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The investigation of generative themes in E.S.L. needs assessment 1986

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THE INVESTIGATION OF GENERATIVE THEMES IN E . S . L . NEEDS ' ASSESSMENT by ELLEN JOANNE MILLARD B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y Of V i c t o r i a , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1986 © E l l e n Joanne M i l l a r d , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requ irements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree tha t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date : Oc tobe r 15 1986 i i A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s the " g e n e r a t i v e theme" as the b a s i s f o r a d u l t ESL needs a n a l y s i s and c u r r i c u l u m deve lopment . G e n e r a t i v e themes c o n s i s t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an o b j e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n and the p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d of tha t s i t u a t i o n by the peop le i n v o l v e d i n i t . They form the b a s i s f o r program c o n t e n t i n the p e d a g o g i c a l scheme of B r a z i l i a n a d u l t l i t e r a c y e d u c a t o r Paulo F r e i r e . N o r t h American ESL p r a c t i t i o n e r s , n o t a b l y N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n , Deborah B a r n d t , and the T o r o n t o ESL Core G r o u p , have deve loped g u i d e l i n e s f o r ESL t e a c h e r s to i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s themes and s t r u c t u r e the content of l e s s o n s around them. However a c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e , a f u l l - s c a l e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e t h n o g r a p h i c s tudy of the s t u d e n t s ' community i s n e c e s s a r y i n order to unders t an d t h e i r themes. The p r i m a r y purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to de termine whether an i n d i v i d u a l ESL t e a c h e r c o u l d come up w i t h a themat ic a n a l y s i s t h a t would f u l f i l l F r e i r e ' s c r i t e r i a , through a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n case study of an a d u l t ESL c l a s s . The second purpose was to i d e n t i f y the themes of these p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r to g a i n some i n s i g h t s as to the r e l e v a n c e of g e n e r a t i v e themes for l e a r n i n g E S L . The s tudent s were four P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g immigrant women e n r o l l e d i n a homefront v o l u n t e e r t u t o r ESL program o f f e r e d by the C a n d i a n Farmworkers U n i o n . I taught the tw ice -week ly c l a s s e s f o r f i v e months, taped them and r e c o r d e d o b s e r v a t i o n s , and then conducted a c o n t e n t - a n a l y s i s of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the tapes i n o r d e r to i d e n t i f y and rank the t o p i c areas of most and l e a s t i n t e r e s t to the s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g to t ime spent d i s c u s s i n g them. I then a n a l y z e d these t o p i c areas q u a l i t a t i v e l y , a c c o r d i n g to whether or not they met F r e i r e ' s c r i t e r i a f o r g e n e r a t i v e themes. From t h i s a n a l y s i s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e themes emerged. S tudent s see t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n Canada as one of " s t r a n g e r s i n a s t r a n g e l a n d . The " s t r a n g e r s " a r e a r e p r e s e n t s a l l those a s p e c t s of the s t u d e n t s ' t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e w h i c h , whi l e sources of a f f i r m a t i o n and s t r e n g t h to them, are out of p l a c e and i r r e l e v a n t i n Candian s o c i e t y . The "strange land" i s Canda and the system - i n c l u d i n g the E n g l i s h language , the m e d i c a l and l e g a l sys tem, l i f e i n a b i g c i t y - which i s f o r e i g n , d i f f i c u l t , a l i e n a t i n g and h o s t i l e . B r i d g i n g the g u l f between these two, t h e i r main source of c o n t a c t and t h e r e f o r e of t e n s i o n s . between them, are the f a m i l y and the language l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . C u r r i c u l a r recommendations a r e t h a t ESL content be focussed on f a m i l y - r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g needs , and t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m take the approach of a f f i r m i n g the c u l t u r a l themes that are s o u r c e s of s t r e n g t h and p r i d e w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g to l e s s e n the i gnorance and a l i e n a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e s s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of Canadian s o c i e t y . S e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s are made r e g a r d i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y of i n v e s t i g a t i n g g e n e r a t i v e themes f o r E S L . Some of the problems are l o g i s t i c a l and can be a d d r e s s e d by changing the s i t u a t i o n : a s t r a t e g y to combine F r e i r e ' s f o u r - s t a g e team approach w i t h the parameters of the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g i s p r o p o s e d . O t h e r s , such as the d i f f i c u l t y of c o n d u c t i n g ' d i a l o g u e ' i n one-word p h r a s e s , i v and the c o n f l i c t of r o l e s and agenda between the t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h a s p e c t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , are i n h e r e n t i n the a t tempt to a p p l y F r e i r e ' s pedagogy to E S L . T h i s attempt i s worthwhi le and i m p o r t a n t , however, because t h i s approach i s one of the few t h a t takes i n t o account l e a r n e r s ' s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m , and t h a t acknowledges the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language l e a r n i n g and power i n t h e i r l i v e s . V T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgement i x Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 THE PEDAGOGY OF PAULO FREIRE 5 GENERATIVE THEMES 9 Chapter II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 12 F R E I R E ' S GENERATIVE THEME INVESTIGATION 13 CLASSROOM THEMATIC INVESTIGATIONS 16 PROGRAM CONTENT OF THE FARMWORKERS ESL CRUSADE 26 STUDIES OF THE PUNJABI COMMUNITY IN VANCOUVER 32 Chapter I II CONTEXT OF THE INVESTIGATION 38 THE PUNJABI COMMUNITY IN VANCOUVER 38 FARMWORK 42 THE ESL CRUSADE 46 STUDENT PROFILES 49 Chapter IV THE PROCEDURE OF THEMATIC INVESTIGATION 56 GENERATIVE THEME INVESTIGATION AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 57 CHRONOLOGY OF THE INVESTIGATION 59 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES FOR REVEALING THEMES 65 OBSERVATION STRATEGIES 68 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES IN THEMATIC INVESTIGATION 72 v i C h a p t e r V PRESENTATION AND D I S C U S S I O N OF R E S U L T S 83 DATA A N A L Y S I S 83 T O P I C AREA I N T E R - R E L A T I O N S H I P S 93 FOOD 94 WORK 96 PHONE 98 DATA IN TERMS OF F R E I R I A N C R I T E R I A FOR THEMES 99 SOURCES OF FEAR 100 SOURCES OF STRENGTH 106 THE T I E THAT BINDS 110 SOURCES OF TENSION 115 STRANGERS IN A STRANGE LAND 120 C h a p t e r VI CONCLUSIONS 124 SUMMARY OF STUDY AND F INDINGS 125 THE I N V E S T I G A T I O N 125 A STRATEGY FOR I N V E S T I G A T I N G G E N E R A T I V E THEMES FOR E S L 1 27 THE THEMES 129 A THEMATIC E S L CURRICULUM 131 I S S U E S IN F R E I R I A N E S L T E A C H I N G AND RESEARCH 132 DIALOGUE IN ONE-WORD PHRASES 132 ROLE C O N F L I C T S IN THEMATIC I N V E S T I G A T I O N 136 LANGUAGE LEARNING IN A S O C I A L CONTEXT 139 LANGUAGE LEARNING AND POWER 141 B IBLIOGRAPHY ^ 145 VI 1 L i s t of Tables Ranking Results V I 1 1 L i s t of F i g u r e s S t r a n g e r s i n a S t r a n g e Land ix Acknowledgement The p r i m a r y c r e d i t f o r the work i n t h i s t h e s i s be longs to the four s tudent s of my Farmworkers ESL Crusade c l a s s : to t h e i r hones ty , energy , warmhearted g e n e r o s i t y , and f a i t h i n me. The people on the s t a f f and e x e c u t i v e of the Canadian Farmworkers Union a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l to my u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the P u n j a b i farmworker community i n V a n c o u v e r . Thanks f o r h e l p in the development of ideas to D a v i d Jackson and S y b i l F a i g i n , and to them and a l l my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y for l i s t e n i n g p a t i e n t l y to my c o m p l a i n t s and f r u s t r a t i o n s . My p a r t i c u l a r thanks to D r . Bernard Mohan, my a d v i s o r , f o r h i s h e l p and mora l support t h r o u g h o u t . 1 I . INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s the "genera t ive theme" as the b a s i s f o r a d u l t ESL program c o n t e n t . G e n e r a t i v e themes are p a r t of the p e d a g o g i c a l approach of Paulo F r e i r e , the B r a z i l i a n l i t e r a c y educator whose w r i t i n g s on l i b e r a t o r y e d u c a t i o n have had c o n s i d e r a b l e impact both i n the t h i r d wor ld and among t e a c h e r s of m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , immigrants and i l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s i n r i c h e r n a t i o n s . F r e i r e d e s c r i b e s the p l a c e of g e n e r a t i v e themes i n needs a n a l y s i s and c u r r i c u l u m development as f o l l o w s : I t i s to the r e a l i t y which mediates men, and to the p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t r e a l i t y h e l d by e d u c a t o r s and p e o p l e , t h a t we must go to f i n d the program c o n t e n t of e d u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of what I have termed the p e o p l e ' s ' t h e m a t i c u n i v e r s e ' - the complex of t h e i r ' g e n e r a t i v e themes' - i n a u g u r a t e s . . . e d u c a t i o n as the p r a c t i c e of freedom. The o b j e c t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s . . . the thought - language w i t h which men r e f e r to r e a l i t y , the l e v e l s a t which they p e r c e i v e tha t r e a l i t y , and t h e i r view of the w o r l d , i n which t h e i r g e n e r a t i v e themes are f o u n d . (1970:86) In Pedagogy of the O p p r e s s e d , F r e i r e o u t l i n e s a p r o c e d u r e f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the g e n e r a t i v e themes of a community f o r which an e d u c a t i o n a l program i s b e i n g p l a n n e d . A few N o r t h American ESL p r a c t i t i o n e r s have adapted F r e i r e ' s p r o c e d u r e f o r use by i n d i v i d u a l ESL t e a c h e r s . There i s a s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the f u l l - s c a l e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e t h n o g r a p h i c s tudy d e s c r i b e d by F r e i r e and the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d c l a s s r o o m and o b s e r v a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e these a d a p t a t i o n s . In some r e s p e c t s i t seems d o u b t f u l i f an i n d i v i d u a l ESL t e a c h e r 2 f o l l o w i n g these p r o c e d u r e s c o u l d p o s s i b l y a r r i v e a t an a n a l y s i s of the depth and d e t a i l t h a t F r e i r e d e s c r i b e s as n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to b u i l d a c u r r i c u l u m on p e o p l e s ' g e n e r a t i v e themes. I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t the l i m i t a t i o n s of these a d a p t a t i o n s to the g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n are i n d i c a t i v e of more g e n e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a p p l y i n g F r e i r e to the Canadian ESL s i t u a t i o n . The focus of my r e s e a r c h was to examine the f e a s i b i l i t y of i n v e s t i g a t i n g g e n e r a t i v e themes i n the ESL c l a s s r o o m . The c o n t e x t was a F r e i r e - s t y l e ESL program for P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g farmworkers o p e r a t e d by the Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n . I used a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n case s tudy methodology; the ' c a s e ' was my c l a s s of four women. In a d d i t i o n to c o m p i l i n g f i e l d notes on the p r o c e s s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I taped our t w i c e - w e e k l y ESL c l a s s e s over a p e r i o d of f i v e months, and c a r r i e d out a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s on t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the t a p e s . I then a n a l y z e d the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s i n terms of F r e i r e ' s c r i t e r i a f o r g e n e r a t i v e themes, and came up w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m model based on them. Thus the i n v e s t i g a t i o n had a double t h r u s t . The p r o c e d u r a l t h r u s t was to examine themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the ESL c l a s s r o o m . The s u b s t a n t i v e o b j e c t i v e was an a n a l y s i s of the g e n e r a t i v e themes r e v e a l e d by the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of important i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g the p r a c t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n of F r e i r e ' s t h e o r y to the Canadian ESL c o n t e x t . ESL programs c l a i m i n g to o p e r a t e from a s p e c i f i c a l l y F r e i r i a n s t a n d p o i n t are r a r e i n Canada . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes as a means of needs a n a l y s i s , and the p l a n n i n g 3 of program c o n t e n t and c u r r i c u l u m a c c o r d i n g to them, are not common even i n these programs . E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s examining the p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s of a d a p t i n g F r e i r e to the Canadian ESL c o n t e x t are v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . T h i s s tudy i s t h e r e f o r e very e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . Comments are made on the f e a s i b i l i t y of c l a s s r o o m themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n and of s t r u c t u r i n g ESL c u r r i c u l a a c c o r d i n g to g e n e r a t i v e themes; I b e l i e v e tha t these are r e l e v a n t not o n l y to F r e i r i a n programs but to the a r e a of a d u l t ESL needs a n a l y s i s and c u r r i c u l u m development i n g e n e r a l . I a n t i c i p a t e , however, t h a t the p r i m a r y u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s s tudy w i l l be to r a i s e q u e s t i o n s , e x p l o r e i s s u e s , and suggest d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the development of p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of F r e i r i a n pedagogy. The purpose of the s tudy was not to p r e s e n t one case as a t e s t of the r e l e v a n c e of F r e i r e ' s model to E S L , but to i n v e s t i g a t e the i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the needs assessment p o r t i o n of i t w i t h i n a program where i t s r e l e v a n c e i s assumed. The t h e s i s beg ins w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the key i n g r e d i e n t s of F r e i r e ' s pedagogy, e s p e c i a l l y h i s d e f i n i t o n of and c r i t e r i a f o r g e n e r a t i v e themes. Chapter II p r e s e n t s F r e i r e ' s themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n procedure and ESL c l a s s r o o m a d a p t a t i o n s of i t . A l s o i n t h i s c h a p t e r are d e s c r i b e d the o r i g i n a l needs a n a l y s i s and c u r r i c u l u m development of the Farmworkers ESL C r u s a d e . Some of the key i s s u e s i n a p p l y i n g F r e i r e to E S L , as r a i s e d and addressed by F r e i r e h i m s e l f i n a v i s i t to the C . F . U . o f f i c e , are p r e s e n t e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f rev iew of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of the 4 P u n j a b i community i n V a n c o u v e r , the s tudent group s e r v e d by the C r u s a d e . Chapter I I I p r e s e n t s the h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l contex t i n which the themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n took p l a c e . I t d e s c r i b e s the o p p r e s s i v e c o n d i t i o n s of farmwork i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , g i v e s a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n , and o u t l i n e s the o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e of the ESL Crusade f o r the year i n which my r e s e a r c h took p l a c e . I t c o n c l u d e s w i t h b r i e f p r o f i l e s of the four farmworker women who compr i sed my c l a s s . Chapter IV d e s c r i b e s and d i s c u s s e s the p r o c e d u r e of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n terms of the t e a c h i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were most and l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l f o r r e v e a l i n g g e n e r a t i v e themes, and i n terms of the l o g i s t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n ESL c l a s s r o o m themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n r a i s e s i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to the c o m a p t i b i l i t y of F r e i r e and E S L . In Chapter V , the s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d . T o p i c areas i d e n t i f i e d from a content a n a l y s i s of the taped d a t a are e v a l u a t e d i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to F r e i r e ' s c r i t e r i a f o r g e n e r a t i v e themes. S e v e r a l theme a r e a s are i d e n t i f i e d , and a p o s s i b l e a n a l y s i s of the s t u d e n t s ' "minimum themat ic u n i v e r s e " as i t r e l a t e s to l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h i s p r e s e n t e d . In Chapter VI both p r o c e d u r a l and s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s are summarized. A p r o p o s a l i s p r e s e n t e d for a g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t would combine F r e i r e ' s team a p p r o a c h w i t h the demands of the ESL t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r the development of a c u r r i c u l u m based on the themat ic i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l e d by the s tudy are a l s o p r e s e n t e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s 5 w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of some t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g ESL g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the development of themat ic c u r r i c u l a , and the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of F r e i r e ' s pedagogy in a Canadian ESL c o n t e x t . THE PEDAGOGY OF PAULO FREIRE A d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e of F r e i r e ' s approach to e d u c a t i o n i s o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s p a p e r . I w i l l , however, o u t l i n e i t s key i n g r e d i e n t s i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes which f o l l o w s . F r e i r e ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s p r e s e n t e d in h i s books Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) , E d u c a t i o n for C r i t i c a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s (1973) , Pedagogy in Proces s (1978) , and The P o l i t i c s of E d u c a t i o n (1985) . H i s most complete s tatement of the importance and r o l e of g e n e r a t i v e themes i s c o n t a i n e d i n C h a p t e r 3 of Pedagogy of the O p p r e s s e d ; t h i s w i l l be my c e n t r a l p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e . F r e i r e ' s c e n t r a l t ene t i s tha t e d u c a t i o n i s not p o l i t i c a l l y n e u t r a l . I t works to the advantage e i t h e r of the o p p r e s s o r s or of the o p p r e s s e d . I f i t i s to serve the l a t t e r , i t must do so by e q u i p p i n g them w i t h the a n a l y t i c a l , l i n g u i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l t o o l s to p e r c e i v e , name and change the s i t u a t i o n s which l i m i t t h e i r power over t h e i r l i v e s . S o c i a l change (not e x c l u d i n g p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n ) i s thus the u l t i m a t e g o a l of a F r e i r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l program. T h i s w i l l be l e g i t i m a t e o n l y i f a c c o m p l i s h e d as a r e s u l t of the " c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n " of the o p p r e s s e d . 6 C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n i s the awakening of a c r i t i c a l awareness of s o c i e t y and one ' s s i t u a t i o n i n i t , through a n a l y s i s of s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . I t i s the p r o c e s s whereby o p p r e s s e d people move from n a i e v e or "magic" c o n s c i o u s n e s s " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f a t a l i s m , which l e a d s men to f o l d t h e i r arms, r e s i g n e d to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of r e s i s t i n g the power of f a c t s , " to c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of cause and e f f e c t , and awareness of one ' s power to i n t e r v e n e i n h i s t o r y ( F r e i r e , 1973:44) . F r e i r e ' s t e a c h i n g approach i s de termined by h i s e p i s t e m o l o g y . T h i s i s " d i a l o g u e , " which he d e f i n e s as "a h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between persons . . . who a r e engaged i n a j o i n t s earch" ( I b i d . : 4 5 ) Knowledge does not e x i s t as a commodity which can be p a s s s e d down from teacher to s t u d e n t s , but i s c r e a t e d as the r e s u l t of the mutual r e f l e c t i o n and c r i t i c a l thought of t e a c h e r and s tudent s d i r e c t e d toward a t h i r d o b j e c t . A u t h e n t i c e d u c a t i o n i s not c a r r i e d on by ' A ' f o r ' B ' or by ' A ' about ' B , ' but r a t h e r by ' A ' w i t h ' B , ' mediated by the w o r l d - a w o r l d which impresses and c h a l l e n g e s b o t h p a r t i e s , g i v i n g r i s e to views or o p i n i o n s about i t . These v i e w s , impregnated w i t h a n x i e t i e s , d o u b t , hopes , or h o p e l e s s n e s s , imply s i g n i f i c a n t themes on the b a s i s of which the program content of e d u c a t i o n can be b u i l t . (1970:82) F r e i r e c o n t r a s t s t h i s d i a l o g i c a l model to "the b a n k i n g concept of e d u c a t i o n , i n which the s t u d e n t s are the d e p o s i t o r i e s and the t eacher i s the d e p o s i t o r " (1970:58) . Whereas d i a l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n s peop le to t h i n k for themse lves , bank ing e d u c a t i o n i s an e f f e c t i v e means of s o c i a l c o n t r o l : I t f o l l o w s l o g i c a l l y from the banking n o t i o n 7 of c o n s c i o u s n e s s that the e d u c a t o r ' s r o l e i s to r e g u l a t e the way the w o r l d ' e n t e r s i n t o ' the s t u d e n t s . H i s task i s to . . . ' f i l l ' the s t u d e n t s by making d e p o s i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n which he c o n s i d e r s to c o n s t i t u t e t r u e knowledge. And s i n c e men ' r e c e i v e ' the w o r l d as p a s s i v e e n t i t i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d make them more p a s s i v e s t i l l , and adapt them, to the w o r l d . . . T r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c e , t h i s concept i s w e l l s u i t e d to the purposes of the o p p r e s s o r s , whose t r a n q u i l i t y r e s t s on how w e l l men f i t the w o r l d the o p p r e s s o r s have c r e a t e d , and how l i t t l e they q u e s t i o n i t . (1970:62-63) The methodology by which d i a l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n c h a l l e n g e s the bank ing model and e f f e c t s the awakening of c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n the oppressed i s " p r o b l e m - p o s i n g . " The s t a r t i n g p o i n t for o r g a n i z i n g the program content of e d u c a t i o n or p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n must be the p r e s e n t , e x i s t e n t i a l , c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g the a s p i r a t i o n s of the p e o p l e . U t i l i z i n g c e r t a i n b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , we must pose t h i s e x i s t e n t i a l , c o n c r e t e , p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n to the people as a problem which c h a l l e n g e s them and r e q u i r e s a response - not j u s t a t the i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , but a t the l e v e l of a c t i o n . (1970:85) Problems a r e p r e s e n t e d to the people i n the form of " c o d i f i c a t i o n s . " These can be v i s u a l , o r a l or d r a m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and problems i n h e r e n t i n everyday s i t u a t i o n s . They must be e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e , " n e i t h e r o v e r l y e x p l i c i t nor o v e r l y e n g i m a t i c , " and they s h o u l d i l l u s t r a t e c o n n e c t i o n s between the s i t u a t i o n be ing examined and o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s i n s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s . The p r o c e s s by which they are a n a l y z e d i s c a l l e d "decod ing ." In the p r o c e s s of d e c o d i n g , the p a r t i c i p a n t s . . . b e g i n to see how they themselves a c t e d w h i l e a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c i n g the s i t u a t i o n they a r e now a n a l y z i n g , and thus reach a ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r p r e v i o u s p e r c e p t i o n . ' 8 By achieving t h i s awareness, they come to perceive r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t l y ... [thus] decoding stimulates the appearance of a new perception and the development of new knowledge. (1970:108) Fr e i r e does not specify any p a r t i c u l a r questioning strategy for the leader of a problem-posing discussion other than that "the co-ordinator must not only l i s t e n to the individuals but must challenge them, posing as problems both the c o d i f i e d e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n and their own answers" (1970:110). However Nina Wallerstein, whose thematic investigation work i s reviewed in the next chapter, has developed a five-step inductive problem-posing questioning procedure for use by ESL teachers. This begins with description of the content and feelings represented in the code. The next step i s to define the central problem and related issues. The t h i r d step i s for students to personalize the problem by comparing the code si t u a t i o n to t h e i r experience. The fourth step i s analysis of why that problem e x i s t s , locating i t within the larger h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l perspective. The l a s t step i s to identi f y actions that, however small, can be steps towards addressing the problem (Wallerstein, 1983:20-21). The situations that are depicted in these c o d i f i c a t i o n s , the relationships between them, and how and in what order they are presented for decoding are determined according to the peoples' generative themes. In contrast with the a n t i d i a l o g i c a l and non- communicative 'deposits' of the banking method of education, the program content of the problem-posing method - d i a l o g i c a l par excellence - is constituted and organized by the students' view of the world, where their 9 own g e n e r a t i v e themes are found . (1970:10.1) GENERATIVE THEMES F r e i r e d e f i n e s g e n e r a t i v e themes and defends t h e i r e x i s t e n c e w i t h r e f e r e n c e to h i s a n a l y s i s of p e o p l e s ' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the w o r l d , which i s c o n d i t i o n e d by e i t h e r an ' o p p r e s s e d ' a t t i t u d e of a d a p t a t i o n and f a t a l i s m or a ' l i b e r a t e d ' a t t i t u d e of c r i t i c a l , a c t i v e engagement. The concept of the g e n e r a t i v e theme i s n e i t h e r an a r b i t r a r y i n v e n t i o n nor a working h y p o t h e s i s to be p r o v e d . . . . A l t h o u g h an a t t i t u d e of c r i t i c a l doubt i s l e g i t i m a t e , i t does appear p o s s i b l e to v e r i f y the r e a l i t y of the g e n e r a t i v e theme . . . through c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on the men-world r e l a t i o n s h i p and on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men. The g e n e r a t i v e theme cannot be found i n men, d i v o r c e d from r e a l i t y , nor yet i n r e a l i t y , d i v o r c e d from men; much l e s s i n 'no man's l a n d . ' I t can o n l y be apprehended i n the men-world r e l a t i o n s h i p . To i n v e s t i g a t e the g e n e r a t i v e theme i s to i n v e s t i g a t e man's t h i n k i n g about r e a l i t y and man's a c t i o n upon r e a l i t y . (1970:86-87,97) Thus g e n e r a t i v e themes are e s s e n t i a l l y t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l , c o n s i s t i n g of an o b j e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n and the p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t s i t u a t i o n h e l d by the people i n v o l v e d i n i t . There are four important c r i t e r i a f o r g e n e r a t i v e themes. The f i r s t i s t h a t they "ex i s t . . . w i t h r e f e r e n c e to c o n c r e t e f a c t s " (1970:97) . These f a c t s of everyday l i f e are u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n " l i m i t s i t u a t i o n s " which h i n d e r oppressed peop le from p e r c e i v i n g or e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y to a c t in o r d e r to change t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s . L i m i t s i t u a t i o n s are s p e c i f i c to the problems and c h a l l e n g e s of s p e c i f i c s o c i e t i e s . Thus g e n e r a t i v e 10 themes are grounded i n a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . The same s i t u a t i o n , however, can be p e r c e i v e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , or by the same people over a p e r i o d of t i m e . The second key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a g e n e r a t i v e theme, t h e r e f o r e , i s the p e o p l e s ' "awareness of tha t s i t u a t i o n - the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of p e r c e p t i o n of themselves and of the w o r l d i n which and w i t h which they e x i s t " (1970:84) . Through the methodology of p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n o c c u r s as the peop le r e f l e c t c r i t i c a l l y on these s i t u a t i o n s and on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of them. Only as t h i s s i t u a t i o n ceases to present i t s e l f as a dense , e n v e l o p i n g r e a l i t y or a t o r m e n t i n g b l i n d a l l e y , and men can come to p e r c e i v e i t as an o b j e c t i v e - p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n - o n l y then can . . . [ they] emerge from t h e i r submersion and a c q u i r e the a b i l i t y to i n t e r v e n e i n r e a l i t y as i t i s u n v e i l e d . (1970:100) C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n l e a d s to a c t i o n ; the t h i r d key component of a g e n e r a t i v e theme i s t h a t of an i m p l i c i t , though perhaps u n r e c o g n i z e d , t a s k . The p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l change i s thus p r e s e n t i n every theme as "an u n t e s t e d f e a s i b i l i t y " (1970:92) . The f o u r t h e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of g e n e r a t i v e themes i s tha t they generate o t h e r s ; t h a t "however they are comprehended and whatever a c t i o n they may evoke , . . . they c o n t a i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of u n f o l d i n g i n t o a g a i n as many themes, which i n t h e i r t u r n c a l l f or new t a s k s to be f u l f i l l e d " ( I970:92n) . I t i s impor tant t h a t peop le come to r e c o g n i z e how the v a r i o u s e lements of t h e i r l i v e s i n t e r a c t . When men l a c k a c r i t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of 11 t h e i r r e a l i t y , apprehending i t i n fragments which they do not p e r c e i v e as i n t e r a c t i n g c o n s t i t u e n t e lements of the whole , they cannot t r u l y know tha t r e a l i t y . . . E q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e for the methodology of themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n and f o r p r o b l e m - p o s i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t h i s e f f o r t to p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t d imens ions of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t e x t u a l r e a l i t y , the a n a l y s i s of which w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r him to r e c o g n i z e the i n t e r a c t i o n of the v a r i o u s components. (1970:94-95) . G e n e r a t i v e themes thus c o n s i s t of four key e l ements : 1) An o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y as r e p r e s e n t e d i n l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s 2) The p e o p l e s ' p e r c e p t i o n of these s i t u a t i o n s 3) The t a s k s i m p l i e d by the l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s 4) A c o n n e c t i o n to o ther themes. The methodology by which a p e o p l e ' s g e n e r a t i v e themes are i n v e s t i g a t e d must be as d i a l o g i c a l as the t e a c h i n g approach of the program of which they w i l l c o n s t i t u t e the c o n t e n t , f o r : " e d u c a t i o n and themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n the p r o b l e m - p o s i n g concept of e d u c a t i o n , are s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t moments of the same p r o c e s s . " (1970:101) The next c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s F r e i r e ' s recommended procedure f o r g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and the v a r i o u s adjustments t h a t have been made to i t i n o r d e r to adapt i t to an ESL c o n t e x t . 1 2 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Whi le i t may be assumed t h a t many educators t r y i n g to adapt F r e i r e ' s pedagogy to t h e i r p r a c t i c e have used some s y s t e m a t i c means of i d e n t i f y i n g the g e n e r a t i v e themes of t h e i r s t u d e n t s , few have documented t h e i r e f f o r t s . T h u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to review the scant l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c f a i r l y e x h a u s t i v e l y . In t h i s c h a p t e r , F r e i r e ' s program f o r themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d f i r s t . Accounts of t e a c h e r s ' a d a p t a t i o n s of i t f o l l o w , moving from a c o l l e g e u p g r a d i n g c l a s s for women in the Bahamas, to a community ESL program i n San F r a n c i s c o , to workplace ESL c l a s s e s for immigrant women in T o r o n t o . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h i t was not a c t u a l l y a g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the needs assessment and c u r r i c u l u m development of the Canadian Farmworkers ESL Crusade are d e s c r i b e d . P a r t II of t h i s c h a p t e r l i s t s and b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s v a r i o u s s t u d i e s on the P u n j a b i community i n Vancouver . These are mos t ly the work of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n e t h n i c i t y and the a d a p t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s of immigrant g r o u p s . I c o n s u l t e d them o n l y a f t e r I had conducted my own i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as an i n d i c a t o r of the r e l i a b i l i t y of my f i n d i n g s ; they are d i s c u s s e d i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r s I I I and V . The s t u d i e s are concerned w i t h two main i s s u e s : the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the P u n j a b i community to Canadian s o c i e t y , and the e f f e c t of i m m i g r a t i o n on s o c i a l 1 3 i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the f a m i l y and r e l i g i o n . 1 F R E I R E ' S GENERATIVE THEME INVESTIGATION In Pedagogy of the O p p r e s s e d , F r e i r e d e s c r i b e s i n some d e t a i l the p r o c e s s of a four s tage g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n by an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team. By way of i n t r o d u c t i o n , he s t a t e s some important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and parameters for the r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the peop le whose themes are under i n v e s t i g a t i o n be f u l l y i n f o r m e d , a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a n t s , so t h a t the needs a n a l y s i s i t s e l f may be "a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s or f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i o n of a l i b e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r " (98) . F r e i r e warns r e p e a t e d l y a g a i n s t the danger of " s h i f t i n g the focus of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n from the m e a n i n g f u l themes to the peop le 1 T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t e r m i n o l o g y r e f e r r i n g to t h i s community. In the 1970's , the common term was "East I n d i a n . " A f e e l i n g tha t t h i s i s i n c o r r e c t and r a c i s t , and t h a t i t masks the d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l the "East I n d i a n " c u l t u r e s , has l e d some to use the term "S ikh" when r e f e r r i n g to the group tha t makes up the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of the "East I n d i a n " community. Two recen t terms are "Indo-Canadian" and "South A s i a n " , which r e f e r to a l l persons of o r i g i n i n I n d i a but l a c k the p e j o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s t h a t "East I n d i a n " has taken on i n some c i r c l e s . More r a d i c a l e lements i n the community, i n c l u d i n g the CFU l e a d e r s h i p , r e j e c t bo th these terms as e u p h e m i s t i c and b o u r g e o i s . They p r e f e r the o l d term "East I n d i a n , " because they are not r e l i g i o u s and do not wish to be i d e n t i f i e d as " S i k h s . " Throughout t h i s paper I s h a l l use the term t h a t my s t u d e n t s use to r e f e r to themse lves and t h e i r p e o p l e : " P u n j a b i . " Even though s t r i c t l y speak ing t h i s i s a l i n g u i s t i c and not an "e thn ic" marker , i t i s u s e f u l i n the Vancouver c o n t e x t to r e f e r to b o t h r e l i g i o u s and n o n - r e l i g i o u s " S i k h s , " and to d i s t i n g u i s h them from I s m a i l i s , F i j i a n s , Hindus and o ther "East I n d i a n s . " Because i t i s the most f a m i l i a r term I w i l l use "East I n d i a n " to r e f e r to a l l immigrants from I n d i a as a g r o u p . In r e v i e w i n g the s t u d i e s on the community, I have r e t a i n e d whatever term the a u t h o r s u s e d . 1 4 themse lves , thereby t r e a t i n g the people as o b j e c t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n " r a t h e r than c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s (99). He a l s o c a u t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w i n g a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d i t i n e r a r y for the i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l y i e l d a r e s u l t tha t r e f l e c t s the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s , not the p e o p l e ' s , view of r e a l i t y . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s thedanger of m i s s i n g the f o r e s t f or the t r e e s . T h i s can be a v e r t e d by b u i l d i n g i n to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n "a c o n c e r n for the l i n k s between themes, a concern to pose these themes as prob lems , and a c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l contex t" (98-99). In the f i r s t s t a g e , i n v e s t i g a t o r s observe the community i n a wide v a r i e t y of everyday a c t i v i t i e s , make and compare n o t e s , and observe a g a i n . They a l s o use da ta p r o v i d e d by key i n f o r m a n t s , v o l u n t e e r s from w i t h i n the community. T h e i r , a im at t h i s s tage i s to "regard the a r e a as a t o t a l i t y , and v i s i t upon v i s i t . . . to ' s p l i t ' i t by a n a l y z i n g the p a r t i a l d imens ions w i t h impress them . . . [ to ] expand t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how the v a r i o u s p a r t s i n t e r a c t " (103) . At the end of t h i s s tage the i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i l l have a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the complex of i s s u e s and s i t u a t i o n s i m p o r t a n t to the p e o p l e . However, t h i s "does not a u t h o r i z e them to b e g i n to s t r u c t u r e the program c o n t e n t . . . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y i s s t i l l t h e i r own, not t h a t of the people" (106) . The second stage a t t e m p t s to get at the p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e a l i t y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' hunches about the p e o p l e s ' themes are now deve loped i n t o c o d i f i c a t i o n s . Each of these must p r e s e n t a f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n i n such a manner t h a t the 15 c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and problems i m p l i c i t w i t h i n i t are n e i t h e r too obv ious nor too o b s c u r e , and t h a t d i s c u s s i o n , or "decoding" of i t w i l l l e a d i n t o o ther r e l a t e d themes. In the t h i r d s t a g e , these codes are r e - p r e s e n t e d to the people for t h e i r a n a l y s i s and i n p u t . T h i s i s done i n d i s c u s s i o n groups which are t a p e d , and observed by a p s y c h o l o g i s t and a s o c i o l o g i s t . The important t h i n g to note i n t h i s s tage i s what the people see i n the c o d e s , which may not n e c e s s a r i l y be what the person who p r e p a r e d them i n t e n d e d . F r e i r e c i t e s the example of a group of tenement r e s i d e n t s i d e n t i f y i n g p o s i t i v e l y w i t h an a l c h o h o l i c , whom they p e r c e i v e d to be a decent worker w i t h a l o t of w o r r i e s who d r i n k s to escape h i s h a r d l o t . For them he was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of v i r t u e , not v i c e as the p r e s e n t e r had i n t e n d e d (111-112) . Thus d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e , the a c c u r a c y of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p e o p l e s ' themes i s d e t e r m i n e d . The f o u r t h and f i n a l s tage c o n s i s t s of an e x h a u s t i v e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s tudy of the complex of themes t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d . I n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g the v a r i o u s s o c i a l s c i e n c e s each take a theme and break i t down, s u g g e s t i n g u n i t s and s e q u e n c i n g , and then a l l meet to compare and amend. At t h i s s tage o ther themes, i f deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n t i n u i t y or to i l l u s t r a t e g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between themes, may be added by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s . F i n a l l y , a l l the themes are r e - c o d i f i e d and the d i d a c t i c m a t e r i a l p r e p a r e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , F r e i r e was not a b l e to c a r r y out t h i s p r o c e s s . I t was p a r t of h i s p l a n f o r the p o s t - l i t e r a c y s tage of 16 h i s N a t i o n a l L i t e r a c y Program i n B r a z i l , which was t e r m i n a t e d by the 1964 coup t h a t a l s o f o r c e d him i n t o e x i l e . Nor do t h e r e e x i s t s p e c i f i c a c c o u n t s of subsequent a t tempts to implement i t . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n on t h i s s c a l e i s o n l y p o s s i b l e w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s of e x p e r t i s e and f u n d i n g . By c o n t r a s t , F r e i r e - s t y l e programs i n N o r t h America tend to be p e r p e t u a l l y under - funded and u n d e r - s t a f f e d . A l s o , many F r e i r e - s t y l e e d u c a t o r s work w i t h i n a l r e a d y - e s t a b l i s h e d programs and i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h t h e i r own needs a n a l y s e s and c u r r i c u l a . The problem then becomes how to s t r u c t u r e a c o u r s e or program content a c c o r d i n g to s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i v e themes, when the o n l y a v a i l a b l e i n v e s t i g a t o r ( a s i d e from perhaps the s t u d e n t s ) i s the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . In the f o l l o w i n g a t tempts to adapt F r e i r e ' s p r o c e s s s u s t a n t i a l changes i n methodology have been made, but the b a s i c approach of o b s e r v a t i o n - d i s c u s s i o n , t e s t i n g of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s v i a c o d i f i c a t i o n s , and r e - d e v e l o p i n g of m a t e r i a l s have been m a i n t a i n e d . These a c c o u n t s are d e s c r i b e d in terms of t h e i r s e t t i n g , o p e r a t i n g d e f i n i t i o n of " g e n e r a t i v e themes," i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , and themat ic c u r r i c u l u m . CLASSROOM THEMATIC INVESTIGATIONS Nan E l s a s s e r and K y l e F i o r e (1982) r e p o r t on the implementat ion of a F r e i r e s t y l e approach to c o l l e g e E n g l i s h u p g r a d i n g i n a c l a s s of women community c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n the Bahamas. A f t e r b r i e f l y r e v i e w i n g F r e i r e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of 1 7 g e n e r a t i v e themes and i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , E l s a s s e r d e s c r i b e s her own: A s t r a n g e r , unaccompanied by a ' l i t e r a c y t eam, ' I c a n ' t f o l l o w F r e i r e ' s a d v i c e , and i n my ignorance I t u r n to my s t u d e n t s f o r h e l p . We d i s c u s s g e n e r a t i v e themes, and they each s e l e c t t h r e e i s s u e s from t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s t h a t they would l i k e to t a l k , read and w r i t e about f o r the semester . . . We debate them b r i e f l y and we v o t e , p i c k i n g m a r r i a g e f o r t h e i r g e n e r a t i v e theme. (p . 120) The main theme was d i v i d e d i n t o the s u b t o p i c s of housework, d i v o r c e , s e x u a l i t y and domest ic v i o l e n c e . The p r o c e d u r e for f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to have a group d i s c u s s i o n r e s u l t i n g i n a consensus on a t h e s i s s ta tement , and the c o l l e c t i v e development of an essay o u t l i n e . In the end , the s t u d e n t s c o - authored an open l e t t e r to Bahamian men p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s . T h i s was p u b l i s h e d i n both Nassau d a i l y p a p e r s . E l s a s s e r ' s s t u d e n t s were a l l n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers s t u d y i n g c o l l e g e - e n t r y l e v e l c o m p o s i t i o n . They s h a r e d the same c u l t u r a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c background . Thus a g r e a t d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n was p o s s i b l e , and E l s a s s e r c o u l d s i m p l y e x p l a i n the approach and ' j u s t a sk ' the s tudent s about t h e i r themes. T h i s i s o f t e n much more d i f f i c u l t in an ESL s e t t i n g , which may i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of E n g l i s h and from d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l backgrounds , a l l of which may d i f f e r from tha t of the i n s t r u c t o r . Thus , f u r t h e r adjus tments to the g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n must be made. In N o r t h A m e r i c a , a g r e a t d e a l of work i n t h i s a r e a has been done by Nina W a l l e r s t e i n and P i a M o r i a r t y ( M o r i a r t y & W a l l e r s t e i n , 1979, 1980; W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983, 1984). They have 18 e l a b o r a t e d a F r e i r e - s t y l e approach to ESL which i n c l u d e s three phases : 1) " L i s t e n i n g " , 2) "Dia logue" , and 3) " A c t i o n " ( M o r i a r t y & W a l l e r s t e i n , 1979: W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983). I n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes i s p a r t of the " l i s t e n i n g " s t a g e . G e n e r a t i v e themes are r e f e r r e d to a s : "the key concerns of s tudents" ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983), "the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s tha t s t u d e n t s d e f i n e as problems in t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , " and s t u d e n t s ' "own e x p e r i e n c e and the l a r g e r p a t t e r n s i t i s p a r t of" ( M o r i a r t y ScWal l er s t e in , 1979). " L i s t e n i n g " f o r g e n e r a t i v e themes can occur both b e f o r e and d u r i n g the c o u r s e of c l a s s e s . I t i n v o l v e s "employing o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s w i t h a s y s t e m a t i c approach s i m i l a r to a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k " to the c l a s s r o o m , the community, and the s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983). S p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s for t h i n g s to look f o r and c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s u s e f u l f o r g e t t i n g at g e n e r a t i v e themes are p r o v i d e d i n Language and C u l t u r e in C o n f l i c t , ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983) and i n " S t u d e n t / T e a c h e r / L e a r n e r : A F r e i r e approach to A B E / E S L " ( M o r i a r t y & W a l l e r s t e i n , 1979). These are d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter I V . Development of codes based on these o b s e r v a t i o n s , and t e s t i n g and r e v i s i n g them in d i s c u s s i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s , are a l s o p a r t of the l i s t e n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s work cannot be done a l o n e , nor w i l l i t be comple ted a l l at once . The p r o c e s s d e v e l o p s by c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t o c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s which the s t u d e n t s can l e a r n from and c o r r e c t f o r a c c u r a c y . In t h i s way, s tudent s a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s i n E n g l i s h at the same time as t e a c h e r s r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s . ( M o r i a r t y & W a l l e r s t e i n , 1979:198) 19 In 1973, W a l l e r s t e i n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n San J o s e , C a l i f o r n i a . A team of community e d u c a t o r s and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s spent two months o b s e r v i n g an H i s p a n i c community, i n t e r v i e w i n g o f f i c i a l s , and t a l k i n g e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h key i n f o r m a n t s . An ESL c l a s s was one r e s u l t of t h i s ; o t h e r s were c h u r c h , women's and community g r o u p s . The themat ic t e a c h i n g u n i t s t h a t a r o s e from the San Jose p r o j e c t and from o ther e x p e r i e n c e are p r e s e n t e d i n Language and C u l t u r e i n C o n f l i c t ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The themes are o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to e i g h t u n i t s , each d i v i d e d i n t o s u b t o p i c s w i t h c o d e s , p r o b l e m - p o s i n g q u e s t i o n s , and language a c t i v i t i e s . The e i g h t u n i t s a r e : A u t o b i o g r a p h y , F a m i l y , C u l t u r e and C o n f l i c t , Ne ighborhoods , I m m i g r a t i o n , H e a l t h , Work and Money. They c o n t a i n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n f o r m a t i o n such as how to phone a m e d i c a l c l i n i c or ask f o r d i r e c t i o n s , but a l s o d e a l w i t h how s tudents f e e l about not u n d e r s t a n d i n g when t h e i r c h i l d r e n speak E n g l i s h , l e a v i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i n the homeland, or s t r e s s a t work. They are meant to be adapted by o t h e r ESL t e a c h e r s to address s i m i l a r i s s u e s t h a t have come up i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . In the Canadian c o n t e x t , the u n i t s and l e s s o n s i n Language and C u l t u r e i n C o n f l i c t are u s e f u l m a i n l y as examples . A themat ic c u r i c u l u m must be r o o t e d i n a r e a l h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , and thus many s p e c i f i c s of the themes i n Language and C u l t u r e i n C o n f 1 i c t are unique to the p a r t i c u l a r immigrant g r o u p s , s o c i a l and l e g a l sys tem, and geography of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of work on c l a s s r o o m i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes has been done i n Canada . The P a r t i c i p a t o r y 20 Research G r o u p , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency w i t h i t s Canadian o f f i c e i n T o r o n t o , has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n s p i r i n g and p u b l i s h i n g account s of many of these p r o j e c t s . The T o r o n t o ESL Core Group has a l s o produced a themat ic ESL c u r r i c u l u m . The term " p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h " m e r i t s d e f i n i t i o n . I t i s a p r o c e d u r e s i m i l a r to the f i r s t phase of F r e i r e ' s g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n , though not n e c e s s a r i l y connected to an e d u c a t i o n a l program. Budd H a l l (1984) d e s c r i b e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h which d i s t i n g u i s h i t from o t h e r k i n d s of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l methodology . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h i s e x p l i c i t l y d i r e c t e d toward s o c i a l change . I t s focus i s a problem i d e n t i f i e d by members of a community of o p p r e s s e d , e x p l o i t e d or m a r g i n a l i z e d p e o p l e . R e s e a r c h i s a c o l l e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of the i d e n t i f i e d problem and s h o u l d l e a d to "a g r e a t e r awareness in the people of t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s and m o b i l i z e them f o r s e l f - r e l i a n t development" ( p . 2 0 ) . The ' o u t s i d e ' r e s e a r c h e r a c t s as a f a c i l i t a t o r of t h i s p r o c e s s . He or she must be committed to the people and m i l i t a n t about the i s s u e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e and d e t a c h e d . H a l l a l s o d i s c u s s e s some d i f f i c u l t i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h a t have been encountered by p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h e r s . Those most r e l e v a n t to ESL i n c l u d e the r o l e of the o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r as p a r t i c i p a n t v e r s u s exper t ( t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d when p a r t i c i p a n t s expect the r e s e a r c h e r to a c t as an e x p e r t ) ; and the prob lem of how c o l l e c t i v e a r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s can be when the p a r t i c i p a n t s have to engage i n a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of new 21 l e a r n i n g . Some of these i s s u e s emerged i n the e x p e r i e n c e s of T o r o n t o ESL t e a c h e r s a t t e m p t i n g to engage i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h to . One focus of the T o r o n t o p a r t i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h work i n ESL has been c o l l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s deve lopment . Thus s e v e r a l ' t h e m a t i c ' c u r r i c u l u m p r o d u c t s have emerged. Deborah Barndt has c h r o n i c l e d the p r o c e s s beh ind many of these p r o d u c t s (Barndt 1982a, 1982b, 1983, marino and B a r n d t ) . Other accounts have been p u b l i s h e d by K a t h l e e n S u l l i v a n and Jean Unda ( S u l l i v a n & Unda 1982, Unda 1984). In none of these i s the term " g e n e r a t i v e theme" u s e d . R a t h e r , the a u t h o r s r e f e r to "problems of v i t a l importance to p a r t i c i p a n t s " ( B a r n d t , 1978:4) , s t u d e n t s ' " f e l t need" ( S u l l i v a n & U n d a : 4 6 ) , and t h e i r "common home and work e x p e r i e n c e s " ( B a r n d t , 1981:27) . In J u s t G e t t i n g There (1982) , Barndt d e s c r i b e s three c l a s s r o o m themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . One i s the c o l l e c t i v e w r i t i n g of a song about the power s t r u c t u r e s i n the garment i n d u s t r y , from the p o i n t of view of a worker who l o s e s pay on the p i e c e - r a t e system every t ime her machine breaks down. T h i s was a common o c c u r r e n c e f o r s t u d e n t s i n B a r n d t ' s workplace ESL c l a s s , and the song arose out of c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s about the f r u s t r a t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , out of c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s of media images of women, the same c l a s s d e c i d e d to produce a s t o r y showing what women's l i v e s are r e a l l y l i k e . The t eacher photographed one s tudent c o o k i n g d i n n e r f o r her f a m i l y . The c l a s s a r r a n g e d the photos i n o r d e r , and f u r t h e r e d the s t o r y by add ing an argument between husband, w i f e and c h i l d r e n over 22 who was g o i n g to h e l p w i t h the d i s h e s . The t h i r d a c t i v i t y o r i g i n a t e d o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m , in response to a reques t for m a t e r i a l s from the c o o r d i n a t o r s of a job p r e p a r a t i o n course f o r immigrant women. A working team was o r g a n i z e d , c o n s i s t i n g of a graduate of the Making Changes c o u r s e , four women from an ESL c l a s s who had i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n making p h o t o s t o r i e s and four community e d u c a t o r s . . . The g e n e r a l theme was to be ' l o o k i n g for w o r k , ' but at tha t p o i n t we d i d n ' t know the problems these women had f a c e d . So we asked them to t a l k about l o o k i n g for work, and we r e c o r d e d what they s a i d . As the s t o r i e s u n f o l d e d , the women began to see common e l ements . The account s of two women i n p a r t i c u l a r s tood o u t , i n a way tha t a l l of us unders tood i m m e d i a t e l y . These two s t o r i e s d e s c r i b e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s , both l o g i s t i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , of j u s t g e t t i n g to work or an i n t e r v i e w . ( B a r n d t , 1982:19) What r e s u l t e d were two p h o t o s t o r i e s r e - e n a c t i n g the problems of g e t t i n g l o s t on the subway and g e n e r a l l y of n a v i g a t i n g the b i g c i t y . S u l l i v a n and Unda (1982) p r o v i d e an account of some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n - c l a s s themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The s e t t i n g f o r t h e i r p r o j e c t was an ESL c l a s s f o r the unemployed, run by a T o r o n t o community c e n t e r . A grant had been r e c e i v e d "to e x p l o r e the u s e f u l n e s s of p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h methods f o r h e l p i n g the unemployed r e c o r d and a n a l y z e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n as a s t ep toward t a k i n g a c t i o n " (p. 46) . A r e s e a r c h e r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c l a s s a l o n g w i t h the t e a c h e r . S u l l i v a n and Unda d i s c u s s the t e n s i o n s t h a t a r o s e as the c l a s s worked on a p h o t o - n o v e l about a f i c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e r ' s e f f o r t s to f i n d a job i n h i s f i e l d . The i d e a of c r e a t i n g a p h o t o - n o v e l was suggested by the t e a c h e r . I t 23 was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y agreed to by the s t u d e n t s , but they came to re sen t the amount of c l a s s t ime taken up by the p r o j e c t , and the t e a c h e r and r e s e a r c h e r r e a l i z e d t h a t they had been "us ing the group f o r the p h o t o - n o v e l r a t h e r than the p h o t o - n o v e l f o r the group" (p . 62) . S u l l i v a n and TJnda's e x p e r i e n c e r e f l e c t s what happens when the t e a c h e r ' s or o t h e r o u t s i d e r ' s agenda f o r theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s imposed on a g r o u p , r a t h e r than a r i s i n g from the i s s u e s which they i d e n t i f y on t h e i r own. S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i n - c l a s s themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s tha t do not i n v o l v e c o l l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c t i o n are l i s t e d by Barndt i n Themes and T o o l s for E S L : How to Choose Them and How to Use Them (1978) , a handbook for t e a c h e r s . B a r n d t ' s s u g g e s t i o n s are drawn from the e x p e r i e n c e s of a task f o r c e of ESL t e a c h e r s a n a l y z i n g the L a t i n American community i n T o r o n t o . Many are s i m i l a r to W a l l e r s t e i n ' s " l i s t e n i n g " s t r a t e g i e s ; o t h e r s are more i n t e g r a t e d w i t h l a n g u a g e - t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The focus of a l l of them i s to generate t a l k on p o s s i b l e themes by , f or example, h a v i n g s tudents compare and c o n t r a s t two columns of photos d e a l i n g w i t h Canada and t h e i r homeland, draw a c o m i c - s t r i p account of a t y p i c a l day , or draw a map of t h e i r ne ighborhood w i t h symbols to show how they f e e l about encounters i n p l a c e s where they need to use E n g l i s h . (Other a c t i v i t i e s are l i s t e d i n C h a p t e r I V ) . T o r o n t o has a l s o produced a f u l l - f l e d g e d c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z e d by g e n e r a t i v e themes. Deve loped by the ESL Core Group and e d i t e d by Brenda Duncombe, Themes f o r L e a r n i n g and T e a c h i n g (1979) i s i n t e n d e d as a c o n t e n t - g u i d e f o r E S L , l i t e r a c y , 24 u p g r a d i n g and c i t i z e n s h i p c l a s s e s . I t s o p e r a t i n g d e f i n i t o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes i s : the " r e a l i n t e r e s t and concerns . . . the l i f e s i t u a t i o n of immigrant f a m i l i e s . . . as w e l l as t h e i r c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n s " ( I , I I I ) . No account i s g i v e n of any s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e d u r e o t h e r than tha t a consensus was reached on e i g h t themes " a f t e r two or t h r e e y e a r s of s tudy and r e f l e c t i o n " by members of the working group ( I I I ) . The e i g h t themes a r e : Consumpt ion , E d u c a t i o n , F a m i l y L i f e , H e a l t h , H o u s i n g , I m m i g r a t i o n , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Work. Each theme i s d i v i d e d i n t o t o p i c s , and each t o p i c has t h r e e l e v e l s of a c t i v i t y : d e s c r i p t i v e , p r o b l e m a t i s i n g , and a l t e r n a t i v e s . Each t o p i c i s a l s o f u r n i s h e d wi th a " c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e , " f o r example: Theme: E d u c a t i o n T o p i c : The s c h o o l system i n O n t a r i o C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n O b j e c t i v e : "The r e g u l a r s c h o o l system can be a h i n d r a n c e to e d u c a t i o n by keeping p r i v i l e g e s f o r a c l o s e d s o c i e t y and p e r p e t u a t i n g c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . " ( p .35) Duncombe defends these c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s as e x p l i c i t s ta tements of the a d m i t t e d l y n o n - n e u t r a l system of v a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g the c u r r i c u l u m . She a s s e r t s tha t " i f the t eacher i s p e r s o n a l l y c o n v i n c e d of the v a l u e s which u n d e r l y them, c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g among the s t u d e n t s w i l l f o l l o w " ( V I ) . T h i s i s one of two s tatements of the T o r o n t o i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i t h which I wish to take i s s u e . I t i s the e x p e r i e n c e of four y e a r s of t u t o r s i n the Farmworkers ' ESL C r u s a d e , and appears to have been the e x p e r i e n c e of S u l l i v a n and Unda, t h a t "consc iousness r a i s i n g among the s tudent s" i n f a c t r a r e l y 25 f o l l o w s the t e a c h e r ' s n o t i o n s of c o r r e c t p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h a t any t e a c h e r w i l l b r i n g a set of v a l u e s , s t a t e d or n o t , to the g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n , F r e i r e s p e c i f i c a l l y warns a g a i n s t l e t t i n g t h a t view of r e a l i t y i n f l u e n c e the c o u r s e of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , i n Themes and T o o l s Barndt d e s c r i b e s p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s : . . . as s imple a ta sk as c h a t t i n g w i t h s tudent s d u r i n g c o f f e e break and f i n d i n g out tha t they are c o n c e r n e d about the TTC f a r e h i k e . T h u s , you have a theme that you know i s of r e l e v a n c e to s t u d e n t s , and i t can be made i n t o a l e s s o n d e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s i t , i n f l a t i o n , t a x e s , e tc ( p . 5 ) . T h i s seems a f a r c r y from the l e n g t h y , d e t a i l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l assessment c a l l e d for by F r e i r e . In f a c t , most of the s u g g e s t i o n s made by W a l l e r s t e i n and Barndt seem s imple and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , i f t i m e - c o n s u m i n g . I t i s , of c o u r s e , n e c e s s a r y to s i m p l i f y and d e m y s t i f y the procedure to make i t a c c e s s i b l e to ESL t e a c h e r s w i t h few, i f any , o u t s i d e r e s o u r c e s . However, i t seems d o u b t f u l to me i f the themat i c a n a l y s i s a r r i v e d at through these methods a lone can a p p r o a c h the c o m p l e x i t y r e q u i r e d by F r e i r e as the b a s i s f or a u t h e n t i c p r o b l e m - p o s i n g c o n t e n t . In t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l argue t h a t f i n d i n g out s t u d e n t s ' i s s u e s , concerns and e x p e r i e n c e s i s not the same t h i n g as i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e i r g e n e r a t i v e themes. R a t h e r , a deeper a n a l y s i s of the i s s u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e l a t i o n s h i p to the h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l contex t must be conducted b e f o r e an a n a l y s i s of g e n e r a t i v e themes can be p r o p o s e d . 26 PROGRAM CONTENT OF THE FARMWORKERS ESL CRUSADE My i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes took p l a c e i n the contex t of the ESL Crusade of the Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n . T h i s i s a F r e i r e s t y l e program s e r v i n g immigrant farmworkers i n the Vancouver a r e a . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o g r a m ' s s t r u c t u r e , approach and p e r s o n n e l i s p r o v i d e d i n Chapter I I I ; my purpose here i s to o u t l i n e the o r i g i n a l needs a n a l y s i s and development of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . S h o r t l y a f t e r the Canadian Farmworkers Union was formed i n A p r i l 1980, the l e a d e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t members' l a c k of E n g l i s h s k i l l s would be a fundamental b l o c k to t h e i r e f f o r t s to g a i n t h e i r r i g h t s . One of the o r g a n i z e r s r e t u r n e d from a t r i p to N i c a r a g u a w i t h some ideas on how a program s i m i l a r to t h a t c o u n t r y ' s N a t i o n a l L i t e r a c y Crusade might p r o v i d e farmworkers w i t h E n g l i s h s k i l l s as w e l l as r a i s e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and u n i o n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . By the f a l l of 1981 a p r o p o s a l had been drawn up for a v o l u n t e e r t u t o r program (Cavanagh & S t e e v e s , 1981). In c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h F r o n t i e r C o l l e g e and a s s i s t e d by f u n d i n g from the Department of S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , a needs assessment procedure began i n A p r i l 1982. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d which c o v e r e d p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t s ' E n g l i s h l e v e l s , s c h o o l i n g , work h i s t o r y , p e r c e i v e d need f o r E n g l i s h , use of E n g l i s h , c l a s s s i z e and t i m e t a b l i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . Sarwan B o a l , a b i l i n g u a l CFU o r g a n i z e r , i n t e r v i e w e d farmworkers (both un ion members and non- members) i n t h e i r homes. The f i n a l r e p o r t on the needs assessment was w r i t t e n by the F r o n t i e r C o l l e g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , John S t e e v e s . 27 In a l l 62 peop le were i n t e r v i e w e d . Those most i n t e r e s t e d i n an ESL program were women between the ages of 45 and 55, who had been i n Canada and d o i n g farmwork for up to t h r e e y e a r s . H a l f of these were i l l i t e r a t e i n P u n j a b i , and o n l y seven persons had h i g h e r than a grade e i g h t e d u c a t i o n . A l l but t h r e e r e p o r t e d tha t they needed an i n t e r p r e t e r for a l l t r a n s a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the use of E n g l i s h . Many r e p o r t e d a need f o r E n g l i s h s k i l l s to take the bus , go s h o p p i n g , use the t e l e p h o n e , get a b e t t e r j o b , phone i n emergenc ie s , and unders tand t h e i r c h i l d r e n and n e i g h b o r s . The r e p o r t t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t the ESL c u r r i c u l u m focus on " s u r v i v a l E n g l i s h " (Steeves and B o a l , 1982). A c u r r i c u l u m w r i t e r was h i r e d to produce a gu ide t h a t would addres s these s p e c i f i c needs , and be u s a b l e by v o l u n t e e r t u t o r s w i t h no t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The c u r r i c u l u m t h a t was produced was e n t i t l e d A Time to L e a r n . I t takes a s i t u a t i o n a l approach to t o p i c c o n t e n t , a f u n c t i o n a l approach to language , and p r e s e n t s a range of t e c h n i q u e s tha t are t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d and i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p e t i t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e s on the p a r t of s t u d e n t s . I t s e i g h t e e n u n i t s cover t o p i c s such as b a s i c numeracy f o r t e l e p h o n e use and s h o p p i n g , t e l l i n g t i m e , t a k i n g the bus , w r i t i n g cheques , shopping i n a department s t o r e , phoning f o r a d o c t o r ' s appo in tment . Only two u n i t s , on h a z a r d symbols and u n i o n s , d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h farmwork a l t h o u g h s u g g e s t i o n s a r e g i v e n f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g the s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n o ther u n i t s to the work s i t u a t i o n . There are no codes or p r o b l e m - p o s i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i n s h o r t , n o t h i n g tha t r e f l e c t s a p a r t i c u l a r y F r e i r i a n or d i a l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h . 28 Over the four y e a r s s i n c e the program s t a r t e d however, the t e a c h i n g approach and m a t e r i a l s have become p r o g r e s s i v e l y more s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h F r e i r e ' s mode l . T u t o r s in the f i r s t year of the program used the c u r r i c u l u m e x t e n s i v e l y , but found t h a t i t p r o g r e s s e d too f a s t and was not b a s i c enough for t h e i r s t u d e n t s (Neesham, 1983). S i n c e t h e n , t u t o r s have used the c u r r i c u l u m as a r e s o u r c e e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i r s t few weeks of c l a s s e s , but they have been t r a i n e d to p l a n l e s s o n s and u n i t s a c c o r d i n g to the s p e c i f i c needs of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In the t h i r d year of the ESL C r u s a d e , a set of t en codes was i n t r o d u c e d to encourage more d i s c u s s i o n about farmwork. Important i s s u e s such as overcrowded l a b o u r c o n t r a c t o r s ' v a n s , unsafe c a b i n s , and b e i n g chea ted at the s c a l e s were i d e n t i f i e d by union l e a d e r s . The c o n t e n t of each code was d e v e l o p e d by D a v i d J a c k s o n , and they were drawn by S h i r l e y McGrew. These codes a r e drawings d e p i c t i n g p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s , l o o s e l y sequenced as a day i n the l i f e of a farmworker . A Time to Grow ( J a c k s o n , 1984), a t u t o r ' s gu ide to u s i n g the c o d e s , c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n of each problem for the t u t o r ' s b e n e f i t , a set of q u e s t i o n s f o r p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , and some s u g g e s t i o n s on how to use the codes w i t h b e g i n n e r s . Over the two y e a r s s i n c e t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n , use of and response to these drawings has v a r i e d . The main i s s u e has been t h e i r v i s u a l s t y l e , which many t u t o r s see as p a t r o n i z i n g and b l e a k , and some farmworkers have found a l i e n a t i n g . O v e r a l l , s tudents are not as put o f f by the s t y l e as are t u t o r s ; most r e c o g n i z e and can i d e n t i f y w i t h the problems d e p i c t e d . Some 29 t u t o r s have r e p o r t e d e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n s a r i s i n g from them; for o t h e r s they have f a l l e n c o m p l e t e l y f l a t . S t u d e n t s ' o v e r a l l i n t e r e s t i n t a l k i n g about farmwork does not appear to have been a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e i r response to the drawings (Jackson ,1984; Mi H a r d , 1 9 8 5 , 1986). One response to t h i s mixed review has been to d e v e l o p m a t e r i a l s u s i n g a more p o s i t i v e media s t y l e . V i r t u a l l y a l l farmworkers watch and enjoy H i n d i movie v i d e o s , which are u s u a l l y m u s i c a l romance a d v e n t u r e s . In the summer of 1984 the CFU produced Farmworkers Z i n d a b a d , a v i d e o i n t h i s genre d r a m a t i z i n g the t r u e s t o r y of some women workers on a mushroom farm and t h e i r a t t empts to u n i o n i z e . In 1985 a l i t e r a c y c u r r i c u l u m i n the format of a p h o t o - s t o r y based on the v i d e o book was d e v e l o p e d by S y b i l F a i g i n , a former t u t o r . The. v i d e o (which i s i n P u n j a b i ) and the l i t e r a c y book are to be used t o g e t h e r to combine p r o b l e m - p o s i n g w i t h b a s i c l i t e r a c y based on a l a n g u a g e - e x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h . The v i d e o and book were i n t r o d u c e d to the ESL Crusade in 1986. They were r e c e i v e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y by a l l t u t o r s and s t u d e n t s , and genera ted l o n g and l i v e l y d i s c u s s i o n s ( M i l l a r d 1986). Thus over the y e a r s the Farmworkers Union has deve loped a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l i n response to needs tha t have a r i s e n out of the t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e of t u t o r s and s t u d e n t s . T h i s development has been i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g p r o b l e m a t i s i n g of l e a r n i n g c o n t e n t on the t o p i c of work, and of d e p i c t i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n such a way as to i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t e s t u d e n t s . However, t h e r e has been no s y s t e m a t i c 30 attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e the o v e r a l l complex of g e n e r a t i v e themes of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the program; to u n d e r s t a n d how they p e r c e i v e t h e i r s u r v i v a l needs , as opposed to how the union would l i k e them to p e r c e i v e them. The absence of such an a n a l y s i s was i d e n t i f i e d as an i s sue of prime importance by F r e i r e h i m s e l f i n a v i s i t to the C . F . U . o f f i c e i n J u l y of 1984, when he was i n Vancouver t e a c h i n g a summer s e s s i o n course at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n tha t F r e i r e a d d r e s s e d to the assembled t u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s u p p o r t e r s of the ESL Crusade was on t h i s m a t t e r : "If they have some k i n d of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , they have to have some c o n t e n t s . What i s the r o l e of the farmworkers engaged i n t h i s p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r to o r g a n i z e the c o n t e n t s for t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g , or i f they are not engaging i n t h i s , j u s t the t u t o r s g i v e them or t e l l them what, they must know?" F o l l o w i n g a d i s c u s s i o n of the i n i t i a l needs assessment and some of the problems t u t o r s had encountered i n t r y i n g to i n t e r e s t s t u d e n t s i n both s u r v i v a l ESL and un ion i s s u e s , F r e i r e recommended an approach of c o n t i n u o u s themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n : "How to do t h a t ? I t i s a l s o a q u e s t i o n of d o i n g . I d o n ' t b e l i e v e tha t you can f i n d a p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r t h i s . To the ex ten t t h a t they beg in to speak E n g l i s h , or t h a t you speak t h e i r language , you c o u l d get the problem and you c o u l d go w i t h them, l i t t l e by l i t t l e , u n v e i l i n g the p r o b l e m . The q u e s t i o n i s not for you to make a speech about i t ; even i f i t was p o s s i b l e from the l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t of view i t s h o u l d be v e r y bad from the p o i n t of view of the p s y c h o l a n a l y s i s you have to d o . That i s , i t ' s not your task j u s t to e x p l a i n t o t a l l y the e f f e c t to them, but to c h a l l e n g e them i n 31 o r d e r f o r them to . . . i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , they need to make . . . the a r c h e o l o g y of t h e i r s u f f e r i n g , and not you on the b e h a l f of them, but you have to be w i t h them i n the p r o c e s s of making the a r c h e o l o g y , and the a r c h e o l o g y c o u l d not s top j u s t a t the l e v e l of p s y c h o l o g y . . . i t s h o u l d be v e r y bad , because t h i s k i n d of a r c h e o l o g y i s e m i n e n t l y , s t r o n g l y , a p o l i t i c a l one ." F r e i r e a l s o i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l problems i n h e r e n t i n the at tempt to adapt h i s approach to the t e a c h i n g of a f o r e i g n language . The d i f f i c u l t y of c o n d u c t i n g ' d i a l o g u e ' i n one-word phrases s t r u c k him i m m e d i a t e l y . He found i t very s t r a n g e tha t we were t r y i n g to t e a c h E n g l i s h through p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , and to r a i s e awareness t h r o u g h the t e a c h i n g of E n g l i s h , a l t h o u g h he agreed t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y for both to be done. He a l s o acknowledged what many t u t o r s have d i s c o v e r e d ; tha t s t u d e n t s are o f t e n a m b i v a l e n t towards l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h because they are ambiva l en t toward b e i n g i n Canada and h a v i n g to cope w i t h Canadian s o c i e t y i n the f i r s t p l a c e . He then i d e n t i f i e d the v e r y f e a r s tha t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s o c i e t y as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r empowerment through language l e a r n i n g : "In a r r i v i n g here I can r e a l i z e the f e a r s these peop le s u f f e r ; f e a r of e v e r y t h i n g , f e a r because they d o n ' t unders tand a n y t h i n g which has been t o l d them and has been t a l k e d around them. One t h i n g i s f o r me to be s u r r o u n d e d by the songs of the b i r d s , some sounds i n the f o r e s t as I f e l t l a s t year when I went to s tay w i t h the I n d i a n i n the f o r e s t i n B r a z i l ; but I knew t h a t I c o u l d have some k i n d of c o n t r o l on t h a t . But they d o n ' t have any k i n d of c o n t r o l on t h i s w o r l d h e r e . S e c o n d l y , through t h i s language they a r e b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d . . . then t h e r e i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r them to have d i f f i c u l t i e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , e m o t i o n a l l y s p e a k i n g . . . The v e r y l e v e l of 32 d i s c r i m i n a t i o n must be a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e for the d i f f i c u l t y to read the language of the d i s c r i m i n a t o r . . . P o s s i b l y they f e e l b l o c k e d to speak E n g l i s h p r e c i s e l y because i n the depth of themse lves , they know tha t t h i s language has to do w i t h the o p p r e s s o r s . How to t r a n s f o r m the b lockage i n t o open ing - t h i s i s for me the fundamental - i n some moment they need to r e c o g n i z e tha t s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h on the one hand , d i m i n i s h e s t h e i r f e a r s to the ex tent t h a t they can cope , to the ex tent t h a t they can u n d e r s t a n d , to the ex tent t h a t they can d i m i n i s h the p o s s i b i l i t i e s to be c h e a t e d , and on the o t h e r hand , they need to p e r c e i v e t h a t by speak ing E n g l i s h they can add something to t h e i r s t r u g g l e . Thus F r e i r e sees language l e a r n i n g as a problem which can be posed to s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r to h e l p them addres s and overcome t h e i r f e a r s . I encountered a l l of these i s s u e s - the d i f f i c u l t y of communicat ing when s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s do not share a language , the n e c e s s i t y and d i f f i c u l t y of combin ing second language t e a c h i n g and p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , the q u e s t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of language l e a r n i n g and empowerment - in the course of my i n v e s t i g a t i o n . STUDIES OF THE PUNJABI COMMUNITY IN VANCOUVER In the absence of an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team to s tudy a community f o r the s p e c i f i c purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l program, i t makes sense f o r the ESL t e a c h e r - i n v e s t i g a t o r to c o n s u l t every a v a i l a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n about the s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r e and community. The Vancouver P u n j a b i community has been the s u b j e c t of a number of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h i s s u e s of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t 33 and a d a p t a t i o n . I c o n s u l t e d these s t u d i e s o n l y a f t e r my f i e l d w o r k and a n a l y s i s had been c o m p l e t e d , as a measure of the r e l i a b i l i t y of my f i n d i n g s . The degree to which my o b s e r v a t i o n s concur w i t h t h e i r s i s d i s c u s s e d in d e t a i l i n Chapter V . Two important q u a l i f i c a t i o n s bear on t h e i r r e l e v a n c e , however. F i r s t , the f i e l d w o r k on which most of these s t u d i e s are based was c a r r i e d out i n the 60's and m i d - 7 0 ' s ; there have been important changes i n the community s i n c e 1980, but no s t u d i e s . A l s o , most of the r i n f o r m a n t s i n most of the s t u d i e s were male heads of e s t a b l i s h e d h o u s e h o l d s , of whom I had not one i n my g r o u p , and a lmost none were i l l i t e r a t e women, who c o m p r i s e d 3 out of my 4 s t u d e n t s . The s t u d i e s reviewed here a r e of two major t y p e s : those f o c u s s i n g on the r e l a t i o n s between E a s t I n d i a n immigrants and the C a n a d i a n "host" s o c i e t y , and those f o c u s s i n g on the impact t h a t i m m i g r a t i o n has had on the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s of the community. The former w i l l be rev iewed f i r s t . Norman B u c h i g n a n i (1979) g i v e s a g e n e r a l review of the a d a p t i v e problems and s t r a t e g i e s of "South A s i a n C a n a d i a n s " , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t many South A s i a n s tend to see t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n Canad ian s o c i e t y as more h o p e l e s s and l i m i t e d than i t a c t u a l l y i s , because of a l a c k of knowledge about or i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h members of the host s o c i e t y . B u c h i g n a n i and Indra (1980) e x p l o r e t h i s i s sue f u r t h e r by comparing S i k h s ' and F i j i a n s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of c o n f l i c t w i t h Canadian s o c i e t y and how t h i s r e l a t e s to t h e i r i n t r a - g r o u p s o l i d a r i t y and p r e - e m i g r a t i o n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s . From i n t e r v i e w s of 100 w o r k i n g - c l a s s 34 males from each g r o u p , they found t h a t S i k h s tend to r e g a r d themselves as more n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d by Canadians than do F i j i a n s . Mohinder S i n g h (1981) conduc ted a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w survey of P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g househo ld heads . He p r e s e n t s s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g to i m m i g r a t i o n t r e n d s , background , o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , economic s t a t u s , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , and c o n t a c t w i t h Canad ian s o c i e t y . Ratna Ghosh (1979) conducted a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w study on how South A s i a n s i n M o n t r e a l p e r c e i v e the s o c i a l and economic i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e i r women i n t o Canad ian s o c i e t y . T h i r t y c o u p l e s were i n t e r v i e w e d , a lmost a l l H i n d u or Moslem, mos t ly i n t h e i r 3 0 ' s , mos t ly m i d d l e - c l a s s by e d u c a t i o n or o c c u p a t i o n . O v e r a l l , Ghosh found t h a t women a v o i d e d i n t e g r a t i o n where p o s s i b l e . Annama Joy (1983) d i d a c o m p a r a t i v e s tudy of the s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of S i k h s and Portuguese i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . In a year and a h a l f of f i e l d w o r k (1976-77) she i n t e r v i e w e d a l l members of f o r t y S i k h f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the Vernon/Ke lowna a r e a . (The Portuguese i n t e r v i e w e d l i v e d i n the O l i v e r / O s o y o o s a r e a and were m a i n l y f r u i t o r c h a r d owners ) . Joy argues tha t the S i k h s have adapted l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y ( i . e . h a p p i l y ) to the Candian way of l i f e than the Portuguese because of r a c e , l e s s c u l t u r a l emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l ach ievement , and i n a b i l i t y to s e p a r a t e the spheres of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i f e and r e s t r i c t r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c e x p r e s s i o n to the l a t t e r . Other s t u d i e s have focussed on the impact tha t the e x p e r i e n c e of moving to a new s e t t i n g has had on c u l t u r a l and 35 s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the P u n j a b i community. In 1967 M i c h a e l Ames and Joy I n g l i s i n t e r v i e w e d 40 S i k h s (24 men and 16 women) from "the broad ' m i d d l e ' spectrum of age , o c c u p a t i o n , and s t y l e of l i f e " (Ames & I n g l i s , I973:16n) . They p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t of i m m i g r a t i o n on the f a m i l y i n terms of t h r e e c o n t r a s t i n g i d e a l f a m i l y p a t t e r n s : the t r a d i t i o n a l P u n j a b i p a t t e r n (of I n d i a ) , the immediate P u n j a b i p a t t e r n (of Vancouver) and the contemporary Canadian p a t t e r n . T h e i r a n a l y s i s i s p a r t i c u l a r y i n t e r e s t i n g i n r e l a t i o n to g e n e r a t i v e themes because i t s " c r i t i c a l f a c t o r . . . i s how the S i k h s themselves i n t e r p r e t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n " ( p . 2 7 ) . Ram S r i v a s t a v a (1974) a l s o p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s of f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n and change, based on f i e l d w o r k done i n 1960-61 and 1967-69. He d i s c u s s e s m a i n l y the g e n e r a t i o n and c u l t u r a l gap between immigrants and t h e i r Canada-born c h i l d r e n , and the na ture of the extended k i n s h i p system i n Canada . M a r g u e r i t e C a s s i n ' s M . A . t h e s i s ( U . B . C . 1977) emphasizes the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c l a s s and e t h n i c i t y , emphas i z ing t h a t w o r k i n g - c l a s s E a s t I n d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y women, have t h e i r l i v e s o r g a n i z e d f o r them by s o c i e t a l f o r c e s c o n t r o l l e d by the m i d d l e c l a s s e s of both Canadian and t h e i r own s o c i e t y . Her work i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t to mine because i t focusses on working c l a s s women, and examines i n depth s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n the f a m i l y and at work. James Chadney ' s PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n ( U . B . C . 1976) a l s o p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of f a m i l y and work a r e n a s a n d , e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e , an a n a l y s i s of the importance of the S i k h r e l i g i o n . Chadney ' s focus i s on the r o l e of economic c o m p e t i t i o n as a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n change or 36 m a i n t e n a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l ways i n t h e v a r i o u s a r e n a s . A f u r t h e r a r t i c l e (1977) d i s c u s s e s t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y i n S o u t h V a n c o u v e r a s a f u n c t i o n n o t o n l y o f p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s a w m i l l s w h e r e most men w o r k , b u t o f a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s t o i n c r e a s e t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y . D u s e n b e r y (1981) e x a m i n e s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e C a n a d i a n i d e o l o g y o f s e p a r a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n a n d e t h n i c i t y on t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f a g e n c i e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e S i k h c o m m u n i t y . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e was t o p r o v i d e t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r some o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e o f g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n an E S L c o n t e x t . T h e r e v i e w moved f r o m t h e d i s t a n t a n d t h e o r e t i c a l t o t h e i m m e d i a t e a n d c o n c r e t e . F i r s t was d e s c r i b e d F r e i r e ' s p r o c e d u r e - r e c o m m e n d e d , b u t n e v e r i m p l e m e n t e d - f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i v e t h e m e s o f a c o m m u n i t y i n B r a z i l . T h e d i s c u s s i o n o f a c c o u n t s o f t e a c h e r s ' a t t e m p t s t o a d a p t F r e i r e ' s p r o c e s s a n d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e themes o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s moved f r o m t h e Bahamas t o C a l i f o r n i a t o T o r o n t o t o V a n c o u v e r . T h e o r i g i n a l n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e o f t h e F a r m w o r k e r s E S L C r u s a d e , a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s , were d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f how c l o s e l y t h e y h a v e a p p r o x i m a t e d i n p r a c t i c e t h e F r e i r i a n t h e o r y on w h i c h t h e p r o g r a m i s b a s e d . T h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , p l u s F r e i r e ' s comments a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on c o m b i n i n g h i s p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a c h w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f E S L i n o u r s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t , a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f some o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t c a n be e x p e c t e d t o come up i n an E S L 37 g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n . They i n c l u d e the l o g i s t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y of communicat ion and of combining second language t e a c h i n g w i t h p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , but focus most i m p o r t a n t l y on the r e a l i t y of s t u d e n t s ' f e a r and r e l u c t a n c e to l e a r n , which r r e s u l t s from t h e i r p o s i t i o n as u n w i l l i n g and unwanted immigrants i n a s o c i e t y i n which t h e i r v a l u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s seem i r r e l e v a n t . The s p e c i f i c s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y of the people i n v o l v e d must be the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of any g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to s t u d i e s on the e t h n i c community to which my i n v e s t i g a t i o n p e r t a i n e d : the P u n j a b i community i n V a n c o u v e r . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s h i s t o r i c a l background and d e s c r i b e s the c u l t u r a l , economic , p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of the community i n more d e t a i l . I t a l s o o u t l i n e s the c o n d i t i o n s of farmwork, the h i s t o r y of the Farmworkers U n i o n , and the o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e of the ESL C r u s a d e . I t s purpose i s to p r o v i d e the c o n t e x t of the procedure d e s c r i b e d , i n Chapter IV and the themat ic a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter V . 38 I I I . CONTEXT OF THE INVESTIGATION T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r o v i d e a background s k e t c h of the c o n t e x t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as w e l l as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s w i l l put i n t o focus the c o n s t r a i n t s both on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and on the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s , as the themes i d e n t i f i e d a r e r o o t e d i n a very s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n . F i r s t , a b r i e f overv iew i s g i v e n of the g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d , i m m i g r a t i o n h i s t o r y , demographics and l i f e s t y l e of the P u n j a b i community i n V a n c o u v e r , the p o p u l a t i o n to which the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a p p l i e s . The c o n d i t i o n s of farmwork t h a t gave r i s e to the f o r m a t i o n of a u n i o n , and the o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the u n i o n are d e s c r i b e d n e x t . The o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e of the 1984-85 Farmworkers ESL Crusade i s then d e s c r i b e d , end ing w i t h p r o f i l e s of the four s t u d e n t s who compr i sed my ESL c l a s s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . THE PUNJABI COMMUNITY IN VANCOUVER The h i s t o r y of P u n j a b i immigra t ion to B . C . i s s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s to t h a t of o t h e r unwanted A s i a n groups whose l abour was i n i t i a l l y v a l u e d but who were b a r r e d or h i n d e r e d from s e t t l i n g permanent ly i n Canada . The f i r s t S i k h s to a r r i v e i n the Vancouver a r e a were men who came i n 1904 seek ing work i n the lumber i n d u s t r y . By 1908 over 5,000 had a r r i v e d , most p l a n n i n g to make t h e i r f o r t u n e s i n Canada and then r e t u r n to I n d i a . They 39 were e m p h a t i c a l l y not encouraged to s t a y . In f a c t , i n 1908 the Dominion government proposed to remove the e n t i r e community (who were at the t ime mos t ly l i v i n g i n bunkhouses near the lumber m i l l s on the F r a s e r R i v e r ) to B r i t i s h Honduras , an i s s u e around which the community o r g a n i z e d i n s u c c e s s f u l p r o t e s t . F u r t h e r i m m i g r a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e l y b a r r e d by an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l of 1910 which s t i p u l a t e d t h a t any immigrant had to p r o c u r e d i r e c t passage from the c o u n t r y of o r i g i n to Canada. S i n c e no s teamship l i n e s ran d i r e c t l y from I n d i a to Canada , t h i s had the e f f e c t of h a l t i n g the a r r i v a l of f u r t h e r P u n j a b i w o r k e r s . In 1914, some Vancouver S i k h s p r o v i d e d funds to c h a r t e r a Japanese s teamship to b r i n g over 376 p a s s e n g e r s . The r e s u l t was the infamous Komagata Maru i n c i d e n t ; the s h i p was f o r c e d to remain at anchor i n B u r r a r d I n l e t for two months, i t s passengers f o r b i d d e n to l a n d , and was then e s c o r t e d by navy and p o l i c e gunboats out of Vancouver harbour and sent back to C a l c u t t a . A l t h o u g h i m m i g r a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s were r e l a x e d a f t e r 1919, few of the S i k h s t h a t remained i n Vancouver took advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t y to b r i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s o v e r . I t i s e s t i m a t e d tha t no more than 15 P u n j a b i f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g i n Vancouver by the e a r l y 1940's . A f t e r I n d i a ' s independence i n 1947 and the implementat ion of the quota system i m m i g r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d g r a d u a l l y , but the r e a l boom was i n the l a t e 1960's , when the p o i n t system was i n t r o d u c e d . N e a r l y 7,000 immigrants from I n d i a a r r i v e d i n Canada between 1969 and 1971 (Chadney, 1977:193) . A l t h o u g h those who came at t h i s t ime tended to be b e t t e r educated and more h i g h l y s k i l l e d than p r e v i o u s i m m i g r a n t s , the 40 m a j o r i t y s t i l l found work main ly i n s a w m i l l s . S i n c e the m i d - 1970' s most P u n j a b i immigrants have been sponsored r e l a t i v e s of t h i s group; they i n t u r n have sponsored o t h e r s . F a m i l y - c l a s s s p o n s o r s h i p remains the most commons means of i m m i g r a t i o n from Punjab to Vancouver to d a t e . (Ames & I n g l i s , 1973; S r i v a s t a v a , 1974; Chadney, 1977; B u c h i g n a n i , 1979; C r a i g , 1979.) The lumber i n d u s t r y has always been the l a r g e s t employer of P u n j a b i i m m i g r a n t s . The consequent c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n near the F r a s e r R i v e r m i l l s has l e d to the development of a P u n j a b i e t h n i c community i n the South Vancouver a r e a . The S i k h Temple was r e l o c a t e d from West 2nd Avenue to i t s c u r r e n t s i t e on S . E . Mar ine D r i v e at Ross S t . i n 1969. In the 1970's OASIS ( O r i e n t a t i o n Adjustment S e r v i c e s for Immigrants S o c i e t y ) , an immigrant s e r v i c e s agency c a t e r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the "South A s i a n " community, opened an o f f i c e near Mar ine D r i v e on Main S t r e e t . Through the e f f o r t s of weal thy merchants a u n i q u e l y I n d i a n shopp ing a r e a , dubbed the "Punjab i M a r k e t , " had grown up around Main S t r e e t and 49th Avenue by the e a r l y 1980's . Thus both economic f o r c e s and c o n s c i o u s p l a n n i n g on the p a r t of community l e a d e r s have e s t a b l i s h e d a c o n c e n t r a t e d and c l o s e l y - k n i t P u n j a b i community i n V a n c o u v e r . (Chadney, 1977; K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y , 1983.) There are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to both the c l o s e n e s s and the c l o s e d - n e s s of t h i s community. The p r i n c i p a l of these i s t h a t of a c o n s c i o u s c o l l e c t i v e w i l l , f o s t e r e d by the r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s h i p , to keep u n t a i n t e d by Canadian s o c i e t y as much of the S i k h c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c h e r i t a g e as 41 p o s s i b l e . ( S i k h s have a long h i s t o r y of m a i n t a i n i n g a separate i d e n t i t y as a m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n i n I n d i a . ) Thus marr iage o u t s i d e the community i s v i r t u a l l y unknown, and i n most cases i t i s c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e for young people to marry someone from I n d i a . In t h i s way t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y r e - i n f o r c e d and the community r e t a i n s s t r o n g t i e s to the homeland. A r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s are the norm. I t i s q u i t e common to r e t u r n to I n d i a for a v i s i t and wedding, then r e t u r n to Canada and sponsor the spouse to f o l l o w , sometimes up to as much as two y e a r s l a t e r . Almost a l l P u n j a b i f a m i l i e s own homes or r e n t from other members of the community. R e c e n t l y sponsored immigrants and n e w l y - m a r r i e d c o u p l e s f r e q u e n t l y l i v e w i t h the groom's (or sometimes the b r i d e ' s ) p a r e n t s or e l d e r b r o t h e r s u n t i l they are ready to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own s e p a r a t e d w e l l i n g . Whether they l i v e i n the same house or n o t , most P u n j a b i immigrants have an e x t e n s i v e k i n s h i p network i n V a n c o u v e r . F i n d i n g of j o b s , hous ing and spouses , as w e l l as most s o c i a l i z i n g , i s p r i m a r i l y o r g a n i z e d a l o n g k i n s h i p l i n e s or among peop le from the same v i l l a g e . In f a c t , o u t s i d e of f a c t o r y work and p r o f e s s i o n s , most people work f o r o t h e r P u n j a b i s . (Ames & I n g l i s , 1973; S r i v a s t a v a , 1974; Chadney, 1976, 1977; C a s s i n , 1977; Dusenbery , 1979) There are P u n j a b i d o c t o r s , d e n t i s t s , l a w y e r s , t r a v e l agents and s o c i a l workers who serve the community, but they are a very s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of i t ( S i n g h , 1981). The aim of many P u n j a b i immigrants i s to set up t h e i r own s m a l l b u s i n e s s , t y p i c a l l y in 42 r e a l e s t a t e , t r u c k i n g , r e t a i l s a l e s , l abour c o n t r a c t i n g , or f a r m i n g . The m a j o r i t y , however, s t i l l work i n lumber m i l l s , where they a r e u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to h e a v y - l a b o r jobs such as the green c h a i n . Other men f i n d jobs as t a x i d r i v e r s , longshoremen, c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s , gas s t a t i o n and p a r k i n g l o t a t t e n d a n t s , and j a n i t o r s . Common jobs for women are working i n c a n n e r i e s and garment f a c t o r i e s , j a n i t o r i a l work, d i s h w a s h i n g and house c l e a n i n g . O l d p e o p l e , newcomers, and those w i t h the lowest e d u c a t i o n a l and s k i l l l e v e l s get p a r t - t i m e work d e l i v e r i n g f l y e r s and k n i t t i n g Cowichan sweaters i n w i n t e r , and p i c k i n g b e r r i e s and o ther c r o p s i n the summer. (Chadney, 1976,1977; C a s s i n , 1977; S i n g h , 1981; Steeves & B o a l , 1982.) FARMWORK The most r e c e n t demographic s tudy of farmworkers i n B . C . (Hawthorne, 1986) r e f l e c t s the c o n d i t i o n s of farmwork as they were i n the 1954 p i c k i n g season (from June to O c t o b e r ) . As of t h i s t ime 73% of F r a s e r V a l l e y s e a s o n a l farmworkers were women, about h a l f were over 50 y e a r s of age , and a l l spoke P u n j a b i as t h e i r f i r s t language . T h e i r average l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada was between f i v e and e i g h t y e a r s , and 85% had been d o i n g farmwork for three y e a r s or more. Almost h a l f had never been to s c h o o l and were i l l i t e r a t e i n P u n j a b i , and another 45% had comple ted l e s s than secondary s c h o o l i n g . 54% spoke no E n g l i s h at a l l . The average p e r s o n a l income from a l l sources (ma in ly farmwork and unemployment i n s u r a n c e ) for the 43 year was l e s s than $5 ,000 . Most farmworkers worked the b e r r y c r o p s - s t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , and b l u e b e r r i e s - from June through Augus t ; an average of 15 weeks, ten hours a day . About h a l f c o n t i n u e d to work i n the f a l l on v e g e t a b l e c r o p s : peas , c a r r o t s , b r o c c o l i , c a u l i f l o w e r and b r u s s e l s s p r o u t s . To the open-ended q u e s t i o n "What c o u l d be done to make your work s a f e r and h e a l t h i e r ? " , most farmworkers responded wi th c o m p l a i n t s about the long hours of work and t r a v e l , and the low pay . A l l of these are symptoms of the l a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g system under which most farmworkers are employed. Unemployment Insurance e l i g i b i l i t y r e g u l a t i o n s s t i p u l a t e t h a t farmworkers (on ly ) must work a minimum of seven days f o r the same employer i n o r d e r f o r any of those days to be i n s u r a b l e . As many growers are unable to guarantee seven days of work, workers ' unemployment i n s u r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y can be j e o p a r d i z e d i f they work d i r e c t l y f o r a grower . C o n s e q u e n t l y , most work for a l a b o u r c o n t r a c t o r , who can p r o v i d e s teady work throughout the season by t a k i n g out c o n t r a c t s a t s e v e r a l farms . The c o n t r a c t o r r e c e i v e s payment from the grower f o r the f r u i t p i c k e d , and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a y i n g the p i c k e r s ' wages out of t h i s . The c o n t r a c t o r a l s o t r a n s p o r t s the workers from South Vancouver to the f i e l d s i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y and back e v e r y day . For t h i s s e r v i c e he deducts a percentage o f f t h e i r wages, sometimes up to 40% ( C . F . U . , 1984). A l l c o n t r a c t o r s who h i r e P u n j a b i workers are themse lves P u n j a b i , and thus f u l f i l l a t r a n s l a t i n g f u n c t i o n between growers and p i c k e r s . Thus f o r s t eady work, unemployment i n s u r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n , most 44 farmworkers are dependent on c o n t r a c t o r s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n a l l o w s for c o n s i d e r a b l e abuse and e x p l o i t a t i o n , depending on the p e r s o n a l mora l s of the c o n t r a c t o r . The most common problems i n c l u d e overcrowded , unsafe v a n s , i r r e g u l a r payment of wages, w i t h o l d i n g of back-wages for an e n t i r e s eason , and non-payment of unemployment i n s u r a n c e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the government, which can r e s u l t i n farmworkers h a v i n g to repay s e v e r a l months worth of b e n e f i t s . I t i s common p r a c t i c e to pay workers at the end of each season (though they may be g i v e n a d v a n c e s ) , even though c o n t r a c t o r s are l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d to pay on a weekly b a s i s . (Vancouver Sun; B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983.) Some c o n t r a c t o r s use t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to t r a n s f e r t h e i r a s s e t s to a r e l a t i v e and then d e c l a r e b a n k r u p t c y , not p a y i n g workers a t a l l . The abuses i n h e r e n t i n the l a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g system are p a r t l y a problem of P u n j a b i s e x p l o i t i n g o ther P u n j a b i s ; however, the system i s not on ly made p o s s i b l e but en trenched and p r o t e c t e d by the f e d e r a l unemployment i n s u r a n c e r e g u l a t i o n s and B . C . p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Under the Employment S tandards A c t , "persons who have been h i s t o r i c a l l y employed on a piecework b a s i s to h a n d - h a r v e s t f r u i t , v e g e t a b l e or b e r r y crops" are s p e c i f i c a l l y e x c l u d e d from p r o v i s i o n s g o v e r n i n g minimum wage, h o l i d a y and over t ime pay , and r e s t r i c t i o n s on hours of work ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981). There are minimum p i e c e - r a t e s f o r a l l c r o p s , but these do not a lways work out to the minimum wage when c a l c u l a t e d i n h o u r l y t erms , e s p e c i a l l y a t the b e g i n n i n g and end of the season when the c r o p i s t h i n n e r . Before 1983, farmwork i n j u r i e s were not c o v e r e d by Workers ' Compensat ion . The 45 a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r i s s t i l l exempt from the r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t e n f o r c e sa fe working c o n d i t i o n s i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s ; i n s t e a d , the B . C . Farmers A s s o c i a t i o n has i t s own s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g Farm H e a l t h and S a f e t y Agency , which i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h e d u c a t i o n . (Hawthorne, 1986). These are the i s s u e s and c o n d i t i o n s which l e d to the f o r m a t i o n of the Farm Workers O r g a n i z i n g Committee i n 1978. The FWOC a c h i e v e d i t s f i r s t v i c t o r y i n 1979 when a s t r i k e and r a l l y by b e r r y p i c k e r s a t a C l e a r b r o o k farm f o r c e d the prompt payment of $80,000 i n back wages (Vancouver Sun , J u l y 18 1979). In A p r i l 1980 the FWOC became the Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n . The two main g o a l s of the un ion have been to e f f e c t changes i n d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n , and to e l i m i n a t e the l abour c o n t r a c t i n g system by o r g a n i z i n g workers i n t o c e r t i f i e d b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s and a c q u i r i n g c o n t r a c t s on farms . I n i t i a l success i n both a r e a s was good: w i t h i n four y e a r s the un ion had a c h i e v e d r e d u c t i o n of the unemployment i n s u r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y r u l e from 25 days to 7, Workers Compensat ion coverage f o r farmworkers , improved Employment S t a n d a r d s r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g r e g u l a r payment of workers and l i c e n s i n g of c o n t r a c t o r s , and i n c l u s i o n of the c a b i n s p r o v i d e d f o r migrant farmworkers under the s t a n d a r d s of the I n d u s t r i a l Camp A c t ( C . F . U . , 1984). In 1984 the un ion had c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a t f i v e farms and c o n t r a c t s at t h r e e of t h e s e , but 1983 changes to the Labour Code, which s t r e n g t h e n e d the p o s i t i o n of employers and weakened t h a t of u n i o n , had l e d to the d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n of a l l but one u n i t by the end of 1985. The economic r e c e s s i o n t h a t h i t the p r o v i n c e i n 46 the e a r l y 1980's i n c r e a s e d the number of unemployed people w i l l i n g to work under any c o n d i t i o n s , and d e c r e a s e d w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of union s y m p a t h i z e r s to r i s k any p r o t e s t t h a t might j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r j o b s . D e s p i t e these d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n 1985 the un ion c o n t i n u e d to d e l i v e r s e r v i c e s such as f r e e l e g a l a i d for members w i t h u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s c o m p l a i n t s , u n p a i d back wages, and unemployment i n s u r a n c e p r o b l e m s . The o ther s e r v i c e t h a t c o n t i n u e d to be d e l i v e r e d , and through which the un ion s u s t a i n e d i t s o r g a n i z i n g e f f o r t s , was the Farmworkers ESL C r u s a d e . THE ESL CRUSADE The o r i g i n s and b e g i n n i n g of the Farmworkers ESL Crusade have been d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d e s c r i b e the o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e , p e r s o n n e l , and t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h of the C r u s a d e ' s t h i r d y e a r , 1985, the year i n which my i n v e s t i g a t i o n took p l a c e . T h i s was my second year of invo lvement i n the Crusade as a v o l u n t e e r t u t o r . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , I took over as c o o r d i n a t o r of the C r u s a d e , and kept t e a c h i n g the same group of s t u d e n t s . W h i l e the t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h and m a t e r i a l s have been m o d i f i e d over the four y e a r s of the C r u s a d e ' s o p e r a t i o n , the b a s i c c o o r d i n a t o r / v o l u n t e e r t u t o r / f a m i l y group c l a s s e s s t r u c t u r e has remained u n a l t e r e d . The 1985 ESL Crusade began w i t h t u t o r o r i e n t a t i o n s i n November 1984, and ended w i t h a b i g p a r t y for a l l t u t o r s and s t u d e n t s at a South Vancouver community c e n t e r i n May, 1985. 47 There were twelve c l a s s e s , each of which met twice a week f o r two hours from e a r l y December to the end of A p r i l ( i n my case u n t i l the end of M a y ) . The c l a s s e s met i n s t u d e n t s ' homes, mos t ly i n South V a n c o u v e r , a l t h o u g h there were two i n E a s t V a n c o u v e r , one i n Richmond, one i n D e l t a , and one i n New Westminster ( M i l l a r d , 1985). Mine met i n South V a n c o u v e r . The c o o r d i n a t o r of the 1984 and 1985 Crusades was D a v i d J a c k s o n . H i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d t r a i n i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g and s u p p o r t i n g the t u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and m a t e r i a l s deve lopment . D a v i d a l s o comple ted the p r o d u c t i o n of the C r u s a d e ' s f i r s t set of ' c o d e s ' f o r p r o b l e m - p o s i n g about farmwork; they and a guide f o r t h e i r use were d i s t r i b u t e d to t u t o r s about halfway through the program. Twelve of the f i f t e e n t u t o r s i n the 1985 ESL Crusade were women; of these two were P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g , and the r e s t were ang lophone . Most of the t u t o r s were between the ages of twenty and f o r t y . They i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , a r e t i r e d t e a c h e r , a house pa- in ter , an o f f i c e worker , and two who were unemployed. As a g r o u p , they were t y p i c a l of o ther y e a r s of the C r u s a d e ; t h e r e are always more women than men, more people under 40 than o v e r , more s t u d e n t s than any o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n , and more anglophones than P u n j a b i s . Most t u t o r s have l i t t l e or no e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g E S L , but most are f a m i l i a r w i t h and s u p p o r t i v e of the work of the u n i o n . (Neesham, 1983; J a c k s o n , 1984; M i l l a r d , 1985, 1986) Thus as a female anglophone s tudent under 40, w i t h no f u l l - t i m e ESL e x p e r i e n c e , I was a f a i r l y t y p i c a l t u t o r , except for my (most ly t h e o r e t i c a l , a t tha t t ime) 48 knowledge about F r e i r e . The s tudent s i n the 1985 Crusade were a l s o t y p i c a l of s t u d e n t s i n o ther y e a r s , w i t h a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r percentage of young people than u s u s a l . The p r e v a i l i n g r a t i o over the four y e a r s of the Crusade has been t h a t of 2/3 women to 1/3 men, and 2/3 o l d people to 1/3 young peop le ("old" means over 50; "young" means between 20 and 30; there are v e r y few s tudent s i n the midd le r a n g e . ) In 1985, out of 50 s tudent s there were 20 o l d women, 13 young women, 10 o l d men, and 7 young men. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of ages and sexes w i t h i n c l a s s e s v a r i e d , w i t h one c l a s s composed p r i m a r i l y of young p e o p l e , t h r e e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d , and the r e s t p r i m a r i l y o l d e r people (mine was of the l a t t e r t y p e ) . Most c l a s s e s were composed of members of the same f a m i l y ; the three ( i n c l u d i n g mine) tha t were composed of f r i e n d s and ne ighbours were a l l -women c l a s s e s . Every c l a s s was mixed a c c o r d i n g to E n g l i s h l e v e l s , w i t h o l d people t e n d i n g to be i l l i t e r a t e or s e m i - l i t e r a t e b e g i n n e r s , and young people m o s t l y a t the i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l in both speak ing and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . ( J a c k s o n , 1984; M i l l a r d , 1985, 1986). The C r u s a d e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w p o i n t on t e a c h i n g ESL i n c o r p o r a t e s s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a F r e i r i a n a p p r o a c h . Those p r e s e n t e d to t u t o r s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r the 1985 Crusade i n c l u d e d Stephen K r a s h e n ' s " N a t u r a l A p p r o a c h , " James A s h e r ' s " T o t a l P h y s i c a l Response ," Nina W a l l e r s t e i n ' s p r o b l e m - p o s i n g s t e p s , the Language E x p e r i e n c e approach to l i t e r a c y , and the use of p h o t o - s t o r i e s ( M i l l a r d , 1985). T u t o r s were encouraged to t each to s t u d e n t s ' s p e c i f i c needs u s i n g the 49 curriculum as a resource only, to encourage informal t a l k i n g , to stay away from d r i l l s and worksheets, and to use c o l o r f u l v i s u a l aids and motivating materials such as games as often as possible. Thus the teaching climate of the 1985 ESL Crusade was condusive to the innovation necessary for the investigation of students' generative themes. Also, with the introduction of the "code" drawings the Crusade's pedagogical practice was beginning to more c l o s e l y approximate i t s F r e i r i a n theory, and further movement in t h i s d i r e c t i o n was desired and encouraged. The following section describes the students of my class in d e t a i l , demonstrating that they are t y p i c a l of Crusade students and of farmworkers, and si t u a t i n g them within the Vancouver Punjabi community in general. To protect their privacy, the students' names and those of their families have been changed. STUDENT PROFILES Baldev Baldev i s in her late f o r t i e s . She has been in Canada since the late 1960's, when she immigrated with her husband and baby son. This son i s now 19; he l i v e s at home and works for a towing company owned by the son of a friend of the family. Baldev has two daughters, who are in grades 8 and 10, and another son in grade 6. Her husband, L a i , was a truck driver in India, and has worked on the green-chain at a nearby lumber m i l l 50 s i n c e he came to Canada. Due to the dust from t h i s job he now has asthma and i s i n the p r o c e s s of o b t a i n i n g a d i s a b i l i t y p e n s i o n . The f a m i l y l i v e s i n a two-bedroom house i n South V a n c o u v e r . They l i v e on the top f l o o r and ren t out the basement. Most of the f a m i l y ' s r e l a t i v e s on both s i d e s now l i v e i n Canada. L a i ' s b r o t h e r owns a farm i n the A b b o t s f o r d a r e a , and the f a m i l y p i c k s b e r r i e s t h e r e every summer, d r i v i n g out i n t h e i r own c a r when L a i i s not working at the m i l l . Ba ldev has made an e f f o r t to keep as t r a d i t i o n a l a home as p o s s i b l e . She i s a v e g e t a r i a n and cooks o n l y P u n j a b i f o o d , a l t h o u g h her c h i l d r e n and husband f r e q u e n t l y eat C a n a d i a n f a s t food and meat. Both she and her husband are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r t emple , which i s i n Richmond. She does not p e r m i t her daughters to cu t t h e i r h a i r , and she l i k e s them to wear P u n j a b i s u i t s a t home and to a t t e n d the t emple . She wants a l l her c h i l d r e n to marry someone from I n d i a , a l t h o u g h n o t h i n g has yet been a r r a n g e d for any of them. N e i t h e r Baldev nor her husband speak above a b e g i n n e r l e v e l of E n g l i s h , d e s p i t e the l e n g t h of t h e i r r e s i d e n c e i n Canada . Baldev i s a l s o i l l i t e r a t e i n P u n j a b i and E n g l i s h , a l t h o u g h she can read numbers and p r i n t her name. She r e l i e s h e a v i l y on her daughters f o r t r a n s l a t i o n i n a l l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g e n c o u n t e r s . She does not d r i v e , but can get around her n e i g h b o r h o o d , to the h o s p i t a l , and downtown on the bus . Ama r j i t 51 A m a r j i t i s 21, and i n 1985 had been i n Canada f o r two y e a r s . She came over to get m a r r i e d , l e a v i n g beh ind a l l her f a m i l y i n I n d i a . In 1985 A m a r j i t l i v e d w i t h her husband, Gurnam, and her f a t h e r - i n - l a w i n the basement s u i t e of B a l d e v ' s house ( they have s i n c e bought t h e i r own house , four doors down the s t r e e t ) . Her m o t h e r - i n - l a w had d i e d of leukhemia the p r e v i o u s summer. Gurnam's s i s t e r and her husband and c h i l d r e n l i v e i n Haney; they a r e the f a m i l y ' s o n l y r e l a t i v e s in Canada. Gurnam, who speaks E n g l i s h at n e a r - n a t i v e f l u e n c y , has a p a r t - time job a t a downtown h o t e l . Both A m a r j i t and her f a t h e r - i n - law (who speaks no E n g l i s h - a t a l l ) p i c k b e r r i e s d u r i n g the summer. A m a r j i t ' s husband' s f a m i l y i s from the same v i l l a g e i n I n d i a as B a l d e v ' s husband, and they have the same l a s t name. They a l s o a t t e n d the same temple , i n Richmond. A m a r j i t had gone up to grade 11 in s c h o o l i n I n d i a ; her f a t h e r was the v i l l a g e t e a c h e r . She l i v e d on the f a m i l y farm, which was run by her four u n c l e s . The e x p e r i e n c e of i m m i g r a t i o n and m a r r i a g e were v e r y t r a u m a t i c for h e r ; she was i l l f o r two months a f t e r she a r r i v e d and i s s t i l l v e r y homes ick . D e s p i t e the f a m i l y ' s apparent p o v e r t y , they r e g u l a r l y send money back to A m a r j i t ' s f a m i l y i n I n d i a . Except to v i s i t her s i s t e r - i n - l a w , go to the t emple , or go to d o c t o r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t s , A m a r j i t never l e a v e s the house . She does a l l the c o o k i n g and c l e a n i n g , i n c l u d i n g hand washing a l l the f a m i l y ' s l a u n d r y i n the s i n k . She cooks main ly P u n j a b i f o o d , but l i k e s to exper iment w i th some Canadian r e c i p e s i n 52 o r d e r to c a t e r to the t a s t e s of her husband and C a n a d i a n - b o r n n i e e i c e s . A m a r j i t was pregnant d u r i n g the f i r s t p a r t of the themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and had a baby boy i n M a r c h , a f t e r which she no l o n g e r a t t e n d e d c l a s s e s a l t h o u g h I v i s i t e d her o f t e n . A m a r j i t a t t e n d e d some evening ESL c l a s s e s a t a l o c a l s c h o o l when she f i r s t a r i v e d , but ceased go ing because i t was too f a r to walk . Her spoken E n g l i s h i s at the i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l ; her w r i t t e n E n g l i s h i s somewhat b e t t e r . Ranjee t R a n j e e t , 55, and her husband came to Canada i n 1980 to j o i n t h e i r youngest d a u g h t e r , P a r m j e e t , her husband and t h e i r two young c h i l d r e n . They l i v e four houses down the s t r e e t from B a l d e v . P a r m j e e t ' s husband was born i n Canada . He works i n a s a w m i l l i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . Parmjeet works on c a l l i n a food p a c k i n g p l a n t , and a l s o sews P u n j a b i s u i t s f o r l a d i e s i n the community. The g r a n d c h i l d r e n are i n grade 2 and k i n d e r g a r t e n . Ranjee t and her husband both p i c k b e r r i e s i n the summer. They a l s o b a b y s i t the g r a n d c h i l d r e n . Ranjee t h e l p s w i t h the c o o k i n g and some of the housework. Ranjee t and her husband, who was a d r i v e r f o r the c i r c u i t - c o u r t j u d g e , l e f t t h r e e o ther daughters and a son and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n I n d i a . A l l of t h e i r c h i l d r e n occupy c l e r i c a l or t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s . T h e i r e l d e s t son d i e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago at the age of 30, l e a v i n g a widow and two c h i l d r e n . They speak of him o f t e n w i t h both sorrow and p r i d e ; he worked f o r the government of the s t a t e of Jammu/Kashmir. 53 Parmjeet and her husband's l i f e s t y l e i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y m i d d l e - c l a s s C a n a d i a n . T h e i r house i s not l a r g e but i s w e l l f u r n i s h e d and equ ipped w i t h a micro-wave oven and a s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t e r e o system. The d e c o r a t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y C a n a d i a n , and t h e r e are no p i c t u r e s of S i k h gurus as i n the househo lds of the o t h e r s t u d e n t s . Parmjeet speaks E n g l i s h w i t h her c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h they s t i l l u n d e r s t a n d P u n j a b i and speak i t w i t h t h e i r g r a n d p a r e n t s . The f a m i l y a t t e n d s the same temple i n Richmond as A m a r j i t and B a l d e v . R a n j e e t ' s husband, w i t h the men of the o t h e r f a m i l i e s , has been a c t i v e i n s u p p l y i n g v o l u n t e e r l a b o u r f o r the b u i l d i n g of t h i s t emple . Ranjee t has had some e lementary s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and i s l i t e r a t e i n P u n j a b i . Her spoken E n g l i s h i s b e g i n n e r - l e v e l , and she i s q u i c k l y becoming l i t e r a t e i n E n g l i s h . Her husband speaks no E n g l i s h a t a l l . Gurminder Gurminder i s i n her e a r l y 6 0 ' s . She came to Canda in 1981 to l i v e w i t h her son , d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w , and t h r e e g r a n d c h i l d r e n . They l i v e i n the house next door to B a l d e v . G u r m i n d e r ' s son , M o h i n d e r , has been i n Canada for f i f t e e n y e a r s . He i s a m a c h i n e - o p e r a t o r f o r the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r , but he was on l a y - o f f f o r most of 1985. H i s E n g l i s h i s near n a t i v e f l u e n c y . H i s wi fe works on c a l l i n a nearby o l d - a g e h o s p i t a l ; she a l s o speaks q u i t e good E n g l i s h . G u r m i n d e r ' s e l d e s t granddaughter i s in grade two, her grandson in k i n d e r g a r t e n , and her youngest 54 granddaughter not ye t i n s c h o o l . Gurminder l e f t her husband i n I n d i a , f o r reasons which were never e n t i r e l y c l e a r to me. She has a daughter i n Vancouver , who has been disowned by the f a m i l y ( to G u r m i n d e r ' s grea t d i s t r e s s ) because of her marr iage to a H i n d u . Her o ther daughter and s o n - i n - l a w l i v e i n Q a t a r , on the P e r s i a n G u l f . G u r m i n d e r ' s f a m i l y a t t e n d s the Ross S t r e e t Temple , which has some d o c t r i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s from the one i n Richmond a t t e n d e d by the o t h e r s t u d e n t s . T h e i r l i f e s t y l e i s a b l e n d of t r a d i t i o n a l P u n j a b i and modern C a n a d i a n : on the m a n t e l p i e c e Mount ie s t a t u e t t e s f l a n k a framed p i c t u r e of the Golden Temple . They eat P u n j a b i food and the c h i l d r e n wear P u n j a b i s u i t s at home, but the c h i l d r e n have Canadian toys and Canadian f r i e n d s . Gurminder has p i c k e d b e r r i e s every summer s i n c e she a r r i v e d , and has sometimes s t a y e d on to p i c k v e g e t a b l e i n the f a l l . In the w i n t e r she b a b y s i t s the c h i l d r e n . Gurminder d i d not a t t e n d s c h o o l i n I n d i a , but l e a r n e d b a s i c P u n j a b i l i t e r a c y a t the l o c a l t emple . She i s l i t e r a t e i n P u n j a b i and e n t h u s i a s t i c about becoming l i t e r a t e i n E n g l i s h . She i n t e n d s to a p p l y for Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p so tha t she can c o l l e c t a p e n s i o n a f t e r she t u r n s 65. Her E n g l i s h i s b e g i n n e r - l e v e l , but she has made the most p r o g r e s s of any member of the g r o u p , as she a c t i v e l y seeks out o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p r a c t i c e , r e a d i n g s t r e e t s i g n s on long w a l k s , and e n c o u r a g i n g her g r a n d c h i l d r e n to ask her f o r t h i n g s i n E n g l i s h . These four women are t y p i c a l not o n l y of ESL CRusade s t u d e n t s , but of o l d e r and more t r a d i t i o n a l women i n the P u n j a b i 55 community i n g e n e r a l . They were brought over to Canada to be w i t h f a m i l i e s ; they are not expec ted and do not p l a n to i n t e g r a t e i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y , but mere ly wish to be a b l e to cope to the ex ten t necessary to f u l f i l l t h e i r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . They and t h e i r f a m i l i e s were m i d d l e - c l a s s landowners i n I n d i a and are w o r k i n g - c l a s s l a b o u r e r s h e r e . T h e i r l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n i s not h i g h , and (except for A m a r j i t , whose s o j o u r n was b r i e f ) they would never a t t e n d a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . Through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s i n the un ion they h e a r d about the Farmworkers ESL C r u s a d e , and j o i n e d because the l e s s o n s would be f r e e , c o n v e n i e n t , and r e l e v a n t . T h i s i s the s e t t i n g for the g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d i n the next c h a p t e r . 56 IV. THE PROCEDURE OF THEMATIC INVESTIGATION T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s b o t h t h e methodology which I used and my o b s e r v a t i o n s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of and problems i n h e r e n t i n the p r o c e d u r e of c l a s s r o o m t h e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i r s t , the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o q u a l i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an o v e r a l l o u t l i n e of the d e s i g n of my i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the c h r o n o l o g y of c l a s s e s and e v e n t s i n which I c a r r i e d i t o u t . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s and o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were s u c c e s s f u l i n g e n e r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l themes a r e d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , the problems and i s s u e s of t h e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n as they a f f e c t the t e a c h e r , the c l a s s , and the r e s u l t s a r e examined. Some of t h e s e problems a r e common t o a l l f i e l d w o r k r e s e a r c h , and some o r i g i n a t e d from my p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , but many, I b e l i e v e , a r e i n h e r e n t t o the p r o c e s s of c l a s s r o o m t h e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of F r e i r i a n pedagogy t o Canadian ESL. N e i t h e r Deborah Barndt nor N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n have c r i t i c a l l y examined t h e i r t h e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s ; I c o n t e n d t h a t such an e x a m i n a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f what i s r e v e a l e d a r e r e a l l y g e n e r a t i v e themes. The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t h e r e f o r e not o n l y t o d e s c r i b e the methodology but t o comment on i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . 57 GENERATIVE THEME INVESTIGATION AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes e l a b o r a t e d by Paulo F r e i r e i n Pedagogy of the Oppressed c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n s tudy w i t h the s p e c i f i c focus of e d u c a t i o n a l needs a n a l y s i s f or c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n . Zimmerman and Wieder d e f i n e the aim of e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h a s : "to u n d e r s t a n d how people go about the task of s e e i n g , d e s c r i b i n g and e x p l a i n i n g o r d e r i n the w o r l d i n which they l i v e . " ( c i t e d i n Bogdan and T a y l o r , 1975:17) . P r e i s s l e - G o e t z and LeCompte d e f i n e the purpose of q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n a s : to e l i c i t p e o p l e ' s " d e f i n i t i o n of r e a l i t y and the o r g a n i z i n g c o n s t r u c t s of t h e i r wor ld" (1984 :? ) . Thus these f i e l d s of i n q u i r y aim to i d e n t i f y e x a c t l y what F r e i r e d e f i n e s as the key e lements of p e o p l e ' s g e n e r a t i v e themes: "the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of p e r c e p t i o n of themselves and of the wor ld" (1970:84) . In f a c t , the p r o c e d u r e s recommended by F r e i r e , W a l l e r s t e i n and Barndt o v e r l a p i n a l l but t e r m i n o l o g y w i t h those employed i n e thnography and q u a l i t a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . The s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s recommended by F r e i r e , W a l l e r s t e i n and Barndt i n c l u d e e lements of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , the use of key i n f o r m a n t s , i n t e r v i e w s , a r t i f a c t a n a l y s i s , and a n a l y s i s of t a p e d d i s c u s s i o n s . For a l l , the key element i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , and the r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r must be assumed not o n l y by the i n v e s t i g a t o r but by the people whose community and themes are under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 58 P a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e my p r i m a r y method of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . I taped a lmost a l l of the l e s s o n s for f u t u r e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . I d i d not conduct formal i n t e r v i e w s , but I spent much time t a l k i n g i n f o r m a l l y w i t h key i n f o r m a n t s , members of s t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s . S i n c e I taught i n s t u d e n t s ' homes I was s u r r o u n d e d by the o b j e c t s , sound, s m e l l s and t a s t e s of t h e i r c u l t u r e . I kept f i e l d notes and a l l l e s s o n p l a n s and m a t e r i a l s , but the p r i n c i p a l means of da ta c o l l e c t i o n were the a u d i o t a p e - r e c o r d i n g s of c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s . I t r a n s c r i b e d these and l a t e r s u b j e c t e d the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s to a content a n a l y s i s , i n o r d e r to complement my o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h a q u a n t i t a t i v e measure of t o p i c a r e a s of g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t to s t u d e n t s . The p r o c e d u r e of c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s and the t o p i c a r e a s i d e n t i f i e d , as w e l l as t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to g e n e r a t i v e themes, are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V . Another important d e s c r i p t o r of my methodology i s t h a t i t was a case s t u d y . In e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a case s tudy i s o f t e n the s e t t i n g for p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e s e a r c h , as i t makes p o s s i b l e the c o l l e c t i o n of c o n c e n t r a t e d , d e t a i l e d q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a t h a t can i n f o r m theory t e s t a b l e on wider p o p u l a t i o n s (Borg and G a l l , 1983:489) For g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a case s tudy i s the o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t . T h i s i s because the o b j e c t i v e i s to d e s i g n an e d u c a t i o n a l program s p e c i f i c a l l y and o n l y f o r the community under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . My "case" was the ESL c l a s s composed of the four women d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , my o b s e r v a t i o n s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n - c l a s s g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n and 59 the t o p i c areas and themes i d e n t i f i e d p e r t a i n to t h i s s i t u a t i o n o n l y . I have shown, however, t h a t my s t u d e n t s are t y p i c a l of o t h e r ESL Crusade s tudent s and of farmworkers i n g e n e r a l , and C h a p t e r V shows t h a t the themes t h a t emerged as r e l e v a n t to them a r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d by o ther a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g the e n t i r e P u n j a b i community. The themes may or may not a p p l y to P u n j a b i men and young p e o p l e , or to women i n o t h e r immigrant g r o u p s . T h i s i s an a r e a f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In r e g a r d to the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of my comments on the i n v e s t i g a t i v e p r o c e s s , my t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n was not very r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s i t u a t i o n s of most Canadian ESL t e a c h e r s . Homefront programs are r a r e , as a r e e x p l i c i t l y ' F r e i r i a n ' programs , as are u n i o n - s p o n s o r e d programs . However, I b e l i e v e t h a t the problems I encountered a r e r e l e v a n t to ESL t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s tha t i n v o l v e an i n f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m , no r e q u i r e d c u r r i c u l u m or t e s t s , a community base , independence and f l e x i b i l t y on the p a r t of t e a c h e r s , and t h a t at tempt to t e a c h i l l i t e r a t e s and l o w e r - l a n g u a g e - l e v e l l e a r n e r s . CHRONOLOGY OF THE INVESTIGATION The i n v e s t i g a t i o n took p l a c e over a t o t a l of t h i r t y - n i n e l e s s o n s h e l d between l a t e November 1984 and the end of May, 1985. The c l a s s met at B a l d e v ' s house i n South Vancouver on two weekday a f t e r n o o n s , f o r two hours at a t i m e . F i v e c l a s s e s were c a n c e l l e d , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s i x were missed due to C h r i s t m a s and o ther h o l i d a y s , and some were pre-empted for c o l l e c t i v e 60 c o o k i n g and s h o p p i n g . T a p i n g began at Lesson 10, i n m i d - J a n u a r y ; twenty-seven of the t h i r t y - n i n e l e s s o n s were t a p e d . Event s in both w o r l d a f f a i r s and s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s a f f e c t e d the course of l e s s o n s and thus of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The p r e v i o u s J u n e , the I n d i a n army had stormed the Golden Temple at A m r i t s a r , the S i k h s ' h o l i e s t s h r i n e . T h i s had the e f f e c t of m u l t i p l y i n g support i n Vancouver for the S i k h f u n d a m e n t a l i s t p o l i t i c a l movement i n favour of a separate s t a t e of K h a l i s t a n . S h o r t l y b e f o r e our c l a s s e s s t a r t e d , I n d i r a Ghandi was a s s a s s i n a t e d and her dea th was f o l l o w e d by v i o l e n t a n t i - S i k h r i o t s i n D e l h i and P u n j a b . Thus the s tudents were c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s t a t e of a f f a i r s i n P u n j a b , and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the s a f e t y of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . There was a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e a g i t a t i o n w i t h i n the Vancouver P u n j a b i community, and the l e a d e r s h i p of most temples was s t r o n g l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c and r e a c t i o n a r y . Two p e r s o n a l events a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d the c o u r s e of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i r s t , Ba ldev d e c i d e d i n l a t e December to go to I n d i a to see her s i s t e r - i n - l a w ' s mother, who was v e r y i l l . She was t h e r e f o r e absent f o r the month of M a r c h . The d e p a r t u r e was preceded by weeks of v i s a problems (because of the t r o u b l e i n Punjab) and shopping f o r p r e s e n t s to take back . I t was a r r a n g e d tha t the c l a s s would meet downs ta i r s i n A m a r j i t ' s s u i t e w h i l e Ba ldev was away, however, s i x days a f t e r Ba ldev l e f t A m a r j i t had her baby, and c e a s e d a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s . For the r e s t of March the r e m a i n i n g two s tudents and I met at G u r m i n d e r ' s house; however, two of these l e s s o n s were c a n c e l l e d 61 because Gurminder was .very i n v o l v e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r her nephew's wedding, and t h r e e of those tha t were h e l d were not taped for v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . By e a r l y A p r i l , however, Ba ldev was back and c l a s s e s were meet ing a t her house a g a i n ; t h e r e was good a t tendance and no f u r t h e r c a n c e l l a t i o n s u n t i l c l a s s e s ended i n May. A l t h o u g h these i n t e r r u p t i o n s impeded the course of c l a s s e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y of i n - c l a s s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , they n e v e r t h e l e s s r e f l e c t e d important events i n s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s and p r o v i d e d more scope f o r p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n : I saw B a l d e v o f f at the a i r p o r t , v i s i t e d A m a r j i t d u r i n g the p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e ' s v i s i t , and a t t e n d e d G u r m i n d e r ' s nephew's wedding . There were t h r e e main s tages to the d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t took p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . The f i r s t was to g e n e r a t e a l i s t of p o s s i b l e c l a s s r o o m t e c h n i q u e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s tha t might e l i c i t t h e m e - r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e d the s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s of W a l l e r s t e i n , M o r i a r t y and Barndt as w e l l as some more g e n e r a l s t r a t e g i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n . T h i s l i s t s e r v e d p a r t l y as a c h e c k l i s t of those t e c h n i q u e s which i n o t h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e had proven s u c c e s s f u l for e l i c t i n g s t u d e n t s ' themes, and which I wished to t e s t i n a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n . I t was not o r g a n i z e d or adhered to c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , nor d i d I make a p o i n t of t r y i n g to implement e v e r y t h i n g on i t . On r e v i e w i n g i t a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the f i e l d w o r k , however, I r e a l i z e d t h a t I had a t l e a s t a t tempted a lmost every a c t i v i t y . The l i s t was as f o l l o w s (* i n d i c a t e s I d i d not t r y t h i s a c t i v i t y ) : 62 A . C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s 1. Mapping of n e i g h b o r h o o d , p l a c e s E n g l i s h i s spoken, f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d , p l a c e s they go and why * 2. Drawing of a s t u d e n t ' s t y p i c a l day , d i s c u s s i o n of a c t i v i t i e s , p r i o r i t i e s 3. P h o t o - s t o r i e s of c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , eg . f i e l d t r i p s , u s i n g a l a n g u a g e - e x p e r i e n c e approach to c r e a t e a w r i t t e n p r o d u c t 4. B r a i n s t o r m i n g on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s , eg . housework, f o r words known, f e e l i n g s , p r i o r i t i e s * 5. R a n k i n g : d i s c u s s i n g and l i s t i n g p r e f e r a b i l i t y of c h o r e s , f o o d s , E n g l i s h needs 6. F i e l d t r i p s of p l a c e s of i n t e r e s t to s t u d e n t s , f o l l o w e d up by d i s c u s s i o n i n c l a s s 7. D i s c u s s i o n of v i s u a l s : a) p i c t u r e s compar ing s i m i l a r a s p e c t s of l i f e in Canada and i n the homeland * b) magazine a d s : s t e r e o t y p e s and images * c) photo c a r d s o r t i n g / r a n k i n g on v a r i o u s t o p i c s , e g . o c c u p a t i o n s , f e e l i n g s d) p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f i c u l t or p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s e) f i l m s and v i d e o s 8. Gues t s i n c l a s s , t o ask and answer q u e s t i o n s of s t u d e n t s 9. D i s c u s s i o n of p e r s o n a l common e x p e r i e n c e s , eg . i m m i g r a t i o n : each s t u d e n t ' s p lane t r i p to V a n c o u v e r . B . O b s e r v a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s 1. I n - c l a s s a) note body l a n g u a g e , n o n - v e r b a l communicat ion b) note a c t i o n s such as absence , l a t e n e s s ; reasons c) note s t u d e n t s ' v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l r e a c t i o n s to p i c t u r e s and drawings d) note t o p i c s of s t u d e n t s ' i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s 2. Out of c l a s s a) a t t e n d c u l t u r a l f e s t i v a l s w i t h s t u d e n t s b) observe t imes of c u l t u r a l i . t r a n s m i s s i o n : s o c i a l r i t e s , eg . weddings , c h i l d r a i s i n g p r a c t i c e s i i . p r e s e r v a t i o n : a s p e c t s of n a t i v e c u l t u r e s most important to p r e s e r v e i n Canada, e g . d r e s s , f o o d , language i i i . d i s r u p t i o n : i m m i g r a t i o n , t r a v e l , moving c) v i s i t and photograph ne ighborhood p l a c e s d) become f a m i l i a r w i t h l o c a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s and whether s t u d e n t s use them e) check out l o c a l l i b r a r i e s for c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l 3. A r t i f a c t a n a l y s i s a) read e t h n i c p r e s s , magazines s tudent s or t h e i r f a m i l i e s r ead b) note i tems of importance i n homes. 63 (Barndt 1979, 1981: M o r i a r t y & W a l l e r s t e i n , 1979; P r e i s s l e - G o e t z & Lecompte, 1984; P r i e s t l y e t . a l . , 1978; W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983.) The second stage was to implement the s u g g e s t i o n s on t h i s l i s t i n l e s s o n s and o ther c o n t a c t s . My u s u a l a p p r o a c h was to p l a n a l e s s o n or set of l e s s o n s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r theme idea i n mind, but to be p r e p a r e d not to go through w i t h i t i f the s tudent s seemed more i n t e r e s t e d i n t a l k i n g about something e l s e (as they very o f t e n d i d ) . T y p i c a l l y we focussed on one t o p i c area for four or f i v e l e s s o n s a t a t i m e , d u r i n g which o ther t o p i c s o f t e n came up n a t u r a l l y . I f none d i d , I g e n e r a l l y t r i e d a new ' t h e m e - e l i c i t i n g ' a c t i v i t y from the l i s t when i n t e r e s t i n the c u r r e n t t o p i c seemed to be waning. The t h i r d s tage was to r e c o r d o b s e r v a t i o n s on the v a r i o u s l e s s o n s or e v e n t s . I r e c o r d e d these i n two ways. The f i r s t was to t r a n s c r i b e each tape w i t h i n a week of the l e s s o n , a d d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l notes and c o n t e x t u a l d e t a i l s . I t was i m p o s s i b l e to t r a n s c r i b e the tapes w o r d - f o r - w o r d as t h e r e were g e n e r a l l y two or more peop le t a l k i n g a t the same t i m e , u s u a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s . I n s t e a d , I made notes of the speaker and t o p i c of each c o n v e r s a t i o n and noted the tape c o u n t e r number whenever each changed ( t h i s l a t e r a i d e d i n t i m i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r content a n a l y s i s ) . The a c t i o n s t h a t accompanied c o n v e r s a t i o n s were a l s o n o t e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample t r a n s c r i p t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g 20 m i n u t e s : T u e s . J a n . 15 0 - R a n j e e t w i t h paper w i t h procedure f o r r e p o r t i n g P o l i c e , Ambulance, F i r e ; d i a l o g u e w i t h 5 s t eps i n case of m e d i c a l emergency, p l u s form w i t h m e d i c a l i n f o to f i l l out - t r a n s l i t e r a t e d i n t o P u n j a b i ; she brought a f i l e w i t h a l l p r e v i o u s handouts i n c l u d i n g t h i s one; went over i t w i t h h e r , she 64 r e a d i n g , as o t h e r s a r r i v e d 70 - B a l d e v : Workers Compensation had phoned tha t morn ing ; r e p o r t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n ; problems in communicat ion; P u n j a b i word f o r ' b r e a t h i n g , ' 'as thma' - d o e s n ' t know these i n E n g l i s h ; husband can o n l y do easy work, not hard work; thought she t o l d them to phone back l a t e r , but she was s a y i n g ' l e t t e r ' ; f o r them to send a l e t t e r ; phone r e p o r t r epea ted t w i c e . - a t same t i m e , Gurminder and Ranjeet go ing over m e d i c a l shee t , t a l k i n g P u n j a b i - Ba ldev u n d e r s t o o d a " l i t t l e " E n g l i s h on the phone 135 - Gurminder w r i t i n g CANADA on bottom of R a n j e e t ' s shee t , then w r i t i n g g r a n d s o n ' s name ( a l s o R a n j e e t ' s s o n - i n - l a w ' s name); Ba ldev l i s t i n g names of her c h i l d r e n 154 - A m a r j i t a r r i v e d ; b e a u t i f u l shawl , from I n d i a 165 - a l l i n P u n j a b i 170 - Ranjee t and s h e e t , r e a d i n g s teps f o r m e d i c a l emergency; o t h e r s i n P u n j a b i ; me showing my m e d i c a l c a r d 220 - A m a r j i t showing housekey; had been s tuck i n l o c k ; took a l o n g t ime to get i t out 227 - I suggested s h e l v i n g m e d i c a l shee t , they asked me to w r i t e i t on board 240 - me a s k i n g A m a r j i t how she i s f e e l i n g ; next d o c t o r ' s appointment i s next week, S a t u r d a y ; nurse comes i n on Wednesday and Sa turday 250 - them g e t t i n g me to w r i t e m e d i c a l sheet on board 253 - A m a r j i t asked i f my s k i r t i s new; s a i d no, l a s t year i t was too s m a l l , t h i s year I'm s m a l l e r ; she t r a n s l a t e d ; d i s c u s s i o n of my s k i r t ; c h a i n of c o i n s on f r o n t ; Gurminder : b i g , medium, s m a l l ; ' o l d , ' c o n f u s i o n wi th ' g o l d ' In a d d i t i o n to t r a n s c r i b i n g tapes I kept f i e l d notes i n which I r e c o r d e d my i m p r e s s i o n s of how the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was g o i n g , which t e c h n i q u e s for e l i c i t i n g themes seemed most r e l e v a n t and how the s tudent s were r e a c t i n g to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These notes a l s o i n c l u d e d account s of c l a s s e s t h a t f o r v a r i o u s reasons were not t a p e d , v i s i t s to s t u d e n t s ' homes o u t s i d e of c l a s s t i m e , and f i e l d t r i p s and c u l t u r a l e v e n t s . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the tapes were the d a t a f o r the c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s which forms the b a s i s of my d e s c r i p t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' themes i n Chapter V . The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the i n v e s t i g a t i v e p r o c e d u r e i t s e l f i s based p r i m a r i l y on the f i e l d 65 notes, supported by evidence from the tapes. F i r s t i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s u c c e s s f u l i n - c l a s s theme- e l i c i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and the most u s e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an a n a l y s i s of the key problems and i s s u e s a t t e n d i n g classroom i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES FOR REVEALING THEMES The a c t i v i t i e s that I deemed to be " s u c c e s s f u l " were those f o r which the outcome, i n terms of thematic i n f o r m a t i o n , was more or l e s s what I had hoped f o r when p l a n n i n g the a c t i v i t y . They were those which h e l d the i n t e r e s t of the e n t i r e group f o r a s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d of time ( u s u a l l y between ten minutes and h a l f an hour), and l e d to t a l k which r e v e a l e d new i n f o r m a t i o n about p o t e n t i a l themes. S u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t i e s (which outnumbered " u n s u c c e s s f u l " a c t i v i t i e s by three to one) shared s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , they were those that were d i r e c t l y i n s p i r e d by student input or i n t e r e s t . One such a c t i v i t y was a taped d i a l o g u e with accompanying drawing of a woman phoning the p o l i c e to r e p o r t a prowler i n her back y a r d . The students' i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t o p i c was evident and p r e s s i n g ; they had spontaneously begun a s k i n g about emergency numbers d u r i n g an e x e r c i s e on making a d e n t i s t appointment, and brought i t up again i n the middle of composing a ph o t o - s t o r y on making samosas. My i n q u i r y as to i n s t a n c e s when one might need to 66 phone the p o l i c e generated many s u g g e s t i o n s from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and f e a r s : b r e a k - i n s , p r o w l e r s , drunks on the s t r e e t . By c o n t r a s t , every u n s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t y was one tha t stemmed from my agenda or i n t e r e s t s . I a t tempted an e x e r c i s e i n v o l v i n g mapping t h e i r ne ighborhood more out of a d e s i r e to t r y the t e c h n i q u e , than from any expres sed i n t e r e s t on t h e i r p a r t i n the p h y s i c a l l a y - o u t of t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d . My q u e s t i o n s about the l o c a t i o n s of houses , shops and banks were r h e t o r i c a l ; the s t u d e n t s knew p e r f e c t l y w e l l tha t I a l r e a d y knew the answers to them. They showed much g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l s c h o o l s , parks and shops when I brought in photos of them f o r l i t e r a c y p r a c t i c e , and much g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n maps of the F r a s e r V a l l e y and the P u n j a b , and r e v e a l e d by t h e i r yawns of boredom and l a c k of c o n c e n t r a t i o n tha t they c o n s i d e r e d i t p o i n t l e s s to draw a map of a ne ighborhood everybody a l r e a d y knew t h e i r way a r o u n d . S u c c e s s f u l themat ic a c t i v i t i e s a l s o c o n t a i n e d an element of c h a l l e n g e or c o n t r o v e r s y . An example of t h i s was a photo compar i son of S i k h temples i n Canada and i n I n d i a , which opened up i n t o a s p i r i t e d d i s c u s s i o n of the damage done to Golden Temple by the I n d i a n army, of a n c i e n t p e r s e c u t i o n of S i k h s by Moghuls , and of s t u d e n t s ' d i s t r e s s at the n e c e s s i t y for S i k h men to cut t h e i r h a i r when moving to Canada. S u c c e s s f u l themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a l s o answered e i t h e r a l e a r n i n g or a s h a r i n g need on the p a r t of the s t u d e n t s . The ' r e l i g i o n ' d i s c u s s i o n gave the s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to t e l l t h r e e i n t e r e s t e d and sympathe t i c anglophones (myself and 67 two v i s i t o r s ) about a v a r i e t y of t h i n g s t h a t were very important to them. They assumed almost complete i g n o r a n c e on our p a r t s and used the photos as a i d s to e x p l a i n temple procedure and S i k h d o c t r i n e , h i s t o r y and c u r r e n t a f f a i r s . The ' p o l i c e ' l e s s o n , on the o t h e r hand, answered a k e e n l y - f e l t l e a r n i n g need; the tape was p l a y e d and r e p l a y e d many t i m e s , c o p i e s r e q u e s t e d , and the w r i t t e n form of the d i a l o g u e c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d . The e d u c a t i o n a l purpose of s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t i e s was a l s o c l e a r . One a c t i v i t y t h a t b a c k f i r e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t was a l a n g u a g e - e x p e r i e n c e p h o t o - s t o r y r e c i p e . I photographed the s t u d e n t s making samosas, and i n subsequent c l a s s e s we o r d e r e d the p h o t o s , a t t a c h e d c a p t i o n s , to them, and p l a c e d them i n an a lbum. T h i s a c t i v i t y dragged out over four l e s s o n s and was o n l y comple ted by v i r t u e of my i n s i s t i n g upon i t . The s tudents were e n t h u s i a s t i c about t e a c h i n g me how to make samosas and l i k e d h a v i n g t h e i r p i c t u r e s t a k e n , but once r e p r i n t s of the photos had been o r d e r e d they saw no f u r t h e r p o i n t i n d i s c u s s i n g them. I came to r e a l i z e t h e - f u t i l i t y of t e a c h i n g l i t e r a c y based on E n g l i s h words f o r s p i c e s they grow i n t h e i r g a r d e n s , of t e a c h i n g about cups and t a b l e s p o o n s when they never measure i n g r e d i e n t s , and of t r y i n g to get i l l i t e r a t e s who have never used r e c i p e s e x c i t e d about p r o d u c i n g a w r i t t e n p r o d u c t i n E n g l i s h f o r an undetermined a u d i e n c e . They c o u l d not see the p o i n t of making a book about c o o k i n g samosas when i t would be no problem to j u s t show anyone who was i n t e r e s t e d how to make them. In f a c t , they o f f e r e d to show me a g a i n , a s my b e l a b o u r i n g of the s u b j e c t i n d i c a t e d t h a t maybe I h a d n ' t q u i t e u n d e r s t o o d the f i r s t t i m e . 68 By f a r the most s u c c e s s f u l i n - c l a s s method of i n v e s t i g a t i n g s t u d e n t s ' themes was not connec ted to any p lanned a c t i v i t y ; i t was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , a c o n s c i o u s s t r a t e g y : t h a t of e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s to " jus t t a l k . " T h i s was never a problem w i t h my s t u d e n t s ; i n f a c t , i t was o f t e n more d i f f i c u l t to get them to be q u i e t . F r e q u e n t l y , one s tudent would b r i n g up a t o p i c or ask a q u e s t i o n , and i f the o t h e r s seemed to be i n t e r e s t e d i n i t I would ask f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s and encourage the c o n v e r s a t i o n to go on as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . These c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d what was on s t u d e n t s ' minds day to day , such as f a m i l y work schedu les and d o c t o r s ' a p p o i n t m e n t s , as w e l l as what i n t e r e s t e d them i n t h e i r everyday env ironment , such as comings and go ings of n e i g h b o r s , or the c r o c h e t p r o j e c t of one of the g r o u p . They a l s o r e v e a l e d u n d e r l y i n g concerns such as homesickness f o r I n d i a , f a m i l y t e n s i o n s , and ambiva lence about t h e i r a b i l i t i e s as l e a r n e r s . They o c c u r r e d i n j u s t about every l e s s o n , and sometimes p r e - empted the l e s s o n p l a n e n t i r e l y . OBSERVATION STRATEGIES A l t h o u g h i n - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c u s s i o n s were the p r i m a r y means of c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i v e d a t a about s t u d e n t s ' themes, a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s i g h t s were p r o v i d e d by my notes from o b s e r v a t i o n . T h i s f o c u s s e d on c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n , on f i e l d t r i p s and e v e n t s , and on i tems i n s t u d e n t s ' homes and t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n recommends s e v e r a l f o c i f or i n - c l a s s 69 o b s e r v a t i o n . One of these i s to note the reasons for s t u d e n t s ' absence and l a t e n e s s . For my s t u d e n t s , t h i s most ly gave c l u e s about f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : to cook meals or prepare tea f o r male f a m i l y members or v i s i t o r s s t u d e n t s would not i n f r e q u e n t l y get up and l e a v e in the middle of c l a s s , and then come back . B a b y s i t t i n g was a r e l a t e d o b l i g a t i o n t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h c l a s s a t t e n d a n c e , and p r e v e n t e d i t a l t o g e t h e r for A m a r j i t a f t e r she became a mother . D o c t o r ' s appo intments or i l l n e s s a f f e c t e d the a t t endance of the o l d e r women. Once , a s tudent came l a t e because she had mis taken a v i s i t i n g t u t o r for an unemployment i n s u r a n c e i n v e s t i g a t o r and was w a i t i n g f o r her to go away. One s tudent was f r e q u e n t l y l a t e r e t u r n i n g from shopping t r i p s , e s p e c i a l l y on $1.49 day . I a l s o spent s e v e r a l hours v i s i t i n g s t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r homes, o u t s i d e of c l a s s t i m e . I t was d u r i n g these v i s i t s tha t some of the most important p e r s o n a l i s s u e s , such as the e a r l y dea th of a son , the p r e s s u r e of l e a r n i n g to c a r e for a baby, resentment over a husband' s d r i n k i n g , or s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s w i t h a d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w emerged as items of c o n c e r n . Through these v i s i t s I a l s o o b s e r v e d f a m i l y r o l e s and i n t e r a c t i o n : t eenagers speak ing E n g l i s h to h i d e t h i n g s from t h e i r p a r e n t s , young c h i l d r e n a c t i n g as i n t e r p r e t e r s f o r g r a n d p a r e n t s , husbands watch ing hockey games wh i l e wives sewed P u n j a b i s u i t s . Through these v i s i t s I e x p e r i e n c e d the generous h o s p i t a l i t y p r o v i d e d to v i s i t o r s , consuming c o u n t l e s s o b l i g a t o r y cups of t ea and sampl ing the savory snacks accompanying i t . The a r t i c l e s i n s t u d e n t s ' homes a l s o r e v e a l c u l t u r a l 70 p r i o r i t i e s . E v e r y f a m i l y has a c o l o u r t e l e v i s i o n w i t h pay c h a n n e l s and v i d e o machine f o r watch ing P u n j a b i movies , but two do not have washing machines (the women do the l a u n d r y by h a n d ) . E v e r y f a m i l y has a l a r g e v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n , in which are grown m a i n l y f r e s h s p i c e s , i n d i c a t i n g the importance of good i n g r e d i e n t s for t r a d i t i o n a l c o o k i n g . Every f a m i l y owns a l a r g e , f a i r l y new c a r , a s t a t u s symbol c a p a b l e of c a r r y i n g the e n t i r e f a m i l y to v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s . E v e r y woman has a sewing machine f o r making t r a d i t i o n a l P u n j a b i s u i t s . E v e r y househo ld d i s p l a y s f a m i l y photos p r o m i n e n t l y , and t h r e e of the four have p i c t u r e s of gurus or temples i n t h e i r l i v i n g rooms. For every couch t h e r e i s a c o f f e e t a b l e f o r o f f e r i n g food and tea to every g u e s t . Most bedrooms c o n t a i n more than one l a r g e bed; these a r e sometimes a r r a n g e d so t h a t a l l the men and a l l the women s l e e p t o g e t h e r , or tha t g r a n d p a r e n t s s l e e p w i t h g r a n d c h i l d r e n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l events a l s o a l l o w e d me to expand my u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c e r t a i n themes. I v i s i t e d the two temples a t t e n d e d by my s t u d e n t s , once each for a r e g u l a r s e r v i c e and aga in f o r a wedding and a baby d e d i c a t i o n . These v i s i t s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o n n e c t i o n s between f a m i l y and p u b l i c r e l i g i o u s l i f e . I a t t e n d e d the parade c e l e b r a t i n g B a i s a k h i , the h o l i d a y c e l e b r a t i n g the b i r t h of the K h a l s a ( S i k h b r o t h e r h o o d ) , and a f t e r w a r d s spent s e v e r a l hours l i s t e n i n g to gruesome s t o r i e s of the t reatment of S i k h women by P u n j a b i H i n d u s , as j u s t i f i c a t i o n for s e p a r a t i s t t e r r o r i s t a c t i o n i n I n d i a . T h i s h e l p e d me to u n d e r s t a n d how the s t u d e n t s ' views on the i s s u e were b e i n g shaped by the temple l e a d e r s h i p . I 71 photographed a l l of these events and went over the photos w i t h s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s , i n o r d e r to get f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and to guage which were the most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of each c e l e b r a t i o n to them. Over the course of c l a s s e s I was g iven c o p i o u s amounts of food as w e l l as s e v e r a l g i f t s . These i n c l u d e d two P u n j a b i s u i t s , one of which was a c o r p o r a t e c l a s s g i f t and one of which Baldev brought back from I n d i a . D e c i d i n g on the s t y l e , t a k i n g measurements, shopping for f a b r i c and be ing f i t t e d f o r the f i r s t s u i t took up a g r e a t d e a l of t ime and energy , and was a p r o c e s s i n which a l l the s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d wi th g r e a t i n t e r e s t . I was taught how to cook P u n j a b i sweets , samosas, and s a f f r o n r i c e , and endeavoured to t e a c h the making of c a s h e w - s h o r t b r e a d c o o k i e s . A l l of these a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d me w i t h an e x p e r i e n t i a l frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r the i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to home and f a m i l y t h a t emerged i n c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c u s s i o n s . In some r e s p e c t s these o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n f i r m e d ideas about s t u d e n t s ' themes tha t had emerged i n c l a s s , and i n some r e s p e c t s I used i n - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s to v e r i f y o b s e r v a t i o n s . The p r i m a r y u s e f u l n e s s of the ' o b s e r v a t i o n ' p a r t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to d i s c o v e r how a l l the d i f f e r e n t c o n c e r n s and i s s u e s e x p r e s s e d by s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s were i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t h e i r c u l t u r e and everyday e x p e r i e n c e . 242 72 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES IN THEMATIC INVESTIGATION The a c t i v i t i e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above r e v e a l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i v e themes. They a l s o r e v e a l e d , however, some important problems i n the p r o c e s s of t e a c h e r - c o n d u c t e d themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These are d i s c u s s e d below. The most obv ious b a r r i e r to a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes i n an ESL c o n t e x t i s t h a t of l anguage . A themat ic a n a l y s i s a c c o r d i n g to my o b s e r v a t i o n s and taped d a t a would be much more r e l i a b l e i f a more f l u e n t l e v e l of communication had been p o s s i b l e between myse l f and the s t u d e n t s . I was c o n t i n u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the problem of wondering whether I had c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d even the b a s i c c o n t e n t of many communicat ions , much l e s s the meaning and emotions a t t a c h e d to them by the s p e a k e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s a r e a l - l i f e p a r a m e t e r . Both Nina W a l l e r s t e i n and Deborah Barndt speak S p a n i s h , the language of many of t h e i r s t u d e n t s ; however, my s tudents had s p e c i f i c a l l y asked for a n o n - P u n j a b i t u t o r i n o r d e r to f o r c e them to speak E n g l i s h . In my s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e were o ther p e o p l e , such as the b i l i n g u a l un ion s t a f f , who c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y have communicated more e f f e c t i v e l y ; however, these people were not w i l l i n g , not t r a i n e d , or not i n t e r e s t e d . Most ESL t e a c h e r s working out of i n s t i t u t i o n s or community programs do not have even t h i s p o t e n t i a l p o o l of t r a n s l a t o r s to draw o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e i r s t u d e n t s come from a v a r i e t y of l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds . Communication would a l s o have been e a s i e r i f the s t u d e n t s ' l e v e l of E n g l i s h had been i n t e r m e d i a t e or h i g h e r ; 73 A m a r j i t c o u l d t e l l me t h i n g s tha t I c o u l d o n l y guess or i n f e r about the o t h e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , beg inners have g e n e r a t i v e themes t o o , and i n the absence of b i l i n g u a l t e a c h e r s or r e l i a b l e t r a n s l a t o r s the language b a r r i e r has to be overcome as much as p o s s i b l e through g e s t u r e , o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t u i t i o n . I t must be a c c e p t e d , however, t h a t the r e s u l t s w i l l p o s s i b l y be l e s s a c c u r a t e or l e s s exac t than i n a mono l ingua l c o n t e x t . Another l i m i t a t i o n on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c l a s s r o o m themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the amount of t ime and energy t h a t the t eacher i s a b l e to devote to i t . I was a b l e to c o n c e n t r a t e f u l l t ime on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and even so I found t h a t i n n o v a t i v e l e s s o n p l a n n i n g , a f t e r - c l a s s v i s i t i n g , t r a n s c r i b i n g t a p e s , c r e a t i n g m a t e r i a l s , a t t e n d i n g e v e n t s , and c o u n t l e s s t r i p s to and from the photo shop to get f i l m , r e p r i n t s and enlargements l e f t , me w i t h no time to r e f l e c t on themat ic c o n n e c t i o n s and c r e a t e codes to t e s t them. T h i s was p a r t l y because of the requ irements tha t both F r e i r e and W a l l e r s t e i n s t i p u l a t e must be p a r t of a good code: i t must d e p i c t an e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e everyday e x p e r i e n c e i n which c o n t r a d i c t i o n s are p r e s e n t , but n e i t h e r too obv ious nor too o b s c u r e ; i t must pose p r o b l e m s , and r e v e a l c o n n e c t i o n s to o t h e r themes ( F r e i r e , 1970:106-110, W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983:20) . By the t ime I f e l t t h a t I had enough i n f o r m a t i o n on a g i v e n t o p i c to c r e a t e such a code , the s tudent s were u s u a l l y t i r e d of i t and ready to move on to something e l s e . In a d d i t i o n , i n o r d e r to d e p i c t the r e l a t i o n of one theme to the whole complex of themes, a view of the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e i s r e q u i r e d which cannot be a c h i e v e d u n t i l the end of the 74 i n v e s t i g a t i o n , when a l l the da ta can be examined t o g e t h e r . Thus I d i d not have enough i n f o r m a t i o n , o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e , or p r o d u c t i o n t ime to produce codes w h i l e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was in p r o c e s s . One s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem might be to exper iment w i t h l e s s - t h a n - i d e a l codes t h a t c o u l d be q u i c k l y p r o d u c e d ; a b e t t e r one would be to have o ther t e a c h e r s w i t h s i m i l a r s t u d e n t s t e s t the c o d e s . In e i t h e r c a s e , the themat ic i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l e d c o u l d o n l y be seen as p r e l i m i n a r y u n t i l the e n t i r e complex of themes had been i d e n t i f i e d . A r e l a t e d problem i s the type of o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r - i n v e s t i g a t o r s . I had the advantage of t e a c h i n g i n a home- front s e t t i n g , t h rou gh which I had a c c e s s to a range of i n f o r m a t i o n about s t u d e n t s tha t i s not n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e to a c l a s s r o o m ESL t e a c h e r . N ina W a l l e r s t e i n recommends tha t t e a c h e r s overcome t h i s by f r e q u e n t l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v i s i t i n g s t u d e n t s ' n e i g h b o r h o o d s , t a l k i n g to peo le on the s t r e e t , and a t t e n d i n g community and c u l t u r a l e v e n t s . T h i s p l a c e s an a d d i t i o n a l burden of t ime and energy on the t e a c h e r , e s p e c i a l l y i f the s t u d e n t s are from d i f f e r e n t ne ighborhoods and c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . The l o g i s t i c a l s t r e s s e s of c o n d u c t i n g a themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n are compounded by the s t r e s s r e s u l t i n g from the c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s t h a t the t eacher i n v e s t i g a t o r must p l a y . The " i n s i d e r / o u t s i d e r e x p e r i e n c e " ( S p r a d l e y : 5 6 ) or "dynamic t e n s i o n between the s u b j e c t i v e r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t and the r o l e of observer" (Wi l son:250) i s an a c c e p t e d p a r t of p a r t i c i p a n t - 75 o b s e r v a t i o n r e s e a r c h . In the c o n t e x t of a c l a s s r o o m i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t h i r d r o l e , that of ' t e a c h e r , ' i s added . T h i s r o l e d e f i n e s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s a c t i v i t y as ' p a r t i c i p a n t , ' and p a r t i a l l y a i d s but p a r t i a l l y c o n f l i c t s w i t h the r o l e of ' o b s e r v e r . ' A r e l a t e d t e n s i o n i s tha t between the r o l e s of t eacher and f r i e n d , and r e s e a r c h e r and f r i e n d . I had a l r e a d y taught the s t u d e n t s for one y e a r . They v a l u e d me as a t e a c h e r , but even more as a f r i e n d ; t h i s i s a common e x p e r i e n c e among t u t o r s and c l a s s e s i n the ESL C r u s d e . The c o n f l i c t between these two r o l e s emerged i n c l a s s e s , when because of the i n f o r m a l i t y of our r e l a t i o n s I was o f t e n r e l u c t a n t or unable to assume c o n t r o l , t e l l them to be q u i e t , or get them to f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s . The c o n f l i c t between the r o l e s of r e s e a r c h e r and f r i e n d came out i n the s t u d e n t s ' c o n c e r n s about the use of the t a p e s , and was a c c e n t u a t e d by my own f e e l i n g s of d i s c o m f o r t at t a k i n g notes on e v e r y t h i n g they d i d and s a i d . In the ESL C r u s a d e , a f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n i s the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e as un ion r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T u t o r s u s u a l l y f e e l some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a t l e a s t b r i n g up the i s s u e of farmwork, whether or not t h e i r s t u d e n t s appear to be i n t e r e s t e d . The u n i o n ' s g o a l of p e r s u a d i n g people to f o l l o w a very s p e c i f i c c o u r s e of a c t i o n (becoming members) a l s o seems i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an approach of open d i a l o g u e , i n which the peop le i d e n t i f y t h e i r own s o l u t i o n s to problems they have i d e n t i f i e d . I a d d r e s s e d t h i s c o n f l i c t by l a r g e l y i g n o r i n g my r o l e as un ion r e p r e s e n t a t i v e u n t i l the s t a r t of the p i c k i n g season was 76 a p p r o a c h i n g and the s t u d e n t s ' minds were more on farmwork. By t h i s t ime they were more w i l l i n g to d i s c u s s the i s s u e s , and to s t a t e p l a i n l y whether or not they agreed w i t h the un ion v i e w p o i n t . The c o n f l i c t i n g demands of these r o l e s : r e s e a r c h e r , t e a c h e r , f r i e n d , and union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a f f e c t e d the course of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n a f f e c t i n g my a b i l i t y to p l a n and l e a d l e s s o n s , to observe and keep complete n o t e s , and to ' p r o b l e m - pose' a c c o r d i n g to the u n i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s . Ro le c o n f l i c t s are i n h e r e n t to the p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g i n g e n e r a l , and a r e compounded, r a t h e r than a m e l i o r a t e d , by the demands of the c l a s s r o o m and the supposed ly p a r t i c i p a t o r y nature of a themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . R e s e a r c h e r s may be a b l e to use t h i s " tens ion between p a r t i c p a n t da ta and o b s e r v e r a n a l y s i s to c o n s t a n t l y r e f i n e t h e i r t h e o r y , " (Wi lson:250) but for an ESL t e a c h e r the c o n f l i c t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t r o l e s combined w i t h the t ime-consuming t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both o b s e r v a t i o n and t e a c h i n g can r e s u l t i n a l e v e l of s t r e s s that has a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on the c l a s s and thus on the s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I t was o n l y a f t e r I had r e o r g a n i z e d by r o l e s i n t o the f o l l o w i n g p r i o r i t i e s : 1) t e a c h e r , 2) f r i e n d , 3) r e s e a r c h e r , 4) un ion r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h a t the s t r e s s was r e l a x e d and a l e v e l of o r d e r and c o n c e n t r a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e to both myse l f and the s t u d e n t s r e t u r n e d to the c l a s s e s . In s h o r t , the demands on the t e a c h e r - i n v e s t i g a t o r - in o r d e r f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n to be thorough - a r e such as to make i t a d a u n t i n g task under the bes t of c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r one 77 i n d i v i d u a l . I d e a l l y , the e f f o r t , m a t e r i a l s and o b s e r v a t i o n s s h o u l d be s h a r e d among a number of l i k e - m i n d e d t e a c h e r s w i t h s i m i l a r s t u d e n t s . Even i f these l o g i s t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s c o u l d be overcome, however, there remain some s e r i o u s i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the procedure of c l a s s r o o m i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes. The p r i m a r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n , r e l a t e d to the p r i m a r y r o l e c o n f l i c t , i s t h a t between the requ irements of good theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n and good ESL t e a c h i n g . In my i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h i s problem became e v i d e n t i n the d i r e c t i o n t h a t the l e s s o n s began to take a f t e r the f i r s t two months. For December, January and F e b r u a r y my focus was on e l i c i t i n g themes, and t e a c h i n g to whatever l i n g u i s t i c needs came up as a p a r t of t h i s p r o c e s s . D e s p i t e the energy and i n t e r e s t of these a c t i v i t i e s , over the weeks a t t e n d a n c e became e r r a t i c , i n t e r r u p t i o n s were more f r e q u e n t , and i t became harder and harder to c a r r y a p lanned a c t i v i t y through to c o m p l e t i o n . My own f e e l i n g s about the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the c l a s s e s were borne out by s tudent b e h a v i o r i n M a r c h , when A m a r j i t had her baby, Ba ldev went to I n d i a , and Gurminder and Ranjee t c a n c e l l e d many c l a s s e s . I e x p e r i e n c e d both a p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p e r s o n a l c r i s i s of c o n f i d e n c e which r e s u l t e d i n a d e c i s i o n to j u s t t r y more t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g for a w h i l e i n o r d e r to s a t i s f y s t u d e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s for " E n g l i s h c l a s s , " to r e - e s t a b l i s h some d i r e c t i o n , and to r e l i e v e some of the p r e s s u r e on m y s e l f . Over the f o l l o w i n g two months a t t endance was good and no c l a s s e s were c a n c e l l e d . Lessons f o c u s s e d on more t r a d i t i o n a l 78 ESL t o p i c s , such as m e d i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , t a k i n g phone messages, and d i s c u s s i n g work s c h e d u l e s , r a t h e r than on P u n j a b i c o o k i n g , the p l o t s of P u n j a b i movies , or S i k h temple r o u t i n e . Of c o u r s e , these l e s s o n s were based on s t u d e n t s ' e x p r e s s e d needs and what I had p e r c e i v e d as E S L - r e l a t e d themes i n the f i r s t few months, and they were taught in as " d i a l o g i c a l " a manner as p o s s i b l e . At t h i s t ime I i n t r o d u c e d more l i t e r a c y i n s t r u c t i o n , as w e l l as the m a t e r i a l s c r e a t e d by the Farmworkers U n i o n . For me, t h i s p o r t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g , but the s t u d e n t s were f a r more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l e a r n i n g and were more c o o p e r a t i v e i n f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n p l a n s . I b e l i e v e tha t the reason for t h i s c o n f l i c t between e l i c i t i n g themes and t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h i s i n h e r e n t i n the ESL C r u s a d e ' s F r e i r i a n a p p r o a c h . F r e i r e ' s pedagogy assumes an approach of ' d i a l o g u e , ' or an e q u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of t r u s t between s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r wherein knowledge i s m u t u a l l y d i s c o v e r e d , v e r s u s a ' b a n k i n g ' model where the t eacher ' d e p o s i t s ' knowledge i n t o the s t u d e n t s u n t i l they are ' f i l l e d u p . ' The problem w i t h t r y i n g to a p p l y t h i s to ESL i s tha t a c e r t a i n amount of ' b a n k i n g ' i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to t each a f o r e i g n language . The t eacher i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r convey ing i n f o r m a t i o n to the s tudent s t h a t they do not have and cannot get u n l e s s somebody t e l l s them. The ESL Crusade faces the a d d i t o n a l problem t h a t P u n j a b i s t u d e n t s are accustomed to v e n e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , and are accustomed, through f a m i l y c o n t a c t i f not p e r s o n a l l y , to a very formal system of e d u c a t i o n . They expect the t e a c h e r to know what they need to know and to t each i t . In 79 some r e s p e c t s the l a t t e r s tage of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was the more d i a l o g i c a l , i n t h a t I f i n a l l y a l l o w e d the s t u d e n t s ' d e s i r e for more f o r m a l t e a c h i n g to p r e v a i l . However, the knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g I had a c q u i r e d i n the e a r l i e r s tage made the d e l i v e r y of r e l e v a n t l e s s o n s i n the l a t t e r s tage p o s s i b l e . One s o l u t i o n to t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n would be to ba lance ' i n v e s t i g a t i n g ' and ' b a n k i n g ' t h r o u g h o u t , r a t h e r than l e t t i n g them f a l l i n t o d i s t i n c t c h r o n o l o g i c a l s t a g e s . T h i s b r i n g s up a g a i n , however, the i s s u e of whether i t i s p o s s i b l e to u n d e r s t a n d and t e a c h a c c o r d i n g to s t u d e n t s ' themes ' i n p r o g r e s s , ' w i thout the b e n e f i t of the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . A r e l a t e d i s s u e i s t h a t of the d i f f e r e n t agendas of t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . F r e i r e , W a l l e r s t e i n and Barndt a l l i n s i s t t h a t the people whose themes are under i n v e s t i g a t i o n must p a r t i c i p a t e as c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s . My r e s e a r c h was not p a r t i c i p a t o r y i n t h i s sense . The "problem" of i d e n t i f y i n g g e n e r a t i v e themes was d e f i n e d by m y s e l f , not by them. The ESL C r u s a d e ' s approach of "d ia logue" and o b j e c t i v e of " c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n " are those of the u n i o n , not the s t u d e n t s . The p r o d u c t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a b a s i s f o r the development of r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s , was one t h a t the s tudent s d i d not c a r e a b o u t . F o r them, the "problem" was: "Because we d o n ' t know E n g l i s h , our l i f e i s bad" (as A m a r j i t once t r a n s l a t e d for G u r n i m d e r ) . They had taken a c t i o n to a d d r e s s t h i s prob lem: a t t e n d i n g E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . They j o i n e d the ESL Crusade because i t was f r e e , c o n v e n i e n t , and made e s p e c i a l l y for them, not 80 because they wanted t o a n a l y z e t h e i r l i v e s . I a t tempted s e v e r a l t i m e s , w i t h and wi thout t r a n s l a t i o n , to i n t e r e s t them i n the n a t u r e and purpose of themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I came to r e a l i z e t h a t the g u l f of c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n was a g r e a t e r impediment to t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and be ing i n t e r e s t e d than tha t of l a n g u a g e . I ended up e x p l a i n i n g the i n v e s t i g a t i o n as a p r o c e d u r e whereby we would r e c o r d our c l a s s e s to keep t r a c k of what we t a l k e d about ; t h i s would h e l p t e a c h e r s next year to g i v e b e t t e r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s because they would know what t h e i r s t u d e n t s f i n d most i n t e r e s t i n g . To t h i s , s tudent s e v i n c e d g r e a t e r c o n c e r n at the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t I might not be r e t u r n i n g the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , than i n an improved ESL c u r r i c u l u m . I a l s o t o l d them tha t I would l i k e to use the r e s u l t s i n o r d e r to w r i t e a book f o r my t e a c h e r s at the u n i v e r s i t y , who are a l s o i n t e r e s t e d in what ESL s t u d e n t s l i k e to t a l k about . They found t h i s r a t h e r odd but agreed to the t a p i n g of the c l a s s e s , as a favour to me, a f t e r I a s s u r e d them t h a t no newspaper, u n i o n , or government people would hear the t a p e s . (Gurminder ' s son had i n s t i l l e d i n her the u n a l l a y a b l e f e a r t h a t her unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s would be cu t o f f i f she were ' c a u g h t ' a t t e n d i n g E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . ) A s i d e from these ' l e g a l ' concerns about the t a p e s , the s tudent s showed no f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n the p r o c e d u r e or the r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I a t tempted to share these w i t h them on the l a s t c l a s s , by which time I had comple ted a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the d a t a , but they were more i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g a matching b l u e y a r n f o r the sample of k n i t t i n g t h a t I used to i l l u s t r a t e one of the p o i n t s than i n the 81 r a n k i n g of r e s u l t s . F r e i r e w r i t e s tha t "the more a c t i v e an a t t i t u d e men take i n r e g a r d to the e x p l o r a t i o n of t h e i r t h e m a t i c s , the more they deepen t h e i r c r i t i c a l awareness of r e a l i t y a n d , i n s p e l l i n g out those t h e m a t i c s , take p o s s e s s i o n of t h a t r e a l i t y " (1970:97) . However, he g i v e s no a d v i c e on e x p l a i n i n g the idea of " g e n e r a t i v e themat ics" to i l l i t e r a t e p e o p l e , or i n t e r e s t i n g them i n the unpleasant task of c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a l l the problems i n t h e i r l i v e s . He warns i n v e s t i g a t o r s a g a i n s t impos ing t h e i r view of r e a l i t y on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but i n some r e s p e c t s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t s e l f , and indeed the whole concept of ' d i a l o g i c a l ' e d u c a t i o n , i s such an i m p o s i t i o n . From my e x p e r i e n c e , s tudents w i l l r e a d i l y agree tha t an ESL c u r r i c u l u m must be based on and respond to t h e i r needs . However, they c o n s i d e r i t p a r t of the job of a t r a i n e d t eacher to know what these needs are and how they can be met. They are not i n t e r e s t e d in a p r o c e s s of "communication and of the common e x p e r i e n c e of a r e a l i t y p e r c e i v e d i n the c o m p l e x i t y of i t s c o n s t a n t 'becoming'" ( F r e i r e , 1970:99) . They j u s t want to l e a r n E n g l i s h . The l a c k of s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t o r y involvement i n the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s does not i n v a l i d a t e the i n f o r m a t i v e da ta p r o v i d e d by the tapes and the o b s e r v a t i o n s . I t does , however, r e n d e r them more t e n t a t i v e and s p e c u l a t i v e ; t h i s i s my a n a l y s i s of the s t u d e n t s ' r e a l i t y , not t h e i r own. I do not b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s a unique prob lem, however, but a c o n t r a d i c t i o n tha t must a t t e n d the e f f o r t s of any F r e i r i a n e d u c a t o r s working w i t h peop le 82 whose p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of l i f e d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the e d u c a t o r ' s o w n . 1 D e s p i t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s and the i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above, the p r o c e s s of p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n and i n - c l a s s themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r d i d y i e l d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i v e da ta about s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s , p r i o r i t i e s , and c u l t u r e , and everyday l i v e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , c a p t u r e d on t a p e , i n photos and i n n o t e s , c o n s i t u t e s the da ta upon which the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i v e themes i s b a s e d . 1 T h i s i s s u e i s examined i n g r e a t e r depth by B l a n c a Facundo i n I s sues f o r an E v a l u a t i o n of F r e i r e - i n s p i r e d Programs i n the U . S . and Puer to R i c o (1984) , and by D a v i d Jackson ( M . A . T h e s i s , U . B . C , 1987). 83 V . PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n : the t o p i c s and themes tha t were i d e n t i f i e d , how they r e l a t e to one a n o t h e r , and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e to ESL l e a r n i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s for ESL c u r r i c u l u m development are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V I . P a r t I of t h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the procedure by which t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the c l a s s tapes were a n a l y z e d f o r t o p i c c o n t e n t . P a r t II p r e s e n t s and d i s c u s s e s the d e s c r i p t i v e r e s u l t s : the t o p i c a r e a s ranked a c c o r d i n g to p r i o r i t y . In P a r t I I I , three t o p i c a r e a s and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are examined i n d e p t h . P a r t IV d i s c u s s e s the da ta i n terms of F r e i r e ' s c r i t e r i a for g e n e r a t i v e themes, and groups the t o p i c s i n t o t h r e e i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d theme a r e a s . DATA ANALYSIS The t o p i c s and themes d i s c u s s e d below were i d e n t i f i e d through a content a n a l y s i s of the taped d a t a . Content a n a l y s i s i s a methodology of combin ing q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e modes of a n a l y z i n g t e x t . In e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , i t i s f r e q u e n t l y used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s , as a s y s t e m a t i c means of a n a l y z i n g the raw d a t a generated by the o b s e r v a t i o n s (Lewin:252; Borg and G a l l : 5 1 2 ) . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes, f or i t examines b o t h "the mani fe s t content of communicat ions" (Borg and G a l l : 5 1 1 ) and 84 "the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e . . . [and] c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s of g r o u p s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , or s o c i e t i e s " (Weber:9) . Thus i t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about the two e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of g e n e r a t i v e themes: "the r e a l i t y which mediates men, and . . . the p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t r e a l i t y h e l d by e d u c a t o r s and people" ( F r e i r e , 1970:86) . In f a c t , F r e i r e s p e c i f i c a l l y recommends a n a l y s i s of the taped c o n t e n t s of the "decoding d i a l o g u e s " of the "thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n c i r c l e s " i n the t h i r d stage of the g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s as a r e s u l t of t h i s p r o c e s s t h a t "the i n v e s t i g a t o r s [can] beg in to l i s t the themes e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t i n the a f f i r m a t i o n s made d u r i n g the s e s s i o n s " ( F r e i r e , 1970:112-113) . In o r d e r to conduct a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , a c o d i n g scheme must be d e v i s e d which d e f i n e s the u n i t s to be coded and the c o d i n g c a t e g o r i e s . Robert Weber l i s t s the "s ix common o p t i o n s " f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t s a s : word, word sense ( i d i o m s , e t c ) , s en tence , theme ( w i t h i n s e n t e n c e s ) , p a r a g r a p h , and whole t e x t (Weber:22-23) . None of these u n i t s were r e a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e for my d a t a , which was l i n g u i s t i c a l l y u n s y s t e m a t i c , and i n c l u d e d a c t i o n s and p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t as w e l l as words . I t h e r e f o r e d e f i n e d my c o d i n g u n i t s as " c o n v e r s a t i o n s . " A c o n v e r s a t i o n was d e f i n e d as a v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n on one t o p i c i n v o l v i n g one or more s p e a k e r s , and a s s o c i a t e d a c t i o n s . When I t r a n s c r i b e d each tape I made a note of the tape counter number whenever the s p e a k e r , t o p i c , a n d / o r a c t i o n changed (depending on whether everyone was speak ing a l l at once , and i f so , whether i t was a l l on the same t o p i c and i n the same l a n g u a g e ) . From these notes 85 the time i n minutes f o r each c o n v e r s a t i o n was l a t e r c a l c u l a t e d . C o n v e r s a t i o n s were coded a c c o r d i n g to " t o p i c a r e a s . " T h i s a l l o w e d for the c o d i n g of data d e a l i n g w i t h t a l k about the mechanics of r u n n i n g the c l a s s , p h o n i c s l e s s o n s , r e p e t i t i o n s of p h r a s e s , and o ther c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h no apparent ' t h e m a t i c ' r e l e v a n c e . Most of the t o p i c areas were d i c t a t e d by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n a t u r e of the d a t a . I i n c o r p o r a t e d d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from the o b s e r v a t i o n s , photos and l e s s o n m a t e r i a l s i n t o the d e f i n i t i o n s . I r e v i s e d and r e - d e f i n e d the t o p i c areas i n the p r o c e s s of t r a n s c r i b i n g , a f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y c o d i n g of the whole body of d a t a , and w h i l e p r e p a r i n g a r e v i s i o n of the c o d i n g scheme f o r use by another c o d e r . Because everyday s i t u a t i o n s i n p e o p l e s ' l i v e s f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e a s p e c t s of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t o p i c a r e a s , i t was neces sary to make some a r b i t r a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the d e f i n i t i o n s . Some segments of da ta were v e r y d i f f i c u l t to code , as they i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l l e v e l s of meaning. For example , one e x e r c i s e tha t went over s e v e r a l l e s s o n s i n v o l v e d a tape and p i c t u r e s t o r y about a n u r s e ' s d a i l y work r o u t i n e . T h i s a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d e x p l i c i t language t e a c h i n g c o n t e n t : t ime r e p o r t i n g , t h i r d person p l u r a l v e r b forms, sentence s t r u c t u r e . I t a l s o i n v o l v e d a t o p i c : work as a p a r t of d a i l y a c t i v i t y . The i n t e n t , or the need from which the a c t i v i t y a r o s e , was to p r a c t i s e r e p o r t i n g on the work s chedu le s of f a m i l y members, i n o r d e r to take t e l ephone messages for them. C o n v e r s a t i o n s i n a c t i v i t i e s such as t h i s were coded a c c o r d i n g to t o p i c r a t h e r than language content or i n t e n t , so as to remove the need for i n t u i t i o n or 86 f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n or p e d a g o g i c a l i n t e n t of the a c t i v i t y when c o d i n g . I coded the d a t a m y s e l f , a f t e r the r e l i a b i l i t y of the c o d i n g scheme had been t e s t e d on a sample of da ta c o v e r i n g t r a n s c r i p t s of s i x hours of tapes from t h r e e l e s s o n s from the b e g i n n i n g , midd le and end of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n t e r - c o d e r agreement was 80%, the l e v e l e s t a b l i s h e d by K r i p p e n d o r f as an i n d i c a t o r of a c c e p t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the c o d i n g c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r f i n a l d e f i n i t i o n s : ADMINISTRATIVE: r e f e r e n c e s to a l l t h i n g s h a v i n g to do w i t h the mechanics of r u n n i n g the c l a s s and making o ther arrangements . I n c l u d e s : t e a c h i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , props and t e a c h i n g a i d s , a r r i v a l s , p a r t i n g s , and excuses for l a t e n e s s or absence , i n v i t a t i o n s , p l a n s and arrangements f o r c l a s s or o u t s i d e - o f - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , t a p e s , p i c t u r e r e p r i n t s , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s p e r s o n a l comments. CLOTHING: r e f e r e n c e s to c l o t h i n g and the making of c l o t h e s . I n c l u d e s c o n t r a s t between I n d i a n and Canadian c l o t h e s , making of P u n j a b i s u i t s , f a b r i c s , j e w e l l e r y , e m b r o i d e r y , c o l o r s . FAMILY: r e f e r e n c e s to f a m i l y members, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , househo ld r o u t i n e s , d u t i e s and r o l e s , p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of home. I n c l u d e s housework, non-work a c t i v i t i e s of f a m i l y members, f a m i l y i s s u e s (eg . d i v o r c e ) , house maintenance FOOD: a l l r e f e r e n c e s to f o o d . I n c l u d e s I n d i a n v s . Canadian f o o d , r e c i p e s , i n g r e d i e n t s , c o o k i n g v o c a b u l a r y , p r o c e d u r e s , mea l s , p r e f e r e n c e s . HOMELAND: a l l r e f e r e n c e s to I n d i a , l i f e i n I n d i a , a t t i t u d e s toward I n d i a . I n c l u d e s geography, t r a v e l to I n d i a , phoning I n d i a , homes ickness , former a c t i v i t i e s i n I n d i a , s e c u l a r p o l i t i c s . LANGUAGE LEARNING: d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the form of language and the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g a language . I n c l u d e s : whether to speak P u n j a b i i n c l a s s , my t e a c h i n g , t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e , p r o g r e s s , and w i l l i n g n e s s to do homework, the e a s e / d i f f i c u l t y of l e a r n i n g languages a t d i f f e r e n t ages , a t tempts to decode (sound out) words r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r meaning, p h o n i c s , l e t t e r s , s y l l a b i c a t i o n , grammar: v e r b forms, p e r s o n s , pronouns , p l u r a l s , t e n s e s , word o r d e r . LEISURE: r e f e r e n c e s to a n y t h i n g they do f o r enjoyment i n t h e i r 87 spare t i m e . I n c l u d e s : P u n j a b i movies , P . N . E . , t r i p s to the p a r k , o t h e r p e o p l e s ' l e i s u r e , h o l i d a y s . MEDICAL: r e f e r e n c e s to p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y members' h e a l t h , the h e a l t h c a r e system and means of a c c e s s i n g i t . I n c l u d e s : anatomy, i l l n e s s e s and symptoms, m e d i c a t i o n s and t r e a t m e n t s , d i e t i n g , s a n i t a t i o n , phoning for d o c t o r s ' a p p o i n t m e n t s , g e t t i n g p r e s c r i p t i o n s , m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e . NEIGHBORHOOD: r e f e r e n c e s to t h e i r p h y s i c a l environment i n Canada: n e i g h b o r h o o d , c i t y , c o u n t r y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n ; a l s o to community a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , l o c a l news, and s h o p p i n g . Examples: r e a d i n g s t r e e t s i g n s , bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , immigrant s e r v i c e s , l o c a l banks and s t o r e s . PHONE: d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the mechanics of u s i n g the phone, phrases to use f o r t a k i n g p e r s o n a l messages. (Otherwise code f o r t o p i c of phone c o n v e r s a t i o n . ) I n c l u d e s : r e c i t a t i o n of phone numbers, p r a c t i s i n g of phone g r e e t i n g and message p h r a s e s . RELIGION: r e f e r e n c e s to r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , a c t i v i t i e s , p e r s o n s , c e l e b r a t i o n s , t e m p l e s , p o l i t i c s . I n c l u d e s : p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t e m p l e s , temple s e r v i c e s and customs, l o c a l temple p o l i t i c s and s p e c i a l e v e n t s , B a i s a k h i p a r a d e , baby d e d i c a t i o n s , f u n e r a l s , weddings , engagements, the P u n j a b i s c h o o l , p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n s , s t o r i e s of the g u r u s , r e l i g i o u s f i g h t i n g i n Canada and I n d i a , the Golden Temple , and r e f e r e n c e s to C h r i s t i a n and o t h e r r e l i g i o n s . SYSTEM: r e f e r e n c e s to the l e g a l system and government b u r e a u c r a c y . I n c l u d e s phoning for p o l i c e , f i r e and ambulance, p o l i c e d u t i e s , t r a f f i c f i n e s , p r i s o n s and c o u r t s , i m m i g r a t i o n r u l e s , g e t t i n g v i s a s , p e n s i o n s , c i t i z e n s h i p , a l l l e v e l s of government. TIME: d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to t e l l i n g t i m e , r e a d i n g c l o c k s , remembering time and c a l e n d a r v o c a b u l a r y , ways of r e p o r t i n g the t i m e . I n c l u d e s : d i g i t a l v s . c l o c k face t i m e , names of weekdays and months, c o r r e c t p h r a s e o l o g y for t e l l i n g t i m e . WORK: r e f e r e n c e s to a l l jobs ( p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y , g e n e r a l ) , work r o u t i n e s , a l l u n i o n s , employment i s s u e s . I n c l u d e s : n e e d i n g , s e e k i n g , and f i n d i n g j o b s , unemployment, l a y - o f f and f i r i n g , o c c u p a t i o n s and work r o u t i n e s of f a m i l y members, wages and b e n e f i t s , farmwork, in-home p a i d work (eg . k n i t t i n g s w e a t e r s ) , C . F . U . , o t h e r u n i o n s . Once the c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n the da ta had been coded a c c o r d i n g to these c a t e g o r i e s , the t o t a l t ime of c o n v e r s a t i o n s f o r each t o p i c a r e a was c a l c u l a t e d , and the t o p i c areas ranked a c c o r d i n g to amount of t ime spent on them. T h i s was to g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n 88 of the r e l a t i v e i n t e r e s t of the v a r i o u s t o p i c a r e a s to the s t u d e n t s . Because of the a r b i t r a r y d e f i n i t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d by the c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e , however, a s imple r a n k i n g of the t o p i c areas p r e s e n t s an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d p i c t u r e of the na ture of t h e i r importance i n the s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s . T h e r e f o r e , I s u b j e c t e d t h i s r a n k i n g to a more d e t a i l e d q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s t a k i n g i n t o account the o v e r l a p s and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of the t o p i c areas and the s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s i n which they came up. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i n terms of t o p i c a r e a , r a n k , t o t a l hours and approximate percentage of t ime spent on e a c h . A d i s c u s s i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these r e s u l t s f o l l o w s . T a b l e I - Ranking R e s u l t s TOPIC AREA HOURS PERCENTAGE 1) Food 5. 2 1 2 2) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 5. 1 1 2 3) Neighborhood 4. 2 10 4) Language 3. 9 9 5) F a m i l y 3 . 4 8 6) R e l i g i o n 3. 23 7.5 7) Work 3. 19 7.4 8) M e d i c a l 3 . 06 7 9) Homeland 2. 9 6 10) System 2. 2 5 1 1 ) C l o t h i n g 2 4.6 89 12) Time 1 .75 4 13) Phone 1 .68 4 14) L e i s u r e 1 .6 4 There a r e some s u r p r i s e s among the i n d i v i d u a l t o p i c a r e a s . Most of the f o u r t e e n t o p i c s are a t l e a s t touched on i n some way i n the themat ic c u r r i c u l a deve loped by N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n and the ESL Core G r o u p , w i t h t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s : ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , ' ' l a n g u a g e , ' and ' r e l i g i o n . ' I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ' took second r a n k i n g i n terms of t i m e . T h i s can be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y by i t s f u n c t i o n as a " c a t c h - a l l " c a t e g o r y , and p a r t l y by the f a c t t h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n s on such t o p i c s as p i c t u r e r e p r i n t s and arrangements f o r o u t - o f - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s not uncommonly took up to h a l f an hour once s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s of the message had been conveyed , q u e s t i o n e d and c o n f i r m e d i n both P u n j a b i and E n g l i s h to e v e r y o n e ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n . A r r i v a l s , d e p a r t u r e s and excuses f o r l a t e n e s s or absence a l s o took up grea t b l o c k s of time as s t u d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y a r r i v e d l a t e or l e f t e a r l y and the c l a s s would come a temporary h a l t every time t h i s o c c u r r e d . A l s o , many of the a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d an assor tment of t e a c h i n g a i d s and the l o g i s t i c s of e x p l a i n i n g them and s e t t i n g them up i n B a l d e v ' s l i v i n g room took up c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e . Thus the h i g h r a n k i n g of the ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ' c a t e g o r y r e f l e c t s the s t u d e n t s ' low l e v e l of E n g l i s h and the l o g i s t i c a l demands of the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n more than a p a s s i o n on t h e i r p a r t f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s . The o t h e r two ' s u r p r i s e ' t o p i c a r e a s a r e a more i n t e r e s t i n g 90 i n d i c a t o r o f s t u d e n t s ' p r i o r i t i e s . T h e t o p i c o f ' l a n g u a g e ' f i r s t e m e r g e d a s i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g M a r c h , when o n l y G u r m i n d e r a n d R a n j e e t w e r e a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s ; t h e y w a n t e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on l e a r n i n g t o r e a d w h i l e B a l d e v , who i s i l l i t e r a t e i n P u n j a b i , was away i n I n d i a . T h i s s u b s e q u e n t l y became t h e p r i m e m o t i v a t i n g d r i v e b e h i n d a l l t h e i r l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l i t e r a c y t o t h e s e s t u d e n t s i s somewhat o b s c u r e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e ' l a n g u a g e ' c o d i n g t o d i r e c t s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , when i n f a c t i t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were c o d e d f o r t h e i r s u b s t a n t i v e t o p i c . E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e r e a d i n g t h e b a n n e r s i n p i c t u r e s o f t h e B a i s a k h i p a r a d e ( c o d e d : r e l i g i o n ) , r e a d i n g p l a c e names on a map o f I n d i a ( c o d e d : h o m e l a n d ) , a n d r e a d i n g s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s a b o u t d a i l y r o u t i n e ( c o d e d : w o r k ) . L i t e r a c y - r e l a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s c o d e d d i r e c t l y f o r l a n g u a g e g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e d s u c h m e a n i n g l e s s c o n t e n t t h a t t h e f o c u s h a d t o be t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c t a s k . T h e s e i n c l u d e d t r y i n g t o r e a d my s t u d e n t c a r d , t h e l o g o on my n o t e p a p e r , a n d a p a g e a n d a h a l f o f a c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y i n w h i c h Woody W o o d p e c k e r d e c i d e s t o q u i t h i s j o b m a k i n g h o l e s i n d o u g h n u t s a n d l i f e s a v e r s a n d go on a l o n g s e a v o y a g e . O v e r a l l t h e s t u d e n t s showed f a r g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n d e c o d i n g t h a n i n m e a n i n g . T h e y a l s o showed h i g h i n t e r e s t , f o r s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e , i n P u n j a b i / E n g l i s h v o w e l c o n t r a s t s , p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s , u s a g e o f c e r t a i n p r e p o s i t i o n s , s i l e n t c o n s o n a n t s , a n d ' s ' a s a p l u r a l m a r k e r . T h e y f r e q u e n t l y a s k e d f o r m e t a l i n g u i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n s l i k e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n 91 " t a l k " and "speak," and between " l e t t e r s " and " s p e l l i n g . " They had d e f i n i t e views on the s u b j e c t of language l e a r n i n g , which they e x p r e s s s e d f r e q u e n t l y . They o b s e r v e d the apparent ease w i t h which t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n p i c k e d up the language , and bemoaned t h e i r o l d age and l a c k of i n t e l l i g e n c e . There were f requent heated arguments about whether the speaking of P u n j a b i s h o u l d be a l l o w e d i n c l a s s ( these were u s u a l l y i n P u n j a b i ) . They a l s o t a l k e d about t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n ; the most e x p l i c i t s tatement of i n t e r e s t on any one t o p i c was on t h i s one: "Joanne, r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e you [ I ] c a r e " (from G u r m i n d e r ) . These s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i n the form of language and the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g came as a s u r p r i s e to me, a b e l i e v e r i n meaning-based approaches wi thout e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to form, e s p e c i a l l y for l o w - l e v e l a d u l t s w i t h p r e s s i n g ' s u r v i v a l ' needs . P o s s i b l y because these women have a c e r t a i n amount of l e i s u r e and have t h e i r s u r v i v a l needs taken c a r e of by f a m i l y members, however, they can a f f o r d to r e g a r d language l e a r n i n g as a c h a l l e n g i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e w i t h i t s own i n t r i n s i c rewards . ( T h i s was not the case f o r B a l d e v , whose l i t e r a c y d i d not p r o g r e s s because she c o u l d or would not c o n c e n t r a t e on i t f o r more than a few minutes at a t i m e ) . Perhaps i t i s a weakness of meaning-based approaches t h a t they tend not to g i v e l o w - l e v e l , uneducated s tudent s c r e d i t f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y l i k e , a l b e i t l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n , that which m o t i v a t e s l i n g u i s t s and ESL t e a c h e r s . The o t h e r s u r p r i s e c a t e g o r y was t h a t of r e l i g i o n . N e i t h e r W a l l e r s t e i n ' s nor the ESL Core G r o u p ' s c u r r i c u l u m even touches 92 on t h i s . For my s t u d e n t s , however, i t was very i m p o r t a n t , as a t t e s t e d to by the i n t e n s i t y as w e l l as the l e n g t h of d i s c u s s i o n s on i t . T h i s may be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n ; many of the s t u d i e s I c o n s u l t e d s t r e s s the i n s e p a r a b i l i t y to S i k h s of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y (Chadney, 1976; J o y , 1982; B u c h i g n a n i , 1979; Dusenbery , 1981). T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the importance of S i k h temples as e d u c a t i o n a l , f i n a n c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l c e n t e r s for t h e i r communi t i e s . L o c a l temple a c t i v i t i e s formed the l a r g e s t p a r t of our d i s c u s s i o n s on r e l i g i o n ; they f a r outweighed d i s c u s s i o n s of r e l g i o u s p o l i t i c s or i s s u e s , d e s p i t e the s t r i f e i n Punjab , and d e s p i t e the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t upheava l i n Vancouver (a l though a d m i t t e d l y when t h i s t o p i c d i d come up, d i s c u s s i o n s soon tended to P u n j a b i ) . Chadney e x p l a i n s t h i s i n terms of r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y as a mechanism of a n x i e t y r e d u c t i o n : In the case of many of the Vancouver S i k h s , the e n t i r e p r o c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n was, and i s , very s t r e s s f u l . A n d , even though non- r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n a l processes- may have been r e a s o n a b l y e f f i c a c i o u s i n meet ing the demands of a s s i m i l a t i o n , c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n wi th temple a c t i v i t i e s appears to have been a major i n d i v i d u a l response to the f e l t s t r e s s . (1976:196-197) My s t u d e n t s ' f a i t h , however, i s p e r s o n a l as w e l l as c u l t u r a l . In t h e i r spare t i m e , when the housework i s done, they p r a y , u s i n g a s t r i n g of p r a y e r beads t h a t are u s u a l l y hung over the c o r n e r of a p o r t r a i t of one of the g u r u s . T h e i r f a v o u r i t e P u n j a b i v i d e o s are l i v e s of the g u r u s . They a l s o devoted g r e a t t ime and energy to e x p l a i n i n g to me v a r i o u s d o c t r i n a l a s p e c t s of S i k h i s m , once they got over t h e i r i n i t i a l s u r p r i s e tha t I was 93 i n t e r e s t e d i n h e a r i n g about i t . S i k h s are not the o n l y immigrant group to whom p e r s o n a l p i e t y and communal r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y i s an important f a c t of everyday l i f e . I t may be tha t the absence of ' r e l i g i o n ' i n o t h e r themat ic c u r r i c u l a r e f l e c t s a r e a l l a c k of c o n c e r n f o r i t on the p a r t of o ther ESL s tudent g r o u p s , or t h a t they r e g a r d r e l i g i o n as a p r i v a t e matter not r e l a t e d to language l e a r n i n g . I t may a l s o , however, be an i n d i c a t o r of s e c u l a r b i a s on the p a r t of c u r r i c u l u m w r i t e r s . 1 Student s may have v e r y l i t t l e a c t u a l need for E n g l i s h i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . The importance of the t o p i c to them, however, r e v e a l s something about t h e i r c u l t u r a l p r i o r i t i e s tha t has a b e a r i n g on t h e i r o v e r a l l a t t i t u d e toward l i f e i n Canada , and thus on t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n E n g l i s h . TOPIC AREA INTER-RELATIONSHIPS As was mentioned e a r l i e r , the types of d e f i n i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o d i n g tend to c o n c e a l the a c t u a l i n t e r - connectedness of a l l the t o p i c a r e a s i n s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s . In f a c t , most of these o v e r l a p v i r t u a l l y i n s e p a r a b l y w i t h two or t h r e e o t h e r s i n r e a l s i t u a t i o n s . F r e i r e s t r e s s e s the importance of i d e n t i f y i n g the n a t u r e of these i n t e r a c t i o n s so t h a t " s i g n i f i c a n t d imens ions of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t e x t u a l r e a l i t y " can "be p e r c e i v e d as d imens ions of t o t a l r e a l i t y " i n such way as 1 A n e x c e p t i o n to t h i s i s Our L i v e s , a s m a l l b ook le t of l anguage- e x p e r i e n c e s t o r i e s and a c t i v i t i e s c o m p i l e d by Jean Unda, i n which Portuguese women d i s c u s s the importance of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . 94 to "begin to i n t r o d u c e men to a c r i t i c a l form of t h i n k i n g about t h e i r world" (1970:95) . The nature of c o n n e c t i o n s between t o p i c areas in my d a t a can be i l l u s t r a t e d by an i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s of three d i f f e r e n t types of t o p i c a r e a s . In t h i s s e c t i o n the t o p i c a r e a s of " f o o d , " r e p r e s e n t i n g ' c u l t u r a l ' t o p i c areas ( c l o t h i n g , l e i s u r e , f a m i l y , r e l i g i o n , and homeland); "work," r e p r e s e n t i n g the ' s u r v i v a l ' t o p i c a r e a s ( n e i g h b o r h o o d , system, and m e d i c a l ) ; and "phone," r e p r e s e n t i n g ' m e c h a n i c a l ' types of t o p i c areas ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t i m e , and language) are a n a l y z e d i n terms of t h e i r major s u b t o p i c s , and of t h e i r p r i m a r y areas of o v e r l a p w i t h o ther t o p i c a r e a s FOOD The t o p i c a r e a of ' f o o d ' ranked f i r s t i n terms of t ime spent d i s c u s s i n g i t . T h i s was a l s o the most c l e a r c u t , e a s i l y c o d a b l e c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n . Almost a l l of the "food" c o n v e r s a t i o n s took p l a c e d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . They were i n i t i a t e d both by p lanned a c t i v i t i e s and i n spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n . Food i s not mentioned as an important f a c t o r i n P u n j a b i c u l t u r a l adjustment by the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , and i s touched on o n l y b r i e f l y i n the o t h e r themat ic c u r r i c u l a as p a r t of a " fami ly" or "hea l th" u n i t . However, to my s t u d e n t s food i s a symbol of many important c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . C o n v e r s a t i o n s on the t o p i c of food were of four main t y p e s . 95 The l a r g e s t of t h e s e , i n terms of t i m e , i n v o l v e d the s h a r i n g of r e c i p e s ( i n c l u d i n g the i n g r e d i e n t s , procedures and implements used) for a v a r i e t y of both I n d i a n and Canadian f o o d . R e l a t e d to these ' r e c i p e ' c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and o f t en a r i s i n g from them, was a second a r e a of more g e n e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s about Canadian v e r s u s I n d i a n f o o d , as e x p r e s s e d i n the p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s of members of the s t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s . These c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e v e a l e d the concern w i t h which the s t u d e n t s saw t h e i r c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n abandon t r a d i t i o n a l f or Canadian food; food i s one b a t t l e g r o u n d f o r the c o n f l i c t between the maintenance of P u n j a b i c u l t u r e and the i n c i p i e n c e of Canadian c u l t u r e i n the home. A t h i r d subcategory of food c o n v e r s a t i o n s were more d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i v e compar isons of food p r e p a r a t i o n and consumption i n I n d i a and Canada; the r e l a t i v e advantages of c o o k i n g over a f i r e on the f l o o r or a gas s t o v e , or of buy ing or growing i n g r e d i e n t s . A f o u r t h c a t e g o r y were very s h o r t , spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n s r e l a t i n g to whatever was be ing s e r v e d up w i t h tea that day . The tone of c o n v e r s a t i o n s on these s n a c k s , as on the s h a r i n g of r e c i p e s f o r l a r g e r d i s h e s , was p o s i t i v e and e n e r g e t i c , i n c o n t r a s t to the w i s t f u l tone of c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . Thus c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n the t o p i c area of ' f o o d ' r e v e a l i t s importance as a t i e to the ' h o m e l a n d , ' and as an arena of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the ' f a m i l y . ' ' F o o d ' i s a l s o r e l a t e d to ' r e l i g i o n , ' as my s t u d e n t s a r e v e g e t a r i a n s f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons ; they r e f u s e d to eat Canadian snacks because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r c o n t a i n i n g eggs . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the 96 area of food p r e p a r a t i o n i s one i n which s tudent s e x c e l , and in which t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and a b i l i t i e s are s t i l l a p p r e c i a t e d and v a l u e d . The themat ic s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . WORK I t i s w i t h the t o p i c area of 'work' tha t the ESL Crusade i s s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d . The g o a l of the Crusade to i s d e v e l o p i n s tudents a sense of i d e n t i t y as farmworkers and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the degree and causes of t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n u n i t e d a c t i o n from the g r a s s r o o t s l e v e l ( i . e . j o i n i n g the u n i o n ) . However, c o n t r a r y to the u n i o n ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e s p i t e the C r u s a d e ' s r e l a t i v e abundance of f a r m w o r k - r e l a t e d t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , many t u t o r s over the y e a r s have found t h a t farmwork i s a r e l a t i v e l y minor concern f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s ( J a c k s o n , 1984; M i l l a r d , 1985, 1986). My data r e f l e c t s t h i s as w e l l . The 'work' t o p i c a r e a , which ranks seventh out of f o u r t e e n , i n c l u d e s much more than farmwork; moreover , most of the c o n v e r s a t i o n s on work took p l a c e i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as a r e s u l t of a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by me. L i k e ' f o o d , ' the t o p i c a r e a of 'work' can be broken down i n t o four s u b t o p i c s . The f i r s t of these i s farmwork. Most of our c o n v e r s a t i o n s on farmwork were i n the contex t of l e s s o n s based on the "Farmworkers , Zindabad" v i d e o and l i t e r a c y book or the farmwork ' code ' drawings ( these have been d e s c r i b e d i n 97 Chapter I I ) . Both the drawings and the video prompted students to t e l l anecdotes about t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s ; these i n v a r i a b l y focussed on the long hours and hard p h y s i c a l work. A second 'work' subcategory was g e n e r a l work i s s u e s and unions. T h i s i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of p i c k e t l i n e s they had seen on T.V., the d i f f e r e n c e between "day o f f , " " l a y o f f , " and " h o l i d a y , " and the l e s s o n s on a p i c t u r e s t o r y about a nurse's work day. 'Family' i s the t h i r d 'work' s u b t o p i c . Students f r e q u e n t l y i n i t i a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n t h i s area; most of these i n v o l v e d schedules or problems. From experi e n c e , the students were a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with the terms ' l a y - o f f , ' 'graveyard s h i f t , ' ' o n - c a l l , ' and 'part-time.' Most of t h e i r f a m i l y members were under- or unemployed; t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the f o u r t h type of 'work' c o n v e r s a t i o n , those r e l a t e d to the o f f i c i a l bureaucracy. Many of these concerned Baldev's husband's d i s a b i l i t y insurance c l a i m , students' own unemployment Insurance c l a i m s , and, i n the context of the video, the d i f f e r e n c e between compensation and w e l f a r e . The primary area of o v e r l a p f o r the 'work' t o p i c area i s with ' f a m i l y ' ; t h i s i s connected to i t s o v e r l a p with 'phone' and 'time,' f o r t a k i n g messages. 'Work' a l s o o v e r l a p s with 'system,' due to the c u r r e n t nature of work (or l a c k t h e r e o f ) and the types of jobs a v a i l a b l e to students' f a m i l i e s . T h i s i n turn o v e r l a p s with 'medical,' as compensation and aches and pains are areas of concern. In the complex of concerns c e n t e r i n g around work, the Farmworkers Union does not p l a y a very b i g r o l e . The union i s 98 regarded as a 'good t h i n g , ' but as something f o r o t h e r people to do , and s i n c e the CFU does not o f f e r a d e n t a l p l a n or o ther perks the $60.00 membership dues are seen as a poor r i s k of money f o r no f o r s e e a b l e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s . PHONE The 'phone' t o p i c a r e a i s connec ted to many a s p e c t s of s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s . I t was coded as a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y because many c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e v o l v e d s p e c i f i c a l l y around memoriz ing a p p r o p r i a t e phone language , but c o n v e r s a t i o n s coded for t o p i c s such as ' m e d i c a l ' and ' sys tem' were a l s o important as 'phone' e x e r c i s e s . The s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u a l l y brought up the importance of communicat ing over the phone. They asked about emergency numbers i n the midd le of a ' r e c i p e ' e x e r c i s e , and about phoning l o n g - d i s t a n c e i n the midd le of a ' m e d i c a l ' d i s c u s s i o n . Most of the 'phone' c o n v e r s a t i o n s were based on a c t i v i t i e s I p r e p a r e d in response to t h i s c o n s t a n t demand. A g a i n , t h e r e are four major s u b c a t e g o r i e s . (For the purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s I have i n c l u d e d phone c o n v e r s a t i o n s tha t were coded f o r o t h e r t o p i c s . ) The f i r s t of these concerns t a k i n g a message f o r a f a m i l y member. The s t u d e n t s were very a f r a i d of b e i n g home a l o n e , g e t t i n g an E n g l i s h phone c a l l , and g e t t i n g the message wrong. T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y important as many of t h e i r f a m i l i e s worked on c a l l , and a mi s taken message c o u l d have s e r i o u s consequences . The second major type of phone c o n v e r s a t i o n was making d o c t o r s ' and d e n t i s t s ' a p p o i n t m e n t s . 99 The s tudent s showed a s u r p r i s i n g degree of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e i r d o c t o r s (and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s ) a l l speak P u n j a b i . The t h i r d major c a t e g o r y was emergenc ie s . A g a i n the m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h i s was f ear of b e i n g home a l o n e . The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y was the l o g i s t i c s , in terms of p r i c e , t imes and s t e p s , of phoning.home to I n d i a . The 'phone' t o p i c area thus o v e r l a p s w i t h ' t i m e , ' ' h o m e l a n d , ' ' m e d i c a l , ' ' s y s t e m , ' 'work' and ' f a m i l y . ' I t i s of i most importance i n the contex t of the l a t t e r : emergenc ie s , d o c t o r s ' appo intments and c a l l s home occur o c c a s i o n a l l y ; but E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g f r i e n d s and employers c a l l o f t e n . Incoming c a l l s f o r c e s t u d e n t s to respond i n E n g l i s h to a s i t u a t i o n over which they have no c o n t r o l , and which c o u l d be i m p o r t a n t . T h i s t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s t h e i r p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s t r a n g e r s . T h e i r m o t i v a t i o n to handle i t w e l l i s f u e l l e d by t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and by the f e a r of b e i n g made to f e e l power less and confused i n t h e i r own homes. DATA IN TERMS OF FREIRIAN CRITERIA FOR THEMES I d i d not code my da ta i n terms of " g e n e r a t i v e themes," as F r e i r e makes i t c l e a r tha t there i s more to the " g e n e r a t i v e theme" than a c o l l e c t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s s a l i e n t to p e o p l e s ' l i v e s . He d e f i n e s the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of g e n e r a t i v e themes i n Chapter I I I of Pedagogy of the O p p r e s s e d . These have been d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I ; here 1 0 0 I w i l l b r i e f l y review the four key c r i t e r i a . F i r s t , g e n e r a t i v e themes a r i s e from and a r e embedded i n a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t and are e x p r e s s e d i n r e a l - l i f e " l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s " (92) . The second key component of g e n e r a t i v e themes i s "the thought language w i t h which men r e f e r to r e a l i t y , the l e v e l s at which they p e r c e i v e t h a t r e a l i t y " (86 ) . T h i r d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a s i t u a t i o n and p e o p l e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h a t s i t u a t i o n imply t a s k s or "responses i n the form of h i s t o r i c a l a c t i o n " (93) . F o u r t h , "the mean ing fu l t h e m a t i c s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a concern for the l i n k s between themes" (99 ) . As I a t tempted to a p p l y these c r i t e r i a to each t o p i c a r e a , i t became apparent t h a t the g e n e r a t i v e themes c o n t a i n e d i n them c o u l d best be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of t h r e e theme a r e a s compr i sed of t o p i c areas f o r which the s i t u a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , i m p l i c i t a c t i o n s and l i n k a g e s a r e s i m i l a r . The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the s t u d e n t s ' "minimum themat ic u n i v e r s e " i s t h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of sources of f e a r (the unknown), s o u r c e s of s t r e n g t h (the known), and sources of t e n s i o n between the two. SOURCES OF FEAR The s i t u a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the ' s y s t e m , ' ' m e d i c a l , ' and ' n e i g h b o r h o o d ' t o p i c a r e a s a l l r e p r e s e n t a s o c i e t y tha t to the women i n my c l a s s i s new, unknown and t h r e a t e n i n g . They are immigrants from a r u r a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , t h i r d - w o r l d s o c i e t y to a w h i t e , u r b a n , i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s e t t i n g . 101 They l i v e i n m a t e r i a l c i r u c u m s t a n c e s tha t are more c o m f o r t a b l e than they were used to in I n d i a , but they have s u f f e r e d r e l a t i v e demotion from one of the more p r o s p e r o u s and p r e s t i g i o u s groups i n I n d i a to one of the most e x p l o i t e d and l e a s t welcome "e thnic" groups i n Canada . The h i s t o r y of t h e i r p e o p l e s ' s e t t l ement i n t h i s c o u n t r y has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x c l u s i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the p a r t of Canadian s o c i e t y , and c o u n t e r - a s s i m i l a t i v e responses from the P u n j a b i community. T h e i r p e o p l e s ' p l a c e i n the economy i s t h a t of u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s d o i n g jobs t h a t a r e shunned by n a t i v e - b o r n C a n a d i a n s . I s o l a t i o n i s the key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of my s t u d e n t s ' i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h Canadian s o c i e t y , as i t i s of many of the farmworkers surveyed by the 1982 C . F . U . needs assessment . T h e i r p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d to v i s i t s w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of t h e i r homes or bus r i d e s no f a r t h e r away than the P u n j a b i shopping areas around Main and F r a s e r S t r e e t s and 49th Avenue. F o r a l l o ther e x c u r s i o n s they are dependent on f a m i l y members f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n . When they do have to i n t e r a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i t h Canadian s o c i e t y i t i s u s u a l l y i n a n x i e t y r i d d e n c i r c u m s t a n c e s : when they need to get h e l p i n emergenc ie s , make m e d i c a l a p p o i n t m e n t s , or answer s t r a n g e r s on the phone. I was the o n l y white E n g l i s h speaker they knew p e r s o n a l l y ; most of t h e i r n e i g h b o r s are P u n j a b i and they d o n ' t know the o t h e r s . T h e i r main c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Canadian ' sys tem' i s as c o l l e c t o r s of unemployment i n u r a n c e . They have a very vague n o t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p (or l a c k t h e r e o f ) between i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the u n i v e r s i t y , the u n i o n , and the 1 02 unemployment o f f i c e . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r concern t h a t my tapes not f a l l i n t o the hands of U . I . C . i n v e s t i g a t o r s . T h i s l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e i r dependence on f a m i l y members and community "gatekeepers" such as the l e a d e r s h i p of the temples i n a l l t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h Canadian s o c i e t y , and a l s o shapes t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of i t . An important f a c t o r in the s t u d e n t s ' sense of i s o l a t i o n from Canadian s o c i e t y i s tha t they are not here by t h e i r own c h o i c e . A l l came because of f a m i l y d e c i s i o n s that were made f o r them; a l l would r a t h e r be l i v i n g i n I n d i a . B a l d e v ' s t r i p to I n d i a brought these emotions to the f o r e : F e b . 14 - me a s k i n g about the p r e f e r e n c e s of I n d i a n people for Canadian and I n d i a n food; Ranjee t and Gurminder s i d e t r a c k e d onto ' f r u i t ' - A m a r j i t : d i d n ' t eat f or 20 days when she f i r s t a r r i v e d ; v e r y s i c k , f ever of 106; because she came a l o n e , was very homesick; be fore she got m a r r i e d ; l i v i n g i n the same p l a c e ; knew Gurnam's f a m i l y from b e f o r e , i n I n d i a ; d i d n ' t eat on the p l a n e ; there was another g i r l i n the same s i t u a t i o n as her on the p l a n e ; they sat t o g e t h e r - Gurminder t e l l i n g the s t o r y of her p l a n e f l i g h t and what she a t e ; brought her own food - me a s k i n g a g a i n what Canadian food they l i k e ; A m a r j i t : bread - Ba ldev s a y i n g she ' s not coming back from I n d i a : "everybody l i k e I n d i a , no l i k e Canada" A p r i l 2 - Ba ldev not happy to be back , c o n s t a n t theme that e v e r y t h i n g about I n d i a i s b e t t e r than e v e r y t h i n g about Canada: "everybody a l l the t ime happy"; s t i l l very homes ick , d i d n ' t want to come back to Canada; smuggled a l o t of I n d i a n food through customs packed between c l o t h e s i n s u i t c a s e s S tudent s compared the Canadian s o c i a l w e l f a r e system f a v o r a b l y to tha t of I n d i a : 103 J a n . 12 - d i s c u s s i n g a r r a n g e d v e r s u s l o v e m a r r i a g e s , I p o i n t e d out t h a t 50% of Canadian m a r r i a g e s end i n d i v o r c e - them: d i v o r c e i s unknown i n I n d i a ; but p o s s i b l e here because (Gurminder ) : "government c a r e " ; f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e , w e l f a r e , no such t h i n g i n I n d i a : "government no c a r e " ; have to s tay w i t h f a m i l y - I suggested tha t maybe t h a t way t h i n g s get worked out i n s t e a d of g i v e n up on; they e i t h e r d i d n ' t u n d ers t an d or d i d n ' t agree May 23 - Gurminder : "Ind ia people no compensa t ion , no w e l f a r e , no unemployment, no he lp" from government - Gurminder and Ranjee t i n P u n j a b i ; Gurminder : i n I n d i a , w e l f a r e might come to $50.00 per month; some d i s a g r e e m e n t , argument in P u n j a b i - R a n j e e t : "Ind ia o l d man"; S y b i l a s k i n g i f they get p e n s i o n s ; R a n j e e t : ye s ; Gurminder and Baldev i n P u n j a b i - Gurminder : " f i n g e r , farmworker , f i n g e r b r o k e n , union o f f i c e compensat ion , no un ion worker , no compensat ion?" (Can you on ly get compensat ion i f y o u ' r e a member of the un ion?) - me e x p l a i n i n g t h a t compensat ion i s not from the u n i o n , but from the government; d o e s n ' t matter i f y o u ' r e i n a un ion (them d i s c u s s i n g i t i n P u n j a b i ) D e s p i t e t h i s , however, G u r m i n d e r ' s f e a r s t h a t her unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s would be cu t o f f were u n a l l a y a b l e . O v e r a l l , the s tudent s expres sed g r e a t i n d i f f e r e n c e to l o c a l events and i s s u e s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r own community (we spent s e v e r a l l e s s o n s on the B a i s a k h i p a r a d e , but my p i c t u r e s of the Vancouver Peace March f a i l e d to arouse even the s l i g h t e s t i n t e r e s t ) . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of Canadian p e o p l e , as they p r e s e n t e d t h e i r ideas to me f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n , was tha t though they smoke and d r i n k and are immora l , they have h a p p i e r l i v e s i n g e n e r a l than do P u n j a b i s , and t h a t they d i s l i k e P u n j a b i food and P u n j a b i p e o p l e . 1 04 My s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of Canad ian s o c i e t y and people and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to i t are borne out f o r the community i n g e n e r a l i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . Most South A s i a n immigrants have come to Canada from s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t r o n g sense of community and very dense s o c i a l ne twords . Canad ian s o c i e t y i s such that i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to b u i l d s t r u c t u r a l rep lacements f o r these s o c i a l networks tha t are a n y t h i n g but p a l e shadows of the o r i g i n a l s . . . many South A s i a n s f i n d themselves more s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d than ever b e f o r e i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s seems to be p a r t i c u l a r l y the case f o r . . . women, e s p e c i a l l y i f they do not work and are wi thout easy access to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . ( B u c h i g n a n i , 1979:62) A q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey of w o r k i n g - c l a s s men r e v e a l e d t h a t "a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of S i k h s f e e l t h a t they are f r e q u e n t l y the v i c t i m s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . . . because of t h e i r d i v e r g e n c e from B r i t i s h norms" and because of C a n a d i a n e t h n o c e n t r i s m ( B u c h i g n a n i and I n d r a , 1981:151). The a u t h o r s argue tha t "S ikh p e r c e p t i o n s of the degree of c o n f l i c t and t h r e a t which e x i s t s between themselves and o t h e r s i s much o v e r d r a w n , " and a t t r i b u t e i t p a r t l y to a " h e r i t a g e of c o n s t a n t l y a c t i v a t i n g S i k h i d e n t i t y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r s " ( B u c h i g n a n i and I n d r a , 1981:151). The focus of t h i s i d e n t i t y c o n f l i c t i n r e l a t i o n to Canadian s o c i e t y i s g e n e r a l l y f a m i l y and s o c i a l mores: Because few S i k h s m a i n t a i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s , they as ses s Canadian f a m i l y l i f e l a r g e l y i n terms of those f e a t u r e s t h a t are the s p e c i a l o b s e s s i o n of our own mass media : s exua l e x p l o i t a t i o n , y o u t h f u l r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , the t r a g e d y of o l d age, and the a l l e g e d i n s t a b i l i t y of the c o n j u g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . F u r t h e r , S i k h s judge Canadian p a t t e r n s i n terms of t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l s r a t h e r than i n terms of Canadian 1 05 v a l u e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g tha t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s are at l e a s t n e g a t i v e l y t i n g e d . Where f a m i l y l i f e among E a s t Ind ians i n B . C . has been d i s r u p t e d , even by s t r e s s e s i n h e r e n t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , t h i s d i s r u p t i o n i s t y p i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r e n c e to ' r e b e l l i o u s ' members who have been ' c o r r u p t e d ' by Canadian p a t t e r n s . (Ames & I n g l i s , 1973:28). Annama Joy c o n c l u d e d of her S i k h in formants i n the Okanagan t h a t " t h e i r s e t t l ement i n Canada has been one of f r u s t r a t i o n . They remain ambiva lent toward the Canadian way of l i f e " (1983:343) . There are two s o r t s of a c t i o n i m p l i c i t i n t h i s r e a l i t y of i s o l a t i o n and m i s i n f o r m a t i o n and these p e r c e p t i o n s of Canadian s o c i e t y as t h r e a t e n i n g and h o s t i l e . One i s the response t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the community as a whole as w e l l as most i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n i t : to make the adjustments n e c e s s a r y to s u r v i v e , but to e n e r g e t i c a l l y r e s i s t a s s i m i l a t i o n . As f a r as l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h i s c o n c e r n e d , t h i s would i n v o l v e c e r t a i n s u r v i v a l s k i l l s such as emergency numbers and r e a d i n g s t r e e t s i g n s , but not n e c e s s a r i l y communicat ion s k i l l s f or shopping or c h a t t i n g w i t h c o - w o r k e r s . T h i s type of response i s not uncommon, suggests F r e i r e , when "men p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y as dense , i m p e n e t r a b l e , and e n v e l o p i n g . " In t h i s c a s e , "the task i m p l i e d by the theme i s the l a c k of a t a s k . " (1970:95, 105). The o ther i m p l i c i t a c t i o n i s to take s teps to a c q u i r e f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n and to emerge from i s o l a t i o n ; to r e p l a c e f e a r and s u s p i c i o n based on i g n o r a n c e w i t h c o n f i d e n c e based on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . In a sense , t h i s i s the a c t i o n t h a t my s t u d e n t s have t a k e n . I t d i d not i n v o l v e a very r a d i c a l 1 06 b e h a v i o r a l change, s i n c e E n g l i s h was brought to t h e i r d o o r s t e p , but f o r women of t h e i r age and l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n ( e x c e p t i n g A m a r j i t ) to embark on a new e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e i s u n u s u a l , and shows tha t they have r e a l i z e d tha t l i f e might be b e t t e r i f they c o u l d i n t e r a c t more i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i th Canadian s o c i e t y . Other s tudent s i n the ESL Crusade have found t h a t p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h t h e i r t u t o r s broke down many s t e r e o t y p e s . In f a c t , in every year of the Crusade the i n t e r - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r i s i n g from f r i e n d s h i p s between t u t o r s and s t u d e n t s has been a f a r more n o t a b l e r e s u l t than any i n c r e a s e i n language s k i l l s ( J a c k s o n , 1984; M i l l a r d , 1985, 1986). The s t r a n g e , t h r e a t e n i n g s o c i e t y s u r r o u n d i n g s t u d e n t s i n the ESL Crusade i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i n k e d to t h e i r own f a m i l i a r , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s o c i e t y by v i r t u e of the c o n f l i c t s , p e r c e i v e d and r e a l , between the two. Chadney d e s c r i b e s the l i n k between the two i n terms of the l a t t e r as a c o p i n g s t r a t e g y to d e a l w i t h the former: How can one s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be a Canadian and A S i k h ? The s o l u t i o n s l i e i n the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t one must a d j u s t to the r e a l i t i e s of the hos t s o c i e t y at the same time one m a i n t a i n s a v i a b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h what i s p e r c e i v e d to be a t r a d i t i o n a l P u n j a b i c u l t u r e . (1977:199) . SOURCES OF STRENGTH There are two main a r e a s w i t h i n the g e n e r a l theme of s t u d e n t s ' t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e as a source of s t r e n g t h . The f i r s t of t h e s e , which c o n c e r n s the t o p i c areas of ' f o o d , ' ' c l o t h i n g ' and ' l e i s u r e , ' i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c t i v i t i e s which 1 07 d i s t i n g u i s h the r o l e of women i n P u n j a b i c u l t u r e . The second concerns the r o l e of ' r e l i g i o n ' and 'homeland' as s o u r c e s of s t r e n g t h and a f f i r m a t i o n . The h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y of the f i r s t theme can be d e s c r i b e d in terms of the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s t i t u t e "women's work." Most of these are c r e a t i v e , but I have a l s o i n c l u d e d under t h i s heading the ' consumpt ion ' of P u n j a b i v i d e o s . My s tudent s r e p r e s e n t the most t r a d i t i o n a l type of woman i n the Vancouver P u n j a b i community: n o t - h i g h l y - e d u c a t e d recen t a r r i v a l s from I n d i a who speak v e r y l i t t l e E n g l i s h , and who do not work o u t s i d e the home. T h e i r sphere of a c t i v i t i e s i s very c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and a c c e p t e d . In t h e i r f a m i l i e s , women do a l l the c o o k i n g , c l e a n i n g , and sewing , a l t h o u g h men w i l l h e l p w i t h s h o p p i n g , house and garden maintenance , and c h i l d c a r e . C l e a n i n g tends to devo lve upon the younger women i n a h o u s e h o l d ; Baldev and A m a r j i t showed much more i n t e r e s t i n t h i s than d i d the o l d e r women. Sewing and needlework h a n d i c r a f t s are a matter of p e r s o n a l t a s t e ; however, a l l my s t u d e n t s k n i t (an a b i l i t y they r e g a r d as v e r y p e d e s t r i a n ) , c r o c h e t and embroider ( t h i s i s r egarded as an a r t ) . T a b l e c l o t h s , d u s t - c o v e r s and p i l l o w - c a s e s of t h e i r own making adorn a l l t h e i r houses . As has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , a l l enjoy c o o k i n g , which i n c l u d e s r a i s i n g , d r y i n g , g r i n d i n g and m i x i n g s p i c e s , and o f t e n making t h e i r own c l a r i f i e d b u t t e r from d a i r y - b o u g h t m i l k . Another p o p u l a r women's a c t i v i t y i s watching P u n j a b i v i d e o s . These are a lmost always m u s i c a l romance-adventures i n v o l v i n g s tock c h a r a c t e r s and p l o t s . S e v e r a l t imes when I a r r i v e d for c l a s s , one of these was 108 r u n n i n g and i t f r e q u e n t l y took c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i s t i n g on my p a r t to get i t t u r n e d o f f . 2 At no t ime d i d I d e t e c t nor d i d the s t u d e n t s express any d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r o l e s , a l t h o u g h A m a r j i t d i d t h i n k t h a t her husband s h o u l d be more p a t i e n t when she c a n ' t get a l l the work done. None of them p a r t i c u l a r y l i k e housework, but c o n s i d e r i t a p o i n t of p r i d e to keep a c l e a n home. None of them seem to r e g a r d c o o k i n g or sewing as d r u d g e r y . On the c o n t r a r y , a l l of the s t u d e n t s s h a r e d g r e a t p r i d e i n t h e i r food p r e p a r a t i o n a b i l i t i e s , and g r e a t c o n f i d e n c e tha t P u n j a b i food i s bo th t a s t i e r and h e a l t h i e r than any o ther k i n d . ( T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s i n c e t h e i r i n g r e d i e n t s for P u n j a b i food are f r e s h and home-made, whereas the Canadian food they have been exposed to i s of the f r o z e n p i z z a - C h i c k e n McNuggets - K r a f t D inner t y p e . ) They a l s o take p r i d e in the s o r t of c o m p l i c a t e d d e t a i l s tha t they can add to P u n j a b i s u i t s , and i n t h e i r embroidery work. P a r t of the reason f o r s t u d e n t s ' p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h these t a s k s i s t h a t they are performed i n the c o n t e x t of s i s t e r h o o d . S tudents f r e q u e n t l y cook t o g e t h e r , and share the p r o d u c t s of t h e i r l a b o u r s . They c o n s u l t w i t h one another on a s p e c t s of embro idery and on r e c i p e s . A l t h o u g h these women have v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s and do not get a l o n g a l l the t i m e , the s t r e n g t h and a f f i r m a t i o n tha t they d e r i v e from t h i s ' s i s t e r h o o d ' as e x p r e s s e d i n communal performance of 'women's 2 T h e p o p u l a r i t y of these movies i s such t h a t the ESL Crusade does not o r g a n i z e c l a s s e s f o r Monday and Thursday e v e n i n g s , when they come on the m u l t i c u l t u r a l p a y - T V c h a n n e l . 109 work' f a r o v e r r i d e s i n d i v i d u a l squabbles i n i m p o r t a n c e . Through i t t h e i r t a l e n t s , a b i l t i e s and r o l e s are a f f i r m e d , t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y f i n d s an a p p r e c i a t i v e a u d i e n c e . The s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e t h a t these domest ic c u l t u r a l s k i l l s are not h i g h l y v a l u e d i n Canadian s o c i e t y , as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r c o n s t a n t s u r p r i s e t h a t I l i k e P u n j a b i food and w i l l wear a P u n j a b i s u i t . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n that what they r e g a r d as v a l u a b l e i s v a l u e l e s s i n Canadian s o c i e t y i n c r e a s e s both t h e i r sense of i s o l a t i o n from Canadian s o c i e t y , and the importance of the a f f i r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the s i s t e r h o o d network. For the s t u d e n t s , the obv ious task i m p l i c i t i n t h i s theme i s to m a i n t a i n a sense of connectedness w i t h the homeland through s p i c e b l e n d i n g and c o o k i n g , sewing P u n j a b i s u i t s , and watching media tha t c e l e b r a t e s (and i d e a l i z e s ) t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l i f e . A task to address the c o n f l i c t between t h e i r h i g h and C a n a d i a n s ' low v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r domest ic s k i l l s c o u l d i n v o l v e g r e a t e r exposure of t h e i r t a l e n t s on the one hand , which might l e a d to g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n of them on the o t h e r . T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a t tempted t h r o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c o l l e c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e such as a c r a f t s c o o p e r a t i v e or a c a t e r i n g s e r v i c e . 3 Thus the t o p i c areas of f o o d , c l o t h i n g and l e i s u r e are l i n k e d through t h e i r common c o n n e c t i o n to the p r i d e and a f f i r m a t i o n tha t s t u d e n t s d e r i v e from these a c t i v i t i e s t h a t 3 R e c e n t l y , the women have begun to joke about open ing up a r e s t a u r a n t i n the P u n j a b i market , and the v a r i o u s r o l e s they would a l l p l a y ; d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t they see t h i s as an i m p o s s i b l e dream, i t i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r growing awareness of the p o t e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l v a l u e of t h e i r s k i l l s . 110 d e f i n e t h e i r r o l e s as women, and through which t h e i r r e l a t i o n s of s i s t e r h o o d are deve loped and e x p r e s s e d . The importance of these s k i l l s i n m a i n t a i n i n g the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e a p p l i e s a l s o to the r e l a t e d theme of r e l i g i o n as a t i e to the homeland. THE T I E THAT BINDS Chadney (1976) d i s c u s s e s the importance of the S i k h r e l i g i o n i n the P u n j a b i community as the s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e towards m a i n t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n , as opposed to the i n f l u e n c e of economic o p p o r t u n i t y toward c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n . S i n c e the e a r l y 1980's , the S i k h temples have c e r t a i n l y been the most c o n s e r v a t i v e e l ement , and r e p r e s e n t the s t r o n g e s t t i e s to and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h I n d i a , of any s e c t o r of the community. E n a b l e d by s t r o n g f a m i l y t i e s tha t l e a d to f requent t r a v e l to and from I n d i a , r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l i s m and p o l i t i c a l d i s c o n t e n t from Punjab had taken root i n Vancouver by the l a t e 1970's (Dusenbery:109) . By the time tha t my i n v e s t i g a t i o n took p l a c e , support f o r a s e p a r a t e S i k h s t a t e of K h a l i s t a n had become even s t r o n g e r i n Vancouver than i n P u n j a b , by some r e p o r t s . " Depending on whether one t a l k e d to the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t - d o m i n a t e d temple l e a d e r s h i p s or more s e c u l a r , moderate community s p o k e s p e r s o n s , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the community was e i t h e r f i r m l y committed to K h a l i s t a n or f i r m l y a g a i n s t i t but a f r a i d to *One t r a v e l l e r to I n d i a at t h i s t ime r e t u r n e d w i t h the r e p o r t t h a t people t h e r e were j o k i n g tha t maybe K h a l i s t a n s h o u l d be set up i n B . C . i n s t e a d of i n I n d i a , s i n c e i t has so much more support h e r e . 111 speak o u t . My s t u d e n t s ' views on the i s s u e were shaped by the temple l e a d e r s h i p : they t o l d me how many b u l l e t h o l e s had been f i r e d i n t o the Golden Temple , d e s c r i b e d a movie t h a t showed Hindus b u t c h e r i n g S i k h b a b i e s , and r e p o r t e d a rumour tha t J a r n a i l B h i n d a r w a l e , the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t l e a d e r k i l l e d i n the Golden Temple a t t a c k , had i n f a c t not been k i l l e d b u t , unbeknownst to the I n d i a n government, had escaped by h e l i c o p t e r and was h i d i n g out i n P a k i s t a n . They a l l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the v e r y - K h a l i s t a n i B a i s h a k h i p a r a d e , d e s p i t e the o f f i c i a l non- p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Richmond temple tha t t h r e e of them a t t e n d . However, t h e i r p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s on the i s s u e were l e s s c l e a r . Ba ldev r e t u r n e d from I n d i a r e p o r t i n g t h a t f i g h t i n g was over and a l l was n o r m a l , d i s c o u n t i n g some of the a l a r m i s t o p i n i o n s then c u r r e n t i n V a n c o u v e r . However, a t the same time a c a l e n d a r commemorating Bhindrawale as a s a i n t appeared on the w a l l of her l i v i n g room. The f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s some of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p i n i o n and a f f i l i a t i o n : A p r i l 4 - Ba ldev and Gurminder : c u r f e w , m i l i t a r y presence a t A m r i t s a r ; four people c a n ' t t a l k t o g e t h e r , 6:00 busses c l o s e , s t o r e , t emple , but people can be on the s t r e e t s - R a n j e e t : no p r o b l e m , no curfew - Gurminder : peop le my and D a v i d ' s age i n j a i l f o r 30 y e a r s f o r be ing K h a l i s t a n i s - Ba ldev in P u n j a b i - Gurminder : B a i s a k h i i n A p r i l , s t a r t of S i k h peop le 500 y e a r s ago , p a r a d e , a m r i t ( b a p t i s m a l water) Guru Gobind S i n g h , P u n j a b i new y e a r , l i k e C h r i s t m a s , peop le go to D e l h i , b i g K h a l i s t a n d e m o n s t r a t i o n , p o l i c e s h o o t i n g - Ba ldev i n P u n j a b i about parade - Gurminder : S i k h people " h u r t " ; government p e o p l e , m i l i t a r y , 200 - Ba ldev s t i l l i n P u n j a b i : two parades i n I n d i a , no worry - Gurminder to D a v i d : S i k h p a r t y and Congress p a r t y d i f f e r e n t -me to B a l d e v : i s there s t i l l f i g h t i n g ? 1 1 2 - B a l d e v : no , a l l f i n i s h e d , no prob lem; saw two p a r a d e s , no f i g h t i n g , no problems - ( s i m u l t a n e o u s me to Baldev and Gurminder to Dav id ) - G u r m i n d e r : Richmond temple s i d e s w i t h government of I n d i a , Congress p a r t y , not w i t h K h a l i s t a n - B a l d e v : saw her ' g u r u ' i n a parade i n I n d i a - G u r m i n d e r : Richmond and Ross S t . temples not the same t h i n g - argument between Baldev and Gurminder i n P u n j a b i , then d e c i d i n g not to argue about i t - me a s k i n g about parade i n V a n c o u v e r , who w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e : no Richmond, no S u r r e y A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s were concerned f o r the s a f e t y of t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n I n d i a , t h i s major i s s u e of t h e i r community was not a major p e r s o n a l i s s u e . As has been p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned , t h e r e was f a r more i n t e r e s t i n d i s c u s s i n g the everyday r o u t i n e of the t emple . F o r my s t u d e n t s , the o p e r a t i o n of the l o c a l . t e m p l e r e p r e s e n t s the s t r o n g e s t source of c o n t i n u i t y between l i f e i n I n d i a and l i f e i n Canada. T h e i r f a m i l i e s are the most obv ious e m o t i o n a l t i e to the homeland, but they are c o n t a c t e d o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y by phone or by l e t t e r ; the temple i s always t h e r e - a p l a c e where t h i n g s are done j u s t as they were i n I n d i a . S t u d e n t s ' en thus iasm for the temple i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n : J a n . 29 - g e t t i n g out p i c t u r e s of I n d i a n temple e x t e r i o r s , handing a r o u n d , i d e n t i f y i n g those they r e c o g n i z e or have been t o , Ranjee t r e a d i n g c a p t i o n s ; much i n t e r e s t and exc i tement - R a n j e e t i s from P a t i a l a or near t h e r e ; d i s c u s s i o n of t e m p l e s , some P u n j a b i and some E n g l i s h , mos t ly me and Ranjee t - F a t e g a h r S a h i b where Gobind S i n g h ' s sons were b r i c k e d i n t o the w a l l ; Taran Taran 11 km. from A m r i t s a r ; Gurminder has been t h e r e o f t e n ; Paonta Sah ib and Vancouver temple the same; G u r m i n d e r : Guru Nanak founded Paonta S a h i b - ( c o n s t a n t background rumble of P u n j a b i from o ther s t u d e n t s and two P u n j a b i , two Anglo v i s i t o r s ) - Gurminder a s k i n g B r e t t i f he l i k e d the p i c t u r e s of samosas, she and Baldev e x p l a i n i n g to him t h a t we made them 1 1 3 l a s t month: "house, k i t c h e n , l a s t month, s t u d e n t , y o u , my, p i c t u r e , cook , r o l l i n g " -Gurminder t e l l i n g me people a t the t emple , l a d i e s , happy I took p i c t u r e s a t the temple , l i k e d me; t o l d her I l i k e d the peop le too - Ba ldev i n v i t i n g me to Richmond temple w i t h her f a m i l y next Sunday to take p i c t u r e s - s t a r t e d p u t t i n g I n d i a and Canada p i c t u r e s on d i f f e r e n t s i d e s of pocket c h a r t , q u e s t i o n s about c o p i e s of p i c t u r e s - o u t s i d e p i c t u r e s : seven from I n d i a , one from Canada; d i s c u s s i n g o t h e r temples to take p i c t u r e s of i n V a n c o u v e r , where they a r e : S u r r e y , Skeena S t . , A b b o t s f o r d ; too f a r , one hour to d r i v e - Gurminder : come w i t h her when she goes out to p i c k b e r r i e s - me a s k i n g i f t h e y ' v e been to A b b o t s f o r d temple; B a l d e v : $20.00 worth of gas to go to A b b o t s f o r d and back; her b r o t h e r - i n - l a w l i v e s there - t a l k i n g about CFU s e r v i c e at the New Westminster temple l a s t year - a l l want to come a l o n g wi th me to take p i c t u r e s of S u r r e y temple - back to p i c t u r e s , d i s c u s s i n g what ' s happening i n s i d e - d i s c u s s i o n of d i f f e r e n c e of ' l a n g a r ' (communal meal) i n I n d i a and Canada; o u t s i d e v e r s u s i n s i d e and d o w n s t a i r s - Ba ldev w i t h ' l a n g a r ' p i c t u r e from Canada: " luncht ime" - a s k i n g me i f I a te a t the t emple , l a u g h t e r - Gurminder t e l l i n g B r e t t : "you next week hungry , you l u n c h S i k h s t emple , okay?" - a s k i n g me i f I l i k e the f o o d , t e l l i n g them how much I a t e ; four r o t i s , most people o n l y have two The d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of importance of these two a s p e c t s of s t u d e n t s ' r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t y - the p o l i t i c a l v e r s u s the everyday - p o i n t s to the the na ture of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . T h e i r concern over the d r a m a t i c events a f f e c t i n g t h e i r f a i t h - c o m m u n i t y cannot come c l o s e to u p s e t t i n g the a s s u r a n c e and s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t they d e r i v e from the f a m i l i a r b e l i e f s and a c t i v i t i e s c e n t e r e d i n the t e m p l e . The a c t i o n i m p l i c i t i n t h i s theme of r e l i g i o n as the s t r o n g e s t t i e between l i f e i n I n d i a and l i f e i n Canada i s , f o r my s t u d e n t s p e r s o n a l l y as w e l l as f o r community l e a d e r s , to m a i n t a i n and s t r e n g t h e n the bonds. The f a c t t h a t t h i s bond 1 1 4 i n c r e a s e s t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e from Canadian s o c i e t y i s i m m a t e r i a l , s i n c e the bond to I n d i a i s d e s i r e d and i n t i m a c y w i t h Canada i s n o t . T h i s r e v e a l s an important source of c o n f l i c t between s t u d e n t s and the l e a d e r s h i p and o b j e c t i v e s of the Canad ian Farmworkers U n i o n . The CFU l e a d e r s h i p i s drawn from t h a t s e c t o r of both C a n a d i a n - b o r n P u n j a b i s and e d u c a t e d , young immigrants who r e g a r d "recent S i k h r e v i v a l i s m as an u n f o r t u n a t e r e t u r n to a s p e c t s of l i f e i n ' v i l l a g e I n d i a , ' w i t h l i t t l e r e l v a n t t o , or p o s i t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r , the community's s i t u a t i o n i n Canada" (Dusenbery, 1981:110). They r e g a r d the temples as abusers of power and s u p p o r t e r s of e x p l o i t a t i v e i n t r a - c o m m u n i t y s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , and have sought and r e c e i v e d l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n from t h e m . 5 Without even the p a s s i v e s a n c t i o n of the t e m p l e s , however, farmworkers l i k e my s tudent s w i l l be u n l i k e l y ever to i d e n t i f y w i t h the un ion i n more than a token way. The i m p l i c i t task for the union i n t h i s r e g a r d i s to a c c e p t , r a t h e r than c h a l l e n g e the p e o p l e s ' b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e ; to a p p e a l to t h e i r s t r o n g S i k h h e r i t a g e of f i g h t i n g for j u s t i c e , r a t h e r than to t h e i r ( n o n - e x i s t e n t ) sense of i d e n t i t y and p r i d e as members of the Canadian working c l a s s . As F r e i r e s a y s : Even i f the p e o p l e ' s t h i n k i n g i s s u p e r s t i t i o u s or n a i e v e , i t i s o n l y as they 5 I n the s p r i n g of 1986, the CFU l e a d e r s h i p d i d approach the temples f o r h e l p on a ' s a f e ' i s s u e : to p r o t e s t the i n c r e a s e of unemployment i n s u r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y requ irements from ten to s i x t e e n weeks f o r most farmworkers . S i x hundred people t u r n e d out to a d e m o n s t r a t i o n a d v e r t i s e d i n and s a n c t i o n e d by the t e m p l e s . Throughout the summer, un ion o r g a n i z e r s c o l l e c t e d s e v e r a l thousand s i g n a t u r e s for a p e t i t i o n on the same i s s u e at v a r i o u s t e m p l e s . T h i s a c t i v i t y g r e a t l y enhanced the u n i o n ' s v i s i b i l i t y i n the community and has had p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on i t s o r g a n i z i n g e f f o r t s . 1 1 5 r e t h i n k t h e i r assumpt ions i n a c t i o n that they can change . P r o d u c i n g and a c t i n g upon t h e i r own ideas - not consuming those of o t h e r s [ e i t h e r temple or un ion l e a d e r s ] - must c o n s t i t u t e tha t p r o c e s s . (1970:100) SOURCES OF TENSION The t h i r d important theme a r e a c o n s i s t s of p o i n t s of t e n s i o n between these sources of f e a r and of s t r e n g t h . These are a r e a s of s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s i n which the demands of the Canadian environment meet and c l a s h w i t h the demands and rewards of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . For my s t u d e n t s , there were two p o i n t s of s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t a c t between these two w o r l d s : t h e i r ESL l e a r n i n g , and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . My s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i n the n a t u r e of the language l e a r n i n g task has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . D e s p i t e some d iscouragement w i t h t h e i r slow r a t e of p r o g r e s s and w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y of remembering c e r t a i n words and p h r a s e s , they f r e - q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to E n g l i s h c l a s s as " f u n , " and seemed to enjoy the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the v a l u e of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , however, was somewhat vague. As was ment ioned p r e v i o u s l y , f o r my s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g ESL c l a s s e s was i n p a r t a s t ep towards b r e a c h i n g the g u l f between themse lves and t h e i r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . Lack of E n g l i s h i s seen as the reason for t h i s g u l f . "Because we d o n ' t know E n g l i s h , our l i v e s are b a d , " G u r m i n d e r , through A m a r j i t ' s . t r a n s l a t i o n , once t o l d a v i s i t i n g t u t o r . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a tendency on the p a r t of many 1 1 6 farmworkers who j o i n the ESL Crusade to r e g a r d E n g l i s h as a s o r t of 'magic key' to g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Canada. Respondents to the i n i t a l needs assessment i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r language- l e a r n i n g needs p r i m a r i l y in terms of t a s k s such as t a k i n g the bus , go ing s h o p p i n g , g e t t i n g a b e t t e r j o b . In t r y i n g to t each to these needs over the y e a r s , however, many t u t o r s have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s would never take the bus or go shopping a l o n e even i f they d i d speak E n g l i s h . T h i s r e v e a l s a gap between s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of how l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h would improve t h e i r l i v e s , and the r e a l i t y of how much d i f f e r e n c e i t would a c t u a l l y make g i v e n c u l t u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i r p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y and independent c o n t a c t w i t h E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . Farmworkers' p e r c e p t i o n s of E n g l i s h as a t i c k e t to a h a p p i e r l i f e i n Canada l e a d s them to e n r o l in ESL Crusade c l a s s e s ; t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t y of the t a s k , once f a c e d w i t h i t , l e a d s many e i t h e r to g i v e up o r , g i v e n some i n t i t a l measure of s u c c e s s , to a c c e p t s m a l l advances and to narrow t h e i r scope of c o n c e n t r a t i o n to a c h i e v a b l e , c o n c r e t e g o a l s . These can almost always be l o c a t e d i n the c o n t e x t of the f a m i l y . E n g l i s h language l e a r n i n g i s not w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g r e l e v a n c e to f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , but my i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t , f or my s tudent s a t l e a s t , t h i s can be i t s p r i m a r y a r e a of impor tance . S t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s are both a b u f f e r between them and C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , and t h e i r p r i n c i p a l p o i n t of c o n t a c t w i t h i t . E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g f a m i l y members can be r e l i e d upon to per form most of the t a s k s r e q u i r i n g communicat ion w i t h and knowledge 1 1 7 about Canadian s o c i e t y ; d r i v i n g , p a y i n g b i l l s , a r r a n g i n g f o r house r e p a i r s , f i l l i n g i n o f f i c i a l forms. They a l s o can be c a l l e d upon as t r a n s l a t o r s ; Ba ldev took her daughters w i t h her on her f requent c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l v i s i t s to the I n d i a n c o n s u l p r i o r to her t r i p to I n d i a ; she takes them out of s c h o o l to accompany her to d o c t o r s ' a p p o i n t m e n t s . In our c l a s s e s , communicat ion of c e r t a i n types of i n f o r m a t i o n , mos t ly dates and t i m e s , o f t e n had to wai t u n t i l the c h i l d r e n got home from s c h o o l to t r a n s l a t e . On the o t h e r hand, i t i s f a m i l y members who b r i n g Canadian c u l t u r e i n t o the home. Sons and husbands watch hockey games and want to eat f r o z e n p i z z a s , t e e n a g e r s l i s t e n to rock music and watch " D a l l a s , " and g r a n d c h i l d r e n make V a l e n t i n e ' s and M o t h e r ' s Day c a r d s i n s c h o o l . In the community at l a r g e , "the S i k h f a m i l y i s seen as a re fuge a g a i n s t the ons laught of new v a l u e s " ( J o y , 1983:251). For women such as my s t u d e n t s , however, i t i s not so much a re fuge ( t h i s i s the r o l e of the temple) as a f r o n t l i n e of combat. The r e l e v a n c e of E n g l i s h to t h i s c o n t e x t emerges i n s i t u a t i o n s which i n v o l v e both p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t , and which i l l u s t r a t e a need for s p e c i f i c language s k i l l s . The f i r s t of these has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . I t i s t h a t of b e i n g a b l e to use the phone to answer incoming c a l l s and to make emergency c a l l s o u t . T h i s need i l l u s t r a t e s the f ear t h a t s t u d e n t s f e e l of be ing i n a s i t u a t i o n where they are unable to depend on f a m i l y members f o r h e l p and a l s o r e v e a l s t h e i r awareness tha t t o t a l dependence i s u n d e s i r a b l e and p o t e n t i a l l y 1 18 dangerous . E n g l i s h a b i l i t y i s a l s o a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n h a n d l i n g te l ephone c a l l s w h i c h , i f f a m i l y members work on c a l l , c o u l d be an important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g f a m i l y income. Other s i t u a t i o n s r e f l e c t the impact of s t u d e n t s ' l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of E n g l i s h on r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y . A l t h o u g h P u n j a b i i s the language of the home, c h i l d r e n o f t e n s w i t c h to E n g l i s h when they do not want t h e i r p a r e n t s to unders tand what they are s a y i n g . In the CFU needs as ses sment , s e v e r a l respondents i n d i c a t e d the a b i l i t y to u n d ers t an d t h e i r c h i l d r e n as an important l e a r n i n g need. I f r e q u e n t l y watched B a l d e v ' s c h i l d r e n i n s u l t her to her face i n E n g l i s h , a f t e r a c c e d i n g to some demand i n P u n j a b i . To women f o r whom d e f e r e n t i a l r e s p e c t for e l d e r s has always been assumed and expected b e h a v i o r , t h i s a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n to mock and keep s e c r e t s from t h e i r e l d e r s w i t h impuni ty i s a source of g r e a t c o n c e r n . S i t u a t i o n s of f a m i l y c o n f l i c t are r a r e l y a t t r i b u t e d to c u l t u r a l causes , however, but r a t h e r to bad c h a r a c t e r on the p a r t of the c h i l d r e n , l a c k of s t r i c t n e s s on the p a r t of p a r e n t s , h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e , d r i n k i n g , or j u s t q u i c k tempers . S t u d e n t s are aware of the phenomenon of f a m i l y c o n f l i c t as a prob lem i n t h e i r community, but they a s c r i b e i t i n h e r e n t f laws i n P u n j a b i peop le and c u l t u r e : J a n . 1 2 - r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n to tape c l a s s e s l e d to d i s c u s s i o n of what would happen next y e a r ; would I s t i l l be t h e i r t eacher - much e x p l a n a t i o n r e q u i r e d , communicat ion problems t r y i n g to get a c r o s s 'I hope s o ' ; r e s o r t e d to 'maybe ' , e x p l a i n i n g that y e s , i f I get a job i n V a n c o u v e r , but I c a n ' t be sure 119 of t h a t - l e d to d i s c u s s i o n of my f u t u r e : j o b , m a r r i a g e , c h i l d r e n ? Would I l i k e t h a t ? - me: y e s , but no c u r r e n t p r o s p e c t s - l e d to d i s c u s s i o n of a r r a n g e d marr iages - would my p a r e n t s f i n d me someone?; answer an emphatic no - d i s c u s s i o n : In I n d i a p a r e n t s would , pros and cons of a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s , mos t ly cons ; Gurminder v e r b o s e , Ranjee t s i l e n t (she has a happy marr iage ) - A m a r j i t : her a u n t - i n - l a w has a l o v e - m a t c h ; l u c k y - her four b r o t h e r s a l l l i v e toge ther i n harmony; v e r y unusua l - Gurminder : 5% ( l i t e r a l l y "hundred, f i v e " ) of a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s happy - B a l d e v : P u n j a b i peop le " a l l the t i m e , f i g h t i n g , no happy" Whether they a t t r i b u t e the c o n f l i c t s to c u l t u r a l or p e r s o n a l c a u s e s , t h e i r l a c k of E n g l i s h c l e a r l y d i m i n i s h e s t h e i r a b i l i t y to a s s e r t a u t h o r i t y over and demand obedience of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A s i m i l a r i f l e s s o v e r t l y h o s t i l e e r o s i o n of p a r e n t a l and g r a n d p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i s r e l a t e d to a d u l t s ' dependence on c h i l d r e n as t r a n s l a t o r s . In my s t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s the c h i l d r e n were always c o o p e r a t i v e when c a l l e d upon (a l though I sometimes doubted the a c c u r a c y of t h e i r t h i r t y - s e c o n d t r a n s l a t i o n s of f i v e - m i n u t e communicat ions) and e i t h e r were not aware of or chose not to e x e r c i s e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r abuse of t h i s power. However, a d u l t s are v e r y f r u s t r a t e d by t h e i r dependence, which l i m i t s t h e i r p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y and communicat ive a b i l i t y to the a v a i l a b i l i t y and s k i l l l e v e l s of the younger members of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . A l s o r e l a t e d to l o s s of a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the home i s the i n a b i l i t y of p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s to unders tand the Canadian c u l t u r a l i tems t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s b r i n g i n t o the home w e l l enough to judge what i s harmless and what i s n o t , and to check the f l o w . They are unable to unders tand the E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e 1 20 T . V . shows from which t h e i r c h i l d r e n are a b s o r b i n g N o r t h American c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . They do not know, or c o n s i d e r i t p o s s i b l e to know, what i s be ing taught (and i n f o r m a l l y l e a r n e d ) at s c h o o l . I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i s g r a d u a l l y e r o d i n g . . . The l a c k of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h on the p a r t of the p a r e n t s and the l a c k of f l u e n c y i n t h e i r mother- tongue on the p a r t of the Canada-born c o n t r i b u t e s not o n l y a communicat ion gap, but even l e a d s to l a c k of r e s p e c t for the p a r e n t s ' v iews (which are not always unders tood) and a l a c k of r e s p e c t for the p a r e n t s and ' a g e . ' The d i v e r s e i n f l u e n c e s . . . to which the Canada-born are s u b j e c t e d l e a d them to r e j e c t some of the E a s t I n d i a n v a l u e s and the assumpt ions beh ind them. F o r example, the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and wisdom t h a t forms the b a s i s f or r e s p e c t and obedience i s g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d . . . the Canada-born c o n s i d e r t h e i r p a r e n t s to be too a u t h o r i t a r i a n and l a c k i n g i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The p a r e n t s c o m p l a i n of r e b e l l i o n among the y o u t h . ( S r i v a s t a v a , 1974:388-389) For g r a n d p a r e n t s , t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d not so much i n r e j e c t i o n of a u t h o r i t y by young g r a n d c h i l d r e n as by a decrease i n i n t i m a c y . Both Ranjee t and Gurminder have managed to t u r n t h i s problem around by h a v i n g t h e i r e l d e s t grandaughters t e a c h them some E n g l i s h , and have thus m a i n t a i n e d a very important bond . STRANGERS IN A STRANGE LAND The above a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i v e themes r e v e a l s tha t s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s of themes emerge o n l y when the l i n k s between t o p i c a r e a s are c o n s i d e r e d , and they are seen i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another and to the whole p i c t u r e . S T R A N G E R S S o u r c e s o f S t r e n r j t h 1. W o m e n ' B W o r k F o o d C 1 o t h I n g L e i s u r e 2. T h e T i e t h a t B i n d s n e l 1 g I o n H o m e 1 a n d L A N G U A G E J L E A R N I N G — E m e r g e n c 1 e s I A u t h o r 1 t y I D e p e n d e n c e I C u l t u r a l M a l n t a l n e n c e I F A M I L Y W o r k T Ime P h o n e S T R A N G E L A N D i d c CD 1 S o u r c e s o f F e a r CO N e 1 g h b o r h o d d tra n g e S y s t e r n rs in  PJ M e d 1 c a 1 S tr a n g e L a nd 1 22 F i g u r e 1 shows how the t o p i c a r e a s r e l a t e to one another through the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the key theme areas - s o u r c e s of f e a r , sources of s t r e n g t h , and sources of t e n s i o n . The "strange l a n d " i s Canada , tha t new environment that w i l l never be 'home, ' tha t i s f r i g h t e n i n g i n most r e s p e c t s , but tha t must be coped w i t h and not a l l o w e d to d i s r u p t the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l f a b r i c . I t c o n t a i n s the s o u r c e s of f ear r e p r e s e n t e d by the ' n e i g h b o r h o o d , ' ' s y s t e m , ' and ' m e d i c a l ' t o p i c a r e a s . The " s t r a n g e r s " are the s t u d e n t s . A l l t h a t i s f a m i l i a r and a f f i r m i n g to them i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n , homeland, f o o d , d r e s s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t i s r egarded here as e x o t i c , b i z a r r e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e . T h e i r two main sources of s t r e n g t h are r e p r e s e n t e d by the t i t l e s : 'Women's Work' and 'The T i e tha t B i n d s , ' c o n s i s t i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y of the t o p i c a r e a s of ' f o o d , ' ' c l o t h i n g , ' and ' l e i s u r e , ' and of ' r e l i g i o n ' and ' h o m e l a n d . ' B r i d g i n g the gap between the f a m i l i a r and the s t r a n g e , b r i n g i n g them i n t o c o n t a c t and t h e r e f o r e i n t o c o n f l i c t , are the theme areas of "language l e a r n i n g " and " f a m i l y . " These are r e l a t e d not o n l y by v i r t u e of t h e i r s i m i l a r l i n k i n g f u n c t i o n , but a l s o d i r e c t l y , through the c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s i n which s t u d e n t s ' E n g l i s h competence a f f e c t s t h e i r performance of normal f a m i l y f u n c t i o n s . These i n c l u d e the a b i l i t y to c a l l f or h e l p in an emergency, the d i s r u p t i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s caused by the language gap between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , the dependence of a d u l t s upon c h i l d r e n for t r a n s l a t i o n , and l i n g u i s t i c l i m i t a t i o n s on s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m t h e i r r o l e s as c u l t u r a l c u s t o d i a n s and g a t e k e e p e r s . The t o p i c areas 1 23 of ' w o r k , ' ' t i m e , ' and 'phone' are r e l a t e d to one another p r i m a r i l y i n the f a m i l y c o n t e x t , as i n the c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n of r e p o r t i n g about f a m i l y members' work r o u t i n e s on the phone. Each of these s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g E n g l i s h i n the f a m i l y c o n t e x t o c c u r s as p a r t of the everyday l i v e s of s t u d e n t s . Each i n v o l v e s s p e c i f i c language s k i l l s (main ly l i s t e n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) t h a t c o u l d be taught w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of any ESL program, and p a r t i c u l a r l y in a home-based one such as the ESL C r u s a d e . Each a l s o r e p r e s e n t s an o c c a s i o n of c o n t a c t between the " s t r a n g e r s " and the "strange l a n d , " and i s thus a l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t for p r o b l e m - p o s i n g about the c o n f l i c t s between them. G e n e r a l recommendations for the o b j e c t i v e s , approach and c o n t e n t of a c u r r i c u l u m based on t h i s a n a l y s i s of the s t u d e n t s ' 'minimum themat ic u n i v e r s e ' a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 124 VI . CONCLUSIONS The o b j e c t of t h i s s tudy was not to y i e l d d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s , but to c o n t r i b u t e to a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n b a s i n g ESL program c o n t e n t on g e n e r a t i v e themes. In Canada t h e r e has been r e s e a r c h and m a t e r i a l s development f o r F r e i r e - s t y l e ESL e d u c a t i o n (mainly out of T o r o n t o ) , and the P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research Group p r o v i d e s a network whereby ' F r e i r i a n ' e d u c a t o r s can share the wisdom of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . However, the development of a c o n s i s t e n t a d a p t a t i o n of F r e i r i a n theory to the demands of the Canadian ESL t e a c h i n g c o n t e x t i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y . What i s needed at t h i s t ime i s not so much answers as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the r i g h t q u e s t i o n s . T h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e f o r e , i d e n t i f i e s q u e s t i o n s and p r e s e n t s comments, recommendations and f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , my o b s e r v a t i o n s on the f e a s i b i l i t y and d i f f i c u l t i e s of ESL c l a s s r o o m themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e summarized, and recommendations are made f o r a s tudy tha t would take some of these i n t o a c c o u n t . A g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of the type of c u r r i c u l u m t h a t would a d d r e s s s t u d e n t s ' themes i s then p r e s e n t e d , and f i n a l l y s e v e r a l i s s u e s a r e r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the F r e i r i a n approach w i t h the t e a c h i n g of E S L . 1 25 SUMMARY OF STUDY AND FINDINGS THE INVESTIGATION The p r o c e d u r a l focus of t h i s s tudy was to address the d i s c r e p a n c y between F r e i r e ' s recommended l a r g e - s c a l e g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the a d a p t a t i o n s made to i t by ESL p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Is i t p o s s i b l e for an ESL t e a c h e r to come up w i t h an a n a l y s i s of s t u d e n t s ' themes based on a c l a s s r o o m i n v e s t i g a t i o n ? To t h i s my answer i s y e s , and no. The p r e v i o u s chapter i s ev idence t h a t I , as an i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r , was a b l e to o b t a i n enough i n f o r m a t i o n from and about the s t u d e n t s to propose a t e n t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h e i r ' t h e m a t i c u n i v e r s e . ' I t r i e d the t e c h n i q u e s and a c t i v i t i e s recommended by N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n , Deborah B a r n d t , and o t h e r s , and found t h a t most of them l e d to the r e v e l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about s t u d e n t s ' everyday r e a l i t y , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of tha t r e a l i t y , or b o t h . I found that a c t i v i t i e s w i l l most l i k e l y be s u c c e s s f u l i n r e v e a l i n g themat ic i n f o r m a t i o n i f they are i n s p i r e d by d i r e c t s tudent i n p u t ( r a t h e r than the t e a c h e r ' s agenda) , c o n t a i n an element of c h a l l e n g e or c o n t r o v e r s y , answer e i t h e r a l e a r n i n g or a s h a r i n g need , and i f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l purpose i s c l e a r to the s t u d e n t s . A c t i n g as p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r as w e l l as t e a c h e r e n a b l e d me to i d e n t i f y u s e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , most n o t a b l y watch ing s t u d e n t s ' i n - c l a s s b e h a v i o r and i n t e r a c t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n everyday events (such as cook ing ) w i t h them, v i s i t i n g t h e i r homes, and a t t e n d i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l f e s t i v a l s . I found t h a t the best way to e l i c i t themat ic i n f o r m a t i o n , however, 1 26 i s to l e t s tudent s ' j u s t t a l k . ' Through c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s , w a t c h i n g , and l i s t e n i n g to s t u d e n t s , i t was p o s s i b l e to c o l l e c t a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i v e themes. However, I encountered both l o g i s t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l problems which impeded the p r o c e s s and l i m i t e d the a c c u r a c y of the a n a l y s i s . L o g i s t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n c l u d e d the language b a r r i e r , the amount of t ime and energy consumed by the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g codes d u r i n g the i n v e s t i g a t i o n because a l l the themat ic i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s c o u l d not be a s s e s s e d u n t i l the end. P h i l o s o p h i c a l problems i n c l u d e d the d i f f e r e n c e between my agenda to i n v e s t i g a t e themes and the s t u d e n t s ' to j u s t l e a r n E n g l i s h ; the s t r e s s caused by the c o n f l i c t between the r o l e s of t e a c h e r , r e s e a r c h e r , u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and f r i e n d ; and the d i f f i c u l t y of b a l a n c i n g i n v e s t i g a t i n g and t e a c h i n g wi thout s a c r i f i c i n g e i t h e r the s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g or t h e i r c o n t r o l over the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . In sum, I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e for a t eacher to i n v e s t i g a t e g e n e r a t i v e themes i n an ESL c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g , more or l e s s t h o r o u g h l y depending on the demands and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . I d o u b t , however, whether i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a t e a c h e r to a d e q u a t e l y i d e n t i f y themes and t e a c h a c c o r d i n g them w h i l e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n p r o g r e s s , because of both the l o g i s t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d . F r e i r e d e s c r i b e s "educat ion and themat i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , in the p r o b l e m - p o s i n g concept of e d u c a t i o n , " as " d i f f e r e n t moments 1 27 of the same process" ( F r e i r e , 1970:101, emphasis m i n e ) . The g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p r e l i m i n a r y to the e d u c a t i o n a l program i t s e l f . A thorough p r o f e s s i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the f i n d i n g s i s conducted b e f o r e they are deve loped i n t o t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . . ESL p r a c t i t i o n e r s have found i t neces sary to i n d i v i d u a l i z e the procedure and to i n v e s t i g a t e themes s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i th t e a c h i n g l a r g e l y because few programs have b o t h the r e s o u r c e s and the commitment to mount such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s tudy sugges t , however, t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t i o n must precede the e d u c a t i o n a l program, and t h a t i t i s too b i g a job f o r one p e r s o n . T a k i n g i n t o account both F r e i r e ' s requ irements f o r themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by the ESL s i t u a t i o n , I would recommend the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e . A STRATEGY FOR INVESTIGATING GENERATIVE THEMES FOR ESL W i t h i n a g iven. ESL program for immigrant a d u l t s , a team of two to four t e a c h e r s w i l l i n g to commit themselves f o r two y e a r s (or terms) shou ld be formed. Between them they s h o u l d speak as many of the s t u d e n t s ' languages as p o s s i b l e . They s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h F r e i r e ' s c r i t e r i a f o r g e n e r a t i v e themes and w i t h h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e p r o c e d u r e , and w i t h the recommendations of W a l l e r s t e i n , B a r n d t , et a l . D u r i n g the f i r s t year or t erm, the team s h o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e the themes of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to the a c t i v i t i e s and o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s tudy as s u c c e s s f u l . They shou ld share the 1 28 l o a d of o u t - o f - c l a s s o b s e r v a t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' communi t i e s . They s h o u l d meet r e g u l a r l y to d e b r i e f , compare o b s e r v a t i o n s and share t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and p r e l i m i n a r y c o d e s . I t s h o u l d be made c l e a r to the s t u d e n t s from the s t a r t t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n to de termine r e l e v a n t c o n t e n t i s t a k i n g p l a c e , and they s h o u l d be i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e as c u l t u r a l in formants and c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s . Sys t emat i c r e c o r d s s h o u l d be kept of the most p o p u l a r t o p i c s and i s s u e s of d i s c u s s i o n . T r a n s c r i b i n g of tape r e c o r d i n g s of the c l a s s e s w i l l p r o v i d e the most r e l i a b l e da ta for themat ic a n a l y s i s , but i t s h o u l d o n l y be a t tempted i f the team members have enough t ime o u t s i d e of t h e i r t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . At the end of the term or y e a r , the team s h o u l d have t ime to p o o l t h e i r r e s u l t s , a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the d i f f e r e n t t o p i c a r e a s , and draw up a t e n t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the s t u d e n t s ' themes. A m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e r or a r t i s t s h o u l d be h i r e d to c r e a t e codes based on the themes. D u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g year or term these codes s h o u l d be t e s t e d by o ther t e a c h e r s i n the program as w e l l as by the members of the team, and t eacher and s tudent r e a c t i o n s to them s h o u l d be r e c o r d e d . Any r e v i s i o n s to the codes r e s u l t i n g from t h i s i n p u t shou ld be made at the end of t h i s t erm. Those themes whose r e l e v a n c e has been c o n f i r m e d over two y e a r s , w i th t h e i r c o d e s , s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s for the themat ic c u r r i c u l u m of t h a t program. T h i s s u g g e s t i o n assumes a program w i t h f l e x i b l e c o n t e n t and a p p r o a c h , and t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f a m i l i a r and sympathet i c w i t h F r e i r e ' s pedagogy. I t assumes tha t the program 1 29 i s o n g o i n g , and tha t f u n d i n g w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to h i r e a m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e r and keep the t e a c h e r s on s t a f f d u r i n g the ' a n a l y s i s ' p a r t of t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . G i v e n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f u n d i n g , however, the p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d above would be p r a c t i c a b l e i n the Farmworkers ESL C r u s a d e . THE THEMES The second q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d by t h i s s tudy was: What a r e my s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i v e themes and what i s t h e i r r e l e v a n c e to ESL l e a r n i n g ? T h i s I have d e s c r i b e d i n terms of the " s t r a n g e r s i n a s trange land" image, i n which the themat ic a r e a s of ' language l e a r n i n g ' and the ' f a m i l y ' f u n c t i o n as a l i n k between the ' s t r a n g e r s * a r e a r e p r e s e n t i n g s t u d e n t s ' f a m i l i a r , t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and the new, f o r e i g n , f e a r - i n s p i r i n g ' s t r a n g e l a n d . ' T o p i c areas i d e n t i f i e d through a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of tapes of the l e s s o n s c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s of t h i s a n a l y s i s . Through examining how these are l i n k e d to one a n o t h e r , how they are e x p r e s s e d i n r e a l s i t u a t i o n s i n s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s , what they r e v e a l about s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , and what t a s k s they i m p l y , I was a b l e to o r g a n i z e c l a s s r o o m input i n t o a c u r r i c u l u m b a s i s which I b e l i e v e r e f l e c t s the s t u d e n t s ' 'minimum themat ic u n i v e r s e ' as i t r e l a t e s to language l e a r n i n g . Many of the themes - those r e p r e s e n t e d in the ' s t r a n g e r s ' a r e a - seem to have l i t t l e or n o t h i n g to do w i t h E S L . S tudent s 1 30 do not need to know the E n g l i s h words for t h e i r f a v o r i t e s p i c e s , or to go to the t emple . I found t h i s very f r u s t r a t i n g i n my t e a c h i n g because i t seemed t h a t the t o p i c a r e a s which seemed to m o t i v a t e s t u d e n t s the most were those for which they had the l e a s t need for E n g l i s h . On the o t h e r hand , the themat ic area f o r which s t u d e n t s ' need for ESL appears most o b v i o u s i s that of the "strange l a n d . " T h i s i s the a r e a of i n t e r e s t assumed by most ' s u r v i v a l ' c u r r i c u l a , by W a l l e r s t e i n ' s and the ESL Core G r o u p ' s themat ic c u r r i c u l a , and by most farmworkers when they j o i n the ESL C r u s a d e . However I found t h a t i n r e a l i t y s t u d e n t s have v e r y l i t t l e d i r e c t independent c o n t a c t w i t h Canadian s o c i e t y , nor would t h e i r c o n t a c t be l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e even i f t h e i r E n g l i s h improved . Thus s t u d e n t s ' most p o s i t i v e p o t e n t i a l m o t i v a t i o n e x i s t s i n areas for which they have no need of E S L , and i n the areas i n which t h i s need i s acknowledged , the m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n s p r i n g s from the n e g a t i v e s o u r c e s of f e a r and i g n o r a n c e . T h i s , combined w i t h the l a c k of n e c e s s i t y to l e a r n i n order to s u r v i v e , i s o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t to s u s t a i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t and e f f o r t s . T h i s s tudy i d e n t i f i e d a way out of t h i s di lemma, by showing t h a t both the p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and the need to l e a r n are combined i n the a r e a t h a t i s most i m p o r t a n t to the s tudent s i n everyday l i f e : the f a m i l y . T h i s i s the p r i m a r y contex t i n which s i t u a t i o n s demanding s p e c i f i c E n g l i s h language s k i l l s a r i s e . I t i s a l s o the p o i n t at which the ' s t r a n g e r s ' and the ' s t r a n g e l a n d ' themes come i n t o c o n t a c t , and o f t e n i n t o c o n f l i c t . Thus 131 t e a c h i n g ESL for the ' f a m i l y ' i s both r e l e v a n t and m o t i v a t i n g , and the f a m i l y i s the most l o g i c a l c o n t e x t for problem p o s i n g on i s s u e s of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . F o l l o w i n g i s a sugges ted approach to c o n s t r u c t i n g a themat ic ESL c u r r i c u l u m focussed on ' f a m i l y ' l e a r n i n g needs . A THEMATIC ESL CURRICULUM The o v e r a l l approach of a themat ic c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e d for s tudents such as those of the Farmworkers ESL Crusade s h o u l d be to a f f i r m t h e i r c u l t u r e w h i l e p r o v i d i n g s k i l l s to d e c r e a s e t e n s i o n in the f a m i l y and l e s s e n t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n from Canadian s o c i e t y . I f the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s are to be t r u l y r e p r e s e n t e d , the l e s s o n s s h o u l d assume t h e i r c u l t u r a l r o l e s , i n t e r e s t s and p r i o r i t i e s as n o r m a l , and p r e s e n t Canad ian s o c i e t y as the s t r a n g e , b e w i l d e r i n g environment tha t i t i s . I t s h o u l d then r e a l i s t i c a l l y address the c o n f l i c t s and t each l i n g u i s t i c , c u l t u r a l and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s t h a t w i l l enab le s t u d e n t s to address them. A f f i r m a t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' sources of s t r e n g t h and r e d u c t i o n of t h e i r f e a r and a l i e n a t i o n s h o u l d both l e a d to and be accompanied by growth i n awareness of the c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and economic causes of t h e i r p r o b l e m s , so t h a t they can beg in to i d e n t i f y o p t i o n s for d e a l i n g w i t h them. In e s s e n c e , t h i s i s ' c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n . ' The ESL c u r r i c u l u m must a l s o answer v e r y immediate , c o n c r e t e communicat ion needs . P r a c t i c a l empowerment t h rou gh ESL shou ld focus i n i t i a l l y on the f a m i l y c o n t e x t , then on a 1 32 r e a l i s t i c l e v e l of independence w i t h i n the ne ighborhood and the ' s y s t e m . ' Codes s h o u l d be used both for p r o b l e m - p o s i n g and for the t e a c h i n g of immedia te ly a p p l i c a b l e l anguage . Each l e s s o n in the themat ic c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y of l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s , , i n o r d e r to be f l e x i b l e enough to use w i t h m u l t i - l e v e l c l a s s e s . The language content of the c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d not b u i l d s e q u e n t i a l l y on each p r e v i o u s l e s s o n ; r a t h e r , the c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be a c o l l e c t i o n of u n i t s or modules tha t can be used i n whatever o r d e r the i s s u e s a r i s e i n c l a s s . W e l l c o n s t r u c t e d codes s h o u l d each have c o n n e c t i o n s w i th s e v e r a l o t h e r s , and thus many l o g i c a l sequenc ing p o s s i b i l t i e s would e x i s t . ISSUES IN FREIRIAN ESL TEACHING AND RESEARCH DIALOGUE IN ONE-WORD PHRASES One of the most s e r i o u s problems t h a t I encountered i n my r e s e a r c h was the d i f f i c u l t y of b a l a n c i n g the requ irements of t h e m e - e l i c i t i n g and t e a c h i n g . My i n i t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the former was d e t r i m e n t a l to s tudent s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e a r n i n g , to o r d e r i n the c l a s s , and to my own sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a t e a c h e r . The l a t t e r s t a g e , i n which I c o n c e n t r a t e d on d e l i v e r i n g l e s s o n s , was e a s i e r on everyone but l e d to v i r t u a l l y no new themat ic i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n between what c o n s i t i t u t e s good themat i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n and good ESL t e a c h i n g i s symptomatic of a deeper c o n f l i c t between F r e i r e ' s approach of ' d i a l o g u e ' and the c o n s t r a i n t s of the second language t e a c h i n g 133 s i t u a t i o n . The ESL t e a c h e r has a c o n f l i c t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to impart i n f o r m a t i o n to the s t u d e n t s and at the same time to a v o i d f a l l i n g i n t o the "banking concept of e d u c a t i o n , . . . i n which . . . i n s t e a d of communicat ing , the t eacher i s s u e s communiques and makes d e p o s i t s which the s t u d e n t s p a t i e n t l y r e c e i v e , memorize, and repeat" ( F r e i r e , 1970: 58) . D i a l o g u e r e s t s on the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c l a i m tha t "knowledge emerges o n l y through i n v e n t i o n and r e i n v e n t i o n , through the r e s t l e s s , i m p a t i e n t , c o n t i n u i n g , h o p e f u l i n q u i r y men pursue i n the w o r l d , w i t h the w o r l d , and w i t h each o ther" ( I b i d . ) . A good d e a l of r e s e a r c h i n t o second language l e a r n i n g suggests t h a t the b e t t e r p a r t of s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g w i l l r e s u l t from t h e i r own d i s c o v e r y or a c q u i s i t i o n of p a t t e r n s and s t r u c t u r e s i n the t a r g e t l anguage . I t i s not enough, however, to r e g a r d language as t h a t o b j e c t of i n q u i r y to which "the u n i t e d r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n of the d i a l o g u e r s are addressed" ( F r e i r e , 1970:77), assuming tha t the p r o c e s s of problem p o s i n g w i l l p r o v i d e enough c o m p r e h e n s i b l e input tha t language l e a r n i n g w i l l j u s t happen. Over the y e a r s , t u t o r s i n the ESL Crusade have t r i e d v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s based on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , and a c h i e v e d v e r y l i t t l e language l e a r n i n g p r o g r e s s . 6 Our e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i a l o g u e i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e , or a t l e a s t i n s u f f i c i e n t , as an ESL t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h . 6 O f c o u r s e , the ESL Crusade i s h a r d l y a f a i r t e s t of t h i s a p p r o a c h , i n v o l v i n g as i t does m i n i m a l l y - t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r t u t o r s w i t h v e r y few r e s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d for them, and s tudent s who are i l l i t e r a t e , unaccustomed to formal l e a r n i n g , and f r e q u e n t l y u n m o t i v a t e d . I e x p e r i e n c e d the same problems as a l l the o ther t u t o r s , however, as a t r a i n e d t eacher w i t h an abundance of r e s o u r c e s and r e l a t i v e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c s t u d e n t s . 1 34 T h i s was one of the i s s u e s r a i s e d by F r e i r e h i m s e l f when he a d d r e s s e d the ESL Crusade t u t o r s . H i s answer was to s epara te language t e a c h i n g and p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , and conduct a b i l i n g u a l program. "As f a r as I unders tand y o u , you are t r y i n g to t e a c h E n g l i s h a l s o , no? Of c o u r s e , i n my p o i n t of v iew, w e l l , not my p o i n t of view - we can say r i g o u r o u s l y - you would have to emphasize t h e i r language f i r s t ; the o r a l i t y i n t h e i r language . Look , these people need to get s e c u r i t y through t h e i r f e e l i n g s , which maybe they cannot express i n E n g l i s h . Why not i n the b e g i n n i n g of the m e e t i n g s , propose a k i n d of game - the game of s p e a k i n g t h e i r language , even though you d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a n y t h i n g ? I am sure t h a t they need to have a c e r t a i n space f o r the language . . . they are t h e i r l a n g u a g e . " T h i s r a i s e s the p o i n t t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to t e a c h i n g E S L , o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs have an o b l i g a t i o n to address the p e o p l e s ' themes i n t h e i r own language , i f they c l a i m to r e p r e s e n t and s tand f o r the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r community. We e x p l a i n e d , however, t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g t u t o r s , and tha t we r e c e i v e r e q u e s t s from many s t u d e n t s f o r t u t o r s w i t h no knowledge of P u n j a b i , so tha t they w i l l be f o r c e d to speak E n g l i s h . From the p o i n t of view of p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , a b i l i n g u a l program would indeed be i d e a l . G i v e n , however, the r e a l i t y t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r the C . F . U . to o f f e r such a program at t h i s t i m e , F r e i r e o u t l i n e d how language t e a c h i n g can be i n i t s e l f empowering: "I t h i n k tha t e v e r y t h i n g you c o u l d do , you c o u l d i n v e n t . . . i f they c o u l d g e t , l e t us suppose , two or three or four n u c l e u s of the 1 35 s t u c t u r e of E n g l i s h . . . i f i t i s p o s s i b l e to do t h a t ; and I know i t i s , I am not c a p a b l e but I know tha t i t i s p o s s i b l e . . . because for me, even d i s c u s s i n g something about t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d come a f t e r w a r d s , and not n o w . . . . f o r me, the f i r s t moment for them i s how to break down t h i s i n c o m m u n i c a b i l i t y . . . I t h i n k t h a t one of the t h i n g s you have to do - q u i c k l y - s h o u l d be to make p o s s i b l e f o r them to beg in to say something i n E n g l i s h - i n o r d e r to open the d o o r . " Combining p r o b l e m - p o s i n g and ESL t e a c h i n g might be p o s s i b l e for s t u d e n t s a t an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l or h i g h e r , but not for b e g i n n e r s , u n l e s s the t eacher speaks t h e i r l a n g u a g e . Both Nina W a l l e r s t e i n and the ESL Core Group admit t h i s i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n s to t h e i r themat ic c u r r i c u l a . The problem then remains of how to t e a c h beg inners d i a l o g i c a l l y . F r e i r e seemed to r e g a r d a c e r t a i n amount of i n f o r m a t i o n d e p o s i t i n g as a c c e p t a b l e in the ESL c o n t e x t , because i t i s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l framework of a d i a l o g i c a l program, and because the o b j e c t i v e i s to empower peop le r a t h e r than to d o m e s t i c a t e them. He c r i t i c i z e d l e a r n i n g by memor iza t ion of s u r v i v a l p h r a s e s , "wasting t ime on t h i s c r a z i n e s s of 'Can I p l e a s e have , can I p l e a s e have '" as "a v e r y bad t h e o r y of knowledge." G i v e n tha t a c e r t a i n amount of langauge t e a c h i n g has to occur b e f o r e p r o b l e m - p o s i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , t h i s t e a c h i n g ought to encourage s tudents to t h i n k , to p r o v i d e them wi th a s t r a t e g y for ' f i g u r i n g out ' E n g l i s h , and i t must a l s o t each them how to say what they most need and want to s a y . 1 36 ROLE CONFLICTS IN THEMATIC INVESTIGATION The c o n f l i c t d i s c u s s e d above between the requ irements of d i a l o g u e and of ESL i s an i s s u e of t e a c h i n g , w i t h i n and o u t s i d e of the c o n t e x t of i n v e s t i g a t i n g g e n e r a t i v e themes. Another set of problems has to do wi th the r e s e a r c h a s p e c t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The c o n f l i c t s t h a t I e x p e r i e n c e d between the four r o l e s of t e a c h e r , r e s e a r c h e r , un ion r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and f r i e n d have been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I V . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t r a t e g y o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r d i f f u s e s , but does not e l i m i n a t e , these c o n f l i c t s : even i f the i n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a union or f r i e n d s of the s t u d e n t s , they must s t i l l p l a y the d u a l r o l e s of t e a c h e r and r e s e a r c h e r . The c o n f l i c t i s g r e a t e r than tha t u s u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d by the e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h e r as s imul taneous p a r t i c i p a n t ( t e a c h e r ) and o b s e r v e r ( i n v e s t i g a t o r ) , because of the na ture of p r o b l e m - p o s i n g t e a c h i n g . The r o l e of the t e a c h e r , a c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e , i s to "not o n l y l i s t e n to the i n d i v i d u a l s but . . . [ t o ] c h a l l e n g e them, p o s i n g as problems both the c o d i f i e d e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r own answers" (1970:110) . I f i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e a c h and observe a t the same t ime , i t i s a lmost i m p o s s i b l e to a c t i v e l y c h a l l e n g e s t u d e n t s to change at the same t ime as t r y i n g to observe them as they a r e . There are two p o s s i b l e avenues to a d d r e s s t h i s p r o b l e m . One i s to s e p a r a t e the r o l e s of t e a c h e r and r e s e a r c h e r i n t o two p e r s o n s , w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r a d o p t i n g a more p a s s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . N e t t l e and Unda t r i e d t h i s , however, 1 37 and found i t f a r from i d e a l : The t eacher was f a r more d i s c o n c e r t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r ' s presence i n her c l a s s r o o m than the r e s e a r c h e r r e a l i z e d . . . . There was some t e n s i o n on both our p a r t s about how the r e s e a r c h e r would f u l f i l l her o b l i g a t i o n to the fund ing source to produce a product w.ithout i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the t e a c h e r ' s p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t e a c h E n g l i s h to her s t u d e n t s . When the r e s e a r c h e r proposed to a c t as r e c o r d e r of the c o u r s e p r o c e s s , the t eacher expres sed resentment of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o p p o r t u n i t y as an academic to w r i t e about the t e a c h e r ' s work i n the f i e l d . She f e l t tha t she was so busy d o i n g the work t h a t she never had time to w r i t e about i t . (1982:49-50) Another s o l u t i o n to the t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r c o n f l i c t i s to i n v o l v e the s t u d e n t s more a c t i v e l y i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s i s the p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h approach d e s c r i b e d in Chapter I . I t i s the approach taken by Deborah Barndt to c l a s s r o o m themat ic i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and promoted by the P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research Group as a c o l l e c t i v e , p o p u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e to i n d i v i d u a l , academic s o c i a l s c i e n c e s r e s e a r c h . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , i t i s the approach upon which F r e i r e i n s i s t s . The methodology proposed r e q u i r e s t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r s and the peop le (who would n o r m a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d o b j e c t s of tha t i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) s h o u l d a c t as c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s . . . P r e c i s e l y because i t i s not p o s s i b l e to und ers t an d these themes a p a r t from men . . . i t i s n e c e s s a r y tha t the men concerned unders tand them as w e l l . (1970:97,98) . However, none of those ( i n c l u d i n g F r e i r e ) who l a u d the v i r t u e s of p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h e x p l a i n how people i n v o l v e d get i n t e r e s t e d i n an i s s u e , d e f i n e a p r o b l e m , and d e c i d e to r e s e a r c h i t . Even i f t h e r e i s a c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s of i s s u e s i n a community, and the w i l l to a d d r e s s them, people do 1 38 not g e n e r a l l y seek out an ESL c l a s s as a forum f o r d o i n g t h i s . They seek out an ESL c l a s s as a forum for l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . Thus the main problem w i t h i n v o l v i n g ESL s t u d e n t s i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r own g e n e r a t i v e themat i c s i s t h a t t h i s i s not what they have s i g n e d up to do; the agenda of the t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r d i f f e r s from the agenda of the s t u d e n t s . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y the case i n my i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The problems t h a t i t c r e a t e d l e d me to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the t e a c h e r ' s p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to r e s p e c t the agenda and e x p e c t a t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s , and not at any c o s t s a c r i f i c e t h e i r l e a r n i n g to the i n t e r e s t s of the r e s e a r c h . I do not know how to get ESL s t u d e n t s i n t e r e s t e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e i r g e n e r a t i v e themes, nor do I f i n d i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t oppressed people s h o u l d be u n w i l l i n g to look c l o s e l y at problems tha t they are h a v i n g a d i f f i c u l t enough t ime c o p i n g w i t h a l r e a d y . I do not b e l i e v e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t t h i s means t h a t ESL g e n e r a t i v e theme i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d not be a t t e m p t e d . "You have to have an agenda . The q u e s t i o n n e v e r t h e l e s s i s how much you a r e c o n s i s t e n t i n not t r y i n g to impose your agenda but to d i s c u s s your agenda w i t h the o t h e r s . T h i s i s the q u e s t i o n . You have the duty to d i s c u s s the agenda w i t h the o t h e r s and not to h i d e i t on the b e h a l f of some p u r i t y . To the extent tha t we do t h a t , we c o n t i n u e to h e l p the o p p r e s s o r s . " (Paulo F r e i r e , 1984) The c o n f l i c t s between ESL t e a c h i n g and the d i a l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , and between the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s r o l e as t eacher and r e s e a r c h e r , are important i s s u e s i n the development of a p r a c t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n of F r e i r e ' s pedagogy to the Canadian ESL 1 39 c o n t e x t . In f a c t , the v e r y reason f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s a l s o the p r i m a r y reason tha t i t i s i m p o r t a n t tha t they be worked out i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h : i t i s t h a t t h i s i s one of the few ESL approaches t h a t r e g a r d s the s o c i a l c o n t e x t of l e a r n e r s as an impor tant f a c t o r i n t h e i r language l e a r n i n g . LANGUAGE LEARNING IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT » One cannot expect p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s from an e d u c a t i o n a l or p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n program which f a i l s to r e s p e c t the p a r t i c i u l a r view of the w o r l d h e l d by the p e o p l e . Such a program c o n s t i t u t e s c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n , good i n t e n t i o n s not w i t h s t a n d i n g ( F r e i r e , 1970:84) . F r e i r e ' s pedagogy can be s i t u a t e d i n the c o n t e x t of approaches t h a t emphasize the s o c i a l d imens ions of second language l e a r n i n g , i n c o n t r a s t to those t h a t t r e a t i t as p r i m a r i l y an i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e e x e r c i s e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m a c c o r d i n g to g e n e r a t i v e themes c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m a c c o r d i n g to p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s of n a t i v e speaker i n t e r a c t i o n . There are r e s e a r c h problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t t e r as grea t a s , i f d i f f e r e n t i n n a t u r e from, those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of ESL s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i v e t h e m e s . 7 F r e i r e ' s model r e f l e c t s the view t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l d e r i v e more b e n e f i t from a c u r r i c u l u m tha t a c c u r a t e l y d e p i c t s t h e i r s p e c i f i c s o c i a l contex t than from one 7 T h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s reviewed by E v e l y n Hatch (1983) . G a i l W e i n s t e i n (1984) d i s c u s s e s the need for e t h n o g r a p h i c methods i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h . 1 40 t h a t a c c u r a t e l y d e p i c t s the l i n g u i s t i c t a s k s r e q u i r e d by c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , but i n which the o n l y acknowledgment of t h e i r c u l t u r e may be t h a t the man g e t t i n g on the bus w i t h i n c o r r e c t change i s "Rodrigo" i n s t e a d of "Bob," or t h a t the woman r e t u r n i n g the wrong s i z e b louse becomes "Mrs . Chan" i n s t e a d of " M r s . Brown." I f the a n a l y s i s on which a themat ic c u r r i c u l u m i s based i s i m p e r f e c t or i n c o m p l e t e , the p r o c e s s of d i a l o g u e and problem p o s i n g a l l o w s f o r - and even encourages - amendments and improvements based on s tudent i n p u t . On the o t h e r hand, c u r r i c u l a o r g a n i z e d p r i m a r i l y a c c o r d i n g to l i n g u i s t i c c r i t e r i a ( p a r t i c u l a r l y those c l a i m i n g to t e a c h s u r v i v a l ) may c o n t a i n i m p l i c i t assumptions about s o c i e t y - p a r t i c u l a r l y the r o l e of immigrant l a b o u r i n the economy - t h a t can d i s c o u r a g e ESL s t u d e n t s from s e e i n g , much l e s s a d d r e s s i n g , i s s u e s of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t and economic i n j u s t i c e . 8 Acknowledgment of the s o c i a l c o n t e x t of language l e a r n i n g must not s top s h o r t of acknowledging the power r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h a t s o c i a l c o n t e x t . The r o l e of language l e a r n i n g i n c h a l l e n g i n g these power r e l a t i o n s i s the focus of F r e i r e ' s a p p r o a c h . D i a l o g u e i s the encounter between men, mediated by the w o r l d , i n order to name the w o r l d . Hence, d i a l o g u e cannot occur . . . between those who deny o ther men the r i g h t to speak t h e i r word and those whose 8 T h i s i s s u e i s a d d r e s s e d by E l s a Auerbach and Deni se B u r g e s s . They examine s e v e r a l s u r v i v a l ESL t e x t s r e p r e s e n t i n g "the ' communicat ive ' t r e n d i n language t e a c h i n g , " and c o n c l u d e t h a t " f r e q u e n t l y , n e i t h e r the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e n t nor the communicat ive s t r u c t u r e of m a t e r i a l s r e f l e c t s a u t h e n t i c i n t e r a c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the t e x t s o f t e n p r e p a r e s u t d e n t s f o r s u b s e r v i e n t s o c i a l r o l e s (1985:475) . 141 r i g h t to speak has been d e n i e d t h e m . . . . To e x i s t , humanly, i s to name the w o r l d , to change i t (1970:76) . A c q u i r i n g l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , through an approach of t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y about the w o r l d , g i v e s a d u l t s t h i s a b i l i t y . Naming the w o r l d , through language , i s the f i r s t s t ep to t r a n s f o r m i n g i t . Any program or c u r r i c u l u m which at tempts to a p p l y F r e i r e ' s approach to the t e a c h i n g of ESL must acknowledge t h a t second language l e a r n i n g , f or most immigrants , l i k e l i t e r a c y f o r B r a z i l i a n p e a s a n t s , i s an i s s u e of power. LANGUAGE LEARNING AND POWER The r e l a t i o n of language l e a r n i n g to power i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s became apparent i n my i n v e s t i g a t i o n of g e n e r a t i v e themes. Four s p e c i f i c a r e a s of f a m i l y c o n f l i c t i l l u s t r a t e t h a t l a c k of language i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p o w e r l e s s n e s s . Lack of b a s i c E n g l i s h r e n d e r s s t u d e n t s h e l p l e s s i n the case of an emergency a t home, l eads to the e r o s i o n of p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , makes o l d e r f a m i l y members dependent on younger ones for t r a n s l a t i o n , and h i n d e r s women from p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n as c u l t u r a l c u s t o d i a n s because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to u n d ers tan d and thereby screen out the i n t r u s i o n of u n d e s i r e a b l e Canadian c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s in t h e i r homes. I n c r e a s e d competence i n E n g l i s h would d i r e c t l y i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' power i n each of these s i t u a t i o n s . B e t t e r E n g l i s h might a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e i r independence in spheres more removed from the f a m i l y . They would have g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y , and 1 42 thus independence , w i t h i n the ne ighborhood i f they c o u l d read s t r e e t s i g n s and bus numbers; p o t e n t i a l l y , they c o u l d improve t h e i r e m p l o y a b i l i t y i n o c c u p a t i o n s o u t s i d e of farmwork. However, l a c k of E n g l i s h i s not the s o l e reason for s t u d e n t s ' prob lems , nor w i l l l e a r n i n g i t i n e v i t a b l y l e a d to t h e i r s o l u t i o n . Even p a r e n t s whose E n g l i s h i s f l u e n t have problems w i t h r e b e l l i o u s c h i l d r e n . As t u t o r s i n the ESL Crusade have d i s c o v e r e d , young women whose E n g l i s h i s good enough to get a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e o f t e n do not b o t h e r , because t h e i r c u l t u r e decrees tha t they never go out a lone anyway. Lack of E n g l i s h i s not the o n l y reason t h a t ESL Crusade s t u d e n t s do farmwork. I t i s there for them to do because i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of our a g r i c u l t u r a l economy to have a p o o l of cheap l a b o u r to do work t h a t i s shunned by n a t i v e - b o r n C a n a d i a n s . T h u s , the f u r t h e r the a n a l y s i s moves out from the f a m i l y sphere , the more the r e l a t i o n s h i p between lanugage l e a r n i n g and power d e c r e a s e s , and the more the e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s i n s t u d e n t s ' power le s sness take on the n a t u r e of o p p r e s s i o n . L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h i s not enough to e l i m i n a t e t h i s , and s t u d e n t s shou ld not be m i s l e d i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t i t i s ; r a t h e r , the p r o c e s s of language l e a r n i n g s h o u l d be accompanied by a p r o c e s s of c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of a l l the sources of o p p r e s s i o n . Language l e a r n i n g c a n , however, be empowering i n and of i t s e l f , on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l . T h i s became e v i d e n t to me i n my s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r language l e a r n i n g . For i l l i t e r a t e or p o o r l y - e d u c a t e d a d u l t s , who have been t o l d or assumed t h e i r whole l i f e t h a t they are s t u p i d , success i n a 1 43 l e a r n i n g task - e s p e c i a l l y a r e l e v a n t , important one l i k e b e i n g a b l e to unde r s tand a phone c a l l - i s enormously e n c o u r a g i n g . I t b o l s t e r s t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to l e a r n , i n t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e , and i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to take on new c h a l l e n g e s , whether r e l a t e d to languge l e a r n i n g or n o t . F r e i r e ' s approach a l l o w s f o r t h i s l e a r n i n g to occur as p a r t of a program t h a t acknowledges the r e l a t i o n of language to power, tha t a c c u r a t e l y d e p i c t s t h e i r r e a l s o c i a l c o n t e x t , and t h a t i s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r most important themes. T h i s s tudy has d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a r e bound to come up i n an e d u c a t i o n a l needs assessment w i t h a scope so much broader than i s common. The f a c t t h a t a d a p t i n g F r e i r e ' s approach to the Canadian ESL c o n t e x t i s d i f f i c u l t , and t h a t d o i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i s e q u a l l y i f not more d i f f i c u l t , does not mean tha t the attempt i s not w o r t h w h i l e . Indeed , i t i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . I t i s neces sary t h a t ESL programs sh ou ld acknowledge s t u d e n t s ' r e a l s o c i a l c o n t e x t s and the s o u r c e s of t h e i r o p p r e s s i o n , and F r e i r e p r o v i d e s a model for d o i n g t h i s . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t h a t ESL e d u c a t o r s a p p l y i n g F r e i r e ' s model sh ou ld be honest and c r i t i c a l i n a d d r e s s i n g the i s s u e s t h a t come up i n the a t t e m p t . Among F r e i r i a n ESL e d u c a t o r s i n Canada there i s a shortage of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on our own p r a c t i c e , at l e a s t as e x p r e s s e d i n p u b l i c a t i o n s and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s t h e s i s has a d d r e s s e d o n l y the i n i t i a l needs assessment s t a g e . The T o r o n t o work has f o c u s s e d on m a t e r i a l s deve lopment . Nina W a l l e r s t e i n has deve loped a methodology f o r p r o b l e m - p o s i n g . Areas such as 1 44 t eacher t r a i n i n g , the type of ESL t e c h n i q u e s bes t s u i t e d to the d i a l o g u e , the p r a c t i c a l problems of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n ( a l l p r o b l e m a t i c a s p e c t s of the ESL Crusade) remain v i r t u a l l y untouched . There i s g r e a t need for expans ion of the use of F r e i r e ' s approach i n ESL programs i n Canada, but such expans ion would be i l l - a d v i s e d and l i k e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l i f unaccompanied by c o n s t a n t c r i t i c a l examinat ion of why we're d o i n g what we're d o i n g , and how to do i t b e t t e r . 1 45 BIBLIOGRAPHY F r e i r e ' s Pedagogy Facundo, B l a n c a . 1984. Issues for an E v a l u a t i o n of F r e i r e - i n s p i r e d Programs i n the U . S . and Puer to R i c o . F r e i r e , P a u l o . 1970. Pedagogy of the O p p r e s s e d . New Y o r k : Cont inuum. F r e i r e , P a u l o . 1973. E d u c a t i o n for C r i t i c a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s . New Y o r k : Cont inuum. F r e i r e , P a u l o . 1985. The P o l i t i c s of E d u c a t i o n . South H a d l e y , M a s s . : B e r g i n & G a r v e y . M a c k i e , R o b e r t , e d . 1981. L i t e r a c y and R e v o l u t i o n : The pedagogy of Pau lo F r e i r e . New Y o r k : Cont inuum. F r e i r e and ESL A u e r b a c h , E l s a R o b e r t s , and Denise B u r g e s s . 1985. The h idden c u r r i c u l u m of s u r v i v a l E S L . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 19(3):475- 495. B a r n d t , Deborah , e d . 1978. Themes and T o o l s f o r E S L . : How to Choose Them and How to Use Them. T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of C i t i z e n s h i p and C u l t u r e . B a r n d t , Deborah . 1981. J u s t G e t t i n g T h e r e : C r e a t i n g V i s u a l T o o l s f or C o l l e c t i v e A n a l y s i s i n F r e i r i a n E d u c a t i o n a l Programs f o r M i g r a n t W11en i n Peru and Canada . Working Paper #7. T o r o n t o : P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research G r o u p . B a r n d t , Deborah , F e m e C r i s t a l l and d i a n m a r i n e 1 982. G e t t i n g T h e r e : P r o d u c i n g P h o t o s t o r i e s w i t h Immigrant Women. T o r o n t o : Between the L i n e s . B e l l , J i l l , and B a r b a r a Burnaby. 1984. A Handbook for ESL L i t e r a c y . T o r o n t o : OISE P r e s s . D i x o n , C a r o l N . , and Denise N e s s e l . 1983. Language E x p e r i e n c e Approach to Reading (and W r i t i n g ) : LEA for E S L . Hayward, C a . : Alemany P r e s s . 1 46 Duncombe, B r e n d a , e d . 1979. Themes f o r L e a r n i n g and T e a c h i n g . T o r o n t o : ESL Core G r o u p . F i o r e , K y l e , and Nan E l s a s s e r . 1982. S t r a n g e r s no more: A l i b e r a t o r y l i t e r a c y c u r r i c u l u m . C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , J a n / F e b 1982:115-128. H a t c h , E v e l y n M. 1983. P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s : A Second Language P e r s p e c t i v e . Rowley, M a s s . : Newbury House . M a r i n o , d i a n and Deborah B a r n d t . 1983. Immigrants Speak Out : A S e r i e s of Four B o o k l e t s by and about Immigrants . T o r o n t o : P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research G r o u p . M o r i a r t y , P i a , and Nina W a l l e r s t e i n . 1979. S t u d e n t / t e a c h e r / l e a r n e r : A F r e i r e approach to A B E / E S L . A d u l t L i t e r a c y and B a s i c E d u c a t i o n 3, 3 :193-200. M o r i a r t y , P i a , and Nina W a l l e r s t e i n . 1980. By t e a c h i n g we can l e a r n : F r e i r e p r o c e s s f o r t e a c h e r s . C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l of Teacher E d u c a t i o n , Winter 1980. S u l l i v a n , K a t h l e e n , and Jean Unda. 1982. Unemployed ESL s tudent s t e l l t h e i r s t o r y i n a p h o t o - n o v e l . ESL and Community Groups C r e a t e L e a r n i n g M a t e r i a l s : Four Case S t u d i e s . Working Paper #9:44-64. T o r o n t o : P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research G r o u p . Unda, Jean ( E d . ) 1984. Our L i v e s . T o r o n t o : L e a r n x s P r e s s . W a l l e r s t e i n , N i n a . 1983. Language and C u l t u r e i n C o n f l i c t : P r o b l e m - p o s i n g i n the ESL c l a s s r o o m . R e a d i n g , M a s s . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . W a l l e r s t e i n , N i n a . 1984. L i t e r a c y and M i n o r i t y Language G r o u p s : Community l i t e r a c y as a method and g o a l . Paper p r e s e n t e d at N a t i o n a l A d u l t L i t e r a c y C o n f e r e n c e , Wash ington , D . C . , January 1984. W e i n s t e i n , G a i l . 1984. L i t e r a c y and second language a c q u i s i t i o n : I s sues and p e r s p e c t i v e s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 18(3) :471-484 . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h Methodology Bogdan, R o b e r t , and Steven J . T a y l o r . 1975. I n t r o d u c t i o n to Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s e a r c h Methods: A phenomeno log i ca l approach to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons. 1 47 B o r g , W a l t e r R . , and M e r e d i t h D. G a l l . 1983. E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h : An i n t r o d u c t i o n (4th e d ) . New Y o r k : Longman. C a r n e y , Thomas F . 1972. Content A n a l y s i s : A t e c h n i q u e f o r s y s t e m a t i c i n f e r e n c e from communica t ions . Winnpeg: U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba P r e s s . H a l l , Budd. 1984. P a r t i c i p a t o r y R e s e a r c h , P o p u l a r Knowledge and Power: Two a r t i c l e s by Budd H a l l . T o r o n t o : P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research G r o u p . K r i p p e n d o r f , K l a u s . 1980. Content A n a l y s i s : An i n t r o d u c t i o n to i t s methodology . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a . : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . L e w i n , M i r i a m . 1979. U n d e r s t a n d i n g P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h : The s t u d e n t r e s e a r c h e r ' s handbook. New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons . P r e i s s l e - G o e t z , J u d i t h , and Margare t D. LeCompte. 1984. Ethnography and Q u a l i t a t i v e Des ign i n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . O r l a n d o , F l o r i d a : Academic P r e s s , I n c . S m i t h , L o u i s M. 1978. An e v o l v i n g l o g i c of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n a l e thnography , and o ther case s t u d i e s . Review of Research i n E d u c a t i o n V o l . V I : 3 1 6 - 3 7 7 . Lee S. Schulman ( E d . ) I t a s c a , 1 1 1 . : F . E . Peacock . S p r a d l e y , James P . 1979. The E t h n o g r a p h i c I n t e r v i e w . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n . S p r a d l e y , James P . 1980. P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . S t a k e , Rober t E . 1978. The case study method i n s o c i a l i n q u i r y , E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher 7, (Feb . 1978):5~8. Weber, Robert P . 1985. B a s i c Content A n a l y s i s . B e v e r l e y H i l l s , C a . : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . The P u n j a b i Community i n Vancouver Ames, M i c h a e l M . , and Joy I n g l i s . 1973. C o n f l i c t and change in B . C . S i k h f a m i l y l i f e . B . C . S t u d i e s 20, (Winter 1973):15- 49. B u c h i g n a n i , Norman. 1979. South A s i a n Canadians and the e t h n i c mosaic4 An o v e r v i e w . Canadian E t h n i c S t u d i e s 11, 1:48-68. B u c h i g n a n i , N . and Doreen I n d r a . 1980. I n t e r g r o u p c o n f l i c t and community s o l i d a r i t y : S i k h s and South A s i a n F i j i a n s in 1 48 V a n c o u v e r . Canadian J o u r n a l of A n t h r o p o l o g y 1, 2:149-158. C a s s i n , M a r g u e r i t e . 1977. C l a s s and E t h n i c i t y : the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of working c l a s s E a s t I n d i a n immigrants i n V a n c o u v e r . M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Chadney, James. 1976. Vancouver S i k h s : An e t h n i c community i n Canada . PhD D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n . Chadney, James G . 1977. Demography, e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : The case of Vancouver S i k h s . Urban A n t h r o p o l o g y 6, 3: 187-204. C r a i g , R i c k . 1982. R a c i a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : A s i a n immigrants i n B . C . . Vancouver : L e g a l S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y of B . C . Dusenbery , Verne A . 1981. Canadian i d e o l o g y and p u b l i c p o l i c y : The impact on Vancouver S i k h e t h n i c and r e l i g i o u s a d a p t a t i o n . Canadian E t h n i c S t u d i e s 13, 3:101-119. Ghosh , R a t n a . 1981. S o c i a l and economic i n t e g r a t i o n of South A s i a n women i n M o n t r e a l , Canada . Women i n the F a m i l y and • the Economy: An i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p a r a t i v e survey :59~71 . Ratna Ghosh and George K u r i a n ( E d s . ) W e s t p o r t : Greenwood P r e s s . J o y , Annamma. 1982. Accommodation and C u l t u r a l P e r s i s t e n c e : The case of the S i k h s and the Portuguese in the Okanagan V a l l e y of B . C . . PhD D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y . 1983. K h a l s a Diwan S o c i e t y (Pamphle t ) . V a n c o u v e r . Redway, B r i a n , e d . 1984. S p o t l i g h t on I n d o - C a n a d i a n s : A r e s o u r c e book on the I n d o - C a n a d i a n community and modern I n d i a . Vancouver : NACOI, B . C . C h a p t e r . S i k h P u b l i c a t i o n s . Mewa S i n g h ( P a m p h l e t ) . Vancouver . S i n g h , Khushwant, and Raghu R a i . 1984. The S i k h s . V a r a n a s i : L u s t r e P r e s s L t d . S i n g h , M o h i n d e r . 1981. I n d o - C a n a d i a n s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver : A s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u r v e y . V a n c o u v e r : NACOI. S r i v a s t a v a , Ram P . 1974. F a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n and change among the overseas I n d i a n s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to I n d i a n immigrant f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. The F a m i l y i n I n d i a : A r e g i o n a l v i ew . George K u r i a n ( E d . ) The Hague: Mouton. 1 49 Canadian Farmworkers Union and the ESL Crusade B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1983. 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The making of "Farmworkers , Z i n d a b a d . " Fuse I , 6 :33-36 . Hawthorne, D i a n a . 1986. Farmworker H e a l t h and E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t : Survey R e p o r t . J a c k s o n , D a v i d . 1984. A Time to Grow: Farmworkers ESL Crusade 1984 R e p o r t . J a c k s o n , D a v i d . 1985. L i v i n g and l e a r n i n g . Fuse IX, 4 :32-35 . Labour Advocacy and Research A s s o c i a t i o n . 1979. T e a c h e r ' s Guide on Farm and Domestic W o r k e r s . Vancouver : LARA. M i l l a r d , Joanne . 1985. Farmworkers ESL Crusade 1984/85 R e p o r t . M i l l a r d , Joanne , e d . 1985. ESL Crusade T u t o r M a n u a l . V a n c o u v e r : Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n . M i l l a r d , Joanne . 1986. T u t o r s ' E v a l u a t i o n I n t e r v i e w s . Neesham, Vanneau. 1983. A Time to L e a r n : A r e p o r t on the Canad ian Farmworkers Union ESL Crusade from August 1982 to J u n e , 1983. S t e e v e s , J o h n , and Sarwan B o a l . 1982. A Time to L e a r n : A r e p o r t on the needs assessment survey for the ESL Crusde of the Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n . 1 50 Vancouver Sun. " P i c k e t i n g by p i c k e r s nets back wages." J u l y 18, 1979:B14.

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