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The formation of NGO inclusion policy in Japan’s official development assistance : the role of NGO’s… Ozaki, Sakura 2005

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T H E FORMATION OF N G O INCLUSION POLICY IN JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE: T H E ROLES OF N G O S , THE FOREIGN MINISTRY A N D BUSINESS by SAKURA O Z A K I A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in T H E FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (ASIA PACIFIC POLICY STUDIES) T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2005 © Sakura Ozaki, 2005 A B S T R A C T Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become an integral part of Japan's official development assistance (ODA) program since the end of the 1980s. The government subsidizes their activities, supports their capacity-building efforts and cooperate with them in carrying out and evaluating aid projects. This thesis examines why the policy of NGO inclusion in ODA has been formed. It focuses on NGOs, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) and the business sector to reveal that their respective initiatives based on differing motives have contributed to the making of such a policy. Specifically, MOFA's intention to utilize ODA as a foreign policy tool in the changing aid context and the growing consciousness of good corporate citizenship on the part of the business sector have made it imperative for them to seek partnership with NGOs, who have grown considerably in the Japanese society. The thesis then looks to the interaction among these actors, that is, how they cooperate in some cases and disagree in others. Although the policy of NGO inclusion has been endorsed by official policy forums and statements, the endorsement is not government-wide, nor has the traditional aid system with priority on economic objectives changed. By studying specific cases in which NGOs' humanitarian principles collide with official and business motives, the thesis identifies difficulties in the cross-sectoral cooperation. However, considering the new aid context and the fact that ODA is Japan's major national program, the participation of NGOs and, more broadly, the general public is needed for greater effectiveness and accountability in ODA. The thesis concludes by presenting some issues facing Japanese NGOs for future consideration. 11 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t - i i T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s i i i L i s t o f a t ab le a n d f i g u r e s i v L i s t o f a b b r e v i a t i o n s v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v i C H A P T E R I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C H A P T E R II A c t o r s i n J a p a n ' s O D A p r o g r a m 10 2.1 N G O s 10 2.1.1 T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f J apanese N G O s 13 2.1.2 H o w N G O s h a v e i n c r e a s e d t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n the a i d s y s t e m 16 2.2 M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s 20 2.2.1 P o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f a i d 21 2.2.2 M O F A ' s e n d o r s e m e n t o f N G O s 27 2.3 B u s i n e s s 32 2.3.1 T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y 34 2.3.2 T h e e x p a n s i o n o f c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y 40 C H A P T E R III C o n f l i c t o f in te res t s a m o n g ac to r s 43 3.1 S u c c e s s f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n - J a p a n P l a t f o r m 43 3.2 C o n f l i c t o f in te res t s 47 3.2.1 M O F A v s . M E T I 4 7 3.2.2 M O F A v s . N G O s 52 3.2.3 B u s i n e s s v s . N G O s 57 C H A P T E R I V C o n c l u s i o n 64 B i b l i o g r a p h y 74 i i i LIST O F A T A B L E A N D FIGURES T a b l e 2.1 E a c h ac to r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the N G O c o m m u n i t y 12 F i g u r e 2.1 A n n u a l b u d g e t o f a c t i v i t i e s 11 F i g u r e 2.2 N u m b e r o f N G O s e s t a b l i s h e d 16 F i g u r e 2.3 B u d g e t o f N G O Pro j ec t S u b s i d y a n d G r a n t A s s i s t a n c e f o r J apanese N G O Pro jec t s 31 F i g u r e 3.1 I n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g ac tors 46 iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS C I D A C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i d A g e n c y D A C D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e C o m m i t t e e J A H D S J a p a n A l l i a n c e fo r H u m a n i t a r i a n D e m i n i n g S u p p o r t J A I D O J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n J A N I C J a p a n N G O C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n J B I C J a p a n B a n k f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n J I C A J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n A g e n c y J I T C O J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o o p e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n J O C V J a p a n O v e r s e a s C o o p e r a t i o n V o l u n t e e r s J P F J a p a n P l a t f o r m J V C J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r C e n t e r M E T I M i n i s t r y o f E c o n o m y , T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r y M I T I M i n i s t r y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r y M O F M i n i s t r y o f F i n a n c e M O F A M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s N G O N o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n N P O N o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n O E C D O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t O E C F O v e r s e a s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n F u n d O D A O f f i c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e U N U n i t e d N a t i o n s v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I a m i n d e b t e d to m a n y p e o p l e w h o h e l p e d m e c o m p l e t e t h i s thes i s . I w o u l d l i k e to e x p r e s s m y g r a t i t u d e to m y s u p e r v i s o r P r o f e s s o r J u l i a n D i e r k e s , w h o s e s t i m u l a t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s a n d i n s i g h t f u l c o m m e n t s h e l p e d m e t h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e s s o f m y r e s e a r c h a n d w r i t i n g . I a l s o a m g r a t e f u l to P r o f e s s o r N a k a m u r a M a s a o , w h o h a s k i n d l y a g r e e d to s e r v e as m y s e c o n d s u p e r v i s o r a n d p r o v i d e d c o n s t r u c t i v e c o m m e n t s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s . W i t h o u t t h e i r k i n d s u p p o r t a n d t i m e l y f e e d b a c k s , I w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n ab l e to c o m p l e t e t he thes i s . M y s i n c e r e t h a n k s a re d u e to P r o f e s s o r P a u l E v a n s , w h o g u i d e d m y in t e re s t to t he s t u d y o f c i v i l s o c i e t y . I t o o k h i s c o u r s e o n h u m a n s e c u r i t y i n t he f i r s t y e a r o f m y m a s t e r ' s p r o g r a m , a n d i t w a s the re tha t I l e a r n e d a b o u t t he e v o l v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e o n h u m a n s e c u r i t y a n d r ecen t J a p a n e s e i n i t i a t i v e s b o t h i n the o f f i c i a l a n d p r i v a t e sec tors i n t h i s f i e l d . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e to g i v e m y t h a n k s to P r o f e s s o r Y v e s T i b e r g h i e n a n d T a m u r a A t s u k o , w h o r e a d m y thes i s p r o p o s a l a n d g a v e m e m a n y c o m m e n t s t ha t h e l p e d m e l a y o u t t he en t i r e thes i s . P r o f e s s o r T i b e r g h i e n i n t r o d u c e d m e to the f i e l d o f p o l i t i c a l s c i ence a n d m a j o r t h e o r e t i c a l s t r e a m s o f J apanese p o l i t i c s , w h i c h are n o w m y t o o l to o b s e r v e m y o w n c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c s o b j e c t i v e l y . A t s u k o w a s m y c l a s s m a t e i n m o s t o f the c o u r s e s I t o o k at U B C , a n d I a l w a y s e n j o y e d s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s I h a d w i t h h e r o n the i s sues s u r r o u n d i n g J apanese p o l i t i c s . M y w a r m t h a n k s g o to m y fa ther , w h o f o r m e d p a r t o f m y v i s i o n a n d t a u g h t m e to l o o k at t h i n g s c r i t i c a l l y . H i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d a d v i c e i n the c o u r s e o f m y s t u d y h e r e m o t i v a t e d m e to m o v e f o r w a r d . L a s t l y , I a m g r a t e f u l t o m y p a r t n e r W a n g C h a o f o r the i n s p i r a t i o n a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t h e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h o u t the en t i r e p r o c e s s o f r e s e a r c h a n d w r i t i n g . H e w a s a c r i t i c a l a d v i s o r w h e n h e w a s r e a d i n g m y e a r l i e r d ra f t s a n d a p a t i e n t s u p p o r t e r w h e n I w a s b u r i e d i n m y w o r k . V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 2005 S a k u r a O z a k i v i C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N Background of Japan's Aid J a p a n ' s f o r e i g n a i d h a s e v o l v e d o v e r a b o u t f i v e d e c a d e s s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n r e s p o n s e to d o m e s t i c e c o n o m i c needs , f o r e i g n p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n d f o r e i g n p r e s s u r e . I n the p r o c e s s v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n p o i n t e d o u t b y j o u r n a l i s t s , a c a d e m i c s , c i v i c g r o u p s a n d f o r e i g n o b s e r v e r s . D i s c u s s i o n s o f J a p a n ' s a i d o f t en f o c u s o n the p r o b l e m s o f d i f fu se p o l i c y m a n a g e m e n t , t he e c o n o m i c p r o m o t i o n d i m e n s i o n o f the p r o g r a m , the e m p h a s i s o n s u p p o r t f o r b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , a n d the r e g i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f ef for t i n A s i a . F i r s t o f a l l , the p o l i c y o f J a p a n ' s o f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t ance ( O D A ) h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n m a d e u n d e r the c o n s u l t a t i o n a m o n g the E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g . A g e n c y , t he M i n i s t r i e s o f F i n a n c e , F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ( M O F A ) , a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r y ( M I T I ) . T h e f o u r g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s a l s o w o u l d a d m i n i s t e r a l a r g e v o l u m e o f O D A f u n d a n d a n u m b e r o f a i d p ro jec t s , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f w h i c h w a s s h o u l d e r e d b y s e m i - o f f i c i a l a g e n c i e s , n a m e l y the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n A g e n c y ( J I C A ) f o r t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n a n d the O v e r s e a s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n F u n d ( O E C F ) fo r y e n l o a n s . A l a c k o f a u n i f i e d a i d m i n i s t r y a n d d i s p e r s e d a i d a u t h o r i t y a m o n g a n u m b e r o f m i n i s t r i e s a n d a g e n c i e s h a v e l e d to i n e f f i c i e n t a i d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e the v o l u m e a n d v a r i e t y o f O D A k e p t i n c r e a s i n g . W h e r e a s u n t i l the e a r l y 1960s p ro jec t a i d w a s d o m i n a n t i n J apanese a i d , s t a r t i n g i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the d e c a d e , i t s a i d p r o g r a m b e c a m e m o r e v a r i e d . J a p a n s t a r t e d p r o v i d i n g c o m m o d i t y l o a n s f o r c o u n t r i e s s u c h as I n d i a a n d I n d o n e s i a , w h i c h w e r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m i n f l a t i o n a n d t r a d e de f i c i t . It i s a l s o i n the la te 1960s t ha t g r a n t a i d c o m p l e t e l y s epa ra t e f r o m w a r r e p a r a t i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n the J a p a n e s e a i d f r a m e w o r k . A n e w b u d g e t w a s a d d e d to the g o v e r n m e n t b u d g e t o f 1969 to c o v e r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p ro jec t s s u c h as e d u c a t i o n a n d m e d i c a l ca re . I n 1977, P r i m e 1 M i n i s t e r F u k u d a T a k e o a n n o u n c e d the f i r s t o f a n u m b e r o f a i d - d o u b l i n g p l a n s tha t w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y m a k e J a p a n the w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g p r o v i d e r o f O D A . 1 S o m e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e s w e r e m a d e i n the l a s t d e c a d e i n a n a t t e m p t to a c c o m m o d a t e the c h a n g e s a n d be t te r c o o r d i n a t e a i d p r o g r a m s . I n the r e s h u f f l i n g o f c e n t r a l m i n i s t r i e s i n J a n u a r y 2001 , the E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g A g e n c y w a s m e r g e d w i t h the C a b i n e t O f f i c e a n d M I T I w a s r e n a m e d as the M i n i s t r y o f E c o n o m y , T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r y . J I C A , w h i c h w a s i n i t i a l l y set u p as a s p e c i a l p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n (tokushu hojiri) i n 1974, h a s g a i n e d the s ta tus o f i n d e p e n d e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n (dokuritsu gyosei hojin) i n O c t o b e r 2003. I n 1999 O E C F a n d a n o t h e r l o a n - p r o v i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , the E x p o r t - I m p o r t B a n k o f J a p a n , w e r e m e r g e d to f o r m J a p a n B a n k f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n ( JBIC) . I n a d d i t i o n to t he d i f fuse a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g s y s t e m s , s t r u c t u r a l i n c l u s i o n o f t he b u s i n e s s sec tor has b e e n a s o u r c e o f c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t t he a i d p r o g r a m . J a p a n ' s f o r e i g n a i d i s o f t en c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s " c o m m e r c i a l " o r i e n t a t i o n . 2 H i s t o r i c a l l y , goes the a c c u s a t i o n , the c o u n t r y ' s a i d p r o g r a m s t a r t e d as w a r r e p a r a t i o n a n d h a s f u n c t i o n e d as d e fac to s u b s i d i e s f o r b u s i n e s s . J apanese b u s i n e s s e s w e r e a c c u s e d o f c a u s i n g d a m a g e s to the e n v i r o n m e n t a n d c o m m u n i t i e s i n the r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r y a n d t h e r e b y i n h i b i t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n a t r u e sense . T h i s p r o b l e m o r i g i n a t e d i n the g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y , w h i c h w a s d r i v e n b y e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s s u c h as e x p o r t p r o m o t i o n a n d s e c u r e s u p p l y o f r e s o u r c e s . T h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s v i g o r o u s l y p r o m o t e d a i d to d e v e l o p J a p a n ' s p r i v a t e sec to r a n d a c h i e v e the c o u n t r y ' s e c o n o m i c p r o s p e r i t y . S u c h a n i n t e n t i o n o f t he J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t is w e l l d e s c r i b e d i n M I T I ' s f i r s t e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n y e a r b o o k p u b l i s h e d i n 1958. R e c o g n i z i n g the i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n J a p a n a n d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e n M I T I M i n i s t e r M a e o S h i g e s a b u r o w r i t e s i n the ' The aid-doubling plans, formally named as ODA Medium-term Goals, were issued five times. The last one was announced in 1993 to set out numerical goals for the period of 1993-1997. 2 For example, see Tatsuro Matsumae and Lincoln C. Chen, eds., In Pursuit of Common Values in Asia: Japan's ODA Charter Re-evaluated (Tokyo: Tokai University Press, 1997). 2 pre face tha t J a p a n i s w i l l i n g t o fos ter e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n to p r o m o t e J apanese e x p o r t s at the s a m e t i m e o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . 3 S u c h a s tance w a s r e i n f o r c e d i n the 1960s as J a p a n ' s a i d d u r i n g t ha t p e r i o d w a s a l m o s t t o t a l l y c o n f i n e d to A s i a a n d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y s e r v e d c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s as M I T I p r o p o s e d i n i ts 1960 y e a r b o o k . 4 T h e c o n s e q u e n c e i s g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a i d o n A s i a , a n d s e c t o r a l p r e f e r e n c e o f a i d a l l o c a t i o n t o b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s o v e r s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l o r h u m a n i t a r i a n n e e d s . M a r g e e M . E n s i g n , b a s e d o n h e r e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f J apanese a i d p ro jec t s , a r g u e s that , d e s p i t e the g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e c e n t s ta t i s t i cs s h o w i n g J a p a n ' s a i d p r o g r a m m o v i n g a w a y f r o m c o m m e r c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t i s s t i l l b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d a n d p r i m a r i l y benef i t s J apanese c o r p o r a t i o n s . 5 D a v i d A r a s e e x a m i n e s h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f f o r e i g n a i d a n d r e v e a l s tha t t he b u s i n e s s p r e v a l e n c e i n o f f i c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s as w e l l as i n p ro jec t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 6 O t h e r s t u d i e s l o o k i n t o p r i v a t e - s e c t o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e c o n o m i c a i d . 7 T h e i n t e r l o c k i n g s y s t e m o f p o l i c y m a k i n g m i n i s t r i e s , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n agenc i e s , a n d b u s i n e s s c i r c l e s s t a r t e d t o c h a n g e i n the 1980s , h o w e v e r . J o u r n a l i s t s , s c h o l a r s a n d c i v i c g r o u p s b e g a n to v o i c e t h e i r s k e p t i c i s m a n d c r i t i c i s m a b o u t the g o v e r n m e n t ' s a i d p ro jec t s a n d the o v e r a r c h i n g p o l i c y . W h i l e t h e i r a c c u s a t i o n s s o m e t i m e s l a c k e d o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s a n d e m p i r i c a l p r e c i s i o n , i n the p r o c e s s o f the p u b l i c d e b a t e t h e y d i d r e v e a l the p r o b l e m s tha t h a d p l a g u e d the a i d e s t a b l i s h m e n t - the e n l a r g e d a n d i n e f f i c i e n t b u r e a u c r a c y , t he l a c k o f t r a n s p a r e n c y i n p ro jec t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the s c a r c i t y o f f i n a n c i a l a n d h u m a n 3 Hirohisa Kohama, ODA no keizaigaku [Economics of ODA] (Tokyo: Nihon Hyoronsha, 1992), 33-34. 4 Ministry of International Trade and Industry, ed., Tsusho Sangyo Seisakushi [The history of international trade and industry], 17 vols. (Tokyo: Tsusho Sangyo Chosakai, 1990), 9: 154. 5 Margee M. Ensign, Doing Good or Doing Well? : Japan's Foreign Aid Program (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992). 6 David Arase, Buying Power: The Political Economy of Japan's Foreign Aid (Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995). 7 For example, see Shafiqul Islam, ed., Yen for Development: Japanese Foreign Aid and the Politics of Burden-Sharing (New York: Council of Foreign Relations Press, 1991). 3 r e s o u r c e s i n the f i e l d a n d so f o r t h . T h e a c c u s i n g v o i c e b e c a m e l o u d e n o u g h to m a k e i t s w a y i n t o D i e t deba te s b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s . It i s u n d e r t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e tha t c r i t i c s s t a r t e d to p a y a t t e n t i o n to w h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the l a c k o f a c l e a r a i d ' p h i l o s o p h y ' b e h i n d J a p a n ' s a i d p o l i c y . C r i t i c i s m s w o u l d f a l l o n the p o i n t tha t the re is the m o n e y , b u t n o t the v i s i o n . T h e v o l u n t a r y sec to r u r g e d the g o v e r n m e n t to e s t a b l i s h c o m p r e h e n s i v e a i d ob jec t ives f o c u s e d o n h u m a n i t a r i a n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s . M O F A h a d i n c l u d e d h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as o n e o f the f i v e m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r J a p a n ' s e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n p o l i c y i n 1978, b u t a p p a r e n t l y tha t w a s n o t e n o u g h to sa t i s fy the c r i t i c s . 8 S o m e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y l e a d e r s f o r m e d a g r o u p w i t h c i v i l a c t i v i s t s t o s t u d y the C a n a d i a n a i d s y s t e m o u t o f o t h e r d o n o r c o u n t r i e s a n d c o n c l u d e d t ha t J a p a n s h o u l d be e q u i p p e d w i t h a u n i f i e d a n d s t r e a m l i n e d a i d m i n i s t r y a n d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a i d l a w . 9 O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , w i t h t he s u p p o r t o f n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( N G O s ) e n g a g e d i n d e v e l o p m e n t a i d , s u b m i t t e d r e f o r m b i l l s to t he D i e t s e v e r a l t i m e s to be b l o c k e d b y the r e l u c t a n t g o v e r n m e n t . A l t h o u g h t he c a l l s f o r the r e f o r m d i d n o t y i e l d the d e s i r e d r e s u l t o f the a d v o c a t e s , t h e y d i d p r o m p t s o m e c h a n g e s i n o f f i c i a l p o l i c i e s t o w a r d N G O s . F i r s t , the g o v e r n m e n t c r e a t e d s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t N G O s to f u n d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a n d ass is t t h e i r efforts o f c a p a c i t y - b u i l d i n g . M o s t o f t he s u b s i d y p r o g r a m s a re a d m i n i s t e r e d b y M O F A , b u t o the r m i n i s t r i e s h a v e i n t r o d u c e d s i m i l a r s y s t e m s as w e l l . S e c o n d , t he re a re n o w r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s b e t w e e n N G O s a n d M O F A , J I C A a n d J B I C r e s p e c t i v e l y a i m e d at r e c e i v i n g i n p u t f r o m the v o l u n t a r y sec to r a n d i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e i r v i e w s i n t o p o l i c y . N G O s a re a l s o p r e s e n t at g o v e r n m e n t - h o s t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s t o h a v e a s a y o n a i d a n d Marie Soderberg, ed., The Business of Japanese Foreign Aid (London; New York: Routledge, 1996), 35. 9 Takako Doi, Yoshinori Murai, and Keiichi Yoshimura, ODA kaikaku: Kanadagikai karano teigen to Nihon no genjo [ODA reform: recommendations by Canada's parliament and the current situation in Japan] (Tokyo: Shakai Shisosha, 1990). 4 d e v e l o p m e n t . I n o r d e r to f u r t h e r fos ter the g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p , M O F A e s t a b l i s h e d a N G O d i v i s i o n a n d a p o s t o f N G O a m b a s s a d o r w i t h i n t he m i n i s t r y . T h i r d , i n r e s p o n s e to the g r o w i n g p r e s e n c e o f v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s n o t o n l y i n d e v e l o p m e n t b u t i n o t h e r f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y , the g o v e r n m e n t e n a c t e d the N P O L a w i n 1998 to g i v e l e g a l s ta tus to s m a l l - s c a l e c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e L a w w a s r e v i s e d i n 2001 to be t te r s e r v e the n e e d s o f i t s b e n e f i c i a r i e s . S u d d e n l y , N G O s are e v e r y w h e r e . N o t o n l y d o t h e y r e c e i v e o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t , b u t a l s o t h e y a re the f o c u s o f m u c h fanfa re i n g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d p o l i c y p a p e r s . T h e b u s i n e s s sec to r j o i n s the g o v e r n m e n t i n c h e e r i n g N G O s . T h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f the p r i v a t e sec tor i n c l u d i n g N G O s i s r a i s e d i n the r e c e n t p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d a n n o u n c e m e n t s m a d e b y N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ( J a p a n B u s i n e s s F e d e r a t i o n ) , t he l a r g e s t c o r p o r a t e a s s o c i a t i o n i n J a p a n . Q u e s t i o n s a r i s e , t h e n , as to w h y the g o v e r n m e n t i s r e f o r m i n g the a i d p r o g r a m a n d b e c o m i n g m o r e i n c l u s i v e o f N G O s . W h a t i s the d r i v i n g f o r c e o f the n e w t r e n d ? D o e s i t o r i g i n a t e i n the g r o w i n g p r e s e n c e o f N G O s o r i n the in te res t s o f M O F A ? D o e s the g r o w i n g N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i c a t e tha t t he " m e r c a n t i l i s t " J apanese a i d i s g o i n g u n d e r f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e ? W h a t a re t he p o s i t i o n s o f M E T I a n d the b u s i n e s s sec tor , the m a j o r e c o n o m i c ac to r s i n t he a i d p r o g r a m , o n t h i s i s sue? Foregoing Studies on Japan's Aid M o s t o f t he e x t a n t w o r k s o n J a p a n ' s a i d f o c u s o n e i t h e r i t s e c o n o m i c o r p o l i t i c a l aspec t . T h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t tha t J a p a n ' s a i d has , f r o m the ou tse t , b e e n m o r e c l o s e l y t i e d to e c o n o m i c ob jec t ives t h a n to o t h e r ob jec t ives s u c h as h u m a n i t a r i a n n e e d o r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , the g a p o f w h i c h i s a s o u r c e o f c r i t i c i s m o n J a p a n e s e O D A . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n J a p a n ' s a i d a n d J a p a n ' s 5 e c o n o m i c in te res t s h a s b e e n the f o c u s o f s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t s t u d i e s o f J a p a n ' s a i d u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g the p a s t f e w d e c a d e s . 1 0 U n s a t i s f i e d w i t h the e c o n o m y - c e n t r i c a n a l y s e s , D e n n i s Y a s u t o m o w r o t e a b o u t t he p o l i t i c a l a spec t s o f J a p a n ' s a i d s t r a t egy , f o c u s i n g o n i t s p o l i t i c i z a t i o n a n d g l o b a l i z a t i o n a n d h a s c o n t i n u e d a n in t e re s t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g J a p a n ' s m o t i v a t i o n f o r a i d . 1 1 I n h i s m o r e r ecen t w o r k , Y a s u t o m o e x p a n d e d h i s s t u d y to l o o k to the a s c e n d a n c e o f m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m i n J a p a n ' s a i d p o l i c y , i .e. , t he i n c r e a s e d u n i t y o f c o o r d i n a t i n g O D A w i t h f e l l o w d o n o r s a n d c h a n n e l l i n g a i d t h r o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 2 A l a n R i x focuse s m o r e o n the i n t e r n a l w o r k i n g o f a i d p o l i t i c s a n d a n a l y z e s the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o f a i d p o l i c y . H e e m p h a s i z e s the r o l e o f the b u r e a u c r a t s r a t h e r t h a n b i g b u s i n e s s e s , a n d a r g u e s t ha t a i d p o l i c y i s n o t the c h i l d o f p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s , e l i t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o r d e v e l o p m e n t a r g u m e n t s , a n d tha t b u r e a u c r a t i c i n t e re s t s a re the m a i n d o m i n a n t s o f the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f J a p a n ' s a i d a n d e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n p o l i c i e s . 1 3 H i s a n a l y s e s o f the b u r e a u c r a t i c m o d e l i s f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n h i s 1993 s t u d y to e x p l a i n h o w i t h i n d e r s the g r o w t h o f a n e q u a l g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p , a l t h o u g h i t s t o p s s h o r t o f p r o v i d i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o s i d e s . 1 4 T a k i n g a c r i t i c a l l o o k at s o m e f o r e g o i n g s t u d i e s t ha t c l a i m tha t J a p a n ' s a i d h a s m o v e d a w a y f r o m i ts e c o n o m i c - c e n t r i c p r o g r a m i n t o a m o r e p o l i t i c a l one , D a v i d A r a s e i l l u s t r a t e s i n h i s 1995 w o r k the s t r u c t u r a l i n c l u s i o n o f p r i v a t e sec tor ac to r s i n O D A p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g s y s t e m . B a s e d o n h i s m e t i c u l o u s s t u d y o f the e v o l u t i o n o f t he O D A s y s t e m , A r a s e a r g u e s t ha t the p r e s e n t s y s t e m 1 0 Ensign, Doing God; Islam, ed., Yen for Development; Sukehiro Hasegawa, Japanese Foreign Aid: Policy and Practice (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975). 1 1 Dennis T. Yasutomo, The Manner of Giving: Strategic Aid and Japanese Foreign Policy (Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1986). 1 2 Dennis T. Yasutomo, The New Multilateralism in Japan's Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995). f 1 3 Alan Rix, Japan's Economic Aid: Policy-Making am/.Pofozcs (London: Croom Helm, 1980). 1 4 Alan Rix, Japan's Foreign Aid Challenge: Policy Reform and Aid Leadership (London; New York: Routledge, 1993). 6 is v i r t u a l l y the s a m e as the o n e tha t w a s o r g a n i z e d a n d s t r u c t u r a l l y d e f i n e d i n the 1950s a n d 1960s , w h i c h w a s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d i n d u s t r i a l a n d t r a d e p o l i c y g o a l s . A t t he s a m e t i m e o f r e v e a l i n g the e c o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f J a p a n ' s O D A , A r a s e p o i n t s to t he p o l i t i c a l u s a g e o f a i d b y M O F A , f o c u s i n g o n t u r f ba t t l e s b e t w e e n the f o r e i g n m i n i s t r y a n d M E T I . H e c o n c l u d e s t ha t " a l t h o u g h J a p a n ' s O D A h a s b e e n o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to M O F A ' s d i p l o m a c y , i t s h o u l d n o t be v i e w e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n t hose t e r m s . N o r s h o u l d O D A be v i e w e d e x c l u s i v e l y as a n i n s t r u m e n t o f e c o n o m i c p o l i c y , a l t h o u g h th i s a spec t o f O D A h a s b e e n u n d e r a p p r e c i a t e d . " 1 5 A l t h o u g h these f o r e g o i n g s t u d i e s p r o v i d e the o v e r a l l f r a m e w o r k o f J a p a n ' s a i d p o l i c y a n d r o l e s o f m a j o r ac to r s - b u r e a u c r a t s , p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s - i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t h e y r a r e l y s h e d l i g h t o n a n e m e r g i n g ac to r , the v o l u n t a r y sec tor . E v e n w h e n t h e y d o , t he g r o w t h o f the v o l u n t a r y sec tor i s o f t en a t t r i b u t e d to the g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n c o m p e t e n c e to d e a l w i t h the c h a n g i n g d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d a set o f i l l - d e f i n e d " i n t e r n a t i o n a l n o r m s " tha t t a k e c i v i l s o c i e t y m o r e s e r i o u s l y . 1 6 A s i d e f r o m fac tors s u c h as N G O c a m p a i g n s o n a i d i s s u e s a n d g r o w i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n v o l u n t e e r i s m , o t h e r f ac to r s a re o f t e n lef t o u t f r o m t h e i r a n a l y s e s . T h e l i t e r a t u r e tha t t akes b u r e a u c r a t i c o r c o m m e r c i a l a p p r o a c h e s i n s t u d y i n g a i d p o l i c y , o n the o t h e r h a n d , o n l y p r e sen t s i n s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n as to w h y a n d h o w the v o l u n t a r y sec to r h a s i n c r e a s e d i ts p r e s e n c e i n the a i d c o m m u n i t y h e r e t o f o r e d o m i n a t e d b y c e n t r a l m i n i s t r i e s a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s . 1 5 Arase, Buying Power, 231. 1 6 Keiko Hirata, Civil Society in Japan: The Growing Role of NGOs in Tokyo's Aid and Development Policy (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002); Kim Reimann, "Building Global Civil Society from the Outside In? Japanese International Development NGOs, the State, and International Norms," chap. 14 in The State of Civil Society in Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). 7 T h i s t hes i s f o c u s e s o n the r o l e s o f the b u r e a u c r a c y a n d b u s i n e s s a n d s t u d y h o w t h e y h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d to the m a k i n g o f N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y . It a r g u e s that , a l t h o u g h the g r o w t h o f the N G O c o m m u n i t y i t s e l f h a s p r o v i d e d a p r e m i s e o n w h i c h b u r e a u c r a t s a n d b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s c a n c u l t i v a t e the t h i r d sec tor , t he g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y to i n v o l v e N G O s d e r i v e s f r o m the o f f i c i a l a n d c o r p o r a t e c o m m u n i t i e s . F i r s t o f a l l , M O F A ' s d e s i r e to r e s h a p e O D A as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l r e q u i r e s the m i n i s t r y to w o r k w i t h N G O s . I n o r d e r to r e s h a p e O D A f r o m a n i n d u s t r y - s t i m u l a t i n g t o o l , w h i c h h a s b e e n M E T I ' s p r e f e r ence , i n t o a m o r e p o l i t i c a l l y c h a r g e d d i p l o m a t i c t o o l , M O F A expec t s N G O s to f u l f i l l a c e r t a i n r o l e i n the a i d s y s t e m . S e c o n d , s u p p o r t fo r N G O s a n d a d v o c a c y f o r t he r o b u s t v o l u n t a r y sec to r c o m i n g f r o m the b u s i n e s s sec to r h a s p l a y e d a s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n t h i s p o l i c y shi f t . A s i s the case w i t h M O F A , the c o r p o r a t e w o r l d s u p p o r t s N G O s fo r i ts o w n r e a s o n s . B y t e a m i n g u p w i t h N G O s to w o r k o n s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l i s sues , c o r p o r a t i o n s c a n d e a l w i t h p u b l i c d e m a n d to c o m p l y w i t h g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p a n d f u l f i l l t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n t he c o u r s e o f e x a m i n i n g these t w o fac tors , a t t e n t i o n w i l l b e p a i d to t he i s sues t ha t a r i se f r o m the p r o - N G O p o l i c i e s o f M O F A a n d the b u s i n e s s sec to r r e s p e c t i v e l y . O n e o f the i s sues c o n c e r n s p o l i c y d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n M O F A a n d M E T I . W h i l e M O F A is eage r to i n c o r p o r a t e N G O s i n t o i t s p o l i c y f r a m e w o r k , M E T I a d h e r e s to the t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n o f e c o n o m y - o r i e n t e d O D A . T h e d i v e r g e n c e s h o w s tha t the N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y i s n o t e s s e n t i a l l y g o v e r n m e n t - w i d e a n d tha t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f O D A as a n e c o n o m i c - p r o m o t i o n t o o l s t i l l r e m a i n s i m p o r t a n t . A n o t h e r i s sue is the i n h e r e n t g a p b e t w e e n M O F A a n d N G O s d e s p i t e the o n g o i n g p a r t n e r s h i p f o r m a t i o n . W i t h a case s t u d y o f the O D A C h a r t e r a n d i ts r e v i s i o n , the thes i s is g o i n g to d i s c u s s f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s l y i n g i n the c o o p e r a t i o n . T h e t h i r d i s s u e c o n c e r n s the d u p l i c i t y o f the b u s i n e s s s ec to r ' s a g e n d a . A t the s a m e t i m e o f a d v o c a t i n g f o r N G O s a n d p r o v i d i n g t h e m w i t h v a r i o u s ass i s tances , b u s i n e s s e s l o b b y the g o v e r n m e n t f o r i n d u s t r i a l p r i o r i t i e s i n O D A , w h i c h c o m e at o d d s w i t h ob j ec t i ve s p u r s u e d b y 8 N G O s . S i n c e these i s s u e s a re r o o t e d i n the d i f f e r i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d ob j ec t i ve s o f e a c h o f these ac to r s i n t he a i d s y s t e m , f i n d i n g a p o i n t o f s o l u t i o n o r c o m p r o m i s e is n o easy task . F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , c h a p t e r 2 w i l l l o o k at d i f f e r e n t sec to rs o f the J apanese s o c i e t y , f i r s t the v o l u n t a r y sec tor , n e x t M O F A a n d t h e n the b u s i n e s s sec tor , t o e x a m i n e h o w e a c h o f t h e m h a s c o n t r i b u t e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n o f t he r e c e n t o f f i c i a l p o l i c y to e n c o u r a g e N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O D A . C h a p t e r 3 t h e n s t u d i e s the i n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g these ac to r s - h o w t h e y c o o p e r a t e a n d h o w t h e i r in te res t s c o n f l i c t w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . T h e r o l e s o f p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a n d t r a d e u n i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to N G O i n i t i a t i v e s w i l l b e m e n t i o n e d as w e l l . F i n a l l y , c h a p t e r 4 c o n c l u d e the thes i s b y d i s c u s s i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O D A p o l i c y a n d p o i n t i n g to s o m e i s sues f o r f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . O n a s u p p l e m e n t a r y no t e , J apanese n a m e s i n the tex t a re g i v e n i n J apanese s t y l e w i t h s u r n a m e f i r s t . 9 CHAPTER II ACTORS IN JAPAN'S ODA PROGRAM T h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s o n a n a l y z i n g h o w the p o l i c y o f f a c i l i t a t i n g N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n O D A h a s c o m e a b o u t . W h o h a s c o n t r i b u t e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n o f s u c h a p o l i c y a n d fo r w h a t r e a s o n ? T h r o u g h the a n a l y s e s o f N G O s , M O F A a n d . t h e b u s i n e s s sec tor , the c h a p t e r seeks to assess these ac to r s ' i n c e n t i v e s a n d p r i o r i t i e s i n O D A p o l i c y , a n d h o w t h e y h a v e w o r k e d to a c h i e v e t h e m . 2.1 NGOs E x c e p t f o r a f e w r e l a t i v e l y l a rge - sca l e N G O s , m o s t o f J a p a n e s e N G O s are s m a l l a n d n e w a n d o p e r a t e o n a v e r y s m a l l f i n a n c i a l base . A 2003 s u r v e y b y a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e o f M O F A a n d N G O s s h o w s tha t n e a r l y h a l f o f t he N G O s s u r v e y e d o p e r a t e w i t h the a n n u a l p ro jec t b u d g e t o f less t h a n ¥ 1 0 m i l l i o n ( F i g u r e 2 . 1 ) . 1 7 F u r t h e r m o r e , m o s t c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s o n A s i a , w i t h o t h e r s s p r e a d i n g t h e i r w o r k o v e r A f r i c a , the P a c i f i c a n d L a t i n A m e r i c a . M o s t , h o w e v e r , d o o p e r a t e i n m o r e t h a n o n e r e g i o n . J a p a n N G O C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n , a m a j o r N G O n e t w o r k i n J a p a n , i d e n t i f i e s as t he m a i n p r o b l e m s f a c i n g N G O s t hose o f r e s t r i c t e d f u n d i n g , l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t f r o m the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , i m m a t u r e d o m e s t i c n e t w o r k s a n d the d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a i n i n g a n d k e e p i n g staff. D e s p i t e s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s , N G O s i n J a p a n a re n o w a p a r t o f t he a i d s y s t e m , i n tha t m a n y o f t h e m r e c e i v e g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t a n d t ha t t h e y are g i v e n a n i n c r e a s i n g l y a m o u n t o f w e i g h t as l e g i t i m a t e ac to rs . T h o u g h s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y w e a k , t h e y a re i n c r e a s i n g l y o r g a n i z e d , h a v e a g r o w i n g p u b l i c p r o f i l e a n d a re b e c o m i n g 1 7 Committee for Promoting Partnership between NGO and MOFA (NGO-Gaimusho renkei suishin iinkai), Gaimusho NGO shiensaku ni kansuru chosakekka hokoku [The Survey on MOFA's NGO support programs] (28 March 2003), http://www. janic.org/res/mofareport.pdf. 10 recognized by the government especially MOFA and the business community alike as having a legitimate role to play in aid delivery. This section focuses on this emerging sector of society and looks at how they play their part in the ODA system. As the first part of the section reveals, the NGO community is increasingly gaining larger presence in the heretofore government and business-led development aid, with other encouraging movements in Japan to nurture the voluntary sector. NGOs engaging in aid cooperation won official recognition as critical actors when they campaigned against aid scandals and called for reform in the 1980s. More recently, the positive reputation they earned through their activities in a couple of major disasters in the 1990s and the following legislation of the NPO Law have given them societal and institutional backup, albeit still to a limited extent. How these cases have increased their profile in the aid system will be explored later in the chapter. Figure 2.1 Annual budget of activities 8 5 6 7 8 9 50-100million 100-300 million 300-500million 500million-1 billion more than 1 billion 6 14% 5 7% 3 14% 2 16% 1: less than 1 million 2: 1-5million 3: 5-10million 4: 10-50million (yen) 4 17% 11 Table 2.1 Each actor's involvement in the development of the NGO community NGOs MOFA Business 1960s 1970s NGOs.in early years - Christian organizations lncbrporate*ci"Jassociations Citizens/residents movements Indochinese refugee crisis (79) Politicization of aid -> "Comprehensive security" (70s-80s) Corporate philanthropy: •Domestic factors 1980s Japanese branches of international NGOs f Kokusaika" - civic groups becoming aware of international issues B^^BlPfcB ;H^B^H:;^^^^ByIII Wt$Sie I Japanese companies overseas operation -> Corporate philanthropy: Extefriilifactors 1990s Aid campaigns UN conferences NGO networking Earthquake (95), shipwreck (97) NPO Law (98) NGO support programs (89-) Gulf War -> Debates on international contribution Politicization of aid -> "Human security": aid for conflict prevention and peacebuilding - Four Principles (91) ODA Charter (92), revision (03) Institutional backup for corporate philanthropy - One"Percent Club, CBCC (89) Charter of Corporate Behaviour (91) etc. -> Partnership with NGOs Study mission to North America - JAHDS etc. 12 2.1.1 The Development of Japanese NGOs T h e m a j o r i t y o f the J apanese N G O s e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o the 1980s w e r e e i t h e r C h r i s t i a n i n o r i g i n 1 8 o r i n c o r p o r a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h s t r o n g t ies t o the g o v e r n m e n t . 1 9 M o s t e a r l y N G O s p r o v i d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t ance r e m a i n e d w i t h i n J a p a n a n d i n v i t e d p e o p l e f r o m the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d , p r i m a r i l y f r o m A s i a , to J a p a n to r e c e i v e t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . E x c e p t i o n s to t h i s r u l e - n o n r e l i g i o u s , u n i n c o r p o r a t e d N G O s i n c l u d e S h a p l a N e e r C i t i z e n s ' C o m m i t t e e f o r O v e r s e a s S u p p o r t ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1972) , the P a c i f i c A s i a R e s o u r c e C e n t e r ( P A R C ) (1973), a n d A m n e s t y I n t e r n a t i o n a l J a p a n (1970). D o m e s t i c v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s s p r a w l e d r a p i d l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d as w e l l . T h e c i t i z e n s ' o r r e s i d e n t m o v e m e n t s (shimin o r jumin undo) m o b i l i z e d l a r g e n u m b e r s o f o r d i n a r y a p o l i t i c a l J apanese f r o m the 1960s t h r o u g h the e a r l y 1970s, b u t these m o v e m e n t s t e n d e d to be l o c a l l y b a s e d a n d l i m i t e d t o p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s . A m e l i o r a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s d a m p e n e d t h e i r a c t i v i t y , a n d m a n y d i s b a n d e d o n c e t h e y a c h i e v e d t h e i r i m m e d i a t e g o a l s . C i v i c i n v o l v e m e n t e x p e r i e n c e d a r e s u r g e n c e i n the m i d - t o la te 1980s, h o w e v e r , a n d h a s g r o w n s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i n c e t h e n . S c h w a r t z a t t r i bu t e s t h i s r e s u r g e n c e to the l a c k o f f l e x i b i l i t y a n d r e s o u r c e s to c o p e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x s o c i o e c o n o m i c i s sues , a n d the fact t ha t m o r e a n d m o r e c i t i z e n s h a v e r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e i r o w n i n i t i a t i v e s . 2 0 O n e t r i g g e r i n g e v e n t tha t s t i m u l a t e d the c r e a t i o n o f m o r e N G O s i n the e a r l y y e a r s w a s the I n d o c h i n e s e re fugee c r i s i s i n the la te 1970s a n d e a r l y 1980s as m a n y re fugees w e r e f l e e t i n g to J a p a n after a ser ies o f w a r s b r o k e o u t i n I n d o c h i n a , t he m a s s m e d i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l e v i s i o n , a p p e a l e d to J a p a n e s e w i t h 1 8 The Japan Overseas Christian Medical Cooperative Service, established in 1960 (the first Japanese NGO); the Asian Rural Institute, established in 1973; and the Christian Child Welfare Association International Sponsorship Program, established in 1975. 1 9 The Organization for Industrial, Spiritual and Cultural Advancement International (OISCA), established in 1961 and incorporated in 1969 under the jurisdiction of MOFA, MITI, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and the Ministry of Labor; and JOICEF, established and incorporated in 1968 under the jurisdiction of MOFA and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. 2 0 Schwartz and Pharr, eds., The State of Civil Society, 8-9. 13 v i v i d i m a g e s o f re fugees , w h i c h m o v e d J apanese i n d i v i d u a l s to t a k e a c t i o n to p r o v i d e ass i s t ance . T h u s s o m e N G O s e m e r g e d at the V i e t n a m - T h a i b o r d e r , s u c h as the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r C e n t e r ( J V C ) a n d the J a p a n S o t o s h u R e l i e f C o m m i t t e e . T h e c r i s i s a l s o g a v e b i r t h to t he A s s o c i a t i o n to A i d R e f u g e e s , t he f i r s t J a p a n e s e r e l i e f o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a s s i s t ance to r e fugees i n 1979. S t a r t i n g i n the m i d - 1 9 8 0 s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e a d q u a r t e r e d a b r o a d b e g a n to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r J apanese b r a n c h e s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1986, S a v e the C h i l d r e n J a p a n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , f o l l o w e d b y C A R E J a p a n a n d W o r l d V i s i o n J a p a n i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . G r e e n p e a c e J a p a n i n 1989, M e d e c i n s s ans F r o n t i e r e s J a p a n i n 1992, a n d O x f a m J a p a n i n 1999 f o l l o w e d su i t . A s J a p a n g o t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the g l o b a l e c o n o m y , J a p a n e s e i n v e s t m e n t o v e r s e a s i n c r e a s e d , b r i n g i n g a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f f o r e i g n w o r k e r s to the c o u n t r y . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " (kokusaika) b e c a m e a h o u s e h o l d t e r m at the t i m e fo r d e s c r i b i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p a c t a n d d r a m a t i c c h a n g e i n J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y d u r i n g th i s p e r i o d . A l o t o f g r a s s roo t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a m e i n t o b e i n g to p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r f o r e i g n r e s i d e n t s i n J a p a n o r to e n g a g e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e . T h u s the 1980s w i t n e s s e d a s u r g e i n the n u m b e r o f J a p a n e s e N G O s . O t h e r d i v e r s e e x o g e n o u s fac to rs h a v e i n f l u e n c e d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f N G O s at t he t i m e . It i s w i d e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d tha t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n 1992 i n R i o d e J a n e i r o w a s a w a t e r s h e d e v e n t f o r J a p a n ' s N G O m o v e m e n t . J a p a n ' s N G O s g a i n e d m o m e n t u m t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i v e U N con fe r ences , s u c h as t he W o r l d C o n f e r e n c e o n H u m a n R i g h t s i n V i e n n a i n 1993 , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n P o p u l a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n C a i r o i n 1994, the W o r l d S u m m i t fo r S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t i n C o p e n h a g e n i n 1995, a n d F o u r t h W o r l d C o n f e r e n c e o n W o m e n i n B e i j i n g i n 1995. W h e r e a s p a s t U N c o n f e r e n c e s o n l y a d m i t t e d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f N G O s tha t o p e r a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , these c o n f e r e n c e s i n the 1990s i n v i t e d s m a l l e r - s c a l e d o m e s t i c N G O s as o b s e r v e r s , w h i c h a l l o w e d tens o f t h o u s a n d s o f N G O of f i c i a l s t o a t t e n d the m e e t i n g s . A s a r e s u l t , these c o n f e r e n c e s b r o u g h t t oge the r N G O s tha t h a d b e e n w o r k i n g 14 s e p a r a t e l y i n t h e i r o w n f i e l d s . N G O s w e r e b e c o m i n g a w a r e o f the c r o s s - c u t t i n g i s sue s a n d c o m m o n c o n c e r n s , a n d b e g a n to e s t a b l i s h n e t w o r k s a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s t r e n d w a s w i t n e s s e d i n J a p a n as w e l l . U n t i l the b e g i n n i n g o f t he 1990s, t he re h a d b e e n o n l y a f e w N G O n e t w o r k s i n J a p a n , i n c l u d i n g t he A s s o c i a t i o n f o r I n d o c h i n e s e R e f u g e e s , J a p a n N G O C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n ( J A N I C ) , a n d s e v e r a l r e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n N a g o y a , O s a k a a n d K y o t o . S i n c e t he e a r l y 1990s, h o w e v e r , t he n u m b e r a n d s c o p e o f n e t w o r k s s t a r t e d to i nc r ea se . R e g i o n a l n e t w o r k s w e r e c r e a t e d i n o t h e r pa r t s o f the c o u n t r y i n c l u d i n g F u k u o k a (1993), S a i t a m a (1996), Y o k o h a m a (1997) a n d O k i n a w a (1999). N e t w o r k s f o c u s e d o n p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e the N G O C o n f e r e n c e o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l E m e r g e n c y R e l i e f (1992), J A N N E T (1993), J a p a n E m e r g e n c y N G O s (1994) a n d O D A R e f o r m N e t w o r k (1996). T h o s e o n spec i f i c c o u n t r i e s o r r e g i o n s i n c l u d e N i p p o n N G O N e t w o r k f o r N e p a l (1993), S h a n t i V o l u n t e e r A s s o c i a t i o n ( f o c u s e d o n C a m b o d i a , 1993) a n d A f r i c a J a p a n F o r u m (1994). S t i l l o t h e r n e t w o r k s w e r e c r e a t e d a m o n g the N G O s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a m p a i g n s , i n c l u d i n g J a p a n C a m p a i g n to B a n L a n d m i n e s (1997), K i k o N e t w o r k ( f o c u s e d o n g l o b a l w a r m i n g , 1998) a n d J u b i l e e 2000 J a p a n (1999) . 2 1 Katsuji Imata and Katsuhiro Harada, eds., Kokusai Kyoryoku NGO [International cooperation NGOs] (Tokyo: Nihon Hyoronsha, 2004), 33-34. 15 Figure 2.2 Number of NGOs established 90r 801 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 a pre- 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 1969 A s a r e su l t , t he n u m b e r o f N G O s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the p u r p o s e o f e n g a g i n g i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y s i n c e the 1980s: 8 a t the e n d o f the 1960s. W h e r e a s t he re h a d b e e n o n l y 8 s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r i o r t o 1969, 9 n e w o n e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y 1970s a n d 18 l a t e r i n t he d e c a d e . T h e n u m b e r o f n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s j u m p e d to 34 d u r i n g 1 9 8 0 - 8 4 , 4 1 d u r i n g 1985-89, a n d 88 i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the 1990s ( F i g u r e 2 . 2 ) . 2 2 H o w e v e r , s ta t i s t ics s h o w tha t t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t N G O sec to r i n J a p a n i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n J a p a n b y i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . O f the 230 o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a 2001 J A N I C s u r v e y , 4 0 % o p e r a t e d w i t h a n n u a l r e v e n u e o f n o m o r e t h a n ¥ 2 0 m i l l i o n . O n a v e r a g e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u r v e y e d r e l i e d 10.1 % o f t h e i r r e v e n u e o n g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s a n d con t r ac t s , 5.4% o n s u b s i d i e s f r o m p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s a n d 3.2% o n U N con t r ac t s . I n t e r m s o f p e r s o n n e l , 4 1 % o f t he o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d n o m o r e t h a n f i v e p a i d staff a n d 17% h a d n o p a i d staff a t a l l . 2 3 2.1.2 How NGOs Have Increased Their Presence in the Aid System Aid Campaigns in the 1980s 2 2 Japan NGO Center for International Cooperation (JANIC), Directory of Japanese NGOs Concerned with International Cooperation (Tokyo: JANIC, 2002). 2 3 Ibid. 16 C r i t i c i s m s o f the a i d e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t he 1980s d i d m u c h to i n c r e a s e p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s a n d to g i v e p r o m i n e n c e to d e v e l o p m e n t N G O s a n d o t h e r a d v o c a c y g r o u p s , w h i c h u n t i l t h e n h a d b e e n m a r g i n a l i z e d a n d r a r e l y h e a r d . I n s o m e O D A pro jec t s , O D A m o n e y w a s s k i m m e d to g o i n t o the p o c k e t s o f l e a d e r s o f c o r r u p t o r a u t h o r i t a r i a n g o v e r n m e n t s i n the r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s , as i s t he case w i t h S o u t h K o r e a a n d the P h i l i p p i n e s . I n o t h e r cases i n T h a i l a n d , B u r m a , I n d i a , B a n g l a d e s h a n d E g y p t , J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s w o n p ro jec t c o n t r a c t s t h r o u g h d u b i o u s p roces ses . S t i l l o t h e r s i n v o l v e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n i n P a p u a N e w G u i n e a a n d o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . T h e s e s c a n d a l s , m i s m a n a g e m e n t s a n d n e g a t i v e effects o n the l o c a l c o m m u n i t y w e r e c o v e r e d e x t e n s i v e l y b y the m a i n s t r e a m m e d i a . B y d o i n g so the m e d i a p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n e x p o s i n g s o m e d e e p - r u n n i n g p r o b l e m s to p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . J a p a n ' s O D A f i r s t r e c e i v e d s e r i o u s t r e a t m e n t b y j o u r n a l i s t s i n t he e a r l y 1970s. Sankei Shimbun f o r m e d a n i n v e s t i g a t i v e g r o u p to r e v e a l J a p a n e s e c o m m e r c i a l p r e d o m i n a n c e i n s o m e O D A pro jec t s i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a w i t h l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to h e l p i n g the p o o r ; Y a m a m o t o M i t s u r u , a Japan Times j o u r n a l i s t , w r o t e tha t a l m o s t a l l the b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f J a p a n ' s " e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n " w e r e J apanese c o m p a n i e s r a t h e r t h a n r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s . I n t he 1980s, m e d i a c o v e r a g e of O D A i s sues b e c a m e e v e n m o r e e x t e n s i v e a n d s h a r p e r , as e x e m p l i f i e d b y Asahi Shimbun a n d Mainichi Shimbun r e s p e c t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h i n g i n v e s t i g a t i v e g r o u p s to s u r v e y c o n t e m p o r a r y a i d p o l i c y . T h e 1986 s c a n d a l o v e r the c o r r u p t i o n i n J apanese a i d to the P h i l i p p i n e s s p u r r e d a n o t h e r w a v e o f m e d i a e x p o s e s , b r i n g i n g a b o u t c a l l s f o r O D A r e f o r m . 2 4 A m i d s t the p o o l o f s c a n d a l s a n d m e d i a r e p o r t s , t he t o u g h e s t c r i t i c s c a m e f r o m the a c a d e m i a . A c a d e m i c s a re p r o l i f i c a n d m a d e a s t r o n g case b a s e d o n p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t he a i d f i e l d . I n t he 1990s, the m o s t w i d e l y c i t e d a re S u m i Arase, Buying Power, 109-110. 17 K a z u o a n d M u r a i Y o s h i n o r i . 2 5 T h e i r c r i t i c i s m c e n t e r e d o n m e r c a n t i l i s t ob jec t ives o f J a p a n e s e O D A , c o r r u p t i o n i n v o l v i n g e l i tes b o t h i n J a p a n a n d r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s , O D A pro jec t s w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d to l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s ' q u a l i t y o f l i f e , a n d l a c k o f e f fec t iveness o f the O D A a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M e d i a c o v e r a g e a n d p u b l i c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e s t i m u l a t e d N G O m o v e m e n t a i m e d at O D A r e f o r m . F o l l o w i n g the m e d i a r e v e l a t i o n a n d p u b l i c a t i o n s , J apanese c i t i z e n s s t a r t e d f o r m i n g g r a s s r o o t s g r o u p s t o i n v e s t i g a t e h o w the g o v e r n m e n t m a n a g e s the a i d pro jec ts . O n e s u c h g r o u p i s t he R e c o n s i d e r A i d C i t i z e n s ' L e a g u e ( R E A L ) , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1986 b y M u r a i Y o s h i n o r i . R E A L i s J a p a n ' s f i r s t N G O d e d i c a t e d to r e f o r m i n g J apanese a i d . T o f u r t h e r p r o m o t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o n a i d , M u r a i a n d o the r s e s t a b l i s h e d a n o t h e r g r o u p c a l l e d t he O D A I n v e s t i g a t i o n S t u d y G r o u p i n 1988. T h e J a p a n T r o p i c a l N e t w o r k ( J A T A N ) i s y e t a n o t h e r N G O n e t w o r k set u p b y t w e l v e l i k e - m i n d e d N G O s i n 1987. J A T A N l a u n c h e d c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l a i d p ro jec t s t ha t h a d n e g a t i v e effect o n l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d r e s i d e n t s ' w e l f a r e . T h e s e e v e n t s i l l u s t r a t e a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t he a i d scene i n J a p a n i n r e c e n t y e a r s : f i rs t , the e m p h a s i s i n p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m o n p a r t i c u l a r a spec t s o f a i d p r o g r a m ; s e c o n d , the a p p e a r a n c e o f p r e s s u r e g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g N G O s w o r k i n g o n the f i e l d , s u p p o r t i n g o r a t t a c k i n g p a r t s o f t he a i d p r o g r a m ; a n d t h i r d , t he i n c r e a s e i n p u b l i c in t e res t b o t h i n the a i d p o l i c y as a w h o l e a n d i n c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s e n g a g e d i n t h i s i s sue . ) The 1995 Earthquake: An Impetus T h e 1990s s a w a ser ies o f e v e n t s tha t l e d to p o p u l a r i z e , l e g i t i m i z e , a n d p r o m o t e v o l u n t a r y w o r k b y e x p o s i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f v o l u n t e e r i s m to the 2 5 Kazuo Sumi, ODA Enjo no Genjitsu [The reality of ODA aid] (Tokyo: Iwanami Shinsho, 1990); Sumi, Kirawareru Enjo: Segin-Nihon no Enjo to Narumada Damn [Unappreciated aid: aid by the World Bank and Japan for Narmada Dam] (Tokyo: Tsukiji Shokan, 1990); and Sumi, No Moa O D A ; Baramaki Enjo [No more ODA, an aid spree] (Tokyo: JICC Shuppan Kyoku, 1992); Yoshinori Murai, Nippon no ODA [Japan's ODA] (Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo, 1992); and Murai, Musekinin Enjo Taikoku Nippon [Japan, the irresponsible aid donor] (Tokyo: JICC Shuppan Kyoku, 1989). 18 n a t i o n a l l i v e l i h o o d . N G O s a n d t h o u s a n d s o f i n d i v i d u a l v o l u n t e e r s r e s p o n d e d q u i c k l y to d i s a s t e r s o f the G r e a t H a n s h i n e a r t h q u a k e i n 1995 a n d the s h i p w r e c k i n 1997 , a n d o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s to p r o v i d e r e l i e f a n d a s s i s t ance to the a f fec ted c o m m u n i t i e s . W h e n b o t h the c e n t r a l a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s w e r e p a r a l y z e d b y o f f i c i a l r e d t ape a n d e x p o s e d t h e i r i n a b i l i t y a n d i n e f f i c i e n c y i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s , t he w o r k o f the v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s a t t r a c t ed a t t e n t i o n o f p o l i t i c i a n s , b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s a n d the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . N G O s w e r e n o w g a i n i n g the p u b l i c a n d o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t e s s e n t i a l to s u s t a i n i n g t h e i r w o r k . D i s c u s s i o n s o n the n e c e s s i t y to i m p r o v e the l e g a l s t a n d i n g o f m a n y N G O s g a i n e d m o m e n t u m after these even t s . P u t u n d e r t he r e s t r i c t i o n s o f the c e n t u r y - o l d C i v i l C o d e , m a n y N G O s w e r e o p e r a t i n g w i t h o u t l e g a l s t a n d i n g , w h i c h h a d p u t t h e m at d i s a d v a n t a g e i n c o l l e c t i n g f u n d s a n d d o n a t i o n s f r o m the p u b l i c a n d c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e s . 2 6 C i t i z e n g r o u p s a n d N G O s e s t a b l i s h e d a c o a l i t i o n i n 1994 to s u p p o r t n e w l e g i s l a t i o n tha t w o u l d e n a b l e p r i v a t e g r o u p s to i n c o r p o r a t e o u t s i d e the j u r i s d i c t i o n o r i n f l u e n c e o f g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . B e t w e e n 1995 a n d 1998, the d r a f t i n g p r o c e s s o f the l e g i s l a t i o n i n v o l v e d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , D i e t m e m b e r s a n d c i t i z e n g r o u p s , a l l o f w h o m are u s u a l l y o u t s i d e the b u r e a u c r a t s - d o m i n a t e d p roces s . C i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as J a p a n N P O C e n t e r a n d the C o a l i t i o n f o r L e g i s l a t i o n to S u p p o r t C i t i z e n s ' O r g a n i z a t i o n s This problem originates in the more than a century-old stipulation of the Civil Code, which was promulgated in 1896 and is still in effect. Article 33 of the code requires that all legal persons be formed in accordance with its regulations. And while Article 35 provides for the establishment of for-profit organizations, Article 34, instead of providing for a corresponding category of non-profit organizations, only provided for the much narrower category of "public interest corporations" (koeki hojin). Specifically, "an incorporated association or foundation relating to worship, religion, charity, science, art or otherwise relating to public interests and not having for its object the acquisition of gain may be made a juridical person subject to the permission of the competent authorities." Besides having to go through the lengthy application process of the competent state authority, groups that are to have legal recognition must have solid financial base. The Civil Code stipulates that successful applicants have to have a "sound financial basis," and government agencies generally interpreted that clause to require an endowment of at least ¥300 million (about $3 million), which exceeds most NGOs' budget. For most groups that are nonprofit but not in the "public interest," the code creates a legal blind spot since there is no legal category for them to exist. As a result, they are reduced to operating as informal, voluntary groups. 19 l o b b i e d f o r t he l e g i s l a t i o n a n d at the s a m e t i m e f u n c t i o n e d as o r g a n i z e r s o f t he N G O c o m m u n i t y b y g a t h e r i n g a n d d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . A f t e r the l o n g a n d h e a t e d d e l i b e r a t i o n s , the s o - c a l l e d N P O L a w ( L a w to P r o m o t e S p e c i f i e d N o n p r o f i t A c t i v i t i e s ) p a s s e d the D i e t o n M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 9 8 a n d w e n t i n t o effect i n D e c e m b e r o f tha t y e a r . U n d e r the n e w l a w , P r e f e c t u r a l a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e to g r a n t c o r p o r a t e s ta tus to n o n p r o f i t g r o u p s w h e n t h e y a re e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s o f t he l a w ; i t i s n o l o n g e r left to the d i s c r e t i o n o f n a t i o n a l m i n i s t r i e s . 2 7 2.2 Ministry of Foreign Affairs G i v e n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f J apanese N G O s as d e t a i l e d a b o v e , t h i s s e c t i o n l o o k s a t M O F A a n d i t s i n c e n t i v e s b e h i n d the m o v e m e n t to i n v o l v e N G O s i n the a i d p r o g r a m . S o m e s t u d i e s s u g g e s t tha t the g o v e r n m e n t ' s r o l e i s d i m i n i s h i n g i n the p o s t - C o l d W a r era . P u r n e n d r a J a i n a r g u e s tha t f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s n o l o n g e r the s o l e p r e s e r v e o f J a p a n ' s c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d tha t n o n s t a t e a c to r s a re p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l af fa i rs 2 8 W h i l e s u c h a n a r g u m e n t h o l d s t r u e to s o m e ex t en t a n d p r o v i d e s p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r M O F A ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y , i t d o e s n o t s h o w the m i n i s t r y ' s u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v e s . A m i x t u r e o f d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l f ac to r s e x p l a i n s the r i se o f N G O s i n J a p a n ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a n d w h y M O F A h a s c o m e to e n c o u r a g e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n to m a k e t h e m s e r v e the m i n i s t r y ' s in te res t s . M O F A ' s p r i m a r y g o a l i n O D A is m o r e p o l i t i c a l t h a n e c o n o m i c . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , the m i n i s t r y f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t seeks to i m p r o v e J a p a n ' s p r o f i l e a n d g a i n d i p l o m a t i c l e v e r a g e i n t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a , a n d to u t i l i z e O D A f o r tha t The NPO Law offers no tax privileges because of the opposition from the bureaucracy to granting tax deductibility fro contributions to NPOs. The law, however, provided for a review of the issue within three years of the time it went into effect, and the government finally began to permit the deductibility of contributions to "approved specified nonprofit corporations" (nintei NPO hojin). 2 8 Purnendra Jain, "Emerging Foreign Policy Actors: Subnational Governments and Nongovernmental Organization," chap. 2 in Japanese Foreign Policy Today: A Reader (New York: Palgrave, 2000). 20 p u r p o s e . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , M O F A h a s a l w a y s b e e n s e n s i t i v e t o the i s sue s a n d p r i o r i t i e s e n d o r s e d b y s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s as t he U n i t e d N a t i o n s ( U N ) a n d the O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( O E C D ) , w h i l e d o m e s t i c a l l y i t is c o m m i t t e d to g a r n e r i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t fo r a i d . T o sa t i s fy s u c h p o l i t i c a l d e m a n d s , M O F A h a s f o u n d p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s u s e f u l . T h e f i r s t p a r t o f th i s s e c t i o n focuses o n M O F A ' s effor ts t o a t t a c h p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to O D A . M O F A c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e s the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f a i d a n d t r i es to c o n f o r m to i t . T h e s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t w o cases o f a i d p o l i t i c i z a t i o n b y M O F A , o n e i n the 1970s a n d the o t h e r i n t he 1990s a n d o n w a r d . T h e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f a i d i n the p a s t t w o d e c a d e s h a s m a d e i t i n c u m b e n t f o r M O F A to i n v o l v e N G O s i n i ts O D A p r o g r a m s . T h e s e c o n d p a r t t h e n l o o k s t o h o w the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t u a l p o l i c i e s . T h e f i r s t p a r t o f the s e c t i o n s t u d i e s h o w M O F A ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y i s d i s c u s s e d a n d d e v e l o p e d at v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l f o r u m s . T h e s e c o n d p a r t r e v i e w s M O F A - l e d s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s f o r N G O s . 2.2.1 Politicization of Aid U t i l i z i n g f o r e i g n a i d as a d i p l o m a t i c t o o l d i d n o t s u d d e n l y b e g i n i n t he 1990s. I n fact, p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f a i d s t a r t e d to t a k e p l a c e i n the la te 1970s a n d a c c e l e r a t e d i n the n e x t d e c a d e . A t tha t t i m e , T o k y o r e d u c e d o r w i t h h e l d a i d t o the S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f V i e t n a m , C a m b o d i a , C u b a , A n g o l a , A f g h a n i s t a n a n d E t h i o p i a f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . 2 9 I n d e e d , as Y a s u t o m o m a i n t a i n s , i n t he 1980s " f o r e i g n a i d p o l i c y h a s e m e r g e d as the c e n t e r p i e c e o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y ' s n o n - m i l i t a r y c o m p o n e n t s a n d a c e n t r a l p i l l a r o f o v e r a l l f o r e i g n p o l i c y . " 3 0 2 9 Japan joined boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and instituted economic sanctions against the Soviet Union following the invasion of Afghanistan; it froze aid to Vietnam after the invasion and occupation of Kampuchea; it instituted economic sanctions against Iran for the taking of American hostages in 1979; it refused economic assistance to Poland for the treatment of the labor union Solidarity. 30 Yasutomo, The Manner, 5. 21 Early Discussion of ODA as a Foreign Policy Tool: The Study Group on Comprehensive Security T h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d p r o v i d i n g O D A h a s e v o l v e d o v e r t i m e . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g i t s r e p a r a t i o n s w i t h i ts f i n a l p a y m e n t to t he P h i l i p p i n e s i n J u l y 1976, i n 1978 " J a p a n ' s r o l e as. a n e c o n o m i c c i v i l i a n p o w e r i n a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n to i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y " w a s a d d e d to J a p a n ' s a i d r a t i o n a l e , w h i c h h a d i n c l u d e d e x p o r t p r o m o t i o n a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i n the p r e v i o u s d e c a d e s . 3 1 T h e g o v e r n m e n t e x p a n d e d O D A v o l u m e t h r o u g h a ser ies o f m e d i u m - t e r m O D A p l a n s t ha t d o u b l e d the O D A d i s b u r s e m e n t i n f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l s . A l o n g w i t h these q u a n t i t a t i v e l e a p s i n O D A d i s b u r s e m e n t s c a m e p o l i c y a r t i c u l a t i o n s . O n e o f s u c h e a r l y m o v e s c a n b e s e e n i n the c r e a t i o n o f t he c o n c e p t " c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y . " I n 1978 P r i m e M i n i s t e r O h i r a M a s a y o s h i c o m m i s s i o n e d the R e s e a r c h G r o u p o n C o m p r e h e n s i v e S e c u r i t y to r e c o m m e n d l o n g - t e r m n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s to the e n d o f the c e n t u r y . I n the m i d s t o f the S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n a n d the s u b s e q u e n t U . S . p r e s s u r e o n J a p a n to i n c r e a s e i ts m i l i t a r y r o l e i n W e s t e r n s e c u r i t y , the s t u d y g r o u p ' s r e p o r t p u t f o r t h a n e w c o n c e p t o f " c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y " (sogo anzen hosho), w h i c h w a s m e a n t to p r o v i d e " the p r o t e c t i o n o f the p e o p l e ' s l i v e l i h o o d a g a i n s t v a r i o u s th rea t s . " A c c o r d i n g to the s t u d y g r o u p , the c o n c e p t w o u l d r e q u i r e t he c o o r d i n a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , a n d m i l i t a r y p o l i c i e s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f J a p a n ' s d i p l o m a c y . F o r t h i s e n d the r e p o r t s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e s the n e e d to u s e O D A i n the n e w c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y s t r a t e g y . 3 2 T h e " c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y " deba t e at the s t u d y g r o u p e n c o u r a g e d M O F A to s u g g e s t the r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f a i d w i t h m o r e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n . M O F A f o r m e d a s t u d y g r o u p w i t h i n the m i n i s t r y ' s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u , w h i c h p r o d u c e d a r e p o r t i n N o v e m b e r 1990 to a r g u e f o r a n O D A w i t h m o r e 3 1 Akiko Fukushima, "Official Development Assistance (ODA) as a Japanese Foreign Policy Tool," chap. 9 in Japanese Foreign Policy Today: A Reader (New York: Palgrave, 2000). 3 2 Arase, Buying Power, 227. 22 s t r a t eg ic p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , the r e p o r t s tates tha t O D A c o u l d be u s e d to e n h a n c e t he s e c u r i t y o f J a p a n ' s sea - lanes b y t a r g e t i n g l i t t o r a l states. T h e r e p o r t a l s o a r g u e s f o r " O D A d i p l o m a c y , " w i t h w h i c h c o n c e p t J a p a n c o u l d e x p e c t to c u l t i v a t e p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n the n o n - W e s t e r n w o r l d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , w i t h t h i s r e p o r t M O F A b e g a n to d i v e r g e f r o m the t r a d i t i o n a l , e c o n o m i c - b a s e d O D A f a v o u r e d b y M E T I . M O F A ' s d i v e r g e c a n be t r a c e d i n the w o r d i n g c h a n g e at t he t i m e as w e l l . I n the e a r l y 1980s, M O F A s t a r t e d i n t r o d u c i n g s e m a n t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s to d i s t i n g u i s h O D A f r o m keizai kyoryoku, t he te rn f a v o u r e d b y M E T I . W h e r e a s i n 1978 M O F A w a s s t i l l u s i n g t he t e r m seifu-beesu keizai kyoryoku ( g o v e r n m e n t - b a s e d e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n ) t o refer t o O D A , t h i s t e r m w o u l d d i s a p p e a r f r o m M O F A ' s u s a g e b y 1980, t o be r e p l a c e d b y seifu ka.ih.atsu enjo ( o f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t a n c e ) . 3 3 T h e t i t l es o f a n n u a l w h i t e p a p e r s p u b l i s h e d b y M E T I a n d M O F A r e s p e c t i v e l y a re c l e a r e x a m p l e s o f t he t e r m i n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r ence . W h i l e M E T I t i t l e d i t s w h i t e p a p e r as Keizai Kyoryoku no Genjo to Mondaiten (The C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n a n d Issues o f E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n ) , 3 4 M O F A h a s c h o s e n Seifu Kaihatsu Enjo Hakusho ( W h i t e P a p e r o n O f f i c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e ) fo r i t s a n n u a l p u b l i c a t i o n . Politicization in the 1990s and Onward: Gulf War, Search for Aid Principles, and the Announcement of the Guidelines I n t e r n a t i o n a l e v e n t s i n the 1990s p r o m p t e d d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n t he g o v e r n m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y M O F A , o n the d i r e c t i o n to w h i c h a i d s h o u l d be o r i e n t e d . A f t e r t he G u l f W a r , d i s c u s s i o n o n the q u e s t i o n o f h o w J a p a n c o u l d bes t c o n t r i b u t e to g l o b a l p e a c e a n d s e c u r i t y , a n d e n h a n c e i t s p r o f i l e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y f o c u s e d o n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f J a p a n e s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n U N p e a c e k e e p i n g o p e r a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , the s c o p e o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n s o o n 3 3 Ibid., 228-29. 3 4 METI's keizai kyoryoku white paper was first published in 1958. After publishing the last one in 2000, METI has incorporated it into another white paper on more general economic and trade issues, Tsusho Hakusho (White Paper on International Economy and Trade). 23 i n c l u d e d J a p a n ' s O D A . O D A c a m e i n t o the s p o t l i g h t as o n e o f o n l y a f e w m e a n s b y w h i c h J a p a n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y . D o m e s t i c deba t e s r e v e a l e d g r o w i n g f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h i n the m e d i a , o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , a n d s o m e p a r t s o f the g o v e r n m e n t tha t J a p a n ' s a i d o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d e c o n o m i c c r i t e r i a a n d p a i d i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n to p o l i t i c a l c r i t e r i a . 3 5 S u c h f r u s t r a t i o n w a s m o s t k e e n l y fe l t i n M O F A , w h o s e d i p l o m a t i c in te res t s h a d o f t e n c o n f l i c t e d w i t h M E T I ' s e c o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n i n d e s i g n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g a i d . A f o r m e r a i d o f f i c i a l i n M O F A ref lec ts t he p a s t d e c a d e s a n d d e s c r i b e s J a p a n e s e a i d p o l i c y at tha t t i m e as f o l l o w s : " T h e p r i m a r y p o l i c y g o a l o f J a p a n , w h i c h w a s r e c o v e r i n g f r o m the d e v a s t a t i o n o f W o r l d W a r II, w a s to be a g o o d b o y to be a c c e p t e d b y the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y . J a p a n ' s a c c e s s i o n to O E C D w a s b a s e d o n s u c h t h i n k i n g . J a p a n w a s d e s p e r a t e to c a t c h u p w i t h A m e r i c a n a n d E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s a n d to b e c o m e a n a i d d o n o r j u s t l i k e t h e m . W e s i m p l y d i d n o t h a v e c a p a c i t y to t a k e l e a d e r s h i p i n the a i d c o m m u n i t y d u r i n g the 1970s a n d 1 9 8 0 s . " 3 6 O t h e r o f f i c i a l s h a v e m a d e s i m i l a r r e m a r k s , a n d t h e y a l l ag ree tha t J a p a n h a d b e e n r e a c t i v e a n d b u s y c a t c h i n g u p w i t h o t h e r s a n d t ha t J a p a n ' s p a s t a i d p o l i c y l a c k e d o v e r a r c h i n g v i e w s . W i t h the o n g o i n g c h a n g e s o u t s i d e J a p a n , t he c o u n t r y w a s c h a l l e n g e d to a r t i c u l a t e a v i s i o n o f i ts i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e - n o t s i m p l y as a n a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c t r a n s a c t i o n s , b u t s o m e t h i n g m o r e . A s M O F A s o u g h t to d i s c o v e r w h a t tha t r o l e w o u l d be , t he m i n i s t r y w a s w e l l a w a r e t ha t O D A is a n i m p o r t a n t t o o l t o c u l t i v a t e i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p . Development Assistance for Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding: An International Context Bruce M. Koppel and Robert M. Orr, Jr., eds., Japan's Foreign Aid: Power and Policy in a New Era (Boulder, Colorado; Oxford: Westview Press, 1993), 360. 3 6 "ODA purojekuto seiko no joken toha nanika" [Conditions for successful ODA projects], Gaiko Forum (February 1995): 50-59. 24 A n e w m o v e i n the p o s t - C o l d W a r d o n o r c o m m u n i t y h a s g i v e n M O F A a n o p p o r t u n i t y to c u l t i v a t e a n d p o l i t i c i z e O D A i n a n e w f r a m e w o r k . S i n c e t he e n d o f the C o l d W a r , the D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e C o m m i t t e e ( D A C ) o f O E C D h a s a n n o u n c e d a n u m b e r o f p o l i c y s t a t emen t s o n the l i n k b e t w e e n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p e a c e . 3 7 A se r ies o f D A C s t a t emen t s a n d g u i d e l i n e s u n d e r s c o r e t he r o l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n i n c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g . D A C c a l l s o n g o v e r n m e n t s , i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s to a d d r e s s the r o o t c auses o f the p o s t - C o l d W a r c r i ses a n d to c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r w o r k fo r tha t p u r p o s e . 3 8 D A C f u r t h e r s p e l l s o u t the r o l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f c o n f l i c t a n d peace i n the 2001 g u i d e l i n e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the W o r l d B a n k a n d the I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o n e t a r y F u n d a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e the n e e d to a d d r e s s c o n f l i c t 3 9 S i m i l a r l y , d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n as a n e f fec t ive t o o l f o r c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n h a s b e e n o n the a g e n d a at the G r o u p o f E i g h t (G8) m e e t i n g s . 4 0 Major statements are as follows: Development Co-operation in the 1990s: Policy Statement by DAC Aid Ministers and Heads of Aid Agencies, December 1989; Shaping the 21s' Century: The Contribution of Development Co-operation, 1996; Conflict, Peace, and Development Co-operation on the Threshold of the 21s' Century, May 1997; The DAC Guidelines: Poverty Reduction, 2001; The DAC Guidelines: Helping Prevent Violent Conflict, 2001. 3 8 In its 1997 guidelines, for instance, DAC states that economic growth alone, for which traditional aid has been allocated, does not prevent or resolve conflict. The 2001 guidelines stresses the important role of development assistance in every phase of violent conflict. In the pre-conflict phase, development assistance can promote democracy and good governance. One a conflict breaks out, development cooperation agencies can provide humanitarian relief, at the same time of supporting longer-term development processes. In the transitional period of post-conflict, development assistance can facilitate transformation of the fragile situation into stability and promote reconciliation among the local people 3 9 The World Bank established the Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit to conduct research and analysis on conflict and poverty, the two factors which in many latest developing countries form a vicious cycle and disrupt the Bank's financing activities. The IMF works with the World Bank to break the chains of underdevelopment and conflict in what it terms as "Low Income Countries under Stress." 4 0 In the G8 summit meeting June 1999 in Cologne and the foreign ministers' meeting six months later in Berlin, conflict prevention was an issue of high priority. In the 2000 meeting in Miyazaki, the issue was highlighted again; development assistance was included among the five G8 initiatives to be implemented for "addressing root causes of conflict," "extending flexible, quick assistance" to prevent conflict, and "ensuring a smooth transition from emergency humanitarian assistance to development in the post-conflict stage." Cooperation with NGOs is also stressed in implementing these initiatives (G8 2000). 25 I n s p i r e d b y the i n t e r n a t i o n a l con t ex t , M O F A , u n d e r t he n e w c o n c e p t o f " h u m a n s e c u r i t y , " h a s b e g u n to r e s h a p e i ts a i d p r o g r a m i n o r d e r to p o s i t i o n c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g as i n t e g r a l ob jec t ives o f O D A . T h e r e v i s i o n o f the O D A C h a r t e r w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . W h e n the c h a r t e r w a s f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n 1992, i t w a s n o t d e s i g n e d to d e a l w i t h c o n f l i c t - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s ; i t o n l y m e n t i o n e d b r i e f l y tha t the " u s e o f O D A f o r m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s o r f o r a g g r a v a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s s h o u l d be a v o i d e d " a n d tha t " f u l l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d to t r e n d s i n r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s ' m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s , t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n o f w e a p o n s o f m a s s d e s t r u c t i o n a n d m i s s i l e s , a n d e x p o r t a n d i m p o r t o f a r m s . " 4 1 W h e n i t w a s r e v i s e d i n 2003 , t he re fo re , o n e o f the p r i m a r y focuses o f t he r e v i s i o n w a s to u t i l i z e d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t ance f o r p e a c e b u i l d i n g . I n the n e w cha r t e r , c o n f l i c t is i n c l u d e d a m o n g the f o u r m a j o r t a rge t a reas fo r w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t ance i s t o be p r o v i d e d . T h e c h a r t e r s p e l l s o u t o t h e r t a rge t areas , i n c l u d i n g p o v e r t y e l i m i n a t i o n , t ha t a re c o n d u c i v e to c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n a n d states tha t the O D A s h o u l d be u s e d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a n n e r t o w a r d s t ha t g o a l . 4 2 B y p r i o r i t i z i n g these i s sues , M O F A i n t e n d s to i n c r e a s e J a p a n ' s p r o f i l e as a m a j o r p l a y e r i n t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y , as N i s h i d a T s u n e o , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f the E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u a r t i c u l a t e s as f o l l o w s : " W e are i n a b i g s t a d i u m ca l l ed in ternat ional society, a n d see countr ies , in te rna t iona l organiza t ions a n d N G O s a l ike , c o m p e t i n g to ou tdo each other o n the issue of deve lopment . Whe the r Japan, as a p layer pa r t i c ipa t ing i n this game, is g o i n g to w i n the g o l d m e d a l or lose at a n ear ly stage - whe the r Japan is g o i n g to be an impor t an t a n d p r o m i s i n g p layer - is a n impor t an t q u e s t i o n . " 4 3 MOFA, Japan's ODA Annual Report 1999, htt43://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/summary/1999. 4 2 MOFA, Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter (August 2003), htt4)://www.mofa.go.ip/policy/oda/reform/revision0308.pdf. 4 3 Tsuneo Nishida, "Oru Japan no ODA wo mezashite" [Toward an all-Japan ODA], Gaiko Forum (May 2002): 48. 26 I n s u m , i n the d e c a d e s o f i ts s e a r c h o f a i d p r i n c i p l e s o t h e r t h a n e c o n o m i c g a i n s , M O F A h a s i n c r e a s i n g l y b e c o m e a w a r e o f p r o j e c t i n g i t s o w n i d e a s m o r e f o r c e f u l l y . T h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n has s h i f t e d f r o m c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y i n the 1970s a n d 1980s to h u m a n s e c u r i t y i n the 1990s a n d 2000s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , b u t M O F A ' s d e s i r e to p u r s u e p o l i t i c a l ob j ec t i ve s i n a i d h a s n o t c h a n g e d . A n d s i n c e the e a r l y 1990s, M O F A h a s c o m e to r e c o g n i z e the u t i l i t y o f t e a m i n g u p w i t h N G O s i n i ts a t t e m p t to p o l i t i c i z e a i d , w h i c h is the sub jec t o f the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 2.2.2 MOFA's Endorsement of NGOs I n t he p r o c e s s o f p h i l o s o p h i z i n g a i d p r i n c i p l e s a n d s t r a t eg ies t ha t a l l o w J a p a n to c o n t r i b u t e n o t o n l y m o n e y b u t a l s o i d e a s , M O F A h a s a l w a y s b e e n c o n s c i o u s o f g a i n i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t a n d i n v o l v i n g t h e m i n a i d d i s c o u r s e to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t s i n c e d o i n g so i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a c h i e v i n g the p o l i t i c a l g o a l s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , p r o m o t i n g h i g h p o l i t i c s a g e n d a a n d e n c o u r a g i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e M O F A ' s t w o - t i e r e d p o l i c y to i n c o r p o r a t e N G O s i n t o the a i d s y s t e m . Involving NGOs: MOFA's Views W h a t d i f f e ren t i a t e s a i d p o l i t i c i z a t i o n i n the 1990s f r o m tha t i n the 1970s a n d 1980s i s tha t t he N G O c o m m u n i t y i s a n e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t o f t he n e w p o l i t i c i z a t i o n . T h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s o f p o l i t i c i z a t i o n , M O F A a i m s to r e t a i n i ts a u t h o r i t y to h a n d l e the c o u n t r y ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . M O F A ' s i n t e n t i o n to u s e O D A as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l b e c o m e s o b v i o u s b y the m i d d l e o f t he 1990s. T h e w o r d " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s " (kokueki) s tar ts to a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y i n t he a i d d i s c o u r s e at t h i s t i m e . H i r a b a y a s h i H i r o s h i , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f t he E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u states the ob jec t ive o f f o r e i g n a i d as f o l l o w s : "Spec i f ica l ly speaking , the r e w a r d for a i d - g i v i n g c a n be seen i n the o v e r w h e l m i n g suppor t for Japan i n the elections at in te rna t iona l ins t i tu t ions 27 i n c l u d i n g the U n i t e d N a t i o n s . . . . A i d p o l i c y forms a n impor t an t par t of our coun t ry ' s d i p l o m a c y . " 4 4 A n o t h e r o f f i c i a l i n t he b u r e a u c o n f i r m s th i s v i e w r e f e r r i n g to J a p a n ' s n a t i o n a l in t e res t s m o r e e x p l i c i t l y : " W e th ink O D A is quite useful i n cu l t iva t ing the f i e ld of d i p l o m a c y . O r w e can say O D A is d i p l o m a c y itself. . . . A i d d isbursement can contr ibute to ach i ev ing Japan's na t iona l interests i n a b r o a d sense ." 4 5 H o w , t h e n , d o e s t h i s p e r t a i n to M O F A ' s a p p r o a c h t o w a r d s N G O s ? O n e p a r t i c u l a r bene f i t t ha t J apanese p o l i c y m a k e r s see i n i n v o l v i n g J a p a n e s e N G O s c o n c e r n s t h e i r a b i l i t y to " h u m a n i z e " J a p a n ' s a i d . N G O p e o p l e w o r k i n g o n the f i e l d w i t h the l o c a l s to d e l i v e r h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d m a k e a c o n t r a s t w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n a l i m a g e o f J apanese a i d o f c o r p o r a t e g i a n t s b u i l d i n g r o a d s a n d d a m s . N G O w o r k e r s b r i n g h u m a n faces i n t o the a r e a o f a i d . F a c e d w i t h l o n g - s t a n d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t the " f ace l e s sness" o f J a p a n ' s O D A p r o g r a m , M O F A r e c o g n i z e s tha t s u c h a n a spec t o f N G O a c t i v i t y c a n e n h a n c e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n o f J a p a n ' s a i d . S e n i o r o f f i c i a l s i n t he E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u , as w e l l as W a t a n a b e T a k e s h i , w h o h a s w o r k e d i n M O F a n d p r e s i d e d o v e r t he A s i a D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k , a l l r e c o g n i z e these effects o f h a v i n g N G O p r e s e n c e o n the f i e l d . 4 6 W o r k i n g w i t h N G O s m i t i g a t e s n o t o n l y c r i t i c i s m f r o m o v e r s e a s b u t a l s o t ha t w i t h i n J a p a n . F o r M O F A , N G O s c o u l d p r o v i d e a l i n k b e t w e e n the o f f i c i a l d o m a n d the c r i t i c a l p u b l i c , a n d i n c r e a s e p u b l i c s u p p o r t o f a i d . K a w a k a m i T a k a o , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f the E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u d e s c r i b e s the Hiroshi Hirabayashi, "Atarashii jidai no wagakuni no seihu kaihatsu enjo wo motomete" [In pursuit of official development assistance in Japan of new era], Gaiko Forum (February, 1995): 7. 4 5 "ODApurojekuto,"59. 4 6 "Koka aru enjo no tameni NGO katsudo no issou no hatten wo" [NGO activities needed for effective aid], Gaiko Forum (April 1990): 34, 55. 28 M O F A - N G O r e l a t i o n s h i p as " c o m p l i m e n t a r y , n o t a d v e r s a r i a l " a n d s a y s h e e x p e c t s the b i l a t e r a l " d i a l o g u e " w i l l r e s u l t i n g a r n e r i n g m o r e p u b l i c s u p p o r t . 4 7 A n o t h e r bene f i t t ha t the i n v o l v e m e n t o f N G O s i n O D A b r i n g s to M O F A c o n c e r n s t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tha t the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t l a c k s . T h e y a re at t i m e a b l e to ac t w h e n the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t c a n n o t , b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e f l e x i b i l i t y , m o b i l i t y a n d g r a s s r o o t s o r i e n t a t i o n . A M O F A o f f i c i a l a d m i t s t ha t n e w a i d n e e d s i n the 1990s s u c h as p o v e r t y r e d u c t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a n d p u b l i c h e a l t h a re t he a reas w h e r e J a p a n d o e s n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x p e r t i s e . H e p o i n t s o u t tha t s o f t w a r e , r a t h e r t h a n h a r d w a r e , is r e q u i r e d i n these areas , a n d s tates t ha t t he g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d l i k e to d r a w o n N G O s ' k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e 4 8 A n d the r e fugee a s s i s t ance effor ts m a d e b y J apanese N G O s i n K o s o v o i n 1999 p r o v e d tha t t h i s i s s u r e l y the case. E x c e p t f o r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h w a s m a d e p r o m p t l y at the o u t s e t o f the re fugee c r i s i s , t he J apanese g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d n o t d i s p a t c h m i l i t a r y o r m e d i c a l p e r s o n n e l d u e to l e g a l c o n s t r a i n t s . N G O s f i l l e d the v a c u u m at t ha t t i m e a n d c a r r i e d o u t g r a s s roo t s o p e r a t i o n to ass i s t r e f u g e e s . 4 9 T h i r d benef i t , w h i c h i s s o m e w h a t r e l a t e d to the f i r s t a n d s e c o n d benef i t s , is t ha t N G O s f i ts w e l l w i t h the n e w a i d p r i n c i p l e s o f M O F A - h u m a n s e c u r i t y a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g . A s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , M O F A i d e n t i f i e s O D A as a t o o l fo r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p o s t - c o n f l i c t r e g i o n s as w e l l as f o r p r e v e n t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s . D o n o r s , h o w e v e r , c a n n o t c a r r y o u t these t a sks w i t h o u t g e t t i n g d e e p i n t o the l o c a l c o m m u n i t y a n d w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h t he p e o p l e t he re w i n n i n g t h e i r t rus t . Q u i t e o f t en M O F A n e e d s to r e l y o n the c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s tha t N G O s h a v e d e v e l o p e d w i t h the l o c a l c o m m u n i t y o v e r the y e a r s a n d t h e i r l o c a l k n o w l e d g e a c c u m u l a t e d d u r i n g the t i m e . T h i s m a k e s c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h N G O s w o r t h w h i l e i n the eyes o f M O F A . 4 7 Takao Kawakami, "21seiki ni muketa Nihon no enjo seisaku" [Japan's aid policy toward the 21st century], Gaiko Forum (March 1993): 14. 4 8 Ibid. 49 „• NGO to ODA no intaafeesu" [The interface between NGOs and ODA], Gaiko Forum (May 2002): 49-55. 29 Official Programs to Support NGOs T h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h N G O s w a s a n i m p o r t a n t t h e m e i n the F o u r t h M e d i u m - T e r m T a r g e t fo r J apanese O D A , a p p r o v e d i n 1988. S i n c e t h e n , s u b s t a n t i a l effor ts h a v e b e e n m a d e b y the g o v e r n m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y M O F A , t o i n c r e a s e l i n k s w i t h N G O s . S t a r t i n g i n 1989, m i n i s t r i e s b e g a n to e s t a b l i s h f u n d i n g s c h e m e s f o r N G O projec ts i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n to these p r o g r a m s , m u c h s m a l l e r p r o g r a m s fo r N G O s - t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , j o i n t s t u d y m i s s i o n s , a n d s m a l l p ro jec t g r a n t s - w e r e a l s o set u p i n the e a r l y 1990s at t he M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y a n d F i s h e r i e s , t he M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e , a n d the M i n i s t r y o f C o n s t r u c t i o n , as w e l l as b y l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s c o o r d i n a t e d b y the M i n i s t r y o f H o m e A f f a i r s . O f a l l the m i n i s t r i e s , M O F A h a s b e e n the m o s t e age r to set u p a n u m b e r o f p r o g r a m s to s u p p o r t N G O s e n g a g e d i n d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n a n d to e x p a n d these p r o g r a m s s i n c e the l a te 1980s. T h e m i n i s t r y p r o v i d e s s u b s i d i e s to N G O s fo r t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l w o r k i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . T h e s u b s i d y s y s t e m , c a l l e d N G O Pro j ec t S u b s i d y , w a s set u p i n 1989 w i t h a m o d e s t b u d g e t o f ¥ 1 1 0 m i l l i o n . M O F A h a d p r o v i d e d f u n d s to a s m a l l g r o u p o f N G O s w i t h t he l e g a l s ta tus o f p u b l i c - i n t e r e s t c o r p o r a t i o n (koeki hojin) p r i o r to 1989, a n d the n e w s u b s i d y p r o g r a m w a s to e x p a n d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t fo r the l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f N G O s w i t h n o l e g a l s ta tus . T h e b u d g e t o f t he p r o g r a m w a s i n c r e a s e d m o r e t h a n t e n f o l d to ¥ 1 , 2 0 0 m i l l i o n i n 1997. A f t e r r e a c h i n g i ts p e a k i n 1997, h o w e v e r , t he b u d g e t o f the N G O P r o j e c t S u b s i d y h a s b e e n d e c r e a s i n g s i n c e 1998, f a l l i n g d o w n to ¥ 5 4 2 m i l l i o n i n 2003. T h i s i s d u e to M O F A ' s p o l i c y to sh i f t t he f o c u s to a n o t h e r s u b s i d y s y s t e m , the G r a n t A s s i s t a n c e f o r J apanese N G O Pro jec t s . A b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f N G O s t ha t h a v e r e c e i v e d the N G O Pro j ec t S u b s i d y c o m p l a i n a b o u t 30 i n f l e x i b i l i t i e s o f t he s y s t e m , a n d s o m e e v e n s a y t h e y n e v e r w a n t t o u s e t he s y s t e m a g a i n . 5 0 Figure 2.3 Budget of NGO Project Subsidy and Grant Assistance for Japanese NGO Projects 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 ••§— Grant Assistance —•— Project Subsidy O n the o t h e r h a n d , as F i g u r e 2.3 s h o w s , the b u d g e t o f a n o t h e r s u b s i d y s y s t e m , t he G r a n t A s s i s t a n c e fo r J apanese N G O Pro jec t s , h a s b e e n g r o w i n g s i n c e i ts i n c e p t i o n i n 1989. It w a s r e n o v a t e d i n 1995 to p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t fo r s m a l l e r - s c a l e N G O pro jec t s , a n d g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e s f a v o u r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n f r o m the N G O c o m m u n i t y . A m o n g the r e c i p i e n t s o f the s u b s i d y t ha t i n c l u d e o f f i c i a l a g e n c i e s , a c a d e m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d h o s p i t a l s , N G O s h a v e g r o w n t o b e the l a r g e s t b e n e f i c i a r y r e c e i v i n g m o r e t h a n f i f ty p e r c e n t o f t he G r a n t A s s i s t a n c e f u n d s . 5 1 5 0 Committee for Promoting Partnership between NGO and MOFA (NGO-Gaimusho renkei suishin iinkai), Gaimusho NGO shiensaku ni kansuru chosakekka hokoku [The Survey on MOFA's NGO support programs] (28 March 2003), http://www.ianic.org/res/mofareport.pdf. 5 1 MOFA, White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2001 (May 2002), http ://www.mofa. go.ip/mofai/gaiko/oda/shirvo/hakusyo/01 hakusho/OD A2001/html/zuhyo/index.htm ; White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2002 (April 2003), http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofai/gaiko/oda/shirvo/hakusyo/02 hakusho/ODA2002/html/zuhyo/index.htm 31 The budget of the Grant Assistance has grown substantially from ¥300 million in 1989 to ¥15 billion in 2004.52 MOFA also introduced programs to strengthen NGO capacity and enhance communication between itself and the NGO community. Three programs for capacity-building were established in 1999, including the consultant system, the seminar system, and the researcher system. As a communication channel, MOFA set up the NGO-MOFA periodic conference in 1996. Conference members meet four times annually to discuss ways in which the ministry can support NGOs and identify new areas for cooperation. It aims to build a relationship of mutual trust while coordinating the interests and capacities of both sides. In addition, MOFA makes effort in building its own institutional framework to deal with NGOs by establishing the NGO Assistance Division within the ministry's Economic Cooperation Bureau in 1994 and creating a new post of NGO Ambassador in 2002. These moves were significant since the government's tight program of administrative reform made it almost impossible for any ministry to establish a new division. 2-3: Business Much has been written about the formidable influence that the business community has had on Japan's aid policymaking as well as on implementation. Industrialists and executives of multinational firms, according to many foregoing accounts, find specific aid projects in recipient countries, shape the aid proposals to be submitted to their own government, and then lobby in Tokyo for the projects that would require procurement orders from these multinationals. The aid bureaucrats then accept and carry out aid allocations to these projects.53 5 2 MOFA, White Paper on Official Development Assistance 2004 (October 2004), http:/Ayww.mofa.go.jp/mofaj^  5 3 Ken Matsui, Keizai kyoryoku: towareru Nihon no keizai gaiko [Economic cooperation: Japan's economic diplomacy questioned] (Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1983). 32 S u c h m a n i p u l a t i o n s w e r e p o s s i b l e s i n c e J a p a n ' s b i g b u s i n e s s e s h a v e p e r m e a t e d the g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n a n u m b e r o f w a y s . Y a n a g a e x p l a i n s that , s i n c e i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e a re i n s e p a r a b l e , g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y is o f f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e r n to b u s i n e s s , w h i l e the g o v e r n m e n t i s a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o b l e m s o f b u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r y . T h u s , the " p o w e r o f o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s is m a n i f e s t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s - i n t he l e g i s l a t i v e p r o g r a m , i n the c h o i c e o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r , a n d i n the m a k e u p o f t he g o v e r n m e n t ' s a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s . " 5 4 B u s i n e s s i n f l u e n c e o n e c o n o m i c a i d h a s b e e n e x e r t e d m a i n l y t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p o f o f f i c i a l a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m c o m m i t t e e s , a n d l o b b y i n g b y the J a p a n B u s i n e s s F e d e r a t i o n , o r N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n . B u s i n e s s h a s p u s h e d f o r a n ef fec t ive c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a i d , t r a d e a n d p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . L a r g e r r o l e s h o u l d be g i v e n i n a i d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , goes t he a r g u m e n t , t o the p r i v a t e sec tor , w h i c h h a s a b u n d a n t r e s o u r c e s a n d e x p e r t i s e to be u t i l i z e d . Its r eques t s h a v e b e e n pe r s i s t en t , d e b a t e d a t t he c o u n c i l s a n d c o m m i t t e e s i ts r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n . T h e S e c o n d P r o v i s i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e f o r m e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r P r i m e M i n i s t e r N a k a s o n e Y a s u h i r o i n 1981 , fo r i n s t ance , c a l l s f o r s t r e n g t h e n e d g o v e r n m e n t - p r i v a t e sec to r c o o p e r a t i o n i n a i d as f o l l o w s : " B a s e d o n a n a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r b e t w e e n O D A a n d the p r i v a t e sec to r i n e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n , the h a r m o n y a n d c o m p l e m e n t a l i t y b e t w e e n b o t h s i d e s s h o u l d m u l t i p l y t he effect o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t y l e o f e c o n o m i c a i d . " 5 5 T h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l o n O v e r s e a s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n , a n o t h e r o f f i c i a l a i d f o r u m w i t h h e a v y b u s i n e s s p r e s e n c e , i s s u e d a r e p o r t tha t p u t f o r w a r d the t h r e e - i n t o - o n e e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n , i n w h i c h a i d , i n v e s t m e n t a n d i m p o r t s a re to be c o m b i n e d . 5 6 Chitoshi Yanaga, Big Business in Japanese Politics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), 32. Arase, Buying Power, 122. Ibid., 141. 33 H o w e v e r , b u s i n e s s i n f l u e n c e h a s n o t s o l e l y b e e n e x e r t e d to a d v a n c e i ts i n d u s t r i a l in te res t s . D r i v e n b y the n e e d to be c o n s c i o u s o f g o o d c o r p o r a t e b e h a v i o u r , J a p a n e s e b u s i n e s s e s h a v e c o m e to g i v e c o l l e c t i v e s u p p o r t f o r v o l u n t e e r i s m . T h e f o l l o w i n g p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s h o w c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y p r e v a i l e d i n the J apanese b u s i n e s s sec tor , a n d h o w tha t h a s e m p o w e r e d N G O a c t i v i t i e s b o t h w i t h i n a n d o u t s i d e the c o u n t r y . B y d o i n g so t h i s s e c t i o n r e v e a l s tha t b u s i n e s s p l a y s a s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n r a i s i n g N G O s ta tus i n the O D A s y s t e m . 2.3.1 The Development of Corporate Philanthropy Japanese b u s i n e s s e s h a v e i n c r e a s i n g l y d e v e l o p e d p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r the c o n c e p t s o f " g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p " a n d " c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " o v e r the pa s t d e c a d e s . I n the c o u r s e o f t h e i r c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n , d e a l i n g w i t h the c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n o f s o c i e t y a n d b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f t he e m e r g i n g v a l u e s a n d v i e w p o i n t s i n s o c i e t y h a v e b e c o m e e s s e n t i a l f o r c o r p o r a t e m a n a g e r s to m a i n t a i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the n e w d e v e l o p m e n t i n b u s i n e s s . B y e n g a g i n g i n p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s , c o m p a n i e s c a n a l s o e x p e c t to b o o s t t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n , w h i c h i n d i r e c t l y affects t h e i r sa les r e c o r d . A n d s u c h c o r p o r a t e i n i t i a t i v e s h a v e s u s t a i n e d m a n y N G O s w i t h sca rce f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l a n d p e r s o n n e l , as w e l l as ' f i n a n c i a l , a s s i s t ance w i t h t h e m m o r e r e c e n t l y . Background of Corporate Philanthropy T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d N G O s u s e d to be c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l . S o c i a l m o v e m e n t s l i k e the peace m o v e m e n t , t he a n t i - n u c l e a r m o v e m e n t , a n d h u m a n r i g h t s m o v e m e n t s i n the 1950s a n d 1960s w e r e a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d a n t i - A m e r i c a n i n cha rac t e r , w h o s e i d e a l i s t i c b u t c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l s t y l e l e d to a d e e p - s e a t e d d i s t r u s t o f m o v e m e n t - b a s e d n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s o n the p a r t o f the b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y . W h e n J a p a n h a d b e c o m e 34 o n e o f the l e a d i n g e c o n o m i c p o w e r s b y the la te 1960s a n d the r a p i d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h c a u s e d s e r i o u s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h as i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n a n d n e g l e c t o f s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s m o b i l i z e d a g a i n s t t he l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d the g o v e r n m e n t . 5 7 P r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y i n J a p a n s t a r t e d t o d e v e l o p i n t he 1960s a n d 1970s, w h e n a n u m b e r o f m a j o r c o r p o r a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d f o u n d a t i o n s . P h i l a n t h r o p i c d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g th i s p e r i o d r e f l e c t e d c o n c e r n s o f J apanese c o r p o r a t i o n s , w h i c h c a m e u n d e r a t t ack f o r n e g a t i v e aspec ts o f r a p i d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h as e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n a n d a s teep r i s e i n l a n d p r i c e s a n d s t o c k s d u e to the e x c e s s i v e l i q u i d i t y p r o d u c e d b y a l a r g e t r a d e s u r p l u s . T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " c a m e i n t o the v o c a b u l a r y o f b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , a n d t h i s n e w l y a c q u i r e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s b e c a m e the m o t i v e fo r t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o r p o r a t e f o u n d a t i o n s a n d i n c r e a s e d c o r p o r a t e g i v i n g . B e s i d e s these d o m e s t i c fac tors , the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y h a s a l s o b e e n s t i m u l a t e d b y e x t e r n a l fac tors . A s J apanese c o m p a n i e s m o v e d o v e r s e a s f o r p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n v e s t m e n t i n t he 1970s a n d m o r e i n t he f o l l o w i n g d e c a d e s , t h e y b e c a m e c o n s c i o u s o f the e m e r g i n g e c o n o m i c f r i c t i o n , p r i m a r i l y i n the U n i t e d States . F a c e d w i t h n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t J a p a n e s e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s a b r o a d , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n b e g a n to c o o r d i n a t e f u n d r a i s i n g f o r f o r e i g n i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s w a s p o s s i b l e s i n c e c o r p o r a t i o n s b e g a n to h a v e t he a b i l i t y t o a p p l y s u r p l u s c a p i t a l t o w a r d p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s after p r o f i t s r o s e d u e to the g o o d p e r f o r m a n c e o f the Japanese e c o n o m y i n the la te 1 9 8 0 s . 5 8 M o s t o f t he c o r p o r a t e f o u n d a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t he 1970s a n d e a r l y 1980s e m p h a s i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o u t r e a c h a c t i v i t i e s . 5 9 Takayoshi Amenomori, "Defining the Nonprofit Sector: Japan," Working Papers of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, no. 15, edited by L. M. Salamon and H. K. Anheir (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies, 1993), 5. 5 8 Nippon Keidanren, White Paper on Corporate Philanthropy in Japan 1999 (September 1999), http://wvv .^keidanren.or.ip/english/policv/200Q/Q63.whitepaper.htiri 5 9 Tadashi Yamamoto and Hitomi Komatsu, "Japan's Philanthropic Development in An Asia Pacific Context," in Emerging Civil Society in the Asia Pacific Community: Nongovernmental Underpinnings 35 S i n c e t he e a r l y 1990s, a m i d s t the e c o n o m i c d o w n t u r n , c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y h a s b e e n s u f f e r i n g f r o m b u d g e t r e s t r i c t i o n s o v e r f u n d i n g a n d p e r s o n n e l . H o w e v e r , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n d i d n o t s t o p p h i l a n t h r o p i c a d v o c a c y a n d a c t i v i t i e s ; o n the c o n t r a r y , i t i n c r e a s e d the i n t e n s i t y o f i t s effor ts i n t h i s f i e l d . H i r a i w a G a i s h i , p r e s i d e n t o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n i n t r o d u c e d the c o n c e p t o f kyosei i n 1991 as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e o f c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t i e s . 6 0 T h e w o r d kyosei c a n be t r a n s l a t e d as " s y m b i o s i s " a n d refers to the J apanese b u s i n e s s c o n c e p t o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a n d m u t u a l p r o s p e r i t y - h e n c e , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , a n e e d to p r o m o t e g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p . P h i l a n t h r o p y m a n a g e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s g a t h e r e d at N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n a r o u n d t h i s t i m e to d i s c u s s c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y a n d d e f i n e d i t as " t o n o t i c e a n d to v o l u n t a r i l y t a k e a c t i o n f o r the u r g e n t i s sues o f the s o c i e t y , to w h i c h c o r p o r a t e r e s o u r c e s a re d o n a t e d w i t h o u t s e e k i n g d i r e c t p a y - o f f . " 6 1 N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n s u b s e q u e n t l y a d o p t e d t he C h a r t e r o f C o r p o r a t e B e h a v i o r i n 1991 to set g u i d e l i n e s f o r m e m b e r c o m p a n i e s . B e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f a ser ies o f i n c i d e n t s a n d s c a n d a l s at t ha t t i m e , t he c h a r t e r u p h o l d s s e v e n p r i n c i p l e s o f c o r p o r a t e o p e r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y t h r o u g h p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s . 6 2 S t i m u l a t e d b y s u c h m o v e m e n t s f r o m a b o v e , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a c k u p to p r o m o t e c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y g o t i n f u l l s w i n g d u r i n g t he l a te 1980s a n d 1990s. It l a u n c h e d t he O n e P e r c e n t C l u b w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n i n 1989, w i t h T o y o d a S h o i c h i r o , the p r e s i d e n t a n d c h a i r m a n o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n as i ts h e a d . T h e C l u b e n c o u r a g e s m e m b e r c o r p o r a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e m p l o y e e s t o c o n t r i b u t e o n e p e r c e n t o f p r e t a x r e v e n u e s of the Emerging Asia Pacific Regional Community: A 25 Anniversary ofJCIE (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, and Japan Center for International Exchange, 1995): 561-82. 6 0 Tadashi Yamamoto, ed., Deciding the Public Good: Governance and Civil Society in Japan (/Tokyo: Japan Center for International Exchange, 1999), 101. Kyoko Shimada, "Overview of the Japanese Corporate Philanthropy in 1990's" (July 2001), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/profile/lp-club/book200107e/prologue.html. 6 2 Nippon Keidanren, Charter of Corporate Behavior (14 September 1991), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/english/policy/cgcb.html. The charter has been revised three times since it was first established, in 1996, 2002 and 2004, respectively. 36 o r i n c o m e s to w o r t h y s o c i a l causes . I n t he s a m e y e a r , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n a l s o o r g a n i z e d a n a f f i l i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d t he C o u n c i l f o r Be t t e r C o r p o r a t e C i t i z e n s h i p w i t h M o r i t a A k i o , t h e n c h a i r m a n o f S o n y C o r p o r a t i o n , t o p r o m o t e g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p i n the U n i t e d States . I n a d d i t i o n , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n e s t a b l i s h e d t w o c o m m i t t e e s t o p r o m o t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s a m o n g s t i t s m e m b e r c o m p a n i e s . T h e C o m m i t t e e o n C o r p o r a t e P h i l a n t h r o p y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1990 w a s g i v e n the t a s k to e n h a n c e c o r p o r a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f g r a n t m a k i n g t h r o u g h s e m i n a r s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n a b o u t c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y . T h e P h i l a n t h r o p i c D e p a r t m e n t e s t a b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1991 s e r v e s as a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t cen te r to ass is t m e m b e r c o r p o r a t i o n s . T h e r e h a s a l s o b e e n effor t to i n d u c e c o r p o r a t e s u p p o r t f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n as s e e n i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t he K e i d a n r e n N a t u r e C o n s e r v a t i o n F u n d i n 1992. T h e f u n d p r o v i d e s a s s i s t ance f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g a i d f o r n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n p ro jec t s c o n d u c t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s b y J apanese a n d f o r e i g n N G O s . T h e b u s i n e s s f e d e r a t i o n h a s a l s o s t a r t e d c o n d u c t i n g s u r v e y s o n c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s e v e r y th ree y e a r s s i n c e 1991 , a n d p u b l i s h e d a w h i t e p a p e r o n c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y i n 1999. S u r v e y r e s u l t s s h o w tha t c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s h a v e e x p a n d e d i n t o d i v e r s e pro jec t s r a n g i n g f r o m e d u c a t i o n , ar ts a n d c u l t u r e to i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n a n d d i s a s t e r r e l i e f . 6 3 Corporate Partnership with NGOs It i s a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k d r o p tha t b u s i n e s s h a s i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m e to p a y a t t e n t i o n to N G O s a n d seek p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t h e m i n c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s . T h e G r e a t H a n s h i n e a r t h q u a k e tha t s t r u c k t he K o b e - O s a k a a r e a o n 17 J a n u a r y 1995 w a s a f o r c e f u l r e m i n d e r to the b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y as w e l l as to o t h e r sec to rs o f s o c i e t y , o f the g r o w i n g p r o m i n e n c e o f c i v i l s o c i e t y . D e s p i t e the d e v a s t a t i o n i n w h i c h 6,430 p e o p l e w e r e k i l l e d a n d a n o t h e r 310 ,000 w e r e f o r c e d to 6 3 Nippon Keidanren, Synopsis of the Survey on Corporate Philanthropic Activities in Fiscal 2002 (January 2004), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/english/policy/2004/004.pdf. 37 e v a c u a t e t h e i r h o m e s , j u r i s d i c t i o n d i s p u t e s a n d r e d t a p e p a r a l y z e d the g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e l i e f efforts . A b o u t 1.3 m i l l i o n v o l u n t e e r s c o n v e r g e d o n the a f fec ted a r e a a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s . G a l v a n i z e d b y the v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , s o m e c o m p a n i e s o r g a n i z e d r e l i e f a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . A n o t h e r i n c i d e n t t ha t i m p r e s s e d b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s i s a s h i p w r e c k i n 1997. W h e n t h o u s a n d s o f t o n s o f c r u d e o i l l e a k e d f r o m a w r e c k e d R u s s i a n t a n k e r d r i f t e d a s h o r e o n the S e a o f J a p a n coast , 270,000 v o l u n t e e r w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c l e a n i n g the s h o r e a n d p r o t e c t i n g a n i m a l s . F a v o u r a b l e a r g u m e n t f o r N G O s w a s b e c o m i n g d o m i n a n t . A s a r e su l t , m o r e a n d m o r e c o r p o r a t i o n s s t a r t e d to f i n d p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s to be a u s e f u l a p p r o a c h to d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s White Paper on Corporate Philanthropy in Japan 1999 states as f o l l o w s : " I n a d d i t i o n to the t rad i t iona l sectors of the government a n d corporat ions , there is the necessity of p l ac ing nonprof i t organizat ions as a n e w t h i r d sector w i t h i n society. O n l y b y so d o i n g , w i l l w e be able to solve societal p rob l ems that w i l l g r o w ever more c o m p l e x a n d be able to overcome the obst ruct ive nature of Japanese society." T h e w h i t e p a p e r t h e n l i s t s t h ree r o l e s tha t c o r p o r a t i o n s e x p e c t o f N G O s as: (1) to p r o v i d e c o r p o r a t i o n s w i t h f e e d b a c k c o n c e r n i n g effor ts t o p r o m o t e b u s i n e s s i n a n o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t w h i c h w i l l b e c o m e the f o u n d a t i o n f o r l o c a l c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t i e s ; (2) to e s t a b l i s h a n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o n d u c i v e fo r b u s i n e s s i n i n f o r m a t i o n i n d u s t r y ; a n d (3) to s c r u t i n i z e c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t i e s a n d c o l l e c t e v a l u a t i o n s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l c o n s u m e r s . 6 4 T h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d c o r p o r a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y s u r v e y h a s i n t r o d u c e d n e w q u e s t i o n s s i n c e 1996 to i n v e s t i g a t e the d e g r e e o f c o o p e r a t i o n a n d a s s i s t ance b e t w e e n c o m p a n i e s a n d N G O s . T h e 2002 s u r v e y f o u n d tha t c o m p a n i e s see N G O s as " d r i v e r s f o r c r e a t i o n o f a d i v e r s i f i e d c i v i l s o c i e t y " (69.5%) a n d " p a r t n e r s Nippon Keidanren, White Paper. 38 f o r p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t y p r o m o t i o n " (50.9%). A n o t h e r n e w set o f q u e s t i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the s u r v e y i n 2002 r e v e a l s tha t m a j o r i t y o f the r e s p o n d e n t s are e n g a g e d i n b u i l d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h N G O s i n s u c h w a y s as m a k i n g c a s h c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d o f f e r i n g f a c i l i t y u s a g e (44.1%), c o n d u c t i n g j o i n t p ro jec t s (26.3%) a n d d i s p a t c h i n g e m p l o y e e s f r o m the c o m p a n y ( 8 . 6 % ) . 6 5 F u r t h e r m o r e ; p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s o f m a n y c o m p a n i e s - g o b e y o n d f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . T h e y h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a s p e c i a l d i v i s i o n to p r o m o t e p h i l a n t h r o p y w i t h i n the c o m p a n y , a n d m o s t o f t h e m p o s t p h i l a n t h r o p y e x p e n d i t u r e s as p a r t o f t h e i r a n n u a l b u d g e t . C o m p a n i e s a l s o s u p p o r t t h e i r e m p l o y e e s ' v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g h u m a n a n d m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s to g r a s s r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s tha t h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n these c o m p a n i e s to e n c o u r a g e v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e : v o l u n t e e r c o m m e n d a t i o n s y s t e m s , p a i d h o l i d a y s fo r v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , t e m p o r a r y l e a v e o f ab sence f o r v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , a n d v o l u n t e e r m a t c h i n g g i f t s y s t e m s . 6 6 A t the s a m e t i m e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d e n c o u r a g i n g m e m b e r c o m p a n i e s , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n acts as a c o o r d i n a t o r b e t w e e n t hose w h o g i v e a n d t hose w h o r e c e i v e . N G O s s e e k i n g d o n o r s w o u l d f i r s t a p p r o a c h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , n o t i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s , b e c a u s e i ts a p p r o v a l a s su re s eas ie r access to p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e r s o f f u n d s . T h u s m a n y r eques t s o f d o n a t i o n are f o r w a r d e d to J apanese c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d i n d u s t r i e s t h r o u g h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , w h i c h t h e n fac i l i t a t e s c o r p o r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d p r o g r a m s . S u c h a f a c i l i t a t i n g r o l e c a n t a k e the f o r m of g i v i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n f u n d - r a i s i n g a l i s t o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n m e m b e r s w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s o f w h o m to a p p r o a c h f o r w h a t l e v e l o f f u n d i n g , o r i t m a y t a k e a m o r e d i r e c t f o r m , w i t h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n w r i t i n g to m e m b e r c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t r o d u c i n g f u n d ra i se r s , a n d t a c t f u l l y e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . 6 5 Nippon Keidanren, Synopsis of the Survey, 19. 6 6 Yamamoto and Komatsu, "Japan's Philanthropic Development," 565-67. 39 2.3.2 The Expansion of Corporate Philanthropy N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n h a s e x p a n d e d i ts p h i l a n t h r o p i c p r o g r a m s to N G O s w o r k i n g o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s sue s i n c l u d i n g a i d a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e the 1990s. S u c h a n e x p a n s i o n w a s n e c e s s a r y to crea te b u s i n e s s - c o n d u c i v e e n v i r o n m e n t o v e r s e a s . T h e r e h a v e b e e n a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f cases o f N G O s s t u d y i n g a n d r e p o r t i n g the i m p a c t o f f o r e i g n b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s o n the l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . T h e y o f t e n o r g a n i z e m o v e m e n t s t o a d d r e s s the i s sue s c a u s e d b y b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s , i n v o l v i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a n d o t h e r N G O s . B u s i n e s s l e a d e r s h a v e b e c o m e a w a r e tha t r e s p o n d i n g to these m o v e m e n t s a n d c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h the l o c a l v o i c e s i s t he k e y to the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n a m i d s t t he i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t . G l o b a l i s sues s u c h as t he e n v i r o n m e n t , i f lef t u n a t t e n d e d , c o u l d i m p e d e t h e i r c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . A n d i n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s s u c h i s sue s , t h e y n e e d to w o r k w i t h N G O s . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the G l o b a l E n v i r o n m e n t C h a r t e r i n 1991 a n d the K e i d a n r e n N a t u r e C o n s e r v a t i o n F u n d i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r a re a n e m b o d i m e n t o f s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n e s t a b l i s h e d the f u n d i n r e s p o n s e to t he g r o w i n g c o n c e r n f o r e c o s y s t e m p r o t e c t i o n a n d r e s o u r c e c o n s e r v a t i o n a m i d s t o f J apanese c o m p a n i e s ' a d v a n c e ove r sea s . T h e f u n d s u p p o r t s t he a c t i v i t i e s a n d pro jec t s o f f o r e i g n a n d J apanese N G O s w o r k i n g o n n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . It a l s o d i s p a t c h e s m e m b e r c o m p a n y e m p l o y e e s to these o r g a n i z a t i o n s to h e l p t h e m d e v e l o p t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s . O k u d a H i r o s h i , c h a i r m a n o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , s t a t ed i n h i s s p e e c h at a s y m p o s i u m h o s t e d b y the f u n d i n M a r c h 2003 tha t c o m p a n i e s s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e n a t u r e c o n s e r v a t i o n w o r k i n a p o s i t i v e m a n n e r s i n c e i t w i l l c rea te b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d l e a d to t he g r o w t h o f the c o m p a n i e s i n t he l o n g r u n . 6 7 Naotake Okubo, '"Keizaikai ga shizen hogo katsudo wo susumerutameni - NGO tono renkei wo motomete' wo kaisai" [A symposium on the partnership with NGOs for promoting nature conservation activity by the business sector], Keizai Trend (May 2003): 42-44. 40 I n 1994 N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n sen t a s t u d y m i s s i o n to the U n i t e d Sta tes a n d C a n a d a , w h e r e J a p a n e s e b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s v i s i t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t s , a i d a g e n c i e s a n d N G O s . B e f o r e the m i s s i o n m a n y o f t he p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d p e r c e i v e d N G O s as c h a r i t y g r o u p s s ta f fed b y h o u s e w i v e s a n d r e t i r e d w o r k e r s , b u t m e e t i n g w i t h m a j o r N G O s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a g r e a t l y c h a n g e d s u c h a p e r c e p t i o n . Y o n e k u r a Isao, w h o h e a d e d the m i s s i o n , a c k n o w l e d g e d t ha t N G O s h a v e p o t e n t i a l to c o n s t i t u t e a p i l l a r a l o n g w i t h the g o v e r n m e n t a n d the b u s i n e s s sec tor i n O D A , as the c u r r e n t a i d s y s t e m w a s s h i f t i n g i ts f o c u s f r o m " h a r d w a r e " to " s o f t w a r e . " 6 8 I n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s w o r k w i t h J apanese N G O s o n v a r i o u s pro jec t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . A j i n o m o t o , a m a j o r f o o d - p r o c e s s i n g c o m p a n y , h a s b e e n i n v o l v e d i n p r o g r a m s , i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s , a i m e d at e n h a n c i n g f o o d , n u t r i t i o n a n d h e a l t h s i t u a t i o n s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . N i s s a n M o t o r p r o v i d e s s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r i n t e r n s w o r k i n g at J apanese N G O s to d e v e l o p h u m a n r e s o u r c e s i n the v o l u n t a r y sec tor . T o k y o M a r i n e a n d N i c h i d o , a n i n s u r a n c e c o r p o r a t i o n , w o r k s w i t h a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l N G O to p r e s e r v e m a n g r o v e fores t s i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . 6 9 Y e t a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f c o r p o r a t e - N G O c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s the J a p a n A l l i a n c e f o r H u m a n i t a r i a n D e m i n i n g S u p p o r t ( J A H D S ) , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n a c o m p a n y c a l l e d G e o S e a r c h tha t h a d b e e n d e v e l o p i n g s y s t e m s f o r s c a n n i n g r o a d s w i t h g r o u n d p e n e t r a t i n g r a d a r to s p o t s i n k h o l e s . A p p r o a c h e d b y a U N o f f i c i a l i n c h a r g e o f d e - m i n i n g , the c o m p a n y s t a r t e d d e v e l o p i n g a p o r t a b l e m i n e d e t e c t o r i n the e a r l y 1990s. I n 1998, J A H D S w a s f o u n d e d as a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h O m r o n , S h a r p a n d I B M J a p a n j o i n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n to d e v e l o p m i n e - d e t e c t i n g t e c h n o l o g y t oge the r . O t h e r c o r p o r a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g T o y o t a , H o n d a , a n d N i p p o n "Posuto reisenki ni okeru keizai kyoryoku" [Economic cooperation in the post-Cold War era], Gekkan Keidanren (December 1994): 6-17. 6 9 Emiko Nagasawa, "Kokusai NGO to kigyo no setten" [The interface between international NGOs and corporations], chap. 13 in Kokusaikyoryoku NGO [International cooperation NGOs] (Tokyo: Nihon Hyoryonsha, 2004). 41 Y u s e n K a b u s h i k i K a i s h a ( N Y K L i n e ) p a r t i c i p a t e i n J A H D S ' p ro j ec t b y p r o v i d i n g l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t . M O F A h a s b e e n w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h t h i s c o r p o r a t e - b a s e d N G O i n i t s a n t i - l a n d m i n e c a m p a i g n , o n e o f the m i n i s t r y ' s r ecen t O D A a g e n d a i t e m s . M O F A s e n d s s e v e r a l s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s to J A H D S , i n c l u d i n g O w a d a H i s a s h i , the f o r m e r U N a m b a s s a d o r , as a d i r e c t o r o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r h a s l o o k e d at m a j o r ac to r s i n J a p a n ' s a i d s y s t e m - N G O s , M O F A a n d the b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y - t o f i n d o u t h o w these p l a y e r s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , t o the m a k i n g o f t he g o v e r n m e n t ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e a i d p o l i c y . T h e y e a c h h a v e t h e i r o w n ob jec t ives a n d i n c e n t i v e s i n i n v o l v i n g the p u b l i c i n t o the a i d s c h e m e , N G O s p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r g r a s s r o o t s o r i e n t a t i o n a n d a d d r e s s i n g h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n c e r n s , M O F A p u r s u i n g p o l i t i c a l ob j ec t i ve s a n d l o o k i n g f o r p u b l i c s u p p o r t fo r i t , a n d b u s i n e s s d e a l i n g w i t h t he s o c i a l a spec t o f c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t i e s . N o m a t t e r w h a t t he u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v e s a re , i t i s t r u e tha t t h e y n o w t u r n m o r e a t t e n t i o n to N G O s a n d t a k e t h e m m o r e s e r i o u s l y t h a n e v e r be fore , b o o s t i n g t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n a n d s t a tus i n the p o l i c y m a k i n g c i r c l e s . T h e r e are , h o w e v e r , t e n s i o n s a n d c o n f l i c t o f i n t e re s t s t ha t a re h a r d to r e c o n c i l e a m o n g these ac to rs , w h i c h w i l l be the sub jec t o f t he n e x t c h a p t e r . 42 CHAPTER III CONFLICT OF INTERESTS AMONG ACTORS As the previous chapter has illustrated, initiatives of differing actors based on differing objectives have made NGOs an integral part of foreign aid. Whereas in chapter 2 the focus was on the individual initiatives, this chapter turns attention to the interaction among the actors involved. Although there are some successful cases of collaboration, their interaction embraces inherent conflict of interests (Figure 3.1). The chapter first takes up a case of Japan Platform (JPF) and studies the new form of inter-sectoral cooperation it embodies, as well as some problems that JPF has. Following this the chapter examines how MOFA's policy causes frictions between the ministry and METI, another ministry involved in the aid policymaking, and NGOs, respectively, and then looks at frictions between the business initiatives and NGOs. 3.1 Successful Collaboration - Japan Platform JPF, which was established in 2000, presents a relatively successful case of the NGO-business-government partnership. Originated in a proposal made by several NGOs, the new program provides a systemic support of the government and corporations for NGOs involved in emergency relief activities in natural disasters and refugee situations. Official fund of ¥500 million and assistance from the One Percent Club of Nippon Keidanren form a solid financial base for the new system. JPF maintains a pool of resources - funds, equipment, personnel, information and so forth - provided by the official and business sectors. These resources are available to NGOs to mobilize and carry out relief activities promptly and effectively. JPF is different from other forms of inter-sectoral partnership in that NGOs took initiative in its establishment. In addition to that, JPF also benefited from positive responses from government t ministries and Nippon Keidanren. JPF consists of the NGO Unit, Secretariat, and the Council. The NGO Unit makes 43 p r o p o s a l s a n d u n d e r t a k e s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f pro jec ts . T h e C o u n c i l f u n c t i o n s as the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y , a n d cons i s t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t , p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d N G O s , w h i c h m a k e u p the m a j o r i t y o f the c o u n c i l . C u r r e n t l y e i g h t e e n N G O s p a r t i c i p a t e i n J P F s e l e c t e d b y r a t h e r s t r i c t c r i t e r i a . M e m b e r s h i p o f J P F r e q u i r e s N G O s to: (1) h a v e a l e g a l p e r s o n s t a n d i n g s u c h as N P O h o j i n , s h a d a n h o j i n , o r z a i d a n h o j i n ; (2) h a v e a r e c o r d o f o v e r s e a s o p e r a t i o n s w i t h n o less t h a n ¥ 5 0 m i l l i o n o f c o n t r a c t r e v e n u e o n a n n u a l a v e r a g e i n the pa s t t h r ee y e a r s ; (3) h a v e o p e r a t e d i n m o r e t h a n t h r ee c o u n t r i e s o r r e g i o n s ; a n d (4) h a v e m o r e t h a n th ree p a i d f u l l t i m e s ta f f . 7 0 A l t h o u g h i t w a s a p p a r e n t tha t m a j o r i t y o f J apanese N G O s w o u l d n o t be . ab le t o m e e t these c r i t e r i a , t h e y w e r e n o n e t h e l e s s m a i n t a i n e d to m a k e J P F c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h W e s t e r n m a j o r N G O s . J P F i s a l s o o u t s t a n d i n g a m o n g o t h e r N G O n e t w o r k s o f i t s k i n d i n t ha t i t g a r n e r s s u b s t a n t i a l c o r p o r a t e s u p p o r t i n n o n - f i n a n c i a l f o r m s . P r i o r t o J P F ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n A u g u s t 2000, N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s t h i n k t a n k , t he 2 1 s t C e n t u r y P u b l i c P o l i c y In s t i t u t e h a d c o m p i l e d a r e p o r t c a l l i n g o n g rea te r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f N G O s i n O D A . T h e r e p o r t c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e s the u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f J a p a n ' s c i v i l s o c i e t y at l a r g e a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , d e v e l o p m e n t N G O s . It t h e n e v a l u a t e s M O F A ' s N G O s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s p o i n t i n g o u t a n u m b e r o f i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s . A s a c o n c r e t e m e a s u r e t o fac i l i t a t e a g rea te r d e g r e e o f N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the r e p o r t r e c o m m e n d s t ha t a " T e a m J a p a n " be e s t a b l i s h e d to p r o v i d e p r o m p t a n d e f fec t ive a i d . T h e u n i t e n v i s i o n e d i n the r e p o r t c r o s s c u t s the g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s , b u s i n e s s , the a c a d e m i a a n d the m e d i a . 7 1 T h e i d e a h a d b e e n a r o u n d i n the t h i n k t a n k s i n c e 1998, a n d the r e p o r t a n d a c o n c u r r i n g s y m p o s i u m h o s t e d b y the Ins t i t u t e i n e a r l y 2000 s i g n a l e d N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s s u p p o r t f o r J P F , w h i c h h a d b y t h e n b e e n u n d e r g o i n g p r e p a r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e f o r i t s f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t Katsuhiro Harada, Kokorozashi ha kokkyo wo koete: NGO ga Nihon wo kaeru [The power of will crossing the borders: NGOs changing Japan] (Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 2001), 11. 7 1 The 21st Century Public Policy Institute, "NGO to ODA no renkei kyoka no arikata: ODA kaikaku no toppakou to shite" [Measures to strengthen partnership with NGOs in ODA: a breakthrough in ODA reform] (March 2000), http://www.21ppi.org/iapanese/thesis/200003/oda.pdf. 44 s e v e r a l m o n t h s la te r . O n i s h i K e n s u k e , the f o u n d e r a n d c h i e f d i r e c t o r o f J P F , w a s i n v i t e d to the s y m p o s i u m a n d r e c e i v e d e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m the d i r e c t o r o f t he I n s t i t u t e . 7 2 I n a d d i t i o n to t he s u p p o r t f r o m N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , J P F en joys t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t ance f r o m i n d i v i d u a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . T e i j i n , a c o m p a n y tha t m a n u f a c t u r e s f ibe r s , f i l m s a n d p l a s t i c s h a s b e e n w o r k i n g w i t h J P F to d e v e l o p p o r t a b l e r e fugee she l t e r s tha t c a n w i t h s t a n d h a r s h w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . N E C , a l e a d i n g IT c o r p o r a t i o n p u b l i c i z e s J P F a c t i v i t i e s o n o n e o f i ts w e b s i t e s . F u j i X e r o x s e n d s i t s e m p l o y e e s to t he J P F sec re ta r i a t fo r p e r s o n n e l a s s i s t a n c e . 7 3 Harada, Kokorozashi, 23-25. Ibid., 155-61. 45 Figure 3.1 Interaction among actors -> : cooperative ties : conflicting interests : overlapping interests MOFA Politicization of aid -Four Guidelines -ODA Charter/revision -NGO support policies -Reluctance for ODA Law \ METI -Infrastructure -Aid and investment -Dichotomous aid policy discussion Japan Platform / NGOs -Support legislation efforts -ODA Reform Network Opposition parties Attempts for ODA legislation (70s-90s) Business -Business priorities (JAIDO, JITCO, etc. policy recommendatioisi -Partnership with NGOs Trade unions -International " • • • • . . / cooperation activities e.g. Rengo -Partnership with NGOs 46 3.2 Conflict of Interests 3.2.1 MOFA vs. METI M E T I a n d M O F A v i e w a i d g e n e r a l l y f r o m t w o t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s , M E T I f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f c o m m e r c e a n d M O F A f r o m tha t o f d i p l o m a c y . P o l i c y d i s a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n M O F A a n d M E T I h a v e e x i s t e d d u r i n g t he f i v e d e c a d e s o f J a p a n ' s f o r e i g n a i d h i s t o r y . T h e t w o m i n i s t r i e s f o u g h t e a c h o t h e r o v e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t he Ins t i t u t e o f D e v e l o p i n g E c o n o m i e s 7 4 i n 1960, i n t r o d u c t i o n o f g r a n t a i d i n the m i d - 1 9 6 0 s , a n d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he O v e r s e a s T e c h n i c a l C o o p e r a t i o n A g e n c y i n t o J I C A i n 1974. T h e t w o d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s s t i l l ex i s t t o d a y , d e s p i t e d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a n g e s , a n d the p o l i c y g a p b e t w e e n the t w o m i n i s t r i e s r e m a i n s as w i d e as be fo re . M O F A ' s p o l i c y to p u t f o r t h i ts p o l i t i c a l a g e n d a a n d i n v o l v e N G O s f o r tha t e n d i s at o d d s w i t h M E T I ' s p o l i c y . T h i s s e c t i o n f i r s t d i s c u s s e s p o l i c y d i s a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n the t w o m i n i s t r i e s i n the p re -1990s p e r i o d b e f o r e g o i n g o n to l o o k at h o w the s i t u a t i o n has e v o l v e d s i n c e the 1990s. T h e s e c t i o n t h e n s t u d i e s the p r o c e s s o f h o w the d i f f e r i n g p o l i c i e s a re m e r g e d i n t o o n e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s u c h as t he O D A C h a r t e r , w i t h m a n y i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s left u n r e s o l v e d . Comprehensive Security by MOFA vs. Economic Security by MITI W h e n M O F A c a m e u p w i t h a n e w c o n c e p t o f " c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y " to r e o r i e n t f o r e i g n a i d i n the e a r l y 1980s, M E T I w a s w o r k i n g o n r e f i n i n g a n o t h e r c o n c e p t o f " e c o n o m i c s e c u r i t y . " M O F A p o s i t i o n e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y as a c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e o f a i d , a n d p u b l i s h e d i n 1981 a b o o k l e t to e x p l a i n i t s a i d p r i n c i p l e s a n d s t r e s sed t he i m p o r t a n c e o f O D A as a cos t t o b u i l d t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r w h i c h secu res J a p a n ' s c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e c u r i t y a n d a l s o as The institute carries out researches on economic, political and social issues of developing countries in Asia. METI wanted the institute to serve as a think tank, based on whose information the ministry was to make ODA policies for these countries. After the turf battle, the institute came under METI's jurisdiction. 47 part of the country's foreign policy. METI, however, did not fully agree with this interpretation of the role of aid; rather, it placed more emphasis on the stable growth of the global economy, for which achievement the ministry argued the aid should be used.75 The conception gap between MOFA and METI can be seen in the issue of using aid to address problems arising from armed conflicts. Although METI did not refuse the concept of comprehensive security and acknowledged the role of aid in achieving it, the economic ministry did not easily accede to MOFA's initiative in the early 1980s to allocate aid to countries involved in conflict. In 1981, responding the outbreak of violent conflicts, MOFA decided to funnel more aid to surrounding countries of the conflict areas such as Turkey, Pakistan and Thailand. To this METI responded reluctantly contending that such a pattern of aid was not of central importance to Japan, a country highly vulnerable to resource scarcity, and that aid should be used to overcome the vulnerability, especially to secure energy.76 Policy Difference between MOFA and METI in the 1990s The different policy preferences of MOFA and METI have become more apparent since the 1990s as MOFA targets its aid budget more towards the non-traditional areas such as basic human needs (BHN), women in development, poverty reduction and peacebuilding, while METI insists on the primary significance of economic infrastructure and tries to tie aid with other economic activities including trade and direct investment. MOFA regards the aid guidelines set in the Four Guidelines and the ODA Charter as the central pillars of Japan's ODA policy and practice. The ODA Four Guidelines was initially drafted by MOFA and, after consultations with METI, the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and the Economic Planning Agency, it was 7 5 Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), ed., Tsusho Sangyo Seisakushi [The history of international trade and industry], 17 vols. (Tokyo: Tsusho Sangyo Chosakai, 1990), 12:363. 7 6 MITI, ed., Tsusho, 12:379. 48 finalized and announced by Prime Minister Kaifu Toshiki at the Diet in April 1991. MOF and METI were reluctant to bring in political conditionality to aid, but were persuaded by the growing international and domestic opinion that favored the trend. Kaifu referred to the recent international attention to the armament in the developing world, and stated that the decision on Japanese aid allocation would take into consideration the following situations of recipients: (1) military expenses; (2) development and production of weapons of mass destruction; (3) imports and exports of weapons; and (4) the level of effort to achieve democratization, market economy, and the protection of human rights. The announcement of the ODA Four Guidelines gave momentum to the discussion that a more comprehensive ODA charter should be enacted. The Third Administrative Reform Committee formed in October 1990 reviewed ODA policy and reached a consensus that the government should position ODA at the core of its foreign policy and employ it strategically to demonstrate its political will to recipients. Director-general of MOFA's Economic Cooperation Bureau attended the committee's first meeting to show MOFA's support for the enactment of an ODA Charter. In the report submitted the prime minister in December 1991, the committee was in the line with MOFA's position to call for an ODA Taiko, with which ODA was to be used as a tool to attain Japan's foreign policy principles including freedom and democracy, pacifism and international cooperation.77 Thus the ODA Charter came into being in 1992 and it lists target areas of aid including global issues and BHN issues, as well as the four principles set in the Four Guidelines. Both the Four Principles and the ODA Charter are significant in that they show MOF As initiative in ODA. Along with the foregoing Guidelines, the Charter shows the Japanese government's intention to take political affairs into consideration when providing aid. MOFA's ODA white papers regularly follow Arase , Buying Power, 124. 49 up with the application of the Guidelines and the Charter to actual aid implementation. This trend of aid politicization grew more conspicuous as MOFA started revising the Charter in 2002. MOFA's Bureau of Economic Cooperation issued a statement in December that year, in which the ministry explains the rational for the revision that "there is an urgent needfor the international community, including Japan, to address new development challenges such as peacebuilding" and that Japan needs to cope with these challenges. The problems that MOFA raises vary from violent conflicts and terrorism, political issues such as human rights and democracy to humanitarian crises such as extreme poverty, refugees and natural disasters.78 Thus, the term "human security," which focuses on protecting the well-being of individuals in conflicts, disasters and infectious diseases, has been introduced in the revised Charter. The list of priority issues in the new Charter reveals the degree of significance that MOFA attaches to the relatively new areas of aid, including poverty reduction, sustainable growth and peacebuilding. MOFA reinforced its stance by compiling a new Mid-term Policy on ODA in February 2005. The priority issues of poverty reduction, sustainable growth, global issues and peacebuilding, as well as the concept of human security, are addressed in more detail to make its philosophy and implementing measures known both domestically and internationally and to deliver ODA more strategically 7 9 In contrast to MOFA, METI continues to emphasize building infrastructure and utilizing Japanese private companies in aid, which is in line with Nippon Keidanren's recommendations. METI's priority in aid remains to be about revitalizing and developing Japan's industry and economy, with its consistent 7 8 MOFA, Revision of Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter (August 2003), http://www.mofa.go.ip/policy/oda/reform/revision0308.pdf. 7 9 MOFA, Japan's Medium-term Policy on Official Development Assistance (4 February 2005), http://www.mofa.go.ip/policv/oda/mid-term/policy.pdf. 50 regional focus on East Asia. METI remains silent or dismissive with regard to the new aid challenges and NGO involvement in ODA. In its 1993 white paper on economic cooperation, noting the termination of the Cold War and concurring changes, METI's attention is directed to the growing prospect of direct investment in and trade with developing countries: " U n d e r such circumstances, p o s t - C o l d W a r economic coopera t ion s h o u l d assist d e v e l o p i n g countr ies to reinforce fore ign cur rency system, make t h e m better p repa red for fore ign direct inves tment (FDI), b u i l d infrastructures a n d facilitate fo re ign trade. E q u a l l y impor tan t is to tie u p the a i d w i t h our effort to foster F D I in to these countr ies a n d accept more impor t s f r o m t h e m . " 8 0 METI places priority on infrastructure-building since it deems physical infrastructure necessary as the base for any economic development and people's welfare in the recipient country. It also focuses aid disbursement on environmental and energy projects because Japanese companies have experience and expertise in these areas as well as in infrastructure-building, and aims to cultivate new markets for Japanese businesses in these areas. In addition to that, METI recently focuses on economic institution-building in developing countries to establish harmonized rules and institutional arrangements in investment and product distribution. Human resource development thus constitutes an important part of the ministry's aid plans. With a new emphasis on intellectual cooperation relating to the development of a stable environment for trade and investment in East Asian countries, METI sees the need to develop human resources who will be engaged in protection of intellectual property rights, development of a common system for standard sand conformity assessment, promotion of information technology, and development of efficient management practices. Of a number of internal councils on economic cooperation in METI, the Study Group on Asian Dynamism undertakes theoretical justification of METI 80 MITI, Keizai kyoryoku no genjo to mondaiten 1999 [The current situation and issues of economic cooperation 1993] (Tokyo: Tsusho Sangyo Chosakai, 1994), 67. 51 p o l i c i e s a n d c o n t e x t u a l i z e s t h e m i n the n e w a i d d i s c o u r s e l e d b y M O F A . K i m u r a F u k u n a r i a n d O h n o K e n i c h i , a c a d e m i c m e m b e r s o f t he s t u d y g r o u p , l e a d the d i s c u s s i o n o f t he g r o u p b y i n t r o d u c i n g a d i c h o t o m o u s a p p r o a c h to a i d . K i m u r a d i v i d e s O D A i n t o t w o ca t ego r i e s , o n e fo r E a s t A s i a n c o u n t r i e s a n d the o t h e r f o r p o o r e r c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e the r e g i o n . F o r the f i r s t c a t e g o r y K i m u r a e n d o r s e s a i d p o l i c i e s l i n k e d to c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s to d e e p e n e c o n o m i c i n t e g r a t i o n i n the r e g i o n . F o r the s e c o n d c a t e g o r y , h e sugges t s tha t the J apanese g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e w h e t h e r to t a k e a n E a s t A s i a n - t y p e o f a p p r o a c h o r to c o n f i n e O D A to h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d o n l y . S i m i l a r l y , O h n o a r g u e s tha t J a p a n ' s O D A p o l i c y s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t w o p i l l a r s . T h e f i r s t p i l l a r o f a i d , h e m a i n t a i n s , s h o u l d a i m to s u s t a i n a n d d e v e l o p the u n i q u e g r o w t h p a t t e r n o f E a s t A s i a . T h e r e f o r e , J a p a n s h o u l d i n t e g r a t e a i d p o l i c y w i t h o t h e r e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s i n c l u d i n g t hose o f t r a d e , i n v e s t m e n t , f i n a n c e a n d l a b o u r i m m i g r a t i o n . A t the s a m e t i m e , u n d e r t he s e c o n d p i l l a r , w h i c h i s o f less i m p o r t a n c e to the s t u d y g r o u p a n d M E T I , J a p a n c a n c o o p e r a t e s e l e c t i v e l y w i t h m u l t i l a t e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r i s sue s s u c h as p o v e r t y , e n v i r o n m e n t a n d e d u c a t i o n . 8 1 I n s u m , M O F A ' s p o l i c y to i n c o r p o r a t e N G O s i n t o the a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s n o t b a s e d o n a g o v e r n m e n t - w i d e c o n s e n s u s i n a t r u e sense . A l t h o u g h N G O s n o w m a k e f r e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e i n o f f i c i a l p o l i c y s t a t emen t s , t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y d r i v e n b y M O F A ' s d e s i r e to u t i l i z e a i d f o r i t s p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s , a n d M E T I d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b u y i n t o t h i s i d e a s i n c e i t h a s i ts o w n p r i o r i t i e s . 3.2.2 MOFA vs. NGOs Discussion on an ODA Law: MOFA M O F A ' s N G O - i n c l u s i v e p o l i c y has b e e n w e l c o m e d b y the N G O c o m m u n i t y i n s o m e cases l i k e J P F , b u t m e e t s s k e p t i c i s m a n d o p p o s i t i o n i n o the r s . 8 1 Kenichi Ohno, "Global Development Strategy and Japan's ODA Policy" (15 October 2001), http://www.rieti.go.ip/meti/asia-d/data/ODA5.pdf. 52 T h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n M O F A a n d N G O s o n the i s s u e o f e n a c t i n g a n O D A l a w r e p r e s e n t s a p e r c e p t i o n g a p d e s p i t e the o n g o i n g N G O - s u p p o r t i v e m e a s u r e s a n d c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o g r a m s . A s w e l l , the deba te s b e t w e e n M O F A a n d N G O s o n the O D A C h a r t e r , a s u b s t i t u t e to the m u c h f o r e s e e n O D A L a w , s h o w s a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t w o s i d e s , a n d the d i s t i n c t i o n i s e v e n d e e p e r o n the i s s u e o f c h a r t e r r e v i s i o n . A s h a v e b e e n p o i n t e d o u t i n the e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e , t he D i e t ' s r o l e i n a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n has b e e n m i n i m a l . J a p a n ' s l e g i s l a t i v e b o d y sets n o b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s fo r the p r o g r a m , y i e l d i n g c o n t r o l o v e r O D A to the b u r e a u c r a c y a n d the p r i v a t e sector . J a p a n ' s O D A is n o t b o u n d b y a n y f u n d a m e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n o r l e g i s l a t i v e o v e r s i g h t . C a l l s f o r t he e n a c t m e n t o f a n O D A l a w s t a r t e d to r e a c h the g o v e r n m e n t i n the 1980s to m a k e the O D A p o l i c y s y s t e m i n s u b j u g a t i o n to a n O D A l a w tha t w o u l d s e v e r e l y l i m i t the d i s c r e t i o n o f p o l i c y m a k e r s M O F A , f o r i t s pa r t , h a s b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o a c c o m m o d a t e the r e q u e s t s o f f o r m a l l e g i s l a t i o n m a d e b y o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a n d c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F r o m M O F A ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d be a v o i d e d b e c a u s e o f the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f a i d . B y l e a v i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d c r i t e r i a o f a i d p o l i c i e s o p e n to i ts d i s c r e t i o n , M O F A i n t e n d s to i nc rea se i ts l e v e r a g e v i s - a - v i s o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s a n d d o n o r c o u n t r i e s . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the O D A C h a r t e r w a s , i n a sense , a p r e e m p t i v e m e a s u r e o n the p a r t o f M O F A a n d the e n t i r e g o v e r n m e n t f o r tha t m a t t e r , w h i c h s a w the n e e d to offer a m o r e d e t a i l e d s t a t e m e n t o f the p r i n c i p l e s a n d ob j ec t i ve s o f J a p a n ' s O D A a n d a p p e a s e the p u b l i c . S u c c e s s i v e d i r e c t o r - g e n e r a l s o f M O F A ' s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u h a v e s p o k e n o u t s h o w i n g t h e i r d i s m i s s i v e o r e v e n d u b i o u s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d the D i e t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the a i d s y s t e m . F o r i n s t ance , O s h i m a K e n z o p a r a l l e l s O D A to d o m e s t i c s e c u r i t y deba tes , w h i c h are u n d e r t he r e s t r i c t i o n o f A r t i c l e 9 o f t he n a t i o n ' s p a c i f i c c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d d o m i n a t e d b y l i n g e r i n g o p p o s i t i o n to J a p a n ' s p l a y i n g a n y m i l i t a r y r o l e i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . H e p o i n t s o u t t ha t s e c u r i t y 53 i s sues , h i g h l y d i p l o m a t i c i n n a t u r e , a re b e i n g r e d u c e d to t he deba t e s o f l e g a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c e n t e r i n g o n A r t i c l e 9. If d e f i n e d b y l a w , h e a r g u e s , O D A w o u l d r u n t he r i s k o f f o l l o w i n g the s a m e p a t h a n d l o s e i t s p o l i t i c a l f l e x i b i l i t y . 8 2 A n o t h e r o f f i c i a l i n the b u r e a u is m o r e e x p l i c i t i n s t a t i n g M O F A ' s ob j ec t i ve o f O D A as f o l l o w s : " T o be frank, O D A is a p r o m i s i n g d ip loma t i c means. W h i l e there are general ly a lot of such means, for Japan, w h i c h lacks m i l i t a r y measures, a i d makes a n impor t an t one. In this sense, w e w a n t to keep the O D A Char te r o n the l eve l of p o l i c y statement to ensure its t ime ly a n d f lexible i m p l e m e n t a t i o n b y admin i s t ra t ive o r g a n s . " 8 3 Discussion on an ODA Law: NGOs N G O s c o n f r o n t M O F A w i t h t w o p o i n t s : a i d p h i l o s o p h y a n d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i r s t , w h i l e t h e y u n d e r s t a n d tha t as a g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n , M O F A t e n d s to t a l k a b o u t a i d i n p o l i t i c a l t e r m s r a t h e r t h a n i n h u m a n i t a r i a n t e r m s , t h e i r a l t r u i s t i c m o t i v a t i o n t o be e n g a g e d i n a i d a c t i v i t i e s re fuses c o m p l y i n g w i t h the p o l i t i c a l m a n e u v e r i n g o f M O F A . S e c o n d , t h e y d e m a n d a g rea te r d e g r e e o f D i e t i n v o l v e m e n t i n O D A i s sues a n d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s . T h e q u e s t i o n o f a n O D A l a w h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d a t t he D i e t o v e r t he y e a r s , a n d effor ts g o b a c k to 1971 , w h e n the i s s u e w a s r a i s e d b y the O v e r s e a s E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n C o u n c i l , the g o v e r n m e n t ' s a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l o n a i d . E f f o r t s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s w i t h the s u p p o r t o f N G O s i n t he D i e t t o i n t r o d u c e a b a s i c O D A l a w . B i l l s h a v e b e e n s u b m i t t e d D i e t m e m b e r s f r o m the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y a n d the K o m e i t o P a r t y i n 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 8 9 a n d 1993 r e s p e c t i v e l y , "ODA ha gaiko sonomono de aru" [ODA is diplomacy itself], Gaiko Forum (July 1999): 26-34. 8 3 Japan International Volunteer Center, "ODA Taiko minaoshi ni kansuru ikenkoukankai" [Dialogue on the revision of the ODA Charter] (28 April 2003), http://www.ngo-ivc.net/ip/proiects/advocacv/pri01detail02.html. 54 a l l o f w h i c h f a i l i n g t o be a d o p t e d . 8 4 C a l l s f o r the e n a c t m e n t o f a b a s i c O D A l a w s p r e a d o u t s i d e t he D i e t . M u r a i Y o s h i n o r i f o r m e d a c i t i z e n s ' g r o u p c a l l e d R e c o n s i d e r A i d , C i t i z e n s ' L e a g u e ( R E A L ) a n d a n O D A S t u d y G r o u p a n d a d v o c a t e d f o r t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a " c i t i z e n s ' O D A c h a r t e r . " T h e g r o u p w e n t f u r t h e r to c o m p i l e the b i l l o f a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n b a s i c l a w a n d l o b b i e d f o r i t s l e g i s l a t i o n . R E A L c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h a S o c i a l i s t P a r t y l e a d e r D o i T a k a k o 8 5 i n s t u d y i n g C a n a d a ' s case a n d p u b l i s h i n g a J apanese t r a n s l a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s a i d r e p o r t s . 8 6 T h e s e i n i t i a t i v e s a l l e m p h a s i z e d the n e c e s s i t y o f g i v i n g a g rea t e r r o l e to the D i e t t o e n s u r e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , w h e n the c h a r t e r w a s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1992 , the r e s p o n s e f r o m the N G O c o m m u n i t y w a s m i x e d . C o n s i d e r i n g t ha t t he c o m m u n i t y h a d p u s h e d f o r a f o r m a l l e g i s l a t i o n o f a n O D A l a w , the c h a r t e r t ha t d o e s n o t h a v e fo rce o f l a w w a s b y n o m e a n s s a t i s f ac to ry . N o n e t h e l e s s , the c h a r t e r w a s a s t ep f o r w a r d i n tha t i t c l a r i f i e d t he ob jec t ives a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s o f a i d . T h e r e v i s e d c h a r t e r tha t w a s a n n o u n c e d i n 2003 , w h i c h p l a c e d m o r e e m p h a s i s o n J a p a n ' s n a t i o n a l in te res t s a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a i d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , d r e w a m o r e n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e f r o m N G O s . T h e a n x i e t i e s a n d c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d b y m a n y N G O s h a v e th ree p o i n t s : f i r s t , p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a i d d e v i a t e f r o m the a l t r u i s t i c a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d p r i n c i p l e s e m b r a c e d b y the v o l u n t a r y sec tor ; s e c o n d , M O F A ' s e n g a g e m e n t i n c o n f l i c t i s sue s i n c l u d i n g p e a c e b u i l d i n g r u n s t he r i s k o f f u r t h e r p o l i t i c i z i n g a i d Yasutami Shimomura, Junji Nakagawa, and Jun Saito, ODA taiko no seijikeizaigaku: unyo to enjorinen [The politics and economy of the ODA Charter: implementation and philosophy] (Tokyo: Yuhikaku, 1999), 68. 8 5 Takako Doi, Yoshinori Murai, and Keiichi Yoshimura, ODA kaikaku: Kanadagikai karano teigen to Nihon no genjo [ODA reform: recommendations by Canada's parliament and the current situation in Japan] (Tokyo: Shakai Shisosha, 1990). 8 6 House of Commons Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade, For Whose Benefit? Report of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade on Canada's Official Development Assistance Policies and Programs (May 1987); Canadian International Development Agency, Canadian International Development Assistance to Benefit a Better World (September 1987). 55 a n d c a n m a k e a i d p r o g r a m s d e t r i m e n t a l t o p e o p l e ' s w e l f a r e i n r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s ; a n d f i n a l l y , l e g i s l a t i o n o f a l e g a l l y b i n d i n g O D A l a w i s n e c e s s a r y to p u t a c a p o n b u r e a u c r a t i c d i s c r e t i o n a n d e n h a n c e t r a n s p a r e n c y a n d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h the i n v o l v e m e n t o f the D i e t . T h e s e c o n c e r n s h a v e b e e n v o i c e d b y the O D A R e f o r m N e t w o r k tha t c o m p r i s e s f i f t y - e i g h t J apanese N G O s a n d s o m e i n d i v i d u a l a c a d e m i c s . 8 7 T h e N e t w o r k h a s c a l l e d o n the g o v e r n m e n t to (1) i d e n t i f y a i d p r i n c i p l e s t ha t r e spec t h u m a n r i g h t s , d e m o c r a c y , e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d g e n d e r e q u a l i t y ; a n d (2) r e i n f o r c e g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p to fos ter N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l e v e l , a n d i n v o l v e l e g i s l a t u r e b y e n a c t i n g a n O D A l a w . T h e O D A R e f o r m N e t w o r k l o b b i e d a c t i v e l y to p u t f o r w a r d t h e i r o p i n i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s at t he t i m e w h e n the O D A C h a r t e r w a s b e i n g r e v i s e d i n e a r l y 2003. It o r g a n i z e d a m e e t i n g b e t w e e n N G O s a n d M O F A o f f i c i a l s t o e x c h a n g e t h e i r v i e w s o n r e v i s i o n i n A p r i l t ha t y e a r , a n d s u b m i t t e d a l i s t o f t h e i r r e q u e s t s to t he f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r i n M a y . W h a t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e i s tha t N G O s a re n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a g a i n s t M O F A ' s f o c u s o n h u m a n s e c u r i t y a n d c o n f l i c t - r e l a t e d i s sue s i n the n e w l y r e v i s e d O D A C h a r t e r . T h e s e i s sue s t h e m s e l v e s are o f g rea t c o n c e r n to N G O s as w e l l a n d as s u c h , M O F A ' s i n v o l v e m e n t has c o m m o n g r o u n d w i t h N G O s w h i c h a re i n v o l v e d i n s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s o n t h e i r o w n . T h e J a p a n C e n t e r f o r C o n f l i c t P r e v e n t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , c a r r i e s o u t p r o g r a m s to p r e v e n t v i o l e n t c o n f l i c t s f r o m t a k i n g p l a c e i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l a n d d o n o r g o v e r n m e n t s , U N a g e n c i e s a n d o t h e r N G O s . T h e i r p r o g r a m s i n c l u d e p r o m o t i o n o f d i a l o g u e a n d c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g a m o n g l o c a l ac to r s , c o l l e c t i o n a n d d e s t r u c t i o n o f s m a l l a r m s a n d p r o v i s i o n o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n to e t h n i c m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n . 8 8 A n o t h e r e x a m p l e of N G O s w o r k i n g o n c o n f l i c t - r e l a t e d i s sues i s t he J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r C e n t e r . T h r o u g h its i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n a n d p e a c e b u i l d i n g 87 The network was established first under the name of the Citizen-NGO Liaison Council for ODA Reform and was renamed in 2000. 8 8 Japan Center for Conflict Prevention, http://www.iccp.gr.ip. 56 activities, this NGO has set up an internal study group to look into an appropriate civil-military relationship. Although it is not yet in depth, it is nonetheless an important nongovernmental initiative to contribute to conflict prevention.89 Precisely because of these undertakings and initiatives on their own, NGOs sense that MOFA is trying to -politicize aid by buying into the ideas of human security and peacebuilding. Not a few NGO officials view that MOFA, in its attempt to create new catchphrases of ODA in the post-Cold War era, jumped on the bandwagon along with other donor governments and international institutions to coin aid philosophies such as social development, peacebuilding and human security. They see the pursuit of narrowly defined national interests and other MOFA-led political objectives of aid incompatible with their humanitarian principles. The skepticism held by NGOs changes into opposition in such cases as Afghanistan and Iraq. The other major concern held by many NGOs is insufficient public participation in policymaking despite MOFA's rhetoric and various NGO support programs. To them, MOFA's reluctance toward legislation appears to be an obvious detour of the Diet, where aid policy should be discussed and formulated by representatives of electorates. In the course of the charter revision, this concern grew, as the revision process included just a few public consultations and bypassed the Diet. NGOs felt that their requests had been practically ignored whereas those made by Nippon Keidanren had been incorporated into the new charter. 3.2.3 Business vs. NGOs Although the business sector has been working to facilitate volunteerism and assist NGOs in various ways, its concerns remain to be about prioritizing certain fields - infrastructure, environment and energy - in aid implementation 8 9 Japan International Volunteer Center, http://wwwl.ica.apc.org/ivc/ioin/advocacv/CIMIC.html. 57 a n d s e e k i n g g rea te r b u s i n e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m . Its p u r s u i t o f these t w o d i f f e r e n t g o a l s s o m e t i m e s m a k e s i ts p o l i c y c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t he g o a l s p u r s u e d b y N G O s . Pursuing Business Goals N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n h a s b e e n a c t i v e i n p r e s e n t i n g i ts r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n O D A p o l i c y to the g o v e r n m e n t a n d i n o r g a n i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s to r e a l i z e t h e m o u t s i d e the a i d s y s t e m . It h a s e s t a b l i s h e d the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n ( J A I D O ) f o r p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t he J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o o p e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n ( J I T C O ) f o r t e c h n o l o g y t r ans fe r a n d h u m a n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , the F o u n d a t i o n f o r A d v a n c e d S t u d i e s o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t f o r e d u c a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d the 2 1 s t C e n t u r y P u b l i c P o l i c y In s t i t u t e f o r p o l i c y r e s e a r c h a n d a d v o c a c y . T h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e the O D A a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e d b y M O F A a n d M E T I , b u t t h e y m a i n t a i n t ies w i t h t he b u r e a u c r a c y a n d w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h i t w h e n n e c e s s a r y . T h i s s e c t i o n focuses o n J A I D O a n d J I T C O to d i s c u s s h o w b u s i n e s s p u r s u e s i t s o w n g o a l s i n a i d . JAIDO N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n e s t a b l i s h e d the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n ( J A I D O ) i n A p r i l 1989 fo r the p r o m o t i o n o f e x p o r t i n d u s t r i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a n d e x p a n s i o n o f e x p o r t s o f t h e i r p r o d u c t s i n t o the J apanese m a r k e t . J A I D O w a s c r e a t e d w i t h the i d e a t ha t t he p r i v a t e sec to r h a s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e to p l a y i n e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n i n the f o r m s o f o v e r s e a s p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t , f i n a n c i n g , t e c h n o l o g y t ransfer , a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d p l a n n i n g o f p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p ro jec t s f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h i s o p e n to J apanese a n d f o r e i g n f i r m s a l i k e , m a k e s e q u i t y i n v e s t m e n t s to e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e v e l o p m e n t pro jec ts . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f ea tu re o f J A I D O is t ha t i t s eeks 58 v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t s f o r pro jec t s t h r o u g h c l o s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h r e l a t e d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P ro j ec t s e l i g i b l e f o r J A I D O i n v e s t m e n t a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d r i s k s , a n d t h e y r e q u i r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d to f o r e i g n p o l i c y . F o r e x a m p l e , J A I D O w a s i n v o l v e d i n pro jec t s i n f o r m e r c o m m u n i s t c o u n t r i e s i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e , o i l p ro jec t s i n the M i d d l e Eas t , a n d s u p p o r t i v e p r o g r a m s f o r t he F u j i m o r i g o v e r n m e n t i n P e r u . T h e s e pro jec t s r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t f r o m M E T I a n d M O F A . 9 0 T h e p u r p o s e o f s u c h e x p e r i m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t ha t p r i v a t e o v e r s e a s d i r e c t i n v e s t m e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y t a k e p l a c e w h e n g o v e r n m e n t s , the p r i v a t e sector , a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a re p r e p a r e d to c o o r d i n a t e w i t h e a c h o the r . J A I D O ' s i n v e s t m e n t p ro jec t s a re s t r a t e g i c a l l y c o n f i n e d to those tha t w i l l i m p r o v e e x p o r t e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y o f the h o s t c o u n t r i e s a n d , w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e , p r o d u c e f o r i m p o r t s b a c k i n t o the J a p a n e s e m a r k e t . W h e n these c o n d i t i o n s a re f u l f i l l e d , J A I D O seeks O D A r e s o u r c e s t o be p a r t i a l l y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d i m p r o v i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r p r i v a t e - s e c t o r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . 9 1 F o r i n s t ance , M O F A h a s b e e n p r o v i d i n g J A I D O - l e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e pro jec t s i n A s i a w i t h O D A l o a n s u n d e r t he r e c o g n i t i o n tha t t h e y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the o v e r a l l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t he r e g i o n a n d c o n s o l i d a t i n g a l o n g - t e r m r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n J a p a n a n d i t s n e i g h b o u r s . 9 2 JITCO T h e J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o o p e r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n ( J I T C O ) i s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s i n i t i a t i v e i n d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1991 u n d e r t he j o i n t j u r i s d i c t i o n o f f i v e Koretsugu Kodama, "Naigai no kitai ni kotaeru JAIDO" [JAIDO living up both domestic and overseas expectation], Gekkan Keidanren (October 1998): 51-53. 9 1 Hiroya Ichikawa, "Japanese Direct Investment and Development Finance," in Islam ed., Yen for Development, 139-51. 92 "Ima naze minkatsu infura ka" [Why private resources for infrastructure-building now], Gekkan Keidanren (March 1996): 54-59. 59 m i n i s t r i e s o f Jus t i ce ; F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ; E c o n o m y , T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r y ; H e a l t h , L a b o u r a n d W e l f a r e ; a n d L a n d , I n f r a s t r u c t u r e a n d T r a n s p o r t . T h e s t r i c t g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y o n f o r e i g n w o r k e r s o n l y accep t s f o r e i g n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s i n l i m i t e d n u m b e r s a n d t ra inees , b u t n o t m a n u a l l a b o u r e r s . T h e . p u r p o s e o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f J I T C O , the re fore , w a s t w o f o l d : to s u p p l y f o r e i g n w o r k f o r c e fo r J apanese , e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l - a n d m e d i u m - s i z e d , c o m p a n i e s ; a n d to t r ans fe r J a p a n e s e t e c h n i q u e s a n d s k i l l s t o d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e w o r k e r s t r a i n e d at J I T C O c a n be e x p e c t e d to crea te s t ab le b u s i n e s s e n v i r o n m e n t b a c k at h o m e f o r the i n c o m i n g J apanese i n v e s t m e n t s . J I T C O i n v i t e s w o r k e r s f r o m d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s u n d e r the I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m a n d the T e c h n i c a l I n t e r n s h i p P r o g r a m , a n d s e n d s t h e m to Japanese c o m p a n i e s f o r s h o r t - t e r m t r a i n i n g a n d w o r k . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n p o s i t s J I T C O p r o g r a m s as a n i m p o r t a n t c h a n n e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n . 9 3 U n d e r s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u s i n e s s s u p p o r t f o r N G O s i s d w a r f e d b y these i n i t i a t i v e s tha t p u r s u e i n d u s t r i a l p r i o r i t i e s . A l t h o u g h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n a n d i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a n i e s d o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s s i s t ance to N G O s as d e t a i l e d i n c h a p t e r 2, s u c h s u p p o r t d o e s n o t su r f ace w i t h t he s a m e ea rnes t as o t h e r g rea te r p r i o r i t i e s d o w h e n the b u s i n e s s sec to r p r e s e n t t h e i r v i e w s o n O D A to the g o v e r n m e n t . It i s a c o m m o n p r a c t i c e tha t b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s o c c u p y s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e o f m e m b e r s h i p o f o f f i c i a l c o m m i t t e e s a n d c o u n c i l s t ha t d e l i b e r a t e o n O D A p o l i c y , a n d at s u c h m e e t i n g s t h e i r c o n c e r n s f o c u s o n e c o n o m i c a n d i n d u s t r i a l a g e n d a r a t h e r t h a n o n the p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s . T h e s a m e t h i n g goes w i t h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n O D A , a n o t h e r f o r m a l c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h i c h the b u s i n e s s sec to r l o b b i e s i ts a g e n d a to the g o v e r n m e n t . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n h a s i s s u e d f i v e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s i n c e the e a r l y 1990s; 1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 4 , 1 9 9 7 , 1 9 9 9 a n d 2001 . T h e ser ies o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 9 3 Akio Morita, "Kokusai kenshu kyoryoku kiko no setsuritsu ni tsuite" [On the establishment of the Japan International Training Cooperation Organization], Keidanren Geppo (October 1991): 34-36. 60 c o n s i s t e n t l y f o c u s o n t w o p o i n t s : s t r e n g t h e n i n g p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d b u s i n e s s i n . a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; a n d l i n k i n g a i d to t r a d e a n d i n v e s t m e n t , w i t h a n e m p h a s i s o n e c o n o m i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e b u i l d i n g . F i r s t , o n the p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n t he p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e sec to rs , t he r e p o r t s s t ress t ha t t he J a p a n e s e p r i v a t e sec tor h a s a c c u m u l a t e d c a p i t a l , k n o w - h o w a n d s k i l l s w h i c h w o u l d be a n asset to the o f f i c i a l a i d p l a n n i n g a n d p ro j ec t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n q u e s t i o n s the t r a d i t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t - l e d O D A f r a m e w o r k a n d a r g u e s tha t p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d to a g rea te r d e g r e e to d e l i v e r a i d m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y a n d e f f e c t i v e l y . I n t h i s r e g a r d , K e i d a n r e n u r g e s tha t J A I D O be g i v e n m o r e a c t i v e r o l e i n O D A . 9 4 T h e 2001 r e p o r t s u g g e s t s tha t p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s , i n c l u d i n g c o n s u l t a n t f i r m s , t r a d i n g c o m p a n i e s , m a n u f a c t u r e r s a n d e n g i n e e r i n g c o m p a n i e s , a n d t h e i r g l o b a l n e t w o r k s be u t i l i z e d i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the c e n t r a l m i n i s t r i e s a d m i n i s t e r i n g O D A . 9 5 S e c o n d , K e i d a n r e n c a l l s f o r the c o n t i n u e d f o c u s o n e c o n o m i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s as t he m a j o r a r e a o f a c t i v i t y i n J apanese O D A o n the g r o u n d s tha t t h i s i s t he a r e a w h e r e J apanese t e c h n o l o g y a n d e x p e r t i s e h a v e c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e o v e r t hose o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . It r a i ses e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n , t he e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e - b u i l d i n g as e x a m p l e s w h e r e J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s h a v e s t r e n g t h a n d the re fo re c a n c o n t r i b u t e m u c h to t he o f f i c i a l a i d . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n s u p p o r t s t i e d l o a n s as t h e y c a n u t i l i z e the J a p a n e s e p r i v a t e sec to r ' s r e s o u r c e s a n d r e m i n d s the g o v e r n m e n t t ha t u n t i e d a i d s h o u l d a l s o b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r i v a t e sec to r i n t e r e s t s . 9 6 K e i d a n r e n states the 9 4 Nippon Keidanren, "Seifu kaihatsu enjo ni kansuru wareware no kangae" [Our views on official development assistance] (15 April 1997), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/policy/poll28/index.html. 9 5 Nippon Keidanren, "ODA kaikaku ni kaknsuru teigen" [Recommendations on ODA reform] (16 October 2001), http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/policy/2001/049.html. 9 6 Nippon Keidanren, "Kongo no seifu kaihatsu enjo to kokusai kyoryoku ginko heno teigen" [Official development assistance for the future and recommendations for Japan Bank for International Cooperation] (21 September 1999"). http://www.keidanren.or.ip/iapanese/policy/pol243.html. 61 i m p o r t a n c e o f the c o n t i n u e d f o c u s o n the e c o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f O D A as f o l l o w s : "It goes w i t h o u t s ay ing that Japan, w i t h h u m a n i t a r i a n concerns a n d in te rna t iona l respons ib i l i ty , s h o u l d use its O D A to address issues such as pove r ty a n d the env i ronmen t i n d e v e l o p i n g countries. H o w e v e r , since Japan has scarce na tu ra l resources a n d depends m u c h o n fore ign trade, i r a m t a i n i n g in te rna t iona l peace a n d f r iend ly re la t ionship w i t h other countr ies a n d seeking our o w n s u r v i v a l a n d prosper i ty t h r o u g h economic act ivi t ies such as trade a n d inves tment are even more impor tant . T h e y are our ve ry na t iona l in teres ts ." 9 7 N G O s a n d t h e i r r o l e i n a i d a re m e n t i o n e d i n the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , b u t N G O s a re p l a c e d i n the b r o a d e r c i r c l e o f " t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r " t ha t i n c l u d e s b u s i n e s s e s a n d a c a d e m i a . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s e m p h a s i s i s o b v i o u s l y o n b u s i n e s s e s , a n d N G O s a re o n l y g i v e n s u p p l e m e n t a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the r e p o r t s . B u s i n e s s s u p p o r t f o r the r e v i s e d O D A C h a r t e r t e l l s w h e r e N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n p l a c e s i ts p r i o r i t y o n . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n t o w a r d the n e w c h a r t e r m a k e s a c o n t r a s t to the c r i t i c i s m s f r o m N G O s . S e v e r a l r eques t s tha t the f e d e r a t i o n h a d m a d e ea r l i e r , i n c l u d i n g r e g i o n a l f o c u s o n E a s t A s i a , s e c t o r a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f a i d i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e n v i r o n m e n t a n d e n e r g y , a n d e m p h a s i s o n J a p a n ' s n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c in te res t s , h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the r e v i s e d cha r t e r , t o w h i c h N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n l e a d e r s s h o w s a t i s f a c t i o n . 9 8 Cooperation between NGOs and Unions U n d e r s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t r a d e u n i o n s h a v e a d v o c a t e d m o r e O D A a l l o c a t i o n f o r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d bas i c h u m a n n e e d s . A l t h o u g h the h i s t o r y o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n t h i s f i e l d i s m u c h s h o r t e r t h a n tha t o f the N G O s tha t h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d a b o v e , i t i s w o r t h p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n . T h e J apanese T r a d e U n i o n C o n f e d e r a t i o n ( R e n g o ) , t he l a r g e s t u n i o n f e d e r a t i o n i n J a p a n , e s t a b l i s h e d the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r F o u n d a t i o n i n 1989 f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e a n d 9 7 Nippon Keidanren, "ODA kaikaku." 9 8 Takashi Nishioka, "Aratana ODA taiko nit suite" [On the new ODA Charter], Keizai Trend (October 2003): 42-43. 62 c o o p e r a t i o n o n l a b o r i s sues . T h e F o u n d a t i o n a i m s to u t i l i z e O D A f u n d s f o r the pro jec t s i t i s c o n d u c t i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s " a n d i m p r o v e t he g o v e r n m e n t ' s N G O s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s , w h i c h i t c o n s i d e r s i s s t i l l f o c u s e d o n h a r d w a r e r a t h e r t h a n o n s o f t w a r e . 1 0 0 E i g h t N G O s a n d f i v e u n i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g R e n g o set u p the F o r u m for I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n N G O s a n d T r a d e U n i o n s i n J u l y 2004, w h i c h i s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d o n p u r s u i n g h u m a n i t a r i a n g o a l s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a i d . T h e f o r u m i s c o m m i t t e d to r e s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d to p o v e r t y , h u m a n r i g h t s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , a n d ca l l s fo r the g o v e r n m e n t t o a l l o c a t e m o r e O D A f u n d s to these areas . B y l o o k i n g at s e v e r a l cases , t h i s c h a p t e r h a s r e v e a l e d h o w the t w o m a j o r s u p p o r t e r s o f N G O , M O F A a n d the b u s i n e s s sec tor , c o m e at o d d s w i t h N G O s o n s o m e i s sues o f f u n d a m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e . T h e c o n f l i c t h a p p e n s b e c a u s e t h e i r p o l i c i e s t o s u p p o r t N G O s are m o t i v a t e d b y p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a re i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t hose o f N G O s (as i n the case o f M O F A ) , o r c o m e u n d e r t he s h a d o w o f o t h e r p o l i c i e s o f h i g h e r p r i o r i t y (as i n the case o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ) . The foundation carries out two programs. One of them is to invite union leaders in developing countries to Japan for exchange and learning on labor issues and movement. The other provides support for education and other social development activities targeted at workers. 1 0 0 Teruhito Tokumoto, "Kokusai NGO to shiteno Kokusai Rodo Zaidan" [Japan International Labour Foundation as an international NGO], Rengo Soken Report, no. 188 (1 November 2004), http://www.rengo-soken.or.ip/dio/nol88/kikou.htm. 63 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION T h e f o r e g o i n g c h a p t e r s h a v e l o o k e d at d i f f e r en t sec to rs o f t he J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y to e x p l a i n the r ecen t g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y to e n c o u r a g e N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g these sec tors . J a p a n e s e N G O s h a v e g r o w n c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the n u m b e r , s c o p e o f a c t i v i t y a n d n e t w o r k i n g s i n c e the l a te 1970s, e s p e c i a l l y i n the 1980s a n d 1990s. V a r i o u s d o m e s t i c a n d e x o g e n o u s fac to r s h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d N G O s h a v e n o w g r o w n to c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r p i l l a r o f soc i e ty . A f t e r d e t a i l i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t o f J apanese N G O s , c h a p t e r 2 t u r n e d to M O F A to e x a m i n e i t s m o t i v a t i o n a n d r a t i o n a l e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g N G O s i n the a i d s y s t e m . T h e m i n i s t r y ' s effor ts to p o l i t i c i z e a i d h a v e e v o l v e d s i n c e the 1970s, a n d r e c e n t a t t e m p t to a t t a c h p o l i t i c a l m e a n i n g to a i d h a s m a d e i t n e c e s s a r y fo r M O F A to w o r k w i t h N G O s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , b y c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h N G O s , M O F A c a n e x p e c t t o sa t i s fy i t s p o l i c y p r i o r i t i e s . F i r s t , t he s m a l l s i z e , f l e x i b i l i t y a n d m o b i l i t y o f N G O s m a k e t h e m p r o m i s i n g ac to r s i n d e l i v e r i n g a i d t ha t t a i l o r s to the c h a n g i n g n e e d s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . A s the a i d f o c u s sh i f t s f r o m b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s to a s s i s t i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h p o v e r t y r e d u c t i o n , d i s e a s e c o n t r o l a n d e d u c a t i o n , M O F A h a s c o m e to r e c o g n i z e the u t i l i t y o f N G O s i n d e a l i n g w i t h these n e w a i d n e e d s . E m e r g e n c y r e l i e f a c t i v i t i e s a n d p o s t - c o n f l i c t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , the r ecen t a i d a g e n d a o f M O F A , a l s o r e q u i r e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h N G O s . I n s u m , g r a s s r o o t s e x p e r i e n c e a n d l o c a l k n o w l e d g e tha t N G O s h a v e a c c u m u l a t e d o v e r the y e a r s a re o f g rea t v a l u e to M O F A i n t h i s n e w a i d c o n t e x t . T h e s e c o n d a d v a n t a g e f o r M O F A of w o r k i n g w i t h N G O s i s t o a p p e a s e p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m tha t J a p a n ' s a i d is c o m m e r c i a l l y o r i e n t e d a n d t ha t t he p u b l i c i s left o u t o f the a i d s y s t e m . T h e p r e s e n c e o f N G O s i n b o t h a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a d d s a h u m a n e a spec t t o a i d p r o g r a m s a n d sa t i s fy the d e m a n d s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 64 B a s e d o n these a n a l y s e s o f these p o l i c y r a t i o n a l e s o f M O F A , t he c h a p t e r l o o k e d i n t o the m i n i s t r y ' s f u n d a m e n t a l i n c e n t i v e - e m p l o y i n g a i d as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l . F o r a f o r e i g n m i n i s t r y tha t a s p i r e s to r a i s e i ts c o u n t r y ' s d i p l o m a t i c p r o f i l e , c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h N G O s i n O D A se rves i ts o w n in te res t . T h e c h a p t e r t h e n t u r n e d a t t e n t i o n to the b u s i n e s s sec to r to d i s c u s s i ts r o l e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g N G O e m p o w e r m e n t : T h e r o l e of b u s i n e s s i n t he a i d p r o g r a m h a s a l m o s t a l w a y s b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as tha t o f the p r o m o t e r o f m e r c a n t i l i s t a i d pro jec ts . W h i l e t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s t r u e to s o m e ex ten t , b u s i n e s s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the g r o w t h o f N G O s h a s b e e n u n d e r a p p r e c i a t e d . S u c h c o n c e p t s as " g o o d c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p " a n d " c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " e m e r g e d i n the p e r i o d o f r a p i d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h as i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s b e c a m e s o c i a l i s sues . I n the 1980s, w i t h the a d v a n c e m e n t o f J apanese c o m p a n i e s ove r sea s , t h e y h a d to t a k e these c o n c e p t s m o r e s e r i o u s l y t h a n be fo re as t h e i r o p e r a t i o n c a u s e d f r i c t i o n s i n h o s t c o m m u n i t i e s . U n d e r s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s s t a r t e d to p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a n d p e r s o n n e l a s s i s t ance to N G O s i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s sue s a n d e n c o u r a g e t h e i r e m p l o y e e s to t a k e u p v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s . O f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e are N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n ' s i n i t i a t i v e s a i m e d at s u p p o r t i n g N G O s to r e c o n c i l e c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h e s u p p o r t i v e efforts h a v e c o n s e q u e n t l y s p i l l e d o v e r to d e v e l o p m e n t N G O s w o r k i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . C h a p t e r 3 l o o k e d at c o n f l i c t o f in te res t s a m o n g d i f f e r e n t ac to r s i n the a i d s y s t e m . It f i r s t e x a m i n e d M E T I ' s r e s p o n s e to the o n g o i n g M O F A - l e d a i d t r e n d . A l t h o u g h the p o l i c y o f N G O i n c l u s i o n h a s b e e n e n d o r s e d b y o f f i c i a l p o l i c y f o r u m s a n d s t a t emen t s , a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s tha t t he e n d o r s e m e n t i s n o t g o v e r n m e n t - w i d e , as M E T I r e g a r d s the M O F A - i n s p i r e d a i d p o l i c y t o be o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e a n d c o n c e i v e s o f a i d as a p r o m o t i o n a l t o o l o f e x p o r t a n d i n v e s t m e n t . N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n , at the s a m e t i m e o f p r o m o t i n g N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s u p p o r t s M E T I ' s p o l i c y as w e l l w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d p e r s o n n e l 65 b a c k u p . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a l t h o u g h N G O p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s g r o w i n g p a r t l y d u e to the s u p p o r t f r o m M O F A a n d the b u s i n e s s sec to r r e s p e c t i v e l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l a i d s y s t e m w i t h p r i o r i t y o n e c o n o m i c ob jec t ives i s s t i l l i n p l a c e . N G O s r e s p o n d to these m o v e s b y t e a m i n g u p w i t h p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a n d t r a d e u n i o n s w h e n n e c e s s a r y . W h i l e o f f i c i a l p r o g r a m s to s u p p o r t N G O s d o bene f i t the v o l u n t a r y c o m m u n i t y , the t w o s i d e s a r e y e t t o be t r u e p a r t n e r s . A case s t u d y o f the O D A C h a r t e r i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t he g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p . T h e d i s c u s s i o n o n the c h a r t e r a n d l e g i s l a t i o n o f a l e g a l l y - b i n d i n g O D A l a w r e v e a l s the i n h e r e n t g a p b e t w e e n M O F A , w h o w a n t s to u t i l i z e O D A as a f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o o l , a n d N G O s , w h o s e p e r c e p t i o n o f a i d is r o o t e d i n h u m a n i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s . S i m i l a r l y , N G O s c o m e at o d d s w i t h t he b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y , w h o h a v e in te res t s i n i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h r a t h e r t h a n i n the p r o m o t i o n o f h u m a n i t a r i a n causes . A s a w h o l e , t h i s thes i s a b o u t N G O s , f o r e i g n a i d a n d b u s i n e s s e s i n J a p a n c o v e r s a b r o a d r a n g e o f h i t h e r t o u n c o n n e c t e d subjects . I n so d o i n g , i t c h a l l e n g e s a c o u p l e o f c o m m o n l y a c c e p t e d n o t i o n s . O n e i s tha t f o r m a t i o n o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y is i n v a r i a b l y d o m i n a t e d b y b u r e a u c r a t s w h i l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s k e p t m i n i m a l . T h e r o l e o f N G O s as n e w c o n s t i t u e n t s fo r b u r e a u c r a t s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s i s b e c o m i n g so i m p o r t a n t tha t N G O s a re g i v e n a k e y f u n c t i o n as i s s u e a d v o c a t e s , p o l i c y p l a y e r s a n d agen t s o f i n f l u e n c e i n the c o n t e m p o r a r y J a p a n e s e p o l i t i c s . T h e o t h e r is tha t the r o l e o f the b u s i n e s s sec tor h a s a l w a y s b e e n t ha t o f a p r o m o t e r o f c o m m e r c i a l in t e res t s a n d n o t h i n g else. T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y a o n e - s i d e d v i e w s i n c e b u s i n e s s i n i t i a t i v e s h a v e c e r t a i n l y b e n e f i t e d N G O s . Importance of NGO Participation A s the n e w O D A C h a r t e r r e v i s e d i n 2003 s h o w s , d e v e l o p m e n t a i d i s n o w a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t he g o v e r n m e n t ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . T h e c h a r t e r s tates J a p a n ' s a i d ob jec t ives as to " c o n t r i b u t e t o the peace a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l 66 c o m m u n i t y , a n d t h e r e b y to e n s u r e J a p a n ' s o w n s e c u r i t y a n d p r o s p e r i t y . " 1 0 1 I n d e e d , i n o r d e r to a t t a i n these ob jec t ives , J a p a n n e e d s to a d d r e s s v a r i o u s h u m a n i t a r i a n i s sue s a n d a i d n e e d s a n d s t r i v e f o r s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t , as the c h a r t e r a r t i cu l a t e s . D e a l i n g w i t h s u c h t a sks a n d a c h i e v i n g the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d ob jec t ives a re i n the in te res t s o f e v e r y p a r t y - the g o v e r n m e n t , b u s i n e s s a n d the v o l u n t a r y sec to r - a n d the i n v o l v e m e n t o f N G O s , o r m o r e b r o a d l y , the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t fo r t w o reasons . F i r s t o f a l l , as the p r e v i o u s pa r t s o f t h i s thes i s h a v e d i s c u s s e d a n d as M O F A is w e l l a w a r e of, the n e w task o f d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l a n d h u m a n i t a r i a n i s sue s c o u l d n o t be d o n e w i t h o u t g r a s s r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P o l i c y m a k i n g b o d i e s i n c l u d i n g M O F A a n d a i d a g e n c i e s s u c h as J I C A a n d J B I C n e e d to seek a d e q u a t e f o r m s o f p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h N G O s fo r e f fec t ive a i d d e l i v e r y , w h e t h e r i t i s c o n t r a c t i n g - o u t o f p ro jec t s , f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , o r c o n s u l t a t i o n o n p l a n n i n g a n d e v a l u a t i o n . A c e n t r a l o f f i c i a l u n i t w h i c h c o o r d i n a t e s c o o p e r a t i v e p r o g r a m s b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d v a r i o u s n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l g r o u p s w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t he C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i d A g e n c y ( C I D A ) , C a n a d a ' s o f f i c i a l o r g a n f o r a i d p o l i c y m a k i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , h a s the C a n a d i a n P a r t n e r s h i p B r a n c h to c a r r y o u t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n p r o g r a m s w i t h n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o m p a n i e s , N G O s , u n i o n s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e b r a n c h h a s s e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s a n d s u b d i v i s i o n s to m a n a g e d i f f e r en t t y p e s o f p ro jec t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p a r t n e r s . W h i l e c r e a t i n g a u n i f i e d a i d m i n i s t r y l i k e C I D A is n o t f ea s ib l e i n t he c u r r e n t J apanese p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , e x p a n d i n g e x t a n t u n i t s s u c h as t he N G O A s s i s t a n c e D i v i s i o n i n M O F A o r the T r a d e a n d E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n B u r e a u i n M E T I m a y be p o s s i b l e f o r a be t te r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p a r t n e r s h i p p r o g r a m s . T h i s w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y be s u i t e d f o r s o m e a i d a reas w h e r e the in te res t s o f 1 0 1 MOFA, Revision. 67 d e v e l o p m e n t - m i n d e d M O F A a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e - o r i e n t e d M E T I o v e r l a p , i n c l u d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g f o c u s e d o n h u m a n r e s o u r c e s d e v e l o p m e n t . S e c o n d , i n v o l v i n g N G O s i n O D A is i m p o r t a n t t o g u a r a n t e e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s m a j o r n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . N G O s h a v e f u n c t i o n e d as a m a j o r d r i v i n g fo rce i n r e v e a l i n g c o r r u p t i o n , m i s m a n a g e m e n t a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d to a i d pro jec t s a n d p r o v o k i n g p u b l i c deba te , o f t e n w i t h o t h e r ac to r s w h o s h a r e t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s a n d ob jec t ives i n a i d , i n c l u d i n g a c a d e m i c s , o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a n d , r e c e n t l y t r a d e u n i o n s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d b e p r o m o t e d f u r t h e r o n the p o l i t i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . Jus t as J a p a n ' s e x t e r n a l i s sue s s u c h as s e c u r i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n U N p e a c e k e e p i n g a n d d e p l o y m e n t o f the S e l f D e f e n c e F o r c e s are d e f i n e d b y l a w s , the ob jec t ives , p r i o r i t i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f O D A s h o u l d be c o d i f i e d i n a l a w a n d p u t u n d e r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y a n d d e b a t e at the D i e t . A s t he p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e d , s u c h c h a n g e s c a n e x p e c t f i e rce b u r e a u c r a t i c r e s i s t a n c e s i n c e M O F A is c u r r e n t l y r e l u c t a n t to h a v e p a r l i a m e n t a r y c h e c k u n d e r f o r m a l l e g i s l a t i o n . H o w e v e r , the p a s s a g e o f t he N P O L a w a n d a m e n d m e n t s m a d e to i t d u r i n g the pa s t f e w y e a r s d e s p i t e t he o p p o s i t i o n f r o m the b u r e a u c r a c y p r e s e n t a n e n c o u r a g i n g p r e c e d e n c e . S i n c e the N P O L a w tha t w e n t i n t o effect i n 1998 o f f e r e d n o tax p r i v i l e g e s , N G O s f o r m e d a l i a i s o n c o u n c i l i n 1999 a i m e d at the r e v i s i o n o f the l a w a n d w o r k e d c l o s e l y w i t h the n o n - p a r t i s a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y C a u c u s , w h i c h w a s set u p i n the s a m e y e a r . T h e c o u n c i l s u b m i t t e d a n a m e n d m e n t p r o p o s a l to the C a u c u s a n d h e l d p u b l i c f o r u m s t h r o u g h o u t J a p a n to p r e s e n t t h e i r o p i n i o n s to l e g i s l a t o r s . I n 2001 , t h e i r effor ts r e s u l t e d i n the a m e n d m e n t s to the N P O L a w a n d tax m e a s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g N G O s tha t a l l o w n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s a p p r o v e d b y the l a w to r e c e i v e t a x - d e d u c t i b l e d o n a t i o n s . F u r t h e r a m e n d m e n t s w e r e m a d e i n 2002 to l o o s e n r e s t r i c t i o n s o n t ax d e d u c t i b i l i t y a n d s i m p l i f y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p roces ses . O D A l e g i s l a t i o n c a n f o l l o w s u i t i f s u c h n e t w o r k i n g a n d c o o p e r a t i o n t a k e p l a c e a g a i n . 68 Problems in the NGO Community T h a t b e i n g s a i d , t he re a re t w o i s sues i n the N G O c o m m u n i t y to be d e a l t w i t h so tha t i t c a n g r o w i n t o the s o l i d t h i r d p i l l a r o f s o c i e t y after t he g o v e r n m e n t a n d b u s i n e s s . T h e case o f J a p a n P l a t f o r m , a r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l case o f i n t e r - s e c t o r a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n e x a m i n e d i n c h a p t e r 3, i l l u s t r a t e s these i s sues , n a m e l y the g a p b e t w e e n l a r g e , a f f luen t N G O s a n d s m a l l e r ones , a n d b a l a n c i n g g o v e r n m e n t r e l i a n c e a n d a d v o c a c y f u n c t i o n . F i r s t , w h i l e N G O s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n J P F are a b l e t o o p e r a t e e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h a s s i s t ance f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t a n d b u s i n e s s e s , s m a l l e r a n d less o r g a n i z e d N G O s are left o u t o f the s y s t e m w i t h s a m e o l d p r o b l e m s . N G O s t h a t h a v e n o c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t he g o v e r n m e n t a re p u t at d i s a d v a n t a g e c o m p a r e d to t hose w h i c h h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the g o v e r n m e n t i n o n e w a y o r t he o the r . F u k i u r a T a d a m a s a , v i c e p r e s i d e n t o f the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A i d a n d R e l i e f J a p a n , a N G O e n g a g e d i n r e fugee r e l i e f efforts , p o i n t s o u t tha t o f f i c i a l d o m r e t a i n s s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e i n t he v o l u n t a r y sec tor , r a i s i n g the J a p a n O v e r s e a s C o o p e r a t i o n V o l u n t e e r s ( J O C V ) as a n e x a m p l e . 1 0 2 M a n a g e d w i t h t he O D A b u d g e t a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d b y J I C A , J O C V s e n d s J apanese y o u t h s to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t o e n g a g e t h e m i n v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s . S i n c e i ts i n c e p t i o n i n 1965, t he p r o g r a m h a s d i s p a t c h e d m o r e t h a n 20,000 v o l u n t e e r s i n t o t a l , w h i c h i s a p h e n o m e n a l n u m b e r fo r a s i n g l e v o l u n t e e r p r o g r a m i n J a p a n . H u m a n r e s o u r c e s m a n a g e m e n t o f J O C V is s u s t a i n e d b y a s o l i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l base to r e c r u i t a n d t r a i n a l a r g e n u m b e r o f v o l u n t e e r s e v e r y y e a r a n d p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h v a r i o u s f o r m s o f as s i s t ance . M e a n w h i l e , N G O s w i t h o u t s u c h o f f i c i a l t ies suf fe r f r o m l a c k o f f u n d s , l e g a l s ta tus a n d t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . S i m i l a r to J O C V , m e m b e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f J P F h a v e s o l i d f i n a n c i a l a n d p e r s o n n e l bases . W h i l e 4 0 % o f N G O s i n a 2001 J A N I C s u r v e y h a v e less t h a n ¥ 2 0 m i l l i o n o f a n n u a l r e v e n u e , J P F m e m b e r s b o a s t ¥ 4 2 7 7 m i l l i o n o n a v e r a g e . G o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s m a k e u p 25 .9% o f t he r e v e n u e o f a 1 0 2 "Puro to shiteno NGO wo Nihon ni sodateru hitsuyosei" [The necessity to nurture professional NGOs in Japan], Gaiko Forum (March 1997): 66-75. 69 J P F - a f f i l i a t e d N G O , w h i l e the f i g u r e is m u c h l o w e r at 1 0 . 1 % f o r N G O s at l a r g e . 1 0 3 T h i s " N o r t h - S o u t h " d i v i d e w i t h i n the N G O c o m m u n i t y c o u l d p u t t he o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h o s e a c t i v i t i e s d o n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h g o v e r n m e n t in te res t s at d i s a d v a n t a g e v i s - a - v i s t hose w h o s t a n d c l o s e r to t he a u t h o r i t y . S e c o n d l y , s o m e w h a t r e l a t e d to the f i r s t o n e , t he re is a n i s s u e o f h o w to b a l a n c e f i n a n c i a l d e p e n d e n c y o n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d N G O s ' a d v o c a c y f u n c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h o s e N G O s i n J P F . F o r J apanese N G O s , m o s t o f w h i c h a re o f s m a l l - a n d m e d i u m sca le , d e p e n d e n c e o n g o v e r n m e n t a n d b u s i n e s s f u n d s r u n s the r i s k o f l o s i n g t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e . It is p o s s i b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , f o r N G O s r e c e i v i n g a l a r g e a m o u n t o f f u n d s f r o m o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s to d r i f t f r o m p u r s u i n g t h e i r r o o t s a n d o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e o f ex i s t ence to m a n a g i n g c o n t r a c t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h o u t f a i l u r e . K u m a o k a M i c h i y a , a N G O o f f i c i a l f r o m the J a p a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V o l u n t e e r C e n t e r ( J V C ) sets a g u i d e l i n e f o r J a p a n e s e N G O s w h e n h e p o i n t e d o u t t ha t m a n y J apanese N G O s d o n o t h a v e c a p a c i t y to h a n d l e f u n d s o f ¥ 5 0 m i l l i o n to ¥ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n a n d tha t N G O s s h o u l d a c c e p t o n l y t w e n t y to t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f the a m o u n t t h e y c a n h a n d l e f r o m e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . 1 0 4 H o w to m a i n t a i n t h e i r a d v o c a c y f u n c t i o n i s a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n f o r m i n g p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t he g o v e r n m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n a c o n t r a c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . A s I a n S i m i l l i e a r g u e s , c o n t r a c t i n g b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t a n d N G O s i s " u s u a l l y a h e g e m o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h the w e a k e r p a r t n e r i s o b l i g e d to a c c e p t the p r a c t i c e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f the f u n d i n g a g e n c y . It i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o o f t e n b a s e d o n i n t e r f e r ence , c o n t a i n m e n t , m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d l i m i t a t i o n . " 1 0 5 T h i s i s s u e d r e w a t t e n t i o n o f m a n y N G O s w h e n t h e y w e r e f a c e d w i t h r e c o n s t r u c t i o n t a sks i n A f g h a n i s t a n a n d I r a q , f o l l o w i n g U . S . m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n s i n r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s . M a n y J apanese N G O s o p p o s e d the w a r s a n d the J a p a n e s e g o v e r n m e n t ' s s u p p o r t f o r the m i l i t a r y a c t i o n s . T h e y w e r e c r i t i c a l o f the w a r s t h e m s e l v e s a n d , m o r e o v e r , 1 0 3 JANIC, Directory of Japanese NGOs. 1 0 4 http://www.parc-jp.org/oda watch/index.html. 1 0 5 Ian Smillie and Henny Helmich, eds., Stakeholders: Government-NGO Partnerships for International Development (London: Earthscan Publications, 1999), 10. 70 o f the " p e a c e b u i l d i n g " a p p r o a c h e m p l o y e d b y the g o v e r n m e n t . T h e a p p r o a c h , t h e y m a i n t a i n e d , i s p a r t o f the g o v e r n m e n t ' s s t r a t e g y to p o l i t i c a l l y s u p p o r t t he U . S . - l e d w a r s a n d m o b i l i z e N G O s f o r t he r e c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k s i n the a f t e r m a t h . T h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the re fugee r e l i e f a n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n effor ts m e a n t s u p p o r t i n g the o f f i c i a l a p p r o a c h , w h i l e r e f u s i n g to d o so m e a n t t u r n i n g t h e i r b a c k o n p e o p l e w h o n e e d e d h e l p . M a n y N G O s t h u s p u t m u c h ef for t i n t o a d v o c a c y a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t t he w a r s a n d u s i n g O D A f u n d s f o r p e a c e b u i l d i n g w o r k s . I n the p o s t w a r I r a q , s o m e N G O s i n c l u d i n g J V C re fuses to r e c e i v e O D A f u n d s a n d c a r r i e s o u t h u m a n i t a r i a n a i d pro jec t s o n t h e i r o w n . W h e n c o n s i d e r i n g tha t the g o v e r n m e n t - N G O p a r t n e r s h i p i s l i k e l y to be s t r e n g t h e n e d i n the c o m i n g yea r s , h o w N G O s c a n m a i n t a i n a n a r m ' s l e n g t h f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e i r p a r t n e r s h i p b e c o m e s a n i m p o r t a n t i s sue . I n o r d e r fo r N G O s to r e m a i n a c r i t i c a l p a r t n e r , t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s n e e d to be s u p p o r t e d b y n o n o f f i c i a l f u n d s as m u c h as b y g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , as i m p o r t a n t as t he f i n a n c i a l a spec t a re the u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d s u p p o r t o f N G O s a n d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s o n the p a r t o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . P u b l i c a t t i t u d e to r e g a r d N G O s as g r o u p s o f b e n e v o l e n t v o l u n t e e r w o r k e r s i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t i n J apanese s o c i e t y a n d i t f a i l s t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r r o l e s i n v a r i o u s d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s sues . C o r p o r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to N G O s i n n o n - m o n e t a r y t e r m s p a r t i a l l y i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . B u s i n e s s s u p p o r t i s i n c r e a s i n g d u e to the t o p - d o w n i n i t i a t i v e s o f N i p p o n K e i d a n r e n a n d i t h a s m a d e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n s o m e o u t s t a n d i n g cases s u c h as J P F a n d J A H D S . O n the l o w e r l e v e l , h o w e v e r , c o r p o r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s are s t i l l i n s u f f i c i e n t . A s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 2, m a n y J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s h a v e i n t r o d u c e d s y s t e m s to e n c o u r a g e t h e i r e m p l o y e e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t i e s , r a n g i n g f r o m p a i d v o l u n t e e r h o l i d a y s to i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n o n a v a i l a b l e v o l u n t e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . D e s p i t e these a r r a n g e m e n t s , t he a c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f these s y s t e m s fares p o o r l y . A 2002 s u r v e y b y N i p p o n 71 K e i d a n r e n s h o w s tha t c o m p a n i e s tha t a c t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t the s y s t e m s a re m i n o r i t y . 65 .7% of o v e r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s r a i se " p r o m o t i o n o f e m p l o y e e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " a n d 62 .2% ra i s e " l e a d e r s h i p o f t o p e x e c u t i v e s " as m a j o r c h a l l e n g e s o v e r the n e x t t h r ee y e a r s . 1 0 6 I n o t h e r w o r d s , the s u r v e y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e tha t c o r p o r a t e s u p p o r t f o r v o l u n t e e r i s m is i n i t i a t e d f r o m a b o v e a n d t ha t i t h a s y e t to p r e v a i l at the l o w e r l e v e l s . O n the o t h e r h a n d , the i n t e r - s e c t o r a l p a r t n e r s h i p c o u l d a l s o b r i n g c h a l l e n g e s to M O F A a n d the g o v e r n m e n t at l a r g e f o r t ha t m a t t e r . F o r M O F A , w o r k i n g w i t h s m a l l e r - s c a l e , less o r g a n i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t ha t l a c k a c c o u n t a b i l i t y c o u l d d e c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y o f a i d m a n a g e m e n t . W h i l e m i n i s t r i e s a n d o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s a re r e q u i r e d to g u a r a n t e e tha t p r o g r a m o p e r a t i o n s m e e t c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n c l u d i n g f i n a n c i a l m a n a g e m e n t a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n , s o m e N G O s m a y h a v e d i f f i c u l t y i n m e e t i n g the s t a n d a r d s d u e to t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l w e a k n e s s e s . T h e o t h e r c h a l l e n g e i n c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h N G O s i s t ha t t he g o v e r n m e n t i s r e q u i r e d to be s e n s i t i v e to s o c i a l o r h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n c e r n s a n d a c c o m m o d a t e p u b l i c r eques t s tha t a re n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n the in t e re s t o f p o l i c y m a k e r s . T o the g o v e r n m e n t , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n is i n d e e d a d o u b l e - e d g e d s w o r d . I n c o r p o r a t i n g N G O s i n t o the O D A p r o g r a m c a n i n c r e a s e p u b l i c s u p p o r t a n d f i t w i t h g e n e r a l f o r e i g n p o l i c y g o a l s o n the o n e h a n d , b u t i t m a y i m p o s e r e s t r i c t i o n s o n spec i f i c p o l i c i e s o n the o the r . A s the cases o f A f g h a n i s t a n a n d I r a q i m p l y , t he m o r e M O F A s t r e n g t h e n s i t s c o o p e r a t i v e t ies w i t h N G O s , the m o r e the m i n i s t r y m a y be a f fec ted b y t h e i r a d v o c a c i e s . I n a s epa ra t e case, N G O a d v o c a c y p u s h e d J B I C to e s t a b l i s h i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s i n 2002 to be a p p l i e d to the b a n k ' s f i n a n c i a l o p e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d to O D A projec ts . P r e p a r a t i o n o f the g u i d e l i n e s w e n t u n d e r e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n p roces ses , i n w h i c h N G O s , a c a d e m i c s a n d i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s . 1 0 6 Nippon Keidanren, Synopsis of the Survey. 72 T h e s e i s sue s w i l l b e c o m e p r o m i n e n t as the p a r t n e r s h i p e v o l v e s a n d t h u s s h a l l b e the subjects o f f u t u r e s t u d y . 73 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A m e n o m o r i , T a k a y o s h i . " D e f i n i n g the N o n p r o f i t Sec to r : J a p a n . " Working Papers of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, n o . 15 , e d i t e d b y L . M . S a l a m o n a n d H . K . A n h e i r . B a l t i m o r e : T h e J o h n s H o p k i n s In s t i t u t e f o r P o l i c y S t u d i e s , 1993. A r a s e , D a v i d . Buying Power: The Political Economy of Japan's Foreign Aid. 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" O D A T a i k o m i n a o s h i n i k a n s u r u i k e n k o u k a n k a i " [ D i a l o g u e o n the r e v i s i o n o f the O D A C h a r t e r ] (28 A p r i l 2003). h t t p : / / w w w . n g o - j v c . n e t / j p / p r o j e c t s / a d v o c a c y / p r j 0 1 d e t a i l 0 2 . h t m l . J a p a n N G O C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n ( J A N I C ) . Directory of Japanese NGOs Concerned with International Cooperation. T o k y o : J A N I C , 2002. 74 K a n d a , H i r o s h i . " O D A k a i k a k u n i h a N G O n o r i k i r y o g a k a k a t t e i r u " [ O D A r e f o r m d e p e n d s o n N G O i n i t i a t i v e s ] , Gaiko Forum ( Ju ly 1999): 54-59. K a w a k a m i , T a k a o . " 2 1 s e i k i n i m u k e t a N i h o n n o enjo s e i s a k u " [ Japan ' s a i d p o l i c y t o w a r d the 2 1 s t c e n t u r y ] , Gaiko Forum ( M a r c h 1993): 4-15. K i h a t a , S h o s h i c h i . 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