . JPF is also o u t s t a n d i n g a m o n g other N G O n e t w o r k s of its k i n d i n that it garners substantial corporate support i n non-financial forms. Prior to JPF's e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n A u g u s t 2000, N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s t h i n k tank, t h e 2 1  s t  Century  P u b l i c P o l i c y Institute h a d c o m p i l e d a report c a l l i n g o n greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n of N G O s i n O D A . T h e report critically analyzes theu n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t of Japan's c i v i l s o c i e t y at l a r g e a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , d e v e l o p m e n t N G O s . It t h e n e v a l u a t e s M O F A ' s N G O s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s p o i n t i n g o u ta n u m b e r ofinsufficiencies. A s a concrete m e a s u r e to facilitate a greater degree o f N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the report r e c o m m e n d s that a " T e a m J a p a n " be established to p r o v i d e p r o m p t a n d effective aid. T h e unit e n v i s i o n e d i n the report crosscuts the g o v e r n m e n t agencies, business, the academia a n d them e d i a .  7 1  T h e idea h a d been a r o u n d i n the think  t a n k since 1998, a n d t h e r e p o r t a n d a c o n c u r r i n g s y m p o s i u m h o s t e d b y t h e Institute i n early 2000 s i g n a l e d N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s s u p p o r t for J P F , w h i c h h a d b y t h e n b e e n u n d e r g o i n g preparatory p r o c e d u r e for its f o r m a l establishment  Katsuhiro Harada, Kokorozashi ha kokkyo wo koete: NGO ga Nihon wo kaeru [The power of will crossing the borders: NGOs changing Japan] (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 2001), 11. The 21 Century Public Policy Institute, "NGO to ODA no renkei kyoka no arikata: ODA kaikaku no toppakou to shite" [Measures to strengthen partnership with NGOs in ODA: a breakthrough in ODA reform] (March 2000), http://www.21ppi.org/iapanese/thesis/200003/oda.pdf. 7 1  st  44  several m o n t h s later. O n i s h i K e n s u k e , the f o u n d e r a n d chief d i r e c t o r o f J P F , w a s i n v i t e d to the s y m p o s i u m a n d received e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m the director of the Institute.  7 2  I n a d d i t i o n to the s u p p o r t f r o m N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , J P F enjoys technical assistance f r o m i n d i v i d u a l corporations. Teijin, a c o m p a n y that manufactures fibers, f i l m s a n d plastics has b e e n w o r k i n g w i t h J P F to d e v e l o p portable refugee shelters that c a n w i t h s t a n d h a r s h weather conditions. N E C , a l e a d i n g IT c o r p o r a t i o n p u b l i c i z e s J P F activities o n o n e of its websites. F u j i X e r o x s e n d s its e m p l o y e e s to the J P F secretariat for p e r s o n n e l assistance.  Harada, Kokorozashi, Ibid., 155-61.  23-25.  45  7 3  Figure 3.1 Interaction among actors -> : cooperative ties : conflicting interests : overlapping interests  MOFA Politicization of aid -Four Guidelines -ODA Charter/revision  METI -Infrastructure -Aid and investment -Dichotomous aid policy discussion  -NGO support policies -Reluctance for ODA Law  \  Business -Business priorities (JAIDO, JITCO, etc. policy  Japan Platform  NGOs -Support legislation efforts -ODA Reform Network  recommendatioisi  /  -Partnership with NGOs  "••••../  Opposition parties Attempts for ODA legislation (70s-90s)  46  Trade unions -International cooperation activities e.g. Rengo -Partnership with NGOs  3.2 Conflict of Interests 3.2.1 MOFA  vs.  METI  M E T I a n d M O F A v i e w a i d generally f r o m t w o totally different w o r l d s , M E T I f r o m the perspective of commerce a n dM O F A f r o m that of d i p l o m a c y . Policy disagreements between M O F A a n dM E T I have existed d u r i n g the five decades ofJapan's foreign a i d history. The t w o ministries fought each other over the establishment o f t h e Institute o f D e v e l o p i n g E c o n o m i e s  7 4  i n 1960,  introduction ofgrant aid i nthe mid-1960s, a n dreorganization of the Overseas T e c h n i c a l C o o p e r a t i o n A g e n c y i n t o J I C A i n 1974. T h e t w o different w o r l d s still exist today, despite domestic a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l changes, a n d t h e p o l i c y g a p b e t w e e n t h e t w o m i n i s t r i e s r e m a i n s as w i d e as before. M O F A ' s p o l i c y to p u t forth its political a g e n d a a n d i n v o l v e N G O s f o r that e n d is at o d d s w i t h M E T I ' s p o l i c y . T h i s section first discusses p o l i c y disagreements b e t w e e n the t w o ministries i n the pre-1990s p e r i o d before g o i n g o n t o l o o k at h o w t h e s i t u a t i o n h a s e v o l v e d s i n c e t h e 1990s. T h e s e c t i o n then studies the process of h o w the differing policies are m e r g e d into o n e policy s t a t e m e n t s u c h a s t h e O D A C h a r t e r , w i t h m a n y i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s left u n r e s o l v e d .  Comprehensive Security by MOFA  vs. Economic Security by MITI  W h e n M O F A came u p w i t h a n e w concept of "comprehensive security" to r e o r i e n t f o r e i g n a i d i n t h e e a r l y 1980s, M E T I w a s w o r k i n g o n r e f i n i n g a n o t h e r concept o f " e c o n o m i c security." M O F A p o s i t i o n e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e security as a c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e o f a i d , a n d p u b l i s h e d i n 1981 a b o o k l e t t o e x p l a i n i t s a i d p r i n c i p l e s a n d stressed t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f O D A as a cost t o b u i l d t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r w h i c h secures J a p a n ' s c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y a n d also as  The institute carries out researches on economic, political and social issues of developing countries in Asia. METI wanted the institute to serve as a think tank, based on whose information the ministry was to make ODA policies for these countries. After the turf battle, the institute came under METI's jurisdiction.  47  part of the country's foreign policy. METI, however, did not fully agree with this interpretation of the role of aid; rather, it placed more emphasis on the stable growth of the global economy, for which achievement the ministry argued the aid should be used.  75  The conception gap between MOFA and METI can be seen in the issue of using aid to address problems arising from armed conflicts. Although METI did not refuse the concept of comprehensive security and acknowledged the role of aid in achieving it, the economic ministry did not easily accede to MOFA's initiative in the early 1980s to allocate aid to countries involved in conflict. In 1981, responding the outbreak of violent conflicts, M O F A decided to funnel more aid to surrounding countries of the conflict areas such as Turkey, Pakistan and Thailand. To this METI responded reluctantly contending that such a pattern of aid was not of central importance to Japan, a country highly vulnerable to resource scarcity, and that aid should be used to overcome the vulnerability, especially to secure energy.  76  Policy Difference between MOFA and METI in the 1990s The different policy preferences of MOFA and METI have become more apparent since the 1990s as MOFA targets its aid budget more towards the non-traditional areas such as basic human needs (BHN), women in development, poverty reduction and peacebuilding, while METI insists on the primary significance of economic infrastructure and tries to tie aid with other economic activities including trade and direct investment. M O F A regards the aid guidelines set in the Four Guidelines and the O D A Charter as the central pillars of Japan's ODA policy and practice. The O D A Four Guidelines was initially drafted by MOFA and, after consultations with METI, the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and the Economic Planning Agency, it was Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), ed., Tsusho Sangyo Seisakushi [The history of international trade and industry], 17 vols. (Tokyo: Tsusho Sangyo Chosakai, 1990), 12:363. MITI, ed., Tsusho, 12:379. 75  7 6  48  finalized and announced by Prime Minister Kaifu Toshiki at the Diet in April 1991. MOF and METI were reluctant to bring in political conditionality to aid, but were persuaded by the growing international and domestic opinion that favored the trend. Kaifu referred to the recent international attention to the armament in the developing world, and stated that the decision on Japanese aid allocation would take into consideration the following situations of recipients: (1) military expenses; (2) development and production of weapons of mass destruction; (3) imports and exports of weapons; and (4) the level of effort to achieve democratization, market economy, and the protection of human rights. The announcement of the ODA Four Guidelines gave momentum to the discussion that a more comprehensive ODA charter should be enacted. The Third Administrative Reform Committee formed in October 1990 reviewed O D A policy and reached a consensus that the government should position O D A at the core of its foreign policy and employ it strategically to demonstrate its political will to recipients. Director-general of MOFA's Economic Cooperation Bureau attended the committee's first meeting to show MOFA's support for the enactment of an O D A Charter. In the report submitted the prime minister in December 1991, the committee was in the line with MOFA's position to call for an ODA Taiko, with which ODA was to be used as a tool to attain Japan's foreign policy principles including freedom and democracy, pacifism and international cooperation.  77  Thus the ODA Charter came into being in 1992 and it lists target  areas of aid including global issues and BHN issues, as well as the four principles set in the Four Guidelines. Both the Four Principles and the ODA Charter are significant in that they show MOF As initiative in ODA. Along with the foregoing Guidelines, the Charter shows the Japanese government's intention to take political affairs into consideration when providing aid. MOFA's ODA white papers regularly follow  Arase,  Buying Power,  124.  49  up with the application of the Guidelines and the Charter to actual aid implementation. This trend of aid politicization grew more conspicuous as M O F A started revising the Charter in 2002. MOFA's Bureau of Economic Cooperation issued a statement in December that year, in which the ministry explains the rational for the revision that "there is an urgent needfor the international community, including Japan, to address new development challenges such as peacebuilding" and that Japan needs to cope with these challenges. The problems that MOFA raises vary from violent conflicts and terrorism, political issues such as human rights and democracy to humanitarian crises such as extreme poverty, refugees and natural disasters.  78  Thus, the term "human security," which focuses on  protecting the well-being of individuals in conflicts, disasters and infectious diseases, has been introduced in the revised Charter. The list of priority issues in the new Charter reveals the degree of significance that M O F A attaches to the relatively new areas of aid, including poverty reduction, sustainable growth and peacebuilding. M O F A reinforced its stance by compiling a new Mid-term Policy on ODA in February 2005. The priority issues of poverty reduction, sustainable growth, global issues and peacebuilding, as well as the concept of human security, are addressed in more detail to make its philosophy and implementing measures known both domestically and internationally and to deliver ODA more strategically  7 9  In contrast to MOFA, METI continues to emphasize building infrastructure and utilizing Japanese private companies in aid, which is in line with Nippon Keidanren's recommendations. METI's priority in aid remains to be about revitalizing and developing Japan's industry and economy, with its consistent  78  MOFA, Revision ofJapan's Official Development Assistance Charter (August 2003),  http://www.mofa.go.ip/policy/oda/reform/revision0308.pdf. 79  MOFA, Japan's Medium-term Policy on Official Development Assistance (4 February 2005),  http://www.mofa.go.ip/policv/oda/mid-term/policy.pdf.  50  regional focus on East Asia. METI remains silent or dismissive with regard to the new aid challenges and NGO involvement in ODA. In its 1993 white paper on economic cooperation, noting the termination of the Cold War and concurring changes, METI's attention is directed to the growing prospect of direct investment in and trade with developing countries: " U n d e r s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , p o s t - C o l d W a r e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n s h o u l d assist d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s to reinforce f o r e i g n c u r r e n c y s y s t e m , m a k e t h e m better p r e p a r e d for f o r e i g n d i r e c t i n v e s t m e n t (FDI), b u i l d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s a n d facilitate f o r e i g n trade. E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t is to tie u p the a i d w i t h o u r effort to foster F D I i n t o these c o u n t r i e s a n d accept m o r e i m p o r t s f r o m t h e m . "  8 0  METI places priority on infrastructure-building since it deems physical infrastructure necessary as the base for any economic development and people's welfare in the recipient country. It also focuses aid disbursement on environmental and energy projects because Japanese companies have experience and expertise in these areas as well as in infrastructure-building, and aims to cultivate new markets for Japanese businesses in these areas. In addition to that, METI recently focuses on economic institution-building in developing countries to establish harmonized rules and institutional arrangements in investment and product distribution. Human resource development thus constitutes an important part of the ministry's aid plans. With a new emphasis on intellectual cooperation relating to the development of a stable environment for trade and investment in East Asian countries, METI sees the need to develop human resources who will be engaged in protection of intellectual property rights, development of a common system for standard sand conformity assessment, promotion of information technology, and development of efficient management practices. Of a number of internal councils on economic cooperation in METI, the Study Group on Asian Dynamism undertakes theoretical justification of METI 80  MITI, Keizai kyoryoku no genjo to mondaiten 1999 [The current situation and issues of economic cooperation 1993] (Tokyo: Tsusho Sangyo Chosakai, 1994), 67. 51  policies a n d contextualizes t h e m i n the n e w a i d d i s c o u r s e l e d b y M O F A . K i m u r a F u k u n a r i a n d O h n o K e n i c h i , a c a d e m i c m e m b e r s of the s t u d y g r o u p , l e a d the d i s c u s s i o n of the g r o u p b y i n t r o d u c i n g a d i c h o t o m o u s a p p r o a c h to a i d . K i m u r a d i v i d e s O D A into t w o categories, one for East A s i a n countries a n d the other for p o o r e r c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e the r e g i o n . F o r the first category K i m u r a e n d o r s e s a i d p o l i c i e s l i n k e d to c o m m e r c i a l activities to d e e p e n e c o n o m i c i n t e g r a t i o n i n the r e g i o n . F o r the s e c o n d category, he suggests that the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e w h e t h e r to take a n East A s i a n - t y p e of a p p r o a c h o r to c o n f i n e O D A to humanitarian aid only. S i m i l a r l y , O h n o argues that Japan's O D A p o l i c y s h o u l d be constructed w i t h t w o pillars. T h e first pillar of a i d , he m a i n t a i n s , s h o u l d a i m to sustain a n d d e v e l o p the u n i q u e g r o w t h pattern of East A s i a . Therefore, J a p a n s h o u l d integrate a i d p o l i c y w i t h other economic policies i n c l u d i n g those of trade, i n v e s t m e n t , finance a n d l a b o u r i m m i g r a t i o n . A t the s a m e t i m e , u n d e r the s e c o n d p i l l a r , w h i c h is of less i m p o r t a n c e to the s t u d y g r o u p a n d M E T I , J a p a n c a n c o o p e r a t e s e l e c t i v e l y w i t h m u l t i l a t e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r i s s u e s s u c h as p o v e r t y , environment and education.  8 1  In s u m , M O F A ' s p o l i c y to incorporate N G O s into the a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n is n o t b a s e d o n a g o v e r n m e n t - w i d e c o n s e n s u s i n a t r u e sense. A l t h o u g h N G O s n o w m a k e frequent appearance i n official p o l i c y statements, this is p r i m a r i l y d r i v e n b y M O F A ' s desire to u t i l i z e a i d for its p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s , a n d M E T I d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b u y i n t o this i d e a s i n c e it has its o w n p r i o r i t i e s .  3.2.2 MOFA vs. NGOs Discussion on an ODA Law: MOFA M O F A ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y has b e e n w e l c o m e d b y the N G O c o m m u n i t y i n s o m e cases like J P F , b u t meets s k e p t i c i s m a n d o p p o s i t i o n i n others.  Kenichi Ohno, "Global Development Strategy and Japan's ODA Policy" (15 October 2001), http://www.rieti.go.ip/meti/asia-d/data/ODA5.pdf. 81  52  T h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n M O F A a n d N G O s o n the issue of enacting a n O D A l a w represents a p e r c e p t i o n g a p despite the o n g o i n g N G O - s u p p o r t i v e m e a s u r e s a n d c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o g r a m s . A s w e l l , the debates b e t w e e n M O F A a n d N G O s o n the O D A C h a r t e r , a substitute to the m u c h foreseen O D A L a w , s h o w s a clear d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n the p e r c e p t i o n s of the t w o sides, a n d the d i s t i n c t i o n is e v e n d e e p e r o n the issue of charter r e v i s i o n . A s h a v e b e e n p o i n t e d out i n the extant literature, the D i e t ' s r o l e i n a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n has been m i n i m a l . Japan's legislative b o d y sets n o b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s for the p r o g r a m , y i e l d i n g c o n t r o l o v e r O D A to the b u r e a u c r a c y a n d the p r i v a t e sector. J a p a n ' s O D A is n o t b o u n d b y a n y f u n d a m e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n or legislative oversight. C a l l s for the enactment of a n O D A l a w started to r e a c h the g o v e r n m e n t i n the 1980s to m a k e the O D A p o l i c y s y s t e m i n s u b j u g a t i o n to a n O D A l a w that w o u l d severely l i m i t the d i s c r e t i o n of policymakers M O F A , for its part, has b e e n reluctant to a c c o m m o d a t e the requests of f o r m a l legislation m a d e b y o p p o s i t i o n parties a n d civic organizations. F r o m M O F A ' s perspective, l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d be a v o i d e d because of the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f a i d . B y l e a v i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d c r i t e r i a o f a i d p o l i c i e s o p e n to its d i s c r e t i o n , M O F A i n t e n d s to increase its l e v e r a g e v i s - a - v i s o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s a n d d o n o r countries. T h e establishment of the O D A C h a r t e r w a s , i n a sense, a p r e e m p t i v e m e a s u r e o n the part of M O F A a n d the entire g o v e r n m e n t for that m a t t e r , w h i c h s a w the n e e d to offer a m o r e d e t a i l e d s t a t e m e n t o f the p r i n c i p l e s a n d objectives of Japan's O D A a n d appease the p u b l i c . Successive director-generals of M O F A ' s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u h a v e s p o k e n o u t s h o w i n g their d i s m i s s i v e or e v e n d u b i o u s attitude t o w a r d the D i e t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the a i d system. F o r instance, O s h i m a K e n z o parallels O D A to d o m e s t i c s e c u r i t y debates, w h i c h are u n d e r the r e s t r i c t i o n of A r t i c l e 9 of the nation's pacific c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d d o m i n a t e d b y l i n g e r i n g o p p o s i t i o n to Japan's p l a y i n g a n y m i l i t a r y role i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena. H e p o i n t s o u t that security  53  issues, h i g h l y d i p l o m a t i c i n nature, are b e i n g r e d u c e d t o t h e debates o f legal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c e n t e r i n g o n A r t i c l e 9. I f d e f i n e d b y l a w , h e a r g u e s , O D A w o u l d r u n the risk of f o l l o w i n g the same p a t h a n d lose its political flexibility.  8 2  Another  official i n the b u r e a u is m o r e explicit i n stating M O F A ' s objective o f O D A as follows:  " T o be frank, O D A i s a p r o m i s i n g d i p l o m a t i c m e a n s . W h i l e there are g e n e r a l l y a lot o f s u c h m e a n s , for Japan, w h i c h l a c k s m i l i t a r y m e a s u r e s , a i d m a k e s a n i m p o r t a n t one. I n this sense, w e w a n t to k e e p the O D A C h a r t e r o n the l e v e l of p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t to ensure its t i m e l y a n d flexible i m p l e m e n t a t i o n b y administrative organs."  Discussion  on an ODA Law:  83  NGOs  N G O s confront M O F A w i t h t w o points: a i d p h i l o s o p h y a n d public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i r s t , w h i l e t h e y u n d e r s t a n d that as a g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n , M O F A tends to talk about a i d i n political terms rather than i n h u m a n i t a r i a n terms, their altruistic m o t i v a t i o n t o b e e n g a g e d i n a i d activities refuses c o m p l y i n g w i t h the political m a n e u v e r i n g o f M O F A . Second, they d e m a n d a greater degree o f Diet i n v o l v e m e n t i n O D A issues a n d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h the process. T h e question ofa n O D A l a w has been discussed at the Diet over the years, a n d efforts g o b a c k t o 1971, w h e n t h e issue w a s r a i s e d b y t h e O v e r s e a s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n C o u n c i l , the government's a d v i s o r y council o n aid. Efforts have been m a d e b y theo p p o s i t i o n parties w i t h the support of N G O s i n the Diet to introduce a basic O D A l a w . Bills have been s u b m i t t e d D i e t m e m b e r s f r o m the Socialist P a r t y a n d t h e K o m e i t o P a r t y i n 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 8 9 a n d 1993 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  "ODA ha gaiko sonomono de aru" [ODA is diplomacy itself], Gaiko Forum (July 1999): 26-34. Japan International Volunteer Center, "ODA Taiko minaoshi ni kansuru ikenkoukankai" [Dialogue on the revision of the ODA Charter] (28 April 2003), http://www.ngo-ivc.net/ip/proiects/advocacv/pri01detail02.html. 8 3  54  all of w h i c h failing to be adopted.  8 4  Calls for theenactment ofa basic O D A l a w  spread outside theDiet. M u r a i Yoshinori formed a citizens' group called Reconsider A i d , Citizens' League (REAL) a n d a nO D A Study G r o u p a n d advocated for the establishment ofa "citizens' O D A charter." T h e g r o u p w e n t further to c o m p i l e the bill ofa n international cooperation basic l a w a n d l o b b i e d for its legislation. R E A L collaborated w i t h a Socialist P a r t y leader D o i T a k a k o  8 5  i n s t u d y i n g C a n a d a ' s case a n d p u b l i s h i n g a Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s a i d reports.  8 6  These initiatives a l l e m p h a s i z e d the necessity of g i v i n g a greater role  to the D i e t to ensure p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d implementation. Therefore, w h e n the charter w a s first established i n 1992, the response f r o m the N G O c o m m u n i t y w a s m i x e d . C o n s i d e r i n g that t h e c o m m u n i t y h a d p u s h e d for a f o r m a l l e g i s l a t i o n o f a n O D A l a w , the charter that does n o t h a v e force of l a w w a s b y n o m e a n s satisfactory. Nonetheless, the charter w a s a step f o r w a r d i n that it clarified the objectives a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s o f a i d . T h e r e v i s e d charter that w a s a n n o u n c e d i n 2003, w h i c h p l a c e d m o r e e m p h a s i s o n Japan's n a t i o n a l interests a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a i d implementation, d r e w a m o r e negative response f r o m N G O s . T h e anxieties a n d c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d b y m a n y N G O s h a v e three p o i n t s : first, p o l i t i c a l considerations associated w i t h a i d deviate f r o m the altruistic a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d p r i n c i p l e s e m b r a c e d b y t h e v o l u n t a r y sector; s e c o n d , M O F A ' s e n g a g e m e n t i n conflict issues i n c l u d i n g p e a c e b u i l d i n g runs the risk offurther p o l i t i c i z i n g a i d  Yasutami Shimomura, Junji Nakagawa, and Jun Saito, ODA taiko no seijikeizaigaku: unyo to [The politics and economy of the ODA Charter: implementation and philosophy] (Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1999), 68. Takako Doi, Yoshinori Murai, and Keiichi Yoshimura, ODA kaikaku: Kanadagikai karano teigen to Nihon no genjo [ODA reform: recommendations by Canada's parliament and the current situation in Japan] (Tokyo: Shakai Shisosha, 1990). House of Commons Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade, For Whose enjorinen  8 5  8 6  Benefit? Official  Report  of the Standing  Development  Assistance  Development Agency, (September 1987).  Canadian  Committee Policies  on External and Programs  International  Affairs  Development  55  and International  Trade  on  Canada's  (May 1987); Canadian International Assistance  to Benefit  a Better  World  a n d c a n m a k e a i d p r o g r a m s detrime nta l to people's welfare i n recipient countries; a n d finally, l e g i s l a t i o n of a l e g a l l y b i n d i n g O D A l a w is necessary to put a cap o n bureaucratic discretion a n d enhance transparency a n d public p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h the i n v o l v e m e n t of the D i e t . These concerns h a v e b e e n v o i c e d b y the O D A R e f o r m N e t w o r k that comprises fifty-eight Japanese N G O s a n d some i n d i v i d u a l academics.  8 7  The  N e t w o r k h a s c a l l e d o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o (1) i d e n t i f y a i d p r i n c i p l e s t h a t r e s p e c t h u m a n r i g h t s , d e m o c r a c y , e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d g e n d e r e q u a l i t y ; a n d (2) r e i n f o r c e g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p to foster N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n the decision-making level, a n d i n v o l v e legislature b y enacting a n O D A l a w . The O D A R e f o r m N e t w o r k l o b b i e d a c t i v e l y to p u t f o r w a r d their o p i n i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e O D A C h a r t e r w a s b e i n g r e v i s e d i n e a r l y 2 0 0 3 . It o r g a n i z e d a m e e t i n g b e t w e e n N G O s a n d M O F A officials to e x c h a n g e their v i e w s o n r e v i s i o n i n A p r i l that year, a n d s u b m i t t e d a list of their requests to the f o r e i g n minister i n M a y . W h a t s h o u l d be n o t e d here is that N G O s are n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a g a i n s t M O F A ' s focus o n h u m a n security a n d conflict-related issues i n the n e w l y r e v i s e d O D A C h a r t e r . T h e s e i s s u e s t h e m s e l v e s are o f g r e a t c o n c e r n to N G O s as w e l l a n d as s u c h , M O F A ' s i n v o l v e m e n t h a s c o m m o n g r o u n d w i t h N G O s w h i c h a r e i n v o l v e d i n similar activities o n their o w n . T h e Japan Center for Conflict P r e v e n t i o n , for instance, carries out p r o g r a m s to prevent v i o l e n t conflicts f r o m t a k i n g place i n cooperation w i t h local a n d d o n o r governments, U N agencies a n d other N G O s . T h e i r p r o g r a m s include p r o m o t i o n of dialogue a n d confidence b u i l d i n g a m o n g local actors, c o l l e c t i o n a n d d e s t r u c t i o n of s m a l l a r m s a n d p r o v i s i o n of basic e d u c a t i o n to ethnic m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n .  8 8  Another example  of N G O s w o r k i n g o n c o n f l i c t - r e l a t e d issues is the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r C e n t e r . T h r o u g h its i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g 87  The network was established first under the name of the Citizen-NGO Liaison Council for ODA Reform and was renamed in 2000. Japan Center for Conflict Prevention, http://www.iccp.gr.ip. 88  56  activities, this N G O has set up an internal study group to look into an appropriate civil-military relationship. Although it is not yet in depth, it is nonetheless an important nongovernmental initiative to contribute to conflict prevention.  89  Precisely because of these undertakings and initiatives on their own, NGOs sense that MOFA is trying to -politicize aid by buying into the ideas of human security and peacebuilding. Not a few N G O officials view that MOFA, in its attempt to create new catchphrases of O D A in the post-Cold War era, jumped on the bandwagon along with other donor governments and international institutions to coin aid philosophies such as social development, peacebuilding and human security. They see the pursuit of narrowly defined national interests and other MOFA-led political objectives of aid incompatible with their humanitarian principles. The skepticism held by NGOs changes into opposition in such cases as Afghanistan and Iraq. The other major concern held by many NGOs is insufficient public participation in policymaking despite MOFA's rhetoric and various N G O support programs. To them, MOFA's reluctance toward legislation appears to be an obvious detour of the Diet, where aid policy should be discussed and formulated by representatives of electorates. In the course of the charter revision, this concern grew, as the revision process included just a few public consultations and bypassed the Diet. NGOs felt that their requests had been practically ignored whereas those made by Nippon Keidanren had been incorporated into the new charter. 3.2.3 Business vs.  NGOs  Although the business sector has been working to facilitate volunteerism and assist NGOs in various ways, its concerns remain to be about prioritizing certain fields - infrastructure, environment and energy - in aid implementation 89  Japan International Volunteer Center, http://wwwl.ica.apc.org/ivc/ioin/advocacv/CIMIC.html.  57  a n d s e e k i n g g r e a t e r b u s i n e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m . Its p u r s u i t o f t h e s e t w o different g o a l s s o m e t i m e s m a k e s its p o l i c y c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the goals p u r s u e d b y N G O s .  Pursuing Business Goals N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n h a s b e e n a c t i v e i n p r e s e n t i n g its r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n O D A p o l i c y to the g o v e r n m e n t a n d i n o r g a n i z i n g institutions to realize t h e m o u t s i d e t h e a i d s y s t e m . It h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n ( J A I D O ) for private investment i n d e v e l o p i n g countries, the J a p a n International T r a i n i n g C o o p e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n (JITCO) for t e c h n o l o g y transfer a n d h u m a n resource d e v e l o p m e n t , the F o u n d a t i o n for A d v a n c e d S t u d i e s o n International D e v e l o p m e n t for education a n d research i n international d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d the 2 1  s t  C e n t u r y Public P o l i c y Institute for p o l i c y research a n d  a d v o c a c y . These institutions f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e the O D A a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e d b y M O F A a n d M E T I , b u t t h e y m a i n t a i n ties w i t h the b u r e a u c r a c y a n d w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h it w h e n necessary. T h i s section focuses o n J A I D O a n d J I T C O to discuss h o w b u s i n e s s p u r s u e s its o w n g o a l s i n a i d .  JAIDO N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n established the J a p a n International D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n ( J A I D O ) i n A p r i l 1989 for the p r o m o t i o n of e x p o r t i n d u s t r i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g countries a n d e x p a n s i o n of exports of their p r o d u c t s i n t o the Japanese m a r k e t . J A I D O w a s created w i t h the i d e a that the p r i v a t e sector has a n i m p o r t a n t role to p l a y i n e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n i n the f o r m s of overseas p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t , f i n a n c i n g , t e c h n o l o g y transfer, a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d p l a n n i n g of p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t projects for d e v e l o p i n g countries. T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h is o p e n to Japanese a n d f o r e i g n f i r m s alike, m a k e s e q u i t y i n v e s t m e n t s to e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e enterprises to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e v e l o p m e n t projects. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t feature of J A I D O is that it seeks  58  v a r i o u s official s u p p o r t s for projects t h r o u g h close c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d consultation w i t h related g o v e r n m e n t agencies a n d international organizations. Projects eligible for J A I D O investment are associated w i t h a variety of difficulties and risks, a n d they require sophisticated considerations related to foreign policy. For e x a m p l e , J A I D O w a s i n v o l v e d i n projects i n f o r m e r c o m m u n i s t c o u n t r i e s i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e , o i l projects i n the M i d d l e East, a n d s u p p o r t i v e p r o g r a m s for the F u j i m o r i g o v e r n m e n t i n P e r u . These projects r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t f r o m M E T I a n d MOFA.  9 0  The p u r p o s e of s u c h e x p e r i m e n t a l activities is to demonstrate that private overseas direct investment i n d e v e l o p i n g countries c a n successfully take place w h e n g o v e r n m e n t s , the p r i v a t e sector, a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are p r e p a r e d to c o o r d i n a t e w i t h each other. J A I D O ' s i n v e s t m e n t projects are strategically c o n f i n e d to those that w i l l i m p r o v e export e a r n i n g capacity of the host countries a n d ,w h e n e v e r possible, p r o d u c e for i m p o r t s back into the Japanese market. W h e n these c o n d i t i o n s are fulfilled, J A I D O seeks O D A resources to be partially directed t o w a r d i m p r o v i n g infrastructure for private-sector d e v e l o p m e n t projects.  9 1  F o r instance, M O F A has b e e n p r o v i d i n g  J A I D O - l e d infrastructure projects i n A s i a w i t h O D A l o a n s u n d e r the r e c o g n i t i o n that they w i l l contribute to the overall economic d e v e l o p m e n t i n the r e g i o n a n d c o n s o l i d a t i n g a l o n g - t e r m relationship b e t w e e n J a p a n a n d its n e i g h b o u r s .  9 2  JITCO The Japan International T r a i n i n g C o o p e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n (JITCO) is another example of N i p p o n Keidanren's initiative i n development cooperation. T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1991 u n d e r t h e j o i n t j u r i s d i c t i o n o f f i v e  Koretsugu Kodama, "Naigai no kitai ni kotaeru JAIDO" [JAIDO living up both domestic and overseas expectation], Gekkan Keidanren (October 1998): 51-53. Hiroya Ichikawa, "Japanese Direct Investment and Development Finance," in Islam ed., Yen for Development, 139-51. 91  92  "Ima naze minkatsu infura ka" [Why private resources for infrastructure-building now], (March 1996): 54-59.  Keidanren  59  Gekkan  ministries of Justice; F o r e i g n Affairs; E c o n o m y , T r a d e a n d Industry; H e a l t h , L a b o u r a n d Welfare; a n d L a n d , Infrastructure a n d Transport. T h e strict g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y o n foreign w o r k e r s o n l y accepts foreign s k i l l e d w o r k e r s i n l i m i t e d n u m b e r s a n d trainees, b u t n o t m a n u a l labourers. T h e . p u r p o s e of the establishment of J I T C O , therefore, w a s t w o f o l d : to s u p p l y f o r e i g n w o r k f o r c e for Japanese, especially s m a l l - a n d m e d i u m - s i z e d , c o m p a n i e s ; a n d to transfer Japanese techniques a n d skills to d e v e l o p i n g countries, w h e r e w o r k e r s t r a i n e d at J I T C O c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o create stable b u s i n e s s e n v i r o n m e n t b a c k at h o m e for the i n c o m i n g Japanese investments. J I T C O invites w o r k e r s f r o m d e v e l o p i n g countries u n d e r the Industrial T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m a n d the Technical Internship P r o g r a m , a n d sends t h e m to Japanese c o m p a n i e s for short-term t r a i n i n g a n d w o r k . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n posits J I T C O p r o g r a m s as a n i m p o r t a n t channel of development cooperation.  9 3  U n d e r s u c h circumstances, business s u p p o r t for N G O s is d w a r f e d b y these initiatives that p u r s u e industrial priorities. A l t h o u g h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n a n d i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s d o p r o v i d e financial a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l assistance to N G O s as d e t a i l e d i n c h a p t e r 2, s u c h s u p p o r t d o e s n o t surface w i t h t h e s a m e e a r n e s t as o t h e r greater p r i o r i t i e s d o w h e n t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t o r p r e s e n t t h e i r v i e w s o n O D A t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t . It i s a c o m m o n p r a c t i c e t h a t b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s o c c u p y significant percentage of m e m b e r s h i p of official c o m m i t t e e s a n d councils that d e l i b e r a t e o n O D A p o l i c y , a n d at s u c h m e e t i n g s t h e i r c o n c e r n s f o c u s o n economic a n d industrial agenda rather than o n the partnership w i t h N G O s . T h e same t h i n g goes w i t h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n O D A , a n o t h e r f o r m a l c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h i c h the business sector l o b b i e s its a g e n d a to the g o v e r n m e n t . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n has i s s u e d five r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s since the e a r l y 1990s; 1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 7 , 1 9 9 9 a n d 2001. T h e series o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  Akio Morita, "Kokusai kenshu kyoryoku kiko no setsuritsu ni tsuite" [On the establishment of the Japan International Training Cooperation Organization], Keidanren Geppo (October 1991): 34-36. 9 3  60  consistently focus o n t w o points: strengthening partnership between the government a n dbusiness in.aid p o l i c y m a k i n ga n d implementation; a n d l i n k i n g aid to trade a n d investment, w i t h a n emphasis o n economic infrastructure building. First, o n the p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n the p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e sectors, the reports stress that t h e Japanese p r i v a t e sector h a s a c c u m u l a t e d c a p i t a l , k n o w - h o w a n d s k i l l s w h i c h w o u l d b e a n asset to t h e official a i d p l a n n i n g a n d project implementation. N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n questions the traditional government-led O D A f r a m e w o r k a n d argues that private initiative s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d to a greater degree to deliver a i d m o r e efficiently a n d effectively. I n this regard, K e i d a n r e n urges that J A I D O be g i v e n m o r e active role i n O D A .  9 4  T h e 2001  report suggests that private companies, i n c l u d i n g consultant firms, t r a d i n g companies, manufacturers a n d engineering companies, a n d their global networks be utilized i n coordination w i t h the central ministries a d m i n i s t e r i n g ODA.  9 5  Second, K e i d a n r e n calls for the c o n t i n u e d focus o n e c o n o m i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s as t h e m a j o r a r e a o f a c t i v i t y i n J a p a n e s e O D A o n t h e g r o u n d s that this is the area w h e r e Japanese technology a n d expertise h a v e c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h o s e o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . It r a i s e s e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e - b u i l d i n g as e x a m p l e s w h e r e Japanese c o m p a n i e s h a v e strength a n d therefore c a n contribute m u c h to the official a i d . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n s u p p o r t s t i e d l o a n s as t h e y c a n u t i l i z e t h e Japanese p r i v a t e sector's resources a n d r e m i n d s the g o v e r n m e n t that u n t i e d a i d s h o u l d also b e consistent w i t h p r i v a t e sector interests.  9 6  K e i d a n r e n states t h e  Nippon Keidanren, "Seifu kaihatsu enjo ni kansuru wareware no kangae" [Our views on official development assistance] (15 April 1997), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/policy/poll28/index.html. Nippon Keidanren, "ODA kaikaku ni kaknsuru teigen" [Recommendations on ODA reform] (16 October 2001), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/policy/2001/049.html. Nippon Keidanren, "Kongo no seifu kaihatsu enjo to kokusai kyoryoku ginko heno teigen" [Official development assistance for the future and recommendations for Japan Bank for International Cooperation] (21 September 1999"). http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/policy/pol243.html.  9 4  9 5  9 6  61  i m p o r t a n c e o f the c o n t i n u e d f o c u s o n the e c o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f O D A as follows:  "It goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g that J a p a n , w i t h h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n c e r n s a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s h o u l d use its O D A to a d d r e s s issues s u c h as p o v e r t y a n d the e n v i r o n m e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . H o w e v e r , since J a p a n has scarce n a t u r a l resources a n d d e p e n d s m u c h o n f o r e i g n trade, i r a m t a i n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace a n d f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h other c o u n t r i e s a n d s e e k i n g o u r o w n s u r v i v a l a n d p r o s p e r i t y t h r o u g h e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as t r a d e a n d i n v e s t m e n t are e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t . T h e y are o u r v e r y n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . " N G O s a n d their role i n a i d are m e n t i o n e d i n the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ,  97  but  N G O s are p l a c e d i n the b r o a d e r circle of "the p r i v a t e sector" that i n c l u d e s businesses a n d a c a d e m i a . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s e m p h a s i s is o b v i o u s l y o n businesses, a n d N G O s are o n l y g i v e n s u p p l e m e n t a r y significance i n the reports. B u s i n e s s s u p p o r t for the r e v i s e d O D A C h a r t e r tells w h e r e N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n p l a c e s its p r i o r i t y o n . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n t o w a r d the n e w charter m a k e s a contrast to the c r i t i c i s m s f r o m N G O s . S e v e r a l requests that the f e d e r a t i o n h a d m a d e earlier, i n c l u d i n g r e g i o n a l focus o n E a s t A s i a , sectoral specialization of a i d i n infrastructure, e n v i r o n m e n t a n d energy, a n d e m p h a s i s o n Japan's n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c interests, h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the r e v i s e d charter, to w h i c h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n leaders s h o w satisfaction.  9 8  Cooperation between NGOs and Unions U n d e r such circumstances, trade unions have advocated m o r e O D A a l l o c a t i o n for social d e v e l o p m e n t a n d basic h u m a n needs. A l t h o u g h the h i s t o r y of their a c t i v i t y i n this f i e l d is m u c h shorter t h a n that of the N G O s that h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d a b o v e , it is w o r t h p a y i n g attention. T h e Japanese T r a d e U n i o n C o n f e d e r a t i o n (Rengo), the largest u n i o n f e d e r a t i o n i n Japan, established the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r F o u n d a t i o n i n 1989 for i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e a n d  Nippon Keidanren, "ODA kaikaku." Takashi Nishioka, "Aratana ODA taiko nit suite" [On the new ODA Charter], Keizai Trend (October 2003): 42-43.  9 7 9 8  62  c o o p e r a t i o n o n l a b o r issues. T h e F o u n d a t i o n a i m s to u t i l i z e O D A f u n d s f o r the projects it is c o n d u c t i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s " a n d i m p r o v e the government's N G O support programs, w h i c h it considers is still focused o n h a r d w a r e rather than o n software.  1 0 0  E i g h t N G O s a n d f i v e u n i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g R e n g o set u p t h e F o r u m for I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n N G O s a n d T r a d e U n i o n s i n J u l y 2004, w h i c h is specifically focused o n p u r s u i n g h u m a n i t a r i a n goals i n d e v e l o p m e n t aid. The f o r u m is c o m m i t t e d to r e s o l v i n g problems related to poverty, h u m a n rights a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l protection, a n d calls for the g o v e r n m e n t to allocate m o r e O D A f u n d s to these areas.  B y l o o k i n g at s e v e r a l cases, this c h a p t e r h a s r e v e a l e d h o w t h e t w o m a j o r s u p p o r t e r s o f N G O , M O F A a n d the business sector, c o m e at o d d s w i t h N G O s o n s o m e issues of f u n d a m e n t a l importance. T h e conflict h a p p e n s because their policies to s u p p o r t N G O s are m o t i v a t e d b y principles w h i c h are i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h o s e o f N G O s (as i n t h e c a s e o f M O F A ) , o r c o m e u n d e r t h e s h a d o w o f o t h e r p o l i c i e s o f h i g h e r p r i o r i t y (as i n t h e c a s e o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ) .  The foundation carries out two programs. One of them is to invite union leaders in developing countries to Japan for exchange and learning on labor issues and movement. The other provides support for education and other social development activities targeted at workers. Teruhito Tokumoto, "Kokusai NGO to shiteno Kokusai Rodo Zaidan" [Japan International Labour Foundation as an international NGO], Rengo Soken Report, no. 188 (1 November 2004), http://www.rengo-soken.or.ip/dio/nol88/kikou.htm. 1 0 0  63  CHAPTER IV  CONCLUSION  T h e f o r e g o i n g c h a p t e r s h a v e l o o k e d at different sectors o f the J a p a n e s e society to e x p l a i n the recent g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y to encourage N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g these sectors. Japanese N G O s h a v e g r o w n c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the n u m b e r , scope of a c t i v i t y a n d n e t w o r k i n g since the late 1970s, e s p e c i a l l y i n the 1980s a n d 1990s. V a r i o u s d o m e s t i c a n d e x o g e n o u s factors h a v e i n f l u e n c e d their d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d N G O s h a v e n o w g r o w n to constitute a major pillar of society. After d e t a i l i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t of Japanese N G O s , chapter 2 t u r n e d to M O F A to e x a m i n e its m o t i v a t i o n a n d rationales for i n c o r p o r a t i n g N G O s i n the a i d s y s t e m . T h e m i n i s t r y ' s efforts to p o l i t i c i z e a i d h a v e e v o l v e d s i n c e the 1970s, a n d recent a t t e m p t to attach p o l i t i c a l m e a n i n g to a i d has m a d e it necessary for M O F A to w o r k w i t h N G O s . I n other w o r d s , b y c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h N G O s ,  MOFA  c a n expect to satisfy its p o l i c y p r i o r i t i e s . First, the s m a l l size, flexibility a n d m o b i l i t y of N G O s m a k e t h e m p r o m i s i n g actors i n d e l i v e r i n g a i d that tailors to the c h a n g i n g needs of d e v e l o p i n g countries. A s the a i d focus shifts f r o m b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l infrastructures to a s s i s t i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h poverty reduction, disease control a n d e d u c a t i o n , M O F A has c o m e to r e c o g n i z e the utility of N G O s i n d e a l i n g w i t h these n e w a i d needs. E m e r g e n c y relief activities a n d post-conflict reconstruction, the recent a i d a g e n d a of M O F A , also require c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h N G O s . I n s u m , grassroots experience a n d local k n o w l e d g e that N G O s have a c c u m u l a t e d over the years are of great v a l u e to M O F A i n this n e w a i d context. The s e c o n d a d v a n t a g e for M O F A of w o r k i n g w i t h N G O s is to a p p e a s e p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m t h a t J a p a n ' s a i d is c o m m e r c i a l l y o r i e n t e d a n d t h a t the p u b l i c is left o u t o f t h e a i d s y s t e m . T h e p r e s e n c e o f N G O s i n b o t h a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a d d s a h u m a n e aspect to a i d p r o g r a m s a n d satisfy the of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  64  demands  B a s e d o n these analyses of these p o l i c y rationales of M O F A , the chapter l o o k e d i n t o the m i n i s t r y ' s f u n d a m e n t a l i n c e n t i v e - e m p l o y i n g a i d as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l . F o r a f o r e i g n m i n i s t r y that a s p i r e s to raise its c o u n t r y ' s d i p l o m a t i c p r o f i l e , c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h N G O s i n O D A serves its o w n interest. T h e c h a p t e r t h e n t u r n e d a t t e n t i o n to the b u s i n e s s sector to d i s c u s s its r o l e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g N G O e m p o w e r m e n t : T h e r o l e of b u s i n e s s i n the a i d p r o g r a m has a l m o s t a l w a y s b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h a t o f t h e p r o m o t e r o f m e r c a n t i l i s t a i d projects. W h i l e this c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n is true to s o m e extent, b u s i n e s s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the g r o w t h of N G O s has b e e n u n d e r a p p r e c i a t e d . S u c h c o n c e p t s as " g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p " a n d " c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " e m e r g e d i n the p e r i o d of r a p i d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h as i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s b e c a m e s o c i a l issues. I n the 1980s, w i t h the a d v a n c e m e n t of Japanese c o m p a n i e s overseas, they h a d to take these c o n c e p t s m o r e s e r i o u s l y t h a n b e f o r e as t h e i r o p e r a t i o n c a u s e d f r i c t i o n s i n h o s t c o m m u n i t i e s . U n d e r s u c h circumstances, business leaders started to p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a n d p e r s o n n e l assistance to N G O s i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c a n d international issues a n d encourage their e m p l o y e e s to take u p v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s . O f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a r e N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s i n i t i a t i v e s a i m e d at s u p p o r t i n g N G O s to reconcile c o m m e r c i a l activities a n d corporate social r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h e s u p p o r t i v e efforts h a v e c o n s e q u e n t l y s p i l l e d o v e r to development N G O s w o r k i n g internationally. C h a p t e r 3 l o o k e d at c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s a m o n g d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s i n t h e a i d s y s t e m . It f i r s t e x a m i n e d M E T I ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e o n g o i n g M O F A - l e d a i d t r e n d . A l t h o u g h the p o l i c y of N G O i n c l u s i o n has b e e n e n d o r s e d b y official p o l i c y f o r u m s a n d statements, a closer e x a m i n a t i o n reveals that the e n d o r s e m e n t is n o t g o v e r n m e n t - w i d e , as M E T I r e g a r d s t h e M O F A - i n s p i r e d a i d p o l i c y t o b e o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e a n d c o n c e i v e s o f a i d as a p r o m o t i o n a l t o o l o f e x p o r t a n d i n v e s t m e n t . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , at t h e s a m e t i m e o f p r o m o t i n g N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s u p p o r t s M E T I ' s p o l i c y as w e l l w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d p e r s o n n e l  65  b a c k u p . I n other w o r d s , a l t h o u g h N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n is g r o w i n g p a r t l y d u e to the s u p p o r t f r o m M O F A a n d the business sector respectively, the t r a d i t i o n a l a i d s y s t e m w i t h p r i o r i t y o n e c o n o m i c objectives is still i n place. N G O s r e s p o n d to these m o v e s b y t e a m i n g u p w i t h p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n parties a n d trade u n i o n s w h e n necessary. W h i l e official p r o g r a m s to s u p p o r t N G O s d o benefit the v o l u n t a r y c o m m u n i t y , the t w o sides are y e t to be t r u e partners. A case s t u d y of the O D A C h a r t e r illustrates the difficulties of the g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p . T h e d i s c u s s i o n o n the charter a n d legislation of a l e g a l l y - b i n d i n g O D A l a w reveals the inherent g a p b e t w e e n M O F A , w h o w a n t s to u t i l i z e O D A as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l , a n d N G O s , w h o s e p e r c e p t i o n o f a i d i s r o o t e d i n h u m a n i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s . S i m i l a r l y , N G O s c o m e at o d d s w i t h t h e business c o m m u n i t y , w h o h a v e interests i n i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h rather t h a n i n the p r o m o t i o n of h u m a n i t a r i a n causes. A s a w h o l e , this thesis about N G O s , f o r e i g n a i d a n d businesses i n J a p a n c o v e r s a b r o a d r a n g e of h i t h e r t o u n c o n n e c t e d subjects. I n so d o i n g , it c h a l l e n g e s a c o u p l e o f c o m m o n l y a c c e p t e d n o t i o n s . O n e is that f o r m a t i o n o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y is i n v a r i a b l y d o m i n a t e d b y bureaucrats w h i l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n is k e p t m i n i m a l . T h e r o l e o f N G O s as n e w c o n s t i t u e n t s f o r b u r e a u c r a t s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s i s b e c o m i n g so i m p o r t a n t t h a t N G O s are g i v e n a k e y f u n c t i o n as i s s u e a d v o c a t e s , p o l i c y p l a y e r s a n d agents of influence i n the c o n t e m p o r a r y Japanese politics. T h e o t h e r is that the r o l e of the b u s i n e s s sector h a s a l w a y s b e e n t h a t of a p r o m o t e r o f c o m m e r c i a l interests a n d n o t h i n g else. T h i s is o b v i o u s l y a o n e - s i d e d v i e w s i n c e business initiatives have certainly benefited N G O s .  Importance of NGO  Participation  A s the n e w O D A C h a r t e r r e v i s e d i n 2003 s h o w s , d e v e l o p m e n t a i d is n o w a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the g o v e r n m e n t ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . T h e c h a r t e r states J a p a n ' s a i d objectives as to " c o n t r i b u t e t o the peace a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  66  c o m m u n i t y , a n d thereby to ensure Japan's o w n security a n d p r o s p e r i t y . "  1 0 1  Indeed, i n o r d e r to attain these objectives, J a p a n needs to a d d r e s s v a r i o u s h u m a n i t a r i a n i s s u e s a n d a i d n e e d s a n d s t r i v e f o r s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t , as t h e charter articulates. D e a l i n g w i t h s u c h tasks a n d a c h i e v i n g the  aforementioned  objectives are i n the interests of e v e r y p a r t y - the g o v e r n m e n t , business a n d the v o l u n t a r y sector - a n d the i n v o l v e m e n t of N G O s , or m o r e b r o a d l y , the general p u b l i c , is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t for t w o reasons. F i r s t o f a l l , as the p r e v i o u s p a r t s o f t h i s thesis h a v e d i s c u s s e d a n d as M O F A is w e l l a w a r e of, t h e n e w t a s k o f d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n i s s u e s c o u l d not be d o n e w i t h o u t grassroots organizations. P o l i c y m a k i n g bodies i n c l u d i n g M O F A a n d a i d a g e n c i e s s u c h as J I C A a n d J B I C n e e d to seek a d e q u a t e f o r m s of p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s for effective a i d d e l i v e r y , w h e t h e r it is c o n t r a c t i n g - o u t of projects, f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , or c o n s u l t a t i o n o n p l a n n i n g a n d evaluation. A central official u n i t w h i c h coordinates c o o p e r a t i v e p r o g r a m s b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d v a r i o u s n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l g r o u p s w o u l d be desirable for this p u r p o s e . F o r instance, the C a n a d i a n International A i d A g e n c y ( C I D A ) , C a n a d a ' s official o r g a n for a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , has the C a n a d i a n P a r t n e r s h i p B r a n c h to c a r r y o u t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n p r o g r a m s w i t h n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations i n c l u d i n g colleges, universities, companies, N G O s , u n i o n s a n d professional associations. The b r a n c h has several d i v i s i o n s a n d s u b d i v i s i o n s to m a n a g e different types of projects w i t h different types of partners. W h i l e c r e a t i n g a u n i f i e d a i d m i n i s t r y l i k e C I D A is n o t feasible i n the c u r r e n t J a p a n e s e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , e x p a n d i n g e x t a n t u n i t s s u c h as the N G O A s s i s t a n c e D i v i s i o n i n M O F A or the T r a d e a n d E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u i n M E T I m a y be possible for a better c o o r d i n a t i o n of p a r t n e r s h i p p r o g r a m s . T h i s w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y be s u i t e d for s o m e a i d areas w h e r e the interests of 101  MOFA,  Revision.  67  d e v e l o p m e n t - m i n d e d M O F A and infrastructure-oriented M E T I overlap, including environmental protection and economic institution-building focused on h u m a n resources  development.  S e c o n d , i n v o l v i n g N G O s i n O D A is i m p o r t a n t to g u a r a n t e e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s m a j o r n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . N G O s h a v e f u n c t i o n e d as a m a j o r d r i v i n g force i n r e v e a l i n g c o r r u p t i o n , m i s m a n a g e m e n t a n d other p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d to a i d projects a n d p r o v o k i n g p u b l i c debate, often w i t h other actors w h o share their p r i n c i p l e s a n d objectives i n a i d , i n c l u d i n g academics, o p p o s i t i o n parties a n d , recently trade unions. Public participation s h o u l d be p r o m o t e d f u r t h e r o n t h e p o l i t i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . J u s t as J a p a n ' s e x t e r n a l i s s u e s s u c h as security, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n U N p e a c e k e e p i n g a n d d e p l o y m e n t of the Self Defence F o r c e s are d e f i n e d b y l a w s , the objectives, p r i o r i t i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s of O D A s h o u l d be c o d i f i e d i n a l a w a n d p u t u n d e r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y a n d d e b a t e at the D i e t . A s the p r e v i o u s chapter discussed, s u c h changes c a n expect fierce b u r e a u c r a t i c r e s i s t a n c e s i n c e M O F A is c u r r e n t l y r e l u c t a n t to h a v e p a r l i a m e n t a r y check u n d e r f o r m a l legislation. H o w e v e r , the passage of the N P O L a w a n d a m e n d m e n t s m a d e to it d u r i n g the past f e w years despite the o p p o s i t i o n f r o m the b u r e a u c r a c y present a n e n c o u r a g i n g precedence. S i n c e the N P O L a w that w e n t i n t o effect i n 1 9 9 8 o f f e r e d n o t a x p r i v i l e g e s , N G O s f o r m e d a l i a i s o n c o u n c i l i n 1 9 9 9 a i m e d at t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e l a w a n d w o r k e d c l o s e l y w i t h t h e n o n - p a r t i s a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y C a u c u s , w h i c h w a s set u p i n t h e s a m e y e a r . T h e c o u n c i l s u b m i t t e d a n a m e n d m e n t p r o p o s a l to the C a u c u s a n d h e l d p u b l i c f o r u m s t h r o u g h o u t J a p a n to p r e s e n t t h e i r o p i n i o n s to l e g i s l a t o r s . I n 2001, t h e i r efforts r e s u l t e d i n the a m e n d m e n t s to the N P O L a w a n d tax m e a s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g N G O s that a l l o w n o n p r o f i t organizations a p p r o v e d b y the l a w to receive tax-deductible d o n a t i o n s . F u r t h e r a m e n d m e n t s w e r e m a d e i n 2002 to l o o s e n restrictions o n tax d e d u c t i b i l i t y a n d s i m p l i f y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e processes. O D A l e g i s l a t i o n c a n f o l l o w suit if s u c h n e t w o r k i n g a n d cooperation take place again.  68  Problems in the NGO Community T h a t b e i n g said, there are t w o issues i n the N G O c o m m u n i t y to be dealt w i t h s o t h a t i t c a n g r o w i n t o t h e s o l i d t h i r d p i l l a r o f s o c i e t y after t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d business. T h e case o f J a p a n P l a t f o r m , a r e l a t i v e l y successful case o f i n t e r - s e c t o r a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n e x a m i n e d i n c h a p t e r 3, i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e i s s u e s , n a m e l y the g a p b e t w e e n large, affluent N G O s a n d s m a l l e r ones, a n d b a l a n c i n g government reliance a n d advocacy function. First, w h i l e N G O s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n J P F are able to operate extensively w i t h assistance f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t a n d businesses, s m a l l e r a n d less o r g a n i z e d N G O s a r e left o u t o f t h e s y s t e m w i t h s a m e o l d p r o b l e m s . N G O s t h a t h a v e n o c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t are p u t at d i s a d v a n t a g e c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e w h i c h h a v e established relationship w i t h the g o v e r n m e n t i n o n e w a y o r the other. F u k i u r a T a d a m a s a , vice president of the A s s o c i a t i o n for A i d a n d Relief Japan, a N G O e n g a g e d i n refugee relief efforts, p o i n t s o u t that o f f i c i a l d o m r e t a i n s s t r o n g influence i n the v o l u n t a r y sector, r a i s i n g the J a p a n O v e r s e a s C o o p e r a t i o n V o l u n t e e r s ( J O C V ) as a n e x a m p l e .  1 0 2  M a n a g e d w i t h the O D A budget a n d  a d m i n i s t e r e d b y J I C A , J O C V sends Japanese y o u t h s to d e v e l o p i n g countries to e n g a g e t h e m i n v o l u n t e e r activities. Since its i n c e p t i o n i n 1965, the p r o g r a m has d i s p a t c h e d m o r e t h a n 20,000 v o l u n t e e r s i n total, w h i c h is a p h e n o m e n a l  number  for a single v o l u n t e e r p r o g r a m i n Japan. H u m a n resources m a n a g e m e n t o f J O C V is s u s t a i n e d b y a s o l i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e t o r e c r u i t a n d t r a i n a l a r g e n u m b e r o f v o l u n t e e r s every year a n d p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h v a r i o u s f o r m s of assistance. M e a n w h i l e , N G O s w i t h o u t s u c h official ties suffer f r o m l a c k o f f u n d s , l e g a l status a n d trained personnel. S i m i l a r to J O C V , m e m b e r organizations of J P F have s o l i d f i n a n c i a l a n d p e r s o n n e l bases. W h i l e 4 0 % o f N G O s i n a 2001 J A N I C s u r v e y h a v e less t h a n ¥ 2 0 m i l l i o n of a n n u a l r e v e n u e , J P F m e m b e r s b o a s t ¥ 4 2 7 7 m i l l i o n o n average. G o v e r n m e n t subsidies m a k e u p 25.9% of the r e v e n u e of a  "Puro to shiteno NGO wo Nihon ni sodateru hitsuyosei" [The necessity to nurture professional NGOs in Japan], Gaiko Forum (March 1997): 66-75. 102  69  J P F - a f f i l i a t e d N G O , w h i l e t h e f i g u r e i s m u c h l o w e r a t 1 0 . 1 % f o r N G O s at l a r g e .  1 0 3  T h i s " N o r t h - S o u t h " d i v i d e w i t h i n the N G O c o m m u n i t y c o u l d p u t the o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h o s e a c t i v i t i e s d o n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r e s t s at d i s a d v a n t a g e v i s - a - v i s those w h o s t a n d closer to the a u t h o r i t y . S e c o n d l y , s o m e w h a t r e l a t e d to the first o n e , t h e r e is a n i s s u e o f h o w to balance financial d e p e n d e n c y o n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d N G O s ' a d v o c a c y f u n c t i o n , especially for those N G O s i n JPF. F o r Japanese N G O s , m o s t of w h i c h are of s m a l l - a n d m e d i u m scale, d e p e n d e n c e o n g o v e r n m e n t a n d business f u n d s r u n s t h e r i s k o f l o s i n g t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e . It i s p o s s i b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , f o r N G O s r e c e i v i n g a large a m o u n t of f u n d s f r o m official sources to drift f r o m p u r s u i n g their roots a n d o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e of existence to m a n a g i n g c o n t r a c t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h o u t failure. K u m a o k a M i c h i y a , a N G O official f r o m the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r C e n t e r ( J V C ) sets a g u i d e l i n e f o r J a p a n e s e N G O s w h e n he p o i n t e d out that m a n y Japanese N G O s d o not h a v e capacity to h a n d l e f u n d s of ¥ 5 0 m i l l i o n to ¥ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n a n d that N G O s s h o u l d accept o n l y t w e n t y to t h i r t y percent of the a m o u n t they c a n h a n d l e f r o m external s o u r c e s .  1 0 4  H o w to m a i n t a i n their a d v o c a c y f u n c t i o n is a n i m p o r t a n t issue i n f o r m i n g partnership w i t h the g o v e r n m e n t , especially i n a contracting relationship. A s Ian S i m i l l i e argues, c o n t r a c t i n g b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d N G O s is " u s u a l l y a h e g e m o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h the w e a k e r p a r t n e r is o b l i g e d to accept the p r a c t i c e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e f u n d i n g a g e n c y . It i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o o f t e n b a s e d o n interference, containment, m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d l i m i t a t i o n . "  1 0 5  This issue d r e w  attention of m a n y N G O s w h e n they w e r e faced w i t h reconstruction tasks i n A f g h a n i s t a n a n d Iraq, f o l l o w i n g U.S. military c a m p a i g n s i n respective countries. M a n y Japanese N G O s o p p o s e d the w a r s a n d the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t ' s s u p p o r t for the m i l i t a r y actions. T h e y w e r e critical of the w a r s t h e m s e l v e s a n d , m o r e o v e r ,  JANIC, Directory of Japanese NGOs. http://www.parc-jp.org/oda watch/index.html. Ian Smillie and Henny Helmich, eds., Stakeholders: Government-NGO International Development (London: Earthscan Publications, 1999), 10. 103  1 0 4 105  70  Partnerships  for  of the " p e a c e b u i l d i n g " a p p r o a c h e m p l o y e d b y the g o v e r n m e n t . T h e a p p r o a c h , they m a i n t a i n e d , is p a r t of the g o v e r n m e n t ' s strategy to p o l i t i c a l l y s u p p o r t the U.S.-led w a r s a n d m o b i l i z e N G O s for the reconstruction w o r k s i n the aftermath. T h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the refugee relief a n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n efforts m e a n t s u p p o r t i n g the official a p p r o a c h , w h i l e r e f u s i n g to d o so m e a n t t u r n i n g their b a c k o n p e o p l e w h o n e e d e d h e l p . M a n y N G O s t h u s p u t m u c h effort i n t o a d v o c a c y activities against the w a r s a n d u s i n g O D A funds for p e a c e b u i l d i n g w o r k s . I n the p o s t w a r Iraq, s o m e N G O s i n c l u d i n g J V C refuses to receive O D A f u n d s a n d carries out h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d projects o n their o w n .  W h e n c o n s i d e r i n g that the g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p is l i k e l y to be strengthened i n the c o m i n g years, h o w N G O s c a n m a i n t a i n a n a r m ' s l e n g t h f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t i n their p a r t n e r s h i p becomes a n i m p o r t a n t issue. I n o r d e r for N G O s to r e m a i n a critical partner, their activities n e e d to be s u p p o r t e d b y n o n o f f i c i a l f u n d s a s m u c h as b y g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s i m p o r t a n t as t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t a r e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d s u p p o r t o f N G O s a n d their activities o n the part of the general p u b l i c . P u b l i c attitude to r e g a r d N G O s as g r o u p s o f b e n e v o l e n t v o l u n t e e r w o r k e r s i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t i n J a p a n e s e society a n d it fails to a c k n o w l e d g e their roles i n v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c a n d international issues. C o r p o r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to N G O s i n n o n - m o n e t a r y t e r m s p a r t i a l l y illustrate this p o i n t . B u s i n e s s s u p p o r t is i n c r e a s i n g d u e to the t o p - d o w n i n i t i a t i v e s of N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n a n d it has m a d e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n s o m e o u t s t a n d i n g cases s u c h as J P F a n d J A H D S . O n the l o w e r l e v e l , h o w e v e r , c o r p o r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s are s t i l l i n s u f f i c i e n t . A s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 2, m a n y J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s h a v e i n t r o d u c e d systems to encourage their e m p l o y e e s to participate i n v o l u n t e e r activities, r a n g i n g f r o m p a i d v o l u n t e e r h o l i d a y s to i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n o n a v a i l a b l e v o l u n t e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . D e s p i t e these arrangements, the actual i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f these s y s t e m s fares p o o r l y . A 2002 s u r v e y b y N i p p o n  71  K e i d a n r e n s h o w s that c o m p a n i e s that a c t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t the systems are m i n o r i t y . 65.7% of o v e r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s raise " p r o m o t i o n of e m p l o y e e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d social p a r t i c i p a t i o n " a n d 62.2% raise " l e a d e r s h i p of t o p e x e c u t i v e s " as m a j o r c h a l l e n g e s o v e r the n e x t t h r e e y e a r s .  1 0 6  I n other w o r d s , the  s u r v e y results i n d i c a t e that c o r p o r a t e s u p p o r t for v o l u n t e e r i s m is i n i t i a t e d f r o m a b o v e a n d t h a t i t h a s y e t t o p r e v a i l at t h e l o w e r l e v e l s .  O n the other h a n d , the inter-sectoral p a r t n e r s h i p c o u l d also b r i n g c h a l l e n g e s t o M O F A a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t at l a r g e f o r t h a t m a t t e r . F o r M O F A , w o r k i n g w i t h smaller-scale, less o r g a n i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s that l a c k a c c o u n t a b i l i t y c o u l d decrease the efficiency of a i d m a n a g e m e n t . W h i l e m i n i s t r i e s a n d other g o v e r n m e n t a l agencies are r e q u i r e d to g u a r a n t e e that p r o g r a m o p e r a t i o n s m e e t certain standards of accountability i n c l u d i n g financial m a n a g e m e n t  and  d o c u m e n t a t i o n , s o m e N G O s m a y h a v e difficulty i n m e e t i n g the s t a n d a r d s d u e to their organizational weaknesses. T h e other c h a l l e n g e i n c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h N G O s is that the g o v e r n m e n t is r e q u i r e d to be sensitive to social or h u m a n i t a r i a n concerns a n d  accommodate  p u b l i c requests that are not necessarily i n the interest of p o l i c y m a k e r s . T o the g o v e r n m e n t , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n is i n d e e d a d o u b l e - e d g e d s w o r d . I n c o r p o r a t i n g N G O s i n t o the O D A p r o g r a m c a n increase p u b l i c s u p p o r t a n d fit w i t h g e n e r a l f o r e i g n p o l i c y goals o n the one h a n d , b u t it m a y i m p o s e restrictions o n specific p o l i c i e s o n the other. A s the cases of A f g h a n i s t a n a n d I r a q i m p l y , the m o r e M O F A s t r e n g t h e n s its c o o p e r a t i v e ties w i t h N G O s , the m o r e the m i n i s t r y m a y be affected b y t h e i r a d v o c a c i e s . I n a separate case, N G O a d v o c a c y p u s h e d J B I C to e s t a b l i s h i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s i n 2002 to be a p p l i e d to the b a n k ' s f i n a n c i a l o p e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d to O D A projects. P r e p a r a t i o n of the g u i d e l i n e s w e n t u n d e r extensive p u b l i c consultation processes, i n w h i c h N G O s , a c a d e m i c s a n d industry representatives presented their opinions. 106  Nippon Keidanren,  Synopsis  of the  Survey.  72  T h e s e i s s u e s w i l l b e c o m e p r o m i n e n t as the p a r t n e r s h i p e v o l v e s a n d t h u s s h a l l be the subjects of future s t u d y .  73  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A m e n o m o r i , T a k a y o s h i . " D e f i n i n g t h e N o n p r o f i t S e c t o r : J a p a n . " Working  Papers  of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, n o . 1 5 , e d i t e d b y L . M . S a l a m o n a n d H . K . A n h e i r . Baltimore: T h e Johns H o p k i n s Institute for Policy Studies, 1993. A r a s e , D a v i d . Buying Power: The Political Economy of Japan's Foreign Aid. B o u l d e r , L o n d o n : L y n n e R i e n n e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1995. B r o o k s , W i l l i a m L . a n d R o b e r t M . O r r , Jr. " J a p a n ' s F o r e i g n E c o n o m i c A s s i s t a n c e . " Asian Survey 2 5 , n o . 3 ( M a r c h 1985): 3 2 2 - 3 4 0 . Committee for P r o m o t i n g Partnership between N G O a n d M O F A ( N G O - G a i m u s h o r e n k e i s u i s h i n i i n k a i ) . Gaimusho NGO shiensaku ni kansuru chosakekka hokoku [ T h e S u r v e y o n M O F A ' s N G O s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s ] (28 M a r c h 2003). h t t p : / / w w w . j a n i c . o r g / r e s / m o f a r e p o r t . p d f . D o i , T a k a k o , Y o s h i n o r i M u r a i , a n d K e i i c h i Y o s h i m u r a . ODA kaikaku: Kanadagikai karano teigen to Nihon no genjo [ O D A r e f o r m : r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b y C a n a d a ' s p a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n Japan]. T o k y o : S h a k a i S h i s o s h a , 1990. E n s i g n , M a r g e e M . Doing Good or Doing Well? : Japan's Foreign Aid Program. N e w Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1992. H a r a d a , K a t s u h i r o . Kokorozashi ha kokkyo wo koete: NGO ga Nihon wo kaeru [ T h e p o w e r of w i l l crossing the borders: N G O s c h a n g i n g Japan]. T o k y o : N i h o n K e i z a i S h i m b u n s h a , 2001. H a s e g a w a , S u k e h i r o . Japanese Foreign Aid: Policy and Practice. N e w Y o r k : P r a e g e r Publishers, 1975. H i r a b a y a s h i , H i r o s h i . " A t a r a s h i i j i d a i n o w a g a k u n i n o s e i h u k a i h a t s u enjo w o m o t o m e t e " [In p u r s u i t o f official d e v e l o p m e n t assistance i n J a p a n of n e w era]. Gaiko Forum ( F e b r u a r y , 1995): 6-20. H i r a t a , K e i k o . Civil Society in Japan: The Growing Role of NGOs in Tokyo's Aid and Development  Policy. N e w Y o r k : P a l g r a v e M a c M i l l a n , 2 0 0 2 .  " I m a naze m i n k a t s u infura k a " [ W h y private resources for i n f r a s t r u c t u r e - b u i l d i n g n o w ] . Gekkan Keidanren ( M a r c h 1 9 9 6 ) : 5 4 - 5 9 . I n o g u c h i , T a k a s h i , a n d P u r n e n d r a J a i n , e d s . Japanese Foreign Policy Today: A Reader. N e w Y o r k : P a l g r a v e , 2 0 0 0 . I s l a m , S h a f i q u l , e d . Yen for Development: Japanese Foreign Aid and the Politics of Burden-Sharing.  N e w Y o r k : C o u n c i l of F o r e i g n Relations Press, 1991.  Japan International Volunteer Center. " O D A Taiko m i n a o s h i n i k a n s u r u i k e n k o u k a n k a i " [ D i a l o g u e o n t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e O D A C h a r t e r ] (28 A p r i l 2003).  http://www.ngo-jvc.net/jp/projects/advocacy/prj01detail02.html.  J a p a n N G O C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n ( J A N I C ) . Directory of Japanese NGOs  Concerned with International  Cooperation. T o k y o : J A N I C , 2 0 0 2 .  74  Kanda, Hiroshi. " O D A kaikaku niha N G O no rikiryo ga kakatteiru" [ O D A r e f o r m d e p e n d s o n N G O i n i t i a t i v e s ] , Gaiko Forum ( J u l y 1 9 9 9 ) : 5 4 - 5 9 . K a w a k a m i , T a k a o . " 2 1 s e i k i n i m u k e t a N i h o n n o enjo s e i s a k u " [Japan's a i d p o l i c y  t o w a r d t h e 2 1 c e n t u r y ] , Gaiko Forum ( M a r c h 1993): 4 - 1 5 . s t  K i h a t a , S h o s h i c h i . "1990 n e n d a i n i o k e r u w a g a k u n i O D A n o k a d a i " [Issues o f o u r c o u n t r y ' s O D A i n t h e 1 9 9 0 s ] . Gaiko Forum ( A p r i l 1 9 9 0 ) : 2 4 - 2 9 . K o d a m a , Koretsugu. "Naigai n o kitai n ikotaeru J A I D O " [JAIDO living u p both domestic a n d overseas expectations]. Kohama, Hirohisa.  Gekkan Keidanren ( O c t o b e r 1 9 9 8 ) : 5 1 - 5 3 .  ODA no keizaigaku [ E c o n o m i c s o f O D A ] . T o k y o : N i h o n  H y o r o n s h a , 1992. " K o k a a r u enjo n o t a m e n i N G O k a t s u d o n o i s s o u n o h a t t e n w o " [ N G O a c t i v i t i e s n e e d e d f o r e f f e c t i v e a i d ] . Gaiko Forum ( A p r i l 1 9 9 0 ) : 3 0 - 5 5 . K o p p e l , B r u c e M . , a n d R o b e r t M . O r r , Jr., e d s .  Japan's Foreign Aid: Poiver and  Policy in a Neiv Era. B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o ; O x f o r d : W e s t v i e w P r e s s , 1 9 9 3 . Keizai kyoryoku: towareru Nihon no keizai gaiko [ E c o n o m i c  Matsui, Ken.  cooperation: Japan's economic diplomacy questioned]. Tokyo: Y u h i k a k u , 1983. M a t s u m a e , Tatsuro, a n d L i n c o l n C . C h e n , eds.  In Pursuit of Common Values in  Asia: Japan's ODA Charter Re-evaluated. T o k y o : T o k a i U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 9 7 . M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . Japan's ODA Annual Report 1999. h t t p : / / w w w . m o f a. g o . j p / p o l i c y / o d a / s u m m a r y / 1 9 9 9 .  —. White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2001 ( M a y 2 0 0 2 ) . http:/ / www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/shiryo/hakusyo/01  hakusho/O  DA2001 / html / z u h y o / index.htm.  -—. White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2002 ( A p r i l 2 0 0 3 ) . http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/shiryo/hakusyo/02  hakusho/O  DA2002/html/zuhyo/index.htm.  —. Revision of Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter ( A u g u s t 2 0 0 3 ) . http: / / w w w . m o f a . g o . j p / p o l i c y / oda/reform/revision0308.pdf.  —. White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2004 ( O c t o b e r 2 0 0 4 ) . http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/shiryo/hakusyo/04  hakusho/O  D A 2 0 0 4 / h t m l / z u h y o / index. htm.  —. Japan's Medium-term Policy on Official Development Assistance (4 F e b r u a r y 2005). h t t p : / / w w w . m o f a . g o . j p / p o l i c y / o d a / m i d - t e r m / p o l i c y . p d f . M i n i s t r y of International Trade a n d Industry, ed.  Tsusho Sangyo Seisakushi [ T h e  history of international trade a n d industry], 17vols. T o k y o : Tsusho Sangyo C h o s a k a i , 1990.  —. Keizai kyoryoku no genjo to mondaiten 1999 [ T h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n a n d i s s u e s o f e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n 1999]. T o k y o : T s u s h o S a n g y o C h o s a k a i , 1994. M o r i t a , A k i o . " K o k u s a i k e n s h u k y o r y o k u k i k o n o setsuritsu n i tsuite" [ O n the establishment of the Japan International T r a i n i n g C o o p e r a t i o n Organization].  Keidanren Geppo ( O c t o b e r 1 9 9 1 ) : 3 4 - 3 6 . M u r a i , Y o s h i n o r i . Nippon no ODA [ J a p a n ' s O D A ] . T o k y o : G a k u y o S h o b o , 1 9 9 2 .  75  —. Musekinin Enjo Taikoku Nippon [ J a p a n , t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e a i d d o n o r ] . T o k y o : J I C C S h u p p a n K y o k u , 1989. N a g a s a w a , E m i k o . " K o k u s a i N G O to k i g y o n o setten" [The interface international N G O s a n d corporations]. C h a p . 13 i n  between  Kokusaikyoryoku NGO  [International c o o p e r a t i o n N G O s ] . T o k y o : N i h o n H y o r y o n s h a , 2004. " N G O t o O D A n o i n t a a f e e s u " [ T h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n N G O s a n d O D A ] . Gaiko  Forum ( M a y 2002): 4 9 - 5 5 . N i s h i d a , Tsuneo. " O r u Japan n o O D A w o mezashite" [Toward a n all-Japan  O D A ] . Gaiko Forum ( M a y 2002): 42-48. N i s h i o k a , T a k a s h i . " A r a t a n a O D A taiko n i tsuite" [ O n the n e w O D A Charter].  Keizai Trend ( O c t o b e r 2003): 4 2 - 4 3 . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n . Charter of Corporate Behavior (14 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 9 1 ) . http: / / w w w . k e i d a n r e n . o r . j p / e n g l i s h / p o l i c y / cgcb.html. — . " S e i f u k a i h a t s u enjo n i k a n s u r u w a r e w a r e n o k a n g a e " [ O u r v i e w s o n official d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t a n c e ] (15 A p r i l 1 9 9 7 ) . http:/ / www.keidanren.or.jp/japanese/policy/po!128/index.html. — . " K o n g o n o seifu k a i h a t s u enjo t o k o k u s a i k y o r y o k u g i n k o h e n o t e i g e n " [Official d e v e l o p m e n t assistance for the future a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for J a p a n B a n k f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n ] (21 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 9 9 ) . http:// www.keidanren.or.jp/japanese/policy/pol243.html.  —. White Paper on Corporate Philanthropy in Japan 1999 ( S e p t e m b e r 1999). http:/ / www.keidanren.or.jp/english/policy/2000/063.whitepaper.html. — . " O D A k a i k a k u n i k a k n s u r u t e i g e n " [ R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n O D A r e f o r m ] (16 O c t o b e r 2001).  http://www.keidanren.or.jp/japanese/policy/2001/049.html.  —. Synopsis of the Survey on Corporate Philanthropic Activities in Fiscal 2002 ( J a n u a r y 2004). h t t p : / / w w w . k e i d a n r e n . o r . j p / e n g l i s h / p o l i c y / 2 0 0 4 / 0 0 4 . p d f . " O D A h a g a i k o s o n o m o n o d e a r u " [ O D A i s d i p l o m a c y i t s e l f ] . Gaiko Forum ( J u l y 1999): 26-34. " O D A purojekuto seiko n o j o k e n toha n a n i k a " [Conditions for successful O D A  p r o j e c t s ] . Gaiko Forum ( F e b r u a r y 1995): 50-59. O h n o , K e n i c h i . " G l o b a l D e v e l o p m e n t S t r a t e g y a n d J a p a n ' s O D A P o l i c y " (15 O c t o b e r 2001). h t t p : / / w w w . r i e t i . g o . j p / m e t i / a s i a - d / d a t a / O D A 5 . p d f . Okubo, Naotake. "'Keizaikai ga shizen hogo katsudo w o susumerutameni  -  N G O tono renkei w o motomete' w o kaisai" [A s y m p o s i u m o n the partnership w i t h N G O s f o r p r o m o t i n g n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y b y t h e business sector].  Keizai Trend ( M a y 2003): 42-44. "Posuto reisenki n i okeru keizai k y o r y o k u " [Economic cooperation i n the p o s t - C o l d W a r era].  Gekkan Keidanren ( D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 4 ) : 6-17.  " P u r o to shiteno N G O w o N i h o n n i sodateru h i t s u y o s e i " [The necessity to n u r t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l N G O s i n J a p a n ] . Gaiko Forum ( M a r c h 1 9 9 7 ) : 6 6 - 7 5 . Rix, Alan.  Japan's Economic Aid: Policy-Making and Politics. L o n d o n : C r o o m H e l m ,  1980.  76  —. Japan's Foreign Aid Challenge: Policy Reform and Aid Leadership. L o n d o n ; N e w Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e , 1993. S c h w a r t z , F r a n k J. a n d S u s a n J. P h a r r , e d s .  The State of Civil Society in Japan.  C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2003. S h i m a d a , K y o k o . " O v e r v i e w of the Japanese C o r p o r a t e P h i l a n t h r o p y i n 1990's" (July 2001). h t t p : / / w w w . k e i d a n r e n . o r .jp / J a p a n e s e / p r o f i l e / 1 p - c l u b / b o o k 2 0 0 1 0 7 e / p r o l o gue.html. S h i m o m u r a , Y a s u t a m i , J u n j i N a k a g a w a , a n d J u n S a i t o . ODA  taiko no  seijikeizaigaku: unyo to enjorinen [ T h e p o l i t i c s a n d e c o n o m y o f t h e O D A C h a r t e r : i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d p h i l o s o p h y ] . T o k y o : Y u h i k a k u , 1999. S m i l l i e , Ian a n d H e n n y H e l m i c h , eds.  Stakeholders: Government-NGO Partnerships  for International Development. L o n d o n : E a r t h s c a n P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 9 9 . S o d e r b e r g , M a r i e , e d . The Business of Japanese Foreign Aid. L o n d o n a n d N e w Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e , 1996. Sumi, Kazuo.  ODA Enjo no Genjitsu [ T h e r e a l i t y o f O D A a i d ] . T o k y o : I w a n a m i  S h i n s h o , 1990  —. Kiraamreru Enjo: Segin-Nihon no Enjo to Narumada Damu [ U n a p p r e c i a t e d a i d : a i d b y the W o r l d B a n k a n d J a p a n for N a r m a d a D a m ] . T o k y o : T s u k i j i S h o k a n , 1990.  —. No Moa ODA; Baramaki Enjo [ N o m o r e O D A , a n a i d s p r e e ] . T o k y o : J I C C S h u p p a n K y o k u , 1992. The 21  s t  C e n t u r y P u b l i c P o l i c y Institute. " N G O to O D A n o r e n k e i k y o k a n o  arikata: O D A k a i k a k u n o t o p p a k o u to shite" [ M e a s u r e s to s t r e n g t h e n partnership w i t h N G O s i n O D A : a breakthrough i n O D A reform] ( M a r c h 2000).  http://www.21ppi.org/iapanese/thesis/200003/oda.pdf.  T o k u m o t o , T e r u h i t o . " K o k u s a i N G O to shiteno K o k u s a i R o d o Z a i d a n " [Japan  I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r F o u n d a t i o n as a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l N G O ] . Rengo Soken  Report, n o . 1 8 8 (1 N o v e m b e r 2004). http:/ /www.rengo-soken.or.jp/dio/nol88/kikou.htm. Y a m a m o t o , Tadashi, ed.  Deciding the Public Good: Governance and Civil Society in  Japan. T o k y o : J a p a n C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x c h a n g e , 1 9 9 9 . Y a m a m o t o , Tadashi, a n d H i t o m i K o m a t s u , "Japan's Philanthropic D e v e l o p m e n t  Emerging Civil Society in the Asia Pacific Community: Nongovernmental Underpinnings of the Emerging Asia Pacific Regional Community: A 25 Anniversary of JCIE. S i n g a p o r e : I n s t i t u t e o f i n A n A s i a Pacific Context." In th  S o u t h e a s t A s i a n S t u d i e s , a n d J a p a n C e n t e r for I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x c h a n g e , 1995. Yanaga, Chitoshi.  Big Business in Japanese Politics. N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y  Press, 1968.  TJie Manner of Giving: Strategic Aid and Japanese Foreign Policy. L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : L e x i n g t o n B o o k s , 1 9 8 6 . —. The New Multilateralism in Japan's Foreign Policy. N e w Y o r k : St. M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , Y a s u t o m o , D e n n i s T.  1995.  77  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0078409/manifest

Comment

Related Items