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Attitudes of secondary school graduates and teachers towards the literacy skills of university-bound.. 1978

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ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE LITERACY SKILLS OF UNIVEBSITY-BOUND STUDENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by MABIAN E. MACKHORTH B. A,, York U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Reading Education) He accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard. , THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 (c) Marian E. Mackworth, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date Jjtyj-M/I-P i i A b s t r a c t Surveys two p o p u l a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s of grade 12 E n g l i s h i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia and r e c e n t high s c h o o l graduates who are now i n E n g l i s h 100 a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, t o a s c e r t a i n the d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s held by those two groups toward c e r t a i n l i t e r a c y and communication s k i l l s deemed to b4 r e l e v a n t to s u c c e s s f u l u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e study. Respondents were asked t o r a t e the frequency o f t e a c h i n g of each s k i l l , the s t r e n g t h of the average u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d student (or the student respondent) i n each s k i l l , and the importance of each s k i l l t o u n i v e r s i t y study. A l l student-completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o n s i d e r e d usable. A 76$ r e t u r n was obtained from t e a c h e r s i n the Province. R e s u l t s , r e p o r t e d i n d e s c r i p t i v e terms, were analyzed by computer u s i n g programs from SPSS: .Statistical•-Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences. I t was found t h a t t e a c h e r s agree with students as t o the freguency of the t e a c h i n g o f s k i l l s and the importance of those s k i l l s t o u n i v e r s i t y study. However, students and teachers show l e s s agreement i n r a t i n g the s t r e n g t h t h a t s t u d e n t s have i n i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t of T a b l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 The P r o b l e m * . . . . • •. . . ••... • • . » « • •» » •• « • « « • » - 1 1 . 1 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study 1 1 . 2 O b j e c t i v e s of the Study.............. 3 1 . 3 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study. 4 1 . 4 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Report 5 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 . 1 I d e n t i f y i n g t he Need f o r u n i v e r s i t y Sponsored Reading Programmes.........7 2 . 2 I n c r e a s i n g Numbers of u n i v e r s i t y Reading Programmes,.............. .... 9 2 . 3 The Status of Beading Programmes.... 1 1 2 . 4 Teacher B o l e at the Secondary L e v e l . 1 3 2 . 5 Teacher Awareness at t h e Secondary Le v e l . . . . . . . . . . . . t » . . . . . . _ » . . » . . . » . . . 1 3 2 . 6 High School Surveys................. 1 4 2 . 7 Summary. ••«••••••»•.•«•«•»•«••••«•• . 2 5 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study. ............... 2 7 3 . 1 The Instrument.......... . . , . . . . . . . . . 2 7 3 . 2 The P o p u l a t i o n * . . . 2 8 3 . 3 Procedure...,.,.. »•..,. •..... •.... * « . . . . 2 9 3 . 4 Data A n a l y s i s . . . . . • . • . * . • • • . . * . • . . 3 0 3 . 5 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . » • . . . 3 1 Data A n a l y s i s : R e s u l t s and O b s e r v a t i o n s . 3 3 4 . 1 Questions Examined by the Study... . . 3 3 4 . 2 Related Demographic Information.. . . . 4 1 4 . 3 Other F i n d i n g s . . . . 4 3 4 . 4 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 4 , 5 Summary. • ...v« • • » . , • • » • . . . 4 6 Chapter 5 5 . 1 I n t r o du c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • •••••••61 5. 2 Objectxves. ..*.,.«. . . . . ... • • • • • • •••62 5.3 Pr oce d u re...... .'.,,<•..'.....-....... • • • • • • * • 6 2 5. 4 A n a l y s i s . ••»'* .. •". •...*..*..*•. ••••••••63 5.5 C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . .* ......... • *'••• • •« 6 3 5,6 Recommendations............. • • • • • • * • 6 5.7 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research65 Bi M i o g r a p h y . . . . , . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C , . . . . 6 8 Data G a t h e r i n g Instrument E n g l i s h 1 0 0 S t u d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 Data Gathering Instrument B.C. Grade 1 2 E n g l i s h Teachers. ........ 7 5 Covering L e t t e r : E n g l i s h 1 0 0 I n s t r u c t o r s . 7 8 i v Appendix D Covering L e t t e r : B.C. Grade 12 E n g l i s h Teachers. ........80 Appendix E Covering L e t t e r , Second H a i l i n g : B.C. Grade 12 E n g l i s h Teachers. ........82 V L i s t o f Tables Table I A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Secondary Beading Programs i n GxTcids 12* • * * * • * * •••••••• * • •* **•• ••••• «•••*• • * • * * »2 0 II A v a i l a b i l i t y and Types of Beading Programs i n J u n i o r and S e n i o r Schools..........................21 I I I S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g i n Reading I n s t r u c t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Reading Teachers.......... ,22 IV Rank Order of Frequency of S k i l l s by Cleans... .47 V Rank Order of Importance of S k i l l s by deans........... 48 VI Rank Order of S t r e n g t h o f S k i l l s by Means.............49 VII Onivbound Reading Programmes - Teachers........ . » . . . . 5 0 VIII Dnivbound Reading Programmes - Students............... 51 IX No. of Reading Courses Taken - Teachers .......52 X Reading Programme Setup - Students.................... 53 XI Reading Programme Setup - Teachers....................54 XXX SctlOOX SX3£Q T 6cL C S ••*••.«• •••••••• .§ • • • • ••••« * ••• • * 55 XIII School S i z e - Students ,. 56 XIV Reading A b i l i t y Compared to Univ Peers - Students.....57 XV Frequency o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Reading - Students. ......... 58 XVI R e l a t i o n s h i p of S t r e n g t h and Frequency................59 XVII S k i l l s showing Highest C o r r e l a t i o n : Frequency t o Strength. • * *....., ...... *. .. • *...... ... •. * 60 v i Acknowledgements Many thanks t o : Dr. Chester, my a d v i s o r , who has been generous with h i s time and support. Dr. Summers, who has produced much a p p r e c i a t e d "goodies" a l l along the way. Dr. P a r k i n , who made p o s s i b l e my f o r a y s i n t o the E n g l i s h Department, Alan, my husband, who has c o n t r i b u t e d time, p a t i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n and computing e x p e r t i s e . I should a l s o l i k e t o thank the E n g l i s h 100 I n s t r u c t o r s who allowed me to d i s t r i b u t e my q u e s t i o n n a i r e and those s t u d e n t s amd teachers who took the time t o complete i t . 1 CHAPTER ONE The PxQblem Students who i n t e n d t o extend t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s beyond high s c h o o l r e q u i r e both knowledge of and p r a c t i c e i n those s k i l l s which w i l l enable them t o d e a l with a new breadth and depth of m a t e r i a l s . In r e c e n t years much concern has been expressed by educators, as w e l l as by the p u b l i c , over the purported l a c k o f language a b i l i t y of u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s . I t i s f e l t t h a t a survey of the d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s h e l d by those who t e a c h a t the grade 12 l e v e l and by r e c e n t high s c h o o l graduates who are p r e s e n t l y completing f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y would serve t o i n d i c a t e whether or not such concern i s j u s t i f i e d . 1. 1 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study. The Canadian p u b l i c i s being exposed to media a r t i c l e s which i n d i c a t e that f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y s tudents show a s e r i o u s l a c k o f language f l u e n c y . The Toronto S t a r , January 20, 1978 r e p o r t s : The u n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo says fewer than 50% of 535 students who took r e m e d i a l E n g l i s h w r i t i n g c l a s s e s were a b l e t o pass a b a s i c t e s t a f t e r 10 weeks. The Toronto S t a r , i n February, 1978, continued i t s r e p o r t from 2 Waterloo: "Our standards are e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y modest," says Ken L e d b e t t e r , A s s o c i a t e Dean of Arts f o r s p e c i a l programs... Ledbetter says "many stu d e n t s w r i t e b e t t e r than one decent paragraph, [ s i c ] but many can't. I t ' s not t h e i r f a u l t . I t ' s t h e f a u l t o f the s c h o o l system. Many elementary and secondary teachers c a n ' t teach w r i t i n g . " Again, from the Toronto S t a r . January 24, 1978: Beginning i n 1980, s t u d e n t s i n a r t s and s c i e n c e s courses at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto w i l l be r e q u i r e d to pass an E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y t e s t t o remain i n u n i v e r s i t y . . . U n d e r the new p o l i c y , students who f a i l the l i t e r a c y t e s t w i l l be allowed to continue i n s c h o o l f o r one year before being r e t e s t e d . I f they f a i l a second time, they w i l l be r e f u s e d f u r t h e r r e q i s t r a t i o n . The Vancouver Sun, February 6, 1978 r e p o r t e d : I f B.C. youngsters took as t h e i r hero author Robertson Davies i n s t e a d o f Bobby Orr, they probably would a r r i v e i n u n i v e r s i t y with f a r b e t t e r w r i t i n g s k i l l s than they are now,..present day s o c i e t y doesn't put strong emphasis on reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . . . ( A l a n Davie, head o f E n g l i s h and Modern Languages a t Vancouver Community College) admitted U0% o f f i r s t year U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. students f a i l e d t h e i r Christmas examination. But the exam i t s e l f was extremely d i f f i c u l t , a t times c o n f u s i n g . "One a l s o has to c o n s i d e r the f a c t t h a t the r e s u l t s were based on a student p o p u l a t i o n which c o n t a i n s f a r more students from disadvantaqed backgrounds than ever b e f o r e . " Many o f the 3,300 students who wrote the t e s t do not even use E n q l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language, he continued., There are a l s o more a d u l t s r e t u r n i n q t o s c h o o l who are havinq d i f f i c u l t [ s i c ] coping with new l i t e r a t u r e proqrams. And the e f f e c t s o f a q e n e r a t i o n of younqsters who spent t h e i r waking hours qlued t o a t e l e v i s i o n screen are a l s o makinq themselves f e l t , , Davie i s .hinting a t a problem already acknowledged i n American s c h o o l s . That i s , u n i v e r s i t y admissions p o l i c i e s are l e s s r i g i d than they were a decade ago. I f t h i s t r e n d i s not 3 already p a r t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l scene, i t i s p a r t of the f u t u r e of Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s as enrolment d e c l i n e s . W i l l i a m Kent, D i r e c t o r o f Admissions at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto sees a d e c l i n e i n admission standards as being imminent (Ubyssey. Harch 8, 1978). As these newspaper e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e , the media are r a i s i n g the q u e s t i o n of the q u a l i t y of education being g i v e n t o those students who have no d i s c e r n i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . In the United S t a t e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s have assumed an a c t i v e r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g s k i l l s development. Though the bulk of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s area i s from American sources, those Canadian s t u d i e s which are a v a i l a b l e suggest t h a t the Canadian experience i s s i m i l a r . There i s every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a t r e n d t o provide s k i l l s c e n t r e s at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i s o c c u r r i n g i n Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . P u b l i c concern over the q u a l i t y of u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s i s growing., The e x i s t e n c e o f and pe r c e i v e d need f o r u n i v e r s i t y r e a d i n g programmes seem t o provide some j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o the p u b l i c f o r i t s concern., 1 .2 O b j e c t i v e s of the Studjj The aim o f t h i s study was to provide i n s i g h t i n t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1) Do students and t e a c h e r s concur i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of the frequency o f i n s t r u c t i o n of s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s k i l l s ? 2) Do f i r s t - y e a r u n i v e r s i t y students and high s c h o o l t e a c h e r s r a t e the same l i t e r a c y and communication s k i l l s as being 4 important to u n i v e r s i t y study? 3) Do grade 12 teachers f e e l t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d s t u d e n t s t o be s t r o n g e r i n c e r t a i n s k i l l areas than do the students themselves? 4) Do t e a c h e r s and students d i f f e r i n t h e i r views concerning the need f o r i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o reading a t the s e n i o r l e v e l s of high s c h o o l ? 5) How many grade 12 E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s i n the sample have had t r a i n i n g i n the t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g ? 6) Do students and t e a c h e r s agree on who should teach r e a d i n g s k i l l s d u r i n g the s e n i o r year of high s c h o o l ? 1,3 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study - S e v e r a l f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study: 1) There were 61 E n g l i s h 100 s e c t i o n s i n the 1977-78 winter s e s s i o n at O.B.C, Of t h e s e , 11 were Z s e c t i o n s and 50 were standard s e c t i o n s , Z s e c t i o n s of E n g l i s h 100 have a g r e a t e r emphasis on the study of l i t e r a t u r e than do the r e g u l a r s e c t i o n s which emphasize composition, all f i r s t year O.B.C..students must r e g i s t e r i n E n g l i s h 100. Students who do s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l on the E d u c a t i o n a l Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ^ E n g l i s h Placement T e s t may opt f o r a Z s e c t i o n of E n g l i s h 100. The student p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and r e p r e s e n t s the 16 standard and Z s e c t i o n s whose i n s t r u c t o r s expressed i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s p r o j e c t . 5 2) Results are based on the number of questionnaires returned. Some Heads of Enqlish declined to respond to the questionnaire. The population of t h i s study represents a sample of the t o t a l population of grade 12 Enqlish teachers i n the province of B.C. , 3) One qrade 12 Enqlish teacher in each B.C. senior school was asked to answer a questionnaire,„ In s i x cases, a l l grade 12 teachers involved i n the Enqlish proqramae made copies of the questionnaire sent to the school. The mean of these r e p l i e s was used to make a single composite response questionnaire. 4) An i n s u f f i c i e n t number of r e p l i e s were returned by Enqlish 100 instructors to warrant t h e i r inclusion in t h i s study. 5) The re s u l t s of t h i s survey are recorded i n purely descriptive terms and cannot be qeneralized beyond the present population. The analysis of the data offers no more than possible trends which should be examined. Chapter 2 reviews the l i t e r a t u r e concerninq the need to assess the reading s k i l l s of college- and university-bound students. The organization of the study, including population and procedure, i s described i n Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents the r e s u l t s of the two questionnaires used i n t h i s study. A discussion of those r e s u l t s , recommendations and conclusions are given i n the f i n a l chapter. Appendices and bibliography follow the main body of the thesis. 6 CHAPTER TWO Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e Over the past two decades, i n c r e a s i n g numbers of students have opted f o r post secondary e d u c a t i o n . T h o u g h most of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s the d i r e c t i o n of American e d u c a t i o n , the l i t t l e data a v a i l a b l e concerning the Canadian scene echo the American experience. The B r i t i s h Columbia Beading Assessment of 1977 i n d i c a t e d t h a t 21.351 of grade 12 students i n the p r o v i n c e intended t o go on t o u n i v e r s i t y . A f u r t h e r 10.0% were i n t e n d i n g t o t r a n s f e r t o u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r an i n i t i a l p e r i o d a t a community c o l l e g e . Seven p o i n t s i x percent of students planned t o pursue c a r e e r goals through a community c o l l e g e programme. A s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of the grade 12 student p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e n , had e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s beyond high s c h o o l (-p. 111, -Test Results)--, The review of l i t e r a t u r e t r a c e s the present need f o r , and i n c r e a s e i n , u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e sponsored r e a d i n g programmes, the p o s i t i o n of those programmes on u n i v e r s i t y campuses, and teacher awareness of r e a d i n g as a s u b j e c t at the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l ; f i n a l l y , i t p r e s e n t s a p r o f i l e of the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of r e a d i n g i n secondary s c h o o l s . 7 2.1 I d e n t i f y i n g t h e Need f o r O n i v e r s i t y Sfionsgred Beading P£P3Ismmes The argument t h a t a need f o r u n i v e r s i t y sponsored r e a d i n g programmes e x i s t s because of an apparent f a i l u r e i n the system at an e a r l i e r l e v e l must be c o n s i d e r e d i n two ways., F i r s t , i n the United S t a t e s , there i s an acknowledgement t h a t more high- r i s k students are being admitted. Aaronson (1972) s t a t e s : As we approach the l a s t q u a r t e r of the t w e n t i e t h century, we f i n d t h a t the composition of our e d u c a t i o n a l bag i s o b v i o u s l y chanqinq. Hiqher e d u c a t i o n i s no lonqer the p r i v i l e q e d sanctuary of the i n t e l l e c t u a l and f i n a n c i a l e l i t e . The gates have opened t o allow entrance t o a broader spectrum o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d i n q the u n d e r p r i v i l e q e d and the academically weaker student, (p,i34) The r e s u l t s o f t h i s p o l i c y i n the United S t a t e s (where many students are quaranteed enrolment i n a s t a t e c o l l e g e ) has been, ac c o r d i n g t o C a r t e r (1970), t h a t "one t h i r d o f a l l e n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t y freshmen need t o develop b a s i c s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g t o meet minimal requirements f o r c o l l e g e study" (p.1). Henderson (1976) f e e l s t h a t the open door p o l i c y encourages s t u d e n t s to embark upon degree programmes "without r e q a r d t o p r e v i o u s experience, probable success or academic s k i l l s " (p. 464) . Kingston (1957) says t h a t some students have l e a r n e d b a s i c s k i l l s l a t e . S t i l l o t h e r s have had neqative f e e l i n g s toward s c h o o l and r e a d i n g which r e s u l t e d i n poor preparedness. Others l a c k s k i l l s f o r socio-economic reasons. That the problem of inadequately prepared students w i l l c ontinue i n t o the f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e i s prophesized by Shepherd 8 (1977) : Within the next 10 years, the d e c l i n e i n b i r t h r a t e w i l l make i t necessary t o r e c r u i t i n c r e a s i n g numbers cf students from among unprepared high s c h o o l graduates and a d u l t s who have been out o f s c h o o l a number of years, (p.497) There i s , however, a second c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of the preparedness o f u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s . Are the s t u d e n t s who are d e f i c i e n t i n reading s k i l l s the same stu d e n t s who are present a t u n i v e r s i t y o n l y because of more r e l a x e d admissions p o l i c i e s ? The answer would seem to be no. In the United S t a t e s , Beamer (1955) says " c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s l i k e o t h e r a d u l t s throughout t h e country are bewildered by the l a c k of reading a b i l i t y of the c o l l e g e student" (p. 59). Ten years l a t e r , the s i t u a t i o n appears t o have become worse. Hewman (1966) s t a t e s , "students come i n t o c o l l e g e without the r e a d i n g or study s k i l l s we used to take f o r granted i n c o l l e g e freshmen" (p. 200). V a v o u l i s and Haygor (1973) s t a t e t h a t though i t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e that one o f t h e f a c t o r s r e s u l t i n g i n the formation of s k i l l s c e n t r e s a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i s t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n i s so d i v e r s i f i e d , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n by those i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t "many p o t e n t i a l l y a b l e students l a c k the necessary s k i l l s f o r c o l l e g e s u c c e s s " (p.163). Tremcnti (1965) i s i n agreement with t h i s statement, Larsen and Guttinger (1975) add another dimension to t h i s problem: The improvement o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s might be an important s t r a t e g y f o r s u r v i v a l under the c o m p e t i t i v e system o f higher education i n many of our best u n i v e r s i t i e s . The a b i l i t y t o gain entrance i n t o these 9 i n s t i t u t i o n s and to maintain an adequate grade poin t average c o u l d be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p r o f i c i e n c y i n r e a d i n g and study s k i l l s , , . , I t i s not known how many i n t e l l e c t u a l l y competent high s c h o o l students were not able to make the score r e g u i r e d f o r c o l l e g e entrance because of p o o r l y developed r e a d i n g s k i l l s . , (p. 123) Some students are e n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s apparently without the b a s i c reading s k i l l s r e g u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e development of more mature r e a d i n g s k i l l s . U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the United States are a d m i t t i n g a more d i v e r s i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n and t h i s accounts f o r some of t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n freshmen s k i l l s . There i s every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n a s i m i l a r t r e n d i n Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s , However, th e r e seems t o be a more g e n e r a l i z e d d i s q u i e t concerning the q u a l i t y of u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s araonqst educators and the p u b l i c a l i k e . : 2.2 I n c r e a s i n g Numbers o f Un i v e r s i t y . Reading Programmes Shaw (1961) makes the s t a r t l i n q statement t h a t " r e a d i n q d i f f i c u l t i e s are p r e v a l e n t amonq c o l l e q e freshmen; estimates run from 64% to 95X" (p.24). Those estimates c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n the assumption that r e a d i n g s k i l l c e n t r e s e x i s t at u n i v e r s i t y s o l e l y f o r the upgrading of second language o r f o r the b e n e f i t of open admission candidates., Heading c e n t r e s on American campuses have e x i s t e d f o r many years. Lowe (1970) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t formal attempt t o h e l p c o l l e q e students with r e a d i n q problems was i n 1915. In 1937, the Paar survey i n d i c a t e d the presence of seven remedial proqrammes on American campuses. By 1942, Lowe 10 says, the T r i g g s survey r e p o r t e d 258 such programmes and i n 1947, 165 c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s had reading programmes (p.2). By 1972, Sweiger reported t h a t the r e s u l t s o f a survey o f 832 j u n i o r c o l l e g e s l i s t e d i n the 1971 d i r e c t o r y of t h e American A s s o c i a t i o n of J u n i o r C o l l e g e s r e v e a l e d t h a t only 169 had no reading programme, Of 288 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s judged to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n , 86% had a readin g programme. Of those, 6555 r e p o r t e d the E n g l i s h department t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the r e a d i n g course. In 1975, Smith, E n r i g h t , and Devrian sent a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to 2,783 campuses of the 3,389 a c c r e d i t e d c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s l i s t e d i n the 1972-73, 1973-74 American E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y . , One thousand two hundred and e i g h t y - f i v e or 38% returned g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Of those, 611 reported having study s k i l l s programmes and 9.3H planned to develop l e a r n i n g s k i l l s c e n t r e s i n the next two years. I t was re p o r t e d t h a t 781 of a l l two year c o l l e g e s and 43% of a l l f o u r year c o l l e g e s had such c e n t r e s . Hayward (1971) p o l l e d Canadian c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t o determine the s t a t u s of read i n g programmes on these campuses. She found t h a t o f 60 u n i v e r s i t i e s surveyed, 53 or 88% responded to the g u e s t i o n n a i r e . Of these, 32 or 53$ o f f e r e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and one was planning t o do so. Twenty-one u n i v e r s i t i e s d i d not have any form of re a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Of the 138 c o l l e g e s surveyed, 10 5 or 16% responded t o t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i f t y - t w o o f f e r e d r e a d i n g courses. F i f t y - t h r e e 11 d i d n o t . A p l a n n e d f o l l o w u p , which would have y i e l d e d sore r e c e n t d a t a , was not done. 2.3 The S t a t u s of Heading Programmes G r i e s e (1967) f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n as t o whether or n o t r e a d i n q programmes i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l even though 75% o f p o s t secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s have r e a d i n g programmes. Beadinq as a s u b j e c t i n t h e c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m h o l d s a n y t h i n g but a secure p o s i t i o n , i t i s b e i n g t a u g h t i n v a r i o u s ways i n t h e m a j o r i t y of c o l l e g e s but l e s s a l e g i t i m a t e s u b j e c t of s t u d y f o r which c r e d i t i s g r a n t e d than as a r e m e d i a l e f f o r t - t o b r i n g c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s up t o s t a n d a r d s , to teach them what they s h o u l d have l e a r n e d b e f o r e coming to c o l l e q e . (p. 7) G r i e s e p o i n t s out t h a t v e r y few c o l l e g e s q i v e c r e d i t f o r r e a d i n q c o u r s e s . H u s l i n (1975) s u p p o r t s t h i s s t a t e m e n t . Of t h e 177 d i f f e r e n t American c o l l e q e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s he s u r v e y e d , 68 s c h o o l s o n l y q r a n t e d c r e d i t f o r r e a d i n q improvement c o u r s e s . The g e n e r a l concensus was t h a t s u c h c o u r s e s s h o u l d be o p t i o n a l . However, Smith e t a l (1975), i n t h e i r s u r v e y , c o n c l u d e d t h a t 65H of t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t s o f f e r e d c o u r s e c r e d i t . . I t must be n o t e d t h a t , s i n c e t h e i r r e s p o n s e r a t e was o n l y 33%, i t c o u l d w e l l be c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y those i n s t i t u t i o n s which c o n s i d e r t h e i r r e a d i n g programme t o be i m p o r t a n t (which might be s i g n i f i e d by the o f f e r i n g of c r e d i t f o r t a k i n g t h e course) bothered to r e p l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Hayward's (1971) Canadian s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t , a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , r e a d i n q c o u r s e s c a r r y w i t h them t h e t a i n t of 12 remediation. Though a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l 23 of the 52 i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g r e a d i n g programmes a l s o o f f e r e d some s o r t of c r e d i t f o r the programme, at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , no i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r e d c r e d i t . Those i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g and study s k i l l s programmes at the post secondary l e v e l suggest t h a t t h e r e a r e many areas o f weakness r e a d i l y apparent i n incoming freshmen. Butcofsky (1971) found problems among U n i v e r s i t y of Delaware freshmen i n such b a s i c s k i l l s as the f a i l u r e t o use o u t s i d e s o u r c e s , headings and summaries or other p a r t s o f a t e x t e f f e c t i v e l y . He found many students r e a d word-by-word. In s h o r t , Butcofsky concluded t h a t " s p e c i f i c study habits...need to be r e i n f o r c e d at the high s c h o o l l e v e l f o r students who i n t e n d t o enter c o l l e g e . . • ** (p. 198). Tremonti (1965) drew the same c o n c l u s i o n : High s c h o o l and c o l l e g e students are expected t o g e n e r a l i z e , draw i n f e r e n c e s and c o n c l u s i o n s , and a p p r e c i a t e s u b t l e t i e s of s t y l e and content...The assignments are more d i f f i c u l t and complex and those newcomers to the c o l l e g e campus must adapt t h e i r r eading to meet t h e i r new needs. Host o f these s k i l l s should be mastered a t the high s c h o o l l e v e l . (p.81) Larsen and G u t t i n g e r (1975) a l s o support the i d e a t h a t b e t t e r reading i n s t r u c t i o n i s r e g u i r e d at the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l i n order t h a t the adjustment to the academic demands o f the u n i v e r s i t y might be made more e a s i l y . They f e e l t h a t i t i s necessary to encourage the t e a c h i n g of reading a t the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l i n order t o prevent some of the r e a d i n g problems encountered by c o l l e g e freshmen, "Then, the c o n t i n u i t y of developing s k i l l s would be maintained i n r e l a t i o n t o the 13 maturity process of the reader"(p.123). 2•4 Teacher Bole at the Secondary Level How aware are t e a c h e r s t h a t a s i z a b l e number of t h e i r graduates may not be w e l l prepared f o r the r e a d i n g requirements at u n i v e r s i t y ? Hodges (1974) notes t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c and s t r u c t u r e d approach should be taken a t the s e n i o r grades s i n c e new and more complex t a s k s are being asked of the students. The content area te a c h e r s should be a c c e p t i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h i s developmental process i f the students are to be provided with the v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n which they w i l l need a t u n i v e r s i t y . Shepherd (1972) s t a t e s that "the reading process as a p p l i e d t o the s u b j e c t areas comprises a broad body of techniques which t h e reader uses to get i n f o r m a t i o n and understanding" (p.173). A u t h o r i t i e s s t r e s s t h a t there i s no automatic development of s k i l l s (Kingston, 1964; Palmer, 1975; Bobinson, 1961) and i t i s the t e a c h e r who must h e l p the students t o a c q u i r e the necessary s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e a l i n g with new m a t e r i a l s . H i c h a e l s (1965) sees r e a d i n g at the s e n i o r grades t o be a two pronged a f f a i r . Content i s of major importance. However, e q u a l l y important, students must be given the means t o master content independently. 2.5 Teacher Awareness at the Secondary Level• 14 The theory i s c l e a r , all t e a c h e r s should be t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n g i v i n g students who have post-secondary e d u c a t i o n a l goals the h i e r a r c h y o f s k i l l s they w i l l need f o r growth i n and beyond high s c h o o l . . Seme educators f e e l t h a t the reason f o r the n e g l e c t of r e a d i n g s k i l l s may be due to teacher ignorance. Courtney (1969) d e s c r i b e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n content area t e a c h i n g . Teachers, he says, 1) cannot i d e n t i f y the b a s i c reading s k i l l s and are not aware of how these e f f e c t classroom e f f i c i e n c y 2) are not aware of the r e a d i n g demands of t h e i r own area 3) make assignments without g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s or e s t a b l i s h i n g purpose 4) f a i l t o p r o v i d e any s p e c i f i c background i n r e f e r r i n g s tudents f o r s p e c i a l h e l p , and 5) f a i l to g i v e a sense of success to students and to s t i m u l a t e i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n . (p.29) Braam and Walker (1973) s t r e s s t h a t while knowledge o f reading s k i l l s may not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t i n t e a c h e r s p r o v i d i n g s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , t h a t knowledge i s the b a s i c p r e - r e g u i s i t e f o r any s k i l l s t o be taught. V a r i o u s reading experts p o i n t out t h a t reading s k i l l s must be a p a r t of a developmental approach i n which each teacher i n each s u b j e c t area takes an a c t i v e p a r t w h i l e honouring with the demands of the s u b j e c t (Hodges, 1974; Bobinson, 1975; Shepherd, 1972). 2«6 High School Surveys How much re a d i n g a c t i v i t y i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n high s c h o o l s ? In 1966, Applebee r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t s of a two and one h a l f 15 y e a r s 1 survey of s e l e c t e d American high s c h o o l E n g l i s h programmes. The s c h o o l s i n t h e study were regarded as having good E n g l i s h courses. I t was found that i n grade 12 c l a s s e s , teachers emphasized l i t e r a t u r e 61.5% of the time, composition 15,7% of the time, language 13.5% o f the time and reading o n l y 4.5% of the time. That l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was being given t o readi n g s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n t h e s e n i o r high s c h o o l years suggested t h a t t e a c h e r s assumed t h a t t h e i r students had mastered a l l the necessary r e a d i n g s k i l l s e a r l i e r . Braam and Roehm (1967) attempted to assess the r o l e of content area t e a c h e r s as well as t h a t o f r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s i n the re a d i n g programmes at 16 secondary s c h o o l s i n New York S t a t e . Of the 47.7% of s c h o o l s responding to the g u e s t i o n n a i r e , 63% o f the teachers i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g had no formal t r a i n i n g . F i v e s c h o o l s had f u l l - time r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s and f i v e had part-time r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s . The r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s were a l s o found t o be in a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d . S u b j e c t a r e a t e a c h e r s seemed i g n o r a n t o f , or r e j e c t e d , t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n teaching r e a d i n g s k i l l s . C h r o n i s t e r and Aarendt (1968) surveyed 216 secondary s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o a s c e r t a i n what reading programmes were being provided. Three d e s c r i p t i o n s o f programmes were given: r e m e d i a l , college-bound and developmental. It was found t h a t 77 t e a c h e r s i n 116 programmes had nc formal t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Only seven s c h o o l s i n the pro v i n c e o f f e r e d a course f o r t h e college-bound student. Only 33 of the s c h o o l s operated developmental programmes and most of these were the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of E n g l i s h 16 teachers. In c o n c l u d i n g t h e i r r e p o r t , one recommendation made by C h r o n i s t e r and Ahrendt was t h a t more a t t e n t i o n be given t o the p r o v i n c e ' s u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d students. In 1970, Bowren conducted a survey o f a sample 217 high s c h o o l s i n the s t a t e of New Mexico. He found t h a t only 79 out of 217 sc h o o l s had a r e a d i n g programme and t h a t 16% of those t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g were u n g u a l i f i e d to do so. Fahy (1972) surveyed s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s i n the province of A l b e r t a t o a s c e r t a i n : 1) to what extent E n g l i s h teachers accepted i n p r i n c i p l e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to teach r e a d i n g , 2) t o what extent E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s attempted to teach c e r t a i n s k i l l s and employ procedures r e l a t e d t o the r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n programme, 3) how teachers e v a l u a t e d t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n and t h e i r own and t h e i r s c h o o l s ' e f f o r t s to teach r e a d i n g , and 4) the importance teachers attached t o c e r t a i n elements of a high s c h o o l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n programme. A 65% q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n i n d i c a t e d t h a t E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s i n A l b e r t a do accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s . However, Fahy's c o n c l u s i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t though t e a c h e r s a r e , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , s u p p o r t i v e of the attempt to teach r e a d i n g s k i l l s i n s e n i o r high s c h o o l s (and i n many cases a re attempting to put theory i n t o p r a c t i c e ) , s t r o n g f a c t o r s i n h i b i t s uccess: High s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n A l b e r t a are aware o f the need f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n at the high s c h o o l l e v e l , are f a i r l y w e ll a c a d e m i c a l l y prepared to undertake i t , and, i n t h e i r own eyes, are at l e a s t somewhat s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r e f f o r t s . In t h i s r e s p e c t the p i c t u r e i s b r i g h t . I n terms of a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , however, the 55 schools from which data were gathered r e p o r t e d l i t t l e 17 cause f o r j o y : great r e l i a n c e on Reading 10 ( which i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , i s intended to move c a n d i d a t e s f o r c o r r e c t i v e r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n - the " e d u c a t i o n a l c a s u a l t i e s " - i n t o the developmental stream ) as the major format f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n was e v i d e n t ; l e s s than o n e - t h i r d of the s c h o o l s had an appointed r e a d i n g t e a c h e r , d e s p i t e t h e f i n d i n g t h a t 79.2 percent of the sample r a t e d the presence on the s t a f f "very important" (45.1 percent " e s s e n t i a l " ) to the program, and 21.8 percent o f the reponse l i s t e d such a teacher as "the most important f a c t o r " , i n r e p l y t o the f r e e response q u e s t i o n ; and l e s s than one-guarter of the s c h o o l s had a r e a d i n q p o l i c y , and o n l y one of the schools had a p o l i c y attemptinq a reading program f o r a l l students (p.115). & survey of 485 American s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s was conducted by Freed (1973). The purpose o f t h i s study was to " e s t a b l i s h the nature and extent of r e a d i n q programs", to examine " c e r t i f i c a t i o n standards of those r e p o n s i b l e f o r r e a d i n q i n s t r u c t i o n " and to " i n v e s t i g a t e the p e r c e i v e d need f o r improvement" (p.199). F i f t y percent of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n 41 s t a t e s responded. 18 Freed found t h a t "83% o f t h e s t a t e s do not s e t a minimum number of courses i n reading as a part of t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t i o n requirements f o r secondary s c h o o l E n g l i s h . , Seventeen percent r e q u i r e one course i n reading f o r secondary E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s " (p.199). Again, the assumption i s that E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s s h o u l d , and do, take much of the r e a d i n q l o a d . , In 3736 o f the s e l e c t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , both E n g l i s h and r e a d i n g teachers were found to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , / I n 21% of the d i s t r i c t s , E n g l i s h teachers had t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Narang*s (1973) survey of Sasakatchewan s c h o o l s r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r n e g l e c t o f r e a d i n g at the s e n i o r l e v e l s of the secondary s c h o o l . Of the 268 s c h o o l s t h a t r e p l i e d from t h e 400 p o l l e d , only 5% had i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the c o l l e g e bound. Again, most o f the s c h o o l s p l a c e d the onus f o r r e a d i n q i n s t r u c t i o n on the E n g l i s h teacher. Moreover, a hiqh p r o p o r t i o n of the t e a c h e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e a d i n q i n s t r u c t i o n were found t o be u n t r a i n e d to assume t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . One of Narang*s c o n c l u s i o n s was t h a t "the r e a d i n q needs o f a c a d e m i c a l l y b r i q h t students are neqlected i n secondary s c h o o l s " ( p . 6 0 ) . . K i n z e r ' s (1976) survey of the s t a t u s of r e a d i n q i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s r e f l e c t s the f i n d i n q s of e a r l i e r s t u d i e s i n both Canada and the United S t a t e s . He c l a s s i f i e d r e a d i n q i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o 1) o r q a n i z e d r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y * 2) developmental reading c l a s s e s , 3) c o r r e c t i v e r e a d i n g c l a s s e s , 4) content- or s u b j e c t - a r e a r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , 5) remedial c l a s s e s , and 6) disadvantaged reader programmes. Kinzer canvassed three hundred and t h i r t y - f o u r s c h o o l s by 19 q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Of t h e s e , 294 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (88.8% of the t o t a l ) were c o n s i d e r e d t o be usable. He c a u t i o n s t h a t " t h e r e seems to be l i t t l e or no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e as t o the q u a n t i t y , q u a l i t y or scope of the readinq i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs f o r secondary s c h o o l s i n the pr o v i n c e " (p.1). Table I shows the a v a i l a b i l i t y of read i n g programmes i n grades 8 t o 12 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 20 Ta b l e I A v a i l a b i l i t y of Secondary Beading Programs i n Grades 8 to 12 Grade 8 9 10 11 12 Program Type developmental 125 94 68 32 27 c o r r e c t i v e 113 98 69 26 17 remedial 138 117 85 30 24 d i s a dvanta ged 87 75 65 30 26 t o t a l # of s c h o o l s with t h i s grade 185 179 178 111 108 From "A Status Survey of Beading Programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l s " by C. K. K i n z e r , M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. 21 Table I I A v a i l a b i l i t y and Types of Secondary Beading Programs i n Junior and Senior Schools j r . secondary s r . secondary program type no. % of t o t a l no. % of t o t a l remedial 74 89.2 10 71.4 developmental 52 62.2 9 64.3 corrective 59 71.1 8 57.1 disadvantaged 42 50.6 9 64.3 content 3 39.8 5 35.7 From "A Status Survey of Beading Programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Schools" by C. K. Kinzer, H. A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. 22 Table I I I S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g i n Beading I n s t r u c t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Beading Teachers s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n # o f t e a c h e r s I of tot, no s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g 34 15.9 i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 41 19.2 1 or 2 p r o f e s s i o n a l courses 82 38.3 undergraduate c o n c e n t r a t i o n 3 6 16.8 graduate degree 21 9.8 From "A Status Survey of Beading Programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l s " by C.,K. K i n z e r , M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. 23 Kinzer found t h a t "higher grades seem to s t r e s s developmental reading to a l e s s e r extent than do lower secondary grades" (p. 42) „•, Table I I i n d i c a t e s the a v a i l a b i l i t y and types o f r e a d i n g programmmes a t j u n i o r and s e n i o r grades. As with other s t u d i e s , K i n z e r ' s r e s u l t s show an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and the p r o g r e s s i o n to higher grades. Again, developmental r e a d i n g programmes are o f t e n l i n k e d t o the E n g l i s h classroom although E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s are not n e c e s s a r i l y q u a l i f i e d r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s . The B r i t i s h Columbia - Beading Assessment {1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t "an average of 4351 (of p o l l e d teachers) i n d i c a t e d * Agree* r e g a r d i n g the statement t h a t «the E n g l i s h t e a c h e r i s i n the best p o s i t i o n t o determine and teach r e a d i n g s k i l l s ' . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note, however, t h a t s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s are more i n favour of t h i s p o s i t i o n than a r e t e a c h e r s of E n g l i s h " (p.36, I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s ) , Both K i n z e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Fahy(1972) i n A l b e r t a recommend t h a t E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s have a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g courses, s i n c e , i n p r a c t i c a l terms, o p i n i o n holds them r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e a d i n g instruction'! Table I I I shows the l e v e l of t r a i n i n g of present r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t o r s i n the p r o v i n c e , as reported by Kinzer. The r e s u l t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Beading Assessment: Summary (1977) suggests an awareness of the need f o r secondary r e a d i n g programmes i n the province but p o i n t s out s e r i o u s f a c t o r s s t a n d i n g i n the way of an immediate p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : 24 The p i c t u r e which emerges from the combined data i s one of i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the importance of r e a d i n g s k i l l s f o r secondary s t u d e n t s c r e a t e d by the demand of the c u r r e n t secondary school c u r r i c u l u m and the student's needs ....There are a number of f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e more co u l d be done. F i r s t , even i n a l i m i t e d sense, f o r a m a j o r i t y of secondary students there i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g at a l l , , Teachers i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y 11%- 30% of secondary s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n r e g u l a r l y . Second, t h e r e i s a shortage of personnel educated i n methods of t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g at secondary s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i r d , while secondary s c h o o l teachers agree i n the primary importance of r e a d i n g s k i l l s development at t h a t l e v e l , they appear to a c t u a l l y spend r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e time i n developing these s k i l l s . F i n a l l y , s i n c e secondary s c h o o l teachers i n the content f i e l d s agree t h a t they have a v i t a l r o l e to play i n developing reading s k i l l s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r s u b j e c t areas, t h e l a c k o f such programs must be of some concern, (p.40) Surveys i n both Canada and the United S t a t e s show t h a t E n g l i s h teachers are o f t e n expected t o be r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s even though they may l a c k the t r a i n i n g t o do an adequate job. Moreover, l i k e most c o n t e n t - area t e a c h e r s , they see t h e i r r o l e at the s e n i o r l e v e l s as being t e a c h e r s of content. There seems t o be a dearth of reading programmes i n both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y apparent a t the s e n i o r l e v e l s of high s c h o o l . Even where such programmes do e x i s t , the personnel r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the course may not be q u a l i f i e d r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s . As s t u d e n t s progress through the secondary s c h o o l , reading i n s t r u c t i o n o f t e n decreases even though s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s are needed, e s p e c i a l l y by those who plan on post-secondary e d u c a t i o n . 25 2,7 Summary The Canadian p u b l i c i s r e g i s t e r i n g concern over the l a c k of b a s i c s k i l l s , i n c l u d i n g reading s k i l l s , a p p a r e n t l y possessed by present u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s . , I s t h i s a j u s t i f i e d worry? The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t there has been a marked i n c r e a s e , i n the United S t a t e s , i n c o l l e g e - and u n i v e r s i t y - sponsored r e a d i n g programmes. Canadian i n f o r m a t i o n i s sparse; however, Hayward's 1971 study suggests that Canadian post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s are also o f f e r i n g r e a d i n g remediation of v a r i o u s types though the s t a t u s of such programmes v a r i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e shows a s u r p r i s i n g l a c k of r e a d i n g programmes at the secondary l e v e l , e s p e c i a l l y a t the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l , i n both Canada and the United S t a t e s . In 1969, Margaret E a r l y wrote o f high s c h o o l programmes: One expected s h i f t f a i l e d t o occur. That i s , we might have expected t h a t , as t e r m i n a l s t u d e n t s i n high s c h o o l dropped from about 80% i n the e a r l y 1950s t o l e s s than 50% i n the 1960s, reading improvement programs would have veered toward s e r v i n g the c o l l e g e bound. (p. 535) A t t e n t i o n to r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n appears t o decrease as students go i n t o higher grades. , Programmes f o r the college-bound are r a r e ; r a r e t o the extent t h a t Narang (1973) i n Saskatchewan c a l l s t h e r e a d i n g needs of the a c a d e m i c a l l y b r i g h t students " n e g l e c t e d " . The phenomenon of ever d e c r e a s i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n was apparent i n American and Canadian s t u d i e s (Freed, 1973; K i n z e r , 1976). T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the l a c k of formal reading i n s t r u c t i o n taken by 26 those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r a c t i o n i n the secondary classroom (Bowren, 1970; Braam & Boehm, 1967; K i n z e r , 1976; Harang, 1973) . I t i s the E n g l i s h teacher who i s regarded as being p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g reading s k i l l s (Freed, 1973; B r i t i s h Columbia Heading assessment. 1977). E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s do accept t h i s t a s k though sometimes with l e s s enthusiasm than t h a t with which c o l l e a g u e s a s s i g n the task t o them ( B r i t i s h Columbia geadina Assessment, 1977; Fahy, 1972; Freed, 1973).Various s t u d i e s , such as the Canadian s t u d i e s o f Fahy and K i n z e r , recommend t h a t E n g l i s h teachers be r e q u i r e d to take r e a d i n g courses as p a r t o f t h e i r teacher t r a i n i n g s i n c e they a r e held t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t e a c h i n g of reading s k i l l s . E n g l i s h teachers are g i v e n the a d d i t i o n a l r o l e of r e a d i n g teacher by d e f a u l t s i n c e , though content teachers may t h e o r e t i c a l l y a s s i g n themselves r o l e s i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , few a l l - c o n t e n t area programmes e x i s t ( B r i t i s h Co 1 u m b i a B ead i n g a s s e s s m e n t , 1977)., Various experts have s t a t e d the need f o r s y s t e m a t i c and s t r u c t u r e d developmental r e a d i n g programmes throughout a student's s c h o o l l i f e as s k i l l s do not develop a u t o m a t i c a l l y (Hodges, 1974; Palmer, 1975; Bobinson, 1961; Shepherd, 1972). The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s a s e r i o u s need to r e - a s s e s s the r e a d i n g needs of students d u r i n g t h e i r s e n i o r years at secondary school as the theory of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n has not yet been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . 27 CHAPTER TAB EE D e s c r i p t i o n of the. Stud^ •3. 1 The Instrument The format f o r t h e d a t a - g a t h e r i n g instrument used i n t h i s study was based on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed by A l l e n and Chester (1978) to survey i n s e r v i c e r e a d i n g needs, Two separate q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used. The f i r s t was administered t o E n g l i s h 100 students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The second was sent to s e n i o r secondary E n q l i s h t e a c h e r s i n the pr o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i f f e r e d only i n the amount of demoqraphic i n f o r m a t i o n requested i n the f i r s t p a r t of the survey form. The s i x t e e n s k i l l s i n c l u d e d i n the body o f the form were adapted from s k i l l areas o f i n t e r e s t i n the B r i t i s h £glumbia Beading Assessment (1977). The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i v i d e d i n t o three areas vis-- a v i s the l i t e r a c y s k i l l s o f u n i v e r s i t y - and colleqe-bound students. For each s k i l l the frequency with which the s k i l l was tau q h t , the s t r e n q t h o f t h a t s k i l l and the importance of that s k i l l as i t p e r t a i n s t o u n i v e r s i t y achievement were each assessed. Respondents were asked t o s e l e c t an a p p r o p r i a t e response t o the s i x t e e n l i s t e d s k i l l s u s i n g t h r e e s e p a r a t e f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e s desiqnated as ques t i o n s one, two and three (see Appendices A and B), Questions one and t h r e e used a numerical s c a l e . Question 28 t s o r e q u i r e d answers to be chosen from an a l p h a b e t i c s c a l e . I t was f e l t t h a t a change i n the r e p l y mode would prevent a mechanical response p a t t e r n from forming. Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n was i n c l u d e d on t h e f r o n t page of the g u e s t i o n n a i r e . The guestions asked of the E n g l i s h 100 students were more d e t a i l e d , i n c l u d i n g sex, frequency of pleasure r e a d i n g , and a s u b j e c t i v e self-assessment of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . Questions addressed t o both teachers and students i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on s c h o o l s i z e and preferences and needs as regards r e a d i n g programmes f o r the college-bound. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was typed i n s e c t i o n s , reduced by Xeroxing and l a i d out to f i t 8 by 14 i n c h paper. T h i s was done twice i n order t o accommodate the d i f f e r i n g demographic m a t e r i a l {Appendices D and E ) . A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r and a r e t u r n , stamped envelope were i n c l u d e d with the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n both the f i r s t and second m a i l i n g t o t h e E n g l i s h Department Head i n each of the s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s i n the province. 3 . 2 The P o p u l a t i o n A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r {Appendix C) was sent to every i n s t r u c t o r of the p o s s i b l e 50 r e g u l a r s e c t i o n s and 11 Z s e c t i o n s (see Chapter 1.3) of E n g l i s h 100 a t the u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia during the f i n a l term of 1978. . F i f t e e n i n s t r u c t o r s expressed i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. T h e i r c l a s s e s , a t o t a l o f 269 E n g l i s h 100 s t u d e n t s , completed 29 questionnaire's, ... A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o n s i d e r e d usable. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o mailed to t h e Head of E n q l i s h of every s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia immediately f o l l o w i n g the completion of the E n q l i s h 100 survey. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 163 s c h o o l s was co n t a c t e d i n a f i r s t m a i l i n q c o n s i s t i n q of a c o v e r i n q l e t t e r (Appendix D), a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a stamped, r e t u r n envelope. D i r e c t r e f u s a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study were r e c e i v e d from f o u r Heads o f Department, each o f f e r i n q a d i f f e r e n t reason f o r d e c l i n i n g t o r e t u r n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . These s c h o o l s were excluded from t h e second m a i l i n q , A follow-up l e t t e r (Appendix E ) , q u e s t i o n n a i r e and stamped, addressed envelope were sent to the remaining non-respondents o f the 159 s c h o o l s now c o n s i d e r e d t o be the t o t a l v i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n . 3«3 Procedure Data were qathered from E n q l i s h 100 students d i r e c t l y . The author of t h i s study and c o l l e a q u e s went i n t o E n g l i s h 100 classrooms a t times d e s i g n a t e d as convenient by the i n s t r u c t o r s . A standard i n t r o d u c t i o n e x p l a i n i n g the purpose o f the survey was given and a procedure f o r f i l l i n g out the form was suqgested. Approximately 20 minutes were needed t o accomplish both i n t r o d u c t i o n and form completion. In order t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from the 163 s e n i o r 30 secondary s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e , a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r was typed i n t o the Texture t e x t p r o c e s s i n g system on the computer at u. B. C. Each l e t t e r was headed u s i n g s c h o o l addresses taken from a master f i l e s t o r e d i n the computer. Address l a b e l s were generated by a computer programme from the same f i l e . . The i n i t i a l c o v e r i n g l e t t e r , along with g u e s t i o n n a i r e and envelope, was sent to the Head of E n g l i s h a t each secondary s c h o o l having s e n i o r grades., The Head was reguested to have a grade 12 teacher complete the form. Each g u e s t i o n n a i r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n order t h a t the s c h o o l might be e l i m i n a t e d from a second m a i l i n g upon r e c e i p t of a completed form. , I t was decided t h a t s i x weeks would be allowed between the f i r s t and second m a i l i n g s . At the end of t h a t p e r i o d , t h e r e was a 47% response r a t e . A second c o v e r i n g l e t t e r was prepared by computer f o r the second m a i l i n g . The e n c l o s u r e s were the same as i n the f i r s t m a i l i n g . ,. The second l e t t e r was sent to those s c h o o l s of the 159 p o s s i b l e which had not returned a g u e s t i o n n a i r e (or appeared not to have done s o ) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were coded to f a c i l i t a t e the t a l l y i n g of r e p l i e s a g a i n s t the master l i s t of s c h o o l s . S e v e r a l r e p l i e s t o the second m a i l i n g i n d i c a t e d that i n some cases, the f i r s t l e t t e r had not reached the E n g l i s h department. Four weeks were allowed f o r r e t u r n s from the second m a i l i n g . At the end of that p e r i o d , usable r e t u r n s stood at 76% of the t o t a l . 3.4 Data A n a l y s i s 31 Raw data r e c e i v e d from the E n g l i s h 100 stu d e n t s and from the p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h e r s were key punched, i n separate batches, onto data cards. Each g u e s t i o n n a i r e r e g u i r e d a s i n g l e c a r d . Information from the cards were then t r a n s f e r r e d t o f i l e s i n order to make e d i t i n g on a t e r m i n a l p o s s i b l e , Por the a n a l y s i s , the a l p h a b e t i c responses t o quest i o n two were converted t o numbers. The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences provided the packaged programmes used f o r data a n a l y s i s . F r e q u e n c i e s generated frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s as histograms t o provide a " p i c t u r e " o f the demographic i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g histograms and other s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the s k i l l s r e f e r r e d to i n q u e s t i o n s one, two and t hree. C r o s s t a b s allowed f o r c r o s s a n a l y s i s of the data from each q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Scattergram y i e l d e d the c o r r e l a t i o n of frequency of t e a c h i n g of the s k i l l t o s t r e n g t h o f s k i l l , t he l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p and the slope of the best f i t s t r a i g h t l i n e . S ince the g u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed to s o l i c i t s u b j e c t i v e responses, a n a l y s i s o f the data was e f f e c t e d i n pu r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e terms. 3. 5 Summary. Chapter Three d e s c r i b e s the dat a - g a t h e r i n g instrument used i n t h i s study and the procedure by which i t was admi n i s t e r e d to 32 the two p o p u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . Methods used f o r a n a l y z i n g the data are d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y at the c l o s e of the chapter. 33 CHAPTER POOR Data A n a l y s i s : R e s u l t s and Observations A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the data i s presented i n t h i s chapter. F i r s t , those q u e s t i o n s posed i n Chapter 1 are examined. Next, trends i n the data are di s c u s s e d . Gay <1976) s t a t e s , " I f your percentage r e t u r n i s not a t l e a s t 70%, the v a l i d i t y of your c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be weak" (p.132). A n a l y s i s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s based upon two separate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the survey instrument. A l l 269 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed by the E n g l i s h 100 s t u d e n t s at O.B.C. Were con s i d e r e d usable. The usable r e t u r n from the secondary s c h o o l s i n the province was 121 o r 76% of the ad j u s t e d t o t a l . T a b l es r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s u l t s are to be found at the end of the chapter., 4.1 Questions Examined by the Study Question 1: Do students and teach e r s agree i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of the frequency of i n s t r u c t i o n o f s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s k i l l s ? An examination o f the means y i e l d e d by the data from both students and t e a c h e r s showed a high consensus concerning the o r d e r i n q of the frequency o f t e a c h i n q o f c e r t a i n s k i l l s (Table VI) at the end of t h i s c h a p t e r . ( R e c a l l t h a t frequency. 34 s t r e n g t h and importance were each r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e (1 - 5 ) with 1 r e p r e s e n t i n g "very f r e q u e n t l y " , "very s t r o n g " and " e s s e n t i a l " r e s p e c t i v e l y while 5 r e p r e s e n t s "never", "very weak" and " i r r e l e v a n t " . ) w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n , t h e a b i l i t y t o express o n e s e l f i n w r i t i n g , was r a t e d h i g h e s t i n the frequency of i n s t r u c t i o n . Comprehension o f i n f e r e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t i v e r e a d i n q were assessed as hiqh-frequency items. These three most f r e q u e n t l y tauqht s k i l l s , a long with l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n , are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the t e a c h i n g o f l i t e r a t u r e . However, students r a t e d l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n s l i g h t l y below the p o s i t i o n given to i t by t e a c h e r s . The p o p u l a r i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s k i l l s named above i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t t h a t E n q l i s h teachers spend much o f t h e i r time t r y i n g t o g i v e students an i n s i g h t i n t o the t e a c h e r s 1 p a r t i c u l a r area of i n t e r e s t even though, at the same time, t e a c h e r s rank l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n as being of low importance to u n i v e r s i t y s u c c e s s . Bated lowest i n t e a c h i n g frequency are f l e x i b l e r e a d i n q r a t e , word study s k i l l s , l i b r a r y and r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s , l i s t e n i n q s k i l l s and con t e x t c l u e s . , Students i n d i c a t e d t h a t c r i t i c a l r e a dinq s k i l l s ( B r i t i s h Columbia Beading•- Assessment;. T e s t B e s u l t s , 1 9 7 7 , p.43) and use of study a i d s are tauqht l e s s o f t e n than teachers suqqest. , I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o comment here t h a t thouqh the q u e s t i o n n a i r e concerned i t s e l f with u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d students t e a c h e r s do d e a l , f o r the most p a r t , with mixed qroups of students. Thus, the low frequency of the t e a c h i n q o f some 35 s k i l l s may be exp l a i n e d by the o b s e r v a t i o n s made by t e a c h e r s themselves. I t was s t r e s s e d by some respondents t h a t the academic needs of u n i v e r s i t y h o p e f u l s may not r e f l e c t the l i f e s k i l l needs of the ma j o r i t y o f the students., Some teache r s c l e a r l y f e l t t h a t s i n c e , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , the highest p r o p o r t i o n o f grade 12 students show no immediate i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g formal e d u c a t i o n , t h e need f o r c e r t a i n academic s k i l l s to be taught i n the g e n e r a l programme i s minimal. T y p i c a l o f t e a c h e r s ' responses were the f o l l o w i n g : In t h i s survey you seem to assume t h a t a primary task cf E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s i n high s c h o o l i s to prepare students f o r c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s i s not the case. Ho more than 50% of our students have e d u c a t i o n a l ambitions at post-secondary l e v e l . , About 10% of our grade 12 are planning to att e n d u n i v e r s i t i e s I t must be remembered t h a t a l l high s c h o o l students are not going on to u n i v e r s i t y and t h e r e f o r e other s k i l l s to be emphasized as w e l l [ s i c ] . The question which may be asked i s t h i s : do we a d j u s t a programme t o f i t e i t h e r one qroup or the other? T h i s a t t i t u d e seems t o imply t h a t a l l programmes must be s u f f i c i e n t l y g e n e r a l t o f i t a l l students. Question 2: Do f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y students and high s c h o o l t e a c h e r s r a t e the same l i t e r a c y and communication s k i l l s as being important to u n i v e r s i t y study? 36 Written e x p r e s s i o n i s ranked as being the most important s k i l l by both t e a c h e r s and students (Table V). I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, students d i d not r a t e themselves as being p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n t h i s s k i l l even i f i t i s the s k i l l most o f t e n given a t t e n t i o n i n the classroom. Research s k i l l s and study a i d s are deemed t o be important by both groups though the frequency o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s lower than the Importance might i n d i c a t e . A v i a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r : t e a c h e r s o f t e n f e e l t h a t s k i l l s a p p r o p r i a t e t o u n i v e r s i t y study should not be s t r e s s e d i n a g e n e r a l programme where the m a j o r i t y of students have no immediate plans t o continue s c h o o l i n g past grade 12. Comprehension of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be important by both students and t e a c h e r s . However, the comprehension of i n f e r e n t i a l m a t e r i a l , high on the t e a c h e r s ' l i s t , was much l e s s important to students. Students do, however, f e e l s p e l l i n g i s o f prime importance while t e a c h e r s place i t near the bottom i n importance. L i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n i s r a t e d by t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s a t the bottom of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i s t s . , Though l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a high-frequency item, c l e a r l y teachers see i t as beinq t o t a l l y r e l a t e d to t h e study o f l i t e r a t u r e and see no b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o i t which might l e a d to success i n other academic endeavours. T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n q , ; Do teachers see t h e i r s u b j e c t area and the s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o i t as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s r a t h e r than p a r t of a l e a r n i n g process which matures i n t o a l e a r n i n g g e s t a l t ? 37 Question 3: Do grade 12 teachers f e e l t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d students to be s t r o n g e r i n c e r t a i n s k i l l a r e a s than do the students themselves? Table ¥111 shows t h a t t e a c h e r s and students agree t h a t students are a b l e t o cope with both f a c t u a l and i n f e r e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Beyond t h i s , t h e r e i s very l i t t l e agreement.Por example, students r a t e orthography as being an important s k i l l (Table VII) and they a l s o see themselves as being competent s p e l l e r s . Teachers are l e s s convinced. L i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n i s weak i n s t u d e n t s ' e s t i m a t i o n s and s t r o n g i n the judgement o f t h e i r former teachers. Again, t e a c h e r s r a t e t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g s k i l l s h i g h l y . Students see themselves as being l e s s p r o f i c i e n t . Besearch s k i l l s , study a i d s , f l e x i b i l i t y of read i n g r a t e , and l i b r a r y and r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s are weak a c c o r d i n g t o stu d e n t s . Students f e e l t h e i r a b i l i t y t o read c r i t i c a l l y i s l e s s w e l l developed than t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e i t t o be ( B r i t i s h Columbia Beading Assessment: T e s t .Results., 1977, p.43) . Teachers and students r e g i s t e r more disagreement i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n o f the s t r e n g t h of s k i l l s of students than they do i n e i t h e r the freguency o f the t e a c h i n g of those s k i l l s or the importance of the s k i l l s t o u n i v e r s i t y study. Question 4: Do t e a c h e r s and students d i f f e r i n t h e i r views concerning the need f o r i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o r e a d i n g a t the s e n i o r l e v e l s of high s c h o o l ? 38 In the q u e s t i o n a s k i n g , "Should c o l l e g e - or u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d students have a s p e c i a l r e a d i n g / w r i t i n g c o u r s e ? " (see Table VII f o r teachers* r e s u l t s and Table VIII f o r students* r e s u l t s ) , the word " s p e c i a l " was purposely l e f t undefined. E n g l i s h programmes vary widely from s c h o o l to s c h o o l and a narrow d e f i n i t i o n o f " s p e c i a l " was f e l t to be i m p o s s i b l e given the v a r i a n c e i n philosophy and s c h e d u l i n g . Thus, f o r some, " s p e c i a l " meant an o p t i o n a l and/or honours E n g l i s h programme i n which p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s were s t r e s s e d . Others i n t e r p r e t e d " s p e c i a l " t o mean b l o c k s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s i n c l u d e d i n the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h programme. Other respondents, such as the one c i t e d below, po i n t e d out the d i f f i c u l t y i n p r o v i d i n g any i n s t r u c t i o n a p a r t from the g e n e r a l o f f e r i n g : I d e a l l y yes, but t h i s would place country c o u s i n s at a disadvantage as the s c h o o l they attend would be unable to o f f e r such a course due to s m a l l number of students who head t o u n i v e r s i t y from such s c h o o l s . Thus, though I f e e l such t r a i n i n q i s needed by the u n i v e r s i t y student, I f e e l i t should be taught i n the freshman year. U n i v e r s i t i e s are going t o have to accept f a c t [ s i c ] t h a t high s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l e r ones, can no l o n g e r devote m a j o r i t y [ s i c ] o f t h e i r r e s o u r c e s to the u n i v e r s i t y bound student. Thus, they are going to have t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s with s p e c i a l s k i l l s r e g u i r e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s . For the s t u d e n t s who do w e l l a c a d e m i c a l l y , a d e s c r i p t i v e remark from a responding teacher t h a t " i t should not be necessary {to p r o v i d e s p e c i a l c o u r s e s ) " i s probably q u i t e t r u e . However, 71% of t e a c h e r s and 71% of students p o l l e d {Table ?III) f e l t t h a t some s o r t of p r e p a r a t o r y course f o r the 39 u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d student should be a v a i l a b l e i n some form. And, indeed, some respondents i n d i c a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d courses i n t h e i r s c h o o l s a l r e a d y . Students were asked i f they f e l t every student i n t h e i r s e n i o r high s c h o o l year s h o u l d have a s p e c i a l reading and w r i t i n g course i n a d d i t i o n t o , or accompanying, t h e r e g u l a r E n g l i s h programme which i s o f t e n , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , h i g h l y l i t e r a r y i n focus. Sixty-one percent of the s t u d e n t s f e l t such a course would be u s e f u l but f e l t that more emphasis on r e a d i n g s k i l l s should be " p a r t o f the r e g u l a r course", o b v i a t i n g any n e c e s s i t y f o r s p e c i a l programmes. T y p i c a l of t h e i r comments were the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e i r high s c h o o l E n g l i s h e x perience: Grade 12 E n g l i s h composition i n c l u d e [ s i c ] only handout sheets on s p e l l i n g and vocabulary, o c c a s i o n a l work cut of a book on grammar and only two weeks on essay w r i t i n g . Our E n g l i s h program l a s t year was the p i t s . Be were never taught how t o write a proper essay u n t i l the l a s t two weeks o f s c h o o l . I t h i n k more s t r e s s should be made on t h i s . Did l i t t l e essay w r i t i n g , c r i t i c a l l y marked. I p r e p a r a t i o n of s t u d e n t s , a r t s , i s inadequate. Few t h a t I d i d were ever f e e l t h a t h i g h s c h o o l n the f i e l d o f language Grade 12 does not adequately prepare s t u d e n t s f o r u n i v e r s i t y . There i s not enouqh grammar tauqht. There i s not enouqh p r a c t i s e i n w r i t i n q essays. Teachers don't q i v e p o s i t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f work so students don't know what they are doing r i q h t or wrong (they only qrade papers i . e . A,B,C,C+ etc.} 40 A f e u students d i d f e e l t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e use i n t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s a t a l l : Teaching of r e a d i n g s k i l l s i n E n g l i s h i s u s e l e s s unless the student reads i n h i s spare t i n e . Host of the items mentioned should be taught before high s c h o o l and t h a t ' s where I l e a r n e d them i n elementry [ s i c ] and j u n i o r high. Question 5: How many grade 12 E n g l i s h teachers i n t h e sample have had t r a i n i n g i n the teaching of reading? Teachers were asked t o i n d i c a t e the number of r e a d i n g courses they had taken (Table I X ) . T h i s q u e s t i o n caused some con f u s i o n and should have been more p r e c i s e l y worded as some respondents (represented i n the histogram as " m i s s i n g cases") were unsure as to whether the question r e f e r r e d to them or t o t h e i r students. Of the sample of grade 12 teachers responding t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 33% have taken no r e a d i n g courses nor have they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g . However, the majority of E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s have had e i t h e r one or more r e a d i n g courses or i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . T h i s would suggest t h a t E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s are showing an i n t e r e s t i n the area, Hhere t e a c h e r s marked two c a t e g o r i e s " i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g " and "reading course ( s ) " , " r e a d i n g course" was chosen over " i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g " t o be i n c l u d e d i n the raw d a t a . 41 Question 6: Do students and t e a c h e r s agree on who should teach re a d i n g s k i l l s d uring the s e n i o r year o f high s c h o o l ? ahether or not reading s k i l l s should be taught i n a separate programme, i n the E n g l i s h c l a s s , o r i n a l l c o n t e n t areas y i e l d e d s t r o n g l y d i f f e r i n g percentage r e s u l t s from students (Table X) and teach e r s (Table X I ) . Of the t e a c h e r s , 59.21 f e l t t h a t reading s k i l l s should be an i n t e g r a l part of a l l content area t e a c h i n g . Comments accompanying the r e p l i e s t o t h i s s e c t i o n o f the survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n an i d e a l world, reading s k i l l s would indeed be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s u b j e c t area teaching. However, i t was made c l e a r t h a t we do not i n h a b i t such a world. Many of the responses were accompanied by s i n g l e word comments such as " i d e a l l y " , " t h e o r e t i c a l l y " o r " u n r e a l i s t i c ". Of the students p o l l e d , 52.OS f e l t t h a t r e a d i n g s k i l l s f a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the E n g l i s h department (Table X I I ) . They seem to see reading s k i l l s as p a r t o f E n g l i s h composition and t h i s would s e r v e to e x p l a i n t h e i r response t o t h i s question., Only 29.0% of the students i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e a d i n q s k i l l s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a l l content area t e a c h i n g , 4.2 Belated Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n School S i z e The l a r g e s t number of teacher responses (Table XII) were 42 r e c e i v e d from s c h o o l s housing 1000 or more students. However, one respondent cautioned t h a t t h e s c h o o l s i z e d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the numbers of grade 12 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the s c h o o l , e s p e c i a l l y i n areas o u t s i d e the Vancouver r e g i o n . . Over h a l f of the student p o p u l a t i o n i n the study came from l a r g e s c h o o l s , those having 1000 or more students (Table XV). The student sample was e g u a l l y d i v i d e d by sex but no s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s were concluded from using sex as an independent v a r i a b l e i n the a n a l y s i s of the data. High School L o c a t i o n Students i n E n g l i s h 100 are drawn p r i m a r i l y from B.C. s c h o o l s . In t h i s study, 91. IX of the students graduated from a B.C. high s c h o o l , 5.9% were from another province and 2.6% were from o u t s i d e Canada., T h i s does not come as a r e v e l a t i o n but does show that t r e n d s n o t i c e d i n the student sample do r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s g r a d u a t i n g from B.C. s c h o o l s . Beading A b i l i t y To the g u e s t i o n of how w e l l they read compared to t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y peers, 49.3% f e l t t h a t they read w e l l or very w e l l (Table XIV) while a f u r t h e r 41.4% f e l t t h a t they read as w e l l as "the average student". In other words, 90.7% f e e l they read as well a s , or b e t t e r than t h e i r peers at the u n i v e r s i t y . Students a l s o confirmed t h a t they f e e l they read much b e t t e r than people of t h e i r own age o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t y community. 43 R e c r e a t i o n a l Reading In response to t h e q u e s t i o n of how o f t e n they read f o r r e c r e a t i o n 53.5% s t a t e d t h a t they read "very o f t e n " or " o f t e n " . A s u r p r i s i n g 31.6% read "sometimes", 13.0% "seldom" and 1.9% "never" (Table XV). I t may be t h a t , s i n c e the students were answering the g u e s t i o n n a i r e o n l y a few weeks before f i n a l examinations, r e c r e a t i o n a l r e a d i n g was very low on t h e i r l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s . At another time the percentage of r e c r e a t i o n a l readers might have been more s u b s t a n t i a l . 3 Other F i n d i n g s For most of the s k i l l s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study a s i q n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p (p<.05) i s shown to e x i s t between th e s t r e n g t h o f a s k i l l and i t s frequency of t e a c h i n g (Table XVI). T h i s p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s f o r a l l s k i l l s on the students* q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f o r f o u r t e e n of the s i x t e e n s k i l l s on the teachers* q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Table XVII shows the f i v e s k i l l s with the s t r o n g e s t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h and frequency f o r s t u d e n t s and teachers. (One p e c u l i a r and i n e x p l i c a b l e r e s u l t was that f o r word study, s t r e n q t h and frequency showed a n e q a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i n the t e a c h e r data.) Agreement between the two groups e x i s t s most s t r o n g l y i n the c a t e g o r i e s l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n and c r i t i c a l r e a d i n q . In both these, students designate themselves as being weak.. They a l s o f e e l these s k i l l s t o be i n f r e g u e n t l y taught (but they a l s o 44 f e e l them to be r e l a t i v e l y unimportant). . Teachers r a t e the importance and t h e frequency of the t e a c h i n g c f c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g higher., They agree with the students i n the r a n k i n g o f the importance of l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n but c o n s i d e r the frequency of i t s t e a c h i n q to be g r e a t e r than do s t u d e n t s . O r a l e x p r e s s i o n , r e s e a r c h s k i l l s , study a i d s , l i b r a r y and r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s show s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r e n q t h to frequency, i n the data of both p o p u l a t i o n s . There i s l i t t l e agreement i n the data of the two qroups as regards f l e x i b i l i t y of r e a d i n q r a t e and i n t e r p r e t i v e r e a d i n g . 4.4 D i s c u s s i o n Teachers and students agree t o a great extent on the freguency of the t e a c h i n g o f s e l e c t e d s k i l l s and about the importance those s k i l l s have to a u n i v e r s i t y c a r e e r . Disagreement begins when students and t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s students* s t r e n q t h i n those same s k i l l s areas. Some t e a c h e r s observed that t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e judgements as to s t r e n q t h were based upon c l a s s e s o f qrade 12 students whose post-secondary aims v a r i e d widely. That 77.5% of the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the study and 71.8% of the students i n d i c a t e d t h a t u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d students should have extra s k i l l s t r a i n i n g suqqests t h a t i n t h e g e n e r a l programme, s k i l l s are not beinq s t r e s s e d t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n of e i t h e r student or teacher*, / Students f e e l t h a t t h e onus f o r such t r a i n i n q r e s t s upon th e E n g l i s h department (Table X). Teachers 45 {Table XI) f e e l the need f o r s k i l l s t r a i n i n g t o be p a r t o f a l l s u b j e c t area t e a c h i n g . G e n e r a l l y , E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s are not t r a i n e d i n r e a d i n g . However, i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and o c c a s i o n a l courses have been taken by the m a j o r i t y o f the te a c h e r s i n t h i s survey. T h i s suggests t h a t there i s p o s i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g as an area of concern. Some respondents pointed out t h a t though they l a c k e d reading t r a i n i n g , other members of t h e i r s t a f f d i d have such t r a i n i n g . , Of the students i n v o l v e d i n the study, 5955 came from l a r g e s c h o o l s of 1000 or more stu d e n t s . .. A f u r t h e r 1654 came from s c h o o l s of 750 o r more students.,; Thus, 75% o f the students p o l l e d came from s c h o o l s i n which the e x i s t e n c e of a s i z e a b l e p o p u l a t i o n might argue f o r the v i a b i l i t y of o p t i o n a l programmes f o r students p l a n n i n g to continue formal education beyond grade 12. General f i n d i n g s concluded from the data c o l l e c t e d from the two populations i n t h i s study a r e : 1. Teachers and students agree on freguency and importance o f s k i l l s but disagree on stre n g t h . . 2. Teachers of E n g l i s h a t the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l are more content o r i e n t e d than s k i l l s o r i e n t e d as shown by the f a c t t h a t they t e a c h l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n much more f r e q u e n t l y than study, r e f e r e n c e , r e s e a r c h and word s k i l l s . 3. Teachers of E n g l i s h would p r e f e r t o see the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t e a c h i n g s k i l l s spread to a l l content areas. Students f e e l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n r e s t s with the E n g l i s h department. 46 4, Both students and teach e r s f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o the re a d i n g s k i l l s needs of u n i v e r s i t y - and college-bound s t u d e n t s . 5. E n g l i s h teachers are becoming more i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g , as demonstrated by the high percentage who have taken reading courses and i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n reading. 4.5 Summary The v a l i d i t y o f r e s u l t s based upon a 76% r e t u r n of g u e s t i o n n a i r e s from t e a c h e r s i n the province of B.C. i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d at the beginning of Chapter 4. Questions asked at t h e beginning o f t h e study ( S e c t i o n 1 .2) are then analyzed. Accompanying t a b l e s are i n c l u d e d a t the end of the c h a p t e r , immediately f o l l o w i n g the summary., 47 T a b l e IV Bank O r d e r o f FBEQOENCY o f S k i l l s by Means S t u d e n t s T e a c h e r s Q11 2.38 w r i t t e n e x p r e s s . Q11 1. 37 w r i t t e n e x p r e s s . , Q 9 2.51 i n t e r p . r e a d Q 5 1. 87 comp.; i n f e r e n t i a l Q 5 2 . 8 0 c o m p . : i n f e r e n t i a l Q15 1. 94 l i t . a p p r e c . , Q12 2.96 o r a l e x p r e s s . Q 9 1.90 i n t e r p r e t i v e r e a d . Q 4 3.00 c o m p . : f a c t u a l Q 4 2. 06 c o m p . ; f a c t u a l Q15 3.03 l i t , a p p r e c , . Q 3 2. 12 v o c a b . . d e v e l o p m e n t Q 3 3.06 v o c a b . devlopment Q10 2. 30 c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g Q .7 3.30 r e s e a r c h s k i l l s Q 6 2. 45 s t u d y a i d s Q16 3.34 s p e l l i n g Q 7 2. 53 r e s e a r c h s k i l l s Q10 3.36 c r i t i c a l r e a d . Q12 2. 67 o r a l e x p r e s s i o n Q 6 3.45 s t u d y a i d s Q16 2. 83 c o n t e x t c l u e s Q13 3. 52 l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s Q 2 2. 83 s p e l l i n g Q14 3.66 l i b , 8 r e f , Q13 2. 88 l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s Q 2 3.78 c o n t e x t c l u e s Q14 2. 89 l i b . & r e f . Q 1 3.86 word s t u d y Q 1 3. 05 word s t u d y Q 8 3. 91 f l e x , r e a d , r a t e Q 8 3. 45 f l e x , r e a d i n g r a t e 48 Table V Bank Order of IMPORTANCE o f S k i l l s by Means Students Teachers Q11 1.35 w r i t t e n express. C]11 1.21 w r i t t e n express. Q 4 1.58 comp.: f a c t u a l Q 7 1.48 r e s e a r c h Q 7 1.58 r e s e a r c h Q 6 1.53 study a i d s Q 6 1.64 study a i d s Q 5 1.56 comp.: i n f e r e n t i a l Q13 1.85 l i s t e n i n g Q 4 1.57 comp.: f a c t u a l Q16 1.85 s p e l l i n g Q14 1.71 l i b r a r y £ r e f . Q 3 1.91 vocab. development Q13 1.80 l i s t e n i n g Q 5 •1.97 comp,: i n f e r e n t i a l Q10 1.94 c r i t i c a l read. Q14 2.06 l i b r a r y 6 r e f . Q 3 1.96 vocab, devlop. Q 8 2.22 f l e x i b l e read, r a t e .9 8 2. 13 f l e x i b l e read, r a t e Q12 2.39 o r a l e x p r e s s i o n Q 2 2. 15 context c l u e s Q10 2.45 c r i t i c a l read., Q 9 2.19 i n t e r p . r e a d i n g Q 9 2.46 i n t e r p , read. Q16 •2. 33 s p e l l i n g Q 2 2.56 co n t e x t c l u e s Q12 2.41 o r a l express. Q 1 2.47 word study Q15 2.43 l i t . apprec.„ Q15 2.90 l i t . apprec. Q 1 2. 46 word study 49 T a b l e ¥1 Hank Order of STRENGTH of S k i l l s by Means Students Teachers mean mean Q16 2.45 s p e l l i n g Q 4 2.26 comp,: f a c t u a l Q 4 2.46 comp.; f a c t u a l Q11 2.80 w r i t t e n ex press. Q 5 2.75 comp.; i n f e r e n t i a l Q 5 2.86 comp,; i n f e r e n t i a l Q 2 2.76 context c l u e s Q 9 2.86 i n t e r p r e t i v e read. Q13 2.77 l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s Q15 2.86 l i t . a p p r e c i a t i o n Q 3 2.78 vocab. develop. Q10 2.88 c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g Q11 2.80 w r i t t e n express. Q 2 2.93 context c l u e s Q12 2.89 o r a l e x p r e s s i o n Q16 2.94 s p e l l i n g Q 9 2.90 i n t e r p r e t i v e read. Q14 2.94 l i b . £ r e f . Q10 2.90 c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g Q12 2.95 o r a l express. Q 6 2.93 study a i d s Q 7 2.99 r e s e a r c h s k i l l s Q 7 2.93 r e s e a r c h s k i l l s Q 6 3.00 study a i d s Q 8 2.93 f l e x . read, r a t e Q 1 3.10 word study s k i l l s Q 1 2.97 word study s k i l l s Q 13 3, 12 l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s Q14 3.00 l i b r a r y & r e f . Q 3 3.17 vocab. development Q15 3.04 l i t . a p p r e c i a t i o n Q 8 3.38 f l e x i b l e read, r a t e 50 T a b l e 711 UNIVBOUND BEADING PBOGRAMME - TEACHEBS RELATIVE ADJUSTED ABSOLUTE CATEGORY LABEL YES NO CODE CODE •1. 2 , 6 . TOTAL FBEQ 86 25 9 120 FBEQ (PCT) 7 1 . 7 2 0 . 8 7 . 5 100. 0 FBEQ (PCT) 7 7 . 5 2 2 . 5 MISSING 100 .0 CUM FBEQ (PCT) 7 7 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1t ******************************************** ( I YES I I 2 . ************** ( 25) I NO I I 6 . ****** ( 9) (MISSING) I I I.........I.........1 0 20 40 FREQUENCY 86) .1, 60 , .1. 80 . .1 100 MEAN MODE MINIMUM 1 . 2 2 5 1 . 0 0 0 1 .000 STD ERR STD DEV MAXIMUM 0 . 040 0 . 420 2 . 0 0 0 MEDIAN SKEWNESS 1. 145 1.334 VALID CASES 111 HISSING CASES 9 51 Table VIII UNIVBOUND READING PROGRAMME - STUDENTS RELATIVE ADJUSTED CUM ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ FREQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FREQ (PCT) (PCT) <PCT) YES 1. 191 71.0 71. 8 71.8 HO 2. 75 27. 9 28.2 100.0 6. 3 1. 1 HISSING 100. 0 TOTAL 26 9 100. 0 100.0 CODE 1. ***********************************^ ( 1< I YES I I 2, ******************** i 75J I NO I I 6. , * * { (HISSING) I I • 3) 0 FREQUENCY ..I, 40 .1. 80 ...I, 120 . .1 160 . .1 200 SEAN MODE MINIMUM 1.282 1. 000 1.000 VALID CASES 266 STD ERR 0.028 STD DEV 0.451 MAXIMUM 2.000 MISSING CASES MEDIAN 1.196 SKEBNESS 0.975 52 Table IX NO, OF BEADING COURSES TAKEN - TEACHEBS RELATIVE ADJUSTED CUB ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ FREQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FBEQ (PCT) (PCT) (PCT) NONE 1. 40 33.3 37. 4 37.4 ONE 2. 31 25. 8 29.0 66.4 TWO OB MORE 3. 20 16.7 18.7 85. 0 DEGBEE IN BEADING 4. 3 2.5 2.8 87.9 INSEBVICE TRAINING 5, 13 10. 8 12. 1 100. 0 6. , 13 10.8 HISSING 100.0 TOTAL 120 100.0 100.0 CODE 1# ***************************************** ( I NONE I I 2, ******************************** ^ I ONE I I 3̂  ********************* ( 20) I TWO OR MOBE I I 4. **** { 3) I DEGREE IN READING I I 5# ************** ( 13) I INSERVICE TRAINING I I ************** { -J3ji (HISSING) I I I.........1.........1........,1.,.......1. 0 10 20 30 40 FREQUENCY 40) .1 50 MEAN 2.234 MODE 1.000 MINIMUM 1.000 STD ERR 0.127 STD DIV 1.315 MAXIMUM 5.000 MEDIAN 1.935 SKEWNESS 0.953 VALID CASES 107 MISSING CASES 13 53 Table X READING PROGRAMME SETUP - STUDENTS RELATIVE ADJUSTED CUM ABSOLUTE FEE Q FBEQ FBEQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FBEQ (PCT) (PCT) (PCT) SEPARATE PROGRAMME 1. 48 17.8 18.0 18. 0 ENG 2. 140 52.0 52.6 70.7 ALL CONTENT AREAS 3. 78 29.0 29.3 100.0 6. 3 1.1 MISSING 100.0 TOTAL 26 9 100.0 100.0 CODE I 1. ************* i 48) I SEPARATE PROGSA I MME 2. I ************************************ / 140) I ENG I 3. I ********************* { 78) I ALL CONTENT AREAS I 6. I * * ( 3) (HISSING) I T X 0 40 80 120 160 200 FREQUENCY MEAN 2.113 STD ERR 0.042 MEDIAN 2. 107 MODE 2.000 STD DEV 0.680 SKEWNESS -0 . 143 MINI MOM 1.000 MAXIMUM 3.000 VALID CASES 266 HISSING CASES 3 54 Table XI BEADING PROGRAMME SET OP - TEACHEBS BELATIVE ADJUSTED CUM ABSOLUTE FBEQ FBEQ FBEQ CSTEGOBY LABEL CODE FREQ (PCT) (PCT) (PCT) SEPARATE PROGRAMME •1. , 20 16. 7 17. 4 17. 4 ENG 2. , 24 20.0 20.9 38.3 ALL CONTENT ABEAS 3. 71 59.2 61.7 100.0 6. 5 4. 2 HISSING 100.0 TOTAL 120 100.0 100.0 CODE 14 * * * * * * * * * * * ( 20) I SEPARATE PROGRAMME I I 2, * * * * * * * * * * * * * ( 24) I ENG I I 3# * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * j 7-JJ I ALL CONTENT AREAS I I 6. * * * * { 5) (MISSING) I I I.........1.........1 0 20 40 FREQUENCY .1.. .... . . .1 1 60 80 100 MEAN MODE MINIMUM 2.443 3. 000 1.000 STD ERR 0.072 STD DEV 0.774 MAXIMUM 3.000 MEDIAN 2.690 SKEHNESS -0.961 VALID CASES 115 MISSING CASES S3SO 9 SIS SIR till S1SV3 3IIVA 5 £.0*0- SS3SM3XS LZZ*£ Hviaau 05 000*5 20*7*1 let *o WQWIXVW A30 axs 883 (LIS 000*1 000*5 L0£'£ HQRI8IH 3 a OH N¥3H 0*7 I* (9e oe oz o i o • •• * • i * * i * i i i I (9NISSIH) (9 ) * * * * * * * *9 I I SHOW 80 0001 I ) ************************************* *s I I 666-OSZ. I (St ) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *tj I I 6tU-00S I (22 ) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * £ I I 66ti-0S2 I (QE ) ******************************* *Z I I 6ti2-t I (LI ) * * * * * * * * * * * * * l I acroD O'OOt d ' o o i 021 I¥£0I 0*001 ONISSIH 0*5 9 '9 0*001. 9 * t e o*oe 9C *S 380H 80 0001 •7 *89 z *et 5 *2t St •tr 6 6 6 -OS*. e*ss e * 6 i t *81 22 *e 6tj£-00S 0*9£ e *93 0*53 oe *2 6611-052 9*6 9*6 2 * 6 t t *t 6*2-1 Uoa) ( £ D d ) (13d) 9381 3Q0D 138YT 1800310 0381 D38J 0381 3XQ*I0S8V HAD a a i s n r a ? 3AI1V73 8 S83HD¥3£ - 3ZIS "IOOHDS IIX ©iqEj, 56 Ta b l e X I I I SCHOOL SIZE - STUDENTS BELATIVE ADJUSTED CUM ABSOLUTE FBEQ FBEQ FBEQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FBEQ (PCT) (PCT) (PCT) 1-249 1. 11 4. 1 4.1 4. 1 250-499 2. 32 11.9 11. 9 16. 0 500-749 3. , 24 8.9 9.0 25.0 750-999 4. , 43 16. 0 16.0 41.0 1000 OB MOBE 5. 158 58. 7 59.0 100.0 6. 1 0.4 HISSING 100.0 TOTAL 26 9 100. 0 100.0 CODE I 1. **** ( 11) I 1-249 I I 2. ********* ( 32) I 250-499 I I 3 # ******* { 24) I 500^749 I I Ht ************ ( Q 3| I 750-999 I I 5 ( ***************************************** | 158) I 1000 OB MOBE I I 6. * ( 1) (MISSING) I I I . r . v^.'V.IVvV-.ViV.- .--IViV.V. . I . . , . . - . . . .1 0 40 80 120 160 200 FBEQUENCY MEAN MODE MINIMUM 4. 138 5.000 1.000 STD EBB 0.075 STD DEV 1.230 MAXIMUM 5.000 MEDIAN SKEHNESS 4.652 -1. 191 VALID CASES 268 MISSING CASES 1 57 Tabl e XIV READING ABILITY COHPARED TO ONIV PEERS - STUDENTS RELATIVE ADJUSTED CUM ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ FBEQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FREQ (PCT) (PCT) (PCT) VERY HELL 1. 35 13.0 13, 1 13.1 HELL 2. 98 36. 4 36. 7 49.8 AVERAGE 3. , 111 41. 3 41.6 91.4 NOT HELL 4. 21 7. 8 7. 9 99.3 POORLY 5. 2 0.7 0.7 100.0 6. , 2 0.7 MISSING 100.0 TOTAL 26 9 100.0 100.0 CODE I 1 # ********** ( 35J I VERY WELL I I 2. ************************** j ggj I WELL I I 3 4 ***************************** j 111) I AVERAGE I I 4. ****** j 21) I NOT HELL I I 5. ** ( 2) I POORLY I I 6. ** ( 2) (MISSING) I I I . . . . . . . ..I.........1..........1 .1......,1 0 40 80 120 160 200 FREQUENCY MEAN 2.464 MODE 3.000 MINIMUM 1.000 STD EBR 0.052 STD DEV 0. 846 MAXIMUM 5.000 MEDIAN 2.505 SKE8NESS 0.037 VALID CASES 267 MISSING CASES 2 58 Table XV FREQUENCY OF RECREATIONAL READING - STUDENTS RELATIVE ADJUSTED CUM ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ FREQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FREQ (PCT) (PCT) (PCT) VERY OFTEN 1 • 57 21.2 21. 2 21. 2 OFTEN 2. 87 32.3 32. 3 53.5 SOMETIMES 3. 85 31.6 31.6 85. 1 SELDOM 4. 35 13. 0 13.0 98.1 NEVER 5. ,•• 5 1.9 1.9 100.0 TOTAL 26 9 100. 0 100.0 CODE •j # ****************************** ( 57j I VERY OFTEN I I 2, ********************************************* j I OFTEN I I 3, ******************************************** i I SOMETIMES I I 4, ******************* ^ 35y I SELDOM I I 5) 5. **** ( I NEVER I X •*.' * »•* *X • •< 0 20 FREQUENCY 87) 85) • *'X"'» '« #':*. *X * •'"•''#"«'•' • X 40 60 80 100 MEAN MODE 2.420 2.000 MINIMUM 1.000 VALID CASES 269 STD ERR 0.062 STD DEV 1.021 MAXIMUM 5.000 MISSING CASES MEDIAN 2.391 SKEBNESS 0.250 T a b l e XVI R e l a t i o n s h i p of S t r e n g t h and Frequency Students T e a c h e r s c o r r . s i g . c o r r . s i g . word s tudy .149 .00711 - . 0 1 4 . 440 58 c o n t e x t c l u e s • 33 9 .00001 .028 .38028 vocab . d e v e l o p . .318 .00001 .227 .00686 c o m p : f a c t u a l .219 .00079 .190 .02065 comp i n f e r e n t i a l . 293 .00001 .2 54 .00296 s tudy a i d s .425 .00001 .387 .00001 r e s e a r c h s k i l l s . 388 .00001 .501 .00001 f l e x . „ r e a d . r a t e .288 .00001 .430 .00001 i n t e r p . r e a d . .538 .00001 .287 .00082 c r i t i c a l r e a d . .453 .00001 .427 .00001 w r i t t e n e x p r e s s . .446 .00001 ,257 .00259 o r a l e x p r e s s i o n . 454 .00001 .517 .00001 l i s t e n i n g .262 .00001 .337 .00010 l i b . & r e f . .360 .00001 .519 .Q0001 l i t . a p p r e c . , .501 .00001 .489 .00001 s p e l l i n g .188 .00101 .170 .03538 Table XVII S k i l l s Showing Highest C o r r e l a t i o n : s k i l l l i b . 6 r e f . res e a r c h l i t . apprec. f l e x . read, r a t e c r i t i c a l read. :- i n t e r p r e t i v e read, l i t . apprec., o r a l e x press., c r i t i c a l read, study a i d s Freguency to Strength Teachers c o r r . s i g . s l o p e . 519 .00001 . 3791 .501 .00001 .4880 .489 .00001 .4163 .431 .00001 .3884 .427 .00001 .3532 Students .538 .00001 .4976 .500 .00001 .4107 .454 .00001 .4069 . 453 .00001 .3951 .425 .00001 .3435 61 CHAPTER FIVE Summary and Recommendations Chapter 5 summarizes the study and o f f e r s c o n c l u s i o n s based upon the data. Recommendations s p e c i f i c t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f the study are o f f e r e d . 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n D e s c r i p t i v e data, gathered from two d i s t i n c t p o p u l a t i o n s by means of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey, were c o l l e c t e d i n order t o determine trends i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s e n i o r secondary s t u d e n t s f o r post- secondary e d u c a t i o n , l i t t l e Canadian i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e through the l i t e r a t u r e t o q i v e i n s i q h t i n t o how w e l l secondary s t u d e n t s a r e prepared f o r u n i v e r s i t y work. Moreover, popular media, a r e f l e c t o r or c r e a t o r of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , support the i d e a t h a t students are i l l - p r e p a r e d f o r h i q h e r e d u c a t i o n . / The American experience, b e t t e r documented, does support the c l a i m t h a t there i s a need t o re-examine the hiqh s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . There i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r r e m e d i a l programmes i n r e a d i n g s k i l l s to be made a v a i l a b l e a t the c o l l e q e and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s . The review of l i t e r a t u r e examined the p r e p a r a t i o n of teachers f o r t e a c h i n q r e a d i n q , a t t i t u d e s h e l d toward the t e a c h i n q o f r e a d i n q and the p o s i t i o n of r e m e d i a l r e a d i n q c o u r s e s on u n i v e r s i t y campuses., 62 5.2 O b j e c t i v e s The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s formed the core of the study: 1. Do students and te a c h e r s concur i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n o f the frequency of i n s t r u c t i o n o f s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s k i l l s ? 2. Do f i r s t - year u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and high s c h o o l t e a c h e r s r a t e the same l i t e r a c y and communication s k i l l s as being important to u n i v e r s i t y study? 3. Do grade 12 teachers f e e l t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d students t o be s t r o n g e r i n c e r t a i n s k i l l s a r e a s than do the s t u d e n t s themselves? 4. Do t e a c h e r s and students d i f f e r i n t h e i r views concerning the need f o r inc r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n to r e a d i n g at the s e n i o r l e v e l of high s c h o o l ? 5. How many grade 12 E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s i n the sample have had t r a i n i n g i n the teaching of reading? 6. Do students and t e a c h e r s agree on who should t e a c h r e a d i n g s k i l l s d u r i n g the s e n i o r year o f high school? 5.3 Procedure Two g u e s t i o n n a i r e s , d i f f e r i n g only i n the demographic 63 i n f o r m a t i o n requested, were used i n t h i s study. For the f i r s t p a rt of the survey, 269 E n q l i s h 100 students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were asked t o complete q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A l l r e s u l t a n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o n s i d e r e d to be u s a b l e . A s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent to the Head of E n q l i s h a t every s c h o o l i n the p r o v i n c e housinq a qrade 12 programme. The data used f o r a n a l y s i s and r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s p o p u l a t i o n were based on a r e t u r n of 121 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s or 76% of the a d j u s t e d t o t a l . 5.4 Inalysis Data i n t h i s study were analyzed by computer u s i n g t h r e e packaged programmes from the S t a t i s t i c a l - Package •  'for - the - S o c i a l Sciences (Nie et al, 1 9 7 2 ) : Frequencies, 1 C r o s s t a b s and S c s M§rgram. , The r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s were rep o r t e d i n d e s c r i p t i v e terms. 5.5 Conclusions Data c o l l e c t e d from the two p o p u l a t i o n s surveyed i n t h i s study suggest the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. Students and t e a c h e r s agree as to the frequency and importance of most s k i l l s , but d i f f e r i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s of the str e n g t h shown by students i n those s k i l l areas., 64 2. Students and t e a c h e r s f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t there i s a need f o r a programme which prepares s t u d e n t s f o r post- secondary education. 3. , T h i s sample i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a r g e schools provide the g r e a t e s t numbers o f u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s . These s c h o o l s o s t e n s i b l y have the g r e a t e s t number of o p t i o n a l programmes a v a i l a b l e , y e t , o n l y a few s c h o o l s i n d i c a t e d , on t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the e x i s t e n c e of a s k i l l s proqramme, i n a d d i t i o n to the general E n g l i s h programme, designed f o r students with post-secondary a s p i r a t i o n s . 4. The m a j o r i t y of E n g l i s h teachers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study have taken e i t h e r r e a d i n g c o u r s e s or i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g . Though a l a r g e number o f E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s had had no type of r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g , the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s had taken one or more re a d i n g courses or, minimally, i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . T h i s f i n d i n g would suggest t h a t p r o v i n c i a l E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s are showing an i n t e r e s t i n the area of reading and are supplementing t h e i r background t r a i n i n g with r e a d i n g courses. 5. For almost a l l s k i l l s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study, a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p <p<.05) e x i s t s between the judqed s t r e n g t h cf a s k i l l and i t s frequency of t e a c h i n g . 5.6 Recommendations 65 •1. U n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , and secondary s c h o o l s should maintain a c l o s e r c o n t a c t i n order that each i s f a m i l i a r with the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the ot h e r . S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s , a f t e r r e p l y i n g to t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e , commented t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r more dia l o g u e between t e a c h e r s and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . , T h i s would appear t o be a n e c c e s i t y i n view o f the d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t of those f i r s t year students who commented upon t h e i r poor p r e p a r a t i o n and weak s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g . 2. U n i v e r s i t i e s and secondary s c h o o l s must de c i d e , with the mushrooming of remedi a l courses at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , which s k i l l s are a p p r o p r i a t e l y taught i n the s c h o o l s and which i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s . The students i n t h i s survey were confused by what they c o n s i d e r e d to be the discrepancy between the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the u n i v e r s i t y and t h e i r high s c h o o l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r u n i v e r s i t y . 3. O p t i o n a l programmes d u r i n g the f i n a l year o f high s c h o o l f o r students who f e e l they w i l l be c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r f o rmal e d u c a t i o n should be co n s i d e r e d f o r a l l s c h o o l s having s e n i o r c l a s s e s . These courses c o u l d take many forms depending upon the r e s o u r c e s of the s c h o o l . 4. E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , s i n c e they are o f t e n given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f teaching s k i l l s , should be encouraged t o take courses i n the t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g d u r i n g t h e i r teacher t r a i n i n g year. 5.7 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research 66 This study was intended to examine the area o f u n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r a t i o n . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h evidence i s a v a i l a b l e i n the present l i t e r a t u r e and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h oust be done before any s t r o n g statement can be made concerning the present l i t e r a c y l e v e l of u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s . Pollowing are p o s s i b l e areas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h : 1. A comparison might be made of u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s * , grade 12 st u d e n t s * and f i r s t - year u n i v e r s i t y students* p e r c e p t i o n s of how w e l l prepared grade 12 students are f o r u n i v e r s i t y . 2. An a n a l y s i s of the c o n t a c t between u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y and p r o v i n c i a l t e a c h e r s would be i n f o r m a t i v e . There i s every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t teachers do not know what u n i v e r s i t i e s demand by way of student p r e p a r a t i o n . The media have s t i r r e d up resentment i n t e a c h e r s by p u b l i c i z i n g f a c u l t y complaints concerning the supposed l a c k of l i t e r a c y of incoming freshmen. 3. Hore i n f o r m a t i o n should be gathered concerning the types o f programmes teach e r s and students c o n s i d e r t o be v a l u a b l e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of students f o r post secondary study. 4. More i n f o r m a t i o n should be gathered concerning the types o f programmes f o r the u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s . 5. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s o f a b i l i t y d uring grade 12 and d u r i n g t h e i r freshman year would be 67 i n t e r e s t i n g . Would these a t t i t u d e s be a f f e c t e d by p r e - u n i v e r s i t y s k i l l s t r a i n i n g ? 6. What are the s k i l l s teachers f e e l t o be the " l i f e s k i l l s " which must be taught i n the general grade 12 programme? Are these r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the s k i l l s which should be taught to students going on to post-secondary education? 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aaronson, S, Vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . In Frank P. 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Ne war k, Delaware: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969, E a r l y , M. What does r e s e a r c h i n readinq r e v e a l ? - about s u c c e s s f u l r e a d i n g programs? E n q l i s h J o u r n a l , 1969, 58, 534-547. Fahy, P.J, A survey of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s e n i o r high 69 s c h o o l s of ftlberta. Unpublished M. Ed. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of a l b e r t a , a l b e r t a , 1972. Freed, B. F. Secondary r e a d i n g - s t a t e of the a r t . J o u r n a l Qf Beading., 1973, JT7, 195-201. Gay, I. E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h : i S o i j e t e n c i e s - f a r ; a n a l y s i s and a p p l i c a t i o n . Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l , 1976., G r i e s e , a.A.,Heading improvement at the c o l l e g e l e v e l , 1967. (EBIC Document Reproduction No. ED 016 564) Hayward, F.H. Reading and study i n s t r u c t i o n i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . J o u r n a l o f Beading. 1971, 1.5, 27-29. Henderson, a.A. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d reading i n s t r u c t i o n i n two-year c o l l e g e s . J o u r n a l of Reading. 1976, .19, 464-471, Hodges, P. C o g n i t i v e s k i l l development f o r secondary E n g l i s h teachers. Jo.ur.naJ, g£ Readiag, 1974, J 8 , 34-40. Hodges, P. Reading as an e l e c t i v e i n the E n g l i s h program, j o u r n a l of Beadijgg, 1974, 18, 30-3 3. H u s l i n , B.A. What's happening i n c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y developmental r e a d i n g programs: a r e p o r t of a r e c e n t survey. Reading War Id , 1975, ,14, 2 02 -214. I s a a c , S., & M i c h a e l , W.B. Handbook JP S§gearch and e v a l u a t i o n . , San Diego, C a l i f o r n i a : E. d ITS, 1971. Kingston, A.J. S i g n i f i c a n t elements jn c o l l g g e and a d u l t readina improvement, 1957. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ID 130 223f Kingston, A.J. What do we mean by reading i n the content area? J o u r n a l of Developmental Beading. 1964, 7, 146-147,158., Ki n z e r , C.K. A s t a t u s survey of r e a d i n g programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l s : 1976. Unpublished M. A. t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. Larsen, J . J . , 6 G u t t i n g e r , H.I. Prevention of r e a d i n g problems i n higher education. In George H. HcNinch 6 Wallace H i l l e r (Eds,), Reading: con v e n t i o n and i n q u i r y . 24th Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1975, 123-126. Lowe, A.J. The use of co1lege readinq:-. the good. the bad, and the i n d i f f i r e n t : III0-1970, 1970. (ERIC Document Beproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 040 013) Michaels, M,L,,Subject r e a d i n g improvement: a n e g l e c t e d t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . J o u r n a l of Beading, 1965, 9, 16-21. 70 M i n i s t r y of Education, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia readinq assessment: summary report* M i n i s t r y of Education, P r o v i n c e of B.C., 1977, M i n i s t r y o f Education, P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h - Columbia r e a d i n g assessment: t e s t r e s u l t s . M i n i s t r y of Education, Province of B.C., 1977., Narang, H.L. Beading i n s t r u c t i o n i n Saskatchewan secondary . s c h o o l s . Saskatchewan J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Sgsearch and Development^ 1973,~4_7 58-61. ~ Newman, L.M. Remedial r e a d i n q i n the j u n i o r c o l l e g e . , I n M.P. Douqlas (Ed,), 30th Yearbook of t h e Claremont Beadinq Conference. Claremont, C a l i f . : C l a r e m o n t Graduate School Curriculum L i b r a r y , 1966, 206-214. Nie, N.H. , H u l l , C H . , J e n k i n s , J.G., S t e i n b r e n n e r , K., & Bent, D.H. SPSS: s t a t i s t i c a l package f o r the! s o c i a l -sciences: 2nd E d i t i o n . McGraw-Hill Company, 19727 ~ ~* Palmer, U.S. l e a c h i n g r e a d i n g i n the content areas. J o u r n a l of Beading, 1975, J 9 , 43-51. Bobinson, F.-P, Study s k i l l s f o r s u p e r i o r students i n secondary school. The Beaming Teacher, 1961, J.5, 29-33. Bobinson, H.A. Teaching r e a d i n g •.and sturdy- - s t r a t e g i e s . Boston, Mass.: A l l y n 5 Bacon, 1975, Shaw. P. Beading i n c o l l e g e . Development i n and through r e a d i n q , 60th Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education (Part 1), Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1961, 336-354. Shepherd, D, L. Beading i n the s u b j e c t areas. In Bobert K a r l i n (Ed.), Beading f o r a l l , Newark Delaware: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Beading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972., Shepherd, F.L. The f u t u r e of non c r e d i t c o l l e q e r e a d i n q c o u r s e s . J o u r n a l of Beading, 1977, 20, 493-496. Smith, G. D., E n r i q h t , G., 6 D e v r i a n , M. A n a t i o n a l survey of l e a r n i n q and study s k i l l proqrams. In G.H. McNinch & Wallace M i l l e r (Eds.), Readinq: conY§Btion anfl inquiry.. 24th Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Beadinq Conference, 1975, 67-73. Sweiqer, J.D, Desiqns and o r q a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of j u n i o r and community c o l l e q e r e a d i n q programs a c r o s s the country., In Frank P. Greene (Ed.), C o l l e g e r e a d i n q ; problems and programs of j u n i o r and s e n i o r c o l l e g e s . 21st Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Beadinq Conference, 19727 2 1 ( 2 ) , 1-7., 71 Toronto S t a r , Toronto, O n t a r i o , , January 20, 1978 Toronto S t a r , Toronto, O n t a r i o , , January 24, 1978 Toronto S t a r , Toronto, O n t a r i o , , February 7, 1978 Tremcnti, J* B. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of c o l l e g e r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s to p r e - c c l l e g e reading programs. /In E r i c L. Thurston ( I d * ) , ZhS. p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a 1 bases of r e a d i n g. 14th Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Beading Conference, 1965, 14 , 81-86. Objssey, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., March 8, 1978 Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, B.C.,February 6, 1978 V a v o u l i s , A., 6 Baygor, A. The t r a i n i n g of c o l l e g e reading and study s k i l l s s p e c i a l i s t s : a survey o f expert o p i n i o n . In P h i l L. Nacke (Ed.), Programs and p r a c t i c e s f o r c o l l e g e reading. 22nd Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Beading Conference, 1973, 22(2), 163-171. APPENDIX A Data Gathering Instrument E n g l i s h 100 Students ASSESSING LITERACY AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS SECTION ONE Please check one item i n each question: 1. A. Male B. Female 2. School Size: A. 249 or l e s s _ B. 250 - 499 C. 500 - 749 D. 750 - 1000 E. 1000 or more 3. High School l o c a t i o n : A. B r i t i s h Columbia B. Not i n B r i t i s h Columbia_ C. Not i n Canada 4. College or university, bound students should have a specia l reading/writing course. A. Yes B. No 5. Every senior high school student should have a sp e c i a l reading/ writing course. A. Yes B. No 6. Reading s k i l l s should be taught i n : A. a separate programme B. English \ C. A l l content areas 7. In comparison with others in your c l a s s , how well do you read? A. Very well B. V e i l C. Average D. Not Well E. Poorly 8. In comparison with others of your age outside the un i v e r s i t y , how well do you f e e l you read? A. Very well B. Well C. Average D. Not well E. Poorly 9. How often do you read for recreation and- entertainment? A. Very often B. Often C. Sometimes D. Seldom E. Never 74 DIRECTIONS FOR SECTION TOO STEP (1) F o r each i t e m i n S e c t i o n Two (on the page to your r i g h t ) i n d i c a t e i n Column I (Frequency of I n s t r u c t i o n ) the fr e q u e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h a t s k i l l d u r i n g your f i n a l year i n h i g h s c h o o l . 1. v e r y f r e q u e n t l y 4. r a r e l y 2. o f t e n 5. never 3. sometimes STEP (2) I n d i c a t e i n Column I I ( S t r e n g t h of S k i l l ) your s t r e n g t h a t the time you e n t e r e d u n i v e r s i t y i n each of the s k i l l s l i s t e d . A. v e r y s t r o n g D. weak B. s t r o n g E. v e r y weak C. adequate STEP (3) In Column I I I (Importance of S k i l l ) r a t e t h e importance of each i t e m f o r s u c c e s s i n u n i v e r s i t y . 1. e s s e n t i a l 4. not v e r y important 2. i m p o r t a n t 5. i r r e l e v a n t 3. m o d e r a t e l y important SECTION TWO: COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. T r a i n i n g i n the use of word-study s k i l l s to u n d e r s t a n d new words (e.g. p h o n i c s , p r e f i x e s , s u f f i x e s , b r e a k i n g words i n t o t h e i r component p a r t s ) . 2. T r a i n i n g i n the use of c o n t e x t c l u e s to d e r i v e the meaning of new words (e.g. u s i n g s u r r o u n d i n g words, p i c t u r e s , g r a p h s ) . 3. T r a i n i n g i n v o c a b u l a r y development and enrichment. 4. T r a i n i n g i n comprehension of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . 5. T r a i n i n g i n comprehension c f i n f e r e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n (e.g. de d u c i n g the meaning through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) 6. T r a i n i n g i n study a i d s (e.g. n o t e t a k i n g , o u t l i n i n g , p r e c i s , , o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ) . 7. T r a i n i n g i n r e s e a r c h s k i l l s .(e.g. r e t r i e v i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , s y n t h e s i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ) . 8. T r a i n i n g i n development of a f l e x i b l e r e a d i n g r a t e (e.g. a d a p t i n g r e a d i n g to purpose and m a t e r i a l ) . 9. T r a i n i n g i n i n t e r p r e t i v e r e a d i n g (e.g. metaphor, symbolism, imagery). 10. T r a i n i n g i n c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g (e.g. propaganda,' b i a s e d v e r s u s unbiased r e p o r t i n g , a d v e r t i s i n g d e v i c e s ) . 11. T r a i n i n g i n w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n (e.g. u n i t y and c l a r i t y of i d e a s , p u n c t u a t i o n , grammar). 12. T r a i n i n g i n o r a l e x p r e s s i o n (e.g. o r a l r e p o r t s , c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , p u r p o s e f u l d i a l o g u e s ) . 13. T r a i n i n g i a l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s (e.g. l i s t e n i n g f o r main i d e a s , s u p p o r t i n g d e t a i l s ; e v a l u a t i n g , s o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ) . 14. T r a i n i n g . i n l i b r a r y / r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s . 15. T r a i n i n g i n l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n (e.g. a p p r e c i a t i o n o f v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y forms and s t y l i s t i c e l e m e n t s ) . 16. T r a i n i n g i n s p e l l i n g . APPENDIX B Data Gathering Instrument B r i t i s h Columbia Grade 12 E n g l i s h Teache ASSESSING LITERACY AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS SECTION ONE Plensc check one Item in each question: ].. School Size: A. 249 or les.-s B. 250 - A99 _ C. 500 - 749 D. 750 - 1000 E. 1000 or more 2. Number of reading courses taken: A. None B. One ~ C. Two or more D. Degree in reading E. Inservice trainins*- 3. College or university bound students should have a speci a l reading/writing course. A. Yes B. No 4. Reading s k i l l s should be taught i n : A. A separate programme B. English C. A l l content areas DIRECTIONS FOR SECTION TWO em i n Section Two (on the page to your right) indicate (Frequency of Instruction) the frequency of instruction i l l received by students i n their f i n a l year of your y frequently 4. r a r e l y en 5. never ,etime.s i Column II (Strength of S k i l l ) the average strength of its (at the time they l e f t high school) i n each of the ed. y strong D. weak ong E. very weak ;quate III (Importance of S k i l l ) rate the importance of each lccess i n un i v e r s i t y . ;ential 4. not very important >ortant 5. i r r e l e v a n t lerately important SECTION TWO: COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Training in the use of word-study s k i l l s to understand new words (e.g. phonics, prefixes, s u f f i x e s , breaking words into their component parts). 2. Training in the use of context clues to derive the meaning of new words (e.g. using surrounding words, pictures, graphs). 3. Training in vocabulary development and enrichment. 4. Training in comprehension of factual information. .5. Training in comprehension of i n f e r e n t i a l information (e.g. deducing the meaning through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) . 6. Training in study aids (e.g. notetaking, o u t l i n i n g , precis, organising information). 7. Trainir.g in research s k i l l s (e.g. r e t r i e v i n g , evaluating, synthesizing inforiaation) . 8. Training in development of a f l e x i b l e reading rate (e.g. adapting reading to purpose and material). 9. Training in interpretive reading (e.g. metaphor, symbolism, imagery). 10. Training i n c r i t i c a l reading (e.g. propaganda, biased versus unbiased reporting, advertising devices). 11. Training in written expression (e.g. unity and c l a r i t y of ideas, punctuation, grammar). 12. Training in or a l expression (e.g. oral reports, class discussion, purposeful dialogues). 13. Training in l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s (e.g. l i s t e n i n g for main ideas, supporting d e t a i l s ; evaluating, sorting information). 14. Trainiiig i n library/reference s k i l l s . 15. Training in l i t e r a r y appreciation (e.g. appreciation of various l i t e r a r y forms and s t y l i s t i c elements). 16. Training in s p e l l i n g . APPENDIX C Covering L e t t e r : E n g l i s h 100 I n s t r u c t o r s 79 March 1978. Dear E n g l i s h 100 I n s t r u c t o r : As part of my graduate t h e s i s r e s e a r c h , I am i n v e s t i g a t i n g d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s h e l d by Grade 12 t e a c h e r s , E n g l i s h 100 i n s t r u c t o r s and E n g l i s h 100 stu d e n t s as t o the l e v e l of l i t e r a c y and communication s k i l l s cf u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s . However, i n order to complete my r e s e a r c h , I need your help and co- o p e r a t i o n . , S p e c i f i c a l l y , I am r e q u e s t i n g permission to presen t a s h o r t g u e s t i o n n a i r e to your E n g l i s h 100 c l a s s between the 20th and 31st of March, a t your convenience. About 20 minutes should be s u f f i c i e n t to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which I and my c o l l e a g u e s i n the Reading Eduactaion Department w i l l d i s t r i b u t e and c o l l e c t . In a d d i t i o n , I am ask i n g you to complete a s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The forms would be completed anonymously. Since i t i s l a t e i n the s c h o o l term, t h i s seems an a p p r o p r i a t e time to ask the students t o r e f l e c t upon how well t h e i r high s c h o o l prepared them f o r the work expected of them duri n g t h i s past year. I r e a l i z e t h a t you are busy and alre a d y have many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s connected with the c o n c l u s i o n o f term. However, I would g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . The q u e s t i o n of students" competency i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance a t t h i s time. I f you are w i l l i n g t o complete a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o allow me to present a 20 minute q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o your c l a s s , please f i l l out the en c l o s e d form. Dr. Pa r k i n has k i n d l y o f f e r e d h i s o f f i c e f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of responses. Yours t r u l y . Marian Mackworth 0.B.C. Graduate Student Robert D. .Chester P r o f e s s o r , Readinq Education Dept. U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. APPENDIX D Covering L e t t e r B r i t i s h Columbia Grade 12 E n g l i s h Teachers 81 A p r i l 17, 1978 HEAD OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FEBNIE SEC SCHOOL P 0 EOX 370 FEBNIE B C Dear Head of E n g l i s h , In response t o the recent P r o v i n c i a l Learning Assessment P r o j e c t , we are c u r r e n t l y examining s e n i o r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s * p o s i t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o a s e t of communication s k i l l s , the needs of u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e bound students a r e of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o us. i n connec t i o n with t h i s p r o j e c t , we are as k i n g your help with the enclosed g u e s t i o n n a i r e f o c u s i n g on three major i s s u e s : 1. How o f t e n are the l i s t e d s k i l l s taught i n grade 12 classrooms? 2. as judged by t h e i r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , how competent i n these s k i l l s are grade 12 stu d e n t s ? 3. As judged by s e n i o r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , how important a re the l i s t e d s k i l l s f o r success i n the u n i v e r s i t y academic programme? He request that you spend a few minutes i n f i l l i n g out the g u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i n g i t i n the stamped s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope. Your response w i l l be c o n f i d e n t i a l . He would l i k e to thank you i n advance f o r your a s s i s t a n c e a t t h i s busy time of year. An a b s t r a c t of the f i n a l r e p o r t w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to you on request. Yours t r u l y . Dr. B. D. Chester Dept. of Beading Education u n i v e r s i t y of B. C. Vancouver Marian Mackworth Dept. of Beading Education U n i v e r s i t y of B. C. Vancouver APPENDIX E Covering L e t t e r , Second M a i l i n g B r i t i s h Columbia Grade 12 E n g l i s h Teachers 83 May 24, 1978 HEAD CF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FEBNIE SEC SCHOOL P 0 EOX 370 FEBNIE B C Dear Head of E n g l i s h , S e v e r a l weeks ago, we sent yon a g u e s t i o n n a i r e p e r t a i n i n g to the l i t e r a c y s k i l l s o f the c o l l e g e - and u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d students i n your s c h o o l . He have not, as yet, r e c e i v e d a r e p l y from a number of s c h o o l s . I f your department has not yet r e p l i e d , we would again l i k e t o s o l i c i t your c o o p e r a t i o n i n asking a grade 12 E n g l i s h teacher t o f i l l out the en c l o s e d g u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i t i n the stamped, addressed envelope,. He r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s i s a busy time of year but we would be g r a t e f u l i f you would a s s i s t us. An a b s t r a c t of the f i n a l r e p o r t w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e on request. Yours t r u l y , Dr. B. D, Chester Dept. of Reading Education U n i v e r s i t y of B. C, , Vancouver Marian Mackworth Dept. of Reading Education U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. Vancouver

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