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A psycholinguistic investigation of the cloze responses of grade eight students Cram, Ruby Victoria 1980

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c7 A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC INVESTIGATION OF THE CLOZE RESPONSES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS  by  RUBY VICTORIA CRAM B.A. , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION  in  \  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Reading E d u c a t i o n  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1980  @  Ruby V i c t o r i a  Cram, 1980  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  DE-6  BP  75-51 1 E  ABSTRACT  T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r o l e o f exact and nonexact-replacements of c l o z e responses i n t h e assessment of r e a d i n g comprehension.  Two modes of d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and  p r o s e , were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  Two  expository  t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions guided the study:  from p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , t h a t r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s responses t o the graphophonemic, s y n t a c t i c , and semantic cue systems of language 1976a);  (Goodman,  and from d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s , t h a t a "schema" o r c o g n i t i v e  d i r e c t s the r e a d e r i n t h e s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e cues (Winograd, S u b j e c t s were p r o f i c i e n t and l e s s p r o f i c i e n t at two l e v e l s of m a t u r i t y .  1977).  secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s  A t t i t u d e t o r e a d i n g was  O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of d i s c o u r s e were: or c o n v e n t i o n s of a s t o r y , and  map  also  examined.  (i) narrative  fiction  ( i i ) e x p o s i t o r y prose or coherent e x p l a n -  a t i o n of a t o p i c . S u b j e c t s were e n t e r i n g grades n i n e (N = 107) and twelve (N = i n Lord Byng Secondary S c h o o l , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  100)  To examine  exact replacements (E.R.'s) and a t t i t u d e s , o n l y s u b j e c t s whose primary language was  E n g l i s h were e l i g i b l e .  (N.E.R.'s) were examined (N = 20) and Poor  Exact and non-exact-replacements  f o r a random sample a t each grade l e v e l of Good  (N = 30) r e a d e r s i d e n t i f i e d from s c o r e s on the compre-  h e n s i o n s u b t e s t of the Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t  (1973).  To v e r i f y  how  l i n g u i s t i c cues t r i g g e r r e s p o n s e s , s i x s u b j e c t s were randomly drawn from each p r o f i c i e n c y group f o r r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s , which ii  were taped and t r a n s c r i b e d .  Each s u b j e c t  Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e and two c l o z e t a s k s :  (N = 207) completed t h e E s t e s a n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and an  e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , from t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment 1977, Grades 8 and 12. Responses were t e s t e d f o r exact match t o the a u t h o r ' s word (Bormuth, 1975).  To e v a l u a t e N.E.R's, the i n v e s t i g a t o r adapted t h e  Cambourne Reading Assessment  Procedure (1978), based on the Goodman  Taxonomy of Reading Miscues (1969).  F o l l o w i n g two p i l o t  studies, the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme was made c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d i s c o u r s e t h e o r y and the coding s i m p l i f i e d .  A synonym replacement f o r the exact response was  acceptable i n three categories:  syntax, semantics, and d i s c o u r s e .  S t a t i s t i c a l procedures i n c l u d e d c o r r e l a t i o n , independent t - t e s t s , and two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e .  F o r the. o r a l p r o t o c o l s , c a t e g o r i e s were  induced from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s .  Frequency of response was a n a l y z e d  u s i n g the c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c , supported by q u a l i t a t i v e  description.  A t t i t u d e t o r e a d i n g had a g e n e r a l l y weak c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s o f comprehension.  F o r exact c l o z e s c o r e s ,  relation-  s h i p s w i t h the s t a n d a r d i z e d measure were s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h e x p o s i t o r y prose f o r poor grade twelve s u b j e c t s . s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y prose s c o r e s . t i a t e d from poor r e a d e r s . proficiency levels.  Narrative  fiction  Good r e a d e r s were d i f f e r e n -  The N.E.R. s c o r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d between  A t grade n i n e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n s c o r e s  exceeded  e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , but a t grade twelve, d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean i n t e r - r a t e r agreement, c a l c u l a t e d by t h e A r r i n g t o n  Formula  ( F e i f e l & Lorge, 1950), was 91.6 p e r c e n t . The i n t e r v i e w s demonstrated t h a t t h r e e cue systems o p e r a t e d most frequently:  syntax, s e m a n t i c s , and d i s c o u r s e ; iii  and two much l e s s  often:  grammatical f u n c t i o n and l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . frequency  were found  Significant differences i n  between modes of d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s .  For combined exact s c o r e s p l u s synonyms, i n grade n i n e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n s c o r e s exceeded prose occurred.  s c o r e s , but i n grade twelve  the reverse  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s was noted;  ever good readers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r w i t h e x p o s i t o r y  how-  prose.  Data based c o n c l u s i o n s were (1) a t t i t u d e i s not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e i t h e r p r o f i c i e n c y ^ or comprehension, (2) comprehension s c o r e s f o r modes o f d i s c o u r s e : (3) exact  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y  differed  prose,  c l o z e s c o r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s ,  (4) N.E.R. scores r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e use o f cue systems by ability  groups, (5) a l l r e a d e r s used the same cue systems:  semantics,  syntax,  and d i s c o u r s e , t o g a i n meaning, but c o n t r o l of t h e s e t o f  cue systems, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h e x p o s i t o r y prose, d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e good r e a d e r , and (6) t h e a d d i t i o n o f synonym s c o r e s t o exact  c l o z e scores  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s , modes of d i s c o u r s e , and maturity  levels.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  v i i  LIST OF FIGURES  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xi  Chapter I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  Statement of t h e Problem Background o f t h e Problem Research Problem Research Q u e s t i o n s and Hypotheses L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study Definitions Summary O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Study II  2 3 21 22 24 24 24 27 27  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  28  E v a l u a t i o n s i n the Problem Area P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Theory E r r o r Studies Miscue A n a l y s i s C l o z e Procedure Discourse Analysis . . . . , T h e o r i e s of D i s c o u r s e Methodology Attitude Summary III  28 33 34 35 38 46 47 51 56 58  METHODOLOGY  59  Research D e s i g n The P o p u l a t i o n Sample Instrumentation Procedures Data P r o c e s s i n g Hypotheses Summary  . . . . .  v  59 60 62 63 64 67 72  IV  RESULTS  73  S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses Post Hoc A n a l y s i s R e l i a b i l i t y of S c o r i n g Retrospective Verbalizations S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Frequencies Summary o f F i n d i n g s Summary V  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,  73 95 100 103 107 115 117  DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS . . 119  Discussion of the Findings Implications Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research Concluding Statement  121 125 127 128  REFERENCES  130  APPENDIX A  142  APPENDIX B  154  APPENDIX C  171  vi  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1.1 Taxonomy o f Non-Exact Replacements 7 1.2 R e s u l t s o f P i l o t Study 1 — N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n Grammatical F u n c t i o n of N.E.R.'s 9 1.3 R e s u l t s of P i l o t Study 1 — N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n S y n t a c t i c A c c e p t a b i l i t y of N.E.R.'s 9 1.4 R e s u l t s of P i l o t Study 1 — N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n Semantic A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f N.E.R.'s 10 1.5 R e s u l t s o f P i l o t Study 1 — N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n Loss of Meaning . 10 1.6 R e s u l t s o f P i l o t Study 2 — E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Grammatical F u n c t i o n o f N.E.R.'s 12 1.7 R e s u l t s of P i l o t Study 2 — E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e S y n t a c t i c A c c e p t a b i l i t y of N.E.R.'s 12 1.8 R e s u l t s of P i l o t Study 2 — E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Semantic A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f N.E.R. 's 13. 1.9 R e s u l t s o f P i l o t Study 2 — E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Loss o f Meaning 13. 1.10 Grammatical F u n c t i o n of C l o z e Responses on F i c t i o n and S o c i a l S t u d i e s M a t e r i a l s 15 1.11 S y n t a c t i c A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f C l o z e Responses on F i c t i o n and S o c i a l S t u d i e s M a t e r i a l s . . . . . . . . 15 1.12 Semantic A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f C l o z e Responses on F i c t i o n and S o c i a l S t u d i e s M a t e r i a l s 16 1.13 Loss o f Meaning i n C l o z e Responses o f F i c t i o n and S o c i a l S t u d i e s M a t e r i a l s 16 1.14 Category 4: Cambourne's Taxonomy of N.E.R.'s . . . . 17 1.15 Revised Taxonomy o f N.E.R.'s 19 2.1 H i e r a r c h i c a l Components w i t h i n some Taxonomic D e f i n i t i o n s o f Reading 29 2.2 L e v e l s of Comprehension 30 2.3 L e v e l s o f Comprehension and the C o g n i t i v e Domain . . . 30 2.4 Tasks w i t h i n L e v e l s o f Comprehension 31 3.1 Sources o f V a r i a n c e and Degrees o f Freedom f o r a 2 x 2 F a c t o r i a l Randomized D e s i g n , F i x e d E f f e c t s Model 65 3.2 Weighting System f o r Four V a r i a b l e s of Non-Exact C l o z e Replacements 66 4.1 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among S e l e c t e d Indexes f o r Grade Nine and Twelve Readers 75 4.2 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among S e l e c t e d Indexes f o r Good and Poor Readers i n Grade Nine 7g 4.3 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among S e l e c t e d Indexes f o r Good and Poor Readers i n Grade Twelve 78 vii  4.4  Correlation  Coefficients  Acceptability for 4.5  Scores  of Percent  and P e r c e n t  Complete Exact  Discourse  Cloze  Scores  N a r r a t i v e a n d E x p o s i t o r y P a s s a g e s b y Good a n d  Poor Readers i n Grades Nine and Twelve C o m p a r i s o n Between E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e and C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y Means  81 Exact  f o r G r a d e s N i n e and Twelve  4.6  C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n Means o f E x a c t C l o z e N a r r a t i v e a n d E x a c t C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y f o r Good a n d P o o r  4.7  C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n Means o f N o n - E x a c t - R e p l a c e m e n t s C l o z e R e s p o n s e s o n Modes o f D i s c o u r s e b y P r o f i c i e n c y L e v e l i n Grade Nine C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n Means o f N o n - E x a c t - R e p l a c e m e n t s C l o z e R e s p o n s e s o n Modes o f D i s c o u r s e b y P r o f i c i e n c y L e v e l i n Grade Twelve A n a l y s i s of Variance of Exact Cloze Scores of N a r r a t i v e a n d E x p o s i t o r y Modes b y Good a n d P o o r  Readers  4.8  4.9  Readers 4.10  4.11  i n Grades N i n e and Twelve  i n Grade  85of 86 of  Nine  4.14  Readers i n Grade Twelve Means o f W e i g h t e d S c o r e s A c c o r d i n g t o G r a m m a t i c a l F u n c t i o n , S y n t a c t i c A c c e p t a b i l i t y , Semantic A c c e p t a b i l i t y , and D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f N o n - E x a c t - R e p l a c e m e n t Words i n a N a r r a t i v e a n d E x p o s i t o r y P a s s a g e b y 20 Good a n d 20 P o o r i n Grade  Means o f W e i g h t e d  Nine Scores  89  91 According  t o Grammatical  92  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Exact C l o z e P l u s Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y S c o r e s o f N a r r a t i v e and E x p o s i t o r y Modes b y Good a n d P o o r R e a d e r s i n Grade N i n e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f Exact C l o z e P l u s Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y S c o r e s o f N a r r a t i v e and Expository  4.15  86  89  F u n c t i o n , S y n t a c t i c A c c e p t a b i l i t y , Semantic A c c e p t a b i l i t y , and D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f N o n - E x a c t - R e p l a c e m e n t Words i n a N a r r a t i v e a n d E x p o s i t o r y P a s s a g e by 20 Good a n d 20 P o o r Readers i n Grade Twelve 4.13  83  A n a l y s i s o f Variance o f Exact Cloze Scores o f N a r r a t i v e a n d E x p o s i t o r y Modes b y Good a n d P o o r  Readers 4.12  .  Modes b y Good  96  and Poor R e a d e r s i n  Grade Twelve A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y S c o r e s o f N a r r a t i v e and E x p o s i t o r y Modes b y Good a n d P o o r R e a d e r s i n G r a d e N i n e . . . .  4.16  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e o f Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y S c o r e s o f N a r r a t i v e and E x p o s i t o r y Modes b y Good a n d P o o r R e a d e r s i n G r a d e T w e l v e . . .  4.17  Percentage  96  97  97>  o f Agreement between I n v e s t i g a t o r and  I n d e p e n d e n t J u d g e s 1 and 2 i n t h e S c o r i n g o f Non-Exact-Replacements o f C l o z e Responses i n t h e N a r r a t i v e Mode b y G r a d e N i n e R e a d e r s viii  104  4.18  4.19  4.20  5.1  5.2  Percentage o f Agreement between I n v e s t i g a t o r and Independent Judges 3 and 4 i n the S c o r i n g o f NonE x a c t - Replacements o f C l o z e Responses i n the E x p o s i t o r y Mode b y Grade Twelve Readers . 104 F r e q u e n c i e s and Percentages from N a r r a t i v e and E x p o s i t o r y Modes by Good and Poor Readers i n Grade Nine w i t h C h i Squares . 109 F r e q u e n c i e s and Percentages from N a r r a t i v e and E x p o s i t o r y Modes by Good and Poor Readers i n Grade Twelve w i t h C h i Squares I l l Comparison between C l o z e C r i t e r i o n L e v e l s and Mean Percentages on Exact C l o z e Scores on Modes of D i s c o u r s e by P r o f i c i e n c y and Grade L e v e l s . . . . 126 Comparison between C l o z e C r i t e r i o n L e v e l s and Mean Percentage Exact C l o z e p l u s Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y Scores on Modes o f D i s c o u r s e by P r o f i c i e n c y and Grade L e v e l s 126  ix  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 4.1  4.2  4.3  4.4  4.5  4.6  Mean Exact Replacement C l o z e Scores f o r N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n and f o r E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Passages by 20 Poor and 20 Good Readers i n Grade Nine Mean Exact Replacement C l o z e Scores f o r N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n and f o r E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Passages by 20 Poor and 20 Good Readers i n Grade Twelve . . . . Mean Exact Replacement C l o z e P l u s Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y Scores f o r N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n and f o r E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Passages by 20 Poor and 20 Good Readers i n Grade Nine Mean Exact Replacement C l o z e P l u s Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y Scores f o r N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n and f o r E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Passages by 20 Poor and 20 Good Readers i n Grade Twelve . . . . Mean Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y Scores f o r N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n and f o r E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Passages by 20 Poor and 20 Good Readers i n Grade Nine Mean Complete D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y C l o z e Scores f o r N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n and f o r E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e Passages f o r 20 Poor and 20 Good Readers i n Grade Twelve  x  93  94  98  99  101  102  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  There are many who My  thanks go to Mr.  were e s s e n t i a l to the completion  Barney O'Brien,  cooperation.  To Dr. E. G.  thought  then demanded my To my  t h e i r i n t e r e s t and  was  i n v a l u a b l e i n the d e s i g n and  faith  support.  C h e s t e r , my  from the  To f e l l o w s t u d e n t s T. Dun  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c s ,  S. Craddock, H. H a l p e r n , G. Walker, and a s s i s t a n c e as  To my  two  and  patience,  and put my  p r e p a r a t i o n of the  needs b e f o r e t h e i r  daughter.  xi  colleague  judges.  c h i l d r e n , and above a l l , my  T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s d e d i c a t e d to my in his  who  beginning.  f o r the m e t i c u l o u s  faith  Reeder—  S p e c i a l thanks to Dr. H. R a t z l a f f ,  To Nina T h u r s t o n  encouraged me  Dank, G.' M a l l e t t , and K.  t h e s i s a d v i s o r , f o r h i s guidance,  f o r t h e i r support and  mother, my  and  best.  for  and  not o n l y t h a t I c o u l d but s h o u l d ,  d i s s e r t a t i o n c o m m i t t e e — D r s . M.  to Dr. R. D.  study.  P r i n c i p a l of L o r d Byng Secondary  School, f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g Summers, who  of t h i s  typescript.  husband, Tom,  who  own.  f a t h e r , who  had a q u i e t , s h i n i n g  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Comprehension i s a complex p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l , psychol o g i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional responses t o language. I t i s t h e p r o c e s s whereby meaning i s e x t r a c t e d from w r i t t e n language. ( P r o j e c t B u i l d , 1979, p. 7) The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r e a d i n g comprehension i n terms o f the q u a l i t y  of the responses  o f s t u d e n t s t o w r i t t e n language has s i g n i f i c a n t  t i o n s f o r t h e t e a c h e r i n the secondary Build  school.  Report  implica-  4 of Project  ( B r i n g i n g U n i t y i n t o Language Development), prepared  f o r Vancouver  School Board, recommends t h a t a l l s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s have " . . . some knowledge o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s t o g e t h e r w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p e c i a l r e a d i n g demands of d i f f e r e n t c i a l l y important  o f the  s u b j e c t s . . . ." (p. 1 5 ) .  Espe-  i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n h e r e n t i n the forms o f language.  V a r i o u s e f f o r t s have been made t o examine the r o l e o f language i n r e a d i n g from the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c v i e w p o i n t o f the mental p r o c e s s e s l y i n g i t s use.  In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e a n a l y s i s o f responses  under-  t o the system-  a t i c d e l e t i o n s of words i n a passage, c a l l e d c l o z e procedure,  offers a  p r o m i s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the assessment o f the i n d i v i d u a l needs o f s t u d e n t s as a supplement t o t r a d i t i o n a l t e s t i n g .  Simons (1971)  emphasized: P r o c e s s o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h i s m o t i v a t e d by t h e assumption t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e i s i n p a r t dependent on t h e e x t e n t t o which those t e c h n i q u e s c a p i t a l i z e on t h e a c t u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s which s t u d e n t s u t i l i z e i n l e a r n i n g , (p. 340) 1  2 Research  d i r e c t e d both a t u n c o v e r i n g  the b a s i c p r o c e s s e s o f r e a d i n g com-  p r e h e n s i o n and a t t h e d i a g n o s i s o f the s t r e n g t h s , as w e l l as the weaknesses  o f s t u d e n t s , i s one important way o f improving  instruction.  Statement o f the Problem The use o f the response has been the b a s i s o f e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h in reading.  Simons (1971) s t a t e d :  "The comprehension p r o c e s s i s the  mental o p e r a t i o n s which take p l a c e i n the r e a d e r ' s head w h i l e he i s r e a d i n g " (p. 340).  S i n c e these a r e n o t o b s e r v a b l e , the c o v e r t mental  p r o c e s s must be i n f e r r e d from e i t h e r the p r o d u c t s , as t e s t r e s u l t s r e a d i n g , o r more r e c e n t l y , from the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f b e h a v i o u r , responses  during reading.  F o r example, i n c l o z e procedure  a r e e v a l u a t e d f o r the exact match to the author's word Many e f f o r t s have been d i r e c t e d to the examination i n language.  The inadequacy  such as  responses  (Bormuth, 1975).  of the c u e i n g systems  o f e x i s t i n g schemes f o r s t u d y i n g  i n terms o f e r r o r s o n l y , documented by Weber (1968), to develop  after  responses  l e d Goodman (1969)  a technique f o r t h e i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s of o r a l r e a d i n g  responses. From the study o f the p a t t e r n s of "miscues,"  d e f i n e d as d e v i a t i o n s  from the p r i n t e d t e x t , was f o r m u l a t e d a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c theory t h a t r e a d i n g i s an i n t e g r a t e d response  t o t h r e e k i n d s o f cue systems:  (1) t h e grapho-phonic  cues, which come from the v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f  the p r i n t e d symbols:  (2) the s y n t a c t i c cues from the s t r u c t u r e o f the  sentence;  and (3) the semantic  o r meaning cues p r o v i d e d by the context  o f the whole sentence and by the mode of d i s c o u r s e , o r the p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e passage.  R e c e n t l y , Cambourne extended the  Goodman method by d e v i s i n g a taxonomy f o r the a n a l y s i s o f t h e responses  3 to c l o z e t a s k s i n an e f f o r t narrative f i c t i o n  t o understand the s i l e n t  reading process, i n  (1977) and i n the text-book prose o f b i o l o g y  (1978).  Other methods such as p r o t o c o l s and r e t r o s p e c t i o n - i n t r o s p e c t i o n have a l s o been used t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e s p o n s e s , b u t r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e secondary s c h o o l .  little  related  A d e a r t h o f s t u d i e s on t h e  response of s t u d e n t s t o t h e cues i n d i f f e r i n g modes o f d i s c o u r s e , as n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n or e x p o s i t o r y prose was found. comparison  such  None concerned a  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses t o c l o z e t a s k s between the  two modes o f language use.  And a l t h o u g h o t h e r r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t  a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s such as i n t e r e s t , a t t i t u d e , and s e l f - c o n c e p t , r e a d i n g comprehension  affect  (Athey, 1970), none combined any o f these f a c t o r s  w i t h response. The p r e s e n t e x p l o r a t o r y study was designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the responses i n r e a d i n g o f secondary s t u d e n t s t o e s t a b l i s h a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e on the comprehension  process.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the primary  purpose  was t o examine whether t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f responses t o c l o z e t a s k s v a r i e s w i t h two modes o f d i s c o u r s e : prose.  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y  The secondary purpose was t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether t h e responses  vary with the a t t i t u d e of the student.  Background  o f the Problem  The problem o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e a d i n g comprehension responses o f s t u d e n t s r e s u l t e d pilot  studies:  from t h r e e f a c t o r s which  i n terms o f the l e d t o the two  the demands of r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n , survey r e s u l t s , and t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s k i l l s model. Gibson and L e v i n  (1975) s t a t e d :  and e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y  "Reading  t o l e a r n i s an e s s e n t i a l  from r e a d i n g a poem or n o v e l f o r  4 pleasure"  (p. 1 0 ) .  Not o n l y I s t h e purpose f o r r e a d i n g d i f f e r e n t , but  a l s o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e language which i s a t t h e f a r t h e s t p o l e  from  e i t h e r the students'  own spontaneous n a t u r a l language or the f a m i l i a r  p a t t e r n s of f i c t i o n .  Y e t , as Rosen (1972) observed, the secondary  school  offers:  . . . t h e o n l y chance, c e r t a i n l y t h e main chance, o f a c q u i r i n g the language and thought o f impersonal o b s e r v a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n , t h e o r i e s , laws, t h e a n a l y s i s o f events remote i n time and space, argument and speculation. (p. 121) One  o b j e c t i v e of secondary e d u c a t i o n  i s t o teach  students  how t o compre-  hend t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f o r m a l language of e x p o s i t o r y prose, which i s t h e main form of d i s c o u r s e i n the s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s . stated:  Olson  (1977a)  " C h i l d r e n ' s encounters w i t h t e x t o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r those  encounters c o n s t i t u t e t h e one a b s o l u t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f schooling" The i n reading  (p.  76).  d i f f i c u l t i e s many s t u d e n t s content  at a l l levels of a b i l i t y  area m a t e r i a l s are w e l l recognized.  encounter  F o r example,  the B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment, 1977, Grade 8 and 12, a survey of a l l t h e students  i n the p r o v i n c e by t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ,  showed  t h a t , a t b o t h l e v e l s , s c o r e s on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n passages exceeded those to  on t h e e x p o s i t o r y s e l e c t i o n s .  emphasize s k i l l  As a r e s u l t , t e a c h e r s were urged  development i n "comprehending e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l s "  (1977c, p. 4 4 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n based on s k i l l s has been the most common method o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e secondary l e v e l Goal 4 o f t h e Secondary G u i d e — E n g l i s h  (Palmer, 1979, p. 7 ) .  8-12 (Revised 1978) s t a t e s : "The  secondary s c h o o l E n g l i s h program w i l l develop i n students r e a d i n g and study  s k i l l s " (1979, p. 1 0 ) .  a range o f  I n the s k i l l s approach,  5 r e a d i n g i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t i s l e a r n e d s e q u e n t i a l l y . and  s u b s k i l l s a r e arranged  The d i v e r s e  i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , w i t h each  skills skill  depending on t h e one below and competency i n c r e a s i n g as the r e a d e r moves from l e v e l t o l e v e l .  The reader  first  l e t t e r s , then combines o t h e r phonic "word p e r c e p t i o n " and f i n a l l y , and  and "word a t t a c k " s k i l l s t o develop  comprehends t h e meaning o f t h e sentence  then the e n t i r e d i s c o u r s e .  reading s k i l l s  l e a r n s t o match sounds and  " T y p i c a l l y t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and use of  i n h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r a r e e x p l a i n e d through models o f  r e a d i n g known as taxonomies" (Palmer, 1979, p. 3 ) . s k i l l s model i s e v i d e n t i n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s c l i n i c s and courses (Herber, 1977; for  1970;  The emphasis on the  ( F a r r , 1969), r e a d i n g  (Sawyer, 1974), p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n g  Shepherd, 1973;  Burmeister,  1974;  textbooks  Thomas & Robinson,  E s t e s & Vaughan, 1978), and i n p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ;  example, such s e r i e s as Be a B e t t e r Reader, Success i n Reading,  and.Advanced ' S k i l l s i n Reading. As d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s , taxonomic models c l a r i f y t h e range of i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s f o r t h e t e a c h e r , but t h e f a i l u r e t o d e a l w i t h language i s s t r u c t u r e d i s a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n . the assessment o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t ' s  is  As t h e o n l y b a s i s f o r  a b i l i t i e s and responses, t h e  s k i l l s approach i s e q u a l l y inadequate. assessed  how  T y p i c a l l y , the poor reader i s  i n terms o f m i s s i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s .  The u n d e r l y i n g  assumption  t h a t w i t h c o r r e c t d i a g n o s i s , the s k i l l s can be i s o l a t e d and t h e s t u -  dent taught  t o improve.  Sawyer (1974) observed  d i f f e r e n c e i n reading s k i l l s  that o f t e n the only  i n s t r u c t i o n from one grade t o the next  be t h e t e a c h e r and t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s .  may  Secondary students who have  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h r e a d i n g o f t e n change l i t t l e and may even f a l l f u r t h e r behind,  as t h e demands o f r e a d i n g content  area m a t e r i a l s i n c r e a s e .  6 In a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e to determine p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n s f o r research, MacGinitie  (1975-76) s t a t e d t h a t the q u e s t i o n o f what c o g n i -  t i v e o p e r a t i o n s c h i l d r e n perform i n l e a r n i n g to read i s an important  one.  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y z e c u r r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s to a s s e s s the range of c o g n i t i v e demands, t o l o c a t e the most f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d a t i o n s , and t o compare the demands o f d i f f e r e n t Research i s needed  i n how  oper-  materials.  i n f o r m a t i o n i s conveyed by the c o n v e n t i o n s and  l o g i c of sentence i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and by l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  struc-  t u r e which a r e the d e v i c e s by which a t t i t u d e s a r e communicated.  Such  s t r a t e g i e s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o r e a d i n g The q u e s t i o n o f how  s t u d e n t s read l e d t o two p i l o t  comprehension.  s t u d i e s by t h i s  inves-  tigator. Pilot  Study 1 Cambourne (1977, 1978)  developed a taxonomy, based on the Goodman  procedure (Table 1.1), f o r e v a l u a t i n g the non-exact-replacements of c l o z e d e l e t i o n s .  (N.E.R.'s)  Each response i s examined f o r i t s grammatical f u n c -  t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and f o r l o s s of meaning. The purpose of the p i l o t i n g Assessment eight readers.  study was  t o r e p l i c a t e the Cambourne Read-  Procedure w i t h s e l e c t e d average and low average S u b j e c t s were t e n high-average and t e n  grade  low-average  r e a d e r s from a suburban j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l i n D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  The E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s each s e l e c t e d the s t u d e n t s , male and  from t h e i r s u b j e c t  classes.  C l o z e d e l e t i o n s were performed on an u n f a m i l i a r , complete s t o r y , "Voodoo" by F r e d e r i c Brown. remainder was  female,  The f i r s t  sentence was  short  intact;  the  typed w i t h f i f t h - w o r d d e l e t i o n s f o r a t o t a l of 66 b l a n k s .  7 TABLE 1.1 TAXONOMY OF NON-EXACT REPLACEMENTS  Aspect o f Psychollngulstic Concern  1  Grammatical Function  2  Syntactic Acceptability  3  Semantic Acceptability  4  Loss of Meaning  S u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f Answers t o Questions  Q u e s t i o n Asked  Does t h e r e a d e r ' s replacement s e r v e the same grammatical f u n c t i o n as t h e i n t e n d e d word(s)?  Y N P  Yes No Cannot  Does t h e r e a d e r ' s replacement r e s u l t i n a syntactically acceptable construction?  Y  Yes, t h e complete T - u n i t i s acceptable Yes, b u t a t sub."T-unit leve No. Syntactically unacceptable  Does t h e r e a d e r ' s replacement r e s u l t i n a semantically acceptable construction?  Y  Does the r e a d e r ' s replacement r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f meaning?  N  P N  tell  Yes, a t t h e whole s t o r y level T Yes, but o n l y a t T - u n i t level ?! Yes, but o n l y a t sub Tunit l e v e l with p r i o r p o r t i o n o f the sentence Yes, but o n l y a t sub T^2 unit l e v e l with following p o r t i o n o f the sentence N No. T o t a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e  P M Y  No. There i s no l o s s i n meaning at t h e whole story l e v e l Change o f unimportant detail Change i n major c h a r a c t e r , i n c i d e n t or sequence Yes. T o t a l l y incongruous to t h e s t o r y  (Cambourne, 1978)  8 Each N.E.R. was  a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f the taxon-  omy. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t low average r e a d e r s r e p l a c e d words of a d i f f e r e n t grammatical f u n c t i o n to the author more than two r a t e o f the h i g h average r e a d e r s , 14.1% v s . 34.2%  times the  (Table 1.2);  t h r e e times as many t o t a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e s y n t a c t i c u n i t s , 9.7% 27.3%  ( T a b l e 1.3);  42.8%  of the time, compared to 77.2%  had  about  compared t o  and m a i n t a i n e d the semantic i n t e g r i t y of the sentence ( T a b l e 1.4).  The low group were  concerned more w i t h the T - u n i t l e v e l of meaning (4.1% v s . 11.1%) and w i t h the p o r t i o n p r i o r t o the c l o z e d e l e t i o n  (.4%  v s . 5.9%).  The t r e n d s were  s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the "Loss of Meaning" c a t e g o r y .  Because the d i s t i n c -  t i o n s between "no  detail"  i t was  l o s s " and "change of unimportant  f e a s i b l e to c o l l a p s e the two  were minimal,  c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t  the  h i g h average group m a i n t a i n e d meaning or the s t o r y l i n e 83.5%, w h i l e the low average group comprehended 57.3%  (Table 1.5).  The r e s u l t s s u b s t a n t i a t e d Cambourne's (1977) study w i t h r e a d e r s and were g e n e r a l l y as the Goodman model p r e d i c t e d . average r e a d e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p r o f i c i e n t  younger The h i g h  i n the replacement of  c l o z e d e l e t i o n s w i t h s y n t a c t i c a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e responses and appeared  to m a i n t a i n the meaning of the e n t i r e passage b e t t e r  than  r e a d e r s judged low average r e a d e r s . The overwhelming  m a j o r i t y of replacements a c c e p t a b l e o n l y w i t h the  p r i o r p a r t of the sentence by the low group t o t a l c o n t e x t of the sentence was  (5.9%) suggests t h a t  not used e f f i c i e n t l y .  The f a c t  h i g h average r e a d e r s had o n l y .4% of such responses suggests t h a t c o n t r o l of the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s d i f f e r s markedly.  the that the  In accordance w i t h  the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c view, such r e a d e r s a r e concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h  TABLE 1.2 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 1—NARRATIVE FICTION GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION OF N.E.R.'s  Proficiency  Y (Yes) Same grammatical f u n c t i o n as author  N (No) Different to author  Can't  tell  High average  84.1  14.1  1.3  Low average  63.9  34.2  2.2  -3.32**  -.48  3.26**  z value  * p < .05 Note.  ** p < .01  A l l s c o r e s i n percentages  TABLE 1.3 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 1—NARRATIVE FICTION SYNTACTIC ACCEPTABILITY OF N.E.R.'s  Y (Yes)  Proficiency  Complete T - u n i t acceptable  P (Partial) A unit smaller than T - u n i t i s acceptable  N (No) Not acceptable  High average  88.3  3.0  9.7  Low average  66.1  6.4  27.3  z value  3.74**  **p < .01 Note.  A l l s c o r e s i n percentages  •1.14  -3.20**  10 TABLE 1.4 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 1—NARRATIVE FICTION SEMANTIC ACCEPTABILITY OF N.E.R.'s  Y (Yes) At whole passage level  Proficiency  High  At T - u n i t l e v e l only  average 77.2  Low average  42.8  z value  4.96**  * p < .05 Note.  T  Pi With p r i o r p o r t i o n of T-unit only  ?2 With l a s t p o r t i o n of T-unit only  N (No) Not a c c e p t able at any l e v e l  3.6  .4  2.8  14.3  11.1  5.9  1.1  39.1  •.87  -3.96**  -2.23*  -2.03*  ** p < .01  A l l s c o r e s i n percentages  TABLE 1.5 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 1—NARRATIVE FICTION LOSS OF MEANING  N (No)  Proficiency  No l o s s  P Change unimportant detail  M Change o f maj or detail  Y (Yes) Totally incongruous  High average  79.6  3.9  .4  16.6  Low average  43.7  13.6  1.6  41.1  -2..4 3*  -.85'  -3.82*  z value  * p < .05. Note.  5.22**  ** p < .01  A l l s c o r e s i n percentages  11 meaning.  I t a l s o suggests t h a t p r o f i c i e n t r e a d e r s use the t o t a l  con-  t e x t of the passage. W i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , the t e c h n i q u e of q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of c l o z e responses has s i g n i f i c a n t p o t e n t i a l f o r understanding n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s .  The f a m i l i a r format of the s t o r y  and s i m p l e v o c a b u l a r y a r e easy to comprehend, but the l e s s  well'-known  s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s and p a t t e r n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s of e x p o s i t o r y prose may  not be.  Pilot  T h i s problem was  i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the second p i l o t  Study 2 The responses t o e x p o s i t o r y prose were examined  sample as p i l o t  w i t h the same  study 1, but w i t h N = 9 i n the h i g h average group and  N = 8 i n the low average group, due to absences.  The passage, d e l e t e d  w i t h 50 b l a n k s , a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d c l o z e format (Bormuth,  1976)  a p o r t i o n of the grade 8 s o c i a l s t u d i e s s e l e c t i o n " A u s t r a l i a n by A. J . Rose from the B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment, and 12, 1977. would  study.  I t was  was  Cities"  Grades 8  p r e d i c t e d t h a t s c o r e s o f h i g h average r e a d e r s  exceed those of low average r e a d e r s i n a l l f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of the  Cambourne taxonomy. The r e s u l t s were g e n e r a l l y as p r e d i c t e d .  High average r e a d e r s  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p r o f i c i e n t w i t h grammatical f u n c t i o n and s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y than low average r e a d e r s ( T a b l e s 1.6  and  1.7).  The s c o r e s were more n e a r l y a l i k e a t the l e v e l o f the T - u n i t i n the semantic c a t e g o r y (36.6% v s . 30.1%).  In the l o s s of meaning from  minor d e t a i l s , s c o r e s were 25.3% v s . 22.5% r e s p e c t i v e l y . f o r meaning i t appears t h a t the responses may of d i s c o u r s e  (Tables 1.8  and  1.9).  In r e a d i n g  be a f f e c t e d by the mode  TABLE 1.6 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 2—EXPOSITORY PROSE GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION OF N.E.R.'s  Proficiency  Y (Yes) (Same grammatical f u n c t i o n as author)  N (No) (Different t o author)  P (can't  tell)  High average  72.4  25.7  0  Low average  65.8  34.2  0  z value  1.01  * p < .05 Note.  -1.31  ** p < .01  A l l s c o r e s i n percentages  TABLE 1.7 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 2—EXPOSITORY PROSE SYNTACTIC ACCEPTABILITY OF N.E.R.'s  Y (Yes)  Proficiency  (Complete T - u n i t acceptable)  P (Partial) (A u n i t s m a l l e r than T - u n i t i s acceptable)  N (No) (Not acceptable)  High average  80.6  .5.7  12.9  Low average  68.2  '3.5  28.2  z value  2.01*  * p < .05 ** p < .01 Note.  A l l scores i n percentages  '."74  -2.68"  13 TABLE 1.8 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 2—EXPOSITORY PROSE SEMANTIC ACCEPTABILITY OF N.E.R.'s  Y (Yes) T At whole passage At T - u n i t level l e v e l only  Proficiency  Px With p r i o r p o r t i o n of T-unit only  P With l a s t p o r t i o n of T-unit only 2  N (No) Not acceptable at any l e v e l  High average  37.7  36.6  2.6  4.0  16.4  Low average  21.6  30.8  4.6  2.5  40.0  -.76  -.60  -3.71**  z value  2.49*  * p < .05 Note.  .87  ** p < .01  A l l s c o r e s i n percentages  TABLE 1.9 RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY 2—EXPOSITORY PROSE LOSS OF MEANING  N (No)  P Change unimportant detail  M Change of major detail  Y (Yes) ' Totally incongruous  Proficiency  No l o s s  High average  -41.7  25.3  16.0  16.4  24.1  22.5  17.9  36.0  Low average z value  2.65*  * p < .05 Note.  .46  ** p < .01  A l l s c o r e s i n percentages  -•36  -3.15**  14 Comparison Between P i l o t The pared  2  c l o z e responses on f i c t i o n and  f o r the h i g h average and  Scores The  S t u d i e s 1 and  s o c i a l s t u d i e s were then com-  low average r e a d e r s  on grammatical f u n c t i o n and  s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y were s i m i l a r .  low average group o b t a i n e d means of 64.3  r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r f i c t i o n and average group were 84.1  v s . 65.8  social studies.  v s . 72.4  i n the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s .  The  and  66.5  68.2  s c o r e s of the h i g h  on grammatical f u n c t i o n and  88.1  80.6  on s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r the two modes of d i s c o u r s e  1.10  and The  vs.  vs.  (Tables  1.11). d i f f e r e n c e s between the s c o r e s of students  of p r o f i c i e n c y were much more marked i n the two  a t the two  levels  categories that deter-  mine the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the meaning. The category  r e s u l t s of a comparison between the two  the T - u n i t  ( P i ) , and a f t e r the d e l e t i o n ( P 2 ) ,  and  37.8%  s t u d i e s on  Semantic A c c e p t a b i l i t y are g i v e n i n T a b l e 1.12.  l e v e l s of a c c e p t a b i l i t y :  category  pilot  (Table 1.1).  The  The  the  three  ( T ) , p r i o r to the c l o z e d e l e t i o n  were c o l l a p s e d i n t o the  data of 38.6%  "Partial"  f o r the h i g h average  f o r the low average r e a d e r s suggest  readers  t h a t both groups have e q u a l  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l s , i n c o n t r a s t to 6.3%  and  18.1%  r e s p e c t i v e l y , on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n . In the l o s s of meaning c a t e g o r y , 3.9  v s . 13.6  f o r f i c t i o n and  h i g h average and  v s . 22.5  low average r e a d e r s .  s c o r e s were 16 v s . 17.9, gested  25.3  the s c o r e s f o r minor d e t a i l were f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s f o r the  On l o s s from major d e t a i l ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y (Table 1.13).  The  results  the sug-  t h a t the mode of d i s c o u r s e a f f e c t s the r e a d i n g comprehension a t  both a b i l i t y  levels.  In a study of c o l l e g e students  r e a d i n g b i o l o g y text-book  prose,  15 TABLE  1.10  GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION OF CLOZE RESPONSES ON FICTION AND SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS  Acceptable Fiction S.S.  Proficiency  Partially Acceptable Fiction S.S.  Not Acceptable Fiction S.S.  High average  84.1  72.4  1.3  0  14.5  25.7  Low average (percentages) z value  64.3  65.8  2.2  0  34.2  33.4  -3.25**  -1.19  * p  < .05  ** p  3.20**  1.01  -.49  < .01  TABLE 1.11 SYNTACTIC ACCEPTABILITY OF CLOZE RESPONSES ON FICTION AND SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS  Acceptable Fiction S.S.  Proficiency  Partially Acceptable Fiction S.S.  Not Acceptable Fiction S.S.  High average  88.1  80.6  5.7  5.7  9.7  14.5  Low average (percentages) z value  66.5  68.2  9.2  3.5  26.9  32.2  *p < .05  ** p < .01  3.65**  2.01*  .94  .74  -3.14** -2.96**  16 TABLE 1.12 SEMANTIC ACCEPTABILITY OF CLOZE RESPONSES ON FICTION AND SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS  Acceptable Fiction S.S.  Proficiency  Partially Acceptable Fiction S.S.  Not Acceptable Fiction S.S.  High average  77.2  37.7  6.3  38.6  14.4  16.4  Low average (percentages) z values  42.8  21.6  18.1  37.8  40.3  43.5  * p < .05  4.97**  2.49*  -2.55*  .12  -4.11** -4.18**  ** p < .01  TABLE 1.13 LOSS OF MEANING IN CLOZE RESPONSES OF FICTION AND SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS  Proficiency  No Loss Fiction S.S.  High average  79.6  Low average z value  43.7 24.1 13.6 5.22** 2.65* 2.43*  * p < .05  41.7  Change o f Unimportant Detail Fiction S.S.  ** p < .01  3.9  25.3 22.5 .46  Change of Major Detail Fiction S.S.  .4 1.6 -.8S  Totally Incongruous Fiction S.S.  16.0  16.6  16.4  17.9 .36  41.1 36.0 -3.82**-3.15**  17 Cambourne (1978) found t h a t , a l t h o u g h responses were a c c e p t a b l e a t t h e first  t h r e e l e v e l s , a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e e n t i r e c o n t e x t , they were  " b i o l o g i c a l l y unacceptable."  I t appeared  t e c h n i c a l prose r e q u i r e s h i g h l y s p e c i f i c  t h a t ". . . the r e a d i n g o f  s c e n a r i o s o f background  knowl-  edge and word-use i f meanings a r e t o be e x t r a c t e d and comprehension i s to o c c u r " (p.  10).  Discourse Analysis The problem o f the e f f e c t of t h e mode of d i s c o u r s e on responses evolved from t h e p i l o t  studies.  The Loss o f Meaning c a t e g o r y (Table  1.14) i n Cambourne's (1977) taxonomy seemed inadequate f o r i d e n t i f y i n g responses a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e whole passage.  TABLE 1.14 CATEGORY 4:  Loss of meaning  CAMBOURNE S TAXONOMY OF N.E.R.'s 1  N  Does t h e r e a d e r ' s replacement r e s u l t i n l o s s o f meaning?  P M Y  No. There i s no l o s s o f meaning a t t h e whole s t o r y level Change o f unimportant detail Change of major c h a r a c t e r , i n c i d e n t , o r sequence Yes. T o t a l l y incongruous to t h e s t o r y  In e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l s where t h e emphasis i s on l o g i c a l o r d e r , terms  such as " c h a r a c t e r " a r e i r r e l e v a n t .  A c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e judgment  between "unimportant" and "major" d e t a i l i s l a c k i n g ; of t h e c o d i n g "N" and "Y", c o n f u s i n g . "whole s t o r y " l e v e l , as i t a l s o appeared  and t h e r e v e r s a l  There was an o v e r l a p i n t h e i n Semantic A c c e p t a b i l i t y .  c a t e g o r y 3, Weber's (1977) comment on t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f miscues i n s y n t a c t i c and semantic c o n t e x t seemed r e l e v a n t :  In  18 In s p i t e of t h i s prominence and c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o meaning i n the d i s c u s s i o n , however, the f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to these c a t e g o r i e s are not r e p o r t e d f u l l y or m e t h o d i c a l l y enough t o be a s s e s s e d . Nor i s the v a l u e of any of the a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s q u e s t i o n e d or t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s s u f f i c i e n t l y examined. Nor i s the treatment of semantics as a f i e l d a t a l l adequate; i n f a c t , i t m i s r e p r e s e n t s the c u r r e n t l e v e l of i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y now going on. Both p r a c t i t i o n e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s w i l l be d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the e x p o s i t i o n on matters of meaning, because i t i s not cogent enough t o be i n s t r u c tive, (p. 419) Kintsch  (1977) t h e o r i z e s t h a t "top-down" p r o c e s s e s of c o g n i t i v e  s t r u c t u r e or "schema" of the reader i n t e r a c t w i t h the "bottom-up" cues p r o v i d e d by the t e x t .  Comprehension depends on the p e r c e p t u a l s i t u a -  t i o n s , the s u b j e c t s ' g o a l s and and mode of d i s c o u r s e .  e x p e c t a t i o n s , and  the n a t u r e of the  syntax  From d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s , the study of the  organ-  i z a t i o n of e n t i r e passages or c o n t e x t s , has  come t h e o r i e s of schema and  s t r u c t u r e t o suggest why  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n i s more e a s i l y  than e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e .  The  comprehended  f a m i l i a r i t y of the elements of f i c t i o n ,  as s e t t i n g , p l o t , and c h a r a c t e r , p e r m i t s e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t i o n s ; p e c u l i a r p a t t e r n s and  such  whereas,  syntax demand a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of competence.  On the b a s i s of t h e s e t h e o r i e s the f o u r t h c a t e g o r y of Cambourne's taxonomy became D i s c o u r s e A c c e p t a b i l i t y ;  the other changes appear i n  T a b l e 1.15.  The  taxonomy appears  to have c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r  understanding  how  r e a d e r s use s t r a t e g i e s , but whether the p r o f i c i e n c y i s  the cause or the r e s u l t of the e f f e c t i v e use of context i s s t i l l clear.  Non-verbal  f a c t o r s such as i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s , and  experience a f f e c t reading s t r a t e g i e s . reasons why  r e a d e r s respond may  past  Additional insights into  be gained from another  not  technique,  the retro-  spection. Retrospection. needed t o e x p l o r e how  Cambourne suggested "...  that " l o u d - t h i n k e r s " are  c e r t a i n l i n g u i s t i c cues t r i g g e r the approp-  r i a t e s c e n a r i o s " (1978, p. 11).  F a r r (1969) emphasized:  19 TABLE  1.15  REVISED TAXONOMY OF N.E.R.'s  Aspect o f Psycholinguistic Concern  1  2  S u b - c a t e g o r i e s of Answers t o Questions  Q u e s t i o n Asked  Grammatical function  Does the r e a d e r ' s replacement s e r v e the same grammati c a l f u n c t i o n as the i n t e n d e d word(s)?  Y P N  Yes Cannot No  Syntactic acceptability  Does the r e a d e r ' s replacement r e s u l t i n a syntactically acceptable construction?  Y  Yes, the complete T - u n i t i s acceptable Yes, but a t sub T - u n i t l e v e l No, s y n t a c t i c a l l y unacceptable  P N  3  Semantic acceptability  Does the r e a d e r ' s replacement result i n a semantically acceptable construction?  Y  4  Discourse acceptability  Does the r e a d e r ' s replacement r e s u l t i n an a c c e p t a b l e meaning w i t h i n the whole mode of d i s c o u r s e ?  Y  tell  Yes, at the whole sentence level T Yes, but o n l y at T - u n i t l e v e l P i Yes, but o n l y at sub T - u n i t l e v e l w i t h p r i o r p o r t i o n of the sentence Yes, but o n l y a t sub T - u n i t P2 l e v e l with following portion of the sentence N No. T o t a l l y unacceptable  P  N  Yes. The meaning i s i n t a c t at the whole d i s c o u r s e l e v e l Change of l o g i c a l d e t a i l ( E x p o s i t o r y Prose) OR Change i n major c h a r a c t e r , i n c i d e n t , or sequence (Narrative Fiction) No. T o t a l l y incongruous t o the d i s c o u r s e  (Adapted from Cambourne,  1978)  20 By s t u d y i n g s t u d e n t s ' responses, i t may be p o s s i b l e to determine i f the student goes through a d i f f e r e n t mental procedure i n comprehending s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l than he does i n comprehending s o c i a l studies materials. (1969, p. 121) R e t r o s p e c t i o n i s a technique  adopted from c o g n i t i v e  psychology.  In r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h , the s u b j e c t i s r e q u i r e d to d e s c r i b e h i s thoughts a f t e r reading Fareed, by  ( P i e r k a r z , 1954;  1971).  Strang & Rogers, 1965;  In s t u d i e s o r i g i n a t e d by J e n k i n s o n  Smith,  (1957), and  1967; continued  Laing: the data were allowed to determine the c r i t e r i a b e s t s u i t e d to c l a s s i f y and d e s c r i b e the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s e s used by the subj e c t s to complete the meaning of the ( c l o z e ) r e a d i n g passages. ( L a i n g , 1974, p. 56) The  t a p i n g of one  on the e x p l o r a t i o n and  s u b j e c t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of how settlement  he read a passage  of A u s t r a l i a suggested  i n s i g h t s can be gained by the t e c h n i q u e .  that u s e f u l  For example, the boy a s s o c i -  ated " f u r - t r a d e r s " w i t h e x p l o r a t i o n , i m p l y i n g t h a t h i s background knowledge i s l i m i t e d to Canada.  The  post hoc  a n a l y s i s of the  recorded  d e s c r i p t i o n s r e v e a l e d q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the responses to r a t i v e f i c t i o n and The  prose.  Role of A t t i t u d e s I t was  pilot act  expository  nar-  study  apparent from o b s e r v a t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' comments d u r i n g 2 t h a t an a f f e c t i v e component was  i n v o l v e s more than c o g n i t i v e and  have been d e f i n e d i n v a r i o u s ways.  operating.  linguistic  systems.  Alexander and  Filler  The  reading  Attitudes (1976) con-  sider attitudes: to c o n s i s t of a system of f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d to r e a d i n g which causes the l e a r n e r to approach or a v o i d a r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n . A learner's a t t i t u d e s may v a r y w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and may be a f f e c t e d i n unique ways by v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the l e a r n e r and h i s environment. (p. 1)  21 A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t a t t i t u d e s tend t o be p e r s o n a l , unique and h i g h l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e ( S q u i r e , 1964),  the consensus  i s that a  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i s a f a c t o r i n maximal success i n r e a d i n g .  Athey  p o i n t e d out (1976) t h a t a v a i l a b l e evidence supports the view t h a t  good  r e a d e r s a r e "more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o r i e n t e d , " e x h i b i t more p o s i t i v e  aspir-  a t i o n s , show more c u r i o s i t y , and a r e more p o s i t i v e t o s c h o o l i n g e n e r a l — r e a d i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , than l e s s p r o f i c i e n t r e a d e r s (p. 366). I t appears, however, t h a t t h i s a s p e c t o f the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s has r e c e i v e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n than i t deserves p. 1 ) .  The main d i f f i c u l t y  (Alexander & F i l l e r , 1976,  i s to i n t e g r a t e a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s  into  r e a d i n g t h e o r y without a l s o b r i n g i n g i n the c o n t e x t o f a p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y , which may be " a r m c h a i r " r a t h e r than based on e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i dence (Athey, 1976, p. 366).  S i n c e p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c models which a r e  the b a s i s o f t h i s study have no a f f e c t i v e component, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r o l e o f a t t i t u d e s i n an a n c i l l a r y manner.  Research The main purpose  Problem  o f the study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether t h e com-  p r e h e n s i o n p r o c e s s as measured by t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses i s a f f e c t e d by the mode of d i s c o u r s e .  The primary o b j e c t i v e was t o determine  whether t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g  comprehension  between s e l e c t e d p r o f i c i e n t r e a d e r s and l e s s p r o f i c i e n t r e a d e r s a t two l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y , grade n i n e and grade twelve, as measured by t h e number of (1) t h e exact replacements exact-replacements  of c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , i n two modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r -  r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . determine  of c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , and (2) the non-  The secondary purpose was t o  i f the number of exact and non-exact-replacements  varied with  22 the a t t i t u d e to r e a d i n g as measured by In the main p a r t  of the  grade l e v e l — n i n e  2.  mode of d i s c o u r s e — n a r r a t i v e  3.  l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y — g o o d  The  dependent v a r i a b l e s  and'twelve f i c t i o n and and  expository  prose  poor.  to measure the responses to c l o z e  dele-  r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n s were:  the  2.  the non-exact-replacement s c o r e s i n f o u r  exact-replacement  scores  a) b) c)  grammatical f u n c t i o n syntactic acceptability semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y  d)  discourse  were a c c e p t a b l e i n t h r e e  a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s i n which responses  categories:  a) b)  syntactic acceptability semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y  c)  discourse  A t t i t u d e to r e a d i n g was  categories:  acceptability  complete d i s c o u r s e  acceptability measured by  (E.R.A.S.) (1975).  e x p l o r e d by  scale.  independent v a r i a b l e s were:  1..  3.  Scale  study, the  1.  t i o n s i n the  an a t t i t u d e  The  the t e c h n i q u e of  s c o r e s on  the E s t e s Reading  Attitude  o r a l responses to c l o z e d e l e t i o n s  were  retrospection.  Research Questions and  Hypotheses  Research Q u e s t i o n 1 Are  t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d  r e a d i n g comprehension and i n grades n i n e and Hypothesis  indices  a measure of a t t i t u d e f o r secondary  of  students  twelve?  1.1  There are  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among (1)  scores  on a r e a d i n g comprehension measure, (2) the number of exact replacements  23 of  c l o z e responses i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n mode of d i s c o u r s e , (3) t h e  number o f exact replacements of  of c l o z e responses i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode  d i s c o u r s e , and (4) a t t i t u d e s c o r e s .  Research Q u e s t i o n 2 Does t h e s u b j e c t comprehension  v a r y w i t h t h e mode o f d i s c o u r s e ?  H y p o t h e s i s 2.1 There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension  between  the n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n mode o f d i s c o u r s e and t h e e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured by t h e number o f (1) exact replacements responses and (2) non-exact-replacements  of cloze  o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , over g i v e n  l e v e l s o f grade and p r o f i c i e n c y . Research Q u e s t i o n 3 Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and poor, v a r y i n comprehension? H y p o t h e s i s 3.1 There  i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension  between  good r e a d e r s and poor r e a d e r s as measured by t h e number of (1) exact replacements  o f c l o z e responses and (2) non-exact-replacements  responses, over g i v e n r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n s and grade  of c l o z e  levels.  Research Q u e s t i o n 4 Is  t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f d i s c o u r s e and  proficiency  level?  H y p o t h e s i s 4.1 There :is> s i g n i f i c a n t (narrative f i c t i o n  i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s modes o f d i s c o u r s e  and e x p o s i t o r y prose) and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s  (good  and poor) i n grade n i n e and i n grade twelve, i n the number of exact replacements  of c l o z e responses.  24 Limitations The 1.  o f the Study  l i m i t a t i o n s of the study were as f o l l o w s :  The f i n d i n g s a r e l i m i t e d t o the two types of modes of d i s c o u r s e selected:  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y  prose;  however, i m p l i c a -  t i o n s may be extended t o o t h e r s i m i l a r passages. 2.  D i s c o u r s e v a r i a b l e s were l i m i t e d t o mode; r h e t o r i c a l patterns  3.  n a r r a t i v e schemata and  were n o t c o n t r o l l e d .  Elements from d i s c o u r s e  theory were employed t o uncover how n a t i v e  speakers use the cues i n comprehension;  no attempt a t the a n a l y s i s  of passages was made. 4.  The s u b j e c t s  from grade n i n e and grade twelve, randomly s e l e c t e d  the e n t i r e grade on the b a s i s of t h e i r r e a d i n g one  secondary s c h o o l .  p r o f i c i e n c y , were from  Conclusions r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y to t h i s  however, i m p l i c a t i o n s may be extended t o o t h e r s i m i l a r 5.  S e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s  from  population;  populations.  was f u r t h e r l i m i t e d to those who were n a t i v e  speakers of E n g l i s h . 6.  The s u b j e c t s  were d i r e c t e d t o complete c l o z e d e l e t i o n s  i z e t h e i r responses.  Consequently, an a r t i f i c i a l  and t o v e r b a l -  s i t u a t i o n arose  which may not be n e c e s s a r i l y s i m i l a r t o the process an i n d i v i d u a l may have i n independent  reading.  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study The research  d e l i n e a t i o n o f . r e s p o n s e s t o cues of language by b a s e - l i n e i n the comprehension p r o c e s s may l e a d t o an a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r group d i a g n o s i s , secondary  presently  l a c k i n g , f o r content a r e a t e a c h e r s i n  schools. Definitions  For  method  the study, the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were used:  25 1.  Reading ". . . i s a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c g u e s s i n g game.  I t i n v o l v e s an  i n t e r a c t i o n between thought and language" (Goodman, 1976c, p. 498). 2.  Comprehension  r e f e r s t o the responses of the r e a d e r t o w r i t t e n  lan-  guage, as measured by the number of exact replacements of c l o z e d e l e t i o n s and by the number o f non-exact-replacements of c l o z e i n four categories:  grammatical f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c  semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e 3.  acceptability,  acceptability.  A response i s a p u r p o s e f u l , r u l e - b a s e d procedure f o r t h e comprehension of a w r i t t e n  4.  deletions  Grammatical  language. f u n c t i o n r e f e r s t o the p a r t o f speech o f the c l o z e response;  t h a t i s , noun, pronoun, v e r b , a d j e c t i v e , adverb, p r e p o s i t i o n , ate conjunction, subordinate conjunction, a r t i c l e ,  coordin-  i n t e r j e c t i o n , as  e v a l u a t e d on a s c a l e o f : 1. Y Yes 2. P Cannot 3. N No 5.  tell  The s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the non-exact-replacements means t h a t the c l o z e response accords w i t h the l i n g u i s t i c judgement of n a t i v e speakers, as e v a l u a t e d on a s c a l e o f : 1. Y Yes, the complete T - u n i t i s a c c e p t a b l e 2. P Yes, b u t a t t h e sub T - u n i t l e v e l 3. N No, s y n t a c t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e  6.  The semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the non-exact-replacement  i s an e v a l u a -  t i o n of the congruency o f meaning o f the c l o z e response w i t h the cont e x t of the sentence, as measured on a f i v e - p o i n t 1. 2. 3. 4.  Y T Pi P  5. N 7.  2  Yes, a t the Yes, but a t Yes, but a t Yes, but a t sentence No, t o t a l l y  scale:  whole sentence l e v e l T-unit l e v e l sub T - u n i t l e v e l w i t h p r i o r p o r t i o n s o f the sentence sub T - u n i t l e v e l w i t h f o l l o w i n g p o r t i o n o f the unacceptable  D i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the non-exact-replacement  i s an e v a l u a t i o n  26 of the congruency of the meaning of the c l o z e response w i t h t e x t of the complete passage, a c c o r d i n g  the  con-  to the mode of d i s c o u r s e ,  as  measured by a s c a l e : Y Yes. The meaning i s i n t a c t a t the whole d i s c o u r s e l e v e l P Ghange of l o g i c a l d e t a i l ( E x p o s i t o r y Prose) OR Ghange i n major c h a r a c t e r , i n c i d e n t , or sequence ( N a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ) N No. T o t a l l y incongruous to the d i s c o u r s e 8.  A T-unit verb,  i s d e f i n e d as the minimal t e r m i n a b l e  f o r example, a main c l a u s e , p l u s any  unit that contains  subordinate  clauses  a  attached  to i t . 9.  Discourse  r e f e r s to a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d sequence of connected  sentences  t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s e i t h e r a complete s t o r y ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ) or a coherent 10.  e x p l a n a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c ( e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ) .  N a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n r e f e r s to the c o n v e n t i o n sentences which t e l l  a story.  A simple  of a sequence of connected  p l o t may  i n v o l v e a problem  f a c i n g a main c h a r a c t e r , a sequence of attempts by the main c h a r a c t e r to s o l v e the problem, and 11.  an e v e n t u a l  r e s o l u t i o n ( K i n t s c h , 1977).  E x p o s i t o r y prose r e f e r s to the c o n v e n t i o n  of a sequence of connected  sentences which i s an e x p l a n a t i o n or d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c and  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s  t h a t convey p a t t e r n s 12.  Discourse  "therefore,"  of_reasoning.  a n a l y s i s r e f e r s to a method f o r e x p l i c a t i o n of a t e x t  the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and 1977)  such as  according  processes  of language u s e r s  (Winograd,  to a schema.  13.  A schema i s a body of r e l a t e d knowledge to be used i n  14.  Miscues are d e v i a t i o n s from the p r i n t e d t e x t i n o r a l  15.  Exact  reasoning. reading.  replacements (E.R.'s) are the exact match to the author's  which has  and  been d e l e t e d i n a c l o z e  test.  word  27 16.  Non-exact-replacements  (N.E.R.'s) a r e the replacements which  differ  from the exact word d e l e t e d .  Summary The  t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l  importance of r e s e a r c h on the a c q u i s i -  t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n from t e x t s through the process acknowledged.  1978).  t h e com-  and of the study  of semantics, and,  the l a c k of good t o o l s f o r p r o s e - r e l a t e d  research (Pearson, 7  The n a t u r a l i s t i c approach t o r e s e a r c h which advocates  s t u d i e s of s m a l l numbers o f students areas  i s generally  E q u a l l y apparent i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f the t a s k :  p l e x i t i e s o f the comprehension process in particular,  of r e a d i n g  i n the a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m  (Goodman, 1976b).  in-depth  and m a t e r i a l s t y p i c a l of the content  s e t t i n g appeared t o be a v i a b l e approach  T h i s study was, t h e r e f o r e , designed  t o study  comprehension from the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c view t h a t r e a d i n g  reading  i n v o l v e s the  i n t e g r a t e d response t o the l i n g u i s t i c and semantic cues i n language.  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Study The 1.  r e p o r t o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s presented  Chapter I I c o n t a i n s related  2.  as f o l l o w s .  the b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l framework and a review of  literature.  Chapter I I I d e s c r i b e s  the d e s i g n and procedures f o l l o w e d  i n the c o l -  l e c t i o n of the d a t a . 3.  Chapter IV r e p o r t s t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s  o f the  f i n d i n g s of the study. 4.  Chapter V p r e s e n t s  the summary o f the study,  a d i s c u s s i o n o f the  f i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g and f u r t h e r research.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose o f t h i s chapter i s to p r e s e n t t h e e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on the e f f o r t s t o understand the comprehension p r o c e s s by the q u a l i t a t i v e examination o f t h e responses t o w r i t t e n language, e s p e c i a l l y the c u e i n g systems i n language.  The chapter b e g i n s w i t h an e v a l u a t i o n o f the s k i l l s  model and o f the t a s k o f measurement i n r e a d i n g .  The p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c  framework which forms t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s study f o l l o w s .  Research on  responses as e r r o r s , as o r a l miscues, and as c l o z e replacements i s p r e sented next.  Recent developments i n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s which o f f e r t h e  p o s s i b i l i t y o f examining responses i n terms o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e passage a r e t h e n summarized.  S t u d i e s i n r e t r o s p e c t i o n , as a  method o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e s p o n s e s , and i n a t t i t u d e s c o n c l u d e t h e r e v i e w of  literature. E v a l u a t i o n s i n the Problem A r e a  The S k i l l s  Model  The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s k i l l s model t o e x p l a i n comprehension have been r e c o r d e d by many e d u c a t o r s , i n s p i t e o f t h e p e r v a s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e approach e v i d e n t i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . the d e f i n i t i o n s of terms has been documented Stern 1. 2.  The l a c k of agreement i n ( S h a f e r , 1978;  Emans, 1979).  (1973) found f o u r c e n t r a l uses o f the term "comprehension": 'comprehension' i s used as degrees o r l e v e l s o f g r a s p i n g t h e meaning o f t h e p r i n t e d page; 'comprehension' i s used as a s e t of s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s which can be measured; 28  29 3. 4.  'comprehension' i s used as g r a s p i n g the meaning of v a r i o u s linguistic units; 'comprehension' i s used as a p r o c e s s e q u i v a l e n t to t h i n k i n g or u n d e r s t a n d i n g . (p. 256)  S t e r n concluded manner " . . . and  that reading methodologists  d i v o r c e d from any  l i n g u i s t i c performances  tend to use the term i n a  t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s about language  . . . they seem more concerned  w i t h psycho-  l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s about the t e a c h i n g of meaning" (p. 257).  The  l a c k of knowledge about what meaning i s l e a d s t o f u r t h e r ambiguity. Palmer  (1979, p. 3) p o i n t e d out the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the h i e r a r c h -  i c a l components of the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n some taxonomic (Table  definitions  2.1). TABLE  2.1  HIERARCHICAL COMPONENTS WITHIN SOME TAXONOMIC DEFINITIONS OF READING  William S. Gray (1960) 1. Word p e r ception, pronuncia-r. tion, meaning 2. Comprehension  3. R e a c t i o n and E v a l u a tion 4. A s s i m i l a tion  A. S t e r l Artley (1966)  O l i v e S. Niles (1969)  David H. Russell (1972)  Emerald V. Dechant (1974)  1. Word p e r ception, form, meaning  1. Word recognition  1. " B a r k i n g at Words"  1. Word Recognition  2. Comprehens i o n of s t a t e d or implied meaning 3. C r i t i c a l and emotiona l response 4. A p p l i c a t i o n of i d e a s to behaviour  2. A s s o c i a t i o n of meaning w i t h printed symbols 3. L i t e r a l comprehension 4. I n t e r p r e tation  2. L i t e r a l comprehension  2. Understanding  3. I n t e r p r e tation  3.  4. "Shock of reaction"  4. I n t e g r a t i o n  5. E v a l u a tion 6. A s s i m i l a tion  Reaction  30 Palmer's c h a r t , recent  r e a r r a n g e d I n order o f time, a l s o demonstrates t h a t  t h e o r i e s o f language a r e not i n c o r p o r a t e d . Report 4 o f P r o j e c t B u i l d c a t e g o r i z e d  literal  f o u r l e v e l s of comprehension:  comprehension, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c r i t i c a l  (p. 7)..  The Secondary G u i d e — E n g l i s h  reading,  8-12, l i s t s  l e v e l , t h e i n f e r e n t i a l l e v e l , and c r i t i c a l  reading  three: skills  creative  reading  the l i t e r a l (p. 1 0 ) .  The l e v e l s o f comprehension from s e l e c t e d textbooks i n r e a d i n g i n the content areas appear i n T a b l e 2.2.  TABLE 2.2 LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION  Herber (1970)  1. 2. 3.  Literal Interpretive Applied  Burmeister  Shepherd (1973)  1. 2. 3. 4.  E s t e s & Vaughan (1978)  Literal Interpretive Critical Creative  (1974) d i s t i n g u i s h e d  three  1. 2. 3.  Literal Inferential Applicative  l e v e l s o f comprehension,  which she r e l a t e d t o t h e seven l e v e l s of t h e c o g n i t i v e domain (Table 2.3).  TABLE 2.3 LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION AND THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN  1.  Literal  2.  Interpretation  3.  Critical—creative  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Memory Translation Interpretation Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation  31 Thomas and Robinson  (1977) d i v i d e d twelve s k i l l s  i n t o two c a t e g o r -  ies : The comprehension p r o c e s s e s . . . a r e i n a sense a h i e r a r c h y advancing as they do from t a s k s t h a t i n v o l v e r e a d i n g f o r l i t e r a l meaning, ( t a s k s 1-4 a r e o f t e n l i t e r a l ) i n which s t u d e n t s r e a d what i s a c t u a l l y p r i n t e d i n t h e l i n e s , t o b e y o n d - t h e - l i t e r a l (tasks 5-12) responses, i n which they read "between and beyond t h e l i n e s . " (p. 171) ( T a b l e 2.4)  TABLE 2.4 TASKS WITHIN LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION  Literal 1. 2. 3. 4.  G r a s p i n g d i r e c t l y s t a t e d d e t a i l s or f a c t s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g main i d e a s . G r a s p i n g t h e sequence o f time, p l a c e , i d e a s , e v e n t s , o r s t e p s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g and f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s .  "Beyond-the-literal" 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.  G r a s p i n g i m p l i e d meanings and drawing i n f e r e n c e s . Understanding character (emotional r e a c t i o n s , motives, p e r s o n a l t r a i t s ) and s e t t i n g s . Sensing r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f time, p l a c e , cause and e f f e c t , e v e n t s , and characters. A n t i c i p a t i n g outcomes. R e c o g n i z i n g t h e author's tone, mood, and i n t e n t . Understanding and drawing comparisons and c o n t r a s t s . Drawing c o n c l u s i o n s o r making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Making e v a l u a t i o n s .  Johnson  and Pearson  (1975) contended  t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f an o r d e r l y ,  l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f s k i l l s i s a t b e s t a " p e d a g o g i c a l convenience," t h a t i g n o r e s t h e r o l e o f t h e purpose the m a t e r i a l i n comprehension.  f o r r e a d i n g and the d i f f i c u l t y o f  A f f e c t i v e components i n r e a d i n g :  i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , and emotions 1970).  a r e seldom  included  I n a landmark r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h on t h e comprehension  Simons (1971) argued:  (Athey,  process,  32 . . . t h a t t h e s e t t i n g up o f c a t e g o r i e s o f s k i l l s has not a i d e d us g r e a t l y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e a d i n g comprehension p r o c e s s because o f a b a s i c c o n f u s i o n over t h e p r e c i s e b e h a v i o u r and c o g n i t i v e domain o f t h e s e s k i l l s . T h i s had l e d t o t h e naming of s k i l l s which a r e g l o b a l and vague i n n a t u r e and which have f a i l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h between: (1) r e a d i n g and t h i n k i n g ; (2) t h e o b j e c t s and p r o c e s s e s o f comprehension; (3) the use of comprehension, t h e procedures f o r t e a c h i n g comprehension, and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n comprehension, (p. 346) The i n a b i l i t y o f t h e s k i l l s approach t o e x p l a i n the comprehension p r o c e s s i s due i n p a r t t o t h e l a c k o f a t h e o r e t i c a l framework (p. 340). Language i s the o t h e r m i s s i n g element t h a t extends the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e a d i n g as a p r o c e s s which i s c e n t r e d on meaning. fail  ". . . t o d e a l w i t h how language i s s t r u c t u r e d w i t h i n  modes o f d i s c o u r s e " Measurement. p l e x ( F a r r , 1969; v a r i e t y of measures are  The taxonomic  models  different  (Palmer, 1979, p. 9 ) . The t a s k o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g comprehension i s so comSimons,  1971;  B l e a k l e y & Johnson, 1978) t h a t a  i s recommended.  Norm-referenced s t a n d a r d i z e d  tests  s a t i s f a c t o r y s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e s , but l a c k content and c o n s t r u c t  validity  of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s  (Goodman, 1968;  Guzak, 1970).  A number of  i n f o r m a l measures which a s s e s s r e a d i n g performance by sampling b e h a v i o u r over a number o f d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s p r o v i d e " . . . more r e l i a b l e and more v a l i d measures  than t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s "  ( F a r r , 1969,  p. 98), e s p e c i a l l y t o e v a l u a t e i n d i v i d u a l student performance.  Three  r e c e n t methods, t h e c l o z e procedure, miscue a n a l y s i s , and t h e Cambourne Reading Assessment P r o c e d u r e (1978), a t e c h n i q u e which combines p r o c e d u r e s , a r e based i n p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c  theory.  t h e two  33 P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c Theory T h e o r i e s from p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , the s c i e n c e which u n i t e s c o g n i t i v e psychology  and l i n g u i s t i c s , the study o f language,  r e a d i n g t o e x p l a i n the p r o c e s s . his  have been a p p l i e d t o  Goodman (1976c) noted p a r a l l e l s between  r e s e a r c h i n o r a l r e a d i n g and Chomsky's (1957) model of sentence  p r o d u c t i o n , which s t i m u l a t e d p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h i n speech hension. speech  On the major c r i t i c a l  a r e merely  1976,  assumption  that:  compre-  " W r i t t e n t e x t and o r a l  a l t e r n a t e forms o f the same language p r o c e s s "  (Cambourne,  p. 609), Goodman (1968) e v o l v e d the model o f r e a d i n g as a "psycho-  l i n g u i s t i c g u e s s i n g game. steps o f the decoding  11  "Primary  p r o c e s s " (Geyer,  emphasis i s on the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c 1972, p. 455), t h a t i s , the i n n a t e  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r language t h a t enables m a t i c a l r u l e s t o proceed  the c h i l d  t o a c q u i r e the gram-  from the sound system or " s u r f a c e " s t r u c t u r e t o  the "deep s t r u c t u r e o f meaning."  Shafer  (1978) summarized:  S t a t e d simply, i n the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model, the r e a d e r i s a c o n t i n u a l seeker a f t e r meaning. The b r a i n i s c o n s t a n t l y going through a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s t o d e c i d e what's out t h e r e i n terms of incoming i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i o r e x p e c t a t i o n s , c o n s t a n t l y a t t e m p t i n g t o reduce u n c e r t a i n t y by a p p l y i n g what i s a l r e a d y known from p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e to each incoming message. (p. 310) The  r e a d e r uses v i s u a l  i n f o r m a t i o n from p r i n t , but to a much g r e a t e r  e x t e n t , u t i l i z e s h i s n o n - v i s u a l storehouse of knowledge of language and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the conventions  of the p r i n t e d page which a r e s t o r e d i n  " c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s " i n the b r a i n . print, called  "redundancies,"  system (p. 3 1 2 ) .  The p a t t e r n s and c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f  represent a s i g n i f i c a n t  linguistic  The o t h e r n o n - v i s u a l source i s the semantic  cueing  system,  c o n s i s t i n g of a l l p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h meaning and knowledge of t h e world. minimal  The f l u e n t reader goes d i r e c t l y  t o meaning, and makes o n l y  use o f the t y p i c a l " p h o n i c " s k i l l s .  Research  i n the r e a d i n g  34 p r o c e s s has been e x t e n s i v e ,  based on the premise t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t  t o r s , such as r h e t o r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , ability  to process  i n f l u e n c e the r e a d e r ' s c o g n i t i v e  information.  Error The use o f o r a l r e a d i n g long t r a d i t i o n  (Weber, 1968;  assumption t h a t o r a l r e a d i n g  Studies  e r r o r s t o study t h e r e a d i n g Gibson & L e v i n , 1975).  found many i n a d e q u a c i e s i n the methods. so much t h a t comparisons a c r o s s  learning.  p r o c e s s has a  Based on t h e  approximates s i l e n t r e a d i n g ,  on e r r o r s as i n d i c a t o r s of u n s u c c e s s f u l  differed  fac-  t h e focus i s  Weber, however,  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes o f t e n s t u d i e s were almost  impossible.  A l l e r r o r s , even h e s i t a t i o n s and "poor" e n u n c i a t i o n were counted as mistakes.  The schemes focused  on words o r l e t t e r s ;  sentences or d i s c o u r s e was l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . as i s o l a t e d u n i t s or as p e r c e p t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t e between k i n d s  the r o l e of e r r o r s i n  Inaccuracies  inaccuracies.  were handled  No e f f o r t was made t o  of e r r o r s .  Goodman (1965) s t u d i e d  the r e p e t i t i o n s o f 100 grade one t o t h r e e  c h i l d r e n and found t h a t almost a l l were t o c o r r e c t an e r r o r . j e c t s made s u b s t i t u t i o n s t h a t m a i n t a i n e d t h e meaning and e a s i l y words i n context  t h a t they missed i n l i s t s .  Many subread  Goodman (1969), and l a t e r  Weber (1970), demonstrated t h a t e r r o r s showed a s e n s i t i v i t y t o grammati c a l structure. the a b i l i t y increased. word.  Y. Goodman (1968), noted t h a t as the reader matures,  t o e x p l o i t t h e l i n g u i s t i c c o n s t r a i n t s t o m a i n t a i n meaning E r r o r s were u s u a l l y t h e same p a r t of speech as t h e o r i g i n a l  The focus  of research  i n d i v i d u a l word t o a focus w i t h i n t h e context  s h i f t e d from a concern w i t h e r r o r s i n t h e  on the s y n t a c t i c and semantic c o n s t r a i n t s  o f t h e e n t i r e sentence.  35 Mlscue A n a l y s i s The  Instruments S i n c e then t h e r e have been many o r a l r e a d i n g s t u d i e s over a wide  range of t o p i c s .  The two main i n s t r u m e n t s , the Goodman Taxonomy of  Reading Miscues and the Reading Miscue I n v e n t o r y (RMI), were developed c o n c u r r e n t l y by Kenneth Goodman (1969, 1976a, 1976c), i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Y e t t a Goodman and C a r o l y n Burke Cambourne (1976) o u t l i n e d  (1972a,  1972b).  the " n a t u r a l i s t i c " r e s e a r c h method  Goodman used to b u i l d h i s taxonomy and h i s model of r e a d i n g . (1976b) p r e s e n t e d t h e p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c p o s i t i o n . depth s t u d i e s of s m a l l numbers, he emphasized:  Goodman  I n recommending i n "Real people using  real  language i n v a r i o u s r e a l s i t u a t i o n s must be the o b j e c t s of r e s e a r c h i f we  a r e t o understand r e a d i n g as i t r e a l l y i s " (p. 98).  The  miscue  t e c h n i q u e d i f f e r s from a l l o t h e r commonly used d i a g n o s t i c and instruments i n o r a l reading.  evaluative  The d e v i a t i o n s from the exact responses  of the p r i n t e d t e x t a r e e v a l u a t e d f o r the degree t o which meaning i s disrupted.  The o r a l r e a d i n g e r r o r s a r e c a l l e d miscues t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  they a r e not random, but cued by t h e same language and thought p r o c e s s e s as c o r r e c t responses (Goodman & Burke, 1972a, p. 5 ) .  The taxonomy and  i n v e n t o r y were based on the i d e a t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f the miscues  was  more important than the q u a n t i t y and t h a t some i n d i c a t e d s t r e n g t h s , not weaknesses.  Beebe (1976) emphasized:  " A l l miscues a r e not  'equal',  because some r e t a i n grammatical and semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y and detract  little  from t o t a l comprehension, w h i l e o t h e r s d i s t o r t  ing considerably"  (p. 55)  (Goodman & Burke, 1969;  therefore t h e mean-  Rode, 1974).  36 Reading  Process  Page (1970) observed  t h a t r e a d e r s produced a unique form of  r e a d i n g p r o c e s s w i t h each encounter w i t h m a t e r i a l of d i f f e r i n g level.  Menosky (1971) concluded  miscues decreased  t h a t l e n g t h was  w i t h l a r g e r p o r t i o n s of t e x t .  a f f e c t e d the comprehension s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i s o l a t i o n or i n sentences  a key The  p. 41;  Y.  factor,  since  complete t e x t  1976;  Vorhaus, 1976).  Miscues change q u a l i t a t i v e l y w i t h m a t u r i t y , becoming ".  1976,  grade  compared to words e i t h e r i n  ( M i l l e r & Isakson,  more p r o d u c t i v e , more demonstrative  the  . . more complex,  of s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r o c e s s i n g "  (Burke,  Goodman, 1976).  Differences i n A b i l i t y Studies c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading p r o f i c i e n c y (Brody,  1973;  Poole,  s e r v e meaning and  1977).  Many of the e r r o r s of b e t t e r r e a d e r s  those t h a t make a d i f f e r e n c e a r e c o r r e c t e d .  r e a d e r s , o v e r l y concerned w i t h " a c c u r a c y , " s i c a l e r r o r s (Smith, behaviour  1978,  p. 235).  Poorer  are o f t e n unaware of nonsen-  In r e s e a r c h on the c u e - t e s t i n g  of 98 grade e i g h t and n i n e s t u d e n t s , Otto  the primary  pre-  (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t  t e s t i n g of semantics d i s t i n g u i s h e d good r e a d e r s  from poor  readers. Content Area  Studies  Carlson three g i r l s  (1970) a n a l y z e d  the o r a l r e a d i n g p a t t e r n s of t h r e e boys  i n grade f o u r r e a d i n g b a s a l r e a d e r s , s c i e n c e , and  s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l s w i t h the Goodman taxonomy.  A shift  g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s y n t a c t i c cues w i t h content detected.  A q u a l i t a t i v e and  e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s supported  Carlson  (Brazee,  social  i n emphasis t o a  area m a t e r i a l s  was  q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of a sample of  r e a d i n g i n both the n a r r a t i v e and 1976).  and  47  e x p o s i t o r y modes  37 With both l i t e r a r y and De  h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s , S t a n s e l l , Harste  S a n t i (1978) conducted i n - d e p t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h RMI  systems u t i l i z e d by  t h r e e groups of r e a d e r s :  of the  second grade  n i n t h grade s t u d e n t s , and mature a d u l t s past s i x t y .  "The  studies across  (p. 27), r e g a r d l e s s of the m a t e r i a l .  In c o n t r a s t , K o l c z y n s k i ' s reading process  cue  students,  y i e l d e d a view of s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s i n cue system u t i l i z a t i o n wide age v a r i a t i o n s "  and  (1973) data from RMI  revealed that  the  of 20 average r e a d e r s or above e n t e r i n g the s i x t h grade  remained s t a b l e a c r o s s passages of s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , mathematics, and  literature.  Six n i n t h graders,  r e s e a r c h w i t h the RMI,  the s u b j e c t s of S t a n s e l l ' s (1977)  tended to be unaware of the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s  between e x p o s i t o r y and n a r r a t i v e w r i t i n g . L i m i t a t i o n s of Miscue A n a l y s i s The  advantages of i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s by miscue a n a l y s i s i n  r e s e a r c h and  i n c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s i s a r e countered  f o r classroom  use.  Time and  by some  disadvantages  c o s t n e c e s s i t a t e group d i a g n o s i s methods,  e s p e c i a l l y i n secondary s c h o o l s .  Because an experienced  r e a l l y r e q u i r e d , o n l y poor r e a d e r s a r e examined and weaknesses a r e o f t e n undetected.  The  highly trained, influences results.  observer  clinician is  the average r e a d e r s '  e f f e c t , even w i t h  On the b a s i s of r e s e a r c h  the  with  r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s , Page (1976) recommended t h a t a t t e n t i o n be g i v e n the v a r i a b i l i t y  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g o b s e r v e r s ' responses,  d i f f e r e n c e s and  p e r c e p t u a l problems.  such as  Some a u t h o r i t i e s d i s a g r e e w i t h Goodman's p o s i t i o n on that " . . .  s i n c e the r e p e t i t i o n was  (1971) used the p o l y g r a p h  dialect  repetition  o n l y made to c o r r e c t an e r r o r , i t  should not be counted as an e r r o r " ( E k w a l l , 1976, English  to  p. 267).  Ekwall  ( l i e d e t e c t o r ) to measure the  and  38 f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l of s t u d e n t s as they read p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t passages.  Other s t u d i e s by E k w a l l , S o l i s and  Solis  (1973) and E k w a l l  (1974) showed t h a t when a l l r e p e t i t i o n s were not counted  as  errors,  s t u d e n t s became p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y upset b e f o r e they reached t h e i r tion level. (1976, p. For  frustra-  E k w a l l concluded a l l r e p e t i t i o n s must be counted as  errors  267). use at the secondary  l e v e l the most s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y  i s that  the miscue method i s inadequate f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g l a n guage cues.  Blustein  (1977) i n d e t e c t i n g an important  difference  between o r a l and s i l e n t r e a d i n g , suggested the importance of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between s t r a t e g i e s used f o r each. Although miscue a n a l y s i s i l l u m i n a t e s the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , i t may not be s e n s i t i v e enough to s e m a n t i c - s y n t a c t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t can be accounted f o r by the u n i t y of thought and language and which a r e p r o b a b l y e s s e n t i a l to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e a d i n g as reasoning. (p. 1871-A) Theobald  (1973), t h e r e f o r e , proposed  t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c i e s be  resolved  by e s t a b l i s h i n g a method f o r a n a l y z i n g the s y n t a c t i c and semantic s y s tems by combining  the Reading Miscue  Cloze  Inventory and  Procedure  S i n c e W i l s o n L. T a y l o r developed t e c h n i q u e i n 1953,  cloze.  the b a s i c concept o f the c l o z e  i t has been used w i d e l y i n r e s e a r c h , a t f i r s t  r e a d i n g comprehension  and r e a d a b i l i t y , but l a t e r  i n language  in  studies.  The name " c l o z e " i s d e r i v e d from the G e s t a l t psychology concept of " c l o s u r e , " the human tendency t e r n by m e n t a l l y f i l l i n g language:  to complete  i n the gaps.  a f a m i l i a r but incomplete p a t -  T a y l o r a p p l i e d the p r i n c i p l e t o  39 A c l o z e u n i t may be d e f i n e d as: Any s i n g l e o c c u r r e n c e of a s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o reproduce a p a r t d e l e t e d from a "message" (any language p r o d u c t ) by d e c i d i n g from the cont e x t t h a t remains, what the m i s s i n g p a r t should be. C l o z e procedure may  be d e f i n e d  sage from a " t r a n s m i t t e r "  as a method of i n t e r c e p t i n g a mes-  ( w r i t e r or s p e a k e r ) ,  m u t i l a t i n g i t s language  patterns  by d e l e t i n g i t s p a r t s , and  so a d m i n i s t e r i n g  (readers  or l i s t e n e r s ) t h a t t h e i r attempts to make the p a t t e r n s  again p o t e n t i a l l y y i e l d s a considerable Since  the c l o z e procedure was  many problems.  Rupley  as a measuring d e v i c e , reported  number of c l o z e u n i t s  introduced  research  (1973) surveyed the r e s e a r c h  ERIC system i n t h r e e broad a r e a s : and  has  whole  (p.  416).  focused  on  l i t e r a t u r e i n the  methodological considerations,  c l o z e as a t e a c h i n g  t h a t c l o z e i s a v a l i d and  i t to " r e c e i v e r s "  tool.  The  r e l i a b l e measure of  cloze  author  comprehension  ability. Theoretical  Basis  From the s t a n d p o i n t  of measurement t h e o r y ,  s u p e r i o r measures of g e n e r a l  comprehension.  cloze test lacks face v a l i d i t y ,  are  C r i t i c s suggest t h a t  a  s i n c e a c l o z e t e s t appears much l i k e  type of f i l l - i n - t h e - b l a n k e x e r c i s e s  i n workbooks.  i c i s m i s t h a t c l o z e merely measures g e n e r a l (1978) p r e s e n t s  c l o z e procedures  A more s e r i o u s  v e r b a l competency.  f i v e reasons f o r the c o n t e n t i o n  crit-  Rankin  t h a t c l o z e t e s t s do  f a c t measure comprehension more " d i r e c t l y " than c o n v e n t i o n a l  the  in  tests.  F i r s t , c l o z e t e s t s are i n t r i n s i c measures of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of communication by sampling the degree of correspondence between a message source and a r e c e i v e r . S u b s t a n t i a l l y the same r e s u l t s are o b t a i n e d whether the s c o r i n g i s done by exact word method or by the synonym method. (p. 151) Second, c l o z e measures comprehension i n p r o c e s s , reading.  not  as a product a f t e r  T h i r d , a l l c l o z e i s based on the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s of  40 i n f e r e n c e which i s i n t r i n s i c to a l l communication.  F o u r t h , the c l o z e  t e s t s sample the c h o i c e p o i n t s f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the passage i n a random f a s h i o n .  F i f t h , c l o z e items can be p r e c i s e l y r e p l i c a t e d .  number of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s s u b s t a n t i a t e these c l a i m s about and  A  reliability  validity.  Reliability A c l o z e t e s t of exact replacements s c o r e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  can be made, a d m i n i s t e r e d ,  Bormuth (1975) summarized h i s e x t e n s i v e  work on f i f t h - w o r d d e l e t i o n , the procedure reliability  i n research.  and  accepted  Bormuth (1967, 1968)  as the s t a n d a r d f o r  and Rankin and  Culhane  (1969) e s t a b l i s h e d t h r e e c r i t e r i o n l e v e l s f o r the exact s c o r i n g of c l o z e responses.  A s c o r e of- 58-100 p e r c e n t suggests  passage i n d e p e n d e n t l y ;  a s c o r e of between 43 and  the passage i s a t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l ; i s a t the l e v e l of f r u s t r a t i o n .  Smith-Burke, G i n g r i c h & Eagleeye,  (1974) study suggested  that " . . .  and  a s c o r e below 43  ( H i t t l e m a n , 1978; 1978).  percent  responses Rankin,  Jones and  Pikulski's  the c l o z e t e s t gave a c o n s i d e r a b l y  more a c c u r a t e r e a d i n g l e v e l placement than d i d the s t a n d a r d i z e d (p.  the  57 percent means t h a t  C l o z e t e s t s based on exact  measure " g l o b a l " a s p e c t s o f comprehension 1978;  the student can read  test"  437). In a study of a l t e r n a t i v e responses, McKenna (1976) demonstrated  t h a t the a b i l i t y of seventh  g r a d e r s to produce an exact answer d i d not  v a r y g r e a t l y from t h e synonymic response. 446  seventh and  The  r e s u l t s from a study  of  e i g h t h graders w i t h f i v e c l o z e t e s t s of f i f t h word  d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t random d e l e t i o n was than every f i f t h word, i f o n l y one  more d e s i r a b l e  c l o z e t e s t i s to be used;  the g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y of random p a t t e r n n e c e s s i t a t e s new  however,  criterion  41 levels. Bormuth (1971) determined c r i t e r i o n s c o r e s t e s t s based on f o u r outcomes: to study a m a t e r i a l , n o v e l t y  information  for cloze r e a d a b i l i t y  gain, a student's w i l l i n g n e s s  of the m a t e r i a l ' s  c o n t e n t , and  r a t e of  read-  ing. Recent f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the type of m a t e r i a l a f f e c t s the criterion level.  Dupuis (1976) t e s t e d the c l o z e procedure as a  d i c t o r of r e a d i n g  success w i t h l i t e r a t u r e f o r secondary s t u d e n t s .  grade E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s read  short  percent  Tenth  s t o r i e s w i t h a c l o z e e x e r c i s e of  ard f i f t h word d e l e t i o n as a p r e - t e s t , and t e s t as a p o s t - t e s t .  pre-  a multiple-choice  stand-  comprehension  P r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n s were developed to support  as a c u t - o f f s c o r e  f o r minimum comprehension.  "That the c l o z e i s f l e x i b l e ,  easy to develop and  score,  48  Dupuis c o n c l u d e d : and  responsible  to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s adds to i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r matching s t u d e n t s to appropriate  literature"  (p.  99).  Validity Predictive validity. with standardized  Cloze  tests correlate highly  t e s t s (Jenkinson,  1957;  Ruddell,  1963;  (.70  to  .85)  Bormuth,  1967). Content v a l i d i t y .  In a t e s t of f a c t o r v a l i d i t y ,  were i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o v i d i n g t e s t s measure a n y t h i n g hension s k i l l s " Construct  other  little  validity.  c o l l e c t e d over 20 y e a r s ,  grounds f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t  than what has  (Bormuth, 1969,  p.  data  cloze  been commonly l a b e l e d compre-  358).  From a b i b l i o g r a p h y Rankin (1978) a s s e r t e d  a s u p e r i o r measure of g e n e r a l  the " . . .  of over 600  t h a t the c l o z e t e s t i s  comprehension, s i n c e i t has  v a l i d i t y based on a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c theory  references  construct  of comprehension which makes  42 extensive  use  of Smith's (1978) concept of i n f o r m a t i o n  context redundancy. not  lend i t s e l f  However, Rankin c a u t i o n s  of  that c l o z e " . . .  to the measurement of s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d  comprehension p r o c e s s e s " (p. Limitations  not  specific  a p u p i l ' s s t r a t e g i e s and Eagleeye  substrategies.  skills"  (p. 138).  (1978) s u b s t a n t i a t e s  the e f f e c t of c o n t e x t u a l  " T h e r e f o r e the  b u i l d up,  grade and  40  x Style x Deletion)  t h i s view.  s t y l e , and  t w e l f t h grade s t u d e n t s .  f u n c t i o n word c l o z e .  s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater  A further analysis 3x2  The  score  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  c a r r y the  material.  i n expository  the  more d i f f i c u l t  buildup  expository  than  The  the  r e s u l t s of  (Content x S t y l e ) i n d i c a t e d l e x i c a l to r e p l a c e  Function  material.  i n connected  (Context  s t y l e (M = 48.43).  style difference.  The  items  i n narrative material  words, such as c o n j u n c t i o n s  based on a l i n g u i s t i c model may  contextual  53  no s i g n i f i c a n t  l o g i c a l argument of t e x t , were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  to r e p l a c e patterns  In a 3 x 2 x 3  cloze  f o r the n a r r a t i v e s t y l e (M = 54.75)  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i f f i c u l t in expository  on  S u b j e c t s were  than t h a t f o r e x p o s i t o r y  investigated  about  They examined  In both n a r r a t i v e and  t r a d i t i o n a l o n e - f i f t h c l o z e was  test  Smith-Burke,  deletion pattern  f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e ,  e f f e c t s of p r i o r context were found.  information  A study by  comprehension on the b a s i s of the Goodman model.  was  language  152).  cannot be used f o r an a n a l y s i s of s p e c i f i c d i a g n o s t i c  s t y l e s , the  does  (1978) concurs t h a t c l o z e t e s t s measure " g l o b a l " a s p e c t s  of comprehension, but  eleventh  and  Cloze  Hittleman  G i n g r i c h and  processing  than  which  difficult  authors suggested t h a t  deletion  be more a c c u r a t e measures of  discourse.  43 In s p i t e of i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , however, the evidence  suggests  that  c l o z e i s a c o g n i t i v e , c o d i n g t a s k of p r e d i c t i o n from the c o n t e x t . completion  of the c l o z e gap  samples the extent of l i k e n e s s between the  language p a t t e r n s of w r i t e r and  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s which r e p r e s e n t what  the reader guesses at what he t h i n k s the w r i t e r meant (Theobald, p.  The  1973,  20).  A n a l y s i s of C l o z e Responses The  evidence  unequivocal.  The  s u p p o r t i n g the v a l i d i t y of exact s c o r i n g i s not r e s u l t s of a study by Asher, Hymel and W i g f i e l d  (1978) i n d i c a t e d t h a t : a c c e p t i n g synonyms may  "the g e n e r a l b i a s i n the l i t e r a t u r e a g a i n s t be l e a d i n g to a l o s s of v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n when  the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than the passage i s the u n i t of a n a l y s i s "  (p. 46).  P a r t of the b i a s a g a i n s t a c c e p t i n g synonyms r e s u l t s from the c l a i m s t h a t o b j e c t i v i t y of s c o r i n g i s decreased.  V a r i o u s attempts have been made  to examine the q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e of c l o z e Reading p r o c e s s .  Vaughan and M e r e d i t h  a b i l i t y of the c l o z e procedure p o s t - r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n s and  the r e l i a b i l i t y  randomly a s s i g n e d to read two  a c c e p t a b l e synonyms, and  S u b j e c t s were 298  grade e i g h t  index  students,  s c i e n c e - r e l a t e d s e l e c t i o n s , a t the e i g h t h  Each b l a n k was  examined f o r  syntactic acceptability.  i f i t agreed  exact-replacement,  Synonyms were s c o r e d  A response  was  Results indicated  c l o z e s c o r e s a r e h i g h l y r e l i a b l e f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes.  consistency c o e f f i c i e n t s d i f f e r e d  acceptable  both w i t h the p a r t of speech  the proper use of context of the d e l e t e d item. all  reli-  awareness i n  of c l o z e s c o r e s as an  c o r r e c t i f t h r e e of f o u r e v a l u a t o r s agreed. i n the s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r y  (1978) examined the  as a measure of semantic  of s t u d e n t s ' s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y .  grade r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s .  responses.  significantly  and that  Internal  from the p a r a l l e l  form.  Since c l o z e s c o r e s may  be somewhat passage dependent  ., multiple  c l o z e s e l e c t i o n s s h o u l d be used f o r a c c u r a t e assessment.  The  e r s noted  acceptable  the " i n t r i g u i n g p r o s p e c t " t h a t the s y n t a c t i c a l l y  score " . . .  may  be the most a c c u r a t e index of s t u d e n t s '  research-  comprehension  as measured by c l o z e s c o r e s because i t does i n c l u d e b o t h s y n t a c t i c semantic  awareness" (p.  and  179).  To i g n o r e s y n t a c t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e responses on a c l o z e t e s t seems tantamount to d i s c a r d i n g p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n about the s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s e l e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f c e r t a i n psychol i n g u i s t i c assumptions are a c c e p t e d . (p. 179) Zinck  (1978) i n a study of 68 seventh  r a t i v e passages, and  grade s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g  used t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e s :  exact  replacement,  a d a p t a t i o n s from the Goodman Taxonomy of Reading Miscues  1976b) and  the Reading Miscue Inventory  e v a l u a t e semantic  and  reading process.  .  The  results  the  However, i n l o o k i n g to the f u t u r e of c l o z e  of r e t e l l i n g of the passage a f t e r  of the  role  completion.  Tools  Jenkinson  (1957), Hafner  (1964),  B o r t n i c k and Lopardo  Rankin (1978) r e f e r to c l o z e f o r d i a g n o s i s . Theobald  supported  w i t h the miscue a n a l y s i s to e v a l u a t e  as a s i l e n t d i a g n o s t i c t e s t , Z i n c k c a l l s f o r an examination  Diagnostic  (Goodman,  (Goodman & Burke, 1972a), to  syntactic acceptability.  the use of the c l o z e procedure  nar-  F o l l o w i n g RMI  (1972),  and  procedure,  (1973) c o n s t r u c t e d p r o f i l e s f o r the 24 s u b j e c t s , which d i d not  always match the c l o z e s c o r e or t e a c h e r r a n k i n g . showed t h a t good r e a d e r s had  b e t t e r s y n t a c t i c and  The p a t t e r n s , however, semantic  scores  and  l e s s l o s s of meaning than poor r e a d e r s . B o r t n i c k and Lopardo c l o z e responses  can y i e l d  (1973) s t a t e d :  "...  a student's  abundant d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n " (p.  incorrect 114).  45 However, the s c o r i n g procedures  l a c k e d o b j e c t i v i t y and were unsystem-  atic.  " I t i s c l e a r t h a t more r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  Myers (1976) a s s e r t e d :  area w i l l p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h a u s e f u l t o o l of i n f o r m a l a n a l y s i s "  (p.  12). Cambourne (1977) d e v i s e d a s i l e n t r e a d i n g v e r s i o n of the  RMI  (Goodman & Burke, 1972a), on the assumption t h a t the p r o c e s s of r e a d i n g i n t a c t and m u t i l a t e d t e x t i s s i m i l a r .  In a p i l o t  study w i t h a sample  of 39 s u b j e c t s , y e a r s 3 to 7, chosen by t h e i r t e a c h e r s , the method illustrated  t h a t the s i l e n t r e a d i n g behaviour  appeared to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  of above average  readers  from t h a t of below average r e a d e r s .  f i c i e n t r e a d e r s c o n t r o l l e d meaning at the whole s t o r y l e v e l by both forward  and back.  Poorer  readers r e s t r i c t e d  scanning  f o c u s to a much  s m a l l e r u n i t of meaning, u s u a l l y p r i o r to the c l o z e d e l e t i o n . knowledge and accounting  skill  the c a t e g o r y was  Vaughan, T i e r n e y , and A l p e r t (1977) examined the between the s y n t a c t i c a l l y and  average,  students  or.poor  s u b j e c t read two  later  11,  omitted.  relationship  s e m a n t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e responses  i n grades 4, 5, 6, 8, and  on c l o z e  i d e n t i f i e d as good,  r e a d e r s on the b a s i s of r e a d i n g t e s t s c o r e s .  Each  s e l e c t i o n s at a r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l of t h e i r grade and  responded to a c l o z e t e s t .  Responses were s c o r e d f o r semantic  t a c t i c appropriateness.  Semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y was  categorical definitions:  exact replacement,  The meaning, number, t e n s e , and d e l e t e d word.  Since  i n the graphophonic domain p l a y e d a minimal r o l e i n  f o r d i f f e r e n t reading a b i l i t y ,  t a s k s by 240  Pro-  three  gender of the synonym had  to match the  connotation, for  Interjudge r e l i a b i l i t y with three assessors  about 90 p e r c e n t agreement.  The  authors  syn-  synonym, or minimal change.  S l i g h t s h i f t s i n meaning, through  example, were a l l o w e d .  based on  and  concluded:  "In terms of  was  46 a s s e s s i n g observed responses i n r e a d i n g comprehension  v i a cloze tests, a  meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s y n t a c t i c and semantic  elements-'  (p. 202). In  summary, the review o f r e s e a r c h from e r r o r s t u d i e s ,  miscue  a n a l y s i s , and c l o z e procedure i n d i c a t e s t h a t the q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of c l o z e non-exact-replacements  by a miscue  inventory i s a f e a s i b l e pro-  cedure t o i n v e s t i g a t e responses t o the word and sentence l e v e l s .  The  next s e c t i o n reviews the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s t o extend the i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o the whole l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e , congruent w i t h the purpose of  the study:  t o examine the.comprehension  responses t o two types o f m a t e r i a l s :  p r o c e s s by comparing  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y  prose.  Discourse Analysis S i n c e the term d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s can be used t o d e s i g n a t e both the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the language u s e r and the c o n v e n t i o n s of the form of  the d i s c o u r s e i t s e l f ,  one r e f l e c t s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach;  o t h e r , the l i n g u i s t i c o r t e x t - b a s e d .  the  Recently writers i n p s y c h o l i n -  g u i s t i e s have addressed the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the  comprehension  w i t h miscue  of e n t i r e discourses.  Strategy research associated  a n a l y s i s o r c l o z e has f o c u s e d on the l e v e l of the sentence.  Now from l i n g u i s t i c s , c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y , and t h e f i e l d  of a r t i f i c i a l  i n t e l l i g e n c e , have come many s t u d i e s , and a l t h o u g h , as Winograd observes, at t h i s a precise unifying  stage i n the f i e l d  (1977)  i t i s not " . . . p o s s i b l e t o l a y out  theory . . ." (p. 6 3 ) , i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e e v i d e n t  which p r o v i d e twin frameworks f o r v i e w i n g d i s c o u r s e and methods f o r studying The  strategies. term " d i s c o u r s e " has been used to cover many o n l y l o o s e l y  47 r e l a t e d problems.  Winograd l i s t s over 60  t e c h n i c a l terms, such as  text, macro-structure, staging, template,-rhetoric,  context,  t e x t grammar, t e x t u a l  coherence, theme, s t o r y grammar, frame, f o r e g r o u n d , macro-rule system, s c r i p t , plan, d e f i n i t i o n .  A c e n t r a l theme i n a l l the work i s the  l a t i o n of a p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h a t can be  and,  from psychology seems p a r t i c u l a r l y  of a l l the  pervasive: and  terms proposed, one  "schema" or p l u r a l  "schemata."  explored  Introduced by P i a g e t  (1926)  B a r t l e t t (1932), the term schema r e f e r s to the knowledge t h a t i s  "incorporated son,  1977,  i n a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e s t h a t have c e r t a i n p r o p e r t i e s "  p. 67).  t i v e approach has  In the  study of the comprehension p r o c e s s the  Cognitive  of  the problem of s t u d y i n g  discourse  p r o c e s s e s of p r o d u c t i o n  and  of the der,"  cogni-  Discourse  Approach  Anderson (1977), Rumelhart  t h e r e are  (Ander-  particular u t i l i t y .  Theories  the  i d e n t i f i e d and  postu-  three  (1977), Winograd as one  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  comprehension.  " p r o d u c e r , " whether w r i t e r or speaker;  form the d i s c o u r s e  and  view  cognitive  those of the  structures  "comprehen-  In each p a r t i c i p a n t ,  takes depends on h i s knowledge base of language, as  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o n t e x t u a l The  the c o g n i t i v e  the t e x t i t s e l f .  w e l l as the b r o a d e r c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s ,  expectations.  others  In language communication  independent s e t s of s t r u c t u r e s :  the r e a d e r or l i s t e n e r ;  (1977), and  which i n c l u d e the p e r c e p t i o n  s i t u a t i o n , the f o r m a t i o n  of g o a l s ,  and and  i n t e r a c t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e s or schemata are  guides i n a process of " p a t t e r n . r e c o g n i t i o n . "  The  comprehension p r o c e s s  is oriented  and  reasoning  towards i d e n t i f y i n g known d i s c o u r s e  Some f e a t u r e of an u t t e r a n c e  patterns.  t r i g g e r s a h y p o t h e s i s or p r e d i c t i o n .  48 Kintsch  (1977) c a l l e d  t h i s use of schema a "top-down" p r o c e s s .  It  f o l l o w s t h a t the more f a m i l i a r the p a t t e r n s of the d i s c o u r s e , the the ease of  comprehension.  P a t t e r n s of  Discourse  R h e t o r i c a l schemas. ventionalized, explicit  Olson  (1977a) c o g e n t l y argued t h a t the  l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s of text^book prose or  "language of s c h o o l i n g " a r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t books may and  ventions The  employed and conventions  even workbooks, and  activities,  because the  con-  the meaning s p e c i f i e d a r e lodged  i n the t e x t  alone.  r h e t o r i c a l schemas (Winograd, 1977,  a reasoning p. 83).  sequence a r e  " f i r s t " and  "second";  c a u s a l i t y , "because";  summation, " i n c o n c l u s i o n " ;  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e are c o n v e n t i o n a l  f o r o r g a n i z i n g arguments and  e x p o s i t i o n , such as enumeration,  a t i o n , problem s o l u t i o n , comparison, c a u s e - e f f e c t , but be used i n a d i f f e r e n t way  accepted  and,  classific-  Grimes  (1975)  as i t s c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n  o f t e n i n v o l v e s premises t h a t the w r i t e r f e e l s a r e g e n e r a l l y therefore, leaves unsaid.'  A few key  a r e expected to a c t i v a t e a whole l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . cause comprehension problems, e s p e c i a l l y i n poor P e r f e t t i and  Lesgold  Such  arguments omissions  readers.  (1977) p o s t u l a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the use of d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e can mean a d i f f e r e n t ".  schemas  i n each d i s c i p l i n e  (Robinson, 1975).  noted t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , which has explanation,  Some are  f u n c t i o n words t h a t i n d i c a t e sequence such as  change of i d e a s , "however."  these may  called  There ris?. a number of  language d e v i c e s to d i s t i n g u i s h the p a t t e r n s of r e a s o n i n g . s i g n a l l e d d i r e c t l y by  Text-  fail,  f o r l a y i n g out  still  con-  the  f o r many s t u d e n t s .  have c o n t r o l l e d l e v e l s of d i f f i c u l t y , a p p r o p r i a t e  s u b j e c t matter and  greater  . . i n f o r m a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , to t h e m a t i z a t i o n , and  sensitivity  to  to c l a u s e s t r u c t u r e "  49 (p. 149). and  A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t s of the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n  a d u l t s were i n c o n c l u s i v e ,  s p e c i f i c a l l y about c a u s a t i o n ,  advocated f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of the component p r o c e s s e s of comprehension and  of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  (p. 179).  t h a t h i g h l y thematized elements are more q u i c k l y and  the  authors  discourse  I t appeared automatically  also pro-  cessed by a r e a d e r i n n a r r a t i v e . Narrative  schemas.  There i s a s e t of schemas f o r r e l a t i n g n a r -  r a t i v e s of events, e i t h e r from the memory of a speaker or as a  story:  time sequence, c a u s a l i t y , p l a n s ,  of  stories.  Rumelhart  a c t i o n , form the o r g a n i z a t i o n  (1975) developed a " s t o r y grammar" which d i v i d e s  s t o r y i n t o a l i n e a r sequence of e p i s o d e s , s t a t e s , and c a l l e d problem-solving episodes.  There are two  EPISODE, s p e c i f i e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the g o a l , and  the  events which  schemata:  one,  i n i t i a t i n g event,  a  he  the the  attempt.  EPISODE ABOUT PROTAGONIST P_ (1) EVENT E CAUSES P TO DESIRE GOAL G (2) The  P TRIES TO  GET  G UNTIL OUTCOME 0 OCCURS  o t h e r schemata s p e c i f i e s the s t r u c t u r e of the attempt or AGENT A TRIES TO  GET  GOAL G  (1) (2)  A SELECTS A METHOD M WHICH COULD LEAD TO G FOR EACH PRECONDITION P OF M A TRIES TO GET OUTCOME 0  (3)  A DOES M WHICH HAS  Grimes (1975) and  CONSEQUENCE C.  Winograd  simplest  n a r r a t i v e , t h e r e are  t h a t any  piece  tures"  (p. 83),  (p.  P UNTIL  270)  (1977) c o n s i d e r e d  interwoven themes and  t h a t , f o r a l l but  the  changes of scene,  of n a r r a t i v e t e x t i s the "product of i n t e r a c t i n g s t r u c some d e a l i n g w i t h time f l o w , some w i t h c a u s a l i t y ,  others with s p e c i f i c schemas f o r the  TRY:  story conventions.  Well-known t o many are  t e l e v i s i o n western, the mystery s t o r y , the f a i r y  so t h a t the phrase "Once upon a t i m e " evokes an  and the tale,  immediate response,  so  50 whereas the schema of a s c i e n t i f i c r e p o r t i s f a m i l i a r o n l y to the ated.  initi-  Some schema a r e l i t e r a r y conventions such as s e t t i n g , c h a r a c t e r ,  p l o t , development, c o n f l i c t , or t h e s i s , a n t i t h e s i s , and s y n t h e s i s . Other  schema cut a c r o s s these g e n e r a l c o n v e n t i o n s , such as  f l a s h b a c k or suspense; Greene, 1978). for  these a r e h i g h l y c u l t u r e - d e p e n d e n t  W i t h i n a language  or c u l t u r e a r e s p e c i f i c  e s t a b l i s h i n g the p o i n t of view such as:  first  person, or the d r a m a t i c .  the  (Kintsch & conventions  the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r ,  In Van D i j k ' s  (1977) view, such  s t r u c t u r e s a r e the " m a c r o - r u l e s " which u n d e r l i e the g l o b a l and meaning of the d i s c o u r s e t h a t cannot be accounted  semantic  interpretation  f o r by a simple  summation o f i s o l a t e d sentences or " m i c r o - s t r u c t u r e s . "  S e t t i n g , or  premise a n d " c o n c l u s i o n , a r e m a c r o - l e v e l o p e r a t i o n s ;  whereas the use of  pronouns, f o r example, a r e at the sentence l e v e l .  Comprehension then  takes p l a c e a t s e v e r a l To Broudy of  levels.  (1977) a p a t t e r n f o r c o n s t r u i n g the import and r e l e v a n c e  the c o n s t i t u e n t elements  i s the c o n t e x t *  " l e x i c a l " meaning, but without e q u i v o c a l and  P r o p o s i t i o n s have  the c l u e to c o n t e x t , the meaning can  be  ambiguous.  Context can be c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , a e s t h e t i c , m o r a l , s o c i a l , religious. W i t h i n each of these t y p e s , c o n t e x t s can be thought of as more or l e s s p r e c i s e , c l e a r , r e f i n e d , and 'educated,' t h a t i s f o r m u l a t e d i n the c a t e g o r i e s of an academic d i s c i p l i n e . This l a t t e r d i s t i n c t i o n i s of the utmost importance f o r f o r m a l s c h o o l ing, because the s o c i a l m i l i e u f u r n i s h e s commonsense c o n t e x t s f o r which l i t t l e or no f o r m a l t u i t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . (p. 13) The d i f f i c u l t y of comprehension of a l o n g t e x t or d i s c o u r s e i s determined paragraphs,  not o n l y by the l o c a l e f f e c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l sentences but a l s o by the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t e x t .  types of d i s c o u r s e have a c o n v e n t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and  i t has been  or  Certain argued  t h a t a knowledge of t h e s e a i d s i n comprehension ( K i n t s c h & Greene,  51 1978,  p. 1 ) . Olson  (1977b) d i s t i n g u i s h e d between u t t e r a n c e s ,  speech, p o e t r y ,  and l i t e r a t u r e , and prose t e x t .  t i o n a l utterances tion. and  lies  which  include  The meaning o f conven-  i n shared commonsense knowledge and common  intui-  "Statements match, i n an o f t e n t a n t a l i z i n g way, the e x p e c t a t i o n s  e x p e r i e n c e s o f the l i s t e n e r "  (p. 277).  Prose t e x t , however," appeals  to the r u l e s of l o g i c and the c r i t e r i o n f o r success i s t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f its  formal  structure.  F a i l u r e t o comprehend i s t h e r e a d e r ' s problem,  s i n c e t h e meaning r e s i d e s i n t h e t e x t . From a number o f p o i n t s of view o f d i s c o u r s e schemata, m a c r o - s t r u c t u r e s , c o n t e x t ,  i t appears a l o g i c a l assumption  the a b i l i t y t o express t h e bases f o r t h e c h o i c e s egies are greater  organization:  o f comprehension  that  strat-  i n number f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n than f o r t h e l e s s  f a m i l i a r r h e t o r i c a l patterns  of e x p o s i t o r y  prose.  There remains t h e  problem of i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s .  Methodology Pearson (1978) a f f i r m e d meaning i s complicated  that the d i f f i c u l t  by a l a c k o f good t o o l s f o r p r o s e - r e l a t e d  A t r a d i t i o n of s t r a t e g y r e s e a r c h , c o g n i t i v e psychology.  t a s k o f t h e study of research.  based on r e s p o n s e s , has evolved i n  F r e e r e c a l l p r o t o c o l and p r o t o c o l a n a l y s i s have  been adapted t o d i s c o u r s e  research;  many a s p e c t s o f t h e r e a d i n g  introspection-retrospection, to  process.  Protocols There a r e two k i n d s ysis.  of p r o t o c o l s :  f r e e r e c a l l and p r o t o c o l  I n f r e e r e c a l l d e s c r i p t i o n , the s u b j e c t w r i t e s  he can remember about a passage.  down  anal-  everything  From t h e c o g n i t i v e view o f schemata.  52 K i n t s c h and  Greene (1978) found t h a t the e r r o r s of c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s  r e c a l l summaries, both d i s t o r t i o n s and an I n d i a n  omissions,  s t o r y where the t e x t d e v i a t e d  western s t o r y schema.  The  occurred  from e x p e c t a t i o n s  authors concluded:  "The  at p o i n t s i n based on  p a t t e r n of  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s the dependence o f s t o r y comprehension and the r i g h t schema" (p. 12). ferences  Subjects  interleaved stories, tape-recorded  of l i s t s  The  use  organized  p r e h e n s i o n was f l u e n t reader  of d e s c r i p t i v e t e x t upon the  unaffected  by the m a n i p u l a t i o n s  required e x p l i c i t  call,  structure  The r e s u l t s  i n the t e x t , and  text references  (1978) found s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t h i r d  Pearson  the  the t r u l y f l u e n t reader whose com-  unable to make i n f e r e n c e s about meaning.  non-narrative  connected  G l o c k (1978-79), designed a study to determine  d i s t i n c t populations:  who  recall  even i n the i r r e g u l a r m a t e r i a l ,  of the w r i t t e n r e c a l l s of c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . two  also  i n terms of a c a n o n i c a l s t o r y s t r u c t u r e .  e f f e c t s of v a r y i n g c e r t a i n a s p e c t s  was  and,  quali-  data  of a f a m i l i a r s t r u c t u r e to access  the i n p u t was  identified  few  The  four The  the many s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s  " d r a m a t i c a l l y " evident  content  dif-  i n which the same episodes were r e a r r a n g e d .  "rather sharply" with  M a r s h a l l and  on  were t e s t e d on f o u r normal s t o r i e s and  d i s c o u r s e was  and  recall  r e s u l t s suggested q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s , but  of words.  these  f o u r , s i x , and  t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e c a l l of w e l l - f o r m e d s t o r i e s . contrasted  a  Mandler (1978) examined developmental  i n the use of s t o r y schemata w i t h grade two,  college subjects.  in  not-so-  i n the d i s c o u r s e  Bridge,  Tierney  and  grade p o p u l a t i o n who  and  Cera  read  a  i n f o r m a t i o n a l passage. (1978), i n summarizing o t h e r d i s c o u r s e  identified  studies using  re-  the d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g  from a l a c k of agreement on the meaning a s c r i b e d to a s p e c i f i c t e x t  and  53 the use  of d i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  t i o n of d i s c o u r s e  An  l i t e r a t u r e suggests a p l e t h o r a of schematic  t i o n s of d i s c o u r s e Olshavsky  f o r the same meaning.  examinarepresenta-  s t r u c t u r e s from s t u d i e s i n problem s o l v i n g b e h a v i o u r .  (1976-77) adapted p r o t o c o l a n a l y s i s to examine the com-  p r e h e n s i o n s t r a t e g i e s of t e n t h grade s u b j e c t s  on a s h o r t s t o r y , on  the  b a s i s t h a t o b j e c t i v e d a t a a n a l y s i s i s p o s s i b l e , i f the c a t e g o r i e s  and  p r o c e s s e s are determined from the d a t a , r a t h e r than imposed on the Each s u b j e c t was the s t o r y .  required  Strategy  f i c i e n c y , h i g h and concrete  and  readers,  usage was  low;  a f t e r reading  low;  and  reader pro-  writing  style,  i n t e r e s t , r e a d e r s w i t h a b s t r a c t m a t e r i a l , and  good  used c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r e q u e n t l y .  to the c l a u s e l e v e l , but In an e x p l o r a t o r y  o n l y one  to the whole s t o r y  study, Olshavsky  (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d the hypos t r a t e g i e s more o f t e n  used by both groups decreased as t h e most f r e q u e n t  of both c l a u s e and  An  analysis  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r p r o f i c i e n c y on  s t r a t e g i e s i n f e r r e d from the p r o t o c o l s .  six  level.  than poor r e a d e r s as the m a t e r i a l became more d i f f i c u l t . showed no  Ten  t h r e e p e r t a i n i n g t o the word l e v e l ;  t h e s i s t h a t good t w e l f t h grade r e a d e r s would use  of v a r i a n c e  of  A l l r e a d e r s used the same s t r a t e g i e s , but  s t r a t e g i e s were i d e n t i f i e d :  The  each c l a u s e  r e l a t e d to t h r e e f a c t o r s :  i n t e r e s t , h i g h and  abstract.  readers with high  to " t h i n k a l o u d "  data.  The  eleven  t o t a l number of s t r a t e g i e s  s t o r i e s increased  in difficulty.  s t r a t e g y , i n f e r e n c e , r e l a t e d to added i n t e r p r e t a t i o n story.  However, f o r c l o z e d e l e t e d passages of  study, n e i t h e r p r o t o c o l method i s s u i t a b l e s i n c e the b a s i s of a n a l y s i s i s the s u b j e c t s ' comments about the content and s h o r t segments of r e a d i n g  and,  this  protocol  problems of  f o r f r e e r e c a l l , of an e n t i r e passage.  54 Introspection-Retrospection The  i n t r o s p e c t i v e - r e t r o s p e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e has been used t o study  the r e a d i n g  p r o c e s s s i n c e t h e t u r n o f the c e n t u r y .  used by Huey (1901), r e q u i r e s t h e s u b j e c t occurs;  retrospection requires  e c t i o n i s read.  Despite  ( M c C a l l i s t e r , 1930; psychology  other  I n t r o s p e c t i o n , as  t o r e p o r t h i s p r o c e s s as i t  s i m i l a r responses a f t e r t h e e n t i r e s e l early investigations with  reading  P i c k f o r d , 1933) and the success o f P i a g e t  (1928), Harker  (1974) r e p o r t e d  that the majority  i n child  of studies  employing t h e t e c h n i q u e were conducted i n the l a s t two decades, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h a renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g . The  subjects  lege students,  o f Swain's (1953) study, good, average, and poor  a l l above average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , were r e q u i r e d t o  "think aloud" while reading reading  test.  col-  Results  a c a r e f u l l y structured  problem-oriented  suggested t h a t good r e a d e r s focused  on d e t e r m i n -  i n g t h e t o t a l meaning o f t h e passage by a t t e n t i o n t o the language c l u e s of t h e whole c o n t e x t .  Pierkarz  (1954), i n o b s e r v i n g  j e c t s , c o n f i r m e d t h a t good r e a d e r s manipulated v a r i o u s  s i x t h grade subc l u e s t o meaning  as they made many t e n t a t i v e attempts t o d e r i v e the t o t a l meaning of t h e passages.  I n both s t u d i e s the d a t a were analyzed  framework p o s t u l a t e d Several  other  according  to a  i n advance. s t u d i e s employed t h e i n t r o s p e c t i v e - r e t r o s p e c t i v e  t e c h n i q u e w i t h the s h o r t s t o r y .  Strang  and Rogers (1965), i n comparing  the responses of h i g h - l e v e l and l o w - l e v e l h i g h  school readers,  found  marked i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n , as w e l l as between, groups. groups i n t e g r a t e d new i d e a s and m o d i f i e d  views and a t t i t u d e s a f t e r  Both read-  i n g , but h i g h - l e v e l r e a d e r s e x h i b i t e d a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of approaches t o  55 understanding l i t e r a l and  the s t o r i e s , had  a greater a b i l i t y  to d i s t i n g u i s h between  i m p l i e d meanings, and remained a l e r t to symbolism.  (1964) concluded  Squire;  from a study of n i n t h and t e n t h grade s t u d e n t s t h a t  poorer r e a d e r s c o n c e n t r a t e d  on the l i t e r a l meaning and  failed  to make the  appropriate inferences. Rogers (1960) noted the same t e x t may j e c t s may  the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the i n t r o s p e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e :  not c o n s t i t u t e the same problem f o r each r e a d e r ;  not be aware of t h e i r mental p r o c e s s e s , and  e x t e n t they possess w i l l i n g to make.  r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and  i n the e f f o r t  Rogers a l s o c a u t i o n e d t h a t responses  and unguided to be l e g i t i m a t e " p r o c e s s " d a t a . distorted pilot  differ  results.  must be u n d i r e c t e d  . \  Directed questions  article.  read passages of h i s t o r y and b i o l o g y .  the p r o c e s s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the type of m a t e r i a l .  t i o n s , and  a tendency to summarize.  concluded  evidence Two  expansions,  and  found  r e a d i n g of evolu-  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of sensory  images.  t h a t the r e t r o s p e c t i v e method seemed to y i e l d f u r t h e r  of i t s v a l u e i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e a d i n g  process.  s t u d i e s combined r e t r o s p e c t i o n w i t h c l o z e .  comprehension of grade t e n , e l e v e n , and  of  He  Reading b i o l o g i c a l content i n v o l v e d  i n a f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d study, e x p l o r e d the product and  asked  The  of  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more emotive r e a c t i o n s , more r a t i o n a l  more i l l u s t r a t i o n s and Fareed  uncritical  (1971) s t u d i e d the r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z e d responses  s i x t h grade p u p i l s who  h i s t o r y was  are  In s p i t e of i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , the method  unaware of i m p l i c a t i o n s i n a b i a s e d Fareed  i n the  they  r e v e a l e d t h a t the "high s c h o o l s u b j e c t s were p a s s i v e r e a d e r s , and  sub-  to r e c a l l why  twelve  The  processes  students.  they s e l e c t e d c l o z e responses  literary material.  Jenkinson  (1957), of  the  S u b j e c t s were  t o a comprehension  c a t e g o r i e s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were  test  formulated  56 from the r e s p o n s e s .  Jenkinson's  f i n d i n g , i n support of Swain, i n d i c a t e d  t h a t b e t t e r r e a d e r s e x h i b i t e d a g r e a t e r knowledge of language s t r u c t u r e and word meanings and were concerned  w i t h the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and  sequence of i d e a s . Laing  (1974) used a s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e i n a developmental  the context s t r a t e g i e s of grade 4, 6, and as d i d Ames (1966) and Rankin The ities  and  c o n c l u s i o n s of Harker  8 s u b j e c t s on c l o z e  Overholser  study of passages,  (1969).  (1974) a r e r e l e v a n t .  Striking  similar-  e x i s t e d between the n a t u r e of the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , as p o r t r a y e d by  the i n t r o s p e c t i v e - r e t r o s p e c t i v e case s t u d i e s and model of r e a d i n g :  the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c  comprehension i s r e p r e s e n t e d as a dynamic complex  p r o c e s s i n which the r e a d e r i s a c t i v e l y s e a r c h i n g f o r meaning, the  selec-  t i o n p r o c e s s depending t o a g r e a t degree on the a p p r o p r i a t e language clues.  Harker  concluded  t h a t the c a s e - s t u d i e s ". . . p r o v i d e the i n v e s -  t i g a t o r w i t h a more d i r e c t access t o the c o v e r t p r o c e s s e s of the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s than does any  o t h e r method c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e "  (p. 93).  Attitude " A t t i t u d e i s d e f i n e d as the tendency  t o respond  i n a f a v o r a b l e or  u n f a v o r a b l e manner t o s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s about r e a d i n g " (Summers, 1979). The  importance  of a t t i t u d e has been emphasized.  Alexander  and  Filler  (1976) s t a t e d : Today's t e a c h e r of r e a d i n g cannot a f f o r d to i g n o r e the a t t i t u d e s of h i s students s i n c e a t t i t u d e s a r e important i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of r e a d i n g and i n the c o n t i n u e d use of r e a d i n g f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n . (p. 19) The et  s e l e c t i o n of the E s t e s Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e (ERAS) "(Estes  a l . , 1975), was  Summers (1977).  based Estes  on an e x t e n s i v e review of a t t i t u d e measures by (1971, 1972,  1975)  r e p o r t e d the r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d  57 to t h e development o f t h e E s t e s A t t i t u d e S c a l e s t o Measure A t t i t u d e s Toward School and  S u b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g E n g l i s h , mathematics, r e a d i n g , s c i e n c e ,  social studies.  r a t i n g s " items  The s c a l e c o n s i s t s of 15 L i k e r t  i n each s u b j e c t  s c a l e from " s t r o n g l y agree"  ( t o t a l 75);  ing a p o s i t i v e attitude. The  responses a r e on a 5-point  to " s t r o n g l y disagree."  15 t o 75 w i t h an approximate midpoint  or "summated  Scores  range from  o f 45, w i t h a h i g h s c o r e  I t i s designed  represent-  f o r grades t h r e e through  twelve.  items were s e l e c t e d from a p o o l of statements c o n t r i b u t e d by elemen-  t a r y and secondary t e a c h e r s and sampled on a wide v a r i e t y of a b i l i t y levels. The v a l i d i t y i s w e l l s u b s t a n t i a t e d by D u l i n and Chester Greene and Z i r k e l  (1974),  (1976), and Summers (1977), who s t a t e d t h a t t h e E s t e s  et a l . (1975), ". . . i s t e c h n i c a l l y and c o n c e p t u a l l y , the b e s t reading a t t i t u d e s c a l e to date" presented  (p. 152).  developed  Summers, i n an undated  study,  data on t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and convergent v a l i d i t y o f t h e  E s t e s Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e grades, responses o f 1,403 c h i l d r e n i n grades 5, 6 and 7.  based on the  I t was concluded  that  the ERAS " i s u s e f u l i n o b t a i n i n g a g l o b a l r e a c t i v e assessment o f s c h o o l o r i e n t e d a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades" the b a s i s o f t h e study,  (p. 8 ) .  On  Summers (1979) employed t h e ERAS i n an e v a l u a t i o n  study o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a program o f s u s t a i n e d s i l e n t r e a d i n g  (SSR) on  r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e . Roettger  (1980) used the s c a l e i n a study o f 75 elementary  a t t i t u d e s toward r e a d i n g .  The r e s u l t s c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e b e l i e f  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s c o r e s p a r a l l e l achievement s c o r e s . showed d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e a d i n g .  students' that  O r a l responses  High performance/low a t t i t u d e  students viewed r e a d i n g as a t o o l f o r s u r v i v a l and f o r success  i n school.  58 Low  performance/high a t t i t u d e s t u d e n t s a s s o c i a t e d r e a d i n g w i t h a good  s e l f - c o n c e p t and used r e a d i n g f o r s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e r e s t s  (p. 452).  Summary The review of l i t e r a t u r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d the problem of the a s s e s s ment of r e a d i n g comprehension  i n the content areas i n secondary  school.  The inadequacy of s o l e dependence on the s k i l l s model and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of employing m u l t i p l e measurement t e c h n i q u e s were noted.  The  psycho-  l i n g u i s t i c r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g the responses o f s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e s a p r o m i s i n g approach.  Methods of the assessment  of o r a l responses by  e r r o r s and by miscue a n a l y s i s l e d : t o the a d a p t a t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s f o r the s i l e n t reading task. replacement  Scores of both exact replacement and  non-exact-  c l o z e d e l e t i o n s a r e used t o e v a l u a t e s i l e n t r e a d i n g responses  i n terms of the cue systems  i n language t o the l e v e l of the sentence.  With the a p p l i c a t i o n of d i s c o u r s e t h e o r y , the a n a l y s i s of responses be extended  to the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n of the passage.  r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s another way  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g how  b o t h f i c t i o n and p r o s e at the secondary  level.  may  Retrospection  s t u d e n t s comprehend  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY  The d e s i g n , which r e f l e c t s a d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d  study, was  congru-  ent w i t h t h e main purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e a d i n g comprehension p r o c e s s by examining  t h e responses  o f secondary  school readers, at  grade n i n e and grade twelve, i n r e l a t i o n t o two f a c t o r s : f i c i e n c y and mode o f d i s c o u r s e . i n v e s t i g a t i o n proceeded  responses;  To make p o s s i b l e t h e e x p l o r a t i o n the  i n t h r e e s t a g e s , based  ments o f c l o z e responses;  l e v e l of pro-  on (1) t h e exact r e p l a c e -  (2) the non-exact-replacements  of c l o z e  and (3) the r e t r o s p e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f exact and non-exact-  replacements  o f c l o z e responses.  The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d i s c u s s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , p r o c e dures f o r s e l e c t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n sample, i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a , and treatment  of the d a t a .  the i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e s and procedures c h a p t e r concludes w i t h t h e hypotheses  Research The  are also included.  tested.  Design  r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was a 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l F a c t o r A:  design.  2 modes of d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and expository prose.  F a c t o r B:  D e s c r i p t i o n s of  Fixed E f f e c t .  2 l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and poor. Fixed  Effect. 59  The  60 Schematically,  the d e s i g n can be  shown as f o l l o w s : Mode of d i s c o u r s e ( F a c t o r A). 1 Narrative  Proficiency ( F a c t o r B)  2 Expository  1. Good Readers 2. Poor Readers  The S e l e c t i o n of the P o p u l a t i o n  Population  Sample  Sample  S i n c e the major purpose of the study was school students  at d i f f e r e n t  modes of d i s c o u r s e , two and  two  probable  l e v e l s of m a t u r i t y  secondary  respond to d i f f e r e n t  modes, n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and  grade l e v e l s , n i n e and  twelve, were chosen.  expository I t was  prose,  considered  t h a t p a t t e r n s of performance might be r e v e a l e d , a c c o r d i n g  the degree o f e x p e r i e n c e a f t e r one year years  to e x p l o r e how  w i t h eacW-imode, i n p a r t i c u l a r e x p o s i t o r y  i n secondary s c h o o l at the n i n t h grade, and  at the t w e l f t h grade.  Since the study  after  prose, four  i s an i n - d e p t h i n v e s t i g a -  t i o n , o n l y s u b j e c t s from Lord Byng Secondary S c h o o l , Vancouver, were s e l e c t e d .  to  B.C.  From t h i s p o p u l a t i o n t h r e e samples were drawn.  S e l e c t i o n of Sample 1 To  i n v e s t i g a t e exact  each grade, N = 144 s u b j e c t was was  c l o z e replacements, the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n  at grade 9 and  N = 128  e l i g i b l e f o r the next phase of the study  the f i r s t  tested.  A  only i f E n g l i s h  language spoken i n the home, to e l i m i n a t e p o s s i b l e second  language i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the p r o c e s s On  a t grade 12, was  of  t h a t b a s i s , the i n i t i a l  sample was  of responding  to c l o z e d e l e t i o n s .  reduced to N = 107  i n grade 9  and  61 N = 100  i n grade 12.  Exact  c l o z e and  a t t i t u d e s c o r e s o n l y were i n v e s -  tigated. S e l e c t i o n Of the  Criterion  S i n c e the second major purpose was s t u d e n t s a t two was  to e x p l o r e the. performance of  l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and. poor, a f u r t h e r sample  drawn. The  80 s u b j e c t s f o r d e t a i l e d  study  (40 at each grade l e v e l ) of  both exact and non-exact-replacements of c l o z e d e l e t i o n s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r performance on the s c r e e n i n g t e s t , the Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t  (ISRT), a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r d u r i n g r e g u l a r  E n g l i s h p e r i o d s and Book f o r Teachers,  s c o r e d by computer s e r v i c e s . s t a t e s of the 1943  t e s t s cover grades 9 through individual abilities  13 and  E n g l i s h 9, a Resource  e d i t i o n of the t e s t t h a t :  "These  are u s e f u l f o r the d i a g n o s i s of  as they can be a d m i n i s t e r e d  to a c l a s s i n a f o r t y -  f i v e minute p e r i o d " (p. 60). L e v e l I I , Form E of the 1972 the p h i l o s o p h y t h a t guided  e d i t i o n was  earlier editions:  used because i t " r e f l e c t s that s i l e n t reading i s a  m u l t i f a c e t e d a b i l i t y b e s t measured by t e s t s t h a t survey behaviours"  (p. 4 ) .  The  t e s t s measure f i v e a r e a s :  vocabulary,  comprehension, use of r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , skimming and s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and combined s c o r e  and was  The  reading  scanning f o r  speed of r e a d i n g w i t h comprehension.  (50) from Comprehension S u b t e s t s A and  vance to the study.  several reading  B o n l y had  The rele-  ISRT had been used i n the s c h o o l i n the past  a v a i l a b l e from Vancouver School Board.  S e l e c t i o n of Sample 2 At each grade l e v e l ,  9 and  12, poor r e a d e r s  randomly from those s t u d e n t s whose s c o r e s ranked  (N = 20) were s e l e c t e d between the  5th  62 p e r c e n t i l e and the 33rd p e r c e n t i l e on n a t i o n a l norms. l e v e l good r e a d e r s (N = 20) were i d e n t i f i e d  At each grade  from those s t u d e n t s whose  s c o r e s ranked between the 65th p e r c e n t i l e and t h e 95th p e r c e n t i l e .  The  p e r c e n t i l e ranks corresponded t o the ISRT norms f o r each grade. S e l e c t i o n of Sample 3 For sample  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f how  3 was  s e l e c t e d f o r the r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w s  (Cambourne, 1979).  of  deletions,  "loud-thinkers"  S i x good r e a d e r s and s i x poor r e a d e r s were chosen  randomly a t each grade l e v e l randomly  s t u d e n t s respond to c l o z e  (N = 12) from sample 2, then a s s i g n e d  to the mode o f d i s c o u r s e :  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and  expository  prose.  Instrumentation Materials The r e s e a r c h  passages s e l e c t e d f o r c l o z e d e l e t i o n s were reproduced  from t e s t s used f o r B r i t i s h Columbia Reading Assessment, 12,  Grades 8 and  1977. Grade 9 was  tested with:  a)  "A K i n d of C o u r a g e " — N a r r a t i v e F i c t i o n  b)  " A u s t r a l i a n C i t i e s " — E x p o s i t o r y Prose  A c c o r d i n g t o Report 1:  T e s t s R e s u l t s , b o t h passages have a r e a d a b i l i t y  l e v e l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y grade 8 e s t a b l i s h e d by the F r y R e a d a b i l i t y  Formula  and were w r i t t e n by Canadian a u t h o r s . ' Grade 12 was  tested with:  a)  "David Comes H o m e " — N a r r a t i v e  Fiction  b)  " C u l t i v a t i o n o f the Sea and i t s P r e s e n t E x p l o i t a t i o n " — Expository  Prose  63 Both passages have a grade 12 r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l , as determined Fry R e a d a b i l i t y Scale  by t h e  (1976).  C l o z e Passages The  t e s t passages were typed a c c o r d i n g t o t h e standard  f i f t h word d e l e t i o n s (Bormuth, 1976, pp. 68-69).  format  with  The 50 d e l e t i o n s were  s e l e c t e d from t h e 250 words i n t h e f i n a l p o r t i o n o f each s e l e c t i o n a t a p o i n t judged Attitude  s u i t a b l e by t h i s  investigator.  Inventory  S i n c e an a n c i l l a r y purpose was t o e x p l o r e r o l e o f a t t i t u d e i n r e l a t i o n t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e , t h e E s t e s Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e was used.  Procedures Testing Test booklets included: t i o n s and sample t e s t  cover page, the a t t i t u d e s c a l e ,  instruc-  (Bormuth, 1976, p. 70), and the c l o z e t e s t s  (Appendix A ) . The first  c o l l e c t i o n o f the d a t a was conducted  i n three stages.  In the  s t a g e , t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of each grade was a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e  ISRT i n  r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r .  I n t h e second  stage, d u r i n g the same t e a c h i n g b l o c k one week l a t e r , both passages,  research  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y prose, a l t e r n a t i v e l y  f o r order e f f e c t , were randomly a s s i g n e d t o a l l s t u d e n t s .  placed  In the  f o l l o w i n g week t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w data from the sample s u b j e c t s completed t h e t h i r d  stage.  Interviews All  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted  appointments.  by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r i n p r i v a t e  Each s u b j e c t was t o l d t h a t he was p a r t o f a study on how  64 s t u d e n t s r e a d , and how  he completed  then i n s t r u c t e d  to read each sentence,  and  each c l o z e d e l e t i o n on h i s unmarked t e s t .  to  tell  Responses  from 20 s u b j e c t s were taped on a Sony c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r and t r a n s c r i b e d by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w  (Appendix  B).  Data P r o c e s s i n g S t a t i s t i c a l procedures  and post hoc  s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s were used replacements Exact C l o z e  of the r e t r o -  i n the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a from  of c l o z e and non-exact-replacements  exact  of c l o z e responses.  Scores  Statistical 1.  examinations  Procedures  Correlation.  A t t i t u d e s c o r e s , exact c l o z e s c o r e s on  narrative  f i c t i o n and on e x p o s i t o r y prose were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s c o r e s on IRST, u s i n g the Pearson  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , N = 107  grade 9 and N = 100  i n grade 12.  For good  in  (N = 20) and poor r e a d e r s  (N = 20) a t each grade l e v e l , c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h a t t i t u d e and  ISRT were  c a l c u l a t e d on exact c l o z e s c o r e s , and on exact c l o z e p l u s complete d i s course a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s .  The p e r c e n t of exact s c o r e s was  corre-  l a t e d w i t h the p e r c e n t of complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s . 2.  Comparison of means.  For exact c l o z e s c o r e s on each mode of  d i s c o u r s e , means and  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were computed f o r N =  grade 9 and N = 100,  grade 12 and  t values calculated  107,  f o r each p a i r of  means. 3.  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e .  Means of exact c l o z e s c o r e s of the  s t r a t i f i e d random sample, N = 40 at each grade l e v e l , were examined by the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e ( T a b l e 3.1) completely  based  on the 2 x 2  factorial,  randomized d e s i g n , f i x e d e f f e c t s model ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973).  65 TABLE  3.1  SOURCES OF VARIANCE AND DEGREES OF FREEDOM FOR A 2 x 2 FACTORIAL RANDOMIZED DESIGN, FIXED EFFECTS MODEL  Source  df  Modes of D i s c o u r s e  (Ai,A2)  (p - 1)  =  1  L e v e l s of P r o f i c i e n c y  (Bi,B2)  (q - 1)  =  1  Interaction  (A,B)  (p - 1 ) ( q - 1) =  1  Within Cells  N - pq  =  Total  Non-exact  Cloze  N-4 N-l  Replacements  Each non-exact  c l o z e replacement.was  a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f o u r  c a t e g o r i e s o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s a d a p t a t i o n of the Cambourne Reading A s s e s s ment Procedure ability,  (C.R.A.P., 1978):  grammatical f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t -  semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , on each mode  of d i s c o u r s e :  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y prose (Appendix C).  Weighting system.  The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r each  cate-  gory were c a l c u l a t e d from the s c o r e o b t a i n e d when the weighted s c o r e was divided  b y the number o f p o s s i b l e non-exact-replacements,  including  o m i s s i o n s , i . e . , the d i f f e r e n c e between the number o f exact replacements and the t o t a l p o s s i b l e  (50).  For example,  2 x Yes + 1 x P a r t i a l + 0 x No non-exact-replacements For grammatical f u n c t i o n c a t e g o r y (Table 3.2) subject  the weighted s c o r e of one  was: 2 x 18 + 1 x 0 + 0 x 1 — = 1.89 19  The e q u a l i t y of u n i t s f o r an i n t e r v a l s c a l e was  (Appendix  thus assumed.  . C)  66 TABLE 3.2 WEIGHTING SYSTEM FOR FOUR VARIABLES OF NON-EXACT CLOZE REPLACEMENTS  Grammatical Function  Syntactic Acceptability  2 Yes  2 Yes  1 Partial  ' 1 Partial  0 No  0 No  Semantic Acceptability  Discourse Acceptability  4 Yes  2 Yes  3 T-unit  1 Partial  2 Prior Cloze  0 No  1 Past Cloze 0 No  S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 1.  Comparison  o f means.  To determine the presence o f s t a t i s -  tically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , t v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d a t each grade  level:  (a) between means o f non-exact-replacements o f c l o z e responses  on modes o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , f o r good and poor r e a d e r s ;  (b) between means o f weighted s c o r e s , a c c o r d i n g t o  grammatical f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , ' -Land discourse a c c e p t a b i l i t y , t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y 2.  f o r good and poor r e a d e r s on n a r r a t i v e  fic-  prose.  Analysis of variance.  To c o n s i d e r the d i f f e r e n c e among means  of t h e summated exact c l o z e and complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y a c c e p t a b l e on t h r e e v a r i a b l e s :  syntactic acceptability,  (i.e.,  semantic  a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y ) , a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was used, based on the 2 x 2 l e v e l , n i n e and twelve. was i  p < •. 05. " -  —  f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y , a t each grade The l e v e l o f r e j e c t i o n f o r t h e n u l l hypotheses  67 Reliability  o f t h e N.E.R. S c o r i n g  Four judges, teacher  t h r e e d o c t o r a l students  i n t h e S k i l l s Development Centre a t L o r d Byng Secondary  independently  analyzed  four categories.  and t h e School,  t h e non-exact-replacements o f c l o z e responses on  each mode o f d i s c o u r s e .  Two judges s c o r e d grade twelve,  i n each o f t h e  T r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were conducted b e f o r e t h e random  assignment o f t h e t a s k . by  i n reading education  The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c o r i n g was determined  i n t e r - s c o r e r agreement a c c o r d i n g  t o t h e A r r i n g t o n Formula ( F e i f e l &  Lorge, 1950). Retrospective Verbalizations A random sample o f 24 s u b j e c t s was scheduled  f o r interview.  R e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s were completed from 11 s u b j e c t s i n grade 9 and  9 s u b j e c t s i n grade 12, as f o l l o w s :  Grade  Narrative  Expository  9  Good Poor  3 2  3 3  Grade 12  Good Poor  3 1  3 2  Responses were q u a l i t a t i v e l y analyzed how s t u d e n t s syntax,  on a post-hoc b a s i s to determine  use t h e f o u r cue systems o f language:  semantic, and d i s c o u r s e .  grammatical f u n c t i o n ,  C a t e g o r i e s were induced  from t h e  p r o t o c o l s , and s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s i n v o l v i n g f r e q u e n c i e s and u s i n g C h i square were performed.  Hypotheses For t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g n u l l hypotheses were formulated Research Q u e s t i o n Are  1  t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s o f  68 r e a d i n g comprehension and a measure o f a t t i t u d e f o r secondary  school  s t u d e n t s i n grades n i n e and twelve? Hypothesis  1.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s  on a r e a d i n g comprehension measure and (1) t h e number o f exact ments of c l o z e responses replacements  i n narrative fiction,  of c l o s e responses  replace-  (2) the number o f exact  i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , o r (3) a t t i t u d e  s c o r e s , f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. i)  Hypothesis  1.11.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and exact cloze n a r r a t i v e scores ii) correlation  Hypothesis  (ECN), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. 1.12.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  between t h e s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and  the exact c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e (ECE), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve. iii)  Hypothesis  1.13.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and t h e s c o r e s on t h e a t t i t u d e measure (ERAS), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. Hypothesis  1.2  There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among  (1) t h e number o f exact replacements fiction,  of c l o z e responses  (2) t h e number o f exact replacements  e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , and (3) a t t i t u d e s c o r e s or  i n narrative  o f c l o z e responses i n  (ERAS), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e  twelve. i)  Hypothesis  1.21.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s  (ECN) and the exact  c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (ECE), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve. ii)  Hypothesis  1.22.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  69 correlation scores  between exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s  (ECN) and a t t i t u d e  (ERAS), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve. iii)  correlation scores  Hypothesis  1.23.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  between exact c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s  significant  (ECE) and a t t i t u d e  (ERAS), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve.  Hypothesis  1.3  There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n s among  (1) s c o r e s on a c r i t e r i o n measure, (2) t h e number o f exact of c l o z e responses  i n narrative f i c t i o n ,  ments o f c l o z e responses  correlation  Hypothesis  (3) t h e number o f exact  replace-  i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , and (4) a t t i t u d e s c o r e s ,  over g i v e n p r o f i c i e n c y and grade i)  replacements  1.31.  levels.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and exact  cloze narrative  (ECN) f o r good and poor r e a d e r s a t e i t h e r grade n i n e o r  twelve. ii) correlation  Hypothesis  1.32.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and exact  cloze expository scores  (ECE), f o r good and poor r e a d e r s , a t e i t h e r  grade n i n e or twelve. iii) correlation  Hypothesis  1.33.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  between t h e exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s (ECN) and t h e exact  c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s (ECE) f o r good and poor r e a d e r s , at e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. iv) correlation scores  1.34.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  between t h e exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s (ECN) and a t t i t u d e  (ERAS), f o r good and poor r e a d e r s , a t e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve, v)  i  Hypothesis  Hypothesis  1.35.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  70 c o r r e l a t i o n between exact c l o z e scores  expository scores  (ERAS), f o r good and poor r e a d e r s a t e i t h e r vi)  Hypothesis  1.36.  (ECE) and a t t i t u d e grade n i n e o r twelve.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e c r i t e r i o n (ISRT) and a t t i t u d e and poor r e a d e r s , a t e i t h e r Hypothesis  1.4 s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between exact  s c o r e s and complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y  d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y i)  s c o r e s f o r good  grade n i n e o r twelve.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y cloze  significant  Hypothesis  s c o r e s , over modes o f  l e v e l s a t g i v e n grade l e v e l s .  1.41.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p e r c e n t exact s c o r e s and the p e r c e n t discourse acceptability readers, at either ii)  scores i n n a r r a t i v e  f o r good and poor  grade n i n e or twelve.  Hypothesis  1.42.  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p e r c e n t discourse acceptability readers, at e i t h e r  fiction,  complete  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  exact s c o r e s and t h e p e r c e n t  complete  s c o r e s i n e x p o s i t o r y prose f o r good and poor  grade n i n e o r twelve.  Research Q u e s t i o n 2 Does s u b j e c t comprehension v a r y w i t h t h e mode of d i s c o u r s e ? Hypothesis  2.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant difference  comprehension s c o r e s between t h e n a r r a t i v e and  i n mean r e a d i n g  f i c t i o n mode of d i s c o u r s e  t h e e x p o s i t o r y prose mode, as measured by (1) exact replacements  cloze  responses  and (2) non-exact-replacements,  of  over g i v e n l e v e l s o f  grade and p r o f i c i e n c y . i) difference  Hypothesis  2.11.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  between t h e mean s c o r e s over modes o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured  71 by t h e number o f exact replacements  of c l o z e responses, f o r e i t h e r  grades  n i n e and twelve. ii)  H y p o t h e s i s 2.12.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  dif-  f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s over modes o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured by t h e number o f exact replacements  o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , f o r s u b j e c t s a t good and  poor l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve. iii)  H y p o t h e s i s 2.13.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  dif-  f e r e n c e between weighted mean s c o r e over modes o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured by t h e number o f  non-exact-replacements  each o f f o u r v a r i a b l e s : ability, for  (1) grammatical  (N.E.R.) o f c l o z e responses on function,  (2) s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t -  (3) semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and (4) d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y ,  s u b j e c t s a t good and poor l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y .  Research Q u e s t i o n 3 Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y , good and poor, v a r y i n comprehension? Hypothesis  3.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g com-  p r e h e n s i o n between good and poor r e a d e r s , as measured by t h e number o f exact replacements i)  o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , a t g i v e n grade  H y p o t h e s i s 3.11.  levels.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s over p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l , as measured by t h e number o f exact c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , f o r e i t h e r grades n i n e or twelve. ii)  H y p o t h e s i s 3.12.  d i f f e r e n c e between weighted  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  s c o r e means over p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l on e i t h e r  mode o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured by t h e number of weighted  s c o r e s on non-  e x a c t - r e p l a c e m e n t s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , a t e i t h e r grade n i n e or t w e l v e .  72 Research Q u e s t i o n 4 Is t h e r e an i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y level? Hypothesis 4.1 There discourse  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t e r a c t i o n between modes of  ( e x p o s i t o r y prose and n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ) and p r o f i c i e n c y  levels  (good and poor) a t e i t h e r t h e grade n i n e o r grade twelve l e v e l , based on the number o f exact replacements  of c l o z e responses.  Summary In t h i s study, designed t o e x p l o r e how secondary to c l o z e responses, c o r r e l a t i o n , parametric s t a t i s t i c s ,  s t u d e n t s respond and r e t r o s p e c t i v e  v e r b a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were used t o a n a l y z e the data from exact and non-exact-replacements discourse:  o f t h e c l o z e d e l e t e d passages  i n two modes of  e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e and n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , over good and poor  proficiency levels,  i n grades n i n e and twelve.  CHAPTER IV  RESULTS  T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c l o z e responses f o r t h e purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e comprehension school students.  p r o c e s s of secondary  S t a t i s t i c a l and q u a l i t a t i v e procedures were used t o  examine each r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n p o s i t e d , i n terms o f n u l l hypotheses. The e x a c t replacements o f c l o z e responses o f sample  1 (N = 107 i n grade  9 and N = 100 i n grade 12) were a n a l y z e d u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a l and i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c a l techniques. to sample  A l l subsequent s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s  2 (20 good s u b j e c t s and 20 poor s u b j e c t s a t each grade  relate level).  The a n a l y s i s o f a t t i t u d e s c o r e s , t h e a n c i l l a r y phase o f t h e s t u d y , i s included i n the c o r r e l a t i o n a l studies.  The post hoc a n a l y s i s o f t h e  r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s o f sample 3 ( s i x good and s i x poor  subjects  at each grade l e v e l ) completes the c h a p t e r .  S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses Research Q u e s t i o n 1 Are t h e r e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l e c t e d indexes o f r e a d i n g comprehension  and a measure o f a t t i t u d e f o r secondary s t u d e n t s i n  grade n i n e and grade twelve? Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed among the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : Test  the c r i t e r i o n measure, the Iowa S i l e n t  (ISRT), t h e c l o z e s c o r e s on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  (ECN) and on  Reading  74; . e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e OECE/) and on s c o r e s from t h e E s t e s Reading A t t i t u d e (ERAS), t o t e s t f o u r hypotheses. r e s u l t s i n terms o f t h e sample Hypothesis  Scale  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n r e p o r t s t h e  tested.  1.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on  a r e a d i n g comprehension measure and (1) t h e number o f exact replacements of  c l o z e responses i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ,  (2) t h e number o f exact r e p l a c e -  ments of c l o z e responses i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , and (3) a t t i t u d e for  scores,  e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. The h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r sample  N = 100 i n grade 1 2 ) . i)  1 (N = 107 i n grade n i n e and  Complete r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.1.  H y p o t h e s i s 1.11.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (IRST) and exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e scores  (ECN), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e or t w e l v e .  There was a moderate  positive correlation, statistically  cant a t .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e  ( r = .45, grade 9;  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t each grade ii)  H y p o t h e s i s 1.12.  signifi-  r = .46, grade 1 2 ) .  level.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s c o r e s on the c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and t h e exact c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e There were moderate  (ECE), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e or t w e l v e .  positive correlations  .53, grade 12), s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t each grade iii)  H y p o t h e s i s 1.13.  ( r = .55, grade 9;  (p < .01).  r =  The n u l l hypo-  level.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and t h e s c o r e s on t h e a t t i t u d e measure (ERAS), f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e or t w e l v e . In  grade 12 t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  ( r = .40, p < .01) was  moderate  TABLE 4.1 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG SELECTED INDEXES FOR GRADE NINE AND TWELVE READERS a  Measure  Iowa  Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t  (ISRT)  ECN  ECE  ATT  . 45**  .55**  .18  .40**  .14  Exact C l o z e N a r r a t i v e (ECN)  .46**  Exact C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y (ECE)  .53**  .58**  Attitude  .40**  .21*  (ATT)  Upper r i g h t  s i d e o f m a t r i x l i s t s Pearson  ents o f grade n i n e r e a d e r s grade  twelve r e a d e r s  * p < .05 ** p < .01  .33**^  correlation  (N = 107) and the lower  (N = 100).  .20*  coeffici-  left  side,  positive. grade  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  a c c e p t e d i n grade 9 and r e j e c t e d i n  12.  Hypothesis  1.2  There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among (1) the  number of exact replacements of c l o s e responses i n n a r r a t i v e  fiction,  (2) the number of exact replacements of c l o z e responses i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , and  (3) a t t i t u d e s c o r e s , f o r e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve  (Table  4.1). i)  H y p o t h e s i s 1.21.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e cloze expository score At  scores  (ECN) and the exact  (ECE), a t e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve.  each grade l e v e l the moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r =  grade 9;  r = .58, grade 12) was  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  statistically  .40,  s i g n i f i c a n t , a t the  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  rejected  .01  a t each grade  level. ii)  H y p o t h e s i s 1.22.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e (ERAS), i n e i t h e r grade n i n e o r twelve. There was  •  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  grade  12.  -  H y p o t h e s i s 1.23.  a c c e p t e d f o r grade 9 and r e j e c t e d f o r  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between exact c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s scores  ..  scores  a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r = .21, p < .05) i n grade  12.  iii)  (ECN) and a t t i t u d e  (ECE) and  attitude  (ERAS), i n e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. The c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .20, p < .05) i n grade 9 and the c o r r e l a t i o n  (r = .33, p < .01) i n grade 12 were low p o s i t i v e . was  r e j e c t e d a t each grade  level.  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  71 The c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e hypotheses were computed for  20 good s u b j e c t s and 20 poor s u b j e c t s , at grade n i n e (Table 4.2)  and  grade twelve (Table 4.3). Hypothesis  1.3  There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among (1) s c o r e s  on the c r i t e r i o n measure, (2) the number of exact replacements of c l o z e responses i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n ,  (3) the number of exact replacements of  c l o z e responses i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , and p r o f i c i e n c y and grade i)  (4) a t t i t u d e s c o r e s , over g i v e n  levels.  H y p o t h e s i s 1.31.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on the c r i t e r i o n measure (ISRT) and exact cloze narrative or  (ECN) f o r good and poor s u b j e c t s , at e i t h e r grade n i n e  twelve. No c o r r e l a t i o n a c h i e v e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  t h e s i s was ii)  The n u l l hypo-  a c c e p t e d a t b o t h grade n i n e and twelve. H y p o t h e s i s 1.32.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on the c r i t e r i o n measure•(ISRT) c l o z e expository scores  significant and exact  (ECE), f o r good and poor s u b j e c t s , a t e i t h e r  grade n i n e or t w e l v e . The moderate tically  positive correlation  significant  rejected;  i t was  grade 12  subjects.  iii)  ( r = .60, p < .01) was  f o r poor grade 12 s u b j e c t s .  statis-  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  a c c e p t e d f o r good and poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s and  H y p o t h e s i s 1.33.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between the exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s cloze expository scores grade n i n e or twelve.  good  significant  (ECN) and the exact  (ECE) f o r good and poor s u b j e c t s , at e i t h e r  78 TABLE 4.2 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG SELECTED INDEXES FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE NINE (N = 20) 3  Measure  Iowa  S i l e n t Reading T e s t (ISBSE)  Iowa  .  ECN  ECE  ATT  .04  . .14  .25  .36*  .28  Exact  Cloze Narrative  (ECN)  .05  Exact  Cloze Expository  (ECE)  .03  -.02  (ATT)  -.33  .35  Attitude  .56** -.35  Upper r i g h t s i d e o f m a t r i x l i s t s Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of good r e a d e r s and t h e lower l e f t s i d e o f poor r e a d e r s . * p < .05 ** p < .01  TABLE 4.3 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG SELECTED INDEXES FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE TWELVE (N = 20) 3  Measure  Iowa  ECN  ECE  ATT  \^-.10  .07  -.25  .30  .06  Iowa S i l e n t Reading. T e s t  (ISR3?)  Exact C l o z e N a r r a t i v e  (ECN)  .30  Exact C l o z e E x p o s i t o r y  (ECE)  .60**  .47*  Attitude  (ATT)  .56**  .11  -.16 .18^"\.  U p p e r r i g h t s i d e o f m a t r i x l i s t s Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of good r e a d e r s and t h e lower l e f t s i d e o f poor r e a d e r s . a  * p < .05 ** p < .01  79 The low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s u b j e c t s and t h e moderate  ( r = .36, p < .05) f o r good grade 9  positive correlation  poor grade 12 s u b j e c t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y t h e s i s was  rejected;  good grade 12 iv)  i t was  (r = .47, p < .05) f o r  significant.  a c c e p t e d f o r poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s and f o r  subjects.  H y p o t h e s i s 1.34.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between the exact c l o z e n a r r a t i v e s c o r e s scores  The n u l l hypo-  significant  (ECN) and  attitude  (ERAS) f o r good and poor s u b j e c t s , a t e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. No c o r r e l a t i o n s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  t h e s i s was v)  significant.  a c c e p t e d a t b o t h grade n i n e and twelve. H y p o t h e s i s 1.35.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between exact c l o z e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s scores  The n u l l hypo-  significant  (ECE) and  attitude  (ERAS), f o r good and poor s u b j e c t s , a t e i t h e r grade n i n e or  twelve. The moderate tically  positive correlation  significant  rejected;  i t was  and poor grade 12 vi)  (r = .56, p < .01) was  f o r good grade 9 s u b j e c t s .  statis-  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  a c c e p t e d f o r poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s and f o r b o t h good subjects.  H y p o t h e s i s 1.36.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between the c r i t e r i o n  significant  (ISRT) and a t t i t u d e s c o r e s f o r good  and poor r e a d e r s , at e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. The moderate significant rejected;  correlation  (r = .56, p < .01) was  f o r poor s u b j e c t s i n grade twelve. i t was  statistically  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  a c c e p t e d f o r poor grade 12 s u b j e c t s , and f o r good  poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s .  and  The  p e r c e n t exact c l o z e s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the p e r c e n t  complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s ( i . e . , a c c e p t a b l e on t h r e e v a r i ables:  s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , semantic  acceptability). Hypothesis  Results are presented  a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e  i n Table  4.4.  1.4  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between exact  c l o z e s c o r e s and complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s , over modes of d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s at g i v e n grade i)  Hypothesis  1.41.  levels.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between the p e r c e n t exact s c o r e s and  the p e r c e n t  discourse a c c e p t a b i l i t y scores i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , s u b j e c t s , a t e i t h e r grade n i n e or  was  (r =  i t was  accepted  f o r good and  .66, p < .01) was  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r poor grade 12 s u b j e c t s .  rejected;  complete poor  twelve.  The moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n tically  significant  The n u l l  f o r good 12 s u b j e c t s and  statis-  hypothesis  f o r good  and  poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s . ii)  Hypothesis  1.42.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c o r r e l a t i o n between the p e r c e n t exact s c o r e s and  significant  the p e r c e n t  complete  d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s i n e x p o s i t o r y prose f o r good and s u b j e c t s , a t e i t h e r grade n i n e o r The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n significant rejected; (r =  .53,  ( r = -.51,  r =  .54)  p < .05) was  statistically  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  a c c e p t e d f o r poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s .  The  was correlation  f o r good and poor grade 12 s u b j e c t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t rejected.  twelve.  f o r good grade 9 s u b j e c t s . i t was  poor  (p < .05).  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  was  81  TABLE 4.4 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF PERCENT COMPLETE DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY SCORES AND PERCENT EXACT CLOZE SCORES FOR NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY PASSAGES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADES NINE AND TWELVE 3  Grade Nine Narrative Expository  Good Readers  .22  -.51*  Poor Readers  .16  .41  N = 20 f o r each * p < .05 ** p < .01  coefficient  Grade Twelve Narrative Expository  .14  .53*  .66**  .54*  82 Research Q u e s t i o n  2  Does s u b j e c t comprehension v a r y w i t h t h e mode of d i s c o u r s e ? Hypothesis  2.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e i n mean r e a d i n g  comprehension s c o r e s between t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n mode o f d i s c o u r s e and the e x p o s i t o r y prose mode, as measured by (1) exact replacements o f c l o z e responses and (2) non-exact-replacements, over  g i v e n l e v e l s of  grade and p r o f i c i e n c y . i)  Hypothesis  2.11.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s over modes o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured by  the number o f exact  replacements o f c l o z e responses,  f o r either  grade n i n e o r twelve. The  a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d t h e comparison o f means f o r exact  on each mode of d i s c o u r s e  (Table 4.5).  F o r grade n i n e the mean ECN  s c o r e was 23.27 and t h e mean ECE s c o r e was 13.91. cantly different  c l o z e scores  ( t = 16.87, p < .001).  They were s i g n i f i -  F o r grade twelve  the n a r r a t i v e  mean s c o r e o f 24.59 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the e x p o s i t o r y mean s c o r e o f 17.32.  The t v a l u e was 15.61 (p < .001).  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  dif-  f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s when comparing comprehension o f modes o f d i s course,  as measured by exact replacements o f c l o z e s c o r e s , was r e j e c t e d ,  at each grade l e v e l . ii)  Hypothesis  2.12.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s over modes o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured by exact  replacements o f c l o z e responses,  f o r good and poor l e v e l s o f  proficiency. For good s u b j e c t s i n grade n i n e  (N = 20), t h e mean was 26.70, on  TABLE 4.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN EXACT CLOZE NARRATIVE (ECN) AND EXACT CLOZE EXPOSITORY (ECE) MEANS FOR GRADES NINE AND TWELVE  Variables  Means  S.D.  t values  Grade Nine (N = 107) ECN  23.27  5.41  ECE  13.91  5.12  16.87*  Grade Twelve (N = 100) ECN  24.59  5.41  ECE  17.32  5.25  15.61*  * p < .001  84 the n a r r a t i v e mode w h i l e on the e x p o s i t o r y , 4.6).  This  d i f f e r e n c e was  p < .001).  the mean of 22.5  was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater  than on  The  t v a l u e was  .001).  (p <  Similar r e s u l t s pertained The  expository  the  had  w i t h a mean of 11.55.  means of 29.60 and The  22.15  20).  for  d i f f e r e n c e was  istically  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  and  were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r poor s u b j e c t s  15.95  level  8.76;  grade twelve sample (N =  modes, r e s p e c t i v e l y . .001  (Table  on the n a r r a t i v e mode  expository,  f o r the  c l o z e s c o r e s of good s u b j e c t s  n a r r a t i v e and  17.75  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (t =  For poor s u b j e c t s ,  8.04  the mean was  ( t = 7.42).  Means of  the stat-  21.65 (t =  5.46,  p < .001). The  n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  grade, n i n e and mode of  rejected  twelve, as measured by  f o r p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l , at each the  exact c l o z e s c o r e s on  discourse.  iii)  H y p o t h e s i s 2.13.  There i s no  statistically significant  d i f f e r e n c e between means over modes of d i s c o u r s e ,  as measured by  exact-replacements (N.E.R.) of c l o z e responses on  four  (1) grammatical f u n c t i o n , a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and of  each  variables:  (2) s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , (3)  (4) d i s c o u r s e  non-  semantic  a c c e p t a b i l i t y , f o r good and  poor l e v e l s  proficiency. To  determine how  p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s v a r i e d w i t h the mode of d i s -  c o u r s e , t - t e s t s were performed on each v a r i a b l e . means (Table  4.7)  pared w i t h the means were 1.69 subjects  Good s u b j e c t s on  at the n i n t h grade had  s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater  the n a r r a t i v e mode f o r a l l f o u r v a r i a b l e s when com-  expository and  the means of the weighted s c o r e s f o r  1.43  mode;  f o r example, on  respectively  (t = 3.60;  grammatical f u n c t i o n , p < .001).  showed s i m i l a r marked d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h v a l u e s of 1.38  The on  poor the  the  TABLE 4.6 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEANS OF EXACT CLOZE NARRATIVE (ECN) AND EXACT CLOZE EXPOSITORY (ECE) FOR GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADES NINE AND TWELVE (N = 20)  Proficiences  Variables  Means  S.D.  t-values  Grade Nine ECN  26.70  3.99  ECE  17.75  4.10  ECN  22.50  4.35  ECE  11.55  4.19  8.76*  Good  8.04*  Poor  Grade Twelve ECN  29.60  3.99  ECE  22.15  3.59  ECN  21.65  4.89  ECE  15.95  4.11  7.42*  Good  5.46*  Poor  * p < .001  TABLE 4.7 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEANS OF NON-EXACT-REPLACEMENTS OF CLOZE RESPONSES ON MODES OF DISCOURSE BY PROFICIENCY LEVEL IN GRADE NINE (N = 20)  Modes of Discourse  Grammatical Function  Syntactic Acceptability  Semantic Acceptability  Discourse Acceptability  Good Readers Narrative Expository t Value  1.69 1.43 3.60*  1.84 1.56 3.45*  3.40 2.45 5.98*  1.70 1.15 8.28*  2.64 1.35 7.25*  1.35 .60 8.07*  Poor Readers Narrative Expository t Value  ,38 .93 .58*  1.49 .96 5.02*  .001  TABLE 4.8 COMPARISON BETWEEN MEANS OF NON-EXACT-REPLACEMENTS OF CLOZE RESPONSES ON MODES OF DISCOURSE BY PROFICIENCY LEVEL IN GRADE TWELVE (N = 20)  Modes o f Discourse  Grammatical Function  Syntactic Acceptability  Semantic Acceptability  Discourse Acceptability  Good Readers Narrative Expository t Values  1.62 1.59 0.32  1.63 1.65 -0.27  2.63 2.78 -0.87  1.04 1.32 -3.89*  Poor Readers Narrative Expository t Values  * p < .05  1.13 1.01 0.92  1.11 .96 1.19  1.55 1.32 1.10  .61 .61 -0.01  87 n a r r a t i v e mode and .93 on the e x p o s i t o r y d i s c o u r s e  ( t = 4.58; p < .001).  The complete r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r non-exact-replacements o f c l o z e responses f o r good and poor r e a d e r s at the n i n t h grade on b o t h modes of d i s c o u r s e . In grade twelve, good  s u b j e c t s showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e between s c o r e s on the n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y modes on t h r e e variables:  grammatical f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and semantic  acceptability  (Table 4.8).  I n d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , the e x p o s i t o r y  mode was both s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the n a r r a t i v e mode ( t = -3.89; p < .001) and r e v e r s e d w i t h e x p o s i t o r y h i g h e r . Poor s u b j e c t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between scores on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y prose on the f o u r v a r i a b l e s of non-exactreplacements of c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d on three v a r i a b l e s : grammatical f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r good and poor s u b j e c t s .  On d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , the n u l l hypo-  t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d f o r poor s u b j e c t s ;  i t was r e j e c t e d f o r good  subjects  i n grade twelve. Research Q u e s t i o n 3 Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y , good and poor, v a r y i n comprehension? Hypothesis 3.1 There i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g compreh e n s i o n between good and poor r e a d e r s , as measured by.exact replacements of c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , a t g i v e n grade  levels.  To c o n s i d e r how the number o f exact responses v a r i e d  i n terms of  the two main e f f e c t s of p r o f i c i e n c y and of modes of d i s c o u r s e ,  analysis  of v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d o u t , a t each grade l e v e l , on the exact s c o r e s .  88 i)  H y p o t h e s i s 3.11.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t main  e f f e c t due t o p r o f i c i e n c y , good and poor, as measured by t h e number of exact c l o z e responses f o r grades n i n e and twelve. Results indicated statistical  t h a t t h e main e f f e c t s o f p r o f i c i e n c y a c h i e v e d  s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond  t h e .001 l e v e l  (F = 30.00, p < .001) i n  grade n i n e , and i n grade twelve (F = 55.24, p < .001). ii)  H y p o t h e s i s 3.12.  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  e f f e c t due t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t main  and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ,  as measured by t h e number o f exact c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , f o r grades n i n e and twelve. At  b o t h grade l e v e l s t h e main e f f e c t s due t o mode o f d i s c o u r s e  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant,  (F = 110.00, p < .001) i n grade n i n e and  i n grade twelve (F = 47.71, p < .001). significantly  .greater  Narrative f i c t i o n  s c o r e s were  than e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e s c o r e s .  The n u l l hypotheses were r e j e c t e d f o r p r o f i c i e n c y and mode o f discourse.  Complete  r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 4.9 and 4.10.  H y p o t h e s i s 3.2 There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n comprehension  over p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s on e i t h e r mode o f d i s c o u r s e , as measured by t h e number o f weighted s c o r e s o f non-exact-replacements of c l o z e responses at  e i t h e r grade n i n e or twelve. The means o f t h e weighted s c o r e s o f t h e good and poor r e a d e r s were  compared on each v a r i a b l e :  grammatical f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c  acceptability,  semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , f o r n a r r a t i v e t i o n and f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , u s i n g  t-tests.  H y p o t h e s i s 3.21 f o r grades n i n e and t w e l v e . ally  fic-  There i s no s t a t i s t i c -  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e over p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l on e i t h e r mode o f  TABLE 4.9 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF EXACT CLOZE SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE NINE  Source  SS  Between modes  d.f.  M.S.  F  1980. 05  1  1980. 05  110.00*  540. 80  1  540. 80  30.00*  20. 00  1  20. 00  W i t h i n groups ( r e s i d u a l ) ' 1313. 90  73  18. 00  Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s Interaction  Total  3854. 75  1.11  76  * p < .001  TABLE 4.10 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF EXACT CLOZE SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE TWELVE  Source  SS  Between modes Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s Interaction W i t h i n groups  (residual) Total  * p < .001  d.f.  M.S.  F  864. 61  1  864. 61  47.71*  1001. 11  1  1001. 11  55.24*  15. 32  1  15. 32  1322. 85  73  18. 12  3203. 89  76  0.84  90 d i s c o u r s e as measured by t h e weighted s c o r e s of non-exact-replacements. On each v a r i a b l e , t h e means of good s u b j e c t s i n grade n i n e showed statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e means of poor s u b j e c t s .  The minimum o b t a i n e d 1.35, The  t value  (t = 4.47;  was on t h e d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n . greatest value  ability  ( t = 6.68;  p < .001) was on t h e d i s c o u r s e  accept-  of e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , w i t h means o f 1.15 f o r good s u b j e c t s and  .60 f o r poor s u b j e c t s In grade twelve,  ( T a b l e 4.11). good s u b j e c t s a c h i e v e d  d i f f e r e n c e s on a l l t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s . function, narrative f i c t i o n , represented The  p < .001) on means of 1.70 and  t h e lowest  greatest numerical  statistically  Means o f 1.62 on grammatical  compared t o 1.31 f o r poor  numerical  significant  readers,  d i f f e r e n c e , ( t = 3.71;  d i f f e r e n c e , ( t = 8.54;  p < .001).  p < .001) was on means  of 1.32 and .62 f o r good and poor s u b j e c t s r e s p e c t i v e l y , on t h e d i s course  a c c e p t a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e (Table 4.12).  Research Q u e s t i o n  4  Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t proficiency  i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f d i s c o u r s e and  level?  H y p o t h e s i s 4.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y discourse levels  significant  i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f  ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y prose) and p r o f i c i e n c y  (good and poor) i n grade n i n e o r i n grade twelve,  of exact  replacements o f c l o z e  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i n t h e number  responses. significant  interaction  (Tables 4.9 and  4.10) i n grade n i n e between p r o f i c i e n c y and modes of d i s c o u r s e , 1.11) nor a t grade twelve, the t r e n d s .  (F = .84).  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  was  (F =  F i g u r e s 4.1 and 4.2 i l l u s t r a t e accepted.  TABLE 4.11 MEANS OF WEIGHTED SCORES ACCORDING TO GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION (GF) SYNTACTIC ACCEPTABILITY (SA), SEMANTIC ACCEPTABILITY (SEM), AND DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY (DA) OF NON-EXACT-REPLACEMENT WORDS IN A NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY PASSAGE BY 20 GOOD (G) AND 20 POOR (P) READERS IN GRADE NINE  Variable  Readers  Means  Std. Dev.  GF  G P  1.,69 1.,38  0.11 0.24  5.11*  SA  G P  1.,84 1.,49  0.12 0.28  5.05*  SEM  G P  3.40 2.64  0.31 0.52  5.61*  DA  G P  1.70 1.35  0.17 0.31  4.47*  GF  G P  1.43 0.93  0.30 0.37  4.74*  SA  G P  1.56 0.96  0.35 0.37  5.23*  SEM  G P  45 35  0.64 0.59  5.65*  DA  G P  1.15 0.62  0.24 0.28  6.68*  Narrative  Passage  E x p o s i t o r y Passage  See t e x t f o r w e i g h t i n g and s c o r i n g methods (p. 65) 'All c a l c u l a t e d t values are s i g n i f i c a n t  a t p < .001.  TABLE 4.12 MEANS OF WEIGHTED SCORES ACCORDING TO GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION (GF), SYNTACTIC ACCEPTABILITY (SA), SEMANTIC ACCEPTABILITY (SEM), AND DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY (DA) OF NON-EXACT-REPLACEMENT WORDS IN A NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY PASSAGE BY 20 GOOD (G) AND 20 POOR (P) READERS IN GRADE TWELVE 3  Variable  Narrative  Readers  Means  S t d . Dev.  t^  Passage  GF  G P  1.62 1.13  0.32 0.49  3.71*  SA  G P  1.63 1.11  0.24 0.48  4.35*  SEM  G P  2.63 1.55  0.54 0.76  5.19*  DA  G P  1.04 0.61  0.22 0.34  4.70*  GF  G P  1.59 1.01  0.23 0.31  6.72*  SA  G P  1.65 0.96  0.22 0.29  8.28*  SEM  G P  2.78 1.32  0.57 0.56  8.23*  DA  G P  1.32 0.61  0.24 0.28  8.54*  E x p o s i t o r y Passage  a  S e e t e x t f o r w e i g h t i n g and s c o r i n g methods (p. 65)  ^ A l l c a l c u l a t e d t values are s i g n i f i c a n t  a t p < .001.  93 50  40 \-  I  I  Poor  Good Proficiency  Figure  4.1.  Mean exact replacement c l o z e s c o r e s f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e passages by 20 poor and 20 good r e a d e r s i n grade n i n e .  50  40  a)  0  Poor  Good Proficiency  F i g u r e 4.2.  Mean exact replacement c l o z e s c o r e s f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e passages by 20 poor and 20 good r e a d e r s i n grade twelve.  95 Post Hoc In a post hoc a n a l y s i s  Analysis  to determine the e f f e c t of synonyms, the  number of exact c l o z e replacements were combined  w i t h the number of  responses t h a t were a c c e p t a b l e on t h r e e v a r i a b l e s : ability,  semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e  syntactic  a c c e p t a b i l i t y as measured  by the t o t a l number of " y e s " responses i n d i s c o u r s e Analysis  of v a r i a n c e  was  used t o c o n s i d e r  acceptability.  significant differences  i n the l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y , and modes of d i s c o u r s e , if  i n t e r a c t i o n e x i s t e d between the f a c t o r s The grade n i n e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d  icance.  Good s u b j e c t s  expository The  4.13  exceeded poor s u b j e c t s  mode.  Poor s u b j e c t s  (Figure  f o r poor s u b j e c t s  4.3)  37.65 on the n a r r a t i v e  than f o r good  (Figure  Analysis  subjects.  indicated  and 37.55 on the e x p o s i t o r y ;  that  the  (F = 70.28;  t h e r e was  no  f o r poor  No i n t e r a c t i o n  sig-  were  subjects was  4.4).  of v a r i a n c e  was  used to examine s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the number of complete d i s c o u r s e  a c c e p t a b i l i t y responses a t each  grade and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l f o r each mode of d i s c o u r s e , interaction existed  expository  The means of the good s u b j e c t s  the means were 27.40 and 24.55, r e s p e c t i v e l y . demonstrated  respectively.  showed t h a t  F o r the main e f f e c t of mode of d i s c o u r s e (F = 1.13).  Nar-  and 32.45 on the  good r e a d e r s were more p r o f i c i e n t than the poor s u b j e c t s  nificant difference  signif-  prose (F = 216.43; p < .001).  In grade twelve the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s  p < .001).  4.14).  had means of 39.55 and 19.95  (F = 15.26, p < .001)  more d i f f i c u l t  and  (F = 69.92; p < .001).  o b t a i n e d means of 45.75 on the n a r r a t i v e  interactions  prose was  (Tables  and t o determine  t h a t main e f f e c t s a c h i e v e d  r a t i v e f i c t i o n s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y Good s u b j e c t s  accept-  (Tables  4.15  and  4.16).  t o determine i f  96 TABLE 4.13 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF EXACT CLOZE PLUS COMPLETE DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE NINE  Source  SS  d.f.  M.S.  F  Between modes  5412. 05  1  5412. 05  216. 43*  Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s  1748. 45  1  1748. 45  69. 92*  381. 65  1  381. 65  15. 26*  1825. 40  73  25. 01  9367. 55  76  Interaction W i t h i n groups  (residual)  Total  * p < .001  TABLE 4.14 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF EXACT CLOZE PLUS COMPLETE DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE TWELVE  Source  SS  Between modes Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s Interaction W i t h i n groups  (residual)  Total  * p < .001  d.f.  M.S.  43.51  1  43. 51  2702.81  1  2702. 81  37.82  1  37. 82  2807.25  73  38. 45  5591.38  76  F  1.13 70. 28* 0. 98  TABLE 4.15 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF COMPLETE DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE NINE  Source  SS  d.f.  F  M.S.  Between modes  756.45  1  756.45  46 .38**  Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s  288.80  1  288.80  17 .71**  Interaction  125.00  1  125.00  7 .66*  1190.50  73  16.31  2360.75  76  W i t h i n groups  (residual)  Total  * p < .01 ** p < .001  TABLE 4.16 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF COMPLETE DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY SCORES OF NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE TWELVE  Source  SS  d.f.  M.S.  F  391.61  1  391.61  33. 61**  Between p r o f i c i e n c i e s  400.51  1  400.51  34. 68**  Interaction  117.62  1  117.62  10. 10*  850.75  73  11.65  1760.49  76  .  Between modes  W i t h i n groups  (residual)  Total  * p < .01 ** p < .001  98 50  Narrative  40 cn S-i  o o CO  •H XI  Expository  QJ 4-1  30  , |  ft e  o a co  3  ft CD N  O  . 1  20  o  4-1  c  CD  CO  <u 6 QJ M  o  CJ  to  o  ft  CO  a) 4-1 ^ 4J  •H  T-H  O •H  CO • f l CO <D 4-1  c CO  01  s  10  ft Q) O  CJ CO  Poor  Good Proficiency  F i g u r e 4.3  Mean exact replacement c l o z e p l u s complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e passages by 20 poor and 20 good r e a d e r s i n grade n i n e .  99 50  r  CD  cn  yi  40  O  Y  Narrative Expository  o  CO •H XI  CU •M QJ rH  ft 0 O  30  o  CD  ft 0) N O  CU CO  e  20  cu  CD M  u o cd o  rH  cn  ft cu >, H  4-1  •H  4-1 PH  O "ri Cfl .a CU 4J  10  ft C cu «j o CU CJ  _1_  Poor  Good Proficiency  F i g u r e 4.4.  Mean exact replacement c l o z e p l u s complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e passages by 20 poor and 20 good r e a d e r s i n grade t w e l v e .  100 The grade n i n e r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the means of good s u b j e c t s  exceeded the means o f poor s u b j e c t s  (F = 17.71; p < .001).  Narrative  t i o n s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y prose (F = 46.38; p < .001).  Good sub-  j e c t s o b t a i n e d means o f 18.35 on n a r r a t i v e and 14.7 on e x p o s i t o r y . s u b j e c t s had means of 17.05 and 8.4 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  fic-  The i n t e r a c t i o n  Poor (F = 7.66;  p < .01) showed t h a t e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e was more d i f f i c u l t f o r p o o r . r e a d e r s than f o r good r e a d e r s . In grade 12, the r e s u l t s showed means of good r e a d e r s exceeded means of poor r e a d e r s (F = 34.38; p < .001).  E x p o s i t o r y prose means exceeded  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n means (F = 33.61; p < .001).  Good r e a d e r s had means o f  8.05 and 14.9 on n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . means of 6.0 and 8.0, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The i n t e r a c t i o n  showed the good.readers were more p r o f i c i e n t  Poor r e a d e r s had  (F = 10.10; p < .01)  than poor r e a d e r s i n expos-  i t o r y prose. R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.15 and 4.16, and i n F i g u r e s 4.5 and 4.6. Reliability  of S c o r i n g  The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c o r i n g o f the non-exact-replacements (N.E.R.'s) was determined by i n t e r - s c o r e r agreement.  Judges 1 and 2 i n d e p e n d e n t l y  r e s c o r e d grade 9 t e s t s on the n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y modes; and 4 r e s c o r e d grade 12 t e s t s .  Ten words were randomly  judges 3  selected  from  each o f f i v e t e s t s i n grade 9 n a r r a t i v e and i n grade 12 e x p o s i t o r y . ments were c a l c u l a t e d  i n terms of percentage u s i n g the A r r i n g t o n  ( F e i f e l & Lorge, 1950) f o r s c o r i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y o f q u a l i t a t i v e ponses.  For each c a t e g o r y — g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c  Agree-  Formula res-  acceptability,  semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y — t h e responses of each o b s e r v e r ' s s c o r i n g t h a t agreed w i t h the o t h e r s ( d o u b l i n g the agreements) was d i v i d e d by t h i s  t o t a l p l u s the disagreements.  Poor  Good Proficiency  Figure  4.5.  Mean complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e passages by 20 poor and 20 good r e a d e r s i n grade n i n e .  102  20  L  F i g u r e 4.6.  Mean complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y c l o z e s c o r e s f o r n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e passages f o r 20 poor and 20 good r e a d e r s i n grade twelve.  103 2 x agreements 2_  ^Q  •  *' The 78  —  2 x agreements  :  +.ndisagreements  p e r c e n t a g e of agreements f o r 200  to 96.9  percent  ments on 200  ( T a b l e 4.17).  items was  from 80.9  mean i n t e r - r a t e r agreement was  items i n grade 9 ranged  In grade 12 to 96.9  91.6  the p e r c e n t a g e of  percent  from  agree-  (Table 4.18).  The  percent.  Retrospective  Verbalizations  T h i s s e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s r e p o r t s the q u a l i t a t i v e procedures which made p o s s i b l e the d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o c e s s e s used by o b t a i n c l o z e r e s p o n s e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the  f o u r cue  systems of  grammatical f u n c t i o n , s y n t a x , s e m a n t i c s , and. d i s c o u r s e . was  done i n t h r e e  protocols, (3) the  stages:  The  of the  a n a l y s i s of the  frequencies  i n each  from  the  and  category.  Categories  passage the s u b j e c t  ment i n b r a c k e t s ,  read was  Words read w i t h  sentence 2 i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n :  i n Appendix  A f t e r the e n t i r e sample was  h i s 4.  replace-  then matched to  legs  " I guess t h a t t e n s e h i s dive."  #18  read  (muscles) 'legs'  be-  (Complete t r a n s c r i p -  B.) recorded,  patterns  to the c a t e g o r i e s of the taxonomy f o r the a n a l y s i s of ments became apparent.  the exact  s p e c i a l emphasis were  "Davy tensed  reported:  the c l o z e d e l e -  For example, s u b j e c t  k i n d of bend your l e g s when you  t i o n s are presented  and  Each d e l e t i o n was  i n s i n g l e q u o t a t i o n marks.  ready f o r the d i v e " and  transcribed with  response u n d e r l i n e d ,  as a p p r o p r i a t e .  the t r a n s c r i b e d p r o t o c o l .  cause you  analysis  (1) the i n d u c t i o n of the c a t e g o r i e s  t i o n numbered, the s u b j e c t ' s  enclosed  The  to  language:  (2) the assignments of p r o t o c o l s to the c a t e g o r i e s ,  statistical  Induction  subjects  of responses s i m i l a r non-exact-replace-  S i x c a t e g o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , f o u r r e l a t e to  104 TABLE 4.17 PERCENTAGE OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN INVESTIGATOR AND INDEPENDENT JUDGES 1 AND 2 IN THE SCORING OF NON-EXACT-REPLACEMENTS OF CLOZE RESPONSES IN THE NARRATIVE MODE BY GRADE NINE READERS  Independent Judges  Syntactic Acceptability  Semantic Acceptability  Discourse Acceptability  93.6  96.9  91.3  90.1  1 + 3  91.3  96.9  94.7  85.0  2 + 3  93.6  95.8  94.7  78.0  l  a  + 2  Grammatical Function  Investigator  TABLE 4.18 PERCENTAGE OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN INVESTIGATOR AND INDEPENDENT JUDGES 3 AND 4 IN THE SCORING OF NON-EXACT-REPLACEMENTS OF CLOZE RESPONSES IN THE EXPOSITORY MODE BY GRADE TWELVE READERS  Discourse Acceptability  Syntactic Acceptability  Semantic Acceptability  96.9  95.8  93.6  91.3  1 + 4  96.9  96.9  80.9  85.1  3 + 4  92.4  95.8  80.9  86.3  Independent Judges  l  a  + 3  Investigator  Grammatical Function  105 the  linguistic  cue system, one t o l i f e  e x p e r i e n c e , and the l a s t  no r e a s o n s , c o r r e c t i o n s , miscues, and o m i s s i o n s .  included  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the  c r i t e r i a and examples f o r each c a t e g o r y f o l l o w . 1.  Grammatical  Function.  The response was  a s s i g n e d t o the gram-  m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n c a t e g o r y i f the s u b j e c t r e f e r r e d  to a p a r t of speech,  such as " v e r b . "  "A crowd 1. had  gathered  ..."  2.  F o r example, s u b j e c t #18 and r e p o r t e d :  Syntax.  3. the  Semantic.  sentence.  read:  The use of p u n c t u a t i o n and  " . . . begging him 10. to_ s t o p " and  The term semantic means the cues of meaning w i t h i n  References t o o t h e r words and statements about meaning to. suggest t h a t the s u b j e c t used semantic  to determine the replacement. r a i l w a y s 19. channeled  F o r example, s u b j e c t #15  (spread) t h e i r networks  " I wasn't too sure but i t seemed t o f i t w i t h 4. the  "sounds r i g h t "  " I t ' s p r o b a b l y the o n l y word t h a t c o u l d f i t t h e r e . "  or making sense appeared  the  Discourse.  read:  cues  "Later  . . ." and r e p o r t e d :  networks."  The term d i s c o u r s e r e f e r s to cues of meaning i n  e n t i r e passage, i n c l u d i n g the i n t a c t and d e l e t e d p o r t i o n s .  n a r r a t i v e mode, r e f e r e n c e s were t o the s t o r y - l i n e , ters.  struc-  t h a t i s , i n t o n a t i o n , were a l s o i n f e r r e d t o r e l a t e t o s y n t a x .  example, s u b j e c t #13  commented:  i t had t o be a v e r b . "  Responses t h a t a word " f i t s , "  " j o i n s " were a s s i g n e d to the c a t e g o r y .  emphasis, For  'had' because  References t o the r u l e s of grammar or sentence  t u r e a r e syntax cues. or  " I got  read:  In the  s e t t i n g , and c h a r a c -  The main t o p i c , t r a n s i t i o n words, or p a t t e r n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  such as cause and e f f e c t , were used to r e p l a c e c l o z e d e l e t i o n s i n the e x p o s i t o r y mode.  S p e c i f i c words a l s o cued r e s p o n s e s .  examples i l l u s t r a t e the placement  The  following  of responses i n the d i s c o u r s e c a t e g o r y .  In n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , grade 12 s u b j e c t #210  read:  "And w i t h 5.  106 Joseph  ( F a t h e r ) t h e r e , i t was  camp, and  the b i g 8. t r e e s whispered  ( t a l k ) o u t s i d e i n the The o n l y two  dark 6. and  t o g e t h e r t h e i r drowsy 9.  the melodies  dark."  comment was: people  q u i e t and warm i n 7.  "He's  there.  j u s t t a l k i n g about h i s Dad  and  there's  Both of them mentioned t r e e s , l i k e Joseph men-  t i o n e d t r e e s when he found  the s p i n n e r and David mentioned t r e e s b e f o r e  i n what heVwas s a y i n g i n the l e t t e r b e f o r e t h a t . " In e x p o s i t o r y prose, the great c i t i e s 40. had few  grade 9 s u b j e c t #12  (have) c o n t i n u e d  country towns have . . . " a n d  because of t h i s , t h i s has 5.  "so  to grow r a p i d l y , 4. so  reported:  any more, we're t a l k i n g about the p a s t .  read the sentence:  (while)  "'had' meaning then,  'So' means cause and  not  effect,  happened."  L i f e experience.  Responses which drew on knowledge o u t s i d e  the passages were i n f e r r e d to be cued by the s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e similar situation.  To  the phrase  t i v e passage, a t y p i c a l response 'copping'  out,  No  him  clench their f i s t s ,  reason:  c l o z e replacements unable  from s u b j e c t #13:  "'Chickening  ' c h i c k e n ' o u t — a n y t h i n g would work on t h a t one.  q u i t e o f t e n people 6.  " c h i c k e n o u t " i n the grade 9 n a r r a -  was  when C l i n t o n s a i d t h i s i t bothered  The  without  to g i v e reasons  in a  a b i t , you know, when you to h i d e t h e i r  s i x t h c a t e g o r y was responses,  1  out,  I guess get  mad  aggravation."  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r those  e i t h e r because s u b j e c t s were  or f a i l e d to do so.  c o r r e c t i o n s , miscues i n o r a l r e a d i n g , and  Separate  categories for  o m i s s i o n were a l s o made, and  l a t e r , c o l l a p s e d i n t o c a t e g o r y 6, because of low  frequency. .  Assignment to the C a t e g o r i e s The numbered responses Function  were a s s i g n e d and  (GF), Syntax ( S y ) , Semantics (Sm),  coded:  Discourse  Grammatical (D), L i f e  Experience  107 (LE) , No Reason (NR).  The responses o f grade 12 s u b j e c t #211 t o  sentence 1 i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n summarize the procedure: "And then, l a t e r when 1. t h e whole n i g h t was c o o l , 2. t h e r e was the d r y wood 3. I_ ( F a t h e r ) c o u l d somewhere 4. near ( f o r ) t h e f i r e . " Response 1. "The" was t h e o n l y word t h a t would make any sense between "when" and "a whole n i g h t . " Another a d j e c t i v e wouldn't have been needed (GF). The response was a r b i t r a r i l y the  a s s i g n e d because  of t h e r e f e r e n c e t o  grammatical term, " a d j e c t i v e , " however, awareness o f semantics was  apparent. Response 2.  "There" was the o n l y s m a l l word t o make sense (Sm).  The words "make sense" appeared  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the response was  cued by an awareness o f s e m a n t i c s . Response 3.  " I " — y o u have t o have a s u b j e c t somewhere ( S y ) .  The use o f " s u b j e c t " suggested t h a t t h e cue came from the sentence s t r u c t u r e o f syntax. Response 4. I t would have t o be "near" o r c l o s e o r showing the f i r e , I guess (Sm).  about  The s u b j e c t ' s r e f e r e n c e t o the word " f i r e " i n t h e sentence p l a c e d the  response i n t h e semantic c a t e g o r y . F o l l o w i n g t h e c o d i n g o f t h e o r a l r e s p o n s e s , frequency counts were  made and percentages c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s o f the study.  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis o f the Frequencies Research Q u e s t i o n 2 Does the comprehension  v a r y w i t h the mode o f d i s c o u r s e ?  H y p o t h e s i s 2.2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n mode o f d i s c o u r s e and the e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e mode, as measured  108 by t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f responses the s u b j e c t s p e c i f i e d : course, l i f e  i n s i x v a r i a b l e s , a c c o r d i n g t o the cues  grammatical f u n c t i o n , syntax,  semantics,  dis-  e x p e r i e n c e , and no reason, over grade n i n e and twelve.  In grade 9 (Table 4.19), t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of p r o t o c o l s o f t h r e e good s u b j e c t s on t h e n a r r a t i v e mode and t h r e e good s u b j e c t s on t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 level  (Chi  2  = 13.07).  In grammatical f u n c t i o n , l i f e f e r e n c e s were minimal. slightly in  The frequency  i n t h e no reason c a t e g o r y  from 12 p e r c e n t t o 16.6 p e r c e n t .  t h e s y n t a c t i c and semantic  o b t a i n e d a frequency 32.7  e x p e r i e n c e , and d i s c o u r s e , t h e d i f increased  The g r e a t e s t changes o c c u r r e d  acceptability categories.  Good s u b j e c t s  i n t h e syntax o f 22.7 p e r c e n t and i n the semantic of  p e r c e n t w i t h n a r r a t i v e , compared t o 30 p e r c e n t and 24 p e r c e n t ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode. Between two poor s u b j e c t s i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and t h r e e s u b j e c t s in  e x p o s i t o r y prose, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e frequency  o f responses was  s t a t i s t i c a l l y more d i v e r s e , a t .001 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e 339.27).  The grammatical f u n c t i o n and l i f e  the lowest  frequencies.  gory decreased  =  c a t e g o r i e s had  From n a r r a t i v e t o e x p o s i t o r y , t h e syntax  from 19 percent t o 6.7 p e r c e n t ;  i n c r e a s e d from 23 percent t o 30.1 p e r c e n t ; 41 p e r c e n t  experience  (Chi  t o 13.3 p e r c e n t ;  t h e semantic  category  t h e d i s c o u r s e decreased  and t h e no reason  cate-  from  category i n c r e a s e d from  12 p e r c e n t t o 48 p e r c e n t . The  n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and t h e e x p o s i t o r y prose mode was r e j e c t e d for  grade 9 s u b j e c t s .  109 TABLE  4.19  FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES FROM NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE NINE WITH CHI SQUARES 3  Protocols  Grammatical Function  Good(3)  b  Narrative % Poor(l)  %  Good(3)  Expository % Poor(3)  %  2  1.3  1  1  0  Syntactic Acceptability  34  22.7  19  19  45  30  10  6. 7  Semantic Acceptability  49  32.7  23  23  36  24  46  30. 1  Discourse Acceptability  34  22.7  41  41  33  22  20  13. 3  Life Experience  13  8.7  4  4  11  7.3  2  1. 3  No r e a s o n  18  12  12  25  16.7  72  Total  a  Narrative x Narrative x Good x Poor Good x Poor  100  150  150  E x p o s i t o r y (Good) C h i = 13.07* E x p o s i t o r y (Poor) C h i = 339.27** ( N a r r a t i v e ) C h i = 69.68** ( E x p o s i t o r y ) C h i = 185.14**  Number of s u b j e c t s * p < .05 ** p < .001  12  2  2  2  2  i n brackets  0  150  48  11D In grade 12 (Table 4.20), t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of  t h e responses  o f t h r e e good s u b j e c t s on t h e n a r r a t i v e mode and t h r e e  good s u b j e c t s on the e x p o s i t o r y mode was s t a t i s t i c a l l y (Chi  2  = 65.05, p < .001).  and minimal change i n l i f e  There was no change i n grammatical f u n c t i o n experience.  the syntax c a t e g o r y decreased semantic  significant  From n a r r a t i v e to e x p o s i t o r y ,  from 27.3 percent  i n c r e a s e d from 2 5 . 3 : p e r c e n t t o  t o 18.7 percent and t h e  31.3; p e r c e n t .  changes were i n t h e use o f d i s c o u r s e which decreased  The most marked from 28.7 percent  on n a r r a t i v e t o 14.7 percent on e x p o s i t o r y , w h i l e t h e frequency reason responses The  almost  doubled  of no  from 14 p e r c e n t t o 26 p e r c e n t .  d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f responses  between one poor  s u b j e c t on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and two poor s u b j e c t s on e x p o s i t o r y was  statistically  responses  significant  (Chi  2  = 29.4, p < .001).  prose  There were no  o f grammatical f u n c t i o n and a minimum change i n l i f e e x p e r i -  ence from 0 t o 1 p e r c e n t .  The syntax category decreased  from 34 p e r -  cent t o 25 p e r c e n t , d i s c o u r s e from 8 p e r c e n t t o 12 p e r c e n t , and no reason  from 50 percent  t o 43 p e r c e n t .  Semantics i n c r e a s e d from 8 t o 25  percent. The  n u l l hypothesis  t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y mode was r e j e c t e d f o r grade 12. In summary, t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e responses category of  c o r r o b o r a t e s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l data on t h e e f f e c t on comprehension  t h e mode o f d i s c o u r s e .  With one e x c e p t i o n , grade 9 s u b j e c t s were  a r t i c u l a t e about t h e n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  s e l e c t i o n , "A Kind of Courage"  and appeared t o use cues from t h e s t o r y .  Comments such as " b e f o r e , "  " e a r l y i n t h e morning," and " l a t e r " suggested setting;  i n the discourse  t h e time element o f  references to the "boulder," "the rock," or the "ledge"  Ill TABLE 4.20 FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES FROM NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY MODES BY GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE TWELVE WITH CHI SQUARES 3  Protocols  Grammatical Function  Good(3)b  Narrative % Poor(l)  %  Expository % Poor(3)  %  7  4.7  0  0  Good(3)  7  4.7  0  Syntactic Acceptability  41  27.3  17  34  28  18.7  25  25  Semantic Acceptability  38  25  4  8  47  31.3  25  25  Discourse Acceptability  43  28.7  4  8  22  14.6  6  6  7  4.7  1  1  43  43  Life Experience No r e a s o n Total  Narrative x Narrative x Good x Poor Good x poor  0 21  0 14  25  150  50  39 150  E x p o s i t o r y (Good) C h i = 65.05** E x p o s i t o r y (Poor) C h i = 29.4** ( N a r r a t i v e ) C h i = 107.45** ( E x p o s i t o r y ) C h i = 34.81 ** 2  2  2  2  Number o f s u b j e c t s i n b r a c k e t s ** p < .001  50  26  100  112 i n d i c a t e d a knowledge of the p l a c e element. names of the c h a r a c t e r s and "main c h a r a c t e r " who  was  "other c i t y boys" who  the  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Davy,  the  " s c a r e d , " C l i n t o n , the " c h a l l e n g e r " and  "taunted,"  the " o n l y g i r l around," who a dangerous d i v e and  specified  A l l s u b j e c t s used  "tormented," and  "cared  f o r " Davy.  "laughed," and  The  c e n t r a l i n c i d e n t of  s i m i l a r use of the d i s c o u r s e cues was  apparent.  t i o n e d the time " e a r l i e r " i n the s t o r y and i n the f i e l d . "  to All  the f i r s t  men-  interviewed.  On the grade 12 n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n passage, "David  " f a t h e r , " David,  Ginny,  the f e a r of " c h i c k e n i n g out" on the dare was  t i o n e d by a l l f i v e s u b j e c t s  "ploughing  the  The  E l l e n were used.  person " I " n a r r a t i o n and  f o u r s u b j e c t s men-  the p l a c e , "the woods" and  The names of c h a r a c t e r s :  the "son," and  Comes Home," a  One  Joseph,  the  subject r e f e r r e d  another to " w r i t i n g t h o u g h t s . "  s u b j e c t s mentioned the "camping t r i p " and were aware the f a t h e r  r e a d i n g a l e t t e r from h i s son who s a i d t h a t the son had The  had  "gone away," a l t h o u g h  comments on d i s c o u r s e f o r both grades i l l u s t r a t e d an awareness  were apparent. C i t i e s " was  The  s i x grade 9 s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d  about " c i t i e s on the c o a s t , " but  e f f e c t , " " h i s t o r y , " and "a s t o r y about how and  "past time."  that " A u s t r a l i a n  o n l y one mentioned  Subject  #39  f a c t o r i e s come on the c o a s t . "  "guessed."  i n comprehension  One  admitted  In " C u l t i v a t i o n of the Sea and s u b j e c t s used c o n v e n t i o n a l  terms such as "essay  "main t o p i c " and  t o p i c " and  The  he  was got  i t s Present rhetorical  r e f e r r e d to the  " l i f e i n the ocean," the "sea w o r l d , " as the s u b j e c t of  "whole t h i n g . "  "cause-  s a i d the passage  E x p l o i t a t i o n " the f i v e grade 12  "seas,"  one  died.  of the p a t t e r n s of e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , but d i f f i c u l t i e s  "mixed up"  only  was  "ocean," the  f u n c t i o n of the word "however" to change i d e a s  was  113 noted by s u b j e c t #212:  "They're o b v i o u s l y s o r t o f s a y i n g , t h a t  they a r e t h i s , they a r e n ' t good." tell—it's  "You can  l i k e t h e y ' r e c o n t r a d i c t i n g , r i g h t , whatever you s a i d  i s n o t going t o be t r u e . " ".  S u b j e c t #207 r e p o r t e d :  although  . . was a hard one."  before  Subject #229 r e p o r t e d t h a t sentence Subject #207 commented:  #4  " I was g e t t i n g a b i t  d e s p e r a t e " and t h a t " I went a l o t by b i o l o g y and what you know." Subject #212 responded: I t ' s so s o r t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l . I don't r e a l l y know what goes on i n t h e ocean. And t h e a r t i c l e d i d n ' t r e a l l y say a n y t h i n g about it. I t s a i d how they found out about i t , but they d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g about what was keeping l i f e going, so you have t o s o r t of guess a t words t h a t sound l i k e they'd go i n t h e r e . Other comments such as " I don't  know" and " c o n f u s i n g " a l s o  indicated  the e f f e c t on comprehension o f e x p o s i t o r y passages compared t o t h e narrative f i c t i o n Research  passages.  Question 3  Do s t u d e n t s a t two l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , good and poor, v a r y i n comprehension? Hypothesis  3.3  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g compre-  h e n s i o n between good and poor r e a d e r s , as measured by t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of protocols i n s i x variables: discourse, l i f e In  grammatical  f u n c t i o n , syntax,  e x p e r i e n c e , and no reason, over grade n i n e and twelve.  grade 9 ( T a b l e 4.19), t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of t h e responses  Decreases  There was no d i f f e r e n c e were i n grammatical  significant  by t h r e e good sub-  j e c t s and two poor s u b j e c t s i n t h e n a r r a t i v e mode ( C h i .001).  semantics,  2  = 69.68, p <  (12 p e r c e n t ) i n t h e no reason  category.  f u n c t i o n from 2 p e r c e n t t o 1 p e r c e n t ;  s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y from 22.6 p e r c e n t t o 19 p e r c e n t ;  semantic  114 a c c e p t a b i l i t y from 30.6 percent 8.7 p e r c e n t  to 4 percent.  t o 23 p e r c e n t ;  life  1  statistically  2  v a l u e o f 185.14 demonstrated a  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h r e e good and t h r e e poor  s u b j e c t s a t the .001 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . grammatical f u n c t i o n c a t e g o r y . 30.7 percent  percent  f o r good s u b j e c t s t o 41  f o r poor s u b j e c t s .  On t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode t h e C h i  to  N e i t h e r group used t h e  There was an i n c r e a s e from 24 p e r c e n t  i n t h e semantic  t o 13 p e r c e n t , and l i f e  category. experience  D i s c o u r s e decreased from 7.3 p e r c e n t  The most marked changes were i n syntax, which decreased for  good s u b j e c t s t o 6.7 percent  responses to  from  The most marked d i f f e r e n c e was i n d i s c o u r s e  a c c e p t a b i l i t y which i n c r e a s e d from 22.6 p e r c e n t percent  experience  from 22  to 2 percent.  from 30 percent  f o r poor s u b j e c t s , and i n t h e number of  i n t h e no reason c a t e g o r y , which i n c r e a s e d from 16.6 p e r c e n t  48 p e r c e n t ,  respectively.  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between good and poor s u b j e c t s was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d , f o r grade n i n e . In grade 12 (Table 4.20), t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the f r e q u e n c i e s of  t h e responses  o f t h r e e good s u b j e c t s and one poor s u b j e c t on t h e  n a r r a t i v e mode was s t a t i s t i c a l l y No s u b j e c t s used l i f e decreased  e x p e r i e n c e responses.  s l i g h t l y from 4.7 percent  from 27.3 p e r c e n t t o 34 p e r c e n t . the semantic (28.7  significant  category  from 14 p e r c e n t  2  = 107.45, p < .001).  Grammatical f u n c t i o n  t o no response;  syntax i n c r e a s e d  Marked changes were  (from 25 percent  percent to 8 p e r c e n t ) ;  (Chi  decreases i n  to 8 p e r c e n t ) and i n d i s c o u r s e  w h i l e t h e no reason c a t e g o r y  increased  f o r good s u b j e c t s t o 50 p e r c e n t f o r t h e poor s u b j e c t .  On t h e e x p o s i t o r y mode t h e r e was a • s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  f e r e n c e between t h r e e good s u b j e c t s and two poor s u b j e c t s ( C h i  2  dif-  = 34.81,  115 p < .001).  Grammatical f u n c t i o n decreased  e x p e r i e n c e from 4.7 p e r c e n t t o 1 p e r c e n t ; to 25 p e r c e n t ;  from 4.7 p e r c e n t t o 0; semantics  life  from 31.3 p e r c e n t  d i s c o u r s e from 14.6 p e r c e n t to 6 p e r c e n t , f o r good and  poor s u b j e c t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The most marked d i f f e r e n c e was i n t h e no  reason c a t e g o r y , which i n c r e a s e d from 26 p e r c e n t to 43 p e r c e n t . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n comprehension between good and poor s u b j e c t s was r e j e c t e d f o r grade twelve.  Summary of F i n d i n g s The a n a l y s i s of the responses  to c l o z e d e l e t i o n s i n two modes of  d i s c o u r s e i n c l u d e d s t a t i s t i c a l and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s , p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f the replacements:  e x a c t , non-exact, and r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l -  i z a t i o n s , over p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s (nine and t w e l v e ) .  (good and poor) and grade l e v e l s  Moderate i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were observed  s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s o f r e a d i n g comprehension: S i l e n t Reading T e s t and  t h e c r i t e r i o n measure, Iowa  (ISRT), exact c l o z e s c o r e s on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  exact c l o z e s c o r e s on e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e  proficiency.  between  (ECN),  (ECE), over grade and over  No c o r r e l a t i o n and low moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s were  observed  between t h e s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s o f comprehension and a t t i t u d e , as measured by t h e E s t e s Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e Statistically  (ERAS).  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f s i g n i f -  i c a n c e , i n mean r e a d i n g comprehension s c o r e s were e s t a b l i s h e d between modes of d i s c o u r s e ( n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ) , over grade and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l .  each  The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e  between means i n d i c a t e d t h a t exact c l o z e s c o r e s on n a r r a t i v e  fiction  exceeded exact c l o z e s c o r e s on e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , f o r a l l s t u d e n t s t e s t e d  i n grade n i n e and twelve.  Statistical  a n a l y s i s of the d i f f e r e n c e s  between means showed t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f 20 good s u b j e c t s and 20 poor j e c t s on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  exceeded t h e s c o r e s on e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , as  measured by exact c l o z e replacements. i n t e r a c t i o n was n o t e d .  sub-  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  On t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s , grammatical f u n c t i o n ,  s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t ability,  t h e means o f t h e weighted s c o r e s o f the non-exact-replacements  on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  g r e a t e r than on t h e weighted  s c o r e s o f e x p o s i t o r y prose f o r good and poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  (p < .001).  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were noted f o r good grade 12  s u b j e c t s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , where the e x p o s i t o r y mode was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y Statistically comprehension  from the n a r r a t i v e mode.  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e poor group.  significant differences  (p < .001) i n mean r e a d i n g  s c o r e s were found between good and poor s u b j e c t s i n grade  n i n e and grade t w e l v e .  As measured by the exact c l o z e replacements and  by non-exact c l o z e r e p l a c e m e n t s , t h e s c o r e s o f good s u b j e c t s exceeded t h e s c o r e s of poor s u b j e c t s , at each grade, n i n e and twelve. In post hoc a n a l y s i s t h e means o f t h e exact c l o z e p l u s  complete  d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n exceeded the mean s c o r e on e x p o s i t o r y .prose, a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y for  b o t h good and poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s .  .001).  s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f .001,  I n t e r a c t i o n was noted (p <  I n grade twelve the s c o r e s o f good s u b j e c t s exceeded s c o r e s o f  poor s u b j e c t s  (p < .001).  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant difference i n  means on modes o f d i s c o u r s e and no i n t e r a c t i o n was foundIn the  p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s of complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y  means on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  scores,  exceeded the means on e x p o s i t o r y prose o f  117 good and poor grade 9 s u b j e c t s .  I n t e r a c t i o n was o b t a i n e d (p < .01).  In grade twelve, t h e s c o r e s of good s u b j e c t s exceeded t h e s c o r e s o f poor subjects  (p < .001);  however, e x p o s i t o r y prose means exceeded  f i c t i o n means (p < .001), w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n demonstrated mean r e l i a b i l i t y  narrative  (p < .001).  The  of i n t e r - s c o r e r agreement was 91,6 p e r c e n t , f o r 200  items t e s t e d i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n i n grade n i n e and f o r 200 items i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i n grade twelve. From t h e r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s o f e l e v e n grade 9 s u b j e c t s and n i n e grade 12 s u b j e c t s , f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were induced by t h e i n v e s t i gator:  grammatical f u n c t i o n  (D), l i f e  experience (LE).  established  (GF) , syntax ( S y ) , semantics (Sm), d i s c o u r s e The s i x t h c a t e g o r y , no r e a s o n (NR), was  f o r c l o z e replacements w i t h o u t r e s p o n s e s , e i t h e r  s u b j e c t s were unable t o g i v e reasons or f a i l e d t o do so.  because  Corrections,  miscues from o r a l r e a d i n g , and o m i s s i o n s were l a t e r c o l l a p s e d c a t e g o r y 6 because o f low f r e q u e n c y .  Statistically  ences i n frequency o f p r o t o c o l s were o b t a i n e d beyond  into  significant  differ-  t h e .05 l e v e l of  s i g n i f i c a n c e between n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , and between good and poor s u b j e c t s a t grade n i n e and a t grade twelve.  Summary The treatment o f t h e d a t a from t h e c l o z e responses o f secondary s t u d e n t s t o two modes o f d i s c o u r s e — n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e — i n c l u d e d b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s . l a t i o n s were computed among t h e c r i t e r i o n measure: Reading T e s t  Corre-  t h e Iowa S i l e n t  (IRST), exact c l o z e s c o r e s on n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n  (ECN),  exact c l o z e s c o r e s on e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e (ECE), and s c o r e s on the E s t e s Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e (ERAS).  The c a l c u l a t i o n o f t - v a l u e s determined  118 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between exact c l o z e s c o r e s on modes of and  between the v a r i a b l e s  of non-exact-replacements:  grammatical  t i o n , s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and acceptability.  Analysis  of v a r i a n c e  discourse func-  discourse  procedures were used to c a l c u l a t e  the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between means of the main e f f e c t s of mode of d i s c o u r s e variance  and p r o f i c i e n c y f o r exact c l o z e s c o r e s .  A n a l y s i s of  was a l s o used when the v a r i a b l e was exact c l o z e s c o r e s  complete d i s c o u r s e  a c c e p t a b i l i t y scores,  a c c e p t a b l e on t h r e e v a r i a b l e s : a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and d i s c o u r s e  that  i s , the number of responses  s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , semantic  a c c e p t a b i l i t y , as measured by the t o t a l  number of " y e s " responses i n d i s c o u r s e  acceptability.  Inter-rater  agreement among f o u r judges was c a l c u l a t e d by the A r r i n g t o n ( F e i f e l & Lorge, 1950). to induce the c a t e g o r i e s izations. Chi-square.  plus  Formula  Q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i v e procedures were used of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from t h e r e t r o s p e c t i v e  The f r e q u e n c i e s  of p r o t o c o l s  were t e s t e d  verbal-  f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e by  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND  T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study i n v e s t i g a t e d  IMPLICATIONS  the r o l e o f exact and non-  e x a c t - r e p l a c e m e n t s of c l o z e responses i n the assessment prehension.  Two  of r e a d i n g com-  modes of d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and  p r o s e , were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  Two  expository  t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions guided the s t u d y :  from p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , t h a t r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s responses to the graphophonemic, s y n t a c t i c , and semantic cue systems o f language  (Goodman, 1976a);  and from d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s , t h a t a "schema" or c o g n i t i v e map r e a d e r i n t h e s e a r c h f o r d i s c o u r s e cues  (Winograd, 1977).  d i r e c t s the  S u b j e c t s were  p r o f i c i e n t and l e s s p r o f i c i e n t secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s at two l e v e l s of maturity.  A t t i t u d e t o r e a d i n g was  also  examined.  O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of d i s c o u r s e were: c o n v e n t i o n s of a s t o r y , and  ( i ) n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n or  ( i i ) e x p o s i t o r y prose or coherent e x p l a n a t i o n  of a t o p i c . S u b j e c t s were e n t e r i n g grades n i n e (N = 107) and twelve (N = i n L o r d Byng Secondary S c h o o l , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  100)  To examine  exact replacements (E.R.'s) and a t t i t u d e s , o n l y s u b j e c t s whose primary language was  E n g l i s h were e l i g i b l e .  (N.E.R.'s) were examined (N = 20) and Poor  Exact and non-exact-replacements  f o r a random sample a t each grade l e v e l of Good  (N = 30) r e a d e r s i d e n t i f i e d  from s c o r e s on the compre-  h e n s i o n s u b t e s t o f the Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t  (1973) .  To v e r i f y  how  l i n g u i s t i c cues t r i g g e r r e s p o n s e s , s i x s u b j e c t s were randomly drawn from 119  120 each p r o f i c i e n c y group f o r r e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s , which were taped and t r a n s c r i b e d .  Each s u b j e c t  Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e and two c l o z e t a s k s : e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , from t h e B r i t i s h  (N = 207) completed t h e E s t e s a n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and an  Columbia Reading Assessment 1977,  Grades 8 and 12. Responses were t e s t e d f o r exact match t o the a u t h o r ' s word (Bormuth, 1975).  To e v a l u a t e N.E.R.'s, t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r adapted the  Cambourne Reading Assessment Taxonomy of Reading Miscues classification  Procedure (1978), based on the Goodman (1969).  F o l l o w i n g two p i l o t  studies, the  scheme was made c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d i s c o u r s e t h e o r y and t h e  coding s i m p l i f i e d .  A synonym replacement f o r the exact response was  acceptable i n three categories:  syntax, semantics, and d i s c o u r s e .  S t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e d c o r r e l a t i o n , independent t - t e s t s , and two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e .  F o r t h e o r a l p r o t o c o l s , c a t e g o r i e s were  induced from t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s .  Frequency o f response was a n a l y z e d  u s i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c , supported by q u a l i t a t i v e  description.  A t t i t u d e t o r e a d i n g had a g e n e r a l l y weak c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e s e l e c t e d i n d i c e s o f comprehension.  F o r exact c l o z e s c o r e s ,  relationships  w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d measure were s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h e x p o s i t o r y prose f o r poor grade twelve s u b j e c t s . exceeded e x p o s i t o r y prose s c o r e s . poor r e a d e r s . At  Narrative f i c t i o n  scores  Good r e a d e r s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  The N.E.R. s c o r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y  from  levels.  grade n i n e , n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n s c o r e s exceeded e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , but a t  grade twelve, d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . agreement, c a l c u l a t e d by t h e A r r i n g t o n Formula 91.6 p e r c e n t .  The mean i n t e r - r a t e r (Feifel  & Lorge, 1950), was  121 The  i n t e r v i e w s demonstrated t h a t t h r e e cue systems o p e r a t e d  frequently:  syntax,  semantics,  and d i s c o u r s e ;  grammatical f u n c t i o n and l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . frequency  were found  and two much l e s s o f t e n :  Significant differences i n  between modes of d i s c o u r s e and p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s .  For combined exact  s c o r e s p l u s synonyms, i n grade n i n e , n a r r a t i v e  f i c t i o n scores exceeded prose occurred.  most  s c o r e s , but i n grade twelve  the r e v e r s e  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s was noted;  ever good r e a d e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r w i t h e x p o s i t o r y  how-  prose.  Data based c o n c l u s i o n s were (1) a t t i t u d e i s not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e i t h e r p r o f i c i e n c y o r comprehension, f o r modes of d i s c o u r s e :  (2) comprehension s c o r e s  n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n and e x p o s i t o r y  differed  prose,  (3) exact c l o z e s c o r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s ,  (4) N.E.R.  s c o r e s r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the use o f cue systems by a b i l i t y (5) a l l r e a d e r s course,  used t h e same cue systems:  syntax,  semantics,  groups,  and d i s -  t o g a i n meaning, but c o n t r o l of t h e s e t o f cue systems, e s p e c i -  a l l y w i t h e x p o s i t o r y prose, d i s t i n g u i s h e d the good r e a d e r , and (6) the a d d i t i o n o f synonym s c o r e s t o exact  c l o z e s c o r e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between  p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s , modes of d i s c o u r s e , and m a t u r i t y  levels.  D i s c u s s i o n of the F i n d i n g s W i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I , t h e f i n d i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a t t i t u d e and t o t h e k i n d s of responses t o t h e cloze task. The r e s u l t s o f t h e a t t i t u d e s c o r e s c o n t r a d i c t t h e b e l i e f  that  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h performance.  In  grade n i n e , h i g h a t t i t u d e s c o r e s were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o comprehension o n l y when t h e e x p o s i t o r y s c o r e s f o r good r e a d e r s were examined.  In  122 grade twelve  t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was between a t t i t u d e and  the s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t port of Roettger's  scores f o r poor r e a d e r s .  These r e s u l t s ,  (1980) study w i t h elementary s t u d e n t s ,  i n sup-  indicate that  secondary students view r e a d i n g as a t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g and equate i n r e a d i n g w i t h good  grades.  In accordance w i t h the views o f P e r f e t t i and L e s g o l d hension  s c o r e s a r e a f f e c t e d by mode o f d i s c o u r s e .  the v a r i a b l e s o f non-replacement-cloze readers  than  (1977) compre-  F i n d i n g s from means on  s c o r e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of good  on the d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f e x p o s i t o r y prose,  h i g h l y thematized  skill  i n d i c a t e the  elements of n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n a r e more e a s i l y  the r h e t o r i c a l schemas of e x p o s i t o r y mode.  Interviews  processed  suggested the  o p e r a t i o n of a " s t o r y grammar" (Rumelhart, 1975), based on cues such as s e t t i n g , p l o t and c h a r a c t e r s . i m p l i c i t premises  Responses i n d i c a t e d a d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the  (Grimes, 1975) of e x p o s i t o r y  prose.  However, the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the post hoc a n a l y s e s w h i l e grade n i n e s u b j e c t s found were g r e a t e r f o r poor r e a d e r s  suggested  e x p o s i t o r y prose d i f f i c u l t ,  than good r e a d e r s .  that,  the d i f f e r e n c e s  I n grade twelve, where  the scores on complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y scores on e x p o s i t o r y exceeded n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , f i c i e n c y o f good r e a d e r s  the i n t e r a c t i o n demonstrated the g r e a t e r  on the e x p o s i t o r y mode.  The f i n d i n g was  t i a t e d by the score, on the d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e .  pro-  substan-  I t appears  t h a t g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over the cue systems o f the e x p o s i t o r y mode d i s t i n guishes  the good  The prose,  reader.  s u p e r i o r i t y o f the more mature secondary reader on e x p o s i t o r y  r e g a r d l e s s of p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l , may be a r e s u l t of f o u r  experience  years  w i t h the "language of s c h o o l i n g " (Olson, 1977), i n which the  needs of " r e a d i n g to l e a r n " take precedence over r e a d i n g f o r p l e a s u r e .  123 The b r o a d e r c o g n i t i v e map  o r "top-down" schema ( K i n t s c h , 1977)  of the  o l d e r student f u r t h e r guides the p r o c e s s of p a t t e r n p r e d i c t i o n i n e x p o s i tory prose.  The r e s u l t s may  a l s o be an a r t i f a c t of the passages chosen;  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r passages i n s i m i l a r modes are needed. The moderate  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the comprehension measures sup-  p o r t s the r e l i a b i l i t y  and v a l i d i t y of exact c l o z e s c o r e s r e p o r t e d by  Rankin and Culhane  (1969).  standardized tests  ( F a r r , 1969)  teachers.  The well-documented,  q u e s t i o n a b l e a c c u r a c y of  recommends the c l o z e t e s t t o c l a s s r o o m  A l t h o u g h the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were lower than  those r e p o r t e d by such r e s e a r c h e r s as Jones and P i k u l s k i t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may of  the sample  (1974), much of  have r e s u l t e d from the r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous n a t u r e  from one s c h o o l .  o t h e r s u b j e c t areas are needed  C l o z e t e s t s on s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s and i n t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the f i n d i n g s .  However, i n  support • of H i t t l e m a n (1978) •, exact c l o z e s c o r e s have u t i l i t y as an group s c r e e n i n g  initial  device.  The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of non-exact-replacements s u b s t a n t i a t e s Cambourne.'s (1978) f i n d i n g s . efficient  At b o t h grade l e v e l s , good r e a d e r s were more  than poor r e a d e r s i n the use of grammatical f u n c t i o n ,  semantic, and d i s c o u r s e cues.  syntactic,  The taxonomy appears to i n t e g r a t e the  advantages of- c l o z e procedure and miscue a n a l y s i s .  The t r a d i t i o n a l  y s i s of o r a l responses p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about i n d i v i d u a l  comprehension  problems, but f o r the secondary t e a c h e r i t i s both time-consuming u n s u i t a b l e f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of s i l e n t r e a d i n g . to  anal-  Miscue. a n a l y s i s ,  and applied  the e v a l u a t i o n of a c c e p t a b l e synonyms, has v a l u e i n the d i a g n o s i s of  s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the cue systems of language. administration, r e l i a b i l i t y  The ease of  o f r e p l i c a t i o n , and r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y of  s c o r i n g , recommend the use of the combination procedure of c l o z e and  124 miscue a n a l y s i s as a group d i a g n o s t i c t o o l i n the content area Such a t o o l i s p r e s e n t l y l a c k i n g The  ( E k w a l l , 1976, p. 290).  r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s from the taxonomy and from the r e t r o -  s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h the sample was s m a l l , support linguistic response  theory.  psycho-  Reading i s a p r o c e s s t h a t i n v o l v e s an i n t e g r a t e d  to the components of a l i n g u i s t i c  w i t h Goodman (1976a), sentence  classroom.  a l l r e a d e r s used  and the semantic  cue system.  I n accordance  the s y n t a c t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  cues of meaning w i t h i n the sentence.  In the  p r e d i c t i v e , n o n - v i s u a l p r o c e s s , they a l s o searched f o r cues from the mode of  d i s c o u r s e ( K i n t s c h , 1978) .  f u n c t i o n of words suggests sification  scheme.  t h a t the c a t e g o r y be e l i m i n a t e d from the c l a s -  Moreover, the c l o s e concurrence w i t h the s y n t a c t i c  a c c e p t a b i l i t y c a t e g o r y suggests E n g l i s h speakers. poses, tics,  The l a c k of emphasis on the grammatical  i t s unimportance, a t l e a s t f o r n a t i v e  The i n t e r v i e w s f u r t h e r suggest  the e v a l u a t i o n of the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of synonyms f o r syntax, semanand d i s c o u r s e be s i m p l i f i e d  i n f o r m a t i o n d i d n o t warrant semantic  t o e i t h e r "yes" or "no." The e x t r a  the d i f f i c u l t y i n s c o r i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the  category.  Finally,  the post hoc f i n d i n g s demonstrated the e f f e c t of synonyms  i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f r e a d i n g by c l o z e t e s t s 1977;  t h a t f o r t e a c h i n g pur-  Cambourne, 1978).  (Vaughan, T i e r n e y & A l p o r t ,  Vaughan and M e r e d i t h  (1978) p o s t u l a t e d on "the  i n t r i g u i n g p r o s p e c t " t h a t the s y n t a c t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s c o r e " . . . may be the most a c c u r a t e index of s t u d e n t s ' comprehension as measured by c l o z e s c o r e s because i t does i n c l u d e b o t h . s y n t a c t i c and semantic ness"  aware-  (p. 179). T h i s taxonomy f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of syno-  nyms e v a l u a t e s d i s c o u r s e awareness.  F o r example, i n grade twelve, the  a d d i t i o n of synonyms to the exact c l o z e s c o r e s showed t h a t the e f f i c i e n c y  125 i n e x p o s i t o r y prose exceeded n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of a b i l i t y . In grade n i n e , even though the exact c l o z e scores of good readers were low,  the h i g h number of a c c e p t a b l e  meaning i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e .  synonyms i n d i c a t e d an awareness o f  Furthermore,.regardless  of mode of d i s -  course,  a t both m a t u r i t y and grade l e v e l s , as the i n t e r a c t i o n showed, good  readers  e x h i b i t e d g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over  s u i t a b l e responses than poor The  the use of cue systems t o o b t a i n  readers.  a d d i t i o n of t h e complete d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y s c o r e s t o the  exact c l o z e s c o r e , t h e r e f o r e , a f f e c t s the c r i t e r i o n l e v e l s e s t a b l i s h e d by Bormuth (1968).  F o r exact  scores only  scores were a t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l of good grade twelve level  (58 p e r c e n t ) .  level  (Table 5.1), n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n (44 p e r c e n t ) , w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n  r e a d e r s who were a t the lower end of the independent In e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ,  these good grade twelve  read-  e r s were almost a t the f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l , w h i l e a l l o t h e r scores were w e l l below 43 p e r c e n t .  The combined score  i n n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n t o a t , or near, p r o s e , o n l y poor grade n i n e r e a d e r s Good r e a d e r s  a t both  (Table 5.2) a l t e r e d the placement  independent l e v e l .  remained a t the f r u s t r a t i o n  grades became independent.  r e a d e r s were a t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  In e x p o s i t o r y  Poor grade  level.  twelve  level.  Implications I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g f o r content the assessment o f r e a d i n g were i d e n t i f i e d  area r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s and f o r  from t h i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  responses. The  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s of mode of d i s c o u r s e on comprehension sug-  gests t h a t younger r e a d e r s and the l e s s p r o f i c i e n t may b e n e f i t from i n s t r u c t i o n i n the r h e t o r i c a l cues of e x p o s i t o r y prose of o r g a n i z a t i o n , such as cause and e f f e c t .  and i n the p a t t e r n s  D i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c i t  TABLE  5.1  COMPARISON BETWEEN CLOZE CRITERION LEVELS AND MEAN PERCENTAGES ON EXACT CLOZE SCORES ON MODES OF DISCOURSE BY PROFICIENCY AND GRADE LEVELS  Grade  N  9  Narrative  Expository  107  46.5%  27.8**  12  100  49.2  34.6**  9  20  good  53.4  35.5**  20  poor  45.0  23.1**  20  good  59.2*  44.3  20  poor  43.3  31.9**  12  Proficiency  TABLE  5.2  COMPARISON BETWEEN CLOZE CRITERION LEVELS AND MEAN PERCENTAGE EXACT CLOZE PLUS COMPLETE DISCOURSE ACCEPTABILITY SCORES ON MODES OF DISCOURSE BY PROFICIENCY AND GRADE LEVELS  Proficiency  Grade  12  Narrative  Expository  20  good  91.5%*  64.90*  20  poor  79.1*  41.90*''  20  good  73.30*  75.10*  20  poor  54.80  49.10  i n d e p e n d e n t L e v e l 58-100% I n s t r u c t i o n a l L e v e l 44-57% * * F r u s t r a t i o n L e v e l below 43% (Bormuth, 1968)  127 premises  of the author  indicated  i s d e s i r a b l e at a l l l e v e l s .  The d e s c r i p t i v e  the need to s t r e n g t h e n the a b i l i t i e s o f . r e a d e r s w i t h d e v i c e s  such as parentheses, and p a r t i c i p i a l phrases which caused The  data  a n a l y s i s of the cue systems i m p l i e d a s h i f t  the h i e r a r c h i c a l  difficulties.  i n emphasis  from  " s k i l l s " of r e a d i n g to s t r a t e g i e s t h a t c a p i t a l i z e on  l i n g u i s t i c .strengths of s t u d e n t s .  the  C l o z e e x e r c i s e s , e s p e c i a l l y as a b a s i s  f o r group d i s c u s s i o n , f o s t e r the c o n s c i o u s awareness of the p a t t e r n s of meaning i n words, i n sentences, and activities,  i n whole passages.  such as s e t t i n g the purpose,  Pre-reading  p r e d i c t i o n e x e r c i s e s , and  t i o n i n g techniques of "what might happen" t r a i n the c o g n i t i v e map  quesor  "schema." The v a l u e of the " l o u d - t h i n k e r s " in. d i s c u s s i n g the language cues t h a t t r i g g e r e d t h e i r responses to share t h e i r i d e a s and  i s indicated.  to d i s c u s s how  a c t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s i s worthwhile,  The w i l l i n g n e s s of  they read suggest  students  t h a t such  p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h content  inter-  area  materials. A m u l t i - f a c e t e d approach to the assessment of comprehension i s i n d i c a t e d by the f i n d i n g s .  Exact c l o z e s c o r e s d i s c r i m i n a t e between l e v e l s  of p r o f i c i e n c y , w h i l e the examination  of non-exact-replacements  f a c e t s of i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y w i t h language.  The combination  s c o r e w i t h the number of a c c e p t a b l e , synonyms i n d i c a t e s levels  of the exact  instructional  i n modes of d i s c o u r s e .  Suggestions  f o r Further  I n a d d i t i o n to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p l o r a t o r y study warrant 1.  p o i n t s up  Research  i m p l i c a t i o n s , the f i n d i n g s of the  the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r  study.  There i s a need to r e p l i c a t e the study w i t h o t h e r samples to d e t e r mine whether the f i n d i n g s can be g e n e r a l i z e d .  128 2.  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h o t h e r passages from the  content  areas of t h i s study:  m a t e r i a l s from o t h e r 3.  The  s o c i a l s t u d i e s and b i o l o g y , and  with  disciplines.  study needs to be extended to o t h e r modes of d i s c o u r s e , such  as  the newspaper r e p o r t or the argument. 4.  Other d i s c o u r s e v a r i a b l e s , such as n a r r a t i v e schemata and  rhetorical  schemas need to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . 5.  F u r t h e r s t u d i e s are needed to determine the e f f e c t on the use of systems of s t y l i s t i c patterns. t e r n s may  6.  f e a t u r e s w i t h i n passages,  such as  cue  sentence  A l t e r a t i o n of complex s t r u c t u r e s to f o l l o w speech p a t affect  comprehension.  S t u d i e s are needed w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n whose f i r s t than E n g l i s h .  language i s o t h e r  P o s s i b l y the "grammatical f u n c t i o n " category of  the  taxonomy w i l l be r e l e v a n t . 7.  R e p l i c a t i o n of the study can determine the v a l i d i t y of the  classifi-  c a t i o n scheme of the taxonomy. 8.  To determine whether r e l i a b i l i t y of s c o r i n g i s improved, c a t e g o r i e s of the taxonomy can be  9.  simplified  "no" coding o n l y .  R e t r o s p e c t i v e v e r b a l i z a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w from a l a r g e r sample a t fering ability  l e v e l s are needed to v e r i f y  from the d a t a , p a r t i c u l a r l y 10.  to "yes" and  the c r i t e r i a  i n the use of d i s c o u r s e  dif-  induced  category.  A n a l y s i s i s needed to determine the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of each p r o t o c o l category  to any d i f f e r e n c e s d e t e c t e d between a b i l i t y  groups  or modes of d i s c o u r s e .  Concluding  Statement  The v a l u e of the e v a l u a t i o n of r e a d i n g comprehension w i t h area m a t e r i a l s has been demonstrated by t h i s study.  The  content  in-depth  129 a n a l y s i s of the c l o z e responses of secondary s c h o o l students abundant i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s .  provides  The ease and s i m p l i c i t y  of t r a d i t i o n a l c l o z e procedure recommend i t f o r r e s e a r c h and f o r c l a s s rooms.  The taxonomy f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the non-exact-replacements  t i o n s as the s i l e n t r e a d i n g e q u i v a l e n t of miscue a n a l y s i s . ment method employed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r suggests cues a r e not e q u a l "  The a s s e s s -  t h a t , j u s t as " a l l  mis-  (Beebe., 1976), a l l c l o z e replacements a r e not " e q u a l . "  Some r e t a i n s y n t a c t i c , semantic, fore, detract l i t t l e  func-  and d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and, t h e r e -  from t o t a l comprehension.  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J o u r n a l of Reading, 1978, 21, 305-316. Shepherd, D. L. Comprehensive h i g h s c h o o l r e a d i n g methods. Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l Pub. Co., 1973. Simons, H. D. Reading comprehension: The need f o r a new Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 1970-71, 6^, 338-363.  Columbus,  perspective.  Smith, F. Understanding reading: A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s of r e a d i n g and l e a r n i n g to read (2nd ed.) New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston, 1978. Smith, H. K. The responses of good and poor r e a d e r s when asked to read f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes. Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 1967, ^3, 53-84. Smith, N. B. 1975.  Be a b e t t e r r e a d e r .  Scarborough, Ont.:  Prentice-Hall,  Smith-Burke, M., G i n g r i c h , P. S., & Eagleeye, D. Differential effects of p r i o r c o n t e x t , s t y l e and d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n on c l o z e comprehension. In P. D. Pearson & J . Hansen (Eds.) Reading: Disciplined i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . The Twenty-seventh Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. Clemson, S.C.: National Reading Conference, 1978. S q u i r e , J . The responses of a d o l e s c e n t s w h i l e r e a d i n g f o u r s h o r t stories. Champaign, 111.: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h , 1964. S t a n s e l l , J . C. An e x p l o r a t o r y study of p e r c e p t i o n s of the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s and c o n t r o l of t h a t process i n n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l by s e l e c t e d 9th grade r e a d e r s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1977). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, 38, 3260A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 77-27, 013.) S t a n s e l l , J . C , H a r s t e , J . C , & De S a n t i , R. J . The e f f e c t s of d i f f e r i n g m a t e r i a l s on the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . In P. D. Pearson & J . Hansen (Eds.) Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n process and practice. Twenty-seventh Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. Clemson, S.C. : N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1978. S t e r n , H. W. A p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the use of comprehension i n an e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . Reading World, 1973, ]_2(4) , 246-265. Strang, R., & Rogers, C. J o u r n a l , 1965, 54,  How do students 819-23, 829.  read a s h o r t s t o r y ?  English  140 Summers, E. G. Instruments f o r a s s e s s i n g r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s : A review of r e s e a r c h and b i b l i o g r a p h y . J o u r n a l o f Reading B e h a v i o r , 1977, 9, 137-165. Summers, E. G. The v a l i d i t y o f t h e E s t e s Reading A t t i t u d e S c a l e f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e grades. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (undated). Summers, E. G. An e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s of a program o f s u s t a i n e d s i l e n t r e a d i n g (SSR) on r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g i n i n t e r m e d i a t e grades. F i n a l Report. Richmond SSR P r o j e c t , February 1979. Swain, E. Conscious thought p r o c e s s e s used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1953). T a y l o r , W. L. " C l o z e p r o c e d u r e " : A new t o o l f o r measuring J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y , 1953, 30, 415-433.  readability.  Theobald, B. A p p l y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f miscue a n a l y s i s t o the c l o z e procedure (Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1973). Thomas, E. L., & Robinson, H. A. Improving r e a d i n g i n every c l a s s : A sourcebook f o r t e a c h e r s , second e d i t i o n . Boston: A l l y n & Bacon, Inc., 1977. Van D i j k , T. A. Semantic m a c r o - s t r u c t u r e s and knowledge frames i n d i s c o u r s e comprehension. I n M. A. J u s t & P. A. Carpenter (Eds.) C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n comprehension. H i l l s d a l e , N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1977, pp. 3-32. Vaughan, J . L., J r . , & M e r e d i t h , K. E. R e l i a b i l i t y of t h e c l o z e p r o cedure as assessments o f v a r i o u s langauge elements. I n P. D. Pearson & J . Hansen (Eds.) Reading: Disciplined inquiry i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . The Twenty-seventh Yearbook o f the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. Clemson, S.C.: N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1978. Vaughan, J . L., J r . , T i e r n e y , R. J . , & A l p e r t , M. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f c l o z e r e s p o n s e s . I n P. D. Pearson (Ed.) Reading: Theory, r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e . T w e n t y - s i x t h Yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1977, pp. 200-202. Vorhaus, R. P. A n a l y s i s and comparison o f o r a l miscues generated by f i r s t grade s t u d e n t s on f o u r d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g t a s k s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1976). Dissertation A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1976, _37_, 163A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 76-15, 602.) Weber, R. The study o f o r a l r e a d i n g e r r o r s : A survey of the l i t e r a t u r e . Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 1968, j>_, 96-119.  141 Weber, R. M. F i r s t g r a d e r s ' use of grammatical context i n r e a d i n g . In H. L e v i n & J . P. W i l l i a m s (Eds.) B a s i c s t u d i e s i n r e a d i n g . New York: B a s i c Books, 1970. Weber, R. Review of F i n d i n g s of Research on Miscue A n a l y s i s , e d i t e d by P. D. A l l a n & D. Watson. Urbana, 111. : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h , 1976. J o u r n a l of Reading Behavior, 1977, 9, 416-419. Winograd, T. A framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i s c o u r s e . In M. A. J u s t & P. A. Carpenter (Eds.) C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n comprehension. H i l l s d a l e , N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1977. Z i n c k , R. A. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of semantic and s y n t a c t i c language cues u t i l i z e d d u r i n g o r a l and s i l e n t r e a d i n g ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Georgie, 1977). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1978, 38, 4635A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7730523.)  APPENDIX A  Reading T e s t s  143  Lord Byng Reading  Assessment  Name  '  Block  Student No.  '  Grade Boy Score  Girl %  Iowa T e s t Score  %  Did you u s u a l l y speak a language o t h e r than E n g l i s h b e f o r e you Grade 1? Yes _ No  Is E n g l i s h the language u s u a l l y spoken i n your home? Yes  No  _____  started  144  Cloze Test I n s t r u c t i o n s  On the next page i s a sample of a new k i n d of t e s t . t e s t s i s made by c o p y i n g a few paragraphs word was l e f t  from a book.  Each of these  Every  fifth  out of t h e paragraphs, and b l a n k spaces were put where the  words were taken out. Your j o b w i l l be to guess what word was l e f t and t o w r i t e t h a t word i n t h a t  out of each  space  space.  I t w i l l h e l p you i n t a k i n g the t e s t i f you remember these t h i n g s : 1.  W r i t e o n l y one word i n each b l a n k .  2.  Try to f i l l  3.  You may  every b l a n k .  Don't be a f r a i d t o guess.  s k i p hard b l a n k s and come back to them when you have  finished. 4.  Wrong s p e l l i n g w i l l not count a g a i n s t you i f we can t e l l what word you  5.  meant.  Most of the b l a n k s can be answered w i t h o r d i n a r y words but a few will  be  numbers  3,427 or $12 o r 1954  like  contractions l i k e  can t o r weren t  abbreviations l i k e  Mrs.  p a r t s of hyphenated  words l i k e .  or U.S.A.  self—in  the word  self-made  (Bormuth, 1976, p. 70)  145  Sample T e s t  Here i s a sample o f one o f these t e s t s . you t h i n k was taken out.  Fill  each b l a n k w i t h the word  You may check your paper when you f i n i s h i t  by l o o k i n g a t the answers which a r e w r i t t e n u p s i d e down a t t h e bottom of  t h e page.  Write neatly.  The  Beaver  Indians c a l l s beavers t h e " l i t t l e  men o f t h e woods."  r e a l l y so v e r y l i t t l e . or pounds. of  t h e time.  beavers grow t o be  four feet long  These " l i t t l e  But they  weigh  men  from 30 t o  t h e woods" a r e busy  That  '  why we sometimes say, "  busy as a beaver." know how t o b u i l d  t h a t can h o l d  use t h e i r two f r o n t work.  sned  "61 "_x _o  can c u t down a  four inches  15 minutes.  as-i} *8I A3u_ -9  w i t h t h e i r four sharp-  A  thick i n  nnoqF  t o do some of  C u t t i n g down a  t e e t h i s easy.  water.  'ZT  0*7 " 5 P  • i_\  :i3ABaq SUlBp U  7  B >1  "XT  paauxod *gx SJ3AB9a  33iqa '£  '01  S F  3SOft 'z  'gj *6  araqa  sx • g  3,U3JB  *X  asoui  'yj • i_  :sjaasuy  (Bormuth, 1975, p. 71)  146 Narrative F i c t i o n :  Grade 9  to the uppermost j u t t i n g b o u l d e r about t h i r t y f e e t above t h e water. He would make i t — h e had t o make i t . He had done i t once t h i s morning and he c o u l d do i t a g a i n . A crowd were  gathered, and the c i t y t o o . Davy tensed h i s  he heard a g i r l " !" He looked down and to him, begging him "Come down," she c r i e d . The  i n her v o i c e c back. But when C l i n t o n o u t ? " he c l e n c h e d h i s again. He c o u l d n ' t back He knew he c o u l d  "Davy ..." There p l e a s e don't d i v e , " she  a  on the wharf f o r the d i v e .  : " D o n ' t — d o n ' t do i t , Ginny h o l d i n g out h e r s t o p . Davy s t a r e d a t , Davy, come down!"  " u  , ready  s  e  d t o h e s i t a t e and then , "What's the m a t t e r — y o u and stepped i n t o d i v i n g now. He d i d n ' t want the d i v e .  f e a r i n Ginny's v o i c e .  "  ;  ;  ,  •  He s a t down t o from d i v i n g , h i s head _ bis hands. From below t h e l a u g h t e r of t h e _ ; boys, t h e s t r i d e n t hoot C l i n t o n l o u d e r than t h e . Davy s palms were wet be fought back t h e _ _ ; t o l e a p up and , no matter what Ginny _• When he looked down, crowd was l e a v i n g . Only and Ginny stood watching he came down t h e — s l o w l y f o r he was ' exhausted. They walked t o w a r d — G i n n y p a l e and c l o s e t o , C l i n t o n s m i l i n g condescendingly. looked l i k e a champ  t h a t one," C l i n t o n  taunted.  arm  c l e n c h e d h i s f i s t s , but and he s l o w l y  '  l a i d h e r hand on  He wished he c o u l d her how i t w a s — ' i t was harder t o l e t C l i n t o n t h i n k he was y e l l o w than i t would have been t o dive. But he c o u l d n ' t e x p l a i n i t e x a c t l y , t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f courage i t had taken. Any k i d c o u l d have taken the dare and d i v e d o f f t h e c l i f f , but i t t o o k — w e l l — a man t o l e t h i m s e l f be r i d i c u l e d f o r something no one would understand. " I wasn't a f r a i d , " Davy s a i d .  " I wasn't seared of d i v i n g . "  " I know," she s a i d , and s l i p p e d h e r arms through h i s . you d i d was b r a v e r . "  "But what  Answers:  Narrative F i c t i o n :  Grade 9  1.  had  26.  2.  boys  27.  3.  watching  28.  came  4.  muscles  29.  city  5.  then  30.  keep in  of  6. c r y  31.  rest  7.  Davy  32.  as  8.  saw  33.  impulse  9.  arms  34.  dive  10.  to  35.  wanted  11.  her  36.  the  12.  Please  37.  Clinton  13.  anguish  38.  as  14.  him  39.  rocks  15.  step  40.  suddenly  16.  shouted  41.  17.  chicken  42.  18.  fists  43.  You  19.  position  44.  on  him tears  20.  out  45.  Davy  21.  to  46.  Ginny  22.  make  47.  23.  was  48.  24.  Davy  49.  tell  25.  called  50.  that  his relaxed  148 Expository Prose:  Grade 9  Much o f the e x p l a n a t i o n ' t h i s urban growth i n the h i s t o r y of the ' ' ' of A u s t r a l i a . The s e t t l e r s ... on s h i p s , and n a t u r a l l y f i r s t a t the chosen which soon developed i n t o and p o r t s . As the and p a s t o r a l i s t s * pushed i n l a n d looked t o the e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r s u p p l i e s , and t h e i r produce back to p o r t s to be shipped the overseas markets. This expanding t r a d e i n the o f f e r e d employment t o new , who tended to s t a y t h e towns r a t h e r than ' ' inland. L a t e r , the r a i l w a y s t h e i r networks out from p o r t - c a p i t a l s and a c c e l e r a t e d the of t r a f f i c between town ' c o u n t r y , w h i l e the d e v e l o p m e n t m i n i n g , and such new ' o c c u p a t i o n s as wheat a n d f a r m i n g , added g r e a t l y to volume of goods h a n d l e d t h e coastal c i t i e s . These became even more important manufacturing began t o develop the A u s t r a l i a n market. It l o g i c a l to b u i l d f a c t o r i e s ' ' the p l a c e s where t h e r e l a r g e numbers of workers, the l o c a l markets were , and where o t h e r markets be most e a s i l y reached, by use of the network or by c o a s t a l So the g r e a t c i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o grow r a p i d l y , ' few c o u n t r y towns have than doubled i n p o p u l a t i o n ' the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . means t h a t the c i t i e s o u t over tremendous areas. f a m i l i e s demand s u f f i c i e n t not o n l y to build houses but a l s o to v e g e t a b l e gardens, lawns, flowers, shrubs. Hence, Sydney and Melbourne cover areas which a r e l i t t l e s m a l l e r than t h a t of M e t r o p o l i t a n London a l t h o u g h t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s a r e much l e s s . The other A u s t r a l i a n c i t i e s are proportionately large. Most A u s t r a l i a n s l i v i n g i n c i t i e s must t r a v e l s e v e r a l m i l e s to t h e i r work each morning. The t h i n n e s s of s e t t l e m e n t so obvious i n the A u s t r a l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e i s a l s o to be seen i n the c i t i e s , so t h a t t r a n s p o r t and o t h e r communications, water, sewage, and o t h e r s e r v i c e s are a l l v e r y expensive to p r o v i d e and m a i n t a i n .  *farmers  Answers:  Expository Prose:  Grade 9  1.  for  26.  the  2.  lies  27.  by  3.  development  28.  centres  4.  arrived  29.  when  5.  settled  30.  for  6.  anchorages  31.  was  7.  townships  32.  in  8.  explorers  33.  were  9.  they  34.  where  10.  ports  35.  largest  11.  sent  36.  could  12.  the  37.  either  13.  to  38.  rail  14.  steadily  39.  shipping  15.  ports  40.  have  16.  immigrants  41.  while  17.  in  42.  more  18.  shift  43.  in  19.  spread  44.  This  20.  the  45.  spread  21.  flow  46.  Most  22.  and  47.  land  23.  of  48.  their  24.  rural  49.  have  25.  dairy  50.  and  150 Narrative F i c t i o n :  Grade 12  was t h e Z wood' ' ^ ^ > fire. And w i t h ^ ™ - - w h e r e ^ J j ^ T h T . ca T^nd-Eh^ " <S q«iet and warm °"sy outside i n t h e l ^ k P A e t h e r their .__ had s l e p t i n t h e ' ^TTC r § ^ h i n T T i k e it . . i Tr' a n d t h e r e h a d n e v ^ ever was. I f there W  a  S  C O O l  f  d  m p  d r  W  h  l  S  e  r  e  d  W  a  S  t  h  e  f  i  r  s  t  n  i  h  t  a  W  °  a  §  -  always knew how i t " "The h o r s e s , " Joseph s a i d forgot the horses." Ellen the house.  h  e  b  e  s  t  seen him t i e t h e But she  toin^r t-r,-,^  dTd^7 ^ f  ^ * ^ t h i n g , but A  S° ° t  j u a t  •  a  y  n  d  1  meh W 1 t h i n k  i n a low v o i c e .  "  b e f o r e he came over say a n y t h i n g .  s a i d h i s son's name and when he was a g a i n the f i e l d s . He exaltation, for s t i l l n e s s was a l l § from h i s mind, and good k i n d o f t e a r s tight i n h i s throat. had been David who t h i s place best of . And i f your son the p l a c e he went from, then he c o u l d leave i t s e things both l o v e d , then you hear h i s v o i c e i n t h e i r v o i c e s t i l l .  over m S  a  l  o  I  f  d  n  h  David! his _  t  ^  7 Sh Uld . day-TikTThaT. — l y i n g awake a l o n e . Dad was awake, t o o . t h i n k he knew how 7~ §  S  David! w  l  t  h  a  n  e  e  e  v  e  n  f  o  r  t h e  He took the s p i n n e r from h i s pocket and made a h o l e deep i n the ground. Then he covered i t over g e n t l y w i t h e a r t h where the plow c o u l d never r e a c h i t . That would be David's s p o t , always. He stood f o r a minute, l o o k i n g a c r o s s t h e v a l l e y from mountain t o mountain, and then he turned t h e h o r s e s a g a i n i n t o t h e furrow. The f i e l d had l o o k e d l o n g and wide. But now i t seemed an easy f i e l d t o plow. I t seemed as i f everywhere he l o o k e d , David had come home.  Answers: 1.  the  ive F i c t i o n :  Grade 12  26.  was  2.  there  27.  suddenly  3.  Father  28.  I  4. f o r  29.  had  5.  30.  horses to  Father  6.  and  31.  7.  the  32.  didn't  8.  trees  33.  Joseph  9.  talk  34.  over  10.  It  35.  mind  11.  I  36.  in  12.  woods  37.  it  13.  been  38.  the  14.  guess  39.  now  15.  day  40.  the  16.  guess  41.  were  17.  satisfied  42.  It  18.  one  43.  19.  remember  44. a l l  20.  time  45.  loved  21.  think  46.  away  22.  He  47.  never  23.  I  48.  died  24.  it  49.  you  25.  Dad  50.  loved  could  152 Expository The  Prose:  Grade 12  Sea—Not Limitless  The immensity o f o c e a n s — c o v e r i n g two-thirds the e a r t h s u r f a c e — a n d f i s h abundance i n some , undoubtedly e x p l a i n many o f e x a g g e r a t i o n s and o v e r s i m p l i f i cations presented t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of t h e and their fish riches. i s h a r d l y an a r t i c l e a book on t h e which does not r e s o r t _ terms l i k e " i n e x h a u s t i b l e " or " " i n d e s c r i b i n g the abundance the oceans. It i s , however, t o keep i n that t h e s e words do e x i s t i n Nature's own . There i s i n the world no such t h i n g ' l i m i t l e s s and inexhaustible. A l l i n the oceans i s t i e d t o the primary , i n t h e top l a y e r , seaweeds and phytoplankton with c o n t a i n i n g p l a n t pigments c a p a b l e t r a p p i n g t h e s u n l i g h t energy i n t o the upper regions t h e water masses ( g e n e r a l l y the photic l a y e r , meaning light reigns). Technical devices, i n g e n i o u s they may be, l i t t l e t o f r e e :the and t h e i r l i v i n g organisms' t h i s dependence. The base their existence i s ultimately . p i g m e n t - c a r r y i n g p l a n t organisms, to the l i m i t of p e n e t r a t i o n , down t o a o f one hundred f e e t , more. Here t h e c r e a t i v e take p l a c e which produce o r g a n i c matter t h a t s u s t a i n s . Even the bottom animals, may l i v e thousands o f below t h e s u r f a c e , feed the "manna" r a i n i n g down ' above. This c o n s i s t s of remainders, animal e x c r e t i o n s , dead , and other waste. Sometimes of t h i s o r g a n i c matter caught by o t h e r scavengers on i t s way down and may be c y c l e d once o r s e v e r a l times by b e i n g c o n v e r t e d i n t o l i v i n g matter a g a i n b e f o r e i t reaches t h e l a r g e depths. But a l l t h i s i s r e g u l a t e d by t h e unchangea b l e fundamental law o f t h e b i o l o g i c a l w o r l d : a l l f l e s h i s grass.  Answers:  Expository  Prose:  Grade  12  1.  the  26.  penetrating  2.  of  27.  of  3.  the  28.  termed  4.  waters  29.  where  5.  the  30.  however  6.  about  31.  do  7.  seas  32.  waters  8.  There  33.  from  9.  or  34.  for  10.  subject  35.  these  11.  to  36.  spread  12.  "limitless"  37.  light's  13.  of  38.  depth  14.  important  39.  occasionally  15.  mind  40.  processes  16.  not  41.  the  17.  dictionary-  42.  life  lS.  living  43.  which  19.  as  44.  feet  20.  life  45.  from  21.  ultimately  46.  from  22.  production  47.  plankton  23.  of  48.  bodies  24.  cells  49.  part  25.  of  50.  is  APPENDIX B  Retrospective  Verbalizations  Key: 1.  Grammatical f u n c t i o n  GF  2.  Syntax  Sy  3.  Semantics  Sm  4.  Discourse  D  5.  L i f e experience  LE  6.  No r e a s o n  NR  155 Narrat ive F i c t i o n : Subject #35:  Grade 9  Poor Reader  "A crowd 1. had gathered, and the c i t y 2. p e o p l e (boys) on t h e wharf were 3. l o o k i n g (watching) t o o . " Responses 1,2,3. I t f i t t e d i n with the r e s t of the story that a l l the c i t y p e o p l e would be " l o o k i n g " up w i t h everyone e l s e (D). "Davy tensed h i s 4. muscles ready t o d i v e . " Response 4. W e l l , you have t o tense and u s u a l l y when you d i v e you tense your "muscles" (Sm). "5. Then he heard a g i r l 6. c r y : 'Don't—don't do i t , 7. Davy!' He looked down and 8. h o l d i n g (saw) Ginny h o l d i n g out h e r 9. arms t o him, begging him 10. _to_ s t o p . " Response 5. They seemed t o complete when he was up on t h e l e d g e (D), Response 6.  the sentence—most  o f them.  she would have p r o b a b l y c r i e d out or screamed  Well,  out (Sm),  Response 7. and through what she s a i d " D o n ' t — d o n ' t do i t , " I put i n "Davy," s i n c e h i s name was Davy, and i t f i t t e d i n t h a t she'd by c r y i n g i t out (D). Response 8.  What I put i n , " h o l d i n g " d i d n ' t r e a l l y f i t (NR).  Response 9. "Arms"—when i t s a i d Ginny h o l d i n g out h e r arms or somet h i n g , i t was j u s t t h a t u s u a l l y when you c r y out, you h o l d out your arms o r hands (Sm), Response 10.  and begging him " t o " stop j u s t  "Davy s t a r t e d  f i t i n (Sy).  ( s t a r e d ) a t 11. h e r . "  Response 11. He s t a r t e d up the next l e d g e or something and I d e c i d e d t h a t he would p r o b a b l y s t a r t g o i n g down and then d e c i d e d he had t o be brave and s t a y up ( o r a l m i s c u e — N R ) . "Come down," she c r i e d  12. P l e a s e , Davy come down!"  Response 12. When you're begging someone you u s u a l l y say " P l e a s e " i n s t e a d o f o r d e r i n g them t o come down ( L E ) . "The 13. tone (anguish) i n h e r v o i c e caused 14. him t o h e s i t a t e and then 15. s t a r t ( s t e p ) back." Response 13. The "tone" i n h e r v o i c e r e a l l y seemed t o f i t more than a n y t h i n g e l s e would (Sm),  156 Response 14.  and caused "him" t o h e s i t a t e ( S y ) ,  Response 15.  and then " s t a r t " back f i t s i n (Sy) .  "But when C l i n t o n 16. s a i d you 17. c h i c k e n o u t ? "  ( s h o u t e d ) , "What's t h e m a t t e r —  Response 16.  W e l l most t h i n g s you'd say (Sm),  Response 17.  would be " c h i c k e n " out or ready t o jump ( L E ) .  "And he c l e n c h e d h i s 18. f i s t s p o s i t i o n again."  and stepped i n t o d i v i n g 19.  Response 18. I put " f i s t s " because he'd be mad and u s u a l l y when you're mad you c l e n c h something and i t would be your hands (D), Response 19. and i n t o the d i v i n g " p o s i t i o n " a g a i n where he's g e t t i n g ready t o j ump (D). "He c o u l d n ' t back 20. o u t now." Response 20. The o n l y t h i n g t h a t would r e a l l y f i t i n t o the sentence i s "out" (Sy). "He d i d n ' t want 21. t o . " Response 21. I t ' s j u s t what i t s a i d i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y — he'd d i d n ' t r e a l l y want t o j u m p — t h e y j u s t f o r c e d him t o (D) . "He knew he c o u l d 22. make t h e d i v e . " Response 22. "'Davy  T h a t ' s because he had i n t h e morning ( D ) . ... '  Response 23. o n l y word t h a t  There 23. was f e a r i n Ginny's v o i c e . "  "There"—when you have something l i k e t h a t "was" was the f i t i n (Sy).  "24. Don't  (Davy), p l e a s e don't d i v e , " she 25. c r y e d  (called)."  Response 24,25. W e l l she c r i e d out b e f o r e and so she wouldn't change her v o i c e a l l o f a sudden (D). "He s a t down ( t o ) 26. s c a r e d i n h i s hands."  (keep) from d i v i n g , h i s head 27.  Response 26. W e l l , I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what t o f i t i n o u t s i d e o f t h e f a c t he was s c a r e d . (Oral miscue—NR) Response 27. so ( L E ) .  H i s head " i n "  h i s h a n d s — u s u a l l y you do s i t down s u l k i n g  157 " F r o m b e l o w 28. a l l (came) t h e l a u g h t e r o f t h e 2 9 . o t h e r ( c i t y ) b o y s , t h e s t r i d e n t h o o t 30. f r o m ( o f ) C l i n t o n l o u d e r t h a n t h e 31. o t h e r s . D a v y ' s p a l m s w e r e w e t 32. a n d ( a s ) h e f o u g h t b a c k t h e 3 3 . e a r g e ( i m p u l s e ) t o l e a p up a n d 3 4 . w h a t ( d i v e ) no m a t t e r what G i n n y ( d i d ) 3 5 . d e a r (wanted). R e s p o n s e 28.  From " a l l "  t h e l a u g h t e r , t h e r e would  be l o t s  of people  there (D). Response 29.  The o t h e r "boys"  R e s p o n s e 30.  and t h e n t h e h o o t  because  t h e r e ' s more t h a n j u s t  "from"  Clinton  wouldn't  f i t  Response  31.  than a l l t h e " o t h e r " boys ( S y ) .  Response  32.  Davy's palms were w e t — t h a t ' s  fought  louder—any  one ( D ) ,  o t h e r word  (Sy),  back the urge  to l e a p — i t ' s  kind  t h e way t h e y  of l i k e  g e t , "and" he  y o u c o m b i n e two  sentences ( S y ) , R e s p o n s e 33.  and " u r g e "  seemed  t o f i t i n (Sm).  R e s p o n s e 34,35. The n e x t word "what." I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what t o p u t i n , f o r t h e n e x t two w o r d s , s o I d e c i d e d I m i g h t a s w e l l p u t " w h a t " a n d s o I t h o u g h t " d e a r " (NR, N R ) . "When h e l o o k e d down, 36. t h e c r o w d was R e s p o n s e 36.  "The" j u s t  leaving."  seemed t o f i t i n w i t h c r o w d ( S y ) .  " O n l y 3 7 . C l i n t o n a n d G i n n y s t o o d w a t c h i n g 38. a s h e came down ( t h e ) v e r y ( r o c k s ) s l o w l y f o r h e was 4 0 . _ o ( s u d d e n l y ) e x h a u s t e d . " R e s p o n s e 37. T h e r e was o n l y somebody a n d G i n n y s t o o d w a t c h i n g a n d i t s o u n d s l i k e i t w o u l d b e C l i n t o n , s i n c e h e won't g e t h i m t o jump ( D ) , Response  38.  a n d t h e " a s " i s a s h e came d o w n — t h e y ' d  standing  " a s " h e came down (Sm),  R e s p o n s e 39. (Oral  p r o b a b l y be  a n d h e came down " v e r y " s l o w l y , s i n c e h e was  exhausted  miscue—NR)  R e s p o n s e 40.  and t h a t ' s  "They walked (tears), Response 41.  toward  Clinton Walking  t h e " s o " (Sm). 41. h i m — G i n n y  smiling toward  p a l e and c l o s e  t o 42. h i m  condescendingly."  something  so I s a i d  w a l k i n g toward "him"  s i n c e h e g o t down ( D ) , R e s p o n s e 42. work o u t (NR).  and t h e "him" d o e s n ' t  really  f i t i n , b u t i t seemed t o  158 "43. You looked Clinton."  l i k e a champ 44. a t (on) t h a t one, taunted  Response 43. He was t a l k i n g t o Davy and u s u a l l y when you t a l k t o someone, you c a l l them "you" ( L E ) . Response 44.  The " a t " j u s t  f i t i n t h e sentence ( S y ) .  "45. H_ (Davy) c l e n c h e d h i s f i s t s , but 46. Ginny l a i d her hand on 47. h i s arm and he s l o w l y 48. r e l a x e d . " Response 45. I t ' s l i k e C l i n t o n was tormenting of upset, so he'd c l e n c h h i s f i s t s (D),  so he, Davy, was k i n d  Response 46. and then "Ginny" because somebody l a i d her hands, and s i n c e she was t h e o n l y g i r l around (D), Response 47. f i s t (Sm),  " h i s " arm not somebody e l s e ' s s i n c e he c l e n c h e d h i s  Response 48.  and he s l o w l y " r e l a x e d " (NR).  "He wished he c o u l d 49. t e l l h e r how i t was—50. But ( t h a t ) i t was harder t o l e t C l i n t o n t h i n k he was y e l l o w than i t would have been t o d i v e . " Response 49.  He c o u l d " t e l l " h e r — l i k e what i t was l i k e up t h e r e (D).  Response 50. "But" seemed t o f i t i n — i n o r d e r t o make i t seem l i k e i t was hard t o t e l l t h a t he was c h i c k e n and hard not t o jump (D).  159 Expository Prose: Subject #15:  Grade 9  Good Reader  "Much o f the e x p l a n a t i o n 1. to_ ( f o r ) t h i s urban growth 2. i s ( l i e s ) i n t h e h i s t o r y o f the 3. s e t t l e r s (development) o f Australia." Response 1.  I put t h e " t o " because i t f i t s n u m e r i c a l l y ( S y ) .  Response 2.  I put i n " i s " f o r the same r e a s o n ( S y ) .  Response 3. I put i n " s e t t l e r s " because the next sentence s t a r t s out w i t h them and i t f i t s i n (D). "The s e t t l e r s 4. s a i l e d ( a r r i v e d ) on s h i p s , and n a t u r a l l y 5. landed ( s e t t l e d ) f i r s t a t t h e chosen 6. b l a n k which soon developed i n t o 7. c i t i e s (townships) and p o r t s . " Response 4,5. I put " l a n d e d " because I f i g u r e d shore o r whatever ( L E ) . Response 6. meant (NR).  they'd have t o l a n d on  Then I put t h i s b l a n k h e r e because I had no i d e a what  this  Response 7. I put i n " c i t i e s " because i t seemed t o f i t and t h a t ' s mostly what i t ' s about (D). "And t h e 8. workers ( e x p l o r e r s ) and p a s t o r a l i s t i s pushed i n l a n d 9. and (they) looked t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d 10. s t o r e s ( p o r t s ) f o r t h e i r s u p p l i e s , and 11. gave (sent) t h e i r produce back t o 12. the p o r t s t o be shipped 13. _to_ t h e o v e r s e a s markets." Response 8.  I put "workers" because workers and farmers (Sm),  Response 9.  I put "and" (NR),  Response 10. they get t h e i r  I put " s t o r e s " — I wasn't too s u r e but I guess t h a t ' s where supplies. I was a b i t s t u c k t h e r e ( L E ) ,  Response 11.  and "gave" because i t seemed t o f i t i n ( S y ) .  Response 12,13.  N.R.  (omitted).  " T h i s 14. new ( s t e a d i l y ) expanding t r a d e i n t h e 15. c i t i e s ( p o r t s ) o f f e r e d employment t o t h e new 16. immigrants, who tended t o s t a y 17. i n the towns r a t h e r than 18. move ( s h i f t ) i n l a n d . " Response 14.  I put "new" because the s e t t l e r s had j u s t  come i n (D),  Response 15. expanding t r a d e i n the " c i t i e s " because t h a t ' s what's i t a l l about (D),  160 Response 16.  "immigrants" because they were a l l immigrants (Sm),  Response 17,18.  tended to s t a y " i n "  the towns than "move" i n l a n d ( S y ) .  " L a t e r the r a i l w a y 19. channeled (spread) t h e i r networks out from 20. the p o r t - c a p i t a l s and a c c e l e r a t e d the 21. amount (flow) of t r a f f i c between town 22. and c o u n t r y , w h i l e the development 23. of m i n i n g and such new 24. i n l a n d ( r u r a l ) o c c u p a t i o n s as wheat and 25. produce ( d a i r y ) f a r m i n g , added g r e a t l y t o 26. t h e volume of goods handled 27. _ t (by) the c o a s t a l c i t i e s . " Response 19. W e l l , made the r a i l w a y s " c h a n n e l l e d " — I wasn't too sure but i t seemed t o f i t i n w i t h networks (Sm), Response 20.  from " t h e " p o r t ^ c a p i t a l s ( S y ) ,  Response 21. between (Sm),  and a c c e l e r a t e d the "amount"—more t r a f f i c was  Response 22.  town "and" c o u n t r y — i t j u s t  Response 23.  w h i l e the development " o f " m i n i n g f i t s  fits  going i n  i n (Sy), i n (Sy),  Response 24. " i n l a n d " o c c u p a t i o n s which a r e t h i n g s you have t o grow on the d r y p r a i r i e s ( L E ) , Response 25. on (D),  "produce" f a r m i n g j u s t seemed t o go w i t h what was  Response 26.  added greatly,  Response 27.  handled " a t " t h e c o a s t a l c i t i e s j u s t seemed t o f i t i n ( S y ) .  to " t h e " volume of goods  going  (Sy) ,  "These 28. c i t i e s ( c e n t r e s ) became even more important 29. when m a n u f a c t u r i n g began t o develop 30. i n ( f o r ) t h e A u s t r a l i a n market." Response 28,29,30. These o b v i o u s l y f i t i n except f o r " c i t i e s " which I am not too sure about (NR, Sy, S y ) . " I t 31. was l o g i c a l to b u i l d f a c t o r i e s 32. i n the p l a c e s where t h e r e 33. were l a r g e numbers of workers, 34. and (where) the l o c a l markets were 35. l o c a t e d ( l a r g e s t ) and where o t h e r markets 36. c o u l d be most e a s i l y r e a c h e d , 37. _o ( e i t h e r ) by use of the 38. r a i l r o a d ( r a i l ) network or by c o a s t a l 39. p o r t s ( s h i p p i n g ) . " Response 31.  I t "was"  Response 32.  " I n " the p l a c e s seems to f i t i n ( S y ) .  Response 33. in (Sy),  There "were" l a r g e amounts i s m o s t l y what seems t o f i t  Response 34,35.  l o g i c a l to b u i l d  factories f i t s  i n (Sy).  "and" l o c a l markets were " l o c a t e d " I guess seems to f i t  161 i n v e r y w e l l (Sy, Sm), Response 36.  and where o t h e r markets " c o u l d " — j u s t seemed to f i t i n ( S y ) ,  Response 37,38. " s o " by use of the " r a i l r o a d , " s e e i n g i t was about t h e r a i l r o a d network (Sy, D), Response 39.  talking  by c o a s t a l " p o r t s " - - w e l l , p o r t s on the c o a s t (D).  "So t h e g r e a t c i t i e s 40. then (have) c o n t i n u e d to grow r a p i d l y 41. f o r (while) few c o u n t r y towns have 42. grown (more) than doubled i n p o p u l a t i o n 4 2 . ^ i n the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . " Response 40. Great c i t i e s happened they grow (D),  "then" continued to g r o w — l i k e a f t e r i t  Response 41. " f o r " few c o u n t r y t o w n s — I t h i n k I got a b i t mixed up h e r e — i t doesn't seem g r a m m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t (NR) , Response 42.  f o r few of the c o u n t r y towns have "grown"  Response 43. then doubled i n p o p u l a t i o n " i n " the l a s t must have got mixed up ( S y ) .  (NR), thirty  years—I  "44. That ( t h i s ) means t h a t the c i t i e s 45. spread out over tremendous a r e a s . " Response 44,45.  That's about a l l you can do i n tremendous areas  (Sm,  "46. The (most) f a m i l i e s demand s u f f i c i e n t 47. t o o l s ( l a n d ) not o n l y t o b u i l d 48. t h e i r houses but a l s o to 49. grow (have) v e g e t a b l e gardens, lawns, f l o w e r s , 50. and s h r u b s . " Response 46.  "The" f a m i l i e s seems t o f i t i n ( S y ) .  Response 47. b u i l d i n g and Response 48. Response 49. do (Sm), Response 50.  not o n l y t o b u i l d " t h e i r " houses ( S y ) ,  Sm).  162 Narrative F i c t i o n : Subject #211:  Grade 12  Good Reader  "And then, l a t e r when 1. the whole n i g h t was c o o l , 2. t h e r e was the dry wood (and) 3. X ( F a t h e r ) c o u l d f i n d somewhere 4. near ( f o r ) the f i r e . " Response 1. "The" was the o n l y word t h a t would make any sense between "when" and "whole n i g h t . " Another a d j e c t i v e wouldn't have been needed (GF). Response 2. B l a n k was the dry wood. o n l y s m a l l word t o make sense (Sm).  I".couldn't s e e — " t h e r e " was the  Response 3. Blank c o u l d always f i n d s o m e w h e r e — " I " — y o u a s u b j e c t somewhere, so ( S y ) .  have t o have  Response 4. Somewhere "near" the f i r e — w e l l i t would have to be near or c l o s e or showing about the f i r e , I guess (Sm). "And w i t h 5. F a t h e r t h e r e , i t was dark 6. and q u i e t and warm i n 7. our camp, and the b i g 8. t r e e s whispered t o g e t h e r t h e i r drowsy 9. language ( t a l k ) o u t s i d e i n the d a r k . " Response 5. And w i t h " F a t h e r " t h e r e — w e l l , and i n the s t o r y i t was F a t h e r (D).  i t had t o be w i t h someone,  Response 6. I t was dark a n d — d a r k b l a n k q u i e t and warm—presumably i f i t ' s dark, q u i e t and warm, i t would have t o be have t o be dark "and" q u i e t (Sm), Response 7. i n b l a n k c a m p — w e l l , i t wasn't h i s camp, i t was t h e i r or "our" camp (Sm), Response 8. and the b i g somethings whispered t o g e t h e r — i t would have to be " t r e e s " i n the f o r e s t (Sm). Response 9. T h e i r drowsy " b l a n k " o u t s i d e i n the d a r k — i t c o u l d have been the song or something but a language seemed w i t h w h i s p e r s t o make more sense (Sm). "10. t h a t ( i t ) was f i r s t n i g h t 11. _I had s l e p t i n the 12. woods, and t h e r e had never 13. been a n y t h i n g l i k e i t . " Response 10. was the f i r s t  That was the o n l y c o n s t r u c t i o n . n i g h t — " t h a t " was ( S y ) .  Response 11. B l a n k had s l e p t i n the woods. That's what he's s a y i n g (D).  I t c o u l d have been i t  "I"—I  mean who  else?  Response 12. He c o u l d have s a i d the f o r e s t or woods but he r e f e r r e d to woods e a r l i e r on (D),  163 Response 13. and t h e r e never b l a n k a n y t h i n g l i k e i t — " b e e n " i s the word t h a t made any sense t h e r e . I t ' s j u s t a grammar t h i n g ( S y ) . " I 14. thought ever was." Response 14. or f e l t (Sm).  (guess) t h a t was  the b e s t  I c o u l d have s a i d I f e l t  or—it  15. n i g h t  (day)  would have t o be  only  there  thought  Response 15. That was the b e s t " n i g h t " — w e l l , i t c o u l d have been the b e s t camping t r i p but n i g h t was the obvious k i n d of word to put t h e r e (Sm) . "16. I thought (guess) a guy to have had j u s t 18. one day  should be 17. allowed l i k e that."  Response 16. I c o u l d have s a i d f e l t have to be something l i k e t h a t (Sm).  a g a i n , but  (satisfied)  " t h o u g h t " — i t would  Response 17. A guy should b e — I thought about a b l e but I thought " a l l o w e d " seemed to s u i t what he meant more c l o s e l y (Sm). Response 18. And to have had j u s t — w e l l one day l i k e t h a t made sense. The o n l y t h i n g that where I s a i d one day, i t s o r t of goes a g a i n s t where I put n i g h t up e a r l i e r somewhere. That was the best n i g h t t h e r e ever was, but I f i g u r e d , you c o u l d have made t h a t k i n d of t h i n g (Sm). " I 19. l a y (remember) l y i n g that n i g h t . "  (oh boy)  awake a l o n g 20.  time  Response 19. I don't know why I put l a y " l y i n g " — I suppose I wasn't thinking. You can have l a y l y i n g I suppose but i t ' s u n l i k e l y (NR). Response 20. time (Sm). "And,  A l o n g "time" t h a t n i g h t — w e l l what e l s e — t i m e , a l o n g  I 21. knew ( t h i n k ) Dad  was  awake, t o o . "  Response 21. I c o u l d have s a i d thought or f e l t as a n y t h i n g (Sm). "J. (He) d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g , but it was." Response 22.  I d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g  Response 23.  but  23.  but  "knew" was  I t h i n k he know how  as good  24.  (Sm),  I t h i n k — o n l y made sense  (Sm).  Response 24. I had t r o u b l e w i t h the " i t " was. Somehow i t was hard to f i t a n y t h i n g but j u s t a s m a l l word l i k e " i t " between how and was. You had to express somehow the i d e a of the whole e x p e r i e n c e , o n l y you can't use the e x p e r i e n c e , " i t " was the o n l y word t h a t would f i t (D).  164 "Somehow I t h i n k 25. he (Dad) always knew how i t 26. f e l t was" Response 25.  O b v i o u s l y i t ' s "he" t h a t he's t a l k i n g about (D).  Response 26. Always knew how i t — I c o u l d have put "was" a g a i n , but I thought " f e l t " would express i t ( D ) . "The h o r s e s , " Joseph s a i d 27. suddenly i n a low v o i c e . " 28. I_ f o r g o t t h e h o r s e s . " Response 27. Joseph s a i d i n a low v o i c e f i t s . O b v i o u s l y you j u s t have to modify t h e s a i d . You c o u l d have s a i d Joseph s a i d w o r r i e d l y i n a low v o i c e , but s i n c e i t s o r t o f i n t e r r u p t s , Ii thought suddenly would be a good way t o put i t (Sm). Response 28. " I " f o r g o t the h o r s e s i s o b v i o u s . What e l s e , you know. I t c o u l d have been you f o r g o t t h e h o r s e s , but t h a t would have been a whole n e w — t h e r e ' s no mention t h a t David was i n charge o f t h e h o r s e s . I t seems l i k e Joseph was (D). " E l l e n 29. had seen him t i e t h e 30. h o r s e s b e f o r e he came over 31. tjo t h e house." Response 28. t h i n g , (D) .  That proves t h a t i t was Joseph who had f o r g o t t e n some-  Response 29.  "Had" seen him i s j u s t grammar ( S y ) .  Response 30. T i e the b l a n k b e f o r e he came o v e r — p r e s u m a b l y , t a l k i n g about h o r s e s (D).  he's s t i l l  Response 31. B e f o r e he came over " t o " — w h a t e l s e would you put a f t e r over t o ? There's no o t h e r p r e p o s i t i o n t h a t goes w i t h o v e r , i n t h a t sentence anyway (GF). "But  she 32. d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g . "  Response 32. c o u l d n ' t she.  A g a i n j u s t grammar, n o t h i n g e l s e . But she No i t had t o be d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g ( S y ) .  couldn't—why  "David! D a v i d ! 33. Joseph s a i d h i s son's name 34. over and over i n h i s 35. mind when he was a g a i n 36. ixi the f i e l d s . " Response 33. Response 34.  I t ' s o b v i o u s l y "Joseph" s a y i n g h i s son's name (Sm) . "Over" and over i s t h e u s u a l s o r t o f t h i n g t o put ( S y ) .  Response 35. I n h i s " m i n d " — w e l l he c o u l d have s a i d i t , but don't t h i n k he s a i d i t out l o u d somehow. I t ' s not i n d i c a t e d . There's not enough q u o t a t i o n marks. I t ' s more as i f he was j u s t t h i n k i n g i t ( S y ) . Response 36.  " I n " the f i e l d  i s n ' t a v e r y s t r o n g way o f p u t t i n g i t .  I  165  s t a r t e d a g a i n , when he was a g a i n p l o u g h i n g the f i e l d s , but l a t e r on he doesn't s t a r t p l o u g h i n g u n t i l l a t e r , so he would j u s t have t o be i n them f o r now (D). "He s a i d 37. i_t w i t h an e x a l t a t i o n , f o r 3 8 . t h e s t i l l n e s s was a l l gone 3 9 . away (now) from h i s mind, and 4 0 . a_ (the) good k i n d o f t e a r s 41 f e l t (were) t i g h t i n h i s t h r o a t . " Response 37. He s a i d - — I don't have room f o r " t h e word," so i t would have t o be " i t " a g a i n (D). Response 38.  With an e x a l t a t i o n f o r " t h e " s t i l l n e s s ( S y ) ,  Response 39. was a l l gone "away" from h i s mind. Gone away sounds a b i t s t r a n g e but you t h i n k i t would be j u s t gone, but s i n c e t h e r e i s a b l a n k between "gone" and "from" I thought gone away was j u s t another l o n g e r way of s a y i n g i t (Sm). Response 40. And " a " good k i n d o f t e a r s — a n o t h e r adj e c f i v e wouldn't have been needed b e f o r e good k i n d , so j u s t l e a v e "a good k i n d o f t e a r s " ( S y ) . Response 4 1 . " f e l t " t i g h t i n h i s t h r o a t — h o w e l s e a r e you going t o put it? They d i d n ' t r e a l l y choke t i g h t n e s s . I suppose I c o u l d have put t h a t , but t h a t ' s u n l i k e l y . I r e a l l y had t o guess i f t h a t was t h e word, so i t was j u s t a g e n e r a l k i n d o f word (Sm). "42.  T_t had been David who 4 3 . l o v e d t h e p l a c e b e s t o f  44. a l l . "  Response 4 2 .  "It"  had been i s s o r t o f l i k e t h e r e was, a c o n s t r u c t i o n  (Sy). Response 4 3 . David who " l o v e d " the p l a c e — a n d t h a t was a guess b u t , s i n c e he t a l k s about l o v e l a t e r on, I f i g u r e d i t i t would l o v e up t h e r e , (D). Response 44. there (Sy).  Best o f " a l l " i s j u s t , i s j u s t a phrase t h a t goes i n  "And i f your son 4 5 . l o v e d t h e p l a c e he went 4 6 . away from, then he c o u l d 4 7 . never l e a v e i t . " Response 4 5 .  I still  used the " l o v e d " a g a i n (D).  Response 4 6 . "He went away from" i s t h e same as away from up h i g h e r or b e f o r e (D). Response 4 7 . Then he c o u l d "never" l e a v e i t — h e had t a l k e d e a r l i e r i n the s t o r y p a r t about how i f your son goes away angry, he can s t i l l be your son, but i f he goes away w i t h no s i g n , then maybe he's gone f o r ever. Whereas, s i n c e he does now, Joseph knows t h a t David l o v e d the p l a c e , so t h e r e f o r e he can never l e a v e i t f o r e v e r (D).  166 " I f he 4 8 . l e a v e s ( d i e s ) even f o r t h e s e t h i n g s 4 9 . you b o t h l o v e d , then you 50. can (could) hear t h e i r v o i c e s t i l l . " Response 48. "Leaves" was from the sentence e a r l i e r , was t h e o n l y v e r b t h a t made any sense (D). Response 49. Even f o r t h e s e t h i n g s "you" both l o v e d — w e l l , o b v i o u s l y , and he's t a l k i n g about Joseph and h i s son (D).  i t ' s plural  Response 50. When you "can" hear h i s v o i c e i n t h e i r v o i c e s t i l l . There's no room f o r then you w i l l be a b l e so w i l l have t o be you can hear h i s v o i c e (Sm). *  167 Expository Prose: Subject #212:  Grade 12  Good Reader  "The immensity o f t h e o c e a n s — c o v e r i n g t w o - t h i r d s 2.'of t h e e a r t h s u r f a c e — a n d 3. l a r g e (the) f i s h abundance i n some 4. parts," Response 1. go ( S y ) ,  "The" seemed t o be t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t would s o r t o f  Response 2.  and t h e same w i t h " o f " ( S y ) .  Response 3. And " l a r g e " was j u s t a guess, cause I c o u l d n ' t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g e l s e — l i k e , i t d i d n ' t make much sense why t h e r e was a b l a n k t h e r e (Sm). Response 4. " P a r t s " was the o n l y word I c o u l d t h i n k f o r s o r t o f a r e a s o f t h e ocean, type t h i n g (Sm). " . . . undoubtedly e x p l a i n many o f 5. the e x a g g e r a t i o n s and o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d 6. about t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the 7. ocean (seas) and t h e i r f i s h r i c h e s . " Response 5.  That was a g a i n t h e o n l y word t o f i t  i n (Sy)  Response 6.  and t h e same w i t h "about" (Sy)  Response 7. (D).  and t h e "ocean" because t h a t ' s what t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about  "8. There i s h a r d l y an a r t i c l e 9. or_ a book on the 10. sea ( s u b j e c t ) which does not r e s o r t 11. _to_ terms l i k e " i n e x h a u s t i b l e " or 12. " l i m i t l e s s " i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e abundance 13. o f t h e oceans." Response 8,9. "There" and " o r " a r e j u s t s o r t o f — I j u s t put them i n t h e r e because they were the o n l y p r e p o s i t i o n s t h a t would f i t (GF). Response 10.  The " s e a " i s a g a i n the s u b j e c t t h a t t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about  (D). Response 11.  And " t o " I j u s t put i n (NR).  Response 12. And " l i m i t l e s s " I read on f u r t h e r . I f you read on i t says i t somewhere, i t r e p e a t s i t s e l f , so I put t h a t i n (D). Response 13. And t h e abundance " o f " the oceans i s t h e o n l y word would f i t ( S y ) .  that  168 " I t i s 14. n e c e s s a r y ( i m p o r t a n t ) , however, t o keep i n 15. mind t h a t these words do 16. not e x i s t i n Nature's own 17. world (dictionary)." Response 14.  " N e c e s s a r y " — i t j u s t sounded a l l r i g h t ( S y ) .  Response 15. Keep i n "mind" I put. I had t r o u b l e w i t h t h a t one. s o r t o f got t h e i d e a what they meant (Sm), Response 16.  but I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what to put i n (NR).  Response 17.  And n a t u r e ' s own " w o r l d " — I j u s t  guessed  I  a t t h a t (NR).  "There i s i n t h e 18. n a t u r a l ( l i v i n g ) world no such t h i n g 19. _ s l i m i t l e s s and i n e x h a u s t i b l e . " Response 18. W e l l , t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about n a t u r e ' s world so I j u s t put a g a i n t h e " n a t u r a l " w o r l d (D), Response 19.  and " a s " j u s t s o r t o f went i n t h e r e ( S y ) .  " A l l 20. l i f e i n the oceans i s 21. d i r e c t l y ( u l t i m a t e l y ) t i e d t o the primary 22. organisms ( p r o d u c t i o n ) , i n the t o p l a y e r 23. o f seaweeds and p h y t o p l a n k t o n w i t h . . . " Response 20. " L i f e " I put because f i s h e s and t h e p l a n t s (D).  t h e y ' r e s o r t o f t a l k i n g about t h e  Response 21. And " d i r e c t l y " — I don't know w h y — i t ' s why I put i t (NR).  hard t o e x p l a i n  Response 22. And "organisms" I read on f a r t h e r — I had no i d e a what t o put f o r t h a t one. I t ' s s o r t o f t e c h n i c a l and i t ' s t a l k i n g about organisms, so I j u s t put i t i n ( D ) . Response 23. " o f " seaweeds because I j u s t assumed they were g i v i n g examples of seaweed and p h y t o p l a n k t o n (SM). "24. substances ( c e l l s ) c o n t a i n i n g p l a n t pigments c a p a b l e 25. of_ t r a p p i n g t h e s u n l i g h t energy 26. a v a i l a b l e ( p e n e t r a t i n g ) i n t o the upper r e g i o n s 27. _ f the water masses ( g e n e r a l l y 28. c a l l e d (termed) t h e p h o t i c l a y e r , meaning 29. where l i g h t r e i g n s ) . Response 24. And " s u b s t a n c e s " was j u s t a guess (NR). T h i s b i t here I had r e a l problems w i t h — i t was hard t o f i g u r e out. I f you don't have the words, I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what they were t a l k i n g a b o u t — i t i s so sort of t e c h n o l o g i c a l . I don't r e a l l y know what what goes on i n the ocean. And the a r t i c l e d i d n ' t r e a l l y say a n y t h i n g a b o u t — i t s a i d how they found out about i t , but they d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g about what was keeping l i f e going; so you have t o s o r t o f guess a t words t h a t sound l i k e they'd go i n t h e r e . Response 25.  N.R.  169 Response 26. I put " a v a i l a b l e " because I c o u l d n ' t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g e l s e . I s o r t o f thought o f needed, but I wasn't r e a l l y sure, so I s t u c k a v a i l a b l e (Sm) . Response 27. And " o f " j u s t s o r t o f went i n t h e r e , because they were l a c k i n g a word l i k e t h a t ( S y ) . Response 28. G e n e r a l l y " c a l l e d " was t h e o n l y t h i n g I c o u l d t h i n k and they've got t h e name t h e r e (Sm). Response 29. And "where" l i g h t r e i g n s — I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know i t meant, but I guess t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about l i g h t and i t b e i n g a t t h e top, I j u s t f i g u r e d i t had something t o do w i t h t h a t (Sm). " T e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s , 30. however i n g e n i o u s they may be, 31. do l i t t l e t o f r e e t h e 32. f i s h (waters) and t h e i r l i v i n g organisms 33. of_ (from) t h i s dependence." Response 30. "However" I s t u c k i n because t h e y ' r e o b v i o u s l y s o r t o f s a y i n g t h a t , although they a r e t h i s , they a r e n ' t good (Sm), Response 31.  and so "do" l i t t l e (Sm).  Response 32. And t h e " f i s h " because they've got organisms and the o n l y o t h e r l i v i n g t h i n g they were t a l k i n g about was f i s h ( D ) . Response 33. And "from" t h i s d e p e n d e n c e — i t ' s obvious t h e o n l y t h i n g a g a i n t o put i n ( S y ) . "The base 34. of_ ( f o r ) t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s u l t i m a t e l y 35. energy (these) p i g m e n t - c a r r y i n g p l a n t organisms, 36. extending (spread) to t h e l i m i t o f 37. l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n , down t o a 38. depth of one hundred f e e t , 39. jor ( o c c a s i o n a l l y ) more." Response 34. The base " o f " I put i n because a g a i n i t was t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t would go ( S y ) . Response 35. And "energy" I put i n because I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what they were t a l k i n g about, t h i s pigment t h i n g was t h e o n l y t h i n g I c o u l d t h i n k of and I was r u n n i n g out o f time (Sm). Response 36. " E x t e n d i n g " I put i n because t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about t h e l i m i t s so i t would have t o be something l i k e t h a t (Sm). Response 37.  And I put i n " l i g h t " because t h a t ' s what t h e y ' r e  talking  about ( D ) . Response 38. And t o a "depth" o f one hundred f e e t — t h e y ' r e t a l k i n g about below, so i t would be depth (Sm), Response 39.  " o r " more (Sm).  obviously  170  "Here t h e c r e a t i v e 4 0 . p r o c e s s ( p r o c e s s e s ) t a k e ( s ) p l a c e which produce 4 1 . the o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l (read matter) t h a t s u s t a i n s 42. life." Response 40. I put " p r o c e s s " because t h e y ' r e j u s t the way something i s done (D). Response 4 1 .  s o r t of t a l k i n g about  And " t h e " — y o u need a p r e p o s i t i o n i n t h e r e (GE).  Response 42. " L i f e " I put i n because up here t h e y ' r e s a y i n g how depended on t h e sun (D).  life  "Even t h e bottom a n i m a l s , 4 3 . which may l i v e thousands o f 4 4 . f e e t below t h e s u r f a c e , feed 4 5 . on (from) t h e "manna" r a i n i n g down 46. from above." Response 4 3 . "Which" I put i n because I read a comma and t h a t ' s t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t went i n t h a t k i n d o f sentence ( S y ) . Response 44. " F e e t " I put i n because t h e y ' r e o b v i o u s l y t a l k i n g about some s o r t of m e a s u r e m e n t — I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know which ones so I took a guess and they a l s o had " f e e t " up t h e r e (D). Response 4 5 .  Feed "on" was s o r t o f t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t would come a f t e r  that ( S y ) . Response 46.  R a i n i n g down "from" a b o v e — b e c a u s e  i t wouldn't be a n y t h i n g  else (Sy). " T h i s c o n s i s t s o f 4 7 . p l a n t (plankton) remainders, a n i m a l e x c r e t i o n s , dead 48. organisms ( b o d i e s ) , and o t h e r waste. Sometimes 49. some ( p a r t ) o f t h i s o r g a n i c matter 50. '_is_ caught by o t h e r scavengers on i t s way down and may be c y c l e d . " Response 4 7 . These ones I s o r t of guessed a t because i t doesn't r e a l l y t e l l you what t h e remainders a r e so I j u s t f i g u r e d i t would be p l a n t s (NR) Response 48. and they got animals h e r e and dead so I j u s t put "organisms" — i t seemed t o be t h e o n l y t h i n g l e f t (Sm). Response 4 9 . I put "some" i n because they needed a q u a n t i t y and I d i d n ' t know how much (Sm). Response 50.  " I s " I put i n because i t d i d n ' t have a verb t h e r e (GF).  171  APPENDIX C  172 CRAM Reading Assessment Narrative F i c t i o n :  C l o z e Replacements exact non-exact  1 2 3 4 5 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40  the there Father for Father and the trees talk It I woods been guess day guess satisfied one remember time think He I it Dad was suddenly I had horses to didn't Joseph over mind in it the now the  Grammar Y P N  Grade 12:  Syntax Y P N  Method S u b j e c t #211  Y  Semantics T Px P  2  N  Discourse Y P N  I near  our language That  thought night thought allowed  /  / /  / /  lay knew I  he felt  away a  /  173 CRAM Reading Assessment Method  Grammar Y P N  C l o z e Replacements non-exact exact  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  were It loved all loved away never died you could  Weighting  2  Weighted S c o r e  3  1  16  1 0  2  0  2  N  Discourse Y P N  /  /  /  /  /  /  3  10  6  0  0  3  10  4  5  1 0  4  3  2  1  0  2  1  0  0  36  32  58  24  1.89  1.68  3.05  1.26  Weighted V a l u e 50 - Exact  Semantics T Pi P  /  /  18  Y  /  /  T o t a l s E.R. 31  Score  Syntax Y P N  /  felt = = = = = leaves = can  Weighted V a l u e  Weighted  (cont.)  Replacements  

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