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Attitudes of secondary school graduates and teachers towards the literacy skills of university-bound… Mackworth, Marian E. 1978

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ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE LITERACY SKILLS OF UNIVEBSITY-BOUND STUDENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by MABIAN B. A,,  York  E. MACKHORTH University,  1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department  o f Reading Education)  He a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard. ,  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978  (c)  M a r i a n E. Mackworth, 1978  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for  reference and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date  Jjtyj-M/I-P  i i  Abstract  Surveys the  province  graduates British by  two of  who  British  are  teachers  Columbia  now  in  two  12 E n g l i s h i n  recent  100  high  at the  differing  groups toward c e r t a i n  deemed t o  of grade  and  English  Columbia, t o a s c e r t a i n the  those  skills  populations,  school  U n i v e r s i t y of  perspectives  literacy  and  held  communication  b4 r e l e v a n t t o s u c c e s s f u l u n i v e r s i t y  or c o l l e g e  study. R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o r a t e t h e each s k i l l , (or  the  the student  each s k i l l All  76$  return  computer  the  Social  found  of the  i n each s k i l l ,  and  questionnaires was  obtained  the  student  importance  were  of  from  considered  teachers  i n d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s , were  in  the  analyzed  p r o g r a m s f r o m SPSS: . S t a t i s t i c a l • - P a c k a g e f o r  that teachers  teaching of s k i l l s  to u n i v e r s i t y  study.  agreement i n r a t i n g  individual  university-bound  of  Sciences.  was  freguency  using  average  of teaching  study.  Results, reported  by  less  respondent)  to u n i v e r s i t y  A  Province.  skills  of t h e  student-completed  usable.  It  strength  frequency  skills.  the  agree with and  the  importance  However, s t u d e n t s strength  that  students  and  as t o of  those  teachers  students  the  have  show in  i i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  L i s t of Tables.................................................v Chapter 1 The P r o b l e m * . . . . • • . . . ••... • • . » « • • » » •• « • « « • » - 1 1.1 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Study 1 1.2 O b j e c t i v e s of t h e Study.............. 3 1.3 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study. 4 1.4 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Report 5 Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5  Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I d e n t i f y i n g t h e Need f o r u n i v e r s i t y S p o n s o r e d R e a d i n g Programmes.........7 I n c r e a s i n g Numbers o f u n i v e r s i t y R e a d i n g Programmes,.............. .... 9 The S t a t u s o f B e a d i n g Programmes.... 1 1 Teacher B o l e a t t h e Secondary L e v e l . 1 3 T e a c h e r Awareness a t t h e S e c o n d a r y Le v e l . . . . . . . .  2.6 2.7 Chapter 3  . . . . t » . . . . . . _ » . . » . . . »  . . .13  High School Surveys................. 1 4 Summary. • • « • • • • • • » • . • « • « • » • « • • • • « • • . 2 5 Description  o f the Study. ............... 2 7  3.1  The I n s t r u m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 2 7  3.2 3.3 3. 4  The P o p u l a t i o n *. . . 2 8 P r o c e d u r e . . . , . , . . »•..,. •..... • . . . . * « . . . . 2 9 Data A n a l y s i s . . . . . • . • . * . • • • . . * . •..3 0  3.5  Summary..................•...•.»•... 31  Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3  A n a l y s i s : R e s u l t s and O b s e r v a t i o n s . 3 3 Q u e s t i o n s Examined by t h e S t u d y . . . . . 3 3 R e l a t e d Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n . . . . . 4 1 Other F i n d i n g s . . .. 4 3  4. 4 4,5  Discussion.......................... 44 Summary. • ...v« • • » . , • • » • . . . 4 6  5.1  I n t r o du c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • •••••••61 O b j e c t x v e s . . . * . , . « . . . . . ...• • • • • • •••62 P r oce d u re...... .'.,,<•..'.....-.......• • • • • • * • 6 2 A n a l y s i s . ••»'* .. •". •...*..*..*•. ••••••••63 C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . .* . . . . . . . . . • *'••• • •« 6 3 Recommendations............. • • • • • • * • 6 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 6 5  Data  Chapter 5 5. 2 5.3 5. 4 5.5 5,6 5.7 BiMiography....,.... Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C  , .  . . . 6 8  Data G a t h e r i n g Instrument English 1 0 0 Students...................72 Data G a t h e r i n g I n s t r u m e n t B.C. G r a d e 1 2 E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s . . . . . . . . . 7 5 Covering L e t t e r : English 1 0 0 I n s t r u c t o r s . 7 8  iv  Appendix  D  Appendix  E  Covering L e t t e r : B.C. Grade 12 E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s . ........80 C o v e r i n g L e t t e r , Second H a i l i n g : B.C. Grade 12 E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s . ........82  V  List  o f Tables  Table I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XXX XIII XIV XV XVI XVII  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Secondary Beading Programs i n GxTcids 12* • * * * • * * •••••••• * • •* **•• ••••• «•••*• • * • * * »2 0 Availability and T y p e s o f B e a d i n g P r o g r a m s i n J u n i o r and S e n i o r S c h o o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g i n Reading I n s t r u c t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e c o n d a r y R e a d i n g T e a c h e r s . . . . . . . . . . ,22 Rank O r d e r o f F r e q u e n c y o f S k i l l s by Cleans... .47 Rank O r d e r o f I m p o r t a n c e o f S k i l l s by d e a n s . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Rank O r d e r o f S t r e n g t h o f S k i l l s by Means.............49 Onivbound R e a d i n g Programmes - T e a c h e r s . . . . . . . . . » . . . . 5 0 D n i v b o u n d R e a d i n g Programmes - S t u d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 No. o f R e a d i n g C o u r s e s T a k e n - T e a c h e r s .......52 R e a d i n g Programme S e t u p - S t u d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 R e a d i n g Programme S e t u p - T e a c h e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 SctlOOX SX3£Q T 6cL C S ••*••.«• •••••••• .§ • • • • ••••« * ••• • * 55 School Size - Students ,. 56 R e a d i n g A b i l i t y Compared t o U n i v P e e r s - S t u d e n t s . . . . . 5 7 F r e q u e n c y o f R e c r e a t i o n a l R e a d i n g - S t u d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . 58 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S t r e n g t h and F r e q u e n c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 S k i l l s showing H i g h e s t C o r r e l a t i o n : F r e q u e n c y t o S t r e n g t h . • * * . . . . . , ...... *. .. • *...... ... •. * 60  vi  Acknowledgements  Many t h a n k s t o : Dr.  C h e s t e r , my a d v i s o r ,  who h a s been g e n e r o u s w i t h  h i s t i m e and  support. Dr.  Summers,  along Dr.  who  has  produced  much a p p r e c i a t e d  made  possible  my  "goodies" a l l  t h e way.  Parkin,  who  forays  into  the  English  Department, Alan, and I  my h u s b a n d , who h a s c o n t r i b u t e d  computing should  allowed teachers  time, p a t i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n  expertise.  also  like  to  thank  the English  me t o d i s t r i b u t e my q u e s t i o n n a i r e who t o o k t h e t i m e t o c o m p l e t e i t .  100 I n s t r u c t o r s  who  and t h o s e s t u d e n t s  amd  1  CHAPTER  The  S t u d e n t s who beyond  high  school  those s k i l l s and  to  require  which w i l l  recent  educators,  extend  their  educational  goals  b o t h knowledge o f and p r a c t i c e i n  e n a b l e them t o d e a l w i t h  a  new  breadth  survey  years  much  concern  of u n i v e r s i t y entrants.  of the d i f f e r i n g  perspectives  g r a d e 12 l e v e l a n d b y r e c e n t  presently indicate  completing  which  expressed  by  first  high  year  held  It  i s  felt  that  a  by t h o s e who t e a c h a t  school  graduates  university  would  who serve  are to  f o r t h e Study.  Canadian  indicate  serious  been  whether o r n o t such c o n c e r n i s j u s t i f i e d .  1. 1 R a t i o n a l e  The  has  as w e l l a s by the p u b l i c , o v e r t h e p u r p o r t e d l a c k o f  language a b i l i t y  1978  PxQblem  depth o f m a t e r i a l s . In  the  intend  ONE  lack  public i s that  being  first  o f language  year  fluency.  exposed  to  university  media  articles  students  show a  The T o r o n t o S t a r , J a n u a r y 2 0 ,  reports:  The u n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o s a y s f e w e r t h a n 50% o f 535 students who took remedial English writing classes were a b l e t o p a s s a b a s i c t e s t a f t e r 10 weeks. The  Toronto Star, i n February,  1978, c o n t i n u e d  its  report  from  2  Waterloo: "Our standards a r e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y modest," s a y s Ken Ledbetter, A s s o c i a t e Dean of Arts for special programs... L e d b e t t e r s a y s "many s t u d e n t s w r i t e b e t t e r t h a n one d e c e n t p a r a g r a p h , [ s i c ] b u t many c a n ' t . It's not t h e i r f a u l t . I t ' s t h e f a u l t o f t h e s c h o o l system. Many e l e m e n t a r y and secondary teachers can't teach writing. " Again,  from  the T o r o n t o  Star. January  24,  1978:  Beginning in 1980, students in arts and s c i e n c e s c o u r s e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o w i l l be required to pass an English literacy test to remain in u n i v e r s i t y . . . U n d e r t h e new p o l i c y , s t u d e n t s who fail the literacy test will be allowed to continue i n s c h o o l f o r one y e a r b e f o r e b e i n g retested. If they fail a second time, they will be r e f u s e d f u r t h e r reqistration. The  V a n c o u v e r Sun,  February  6,  1978  reported:  I f B.C. y o u n g s t e r s t o o k as t h e i r h e r o a u t h o r R o b e r t s o n Davies instead of Bobby Orr, they p r o b a b l y would a r r i v e i n u n i v e r s i t y with f a r b e t t e r writing skills than they are n o w , . . p r e s e n t day s o c i e t y d o e s n ' t p u t s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g skills...(Alan Davie, head of English and Modern Languages at V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e ) admitted U0% of first year University of B.C. s t u d e n t s failed their Christmas examination. But the exam itself was extremely difficult, at times c o n f u s i n g . "One also has t o c o n s i d e r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e s u l t s were based on a student population which contains far more students from disadvantaqed backgrounds than ever before." Many o f t h e 3,300 s t u d e n t s who w r o t e t h e t e s t do not even use Enqlish as their f i r s t l a n g u a g e , he continued., There are also more a d u l t s r e t u r n i n q t o s c h o o l who are havinq difficult [ s i c ] coping with new literature proqrams. And t h e e f f e c t s o f a q e n e r a t i o n o f y o u n q s t e r s who s p e n t t h e i r waking h o u r s q l u e d t o a t e l e v i s i o n s c r e e n a r e a l s o makinq t h e m s e l v e s f e l t , ,  Davie American less  rigid  i s .hinting schools. than  at  a  problem  already  That i s , u n i v e r s i t y  t h e y were a d e c a d e ago.  acknowledged  admissions If this  policies  trend  is  in are not  3  already of  p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l scene,  Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s  Director decline  of  as enrolment d e c l i n e s .  Admissions  i n admission  i t i s part of the future  at  the  standards  University  as being  William  Kent,  o f Toronto  sees a  imminent  (Ubyssey.  Harch  8, 1978). As t h e s e newspaper e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e , the  question  students  role  the quality  In  the  in  providing  United  skills  information  this  Canadian  experience  in  Canadian  of u n i v e r s i t y  are  i s similar.  a trend t o provide s k i l l s occurring  area  deficiencies.  have assumed  development.  in  being g i v e n t o those  educational  States, u n i v e r s i t i e s  Canadian s t u d i e s which  quality  of education  who have no d i s c e r n i b l e  available those  of  t h e media a r e r a i s i n g  Though  i s from American  available  suggest  There i s every  centres at  the  the  institutions.  an a c t i v e bulk  of  sources, that  the  indication  that  university  P u b l i c concern  level  i s  over the  e n t r a n t s i s g r o w i n g . , The e x i s t e n c e o f and  p e r c e i v e d need f o r u n i v e r s i t y  r e a d i n g programmes  seem t o p r o v i d e  some j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c f o r i t s c o n c e r n . ,  1 . 2 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Studjj  The  aim o f t h i s  following  2)  the  to  and t e a c h e r s c o n c u r  of instruction  Do f i r s t - y e a r  rate  was  provide  insight  into  the  questions:  1) Do s t u d e n t s frequency  study  same  estimation  of selected reading  university literacy  i n their  students and  and  high  communication  of  the  skills? school skills  teachers as  being  4  important  to u n i v e r s i t y  3)  Do  grade  be  stronger  12  study?  teachers  in  feel  certain  their  skill  university-bound students  areas  than  do  the  to  students  themselves? 4)  Do  t e a c h e r s and  need  How  many  Do  skills  1,3  in their  grade  12  the  t o reading a t the s e n i o r l e v e l s  E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s i n the  i n the t e a c h i n g of students  of  and  L i m i t a t i o n s of the  factors  interpreting  teachers  were 61  session  at  must  agree  be  on  standard s e c t i o n s ,  Of  into  sections  these,  11  of  literature  must r e g i s t e r  Students  i n E n g l i s h 100.  on t h e E d u c a t i o n a l  Research  English  Test  and  in  than  all  small  may  first  represents  standard  16  interest  100  1977-78  have  a  winter 50  were  greater  of  this  O.B.C..students  do s u f f i c i e n t l y British  for a Z section in  the  the  year  who  Institute opt  when  do t h e r e g u l a r s e c t i o n s  population included  i n s t r u c t o r s expressed  reading  consideration  were Z s e c t i o n s and  which e m p h a s i z e c o m p o s i t i o n ,  student  should teach  study:  Z s e c t i o n s of E n g l i s h  e m p h a s i s on t h e s t u d y  Placement  who  school?  taken  of this  E n g l i s h 100  O.B.C,  had  Study -  the r e s u l t s  1) T h e r e  sample have  reading?  d u r i n g the s e n i o r year of high  Several  The  views c o n c e r n i n g  school?  training 6)  differ  for increased attention  high 5)  students  study and  in participating  Columbia^  of E n g l i s h is  well  100.  relatively  Z s e c t i o n s whose in this  project.  5  2)  Results  a r e based on t h e number of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s returned.  Some Heads o f E n q l i s h d e c l i n e d t o respond The  population  of  t h i s study  t o the  questionnaire.  represents a sample of the t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n of grade 12 E n q l i s h t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e o f B.C. , 3)  One  qrade 12 E n q l i s h teacher i n each B.C. s e n i o r s c h o o l was  asked t o answer a questionnaire,„ In s i x cases, teachers  involved  The mean o f these r e p l i e s was  used to make a s i n g l e composite response  questionnaire.  4) An i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f r e p l i e s were  5) The r e s u l t s o f t h i s survey  The  returned  i n s t r u c t o r s t o warrant t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s  terms  and  12  i n t h e E n q l i s h proqramae made c o p i e s of t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o t h e s c h o o l .  100  a l l grade  by  Enqlish  study.  a r e recorded i n p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e  cannot be q e n e r a l i z e d beyond t h e present p o p u l a t i o n .  a n a l y s i s o f the data o f f e r s no  more  than  possible  trends  which should be examined.  Chapter  2  reviews  assess t h e r e a d i n g students.  The  and  procedure,  the  results  the  skills  l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n q the need t o  of  college-  university-bound  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the study, i n c l u d i n g p o p u l a t i o n  i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter of  and  the  3.  Chapter  4  presents  two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used i n t h i s study.  A  d i s c u s s i o n o f those r e s u l t s , recommendations and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e given  i n the f i n a l chapter.  the main body of t h e t h e s i s .  Appendices and b i b l i o g r a p h y f o l l o w  6  CHAPTER  Review o f t h e  Over  the  have o p t e d  past  literature  education, the echo  Beading  further  i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f  education  data  .Though  the  available  1977  indicated  province  The  that  intended  were i n t e n d i n g t o t r a n s f e r  planned  programme.  student  the  Canadian  British  Columbia  of  substantial  population i n the  grade  to university.  to u n i v e r s i t y  after  Seven p o i n t s i x  t o pursue c a r e e r goals through A  a  had  12 A an  percent  community  proportion of the  province, then,  the  American  21.351  t o go on  of  of  concerning  experience.  students  most  direction  p e r i o d a t a community c o l l e g e .  college  grade  educational  12  goals  h i g h s c h o o l (-p. 111, -Test Results)--,  The  review  increase  in,  programmes, t h e campuses,  and  s e n i o r secondary current  Literature  reflects  American  the  10.0%  students  beyond  the  in  initial of  little  Assessment o f  students  decades,  f o r post secondary  available  scene  two  TWO  of l i t e r a t u r e university position teacher level;  t r a c e s the present and  of  college  those  need  for,  sponsored  programmes  on  and  reading university  a w a r e n e s s o f r e a d i n g as  a subject at  the  finally,  profile  the  i t presents  s t a t u s of reading i n secondary  a  schools.  of  7  2.1  Identifying  the  Need  for  Oniversity  Sfionsgred  Beading  sponsored  reading  P£P3Ismmes  The  argument t h a t a need f o r u n i v e r s i t y  programmes a t an  exists  earlier  the  United  risk  students  b e c a u s e o f an  l e v e l must States,  be  considered  t h e r e i s an  are being  apparent  failure  i n two  i n the  ways.,  system  First,  acknowledgement t h a t more  admitted.  Aaronson  (1972)  in  high-  states:  As we a p p r o a c h the last quarter of the twentieth century, we find that the composition of our educational bag is obviously chanqinq. Hiqher e d u c a t i o n i s no l o n q e r t h e p r i v i l e q e d s a n c t u a r y o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and financial elite. The gates have opened t o allow entrance to a broader spectrum o f the population includinq the u n d e r p r i v i l e q e d and the a c a d e m i c a l l y weaker s t u d e n t , (p,i34)  The  results of t h i s  students  are quaranteed  according to Carter university meet  policy  feels  that  embark  upon  degree  experience, Kingston skills  continue  success that  Still  others  into  problem of the  States  of  (where many  all  basic s k i l l s  have had  entering  reqard  to  Henderson  encourages students  academic  students  been,  in reading  study" (p.1).  "without or  some  f o r socio-economic  the  third  college  r e a d i n g which r e s u l t e d  lack s k i l l s That  for  programmes  (1957) s a y s  s c h o o l and  "one  t h e open door p o l i c y  probable  late.  that  need t o d e v e l o p  minimal requirements  (1976)  United  e n r o l m e n t i n a s t a t e c o l l e g e ) has  (1970),  freshmen  i n the  to  to  previous  skills"  (p. 464) .  have  learned  basic  neqative  feelings  toward  i n poor preparedness.  Others  reasons.  inadequately  prepared  students  forseeable future i s prophesized  by  will  Shepherd  8  (1977) : W i t h i n t h e n e x t 10 y e a r s , t h e d e c l i n e i n birth rate will make i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e c r u i t i n c r e a s i n g numbers cf students from among unprepared high school graduates and adults who have been o u t o f s c h o o l a number o f y e a r s , (p.497)  T h e r e i s , however, a s e c o n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of who  the preparedness are  present  deficient  i n reading  at university  policies? In  The the  professors  student"  United  by  (p. 5 9 ) .  Ten  adults of  and  certainly  true  formation  of s k i l l s  by  skills  Haygor  that  one  (1973)  are  admissions  no. says the  ability  "college  country  of  situation  the  are  college  appears to  have  " s t u d e n t s come i n t o c o l l e g e we  used to t a k e  of  state  the  for  institutions  lack the necessary  Tremcnti  (1965) i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h another  though  resulting  university level  diversified,  skills  that  factors  c e n t r e s a t the  those  (1975) add  who  granted  (p. 200).  students  Guttinger  students  relaxed  (1955)  the  the  same s t u d e n t s  throughout  (1966) s t a t e s ,  u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n i s so recognition  Are  more  reading  the r e a d i n g or study  Vavoulis  the  Beamer  years l a t e r ,  Hewman  c o l l e g e freshmen"  skills  seem t o be  States,  lack  entrants.  because o f  other  the  become worse. without  only  answer would  like  bewildered  in  of university  t h e r e i s an  i t in  i s that  f o r college success"  dimension  to t h i s  the the  increasing  t h a t "many p o t e n t i a l l y  t h i s statement,  is  able  (p.163).  Larsen  problem:  The improvement of reading skills might be an important s t r a t e g y f o r s u r v i v a l under t h e c o m p e t i t i v e system of higher education in many of our best universities. The a b i l i t y t o g a i n e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e s e  and  9  i n s t i t u t i o n s and t o m a i n t a i n an a d e q u a t e grade point average could be directly related to proficiency in r e a d i n g and s t u d y s k i l l s , , . , I t i s n o t known how many i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o m p e t e n t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were n o t a b l e t o make the s c o r e r e g u i r e d f o r college entrance because o f p o o r l y developed r e a d i n g s k i l l s . , (p. 123)  Some  students  apparently  are  without  effective  entering  the  basic  development  Universities diversified  in  of  the  more  and  this  skills.  the  will  Canadian  institutions,  generalized entrants  2.2  population  disquiet  araonqst  Increasing  difficulties  are  makes  for  the  admission existed formal was  a  for  of  the  indication  that  seems  more  trend  to  be  of  public alike.  startlinq  some  similar  quality  Those e s t i m a t e s skill  a  in more  university  :  Programmes  statement  attempt t o h e l p 1937,  Heading c e n t r e s Lowe  (1970)  colleqe students the Paar survey  proqrammes on  call  centres exist  of second language o r  many y e a r s .  In  admitting  that  "readinq  the  candidates.,  seven r e m e d i a l  the  skills.  (p.24).  upgrading  i n 1915.  the  for  run  that reading  for  a  there  reguired  p r e v a l e n t amonq c o l l e q e f r e s h m e n ; e s t i m a t e s  from 64% t o 95X" assumption  the  in  Numbers o f U n i v e r s i t y . R e a d i n g  (1961)  Shaw  concerning and  are  accounts  result  colleges  reading  There i s every  However,  educators  and  skills  mature  States  d e f i c i e n c i e s i n freshmen declining  reading  United  population  universities  into  question  at u n i v e r s i t y  f o r the  solely  b e n e f i t of  open  on A m e r i c a n campuses have reports that the with  readinq  i n d i c a t e d the  A m e r i c a n campuses.  By  earliest problems  presence 1942,  of  Lowe  10  says,  the  1947,  Triggs  survey  reported  165 c o l l e g e s o r u n i v e r s i t i e s By  1972,  Sweiger  reported  832 j u n i o r c o l l e g e s l i s t e d Association reading  of  Junior  programme,  representative reading  of  department  to  that the r e s u l t s  revealed  that  guestionnaires  junior  Of  programmes  (p.2).  o f a survey  of  i n t h e 1971 d i r e c t o r y o f t h e A m e r i c a n  288  the  programme.  had r e a d i n g  Colleges  Of  258 s u c h programmes a n d i n  college  those,  6555  only  169 h a d no  judged  to  population, reported  be  86% had a  the  English  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e a d i n g  course. In to  1975,  2,783  S m i t h , E n r i g h t , and D e v r i a n  campuses  universities  listed  of  the  skills  accredited  a  questionnaire colleges  i n t h e 1972-73, 1973-74 A m e r i c a n  D i r e c t o r y . , One t h o u s a n d two returned  3,389  sent  guestionnaires.  programmes and 9.3H  hundred Of  those,  planned  to  centres  i n t h e n e x t two y e a r s .  two y e a r  c o l l e g e s and 4 3 % o f a l l f o u r  and  Educational  eighty-five  611 r e p o r t e d develop  year  or  having  learning  I t was r e p o r t e d  and  38% study  skills  t h a t 781 o f a l l  colleges  had  such  centres. Hayward determine  (1971) p o l l e d C a n a d i a n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t o  the  status  of reading  She  f o u n d t h a t o f 60 u n i v e r s i t i e s  to  the  guestionnaire.  instruction  and  universities the  138  one  did  colleges  guestionnaire.  Of was  programmes on t h e s e s u r v e y e d , 53 o r 88%  campuses. responded  these,  32  o r 53$ o f f e r e d  planning  to  do  so.  n o t h a v e any form o f r e a d i n g surveyed,  10 5  or  16%  Fifty-two o f f e r e d reading  reading  Twenty-one  instruction.  responded courses.  to  Of the  Fifty-three  11  did  not.  recent  A planned f o l l o w u p , which  data,  Griese  o f Heading  (1967)  readinq  included  have  yielded  sore  was n o t d o n e .  2 . 3 The S t a t u s  or not  would  feels  that  programmes  at the college  institutions  Programmes  t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n as t o  in  the  United  States  should  l e v e l e v e n t h o u g h 75% o f p o s t  have r e a d i n g  whether be  secondary  programmes.  Beadinq as a s u b j e c t i n t h e c o l l e g e curriculum holds anything but a secure p o s i t i o n , i t i s being taught i n v a r i o u s ways i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c o l l e g e s but less a legitimate subject of study f o r which credit is g r a n t e d t h a n as a r e m e d i a l e f f o r t - t o bring certain students up t o standards, to t e a c h them what t h e y s h o u l d have l e a r n e d b e f o r e c o m i n g t o c o l l e q e . (p. 7) Griese  points out that  courses.  Huslin  different schools  v e r y few c o l l e g e s q i v e c r e d i t  (1975)  supports  American c o l l e q e s only  The g e n e r a l  qranted  concensus  credit was t h a t  However,  Smith e t a l (1975),  of t h e i r  respondents  that,  since  their  concluded that reading the  response those  he  Of t h e 177  surveyed,  f o r r e a d i n q improvement such courses  in their  s h o u l d be  survey,  credit..  r a t e was o n l y institutions  t o be i m p o r t a n t  o f f e r i n g of c r e d i t  statement.  universities  offered course  only  programme  and  this  f o r readinq  68  courses. optional.  c o n c l u d e d t h a t 65H It  must  be  noted  33%, i t c o u l d w e l l be which  ( w h i c h might  f o r taking the course)  consider  their  be s i g n i f i e d by  bothered  to  reply  to the questionnaire. Hayward's university  (1971)  level,  Canadian  study  readinq courses  suggests  carry  that,  at  w i t h them t h e t a i n t  the of  12  remediation.  Though  institutions  offering  of  credit  for  institution  the  at  the  college  the  52  r e a d i n g programmes a l s o o f f e r e d some  sort  programme,  post  weakness (1971) such  secondary readily  found  basic  the  as  in  the  summaries o r read  that "specific  high  of  university  level,  no  study  skills  programmes  at  that there are  incoming  many a r e a s  freshmen.  of  Butcofsky  p r o b l e m s among U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e f r e s h m e n i n  many s t u d e n t s  concluded  and  l e v e l suggest  apparent  skills  h e a d i n g s and found  the  23  offered credit.  Those i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g the  at  level  school  other  to  use  for  Tremonti  outside  sources,  parts of a text e f f e c t i v e l y .  word-by-word. study  level  c o l l e g e . . • ** (p. 198).  failure  In  habits...need students  short, t o be  who  He  Butcofsky  r e i n f o r c e d at  intend  to  enter  (1965) drew t h e same c o n c l u s i o n :  High school and college students are expected to generalize, draw inferences and conclusions, and appreciate subtleties of style and content...The a s s i g n m e n t s a r e more d i f f i c u l t and complex and those newcomers to the c o l l e g e campus must adapt t h e i r r e a d i n g t o meet t h e i r new n e e d s . Host o f t h e s e s k i l l s s h o u l d be m a s t e r e d a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . (p.81)  Larsen better level the  and  Guttinger  reading  instruction  i n order t h a t the university  necessary school  (1975)  might  also  in  encountered  by  developing  skills  order  college would  to the  made more e a s i l y .  t o encourage the t e a c h i n g  level  to prevent freshmen, be  the  i s reguired at the  adjustment  be  support  idea  secondary  academic They  that school  demands  of  feel  that i t i s  of reading at the  secondary  some o f t h e "Then,  maintained  reading  the in  problems  continuity  relation  to  of the  13  maturity  2•4  process of the  Teacher  How  Bole at the  Secondary  aware a r e t e a c h e r s  graduates at  reader"(p.123).  may  not  that  approach  be w e l l p r e p a r e d  (1974)  s h o u l d be  notes  that  sizable  teachers  should  developmental vital  Shepherd  be  for the reading  process  if  information (1972)  r e a d e r uses  of  their  requirements  that  necessary  who  1964; must  strategies  active  they  will  Content  important,  is  s t u d e n t s must be  more  content  area  in  this  provided  at  with  university.  a b r o a d body o f t e c h n i q u e s understanding"  t h e r e i s no Palmer,  help  1975;  the  Bobinson,  students  major  be  importance.  g i v e n t h e means  Awareness a t t h e S e c o n d a r y  Level•  the  to  development 1961)  a  and i t  acquire  materials.  to  which  to  (p.173).  automatic  independently.  Teacher  and  part  need  f o r d e a l i n g w i t h new  of  structured  "the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s as a p p l i e d  (1965) s e e s r e a d i n g a t t h e s e n i o r g r a d e s affair.  The  t h e s t u d e n t s a r e t o be  stress that  (Kingston,  and  s i n c e new  students.  an  t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n and  i s the teacher  systematic  of the  which  states  Authorities skills  a  accepting  the s u b j e c t areas comprises  2.5  number  taken a t the s e n i o r grades  complex t a s k s a r e b e i n g a s k e d  of  a  university? Hodges  the  Level  two  the  Hichaels pronged  However, e q u a l l y to  master  content  14  The active  theory part  in  educational  teachers should  students  the  who  hierarchy  of  have  be t a k i n g  an  post-secondary  skills  they  will  reason  f o r the  need f o r  beyond h i g h s c h o o l . .  educators  feel  reading s k i l l s  may  describes  difficulties  he  all  clear,  giving  goals  g r o w t h i n and Seme  is  the  be due  that  the  to teacher  ignorance.  i n content  neglect  Courtney  area t e a c h i n g .  of  (1969)  Teachers,  says, 1) c a n n o t i d e n t i f y t h e b a s i c r e a d i n g skills and are n o t aware o f how t h e s e e f f e c t c l a s s r o o m e f f i c i e n c y 2) a r e not aware o f t h e r e a d i n g demands o f their own area 3) make assignments without giving directions or e s t a b l i s h i n g purpose 4) fail to provide any specific background in r e f e r r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l h e l p , and 5) f a i l t o g i v e a s e n s e o f s u c c e s s t o s t u d e n t s and to stimulate i n t r i n s i c motivation. (p.29)  Braam and reading  Walker  skills  providing  experts  for  p o i n t out  developmental area  takes subject  2«6  High  In  1966,  not  stress  any  that  skills  that reading in  School  to  while  Bobinson,  must  be  each teacher with  1975;  in  is  be t a u g h t .  honouring  knowledge  result  knowledge  skills  which  active part while  (Hodges, 1974;  that  automatically  training,  approach  an  the  How  may  skills  pre-reguisite  (1973)  of  teachers  the  basic  Various  reading  a  part  of  a  i n each s u b j e c t the  Shepherd,  demands  of  1972).  Surveys  much r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y  i s taking place i n high  Applebee r e p o r t e d t h e r e s u l t s  of a  two  and  schools? one  half  15  years  survey  1  programmes. good  15,7%  selected  The s c h o o l s  English  teachers  of  courses.  the time,  4.5% o f t h e t i m e .  That  skills  suggested  that teachers  the necessary  regarded  the  attention  in  the  was  senior  high  (1967) a t t e m p t e d  to  programmes a t 16 s e c o n d a r y  Of  t h e 47.7% o f s c h o o l s r e s p o n d i n g  the  teachers  reading teachers. inadequately  time  trained.  schools  in  role  teachers York  and  and f i v e  had  were a l s o  (1968)  schools i n the province o f B r i t i s h reading  programmes  programmes  were  developmental. had  in  student. programmes  given: I t was  nc f o r m a l  schools  were b e i n g  training  found in  surveyed  Columbia  provided. remedial,  33  of  the  to  schools  to  be  ignorant of,  216  skills. secondary  ascertain  what  Three d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  t h a t 77 t e a c h e r s i n 116 reading  Five  part-time  college-bound  instruction.  the province o f f e r e d a course  Only  State.  found  a r e a t e a c h e r s seemed  Aarendt  of  i n the  training.  or r e j e c t e d , t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n teaching r e a d i n g Chronister  years  had mastered  the  New  had no f o r m a l  teachers  Subject  to  t o the g u e s t i o n n a i r e , 63% o f  reading teachers  The r e a d i n g  given  school  assess  reading  full-  only  earlier.  area teachers as well as t h a t o f reading  had  composition  being  content  schools  having  and r e a d i n g  assumed t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s  involved i n reading  English  as  time,  13.5% o f t h e time  reading s k i l l s  Braam and Roehm  school  t h a t i n g r a d e 12 c l a s s e s ,  61.5% o f  little  training  high  were  I t was f o u n d  language  reading  all  i n t h e study  emphasized l i t e r a t u r e  of  American  for the  operated  and  programmes Only  seven  college-bound developmental  and most o f t h e s e were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of English  16  teachers.  In c o n c l u d i n g  Chronister  the  province's university-bound 1970,  Ahrendt  r e p o r t , one  by  In  and  their  Bowren  217  schools  students.  conducted  teaching  reading  Fahy province  had  a survey  a reading  surveyed  accepted  skills  He f o u n d  senior  in  principle  and  secondary 1)  3)  preparation  and  own and t h e i r  and 4) t h e  how  importance  accept  However,  teachers  are,theoretically, skills  attempting  Fahy's  to  t o the reading  schools' e f f o r t s  conclusions  into  teach  evaluated  attached  instruction  to  their to teach certain  programme.  that English  teachers  indicate  reading  that  though  s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e attempt  t o teach  i n s e n i o r high s c h o o l s  t o put theory  to teach  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for teaching  skills.  reading  English  related  teachers  A 65% q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n i n d i c a t e d do  extent  what  teachers  elements of a high s c h o o l reading  Alberta  out  i n the  responsibility  procedures  programme,  in  79  schools  E n g l i s h teachers attempted  employ  their  to  the  instruction  reading,  that only  programme and t h a t 16% o f t h o s e  of Alberta t o a s c e r t a i n :  r e a d i n g , 2) t o what e x t e n t certain  o f a s a m p l e 217 h i g h  were u n g u a l i f i e d t o do s o .  (1972)  teachers  made  was t h a t more a t t e n t i o n be g i v e n t o  s c h o o l s i n t h e s t a t e o f New M e x i c o . of  recommendation  (and  practice),  in  strong  many  cases  factors  are  inhibit  success: H i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n A l b e r t a a r e aware o f t h e need for reading i n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e high school l e v e l , a r e f a i r l y well academically prepared to undertake i t , and, i n their own eyes, are at l e a s t somewhat successful i n their efforts. In t h i s respect the picture i s bright. I n terms of a c t u a l practice, however, t h e 55 schools f r o m w h i c h d a t a were g a t h e r e d r e p o r t e d l i t t l e  17  c a u s e f o r j o y : g r e a t r e l i a n c e on R e a d i n g 10 ( w h i c h i t will be r e c a l l e d , i s i n t e n d e d t o move c a n d i d a t e s f o r corrective reading instruction the "educational casualties" i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t r e a m ) as t h e major f o r m a t f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n was e v i d e n t ; l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s c h o o l s had an a p p o i n t e d r e a d i n g t e a c h e r , d e s p i t e t h e f i n d i n g t h a t 79.2 p e r c e n t o f the sample rated the presence on the staff "very i m p o r t a n t " (45.1 p e r c e n t " e s s e n t i a l " ) t o t h e program, and 21.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p o n s e l i s t e d s u c h a t e a c h e r as " t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r " , i n r e p l y t o the free response question; and l e s s than one-guarter of the s c h o o l s had a r e a d i n q p o l i c y , and only one of the schools had a p o l i c y a t t e m p t i n q a r e a d i n g program f o r a l l students (p.115).  & Freed nature  survey (1973). and  "certification instruction" improvement"  o f 485 The  American  school d i s t r i c t s  purpose o f t h i s study  extent  of  standards and (p.199).  41 s t a t e s r e s p o n d e d .  to  readinq of  those  "investigate Fifty  percent  was  was  to  programs", reponsible the  conducted  "establish  by the  to  examine  for  readinq  perceived  need  of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  for in  18  Freed of  found  t h a t "83%  courses  in  requirements require  one  (p.199). and  do,  school t o be  course  Again,  the  5%  had  schools  both for  268  instruction  placed the  teachers"  the  teachers In  should, selected  were  21%  found  of  Sasakatchewan s c h o o l s r e f l e c t s senior levels  for the  from  of the the  c o l l e g e bound.  for  readinq  a hiqh  instruction  (1976) s u r v e y  schools  Canada  and  instruction  into  reading  3736 o f  percent  the  responsibility.  that replied  of  certification  English  reading  number  One  secondary  400  polled,  Again,  instruction  p r o p o r t i o n of the  were f o u n d  to  be  most on  briqht  of the  teachers untrained  o f Narang*s c o n c l u s i o n s  academically  a  students  was are  i n secondary schools"(p.60). .  Kinzer's Columbia  needs  load. , In  that  assume t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "the r e a d i n q  secondary  at the  onus  their  instruction,/  had  Moreover,  for readinq  of  s e t a minimum  i s that English teachers  reading  of  not  E n g l i s h . , Seventeen  E n g l i s h and  schools  teacher.  neqlected  both  for  (1973) s u r v e y  the  responsible  that  in reading  neglect of reading  English  to  school  E n g l i s h teachers  Of  part  much o f t h e r e a d i n q  Narang*s  school.  a  the a s s u m p t i o n  responsible  similar  as  secondary  districts,  districts,  only  reading  for  take  o f t h e s t a t e s do  reflects the  United  1) o r q a n i z e d  c l a s s e s , 3)  the  status of readinq i n f i n d i n q s of e a r l i e r  States. reading  He  reading  disadvantaged  reader  instruction,  5)  2)  c l a s s e s , 4) remedial  British  studies i n  classified  activity*  c o r r e c t i v e reading  subject-area  Kinzer  of the  readinq  developmental content-  c l a s s e s , and  or 6)  programmes.  canvassed  three  h u n d r e d and  thirty-four  schools  by  19  questionnaire. total)  were  seems t o be  Of  considered little  quantity, quality for  these,  Columbia.  questionnaires  t o be u s a b l e . no  information  i n the province"  of reading  (88.8%  He c a u t i o n s  or s c o p e o f t h e r e a d i n q  secondary schools  availability  or  294  available  that as  instructional  (p.1).  Table  of  the  "there to  the  programs  I shows t h e  programmes i n g r a d e s 8 t o 12 i n B r i t i s h  20  Table  Availability  of  I  Secondary Beading  Programs i n  Grades 8  t o 12  Grade 8  9  10  11  12  developmental  125  94  68  32  27  corrective  113  98  69  26  17  remedial  138  117  85  30  24  87  75  65  30  26  185  179  178  111  108  Program  Type  d i s a d v a n t a ged  total with  # of schools this  From "A Columbia  grade  S t a t u s S u r v e y o f B e a d i n g Programs i n Secondary  University  S c h o o l s " by C.  of British  Columbia,  K. 1976.  British  K i n z e r , M.A.  Thesis,  21  Table I I  Availability  and Types o f Secondary Beading Programs i n J u n i o r and Senior Schools  jr. program  type  no.  secondary  s r . secondary  % of t o t a l  no.  % of t o t a l  remedial  74  89.2  10  71.4  developmental  52  62.2  9  64.3  corrective  59  71.1  8  57.1  disadvantaged  42  50.6  9  64.3  3  39.8  5  35.7  content  From "A S t a t u s Survey o f Beading Programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l s " by C. K. K i n z e r , H. A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1976.  22  Table I I I  Special  Training  i n Beading I n s t r u c t i o n  Secondary  special training  no s p e c i a l  of British  Columbia  Beading Teachers  i n reading  instruction  34  15.9  41  19.2  82  38.3  undergraduate c o n c e n t r a t i o n  36  16.8  graduate degree  21  9.8  inservice  training  # o f t e a c h e r s I of tot,  training  1 or 2 p r o f e s s i o n a l  From "A Columbia  courses  S t a t u s Survey o f Beading Secondary  University  Programs i n B r i t i s h  S c h o o l s " by C.,K.  of British  Columbia,  1976.  K i n z e r , M.A.  Thesis,  23  Kinzer developmental  found  that  reading  to a l e s s e r  g r a d e s " (p. 42) „•, T a b l e reading  Kinzer's  the a v a i l a b i l i t y higher  j u n i o r and  results  than  do  to  lower  availability  s e n i o r grades.  and  As  instruction  and  the  stress  secondary types  with  show an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  of r e a d i n g  developmental  English  necessarily Beading polled  qualified  Assessment teachers)  of  other between  progression  to  reading s k i l l s ' .  teacher  science  and  social  position  than  are  i s i n the  The  of  are  British  best  Columbia -  a v e r a g e o f 4351  position  are  English"  Kinzer i n B r i t i s h  in  by  of  practical instruction'!  (p.36,  C o l u m b i a and  present  reading  Table  that and  however, t h a t  more i n f a v o u r  terms,  (of  t o determine  t o note,  to not  r e g a r d i n g the statement  I t i s interesting  teachers  since,  training  Summary  * Agree*  studies teachers  responsible f o r reading  The  teachers  of  this  Instructional Fahy(1972) i n  recommend t h a t E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s have a d d i t i o n a l  courses,  reported  English  {1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t "an  teach  Alberta  although  indicated  Both  programmes a r e o f t e n l i n k e d  reading teachers.  English  Practices),  reading  classroom  «the  of  extent  seem  grades.  Again, the  grades  I I i n d i c a t e s the  programmmes a t  studies,  "higher  opinion  reading  holds  them  I I I shows t h e  level  i n s t r u c t o r s i n the  province,  as  Kinzer.  results  of t h e  (1977)  suggests  r e a d i n g programmes  in  f a c t o r s s t a n d i n g i n the  British an  the way  Columbia  Beading  Assessment:  awareness of the need f o r province o f an  but  points  secondary  out  immediate p r a c t i c a l  serious  solution:  24  The p i c t u r e which emerges from t h e combined d a t a i s one o f i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the importance of reading skills f o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s c r e a t e d by t h e demand o f t h e c u r r e n t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and the s t u d e n t ' s n e e d s . . . . T h e r e a r e a number o f f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e more c o u l d be done. F i r s t , even i n a l i m i t e d s e n s e , f o r a m a j o r i t y o f s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s t h e r e i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r teaching r e a d i n g at a l l , , T e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y 1 1 % 30% of secondary students receive specific reading instruction regularly. Second, t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e of p e r s o n n e l e d u c a t e d i n methods o f t e a c h i n g reading at secondary s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i r d , while secondary s c h o o l teachers agree i n the primary importance of reading skills development at that level, they appear to a c t u a l l y spend r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e time in developing these s k i l l s . F i n a l l y , s i n c e secondary school teachers in the content fields agree t h a t t h e y have a v i t a l r o l e t o play i n developing reading s k i l l s relative to their subject areas, the l a c k o f s u c h programs must be o f some c o n c e r n , (p.40)  Surveys  in  English  teachers  though  they  both  lack  the  most c o n t e n t -  at the s e n i o r l e v e l s as being T h e r e seems t o b e Canada the  and  the  the  qualified secondary  personnel  teachers  school,  This  though s p e c i a l i z e d on  responsible  reading skills  post-secondary  S t a t e s show  be r e a d i n g t e a c h e r s to  of  of reading  States.  reading teachers.  to  United  do  an  area t e a c h e r s , they  a dearth  United  the  training  s e n i o r l e v e l s of high school.  exist,  plan  and  are o f t e n expected  may  Moreover, l i k e  Canada  their  job. role  content. programmes  in  both  i s e s p e c i a l l y apparent  Even for  where s u c h the  programmes  course  As s t u d e n t s  progress  instruction  often  are needed, e s p e c i a l l y  education.  even  adequate  see  that  may  not  through  decreases by  those  at do be the  even who  25  2,7  Summary  The basic  Canadian  skills,  present  United  institutions types  States,  1971  though the The  secondary Margaret  at  suggests  shows  a  secondary  i n both  E a r l y wrote o f  over  apparently  a justified  and  that  reading  is  Canadian remediation  lack  high s c h o o l  sponsored however,  post-secondary  surprising  the  by  worry?  sparse;  varies.  Canada and  lack of  possessed  university-  programmes  level,  the  been a marked i n c r e a s e ,  information  s t a t u s of such  the  level,  skills,  college-  also o f f e r i n g  literature  programmes  in  Canadian  study  are  concern  shows t h a t t h e r e has  programmes.  Hayward's  reading  entrants., Is t h i s  literature  the  reading  including  university  The in  public i s registering  especially  of  various  of  reading  a t the  United States.  senior  In  1969,  programmes:  One e x p e c t e d s h i f t f a i l e d t o o c c u r . T h a t i s , we might have e x p e c t e d that, as terminal students in high school dropped from about 80% i n t h e e a r l y 1950s t o less than 50% in the 1960s, reading improvement programs would have v e e r e d t o w a r d s e r v i n g t h e c o l l e g e bound. (p. 535)  Attention students  go  to  reading  into  college-bound  instruction  higher  grades. ,  "neglected".  instruction (Freed,  decrease  Programmes  for  are r a r e ; r a r e t o the extent  Saskatchewan c a l l s t h e r e a d i n g students  appears t o  was  1973;  The  apparent Kinzer,  needs o f the  1976).  American This  and state  formal reading  Narang  the  (1973) i n  academically  phenomenon o f e v e r in  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the lack of  that  as  bright  decreasing  reading  Canadian  studies  of a f f a i r s  instruction  may  taken  be by  26  those  responsible  classroom  for  reading  (Bowren, 1970;  Braam  instraction &  Boehm,  in  the  1967;  secondary  Kinzer,  1976;  H a r a n g , 1973) . It  is  primarily British accept with  the  English  responsible f o r teaching  Columbia Heading  who  which c o l l e a g u e s Assessment,  studies,  such as  recommend courses  that  1977;  English  responsible  for  teacher  the  are given the  default  s i n c e , though c o n t e n t  structured student's (Hodges, The  (British  experts  1974;  life  as  Palmer,  literature  s c h o o l as translated  the theory into  reading  skills  1975;  do  Bobinson,  during  of reading  practical  to take  skills.  theoretically  their  instruction.  assign area  1977)., and a  automatically 1972).  re-assess  senior years has  by  throughout  Shepherd, to  to  teacher  systematic  develop  instruction  held  all-content  for  1961;  reading  English  may  programmes not  Kinzer,  reading  i n d i c a t e s a s e r i o u s need  r e a d i n g needs of s t u d e n t s  and  of  need  that  Columbia  s i n c e they a r e  few  do  1973).Various  Fahy  of r e a d i n g  have s t a t e d t h e  than  (British  Freed, of  instruction,  1973;  English teachers  required  teachers  being  (Freed,  Co 1 u m b i a B ead i n g a s s e s s m e n t ,  developmental school  be  additional role  themselves r o l e s i n reading  Various  1972;  training  teaching  as  l e s s enthusiasm  studies  teachers  teachers  programmes e x i s t  skills  t a s k t o them  Fahy,  Canadian  as p a r t o f t h e i r  regarded  a s s e s s m e n t . 1977).  assign the  the  is  reading  t h i s t a s k t h o u g h sometimes w i t h  geadina  be  teacher  at  not  the  secondary yet  been  27  CHAPTER TAB EE  Description  •3. 1 The  Instrument  The study  format  was b a s e d  (1978)  o f the. S t u d ^  to  f o r t h e d a t a - g a t h e r i n g instrument used on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d  survey  inservice  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were u s e d .  reading  The f i r s t  100 s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y was s e n t t o s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  needs,  form  were  of B r i t i s h  questionnaires  £glumbia The  Beading  each  skills  skill  pertains  to  Columbia.  differed  listed  divided and  into  Questions  second  only  in  the  part of  i n the B r i t i s h  three areas  colleqe-bound  w i t h which t h e s k i l l  achievement  students. was  of that  were  vis-- a v i s  each  tauqht,  skill  an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e  using  three separate five-point  one and t h r e e u s e d  to  (see A p p e n d i c e s  a numerical  scale.  as  assessed.  to select  d e s i q n a t e d a s q u e s t i o n s one, two and t h r e e B),  The  i n c l u d e d i n t h e body o f t h e  and t h e i m p o r t a n c e  university  skills  separate  i n the f i r s t  areas o f i n t e r e s t  of university-  R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d sixteen  was  skill  Two  (1977).  the frequency  the s t r e n q t h o f t h a t it  skill  Assessment  questionnaire  the l i t e r a c y For  from  and Chester  Enqlish teachers i n the province of  The s i x t e e n s k i l l s  adapted  this  was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o E n g l i s h  amount o f d e m o q r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d the survey form.  by A l l e n  in  the  scales A and  Question  28  t s o r e q u i r e d answers t o was  felt  that  a  be c h o s e n  change  in  mechanical response pattern Demographic the  students  were  pleasure  reading  ability.  regards  reading  Xeroxing  {Appendices  3.2  to  D  of  both  s c h o o l s i z e and  the  t o f i t 8 by  E).  English  100  frequency  of  of  reading  t e a c h e r s and  students  preferences  in  and  sections,  14 i n c h p a p e r . differing  A covering  schools  sex,  page o f  needs  letter  reduced  by  T h i s was  done  demographic and  material  a r e t u r n , stamped  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n both  the  first  E n g l i s h Department Head i n e a c h o f i n the  as  college-bound.  typed  accommodate t h e  and  a  the  province.  Population  A covering of the  to  programmes f o r t h e  secondary  The  asked  including  addressed  out  prevent  front  a subjective self-assessment  second m a i l i n g t o t h e  senior  i n c l u d e d on t h e  , and  e n v e l o p e were i n c l u d e d w i t h and  was  was  It  forming.  detailed,  laid  i n order  mode would  more  questionnaire and  from  an a l p h a b e t i c s c a l e .  reply  guestions  i n f o r m a t i o n on  The  twice  The  Questions  included  the  information  guestionnaire.  from  letter  {Appendix C)  p o s s i b l e 50 r e g u l a r  Chapter  1.3)  Columbia  during  expressed classes,  of  English  the  final  interest a  total  sections  in of  100 term  at of  was  sent  and  English  Z  university  1978.  .Fifteen  100  in  the  instructor  sections  the  participating 269  11  to every  of  British  instructors  study.  students,  (see  Their  completed  29  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s , ... A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o n s i d e r e d u s a b l e . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was every  senior  secondary  Columbia  immediately  survey.  The t o t a l  first  mailinq  also  m a i l e d t o t h e Head o f  school  in  the  of a coverinq letter  and  a stamped, r e t u r n  to  i n t h e s t u d y were r e c e i v e d  each  British  offerinq  return  questionnaires.  second  mailinq,  A follow-up l e t t e r  envelope.  a different  These s c h o o l s  (Appendix  (Appendix Direct  from  four  reason  were  D),  Heads  of  for declining to  excluded  from  the  E ) , q u e s t i o n n a i r e and s t a m p e d ,  e n v e l o p e were s e n t t o t h e r e m a i n i n g n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s  the  schools  now  a  refusals  addressed 159  100  p o p u l a t i o n o f 163 s c h o o l s was c o n t a c t e d i n a  questionnaire  Department,  of  of  f o l l o w i n g the completion of the E n q l i s h  consistinq  participate  province  Enqlish  considered  to  be  the  total  of  viable  population.  3«3  Procedure  Data author  were q a t h e r e d  of  this  study  from and  Enqlish  100 s t u d e n t s d i r e c t l y .  colleaques  went  into English  The 100  c l a s s r o o m s a t t i m e s d e s i g n a t e d as c o n v e n i e n t by t h e i n s t r u c t o r s . A standard introduction given  and a p r o c e d u r e  Approximately  20  for f i l l i n g minutes  introduction  and form  In  to  order  explaining  were  the purpose out the needed  form to  o f the survey was  was  suqgested.  accomplish  both  completion.  collect  information  from  the  163  senior  30  secondary schools into  the  u. B. C. a  i n the  Texture  text  Each l e t t e r  master  file  generated  by  province,  was  a covering  processing  system  stored  in  a computer  the  computer.  programme  letter,  was  t o t h e Head of E n g l i s h a t e a c h grades.,  teacher  complete the  order  t h a t the  upon r e c e i p t would end  be  second  mailing.  m a i l i n g . ,.. The  to  have  Several cases,  the  Four mailing. of  3.4  the  letter  weeks  were  At  the  Analysis  end  to  that  by  to those  the  second  had  not  allowed  of t h a t  master  in  s i x weeks At  the  computer f o r  the  in  the  schools  a guestionnaire  12  mailing  second m a i l i n g s .  were t h e same as sent  identified  a second  response rate.  was  having  have a g r a d e  decided  prepared  The  envelope,  secondary s c h o o l  e l i m i n a t e d from  was  file..  first  of the  159  (or a p p e a r e d  not  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o d e d t o  the  first  total.  Data  to  same  g u e s t i o n n a i r e was  of r e p l i e s against  replies  were  a 47%  returned  The  Address l a b e l s  and  letter  at  from  first  enclosures  not  done s o ) .  the t a l l y i n g  was  second l e t t e r  w h i c h had  computer  g u e s t i o n n a i r e and  f o r m . , I t was  between t h e  The  the  typed  taken  the  reguested  Each  a completed  covering  with  was  form.  period, there  second  possible  Head  s c h o o l might be  allowed  of t h a t A  of  The  along  from  covering  senior  on  was  headed u s i n g s c h o o l a d d r e s s e s  initial sent  letter  list  facilitate  of  schools.  m a i l i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n some  reached for  the  English  returns  p e r i o d , usable  from  department. the  returns stood  second at  76%  31  Raw the  data  provincial  onto  data  received teachers  cards.  Information  from  t h e E n g l i s h 100 s t u d e n t s  were key punched, i n  Each  separate  were t h e n  transferred  on a t e r m i n a l p o s s i b l e ,  a l p h a b e t i c responses  and  to  question  two  to  from  batches,  guestionnaire reguired a single  the cards  o r d e r t o make e d i t i n g the  from  card.  files  in  Por the a n a l y s i s , were  converted  to  numbers. The the  Statistical  packaged  generated  programmes  frequency  "picture"  of  histograms  and o t h e r  referred  Package f o r t h e  the  as  histograms  provided  Frequencies  to  provide  a  demographic i n f o r m a t i o n a s w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g statistical  information  for  the  skills  t o i n q u e s t i o n s one, two and t h r e e .  questionnaire.  f o r c r o s s a n a l y s i s o f the data  Scattergram  teaching of the s k i l l  significance straight  Sciences  f o r data a n a l y s i s .  distributions  Crosstabs allowed  of  used  Social  yielded  to strength  the c o r r e l a t i o n of  skill,  from  each  of frequency  the  level  of  o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e s l o p e o f t h e b e s t f i t  line.  Since  t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d  responses,  analysis  descriptive  terms.  of  the  data  was  to s o l i c i t s u b j e c t i v e effected  in  purely  3. 5 Summary.  Chapter in  this  Three d e s c r i b e s the data-gathering instrument  study  and t h e p r o c e d u r e  used  by w h i c h i t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o  32  t h e two  populations included i n the analysis.  analyzing chapter.  the  data  are  described b r i e f l y  M e t h o d s used at t h e  c l o s e of  for the  33  CHAPTER  Data  A  POOR  A n a l y s i s : R e s u l t s and O b s e r v a t i o n s  descriptive  analysis  t h e data i s presented  chapter.  First,  examined.  Next, t r e n d s i n t h e d a t a a r e d i s c u s s e d .  Gay least  <1976) s t a t e s , 70%,  the  weak" (p.132). separate  questions  " I f your  validity  Analysis i n  administrations  questionnaires Were  those  of  completed  considered  of  your instance  the  The u s a b l e  return  i s  conclusions is  1  not  be  upon  instrument.  a r e t o be f o u n d  at  will  based  r e t u r n from  are  A l l 269  at  the  two  O.B.C.  secondary total.  a t t h e end o f  chapter.,  4.1 Q u e s t i o n s  Question  Examined by t h e S t u d y  1: Do s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s a g r e e  of t h e frequency  An students orderinq VI)  Chapter  was 121 o r 7 6 % o f t h e a d j u s t e d  Tables related t o the r e s u l t s the  survey  in  by t h e E n g l i s h 100 s t u d e n t s  usable.  schools i n the province  percentage  this of  posed  i n this  at  of i n s t r u c t i o n  examination  o f t h e means y i e l d e d  and t e a c h e r s showed a of the  the frequency end  of  of selected  this  high  in  their  reading  skills?  by t h e d a t a  consensus  from  both  concerning  the  o f teachinq of certain chapter.  estimation  (Recall  skills  that  (Table  frequency.  34  strength (1-5)  and  with  were e a c h  1 r e p r e s e n t i n g "very  "essential" and  importance  respectively  frequently", "very  point scale strong"  5 represents "never",  while  "very  and weak"  "irrelevant".) written  writing,  expression,  readinq  of  directly  tauqht  students  to  along  the  rated l i t e r a r y  named  the  above  into  the  rate,  lowest  word s t u d y  skills readinq  Besults,  skills  teachers It  is  teachers students.  and  interpretive  of  literature.  However,  below t h e p o s i t i o n  to the fact to  particular  give  area  (British  that Enqlish students  of interest  Students  and u s e o f s t u d y  an even  appreciation as  are  flexible  and r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s ,  Columbia  i n the  success.  frequency  library  most  appreciation, are  teachers rank l i t e r a r y  clues. ,  indicated  readinq listeninq  that  critical  Beading•- Assessment;. a i d s are tauqht  Test  less  often  thouqh  the  suqqest. , appropriate  questionnaire  1  i n teaching  1 9 7 7 , p.43)  instruction.  These t h r e e  literary  trying  to u n i v e r s i t y  skills,  of  items.  attributable  teachers  and c o n t e x t  with  oneself i n  The p o p u l a r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n  i s  o f low i m p o r t a n c e Bated  information  appreciation slightly  t h o u g h , a t t h e same t i m e , being  express  frequency  teaching  t e a c h e r s s p e n d much o f t h e i r t i m e insight  to  as hiqh-frequency  t o i t by t e a c h e r s .  skills  in  skills,  related  ability  inferential  were a s s e s s e d  frequently  given  the  was r a t e d h i g h e s t  Comprehension  than  r a t e d on a f i v e  concerned  do d e a l , f o r Thus,  the  to  comment  itself  the low  most  with part,  frequency  here  that  university-bound with of  mixed  students  qroups  of  t h e t e a c h i n q o f some  35  skills  may  be e x p l a i n e d  themselves.  It  was  by t h e stressed  academic needs of u n i v e r s i t y skill  needs  clearly  of  felt  proportion continuing  the  that  of  be  majority in  in  some  to  the  Typical  o f teachers' responses  by  teachers  respondents  that the  not r e f l e c t  the  life  Some  teachers  their  the  highest  opinion,  show no i m m e d i a t e i n t e r e s t i n  the  skills  made  o f the students.,  12 s t u d e n t s  education,  taught  by  h o p e f u l s may  since,  grade  formal  observations  need  general  for  certain  programme  academic  i s minimal.  were t h e f o l l o w i n g :  I n t h i s s u r v e y you seem t o assume t h a t a p r i m a r y task cf English teachers i n high school i s to prepare students f o r c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s i s not the case. Ho more than 50% o f o u r s t u d e n t s have educational ambitions at post-secondary level.,  About 10% o f o u r universities  grade  12  are  planning  to  attend  It must be remembered t h a t a l l h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e n o t g o i n g on t o u n i v e r s i t y and therefore other s k i l l s t o be e m p h a s i z e d a s w e l l [ s i c ] .  The programme  q u e s t i o n which may to  i s this:  do  f i t e i t h e r one q r o u p o r t h e o t h e r ?  seems t o i m p l y to  be a s k e d  t h a t a l l programmes  we  adjust  a  This  attitude  must be s u f f i c i e n t l y  general  f i t a l l students.  Question  2:  Do  first  t e a c h e r s r a t e t h e same being  important  year  university  literacy  to u n i v e r s i t y  and  study?  students  and h i g h  communication  school  skills  as  36  Written skill  expression  by b o t h  enough, strong  t e a c h e r s and  students  i n the  the  and  study  has  frequency  immediate  been  by  was  however, place  of  feel  as b e i n q benefits  students  less spelling  of  their  is  totally  given  in  to  r a t h e r than  s h o u l d n o t be  for  this  feel  that  stressed i n  of students grade  12.  teachers.  material, to  However,  high  on  the  students.  the  teachers'  Students  o f prime importance w h i l e  which is the  p a r t of  a learning gestalt?  often  than  do,  teachers  importance.  i t  and  area  i s lower  be  lists.,  and  students  Though  item, c l e a r l y  to the study  their  important  information i s considered to  respective  related  be  no  a high-frequency  accruing  subject  often  have  and  is  This  into  teachers  majority  important  academic endeavours.  entities  most  a p p r e c i a t i o n i s r a t e d by t e a c h e r s  appreciation  particularly  explanation  schooling past  factual  i t near t h e bottom  bottom  important  Interestingly  instruction  study  the  inferential  much  Literary the  of  both  comprehension list,  where  plans to continue  Comprehension  of  discussed e a r l i e r :  programme  important  most  V).  skill  A viable  appropriate to university  general  (Table  the  a i d s a r e deemed t o  Importance might i n d i c a t e .  skills a  students  being  classroom.  groups though the  discrepancy  as  even i f i t i s the  Research s k i l l s by b o t h  ranked  d i d n o t r a t e t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g  in this s k i l l  attention  is  and  might l e a d t o s u c c e s s  skills  a learning  ;  related  Do  see in  teachers  t o i t as  process  literary  teachers see i t  of literature  interestinq,  at  which  no  other see  separate matures  37  Question  3: Do g r a d e  students  to  students  themselves?  are  information. example,  teachers  stronger  ¥ 1 1 1 shows t h a t  Table students  be  12  able  to  Beyond  students  is  their  certain  skill  teachers  cope  and  with both  t h i s , there i s  Teachers  see  are less  university-bound a r e a s than  students  factual  very  r a t e orthography  ( T a b l e V I I ) and t h e y a l s o spellers.  in  feel  agree  little  convinced.  as  that  and i n f e r e n t i a l agreement.Por  as b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t  themselves  do the  being  skill  competent  Literary appreciation  weak i n s t u d e n t s ' e s t i m a t i o n s and s t r o n g i n t h e judgement  their  former  writing  teachers.  skills  highly.  Again, Students  teachers rate t h e i r see themselves  as  of  students'  being  less  proficient. Besearch and  library  Students  Beading  study  aids,  and r e f e r e n c e s k i l l s  feel  developed  skills,  their  than  ability  teachers  to  flexibility  reading  rate,  a r e weak a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d e n t s . read  believe  critically i t to  i s  less  be ( B r i t i s h  well  Columbia  A s s e s s m e n t : T e s t .Results., 1977, p.43) .  Teachers  and  students r e g i s t e r  estimation o f the strength of s k i l l s either  the  importance  Question  freguency  of  of the s k i l l s  4: Do t e a c h e r s  concerning senior  of  the  levels  need  of high  the  more d i s a g r e e m e n t of students  teaching o f those  to university  and  than  students  i n their  they  do i n  skills  or the  their  views  study.  differ  in  f o r increased a t t e n t i o n t o reading a t the school?  38  In  the  question  university-bound course?" for  (see  and  students Table  was  E n g l i s h programmes v a r y w i d e l y  from  variance  some,  "special" in  interpreted  in  which  skills  respondents, in  an  optional  particular to  felt  and  or  Table  VIII  purposely  left  school to s c h o o l  to  be  impossible  scheduling.  and/or  blocks  in  Thus, f o r  honours  English  were s t r e s s e d . of  Others  instruction  in  t h e r e g u l a r E n g l i s h programme.  a s t h e one  p r o v i d i n g any  r e s u l t s and  skills  mean  included such  was  philosophy  meant  "special"  difficulty  of " s p e c i a l "  college-  reading/writing  word " s p e c i a l "  the  Other  special  the  results),  given  particular  a  for teachers*  a narrow d e f i n i t i o n  programme  have  "Should  VII  students*  undefined.  asking,  c i t e d below, p o i n t e d out  instruction  a p a r t from  the  the  general  offering: I d e a l l y y e s , b u t t h i s would p l a c e c o u n t r y c o u s i n s a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e as t h e s c h o o l t h e y a t t e n d would be u n a b l e t o o f f e r s u c h a c o u r s e due t o s m a l l number o f s t u d e n t s who head to university from such schools. Thus, though I feel such traininq i s needed by the university s t u d e n t , I f e e l i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e freshman year. Universities are going to have t o a c c e p t f a c t [ s i c ] that high schools, particularly smaller ones, can no l o n g e r d e v o t e m a j o r i t y [ s i c ] o f t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y bound s t u d e n t . Thus, t h e y a r e g o i n g to have to provide students with special skills r e g u i r e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s .  For remark  the from  necessary  that  a  who  responding  do w e l l a c a d e m i c a l l y , a teacher  {to p r o v i d e s p e c i a l  However, 71% felt  students  o f t e a c h e r s and some  sort  " i t  should  courses)" i s probably  71% of  that  descriptive  of s t u d e n t s preparatory  polled  not  be  quite true. {Table  course  for  ?III) the  39  university-bound indeed,  some  established  s t u d e n t s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e respondents  courses  Students  in their  were  asked  senior high school writing  course  year  in  E n g l i s h programme literary  skills  would be should  necessity were  which  be  "part  for special  the  following  i f  they  should  is  felt  have  to,  existence  of  well  student i n  their  every  a  special  reading  not  surprisingly,  highly  p e r c e n t of the s t u d e n t s f e l t  but f e l t  that  more e m p h a s i s on  programmes.  Typical  of  observations  on  high school  their  their  such  reading  of the r e g u l a r course", obviating  any  comments English  experience: Grade 12 English composition include [ s i c ] only handout s h e e t s on s p e l l i n g and v o c a b u l a r y , o c c a s i o n a l work c u t o f a book on grammar and o n l y two weeks on essay writing.  Our English program l a s t y e a r was t h e p i t s . Be were n e v e r t a u g h t how t o w r i t e a proper essay until the last two weeks o f s c h o o l . I t h i n k more s t r e s s s h o u l d be made on t h i s .  Did l i t t l e essay w r i t i n g , critically marked. I p r e p a r a t i o n of s t u d e n t s , a r t s , i s inadequate.  and  or accompanying, t h e r e g u l a r  often,  Sixty-one  useful  the  And,  schools already.  addition  i n focus.  a course  indicated  i n some f o r m .  Few t h a t I did were ever feel that high school n the field of language  Grade 12 does not adequately prepare students f o r university. There i s not enouqh grammar tauqht. There i s not enouqh practise in writinq essays. Teachers don't q i v e positive criticism of work so s t u d e n t s d o n ' t know what t h e y a r e d o i n g r i q h t or wrong ( t h e y o n l y q r a d e p a p e r s i . e . A,B,C,C+ e t c . }  40  A f e u students  did feel  reading s k i l l s  at a l l :  t h a t t h e r e was  little  use  in  teaching  Teaching of reading skills i n English i s useless unless the student reads i n h i s spare t i n e .  Host o f t h e items mentioned s h o u l d be taught before high school and that's where I learned them in e l e m e n t r y [ s i c ] and j u n i o r h i g h .  Question  5: How  many g r a d e  have had t r a i n i n g  Teachers courses  confusion  have  (represented  unsure  as  their  students. the  participated  in  teachers  indicate This  grade  have taken inservice  the  question  12  as  training  teachers  courses  or inservice  teachers  a r e s h o w i n g an i n t e r e s t  and  "reading  "inservice  marked  course (s)",  training"  some  a s some cases")  t o them  responding nor  i n reading.  o f E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s have had e i t h e r  teachers  worded  referred  majority  Hhere  sample  caused  "missing  no r e a d i n g c o u r s e s  training.  the  number o f r e a d i n g  been more p r e c i s e l y  i n the histogram  of  in  reading?  t o whether t h e q u e s t i o n  sample  q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 33%  to  of  (Table I X ) .  should  were  Of  asked  had t a k e n  and  respondents  i n the teaching  were  they  12 E n g l i s h  one  or t o  to the  have  they  However,  the  o r more r e a d i n g  T h i s would suggest  that English  i n the area,  two c a t e g o r i e s " i n s e r v i c e "reading  course"  t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e raw  was data.  training"  chosen  over  41  Question  6:  Do s t u d e n t s  reading s k i l l s  ahether separate areas  content this  or  yielded  not  reading  skills  in  English  X)  and t e a c h e r s  teaching.  skills  such  "unrealistic  in  from  Of t h e t e a c h e r s , part of a l l  the r e p l i e s t o  an  ideal  world,  integrated into subject we  do  not  "ideally",  area  inhabit by s i n g l e  "theoretically"  polled,  jurisdiction  52.OS f e l t  or  that reading s k i l l s  of the E n g l i s h department skills  as part o f  English  29.0% o f t h e s t u d e n t s  included i n a l l content  indicated  fall  (Table X I I ) . composition  t h i s would s e r v e t o e x p l a i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o t h i s  Only  a  ".  They seem t o s e e r e a d i n g  4.2  results  accompanying  indicated that  as  in  class, o r i n a l l content  (Table X I ) .  be  teach  taught  s h o u l d be an i n t e g r a l  indeed  such  Of t h e s t u d e n t s the  be  Many o f t h e r e s p o n s e s were a c c o m p a n i e d  comments  under  should  However, i t was made c l e a r t h a t  a world.  word  would  should  school?  percentage  Comments  s e c t i o n o f the survey  teaching.  be  differing  that reading s k i l l s  area  reading  and  the  strongly  (Table  59.21 f e l t  a g r e e on who  d u r i n g the s e n i o r year o f high  programme,  students  and t e a c h e r s  question.,  that readinq s k i l l s  should  area teaching,  B e l a t e d Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n  School  Size  The  largest  number  of teacher responses  ( T a b l e X I I ) were  42  received one  from  s c h o o l s housing  respondent  necessarily the  cautioned  reflect  the  school, especially Over h a l f  of the  large schools, those The  student  statistical  variable  High  Location  Students B.C. from 2.6%  schools. a  B.C.  were  revelation  B.C.  high  was  outside does  To  reflect  the  in  5.9%  that  of  but  no  as  an  sex  data.  primarily  students another  does  trends  from  XV).  sex  using  the  This  (Table  by  drawn  were from  came  graduated  province  not  come  n o t i c e d i n the  students  from  and  as  a  student  graduating  from  Ability the  g u e s t i o n of how  ( T a b l e XIV)  while a f u r t h e r  of  from  91. IX o f  attitudes  peers,  also  divided  are  Canada.,  university  well  100  show  not  12 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d  a n a l y s i s of the  English  did  schools.  Beading  "the  egually  school,  size  o r more s t u d e n t s  concluded  i n the  but  school  However,  o u t s i d e t h e Vancouver r e g i o n . .  1000  were  students.  population i n the study  In t h i s s t u d y ,  from  s a m p l e do  student having  in  the  numbers o f g r a d e  sample  independent  o r more  that  i n areas  results  School  1000  average as, or  student".  b e t t e r than  confirmed  their  own  49.3%  age  well they felt  read  t h a t they  41.4%  felt  t h a t they f e e l  peers they  to  t h a t they  read  feel  o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t y  they  much b e t t e r t h a n community.  well  as w e l l  at the u n i v e r s i t y . read  their  read w e l l or very  I n o t h e r w o r d s , 90.7% their  compared  read  as as  Students people  43  Recreational  Reading  In r e s p o n s e recreation  53.5%  A surprising "never"  the  read  positive  XV).  It  may  be  they  a  the  read  o f t e n " or "seldom"  t h a t , s i n c e the  only  time  "very  13.0%  r e c r e a t i o n a l r e a d i n g was At another  often  "often". and  1.9%  students  few  weeks  before  very  low  their  percentage  for  on of  were final  list  of  recreational  Findings  relationship  strength  of  a skill  positive  students*  positive  (p<.05) i s and  XVII  shown  i t s frequency  questionnaire  Table  included in this  relationship  the teachers*  exists  and  to  teachers.  for  word  correlation  study,  both  these,  shows  (One  the  five  peculiar  strenqth  literary  students  f e e l these  exist  for  a l l  siqnificant between (Table  skills  the XVI).  on  f o r f o u r t e e n of the s i x t e e n  skills  and  and  the skills  with  frequency  inexplicable  frequency  strongest  for  result  showed  groups e x i s t s  a p p r e c i a t i o n and  t o be  most  critical  d e s i g n a t e themselves as  skills  the  a  students was  that  neqative  data.)  Agreement between t h e two categories  a  questionnaire.  i n the teacher  the  study  of teaching  c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h and  and  also  read  "sometimes",  F o r most o f t h e s k i l l s  on  how  might have been more s u b s t a n t i a l .  3 Other  This  they  guestionnaire  examinations, priorities.  stated that  31.6%  (Table  answering  readers  to the question of  being  i n f r e g u e n t l y taught  strongly  in  readinq.  In  weak.. (but t h e y  They also  44  f e e l them t o be importance higher.,  and t h e  of  with  expression, skills  frequency,  i n the data  There i s l i t t l e  4.4  flexibility  rate  the  reading  students  of  in  the  a p p r e c i a t i o n but do  strong of both  ranking  c o n s i d e r the  the  frequency  students.  research s k i l l s ,  show  Teachers  of the teaching c f c r i t i c a l  g r e a t e r than  reference  regards  the  literary  i t s t e a c h i n q t o be Oral  unimportant). .  frequency  They a g r e e  importance of  relatively  study a i d s ,  correlation  of  library  and  strenqth  to  populations.  agreement i n t h e d a t a o f r e a d i n q r a t e and  o f t h e two  interpretive  qroups  as  reading.  Discussion  Teachers freguency  and  of  importance  students  the  teaching  those  skills  Disagreement begins strenqth that  i n those  their  71.8%  That  of the  should  same s k i l l s  77.5%  students  have  student  traininq  when s t u d e n t s  a  great  selected  have  12 s t u d e n t s  to and  areas.  extent  skills  a  and  on  the  about  the  university  career.  teachers discuss students* Some  teachers  observed  rests  whose  post-secondary  aims  indicated that  are n o t  training  university-bound suqqests  that i n the  beinq s t r e s s e d t o the  o r teacher*, / S t u d e n t s  feel  upon t h e E n g l i s h d e p a r t m e n t  general  onus f o r  (Table X).  and  students  satisfaction  that the  upon  varied  o f the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y  extra s k i l l s  programme, s k i l l s either  of  to  s u b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t s a s t o s t r e n q t h were based  c l a s s e s o f qrade widely.  agree  of such  Teachers  45  {Table  XI)  feel  subject  area  teaching.  Generally,  t h e need f o r s k i l l s  English  However, i n s e r v i c e taken  by  suggests of  the  training  majority  and  of  concern.  Some  not t r a i n e d  interest  other  i n reading  pointed  i n reading.  courses  the teachers i n t h i s  respondents  out  members o f t h e i r  have  been  survey.  This  as  an  area  t h a t though  they  staff  have  did  training., Of t h e s t u d e n t s  schools  of  1000  involved i n the study,  or  more  s t u d e n t s . ...  s c h o o l s o f 750 o r more s t u d e n t s . , ; polled  came  population for  are  occasional  that there i s positive  lacked reading t r a i n i n g , such  teachers  t r a i n i n g t o be p a r t o f a l l  from  Thus,  A further 75%  of  1654 came the  large from  students  s c h o o l s i n which t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s i z e a b l e  might a r g u e f o r t h e v i a b i l i t y  students  5955 came f r o m  planning to continue  of o p t i o n a l  formal education  programmes  beyond  grade  12. General two  findings  concluded  populations i n this  from  t h e data  collected  from t h e  study a r e :  1. Teachers and s t u d e n t s agree on freguency i m p o r t a n c e o f s k i l l s b u t d i s a g r e e on s t r e n g t h . .  and  2. Teachers of E n g l i s h a t the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l a r e more c o n t e n t o r i e n t e d than skills o r i e n t e d as shown by the fact that they teach literary appreciation much more frequently than study, r e f e r e n c e , r e s e a r c h and word s k i l l s .  3. Teachers of English would prefer t o see the responsibility f o r teaching skills spread to a l l content areas. Students f e e l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n r e s t s with t h e E n g l i s h department.  46  4, B o t h s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t there i s a need f o r increased attention t o the reading s k i l l s needs o f u n i v e r s i t y - and c o l l e g e - b o u n d s t u d e n t s .  5. E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s a r e becoming more interested reading, as d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e have t a k e n r e a d i n g c o u r s e s and i n s e r v i c e training reading.  4.5  in who in  Summary  The  validity  of  g u e s t i o n n a i r e s from discussed  results  of  Accompanying immediately  the  upon  a  76%  return  t e a c h e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B.C. i s  at the beginning  beginning  based  study  tables  are  of Chapter  4.  (Section  1.2)  included  at  f o l l o w i n g t h e summary.,  Questions are  then  asked  of  briefly at the  analyzed.  t h e end o f t h e c h a p t e r ,  47  Table  Bank O r d e r o f  IV  FBEQOENCY o f  Skills  by  Students  Means Teachers  Q11  2.38  written  express.  Q11  1. 37  Q 9  2.51  interp.  read  Q 5  1. 87 c o m p . ;  Q 5  2.80  comp.:  Q12  2.96  oral  Q 4  3.00  comp.:  Q15  3.03  lit,  Q 3  3.06  vocab.  Q .7  3.30  research  Q16  3.34  spelling  Q10  3.36  critical  Q 6  3.45  study  Q13  3. 52  listening  Q14  3.66  lib,  Q 2  3.78  context  Q 1  3.86  word  Q 8  3. 91  flex,  i n f e r e n t i a l Q15 express.  1. 94 l i t .  express., inferential  apprec.,  Q 9  1.90  Q 4  2. 06 c o m p . ;  Q 3  2. 12  devlopment  Q10  2. 30 c r i t i c a l  skills  Q 6  2. 45 s t u d y  Q 7  2. 53  Q12  2. 67  Q16  2. 83 c o n t e x t  Q 2  2. 83 s p e l l i n g  Q13  2. 88 l i s t e n i n g  Q14  2. 89 l i b .  & ref.  Q 1  3. 05 word  study  Q 8  3. 45 f l e x ,  reading  factual apprec,.  read.  aids  8  written  skills  ref, clues  study read,  rate  interpretive  read.  factual  vocab..development reading  aids  research oral  skills  expression clues  skills  rate  48  Table V Bank O r d e r o f IMPORTANCE o f Students  S k i l l s by  Means  Teachers  Q11  1.35 w r i t t e n  Q 4  1.58 comp.:  Q 7  express.  C]11  1.21  written  Q 7  1.48  research  1.58 r e s e a r c h  Q 6  1.53  study  Q 6  1.64 s t u d y  Q 5  1.56  comp.:  inferential  Q13  1.85 l i s t e n i n g  Q 4  1.57  comp.:  factual  Q16  1.85 s p e l l i n g  Q14  1.71  library  £ ref.  Q 3  1.91 v o c a b .  development  Q13  1.80  listening  Q 5  •1.97  comp,:  inferential  Q10  1.94  critical  Q14  2.06 l i b r a r y  Q 3  1.96  vocab,  Q 8  2.22 f l e x i b l e r e a d ,  .9 8  2. 13  flexible  Q12  2.39  Q 2  2. 15  context  clues  Q10  2.45 c r i t i c a l  Q 9  2.19  interp.  reading  Q 9  2.46 i n t e r p ,  read.  Q16  •2. 33  spelling  Q 2  2.56 c o n t e x t  clues  Q12  2.41  oral  express.  Q 1  2.47 word  study  Q15  2.43  lit.  apprec.„  Q15  2.90 l i t .  apprec.  Q 1  2. 46  word  study  oral  factual  aids  6 ref.  expression read.,  rate  express.  aids  read.  devlop. read,  rate  49  T a b l e ¥1 Hank O r d e r o f STRENGTH o f S k i l l s Students  by Means  Teachers  mean  mean  Q16  2.45 s p e l l i n g  Q 4  2.46 comp.;  factual  Q 5  2.75 comp.;  Q 2  2.76  Q13  2.77 l i s t e n i n g  Q 3  2.78 vocab.  Q11  2.80 w r i t t e n  Q12  2.89  Q 9  2.90 i n t e r p r e t i v e  Q10  2.90 c r i t i c a l  Q 6  2.93  study  Q 7  2.93  research  Q 8  2.93  flex.  Q 1  2.97 word s t u d y  Q14  3.00 l i b r a r y  Q15  3.04 l i t .  Q 4  2.26  comp,:  Q11  2.80  written  inferential Q 5  2.86  comp,;  Q 9  2.86  interpretive  Q15  2.86  lit.  Q10  2.88  critical  Q 2  2.93  context  Q16  2.94  spelling  r e a d . Q14  2.94  lib.  £r e f .  Q12  2.95  oral  express.  Q 7  2.99  research  Q 6  3.00  study  Q 1  3.10  word s t u d y  context  oral  clues skills  develop. express.  expression  reading  aids skills  read,  rate skills  Q 13 3, 12  factual ex p r e s s . inferential read.  appreciation reading clues  skills  aids  listening  &ref.  Q 3  3.17  vocab.  appreciation  Q 8  3.38  flexible  skills skills  development read,  rate  50  T a b l e 711 UNIVBOUND BEADING CATEGORY LABEL YES NO  CODE •1. 2, 6. TOTAL  PBOGRAMME - TEACHEBS RELATIVE ADJUSTED FBEQ ABSOLUTE FBEQ FBEQ (PCT) (PCT) 86 71.7 77. 5 25 20.8 22.5 9 7. 5 MISSING 120  100. 0  CUM FBEQ (PCT) 77.5 100.0 100.0  100.0  CODE 1  ******************************************** I YES I I 2. ************** ( 25) I NO I I 6. ****** ( 9) (MISSING) I I .1, I.........I.........1 60 0 20 40 FREQUENCY  (  t  MEAN MODE MINIMUM  1.225 1.000 1.000  VALID CASES  STD ERR STD DEV MAXIMUM 111  0 . 040 0 . 420 2.000  HISSING CASES  MEDIAN SKEWNESS 9  , .1. 80  86)  . .1 100  1 . 145 1.334  51  Table  VIII  UNIVBOUND READING PROGRAMME - STUDENTS RELATIVE ADJUSTED ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FREQ (PCT) (PCT) YES 191 1. 71.0 71. 8 HO 2. 75 28.2 27. 9 6. 3 HISSING 1. 1 TOTAL  CODE  26 9  100. 0  CUM FREQ <PCT) 71.8 100.0 100. 0  100.0  1. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ^ I YES I I 2, * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * i I NO I I 6. , * * { 3) (HISSING) I I• ..I, .1. 0 40 80 FREQUENCY SEAN MODE MINIMUM  1.282 1. 000 1.000  VALID CASES  STD ERR STD DEV MAXIMUM 266  (  75J  0.028 0.451 2.000  MISSING CASES  ...I, 120 MEDIAN SKEBNESS  . .1 160  . .1 200  1.196 0.975  1<  52  T a b l e IX NO, OF BEADING COURSES TAKEN - TEACHEBS RELATIVE ADJUSTED ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FBEQ (PCT) (PCT) NONE 1. 40 33.3 37. 4 ONE 2. 31 25. 8 29.0 TWO OB MORE 3. 20 16.7 18.7 DEGBEE IN BEADING 4. 3 2.5 2.8 INSEBVICE TRAINING 5, 13 10. 8 12. 1 13 6. , 10.8 HISSING TOTAL CODE 1  120  100.0  CUB FREQ (PCT) 37.4 66.4 85. 0 87.9 100. 0 100.0  100.0  ***************************************** ( I NONE I I 2, * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ^ I ONE I I 3^ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ( 20) I TWO OR MOBE I I 4. **** { 3) I DEGREE IN READING I I 5 ************** ( 13) I INSERVICE TRAINING I I ************** { -J3ji (HISSING) I I I.........1.........1........,1.,.......1. 0 10 20 30 40 FREQUENCY #  40)  #  MEAN MODE MINIMUM  2.234 1.000 1.000  VALID CASES  STD ERR STD DIV MAXIMUM 107  0.127 1.315 5.000  MISSING CASES  MEDIAN SKEWNESS 13  .1 50  1.935 0.953  53  Table X READING PROGRAMME SETUP - STUDENTS RELATIVE ABSOLUTE FEE Q CATEGORY LABEL CODE FBEQ (PCT) SEPARATE PROGRAMME 1. 48 17.8 ENG 2. 140 52.0 ALL CONTENT AREAS 3. 78 29.0 6. 3 1.1 CODE 1.  2.  TOTAL  26 9  ADJUSTED FBEQ (PCT) 18.0 52.6 29.3 MISSING  100.0  CUM FBEQ (PCT) 18. 0 70.7 100.0 100.0  100.0  I  ************* 48) i  I I I  SEPARATE PROGSA MME  I************************************ ENG I I 3. 78) I********************* ALL CONTENT AREAS { I I 6. * * ( 3) (HISSING) I  140)  /  T  X  0 40 FREQUENCY MEAN MODE MINI MOM  2.113 2.000 1.000  VALID CASES  80  STD ERR 0.042 STD DEV 0.680 MAXIMUM 3.000 266  HISSING CASES  120  160  200  MEDIAN 2. 107 SKEWNESS - 0 . 143 3  54  Table XI BEADING PROGRAMME SET OP - TEACHEBS BELATIVE ABSOLUTE FBEQ CSTEGOBY LABEL CODE FREQ (PCT) •1. , SEPARATE PROGRAMME 20 16. 7 ENG 2. , 24 20.0 ALL CONTENT ABEAS 3. 71 59.2 6. 5 4. 2 TOTAL  CODE 1  120  100.0  *********** ( 20) I SEPARATE PROGRAMME I I 2, * * * * * * * * * * * * * ( 24) I ENG I I 3  ADJUSTED FBEQ (PCT) 17. 4 20.9 61.7 HISSING  CUM FBEQ (PCT) 17. 4 38.3 100.0 100.0  100.0  4  #  *************************************  I ALL CONTENT AREAS I I 6. * * * * { 5) (MISSING) I I I.........1.........1 0 20 40 FREQUENCY STD ERR 0.072 2.443 MEAN 3. 000 STD DEV 0.774 MODE MAXIMUM 3.000 MINIMUM 1.000 VALID CASES  115  MISSING CASES  7-JJ  j  .1.. .... . . .1  60  MEDIAN SKEHNESS  80  1  100  2.690 -0.961  till  S 3 S O 9 SIS SIR 000*5 5 £.0*0LZZ*£  SS3SM3XS Hviaau  0*7  05  I*  (QE  O'OOt  •e*ss 7 *89  0*9£ 9*6 Uoa) 0381 HAD  let *o  oe  A30 axs 883 (LIS  oz *i*  • •• * • i *  000*1 000*5  WQWIXVW  HQRI8IH 3 a OH N¥3H  L0£'£  oi  o i  i i I (9NISSIH) (9 ) * * * * * * * *9 I I SHOW 80 0001 I  ) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *s  (9e  0*001 0*001.  20*7*1  S1SV3 3IIVA  ONISSIH  9*te z *et e*6i  e *93 9*6  (£Dd)  D38J  aaisnra?  I I 666-OSZ. I (St ) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *tj I I 6tU-00S I (22 ) ************************£ I I 66ti-0S2 I ) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *Z I I 6ti2-t I (LI ) ************ *l I acroD  d'ooi  021  I¥£0I  0*5  9 9C St 22  '9 *S •tr  o*oe 5 *2t t *81 0*53 2*6  (13d) 0381 3AI1V73 8  *e  oe  tt 9381 3XQ*I0S8V  *2 *t 3Q0D  S83HD¥3£ IIX  ©iqEj,  380H 80 0001 6 6 6 -OS*. 6tj£-00S 6611-052  138YT  - 3ZIS "IOOHDS  6*2-1 1800310  56  Table  XIII  SCHOOL SIZE - STUDENTS CATEGORY LABEL 1-249 250-499 500-749 750-999 1000 OB MOBE  CODE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  ABSOLUTE FBEQ 11 32 , 24 , 43 158 1  TOTAL  CODE  I 1. **** ( 11) I 1-249 I I 2. * * * * * * * * * ( I 250-499  26 9  BELATIVE FBEQ (PCT) 4. 1 11.9 8.9 16. 0 58. 7 0.4 100. 0  ADJUSTED FBEQ (PCT) 4.1 11. 9 9.0 16.0 59.0 HISSING  CUM FBEQ (PCT) 4. 1 16. 0 25.0 41.0 100.0 100.0  100.0  32)  I  3  H  #  t  5  (  I ******* { 24) I 500^749 I I ************ ( Q 3| I 750-999 I I ***************************************** I 1000 OB MOBE  |  158)  I  I 6. * ( (MISSING) I I I.  MEAN MODE MINIMUM  1) .  r  v^.'V.IVvV-.ViV.- .--IViV.V.  0 40 FBEQUENCY 4. 138 STD EBB 5.000 STD DEV 1.000 MAXIMUM  VALID CASES  268  80  120  . I . . , . . - . . . .1  160  0.075 1.230 5.000  MEDIAN SKEHNESS  MISSING CASES  1  200  4.652  -1. 191  57  T a b l e XIV  READING A B I L I T Y COHPARED TO ONIV PEERS - STUDENTS RELATIVE ADJUSTED CUM ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ FBEQ CATEGORY LABEL CODE FREQ (PCT) (PCT) (PCT) VERY HELL 35 13.0 13, 1 13.1 1. HELL 2. 98 36. 4 36. 7 49.8 AVERAGE 3. , 111 41.6 91.4 41. 3 NOT HELL 4. 7. 8 21 7. 9 99.3 POORLY 5. 2 0.7 100.0 0.7 6. , 2 0.7 MISSING 100.0 TOTAL CODE  26 9  100.0  100.0  I ********** ( 35J I VERY WELL I I 2. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * j ggj I WELL I I 3 ***************************** j 111) I AVERAGE I I 4. ****** j 21) I NOT HELL I I 5. ** ( 2) I POORLY I I 6. ** ( 2) (MISSING) I I I . . . . . . . ..I.........1..........1 .1......,1 0 40 80 120 160 200 FREQUENCY MEAN 2.464 STD EBR 0.052 MEDIAN 2.505 MODE 3.000 STD DEV 0. 846 SKE8NESS 0.037 MINIMUM 1.000 MAXIMUM 5.000 1  #  4  VALID CASES  267  MISSING CASES  2  58  T a b l e XV FREQUENCY CATEGORY LABEL VERY OFTEN OFTEN SOMETIMES SELDOM NEVER  TOTAL  CODE •j  OF RECREATIONAL READING - STUDENTS RELATIVE ADJUSTED ABSOLUTE FREQ FREQ CODE FREQ (PCT) (PCT) 57 21.2 21. 2 1• 2. 87 32.3 32. 3 3. 85 31.6 31.6 4. 35 13. 0 13.0 5 1.9 1.9 5. ,•• 26 9  100. 0  CUM FREQ (PCT) 21. 2 53.5 85. 1 98.1 100.0  100.0  ****************************** ( 57j I VERY OFTEN I I 2, * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * j I OFTEN I I 3, * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * i I SOMETIMES I I #  4, ******************* ^ I SELDOM I I 5. * * * * ( 5) I NEVER I X •*.' * »•* *X • • < 0 20 FREQUENCY MEAN MODE MINIMUM  2.420 2.000 1.000  VALID CASES  STD ERR STD DEV MAXIMUM 269  87)  85)  35y  40 0.062 1.021 5.000  MISSING CASES  • *'X"'» '« 60  #' *. :  *X * 80  •'"•''#"«'•' • X 100  MEDIAN 2.391 SKEBNESS 0.250  T a b l e XVI R e l a t i o n s h i p of S t r e n g t h Students corr. word  study  and F r e q u e n c y  Teachers sig.  corr.  sig.  .149  .00711  -.014  . 440 58  clues  • 33 9  .00001  .028  .38028  develop.  .318  .00001  .227  .00686  .219  .00079  .190  .02065  comp i n f e r e n t i a l . 293  .00001  . 2 54  .00296  study  .425  .00001  .387  .00001  . 388  .00001  .501  .00001  r a t e .288  .00001  .430  .00001  .538  .00001  .287  .00082  .453  .00001  .427  .00001  .446  .00001  ,257  .00259  . 454  .00001  .517  .00001  listening  .262  .00001  .337  .00010  lib.  & ref.  .360  .00001  .519  .Q0001  lit.  apprec. ,  .501  .00001  .489  .00001  .188  .00101  .170  .03538  context vocab.  comp:factual  aids  research  skills  flex.„read. interp.  read.  critical written oral  read. express.  expression  spelling  Table Skills  XVII  Showing H i g h e s t Freguency  Correlation:  to Strength  Teachers skill lib.  corr. 6 ref.  sig.  slope  . 519  .00001  . 3791  research  .501  .00001  .4880  lit  .489  .00001  .4163  .431  .00001  .3884  .427  .00001  .3532  .538  .00001  .4976  .  flex.  apprec. read,  critical  rate  r e a d .:  Students interpretive  read,  lit.  apprec.,  .500  .00001  .4107  oral  express.,  .454  .00001  .4069  . 453  .00001  .3951  .425  .00001  .3435  critical study  read,  aids  61  CHAPTER  Summary and  Chapter upon  the  data.  study  5.1  Introduction  a  data,  post-  for  university  or are  experience,  creator  survey,  work.  by  for  made a v a i l a b l e a t  the  i n order  to  students  popular  education./  The  university  preparation  on  university  that  American there is  a  skills  to  be  The  review  for teachinq  teachinq of readinq  readinq courses  a  There  levels.  of teachers  are  media,  the c l a i m that  programmes i n r e a d i n g  r e a d i n q , a t t i t u d e s h e l d toward the  the  the idea  school c u r r i c u l a .  c o l l e q e and the  through  well secondary students  does s u p p o r t  hiqh  remedial  examined  of r e m e d i a l  available  Moreover,  f o r hiqher  a need t o r e - e x a m i n e t h e  position  populations  were c o l l e c t e d  is  i n t o how  b e t t e r documented,  literature  distinct  of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , support  ill-prepared  need  f r o m two  information  to qive i n s i q h t  reflector  of  of  education,  Canadian  literature  definite  based  populations  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of senior secondary  secondary  little  is  gathered  questionnaire  determine trends  students  offers conclusions  are o f f e r e d .  of  prepared  and  Recommendations s p e c i f i c t o t h e  Descriptive  for  Recommendations  5 summarizes t h e s t u d y  the  means  FIVE  and  campuses.,  the  62  5.2 O b j e c t i v e s  1.  The  following  Do  students  frequency  2. rate  the  year  same  Do g r a d e  be  stronger  of selected  university  literacy  to u n i v e r s i t y  3.  formed t h e c o r e  and t e a c h e r s c o n c u r  of instruction  Do f i r s t -  important  questions  reading  skills?  and h i g h s c h o o l  communication  skills  teachers as  being  study?  12 t e a c h e r s in  i n their estimation of the  students  and  of the study:  certain  feel  their  skills  university-bound areas  than  do  students to the students  themselves?  4. the  Do t e a c h e r s need  of high  5.  and s t u d e n t s  f o r increased attention  in  views  concerning  to reading at the senior  12 E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s  training  i n the teaching  6.  students  level  i n the  sample  have  had  of reading?  and t e a c h e r s  a g r e e on who s h o u l d t e a c h  s k i l l s d u r i n g t h e s e n i o r year o f high  5.3  their  school?  How many g r a d e  Do  differ  reading  school?  Procedure  Two  guestionnaires,  differing  only  in  the  demographic  63  information part of  requested,  of the survey, British  resultant A  were u s e d  in this  study.  269 E n q l i s h 100 s t u d e n t s a t  C o l u m b i a were asked  For the the  first  University  t o complete q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A l l  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be u s a b l e .  s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t  t o t h e Head o f E n q l i s h a t  every  school i n the province housinq  data  used  based  on a r e t u r n o f 121 g u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r 76% o f  for  analysis  a q r a d e 12 programme.  and r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  The  p o p u l a t i o n were the  adjusted  total.  5.4 I n a l y s i s  Data  in  this  study  p a c k a g e d programmes from Sciences  (Nie  et  S c s M § r g r a m . , The reported  5.5  three  t h e S t a t i s t i c a l - P a c k a g e •• 'for - t h e - S o c i a l  al,1972):  results  i n descriptive  of  Frequencies, the  1  statistical  Crosstabs  and  analysis  were  terms.  Conclusions  Data  collected  study suggest  1.  were a n a l y z e d by c o m p u t e r u s i n g  strength  t h e two p o p u l a t i o n s s u r v e y e d  in this  the following conclusions:  Students  importance  from  of  and  teachers  most s k i l l s ,  shown by s t u d e n t s  agree  as  but d i f f e r  to  the  i n their  i n those s k i l l  areas.,  frequency  and  opinions of the  64  2.  Students  and  a  programme  teachers which  feel  s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r  prepares  students  for  post-  secondary  education.  3. ,  This  sample  indicates  greatest  numbers  ostensibly  have  available,  the  yet,  questionnaires, to  the  The  have  greatest only  a  English  reading.  Though  of  courses  training,  teachers  inservice  reading  and  courses.  5.  almost  5.6  indicated,  and  schools  on  their  proqramme, i n a d d i t i o n  or  f o r students  with  in this  inservice  had  taken  one  training.  a l l skills <p<.05)  training in  i t s frequency  Recommendations  of  no  proportion  of  o r more r e a d i n g c o u r s e s  or,  greater  This finding s h o w i n g an their  between  teaching.  would s u g g e s t  interest  i n the  background t r a i n i n g  included in this  exists  study  had  the  are supplementing  reading  relationship  the  programmes  a l a r g e number o f E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s had  p r o v i n c i a l E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s are  skill  schools  of a s k i l l s  These  optional  programme, d e s i g n e d  reading  reading  minimally,  For  of  provide  aspirations.  either  participating  of  entrants.  number  few  schools  m a j o r i t y of E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g  taken  type  large  university  the e x i s t e n c e  general  post-secondary  4.  of  that  the  study, judqed  a  that area with  significant strength  cf a  65  •1.  Universities,  maintain the  colleges,  secondary  a c l o s e r c o n t a c t i n order t h a t each  expectations of the other.  t o t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e , commented dialogue  and  between  teachers  schools  is  familiar  Several teachers, a f t e r that there i s a  and  the  need  universities.,  and  year  students  weak s k i l l s  2.  who commented  for This  and  secondary  mushrooming o f r e m e d i a l  they of  courses  The s t u d e n t s  considered the  would  o f those  poor p r e p a r a t i o n  s c h o o l s must d e c i d e , w i t h t h e  at the university  are a p p r o p r i a t e l y taught  universities.  more  i n reading.  Universities  skills  upon t h e i r  with  replying  a p p e a r t o be a n e c c e s i t y i n view o f t h e d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t first  should  and  which  i n t h e s c h o o l s and w h i c h i n t h e  i n t h i s survey  t o be t h e d i s c r e p a n c y  university  level,  their  high  were c o n f u s e d  by what  between t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s school  preparation  for  university. 3.  O p t i o n a l programmes d u r i n g t h e f i n a l  students should  who f e e l t h e y  be c o n s i d e r e d  These c o u r s e s  will  be c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r  f o r a l l schools  could take  year o f high s c h o o l f o r  having  formal  education  senior  classes.  many f o r m s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e r e s o u r c e s  of the school. 4.  English  teachers,  since  they  are  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f teaching s k i l l s ,  should  courses  during t h e i r  i n the teaching o f reading  year.  5.7 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r  Research  often  given  be e n c o u r a g e d t o teacher  the take  training  66  This study preparation.  was  intended  Little  present  literature  and  strong  statement  can  level  of  university  Pollowing 1.  research  and  be  2.  An  grade  teachers  made o f  year  that teachers  way  student  resentment concerning  in  do  preparation  the supposed  and  of students  schools.  5.  investigation grade  12  present  the any  literacy  not  for  and  media  students  gathered  be  of  There  gathered  have  is  concerning  every  demand  by up  complaints freshmen.  the  types  valuable i n  of the  study.  concerning  the types  already available  their  and  stirred  of incoming  c o n s i d e r t o be  student  during  faculty  faculty  f o r post secondary  of  university.  know what u n i v e r s i t i e s The  grade  perceptions  university  publicizing  be  instructors*,  informative.  university-bound  Columbia  An  the  in  done b e f o r e  students*  l a c k of l i t e r a c y  More i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d  programmes f o r t h e  be  by  Hore i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d  during  university  preparation.  teachers  programmes t e a c h e r s  available be  university  12 s t u d e n t s a r e  would  indication of  university  for future research:  a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n t a c t between  provincial  4.  made c o n c e r n i n g  of  entrants.  first-  w e l l prepared  is  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h oust  might be  how  3.  evidence  are p o s s i b l e areas  A comparison  12 s t u d e n t s *  t o examine t h e a r e a  in British  self-perceptions of freshman  year  of  ability  would  be  67  interesting.  Would  attitudes  be  What are t h e s k i l l s t e a c h e r s f e e l t o be  the  pre-university s k i l l s  6.  which  must  be  these  affected  by  training?  taught  "life  skills"  i n t h e g e n e r a l grade 12 programme?  Are  t h e s e r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the s k i l l s which s h o u l d be t a u g h t to s t u d e n t s g o i n g on t o p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  education?  68  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A a r o n s o n , S, V o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n . In F r a n k P. Greene ( E d . ) , C o l l e g e r e a d i n q : p r o b l e m s and programs o f j u n i o r and s e n i o r c o l l e g e s . 2 1 s t Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l B e a d i n g Conference, 1972, 134-138, Aim,  R.S, T e a c h i n g r e a d i n g 1957, 46, 11-19. ...  i s our  business.  English, journal»  A l l e n , S., & C h e s t e r , R. I n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t i n s t r u m e n t f o r s e c o n d a r y r e a d i n g i n s e r v i c e . 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Any l e a r n i n g s k i l l s t a u g h t of l e a d i n g * 1971, 15, 193-198.  i n high  school?  Journal  C a r t e r , H.L. The i m g a c t o f t o d a y s * s t u d e n t s upon c o l l e q e p r o g r e s s i n r e a d i n g , 1970. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ID 049 004) C h r o c i s t e r , G.M,, & A h r e n d t , K.M. Reading i n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . J o i r r i a l o f R e a d i n g , 1968, 11, 425-427. C o u r t n e y , L. fleeting s p e c i a l r e a d i n g needs i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a c l a s s r o o m . I n H. A. R o b i n s o n & E. Thomas (Eds.) , F u s i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s and c o n t e n t . Ne war k, D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1969, E a r l y , M. What d o e s r e s e a r c h i n r e a d i n q r e v e a l ? - a b o u t s u c c e s s f u l r e a d i n g p r o g r a m s ? E n q l i s h J o u r n a l , 1969, 534-547.  58,  F a h y , P.J,  high  A survey  of reading  instruction  i n the s e n i o r  69  schools of ftlberta. Unpublished of a l b e r t a , a l b e r t a , 1972.  M.  Ed.  F r e e d , B. F. S e c o n d a r y r e a d i n g - s t a t e o f t h e Beading., 1973, JT7, 195-201. Gay,  thesis,  University  art. Journal  Qf  I . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h : i S o i j e t e n c i e s - f a r ; a n a l y s i s and a p p l i c a t i o n . Columbus, O h i o : C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , 1976.,  G r i e s e , a . A . , H e a d i n g improvement a t t h e (EBIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n No. ED  college level, 016 564)  1967.  Hayward, F.H. R e a d i n g and s t u d y i n s t r u c t i o n i n C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . J o u r n a l o f B e a d i n g . 1971, 27-29.  1.5,  H e n d e r s o n , a.A. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n two-year c o l l e g e s . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g . 1976, .19, 464-471, Hodges, P. C o g n i t i v e s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t f o r s e c o n d a r y E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s . Jo.ur.naJ, g£ R e a d i a g , 1974, J 8 , 34-40. Hodges, P. R e a d i n g a s an e l e c t i v e i n t h e E n g l i s h program, j o u r n a l o f Beadijgg, 1974, 18, 30-3 3. H u s l i n , B.A. What's h a p p e n i n g i n c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y developmental r e a d i n g programs: a r e p o r t of a r e c e n t s u r v e y . R e a d i n g War Id , 1975, ,14, 2 02 -214. I s a a c , S., & M i c h a e l , W.B. Handbook J P S§gearch and San D i e g o , C a l i f o r n i a : E. d I T S , 1971.  evaluation.,  K i n g s t o n , A . J . S i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t s j n c o l l g g e and a d u l t r e a d i n a improvement, 1957. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ID 130 2 2 3 f K i n g s t o n , A . J . What do we mean by r e a d i n g i n t h e c o n t e n t area? 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(ERIC Document B e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 040 013)  and  M i c h a e l s , M , L , , S u b j e c t r e a d i n g improvement: a n e g l e c t e d t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . J o u r n a l o f B e a d i n g , 1965, 9, 16-21.  70  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, British C o l u m b i a r e a d i n q a s s e s s m e n t : summary r e p o r t * M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B.C., 1977, M i n i s t r y o f Education, P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, British Columbia r e a d i n g assessment: t e s t r e s u l t s . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B.C., 1977., Narang, H.L. B e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n Saskatchewan s e c o n d a r y . s c h o o l s . S a s k a t c h e w a n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S g s e a r c h and D e v e l o p m e n t ^ 1973,~4_7 58-61. ~ Newman, L.M. R e m e d i a l r e a d i n q i n t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e . , I n M.P. Douqlas ( E d , ) , 3 0 t h Yearbook o f t h e C l a r e m o n t B e a d i n q Conference. Claremont, C a l i f . : C l a r e m o n t Graduate S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m L i b r a r y , 1966, 206-214. Nie,  N.H. , H u l l , C H . , J e n k i n s , J.G., S t e i n b r e n n e r , K., & B e n t , D.H. SPSS: s t a t i s t i c a l package f o r t h e ! s o c i a l - s c i e n c e s : 2nd E d i t i o n . M c G r a w - H i l l Company, 19727 ~ ~*  P a l m e r , U.S. l e a c h i n g r e a d i n g i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s . J o u r n a l B e a d i n g , 1975, J 9 , 43-51.  of  B o b i n s o n , F.-P, S t u d y s k i l l s f o r s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . The Beaming T e a c h e r , 1961, J.5, 29-33. B o b i n s o n , H.A. T e a c h i n g r e a d i n g •.and sturdy- - s t r a t e g i e s . Mass.: A l l y n 5 B a c o n , 1975,  Boston,  Shaw. P. 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The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f c o l l e g e r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s t o p r e - c c l l e g e r e a d i n g programs. /In E r i c L. T h u r s t o n ( I d * ) , ZhS. p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a 1 b a s e s o f r e a d i n g. 14th Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l B e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1965, 14 , 81-86. Objssey, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 8, 1978 V a n c o u v e r Sun.  Vancouver,  C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.,  B.C.,February  6,  March  1978  V a v o u l i s , A., 6 B a y g o r , A. The t r a i n i n g o f c o l l e g e r e a d i n g and study s k i l l s s p e c i a l i s t s : a survey o f e x p e r t o p i n i o n . In P h i l L. Nacke ( E d . ) , P r o g r a m s and p r a c t i c e s f o r c o l l e g e r e a d i n g . 22nd Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l B e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1973, 2 2 ( 2 ) , 163-171.  APPENDIX A Data G a t h e r i n g I n s t r u m e n t E n g l i s h 100 S t u d e n t s  ASSESSING LITERACY AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS  SECTION ONE P l e a s e check one item i n each q u e s t i o n : 1.  A. Male  B. Female  2.  School S i z e :  3.  High School l o c a t i o n :  4.  C o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y , bound students should have a s p e c i a l r e a d i n g / w r i t i n g course. A. Yes B. No  5.  Every s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l student w r i t i n g course. A. Yes B. No  6.  Reading s k i l l s should be taught i n :  7.  In comparison with o t h e r s i n your c l a s s , how w e l l do you read?  A. B. C. D. E.  249 or l e s s _ 250 - 499 500 - 749 750 - 1000 1000 or more A. B r i t i s h Columbia B. Not i n B r i t i s h Columbia_ C. Not i n Canada  A. B. C. D. E.  should have a s p e c i a l r e a d i n g /  A. a separate programme B. E n g l i s h \ C. A l l content areas  Very w e l l Veil Average Not Well Poorly  8.  I n comparison w i t h o t h e r s of your age o u t s i d e t h e u n i v e r s i t y , h o w w e l l do you f e e l you read? A. Very w e l l B. Well C. Average D. Not w e l l E. P o o r l y  9.  How o f t e n do you read f o r A. B. C. D. E.  r e c r e a t i o n and- entertainment? Very o f t e n Often Sometimes Seldom Never  74  DIRECTIONS FOR SECTION TOO  STEP  SECTION TWO:  (1)  F o r e a c h i t e m i n S e c t i o n Two ( o n t h e p a g e t o y o u r r i g h t ) i n d i c a t e i n Column I ( F r e q u e n c y o f I n s t r u c t i o n ) t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r that s k i l l during your f i n a l year i n high s c h o o l . 1. v e r y f r e q u e n t l y 2. o f t e n 3. s o m e t i m e s  STEP  (2)  I n d i c a t e i n Column I I ( S t r e n g t h o f S k i l l ) y o u r s t r e n g t h you e n t e r e d u n i v e r s i t y i n each o f t h e s k i l l s l i s t e d .  a t t h e time  T r a i n i n g i n the use o f word-study s k i l l s t o u n d e r s t a n d new w o r d s ( e . g . p h o n i c s , p r e f i x e s , s u f f i x e s , b r e a k i n g w o r d s i n t o t h e i r component p a r t s ) .  2.  Training  i n the use o f c o n t e x t  new w o r d s  D. weak E . v e r y weak  In Column  5.  Training  i n comprehension  deducing  t h e meaning t h r o u g h  interpretation)  Training  i n study  notetaking,  6.  for  9.  success  r a t e t h e importance  i n university.  1. e s s e n t i a l 2. i m p o r t a n t 3. m o d e r a t e l y  Training  important  5. i r r e l e v a n t  t h e meaning graphs).  d e v e l o p m e n t and e n r i c h m e n t .  aids  information.  cf inferential  (e.g.  information (e.g.  o u t l i n i n g , precis,,  information).  i n research  skills  .(e.g. r e t r i e v i n g ,  evaluating,  information).  Training  i n development  adapting  reading  of a flexible  Training  i n i n t e r p r e t i v e reading  reading  rate (e.g.  t o p u r p o s e and m a t e r i a l ) . (e.g.  metaphor,  symbolism,  imagery).  item 10.  4. n o t v e r y important  o f each  to d e r i v e  words, p i c t u r e s ,  T r a i n i n g i n comprehension o f f a c t u a l  synthesizing  I I I (Importance o f S k i l l )  clues  surrounding  4.  7.  (3)  using  T r a i n i n g i n vocabulary  8. STEP  (e.g.  3.  organizing A. v e r y s t r o n g B. s t r o n g C. a d e q u a t e  SKILLS  1.  of  4. r a r e l y 5. n e v e r  COMMUNICATION  11.  12.  Training  in critical  unbiased  reporting, advertising  (e.g.  Training i n written  expression  ideas,  grammar).  punctuation,  Training  i n oral  discussion, 13.  reading  expression  purposeful  Training i a listening supporting  details;  propaganda,' b i a s e d  versus  devices). (e.g.  (e.g.  unity  oral  and c l a r i t y o f  reports,  class  dialogues). skills  (e.g.  evaluating,  listening  sorting  f o rmain  ideas,  information).  14.  Training.in library/reference  15.  T r a i n i n g i n l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n (e.g. a p p r e c i a t i o n o f v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y f o r m s and s t y l i s t i c e l e m e n t s ) .  16.  Training  i n spelling.  skills.  British  APPENDIX B Data G a t h e r i n g I n s t r u m e n t C o l u m b i a Grade 12 E n g l i s h  Teache  ASSESSING LITERACY AND SECTION  COMMUNICATION SKILLS  ONE  P l e n s c check one Item i n each q u e s t i o n : ].. School S i z e :  A. B. C. D. E.  249 250 500 750 1000  or les.-s - A99 _ - 749 - 1000 or more  2. Number of reading courses taken: A. None B. One ~ C. Two or more D. Degree i n reading E. I n s e r v i c e trainins*-  3. C o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y bound students should have a s p e c i a l r e a d i n g / w r i t i n g course. A. Yes B. No  4. Reading  s k i l l s should be taught i n : A. A separate programme B. E n g l i s h C. A l l content areas  DIRECTIONS FOR SECTION TWO SECTION TWO:  em i n S e c t i o n Two (on the page to your r i g h t ) i n d i c a t e (Frequency o f I n s t r u c t i o n ) the frequency of i n s t r u c t i o n i l l r e c e i v e d by students i n t h e i r f i n a l year of your  y frequently en ,etime.s  4. r a r e l y 5. never  y strong ong ;quate  D. weak E. v e r y weak  III (Importance of S k i l l ) r a t e t h e importance of each lccess i n u n i v e r s i t y . ;ential >ortant lerately  4. not v e r y important 5. i r r e l e v a n t important  SKILLS  1.  T r a i n i n g i n the use of word-study s k i l l s t o understand new words (e.g. phonics, p r e f i x e s , s u f f i x e s , breaking words i n t o t h e i r component p a r t s ) .  2.  T r a i n i n g i n the use of context c l u e s to d e r i v e the meaning of new words (e.g. u s i n g surrounding words, p i c t u r e s , graphs).  3.  T r a i n i n g i n vocabulary  4.  T r a i n i n g i n comprehension o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  .5.  i Column I I ( S t r e n g t h of S k i l l ) the average strength of its ( a t the time they l e f t high school) i n each of the ed.  COMMUNICATION  development and enrichment.  T r a i n i n g i n comprehension of i n f e r e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n (e.g. deducing the meaning through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) .  6.  T r a i n i n g i n study a i d s (e.g. n o t e t a k i n g , organising information).  outlining, precis,  7.  Trainir.g i n r e s e a r c h s k i l l s s y n t h e s i z i n g inforiaation) .  8.  T r a i n i n g i n development of a f l e x i b l e r e a d i n g r a t e (e.g. adapting reading t o purpose and m a t e r i a l ) .  9.  Training i n i n t e r p r e t i v e reading imagery).  (e.g. r e t r i e v i n g , e v a l u a t i n g ,  (e.g. metaphor, symbolism,  10.  T r a i n i n g i n c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g (e.g. propaganda, biased unbiased r e p o r t i n g , a d v e r t i s i n g d e v i c e s ) .  versus  11.  Training i n w r i t t e n expression i d e a s , punctuation, grammar).  12.  T r a i n i n g i n o r a l e x p r e s s i o n (e.g. o r a l r e p o r t s , c l a s s discussion, purposeful dialogues).  13.  T r a i n i n g i n l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s (e.g. l i s t e n i n g f o r main i d e a s , supporting d e t a i l s ; e v a l u a t i n g , s o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ) .  14.  Trainiiig i n library/reference s k i l l s .  15.  T r a i n i n g i n l i t e r a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n (e.g. a p p r e c i a t i o n o f v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y forms and s t y l i s t i c elements).  16.  Training i n spelling.  (e.g. u n i t y and c l a r i t y o f  Covering  APPENDIX C L e t t e r : E n g l i s h 100  Instructors  79  March 1978. Dear E n g l i s h 100 I n s t r u c t o r : As part o f my graduate t h e s i s r e s e a r c h , I am i n v e s t i g a t i n g d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s h e l d by G r a d e 12 teachers, English 100 i n s t r u c t o r s and E n g l i s h 100 s t u d e n t s a s t o t h e l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s c f u n i v e r s i t y entrants. However, i n order to complete my research, I need your help and co-operation. , S p e c i f i c a l l y , I am r e q u e s t i n g permission to present a short guestionnaire t o your English 100 c l a s s between t h e 2 0 t h and 31st o f March, a t your convenience. About 20 m i n u t e s should be sufficient t o complete the questionnaire which I and my c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e R e a d i n g E d u a c t a i o n Department w i l l distribute and c o l l e c t . I n a d d i t i o n , I am a s k i n g you t o c o m p l e t e a s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e f o r m s would be c o m p l e t e d a n o n y m o u s l y . S i n c e i t i s l a t e i n t h e s c h o o l t e r m , t h i s seems an appropriate time t o a s k t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e f l e c t upon how w e l l t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l p r e p a r e d them f o r t h e work e x p e c t e d o f them during this past year. I realize that you are busy and a l r e a d y have many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t e r m . However, I would g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . The q u e s t i o n o f s t u d e n t s " c o m p e t e n c y i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a t t h i s time. If you a r e w i l l i n g t o complete a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o a l l o w me t o p r e s e n t a 20 m i n u t e questionnaire t o your class, p l e a s e f i l l o u t t h e e n c l o s e d f o r m . Dr. P a r k i n h a s k i n d l y o f f e r e d h i s o f f i c e f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f responses. Yours  truly.  M a r i a n Mackworth 0.B.C. G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t R o b e r t D. . C h e s t e r Professor, R e a d i n q E d u c a t i o n Dept. U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.  APPENDIX D Covering L e t t e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Grade 12 E n g l i s h  Teachers  81  April  17, 1978  HEAD OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FEBNIE SEC SCHOOL P 0 EOX 370 FEBNIE B C  Dear Head o f E n g l i s h , In r e s p o n s e t o t h e r e c e n t Provincial Learning Assessment Project, we are currently examining s e n i o r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s * p o s i t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o a s e t o f communication s k i l l s , the n e e d s o f u n i v e r s i t y a n d c o l l e g e bound s t u d e n t s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o u s . i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t , we are asking your help with the enclosed g u e s t i o n n a i r e f o c u s i n g on t h r e e major i s s u e s : 1.  How o f t e n a r e t h e l i s t e d classrooms?  skills  taught  i n g r a d e 12  2.  as j u d g e d by t h e i r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , how c o m p e t e n t i n t h e s e s k i l l s a r e g r a d e 12 s t u d e n t s ?  3.  As j u d g e d by s e n i o r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , how i m p o r t a n t a r e the l i s t e d s k i l l s f o r s u c c e s s i n the u n i v e r s i t y a c a d e m i c programme?  He r e q u e s t t h a t you spend a few m i n u t e s i n f i l l i n g o u t t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i n g i t i n t h e stamped s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e . Your r e s p o n s e w i l l be c o n f i d e n t i a l . He would l i k e t o t h a n k you i n a d v a n c e f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e a t t h i s b u s y t i m e o f y e a r . An a b s t r a c t o f t h e f i n a l r e p o r t w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e t o you on r e q u e s t . Yours  Dr. B. D. C h e s t e r Dept. o f B e a d i n g Education u n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. Vancouver  truly.  M a r i a n Mackworth Dept. o f Beading E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. Vancouver  APPENDIX E C o v e r i n g L e t t e r , Second M a i l i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Grade 12 E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s  83  May  HEAD CF ENGLISH FEBNIE SEC SCHOOL P 0 EOX 370 FEBNIE B C  24, 1978  DEPARTMENT  Dear Head o f E n g l i s h , S e v e r a l weeks a g o , we s e n t y o n a guestionnaire pertaining to the l i t e r a c y skills o f t h e c o l l e g e - and u n i v e r s i t y - b o u n d s t u d e n t s i n your s c h o o l . He have n o t , as y e t , r e c e i v e d a r e p l y f r o m a number o f s c h o o l s . I f y o u r d e p a r t m e n t h a s n o t y e t r e p l i e d , we would again like to s o l i c i t y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i n a s k i n g a g r a d e 12 E n g l i s h t e a c h e r t o f i l l o u t the e n c l o s e d g u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i t i n t h e stamped, a d d r e s s e d envelope,. He r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s i s a b u s y t i m e o f y e a r b u t we would be g r a t e f u l i f y o u would a s s i s t u s . An a b s t r a c t o f t h e f i n a l r e p o r t w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t . Yours  Dr. B. D, C h e s t e r Dept. o f Reading E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C, , Vancouver  truly,  M a r i a n Mackworth Dept. o f R e a d i n g E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. Vancouver  

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