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The staging of APEC Chartrand, Lise L. 2004

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THE STAGING OF APEC by L1SE L. C H A R T R A N D  B.A., Carleton University, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  M a s t e r o f A r t s in A s i a P a c i t l e P o l i c y S t u d i e s in  THE FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  (Institute o f A s i a n R e s e a r c h )  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 2004  © Lise L. Chartrand, 2004  Library Authorization  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Name of Author (please print)  Date (dd/mm/yyyy)  Title of Thesis:  Department  of  /(U Ui^Lufc^U ^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B C  Canada  t\^o-^  l^^jux^^A  Abstract  I n 1993, the A s i a - P a c i f i c E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n f o r u m ( A P E C ) h e l d the first A P E C E c o n o m i c L e a d e r s M e e t i n g ( A E L M ) . R a i s i n g A P E C interaction to the top track, the l e v e l o f leaders, p r o v e d to be a n effective and p o w e r f u l d y n a m i c ; the A E L M c o n t i n u e s to meet a n n u a l l y and to shape A P E C p o l i c y . T h e focus o n the A E L M as the source o f v i s i o n a n d d i r e c t i o n reinforces the p i v o t a l i m p o r t a n c e o f this p o l i t i c a l assemblage, reassures the p o p u l a c e that leaders do p r e v a i l and a l l i s w e l l : essential ingredients, a c c o r d i n g to C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , o f p o l i t i c a l theater. T h e role o f j o u r n a l i s t s , the c o n t e m p o r a r y scribes o r c r i t i c s , is to i n f o r m the audience o f this p o l i t i c a l d r a m a . T h e objective o f this research is to demonstrate that real p o l i t i c a l v a l u e exists i n the ' S t a g i n g o f A P E C i n terms o f effective e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l integration o f benefit to b r o a d r e g i o n a l interests. T h e f i n d i n g s d r a w o n the results o f a content a n a l y s i s o f n e w s reports c o v e r i n g the first s i x years o f the A E L M ( 1 9 9 3 - 1 9 9 8 ) .  F o r m a l l y , the A E L M is an  o p p o r t u n i t y for r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l leaders to engage i n r e g i o n a l p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n o u t l i n e d b y the p i l l a r s o f A P E C (trade l i b e r a l i z a t i o n , f a c i l i t a t i o n and cooperation) g u i d e d b y the p r i n c i p a l s o f o p e n r e g i o n a l i s m and concerted u n i l a t e r a l i s m . A c t i v i t y o n the formal, or m a i n stage, also f l o w s to the s m a l l stage w h e r e leaders merge i n a neutral venue. O n this stage, leaders are free to e x a m i n e d i s t i n c t l y n o n - e c o n o m i c , yet intersecting interests i n c l u d i n g d o m e s t i c agendas, h u m a n rights and p l u r i - l a t e r a l security concerns. T o g e t h e r , these d u a l stages, neither one c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t the other, f o r m the p o l i t i c a l theatre o f A P E C and p r o v i d e the v a l u e added for the leaders a n d u l t i m a t e l y for the A s i a - P a c i f i c r e g i o n .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  T a b l e o f Contents  iii  L i s t o f Illustrations  iv  CHAPTER  1 Introduction  CHAPTER 2  1  Methodology  6  C H A P T E R 3 A P E C as P o l i t i c a l Theatre  11  CHAPTER 4  The Architecture o f A P E C  22  CHAPTER 5  T h e M a i n and S m a l l Stages o f A P E C  29  CHAPTER 6  Conclusion  44  Bibliography  49  Appendix I  A P E C V e n u e s and M e m b e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n  68  A p p e n d i x II  A E L M S c h e d u l e and N e w s S e a r c h Dates, 1993-1998  70  A p p e n d i x III  L e x i s - N e x i s Sources b y Y e a r ( m o d i f i e d )  70  Appendix IV  L e x i s - N e x i s Sources b y Y e a r (selected)  71  Appendix V  1993: A E L M N e w s S a m p l e R e p o r t i n g R e s u l t s (%)  72  Appendix V I  1994: A E L M N e w s S a m p l e R e p o r t i n g R e s u l t s (%)  73  A p p e n d i x V I I 1995: A E L M N e w s S a m p l e R e p o r t i n g R e s u l t s (%)  74  A p p e n d i x V I I I 1996: A E L M N e w s S a m p l e R e p o r t i n g R e s u l t s (%)  75  Appendix I X  1997: A E L M N e w s S a m p l e R e p o r t i n g R e s u l t s (%)  76  Appendix X  1998: A E L M N e w s S a m p l e R e p o r t i n g Results (%)  77  iii  LIST O F I L L U S T R A T I O N S Lists 2.1  A E L M Statement T h e m e s ( M a i n Stage)  9  2.2  A E L M A u x i l i a r y C a t e g o r i e s ( S m a l l Stage)  9  Map 3.1  A E L M Members  13  Diagrams 3.1 3.2  T h e Theatre o f B a l i Theatre o f B a l i and A P E C E q u i v a l e n t s  19 19  3.3  T h e P o l i t i c a l Theatre o f A P E C  20  4.1 5.1  A P E C Architecture A E L M M a i n Stage C o n t e n t R e p o r t e d b y the Press, 1993-1998  23 30  5.2  S m a l l Stage C a t e g o r i e s R e p o r t e d b y the Press, 1993-1998  37  Tables  Graph 5.1  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M a i n and S m a l l Stage R e p o r t i n g  iv  29  Chapter 1  Introduction  In the n e w institutional o r d e r i n g o f A s i a , the A s i a - P a c i f i c E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n f o r u m ( A P E C ) , a diverse group o f P a c i f i c R i m e c o n o m i e s i n A s i a a n d the A m e r i c a s , advances a mandate to further c o m m o n e c o n o m i c interests. C e n t r a l to the a n n u a l c y c l e o f A P E C is a structured, yet i n f o r m a l , m e e t i n g o f leaders. E a c h A P E C E c o n o m i c L e a d e r s M e e t i n g ( A E L M ) c o n c l u d e s w i t h a L e a d e r s ' D e c l a r a t i o n that outlines p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s and shared c o m m i t m e n t s . These statements, rather than a f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k direct p o l i c y a n d a c t i v i t y . T h i s thesis e x a m i n e s A P E C f r o m the perspective o f p o l i t i c a l theatre. T h e objective is to demonstrate that p o l i t i c a l v a l u e exists i n this ' S t a g i n g o f A P E C i n terms o f r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c integration b e n e f i c i a l to the actors a n d the r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i e s . T h i s research reframes the u t i l i t y o f international fora t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the ' T h e a t r e o f A P E C and the role o f this entity i n p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n i n the r e g i o n . P o l i t i c a l theatre is a n e v o c a t i v e term. ' P o l i t i c a l ' suggests purpose a n d p o w e r w h i l e 'theatre' i m p l i e s d r a m a w i t h actors, sets and scripts. T o g e t h e r these w o r d s e v o k e strong i m a g e s ; perhaps the i d e a that p o l i t i c s is i n d e e d theatre o r that the stage m a y h a v e artistic a n d political value.  1  H e r e , the intention is to e x p l a i n the context o f p o l i t i c a l events; the interplay  o f aspiration, a c t i o n and result e n g a g i n g real p o l i t i c a l actors, rotating sets a n d i m p r o v i s e d scripts. S c h o l a r s o f p o l i t i c a l theatre, s u c h as J o s e p h E s h e r i c k and Jeffery W a s s e r s t r o m , state  The term political theatre was also used by cartographers in 16th century Europe. Terrarum (Latin for Theatre) was commonly used when naming maps; for example, the first atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World), was published in 1570 by Abraham (Melius. The new geography of Gerard Mercator joined the terms theatre and political - political theater. Political stems from Mercator's recognition of natural and political boundaries. 1  1  that institutional entities are ' " s t r u c t u r e s ' . . .ofpeople" (italics i n the o r i g i n a l ) . A l e x a n d e r 2  W e n d t adds that "Institutions are fundamentally c o g n i t i v e entities that d o not exist apart f r o m actors' ideas about h o w the w o r l d w o r k s " a n d " w h a t actors c o l l e c t i v e l y ' k n o w ' . "  The  essence o f A P E C is people - the leaders and their perceptions - a s s e m b l e d o n the center stage o f this annual p r o d u c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l theater. F r o m the outset, A P E C shunned the creation o f an institutional f r a m e w o r k w i t h the e n c r o a c h i n g procedures o f bureaucracy. I n c h o o s i n g to focus o n the l e v e l o f leaders rather than keepers, " A P E C presents an a n o m a l y . . . " a c c o r d i n g to Peter K a t z e n s t e i n that defies d e f i n i t i o n " w i t h categories d i s t i l l e d f r o m the E u r o p e a n e x p e r i e n c e . "  4  H o w is A P E C to be  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d ? Suzanne R u d o l p h , l i k e E s h e r i c k , W a s s e r s t r o m a n d K a t z e n s t e i n , turn to the w o r k o f C l i f f o r d G e e r t z and p o l i t i c a l theatre to e x p l a i n the role o f culture a n d society i n statehood.  5  D r a w i n g f r o m G e e r t z ' s famous e x a m p l e o f N e g a r a , K a t z e n s t e i n states that i n the  A s i a n context the p o l i t i c a l centre " w a s an a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g sense o f order, r i t u a l sovereignty [and] the result w a s c o m m o n s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l d o m a i n s tenuously related to the f o r m a l  Joseph W. Esherick and Jeffrey N . Wasserstrom, "Acting Out Democracy: Political Theatre in Modern China," Popular Protest & Political Culture in Modern China: Learning from 1989, eds. Jeffrey Wasserstrom and Elizabeth Perry (Boulder: Westview Press, Inc., 1992), 54. 2  Alexander Wendt, "Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Consequences of Power Politics," International Organisation 46, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 399. 3  Peter Katzenstein, "Introduction: Asian Regionalism in Comparative Perspective," in Network Power: Japan and Asia, eds. Peter Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997), 30. 4  Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, "Presidential Address: State Formation in Asia—Prolegomenon to a Comparative Study," The Journal of Asian Studies 46, no. 4 (Nov. 1987): 740.  5  2  c o n t r o l o f a p o l i t i c a l centre."  6  T h e s e h i e r a r c h i c a l structures, R u d o l p h notes, w e r e  " r e p l i c a t e d " i n C h i n a a n d Japan, w e l l b e y o n d N e g a r a a n d South-East A s i a .  7  E s h e r i c k and W a s s e r s t r o m add that G e e r t z "demonstrated the v a l u e o f interpreting p o l i t i c s i n theatrical terms, that is, s y m b o l - l a d e n performances w h o s e e f f i c a c y l i e s l a r g e l y i n their p o w e r to m o v e specific audiences."  T h u s A P E C and the A E L M m a y be better  understood i n terms o f A s i a n p o l i t i c a l theatre than W e s t e r n derivatives. I f A P E C is p o l i t i c a l theatre and the leader-actors are present at the p o l i t i c a l centre, where a n d w h o is the audience?  O u r spectators are the r e g i o n a l and, b y extension, g l o b a l p u b l i c , i n f o r m e d b y the  " c r o s s - c u t t i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n " o f the m e d i a c r i t i c s . A n a l y s i s o f a sample o f the press 9  reports points to the dual nature o f p o l i t i c a l theatre A P E C - s t y l e . P r e d i c t a b l y , the m e d i a details the top track l e a d e r - l e v e l interaction, the process o f A P E C and the products i n the f o r m o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t and A E L M o u t c o m e s (statements w i t h c o m m i t m e n t s ) - the m a i n stage o f A P E C . W h a t o f the significant r e p o r t i n g dedicated to offstage or behind-the-scenes a c t i v i t y that records bilateral and p l u r i - l a t e r a l meetings, the interplay o f personalities and the role o f f o r e i g n relations? These s e e m i n g l y separate interests, i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to shared m a i n stage c o n c e r n s , are - the s m a l l stage o f A P E C . Protests, demonstrations a n d other forms o f c i v i l s o c i e t y i n v o l v e m e n t ( T r a c k s T w o a n d Three) are also associated w i t h A P E C , p r o v i d i n g a separate fringe f e s t i v a l .  6  Katzenstein, "Asian Regionalism," 30.  Rudolph, "State Formation," 739-740. The author advises that such replication is more evocative than exact. The link to this discussion is the spread of ritualized hierarchical systems to other parts of Asia. 7  8  Esherick and Wasserstrom, "Acting Out Democracy," 32.  Diana C. Muntz and Paul S. Martin, "Facilitating Communication across Lines of Political Difference: The Role of Mass Media," American Political Science Review 95, no. 1 (Mar. 2001): 97-99, 111. The authors argue that a benefit of news media is "exposure to dissimilar views" (ibid., 99).  9  3  T h e t i m e p e r i o d under r e v i e w , 1 9 9 3 - 1 9 9 8 , begins w i t h the first A E L M m e e t i n g a n d encompasses the A s i a n f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s , the first r e g i o n a l A P E C c h a l l e n g e . T h e s e c o n d chapter describes the m e t h o d o l o g y used to s c r u t i n i z e the A E L M declarations a n d evaluate the content o f the selected press r e p o r t s .  10  T h e t h i r d chapter outlines the A E L M (early  A P E C ) phase a n d d e v e l o p s a m o d e l o f p o l i t i c a l theatre for A P E C d r a w n f r o m Negara, G e e r t z ' s a c c o u n t o f the B a l i n e s e c o u r t .  11  T h e fourth chapter r e v i e w s the d i s t i n c t architecture  o f A P E C that m e l d s a d i v e r s i t y o f m e m b e r traditions creating a m e c h a n i s m that supports the processes and products o f A P E C . C h a p t e r 5 h i g h l i g h t s the f i n d i n g s o f the n e w s content o f the m a i n a n d s m a l l stages o f A P E C as they a p p l y to the m o d e l o f p o l i t i c a l theatre.  The  c o n c l u s i o n c o m m e n t s o n the findings a n d suggests avenues for future research. T h i s a n a l y s i s is pertinent to t w o potential groups o f institutional readers. F o r those interested i n international organizations, the d i s c u s s i o n offers a perspective o n A P E C that scholars suggest i s m o r e w h o l l y A s i a n ; p o l i t i c a l theatre is distinct i n a p p r o a c h a n d ends f r o m E u r o p e a n entities. T h e scope o f this e x a m i n a t i o n is l i m i t e d to A P E C a n d i s not a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f W e s t e r n structures and f o r m a l i z e d institutions w i t h A s i a n counterparts that R u d o l p h finds l i m i t i n g .  A n A P E C m e m b e r m i g h t learn to c a p i t a l i z e o n the  small-stage r e p o r t i n g as an opportunity to insert i n f o r m a t i o n p r o m o t i n g a n a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n (e.g., the C a n a d i a n three p i l l a r s o f security, prosperity and values) or to c a l l other m e m b e r s , i n c l u d i n g a n A E L M host, accountable for i n i t i a t i v e s and c o m m i t m e n t s .  Fortunately, in this preliminary period, the A E L M statements are more pragmatic and less expansive than later A E L M statements. A n example of a lengthy A E L M statement is the declaration from the Shanghai meeting in 2001. 10  Clifford Geertz, Negara: The Theatre State of Nineteenth-Century Bali (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980). 11  4  T h e i n s i g h t that this analysis intends to p r o v i d e is a n awareness that p o l i t i c a l theatre applies to this r e g i o n a l cooperative group. S p e c i f i c gains m a y be d i f f i c u l t to quantify and scholars do question the naturalness o f A P E C as a r e g i o n ; yet the d e v e l o p m e n t o f this p o l i t i c a l theatre has generated o u t c o m e s (processes a n d products) e n a b l i n g c o l l e c t i v e results a n d v a l u e a d d e d i n terms o f fostering integration a n d c o o p e r a t i o n to the benefit o f the  12 m e m b e r e c o n o m i e s i n the A s i a - P a c i f i c r e g i o n .  T h e g u i d i n g questions o v e r the rest o f this thesis, thus, w i l l be: a.  W h a t m o d e l o f p o l i t i c a l theatre m a y be successfully a p p l i e d to the A E L M to g a i n i n s i g h t into the substance a n d processes o f the A E L M a n d to e x p l a i n its c o n n e c t i o n to the r e g i o n ?  b.  W h a t elements are used to create a n effective m e c h a n i s m that enables the ensemble (the A E L M as the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e ) to present c o n v i n c i n g theatre to the r e g i o n ?  c.  G u i d e d b y the parameters o f the p r i n c i p l e s and p i l l a r s o f A P E C , what does the A E L M , the p o l i t i c a l centre, express to the audience f r o m the m a i n and s m a l l stages?  Douglas Webber, "Two funerals and a Wedding? The ups and downs of regionalism in East Asia and AsiaPacific after the Asian Crisis," The Pacific Review 14, no. 3 (2001): 356. See also Ravenhill, McDuff, Krause, Gallant, Stubbs and Peng for comments on the characteristics and diversity of this region. Outside economics, value added is a popular, but nebulous term. In the context of this discussion, value added is a net positive gain, or enrichment that supplements, for example, A E L M leader relations. This enhancement indirectly benefits political, economic and social interaction. 12  5  Chapter 2  Methodology  T h e impetus for this r e v i e w arose f r o m t w o intersecting interests. T h e first w a s to e x a m i n e the content o f A P E C press reports.  T h e m e d i a represent the theatre r e v i e w e r s o f  1  the A E L M performances, c o n v e y i n g c r i t i c a l reports and i n f o r m a t i o n to the remote audience, or the p u b l i c . E x a m i n a t i o n o f the m e d i a coverage o f A s i a - P a c i f i c r e g i o n a l groups is not n e w . A n d r e w S z e n d e has w r i t t e n e x t e n s i v e l y o n the presentation o f A S E A N n e w s , w h i l e C o l i n B r o w n i n g has studied the A u s t r a l i a n press r e p o r t i n g o n A P E C .  2  direct c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the leaders, the p u b l i c a n d the press.  3  S h i n - Y a n L a i also m a k e s a T h e s e c o n d interest w a s to  use the m e d i a results to d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l o f A P E C as p o l i t i c a l theatre. T h e c h a l l e n g e w a s to l i n k the press content f i n d i n g s to the a c t i v i t y o f the A E L M as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l theatre.  4  Survey T i m e Frame T h e focus o f this study was the first f i v e years o f the A E L M ( 1 9 9 3 - 1 9 9 7 i n c l u s i v e ) w h e n the f o r u m m e e t i n g m o v e d to the l e v e l o f leaders. I n N o v e m b e r 1997, w h e n the A E L M met i n V a n c o u v e r , the extent and i m p a c t o f the A s i a n f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s were u n k n o w n . T h i s Initial questions also included the frequency, content and nature of the A P E C coverage in the print media.  1  Andrew Szende, From Torrent to Trickle: Managing the Flow of News in Southeast Asia, Research and Discussion Paper 58, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 1986; and Colin Browning, "The Australian Press and Reporting of A P E C : From Seoul to Osaka," Issues no. 11, Australian A P E C Study Centre, Monash University, Victoria, Dec. 1997. http://www.arts.monash.edu.au.  2  Lai states that "forward momentum is driven by the active participation of Leaders: this participation requires public support; public support in turn depends on people's awareness of A P E C ' s benefits; and this awareness is eventually shaped by a media that thrives on the dramatic and the sensational." Shin-Yuan Lai, " A P E C after Ten Years: Future Directions." Paper presented at the A P E C Centre Consortium Conference (APEC in Global and Regional Contexts), Auckland, New Zealand, 30 May - 2 June, 1999, 9. http://www2.auckland.ac.nz/apec/.  3  The use of news articles as unbiased reports and to address wide public interest has limitations. In Manufacturing Consent, Edward Herman and Norm Chompsky point to the dilemma of news sources. On the one hand, the "norm is a belief that freedom prevails" and news approaches the truth while on the other hand the action of successive filters ensures the news is "cleansed residue fit to print." Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988), 304,2.  4  6  i n i t i a l p e r i o d w a s extended to 1998 to i n c l u d e the A E L M response d u r i n g the 1998 m e e t i n g i n M a l a y s i a . T h e research f r a m e w o r k c o u l d , h o w e v e r , be extended to i n c l u d e later years and other c h a l l e n g e s the A P E C leaders have f a c e d .  5  Data Sources T o c o m p i l e the m e d i a or press report sample, the L e x i s - N e x i s database w a s selected as the sole n e w s source. T h i s data s e r v i c e has the qualities o f b e i n g b r o a d ( g e o g r a p h i c ) , deep (specific) a n d plentiful (quantity).  6  T o determine p u b l i c a t i o n dates, m e d i a sources a n d  r e g i o n a l patterns, the i n i t i a l L e x i s - N e x i s search w a s a dragnet o f any article r e s p o n d i n g to the t e r m " A P E C " at any t i m e i n the calendar year. T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f press reports i n d i c a t e d an A P E C - A E L M h i g h season.  7  D u r i n g the preparatory phase to a m e e t i n g , the v o l u m e steadily *  8  increases to d a i l y output d u r i n g the m e e t i n g f o l l o w e d b y a p r e c i p i t o u s d e c l i n e .  T o capture  this intense r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d , the database search p e r i o d w a s n a r r o w e d to three m o n t h s : O c t o b e r , N o v e m b e r and D e c e m b e r . T h i s t i m e frame overlaps w i t h the a n n u a l A E L M meetings s c h e d u l e d i n late N o v e m b e r .  9  U s i n g the search strings " A P E C , " " A P E C , L e a d e r s " a n d " A P E C , A E L M , " the search netted 2 6 1 5 press r e p o r t s .  10  E l i m i n a t i n g p e r i p h e r a l n o n - A P E C n e w s a n d d u p l i c a t e d reports  For example, the Millennium issues of Y 2 K in 1999 and terrorism in 2001.  5  The Lexis-Nexis database is flexible and comprehensive. The database can be tailored to a specific event or words and features a regional (Asia, North America and Europe) search function. The database was consistent in producing comparable results each time the same search string was used (within 1% error).  6  7  See Appendix II: A E L M Schedule and News Search Dates.  8  During the remainder of the year, media reports were sporadic.  9  See Appendix 1: A P E C Venues and Member Participation.  10  Multiple search strings for both title and text were used to amass the maximum body of results. 7  r e d u c e d the p o o l to 1866 a r t i c l e s .  11  T h e next step w a s to determine the consistent r e p o r t i n g  sources b y r e g i o n a n d n e w s agency w i t h p a r t i c u l a r attention to any disproportionate c o v e r a g e , i n o r d e r to balance the s a m p l e a m o n g A P E C m e m b e r s a n d g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s . T o select fifty representative articles per year, the final process i n v o l v e d r e v i e w i n g e a c h m e d i a report, s o r t i n g b y L e x i s - N e x i s r e g i o n , A P E C m e m b e r s h i p a n d m e d i a source. E d i t o r i a l s a n d substantive n e w s reports w e r e retained. A r t i c l e s r e l y i n g e x t e n s i v e l y o n partisan m e d i a or g o v e r n m e n t sources (e.g., X i n h u a N e w s A g e n c y or the U S State D e p a r t m e n t ) w e r e e l i m i n a t e d to a v o i d s k e w i n g o r o b s c u r i n g the results due to the s m a l l s a m p l e size. L e x i s - N e x i s is a c o m p r e h e n s i v e sole source for n e w s reports; the results, h o w e v e r , are l i m i t e d to p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the database. N o t i n c l u d e d are press reports i n other languages, or items targeted to l o c a l audiences, institutions o r c i v i l society groups. F u t u r e research m i g h t i n c l u d e print i n d e x resources, p e r i o d i c a l s a n d newsletters to supplement the s a m p l e or p r o v i d e a basis o f c o m p a r i s o n a n d the direct input o f j o u r n a l i s t s to a d d context. P r i n t M e d i a T h e m e s and A n a l y s i s E a c h A E L M m e e t i n g c o n c l u d e s w i t h the L e a d e r s ' D e c l a r a t i o n o r statement o u t l i n i n g p o l i c y a n d m u t u a l c o m m i t m e n t s i n a c o n c i s e , announceable f o r m a t .  13  These official  " See Appendix III: Lexis-Nexis Sources by Year (modified). Wire services account for the duplication of press reports. For meetings outside Asia, the use of wire services by Asian newspapers to cover the A P E C events was widespread and may reflect a reliance on external, cost-effective sources. The structure avoids focusing on Lexis-Nexis results from a particular region, for example North America (US) or Asia (China and Japan). The most prolific and voluminous news reports on the Lexis-Nexis database originated from China, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and the US. Selection was determined by breadth, length and date of the press report with the goal of striking a balance between Western and Asian reporting. In 1998, for example, the press reports, taken mainly from wire agencies, reflected the US and Malaysian positions with an equal amount of coverage. 12  The A E L M statements do not follow a specific, prescribed A P E C format and vary in style, length and, of course, content. From 1993-1996 inclusive, the statements share a similar construction. The 1997 A E L M 13  8  d o c u m e n t s , e m a n a t i n g d i r e c t l y f r o m the p o l i t i c a l centre, are the set-piece script o r c o n t r o l s i m i l a r to an independent v a r i a b l e . T h e n e w s articles are not dependent o n the L e a d e r s ' D e c l a r a t i o n per se a n d are regarded as c o e x i s t i n g elements or v a r i a b l e s . T h e A E L M Statement T h e m e s , o r m a i n stage a c t i v i t y , are the baseline for content a n a l y s i s , a n interface to assess the v e r a c i t y o f n e w s articles ( L i s t 2.1). O t h e r aspects o f the A E L M reported i n the press, i n d i c a t i o n o f the s m a l l stage, w e r e sorted into three categories ( L i s t 2.2). T h e content o f each article i n the press sample was c o d e d for m e n t i o n o f a main-stage A E L M theme or small-stage c a t e g o r y .  14  T h e results (frequency o f m e n t i o n a m o n g the s a m p l e for the year)  w e r e tabulated as p e r c e n t a g e s .  15  T h i s m e t h o d o l o g y y i e l d e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o v e r v i e w o f the  p u b l i c c o m m e n t a r y or audience response based o n the o f f i c i a l L e a d e r s ' D e c l a r a t i o n .  List 2.1  A E L M Statement Themes (Main Stage) 1. 2. 3. 4.  Principles and Mutuality of A P E C Trading Systems Economic Endeavors Agents and Targets  List 2.2  (variously defined, affirmed and reaffirmed) (global and regional trade liberalization) (facilitation and cooperation activities) (specific partners and recipients)  A E L M Auxiliary Categories (Small Stage) 1. Issues 2. Actors 3. Agendas  (economic, social, financial, Emerging Economies) (leader personalities, relationships) (foreign policy, side meetings)  In a d d i t i o n to the A E L M statements a n d the press content a n a l y s i s , reports p u b l i s h e d b y A P E C a n d g o v e r n m e n t officials, a n d a literature r e v i e w i n c l u d i n g A s i a n a n d W e s t e r n  statement is less precise, while the 1998 statement departs from the former collective, anonymous style to refer directly to specific members and initiatives undertaken. Each mention of an identified A E L M aspect of small-stage activity in a news report was assigned one point. An aspect repeated several times in the same article was counted once only. 14  Appendices V though X detail the distribution of reporting per year divided into the P r e - A E L M (lead-up) and the A E L M and Post-AELM phase. 15  9  perspectives, p r o v i d e i n v a l u a b l e b a c k g r o u n d r e g a r d i n g the rationale for the f o r m a t i o n o f A P E C a n d the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the A E L M .  F r o m this c o m m e n t a r y and the s u r v e y results,  insights into the A P E C process and the v a l u e o f the A E L M as a f o r u m for addressing r e g i o n a l issues w i t h i n a n d b e y o n d the stated e c o n o m i c agenda are enhanced.  10  Chapter 3  A P E C as P o l i t i c a l Theatre  T h e O r i g i n o f A P E C and the A E L M P r i o r to A P E C , p a n - A s i a n g o v e r n m e n t groups s u c h as A S E A N were e x c l u s i v e , n e i g h b o r h o o d associations. In APEC  and The Construction  of Pacific Rim  Regionalism,  J o h n R a v e n h i l l observes that the i d e a o f a w i d e r r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c a l l i a n c e w a s f a m i l i a r to a c a d e m i c s a n d government o f f i c i a l s . been d i s c o u r a g e d b y the U S .  2  1  E a r l i e r attempts to f o r m geographic associations h a d  B y 1989, w h i c h F a r h a n g Rajaee m a r k s as the e n d o f the C o l d  W a r a n d the rise o f g l o b a l i z a t i o n , a P a c i f i c R i m entity m a d e e c o n o m i c sense a n d U S o p p o s i t i o n w a s tempered b y the prospect o f m a r k e t o p p o r t u n i t y .  3  T h e i m p e t u s for the  f o r m a t i o n o f A P E C arose f r o m w i t h i n A s i a (Japan) and w i t h o u t ( A u s t r a l i a ) . R e g i o n a l trade c o o r d i n a t i o n c o u l d benefit Japan, the r e c e i v i n g market o f the r e g i o n . A S E A N m e m b e r s h i p (and its rewards) h a d r e m a i n e d c l o s e d to A u s t r a l i a .  4  P r u d e n c e and p r o x i m i t y suggested that  efforts to secure a strong e c o n o m i c f o o t h o l d w o u l d reap l o n g - t e r m benefits.  5  T o this strong  John Ravenhill, APEC and the Construction of Pacific Rim Regionalism (Cambridge: Cambridge Univensty  1  Press, 2001). In Asia Pacific, the US pursued a policy of bilateral relations and discouraged multilateral formations. For mple, the plan of Prime Minister Mahathir to initiate an East Asia Economic forum had faltered. exai  2  Rajaee provides a discussion of the impact of the events of the late 1980s, including the end of the Cold War that set the stage for change and globalization. The US was moving from the bilateral to a more multilateral approach to relations. Farhang Rajaee, Globalization on trial: The human condition and the information civilization (West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 2000).  3  James Lambert, a member of the 1997 A E L M drafting committee, provides a brief account of the origins and growth of A P E C before the financial crisis of 1997-1998. James M . Lambert, "Institution-Building in the Pacific - Canada in A P E C , " Pacific Affairs 70, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 195-202 and William Bodde, Jr., "Managing A P E C , " Whither APEC? The Progress to Date and the Agenda for the Future, ed. Fred C. Bergsten, Special Report 9, (Washington: Institute for International Economics: 1997), 212.  4  Discussion with trade officials, Embassy of Australia, Beijing, October 1983. If Asia was not a natural market by virtue of history and ethnic ties, Australians were unequivocal that Asia was their (i.e., not Canada's) market area. See Soesastro for comments on the need for Australia to fuse with the region. William Bodde relates that the Australian government initiative to poll interest among the Pacific economies found interest and reticence plus evidence that the Japanese were also exploring a similar framework.  5  11  c o n f l u e n c e o f interests, the success o f the P a c i f i c E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n C o u n c i l ( P E C C ) , a n i n f o r m a l s y s t e m o f n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l l i n k a g e s , m a y have encouraged r e g i o n a l i n i t i a t i v e s at the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l .  Soesastro proposes that A P E C w a s "created out o f a n e e d for m o r e  6  c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e g i o n a l d i a l o g u e than that afforded b y P E C C . . . g u i d e d b y the same p r i n c i p l e s that have enabled the P E C C to succeed i n its objectives: openness, e q u a l i t y and gradual e v o l u t i o n . " A l i A l a t a s s i m p l y states that A P E C , a h y b r i d o f A S E A N a n d P E C C , 7  was "an idea whose time had come."  8  S c h o l a r s a n d A P E C o f f i c i a l s trace the first p u b l i c e v i d e n c e o f A P E C to a speech d e l i v e r e d b y A u s t r a l i a n P r i m e M i n i s t e r H a w k e i n S o u t h K o r e a o n 13 January 1989. T h e f o l l o w i n g N o v e m b e r , t w e l v e ministers gathered i n A u s t r a l i a to discuss the f o r m a t i o n o f APEC.  9  Represented were the s i x m e m b e r s o f A S E A N p l u s A u s t r a l i a , C a n a d a , Japan, N e w  Z e a l a n d , S o u t h K o r e a , a n d the U S . Participants w e r e k n o w n as m e m b e r e c o n o m i e s , rather than states.  10  R o t a t i n g the annual r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for A P E C C h a i r b e t w e e n a n A S E A N and  n o n - A S E A N m e m b e r , the ministers c o n t i n u e d to f l e s h out the parameters o f this n e w institution.  11  F o l l o w i n g protracted p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g n a t i o n a l status, the  PECC was a loose regional grouping of academic, business and other interests developed to address common regional interests and concerns in trade, environment and associated areas. At the political level, policy would be driven by governments.  6  Hadi Soesastro, Indonesian Perspectives on APEC and Regional Cooperation Asia Pacific (Jakarta: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1994), 16. These principles are critical to the architecture of A P E C . 7  A l i Alatas, "Basic Principals, Objectives and Modalities of A P E C , " in Indonesian Perspectives on APEC and Regional Cooperation Asia Pacific, ed. Hadi Soesastro (Jakarta: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 1994), 24. 8  Ravenhill, APEC, 6. The ministers of foreign affairs and trade met in Canberra from 6-7 November 1989.  9  Soesastro, Indonesian Perspectives on APEC, 15. The members of A S E A N are Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. 10  " This A S E A N and non-ASEAN member rotation is a hallmark of A P E C . Subsequent meetings took place in Singapore (1990), Seoul (1991) and Bangkok (1992). For a complete schedule of meetings and member lists see Appendix I: A P E C Venues and Member Participation. See also Ravenhill, APEC, 104. 12  China's - China, Hong Kong and Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) - joined A P E C in 1991.  12  A low  budget A P E C secretariat was established in Singapore, relying on core staff and seconded officials and headed by William Bodde, an American.  13  On the eve of the first A E L M , a  total of fourteen economies were A P E C members. (Map 3.1) 14  A P E C Members ( A E L M  Map 3.1  North America  North Asia The China's  Canada United States  j  Japan Republicof Korea  """"]»  People's Republic of China Hong Kong Chinese Taipei  j „  »  #  *  AELM Political Centre .  ctji  ;  ASEAN  :  1993)  •  *  Branei Darussalam Indonesia Malaysia The Phillipines Singapore Thailand . -  A E L M Members Australia Brunei Darussalam Canada People's Republic of China Hong Kong Indonesia Republic of Korea Malaysia New Zealand The Philippines Chinese Taipei Thailand United States  Australasia  New Members: 1994; Chile, Mexico, Papua New Guinea 1998 Russia, Peru, Vietnam  Australia New Zealand  Third A P E C Ministerial Meeting, Joint Statement, 1991, para. 5. http://www.apecsec.org.sg/. Taiwan was to be called Chinese Taipei. Taiwan and Hong Kong could send representatives from lower levels (i.e., below the level of leader). This stipulation ensured the Premier of China and the President of Taiwan did not appear at the same venue. See also Roger Cliff, "Taiwan: In the Dragons Shadow," Asian Security Practice: Material and Ideational Influences, ed. Muthiah Alagappa (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 306-308. 12  Kenneth W. Abbott and Duncan Snidal, "Why States Act though Formal International Organizations," Journal of Conflict Resolution 42, no 1 (Feb. 1998): 4. The authors state that the start-up budget of A P E C was $2 million. 13  Members are neutrally deemed economies, rather than counties, thereby easing the participation of the Three China's - Mainland China, Hong Kong and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) thereby precluding the event as a summit or meeting of Heads of State or Government. Each year a different member undertakes the A P E C Chair and hosts the annual meeting. 14  13  In 1993 w h i l e the U S w a s A P E C C h a i r , W i l l i a m B o d d e w r i t e s that P r i m e M i n i s t e r K e a t i n g suggested to the n e w l y elected President C l i n t o n that the A P E C leaders be i n c l u d e d i n a n " i n f o r m a l s u m m i t m e e t i n g " to be h e l d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the a n n u a l A P E C M i n i s t e r i a l m e e t i n g s c h e d u l e d for 2 0 N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 3 .  1 5  A t the G r o u p o f E i g h t ( G 8 ) s u m m i t i n J u l y  1993, President C l i n t o n announced the b a c k i n g o f the U S a d m i n i s t r a t i o n for an A E L M meeting.  16  T h u s the A P E C E c o n o m i c L e a d e r s M e e t i n g w a s f o r m e d . T h e A E L M devotes at  least one d a y to a n i n f o r m a l , albeit h i g h l y orchestrated, d i s c u s s i o n that i n c l u d e s a l l attending leaders, o r a n alternate, w i t h n o aides present or notes taken. The "greatest i m p o r t a n c e " K r a u s e notes o f A P E C and the A E L M i s the " t o p - l e v e l p o l i t i c a l support a c h i e v e d b y the m e e t i n g i t s e l f . "  17  L e a d e r s change and n e w issues arise f r o m t i m e to t i m e a m o n g countries w i t h intense e c o n o m i c interactions. H a v i n g an i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g to m a k e p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s , to e x p l o r e issues, and to learn another perspective outside o f n e g o t i a t i o n i s o f i m m e n s e i m p o r t a n c e and v a l u e to leaders w h o tend to get i n s u l a t e d and caught u p i n p a r o c h i a l concerns.  1 8  Isolated a n d protected, the A E L M p r o v i d e s a w e l c o m e o p p o r t u n i t y for leaders to interact o n neutral g r o u n d . T h e A P E C f o r u m blends a d i v e r s e m e m b e r s h i p o f equals (at least i n theory) i n an a n n u a l event o f short d u r a t i o n (several days) a n d neutral agendas ( e c o n o m i c issues),  William Bodde, "Managing A P E C , " 213. This quote is an A P E C oxymoron; the A E L M was intended to be an informal meeting rather than a summit of leaders. Meeting and summit are used interchangeably in the literature and the press. 15  Soesastro, Indonesian Perspectives on APEC, 15. Given the status of the stalled Uruguay round, the prospect of a leaders venue signaled a probable regional initiative to address G A T T . 16  Lawrence B . Krause, "The Progress to Date and the Agenda for the Future: A Summary," in Whither APEC? The Progress to Date and the Agenda for the Future, ed. Fred C. Bergsten, Special Report 9, (Washington: Institute for International Economics: 1997), 244. Krause's use of the word negotiation may express his own bias or the thinking of the Institute for International Economics. 17  18  Ibid. 14  where leaders m a i n t a i n the i m a g e o f l e a d i n g o n the m a i n stage w i t h the f l e x i b i l i t y to address side issues (relations, security and h u m a n rights) o n the s m a l l stage. A P E C i n the International R e l a t i o n s F r a m e w o r k A P E C is a government-to-government entity w i t h the stated purpose o f furthering r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c interests. T o e x p l a i n , i n C o n s t r u c t i v i s t terms, each A P E C m e m b e r e c o n o m y b r i n g s their "social" identity to the r e a l m o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l .  19  A c c o r d i n g to  A m i t a v A c h a r y a , m e m b e r s h i p i n a f o r u m s u c h as A P E C has the potential to c o n t a i n and, u l t i m a t e l y , reshape state-centered b e h a v i o r .  I n the A P E C d i a l o g u e process, m e m b e r states  w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g identities assume roles: as statesmen representing i n d i v i d u a l interests and as actors together. T h u s , the theatre o f A P E C i s a stage to d e v e l o p a c o l l e c t i v e r e g i o n a l identity. W e n d t adds that " a g o o d part o f the ' a c t i o n ' i n r e a l - w o r l d c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n lies i n such symbolic w o r k . " driven."  2 1  A c h a r y a c o n c u r s . A P E C is "not j u s t interest d r i v e n but identity  2 2  T h e N e o - r e a l i s t s m a i n t a i n that state-to-state interaction is m o r e p r o d u c t i v e i n m a i n t a i n i n g the balance o f p o w e r . International f o r a exist to present identities rather than offering a n o p p o r t u n i t y to re-define o r amalgamate interests. A N e o - r e a l i s t A P E C m i g h t resemble a one r i n g c i r c u s o f major p o w e r s w i t h the other m e m b e r s off-stage.  Liberalism  bores d e e p l y into the m a t e r i a l benefits o f e c o n o m i c interdependence as a f o i l to e c o n o m i c  19  Alexander Wendt, "Collective Identity Formation and the International State," American Political Science  Review 88, no. 2 (June 1994): 385. Amitav Acharya, "International Relations Theory and Cross-Straits Relations," Paper from the International Forum on Peace and Security in the Taiwan Strait, Taipei Taiwan, 26-28 July 1999. http://taiwansecurity.org/ TSR-Papers-1999.htm  2 0  21  Wendt, "Collective Identity," 391.  2 2  Acharya, "Ideas," 343; and "International Relations Theory," 7. Acharya expresses optimism that the norms  of peaceful conduct and stability will evolve. 15  d i s r u p t i o n a n d e x p e n s i v e warfare. T h e potential for c o n f l i c t persists, a s i t u a t i o n u n l i k e l y to be undone b y the sudden b i r t h o f a capitalist C h i n a or w i d e - s p r e a d l i b e r a l d e m o c r a c y . I n part, the mandate o f A P E C is the p r o m o t i o n o f l i b e r a l p o l i c i e s , h o w e v e r , the A E L M  leaders  are o u t w a r d l o o k i n g a n d t r a d i n g b l o c adverse. T h e P o l i t i c a l Theatre o f A P E C T h i s section addresses the first o f the three questions that guide this thesis: W h a t m o d e l o f p o l i t i c a l theatre m a y be successfully a p p l i e d to the A E L M to g a i n insight into the substance and processes o f the A E L M and to e x p l a i n its c o n n e c t i o n to the r e g i o n ? T h e p o l i t i c a l theatre d e s c r i b e d b y G e e r t z i n Negara parallels A P E C as a f r a m e w o r k for m e a n i n g a n d u t i l i t y . A s R u d o l p h maintains, the traditions o f A s i a p o i n t to v i b r a n t and e n d u r i n g c o s m o l o g i e s where p o l i t i c a l theatre is a f a c t .  24  T h e argument for u s i n g N e g a r a as  a n a n a l y t i c t o o l to e x a m i n e government-to-government interactions is fit; a m o d e l that aids i n understanding the A E L M and the p o l i t i c a l v a l u e added. E s h e r i c k a n d W a s s e r s t r o m s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d the p o l i t i c a l theatre o f G e e r t z to e x a m i n e the 1989 student protests i n C h i n a . P o l i t i c a l theatre, they c l a i m , "expresses beliefs about the p r o p e r d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d i c  d i s p o s i t i o n o f p o w e r and other scarce resources."  T h u s , p o l i t i c a l theatre is important to  r a t i o n a l i z i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f authority i n a c o n t e x t u a l l y appropriate m a n n e r to an identified audience.  26  T o interpret the p e r f o r m a n c e , the audience leans o n learned beliefs  Richard Stubbs, "Asia-Pacific Regionalization and the Global Economy: A Third Form of Capitalism?" Asian Survey 35, no. 9 (Sept. 1995): 785-797. The author presents an insightful discussion of the forms of capitalism in Asia, Europe and North America. 23  24  Rudolph, "State Formation," 740-742.  2 5  Esherick and Wasserstrom, "Acting Out Democracy," 39.  26  Esherick and Wasserstrom state that "uncontrolled political theatre" presents a threat to leadership (ibid., 50). 16  a n d patterns, p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n the theatre confronts u n d e r l y i n g beliefs o r a f f i r m s k n o w l e d g e i n a n o v e l or i n v e n t i v e w a y .  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f Centers, Kings, and Charisma: Reflections of the Symbolics  of 27  Power, G e e r t z d r a w s o n c o l o r f u l , h i s t o r i c e x a m p l e s to illustrate t w o u n d e r l y i n g p o i n t s .  The  first c o n c e r n s the e n d u r i n g theme o f p o w e r . G e e r t z e x p l a i n s that a l t h o u g h " b o t h the structure a n d the expressions o f s o c i a l life change, the inner necessities that animate it d o not."  28  D i s m i s s i n g suggestions o f h i s t o r i c a l r e i n v e n t i o n (the past i s the present), G e e r t z  states that, then as n o w , " p o l i t i c a l authority s t i l l requires a c u l t u r a l frame i n w h i c h to define i t s e l f and advance its c l a i m s . "  2 9  P o l i t i c a l theatre p r o v i d e s this c u l t u r a l frame as a  " c o n c e p t u a l entity, not a h i s t o r i c o n e . "  30  T h e s e c o n d p o i n t expands o n the first. G e e r t z  31 urges us to " b e g i n w i t h the centre and w i t h the s y m b o l s and conceptions that p r e v a i l . . . " M o v i n g f r o m student protest to the A E L M , the actors are d r a w n f r o m countries as diverse as C h i n a , J a p a n a n d the U S w i t h equals as u n l i k e l y as B r u n e i a n d S i n g a p o r e l i f t i n g us to the r e a l m o f ultimate leadership a m o n g m o d e r n p o w e r s connected b y a c o m m o n o c e a n . W h a t i s theatre? F r o m the G r e e k d e f i n i t i o n o f d r a m a "to d o " and theatre "to see," F o r t i e r s h o w s that theatre c o m b i n e s d o i n g a n d seeing, c o n c l u d i n g that theatre, d r a m a a n d  In this essay Geertz uses Elizabethan pageantry, Indonesian cosmic ordering and the Moroccan "court-inmotion" to illustrate "the inherent sacredness of central power" and the means used to assert "symbolic possession" or, as he quotes Edward Shils, "being near the heart of things." Other country examples of political theatre cited by scholars include France, Spain, China and the US. Clifford Geertz, Local Knowledge (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1983), 137, 146, 125, 123.  2 7  1  Ibid., 143.  Ibid Hurrell comments that " A l l human societies rely on historical stories about themselves to legitimize notions of where they are and where they might be going." Andrew Hurrell, "Keeping history, law and political philosophy firmly within the English School," Review of International Studies 27 (2001): 493.  2 9  3 0  Geertz, Negara, 9.  31  Geertz, Local Knowledge, 143. 17  performance are related as " d r a m a i s a part o f theatre and theatre i s a part o f p e r f o r m a n c e . " P e r f o r m a n c e is defined as any f o r m o f h u m a n a c t i v i t y .  3 3  32  D r a w i n g o n G e e r t z , E s h e r i c k and  W a s s e r s t r o m define theatre as a " c u l t u r a l performance before a mass a u d i e n c e . "  34  Theatre  has, as d o a l l performances, a n audience o r p u b l i c a n d needs to be relevant ( c u l t u r a l l y specific) i n order to connect. V a l u a b l e insights into the fundamental i m p o r t a n c e o f p o l i t i c a l theatre m a y be g a i n e d f r o m a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f G e e r t z ' s w o r k o n t r a d i t i o n a l theatre i n nineteenth century B a l i n e s e society.  35  I n Negara, the author presents the c o m p o n e n t s o f p o l i t i c a l theatre i n B a l i n e s e  society. N e g a r a is the a x i s o f this " d o c t r i n e o f the e x e m p l a r y centre," representing the c o s m o s , w h e r e p o l i t i c a l p o w e r is situated - the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e .  36  T o a f f i r m that the centre is  the centre requires the use o f s y m b o l i c f o r m s to s i g n a l beliefs that are c u l t u r a l l y h e l d a n d appropriate.  37  O n the perimeter is the - C o m p l e x S o c i e t y - a n audience w e l l v e r s e d i n  Mark Fortier, Theory/Theatre (Routledge: London, 1997), 5-6. To see implies full comprehension (thinking and understanding) rather than mechanical looking or viewing. Theatre and drama are inter-related (ibid., 13).  3 2  3 3  Ibid., 12.  3 4  Esherick and Wasserstrom, "Acting Out Democracy," 39.  In a single sentence, Geertz explains the logic of this arrangement: "At the political centre of any complexly organized society (to narrow our focus to that) there are both a governing elite and a set of symbolic forms expressing the fact that it is in truth governing." Clifford Geertz, "Centers, Kings, and Charisma: Reflections on the Symbolics of Power," in Rites of Power: Symbolism, Ritual, and Politics since the Middle Ages, ed. Sean Wilentz (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985), 14. 3 5  Geertz, Negara, 13. At the centre of political theater in Bali, Geertz places Negara, a cosmos or political centre of inherent sacredness. Borrowed from Sanskrit, Geertz explains that negara is the locus of control, the modern day Blue House, Capitol Hill or Great Hall of the People, which he contrasts to desa, the hinterland and the ruled. Geertz defines "palace, capital, state, realm and town" as negara, the very center of "the system of superordinate political authority" while desa is the "countryside, region, village, place, dependency and governed area" that includes both the people and the place over which power extends (ibid., 4). Desa, is the realm, or the Complex Society. This group, in A P E C terms, is the citizens of the member economies.  3 6  Esherick and Wasserstrom provide numerous examples of the use of theatrical and political symbols during the Tiananmen protests including costumes, operatic inferences and funeral eulogies. Carried to extremes, the authors suggest that such theatre approaches "burlesque or farce rather than serious political drama." Esherick and Wasserstrom, "Acting Out Democracy," 48. 3 7  18  Dia. 3 i T h e Theatre State o f B a l i the r e c e p t i o n a n d interpretation o f s y m b o l i c messages. C o m p l e x Society T h e Theatre State o f B a l i ( D i a g r a m 3.1) i s a graphic y'  Symbolic Forms*" -., -  representation o f "the e x e m p l a r y centre" o f N e g a r a f r o m  / / Political \ \ \ \ Centre / \  the " . . .centre, a n d w i t h the s y m b o l s a n d c o n c e p t i o n s . . . " d i r e c t e d to the receptive audience o r the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y ; a concept o f theatre that R u d o l p h c o n c l u d e s is q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y A s i a n .  Adapted from Geertz, "Centres," 14.  I f the theatre o f authority is u n i v e r s a l , each A P E C m e m b e r i m p o r t s t h e i r respective b r a n d o f internal theatre - distinct perspectives, s y m b o l s , culture, t r a d i t i o n a n d h i s t o r y - to the s i n g l e stage o f the A E L M . T h e stage m a y be c r o w d e d a n d the actors d i v e r s e , h o w e v e r , this n e w l y - m i n t e d r e g i o n a l theatre has the potential to create u n i q u e s y m b o l s a n d rituals. The modus operandi o f A P E C draws f r o m A s i a n traditions.  Dia. 3.2  P o l i t i c a l Theatre a n d A P E C E q u i v a l e n t s Complex Society  E v i d e n t i s the consensual  »* A P E C Leaders S  1  approach.  39  L e s s c o n s p i c u o u s is the  SymboHeJPonns '*•..  •  p o l i t i c a l theatre, to f o r w a r d the "status q u o . "  4 0  Leaders Meeting A E L M Statement  • / Political \ \ • -I Jjl 1 I Centre i I \ \ / /  effort o f the central v e h i c l e o f  X  j  V l l l l V l t l  \  F r o m B a l i to A P E C ,  " "*  APEC forum  1 "  A P E C region  ***  the methods and the results endure as Adapted from Geertz, "Centres," 14.  3 8  Clifford Geertz, "Centers," 30.  39  K i m presents a discussion o f Confucian "social consensus." Y u n g - M y u n g K i m , ' " A s i a n - s t y l e D e m o c r a c y ' : A Critique from East A s i a , " Asian Survey 37, no. 12 (Dec. 1997): 1130. See also M i c h a e l A n t o l i k , ASEAN and the Diplomacy of Accommodation (London: M . E . Sharpe, Inc., 1990). 4 0  Jeffrey Wasserstrom, "Introduction," Student Protests in Twentieth-Century China (Stanford: Stanford  University Press, 1991), 3.  19  the Political Theatre - A P E C Equivalents diagram illustrates. (Diagram 3.2)  The symbolic  forms affirm governance (the centre is the centre) and provide ceremony demonstrating that the "measure o f the king's divinity" (status o f A P E C leaders) is "also a measure o f the realm's well-being" (regional cooperation) and "a demonstration that they were the same thing" (status and cooperation affirmed). complex society (the A P E C region).  42  41  This activity is set within the realm o f the  Esherick and Wasserstrom hold that deciphering  political theatre calls for "more attention to its symbolism than to the literal meaning o f its utterances."  43  The primary stage o f A P E C , the main stage, is the business o f A P E C communicated by the A E L M statements or Leaders' Declarations. The nearest absorbing A P E C audience is  Diagram 3 3  The Political Theatre of A P E C I"  APEC forum - A E L M  Main Stage  Small Stage  Pluri-lateral Initiatives  Geertz, Negara, 129. Geertz explains that leaders use Symbolic Forms to "justify their existence and order their actions in terms of a collection of stories, ceremonies, insignia, formalities and appurtenances that they have either inherited or, in more revolutionary situations, invented." Geertz, "Centers," 14. 41  One could argue that A P E C has an impact beyond the Asia-Pacific region. Indeed, coordination at this level also sets the stage for participation in the global marketplace. For the purposes of this model, the direct Complex Society is limited to the citizens of A P E C member economies.  4 2  4 3  Esherick and Wasserstrom, "Acting Out Democracy," 51.  20  the press corps. T h i s on-the-scene a u d i e n c e o f c o n v e n i e n c e also c h r o n i c l e s the p e r i p h e r a l a c t i v i t y o f the A E M o n the s m a l l stage. T h i s d u a l performance is essential to the w h o l e theatre. ( D i a g r a m 3.3) E a c h stage has distinct agendas or scripts, c o l l e c t i v e l y o n the m a i n stage and i n d i v i d u a l l y o n the s m a l l stage. T h u s , A P E C is a p o l i t i c a l , government-to-government entity w i t h a u n i q u e f r a m e w o r k that b l e n d s diverse c u l t u r a l styles o f authority o n a shared central stage. T h i s n e w p o l i t i c a l theatre is distinct f r o m the h i g h l y structured p o l i t i c a l theatre o f E u r o p e .  4 4  The  v a l u e added to the r e g i o n o f this entity, f r o m the perspective o f the m o d e l , i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o m m o n g r o u n d (a P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e ) w h e r e the leaders meet as equals to c o n s i d e r m u t u a l interests, thereby m i t i g a t i n g potential fallout a m o n g the larger p l a y e r s ( C h i n a , the U S and Japan) and f a l l i n g a w a y o f less p o w e r f u l . T o g e t h e r the centre is stronger. E q u a l l y the m o d e l extends o u r v i e w o f the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e b e y o n d the A E L M into the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y , the nexus o f endorsement.  W i t h o u t the s y m b o l s to f i x the attention o f the  audience and sustain their belief, the A E L M is " f u l l o f sound and fury a n d s i g n i f y i n g nothing."  4 5  The design of A P E C is deliberate and was not intended to grow into a variant of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) despite the stated interests of the Eminent Persons Group (EPG) and some A P E C members. See Bergsten, Bodde and Ravenhill for a discussion of the EPG and US ar Australian interests.  4 4  4 5  Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act V , Scene V . 21  Chapter 4  The Architecture o f A P E C  A P E C , a c c o r d i n g to A l a t a s , e m b o d i e s " b o t h bright prospects and real constraints."  1  T o f l o u r i s h i n the m u l t i l a t e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f A P E C , the P o l i t i c a l Centre requires a f r a m e w o r k that generates an aura o f c r e d i b i l i t y , shares authority, facilitates internal interaction a n d projects, t h o u g h the use o f s y m b o l i c f o r m s , g l i m p s e s that sustain audience interest a n d respect.  2  T h i s chapter addresses the s e c o n d question o f this thesis:  W h a t elements are used to create a n effective m e c h a n i s m that enables the ensemble (the A E L M as the P o l i t i c a l Centre) to present c o n v i n c i n g theatre to the r e g i o n ? Soesastro states that the k e y a i m s o f A P E C "are to encourage r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g ( i n c l u d i n g J a p a n a n d the U n i t e d States i n this process), to avert s u b - r e g i o n a l trade w a r s and p r o t e c t i o n i s m , a n d to stimulate trade c r e a t i o n . "  F a i l u r e to i m p l e m e n t a p r a g m a t i c  m e c h a n i s m to steer b e y o n d these cross-currents is c o s t l y i n terms o f t i m e a n d resources, and threatens to forfeit authority, l o s i n g the attention (and necessary engagement) o f the C o m p l e x Society. T h e f o l l o w i n g table s u m m a r i z e s a n u m b e r o f the specific d e s i g n elements o f A P E C : the c h o i c e o f p i l l a r s and p r i n c i p l e s , the m o d u s o p e r a n d i featuring m o b i l e venues a n d a lean Secretariat, and the p r i m a r y A E L M product, the L e a d e r s ' D e c l a r a t i o n . ( T a b l e 4.1) T h e purpose o f o u t l i n i n g these elements is to p o i n t to the p o s i t i v e aspects o f this c o n s t r u c t i o n and suggest h o w the d r a w b a c k s i m p a c t o n the o p e r a t i o n and effectiveness o f the P o l i t i c a l Centre.  ' A l i Alatas, "Basic Principles," 26. These comments refer to the conservative perspective of A S E A N members regarding A P E C , however, the benefits and challenges also apply to A P E C as an entity. The A E L M is, according to Hurrell's typology, a multilateral organization that incorporates economies (members) on different playing fields with a pragmatic approach to institution building and bureaucracy. Andrew Hurrell, "Explaining the Resurgence of Regionalism in World Politics," Review of International Studies 21 (1995): 332.). Acharya adds that A P E C has a "distinctive approach to multilateralism." Acharya, "Ideas," 340. 2  3  Soesastro, Indonesian Perspectives, 16.  22  T h i s assessment, h o w e v e r brief, p r o v i d e s insights into the process, the products and the challenges o f the A E L M . Table 4.1  A P E C Architecture  Aspect Pillars  Character Trade Liberalization Facilitation and Cooperation  Principles  Open Regionalism Concerted Unilateralism  Advisory  Consensus-driven Incremental Inclusive Eminent Persons Group  Mobile Venues  Court-in-motion  Secretariat  Small, seconded staff from member governments  Products  Leaders' Declaration Host and post-host legacy  Modus Operandi (Asian)  Pros/Cons Plus - broad; reaches membership at differing stages of capacity and development, acknowledges diversity Minus - problematic to balance to satisfaction of all members moving forward, pillars may be incongruent Plus - creative means to gain G A T T / W T O consistent products Minus - subject to member abuse (voluntarism), may revert to minimal G A T T / W T O guidelines Plus - acceptable to Asian members, 360 degree viewpoint Minus - less well understood by non-Asian members, assumes the pace of slower or more reticent members, assumes trust Plus - independent body with mandate provide A P E C vision Minus - status not assured, voice may be ignored, role can be misinterpreted and body dissolved Plus - fair (all members have a turn), opportunity to inject new ideas and perspectives (reigning Chair of the Political Centre) Minus - driven by host agendas and style, potential to realign pillars, lack of follow-up on previous commitments Plus - cost effective, role too minor to overtake or interfere in broad scheme of A E L M Minus - impact of alternating host agendas, staff turnover, lack resources to undertake complex and long-term tasks Plus - presents leaders as leading, opportunity to raise agendas, new pledges or commitments Minus - dual pressure of new announceables and previous commitments . .  The A P E C Secretariat was briefly mentioned in Chapter 3. The aspect important to this discussion is the plan to initiate a small (manageable) Secretariat supportive of the A E L M interests. While the Secretariat might grow over time, the role would not dwarf the A E L M as the principal policy source (and force). a  A P E C , p r i m a r i l y a v e h i c l e for e c o n o m i c c o o r d i n a t i o n , p r o v i d e s " c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o v e r a g e " i n the f o r m o f three p i l l a r s : c o o p e r a t i o n , f a c i l i t a t i o n a n d trade l i b e r a l i z a t i o n .  4  The  p i l l a r s appear i n n o c u o u s and supportive o f the ultimate objective o f r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h . I n reality, the p i l l a r s are d i f f i c u l t to balance. T r a d e l i b e r a l i z a t i o n is desired b y the The first succinct objectives and an indication of the focused efforts to follow are outlined in the 1994 A E L M Statement. The pillars of the Bogor Declaration are sustainable development, equitable economies and national security. Tiziana Bonapace, "Multilateralsim and Regionalism: Enhancing Integration of Developing Countires into the Multilateral Trading System thorugh Regionalism," United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, 2001), 6. http://www.unescap.org/itia/publication/ chaptl_2161.pdf.  4  23  d e v e l o p e d e c o n o m i e s w h i l e c o o p e r a t i o n a n d f a c i l i t a t i o n i s sought b y the i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g members.  5  T h e d i v e r s i t y o f m e m b e r s goes b e y o n d the "stark d i s p a r i t i e s " o f e c o n o m i c  d e v e l o p m e n t , t e c h n o l o g y i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n a n d c o m p a r a t i v e advantage to u n c o v e r v e r y distinct approaches to market b e h a v i o r .  6  Indeed, one m i g h t q u e s t i o n h o w the p i l l a r s c o u l d fit  together. T r a d e l i b e r a l i z a t i o n is l o n g - t e r m , goal-oriented. C o o p e r a t i o n and, to a n extent, f a c i l i t a t i o n , are p r a c t i c a l steps that u l t i m a t e l y support l i b e r a l i z a t i o n . A t t e m p t i n g to address 7  these p i l l a r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , w i t h o u t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e strategy runs a r i s k o f a c h i e v i n g one, perhaps t w o , or none at a l l . T h e p i l l a r s o f A P E C are the final goalposts; the p r i n c i p l e s g u i d e the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e to the end. R a v e n h i l l e x p l a i n s that A P E C has adopted " a unique a p p r o a c h to r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n " u s i n g the t w o g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f . . .open r e g i o n a l i s m and c o n c e r t e d u n i l a t e r a l i s m . " O p e n r e g i o n a l i s m extends trade c o n c e s s i o n s (e.g., t a r i f f 8  The industrialized members, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the U S , sought tariff changes and labor access in the developing economies. The majority of A S E A N members were focused on the pillar of facilitation and cooperation to strengthen their economic base and to secure market access. Individually members also sought to maintain a comfort zone: none surrendering protected sectors (e.g., agriculture) or threatening infant industry protection and import substitution programs.  5  Alatas, "Basic Principles," 25. To be avoided are "heightened competition and friction instead of the desired harmony and greater mutual advantage" (ibid.,). Referring to Katzenstein in Network Power, Peng states that "Katzenstein argues that Asian Regionalism is characterized by market dynamism rather than by formal political institutions." Peng describes the diversity of "informal integration" (i.e., non-treaty) as market driven, private sponsor, network based, non-institutional. Outsiders would encounter (or at least anticipate) barriers to entry. In the West, formal institutions serve to bolster markets. Peng also notes the unequal economic base and development in East Asia and presents a discussion of the three stages of economic development highlighted by technology intensification drawn from Kaname (1962). Dajin Peng, "The Changing Nature of East Asia as an Economic Region." Pacific Affairs 73, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 173, 177.  6  The roles of A P E C are trade (the liberalization and facilitation pillars) and development (cooperation pillar) focused. The cooperation and facilitation pillars not only appeal to the developing members, they are the priority. Ultimately, through trade cooperation programs, the developed members pay. Michael Malley, APEC Where do we go from here? (Jakarta: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 1995), 43-44. These interests are reflected in the 1996 A E L M statement when Ramos put sustainable and equitable development at the top the agenda. See Xinhua News Agency, "Results to be substantial, sustainable: Manila declaration," 25 Nov. 1996; and Japan Economic Newswire, "Gist of A P E C leaders' joint declaration," 25 Nov. 1996. Ravenhill stresses the distinctive nature of A P E C ' s open regionalism. Ravenhill, APEC, 6, 140.  7  8  24  preferences) a m o n g m e m b e r s ( w i t h i n a r e g i o n ) to n o n - m e m b e r s ( o n a M o s t F a v o r e d N a t i o n basis).  9  T h e s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e o f A P E C , concerted u n i l a t e r a l i s m , specifies that l i b e r a l i z a t i o n  is self-determined (voluntary) and n o n - f o r m a l (e.g., n o n - t r e a t y ) .  10  These p r i n c i p a l s are  c l a s s i c A P E C - e s e d e s c r i b i n g the u n d e r l y i n g v a l u e s o f consensus, constructive a m b i g u i t y , trust a n d peer pressure s p e a k i n g v o l u m e s o f the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e .  11  For  m e m b e r s not versed i n A S E A N - s t y l e consensus and/or a c c u s t o m e d to rules-based interaction (or s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l to c i r c u m v e n t rules), P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n requires stepping  12 into a n e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h distinct d e c i s i o n m a k i n g n o r m s a n d rationality.  Ravenhill, APEC, 54. Ravenhill explains that regionalism is the step before globalization. The process does not discriminate (ibid., 140). Open regionalism is an expression used by the study group of Japanese Prime Minister Ohira in 1979 to differentiate from closed systems.  9  Yoichi Funabashi discusses the role of Tony Miller. Tony Miller, Trade Secretary in Hong Kong, coined the phrase concerted unilateralism to specify that members would voluntarily decide what was to be liberalized. The principle of concerted and voluntary efforts operates on the basis of mutual trust (negotiation) versus the rules-based (arbitration) process of G A T T / W T O contrasting the non-discriminatory unilateral approach with processes grounded in reciprocity. Unlike G A T T and the WTO, A P E C has adopted the concerted unilateralism thereby circumventing legally binding agreements. The anathema of A P E C for negotiated agreements explains why the push of the EPG in this direction met with minimal success. Snape adds that the process, in manner, is recognizably G A T T / W T O consistent. When the Bogor Declaration was timetabled, the parameters were G A T T / W T O consistent. Ravenhill points out that the US had nothing to offer to the A E L M economies beyond the Uruguay round commitments, thus liberalization would accrue to the US but would not be reciprocated. See Yoichi Funabashi, Asia Pacific Fusion: Japan's Role in APEC, Washington: Institute for International Economics, 1995; Richard H . Snape, NAFTA, the Americas, AFTA and CER: Reinforcement or Competition for APEC? Pacific Economic Paper 254, Australia-Japan Research Centre, Canberra, 1996; Ravenhill, APEC, 96; and Bonapace, "Multilateralsim and Regionalism," U N E S C A P . 10  ' Ravenhill suggests the controls work to encourage positive demonstration in order to waylay the fear of bypassing an opportunity. Thus the lack of definition, or constructive ambiguity, is workable when coupled with cohesive (or coercive) group socialization or pressure. However, Shin-Yuan Lai observes that A P E C is frustrated by "the low level of trust among member economies." See Ravenhill, APEC, 124, 160; and ShinYuan Lai, " A P E C after Ten Years," 5. 1  Coyle presents an elegant discussion linking culture to decision making. Acharya traces A P E C decisionmaking norms to the ' A S E A N way' modeled on the inclusive, consensual and leader orchestrated mechanisms found in Javanese villages. Expanding on Caporaso's basis of economic multilateralism as "nondiscrimination" Acharya adds directness, reciprocity and compromise where outright agreement is not attainable. Abandoning the procedural frameworks that drive other multilateral bodies, the A E L M sets cruise control at the pace of slower or more reticent members. See Dennis J. Coyle, " A Cultural Theory of Organizations," in Culture Matters; Essays in honor of Aaron Wildavsky, eds. Richard J. Ellis and Michael Thompson, 59-79. Bolder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1997; and Acharya, "Ideas," 340, 325. 12  25  The d e m i s e o f the E m i n e n t P e r s o n s G r o u p ( E P G ) illustrates the consequences o f a failure to heed the A E L M n o r m s a n d the w i l l o f the p o l i t i c a l centre to assert c o n t r o l a n d default to A s i a n c o m f o r t zones. C r e a t e d i n 1992, the E P G w a s c h a r g e d w i t h "the  *  13  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to 'enunciate a v i s i o n for trade i n the A s i a P a c i f i c R e g i o n ' . "  * Focusing on  the trade l i b e r a l i z a t i o n p i l l a r o f A P E C , the group overshot the a d v i s o r y r o l e p u s h i n g fast a n d far b e y o n d o p e n r e g i o n a l i s m i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e c o m m u n i t y e n v i r o n m e n t to "negotiated reciprocity."  14  R a v e n h i l l w r y l y notes that the E P G reports f o u n d f a v o r w i t h the " c o n v e r t e d , "  w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f the A s i a n m e m b e r s suspected the g r o u p w a s a h a n d m a i d e n o f U S interests.  15  A c c o r d i n g l y , d u r i n g the O s a k a A E L M i n 1996, the E P G w a s p o l i t e l y t h a n k e d  and s u m m a r i l y d i s s o l v e d . T h u s , i n the Theatre o f A P E C , the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e c a n c e l l e d a fringe p l a y that c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the m a i n stage event. G u i d e d b y p r i n c i p l e s o f o p e n r e g i o n a l i s m a n d concerted u n i l a t e r a l i s m , the processes o f A P E C and the products are, as K e l s e y outlines, i n t e r r e l a t e d .  16  The approach  feeds into the process p r o d u c i n g the products that a g a i n i n v i g o r a t e the process. T h e p r i n c i p l e s serve to script the p o l i t i c a l centre i m p o s i n g parameters that shape the f i n a l products (the A E L M Statement) w h i l e the o p e r a t i n g style directs the process. H o w e v e r , it is  Ravenhill, APEC, 166. The EPG was an Australian initiative borrowed from similar Commonwealth groups with members drawn from business and academia with one government official. The group was created at the 1992 meeting in Bangkok and headed by Fred Bergsten, an American. 13  14  Ravenhill, APEC, 130.  Ravenhill, APEC, 205. Certainly, the EPG was shortsighted to focus on explicit, rather than implicit, gains and to overlook real economic status and need. Two thirds of the A P E C members were listed on the HDI ranking for developing countries in 1993. HDI Index 2002, http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002. 15  Jane Kelsey, "Whither A P E C ? " in Pepper in Our Eyes, ed. Wesley W. Pue (Vancouver: U B C Press, 2000) The processes include: the A P E C forum, the A E L M consultation process leading to the statement on the main stage and the activity on the margins of the small stage while the products are the A E L M statements and implementation of the agenda and action items. From the text Kelsey explains that the method (process) and outcome (products) are closely interlinked stemming from the approach of A P E C . 16  26  "the designated A P E C host for a p a r t i c u l a r y e a r ' s s u m m i t w h o takes o n the b u l k o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the agenda, c o o r d i n a t i o n o f satellite w o r k s h o p s and meetings o f ministers and officials."  17  T h e annual m e e t i n g is a m o b i l e venue e n a b l i n g the A E L M to (re)define the r e a l m i n a n e w l o c a t i o n a n d to ( r e ) a f i i r m u n i t y . T h e M o r o c c a n " c o u r t - i n - m o t i o n " fosters e q u a l opportunity-to-direct.  T h e A P E C C h a i r o f the next year m a y elect to b u i l d o n the p r e v i o u s  agenda - a n e w scene i n the same act - or r e p l a y a former act or w r i t e an entire n e w s c r i p t .  19  A t best, the process encourages fresh ideas and i n n o v a t i v e directions; at worst, the result i s p r o g r e s s i v e r e g i o n a l surgery. W i t h o u t a p l a n for c u m u l a t i v e gains and c o n s i s t e n c y , the cost is h i g h : u n c o o r d i n a t e d effort, o n g o i n g r e a l i g n m e n t o f the p i l l a r s , n e g l i g i b l e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y for 90  p r e v i o u s c o m m i t m e n t s and, m o s t serious o f a l l , failure to lead.  B a l a n c i n g enthusiasm and  expectations i s a challenge. K r a u s e w a r n s that: "...there is the danger in the decision-making summit conception because it may not be possible to pull a rabbit out o f the hat every year because important issues may not be ripe for decision. This forces the bureaucracy that plans the meeting to make mountains from molehills, thereby losing credibility for the entire exercise. This dangerous tendency can be overcome by emphasizing the networking and personal chemistry aspects o f the meeting." 2 1  Nicole Gallant and Richard Stubbs, " A P E C ' s Dilemmas: Institution-Building around the Pacific Rim," Pacific Journal 70, no. 2 (1997): 213. 17  ' Geertz, "Centers"25-26. 8  For example, Suharto was dedicated to creating a legacy meeting in 1994. The Bogor Declaration is a document with more emphasis on ends - the time-frame of free and open trade liberalization ~ than means. The long time frame of the 2010/20 declaration, sixteen years to twenty-six years, acknowledged the nascent A E L M partnership and the diverse capacity among members. 19  A n example when the court in motion failed is the proposition of M A P A from the 1996 meeting that was a retooled version of I AP from the year before.  2 0  21  Krause, "Progress to Date" 244.  27  I f the m a i n stage is dependent o n the c o l l e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n o f the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e , the " n e t w o r k i n g " potential is the v e r y stuff o f the s m a l l stage, v a l u e added to A P E C t h r o u g h the A E L M process.  22  T o return to A l a t a s ' s measured o p t i m i s m ; the v a l u e added o f the structure o f the A E L M is the schedule o f annual meetings and the o p p o r t u n i t y to address issues a n d to m o v e r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n ahead. T h e r o t a t i o n o f hosts p r o v i d e s structure and delegates r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h out an established central authority, consensus is a p o w e r f u l a n d u n i f y i n g t o o l . E a c h leader has the r i g h t a n d the o p p o r t u n i t y to v o i c e a d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n and to be heard. A g r e e m e n t is p o o l e d and d e c i s i o n s m a d e b y the A E L M as a group are u p h e l d (at least i n p r i n c i p l e ) . L e g i t i m a c y obtains to the leaders as a group. I n d i v i d u a l l y , the leaders g a i n p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d c o l l e c t i v e exposure. The result o f this focus o n process, the effort to balance i n i t i a t i v e and products w i t h c o m f o r t l e v e l s and w i l l , m a y i m p e d e f o r w a r d m o m e n t u m . T h e agenda is s u f f i c i e n t l y s a n i t i z e d ( e c o n o m i c ) to s k i r t contentious areas (security or d o m e s t i c affairs) o n the m a i n stage. T h e rules are f e w . T h e i n v i s i b l e processes b e h i n d the stage; the year o f p l a n n i n g , leader c o n s u l t a t i o n , drafting and f i n a l i z a t i o n o f the A E L M Statement a n d the press releases enhance the s m o o t h p r o d u c t i o n . T h e product o f the A E L M , the statement, enables the leaders to c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h their audience.  Information confirmed during discussion with a former Trudeau spokesperson (July 2003). While leaders know of each other, it cannot be assumed they actually know each other well or have experience working together. 23  28  Chapter 5  C o m m u n i c a t i o n to the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y  E f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l theatre seeks to c o m m u n i c a t e . R e c e p t i o n o f messages c l o s e s the l o o p a n d validates the performance. E a r l i e r chapters set the A E L M i n the context o f p o l i t i c a l theatre m o d e l e d f r o m G e e r t z a n d r e v i e w e d specific aspects o f the architecture o f the A E L M . T h i s chapter e x a m i n e s the t h i r d q u e s t i o n o f this thesis: G u i d e d b y the parameters o f the p r i n c i p l e s a n d p i l l a r s o f A P E C , w h a t does the A E L M , the p o l i t i c a l centre, express to the audience f r o m the m a i n a n d s m a l l stages? The m e d i a has p r o v e n to be an insightful audience-elect p r o v i d i n g a w e a l t h o f c o m m e n t a r y and d e t a i l . T h e s u r v e y f i n d i n g s indicate a j o i n t focus o n the business o f the m a i n stage a n d the adjacent interaction o n the s m a l l s t a g e . ' ( G r a p h 5.1) In a d d i t i o n , the press reports also i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c e r e m o n i a l aspects o f this d r a m a . Graph 5.1  2  D u r i n g the p e r i o d under  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M a i n a n d S m a l l Stage R e p o r t i n g  Main Stage • Small Stage  1993  1994  1995  1996  1997  1998  A E L M Meeting by Year  r e v i e w , the m a i n a n d s m a l l stages share a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l attention. T h e average, o f a l l r e p o r t i n g c o l l e c t e d i n this sample, is 56.6 percent o n the m a i n stage a n d 4 5 . 4 percent o n the ' The percentage distribution for main and small stages reporting respectively is: 1993 (59.8, 40.2), 1994 (49.3, 50.7), 1995 (66, 34), 1996 (67.4, 32.6), 1997 (49, 51) and 1998 (47.9, 52.1). The isolation of the leaders due to extreme congestion during the Subic Bay meeting in 1996 explains the lack of small stage details. The poor small stage coverage during the Osaka meeting in 1995 may have other explanations including composition of the media sample, press preference for the main stage or lack of accessible small stage information. These observations are noted later in this chapter. The details are briefly mentioned later in this chapter.  29  s m a l l stage. T h i s clear d i v i s i o n indicates audience interest i n the c o m p l e t e s p e c t r u m o f o u t c o m e s . T h e f u l l d r a m a is the s u m o f these stages, each c o n t r i b u t i n g to the success o f the p o l i t i c a l theatre. M a i n Stage T h e a n a l y s i s o f the m a i n stage r e p o r t i n g is based o n the content o f the A E L M D e c l a r a t i o n s . T h i s d o c u m e n t c o n c l u d e s e a c h m e e t i n g and attempts to incorporate v i s i o n , goals a n d a c t i v i t i e s i n order to p r o v i d e p o l i c y guidance to A P E C . A c a r e f u l l y crafted product o f l e a d e r - l e v e l d e l i b e r a t i o n (and months o f behind-the-scenes p l a n n i n g ) , the content is d i v i s i b l e into four theme areas: E n t i t y , T r a d i n g S y s t e m s , E c o n o m i c E n d e a v o r s , and A g e n t s and Targets.  T h e leaders m a y intend to c o n v e y a n a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g v i s i o n , h o w e v e r , the  3  press choose to f o c u s . ( T a b l e 5 . 1 ) E a c h and e v e r y year, the press select t r a d i n g systems as the r a i s o n d'etre or the m a i n p l a y b i l l . T h e spotlight is f i x e d o n trade l i b e r a l i z a t i o n . S e c o n d Table 5.1  A E L M Main Stage Content Reported by the Press, 1993-1998  Year APEC Host APEC as Entity Trading Systems GATT/WTO Regional Economic Endeavors Agents/Targets  1993 US Affirm APEC  1994 Indonesia  1995 Japan Define APEC  1996 Philippines  2010 2  2010 20 IAP  :uiu .'0 MAPA'IAP  1997 Canada  1998 Malaysia Reaffirm APEC  wm  GA1T  2010/20 MAI'A Facilitation ALLM Stmt  b i l l i n g goes to E c o n o m i c E n d e a v o r s , the c o o p e r a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t i o n p i l l a r s .  ^iilO .-0 Financial Crisis  Third, and  defiantly last is the p e r i o d i c a f f i r m a t i o n and r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f A P E C as a n E n t i t y t h r o u g h the A E L M .  3  4  T h e least coverage is g i v e n to A g e n t s and Targets, the a c t i v i t y l e v e l o f A P E C .  These broad theme areas are itemized in Chapter 2, List 1. See also Appendices V to X for detailed results.  30  5  Failure to communicate all three pillars suggests a disconnect at the Political Centre intercepted by the Complex Society. Perhaps the press is predisposed to choose trading as the primary focus of the A E L M , more interesting to report, or is prescient — trade liberalization is the true underlying interest. The pillars, in combination, are flawed. Trade liberalization is the long-term goal achieved after cooperation and technical assistance have brought all members to the same point of readiness. Have the cooperation and facilitation pillars been added to appease the Emerging Economies? The press coverage touches on this point indirectly. The developing economies cited a need for technical and cooperation enhancement before they could liberalize; the more developed countries focused on liberalization as the primary goal. This lack of integration is well played out in the press, amounting to a North-South issue. At the level of the audience, the A E L M vision is one 6  pillar and two camps. The press results indicate the A E L M charted a more consistent course in advancing general aims. Two examples occur when the A E L M indicated the capacity to present a united front and advance regional interests: the Uruguay Round and the establishment of the Bogor 2010/20 goals.  The purpose behind the Seattle meeting was the conclusion of the  Given the nascent state of the A E L M during the years under review, establishing and realigning broad objectives would be required as momentum built and membership expanded.  4  The agenda of the original Vancouver meeting was to address social issues and programs. Although the meeting agenda was hijacked by the financial crisis, pages of detail were included in the A E L M statement, duly reported by the press. 5  The question is who pays. The developing countries sought cooperation in exchange for trade benefits. See Mitsuhiko Morimoto, "Osaka A P E C made progress toward WTO trade goals," Daily Yomiuri, 24 Nov. 1995. Morimoto writes of the "different stance between the United States... and the Asian developing countries" with the US "keen to hasten" liberalization while others are "reluctant to be forced." Prime Minister Mahathir also expressed reservations concerning the route he believed A P E C was taking. See Agence France Press, "Malaysia irks Indonesia and other friends over the v-word at A P E C , " 17 Nov. 1995; United Press International, "Mahathir has reservations on A P E C , " 23 Nov. 1996; and Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Malaysia to raise concerns of small states over free trade at A P E C , " 22 Nov. 1996. 6  31  1986-1994 U r u g u a y R o u n d  7  T h e P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e responded p o s i t i v e l y a n d d e c i s i v e l y . T h e  A E L M sent a strong, fresh s i g n a l to E u r o p e s u p p o r t i n g an early c o n c l u s i o n . T h e P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e a m p l y i n d i c a t e d that internal c o o p e r a t i o n c o u l d be a c h i e v e d w h e n the result l a y outside the r e g i o n . T h e s e c o n d e x a m p l e is the success o f the A E L M i n o b t a i n i n g b r o a d consensus w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h respect to the t i m e frame for trade l i b e r a l i z a t i o n . T h e B o g o r 2 0 1 0 / 2 0 goals w e r e spearheaded b y Suharto i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to host a watershed m e e t i n g .  9  C o n s e n s u s p r e v a i l e d o v e r i n i t i a l reserve l e a d i n g to a d i l u t e d " 1 7 p l u s o n e " agreement e n d o r s i n g the trade l i b e r a l i z a t i o n t i m e f r a m e .  10  A l t h o u g h support w i t h i n the centre v a r i e d ,  the group a c h i e v e d c o o r d i n a t i o n . W i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l centre T h e A E L M w a s successful i n terms o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g b r o a d p o l i c y objectives. D o e s the press express the same c o n f i d e n c e that the A E L M c o u l d declare and d e l i v e r ? D o e s a c t i o n f o l l o w statements demonstrating real results? A l a s , press analysts do not track c o m m i t m e n t s throughout the year. A E L M r e p o r t i n g is i m m e d i a t e , leaders are  According to President Clinton the American strategy was to combine the N A F T A and A P E C vote. Progress would be stymied if government subsidies remained an issue and if France was successful in reopening the Blair House Agreement. See David Einstein, "Summit in Seattle - Clinton backed on trade," San Francisco Chronicle, 20 Nov. 1993; and Mickey Kantor, " F T exporter," Financial Times (London), 13 Oct. 1993. 7  John Ravenhill, " A P E C Adrift: Implications for Economic Regionalism in Asia and the Pacific," Pacific Review 13, no. 2 (2000): 324. To the Uruguay Round, Ravenhill adds the example of the A E L M preparation for the Information Technology agreement signed at the Singapore Ministerial Meeting of the W T O in December 1996. 324. 8  See Japan Economic Newswire, "Japan wants A P E C to omit free trade area from statement," 1 Nov. 1994; and Keiji Urakami, " A P E C leaders unite behind 2020 free trade target date," Japan Economic Newswire, 15 Nov. 1994.  9  Yang Razali Kassim, "Timetable achieved but many gaps remain," Business Times (Singapore), 16 Nov. 1994. The holdout member was Malaysia. Japan expressed concerns prior to the A E L M . Thailand and Malaysia submitted separate post-AELM observations. 10  32  either preparing to occupy or holding centre stage. Nor do the leaders make the subsequent AELM an opportunity for substantive follow-up on earlier commitments. Either the press is disinterested and/or there is little substance to report. Lai suggests that detailed responses and complex plans are not appropriate at the level of leader.  12  Policy formation is a political  process and implementation is administrative. The Political Centre delegates detail.  13  Given the lean design of the APEC Secretariat, the unique design along Asian norms and the new group dynamic of the AELM members, tackling an issue together could have sent a strong signal to the Complex Society — the Political Centre is visible and engaged. Customs harmonization is a prime example. Sticky border issues are neither elegant nor easy, but are essential to the facilitation of trade.  14  Alternatively, the AELM could have  taken up the issue of currency regulation, or any of the other financial issues mentioned in successive AELM statements. While it is unlikely that addressing an aspect of the financial sector would have mitigated the underlying need for structural adjustments, tackling a real issue could have built expertise, experience and familiarity in preparation for the unforeseen: the financial crisis and the events of 11 September 2001. " The data base search included all articles in a calendar year. The results were uneven. Geertz makes the point that the draw of the political centre tended to increase with proximity and decrease with distance: the vortex diminishing to a ripple as the political centre moved on. 12  Lai, " A P E C after Ten Years," 9.  Suharto was explicit that the specifics (details) and divining the 2010/20 framework were the responsibility of the next host (Japan). The 2010/20 goals were a message to the business community and a plan of action for government ministers. See Yang Razali Kassim, "Timetable achieved but many gaps remain," Business Times (Singapore), 16 Nov. 1994; Keiji Urakami, " A P E C leaders united behind 2020 free trade target date," Japan Economic Newswire, 15 Nov. 1994; and Kwan Weng Kin, "Japan's crucial task is to draw up 'road map',"Daily Yomiuri, 16 Nov. 1995. 13  Customs harmonization is a foundation for trade liberalization. The priority of customs harmonization was raised in the 1994 Leaders' Declaration, incorporated into the 1995 document (with IAPs), mentioned again in 1996 with reference to a schedule effective 1998, and, in 1997, cited as a model of achievement with implementation in 2000. This was slow progress. The Emerging Economies sought support to fast-track and implement harmonization. Many of the developing members had existing aid commitments and were unwilling to commit more. The problem is Who pays? 14  33  T h e f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s is the first major r e g i o n a l challenge, presenting a genuine o p e n i n g to the P o l i t i c a l Centre to demonstrate strength and "restore c o n f i d e n c e . "  15  T h e press offer  insights into the d y n a m i c s o f the p o l i t i c a l centre: palatable d i s m a y , r e s i t t i n g agendas and a s c r a m b l e for damage c o n t r o l .  1 6  D e s p i t e the p r o x i m i t y o f the c r i s i s , w i t h i n the C o m p l e x  S o c i e t y , a n d threat to c o n t i n u e d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , the A E L M d i d not r a l l y as a r e g i o n .  1 7  The  A s i a n F u n d , suggested b y the Japanese, w a s not p r o m o t e d , nor w a s a r e g i o n a l i n i t i a t i v e  18 a l i g n e d w i t h the International F i n a n c i a l Institutions (IFIs).  E x p l a n a t i o n s i n c l u d e the  o b j e c t i o n o f the U S , a reticence to o p e n d o m e s t i c affairs to other A E L M m e m b e r s a n d a preference to elect an external I F I (e.g., the International M o n e t a r y F u n d ) to p u s h h a r d for significant a n d d o m e s t i c a l l y u n p o p u l a r structural adjustments. A t the l e v e l o f m e m b e r p o l i t i c s the reporting was f u l s o m e .  19  Press references to the  sensitive sectors offer g l i m p s e s o f the A E L M i n dress rehearsal. A g o o d e x a m p l e is the d u a l d i l e m m a J a p a n faced as host to the O s a k a A E L M .  O n the one hand, as the A E L M host, the  Antonio Kamiya, " A P E C leaders toast to advent o f Pacific community'," Japan Economic Newswire, 20 Nov. 1993. See also Maria Hawthorne, "Can: Howard pushes domestic agenda at A P E C , " APP Newsfeed, 28 Nov. 1997; and the British Broadcasting Corporation, "Thai foreign minister leaves for A P E C meetings, agenda changed," 24 Nov. 1997 15  The financial crisis eclipsed the original agenda. See David Israelson, " A P E C leaders were too glib Asian turmoil cause for concern despite assurance analysis," Toronto Star, 26 Nov. 1997; David L . Marcus, " A P E C leaders pledge economic rescue work; but annual meeting ends on grave note, with Asian markets plunging," Boston Globe, 26 Nov. 1997; and New Straits Times (Malaysia), "The week that was," 1 Dec. 1997. 16  Higgott presents a balanced discussion of the financial crisis, the options for intervention and the role of the IMF and the US. Richard Higgott, "The political economy of globalization in East Asia: The salience of 'region building'," Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific: Contested Territories, eds. Kris Olds and others (London: Routledge, 1999). 17  See Yoichi Kosukegawa, " A P E C week to start in Vancouver, seeking stable market," Japan Economic Newswire, 19 Nov. 1997. Bergsten adds to the discussion of the role of the IFIs and the missed potentail for an Asian Monetary Fund. Fred C. Bergsten, The New Asian Challenge, Working Paper 4, Institute for International Economics, Washington, March 2000. 18  This result is not unexpected; the majority of press reports are drawn from member economies. See Appendix II and III. 19  34  Japanese were promoting the Individual A c t i o n Plans, an ingenious response to the Bogor 2010/20  plan. O n the other hand, Japan represented national dissension in the domestic  agricultural faction. This example amply illustrates the dual dilemma the Japanese faced as hosts o f a regional entity and representatives of national interests. Press reporting on the main stage indicates a strong interest in the Political Centre. While the pillars vary in height, the leaders do use the A E L M Statement to outline current policy and commitments. The Leaders' Declarations are closely followed and extensively reported to the Complex Society. The A P E C Chair assumes a significant role in determining direction, progressive or regressive.  The audience is aware that members have different  priorities, and have gained an increasing awareness of Emerging Economy issues. The A E L M , distinct in design and predicated on A s i a n norms, is effective as a regional body. The audience perceives that the Political Centre works well when required to present a unified front or to make broad future-oriented decisions. The A E L M is less effective in crisis mode, presenting a wavering image o f leadership. While the press does not track commitments, they seek confirmation o f results. The onus is on the Political Centre to provide this evidence. Failure to control and to animate commitments raises doubt and, more fatally, erodes credibility over time.  Mainichi Daily News, " A P E C leaders reaffirm support for Osaka Action Agenda," 20 Nov. 1995; British Broadcasting Corporation, "Regional issues; Tokyo to offer 10 billion yen for trade liberalization," 16 Nov. 1995; Japan Economic Newswire, "Developing economies concerned over rising cost of yen," 19 Nov. 1995; and Inter Press Service, "Energy: Indonesia to follow A P E C code on liberalizing trade," 6 Dec. 1995. Veering away from vulnerable sectors, Japan proposed other initiatives including Partners for Progress to soften the situation on agriculture and other special or sensitive sectors. Partners for Progress featured investment liberalization and facilitation projects totaling 10 B Yen ($98.5 M US at 1995 exchange rates). Historical Daily Currency Exchange Rate, accessed July 2003, http://www.jeico.com/ cnc57jpn.html. The 1996 Manila Plan of Action ( M A P A ) separated country responsibilities (IAPs) from regional endeavors. While adding perspective to the complexity of balancing a diverse membership, M A P A was a retooled version of the IAP. The press was lukewarm to skeptical, suggesting the "burden of proof is tangible results. Agence France Presse, "Business panel lauds gains of A P E C summit," 26 Nov. 1996. 21  35  T h e S m a l l Stage S c h o l a r s a n d j o u r n a l i s t s propose that the v a l u e o f the A E L M s h o u l d not be measured 99  s o l e l y o n the basis o f processes and products.  T h e A E L M venue also p r o v i d e s a s i g n i f i c a n t  o p p o r t u n i t y for leaders to meet i n f o r m a l l y o n the m a r g i n s , or the s m a l l stage, unfettered b y the p r o t o c o l and the parameters o f a state v i s i t . " . . . [ M ] o r e than a n y t h i n g else, the A P E C meetings d r a m a t i z e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s advances i n size and scope. A t t i m e s the conference r e s e m b l e d a three-ring c i r c u s , and it became a f o r u m for m u c h m o r e than just international trade i s s u e s . . . .there w e r e p r o b a b l y as m a n y top l e v e l d i p l o m a t i c meetings as u s u a l l y take p l a c e i n A s i a i n a year." Why  23  do the m e m b e r s o f the p o l i t i c a l centre seek e a c h other out? W h a t is discussed? O v e r  the s i x - y e a r p e r i o d o f this press r e v i e w , the m e d i a d e v o t e d considerable attention to this facet o f the A E L M .  2 4  In contrast to the m a i n stage o f o f f i c i a l agendas and scripts, the c o e x i s t i n g  s m a l l stage r e p o r t i n g focuses o n the distinct relationships and issues b e t w e e n m e m b e r s .  The  style here is i m p r o v . In tandem, these stages e x p a n d audience perspective o f the A E L M . T h e v a l u e added is clear, a " m u c h broader r e g i o n a l d y n a m i c is i n v o l v e d i n A P E C 9S  than free trade. P r o b l e m s c a n get s o l v e d at leaders' m e e t i n g s . "  Such problems include  gains b e t w e e n m e m b e r s attainable o n the s m a l l stage that i n turn strengthen the p o l i t i c a l centre. S m a l l stage r e p o r t i n g is d i v i s i b l e into three categories: Issues, P e r s o n a l i t i e s and  Ravenhill, Krause, Gallant and Stubbs. The play on the acronym of A P E C ~ A Perfect Excuse to Chat or Aging Politicians Expecting Cocktails - is insightful. The truth may be more literal than the wits intend, the opportunity for exchange at the Political Centre where leaders are equals is significant value added. 23  Asiaweek, "Summits; and now; what?; A P E C leaders get a good start," 23 Nov. 1994.  24  The percentage of small stage reporting is 43.6%. See Chapter 5, Graph 1.  Lincoln Wright, " A P E C ' s future 'problematic'; South-east Asia's financial crisis threatens trade liberalization, constructive diplomacy," Canberra Times, 18 Oct. 1998.  2 5  36  Agendas.  ( T a b l e 5.2) O n the s m a l l stage there are fewer constraints o n the leaders a n d o n  the press. T h u s , the leaders are free to act o n personal agendas; interests that m a y p a r a l l e l , o r Table 5.2  Small Stage Categories Reported by the Press, 1993-1998  Year APEC Host Agendas Meetings Foreign Policy/Chinas Issues Financial Crisis (1997) Emerging Economies Protests ( C i v i l ) Personalities Leaders as Actors  1993  US  1994 Indonesia  1995 Japan  X  X  X  1998 Malaysia  \  X X  \  X  IBIlilll  \  b  b  1997 Canada  X  a  a  1996 Philippines  X  X  X  X  Civil society participation reported in the press includes the People's Summit, Anti-APEC protest groups, Non-Government groups (NGOs) and specific activists. The divide between the developing and newly industrialized members is well noted in the press.  d i v e r g e , from the m a i n stage. T h e m e d i a c r i t i c s are e q u a l l y free to interpret a n d critique these s m a l l p l a y s as isolated acts o r as separate scenes o f the m a i n performance.  W h a t does  the press t e l l the audience?  T h e p r i m a r y focus i s leader-to-leader interaction: the bilateral  a n d p l u r i - l a t e r a l meetings.  S e c o n d , the press target real events, for e x a m p l e , the f i n a n c i a l  c r i s i s . T h e substantive nature o f this coverage suggests that the press c o n t i n u e to seek e v i d e n c e o f leadership o n the s m a l l stage. T h e leaders are s t i l l l i n k e d to the P o l i t i c a l Centre. A g e n d a s : B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s , P l u r i - l a t e r a l S e c u r i t y and F o r e i g n P o l i c y C a t e g o r i e s raised o n the s m a l l stage i n c l u d e bilateral relations, security a n d h u m a n rights; o s t e n s i b l y issues outside the p u r v i e w o f the A E L M and A P E C . I n 1993, the leaders d i d not hesitate: "[h]Heads o f state raced about d o w n t o w n Seattle for b r i e f one-on-one sessions."  97  *  •  •  •  B i l a t e r a l interaction i s not necessarily d i v o r c e d f r o m e c o n o m i c s ; this stage i s  These broad theme areas are itemized in Chapter 2, List 2. See also Appendices V to X for detailed results. Among the leaders that use the press to signal the Complex Society, other A E L M members and Europe, the premier expert was Prime Minster Mahathir. 2 7  Edward Epstein and Viae Kershner, "Summit notebook," San Francisco Chronicle, 20 Nov. 1993.  37  rife w i t h m a i n stage issues. F o r e x a m p l e , the reported purpose o f the C h i n e s e - U S bilateral m e e t i n g i n 1993 w a s to address "deteriorating r e l a t i o n s . "  B y the next year, relations h a d  sufficiently r e c o v e r e d for P r e m i e r J i a n g Z e m i n to offer h i s support o f the B o g o r 2 0 1 0 / 2 0 goals i n e x c h a n g e for a U S bilateral a l l i a n c e s u p p o r t i n g C h i n a ' s G A T T a p p l i c a t i o n .  29  A sub-  current o f trade issues runs through the s m a l l stage i n c l u d i n g M o s t F a v o r e d N a t i o n status, agriculture (a v e r y sensitive sector) and the a d m i s s i o n o f T a i w a n to G A T T . added o f the s m a l l stage is the o p p o r t u n i t y for leaders to flesh out A E L M  The value  issues  independently and i n the presence o f the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y . R e g i o n a l security issues were strictly p r o h i b i t e d f r o m the A E L M agenda w i t h o p p o s i t i o n registered b y Japan, C h i n a , a n d A u s t r a l i a p l u s the A S E A N m e m b e r s .  31  D i s c u s s i o n o f the security matters o f absent, n o n - m e m b e r countries is p e r m i s s i b l e . N o r t h K o r e a w a s the subject o f pluri-lateral meetings i n Seattle and B o g o r . C h i n a , Japan, S o u t h K o r e a a n d the U S met to r e v i e w the f o r m a t i o n o f a n international c o n s o r t i u m to replace outdated reactors i n N o r t h K o r e a , press for i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the O c t o b e r 8  t h  Geneva  Premier Jiang is reported to have focused on non-interference in internal affairs, a hallmark of A S E A N while the US raised the issue of human rights and M F N treatment, North Korea and technology sales. See British Broadcasting Corporation, '"Wen Wei Po', reviews 'far-reaching significance' of Clinton-Zemin meeting," 23 Nov. 1993; and Leon Hadar, " A P E C - what's in it for Washington?" Business Times (Singapore), 13 Oct. 1993. The application is concluded during the 1996 meeting when A P E C foreign ministers sign joint statements of support. See Deutsche Presse-Agentur, " A P E C leaders greeted by protesters before Philippine summit," 24 Nov. 1996; and Straits Times (Singapore), "Ramos all for admitting China, Taiwan into WT O, " 14 Nov. 1996. 2 9  For comments on the "politically sensitive rice market" in Japan see Louise Lucas, " A P E C leaders pledge to meet again next year," South China Morning Post, 22 Nov. 1993; and Japan Economic Newswire, "Japan wants A P E C to omit free trade area from statement," 1 Nov. 1994. 3 0  China was at pains to point out that A P E C has two the pillars of liberalization and cooperation, the implication being security is the third, unnecessary pillar. See Agence France-Presse, 17 November 1995; and China Radio International Online News, " A P E C Senior Officials Reach Consensus on Key Issues," October 2001. www.english.cri.com.cn/english/2001/Oct/32339.htm. 31  38  F r a m e w o r k , and determine p a y m e n t arrangements.  T h i s e x a m p l e illustrates the merits o f  the p r o x i m i t y o f leaders i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d the v a l u e added for the r e g i o n i n terms o f enhanced security. T h e p r i n c i p l e o f non-interference i n the n a t i o n a l affairs o f other m e m b e r s i s a h a l l m a r k o f the A E L M .  A P E C deftly h a n d l e d the a d m i s s i o n o f C h i n a , H o n g K o n g and  T a i w a n b y a c c o r d i n g almost equal status w h e n they j o i n e d i n 1 9 9 1 .  33  T h e a n n u a l press  s p e c u l a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the l e v e l o f T a i w a n ' s representation at an u p c o m i n g A E L M i n v a r i a b l y l e d to C h i n a ' s strong reiteration o f the O n e - C h i n a p o l i c y p l u s any other Straits issues at h a n d . F o r e x a m p l e , d u r i n g the O s a k a A E L M , the C h i n e s e c o m p l a i n e d i n the press about the U S f a c i l i t a t i o n o f President L e e ' s v i s i t to h i s a l m a mater, w h i l e the T a i w a n e s e responded w i t h an appeal i n support o f the v i s i t .  3 4  T h e audience continues to be i n f o r m e d o f  r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l issues a l t h o u g h s u c h exchanges are not d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d to the A E L M and A P E C . Issues: H u m a n R i g h t s and S e c u r i t y N o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the d o m e s t i c affairs o f other m e m b e r s extends to the t o p i c o f h u m a n rights. F r o m the m e d i a reports, the extent o f small-stage h u m a n rights d i s c u s s i o n b e y o n d the bilateral b r i e f i n g note, and another t o p i c b o x to t i c k o f f d u r i n g a m e e t i n g , is  See Louise Lucas, "Asia is marching to a different A P E C drum," South China Morning Post, 10 Nov. 1993; Keiji Urakami, "Murayama to test leadership in meet with A P E C leaders," Japan Economic Newswire, 14 Nov. 1994; Stanislav Bychkov and Valery Fyodortsov; "Clinton urges 'free and open trade' in Pacific Rim," Russian Information Agency, 14 Nov. 1994; Jim Anderson, " A P E C leaders meet in closed session after Korean agreement," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 15 Nov. 1994; and Jim Mann, "US and allies debate costs on N . Korea deal; Asia: Clinton meets hurriedly with leaders of Japan, S. Korea. They must share burden for nuclear accord," Los Angeles Times, 15 Nov. 1994.  3 2  3 3  Yomiuri Shimbun, " A P E C leaders discuss trade declaration," Daily Yomiuri, 15 Nov. 1994.  See Jason Neely, "China warns Taiwan at A P E C , " United Press International, 17 Nov. 1995; Agence France Presse, "Philippines repeats: Taiwan President cannot attend A P E C summit," 29 Oct. 1996; and Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Taiwan president sends envoy to A P E C summit," 23 Nov. 1996.  3 4  39  unclear.  W h a t is clear is that the A E L M is not a venue to l i n k trade issues to d o m e s t i c  h u m a n rights.  N o n e t h e l e s s , the subject has gained space adjacent to the A E L M .  B y 1996,  the P e o p l e ' s S u m m i t that parallels the A E L M w a s i n full m o m e n t u m w i t h h u m a n rights central to the p e o p l e ' s agenda. T h e i m p a c t o f thousands o f protesters targeting s p e c i f i c leaders i n a separate fringe festival also raises security concerns. F o r the A E L M host, the status o f the leaders as Internationally Protected Persons stipulates an established "in  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to ensure protection. consequences.  T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m a y lead to u n i n t e n d e d  F o r e x a m p l e , C a n a d a ' s p o l i c y o f " c o n s t r u c t i v e e n g a g e m e n t " to guarantee the  safety o f I n d o n e s i a n participants (counted a m o n g the specific targets) and the d e c i s i o n to host the m e e t i n g o n a major u n i v e r s i t y c a m p u s p r o v e d p r o b l e m a t i c .  A t t e m p t s b y p o l i c e to  d i s b a n d the protestors ended i n an extensive a n d e x p e n s i v e national i n q u i r y o n security abuse.  39  W h i l e the A E L M e x c l u d e s h u m a n rights, the issue is u n l i k e l y to disappear.  The  rotating v e n u e o f the A E L M ensures the " a n t i - A P E C activists have a m o v e a b l e tableau: the  Human rights were discussed at bilateral meetings. Simon Beck, "What Clinton plans to tell Jiang in Seattle," South China Morning Post, 14 Nov. 1993; Agence France Presse, "Clinton praises 'historic' Bogor deal but delivers new warning on ETimor," 15 Nov. 1994; Keiji Urakami, "Japan to host informal A P E C summit next year," Japan Economic Newswire, 13 Nov. 1994; and Yang Razali Kassim, "The agendas of the key players," Business Times (Singapore), 9 Nov. 1994. President Suharto was very specific that Indonesian domestic politics (East Timor) and organized labor are not to be linked with trade issues or the main stage. See Jim Dalla-Giacoma, "Riot police, East Timorese in embassy standoff as A P E C meets," Agence France Presse, 12 Nov. 1994; and Jim Anderson, " U S to raise human rights issues with Indonesia," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 3 Nov. 1994. 3 6  Obiora Chinedu Okafor, "The 1997 A P E C Summit and the Security of Internationally Protected Persons: 'Did Someone Say 'Suharto'?" in Pepper in Our Eyes, ed. W. Wesley Pue ( U B C Press, Vancouver, 2000), 185-196.  3 7  David Webster, "The People's Summit challenges Asia-Pacific economies in Vancouver," Catholic New Times, 28 Dec. 1997.  3 8  The formation of the R C M P Public Complaints Commission was announced in December 1997 and the final report was delivered almost five years later in March 2002. Campbell Clark, Globe and Mail, 27 Mar. 2002. http://www.geocities.com/ericsquire/articles/gm032702.htm 3 9  40  same c a r n i v a l m o v i n g f r o m M a n i l a to V a n c o u v e r and n o w to K u a l a L u m p u r . "  T o the  leaders, the P e o p l e ' s S u m m i t m a y be a b a d p l a y , h o w e v e r , it is audience response f r o m a v o c a l segment o f the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y . Personalities The p r e m i e r expert o f m e d i a m e s s a g i n g is P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a h a t h i r . A l t h o u g h absent f r o m the first A E L M i n Seattle, c o n s i d e r a b l e press coverage detailed h i s s u s p i c i o n o f U S d o m i n a n c e a n d wariness o f A P E C that c u l m i n a t e d i n the c l o s e l y c h r o n i c l e d K e a t i n g Mahathir exchange.  41  O n other o c c a s i o n s , the m e d i a was a n outlet to speculate o n h i s  attendance, c o m m e n t o n the A E L M outcomes, express the concerns o f other m e m b e r s or r e s p o n d to issues, i n c l u d i n g h u m a n rights, c r i t i c i z e E u r o p e and to report o n the p a r a l l e l A S E A N mini-summits  4 2  These e x a m p l e s suggest the press w a s an outlet to speak, not o n l y  to the audience, but also to send signals to the other leaders. D u r i n g the 1998 A E L M , leader response to V i c e - P r e s i d e n t G o r e ' s speech, d e l i v e r e d o n b e h a l f o f the absent President C l i n t o n , c o n t a i n i n g references to the b r a v e r y o f M a l a y s i a n s w a s swift. P l a n s to meet w i t h W a n A z z i z a h W a n I s m a i l , the w i f e o f detained D e p u t y P r i m e M i n i s t e r A n w a r I b r a h i m  Alex Magno, "Zealots in the land of Oz," Manila Standard, 7 Nov. 1998. Australian P M Keating's comment that Mahathir was "recalcitrant" for boycotting the first A E L M precipitated an immediate bilateral reaction. The matter was ultimately resolved with a letter of quasi-apology. This incident indicates that comments expressed to the national press may be inappropriate in an international context. See United Press International, "Australia welcomes restoration of good relations with Malaysia," 12 Dec. 1993; Ian Stewart, "Keating in bid to heal Malaysian insult rift," South China Morning Post, 3 Dec. 1993; and United Press International, "Demands for apology by Australia Prime Minister to Malaysian counterpart," 29 Nov. 1993.  41  See Lee Kim Chew, "Suharto puts out strong signal on free trade," Straits Times (Singapore), 12 Nov. 1994; Johanna Son, " A P E C : a worried Europe tries wooing Asia," Inter Press Service, 16 Nov. 1994; United Press International, "Mahathir has reservations on A P E C , " 23 Nov. 1996; and Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Malaysia to raise concerns of small states over free trade at A P E C , " 22 Nov. 1996.  4 2  41  Anwar, were abruptly cancelled, as the leaders distanced themselves from any public semblance of interference in the domestic affairs of an A P E C member.  43  Sets and Photo Opportunities The roots of Geertz's model in the political theatre of Bali, an example of dramatic effect in the lavish extreme, speak to the rituals and sets associated with the A E L M . Press reports indicate that costumes and sets, the trappings of political theater, are in evidence. The dress code for the "class picture" alternates between national dress and the tie-less look  4 4  This reserved occasion is not without touches of ironic humor. In 1997 while the region was in the throes of the financial crisis, the choice of bomber jackets suggested to one media observer that the leaders looked "as grim as a squadron of pilots getting ready for a mission from which some might not return."  45  In addition to costumes, props are mentioned in the press; the "[s]ymbolic gavel" a "varnished mallet" passed to the next host.  46  The year 2010 will mark the opening of a time  capsule containing messages from the leaders at the Subic Bay meeting.  47  Over the years,  increasingly elaborate sets have replaced the humble backdrop of the Seattle site, a rustic  See Straits Times (Singapore), "Tiff with US as seen by Asian press Jakarta," 19 Nov. 1998; Bernama (Kuala Lumpur), "Dr. Mahathir may raise concerns over unfair opinions on Malaysia," 15 Nov. 1998; Simon Beck, "Gore rushed in where Clinton might think twice," South China Morning Post, 22 Nov. 1998; and Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Mahathir plays down US row as A P E C leaders end lackluster summit," 18 Nov. 1998. In 1993, sweaters, jackets and A P E C baseball caps were in order. In 1994, 1996 and 1998, the hosts opted for traditional shirts. Prime Minister Shipley wore a baju kebaya, the traditional dress for Muslin women. In 1995, Japan adopted an informal style with leaders appearing "a little stiff in their tie-less shirts." See Peter Kenny, " A P E C leaders relax, sign key document," United Press International, 19 Nov. 1995.  4 4  4 5  Agence France Presse, " A P E C leaders pilot economies over dangerous territory," 26 Nov. 1997.  46  Asiaweek, "Summits; and now; what?; A P E C leaders get a good start," 23 Nov. 1994.  4 7  Barry Soper, "Big splash for city of puddles," Sunday News (Auckland), 1 Dec. 1996.  42  fishing lodge.  T h e most P o t e m p k i n - l i k e attempt is the c o n v e r s i o n o f S u b i c B a y , a former  U S n a v a l base, into a " v e r s i o n o f S i n g a p o r e . "  49  I n a d d i t i o n to c o n s t r u c t i n g leader  a c c o m m o d a t i o n d e s c r i b e d as "18 S o u t h f o r k s a l l i n a r o w , " the h o m e l e s s w e r e relocated, i l l e g a l h o u s i n g d e m o l i s h e d , protest o u t l a w e d , v i s a s d e n i e d and security c o r d o n s kept the P e o p l e ' s S u m m i t and reporters at a d i s t a n c e .  50  T h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n indicates the press, the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y substitute, maintains an interest i n the m a i n and the s m a l l stages o f the A E L M .  F o c u s o n the m a i n stage  suggests that the P o l i t i c a l Centre has c r e d i b i l i t y but l a c k o f results o v e r t i m e c o u l d d a m p e n attention a n d engagement. O n the s m a l l stage, leaders appear to m a x i m i z e o p p o r t u n i t y to address issues w i t h each other and to the audience. T h e gains presented b y the press to the audience o u t w e i g h the p a u c i t y o f results a n d retooled agenda items i n the short term. O v e r the l o n g term, the sustainability o f the A E L M m a y be c h a l l e n g e d b y a n audience s e e k i n g c o n f i r m a t i o n o f results and c r i s i s c o o r d i n a t i o n .  The Dawning of a New Era: President Kim Young Sam: The APEC Leaders Meeting and the White House Summit, November 17-25, 1993 (Korean Overseas Information Service: Seoul, 1994). 22-23. The meetings are not held in capital cites. Conor O'Clery, "Homeless and shanties given boot as Manila cleans house for A P E C , " Irish Times, 25 Nov. 1996.  4 9  50  Xinhua News Agency, "Major news items in leading Philippines newspapers," 26 Oct. 1996.  43  Chapter 6  Conclusion  T h e g u i d i n g objective o f this thesis is to demonstrate that p o l i t i c a l v a l u e exists i n the ' S t a g i n g o f A P E C i n terms o f r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c integration that benefits the r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i e s . T h e thesis w a s g u i d e d b y three questions: a. W h a t m o d e l o f p o l i t i c a l theatre m a y be a p p l i e d to the A E L M ? b. W h a t is the architecture o f the A E L M , p o s i t i v e a n d negative? c. W h a t does the P o l i t i c a l Centre (the A E L M ) c o m m u n i c a t e to the audience ( C o m p l e x Society)? T h e m o d e l o f theatre successfully a p p l i e d to A P E C , a h y b r i d o f P E C C and A S E A N , is the p o l i t i c a l theatre o f B a l i , based o n the w o r k o f C l i f f o r d G e e r t z . R u d o l p h , E s h e r i c k , W a s s e r s t r o m and K a t z e n s t e i n also m a k e the c o n n e c t i o n to this f o r m o f p o l i t i c a l theatre.  1  G e e r t z raises t w o fundamental elements to e x p l a i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f this f o r m o f theatre. F i r s t , " s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s " such as A P E C steered b y the A E L M seek an appropriate c u l t u r a l outlet to establish and m a i n t a i n p o l i t i c a l authority.  T h e actors, p r o p s , era and  rationale m a y change, but the force to b u i l d and h o l d authority is i n t a n g i b l e and eternal. T h u s , i n order to avert the r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c chaos that Soesastro suggests is the alternative, the A E L M t h r o u g h A P E C unites the major p l a y e r s , Japan and the U S , i n c l u d e s c o n f l i c t i n g m e m b e r s ( C h i n a and T a i w a n ) , restructures p o w e r and redistributes effort a n d resources to productive ends.  3  T h e A E L M m a y be imperfect b y d e s i g n , a created, rather than natural  r e g i o n , c o m b i n e e x c e s s i v e d i v e r s i t y , divergent interests and traditions and a c h i e v e s l o w to p o o r results.  4  T h e alternative, n o m e c h a n i s m to o r g a n i z e and deflect the d o m i n a n t p o w e r o f  1  To a lesser extent Acharya makes the connection to traditional Javanese decision making at the village level.  2  Abbott and Snidal, "International Organizations," 8.  3  At the time Soesastro was writing, China was an emerging power.  Differences include the obvious historical, political, social, cultural, religious, linguistic and ethnic diversity. Spatial proximity in the Pacific Basin coupled with linkages gained by communication and air transport with  4  44  the U S , the e m e r g i n g strength o f C h i n a w i t h i n the r e g i o n w i t h the W T O as the p r i m a r y trade recourse, is a f i r m second. T h e A E L M is constructed o n A s i a n n o r m s that foster d i a l o g u e a n d l i s t e n to disparate perspectives.  5  S e c o n d , h a v i n g established its authority, the p o l i t i c a l centre uses v a r i e d m e a n s ( S y m b o l i c F o r m s ) to reinforce, i n f l u e n c e a n d c o n t r o l . T o understand this process, G e e r t z traces this d y n a m i c f r o m the centre, t h r o u g h the signals to the audience. I n this thesis, the p o l i t i c a l centre is e x a m i n e d as an entity ( C h a p t e r 4) and f r o m the messages intercepted b y the audience (Chapter 5). W e learn that the A E L M has d u a l stages, a p o l i t i c a l centre o f m e m b e r s together o n the m a i n stage and as i n d i v i d u a l agents o n the s m a l l stage. T h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f these stages points to greater v a l u e added for the A E L M , A P E C and u l t i m a t e l y for the region. Y e t , c r i t i c s d i s m i s s the A E L M as a n e x a m p l e o f top-track t a l k p o i n t i n g to the p a u c i t y o f measurable results. Is the v a l u e a d d e d sufficient to j u s t i f y a n a n n u a l m e e t i n g that has g r o w n m o r e elaborate w i t h each p a s s i n g year? I n i t i a l l y , yes. F i r s t , it is the o p p o r t u n i t y for leaders to step out o f their i n s u l a r concerns into a shared and i n c r e a s i n g l y f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t where they m a y get to k n o w e a c h other, g a i n insights into respective issues and b u i l d a c o l l e c t i v e identity. W e n d t intimates that " a n n u a l and essentially t r i v i a l meetings to discuss e c o n o m i c p o l i c y " are a l l "about r e d e f i n i n g identity a n d interest" ( i t a l i c s i n the original).  6  T h e benefit o f b u i l d i n g relationships a m o n g leaders w i t h the f l o w - t h o u g h  p o t e n t i a l to deputies, ministers a n d bureaucrats (even as far as c i v i l s o c i e t y ) cannot be just-in-time delivery, diminished bilateral power relations and a heightened awareness of the Pacific Rim as a vibrant economic region challenge outdated arguments of non-naturalness. Bernard Arogyaswamy referencing Francis Fukuyama adds that the US also has a "communitarian" tradition evident in church, service, school and neighborhood groups. Bernard Arogyaswamy, The Asian Miracle, Myth, and Mirage (Westport: Quorum Books, 1998), 123.  5  6  Wendt, "Collective Identity," 391. The author is referring to the G-7.  45  overstated.  B e i n g at the centre c h e c k s , a l t h o u g h does not e l i m i n a t e , b e h a v i o r that m i g h t  damage or c o m p r o m i s e r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c stability. D e s p i t e a large m e m b e r s h i p , the stage has sufficient space for a l l m e m b e r s as relative equals.  Being  i n c l u s i v e a v o i d s difficult d e c i s i o n s : w h o is i n , w h o is out, w h y and w h o d e c i d e s ? T h u s the e x t e n s i v e m e m b e r s h i p a m o n g P a c i f i c R i m e c o n o m i e s enables distant and m e d i u m - l e v e l p l a y e r s s u c h as C a n a d a and A u s t r a l i a to have a role i n A s i a - P a c i f i c . T h e focus o f the A E L M o n e c o n o m i c issues has put pressure o n sensitive sectors such as agriculture. T h e intense scrutiny that f o l l o w s a f o r m a l exchange b e t w e e n H e a d s o f State and G o v e r n m e n t s is softened. T h e press content a n a l y s i s indicates that m e m b e r meetings are o p e n l y h e l d , f l e x i b l e and plentiful. T h e s m a l l stage adds advantages to the m a i n stage, validating A c h a r y a ' s "process" in maintaining forward momentum.  T h e p o l i t i c a l centre has  s h o w n p r u d e n c e w i t h regard to e c o n o m i e s o f scale, k e e p i n g the A P E C Secretariat i n i t i a l l y s m a l l , s u p p o r t i n g intellectual input f r o m P E C C and other research t h r o u g h c o m m i t t e e s w h i l e c l o s i n g the gap o n the b a d p l a y s s u c h as the E P G . A f t e r the first s i x years, the A E L M p o l i t i c a l a n d theatrical m o d e l reflects A l a t a s ' s careful c o n f i d e n c e o f u t i l i t y , p r o m i s e and challenge. T h e architecture o f A P E C p r o v i d e s a c o m m o n set o f n o r m s for i n t e r a c t i o n . D e s p i t e the strengths a n d weaknesses o f the f r a m e w o r k , the i n i t i a l years h a v e been p o s i t i v e . C h a l l e n g e s r e m a i n a n d are i n d i c a t e d b y the s l o w response to the financial c r i s i s , the change i n d y n a m i c s as m e m b e r s h i p increases, a n d the cost o f lost opportunities to demonstrate leadership. D e c l a r i n g w i t h o u t clear i m p l e m e n t a t i o n at l o w e r l e v e l s (e.g., c u s t o m s h a r m o n i z a t i o n ) raises the question: W h a t d o they d o ? S u c h questions f r o m the press, the near audience, c o u l d suggest engagement o n the w a n e . A s the u l t i m a t e authority, it is the 7  Acharya, "Ideas", 329. 46  A E L M i t s e l f that m u s t c a l l for a c c o u n t a b i l i t y a n d results. A n n o u n c i n g i n a statement what the audience cannot see (and hence b e l i e v e ) is p o t e n t i a l l y lethal to the l o n g - t e r m prospects o f the P o l i t i c a l Centre. T h i s thesis has s h o w n that v a l u e c a n be f o u n d i n this staging o f A P E C .  Geertz's  m o d e l o f the p o l i t i c a l theatre o f B a l i is a p p l i c a b l e to the A E L M e n a b l i n g the audience to v i e w the inner w o r k i n g s o f the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e a n d for the leaders to understand the v i t a l c o n n e c t i o n to the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y . K n o w l e d g e o f this t w o - w a y c o n d u i t enables leaders (and their representatives) to tailor messages to the audience. T h e m e t h o d o l o g y has contributed analysis that c o n f i r m s the role o f the press as representatives o f the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y . A s interpreters o f a c t i v i t y o n the m a i n a n d s m a l l stage, the m e d i a chooses to r e l a y support o r s k e p t i c i s m . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f A E P C and the A E L M i s , h o w e v e r , cursory.  Future research  c o u l d extend the t i m e frame and i n c l u d e a larger sample o f n e w s reports. T h e l i n k between p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n i n the A E L M a n d the a u t o n o m y o f the Secretariat c o u l d be e x a m i n e d . A m o n g the p i l l a r s , s p e c i f i c initiatives c o u l d be tracked. U n d e r s t a n d i n g the processes that determine o u t c o m e s (and pose i m p e d i m e n t s ) c o u l d also address the s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f the A E L M a n d A P E C o v e r t i m e . T o establish c r e d i b i l i t y and authority o v e r the l o n g - t e r m , the A E L M must continue to c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h the C o m p l e x S o c i e t y , demonstrate gains and u t i l i z e opportunities to e x h i b i t leadership. T h e d y n a m i c o f the 'Theatre o f A P E C is p o w e r f u l ; the existence o f the A E L M has contributed value i n p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c terms that furthers r e g i o n a l integration and g r o w t h .  47  A n u m b e r o f questions r e m a i n . Is this e x a m i n a t i o n o f the P o l i t i c a l C e n t r e a p p l i c a b l e to other international institutions? T h e temptation is to d i s m i s s p o l i t i c a l theatre as i n h e r e n t l y A s i a n a n d s p e c i f i c to A P E C (and s i m i l a r others, e.g., A S E A N and A S E A N P l u s Three). T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f this m o d e l is straightforward: locate the context o f the nexus o f p o w e r and u n c o v e r the m e a n s ( s y m b o l s ) that f i x authenticity.  W h a t are the fundamentals, m e c h a n i s m s  and c o m m o n a l t i e s to e x p l a i n the ' w e ' i n international entities and the p r e m i u m o f m e m b e r s h i p ? C a n w e trace the substantive a n d the subtle s y m b o l i c f o r m s that a f f i r m l e g i t i m a c y ? T h i s a n a l y s i s , for e x a m p l e , suggests a f u n c t i o n o f the press c o r p s , the near audience, is to c o n f i r m the leaders are l e a d i n g . T h e content o f the m e d i a reports, a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n , anecdote and conjecture, also p o i n t to the d u a l stages o f A P E C : the o f f i c i a l m a i n stage and the v e n u e neutral s m a l l stage. Future research c o u l d undertake s i m i l a r content a n a l y s i s o f other international groups to v i e w the d y n a m i c s w i t h i n the centre a n d the messages sent to the audience. W h y w o u l d w e do this? R u d o l p h proposes "that w e too construct and act w i t h i n c o s m o l o g i e s and that w e o n l y deny the m y t h s w e l i v e b y because w e cannot see or articulate them."  9  A s w e c o m e to understand o u r e n v i r o n m e n t , the seen a n d the unseen, w e m a y c o m e  to v a l u e o u r p o l i t i c a l theater.  8  See Chapter 3, footnote 27, page 17.  9  Rudolph, "State Formation," 742.  48  Bibliography Abbott, Kenneth W., and Duncan Snidal. 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See Papers and proceedings of a symposium held at the Institute of Developing Economies on September 20-21, 1995 in Tokyo.  53  Internet Sources Agence France-Presse, 17 November 1995 and China Radio International Online News, " A P E C Senior Officials Reach Consensus on Key Issues," October 2001. http://www.english.cri.com cn/English/2001/Oct/32339/htm. A P E C 2001 Executive Update, Facts, Business World online Inc. http://apec.bworldonline.com/Facts. A P E C A E L M Leaders' Declarations (1993-2003). http://www.apecsec.org.sg. A P E C Ministerial Statements (1989-2004). http://www.apecsec.org.sg. Baldi, di Stefano. "L'indice di sviluppo umano delle Nazioni Unite. Vantaggi e limiti della misurazione sintetica dello sviluppo". Indice di Sviluppo Umano (HDI). 1997. http//hostings.diplomacy.edu/baldi/ stefano/relhdi.htm. Bonapace, Tiziana. "Multilateralsim and Regionalism: Enhancing Integration of Developing Countries into the Multilateral Trading System thorugh Regionalism." United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2001. http://www.unescap.org/itia/publication/chaptl_2161 .pdf. Colin Browning, Colin. "The Australian Press and Reporting of A P E C : From Seoul to Osaka," Issues no. 11, Australian A P E C Study Centre, Monash University, Victoria, Dec. 1997 http://www.arts.monash. edu.au. China Radio International Online News, " A P E C Senior Officials Reach Consensus on Key Issues," October 2001. http://www.english.cri.com.cn/english/2001/Oct/32339.htm. Clark, Campbell. Globe and Mail, 27 Mar. 2002. http://www.geocities.com/ericsquire/articles/gm032702.htm Evans, Paul. "Asia's New Regionalism: Implications for Canada." Canada in Asia Series, Asia Pacific Foundation, Vancouver, Sept. 2003. http://www.asiapacific.ca/analysis/pubs/pdfs/ newregionalism3_l 4oct03 .pdf Historical Daily Currency Exchange Rate, (accessed July 2003). http://www.jeico.com/ cnc57jpn.html. Krause, Lawrence B. "The Economics and Politics of the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-98." Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org. Lai, Shin-Yuan. " A P E C after Ten Years: Future Directions." Paper presented at the A P E C Centre Consortium Conference (APEC in Global and Regional Contexts), Auckland, New Zealand, 30 May -2 June, 1999. http://www2.auckland.ac.nz/apec/. Mazarr, Michael J. "Culture in International Relations." Washington Quarterly (Spring 1996). Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, http://www.csis.org/html/alumni/mazarrm.html United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report 1993. http://hdr.undp.org/reports. United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report 2002. http://hdr.undp.org/reports.  54  Lexis-Nexis News Sample 1993-1998 A l l news entries were accessed on the University of British Columbia Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe-Canada database at <http://web.lexis.nexis.com/universe>. Articles are grouped by year of publication and presented in descending date order (e.g., 1993: 12 Dec. 1993; 4 Dec. 1993). News Sample 1993 United Press International, "Australia welcomes restoration of good relations with Malaysia," 12 Dec. 1993. South China Morning Post, "Diplomatic way towards trade," 12 Dec. 1993. Kin, Kwan Weng. "Meetings with A P E C summit useful for leaders: S M Lee." Straits Times (Singapore), 12 Dec. 1993. Fluendy, Simon. "Malaysian storm set to blow over." South China Morning Post, 4 Dec. 1993. Stewart, Ian. "Keating in bid to heal Malaysian insult rift." South China Morning Post, 3 Dec. 1993. Asia Today, "Seeking a role for small-medium business," Dec. 1993. United Press International, "Demands for apology by Australia Prime Minister to Malaysian counterpart," 29 Nov. 1993. British Broadcasting Corporation, "Malaysian trade minister discusses attitude towards A P E C , " 25 Nov. 1993. —, "Indonesia welcomes A P E C summit conclusions," 24 Nov. 1993. —, '"Renmin Ribao' editorial on significance of A P E C meeting," 24 Nov. 1993. Hatano, Takashi. " A P E C leaders shun bloc 'community'." Daily Yomiuri, 23 Nov. 1993. British Broadcasting Corporation, '"Wen Wei Po', reviews 'far-reaching significance' of Clinton-Zemin meeting," 23 Nov. 1993. A F X News, " A P E C challenges Europe on Uruguay Round," 22 Nov. 1993. Henson, Bertha. " A P E C leaders to push for free trade." Straits Times (Singapore), 22 Nov. 1993. —. "Indonesia to host second A P E C meeting next year." Straits Times (Singapore), 22 Nov. 1993. A F X News, "Japan reiterates political problems in opening rice market," 22 Nov. 1993. Kassim, Yang Razali. " A P E C leaders agree to take concrete steps to expand global free trade." Business Times (Singapore), 22 Nov. 1993. Lucas, Louise. " A P E C leaders pledge to meet again next year." South China Morning Post, 22 Nov. 1993. O'Clery, Conor. " U S gaze shifts to Asia and Pacific President Clinton tried one of his bonding exercises with the A P E C leaders." Irish Times, 22 Nov. 1993. Agence France Presse, "Asia-Pacific takes lead on G A T T , " 21 Nov. 1993. Japan Economic Newswire, "Highlights of A P E C leaders economic vision statement," 21 Nov. 1993. Kamiya, Antonio. " A P E C leaders tout Pacific 'community,' set next summit." Japan Economic Newswire,  55  21 Nov. 1993. Tatsuta, Keiko. " A P E C leaders embrace Japan-Sino-US trilateral ties." Japan Economic Newswire, 21 Nov. 1993. Einstein, David. "Summit in Seattle - Clinton backed on trade." San Francisco Chronicle, 20 Nov. 1993. Epstein, Edward, and Viae Kershner. "Summit notebook." San Francisco Chronicle, 20 Nov. 1993. Kamiya, Antonio. " A P E C leaders toast to advent of 'Pacific community'." Japan Economic Newswire, 20 Nov. 1993. Nan, Wang. "Round-up: what A P E C meetings mean to US, world." Xinhua News Agency, 20 Nov. 1993. Business Times (Singapore), " A S E A N leaders to hold mini-summit," 19 Nov. 1993. Bazinet, Kenneth R. "Clinton says successful meeting with A P E C leaders will benefit all involved." United Press International, 18 Nov. 1993. Kassim, Yang Razali. "Dhana: take steps to make Asia-Pacific a free trade area." Business Times (Singapore), 18 Nov. 1993. Chew, Lee Kim. "Japan does not want A P E C institutionalised, says Hosokawa." Straits Times (Singapore), 17 Nov. 1993. Wang, Fa'en. "News analysis: A P E C - 'great opportunity' for Australia." Xinhua News Agency, 17 Nov. 1993. Kassim, Yang Razali. "Stand-off over move to form A P E C free trade area." Business Times (Singapore), 16 Nov. 1993. Cheesman, Bruce. " K i m to lecture A P E C on his economic policy." South China Morning Post, 15 Nov. 1993. Henson, Bertha. " P M Goh to attend A P E C meeting in Seattle." Straits Times (Singapore), 15 Nov. 1993. Beck, Simon. "What Clinton plans to tell Jiang in Seattle." South China Morning Post, 14 Nov. 1993. Japan Economic Newswire, " A P E C leaders to stress need for regional 'community'," 12 Nov. 1993. Agence France Presse, "Trade liberalization key to concern for A P E C , " 11 Nov. 1993. Jiji Press Ticker Service, "US eager to create Pacific community," 11 Nov. 1993. Lucas, Louise. "Asia is marching to a different A P E C drum." South China Morning Post, 10 Nov. 1993. Benjamin, Gwendoline. "Wary Malaysia remains suspicious of A P E C ' s future." Japan Economic Newswire, 9 Nov. 1993. Agence France Presse, " A P E C leaders unlikely to announce economic breakthroughs: U S , " 8 Nov. 1993. Miller, Rich. "Clinton launches campaign to widen Pacific trade alliance." Toronto Star, 8 Nov. 1993. Kamiya, Antonio. " A P E C summit - a mixed bag of hopes and concerns." Japan Economic Newswire, 5 Nov. 1993. Bazinet, Kenneth R. "Clinton to work on Asian trade deficit at Seattle summit." United Press International, 4 Nov. 1993.  56  Kin, Kwan Weng. " A P E C forum should send warning to EC: S M Lee." Straits Times (Singapore), 29 Oct. 1993. British Broadcasting Corporation, " L i Peng says forthcoming Sino-US summit 'of great significance'," 25 Oct. 1993. Hadar, Leon. " A P E C - what's in it for Washington?" Business Times (Singapore), 13 Oct. 1993. Kantor, Mickey. " F T exporter." Financial Times (London), 13 Oct. 1993. Isberto, Ramon. "Philippines: Ramos mulls two US visits?" Inter Press Service, 9 Oct. 1993. News Sample 1994 Beck, Simon. "West moves to form own trading bloc." South China Morning Post, 2 Dec. 1994. Asian Wall Street Journal, "Malaysia extends its run as the rogue of A P E C , " 28 Nov. 1994. Japan Economic Newswire, "Thai document advises caution on A P E C free trade plan," 24 Nov. 1994. Asiaweek, "Summits; and now; what?; A P E C leaders get a good start," 23 Nov. 1994. Post, Tom, Steven Strasser, Karen Breslac, Hon Moreau, and George Wehrfritz. "Traveling salesman: A P E C : the Clinton trade show hits the road." Newsweek (US), 21 Nov. 1994. Xinhua News Agency, "S. Korea, Australia to increase cooperation," 18 Nov. 1994. Anderson, Tom. "Aussi P M praises South Korean President." United Press International, 17 Nov. 1994. Son, Johanna. " A P E C : date set for free trade zone, but no mad rush." Inter Press Service, 16 Nov. 1994. —. " A P E C : a worried Europe tries wooing Asia." Inter Press Service, 16 Nov. 1994. Whitaker, Raymond. " A P E C leaders opt for 2020 vision on trade." Independent (London), 16 Nov. 1994. Central News Agency, "Siew on A P E C summit," 16 Nov. 1994. Chew, Lee Kim. " A P E C accord - 2020 target date." Straits Times (Singapore), 16 Nov. 1994. Kassim, Yang Razali. "Timetable achieved but many gaps remain." Business Times (Singapore), 16 Nov. 1994. British Broadcasting Corporation, " A P E C cooperation; South Korean President proposes Asia-Pacific information network," 16 Nov. 1994. Agence France Presse, "Malaysia dismisses A P E C accord as 'non-binding'," 15 Nov. 1994. —, "Clinton praises 'historic' Bogor deal but delivers new warning on ETimor," 15 Nov. 1994. Anderson, Jim. " A P E C leaders meet in closed session after Korean agreement." Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 15 Nov. 1994. Mann, Jim. " U S and allies debate costs on N . Korea deal; Asia: Clinton meets hurriedly with leaders of Japan, S. Korea. They must share burden for nuclear accord." Los Angeles Times, 15 Nov. 1994. British Broadcasting Corporation, "China; Jiang Zemin and Kim Yong-Sam discuss Korean Peninsula,"  57  15 Nov. 1994. Shimbun, Yomiuri. " A P E C leaders discuss trade declaration." Daily Yomiuri, 15 Nov. 1994. Japan Economic Newswire, "Japan urged to fulfill obligations as next A P E C host," 15 Nov. 1994. Chew, Lee K i m . " A P E C leaders seek deadline accord." Straits Times (Singapore), 15 Nov. 1994. Urakami, Keiji. " A P E C leaders unite behind 2020 free trade target date." Japan Economic Newswire, 15 Nov. 1994. Kassim, Yang Razali. "Painstakingly, Indonesia nudges leaders towards free trade idea." Business Times (Singapore), 15 Nov. 1994. British Broadcasting Corporation, "China; foreign trade minister Wu Y i on A P E C , G A T T , " 14 Nov. 1994. Urakami, Keiji. "Murayama to test leadership in meet with A P E C leaders." Japan Economic Newswire, 14 Nov. 1994. Bychkov, Stanislav, and Valery Fyodortsov. "Clinton urges 'free and open trade' in Pacific Rim." Russian Information Agency, 14 Nov. 1994. Urakami, Keiji. "Japan to host informal A P E C summit next year." Japan Economic Newswire, 13 Nov. 1994. Dalla-Giacoma, Jim. "Riot police, East Timorese in embassy standoff as A P E C meets." Agence France Presse, 12 Nov. 1994. Chew, Lee K i m . "Suharto puts out strong signal on free trade." Straits Times (Singapore), 12 Nov. 1994. Straits Times (Singapore), "China 'has shown peace commitment'," 10 Nov. 1994. Son, Johanna. "Philippines-United States: Clinton visit may mend ties." Inter Press Service, 9 Nov. 1994. Kassim, Yang Razali. "The agendas of the key players." Business Times (Singapore), 9 Nov. 1994. British Broadcasting Corporation, "Foreign relations; Australia cites Indonesian rights abuses ahead of A P E C , " 8 Nov. 1994. Hadar, Leon. "US hopes A P E C leaders will back target date for free trade." Business Times (Singapore), 4 Nov. 1994. Agence France Presse, "Amnesty calls on A P E C leaders' forum to consider human rights issues," 3 Nov. 1994. Kendall, Sue. "US hopes A P E C leaders will commit to free trade area." Agence France Presse, 3 Nov. 1994. Anderson, Jim. "US to raise human rights issues with Indonesia." Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 3 Nov. 1994. Kamiya, Antonio. " A P E C free trade marks US trade policy milestone." Japan Economic Newswire, 3 Nov. 1994. Tagaza, Emilia. "Survey of Australia." Financial Times (London), 1 Nov. 1994. Japan Economic Newswire, "Japan wants A P E C to omit free trade area from statement," 1 Nov. 1994. Agence France Presse, "Taiwan president gives up plans to attend A P E C summit: report," 29 Oct. 1994.  58  —, " A P E C to adopt plan for settling regional trade disputes: report," 28 Oct. 1994. Kassim, Yang Razali. "Corporate leaders call for 2010 deadline for free trade." Business Times (Singapore), 17 Oct. 1994. Sinaga, Simon. " A P E C urged to realize free trade by 2010." Straits Times (Singapore), 16 Oct. 1994. Hadar, Leon. "After Seattle summit; beyond rhetoric to reality." Straits Times (Singapore), 16 Oct. 1994. Agence France Presse, "Australia expects tangible results at A P E C leaders meeting," 14 Oct. 1994. Kassim, Yang Razali. "Suharto seeks accord on trade free-up." Business Times (Singapore), 7 Oct. 1994. —. " U S pledges support i f Suharto goes for open markets by 2020." Business Times (Singapore), 6 Nov. 1994. United Press International, "Indonesia plans massive security for A P E C , " 4 Oct. 1994. News Sample 1995 Inter Press Service, "Energy: Indonesia to follow A P E C code on liberalizing trade," 6 Dec. 1995. Chong, Florence. "Liberalisation of agriculture not on the cards: analysis." Business Times (Singapore), 27 Nov. 1995. Macaraig, Mynardo. "Philippines gears for A P E C 1996 to show off economic recovery." Agence France Presse, 26 Nov. 1995. Morimoto, Mitsuhiko. "Osaka A P E C made progress toward WTO trade goals." Daily Yomiuri, 24 Nov. 1995. Financial Post Daily, "China drops a trade bombshell on A P E C summit in Osaka - Grimmer," 22 Nov. 1995. New Straits Times (Malaysia), "Dr. Mahathir to attend A P E C meeting in the Philippines," 20 Nov. 1995. Kaur, Hardev, and Zulkifli Othman. "Widen scope of coverage: Dr M (HL)." Business Times (Malaysia), 20 Nov. 1995. Xinhua News Agency, " E C welcomes positive results of A P E C summit," 20 Nov. 1995. Mainichi Daily News, " A P E C leaders reaffirm support for Osaka Action Agenda," 20 Nov. 1995. British Broadcasting Corporation, "Southeast Asia, Pacific; Australian Prime Minister Keating believes USA 'strongly committed' to A P E C , " 20 Nov. 1995. —, "Action agenda; A P E C leaders announce 'initial action' packages," 20 Nov. 1995. Kenny, Peter. " A P E C leaders relax, sign key document." United Press International, 19 Nov. 1995. Chew, Lee Kim. " A P E C heads take first steps to free trade." Straits Times (Singapore), 19 Nov. 1995. Kin, Kwan Weng. "Mahathir to support summit outcome 'because Malaysia's views were reflected'." Straits Times (Singapore), 19 Nov. 1995. Toronto Star, "China pledges to open markets," 19 Nov. 1995. Agence France Presse, " A P E C leaders announce accelerated tariff cuts, deregulation measures," 19 Nov. 1995.  59  —, " A P E C outlines free trade and investment principles for 25 years," 19 Nov. 1995. British Broadcasting Corporation, "President Suharto holds bilateral meetings in Osaka," 19 Nov. 1995. —, "China; President Jiang Zemin says China to cut tariffs by 30 per cent; announces five-point," 19 Nov. 1995. Jiji Press Ticker Service, " A P E C heads ok agenda, declaration in morning," 19 Nov. 1995. Japan Economic Newswire, "Developing economies concerned over rising cost of yen," 19 Nov. 1995. Xinhua News Agency, " A P E C Leaders' meeting ends in Osaka," 19 Nov. 1995. Ingham, Richard. " A P E C leaders under pressure to put offers on table at summit." Agence France Presse, 18 Nov. 1995. Agence France Press, " A P E C leaders seen backing food, energy and environment cooperation," 18 Nov. 1995. Jiji Press Ticker Service, " A P E C leaders to set new long-term goals." 18 Nov. 1995. Japan Economic Newswire, "Asian editorial excerpts," 18 Nov. 1995. Neely, Jason. "China warns Taiwan at A P E C . " United Press International, 17 Nov. 1995. Business Times (Singapore), "Clinton will be missed: P M , " 17 Nov. 1995. Agence France Press, "Malaysia irks Indonesia and other friends over the v-word at A P E C , " 17 Nov. 1995. Asiaweek, "Summits; tough test in Osaka; can A P E C ' s leaders bridge their differences?" 17 Nov. 1995. Spielmann, Peter James. "Pacific trade group strike early accord; Clinton bows out of talks." Associated Press, 16 Nov. 1995. Canadian Press Newswire, " A P E C deal done, but questions emerge about Canada," 16 Nov. 1995. Starr, Peter. " A P E C clears way for smooth summit despite Clinton absence." Agence France Presse, 16 Nov. 1995. Kin, Kwan Weng. "Japan's crucial task is to draw up 'road map'." Daily Yomiuri, 16 Nov. 1995. British Broadcasting Corporation, "Regional issues; Tokyo to offer 10 billion yen for trade liberalization," 16 Nov. 1995. Agence France Presse, "Malaysia to demand non-binding clauses to A P E C free-trade blueprint," 15 Nov. 1995. Japan Economic Newswire, "Japan should help A P E C ease trade barriers: Thai Premier," 14 Nov. 1995. Financial Post (Canada), "Farmers at summit's center: Asia-Pacific meeting next week in Osaka will start work on pledge to create free-trade zone, but agriculture may get in the way," 13 Nov. 1995. United Press International, "Korea cancels summit meeting with Japan," 13 Nov. 1995. de Jonquieres, Guy, William Dawkins, and Nikki Tait. " A P E C ' s visionaries are put to the test." Financial Times (London), 13 Nov. 1995. United Press International, "China seeks flexible A P E C plan," 12 Nov. 1995.  60  Ibison, David. " A P E C flounders in leadership vacuum." South China Morning Post, 12 Nov. 1995. Russian Information Agency, "China urges flexible approach to A P R free trade area idea," 12 Nov. 1995. Sugawara, Sandra. "Lingering trade disputes cloud Asia-Pacific summit; with A P E C leaders due in Osaka, hopes dim for progress on resolving differences." Washington Post, 12 Nov. 1995. Japan Economic Newswire, "Japan eyes four more cooperation areas to A P E C declaration," 11 Nov. 1995. —, "Asia-Pacific NGOs to compile alternative A P E C agenda," 8 Nov. 1995. Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Malaysian Prime Minister may give A P E C summit a miss," 30 Oct. 1995. Rahil, Siti. "Singapore ahead of the pack in A P E C . " Japan Economic Newswire, 26 Oct. 1995. Daily Yomiuri, "Japan's active role vital for future of A P E C , " 26 Oct. 1995. Kin, Kwan Weng. "Agriculture still a snag for A P E C action agenda." Straits Times (Singapore), 21 Oct. 1995. News Sample 1996 Xinhua News Agency, "Major news items in leading Philippine newspapers," 3 Dec. 1996. Soper, Barry. "Big splash for city of puddles." Sunday News (Auckland), 1 Dec. 1996. Business Times (Malaysia), "Rafidah happy with A P E C outcome on IT agreement," 29 Nov. 1996. British Broadcasting Corporation, "Japan denies it opposes Russia's accession to economic forum," 27 Nov. 1996. Beck, Simon, and Ray Heath. "Doubts rise as US trumpets hi-tech tariffs win at summit; highways of the 21 century." South China Morning Post, 26 Nov. 1996.  st  Kaur, Hardev, and David Ong-Yeoh. " A P E C launches new phase of action." Business Times (Malaysia), 26 Nov. 1996. Xinhua News Agency, "Major news items in leading Philippines newspapers," 26 Oct. 1996. Cumming-Bruce, Nick. "Clinton salutes A P E C trade deal." Guardian (London), 26 Nov. 1996. Agence France Presse, "Australian government rejects Mahathir's attack on Aussie scribes," 26 Nov. 1996. —, "Business panel lauds gains of A P E C summit," 26 Nov. 1996. Daily Yomiuri, "Editorial A P E C pledges must become reality," 26 Nov. 1996. Xinhua News Agency, " A P E C informal leadership meeting opens," 25 Nov. 1996. Agence France Presse, " A P E C economic leaders' declaration: from vision to action," 25 Nov. 1996. J ij i Press Ticker Service, " A P E C declares launch of free trade process," 25 Nov. 1996. Deutsche Presse-Agentur, " A P E C leaders reach compromise on information technology at summit," 25 Nov. 1996.  61  Gallop, Chris. " A P E C : consultation and compromise keep tree trade drive on track." Inter Press Service, 25 Nov. 1996. O'Clery, Conor. "Homeless and shanties given boot as Manila cleans house for A P E C . " Irish Times, 25 Nov. 1996. Raagas, Rita. " A P E C leaders advance borderless trade." United Press International, 25 Nov. 1996. United Press International, "US officials uneasy with security," 25 Nov. 1996. Japan Economic Newswire, "Highlights of A P E C leaders' joint declaration," 25 Nov. 1996. —, "Gist of A P E C leaders' joint declaration," 25 Nov. 1996. Grafilo, John. "Protesters cause chaos with traffic jam at A P E C summit." Japan Economic Newswire, 25 Nov. 1996. Xinhua News Agency, "Results to be substantial, sustainable: Manila declaration," 25 Nov. 1996. —, "Informal A P E C leaders' meeting opens in Philippines," 25 Nov. 1996. Deutsche Presse-Agentur, " A P E C leaders greeted by protesters before Philippine summit," 24 Nov. 1996. United Press International, "Mahathir has reservations on A P E C , " 23 Nov. 1996. Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Taiwan president sends envoy to A P E C summit," 23 Nov. 1996. Straits Times (Singapore), " P M leaves for Manila today," 23 Nov. 1996. Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Malaysia to raise concerns of small states over free trade at A P E C , " 22 Nov. 1996. Song, Koh Buck. " A P E C officials propose package in six areas for Manila summit." Straits Times (Singapore), 22 Nov. 1996. Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Philippines' Ramos says stage set for progress at A P E C summit," 21 Nov. 1996. Xinhua News Agency, "Canadian Prime Minister leaves for A P E C meeting," 21 Nov. 1996. Williams, David. "Earthquake, security rumpus and protests jar A P E C meeting." Agence France Presse, 21 Nov. 1996. Othman, Zulkifli. " A P E C debate heats up as officials arrive for meet." Business Times (Malaysia), 20 Nov. 1996. —. "Question mark over relevance of A P E C meet." Business Times (Malaysia), 20 Nov. 1996. Jiji Press Ticker Service, " A P E C leaders' declaration to back ITA," 15 Nov. 1996. Deutsche Press-Agentur, "Philippines' Ramos voices support for Peru's A P E C membership bid," 15 Nov. 1996. —, "Leftist A P E C opponent goes on hunger strike in Philippine jail," 14 Nov. 1996. Straits Times (Singapore), "Ramos all for admitting China, Taiwan into WTO," 14 Nov. 1996. Gallardo, Marian. "Peasant groups sign anti-APEC pact." United Press International, 12 Nov. 1996.  62  Japan Economic Newswire, "Supporters of arrested anti-APEC leader hold vigil," 12 Nov. 1996. Jiji Press Ticker Service, "RP seeks A P E C focus on cooperation," 12 Nov. 1996. Perez, Leticia. "Hotel disputes being ironed out before summit." Straits Times (Singapore), 12 Nov. 1996. New Straits Times (Malaysia), "Women want say in A P E C action," 11 Nov. 1996. Financial Times (London), " A i r strike embarrasses Manila," 1 Nov. 1996. British Broadcasting Corporation, "President Ramos outlines three essential elements of A P E C summit," 30 Oct. 1996. Agence France Presse, "Philippines repeats: Taiwan President cannot attend A P E C summit," 29 Oct. 1996. United Press International, "Activists call Manila paranoid," 26 Oct. 1996. British Broadcasting Corporation, "President Ramos confirms no A P E C invitation for Taiwan President, Premier," 25 Oct. 1996. Perez, Leticia. "Setup community colleges 'to re-train Asian women'." Straits Times (Singapore), 5 Oct. 1996. News Sample 1997 Webster, David. "The People's Summit challenges Asia-Pacific economies in Vancouver." Catholic New Times, 28 Dec. 1997. Zhao, Jinchuan. "Roundup: Indonesian rupiah drops to new lows." Xinhua News Agency, 16 Dec. 1997. Stewart, Ian. "Mahathir pushes currency trade controls." Australian, 2 Dec. 1997. New Straits Times (Malaysia), "The week that was," 1 Dec. 1997. Ruffini, Paul. " P A C : P N G P M may be stumbling to political gallows." A A P Newsfeed, 30 Nov. 1997. Economist (US), "Meanwhile, back where the wagons are circling..." 29 Nov. 1997. Hawthorne, Maria. "Can: Howard pushes domestic agenda at A P E C . " APP Newsfeed, 28 Nov. 1997. Suryodiningrat, Meidyatama. "18 A P E C leaders to unite to deal with economic crisis." Jakarta Post, 28 Nov. 1997. —. " A P E C leaders vow to settle crisis." Jakarta Post, 27 Nov. 1997. Facts on File World News Digest, "Asia-Pacific trade conference held in Canada; Southeast Asian turmoil dominates summit; leaders back reforms, request IMF funds; other developments," 27 Nov. 1997. Wang, Xiangwei, and Sin-Mi Hon. "Beijing to slash import tax; industrial goods and information technology targeted in trade body bid." South China Morning Post, 27 Nov. 1997. Ahmad, Zainon, and Zainul Ariffin. " A P E C leaders endorse proposal for IMF study on currency trading." New Straits Times (Malaysia), 27 Nov. 1997. Beck, Simon. " A comfortable place for Jiang." South China Morning Post, 27 Nov. 1997.  63  Hughes, Duncan, and Simon Beck. "European leaders to attend talks while speculators face IMF-led probe; A P E C calls for global action." South China Morning Post, 27 Nov. 1997. South China Morning Post, " A P E C and beyond," 27 Nov. 1997. Marcus, David L. " A P E C leaders pledge economic rescue work; but annual meeting ends on grave note, with Asian markets plunging." Boston Globe, 26 Nov. 1997. Durkan, Sean. "Indonesian spies put on plane home 'breaching security'." Toronto Sun, 26 Nov. 1997. Israelson, David. " A P E C leaders were too glib Asian turmoil cause for concern despite assurance analysis." Toronto Star, 26 Nov. 1997. Agence France Presse, " A P E C leaders pilot economies over dangerous territory," 26 Nov. 1997. —, " A P E C leaders endorse efforts to improve lot of women," 26 Nov. 1997. Maserati, Helen. "Expanding market havoc is the legacy of globalization: A P E C critics." Agence France Presse, 26 Nov. 1997. Jiji Press Ticker Service, " A P E C leaders resolved over financial stability." 26 Nov. 1997. Press (Christchurch), "Bolger raises human-rights issue with Indonesian leader," 26 Nov. 1997. Suryodiningrat, Meidyatama. "18 A P E C leaders to unite to deal with economic crisis." Jakarta Post, 26 Nov. 1997. Hawthorne, Maria. "Can: A P E C holds nerve on trade." A A P Newsfeed, 26 Nov. 1997. —. "Can: no place for human rights at A P E C . " A A P Newsfeed, 26 Nov. 1997. Kosukegawa, Yoichi. " A P E C leaders start Vancouver summit for stable market." Japan Economic Newswire, 25 Nov. 1997. Jakarta Post, "Singgih to probe alleged misuse of Jamsostek's funds," 25 Nov. 1997. Suryodiningrat, Meidyatama, and Ati Nurbaiti. "Canada to send specialists for Pakpahan." Jakarta Post, 25 Nov. 1997. Hawthorne, Maria. "Can: Mahathir isolated on free market." A P P Newsfeed, 25 Nov. 1997. British Broadcasting Corporation, "China to host A P E C meetings in 2001," 24 Nov. 1997. —, "Thai foreign minister leaves for A P E C meeting, agenda changed," 24 Nov. 1997. Steeds, Bernie. " P M to meet Jiang at A P E C summit." Evening Post (Wellington), 24 Nov. 1997. Dominion (Wellington), "Trade coup for N Z , " 24 Nov. 1997. Financial Times (London), "Asian business leaders keep their cool," 24 Nov. 1997. —, "Europe shapes up," 24 Nov. 1997. Borneo Bulletin, "Money crisis looms over A P E C summit," 22 Nov. 1997. Asaffin, Zainul. "High expectations at Vancouver summit despite regional crisis." New Straits Times  64  (Malaysia), 21 Nov. 1997. Kassim, Yang Razali. " A crucial test for the A P E C summit." Business Times (Singapore), 21 Nov. 1997. Financial Post Daily, "Clinton goes empty-handed to forum [Vancouver summit]," 20 Nov. 1997. Kosukegawa, Yoichi. " A P E C week to start in Vancouver, seeking stable market." Japan Economic Newswire, 19 Nov. 1997. Japan Economic Newswire, " A P E C leaders to join forces to end currency crisis," 19 Nov. 1997. Xinhua News Agency, "Philippine official calls for consensus on regional cooperation," 18 Nov. 1997. Chongkittavorn, Kavi. "Changes since Chuan last met A P E C leaders." Nation (Thailand), 17 Nov. 1997. Uchida, Akinori. " A P E C draft cooperation to end currency crises." Daily Yomiuri, 16 Nov. 1997. Bangkok Post, "Trade: Thailand resists pact on electronic commerce: US pushing for a deal, developing nations need time for study," 14 Nov. 1997. Japan Economic Newswire, " A P E C business advisers to discuss currency crisis," 12 Nov. 1997. Ashayagachat, Achara. "Confidence building talk needed: US expected to make up for earlier 'benign neglect'. Bangkok Post, 1 Nov. 1997. Kosukegawa, Yoichi. " A P E C likely to turn trade summit into finance summit." Japan Economic Newswire, 1 Nov. 1997. Bergsten, C. Fred. " A job for A P E C leaders in Vancouver." International Herald Tribune (Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), 1 Nov. 1997. News Sample 1998 Weinberg, Paul. "Rights-Canada: fallout from A P E C conference plagues government." Inter Press Service, 15 Dec. 1998. Asia Today, "Big business beginning to lose patience." Dec. 1998. Beck, Simon. "Gore rushed in where Clinton might think twice." South China Morning Post, 22 Nov. 1998. British Broadcasting Corporation, "Philippine President, US Vice-President discuss Spratlys, arms modernization," 20 Nov. 1998. Lugo, Leotes Marie T. '"He's getting used to this...'(the President's men rate his performance in A P E C ) . " BusinessWorld, 20 Nov. 1998. Straits Times (Singapore), "Tiff with US as seen by Asian press Jakarta," 19 Nov. 1998. British Broadcasting Corporation, "Chinese president leaves for home after A P E C meeting," 19 Nov. 1998. —, "Malaysia: Taiwan official urges A P E C leaders to draft plan to revive confidence," 19 Nov. 1998. —, "Chinese President speaks to A P E C on world economy," 19 Nov. 1998. New Straits Times (Malaysia), "Meeting has come of age, says Shipley," 19 Nov. 1998.  65  Toronto Star, " A P E C leaders seek task force on money rules analysis dismiss declaration as nothing new," 19 Nov. 1998. Financial Times (London), " A P E C adrift," 19 Nov. 1998. Patten, Chris. " A trial of weakness in Malaysia Chris Patten believes there is a lesson for the Far East in Anwar Ibrahim's persecution." Daily Telegraph (London), 19 Nov. 1998. Waikato Times (Hamilton), "Coming of age for A P E C amid rights row: P M , " 19 Nov. 1998. Xinhua News Agency, "People's daily editorial applauds A P E C leaders meeting," 19 Nov. 1998. Bernama (Kuala Lumpur), " K L meeting keeps A P E C on track," 19 Nov. 1998. Borneo Bulletin, "Brunei - Sultan's A P E C concern," 19 Nov. 1998. Japan Economic Newswire, "Daley unhappy with A P E C ' s failure to strike trade pact," 19 Nov. 1998. Deutsche Presse-Agentur, "Mahathir plays down US row as A P E C leaders end lackluster summit," 18 Nov. 1998. Agence France Presse, "Clinton's presence could have boosted A P E C summit: Australian P M , " 18 Nov. 1998. Ong, Adeline. "Malaysia gets US$1.8bn loan pledge from Japan." Business Times (Malaysia), 18 Nov. 1998. Japan Economic Newswire, " A P E C leaders welcome Japan-US Asia aid initiative," 18 Nov. 1998. Xinhua News Agency, "Jiang delivers keynotes speech at A P E C leaders meeting," 18 Nov. 1998. Lugo, Leotes Marie T. " A S E A N backs move to 'regulate' financial markets to contain crisis." BusinessWorld, 18 Nov. 1998. Wada, Daisaku. " A P E C leaders want disclosure from hedge funds." Japan Economic Newswire, 18 Nov. 1998. Murayama, Kohei. "Obuchi says A P E C leaders back Japan." Japan Economic Newswire, 18 Nov. 1998. Pongvutitham, Achara, and Yindee Lertcharoenchok. "Japan, US unveil $10bn fund." Nation (Thailand), 17 Nov. 1998. China Daily, "Jiang meets A P E C leaders, emphasizes co-operation," 17 Nov. 1998. Bujang, Asiah, Eirmalasare Bani, Hamisah Hamid, Jennifer Jacobs, Lokman Mansor, Pratap Parameswaran, and Zulkifli Othman. "Call to set up a task force." Business Times (Malaysia), 17 Nov. 1998. Wada, Daisaku. " A P E C summit opens, Mahathir wants to discuss crisis." Japan Economic Newswire, 17 Nov. 1998. New Straits Times (Malaysia), "Abdullah given assurance Obuchi will play active role," 16 Nov. 1998. Business Times (Malaysia), "US, Iraq urged to seek peaceful solution," 16 Nov. 1998. Bernama (Kula Lumpur), "Dr. Mahathir may raise concerns over unfair opinions on Malaysia," 15 Nov. 1998. Porter, Barry, and David Saunders. "Setback for A P E C trade negotiations as Japan allies join sector resistance." South China Morning Post, 14 Nov. 1998.  66  Wada, Daisaku. " A P E C leaders' declaration addresses hedge fund problem." Japan Economic Newswire, 14 Nov. 1998. Sivabalan, E. "China to continue investing in Malaysia." Bernama (Kula Lumpur), 14 Nov. 1998. Bernama (Kula Lumpur), "New Zealand Prime Minister to hold talks with Dr. Mahathir," 12 Nov. 1998. Agence France Presse, "Philippine leader reiterates commitment to economic liberalization," 12 Nov. 1998. Durkan, Sean. "Malaysia delivers snub for snub." London Free Press, 12 Nov. 1998. Parameswaran, P. " A P E C ' s rapid free trade plan under threat." Agence France Presse, 11 Nov. 1998. United Press International, "UPI focus: Clinton calls for fair trade," 10 Nov. 1998. Nation, "Malaysia and S'pore must let go of past," 8 Nov. 1998. Magno, Alex. "Zealots in the land of Oz." Manila Standard, 7 Nov. 1998. Kassin, Yang Razali. " K L summit: A P E C at a cross-roads." Business Times (Singapore), 6 Nov. 1998. Asia Pulse, "USIS - A P E C meeting in K L most important yet: US envoy," 6 Nov. 1998. Business Times (Malaysia), "No request from Manila for meet'," 27 Oct. 1998. Dwyer, Michael, and Tony Boyd. "Corporate debt rescue for Asia." Australian Financial Review, 26 Oct. 1998. Wright, Lincoln. " A P E C ' s future 'problematic'; South-east Asia's financial crisis threatens trade liberalization, constructive diplomacy." Canberra Times, 18 Oct. 1998. Asia Pulse, "Singapore P M urges all A P E C leaders to attend K L summit," 13 Oct. 1998. Bernama (Kuala Lumpur), "Kuala Lumpur gears up for A P E C summit," 11 Oct. 1998.  67  Appendix I  A P E C Venues and Member Participation  Pre-AELM - A P E C Ministerial Meetings, 1989-1992 1989  November 6-7  Canberra. Australia (12)  A S E A N members (Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand and the United States 1990  July 29-31  Singapore (12)  A S E A N members (Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand and the United States Observers: The A S E A N Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference (PECC) and the South Pacific Forum (SPF) 1991  November 12-14  Seoul, Republic of Korea (12)  A S E A N members (Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand and the United States New Members: People's Republic of China, Hong Kong and Chinese Taipei Observers: The A S E A N Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference (PECC) and the South Pacific Forum (SPF) ' 1992  September 10-11  Bangkok, Thailand (15)  A S E A N members (Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Chinese Taipei, and the United States Observers: The A S E A N Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) and the South Pacific Forum (SPF) A E L M , 1993-1998 1993  November 20  Blake Island. Seattle. US (14)  Australia (Prime Minister Paul Keating), Brunei Darussalam (Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah), Canada (Prime Minister Jean Chretien), People's Republic of China (President Jiang Zemin), Hong Kong (Financial Secretary Hamish MacLeod), Indonesia (President Soeharto), Japan (Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa), Republic of Korea (President Kim Young Sam), New Zealand (Prime Minister Jim Bolger), The Philippines (President Fidel Ramos), Singapore (Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong), Chinese Taipei (Chairman for Economic Planning Development Vincent C Siew), Thailand (Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai) and the United States (President Bill Clinton) Absent: Malaysia (Prime Minister Muhamad Mahathir) 1994  November 15  Bogor. Indonesia (18)  Australia (Prime Minister Paul Keating), Brunei Darussalam (Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah), Canada (Prime Minister Jean Chretien), People's Republic of China (President Jiang Zemin), Hong Kong (Financial Secretary Hamish MacLeod), Indonesia (President Soeharto), Japan (Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama), Republic of Korea (President Kim Young Sam), Malaysia (Prime Minister Muhamad Mahathir), New Zealand (Prime Minister Jim Bolger), The Philippines (President Fidel Ramos), Singapore (Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong), 68  Chinese Taipei (Chairman for Economic Planning Development Vincent C Siew), Thailand (Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai) and the United States (President Bill Clinton) New Members: Chile (President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle), Mexico (President Carlos Salinas de Gortari) and Papua New Guinea (Prime Minister Julius Chan) 1995  November 19  Osaka, Japan (18)  Australia (Prime Minister Paul Keating), Brunei Darussalam (Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah), Canada (Prime Minister Jean Chretien, Chile (President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle), People's Republic of China (President Jiang Zemin), Hong Kong (Financial Secretary Donald Tsang Yam-kuen), Indonesia (President Soeharto), Japan (Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama), Republic of Korea (President Kim Young Sam), Malaysia (Prime Minister Muhamad Mahathir), Mexico (President Ernesto Zedillo), New Zealand (Prime Minister Jim Bolger), Papua New Guinea (Prime Minister Julius Chan), The Philippines (President Fidel Ramos), Singapore (Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong), Chinese Taipei (Senior Advisor Koo Chen-fu), Thailand (Prime Minister Banharn Silpa-archa) and the United States (Vice-President A l Gore) 1996  November 25  Subic, The Philippines (18)  Australia (Prime Minister John Howard), Brunei Darussalam (Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah), Canada (Prime Minister Jean Chretien, Chile (President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle), People's Republic of China (President Jiang Zemin), Hong Kong (Financial Secretary Donald Tsang Yam-kuen), Indonesia (President Soeharto), Japan (Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto), Republic of Korea (President Kim Young Sam), Malaysia (Prime Minister Muhamad Mahathir), Mexico (President Ernesto Zedillo), New Zealand (Prime Minister Jim Bolger), Papua New Guinea (Prime Minister Julius Chan), The Philippines (President Fidel Ramos), Singapore (Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong), Chinese Taipei (Senior Advisor Koo Chen-fu), Thailand (Prime Minister Banharn Silpaarcha) and the United States (President Bill Clinton) 1997  November 25  Vancouver. Canada (18)  Australia (Prime Minister John Howard), Brunei Darussalam (Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah), Canada (Prime Minister Jean Chretien, Chile (President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle), People's Republic of China (President Jiang Zemin), Hong Kong (Chief Executive Tung Chee Hwa), Indonesia (President Soeharto), Japan (Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto), Republic of Korea (President Kim Young Sam), Malaysia (Prime Minister Muhamad Mahathir), Mexico (President Ernesto Zedillo), New Zealand (Prime Minister Jim Bolger), Papua New Guinea (Prime Minister Bill Skate), The Philippines (President Fidel Ramos), Singapore (Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong), Chinese Taipei (Senior Advisor Koo Chen-fu), Thailand (Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai) and the United States (President Bill Clinton) 1998  November 19  Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia (21)  Australia (Prime Minister John Howard), Brunei Darussalam (Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah), Canada (Prime Minister Jean Chretien, Chile (President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle), People's Republic of China (President Jiang Zemin), Hong Kong (Chief Executive Tung Chee Hwa), Indonesia (President B.J. Habibie), Japan (Prime Minister Kiezo Obuchi), Republic of Korea (President Kim Dae-Jung), Malaysia (Prime Minister Muhamad Mahathir), Mexico (President Ernesto Zedillo), New Zealand (Prime Minister Jenny Shipley), Papua New Guinea (Prime Minister Bill Skate), The Philippines (President Joseph Estrada), Singapore (Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong), Chinese Taipei (Chairman for Economic Planning Development Chiang Pin-kung), Thailand (Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai) and the United States (Vice-President A l Gore) New Members: Russia (Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov), Peru (President Alberto Fujimori) and Vietnam (Prime Minister Phan Van Khai)  69  Appendix II: Host Economy  A E L M Schedule and News Search Dates, 1993-1998 Date of Meeting  Lexis-Nexis Search Dates  Malaysia 18 November 1998 1 October - 31 December Canada 25 November 1997 1 October - 31 December Philippines 25 November 1996 1 October - 31 December Japan 19 November 1995 1 October - 31 December Indonesia 15 November 1994 1 October - 31 December US 20 November 1993 1 October - 31 December Total News Items Identified (Lexis-Nexis Database)  Search Result (gross) 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993  828 846 312 304 167 158 2,615  Period of search dates is the full calendar month prior and also following the meeting (e.g., 1 October to 31 December) in order to cover meeting held in November of that year. Search results accessing Lexis-Nexis database by regions on 28 March 2002 and 4, 5, 15-16 April 2002  Appendix III: Lexis-Nexis Sources by Year (modified)  Modified News (Lexis Nexis) Regional Search:  America I Total Retrieved \ car (Regional Search)  Asia Europe North  1998  1993  1994  1995  1996  1997  T  T  T  T  T  T  125 18 15  114 33 20  249 40 15  183 33 96  462 55 69  159 107 73  158  16"  304  312  586  339  Total press reports retrieved was 2615 news items (see Appendix II). Total news items retained in modified search was 1866 news reports.  70  oo OS OS  so  r-  CN  Os OS  CN  U— Os  so  in •  m  OS Os  CN  ho CN  o  •n  m  XI  OS Os  3  O-  OO CN  C3  ° OS OS  u  Xi  &  I/I  CN  oo  _o  in  s  os os <L>  13 C3  a,  c  O  03  C3  00  o & 00  00  00  a  D  so  c c c o I'55 155 IK  o o cn  X  _0J  •53  o U o  c  'E  X o  3  6  o  00  <U  O. D-  "3 o  <  oo 00  X  Xi  H  "I  H  o  CB  <u 00  IH  loo T3 C  ID >V '=& ID  oo  3  .tS  oo  03  O  71  >-  C3  <D  ec .g "a  <D  CS  » <  "3 o  s  60 —  e  _ c/> ^3  5  o H  Appendix V  A E L M News Sample Reporting (%)  APEC Leaders Economic Vision Statement Blake Island, Seattle, US 20 November 1993 Leaders' Statement Main Stage • •  Pre-AELM  AELM/Post-AELM  Total  4.3 6.8  3.1 3.2  7.4 10  5 3  8 3  13 6  2.4 0.6 0 0  1.8 0 0 0  4.2 0.6 0 0  3 1.2 2.4 2.4 0 0  0.6 1.8 0 0 0 0.6 3.6  3.6 3 2.4 2.4 0 0.6 6.6  0 4.8 0.6 0 1.2  3.7  3.7  0 0 0.6 0  4.8 0.6 0.6 1.2  4.8 0  1.5 4.2  6.3 4.2  5.6 6.2 1.2 58.5  1.4 4.4 0 41.5  10.6 1.2 100  _  Potential A P E C as Trade Bloc Potential A P E C as Entity Trading Svstems GATT/Uruguay Round Open Regional Trade/investment Economic Endeavors Tangible Economic Growth Benefits Human Resource Department Telecommunications/Transportation Environment, Energy, Sustainable Use Agents and Targets Eminent Persons Group A P E C Finance Ministers Pacific Business Forum A P E C Education Program A P E C Volunteer Program Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) APEC Language Small Stage Future Meetings The 'Chinas' Attendance Cultural Exchange Emerging Economies M F N Status Actors Mahathir Mahathir Keating Exchange Agendas US Policy Bilateral Meetings A S E A N Pre-Meeting Total Distribution  72  7  Appendix VI  A E L M News Sample Reporting (%)  APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration of Common Resolve Bogor, Indonesia 15 November 1994 Pre-AELM  AELM/Post-AELM  Total  0.6 0.6 1 1  0.6 0.6 2 1  1.2 1.2 3 2  3.7 10.4  6 6.1  9.7 16.5  0.6  0  0.6  1.2 0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 3.3 0.6  0 0 0 0 0 0.6 1 3.6  1.2 0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.8 4.3 4.2  0 3 0 2 0.6 2.9  2.5 4 0 2.4 0 3.9  2.5 7 0 4.4 0.6 6.8  2  3.2  5.2  4 9 0.7 52  3.1 7.4 0 48  7.1 16.4 0.7 100  Leaders' Statement Main Stage Principles Reaffirm A P E C Reiterate Prior Declaration Potential A P E C as Trade Bloc Potential A P E C as Entity .  .  »  —  ^  .  J  _  G A T T Gains and Future Compliance Regional Trade/investment 2010/20 Economic Endeavors Facilitation Three Pillars, Emerging Economies" Agents and Targets (Facilitation Initiatives) Human Resource Development A P E C Education Small and Medium Enterprises Science/Tech Transfer Business A P E C Dispute Resolution/Mediation Engagement EPG and Business/ Feedback APEC Language Small Stage News Future Meetings The Chinas' Attendance Cultural Exchange Emerging Economies Most Favored Nation Status Protests/International NGOs Actors Malaysia. Prime Minister Mahathir Agendas US Policy Bilateral Meetings A S E A N Thai Concerns (Mini- Multilateral) Total Distribution  ' The three pillars refer to sustainable growth, equitable development and national stability.  73  Appendix VII  A E L M News Sample Reporting (%)  APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration for Action Osaka, Japan November 19,1995  Leaders' Statement Main Stage Principles Reaffirm A P E C Potential A P E C Limited Progress Reiterate Prior Achievements Trading Systems _ WTO/Singapore Meeting Regional Trade/investment 2010/20 Open Multilateral vs. Bloc Framework: Osaka Action Agenda Economic Endeavors IAP Principals, Annual IAP Review Individual Action Packages Facilitation - Partners for Progress Agents and Targets  Pre-AELM  AELM/Post-AELM  Total  2 0 2.5 2.5  2 0 0.5 1.5  4 0 3 4  0 4 1  0.5 6 1.5  0.5 10 2.5  0 2.5 1 1.5 2.5  0 1 0 2.5 3  0 3.5 1 4 5.5  0.5 1.5 0 1 0.5  2 0 0 0.5 0  2.5 1.5 0 1.5 0.5  2.5 3  3 2  5.5 5  7 4.5 0.5 0.5 54.5  1.5 2.5 0.5 0.5 45.5  8.5  1.5 6.5 1.5 4_  | 3  b  S  A  •  ;  Human Resource Development, Education Business A P E C Dispute Resolution/Mediation Sustainable Development APEC Language Small Stage Issues Future Meetings The Chinas' Attendance Cultural Exchange Most Favored Nation Status Protests. NGOs, Opposition Actors Malaysia, Mahathir Viewpoints N I E / L D C ASEAN/Mahathir Agendas US Policy Bilateral Meetings EC Formal Free Trade Zone Bloc A S E A N and China Mini-Multilateral Total Distribution 0  7 1 1 100  The three pillars refer to sustainable growth, equitable development and national stability. Tariff, WTO, deregulation, Initial Action, voluntary liberalization. Items of the original Pillars now NIE/LDC, population, food, energy and environment slated as long-term goals of A P E C (length of time not specified).  a  b  c  74  Appendix VII  A E L M News Sample Reporting (%)  APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration: From Vision to Action Subic, The Philippines November 25,1996 Pre-AELM  AELM/Post-AELM  Total  0.5 0.5 0.5 0  1.7 2.9 1.8 0  2.2 3.4 2.3 0  3 3  7.8 4.2  10.8 7.2  4 2.4 1.6 0.5 1.5  7.6 1.5 0.5 1 2.9  11.6 3.9 2.1 1.5 4.4  0 1.6 0 2.5 1 0 2.3 2.3  0 2 0 1.2 0.5 0 2.3 2.3  0 3.6 0 3.7 1.5 0 4.6 4.6  0.5 1.5 0 3.5 0.5 4.7 3  0.5 0.5 0 2.4 0.4 3.5 3.6  2 0 5.9 0.9 8.2 6.6  1.5  3  4.5  0.5 3 0 45.9  0 0 0 54.1  0.5  Leaders' Statement Main Stage Reaffirm A P E C Affirm sustainable growth/equitable dev Reaffirm shared vision Potential A P E C as Entity/Trade Bloc Tradinp Svstems Multilateral WTO/IT Agreement Deadline 2010/20 Economic Endeavors M A P A and Osaka Action Agenda IAP Review Support Framework/Action Agendas Facilitation Sustainability Agents and Targets Human Resources Development Small Medium Enterprises Ec/Tech Cooperation Ec policy/Capital Markets/Investment Women and Youth A P E C Dispute Resolution/Mediation Business, A P E C Business Forum 3  APEC Language Small Stage Future Meetings The Chinas' Attendance Cultural Exchange Emerging Economies Most Favored Nation Status Protests and International NGOs Security Actions  Malavsia. Mahathir Deadlines Agendas US Foreign Policy Bilateral Meetings ASEAN Total Distribution ' Central role, public and private sectors operate together  75  1  3 0 100  Appendix IX  A E L M News Sample Reporting (%)  APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration: Connecting the APEC Community Vancouver, Canada November 25,1997 Pre-AELIM  AELM/Post-AELM  Total  Reaffirm A P E C Affirm current status/fundamentals/pillars Reaffirm Osaka, M A P A , IAP, E V S L Potential A P E C as Entity and Trade Bloc Trading Systems Multilateral W T O Deadline 2010/20 Economic Endeavors M A P A and Osaka Action Agenda IAP Review Facilitation Agents and Targets Vision 21"  0.5 0 0 0  2 0.5 0.5 0  2.5 0.5 0.5 0  2 3.5  1.5 2.5  3.5 6  5 0.5 3  6.5 0.5 6  11.5 1 9  Infrastructure Science/Technical, IT, Poverty, Education Environment Emergency Youth Vancouver Framework Public/Private APEC Language Small Stage Issues Future Meetings The Chinas' Attendance Crisis and Assistance Cultural Exchange NIE/LDC Most Favors Nation Status Protests/International NGOs/People's Summit Women in A P E C Limited Results Security Actors Malaysia, Mahathir Deadlines Agendas US Policy Bilateral Meetings ASEAN Total Distribution  1 0 2.5 1.5 0.5 1.5 1  1 0 1.5 0.5 0 0.5 3  2 0 4 2 0.5 2 4  1.5 0.5 9 0 1 0 0.5 0.5 1 0  0 0 10 0 2 0.5 4.5 1 2 1.5  1.5 0.5 19 0 3 0.5 5 1.5 3 1.5  Leaders' Statement Main Stage I 1 11I\.I|SI^>3  a  Q  -  2  3  -  0  .  0.5  3.5  2.5 1.5 0.5 41.5  2 4.5 0.5 58.5  4 ,  4.5 6 1 100  Early Volunteer Sector Liberalization (EVSL) Year of Action: Key Results: IAPs, early voluntary liberalization (9 of 15 sectors), facilitation, G A T T , WTO, 1996 Framework, Partnership, S M E Vision 21 st Century Connection Vancouver Framework for Enhanced Public/Private Partnerships in Infrastructure Development  a  b  c  76  Appendix X  A E L M News Sample Reporting (%)  APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration: Strengthening the Foundations for Growth Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia November 18,1998 Leaders' Statement Main Stage Principles Reaffirm A P E C Affirm current status/fundamentals Key Achievements Potential A P E C as Entity and Trade Bloc Trading Systems Multilateral W T O Trade/Investment Liberalization 2010/20 Economic Endeavors Key Challenges Financial Crisis Facilitation Economic/Technical Cooperation Foundations for Sustained Growth Y2K Group of 22  Pre-AELM  AELM/Post-AELM  Total  2.5 0.5 0 0  3.5 0 0 0  6 0.5 0 0  1 4.9  1.5 5.3  2.5 10.2  3.5 0 0.5 2.5 0 0.5 0  5.7 2 3.5 4.5 0.5 4 1.5  9.2 2 4 7 0.5 4.5 1.5  0 0 6 0 0.5 0 2.5 0.5 1  0 0.5 6.3 0 1.5 0 0.5 2.5 0  0 0.5 12.3 0 2 0 3 3 1  3.5  6.5  10  4 4 0.5 38.4  6.9 4.9 0 61.6  10.9 8.9 0.5 100  3  b  1  •  APEC Language Small Stage Issues Future Meetings The Chinas' Crisis and Assistance Cultural Exchange Emerging Economies Most Favored Nation Status Protests/International NGOs Limited Returns, Lack of Leadership Security Actors Malaysia, Mahathir, Anwar Agendas US Policy Bilateral Meetings A S E A N (Mini-Multilaterals) Total Distribution  •  Cooperative Growth Strategy, Growth Oriented Macro policies, Employment and Social Safety Nets, Financial and corporate Sector restructuring, Private Capital Flows, Strengthen Financial Architecture Foundations for Sustained Growth 21 Century Strengthen social Safety Nets, Financial Systems, capital flows, investment flows, sci/tech, HRD, (1998 Kuala Lumpur Action Programme on Skills Development in A P E C , economic infrastructure, business and commercial (SPAN for SME)  3  b  st  77  

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