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An investigation of the relationship between teachers’ attitudes and their curriculum planning decisions.. 1977

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS' ATTITUDES AND THEIR CURRICULUM PLANNING DECISIONS IN PRIMARY READING INSTRUCTION: AN APPLICATION OF THE FISHBEIN MODEL by ROBERT ARTHUR SWEET B.A., M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1977 © Robert A r t h u r Sweet, I977 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Depa rtment J The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS* ATTITUDES AND THEIR CURRICULUM PLANNING DECISIONS IN PRIMARY READING INSTRUCTION: AN APPLICATION OF THE FISHBEIN MODEL ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to p r e d i c t and e x p l a i n elementary t e a c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours from a knowledge o f t h e i r p er- s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g behaviours i n v e s t i g a t e d i n v o l v e d recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of b a s a l r e a d i n g programs w i t h d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y groups of primary l e v e l s t u d e n t s . Three c l a s s e s of antecedent v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r e d i c t i o n : f o r m a t i v e , r e l a t i n g to the p o s s e s s i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and indexed i n terms of p r i o r classroom t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a t the primary l e v e l ; academic, r e l a t i n g t o the p o s s e s s i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and indexed i n terms of p r i o r p r e s e r v i c e or i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n i n elementary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ; and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , i n v o l v i n g the b e l i e f s , m o t i v a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s h e l d toward the p l a n n i n g t a s k . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t s and behaviours and antecedent v a r i a b l e s , as w e l l as among antecedents, were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the c o n t e x t of F i s h b e i n ' s B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n Model. B a s i c to the d e f i n i t i o n of the Model i s the n o t i o n t h a t i n t e n t i o n and behaviour may be p r e d i c t e d p r i m a r i l y from a t t i t u d i n a l and normative f a c t o r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the Model proposes the v a r i a b l e s of A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour and S u b j e c t i v e Norm as the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r s of i n t e n t i o n and hence, behaviour. Other v a r i a b l e s such as t r a d i t i o n a l l y measured a t t i t u d e s and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s are presumed r e f l e c t e d i n the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components of the Model. The s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d 112 elementary teac h e r s from the New Westminster S c h o o l D i s t r i c t (School D i s t r i c t 40, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia). Data c o l l e c t i o n i n struments were composed of q u e s t i o n n a i r e items, Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l - t y p e instruments and a B e h a v i o u r a l Record Instrument. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s , c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses and r e g r e s s i o n analyses were used to examine the e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s of analyses i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s ' c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours c o u l d be u s e f u l l y p r e d i c t e d from p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s v a r i a b l e s and t h a t f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s and academic l e a r n i n g s were l a r g e l y r e f l e c t e d i n those p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward the behaviour and t h e i r normative b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g performance of the behaviour. While the e f f e c t o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and for m a l l e a r n i n g on s u b j e c t s ' i n t e n t i o n and behaviour was l a r g e l y mediated by a t t i t u d e and norm, the former e x e r t e d some i n f l u e n c e on the e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s found between b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a and the Model's p r e d i c t o r s . I t was concluded t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n o f the F i s h b e i n Model t o antecedent-process s t u d i e s i n t e a c h i n g r e s e a r c h o f f e r s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r making q u a n t i t a t i v e and v i s i b l e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n s t r u c t i o n a l p rocesses and antecedent v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as among antecedents. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1. THE PROBLEM 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2. Background 3 3. Statement of the General Problem . . . 16 4. Purpose of the Study 18 5. S p e c i f i c Problems to be I n v e s t i g a t e d . 22 6. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 23 7. D e l i m i t a t i o n s 28 8. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Study 30 2. STATEMENT OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH 1. A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour: Relevant Issues 32 2. A t t i t u d e Research i n E d u c a t i o n . . . . 52 3. The F i s h b e i n Model 64 4. Summary 87 5. Research Questions 91 3. METHOD 1. S u b j e c t s 93 2. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 9 4 3. C o l l e c t i o n of the Data 102 4. T e c h n i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Instruments 104 5. Method of A n a l y s i s 112 4. RESULTS 1. The N e c e s s i t y and S u f f i c i e n c y o f the F i s h b e i n Model 120 2. The E f f e c t of P r i o r E x p erience and Le a r n i n g on the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Assumed i n the F i s h b e i n Model 137 v i Chapter Page 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Statement of the Problem 150 2. R e s u l t s and C o n c l u s i o n s 153 3. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 15 8 4. Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research . 16 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 163 APPENDICES Appendix A - U n i v e r s i t y Program D e s c r i p t i o n s 177 Appendix B - Instruments Used i n the Study 179 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. I n t e n t i o n - B e h a v i o u r C o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d i n V a r i o u s S t u d i e s Using the F i s h b e i n Model . . 74 2. M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n s Between I n t e n t i o n and F i s h b e i n Model Components 80 3. C o r r e l a t i o n s Between A t t i t u d e Toward the O b j e c t (Ao) and I n t e n t i o n (I) P a r t i a l l i n g Out A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab) and S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) 84 4. R e l a t i v e Importance of A t t i t u d i n a l (Ab) and Normative (SN) Components^ i n the P r e d i c t i o n of I n t e n t i o n 86 5. P r o f e s s i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Elementary Teacher Sample 95 6. B i o g r a p h i c a l Data f o r S u b j e c t s 9 6 7. D i s t r i c t Elementary School C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 97 8. V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model 98 .9. Instrument V a l i d i t y : Item-scale C o r r e l a t i o n s . 106 10. Instrument V a l i d i t y : C o r r e l a t i o n s Between I n t e n t i o n Measures f o r Four C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g D e c i s i o n s 108 11. Instrument C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Data: I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y 110 12. Instrument C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Data: T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r I n t e n t i o n Measures ( I I , 12) f o r Four C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g D e c i s i o n s . . . . I l l 13. R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Behaviour, I n t e n t i o n and A t t i t u d e (Ao) 121 14. R e s u l t s o f Re g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n One . . . . 124 v l i i T able Page 1 5 . R e s u l t s of R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n Two . . . . 125 1 6 . R e s u l t s of R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n Three . . . 126 1 7 . R e s u l t s of R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n Four . . . 127 1 8 . R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between I n t e n t i o n and I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s f o r Four C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g D e c i s i o n s 129 1 9 . R e s u l t s df R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n One 1 3 1 2 0 . R e s u l t s of R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n Two 132 2 1 . R e s u l t s of R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n Three 133 2 2 . R e s u l t s of Regression A n a l y s i s of I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n Four . . 134 2 3 . C o r r e l a t i o n s Between I n t e n t i o n and ( I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l ) P r e d i c t o r s and Among P r e d i c t o r s f o r Four C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g D e c i s i o n s . . . . 136 2 4 . D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r I n t e n t i o n - B e h a v i o u r A n a l y s i s by S u b j e c t Groups . . . 139 2 5 . Group D i f f e r e n c e s on I n t e n t i o n - B e h a v i o u r _ C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Four C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g D e c i s i o n s 140 2 6 . R e s u l t s of A n a l y s i s of P a i r e d Comparisons Between Groups f o r D e c i s i o n Two 142 2 7 . R e s u l t s of A n a l y s i s of P a i r e d Comparisons Between Groups f o r D e c i s i o n Three 143 2 8 . R e s u l t s of A n a l y s i s of P a i r e d Comparisons Between Groups f o r D e c i s i o n Four 144 Ix Table Page 29. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r F i s h b e i n Model A n a l y s i s by S u b j e c t Groups 146 30. E f f e c t of P r i o r Teaching E x p e r i e n c e and Formal L e a r n i n g on the A t t i t u d i n a l and Normative Components of F i s h b e i n ' s Model i n P r e d i c t i n g I n t e n t i o n 148 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I f i r s t wish to thank my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. Tory Westermark, f o r h i s humour and the k i n d encourage- ment he gave to me throughout my years of graduate study. His constant support and guidance d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d . I am ind e b t e d to Dr. Vera MacKay, Dr. Ken Slade, and Dr. C a r l S a r n d a l , members of the d i s s e r t a t i o n committee, f o r t h e i r many t h o u g h t f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the study. As w e l l , I wish to thank Dr. David Kaufman f o r h i s h e l p f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s and comments. Thanks are due to Miss O l i v e Stewart of the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t and Mr. Hugh Campbell of the New Westminster School D i s t r i c t f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , and f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the data. I would l i k e to thank Mrs. M i l d r e d W i l k i e f o r her hours of arduous and accurate t y p i n g while under the pr e s s u r e of d e a d l i n e s . To my p a r e n t s , A r t and Laura Sweet, I wish to express my deepest g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g encourage- ment and support. F i n a l l y , t o my w i f e S o f i a and my son Tony: s c h o o l i s out; onl y w i t h your h e l p . CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n An important a s p e c t o f r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g concerns the s e a r c h f o r s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between pr o c e s s v a r i - a b l e s which express the events o f t e a c h i n g and antecedent v a r i a b l e s which presumably determine those events. A review o f the t e a c h i n g r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , however, demonstrates an emphasis on e i t h e r the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures or t h e i r consequences r a t h e r than an e l a b o r a t i o n of antecedents (to i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour) (Averch e t a l , 1972; Gage, 1972; G e t z e l s and Jackson, 1963). Moreover, t h a t r e s e a r c h which has g i v e n a t t e n t i o n to antecedents r e l a t e s p r i m a r i l y t o the a c t i o n s o f te a c h e r s i n classrooms; much l e s s has been r e c o r d e d o f the elements t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r be- ha v i o u r i n the p r e a c t i v e s e t t i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o Morine (1973), the p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s o f te a c h e r s o c c u r r i n g p r i o r t o the i n t e r a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t but n e g l e c t e d problem a r e a i n t e a c h i n g r e s e a r c h . The need t o examine the b a s i s f o r t e a c h e r s ' p r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g behaviour a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t , i n l a r g e measure, d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y developed c u r r i c u l a are made a t the s c h o o l and classroom l e v e l . 2 . In t h i s r e g a r d , the tea c h e r has been acknowledged an important agent. P r o f e s s i o n a l teacher o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r example, have long endorsed an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on the te a c h e r s r o l e as c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r (BCTF, 1968) as have p r o v i n c i a l departments of e d u c a t i o n , although l e s s c o n s i s t e n t l y (Torgunrud, 1974; McDonald and Werker, 1976). P r o f e s s i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m developers have a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the i n f l u e n c e t h a t t e a c h e r s e x e r t on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h which c u r r i c u l a r g o a l s are r e a l i z e d through t h e i r d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l means ( G a l l a g h e r , 1967; Herron, 1972). F u r t h e r support f o r a c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - making r o l e f o r te a c h e r s may be found i n the c u r r i c u l u m l i t e r a - t u r e . L a v a t e l l i e t a l , (1972) m a i n t a i n t h a t the t e a c h e r "has become the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n content matters and i n the s e l e c - t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s " (p. 164). S i m i l a r l y , C o n n e l l y (1972) has s t a t e d t h a t "Teachers are h i g h l y autonomous agents w i t h r e s p e c t to e x t e r n a l l y developed m a t e r i a l s " (p. 164). T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by a r e c e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l study of c u r r i c u l u m de- c i s i o n making (Garry and C o n n e l l y , 19 75) which found s u b s t a n t i a l agreement among c u r r i c u l u m development a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t t e a c h e r s are c r i t i c a l a c t o r s i n the d e l i b e r a t i o n and c h o i c e t h a t c u r r i c u - lum p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e . While much o p i n i o n has been expressed about the teachers 1 , p r e r o g a t i v e s i n c u r r i c u l u m matters, t h e r e i s a l a c k of e m p i r i c a l evidence r e l a t i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m decision-making a t the classroom l e v e l (Connelly, 1975; Maclure, 1973). Where t e a c h e r s are a l l o c a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i d i n g the r e l a t i v e m e r i t of i p r o f e s s i o n a l l y developed m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e i s a need to determine those f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e t h e i r responses t o problems o f c u r r i c u l a r c h o i c e . In Shulman's (1974) view, s u c c e s s f u l implementation of new c u r r i c u l a or e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g p l a n s and programs r e q u i r e s a r e s e a r c h - based knowledge of t e a c h e r s ' p l a n n i n g behaviour; not o n l y a d e s c r i p t i v e account of t h e i r responses to c u r r i c u l u m r e l a t e d t a s k s but a l s o an understanding of the b a s i s f o r p r a c t i c a l judgements r e g a r d i n g the s e l e c t i o n , a d option, support or worth of c u r r i c u l a . 1.2 Background In t h e i r r e c e n t review and a n a l y s i s of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g , Dunkin and B i d d l e (19 7 4) have proposed a c o n c e p t u a l scheme f o r the p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a viour which appears r e l e v a n t t o the study of antecedent- process r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . A c c o r d i n g to these w r i t e r s , where i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s are under the v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l of t e a c h e r s , t h e i r behaviour may be accounted f o r by r e f e r e n c e to what are termed "presage" v a r i a b l e s . These i n c l u d e f o r m a t i v e and academic f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r s p r a c t i c a l c lassroom e x p e r i e n c e and formal l e a r n i n g s a c q u i r e d d u r i n g p r e s e r v i c e or i n s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n . As w e l l , Dunkin and B i d d l e p o s i t a t h i r d presage f a c t o r of p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s the a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and m o t i v a t i o n s t h a t t e a c h e r s h o l d toward the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . 4. B a s i c t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s p r e d i c t i v e framework i s the n o t i o n o f t e a c h e r autonomy. While many i n s t r u c t i o n a l t asks are p r o s c r i b e d f o r t e a c h e r s , and ot h e r s are s u b j e c t t o c o n s t r a i n t s over which they have l i t t l e or no c o n t r o l , t h e r e remains much of t e a c h i n g which o f f e r s and r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n i n i t i a t i v e s on the p a r t of the tea c h e r . A g e n e r a l acceptance of t e a c h e r p r e r o g a t i v e s i n c u r r i c u l u m matters as these p e r t a i n to classrooms has a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t e d ; the a l l o c a t i o n of decision-making r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , however, f u r t h e r assumes t h a t t e a c h e r s employ t h i s a u t h o r i t y w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l and presumably e x p e r t judgement ( K i r s t and Walker, 1 9 7 4 ) . MacDonald (1970) has r e f e r r e d t o both f a c e t s : In a l l v o c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t e a c h i n g , p r a c t i t i o n - e r s have t o make d e c i s i o n s ; the essence o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i t y i s t o be found i n the nature o f d e c i s i o n s p r o f e s s i o n a l s make, and are allowed t o make (p. 32). MacDonald has f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d the d e s i r e d nature o f p r o f e s - s i o n a l d e c i s i o n s i n terms of r a t i o n a l c h o i c e making. S p e c i f i c - a l l y , the a t t r i b u t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y to the t e a c h e r s ' c h o i c e behaviour r e q u i r e s f i r s t , t h a t such judgements r e f l e c t the r i g h t o f the decision-maker t o apply h i s knowledge as he sees f i t and secondly , t h a t d e c i s i o n s be made not onl y because they appear to l e a d to the most a t t r a c t i v e outcome but a l s o can be seen to emerge from a body of p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge ( i . e . t h e o r y ) . S i m i l a r l y , T y l e r (1973) r e f e r s t o the necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r teac h e r autonomy as the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c h o i c e and a r a t i o n a l response to choosing. A c c o r d i n g t o T y l e r , a r a t i o n a l response to a problem of e d u c a t i o n a l c h o i c e depends upon a knowledge o f 5 . the probable' consequences of each a l t e r n a t i v e course o f a c t i o n . The p o s s e s s i o n of such knowledge, however, extends beyond an awareness o f the s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s of a g i v e n problem s i t u a t i o n ; r e s o l u t i o n of p r a c t i c a l problems of c h o i c e must be informed by theory as w e l l . A requirement f o r t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l knowledge by t e a c h e r s i n p l a n n i n g has a l s o been i n d i c a t e d by Turner and F a t t u ( 1 9 6 1 ) who viewed p l a n n i n g tasks i n terms of problem s o l v i n g and decision-making. Drawing on the e a r l i e r f o r m u l a t i o n s o f Bruner, Goodnow, and A u s t i n ( 1 9 5 6 ), Turner and F a t t u i d e n t i f i e d the a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g as the i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the problem s i t u a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v i n g from r e l e v a n t accepted theory. They main- t a i n e d t h a t a c u r r i c u l u m p l a n c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d i f i t were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h both these kinds o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Green (19 75) has p r o v i d e d a s u c c i n c t summary o f the n o t i o n of t e a c h e r autonomy i n p l a n n i n g as the "freedom to make p r a c t i c a l judgements on the b a s i s of what they know and b e l i e v e " (p. 20 3). Under such c o n d i t i o n s , Dunkin and B i d d l e assume t h a t teacher behaviours are p r i m a r i l y a f u n c t i o n of p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s which may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n terms of presage v a r i a b l e s . 1 . 2 . 1 . Presage V a r i a b l e s : Formative and Academic As a p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r autonomous c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , the c r i t e r i o n of r a t i o n a l i t y c l e a r l y r e l a t e s to the t e a c h e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s assumed to accompany a d e l i b e r a t i v e thought p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g to Jackson 6. (1968) these a c t i v i t i e s may be seen as " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f o r d e r l y c o g n i t i o n ' : ... a c t i v i t i e s such as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e courses o f a c t i o n , the con s c i o u s d e l i b e r a t i o n over c h o i c e , the weighing of evidence (and) the e v a l u a t i o n of outcomes (p. 151). A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f p l a n n i n g as an e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l t ask f o r te a c h e r s w i l l suggest the r e l e v a n t f o r m a t i v e and academic v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e i r responses t o p l a n n i n g problems. Johnson (1975) has d e s c r i b e d the proc e s s e s o f e f f e c - t i v e p l a n n i n g by t e a c h e r s as i n v o l v i n g the employ o f judgemental s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s such as t r a n s l a t i o n , i n f e r e n c e , p r e d i c t i o n , a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s and e v a l u a t i o n f o r which Bloom (1965) g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n : ... the i n d i v i d u a l can f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e informa- t i o n and techniques i n h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t o b r i n g t o bear on new problems and s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s r e q u i r e s some a n a l y s i s o r understanding of the new s i t u a t i o n ; i t r e q u i r e s a background of knowledge or methods which can be r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d ; and i t a l s o r e q u i r e s some f a c i l i t y i n d i s c e r n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e r e l a t i o n s between p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and the new s i t u a t i o n (p. 38). The c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g behaviours o f teach e r s may thus be understood, i n p a r t , from t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r understanding of the problem s i t u a t i o n s they f a c e . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h contemporary views among p s y c h o l o g i s t s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g a complex problem and h i s 7 . responses t o i t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l s are seen to form c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s or s i m p l i f i e d models of the e x t e r n a l world which then serve as mediators f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g and r e - sponding to r e a l i t y (Simon, 1957 ) . The p a r a l l e l between these n o t i o n s of problem s o l v i n g or d e c i s i o n making and e d u c a t i o n a l problems has been drawn by F a t t u ( 1 9 6 5 ) : A teacher f a c i n g a classroom has an extremely l a r g e range of p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s to cope w i t h . What he chooses t o do depends, i n l a r g e measure, on what he sees as h i s t a s k . The task then be- comes the problem to.be s o l v e d . Any e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s g o a l s , p u p i l s , content, f a c i l i - t i e s , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ' s t r u c t u r e . The teacher combines these i n g r e d i e n t s i n a way compatible with h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f the task a t hand. S k i l l i n a c t i n g , or s o l v i n g the problem, depends upon command of the processes t h a t are u s e f u l i n a t t a i n i n g v a r i o u s goals (p. 7 7 ) . Although c o n s i d e r a b l e debate e x i s t s as to the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of a r a t i o n a l model to the a c t i v i t i e s of teachers i n classrooms (e.g. Cronbach, 1 9 6 7 ; Gage, 1972) , the a t t r i b u t i o n of r a t i o n - a l i t y t o p r e a c t i v e behaviour appears more p l a u s i b l e . In h i s a n a l y s i s of the elementary teachers r o l e i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , Jackson ( 1968) observed t h a t while teachers d i d not appear a n a l y t i c or d e l i b e r a t i v e d u r i n g the moment-to-moment exchanges wi t h students i n the classroom s e t t i n g , t h e i r pre- a c t i v e p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t o r y behaviour suggested t h a t here "the teacher o f t e n seems to be engaged i n a type of i n t e l l e c - t u a l a c t i v i t y t h a t has many of the formal p r o p e r t i e s of a problem s o l v i n g procedure" (p. 1 5 1 ). The a p p l i c a t i o n of a 8 . c o g n i t i v e model to c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g problems of c h o i c e has been made by C o n n e l l y (19 72) who d e s c r i b e s a primary p l a n n i n g task of t e a c h e r s to be a d e l i b e r a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g the g e n e r a t i o n of a c o g n i t i v e map. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r o l e of t e a c h e r s i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making or "user-based c u r r i c u - lum development' i s as f o l l o w s : The f u n c t i o n of user-based development i s t o c o n s t r u c t images o f p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s by matching a v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l c onceptions w i t h the e x i g e n c i e s of these par- t i c u l a r s e t t i n g s , and to t r a n s l a t e these images i n t o a c u r r i c u l u m - i n - c l a s s r o o m use. In t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , t e a c h e r s choose from among a v a i l - a ble c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s those t h a t b e s t s u i t t h e i r images. I n t e l l i g e n t choosing i s guided by the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s from which images are c o n s t i t u t e d (p. 169). I t may be concluded t h a t w i t h r e s p e c t to f o r m a t i v e and academic f a c t o r s i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , the a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s t o c o n s i d e r r e l a t e t o the p o s s e s s i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . These may be seen as m a n i f e s t i n an awareness of the p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s of classroom i n - s t r u c t i o n (Teacher Experience) and the p o s s e s s i o n of r e l e v a n t concepts and p r i n c i p l e s (Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n ) . 1.2.2 Presage V a r i a b l e s : P s y c h o l o g i c a l While the i n c l u s i o n of f o r m a t i v e and academic f a c t o r s as l o g i c a l antecedents of t e a c h e r s ' autonomous behaviour i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v a i l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s on "teacher autonomy' i n the e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i s seen by Dunkin and B i d d l e (1974) to be of c e n t r a l 9 . importance t o t h e i r p r e d i c t i v e framework. Where t e a c h e r s ' a t t e n t i o n s are focused on coping w i t h problems c o n c e r n i n g the c u r r i c u l u m , the nature and o b j e c t i v e s of the t e a c h i n g t a s k , ex- p e c t a t i o n s f o r p u p i l s , and norms of i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour, Dunkin and B i d d l e propose t h a t responses t o these problems may b e s t be e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r e n c e to t e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i v e , norma- t i v e and c o n a t i v e b e l i e f s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , they suggest t h a t the immediate determinants of i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour are what t e a c h e r s ' " t h i n k they p r e f e r t o , ought t o , and w i l l do" (p. 410). Although Dunkin and B i d d l e c o n s i d e r norm and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n - t i o n they r e f e r p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the e v a l u a t i v e or a f f e c t i v e element of t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f systems: T r a i n i n g and f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s cannot a f f e c t the t e a c h e r ' s performance u n l e s s she r e t a i n s t r a c e s of these e x p e r i e n c e s i n her a t t i t u d e . . . (p. 40). A c o n c e p t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s as l e a r n e d and as guides t o behaviour i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of the a t t i t u d e con- s t r u c t which view a t t i t u d e as a l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o respond i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o u r a b l e or unfavourable manner w i t h r e s p e c t to some o b j e c t (eg. A l l p o r t , 1935). The n o t i o n t h a t a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t p r i o r l e a r n i n g s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and may be seen i n the accepted d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e which c o n s i d e r a f f e c t and c o g n i t i o n j o i n t l y (Bloom and Broder, 1950; Johnson, 1955; R u s s e l l , 1956; Wertheimer, 1945). T y p i c a l o f t h i s view i s t h a t of Asch (1952): A t t i t u d e c o n t a i n s a more or l e s s coherent o r - d e r i n g o f data ... an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f ex p e r i e n c e s and data w i t h r e f e r e n c e to an o b j e c t (p. 580). S i m i l a r l y , Rosenberg (1956) has argued t h a t a tendency t o r e - spond t o an o b j e c t w i t h p o s i t i v e or ne g a t i v e a f f e c t i s "accompanied by a c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e made up of b e l i e f s about the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of t h a t o b j e c t f o r a t t a i n i n g or b l o c k i n g the r e a l i z a t i o n o f v a l u e d s t a t e s " (p. 367). I t sh o u l d be noted t h a t the term ' o b j e c t " i s most g e n e r a l , r e f e r r i n g t o any i n d i - v i d u a l , group, i s s u e or s i t u a t i o n (eg. Rosenberg and Hovland, 1960). Thus C o n k l i n (1971) has noted the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i o n and a f f e c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o a problem s i t u a t i o n : V i r t u a l l y every problem has both emotional and c o g n i t i v e aspects ... Problems are p e r c e i v e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n both an emotional and c o g n i t i v e framework (p. 261). The assumption of a c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p r e s s i o n s o f a t t i t u d e toward an o b j e c t and behaviour w i t h r e - spe c t t o t h a t o b j e c t u n d e r l i e s most, i f not a l l , e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h which has c o n s i d e r e d t h i s v a r i a b l e . The p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y o f the response c o n s i s t e n c y assumption may be seen i n Dunkin and B i d d l e ' s (1974) c o n c e p t i o n o f i n n e r d i s p o s i t i o n a l s t a t e s such as a t t i t u d e : (These) p r o p e r t i e s have two f e a t u r e s i n common; they are h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s i n psychology, thus they are presumed t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the i n - d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r i n a c o n s i s t e n t f a s h i o n , over time, and serve t o e x p l a i n her behaviour i n r e - sponse to a number of s i t u a t i o n s (p. 40). In education., as i n most a p p l i e d areas, i t i s the p a r t i c u l a r , s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c b ehaviours t h a t are of i n t e r e s t i n p r e d i c t i o n . For example, i n the p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l phase i t i s important t o p r e d i c t the s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e s o f r- t e a c h e r s r a t h e r than g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r a l t e n d e n c i e s or s e t s of r e l a t e d behaviours assumed t o express c u r r i c u l a r p r e f e r e n c e . However, r e c e n t reviews o f the very few e d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s which have d i r e c t l y examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and p a r t i c u l a r behaviours demonstrate a l a c k o f e m p i r i c a l support f o r t h i s view (Crocker, 1 9 7 4 ; Loree, 1 9 7 1 ) . In h i s a n a l y s i s of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the ' t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ' , Loree i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s ' a c t i o n s w i l l be consonant w i t h t h e i r expressed a t t i t u d e o n l y under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o s i t u a t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s . He suggested t h a t these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were necessary i n view of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t e d areas o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e , p r i n c i p a l l y s o c i a l psychology. Wicker's ( 1 9 6 9 ) summary o f the s t a t e of a t t i t u d e - behaviour r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i s i l l u s t r a t i v e : The p r e s e n t review p r o v i d e s l i t t l e evidence to support the p o s t u l a t e d e x i s t e n c e of s t a b l e under- l y i n g a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l which i n f l u e n c e both h i s v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s and h i s a c t i o n s (p. 7 5 ) . Although Dunkin and B i d d l e a c c e p t the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a t t i t u d e as a t r a i t , an i n n e r d i s p o s i t i o n a l s t a t e t h a t a c t s as both determinant and mediator of t e a c h e r s ' responses t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l problems, t h e i r i n c l u s i o n of normative and c o n a t i v e 12. b e l i e f s i n d i c a t e s an awareness t h a t a f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s may not be the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e d i c t o r s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour. T h i s p o s i t i o n would r e f l e c t the r e s u l t s o f more r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and behaviour by a t t i t u d e t h e o r i s t s . C a l d e r and Ross (1973) f o r example, concluded t h e i r review and a n a l y s i s of the r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h w i t h some optimism i n the r e l i a b i l i t y of an a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r a s s o c i a t i o n but c a u t i o n e d t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not a simple one. As a r e s u l t of the c u r r e n t s e a rch f o r s y s t e m a t i c l i n k s between a t t i t u d e and behaviour, two d i s t i n c t p o i n t s of view are apparent. The f i r s t r e t a i n s the assumption of c o n s i s t e n c y w h i l e the second q u e s t i o n s the b a s i c c o n c e p t i o n o f a t t i t u d e as the primary determinant of a person's responses to an o b j e c t . The c o n s i s t e n c y view assumes t h a t r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i v e and c a u s a l l i n k s e x i s t between a t t i t u d e and behaviour but are o f t e n a t t e n u a t e d or even obscured by the i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e o t h e r a t t i t u d e s , competing motives, v e r - b a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l a b i l i t i e s , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a c t u a l or c o n s i d e r e d presence of o t h e r people, normative p r e - s c r i p t i o n s of proper behaviour, a l t e r n a t e behaviours a v a i l a b l e , expected or a c t u a l consequences of v a r i o u s a c t s , and unforeseen or extraneous events ( E h r l i c h , 1969; K e i s l e r , e t a l , 1969; Rokeach and K l e i j u n a s , 1972? Wicker, 197U '". T h i s 'other v a r i a b l e s ' approach p r e s e r v e s the n o t i o n t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i - tude are r e l a t e d to behaviour but t h a t a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s must 13. be c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r to p r e d i c t behaviour a c c u r a t e l y . The second p o i n t of view q u e s t i o n s the b a s i c u t i l i t y o f the t r a i t concept i n p r e d i c t i o n . That i s , human behaviour i s seen to be s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e to v a r i a t i o n s i n s i t u a t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s to p r e c l u d e the e x i s t e n c e of r e l i a b l e l i n k s between behaviour and i n n e r d i s p o s i t i o n a l s t a t e s such as a t t i t u d e (e.g; E n d l e r 1 9 7 5 ; Mlschel, I 973) • I n t n e area of a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h , perhaps the l e a d i n g exponents of t h i s second approach are F i s h b e i n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (1967, F i s h b e i n and Ajzen, 1975). A c c o r d i n g to these w r i t e r s , t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e assess a g e n e r a l d i s p o s i t i o n t h a t may o r may not be m a n i f e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour. T h e i r r e s e a r c h , reviewed most r e c e n t l y by F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (1975), lends support to t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . In summarizing t h e i r f i n d i n g s they conclude: T r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e toward an o b j e c t do not p r o v i d e an adequate b a s i s f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of s p e c i f i c behaviours with r e s p e c t to t h a t o b j e c t (p. 364). As a c o r r e c t i v e to the low c o r r e l a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y found between t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e and s p e c i f i c b e haviours, F i s h b e i n (1967) had e a r l i e r proposed the development of an a t t i - t u d i n a l theory f o r behaviour p r e d i c t i o n based on the work of Dulany (196 8). In l a r g e measure, the i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and behaviour expressed by C a l d e r and Ross (19 73) may be a t t r i b u t e d to the success of F i s h b e i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g and v a l i d a t i n g t h e i r theory f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f s i n g l e - a c t b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , F i s h b e i n (1967; 14 . A j z e n and F i s h b e i n , 19 73) c o n s t r u c t e d a r e g r e s s i o n model f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n from a p e r s o n a l o r a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r and a s o c i a l or normative f a c t o r . In i t s most r e c e n t form ( F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1 9 7 5 ) the model may be expressed as f o l l o w s : B ~ I = (Ab) + (SN) , (1) wo w± where B r e p r e s e n t s the s p e c i f i c behaviour or a c t of i n t e r e s t ; I r e f e r s t o the i n t e n t i o n to engage i n the behaviour under s p e c i - f i e d c o n d i t i o n s ; Ab and SN, as the p r e d i c t o r s of I, r e p r e s e n t the a t t i t u d e toward performing the behaviour i n a g i v e n s i t u a - t i o n and the s o c i a l norm p e r c e i v e d to govern the performance of the behaviour i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n . Wo and Wl are e m p i r i c a l l y de- termined ( r e g r e s s i o n ) weights. F i s h b e i n ( 1 9 7 3 ) has shown the model capable of ac- c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f behaviour and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n under c o n t r o l l e d ( l a b o r a t o r y ) c o n d i t i o n s and w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who v a r i e d w i d e l y i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they brought to the v a l i d - a t i o n t a s k s . The p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y of the model he a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o i t s i n c l u s i o n of a normative component and i n p a r t to i t s emphasis on s p e c i f i c i t y of measurement; t h a t i s , each com- ponent of the model i s a s s e s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the same c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a c t as opposed to a more g e n e r a l o b j e c t . As w e l l , i t i s claimed t h a t v a r i a b l e s not e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d i n the model such as s i t u a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s or p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i - b u t es, can a f f e c t i n t e n t i o n s and behaviour o n l y t o the e x t e n t 15. t h a t they are r e l a t e d to the a t t i t u d i n a l or normative components. However, p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y and economy are but one aspect of the model's t o t a l u t i l i t y . As f o rmulated, the model p r o v i d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p l a n a t o r y power as w e l l . F i r s t , r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the terms i n the model are s p e c i f i e d . F i s h b e i n has e l a b o r a t e d the g e n e r a l f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e the r e l a - t i o n s h i p between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour and between i n t e n t i o n and the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components of the model. Secondly, the model al l o w s the a d d i t i o n of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s and accounts f o r any e f f e c t they might have on i n t e n t i o n and behaviour through t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the a t t i t u d i n a l or normative components or the r e l a t i v e weights. Although the model has r e c e i v e d s t r o n g e m p i r i c a l support p r i n c i p a l l y i n c o n t r o l l e d , e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s , when u t i l i z e d i n more a p p l i e d s e t t i n g s the c laims f o r i t s p r e d i c t i v e and e x p l a n a t o r y u t i l i t y have been g e n e r a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d (e.g.. J a c c a r d and Davidson, 1972; Ryan and B o n f i e l d , 1975). 1.2.3. Summary The problem o f b e t t e r understanding p r e a c t i v e i n - s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour has been p r e s e n t e d as one of p r e d i c t i n g and e x p l a i n i n g t e a c h e r s ' responses to c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g tasks i n terms o f the p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t e d by Dunkin and B i d d l e (1974). In view of the f u n c t i o n - a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among presage v a r i a b l e s proposed by Dunkin and B i d d l e , development of a s y s t e m a t i c approach t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r s ' behaviour r e q u i r e s examination not o n l y o f the e m p i r i c a l 1 6 . r e l a t i o n s h i p s between process and presage v a r i a b l e s but a l s o among presage v a r i a b l e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y , the emphasis g i v e n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r of a t t i t u d e suggests t h a t the problem of p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n may be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms of the more g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r i s s u e . From t h i s p e rspec- t i v e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of i n t e r e s t are seen to be b e s t examined w i t h i n the q u a n t i t a t i v e framework p r o v i d e d by the F i s h b e i n Model. 1.3 Statement of the General Problem The g e n e r a l problem i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study was: what are the determinants of elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ' c u r - r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours? The p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g behaviours i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study i n v o l v e d recommending the classroom use of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y developed c u r r i c u l a i n primary r e a d i n g . At the primary l e v e l , a r e l e v a n t p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n r e q u i r e d of t e a c h e r s i s the s e l e c t i o n of a b a s a l r e a d i n g program f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l use w i t h c h i l d r e n who vary i n t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s t o a c q u i r e b a s i c r e a d i n g s k i l l s . S i n c e these i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are t y p i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by forming i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups of l i k e a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s , the p l a n - n i n g task i s one of making the b e s t match between the developmental needs of each group and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l t e r n a t i v e b a s a l programs ( A l p e r t , 1975; H a r r i s , 1970; Wolfe, 19 71). Teachers c u r r e n t l y may e l e c t from among programs which o f f e r unique c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of content, l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t e a c h i n g procedures and e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Recommending b e h a v i o u r s , 'in t h i s c o n t e x t , are seen as b e h a v i o u r a l expres- s i o n s o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l courses of a c t i o n . Where te a c h e r s are a l l o c a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i d i n g the c u r r i c u l a r mer.it of each program and t h e i r p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e s r e f l e c t a d e l i b e r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f c o n s i d e r i n g and weighing the a l t e r n a t i v e s , recommending behaviours may be c o n s i d e r e d as i n s t a n c e s o f autonomous, p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r o p o s a l s of Dunkin and B i d d l e (19 74), the antecedent v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d i n the study r e l a t e d t o the p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of elementary t e a c h e r s . The f o r m a t i v e and academic v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t were t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e (TE) and t e a c h i n g p r e p a r a t i o n (TP). I t was assumed t h a t recommending a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l course o f a c t i o n as a p p r o p r i a t e t o the requirements of a group of students depends, i n p a r t , on how the teacher i n t e r p r e t s or understands the t a s k . The p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s may be expected to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the problem s i t u a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t e a c h e r s who have had p r i o r p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n are l i k e l y t o view the task somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y than those who have had n e i t h e r or o n l y one o f these e x p e r i e n c e s and consequently, make r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t recommendations. A c c o r d i n g to F i s h b e i n . and A j z e n (1975), behaviour and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t w i t h r e g a r d to p e r f o r m i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward per f o r m i n g the a c t i n the s i t u a t i o n (Ab) and h i s s u b j e c t i v e norm 18. c o n c e r n i n g what he b e l i e v e s he i s expected to do i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n (SN). In the c o n t e x t of the proposed study, recom- mending behaviours and i n t e n t s were assumed to be f u n c t i o n s of l e a r n i n g s a c q u i r e d i n the classroom and i n f o r m a l p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n , r e f l e c t e d i n a t t i t u d e s toward recommending a c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l course of a c t i o n and i n normative b e l i e f s as to whether or not the recommendation should be made. 1.4 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to p r e d i c t and e x p l a i n elementary t e a c h e r s ' responses to c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g t a s k s i n primary r e a d i n g . More s p e c i f i c a l l y the study undertook t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' i n t e n t i o n s and b ehaviours w i t h r e s p e c t to recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of b a s a l r e a d i n g programs and s e l e c t e d f o r m a t i v e , academic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s v a r i a b l e s suggested by the p r o p o s a l s o f Dunkin and B i d d l e (1974). In t h i s c o n t e x t , the r e g r e s s i o n model of F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (19 75) was advanced as an a p p r o p r i a t e methodology f o r making q u a n t i t a t i v e and v i s i b l e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r s ' p l a n n i n g behaviours and t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the F i s h b e i n Model r e q u i r e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s : 1.4.1. The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour In the model proposed by F i s h b e i n , i n t e n t i o n i s viewed 19. as the immediate determinant of behaviour. The s t r e n g t h o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s , however, c o n t i n g e n t upon a number of f a c t o r s : 1) the degree of correspondence i n the l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c i t y a t which i n t e n t i o n and behaviour are measured; 2) the s t a b i l i t y of i n t e n t i o n over time; 3) the degree to which performance o f the behaviour i s under v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l . A l - though F i s h b e i n (Ajzen and F i s h b e i n , 1973; F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975) has shown t h a t i n t e n t i o n s are p r e d i c t i v e of behaviour over a v a r i e t y of c o n d i t i o n s and persons, he has r e p e a t e d l y emphasized t h a t an e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s dependent upon the above c o n d i t i o n s . A s s e s s i n g i n t e n t i o n and behaviour a t the same l e v e l of s p e c i f i c i t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l matter of d e f i n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e correspondence between the o b j e c t or t a r g e t of the behaviour, the nature o f the performance and the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t and time o f performance. Of g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t t o the proposed study are the f a c t o r s of s t a b i l i t y and v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l . S t a b i l i t y o f i n t e n t i o n , l i k e s p e c i f i c i t y , may be seen as a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l matter i n v o l v i n g the temporal p r o x i m i t y of i n t e n t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l measures. Since i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t new i n f o r m a t i o n may e i t h e r i n f l u e n c e the s t r e n g t h of. a p r e v i o u s - l y h e l d i n t e n t i o n or l e a d t o the f o r m a t i o n of a new i n t e n t i o n , d i s c r e p a n c i e s between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour may be reduced simply by m i n i m i z i n g the time span between measures. However, i n a more important sense, s t a b i l i t y of i n t e n t i o n may be r e - l a t e d t o the degree of v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l e x e r c i s e s over performance of the behaviour. F i s h b e i n has 2 0 . p o i n t e d out t h a t the f o r m a t i o n of i n t e n t i o n i s based on the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative b e l i e f s h e l d by the i n d i v i d u a l • r e g a r d i n g performance of a behaviour. I t seems reasonable to assume t h a t t e a c h e r s who d i f f e r i n t h e i r s k i l l s and r e s o u r c e s with r e s p e c t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l a l s o d i f f e r i n terms of the s t r e n g t h and accuracy of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward making p a r t i c u l a r program recommendations and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of normative e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the recommendation. To the e x t e n t t h a t i n t e n t i o n i s the product of a t t i t u d e and norm, teache r s w i t h p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g s r e l e v a n t t o p r i - mary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l l i k e l y form and h o l d i n t e n t i o n s which are more enduring and more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h subsequent behaviour. 1.4.2 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between I n t e n t i o n and V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l to the Model I t may be seen from e q u a t i o n (1) t h a t the immediate concern of the model i s the p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n from a p e r s o n a l or a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r and from a s o c i a l or normative f a c t o r . T h i s f o l l o w s from a d e s i r e to not o n l y p r e d i c t but a l s o understand behaviour. For the purpose of b e h a v i o u r a l p r e d i c t i o n , the most d i r e c t procedure i s to o b t a i n an a p p r o p r i a t e measure of i n t e n t i o n ; however, an understanding of a person's behaviour r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of those f a c t o r s which determine i n t e n t i o n . F i s h b e i n has p r o v i d e d s t r o n g e m p i r i c a l support f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n from the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components of the model ( F i s h b e i n , 1973; Aj zen and F i s h b e i n , 197 3; F i s h b e i n and 21. and Ajzen,(1975). A c c o r d i n g to F i s h b e i n , the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components, i . e . the v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the model, are the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h which to p r e d i c t i n t e n t i o n s and thereby behaviour. I t i s claimed t h a t the a d d i t i o n of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s w i l l not improve t h i s p r e d i c t i o n and w i l l a f f e c t i n t e n t i o n and behaviour on l y as they r e l a t e t o a t t i t u d e and s u b j e c t i v e norm. P a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i s expected t h a t the r e l a t i v e importance of the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative terms w i l l vary w i t h the k i n d of behaviour t h a t i s being p r e d i c t e d , w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s under which the behaviour i s t o be performed, and w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among persons who are t o perform the b ehaviour. In the proposed study, d i f f e r e n c e s among persons were of c e n t r a l concern. Here, a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the n o v e l t y of the p l a n n i n g task f o r t e a c h e r s l e a d s to the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g w i l l a f f e c t the components of the model d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . That i s , v a r i a t i o n i n the r e l a t i v e importance of the p r e d i c t o r s w i l l r e - f l e c t the amount of exposure t o and i n f o r m a t i o n about a g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n a l course o f a c t i o n ( i . e . b a s a l r e a d i n g program). I t may be expected t h a t the g r e a t e r a t e a c h e r ' s exposure to a p a r t i c u l a r program i n classrooms and the g r e a t e r the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n possessed about t h a t program w i t h r e s p e c t to the r e a d i n g requirements of c h i l d r e n , the more f a v o u r a b l e or un- f a v o u r a b l e and the s t r o n g e r or weaker are l i k e l y t o be h i s a t t i t u d e s and normative b e l i e f s r e s p e c t i v e l y , to recommending the use of a p a r t i c u l a r program. In summary, the o b j e c t i v e s of the study were t o f i r s t , a ssess the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the F i s h b e i n Model to the problem of p r e d i c t i n g p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour and secondly, to examine the impact of p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s assumed by the model. 1.5 S p e c i f i c Problems t o be I n v e s t i g a t e d The s p e c i f i c problems i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study i n v o l v e d the p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n o f elementary t e a c h e r s ' i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours w i t h r e s p e c t t o recommending the s e l e c t i o n o f b a s a l r e a d i n g programs f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l use wit h p r i m a r y - l e v e l s t u d e n t s . The p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g tasks are de- t a i l e d i n S e c t i o n 3.2.1. 1) Do the v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d i n the F i s h b e i n Model p r o v i d e the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r s o f behaviour and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t ? 2) . What i s the e f f e c t of t e a c h e r s ' p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour? 3) What i s the e f f e c t of t e a c h e r s ' p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e n t i o n and v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model? 1.6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terras 1.6.1 C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s a) I n t e n t i o n ( I ) : B e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n r e f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t e d i n t e n t t o perform an a c t under s p e c i - f i e d c o n d i t i o n s . In the study, the r e l e v a n t a c t s concerned recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of b a s a l r e a d i n g programs. O p e r a t i o n a l l y , i n t e n t i o n t o recommend was d e f i n e d i n terms of the s u b j e c t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o recommend a p a r t i c u l a r b a s a l r e a d - i n g program f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l use w i t h a g i v e n a b i l i t y - g r o u p of p r i m a r y - l e v e l s t u d e n t s . I t should be noted t h a t i n t e n t i o n f u n c t i o n s as both a p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . b) Behaviour (B): Behaviour r e f e r s t o the per- formance o f the p a r t i c u l a r a c t toward which the b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n i s assessed. In the study, behaviour was r e c o r d e d by a s k i n g s u b j e c t s t o make a c t u a l recommendations f o r the use of p a r t i c u l a r b a s a l r e a d i n g programs w i t h g i v e n a b i l i t y groups of p r i m a r y - l e v e l s t u d e n t s . 1.6.2 Presage V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model a) A t t i t u d e toward the Behaviour (Ab): C o n s i s t e n t w i t h F i s h b e i n ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f a t t i t u d e as the e v a l u a t i v e a s p e c t of a s e t of b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t , a u n i d i - mensional d e f i n i t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e c o n s t r u c t as the amount of a f f e c t f o r or a g a i n s t an o b j e c t w i l l be adopted (eg. Thurstone, 19 31). However, from E q u a t i o n (1) i t may be seen t h a t the o b j e c t of i n t e r e s t r e f e r s to the performance of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t . A t t i t u d e i s thus a s s e s s e d in-terms o f the s u b j e c t ' s amount of a f f e c t f o r or a g a i n s t performance of the behaviour. In the study, a t t i t u d e toward the behaviour (Ab) was measured by as k i n g s u b j e c t s to i n d i c a t e t h e i r degree of f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o r unfavourableness toward recommending the use of a p a r t i c u l a r b a s a l r e a d i n g program w i t h s p e c i f i c groups of primary s t u d e n t s . b) S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN): The normative component of F i s h b e i n ' s model d e a l s w i t h the i n f l u e n c e of the s o c i a l environment on the form a t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n and the performance of behaviour. S p e c i f i c a l l y , S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) r e f e r s t o the s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t most people who are important t o him t h i n k he s h o u l d or sh o u l d not perform a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour. In the study SN was assessed as the p e r c e i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e f e r e n t s r e g a r d i n g the s u b j e c t ' s recommendations f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use o f b a s a l r e a d i n g programs. 1 . 6 . 3 . Presage V a r i a b l e s E x t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model a) Teacher P r a c t i c a l E x p e rience (TE): T h i s v a r i a b l e r e f e r s t o the p o s s e s s i o n o f s i t u a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a t the primary l e v e l . ' S i t u a t i o n a l ' or ' p r a c t i c a l ' i n f o r m a t i o n i s the s p e c i f i c , d e s c r i p t i v e data i n h e r e n t i n a p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n c l u d i n g f a c t s about a s c h o o l system, a s c h o o l o r a p a r t i c u l a r classroom; a group of stu d e n t s ; and r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s . S i n c e s t u d e n t developmental l e v e l and c u r r i c u l a are assumed t o be the c r i t i c a l data i n a p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n , an awareness of these elements i s indexed i n terms of p r i o r classroom e x p e r i e n c e a t the primary l e v e l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , TE i s dichotomized to i n d i c a t e elementary t e a c h e r s who have had p r i m a r y - l e v e l experience and those who have not. b) Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n (TP): T h i s v a r i a b l e r e f e r s t o the p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a t the primary l e v e l . Most g e n e r a l l y , the bodies of theory t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d necessary to i n f o r m e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and i n c l u d e d i n teacher e d u c a t i o n programs i . e . e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y , s o c i o l o g y and psychology, bear on any p l a n n i n g t a s k . However, i n the c o n t e x t of the p r e s e n t study the concepts and p r i n c i p l e s of l e a r n i n g and i n - s t r u c t i o n i n e a r l y r e a d i n g are seen to be of primary importance T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Shulman*s (Shulman, 19 74; Shulman and E l s t e i n , 1975) f i n d i n g s t h a t the background l e a r n i n g s necessary f o r r e s o l u t i o n of p r a c t i c a l problems are domain s p e c i f i c . The p o s s e s s i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s indexed i n terms of p r i o r p r e s e r v i c e or i n s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n i n developmental r e a d i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the TE v a r i a b l e i s dichotomized to i n d i c a t e elementary t e a c h e r s who have had such p r e p a r a t i o n and those who have not. 1.6.4. G e n e r a l Terms a) C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g : T h i s term r e f e r s t o the p r o c e s s e s used by a classroom t e a c h e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g an i n - s t r u c t i o n a l course of a c t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group of l e a r n e r s 26. i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . In a comprehensive sense, c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n c l u d e s d i a g n o s i n g student needs, f o r m u l a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , and g e n e r a t i n g , s e l e c t i n g , and o r g a n i z i n g l e s s o n content, l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , r e s o u r c e s , and e v a l u a t i o n procedures (e.g.. Taba, 1962) . The a c t u a l p r o c e s s e s of p l a n n i n g are unobservable, although they may be i n f e r r e d from o b s e r v a b l e p r o c e d u r a l b e h a v i o u r s . They are assumed to be e s s e n t i a l l y r a t i o n a l and d e l i b e r a t e . In the study, c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g r e f e r s to t e a c h e r s ' recommendations r e g a r d i n g s e l e c t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y developed c u r r i c u l a w i t h a view t o t h e i r use w i t h groups of students who vary i n terms of l e a r n i n g needs and requirements. b) C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n Making: Recommending the use of a p a r t i c u l a r b a s a l r e a d i n g program w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r group of students i s c o n s t r u e d as a problem of c h o i c e , of d e c i s i o n making. A c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n i s seen to be the outcome of a r a t i o n a l p rocess employed to d e a l w i t h a problem of s e l e c t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , such problems e x i s t whenever the most a p p r o p r i a t e course of a c t i o n i s not immediately e v i d e n t . With r e s p e c t t o matching programs w i t h student groups, t h e r e e x i s t no e x p l i c i t , p r e s c r i p t i v e g u i d e l i n e s (Barr, 1974; Cohen, 1975). E v a l u a t i o n , d e l i b e r a t i o n , and judgement thus devolve upon the classroom t e a c h e r . c) C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g Tasks: The p l a n n i n g t a s k s to be examined i n the study w i l l be d e f i n e d i n terms of two dimensions or c o n d i t i o n s ; a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l a and s t u d e n t groups. c l ) C u r r i c u l u m A l t e r n a t i v e s : The s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l recommended by s u b j e c t s were the b a s a l r e a d i n g programs p r e - s c r i b e d by the p r o v i n c e f o r use i n the primary grades. These are the Canadian Reading Development (Copp-Clark) S e r i e s , (Mclntyre, 1962) and the Language P a t t e r n s Reading S e r i e s (Linn 1967). Each i s designed t o impart a b a s i c r e a d i n g competence i n a p r o g r e s s i v e sequence. However, they d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . Copp-Clark emphasizes the i n i t i a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f word meaning s k i l l s w h i l e Language P a t t e r n s f o s t e r s i n i t i a l sound-symbol d i s c r i m i n a t i o n accuracy. As per- c e i v e d by p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s , these programs d i f f e r a l s o on a number of o t h e r dimensions i n c l u d i n g s t o r y and i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t e r e s t , r a t e o f s k i l l development and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i r e c t i v e ness (Sweet, 1975). However, a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between 'meani and 'code' emphasis i s the t y p i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n a p p l i e d t o b a s a l r e a d i n g programs i n the l i t e r a t u r e (e.g., C h a l l , 1967) . c2) Student Groups: As i n d i c a t e d , s t u d e n t s d i f f e r i n the c a p a b i l i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d as p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r l e a r n i n g t o r e a d . Although each student i s thus unique and may b e s t l e a r n under c o n d i t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , the c o n s t r a i n t s o f c l a s s s i z e d i c t a t e t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s be accommodated by the f o r m a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l groupings o f l i k e a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s . Such groupings are o n l y e s t i m a t e s o f any g i v e n p u p i l s t a t u s . However, by the end of one y e a r of i n s t r u c t i o n those 2 8 . students who' are e x p e r i e n c i n g l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y or marked d i f f i c u l t y are i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h some r e l i a b i l i t y on the b a s i s o f t e s t i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n . Thus, the p a r t i c u l a r groupings and grade l e v e l s e l e c t e d to d e f i n e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g were the 'high' and 'low' a b i l i t y groups a t the second year primary l e v e l . 1.7 D e l i m i t a t i o n s a) D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the classroom use of c u r r i c u l a r e p r e s e n t but one of the many p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by t e a c h e r s . For example, the a c t u a l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i s o c c a s i o n a l l y undertaken by t e a c h e r s . However, t h e i r r o l e i n t h i s a spect of p l a n n i n g i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a r g e r committees composed of a number of persons who r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t areas of e x p e r t i s e such as s u b j e c t - m a t t e r and c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s , e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and media t e c h n o l o g i s t s ( M e r r i l l , 1968; Schwab, 1973). More t y p i c a l o f the f u n c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n p l a n n i n g are a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g the adaption, m o d i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y developed c u r r i c u l a (Ben-Peretz, 1975). Here, the r e l e v a n c e of t e a c h e r s ' s e l e c t i o n behaviour may be seen i n the a s s e r t i o n of C o n n e l l y (1972) t h a t " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should be preceded by i n t e l l i g e n t c h o i c e among e x t e r n a l l y developed m a t e r i a l s (p. 169)." I t i s to the pre- d i c t i o n of t h i s choice-making aspect of p l a n n i n g , r e f e r e n c e d by t e a c h e r s ' recommendations, t h a t the proposed study was addressed. 29. b) Recommending behaviours were s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a s i n g l e g r a d e - l e v e l and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r area and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p a r t i c u l a r groups of s t u d e n t s . c) The recommending behaviours examined r e l a t e - o n l y t o the p r e a c t i v e phase of i n s t r u c t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and e v a l u a t i o n procedures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the implementation o f c u r r i c u l a were not the concern of the study. d) The study f o c u s s e d on a p a r t i c u l a r instance^ of p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s p l a n n i n g r a t h e r than t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . Although the q u e s t i o n o f t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p l a n n i n g has c e n t e r e d on t h e i r use of theory to i n f o r m p r a c t i c a l judgements (Broudy, 1972; G l a s s , 1970; Hayes, 1975; Maclure, 1973), i t was not the aim of the proposed study t o r e s o l v e t h i s important i s s u e . Under the c o n d i t i o n s o f the study the a c t u a l u t i l i z a t i o n of e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l or p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d not be t r a c e d . Rather, the r e l e v a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r s ' p o s s e s s i o n of these knowledge sources to t h e i r p l a n n i n g responses i s assumed and the a s s o c i a t i o n of p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g s to recommending behaviours was examined through the agency of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the F i s h b e i n Model. e) Many c o n t e x t u a l elements may i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s ' p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s i n c l u d i n g f o r example, aspects of the s c h o o l and community ( H e r r i c k , 1971; T a y l o r , 1970). Such elements are undoubtedly a component of t e a c h e r s ' d e l i b e r a t i o n s and r e f l e c t e d 3 0 . i n t h e i r (stated) e v a l u a t i v e and normative b e l i e f s . However, on l y the f a c t o r s o f student developmental l e v e l and c u r r i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e s were s p e c i f i e d as c o n d i t i o n s o f the study i n view of t h e i r r e c o g n i z e d importance i n p l a n n i n g ( H a r r i s , 1 9 7 0 ; MacDonald, 1 9 6 5 ; Taba, 1 9 6 2 ) . f) The sample was r e s t r i c t e d to 1 1 2 elementary teac h e r s i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t who v o l u n t e e r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. The r e s u l t s may thus be g e n e r a l i z e d o n l y t o t e a c h e r s who are s i m i l a r l y s i t u a t e d and who possess the p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s sample. The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s i s f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n e d by the F i s h b e i n f o r m u l a t i o n . I t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t the model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to s i t u a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s then must be unique to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s . However, the u n d e r l y i n g theory i s claimed to be q u i t e g e n e r a l i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s and persons. I t i s t h i s g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t h a t the proposed study attempted to demonstrate which has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the conduct of antecedent-process i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n . 1 . 8 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Study The f o l l o w i n g chapter c o n t a i n s a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r i s s u e i n e d u c a t i o n and r e l a t e d areas of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . As w e l l , the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s 31. and e m p i r i c a l development of the q u a n t i t a t i v e framework which u n d e r l i e s the study i s examined. Research s u p p o r t i n g the F i s h b e i n f o r m u l a t i o n i s reviewed and r e l a t e d t o the problems which p r o v i d e guidance to the»study. In t h i s c o n t e x t , the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d are e l a b o r a t e d . Chapter Three o u t l i n e s the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n g a t h e r i n g data f o r the study, the development of the instruments employed, and the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used i n a n a l y s i s of the data. Chapter Four r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s r e l a t e d to the i d e n t i f i e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Chapter F i v e concludes w i t h a summary of the study, d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s , and recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER TWO STATEMENT OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH T h i s chapter f i r s t e l a b o r a t e s the v a r i o u s aspects o f the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r problem from the p e r s p e c t i v e of both a t t i t u d e t h e o r i s t s and more p r a c t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l l y s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , who have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s i s s u e . In t h i s context, the very few e d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s t h a t have examined te a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s w i t h regard t o p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n are reviewed and the needed c o n s i d e r a t i o n of some a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n of a t t i t u d e shown. The t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s and development of F i s h b e i n ' s approach t o a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s examined. Relevant v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s o f the F i s h b e i n Model are reviewed as are s t u d i e s of i t s u t i l i t y i n more a p p l i e d s e t t i n g s . Supported by t h i s d i s c u s s i o n and review, the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d with r e s p e c t t o the pr e s e n t study are then e l a b o r a t e d . 2.1 A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour: Relevant Issues A major concern among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s has been the l a c k o f e m p i r i c a l support f o r a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures of a t t i t u d e and behaviour. Wicker (1969) f o r example, reviewed 46 s t u d i e s i n which s u b j e c t s ' v e r b a l and b e h a v i o u r a l . responses t o a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s were ob t a i n e d on separate o c c a s i o n s . He found t h a t a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r c o r r e l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y low and i n c o n s i s t e n t and summarized the r e s u l t s o f h i s review as f o l l o w s : Taken as whole, these s t u d i e s suggest t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more l i k e l y t h a t a t t i t u d e s w i l l be u n r e l a t e d or o n l y s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to o v e r t behaviour than t h a t a t t i t u d e s w i l l be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a c t i o n s . Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r e l a t i n g the two kinds of responses are r a r e l y above .30 and o f t e n near zero (p.65). Although numerous p o t e n t i a l sources of d i s c r e p a n c y have been suggested by such f i n d i n g s (DeFleur and Westie, 1958; E r l i c h , 1969; Lemon, 1973; Rosenberg and Hovland, 1960; Schwartz and T e s s l e r , 1972), the problem may be seen to comprise two r e l a t e d a s p e c t s . The f i r s t concerns the c o n c e p t i o n and measurement of the a t t i t u d e c o n s t r u c t and the second r e l a t e s to the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i a b l e s o t h e r than a t t i t u d e i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour. 2.1.1. The Conception and Measurement of A t t i t u d e The t h e o r e t i c a l nature and f u n c t i o n of a t t i t u d e has long engaged the i n t e r e s t of p h i l o s o p h e r s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s and the c o n s i d e r a b l e body of l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on t h i s t o p i c c l e a r l y bears on the p r e s e n t study. However, the i n t e n t of t h i s s e c t i o n i s not to t r a c e the h i s t o r i c a l development of the a t t i - tude concept but r a t h e r to o u t l i n e c u r r e n t thought and p r a c t i c e r e g a r d i n g the e m p i r i c a l s e a r c h f o r a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures o f a t t i t u d e and b e haviour. I t was p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a t t i t u d e r e f e r s to a l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to respond i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o u r a b l e or unfavourable way to an o b j e c t or c l a s s of o b j e c t s . T h i s g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n has g i v e n r i s e t o a number of d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , most of which stem from the f a i l u r e to f i n d the p r e d i c t e d a s s o c i a t i o n between measures of a t t i t u d e and behaviour. B a s i c to the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s the assumption t h a t a t t i t u d e i s an i n t e r n a l p r ocess which determines an i n d i v i d u a l ' s response to an ( a t t i - tude) s t i m u l u s . Such a p e r s p e c t i v e may be seen i n A l l p o r t ' s (1935) a s s e r t i o n : An a t t i t u d e i s a mental and n e u r a l s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s e x e r t i n g a d i r e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response t o a l l o b j e c t s and s i t u a t i o n s to which i t i s r e l a t e d (p. 810). S i m i l a r l y , Campbell (1960) m a i n t a i n s t h a t a t t i t u d e i s a primary determinant of behaviour: Responses toward most o b j e c t s are p r e f a c e d by a t t i t u d e s toward those o b j e c t s which i n a p r o x i m a l sense determine the responses (p. 28). B eginning w i t h the c l a s s i c study of L a p i e r e (1934) e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of t h i s assumption r e v e a l e d t h a t a t t i t u d e , as measured by standard a t t i t u d e i n struments, and behaviour were not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d . As a consequence, the argument was advanced t h a t these instruments were i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t h a t they measured onl y the a f f e c t i v e component of a t t i t u d e . The a l t e r n a t i v e view h e l d t h a t a t t i t u d e was m u l t i f a c e t e d , i n v o l v i n g not o n l y a f f e c t but a l s o c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o u r a l components (Chein, 1948; Insko and S c h o p l e r , 1967; Katz and S t o t l a n d , 1959; Rosenberg and Hovland, 1960). T h i s multicom- ponent view of a t t i t u d e has s i n c e gained c o n s i d e r a b l e acceptance both as a c o n c e p t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the a t t i t u d e c o n s t r u c t and as an e x p l a n a t i o n of behaviour. K r e t c h e t a l (1962) f o r example, r e l a t e a t t i t u d i n a l l y r e l e v a n t behaviours to the complex system of b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o u r a l tendencies an i n d i v i d u a l h olds w i t h r e s p e c t to an o b j e c t : The s o c i a l a c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l r e f l e c t h i s a t t i t u d e s - e n d u r i n g systems of p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s , emotional f e e l i n g , and pro or con a c t i o n t e ndencies w i t h r e s p e c t t o s o c i a l o b j e c t s (p. 139). A t a c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l i t may be seen t h a t the above d i s a g r e e - ment w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l view of a t t i t u d e i s a disagreement over the nature of p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s . The more immediate i m p l i c a t i o n of the multicomponent view f o r b e h a v i o u r a l p r e - d i c t i o n i s t h a t a l l three components must be assessed i f the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s to be adequately understood. T h i s assumes however, t h a t the h y p o t h e s i z e d components are r e l a t i v e l y independent. To date, attempts to e s t a b l i s h e m p i r i c a l l y the independence of a f f e c t , c o g n i t i o n , and c o n a t i o n have produced mixed f i n d i n g s . Woodmansee and Cook (1967) conducted a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of a l a r g e p o o l of a t t i t u d e items and found no evidence f o r such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of e v a l u a t i v e reponses. S i m i l a r l y , Ostrom (19 69) found minimal support f o r the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In t h i s study a h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n among the components was o b t a i n e d w i t h the uniqueness of each component c o n t r i b u t i n g l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e . In e x p l a n a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s , Ostrom suggested t h a t the homogeneous nature of the a t t i t u d e i s s u e , which concerned the church, and the r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous c o l l e g e student p o p u l a t i o n reduced the amount of i n c o n s i s t e n c y p o s s i b l e between components. More r e c e n t l y , Kothandapani (1973.) r e p l i c a t e d Ostrom's procedures and r e p o r t e d some success i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y of s c a l e s measuring each of the h y p o t h e s i z e d components. However, c r i t i c i s m o f K o t h a n d i p a n i 1 s a n a l y s i s ( F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975) suggests t h a t the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study must be accepted w i t h some r e s e r v a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , the u t i l i t y of the multicomponent view as an e x p l a n a t i o n of the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . The complexity of the procedures i n v o l v e d i n a ' m u l t i - i n d i c a t o r ' approach to a t t i t u d e measurement (eg,= Cook and S e l l t i z , 1964) has i n h i b i t e d the development of any new and w i d e l y useable instruments (Lemon, 1973). At a more fundamental l e v e l the h i g h convergence among c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and c o n a t i v e items i n s t a n d a r d a t t i t u d e measures such as, Thurstone (1931), L i k e r t (1932), and Guttman (1944) s c a l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t responses from any of the three components would serve e q u a l l y w e l l as an index of a t t i t u d e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t separate a s s e s s - ment o f a l l t h r e e components i s u n l i k e l y t o l e a d t o improved b e h a v i o u r a l p r e d i c t i o n ( F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975). A second response t o the c o n s i s t e n t l y low r e l a t i o n - s h i p found between a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l measures has been what DeFleur and Westie (1963) r e f e r to as the ' p r o b a b i l - i s t i c ' d e f i n i t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s view q u e s t i o n s the e x i s t e n c e of a t t i t u d e as a l a t e n t i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e between a s t i m u l u s and a b e h a v i o u r a l response. Rather than accept the n o t i o n t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour i s somehow shaped, guided or mediated by an unobservable v a r i a b l e , a c o n c e p t i o n o f a t t i t u d e more c l o s e l y t i e d to o b s e r v a b l e behaviour i s proposed. Fuson's (1942) d e f i n i t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h i s p o s i t i o n : The p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence o f a d e f i n e d behaviour i n a d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n (p. 856). A d o p t i o n of t h i s extreme view, w i t h i t s r e j e c t i o n of any i n d i r e c t l y d e f i n e d c o n s t r u c t s and demand t h a t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n be l i n k e d a b s o l u t e l y to the p rocesses of measurement, i s , i n Lemon's (1973) c o n s i d e r a t i o n , "tantamount t o a r e j e c t i o n of the concept of a t t i t u d e . . . " (p. 11). However, i n a l e s s l i t e r a l sense the p r o b a b i l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n may be r e l a t e d to a d i s t i n c - t i o n o f t e n drawn between a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l component; t h a t i s , a t t i t u d e s are seen to d i f f e r from each o t h e r i n the r e a d i n e s s w i t h which they can be expressed i n behaviour (eg. Davis, 1975; T r i a n d i s , 1964). Whether or not such a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c may be c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a t t i t u d e i s s u b j e c t to c o n s i d e r a b l e debate. F i s h b e i n (1967) f o r example, has argued f o r i t s s eparate i d e n t i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he m a i n t a i n s t h a t the term ' a t t i t u d e ' s hould be used when a measure p l a c e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s response on a b i p o l a r , a f f e c t i v e dimension and the term ' b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n ' employed when a measure i s used which i n d i c a t e s the person's p o s i t i o n along a s u b j e c t i v e proba- b i l i t y dimension i n v o l v i n g a r e l a t i o n between h i m s e l f and some a c t i o n . R e f e r r i n g t o the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a t t i t u d e and i t s accepted means of measurement, comparative s t u d i e s of 9 the p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y of s t a n d a r d a t t i t u d e s c a l e s have been conducted on the premise t h a t the f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour may be due not to the i n a d e q u a c i e s of v e r b a l measures per se but to the p a r t i c u l a r type of measure employed. T i t t l e and H i l l (1967) f o r example, compared L i k e r t , Thurstone, and Guttman s c a l e s t o g e t h e r w i t h a Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l measure (Osgood e t a l , 1967), i n the p r e d i c t i o n of m u l t i p l e (four) b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a . I t should be noted t h a t i n c o n t r a s t t o the Ostrom (1969) and Kothandipani (1971) s t u d i e s the s c a l e s used by T i t t l e and H i l l were designed to measure the same u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e , i e . a t t i t u d e toward v a r i o u s aspects of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . T h e i r f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e some evidence f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t of measuring instruments on p r e - d i c t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each instrument were noted w i t h the L i k e r t s c a l e b e i n g most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h behaviour. V a r i o u s arguments were advanced f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s . The s u p e r i o r i t y o f the L i k e r t s c a l e was a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o the o p e r a t i o n of an i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r i n the summated r a t i n g procedure used i n s c o r i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , L i k e r t s c o r i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by the degree as w e l l as the d i r e c t i o n of response to each item. In- tense or s t r o n g l y f e l t responses would thus weight the f i n a l s c o r e a s s i g n e d to each s u b j e c t . The f i n e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s a l lowed were presumably r e f l e c t e d i n the rankings of s u b j e c t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the o b j e c t ; the r a nkings b e i n g i n p u t to the p a r t i c u l a r (Gamma) s t a t i s t i c used i n a n a l y s i s . A second reason advanced by T i t t l e and H i l l i n e x p l a i n i n g the g r e a t e r p r e - d i c t i v e a b i l i t y of the L i k e r t s c a l e r e l a t e d to the number of s e l f - r e f e r e n t items c o n t a i n e d i n the instrument. R e l a t i v e to the o t h e r measures, the L i k e r t s c a l e i n c l u d e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more p e r s o n a l pronouns (ie., ' I ' or 'me'). I t was assumed t h a t " r e - sponse to an item i s l i k e l y to be more s p e c i f i c f o r an i n d i v i d u - a l i f the item c o n t a i n s some s e l f - r e f e r e n c e " (p. 212). Although more t e c h n i c a l treatments of the r e l a t i v e p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y of s t a n d a r d a t t i t u d e s c a l e s have been g i v e n (e.g. F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975), a g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the two i s s u e s r a i s e d by T i t t l e and H i l l , i.e.. i n t e n s i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y , w i l l o u t l i n e the b a s i c o p e r a t i o n a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n p r e d i c t i n g behaviour from a t t i t u d e . Although c o n s i d e r a b l e debate surrounds the i n t e r p r e - t a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of such terms as i n t e n s i t y or s a l i e n c e i n a t t i t u d e measurement (e.g.. Lemon, 1973) , they have been equated w i t h the n o t i o n of importance (Hackman and Anderson, 19 68; Wyer, 19 70). While i t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t the importance of a b e l i e f statement i s a determinant of a person's t o t a l a t t i t u d e s c o r e , t h i s has not been shown e m p i r i c a l l y . (Kaplan and F i s h b e i n , 1969). As a component measure of a t t i t u d e , importance has been w i d e l y used i n a p p l i e d areas such as e d u c a t i o n (Stake and Gooler, 1971) and consumer r e s e a r c h ( W i l k i e and P e s s i m i e r , 1972). However, t h i s appears to be an i n a p p r o - p r i a t e usage i n t h a t the importance of an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t or a t t r i b u t e i s not an adequate measure of e v a l u a t i o n . Measures of importance have been shown to loa d on both the e v a l u a t i v e and potency dimensions o f the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l (Osgood, Suchi and Tannenbaum, 1957). The n o t i o n o f s p e c i f i c i t y may be d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t to a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l v a r i a b l e s . Some r e s e a r c h e r s . ( E h r l i o h , 1969; F i s h b e i n , 19671. 1973? 'Wicker19 .71 ) have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the c r i t e r i o n measures employed i n a t t i t u d e - behaviour s t u d i e s . I t i s argued t h a t i n most i n s t a n c e s there are many p o s s i b l e f a v o u r a b l e or unfavourable ways i n which an i n d i v i d u a l can respond to an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . S i n c e such behaviours may be s u b s t i t u t e s f o r one another, t h e i r i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s may be q u i t e low. I t f o l l o w s t h a t t o assess ad- equa t e l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p .between an a t t i t u d e toward.an o b j e c t and behaviour w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t o b j e c t , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of r e l e v a n t behaviours should be used as a c r i t e r i o n . R e f e r r i n g again t o the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f a t t i t u d e and i t s assumed r e l a t i o n t o behaviour, i t may be seen t h a t the c r i t e r i o n i s s u e concerns the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n the n o t i o n o f response c o n s i s t e n c y . Some r e s e a r c h e r s (eg. DeFleur and Westie, 1958) mai n t a i n t h a t there should be a c o n s i s t e n c y among d i f f e r e n t responses. Others ( F i s h b e i n , I967; Osgood, et a l , 1957;. Thur-. stone,1931) assume t h a t o n l y the t o t a l amount of favourableness or unfavourableness of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i f f e r e n t behaviours toward an o b j e c t should be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s a t t i t u d e toward t h a t o b j e c t . E m p i r i c a l support f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n has been 41. p r o v i d e d by F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (19 74) who showed t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e (i.e.- Thurstone, L i k e r t , Guttman and Semantic • D i f f e r e n t i a l ) c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a but o n l y s l i g h t l y w i t h p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r s . Rokeach and K l e i j u n a s (1972) have e l a b o r a t e d the n o t i o n of content s p e c i f i c i t y w i t h r e g a r d to v e r b a l a t t i t u d e measures. They proposed t h a t a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d b e t t e r be e x p l a i n e d by c o n s i d e r i n g ' a t t i t u d e toward the s i t u a t i o n ' (As) as w e l l as ' a t t i t u d e toward the o b j e c t ' (Ao). They argued t h a t Ao and As were independent and t h a t each would p r e d i c t behaviour, a t l e a s t t o some ex t e n t . To t e s t t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n , Rokeach and K l e i j u n a s attempted to p r e d i c t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ' attendance ( i e . c u t t i n g c l a s s e s ) i n terms of Ao and As, where Ao r e f e r r e d t o the course i n s t r u c t o r s and As r e f e r r e d to the importance or unimportance of a t t e n d i n g c l a s s . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s , they found Ao and As to be u n c o r r e l a t e d . However, w h i l e As was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h behaviour, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Ao and behaviour was not s i g n i f i c a n t . While these f i n d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c i t y a t which a t t i t u d e may be measured w i t h r e g a r d to the p r e d i c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r s , c e r t a i n i n t e r p r e t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s a t t e n d Rokeach and K l e i j u n a s ' formu- l a t i o n . F i r s t , A siwas o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t to ' a t t e n d i n g c l a s s ' r a t h e r than the classroom s i t u a t i o n . I t i s thus more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to an a t t i t u d e toward the behaviour than toward the s i t u a t i o n . Secondly, a measure of importance was used i n a s s e s s i n g As. S p e c i f i c a l l y , a n i n e - p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g from 'somewhat important to me' t o 'very important t o me' was employed. As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , measures of importance may not be h i g h l y r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e . P e r r y (1976) r e c e n t l y conducted a study which examined the e f f e c t of s c a l e s p e c i f i c i t y on the p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour. In t h i s study, two measures of a t t i t u d e (Thurstone s c a l e s ) were c o n s t r u c t e d a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c i t y w i t h r e s p e c t to the behaviour of i n t e r e s t . The l a t t e r i n v o l v e d a c h o i c e among f i v e punishments f o r c h e a t i n g on a c o l l e g e - l e v e l examination. The c h o i c e s or v e r d i c t s d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r s e v e r i t y , r a n g i n g from a m i l d rebuke to the assignment of a f a i l i n g grade. The 'general' s c a l e was composed of items which r e f l e c t e d a g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n toward c h e a t i n g i n s c h o o l w h i l e the ' s p e c i f i c ' s c a l e items made p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to punishment behaviours under s p e c i f i e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . R e s u l t s s i m i l a r to Rokeach and K l e i j u n a s ' (1972) f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d . The s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l s c a l e s were u n c o r r e l a t e d w h i l e the c o r r e l a t i o n of behaviour w i t h the g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c s c a l e s although low, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r the l a t t e r measure. P e r r y concluded t h a t , taken by i t s e l f , a t t i t u d e i s not a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t e s t i m a t o r o f behaviour but t h a t a p a r t from o t h e r v a r i a b l e s which presumably i n t e r v e n e to a t t e n u a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p , some p o r t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and behaviour may be accounted f o r by the s p e c i f i t y of the a t t i t u d e s c a l e . In both the Rokeach and K l e i j u n a s (1972) and P e r r y (1976) s t u d i e s i t was a n t i c i p a t e d and shown t h a t a t t i t u d e toward 43. the o b j e c t (Ao) and a t t i t u d e toward a s p e c i f i c behaviour (Ab) were u n c o r r e l a t e d . The i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t responses t o these measures w i l l always be u n c o r r e l a t e d does not, however, f o l l o w . In a study of two P r i s o n e r Dilemma games A j z e n and F i s h b e i n ( 1 9 7 0 ) found s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between (Semantic D i f f e r e n - t i a l ) measures o f Ao and Ab. F i s h b e i n 1 s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r the a b i l i t y of more s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d s c a l e s t o p r e d i c t behaviour. In h i s view, the more immediate determinant of a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour i s the a t t i t u d e toward performing t h a t behaviour. Assessments of a t t i t u d e toward the more g e n e r a l o b j e c t w i l l be r e l a t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour w i t h r e s p e c t -to t h a t o b j e c t o n l y to the e x t e n t t h a t they are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the more s p e c i f i c measure. Evidence t h a t standard a t t i t u d e measures are pre- d i c t i v e of s e t s of behaviours but not s p e c i f i c behaviours h e l p s to e x p l a i n the n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s of many p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . P a r t i c u l a r l y , the e f f e c t s of item s p e c i f i c i t y on the p r e d i c t i o n of s i n g l e - a c t behaviours i n d i c a t e s a t l e a s t one d i r e c t i o n i n which r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of a t t i t u d e may proceed. C u r r e n t l y however, the view t h a t most i n v e s t i - g a t o r s appear to h o l d may be summarized as i n c l u d i n g the b e l i e f t h a t a t t i t u d e s are a primary determinant of a person's responses to an o b j e c t , ie... a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e or c o n a t i v e , and t h a t any of these responses p r o v i d e a v a l i d index of a t t i t u d e . While t h i s view p r e v a i l s , i t i s a l s o q u a l i f i e d by an awareness t h a t no one-to-one correspondence may be expected between a t t i t u d e so d e f i n e d and any g i v e n behaviour. An acceptance of the i m p e r f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and behaviour leads t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the second major e x p l a n a t i o n of d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . 2.1.2. The Role of N o n - A t t i t u d i n a l V a r i a b l e s i n the P r e d i c t i o n of Behaviour I t has been suggested t h a t much c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e f l e c t s the view t h a t a t t i t u d e s somehow shape, guide or mediate an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour but t h a t as p r e s e n t l y c o n c e i v e d and measured, do not p r o v i d e a s u f - f i c e n t b a s i s f o r b e h a v i o u r a l p r e d i c t i o n . Freedman e t a l , (1970) have s t a t e d t h i s p o s i t i o n as f o l l o w s : ... a t t i t u d e s always produce p r e s s u r e t o behave c o n s i s t e n t l y , but e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s and extraneous c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can cause people to behave i n c o n - s i s t e n t l y w i t h t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . Any a t t i t u d e or change i n a t t i t u d e tends t o produce behaviour t h a t corresponds t o i t . However, t h i s correspondence o f t e n does not appear because of o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n the s i t u a t i o n (p. 385-6). A l a r g e a r r a y of 'other v a r i a b l e s ' has been proposed to account f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and beha v i o u r . S i n c e comprehensive treatments of these p o t e n t i a l sources o f i n f l u e n c e are a v a i l a b l e ( E h r l i c h , 1969; F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975; K i e s l e r , C o l l i n s and M i l l e r , 1969; T i t t l e and H i l l , 1967; Wicker, 1969) no attempt t o e l a b o r a t e these sources w i l l here be made. However, c e r t a i n p o i n t s w i t h r e s p e c t to the g e n e r a l nature o f these v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a t t i t u d e i n p r e - d i c t i o n and the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approaches employed i n t h e i r study i s necessary'. Most g e n e r a l l y the 'other v a r i a b l e s ' e x p l a n a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t a t t i t u d e i s o n l y one of a number of v a r i a b l e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e behaviour and t h a t n o n - a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r s , r e l a t i n g t o s i t u a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the person, must a l s o be taken i n t o account. Wicker's (1969) review and a n a l y s i s i s perhaps the most comprehensive and h i s c a t e g o r i z a - t i o n of the l o g i c a l l y r e l e v a n t antecedents i n t o p e r s o n a l (i.e., i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e or i n t r a - p e r s o n a l ) and s i t u a t i o n a l (i.e... e n v i ronmental or e x t r a - p e r s o n a l ) f a c t o r s i s t y p i c a l of most surveys . Wicker d e t a i l e d the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s p o t e n t i a l l y capable o f i n f l u e n c i n g the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p as: o t h e r competing a t t i t u d e s and motives; and d i f f e r e n c e s among v e r b a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and s o c i a l a b i l i t i e s . The r e l e v a n t s i t u - a t i o n a l elements proposed were: a c t u a l or c o n s i d e r e d presence of o t h e r people and normative p r e s c r i p t i o n s of proper behaviour; a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s ; unforeseen or extraneous events and expected or a c t u a l consequences of v a r i o u s a c t s ; the s p e c i f i c i t y of the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . A f i n a l f a c t o r , r e l a t i n g t o the s p e c i f i c i t y of measuring s c a l e s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , was the degree of s i m i l a r i t y between the t e s t c o n d i t i o n s under which a t t i t u d e and behaviour measures were drawn. While many v a r i a b l e s have been i d e n t i f i e d as l o g i c a l determinants of b e h a v i o u r , r e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have e x p l i c i t l y t e s t e d the o t h e r - v a r i a b l e s e x p l a n a t i o n . Wicker (1969) s t a t e d : 46. Often these f a c t o r s are mentioned i n d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n s by i n v e s t i g a t o r s who have f a i l e d t o demonstrate a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r c o n s i s t e n c y ... The arguments f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of each f a c t o r are o f t e n p l a u s i b l e anecdotes and post-hoc e x p l a n a t i o n s (p. 67). Among those s t u d i e s which have d i r e c t l y examined the e f f e c t of p e r s o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s on the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n , t h e r e appear t o e x i s t two p o i n t s of view r e g a r d i n g the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among antecedent v a r i a b l e s which may be termed i n t e r a c t i v e or independent ( F i s h b e i n and Ajzen, 19 75). Where r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e and behaviour are moderated by oth e r v a r i a b l e s , as f o r example when c e r t a i n s k i l l s are r e q u i r e d to perform the behaviour, a t t i t u d e i s seen to i n t e r a c t w i t h a b i l i t y i n determining the b e h a v i o u r a l response. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , o t h e r v a r i a b l e s may operate independently i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on behaviour. D i r e c t e f f e c t s of an a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e on behaviour may occur r e g a r d l e s s o f the a t t i t u d e h e l d . In t h i s case, the a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e would f u n c t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t t i t u d e i n determining the b e h a v i o u r a l response. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o c h a r a c t e r i z e each of the above viewpoints i n terms of the r e s e a r c h methodology t y p i c a l l y em- ploy e d (Wicker, 19 71). One s t r a t e g y has been t o c r e a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y two pr more l e v e l s of a v a r i a b l e and then to examine the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n a t the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . In a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s examining r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s and v a r i o u s behaviours r e g a r d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c i v i l r i g h t s a c t i v i t i e s (DeFleur and Westie, 1958; Green, 1972; L i n n , 1965; Warner and DeFleur, 1969), v a r i a b l e s such as degree of p u b l i c exposure or v i s i b i l i t y and degree of i n t i m a c y were e x p e r i m e n t a l l y manipulated t o determine t h e i r e f f e c t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s and behaviour. In Warner and DeFleur's (1969) study f o r example, the e f f e c t of p u b l i c exposure on b e h a v i o u r a l commitments such as 1 c o n t r i b u t i n g money t o a c i v i l r i g h t s o r g a n i z a t i o n 1 , ' a t t e n d i n g a d i n n e r to welcome ten negro students to campus', and 'endorsing an appeal to seek out q u a l i f i e d negro c a n d i d a t e s f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e ' was i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r two groups of s u b j e c t s d e f i n e d i n terms of t h e i r r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s (1.6... most and l e a s t p r e j u d i c e d ) . The v i s i b i l i t y o f the behaviour was manipu- l a t e d by t e l l i n g h a l f the s u b j e c t s i n each a t t i t u d e group t h a t t h e i r responses would be p u b l i s h e d i n a student newspaper (high s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t c o n d i t i o n ) w h i l e the o t h e r group was assured t h a t t h e i r responses would be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l (low s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t c o n d i t i o n ) . Comparisons of the r e f u s a l and compliance r a t e s of each a t t i t u d e group under the s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t con- d i t i o n s were made. S p e c i f i c a l l y the two s i t u a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and the p a r t i t i o n e d a t t i t u d e p o s i t i o n s allowed a t e s t of p r o p o r t i o n s to be made u s i n g the b e h a v i o u r a l measure as a dependent v a r i a b l e . As a n t i c i p a t e d , Warner and DeFleur found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the responses of the d e f i n e d a t t i t u d e groups a t t r i b u t a b l e to s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t . More r e c e n t l y , Snyder and Swann (1976) examined the e f f e c t s of a p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e on a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r c o n s i s - tency. S p e c i f i c a l l y , they i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n f l u e n c e of ' s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g 1 on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s toward the i s s u e of s e x - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n job h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s and l e g a l 4 8 . d e c i s i o n s in. a r e l a t e d c o u r t case. The c o n s t r u c t of s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g was d e f i n e d as the p r o p e n s i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l t o r e f e r e i t h e r t o s i t u a t i o n a l and normative cues o r t o i n f o r m a t i o n about i n n e r d i s p o s i t i o n a l s t a t e s such as a t t i t u d e . Two groups of s u b j e c t s were formed on the b a s i s o f h i g h o r low sc o r e s on the S e l f - M o n i t o r i n g S c a l e (Snyder, 1974). T h i s a l l o w e d a com- p a r i s o n o f the congruence between a t t i t u d e s toward h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s and v e r d i c t s rendered i n the l e g a l s i t u a t i o n f o r s u b j e c t s who were i n c l i n e d e i t h e r toward s e l f o r s i t u a t i o n moni- t o r i n g . Snyder and Swann found t h a t f o r the h i g h s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g group, c o v a r i a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and behaviour was s i g n i f - i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than f o r the low s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g group although the magnitude of the a s s o c i a t i o n was not l a r g e . Snyder and Swann concluded t h a t congruence between a t t i t u d e and behaviour i s g r e a t e s t f o r persons who r e g a r d t h e i r behaviours as a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n s of c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s p o s i t i o n s , i.e." a t t i t u d e s . An a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r - t e s t i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a v a r i a b l e t o b e h a v i o u r a l p r e d i c t i o n i s t o measure i t d i r e c t - l y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a t t i t u d e . Here, a t t i t u d e and a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s are t r e a t e d as independent v a r i a b l e s i n a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n w i t h behaviour as a dependent v a r i a b l e . Wicker's (1971) i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e s an example of t h i s approach. In t h i s study, t h r e e c h u r c h - r e l a t e d behaviours i n v o l v i n g attendance, monetary c o n t r i b u t i o n s and the degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n church a c t i v i t i e s were p r e d i c t e d from the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : a t t i t u d e toward the church; p e r c e i v e d consequences of the behaviour; e v a l u a t i o n o f the behaviour; and judged i n f l u e n c e o f extraneous events. Wicker r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s f o r the independent and j o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n of the p r e d i c t o r s which showed e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t a t t i t u d e and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s may or may not be r e l a t e d t o a g i v e n b e h a v i o u r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he found c o r r e l a t i o n s between antecedents and behaviours which ranged i n magnitude from low to moderately h i g h w h i l e the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s were e q u a l l y v a r i a b l e . A study by Ewens and E h r l i c h (1972) s i m i l a r l y demon- s t r a t e d i n c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s between v a r i o u s c i v i l r i g h t s r e l a t e d b ehaviours and antecedent v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g a t t i t u d e . In t h i s study, c o r r e l a t i o n s and p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s of each behaviour w i t h " e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s ' and ' r e f e r e n c e - o t h e r support' v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The a t t i t u d e measure r e f e r r e d to Negroes i n g e n e r a l w h i l e the r e f e r e n c e - o t h e r measure ass e s s e d the number of s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l r e f e r e n t groups c o n s i d e r e d by each s u b j e c t . As i n d i c a t e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a t t i - tude toward the o b j e c t measure employed i n t h i s study and the r e l e v a n t b ehaviours v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y r e s u l t i n g i n a p a t t e r n of a s s o c i a t i o n much l i k e t h a t found by Wicker (1971). When the i n f l u e n c e of the normative term was p a r t i a l l e d out, the magni- tude of the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r c o r r e l a t i o n s dropped somewhat. Although the normative term was expected to be s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to b e h a v i o u r , the manner i n which i t was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d may have a t t e n u a t e d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Ewens and E h r l i c h concluded t h a t one of the reasons f o r the g e n e r a l l y low and i n c o n s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s found i n the study was t h e i r r e f e r e n c e to a g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . P a r t i c u l a r l y , they r e f e r 5 0 . to the need f o r a more s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e measure: ... the use of the concept of ' a t t i t u d e s toward s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s ' r a t h e r than ' a t t i t u d e s toward more g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s (such as m i n o r i t y groups) has been shown to y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p r e d i c t i o n s than those r e p o r t e d here (p. 358). I t may be seen t h a t both uses of the g e n e r a l l i n e a r model p r o v i d e evidence t h a t o t h e r v a r i a b l e s may i n t e r a c t w i t h a t t i t u d e as w e l l as e x e r t an independent i n f l u e n c e on behaviour. Consequently, the problem of understanding the a s s o c i a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and behaviour i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r antecedent v a r i a b l e s remains p r o b l e m a t i c . The i s s u e appears to be one of de t e r m i n i n g the r e l e v a n t 'other v a r i a b l e s ' . In Schwartz and T e s s l e r ' s (1972) terms, the problem p r e s e n t s "...the c h a l l e n g e of d e v e l o p i n g a method f o r sampling among v a r i a b l e s or f o r d e s i g n a t i n g those t h a t are c r u c i a l ' . ( p . 225). F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (1975) have s i m i l a r l y a ssessed t h i s s i t u a t i o n : Without some t h e o r e t i c a l framework which s p e c i f i e s the 'other v a r i a b l e s ' t h a t are r e l e v a n t f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f a g i v e n b e h a v i o r , c o n t i n u e d s e a r c h f o r a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s can o n l y serve to confound the problem (p. 347). SUMMARY Much c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n the a t t i t u d e a r e a has attempted to e x p l a i n why t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e - s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree of a f f e c t f o r or a g a i n s t some o b j e c t - a r e u n r e l a t e d to behaviour. The most g e n e r a l l y accepted a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n i s the argument t h a t 5 1 . a t t i t u d e s are complex phenomena comp r i s i n g not o n l y a person's a f f e c t i v e f e e l i n g s toward an o b j e c t but a l s o h i s b e l i e f s about the o b j e c t and a c t i o n t e n d e n c i e s toward the o b j e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w p o i n t , the adequate p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour from a t t i t u d e r e q u i r e s the measurement of c o g n i t i v e and c o n a t i v e as w e l l as a f f e c t i v e a spects of a t t i t u d e . However, d e s p i t e a g e n e r a l acceptance of the multicomponent view as d e s c r i p t i v e of a t t i t u d e , a t t i t u d e measurement i s u s u a l l y accomplished by o b t a i n i n g a s i n g l e s c o r e t h a t r e p r e s e n t s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s of f a v o u r a b l e n e s s or unfavourableness toward an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s i n g l e s c o r e i s u s u a l l y o b t a i n e d by c o n s i d e r i n g e i t h e r the c o g n i t i v e component, the c o n a t i v e com- ponent, or some combination of both presumed to r e f l e c t the u n d e r l y i n g e v a l u a t i v e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n . I t has been shown t h a t t h i s s i n g l e s c o r e , as generated by s t a n d a r d a t t i t u d e i n s t r u m e n t s , i s not r e l i a b l y p r e d i c t i v e of p a r t i c u l a r behaviours., That i s , a s c o r e r e p r e s e n t i n g a person's f e e l i n g s of f a v o u r a b l e n e s s or un- f a v o u r a b l e n e s s toward some o b j e c t has no s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n to d i s c r e e t b ehaviours w i t h r e s p e c t to t h a t o b j e c t . In response to t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s have been advanced. Among these are arguments t h a t one or more a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s have to be taken i n t o account i n o r d e r to p r e d i c t the performance of a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour. These i n c l u d e s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , norms, m o t i v a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e measures. Yet i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between behaviour and proposed antecedent v a r i a b l e s has f a i l e d to r e v e a l any s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s . Such n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s are, apparent not onl y i n the s o c i a l psychology f i e l d but a l s o i n the e d u c a t i o n a l area of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g . 2.2 A t t i t u d e Research i n E d u c a t i o n Although t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s are acknowledged to be an important t o p i c i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , r e l e v a n t e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s are somewhat narrow i n scope. Most such s t u d i e s have attempted t o e l a b o r a t e the substance and s t r u c t u r e o f t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward s e l f , students or p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f the s o c i a l environment i n classrooms (Crocker, 1974). Few have c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward c u r r i c u l u m and fewer y e t have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c u r r i c u l a r a t t i t u d e s t o p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o u r s . The f o l l o w i n g review w i l l r e f l e c t the concerns, assumptions and methodology of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o the p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r e a . A number o f s t u d i e s have focused on the p r i o r i t i e s g i v e n c u r r i c u l a r g o a l s and t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s by te a c h e r s (Ammons, 1964; Downey, 1960; M i l l e r e t a l , 1967; Ohnmacht, 1965; Stake and Gooler, 1970). Although e q u a t i n g p r i o r i t y w i t h v a l u e has precedent i n oth e r d i s c i p l i n e s ( c f . G l a s s , 1970), n e a r l y a l l s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n have ass e s s e d g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , and i n - s t r u c t i o n a l courses o f a c t i o n i n terms of importance measures which, as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , are poor i n d i c e s o f a t t i t u d e . In Stake and Gooler's (19 70) study f o r example, groups of te a c h e r s were asked t o r a t e v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s w i t h r e g a r d to t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance and the amount of classroom t e a c h i n g time they would a l l o c a t e t o g o a l attainment. The l a t t e r may be c o n s i d e r e d a b e h a v i o u r a l measure of commitment, Stake and Gooler found l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y between the two measures and concluded: When our s c a l e of p r i o r i t i e s s h i f t e d from use of time to the more g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e , "importance', we f o u n d . . . . t h a t d i f f e r e n t ways of o p e r a t i o n a l i - z i n g p r i o r i t i e s may l e a d to q u i t e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l procedures (p. 47). Attempts to d e s c r i b e the content and s t r u c t u r e of t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s toward the ' t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ' have been made. Wehling and C h a r t e r s (1969) f o r example, viewed t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o be most m e a n i n g f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a complex o r g a n i z a t i o n of b e l i e f s . Based on a number of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s , e i g h t dimensions o f elementary t e a c h e r s ' views of the e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s were r e v e a l e d . The e i g h t dimensions and the c e n t r a l theme of each are as f o l l o w s : Dimension Theme 1. S u b j e c t Matter Emphasis I t i s important t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n s u b j e c t matter i n s c h o o l . 2. P e r s o n a l Adjustment Ideology The s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l needs of students are important. 3. Student Autonomy versus Teacher D i r e c t i o n Give c h i l d r e n more freedom versus Keep p u p i l s busy w i t h a w e l l planned program. 4. E motional Disengagement Keep proper ' p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s t a n c e ' from p u p i l s . 5. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of Student Viewpoint Understand and l o v e your p u p i l s 6. Classroom Order Keep f i r m c o n t r o l of your c l a s s 54. 7. Student Challenge Challenge students w i t h d i f - f i c u l t l e a r n i n g t a s k s . 8. I n t e g r a t i v e L e a r n i n g Teach the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of knowledge. No attempt was made by Wehling and C h a r t e r s to r e l a t e these p o s i t i o n s to t e a c h e r p r a c t i c e . The s t r u c t u r a l e x p l i c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f systems was seen t o be a p r e l i m i n a r y t o "uncovering the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s about the e d u c a t i v e system and behaviour of teachers i n the s c h o o l s " (p. 23). However, subsequent s t u d i e s based on Wehling and C h a r t e r s ' r e s e a r c h have not y e t appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The f i r s t two dimensions-of t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s d e s c r i b e d i n Wehling and C h a r t e r s ' (1969) study may be r e l a t e d to the f a c t o r s o f ' t r a d i t i o n a l i s m ' and ' p r o g r e s s i v i s m ' - dimensions which were presumed to u n d e r l i e t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward edu c a t i o n - found by K e r l i n g e r (1958). Sontag (1968) attempted to r e l a t e these a t t i t u d i n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t o teacher judgements o f d e s i r - a b l e t e a c h i n g behaviours. In t h i s study, teachers were grouped by a median p a r t i t i o n of t h e i r s cores on K e r l i n g e r ' s (1958) E d u c a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e S c a l e (ES V I I ) . T h e i r assessments o f d e s i r a b l e t e a c h i n g behaviours (ie. r e l a t i v e importance of a g i v e n p r a c t i c e to elementary teachers) were gathered from a Q s o r t of e i g h t y behaviours r e l a t i n g t o f o u r broad areas of i n s t r u c - t i o n a l p r a c t i c e : t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ; a u t h o r i t y - d i s c i p l i n e ; and n o r m a t i v e - s o c i a l . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the Q s o r t showed t h a t f o u r f a c t o r s underlay the behaviours judged d e s i r a b l e f o r elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . 55. These were l a b e l l e d : Concern f o r Students; S t r u c t u r e and S u b j e c t Matter; S t i m u l a t i n g Teaching; and S e l f C o n t r o l i n Teaching. Of these, the two which accounted f o r the major p o r t i o n o f f a c t o r v a r i a n c e were Concern f o r Students and S t r u c t u r e and S u b j e c t Matter. Sontag concluded: (These) f a c t o r s were c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e s toward e d u c a t i o n i n t h a t most of the p r o g r e s s i v e s loaded on the f i r s t f a c t o r and most of the t r a - d i t i o n a l i s t s loaded on the second f a c t o r (p. 400). The b e h a v i o u r a l f a c t o r s were each composed of a number of items r e l a t i n g to s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g and classroom management tasks and thus c o n s t r u c t e d , r e p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r a l 'syndromes' or p a t t e r n s r a t h e r than d i s c r e t e b e h a v i o u r s . Sontag's f i n d i n g s may be seen as congruent, a t l e a s t i n a g e n e r a l way, w i t h the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e toward an o b j e c t and m u l t i p l e - a c t behaviours or b e h a v i o u r a l commitments. Somewhat s i m i l a r t o S o n t a g 1 s approach, Turner (1967) drew.upon p r e v i o u s work by Ryans'(1960) to assess the r e l a t i o n - s h i p between b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r observed responses to i n s t r u c t i o n a l problems commonly encountered i n the f i r s t two years of e l e m e n t a r y - l e v e l t e a c h i n g . Employing Ryans' (1960) Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Schedule (Form E 54), Turner measured a t t i t u d e toward p u p i l s , democratic p u p i l p r a c t i c e s , s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l (i,e. f e l l o w teachers) and b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g a p e r m i s s i v e , c h i l d - c e n t e r e d versus a t r a d i t i o n a l , s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d approach to i n s t r u c t i o n . As w e l l , the i n s t r u c t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g performance of t e a c h e r s was 56. assessed on Wade's (1961) Teaching Tasks i n Reading t e s t . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s t e s t assesses the a b i l i t y to diagnose p u p i l l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and the a b i l i t y t o o rganize c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s . For purposes of comparison, teachers were cate g o r - i z e d a c c o r d i n g to elementary s u p e r v i s o r and p r i n c i p a l r a t i n g s i n t o a number of 'problem groups'. The f o l l o w i n g such groups bear on aspects of p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n : 1. Management: T h i s grouping r e f e r r e d to problems of i n s t r u c - t i o n a l ' o r g a n i z a t i o n ' , c u r r i c u l u m 'planning', or classroom 'management'. 2. Reading: Problems i n t h i s category r e f e r r e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n language a r t s g e n e r a l l y and i n the t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y . S p e c i f i c problems r e l a t e d to the f o rmation of i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups of p u p i l s were paramount. 3. Expectancy: Teachers i n c l u d e d i n t h i s category experienced d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i n g to t hree aspects of i n s t r u c t i o n : 1) a tendency to 'over-expect' or 'under-expect' of p u p i l s i n terms of achievement; 2) d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among p u p i l s ; 3) problems i n determ- i n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of complexity i n i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the grade they were t e a c h i n g . 4. No Problem: T h i s group i n c l u d e d a l l teachers who were per- c e i v e d as having no n o table problems i n i n s t r u c t i o n . As such, they p r o v i d e d a c r i t e r i o n group f o r comparison. Comparisons between the Problem and No Problem groups r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s . With r e s p e c t to management problems, the only s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found r e l a t e d to s t a f f a t t i t u d e s ; t e a c h e r s w i t h l e s s f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward f e l l o w s t a f f members d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the No Problem group. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o noted f o r the problem area of t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g . Here the Problem group d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i - c a n t l y g r e a t e r unfavourable a t t i t u d e toward s c h o o l s t a f f and democratic p u p i l p r a c t i c e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the non- s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e of the comparison groups' s c o r e s on the Teacher Tasks i n Reading t e s t . In t h i s r e g a r d , Turner (1967) concluded: In the p r e s e n t sample a t l e a s t , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g seem more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t e a c h e r than w i t h her problem s o l v i n g c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s (p. 255). The group of t e a c h e r s who had expectancy problems d i f f e r e d from the No Problem group w i t h r e s p e c t t o the t r a d i t i o n a l versus p e r m i s s i v e v i e w p o i n t and problem s o l v i n g performance. A c c o r d i n g to Turner, t h i s suggests t h a t the t e a c h e r w i t h expectancy problems i s somewhat s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d but l a c k i n g i n adequate problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y i n the s k i l l s u b j e c t s . As w i t h most s t u d i e s i n the area, Turner's i n v e s t i - g a t i o n r e f e r e n c e d a t t i t u d i n a l o b j e c t s or i s s u e s w i t h r e s p e c t to b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s o r s e t s of behaviours and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s may thus be expected. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are the f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the f u n c t i o n of the problem s o l v i n g f a c t o r . The p o s s e s s i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of a n a l y t i c s k i l l s were assumed t o be of primary importance as antecedents t o t e a c h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t they d i d not r e l a t e 58. to teacher problems i n Management or i n Reading prompted Turner (1967) to conclude t h a t t h i s f a c t o r d i d not operate d i r e c t l y ; r a t h e r i t appeared t o " i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s " (p. 256). The above s t u d i e s may be seen to correspond i n methodology to the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s o c i a l psychology s t u d i e s which manipulated d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e l e v e l s i n examining a t t i t u d e and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and behaviour. The f o l l o w i n g study p r e s e n t s an example of the r e g r e s s i o n approach to a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e s e a r c h . Maguire(1968; 1969) attempted to a s c e r t a i n the a t t i - t u d i n a l b a s i s of c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s made by teachers r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , teachers e v a l u a t e d a l i s t of c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s on a s e t of b i - p o l a r , a d j e c t i v a l (semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l ) s c a l e s which had been s e l e c t e d to d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s v a l u e aspects of the o b j e c t i v e s . Subsequently, i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to the implementation of each o b j e c t i v e were recorded. These d e c i s i o n s i n c l u d e d : 1) an e s t i m a t e of the number of classroom i n s t r u c - t i o n a l hours each teacher would devote to the p u r s u i t of each o b j e c t i v e ; 2) t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e e s timate of the amount of com- mitment they would p e r s o n a l l y f e e l toward p u r s u i t of each o b j e c t i v e ; 3) a s i m i l a r estimate of the amount of commitment the s c h o o l system i n g e n e r a l should d i s p l a y i n a t t a i n i n g each o b j e c t i v e ; 4) a r a n k i n g of the o b j e c t i v e s i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance i n the s c h o o l program. A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o the o b j e c t i v e s r e v e a l e d f o u r dimensions which were common to the t e s t and r e p l i c a t i o n samples employed i n the study. These were l a b e l e d S u b j e c t M a t t e r V a l u e , M o t i v a t i o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (to s t u d e n t s ) , Ease of Implementation, and Statement P r o p e r t i e s , the l a t t e r r e f e r r i n g t o the p r e c i s i o n and c l a r i t y o f the o b j e c t i v e s . R e g r e s s i n g the d e r i v e d 'value components' on each d e c i s i o n , Maguire(19 69) r e p o r t e d t h a t " a l - though the accuracy of the (r e g r e s s i o n ) model v a r i e d over the kind s o f d e c i s i o n s made, the median m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r both samples, f o r a l l d e c i s i o n s were g r e a t e r than .75" (p. 23). Maguire's study i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t addressed d i r e c t l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and beh a v i o u r . A g a i n however, the r e p o r t e d v a r i a t i o n i n p r e d i c t i v e accuracy of an a t t i t u d i n a l measure of o b j e c t i v e s and s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l com- mitments w i t h r e s p e c t t o those o b j e c t i v e s conforms t o the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d f i n d i n g s f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Of a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i s Maguire's r e p o r t e d r e s u l t t h a t among the v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e and c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s a s s e s s e d , which i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r age and sex, tea c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n and ex p e r i e n c e , and s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s c h o o l , o n l y t e a c h e r age was r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e . A s u b s t a n t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Maguire's study was the view t h a t t e a c h e r s r e p r e s e n t e d a l e g i t i m a t e body of e x p e r i - ence t o be c o n s u l t e d on matters o f c u r r i c u l u m implementation ( T a y l o r and Maguire, 1966). S p e c i f i c a l l y , t e a c h e r s were seen to be important judges of a c u r r i c u l u m " a t i t s p o i n t of c o n t a c t w i t h the s t u d e n t . . . I t i s contended t h a t t e a c h e r s ' assessments o f c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s can c o n t r o l the impact t h a t a c u r r i c u - lum has on a- student" (Maguire, 1968:68). Such a p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l , l i n e a r model of c u r r i c u l u m development a s s o c i - ated w i t h T y l e r (1949), Taba (1962) and o t h e r s . W i t h i n t h i s framework, the r o l e o f s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s i n p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the m e r i t o f c u r r i c u l a may be seen i n Popham's (1969) a s s e r t i o n : P r e c i s e o b j e c t i v e s , s t a t e d i n terms o f measurable l e a r n e r behaviour make i t i n f i n i t e l y e a s i e r f o r the t e a c h e r t o engage i n c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s . The c l a r i t y o f p r e c i s e l y s t a t e d goals permits the tea c h e r to make f a r more j u d i c i o u s c h o i c e s r e g a r d - i n g what ought to be i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m (p. 44). S i m i l a r l y , Mager (1962) s t a t e s t h a t "When c l e a r l y d e f i n e d goals are l a c k i n g . . . . t h e r e i s no sound b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s , content, or i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods" (p. 3). However, the importance o f o b j e c t i v e s as c r i t e r i a f o r t e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a - t i o n s o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s has been shown to be minimal (eg, Goodlad and K l e i n , 1974; Walker, 1971). Teachers engaged i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making a p p a r e n t l y con- s i d e r aspects and consequences of program implementation o t h e r than the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t where t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e toward the o b j e c t measures are employed, a more a p p r o p r i a t e o b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r i n a s s e s s i n g c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a - t i o n s i s the program i t s e l f . A s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s but one study which has d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t e a c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l a r a t t i t u d e s t o problems 6 1 . of program c h o i c e . "^Morrison e t a l (19 69) examined the r e l a t i o n - s h i p between elementary teachers' responses to the San Diego Teacher Inventory of Approaches to the Teaching of Reading (1961) and t h e i r p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e of r e a d i n g c u r r i c u l a . Two c u r r i c u l a r approaches were under study. The ' S k i l l s Centered' approach comprised two programs: 1) the B a s a l Reader method i n which the t e a c h e r r e l i e d on c o n v e n t i o n a l b a s a l readers and t h e i r accompany- i n g manuals and workbooks; 2) the P h o n o v i s u a l method which combined use of b a s a l readers w i t h a phonic system developed through use of p h o n o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . The second approach was the 'Language E x p e r i e n c e ' procedure which a l s o c o n s i s t e d of two programs: 1) a r e g u l a r Language Experience program i n which r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s were l a r g e l y developed from the e x p e r i e n c e and v e r b a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n and i n which l i b r a r y books were used f o r supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes; 2) a Language E x p e r i - e n c e - A u d i o v i s u a l program i n which the b a s i c language e x p e r i e n c e procedure was supplemented by v a r i o u s kinds of a u d i o v i s u a l equipment (eg., tape r e c o r d e r s , cameras, p r o j e c t o r s ) . The San Diego A t t i t u d e Inventory employed i n t h i s study i s a L i k e r t - i t e m instrument on which teachers i n d i c a t e t h e i r agreement or disagreement w i t h the accuracy of statements f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r approach to the t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g . 1. Eash (1972) has c o n s t r u c t e d a program e v a l u a t i o n and c h o i c e instrument which i n v o l v e s a v a r i e t y of t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i v e and importance responses. However, the instrument i s de- s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s r a t h e r than a c t as a measure of t e a c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l a r a t t i t u d e s , and no v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s w i t h t h i s i n mind have been c a r r i e d out. The instrument i s composed of t h r e e s c a l e s each of which r e p r e s e n t s a B a s i c , I n d i v i d u a l i z e d , or Language E x p e r i e n c e approach. Each s c a l e r e q u i r e s a response to statements r e - g a r d i n g the f o l l o w i n g aspects of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n : 1. Teacher's purpose f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 2. B a s i s of the p l a n f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 3. Teacher's method of m o t i v a t i o n f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 4. M a t e r i a l s o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n the t e a c h e r uses. 5. Teacher's method f o r o r g a n i z i n g the classroom f o r r e a d i n g . 6. How the t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s f o r d i r e c t r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 7. How the t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s f o r supplementary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 8. How the t e a c h e r i n c l u d e s s k i l l development i n the r e a d i n g program. 9. How the t e a c h e r i n c o r p o r a t e s v o c a b u l a r y development i n the r e a d i n g program. 10. P r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e a d i n g program. 11. Teacher's c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . I t may be seen t h a t t h i s i nstrument p r o v i d e d a broader assessment of t e a c h e r s ' concerns r e l a t i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m c h o i c e than was p o s s i b l e i n the Maguire (1968) study. In the M o r r i s o n e t a l study, the B a s a l Reader and P h o n o v i s u a l methods, the S k i l l s Centered approaches, were assumed to correspond to the B a s i c S c a l e on the A t t i t u d e Inventory w h i l e the Language Ex p e r i e n c e S c a l e was assumed to r e p r e s e n t the b e g i n n i n g stages of r e a d i n g i n the Language Ex p e r i e n c e method and the I n d i v i d u a l i z e d S c a l e r e p r e s e n t e d the l a t e r stages of t h i s method. The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by .Morrison e t a l of the r e l a t i o n - s h i p between measured a t t i t u d e and p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e of r e a d i n g method i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s who chose a S k i l l s Centered approach had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean sco r e s on the B a s i c S c a l e than on e i t h e r the I n d i v i d u a l i z e d or Language Ex p e r i e n c e S c a l e s . The sc o r e s of t e a c h e r s who chose the Language Ex p e r i e n c e methods however, were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between the B a s i c and e i t h e r of the I n d i v i d u a l i z e d or Language Ex p e r i e n c e S c a l e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , M o r r i s o n e t a l summarized t h e i r f i n d i n g s as f o l l o w s : S i n c e s e l e c t i o n of a t e a c h i n g method i n the. . . s c h o o l s were l a r g e l y o p t i o n a l , i t must be assumed t h a t f o r most t e a c h e r s , a d e c i s i o n to use b a s a l m a t e r i a l s was more o f t e n based on p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e than on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e d i c t . S i n c e the r e s u l t s of a t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s ( p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study) were f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d toward b a s a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s r a t h e r obvious t h a t there i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher a t t i t u d e and c h o i c e of approach (p. 392). While the a s s e r t i o n of a s t r o n g a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p must be q u a l i f i e d by the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s , the study i s important i n t h a t i t c o n s i d e r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and behaviour w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g problem t h a t t y p i f i e s the task f a c e d by classroom t e a c h e r s . Moreover, i n assumptions, methodology, and r e s u l t s , the study i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t r a d i t i o n a l approach to the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r i s s u e — an approach t h a t was p r e v i o u s l y shown to r e q u i r e some a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n i f a r e l i a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and behaviour i s to be found. 2.3 The F i s h b e i n Model The purposes of t h i s c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n are f i r s t to o u t l i n e the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s of the F i s h b e i n model as w e l l as the o p e r a t i o n a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n i t s development. E m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s and among p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s are then reviewed and the r e l e v a n c e of the F i s h b e i n f o r m u l a t i o n to the p r e s e n t study drawn. T h i s review and d i s c u s s i o n u n d e r l i e s the subsequent statement of r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s to be t e s t e d i n the study. 2.3.1. The F i s h b e i n Model: Conceptual Antecedents The t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r F i s h b e i n ' s (1967; F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975) r e g r e s s i o n model f o r p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n and behaviour may be found l a r g e l y i n the work of Dulany (1968). In a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to concept l e a r n i n g , Dulany for m u l a t e d the theory of P r o p o s i t i o n a l C o n t r o l . Here, Dulany argued t h a t where s u b j e c t s ' responses to v e r b a l l e a r n i n g tasks were under v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l they would a c t a c c o r d i n g to the ' s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t ' or ' i n t e n t i o n ' t h a t was formed and h e l d w i t h r e s p e c t to a p a r t i c u l a r response. The c e n t r a l statement of the theory thus focuses on the determin- ants of i n t e n t i o n and may be expressed as f o l l o w s : R ~ B l = (RHd • RSv) , + (BH • MC) _ (2) WJ. Wz P r i m a r i l y , the theory i s concerned w i t h e x p l a i n i n g the e f f e c t of v a r i o u s r e i n f o r c e m e n t parameters on v e r b a l responses. R e l a t e d elements of knowledge, b e l i e f , and awareness are r e p r e s e n t e d as p r o p o s i t i o n s i n the form of two hypotheses, the f i r s t of which concerns the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n of a r e i n f o r c e m e n t termed the Response Hypothesis o r Hypothesis o f Reinforcement D i s t r i b u - t i o n (RHd). The second major h y p o t h e s i s concerns the congruence of the response to group norms, the B e h a v i o r a l Hypothesis (BH). A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Response Hypothesis i s a f e e l i n g of v a l u e termed the S u b j e c t i v e Value of Reinforcement RSv). S i m i l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the B e h a v i o u r a l Hypothesis i s a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e p o s i t i o n on c o n f o r m i t y , the M o t i v a t i o n to Comply (MC). Wl and W2 are e m p i r i c a l l y determined weights which i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e importance of the two components i n d e t e r m i n i n g B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n . The v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d by Dulany r e f l e c t s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s presumed t h a t the s u b j e c t ' s performance of the r e i n f o r c e d response i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s i n t e n t i o n to perform t h a t behaviour; the l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y of the i n t e n t i o n i s determined d i r e c t l y by the a v a i l a b l e r e - sponse. S i m i l a r l y the co-determinants of i n t e n t i o n are s p e c i f i c t o the behaviour. The f i r s t component r e f e r s t o the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a g i v e n response w i l l l e a d t o a g i v e n event or consequence and the s u b j e c t ' s e v a l u a t i o n of t h a t event. The second component r e f e r s e s s e n t i a l l y t o the s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r response i s expected of him by some s i g n i f i - cant s o c i a l r e f e r e n t (e.g.« the experimenter) and h i s m o t i v a t i o n to comply w i t h the p e r c e i v e d p r e s s u r e . Dulany suggests t h e r e are many a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e the b e h a v i o u r a l response. However, they are c o n s i d e r e d to have onl y an i n d i r e c t e f f e c t ; t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n and behaviour i s r e f l e c t e d i n the model's component v a r i a b l e s . S t a t e d some- what d i f f e r e n t l y , each of the two components i s assumed to c o n t r i b u t e to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of i n t e n t i o n but t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance may v a r y as a r e s u l t of p e r s o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . V a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d by Dulany ( 1968 ) p r o v i d e evidence to support the theory i n the p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n and b e h aviour under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . Here, the indepen- dent v a r i a b l e s were h i g h l y p r e d i c t i v e of B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n and the i n t e n t i o n v a r i a b l e was s i m i l a r l y p r e d i c t i v e o f Behaviour (see Tables 1 and 2 ) . F i s h b e i n ' s model i s an a d a p t i o n of the c e n t r a l s t a t e - ment c o n t a i n e d i n Dulany's theory (see E q u a t i o n 1 , page 1 4 ) . As i n the o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n , F i s h b e i n ' s m o d i f i c a t i o n d e a l s w i t h the p r e d i c t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . A person i s assumed to form and h o l d a s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n which i n f l u e n c e s h i s subsequent b e h a v i o u r and t h i s i n t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t l y p r e d i c t e d from the two components of a t t i t u d e and norm which are g i v e n e m p i r i c a l weights. In Dulany's model the b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n term r e - f e r r e d to the performance of a s p e c i f i c r e i n f o r c e d response i n a h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . F i s h b e i n has e l a b o r - ated t h i s term to r e f l e c t the more complex s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . In h i s view,' i n t e n t i o n may be seen t o vary along f o u r dimensions the nature of the behaviour, the time and s i t u a t i o n i n which i t o c c u r s , and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o b j e c t or t a r g e t of the behaviour. S t u d i e s of d r i n k i n g h a b i t s by S a n d e l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s by Bishop and W i t t ( 1 9 70) i n which these c o n d i t i o n s were manipulated showed t h a t such v a r i a t i o n s s i g n i f i - c a n t l y a f f e c t e d the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t s i n t e n d e d to perform the behaviours under study. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t F i s h b e i n has d e f i n e d i n t e n t i o n as the p o s i t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p i e s along a s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y dimension i n v o l v i n g a r e l a t i o n between h i m s e l f and some a c t i o n . I t f o l l o w s t h a t a l t e r a t i o n i n any of the above mentioned elements d e f i n e s a d i f f e r e n t p r o b a b i l i t y dimension, a d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n - t i o n . Adequate assessment o f i n t e n t i o n thus r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the behaviour, t a r g e t , s i t u a t i o n , time or combinations o f these elements. The a t t i t u d i n a l component i n F i s h b e i n ' s model (Ab) r e f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward p e r f o r m i n g a behaviour under a g i v e n s e t of cir c u m s t a n c e s . A c c o r d i n g to F i s h b e i n , a person's a t t i t u d e i s a f u n c t i o n of the p e r c e i v e d consequences of perf o r m i n g a behaviour and the e v a l u a t i o n of those consequences. S i m i l a r l y , the i n i t i a l component of Dulany's model concerns the s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f t h a t a g i v e n be- h a v i o u r leads t o some s p e c i f i e d r e i n f o r c i n g event and h i s e v a l u a t i o n of t h a t event. A major d i s t i n c t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s model however, i s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of m u l t i p l e consequences. His expansion r e s u l t s i n a s e t of b e l i e f s and e v a l u a t i o n s p e r - t a i n i n g to each of the r e l e v a n t consequences of per f o r m i n g the behaviour. The p a r a l l e l between the components of each model i s seen i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o expectancy-value t h e o r i e s of d e c i s i o n e making and a t t i t u d e (Feather, 1959; F i s h b e i n , 1967; Peak, 1955; Rosenberg, 19 56). In t h i s c o n t e x t , the a t t i t u d i n a l component of the F i s h b e i n model may be expressed as f o l l o w s : Ab = I b . e- (3) 1=1 1 - where b i s the b e l i e f t h a t p e r f o r m i n g behaviour B leads t o consequence or outcome i ; e i s the person's e v a l u a t i o n of out- come i ; and n i s the number of b e l i e f s the person holds about p e r f o r m i n g B. F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (19 75) have r e l a t e d t h e i r more g e n e r a l f o r m u l a t i o n and Dulany's f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t o a t t i t u d e as f o l l o w s : C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the expectancy-value theory of a t t i t u d e s , t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n suggested t h a t the f i r s t component of Dulany's theory c o u l d be viewed as a t t i t u d e . In c o n t r a s t t o a t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d i n a l approach, however, the a t t i t u d e i n q u e s t i o n i s the person's a t t i t u d e toward p e r - forming a g i v e n behaviour r a t h e r than h i s a t t i t u d e toward the o b j e c t or t a r g e t of the behaviour (p. 302). F i s h b e i n has s i m i l a r l y e l a b o r a t e d the normative com- ponent of Dulany's model. In both models the normative component d e a l s w i t h the i n f l u e n c e o f the s o c i a l environment on behaviour. F i s h b e i n ' s S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) term r e f e r s t o the person's p e r c e p t i o n t h a t most people who are important t o him t h i n k he should or s h o u l d not perform the behaviour. T h i s g e n e r a l s u b j e c t i v e norm i s presumed to be determined by the p e r c e i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s or groups and by the person's m o t i v a t i o n to comply w i t h these e x p e c t a t i o n s - The g e n e r a l i z e d normative component and i t s determinants may be expressed as f o l l o w s : SN = X bimi (4) where b i s the normative b e l i e f t h a t r e f e r e n t group or i n - d i v i d u a l i t h i n k s he s h o u l d or s h o u l d not perform behaviour B; m i s the m o t i v a t i o n to comply w i t h r e f e r e n t i ; n i s the number of r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n t s . As w i t h Dulany's normative component/ the S u b j e c t i v e Norm r e f e r s to p e r c e i v e d p r e s s u r e s t o perform a g i v e n behaviour and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n to comply w i t h these p r e s s u r e s . However, where Dulany c o n s i d e r e d o n l y the i n f l u e n c e of the experimenter on the s u b j e c t ' s responses i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , F i s h b e i n has g e n e r a l i z e d the normative source by d e f i n i n g an o v e r a l l s u b j e c t i v e norm which i n c l u d e s a l l r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . E m p i r i c a l support f o r the r e l a t i o n between S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) and the compound measure of normative b e l i e f s and m o t i v a t i o n to comply TV ( £ b . e . ) has been g i v e n by King and J a c c a r d (1973) and G l a s s - i=l man and Birchmore (19 74). An important i s s u e w i t h r e s p e c t to the n e c e s s i t y of i n c l u d i n g a normative component i n a d d i t i o n to a t t i t u d e has been r a i s e d by F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (1975). I t may be argued t h a t normative b e l i e f s should p r o p e r l y be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t of a t t i t u d e toward the behaviour: ... some of the consequences of perf o r m i n g a ' g i v e n a c t are t h a t the a c t may p l e a s e or d i s - p l e a s e r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n c e groups or i n d i v i d u a l s , and i t may l e a d t o reward or punishment from a g i v e n r e f e r e n t . Depending on the person's e v a l u a t i o n of these consequences, h i s a t t i t u d e toward the behaviour s h o u l d become f a v o u r a b l e or unfavourable (p. 304). However, F i s h b e i n m a i n t a i n s the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between b e l i e f s about the consequences of perf o r m i n g a behaviour and b e l i e f s about e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e l e v a n t o t h e r s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s based on the assumption t h a t d i f f e r e n t p rocesses are seen t o un d e r l y the f o r m a t i o n o f the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative com- ponents. T h i s n o t i o n may be e l a b o r a t e d by b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o the s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e l i t e r a t u r e . A c c o r d i n g to Kelman (1961), s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e operates through one or more of th r e e d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s . The f i r s t of the s e , i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n , i s s a i d t o occur when the i n d i v i d u a l accepts i n f l u e n c e because i t i s p e r c e i v e d as being i n s t r u m e n t a l t o the attainment of v a l u e d g o a l s o r as " i n h e r e n t l y conducive t o the maximization of h i s v a l u e s " (p.65). The pro c e s s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s seen to occur when an i n d i v i d u a l adopts a behaviour or o p i n i o n d e r i v e d from another because the r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and t h a t o t h e r i s b e n e f i c i a l t o some p o r t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t . The t h i r d p rocess p o s i t e d to account f o r s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e r e f e r s to compliance, a c o n f o r m i t y t o the expecta- t i o n s of another i n order to r e c e i v e a reward o r a v o i d a punishment mediated by t h a t o t h e r . Each of Kelman's processes may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n terms of the apparent m o t i v a t i o n a l antecedents t h a t are s a l i e n t i n a g i v e n i n f l u e n c e s i t u a t i o n . 71. Deutsch and Gerard (1955) have d i s t i n g u i s h e d two types of s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s i t u a t i o n s . They r e f e r t o i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e as the i n f l u e n c e to accept i n f o r m a t i o n from another as evidence about r e a l i t y . They r e s e r v e the term normative s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e f o r the i n f l u e n c e s i t u a t i o n which c a l l s f o r conformity to the e x p e c t a t i o n s of another person or group. Thus an i n f o r m a t i o n a l source of i n f l u e n c e would be accepted and i n t e r n a l i z e d i f i t was p e r c e i v e d as being i n s t r u - mental to the s o l u t i o n of some problem c o n f r o n t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l o r because i t supports o r adds to what the i n d i v i d u a l a l r e a d y b e l i e v e s about the s i t u a t i o n . An important aspect of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n i s the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the i n f o r m a t i o n source. McGuire (19 69) p o i n t s out t h a t a source which i s b e l i e v e d t o be expert o r very knowledgeable w i l l most r e a d i l y l e a d t o i n t e r n a - l i z a t i o n . With r e s p e c t to c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , Gardner (1971) found t h a t classroom t e a c h e r s ' i n f o r m a t i o n a l needs were p r i m a r i l y i n the area of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Persons most o f t e n c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d were p r i n c i p a l s , f e l l o w grade t e a c h e r s , l i b r a r i a n s and c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s . In c o n t r a s t , normative s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s i t u a t i o n s would be s a l i e n t when the i n d i v i d u a l i s motivated to comply w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s by r e a l i z i n g a reward or a v o i d i n g a punishment mediated by another. An i n d i v i d u a l s i m i l a r l y would be expected t o accept the i n f l u e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d r e f e r e n t by adopting or i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h the behaviours or views of t h a t r e f e r e n t . E q u a l l y , he would be expected t o d i s a s s o c i a t e him- s e l f from the behaviours and views o f a n e g a t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d r e f e r e n t . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be a p p l i e d to some of the r e f e r e n t s i n d i c a t e d by Gardner ( 1 9 7 1 ) such as the p r i n c i p a l o r c u r r i c u l u m s u p e r v i s o r . In t h i s r e g a r d , MacDonald ( 1 9 7 0 ) has argued f o r the p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e of s c h o o l and community-based r e f e r e n t s on the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s . F i s h b e i n ' s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of b e l i e f s about the consequences of behaviour and b e l i e f s about the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s may thus be seen t o r e f l e c t d i s t i n c t i n f l u e n c e s i t u - a t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s . F i s h b e i n and A j z e n ( 1 9 7 5 ) r e f e r t o the broader i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n c l u d i n g both a t t i t u d e and s o c i a l norm i n t h e i r model: ... t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n emphasizes the importance of two b a s i c s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l concepts t h a t have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t r e a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . P s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l behaviour have f r e q u e n t l y made use of the a t t i t u d e concept whereas t h e o r i s t s d e a l - i n g w i t h groups and s o c i e t i e s have o f t e n r e l i e d on the concept o f s o c i a l norm. By i n c l u d i n g an a t t i t u d i n a l and a normative component, the p r e s e n t theory emphasizes the importance of both concepts and p r o v i d e s a b r i d g e between the two approaches to the study of human behaviour (pp. 3 0 4 - 3 0 5 ) . A f u r t h e r s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e source was d e s c r i b e d by Deutsch and Gerard ( 1 9 5 5 ) as i n c l u d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ' s e l f . That i s , the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o n e s e l f r e g a r d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r and conduct. In h i s i n i t i a l e l a b o r a t i o n o f Dulany's model, F i s h b e i n ( 1 9 6 7 ) p o s i t e d a P e r s o n a l Normative B e l i e f (NBp) term, presumably t o account f o r t h i s i n f l u e n c e source. The e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s w i t h r e g a r d to t h i s v a r i a b l e have been e q u i v o c a l . Some s t u d i e s (Abramson, 19 72; Atanu, 19 74; Schwartz and T e s s l e r , 1972) have i n c l u d e d NBp i n the p r e d i c t i o n of be- h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n . However, F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (1975) r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r (own) e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s "have r e p e a t e d l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s u b j e c t ' s r e p o r t of h i s p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f s e r v e s mainly as an a l t e r n a t i v e measure of h i s b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n " (p. 305). They m a i n t a i n t h a t although a c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n between p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f s i s p o s s i b l e , a t t h i s time a s a t i s f a c t o r y o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of NBp i s not apparent and i t has t h e r e f o r e been d e l e t e d from the p r e s e n t v e r s i o n of the model. 2.3.2. The F i s h b e i n Model: E m p i r i c a l Support In i t s p r e s e n t form the F i s h b e i n model p o s i t s s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s t h a t are of c e n t r a l concern to the p r e s e n t study. These i n c l u d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour, and between i n t e n t i o n and v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l t o the model; the l a t t e r r e f e r r i n g to the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components. E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s which d e s c r i b e and support these r e l a t i o n s f o l l o w . 2.3.2.1. The I n t e n t i o n - B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p s In the framework suggested by F i s h b e i n i t i s expected t h a t where an a p p r o p r i a t e measure of i n t e n t i o n i s taken, t h e r e s h o u l d e x i s t a h i g h e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n between a person's i n - t e n t i o n to perform a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour and h i s subsequent performance of t h a t behaviour. The s t u d i e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 TABLE 1 INTENTION-BEHAVIOUR CORRELATIONS OBTAINED IN VARIOUS STUDIES USING THE FISHBEIN MODEL Study S i t u a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n A j z e n (1971) Choose a l t e r n a t i v e X or Y i n P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma (PD) game . 822 * A j z e n and Fishbein(1970) Choose a l t e r n a t i v e X or Y i n two PD games . 841 . 847 * * A j z e n and Fishbein(1974) Send communication t o co-work- er F o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s o f co- worker . 690 .211 * * Bonfield(1974) Choice of f r u i t d r i n k s .400 *@ Darroch(19 71) S i g n i n t e r r a c i a l p h o t o g r a p h i c r e l e a s e . 462 *@ D e v r i e s and Ajzen(1971) Cheating i n c o l l e g e examination . 652 *@ Dulany(1968) V e r b a l l e a r n i n g tasks .940 *@ Fishbein(1966) Engage i n p r e m a r i t a l s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e (females) a) G e n e r a l l y b) Time s p e c i f i c .564 . 676 ** * * = p<. 01 ** = P<-05 @ = average c o r r e l a t i o n TABLE i (continued) Study S i t u a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n F i s h b e i n and Coombs (1974) V o t i n g behaviour a) one month i n t e r v a l b) one week i n t e r v a l . 796 . 888 * * H a r r e l l and Bennett (1974) P r e s c r i b i n g drugs f o r d i a b e t e s .370 *@ Hornik (19 70) Extended PD game .866 * Schwartz and Tessl e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Donation o f t r a n s p l a n t organs .375 * Songer-Nocks (19 76) M o d i f i e d PD game . 693 * W i l s o n e t a l (1972) Two PD games . 740 * W i l s o n e t a l (1975) Choice of t o o t h p a s t e .900 *@ demonstrate c o n s i d e r a b l e support f o r the model's a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e adequate p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour from i n t e n t i o n over a number of b e h a v i o u r s , s i t u a t i o n s and persons. V a r i a t i o n i n r e - p o r t e d r e s u l t s however, r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t the magnitude of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be i n f l u e n c e d by a number of f a c t o r s . F i s h b e i n has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r h i g h i n t e n t i o n - b e h a viour c o r r e l a t i o n s . The necessary c o n d i t i o n s are t h a t the measure o f i n t e n t i o n be b e h a v i o u r - s p e c i f i c , s t a b l e and f r e e from new i n f o r m a t i o n about b e h a v i o u r a l consequences and s o c i a l p r e s - s u r e s , and t h a t the behaviour be w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l . The e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c i t y between measures of i n t e n t and behaviour are demonstrated i n the F i s h b e i n (1966) study of- p r e m a r i t a l s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e (PSI) among female undergraduates. In t h i s study, g e n e r a l i n t e n t i o n s t o engage i n PSI and s p e c i f i c i n t e n t i o n s to engage i n PSI ' t h i s semester' were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e l f - r e p o r t behaviours gathered a t the end of the semester. A marked i n c r e a s e i n the i n t e n t i o n - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p may be seen as the i n t e n d e d b ehaviour s h i f t s from the g e n e r a l t o the s p e c i f i c . The e f f e c t o f a long time i n t e r v a l on the s t a b i l i t y o f i n t e n t i o n i s apparent i n n e a r l y a l l f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f the model. Among the l a b o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , p r i m a r i l y i n - v o l v i n g P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma games or m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f these, the p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e o f extraneous f a c t o r s was e i t h e r e x p e r i - m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d o r accounted f o r by m i n i m i z i n g the time between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour measures. A t t e n u a t i o n o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n among f i e l d s t u d i e s p a r a l l e l s the time l a g between measures. T h i s may be seen i n the F i s h b e i n and Coombs (1974) study o r by comparison of the D e v r i e s and A j z e n (1971) study, i n which behaviour was assessed immediately, w i t h the Darroch (1971), B o n f i e l d (1974), H a r r e l l and Bennett (1974), o r Schwartz and T e s s l e r (1972) s t u d i e s where behaviour was assessed from one to three months subsequent to g a t h e r i n g i n t e n t measures. However t h i s f a c t o r does not alone account f o r the d i s c r e p a n c i e s shown. Other elements such as v a r i a t i o n i n co-worker's responses d u r i n g a c o o p e r a t i v e task (Ajzen and F i s h b e i n , 1974), may i n t e r v e n e to modify p r e v i o u s l y h e l d i n t e n t i o n s . Among the f i e l d - o r i e n t e d s t u d i e s , t h a t of Wilson e t a l (1975) i s unique i n the h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d . T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d not only by the f a c t t h a t s u b j e c t s chose a p r e f e r r e d brand of t o o t h - paste immediately f o l l o w i n g completion o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e but a l s o by the unusual procedure used t o t e s t the i n t e n t i o n - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p which i n v o l v e d computing a b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between brand c h o i c e and h i g h e s t ranked b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n . The c o n d i t i o n of v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l has been i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of the n o v e l t y of the behaviour f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . T i t t l e and H i l l (1967) f o r example, r e f e r t o the e x t e n t t o which the behaviour f a l l s w i t h i n the range o f the person's common experience as a determinant of the degree of correspondence between p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n . Schwartz and T e s s l e r (1972) a l s o r e f e r to the l i k e l y p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f p r i o r 78. e x p e r i e n c e cm the r e l a t i o n between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour. Songer-Nocks' (1976) f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e , f o r p r e d i c t i n g s u b j e c t ' s responses t o a m o d i f i e d form o f the P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma game i s i l l u s t r a t i v e . In her a n a l y s i s of the i n t e n t i o n - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p , Songer-Nocks i n c l u d e d the v a r i a b l e s of p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and feedback (knowledge of r e s u l t s f o r v a r i o u s d e c i s i o n s made d u r i n g the game) i n a r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a t i o n w i t h behaviour as a c r i t e r i o n . While i n t e n t i o n 2 c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o b e h a v i o u r a l p r e d i c t i o n (R = .48), the a d d i t i o n o f a t r i p l e i n t e r a c t i o n term i n v o l v i n g i n t e n t i o n , p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and feedback markedly i n c r e a s e d the p r e c i s i o n 2 of t h i s p r e d i c t i o n (R = .59). Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o the p r e s e n t study i s the e f f e c t o f p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e on the we i g h t i n g of i n t e n t i o n i n p r e d i c t i o n under the common c o n d i t i o n of feedback. T h i s task may be equated w i t h a problem o f c h o i c e as g e n e r a l l y accepted i n the d e c i s i o n theory l i t e r a t u r e . Where s u b j e c t s had no p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the demands o f the game, the i n t e n t i o n v a r i a b l e r e c e i v e d a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l weight (.27). In c o n t r s t , the p r i o r experience c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a weight of .97 f o r i n t e n t i o n . In the con t e x t o f t h i s study a t l e a s t , s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the n o v e l t y of the behaviour r e s u l t e d i n a more p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour. 2.3.2.2. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f I n t e n t i o n With V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , the c e n t r a l concern o f the 79. F i s h b e i n model i s the e l a b o r a t i o n of the immediate antecedent of behaviour; t h a t i s , the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the determinents of b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to F i s h b e i n , the n ecessary and s u f f i c i e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n are the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components g i v e n by the model. The accuracy of p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n from these components i s i n d i c a t e d by the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s shown i n Table 2. Over a l l s t u d i e s l i s t e d the average c o r r e l a t i o n i s .734, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the p r e c i s i o n of p r e d i c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l e both i n h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s and i n l e s s c o n s t r a i n e d f i e l d s e t t i n g s . I t i s c l a i m e d by F i s h b e i n t h a t t h i s p r e c i s i o n w i l l not be enhanced by the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s such as p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the model can a f f e c t i n t e n t i o n o n l y i f they i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d i n a l or normative components or t h e i r r e l a t i v e weights. Moreover, s i n c e a g i v e n behaviour may be under p r i m a r i l y a t t i t u d i n a l or normative c o n t r o l , the e f f e c t of e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s w i l l be seen o n l y i f the r e l a t e d component i s a s i g n i f i c a n t determinent of i n t e n t i o n . While the a d d i t i o n of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s may not d i r e c t l y i n c r e a s e p r e d i c t i v e p r e c i s i o n , t h e i r s p e c i f i c a t i o n does a l l o w g r e a t e r e x p l a n a t i o n of the f o r m a t i o n of i n t e n t i o n . However, b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the impact of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s on the r e l a t i v e importance of a t t i t u d e and norm i n p r e d i c t i o n , the s u f f i c i e n c y o f the model w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . S u f f i c i e n c y may be demonstrated i f the r e l a t i o n of TABLE 2 MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTENTION AND FISHBEIN MODEL COMPONENTS 9 Study S i t u a t i o n M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n A j z e n (1971) Choose a l t e r n a t i v e X or Y i n PD game .716 * A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (1970) Choose a l t e r n a t i v e X or Y i n two PD games . 849 . 888 * * A j z e n and Fishbein(1972) Perform f o u r behaviours i n v o l v i n g r i s k . 793 *@ A j zen and Fishbein(1974) Send communication to coworker F o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s of coworker . 704 . 608 * * Bonfield(1974) Choice o f f r u i t d r i n k s . 600 * Darroch(1971) S i g n i n t e r r a c i a l p h o tographic r e l e a s e form . 647 *@ Davidson and Jaccard(1975) Use b i r t h c o n t r o l p i l l s . 775 *@ D e v r i e s and A j z e n (1971) Cheating i n c o l l e g e examina-t i o n . 642 * = p<.01 @ = average c o r r e l a t i o n TABLE 2 (continued) M u l t i p l e Study S i t u a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n Dulany(19 68) V e r b a l l e a r n i n g tasks . 880 *@ Fishbein(1966) Engage i n p r e m a r i t a l i n t e r c o u r s e (females, s p e c i f i c ) s e x u a l time- .935 * H a r r e l l and Bennett(1974) P r e s c r i b i n g drugs f o r di a b e t e s . 450 *@ Hornik(19 70) Extended PD game .806 *@ J a c c a r d and Davidson (1972) Use b i r t h c o n t r o l p i l l s . 775 *@ Songer-Nocks (1976) M o d i f i e d PD game . 771 * W i l s o n e t a l (1972) Two PD games . 695 * W i l s o n e t a l (1975) Choice of t o o t h p a s t e . 672 *@ 8 2 . e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s t o i n t e n t i o n i s d r a s t i c a l l y reduced when the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative v a r i a b l e s (Ab and SN) are s t a t i s t i c a l l y h e l d c o n s t a n t . In the F i s h b e i n and Ajzen (1970) study f o r example, the e f f e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e and s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s on s t r a t e g y c h o i c e s i n a P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma game were examined. The s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s under study were the s u b j e c t ' s sex and measured a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m as w e l l as the game's p a y - o f f m a t r i x and m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The l a t t e r was d e f i n e d i n terms o f c o o p e r a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n , and i n d i v i d u a l i s m . A j z e n and F i s h b e i n ' s r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t sex and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e n t i o n s w h i l e i n t e n t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the p a y - o f f m a t r i x and the m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the hy p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were r e p o r t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components. Employing the procedure of c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s , A j z e n and F i s h b e i n found t h a t w i t h the a t t i t u d e and norm v a r i a b l e s h e l d c o n s t a n t the e f f e c t o f the p a y - o f f m a t r i x was reduced t o n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i l e the e f f e c t of m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , although s i g n i f i c a n t , was g r e a t l y a t t e n u a t e d . In an e x t e n s i o n of A j z e n and F i s h b e i n ' s (1970) study, Songer-Nocks (1976) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n v a r i a b l e s on i n t e n t i o n i n a m o d i f i e d form o f the P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma game. A comparison of the F i s h b e i n model v a r i a b l e s alone w i t h a model c o n t a i n i n g the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s produced o n l y a minimal i n c r e a s e i n p r e d i c t i v e e f f i c i e n c y , the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s 83. b e i n g .771 and .796 r e s p e c t i v e l y . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , F i s h b e i n regards g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward the o b j e c t (Ao) measures to r e p r e s e n t v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l t o the model. S t u d i e s by A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (1970) and A j z e n (19 71) i n which a t t i t u d e toward the behaviour (Ab) and s u b j e c t i v e norm (SN) were h e l d c o n s t a n t i n d i c a t e d the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o f Ao w i t h i n t e n t i o n (I) to be n o n s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l cases. The study by J a c c a r d and Davidson (1972) i n the more a p p l i e d s e t t i n g of f a m i l y p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s s i m i l a r l y demon- s t r a t e s the m e d i a t i n g r o l e of the model's components w i t h r e s p e c t t o t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e measures. An examination of Table 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s f u n c t i o n as w e l l as the d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components i n the p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n . I t may be seen t h a t the e f f e c t o f p a r t i a l l i n g Ab on the Ao-I r e l a t i o n s h i p d r a m a t i c a l l y reduces the i n i t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between Ao and I w h i l e the same procedure a p p l i e d w i t h SN r e s u l t s i n a minimal r e d u c t i o n . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i n t e n t i o n to use b i r t h c o n t r o l p i l l s i s p r i m a r i l y under the s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d i n a l c o n t r o l r a t h e r than s o c i a l norms or p r e s s u r e s . While the weight of e m p i r i c a l evidence suggests t h a t the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d by the F i s h b e i n model are n ecessary and s u f f i c i e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e d i c t o r s of i n t e n t i o n s , one p u b l i s h e d counter-example should be mentioned. Schwartz and T e s s l e r (1972) examined the n e c e s s i t y and s u f f i c i e n c y of an e a r l i e r f o r m u l a t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s model (i.e.„ one which c o n t a i n e d a p e r s o n a l normative component) i n the p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s i x kinds of m e d i c a l TABLE 3 CORRELATION BETWEEN ATTITUDE TOWARD THE OBJECT (Ao) AND INTENTION (I) PARTIALLING OUT ATTITUDE TOWARD THE BEHAVIOUR (Ab) AND SUBJECTIVE NORM (SN) Ob j e c t Ao-I C o n t r a c e p t i v e s Ab SN Ab+SN -..017 .55 4' 0. 00 * = p < .05 (adapted from J a c c a r d and Davidson, 1971) 85. t r a n s p l a n t d o n a t i o n s . They r e p o r t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e toward the b ehaviour, p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f s , and s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s were s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of i n t e n t i o n , a c c o u n t i n g f o r somewhat b e t t e r than f i f t y p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e i n i n t e n t i o n s . When the v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d by the model were p a r t i a l e d out, s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n s i n the c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n t e n t i o n s and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s o c c u r r e d . However, the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s f a i l e d t o account completely f o r the e f f e c t s of f o u r out of s i x v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d a c r o s s the t h i r t y - t h r e e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e f i n e d by the study. Schwartz and T e s s l e r concluded t h a t these r e s u l t s c a s t doubt on the model's s u f f i c i e n c y . In response, F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (1975) have p o i n t e d t o the n e c e s s i t y o f a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s s i n c e i t i s always p o s s i b l e to f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i f a l a r g e number of r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c o n s i d e r e d . More r e l e v a n t to the c l a i m f o r s u f f i c i e n c y perhaps, are the g r e a t e r number of s t u d i e s which r e p o r t a s i g n i f i c a n t m e d i a t i n g e f f e c t of the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components i n the model. T u r n i n g to the e x p l a n a t o r y u s e f u l n e s s of c o n s i d e r i n g e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s i n p r e d i c t i n g i n t e n t i o n , Table 4 demonstrates the e f f e c t on the r e l a t i v e importance of the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components due to v a r i a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . The e f f e c t s of an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e , i e . r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n , may be seen i n the J a c c a r d and Davidson (1972) study. S p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n a l e f f e c t s are apparent i n the A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (1970) study w h i l e v a r i a t i o n 86. TABLE 4 RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ATTITUDINAL (Ab) AND NORMATIVE (SN) COMPONENTS I N THE PREDICTION OF INTENTION S t u d y S i t u a t i o n and C o n d i t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Ab SN R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Ab SN M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n J a c c a r d and D a v i d s o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) Use b i r t h c o n t r o l p i l l s a) C a t h o l i c s b) P r o t e s t a n t .909 . 756 . 775 .565 .715 . 644 .281 .195 .931 .773 A j z e n and F i s h b e i n ( 1 9 7 0 ) PD Game a) C o o p e r a t i v e b) I n d i v i d u a l c) C o m p e t e t i v e .370 .710 . 883 . 752 . 780 .733 .229 . 353 . 691 . 707 .552 . 327 .785 . 852 .922 Mathews e t a l (1974) C h o i c e o f t o o t h - p a s t e a) Gleem b) C r e s t c) C o l g a t e d) U l t r a - b r i t e e) M a c l e a n s f ) P e p s o d e n t n o t r e p o r t e d .240 .210 .360 .110 .120 .090 . 460 .540 . 380 . 590 . 570 . 680 . 620 " . 660 . 670 .660 . 650 . 640 D e v r i e s and A j z e n ( 1 9 7 1 ) C o l l e g e E x a m i n a t i o n s a) Cheat b) Copy c) A l l o w o t h e r s t o copy . 459 .546 .526 . 474 .534 .652 .331 . 398 .317 . 354 .378 .526 .566 . 647 .714 87. i n the b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t and the nature of the behaviour are seen i n the Wi l s o n e t a l (1974) and the D e v r i e s and A j z e n (1971) s t u d i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In these s t u d i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s between as w e l l as among a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components are i l l u s t r a t e d a c r o s s the v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s . F i s h b e i n and Aj z e n (1975) r e p o r t t h a t over a l l s t u d i e s conducted and ac r o s s c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n them, th e r e i s a s l i g h t tendency f o r the a t t i t u d i n a l component to take on a somewhat g r e a t e r weight than does the normative component. However, they p o i n t out t h a t such a comparison i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y meaningless; d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r s , d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , and d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s have t o be compared. The f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s are r e f l e c t e d i n the r e l a t i v e p r e d i c t i v e importance o f the two components of the model suggests i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to a wide v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . 2.4 Summary Research has been unable to demonstrate a c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n between g e n e r a l measures of a t t i t u d e toward an o b j e c t and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t o b j e c t . V a r i o u s arguments have been advanced i n response to t h i s problem. Some authors have suggested r e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the a t t i t u d e c o n s t r u c t i n terms of m u l t i p l e components i n v o l v i n g a f f e c t , c o g n i t i o n and c o n a t i o n . Others have proposed a d i s t i n c t l y b e h a v i o u r a l c o n c e p t i o n o f a t t i t u d e . Some of the d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b l e a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r l i n k s has been a t t r i b u t e d t o the instruments employed i n a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e . 8 8 . Where t r a d i t i o n a l c onceptions and measures have been accepted, the problem has been seen as one of i n c l u d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s . The l a t t e r approach emphasizes the importance o f the s o c i a l environment i n the p r e d i c t i o n of b ehaviour. DeFleur and Westie (1958) f o r example, acknowledge t h i s i n f l u e n c e : ... a n a l y s i s of the b e l i e f s of an i n d i v i d u a l about the a t t i t u d e s , norms and v a l u e s h e l d by h i s r e f e r e n c e groups, s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , peer groups, and the l i k e may be e s s e n t i a l f o r b e t t e r p r e d i c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s of a c t i o n w i t h the use of v e r b a l s c a l e s (p.673). In l i g h t of e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o the above mentioned approaches to the p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour from a t t i t u d e and r e l e v a n t antecedent v a r i a b l e s , Dulany"s (1968) f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p r e d i c t i o n model which accounted f o r p e r s o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l antecedents p r o v i d e d the needed b a s i s f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b ehaviour (Ajzen and F i s h b e i n , 1973; F i s h b e i n , 1967; F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975). P a r t i c u l a r l y , F i s h b e i n ' s e x t e n s i o n of Dulany's model o f f e r s a w e l l - d e f i n e d c o n c e p t i o n of a t t i t u d e and i t s measurement as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a methodology f o r examining the "other v a r i a b l e s ' argument. In F i s h b e i n ' s proposed p r e d i c t i o n model, a t t i t u d e i s d e f i n e d i n terms of a s i n g l e s c o r e i n d e x i n g a f e e l i n g of f a v o u r a b l e n e s s or unfavourableness toward some o b j e c t . However the o b j e c t i n t h i s case i s not g e n e r a l . Rather, a t t i t u d e toward performance of the p a r t i c u l a r behaviour d e f i n e s the o b j e c t of i n t e r e s t . I t i s thus not the d e f i n i t i o n of a t t i t u d e 89. t h a t i s a l t e r e d but the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . F i s h b e i n has a l s o accommodated the argument t h a t n o n - a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s must be i n c l u d e d i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour, S p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s f o r m u l a t i o n proposes t h a t a t t i t u d e toward the a c t or behaviour and s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s are the b a s i c co-determinants of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e n t i o n and a c t u a l performance of a behaviour. Other v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s toward (general) o b j e c t s , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s are seen to i n f l u e n c e i n t e n t i o n and behaviour o n l y i n d i r e c t l y by a f f e c t i n g the a t t i t u d i n a l or normative components or t h e i r r e l a t i v e weights. In i t s p r e s e n t form, the F i s h b e i n Model p l a c e s the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a p o s i t i o n con- s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h a t t h e r e i s no n e c e s s a r i l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and behaviour. The magnitude of t h i s r e l a t i o n depends i n p a r t on the weight determined f o r the a t t i t u d i n a l term i n the p r e d i c t i o n of i n t e n t i o n and on the e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d between i n t e n t i o n and behaviour. F i s h b e i n ' s Model has been shown to p r e d i c t some behaviours reasonably w e l l . Much of t h i s r e s e a r c h however, has been concerned w i t h model v a l i d a t i o n i n v o l v i n g h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y experiments and game beh a v i o u r s . Burhans (1972) asse s s e d t h i s r e s e a r c h w i t h the F i s h b e i n Model: ... the few - though h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s t h a t ( F i s h b e i n ) has conducted which employ h i s model have been concerned w i t h v e r y s p e c i f i c and l i m i t e d kinds of behaviour....Much e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s needed to t e s t the e f f i c a c y .of h i s model i n p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n and behaviour under a wide range of circumstances and w i t h a wide range of c l a s s e s of behaviour (p.427). 90. More r e c e n t f i e l d t e s t s of the model have been i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e s e n t l i t e r a t u r e review. However, there remains a need f o r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n i n a p p l i e d s e t t i n g s . A p p l i c a t i o n of the model i n the c o n t e x t of p r e a c t i v e r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and w i t h elementary t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e s such a t e s t o f the g e n e r a l i t y of the model i n a s i t u a t i o n and w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n not p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . In the f i e l d of t e a c h i n g r e s e a r c h the p r e d i c t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour from measures of a t t i t u d e has f o r the most p a r t r e f l e c t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l assumptions and methodology of r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s . Consequently, the f i n d i n g s of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h are s i m i l a r . The a p p l i c a t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s model i n an e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t appears to o f f e r a p r o m i s i n g approach to the p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of t eacher i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p r e a c t i v e s e t t i n g . Here, the immediate u s e f u l n e s s of the F i s h b e i n model i s t h a t i t d e l i m i t s the n ecessary independent v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours. Moreover, the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s among these p r e d i c t o r s as w e l l as t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r antecedents i s s p e c i f i e d by the model. A c c o r d i n g to F i s h b e i n , a d d i t i o n a l ( e x t e r n a l ) v a r i a b l e s w i l l not d i r e c t l y improve p r e d i c t i o n although t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n allows i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s assumed by the model. E x p l a n a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance of the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components wi t h r e s p e c t to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s p r o v i d e s an understanding o f s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of b e h a v i o u r a l consequences and normative e x p e c t a t i o n s . In the prese'nt study, an understanding of the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative b a s i s f o r p r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours i n v o l v e s e l a b o r a t i o n i n terms of t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2.5 Research Questions A g e n e r a l statement of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s to be i n v e s t i g a t e d was g i v e n i n Chapter I. These concerned the p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of elementary t e a c h e r s ' i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours toward recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of b a s a l r e a d i n g programs w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y groups o f primary s t u d e n t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t s under study i n v o l v e d f o u r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s r e q u i r i n g the matching of two b a s a l r e a d i n g programs and two a b i l i t y - g r o u p s of grade two s t u d e n t s . The i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s are r e i t e r a t e d below and e l a b o r a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : Recommending Behaviour (B); Recommending I n t e n t i o n ( I ) ; A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab); S o c i a l Norm (SN); A t t i t u d e Toward the O b j e c t (Ao); Teacher E x p e r i e n c e (TE); Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n (TP). 2.5.1. Do the v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d i n the F i s h b e i n Model p r o v i d e the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r s o f Behaviour and B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t ? a) Are Behaviour and I n t e n t i o n h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d ? b) Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h g r e a t e r than chance accuracy from v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model Ab and SN) ? c) Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n c r e a s e d accuracy by the a d d i t i o n of v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model (i.e. TE, TP and Ao) ? What i s the e f f e c t of elementary t e a c h e r s ' p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour? a) Does the c o r r e l a t i o n between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour depend s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t e a c h e r s ' p r i o r classroom t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e (TE) and fo r m a l l e a r n i n g s r e l e v a n t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n (TP) ? What i s the e f f e c t of t e a c h e r s ' p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model? a) In the p r e d i c t i o n o f I n t e n t i o n does the r e l a t i v e importance of Ab and SN depend s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t e a c h e r s ' p r i o r classroom t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e (TE) and fo r m a l l e a r n i n g s r e l e v a n t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n (TP) ? CHAPTER THREE METHOD The study was an attempt t o apply a r e c e n t formu- l a t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s a t t i t u d e model t o the p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of elementary t e a c h e r s ' responses to c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g tasks i n primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The study thus p r e s e n t e d two a s p e c t s : the p r e d i c t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s and behaviour, and the e x p l a n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s among te a c h e r s i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours i n terms of t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The p r e v i o u s chapters i n d i c a t e d the p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s of employing F i s h b e i n ' s Model i n the context of the i d e n t i f i e d problem. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e c e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s of the model i n more r e a l i s t i c n o n - l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g s , a c e r t a i n l o s s of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y was expected. The ex p l a n a t o r y p o t e n t i a l of the model, s p e c i f i c a l l y i t s accommodation of v a r i a b l e s seen to be of importance t o p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making, was a l s o emphasized as an i n i t i a l step toward f u r t h e r understanding the b a s i s f o r tea c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . 3.1 S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s i n the study were p r a c t i c i n g elementary teachers i n the New Westminster School D i s t r i c t (School D i s t r i c t F o r t y , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia). From among the 138 elementary t e a c h e r s i n the d i s t r i c t , 112 agreed to 9 p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. For the i n v e s t i g a t i v e purposes of the study, s u b j e c t s were c a t e g o r i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e s e r v i c e o r i n s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n i n primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as classroom t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a t t h i s l e v e l . Table 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p a r t i t i o n i n g and the number of s u b j e c t s i n each of the d e f i n e d groups. Only p r a c t i c i n g elementary t e a c h e r s were i n c l u d e d i n the study to make comparable the g e n e r a l s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e o f the d e f i n e d groups. For example, where i n v e s t i - g a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours i n v o l v e d a comparison between s u b j e c t s w i t h primary l e v e l e x p e r i e n c e s and those without, both shared the common background e x p e r i e n c e of the elementary s c h o o l . S i m i l a r l y , only elementary tea c h e r s who had r e c e i v e d i n s e r v i c e or p r e s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d t o the elementary l e v e l were c o n s i d e r e d . Thus, where i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e d a comparison between s u b j e c t s who possessed t h i s l e a r n i n g and those who d i d not, formal l e a r n i n g s were r e l e v a n t to primary i n s t r u c t i o n . As w e l l , o n l y elementary tea c h e r s from one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t were c o n s i d e r e d i n the study to make the c o n d i t i o n s o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s and community s i m i l a r f o r s u b j e c t s . The r e l e v a n t b i o g r a p h i c a l data f o r the te a c h e r s i n c l u d e d i n the study are g i v e n i n Table 6. Table 7 d e t a i l s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d i s t r i c t i n terms of student p o p u l a t i o n and elementary s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . 3.2 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Three independent v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model as w e l l as two i n t e r n a l p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were under study (see Table 8). The former i n c l u d e d : Teacher Classroom TABLE 5 PROFESSION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEMENTARY TEACHER SAMPLE Teacher Experience Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n Reading No Reading Primary 37 25 Intermediate 27 23 TABLE 6 96 BIOGRAPHICAL DATA FOR SUBJECTS Group One: Primary and Reading Age:* 32.20 Sex:** 0 male 37 female Teaching E x p e r i e n c e : * 8.76 years Teacher T r a i n i n g : * * U.B.C. 28 U. V i c t o r i a 2 S.F.U. 7 Other 0 Group Two: Primary and No Reading Age: 32.88 Sex: 0 male 25 female Teaching E x p e r i e n c e : 8.18 years Teacher T r a i n i n g : U.B.C. 13 U. V i c t o r i a 3 S.F.U. 6 Other 3 Group Three: No Primary and Reading Age: 33.37 Sex: 7 male 20 female Teaching E x p e r i e n c e : 7.00 years Teacher T r a i n i n g : U.B.C. 17 S.F.U. 2 Group Four: No Primary and No Reading Age: 36.44 Sex: 10 male 13 female Teaching Experience: 8.11 years Teacher T r a i n i n g : U.B.C. 12 U. V i c t o r i a 0 S.F.U. 7 Other 4 Values are means Values are numbers o f s u b j e c t s i n groups U . V i c t o r i a 4 Other 4 97 TABLE 7 DISTRICT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS Students Schools 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Primary 177 75 186 168 247 144 220 Intermediate 251 106 175 170 288 166 259 98 TABLE 8 VARIABLES INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL TO THE FISHBEIN MODEL Dependent V a r i a b l e s Independent ( i n t e r n a l t o V a r i a b l e s the Model) Independent ( e x t e r n a l to V a r i a b l e s the Model) I Ab TE B SN TP Ao E x p e r i e n c e (TE), Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n (TP), and A t t i t u d e Toward the O b j e c t (Ao), where the o b j e c t s were the B a s a l Reading S e r i e s . The v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the Model were: A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab), and the S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN). The c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were Behaviour (B) and I n t e n t i o n ( I ) . 3.2.1 Independent V a r i a b l e s Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n ( T P ) In the study, TP r e f e r r e d t o the p r i o r a c q u i s i t i o n or n o n - a c q u i s i t i o n of an a c c r e d i t e d program of study r e l a t e d t o elementary s c h o o l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . I t was assumed t h a t t e a c h e r s who had taken a u n i v e r s i t y program i n developmental r e a d i n g possessed t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge r e l e v a n t t o r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a t the elementary l e v e l . The TP c a t e g o r i e s f o r s u b j e c t s were thus e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s o f academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n , i.e.„ 'Reading' or 'No Reading' . N i n e t y per cent of the s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a t one of th r e e p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s : the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (62%), Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y (20%), and the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a ( 8 % ) . The remaining ten per cent r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g out of p r o v i n c e but i n Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . Each of the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r programs i n developmental r e a d i n g f o r the elementary l e v e l and a l l p l a c e b a s i c a l l y the same emphasis on theory. Program d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. Teacher Experience (TE) As w i t h the Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n v a r i a b l e , Teacher 100 Experience (TE) was d e f i n e d i n terms of two c a t e g o r i e s , 'Primary' and 'No Primary'. The f i r s t was designed to index a knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n primary classrooms. The second category r e f e r r e d t o s u b j e c t s who d i d not possess t h i s awareness. S p e c i f i c a l l y , primary classroom experience i n c l u d e d t e a c h i n g at one of the f i r s t f o u r years of elementary s c h o o l , i.e... k i n d e r g a r t e n or grades one to t h r e e . I t was assumed t h a t s u b j e c t s who taught a t the i n t e r m e d i a t e grade l e v e l s , i.e. grades f o u r through seven, would not be as i n t i m a t e l y aware of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of primary b a s a l r e a d i n g programs or the unique requirements of b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r s . A t t i t u d e Toward the O b j e c t (Ao) A t t i t u d e Toward the Object (Ao) assessed the s u b j e c t ' s f e e l i n g of favourableness or unfavourableness toward both b a s a l r e a d i n g programs under study. These measures were gathered from a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l instrument composed of three b i p o l a r e v a l u a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s drawn from F i s h b e i n and Ravens' (1962) 'A' s c a l e s . The s p e c i f i c seven-point s c a l e s employed were: good-bad, w i s e - f o o l i s h , and h a r m f u l - b e n e f i c i a l . A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab) A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab) r e p r e s e n t s one of the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d f o r the F i s h b e i n Model. I t r e f e r s to the amount of fav o u r a b l e n e s s or unfavourableness a s u b j e c t f e e l s toward performing a s t i p u l a t e d a c t i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . In the study, Ab was assessed w i t h r e s p e c t to the 101 a c t of recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of the p a r t i c u l a r b a s a l r e a d i n g programs under study. S p e c i f i c a l l y , Ab was measured on a seven-point semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l instrument composed of the same s c a l e s employed i n the Ao instrument. S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) appears as the second i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e i n the F i s h b e i n Model and r e p r e s e n t s the i n f l u e n c e of the s o c i a l environment on behaviour. I t i s an i n d i c a n t of the s u b j e c t ' s commitment t o what he p e r c e i v e s as h i s s o c i a l r e f e r e n t group's b e h a v i o u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . In the study, SN r e f e r r e d to the s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f what persons or groups important t o him expected him to do i n the c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g task. SN was measured on t h r e e , seven-point s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y s c a l e s drawn from F i s h b e i n and Ravens' (1962) 'B' s c a l e s . The s p e c i f i c s c a l e s used i n the study were: probable-improbable, l i k e l y - u n l i k e l y , and . p o s s i b l e - i m p o s s i b l e . 3.2.2 Dependent V a r i a b l e s I n t e n t i o n (I) B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n (I) r e f e r s to expressed i n t e n t t o perform some behaviour under s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to F i s h b e i n , i n t e n t i o n s may vary i n s p e c i f i c i t y along f o u r dimensions: the nature of the behaviour, the time and s i t u a t i o n of occurrence, and the o b j e c t toward which the behaviour i s d i r e c t e d . In the study, i n t e n t i o n s v a r i e d w i t h r e s p e c t to o b j e c t s (basal readers) and s i t u a t i o n (student achievement groups). The 102 w i l l i n g n e s s o f s u b j e c t s t o make p a r t i c u l a r program recommendations f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of b a s a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s was assessed on the three s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y s c a l e s employed f o r the SN measure. I t was assumed t h a t expressed i n t e n t i o n to recommend a p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g program f o r use wit h a g i v e n achievement group of students r e f l e c t e d the degree of s u b j e c t s ' awareness of both the i n s t r u c t i o n a l consequences and the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the recommendation w i t h r e g a r d t o important r e f e r e n t s t Behaviour (B) The p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g b e h a v i o u r s under study i n v o l v e d recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of two b a s a l r e a d i n g programs — the Canadian Reading Development S e r i e s (Copp-Clark s e r i e s ) and the Language P a t t e r n s S e r i e s (Language P a t t e r n s ) — w i t h h i g h and low a c h i e v i n g students a t the second grade l e v e l . The p l a n n i n g task thus r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s to make f o u r program-group matching d e c i s i o n s : a) Copp-Clark - High Group b) Language P a t t e r n s - High Group c) Copp-Clark - Low Group d) Language P a t t e r n s - Low Group 3.3 C o l l e c t i o n o f the Data The c o l l e c t i o n o f the data f o l l o w e d a sequence of three s t e p s , each phase r e l a t i n g to the major v a r i a b l e c l a s s e s under study. The instruments a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the s u b j e c t s i n each phase are g i v e n below. 103 Phase I ( E x t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s ) : a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n c l u d i n g the Ao instrument. PHASE I I ( I n t e r n a l V a r i a b l e s ) : the F i s h b e i n instruments i n c l u d i n g I , Ab, and SN. PHASE I I I (Curriculum P l a n n i n g B e h a v i o u r ) : the B e h a v i o u r a l Record Instrument, B. The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used to gather r e l e v a n t back- ground i n f o r m a t i o n from s u b j e c t s as w e l l as t h e i r t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . P e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l data i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t ' s age, sex, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . Other i n f o r m a t i o n gathered r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l and c l a s s s i z e f a c t o r s . A sample of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s g i v e n i n Appendix B. The ques- t i o n n a i r e was ad m i n i s t e r e d to s u b j e c t s as a group i n each s c h o o l . The experimenter f i r s t e x p l a i n e d the g e n e r a l purpose of the study and the procedure to be employed i n responding to the a f f e c t i v e and p r o b a b i l i t y s c a l e s used i n the A t t i t u d e Toward the Object and F i s h b e i n instruments. The c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered was a l s o guaranteed. The F i s h b e i n Instruments The I n t e n t i o n ( I ) , A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab), and S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) instruments were designed to measure s u b j e c t s ' d i s p o s i t i o n s toward recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of p a r t i c u l a r b a s a l r e a d i n g programs. Samples of the instruments are g i v e n i n Appendix B. For each instrument w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s 104 were p r o v i d e d to guide s u b j e c t s i n making t h e i r responses. These i n s t r u c t i o n s f o l l o w e d the g e n e r a l format f o r semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l instruments (Osgood e t a l , 1957) and recommended by F i s h b e i n and Raven (1962). S u b j e c t s were d i r e c t e d to complete the instruments f o r each phase i n one s i t t i n g and not i n the company of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . A p i l o t study was i n i t i a l l y c a r r i e d out w i t h a group of t h i r t y - t h r e e elementary t e a c h e r s i n three s c h o o l s from an a d j a c e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t (School D i s t r i c t F o r t y - T h r e e , C o q u i t l a m ) . Questions r e g a r d i n g the d i f f i c u l t y of understanding the i n s t r u c t i o n s were s o l i c i t e d and the needed c l a r i f i c a t i o n s i n c o r - p o r a t e d i n the instruments b e f o r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to s u b j e c t s i n the main study. The B e h a v i o u r a l Record Instrument The behaviour under study was r e c o r d e d one week subsequent to s u b j e c t s ' completion of the F i s h b e i n instruments. Recommendations were r e c o r d e d on a form which i n d i c a t e d a simple 'yes' or 'no' response w i t h r e g a r d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l a d o p t i o n of each b a s a l r e a d i n g program f o r each student achievement group. An example of the B e h a v i o u r a l Record Instrument i s g i v e n i n Appendix B. 3.4 T e c h n i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Instruments V a l i d i t y of the Instruments For the intended purposes of the study instrument v a l i d i t y was c o n s i d e r e d f o r : 1) the c o n s t r u c t s b e i n g measured 2) the p a r t i c u l a r behaviours and c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n s 105 under i n v e s t i g a t i o n and 3) the p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour and i n t e n t i o n . Evidence f o r the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the instruments employed i n the study d e r i v e d mainly from adherence to the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d procedures t h a t have produced s i m i l a r instruments to measure s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t s . Reference to s t u d i e s which have employed F i s h b e i n and Ravens' (1962) A-B s c a l e s i n the measure- ment of A t t i t u d e Toward the Object, A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour, and S u b j e c t i v e Norm were g i v e n i n S e c t i o n 2.3. Here, the data c o l l e c t e d w i t h instruments c o n s t r u c t e d i n accordance w i t h F i s h b e i n ' s procedures c o n f i r m t h a t such measures perform as t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e . In the c u r r e n t study, e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e was adhered to i n c o n s t r u c t i n g instruments f o r measuring i n t e n t i o n , a t t i t u d e , and norm. For example, a s u b j e c t ' s e x p r e s s i o n of favourableness or unfavourableness toward the performance of an a c t i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n was taken as a measure of h i s a t t i t u d e toward the behaviour (Ab). S i m i l a r l y , a s u b j e c t ' s normative b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g the b e h a v i o u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of important r e f e r e n t s was taken as a measure of h i s s u b j e c t i v e norm (SN). F i n a l l y , a s u b j e c t ' s expressed w i l l i n g n e s s to perform a g i v e n a c t i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n was regarded as a measure of h i s b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n ( I ) . F i s h b e i n ( F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975) c o n s i d e r s these to be a p p r o p r i a t e v e r b a l measures of the v a r i a b l e s i n h i s model. Item data w i t h r e s p e c t t o both e v a l u a t i v e and p r o b a b i l i t y s c a l e s employed i n the v a r i o u s instruments are g i v e n i n Table 9 f o r the p r e s e n t study. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t e m - s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r both e v a l u a t i v e TABLET 9 INSTRUMENT VALIDITY: ITEM-SCALE CORRELATIONS Scales Concepts * "" Evaluative AoCC AoLP AbCCH AbLPL AbCCL AbLPL . good-bad ,91 .97 .95 .96 .96 .97 . w i s e - f o o l i s h .95 .94 .97 .96 .97 .97 . h a r m f u l - b e n e f i c i a l .92 .97 .97 .98 .98 .98 P r o b a b i l i t y SNCCH SNLPH SNCCL SNLPL I1CCH I1LPH I1CCL I1LPL (I2CCH) (I2LPH) (I2CCL) (I2LPL) . probable-improbable .96 .97 .93 .98 .95 .99 .95 .98 (.95) (.97) (.94) (.97) . l i k e l y - u n l i k e l y .98 .98 .98 .98 .97 .99 .97 .99 (-98) (.99) (.98) (.99) . possible-impossible .96 .99 .96 .99 .97 .99 .97 .97 (.97) (.98) (.97) (.99) Concepts Notation; Ao: A t t i t u d e Toward the Object Ab: A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour SN: S o c i a l Norm I I : Intention ( f i r s t assessment) CC LP H L Copp-Clark Language Patterns H i g h - a b i l i t y student group Low-ability student group o 107 and p r o b a b i l i t y s c a l e s are pr e s e n t e d to show t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y a c ross the v a r i o u s concepts examined i n the study. F i s h b e i n and Raven (1962) have i n v e s t i g a t e d the convergent and d i v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y o f the A-B s c a l e s . They r e p o r t e d i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s of .90 f o r the A s c a l e s and .91 f o r the B s c a l e s on the concept o f E x t r a - s e n s o r y P e r c e p t i o n (ESP). A-B c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the concepts "ESP", "Atomic F a l l o u t " and " R a c i a l P r e j u d i c e " were -.17, -.07 and .12, r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were found i n the p r e s e n t study where i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r E v a l u a t i v e (A) s c a l e s ranged from .85 to .95. For the P r o b a b i l i t y (B) s c a l e s , i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .82 to .98. However, c o r r e l a t i o n s between E v a l u a t i v e and P r o b a b i l i t y s c a l e s ranged from .50 to .64 i n d i c a t i n g l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y d i v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y . A b a s i c c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the study was the n o t i o n t h a t by v a r y i n g the s i t u a t i o n and o b j e c t toward which i n t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d , d i s t i n c t b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s were d e f i n e d . Reference t o the c o r r e l a t i o n s among I n t e n t i o n measures r e p o r t e d i n Table 10 f o r each c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n suggests t h a t the s u b j e c t s i n the study p e r c e i v e d the d e c i s i o n s to be r e l a t i v e l y d i s c r e t e . With r e g a r d to the b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i o n , the argument f o r u s i n g recommending behaviour as a v a l i d i n d i c a n t of p r e a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making has a l r e a d y been made i n Chapter One. 108 TABLE 10 INSTRUMENT VALIDITY: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTENTION MEASURES FOR FOUR CURRICULUM PLANNING DECISIONS D e c i s i o n D l D2 D3 1. Copp-Clark - High Group (Dl) 2. Language P a t t e r n s - High Group (D2) -.10 3. Copp-Clark - Low Group (D3) - . 32 . 30 4. Language-Patterns - Low Group (D4) . 32 .16 -.20 109 With r e g a r d to content v a l i d i t y , the c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g task under study i s b a s i c to r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a t the primary l e v e l . Moreover, the dimensions of the task emphasized i n the study — a v a i l a b l e c u r r i c u l u m a l t e r n a t i v e s and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among students -- are primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g . The p a r t i c u l a r b a s a l r e a d i n g programs s e l e c t e d are those p r e s c r i b e d as a l t e r n a t i v e s by the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n and both are wid e l y used i n the p r o v i n c e ( H i l l e t a l , 1976). Dete r m i n a t i o n of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y c o n s t i t u t e s a s u b s t a n t i v e p a r t o f the study and i s d e a l t w i t h i n S e c t i o n 3.5. R e l i a b i l i t y o f the Instruments The instruments f o r which r e l i a b i l i t y measures were sought i n c l u d e d I n t e n t i o n ( I ) , A t t i t u d e Toward the Obje c t (Ao), A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab), and S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN). The main r e l i a b i l i t y i n t e r e s t s o f the study r e l a t e d to the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and s t a b i l i t y of the instruments. I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was assessed u s i n g Cronbach's (1951) C o e f f i c i e n t Alpha. The r e s u l t s f o r each instrument on each concept are g i v e n i n Table 11. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a high l e v e l of i n t e r n a l 'consistency f o r the instruments used. Esti m a t e s o f s t a b i l i t y were a v a i l a b l e only f o r the i n t e n t i o n measure and are g i v e n i n Table 12. The r e p o r t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s are between measures of I n t e n t i o n taken one week ap a r t , ie.. a t the time when the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and F i s h b e i n TABLE 11 INSTRUMENT CHARACTERISTICS DATA; INTERNAL CONSISTENCY. Concepts Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n Cronbach Alpha AoCC 14.01 2.72 .91 AoLP 15.12 3.64 .96 AbCCH 14.87 3. 53 .96 AbLPH 15.53 3.81 .96 AbCCL 11. 83 3.92 .97 AbLPL 13.73 4.13 .97 SNCCH 14.24 4.28 .97 SNLPH 15.02 4. 41 .98 SNCCL 11.82 4.10 .96 SNLPL 14.54 4. 63 .98 IlCCH 13.39 4. 70 . 97 I1LPH 15.07 4. 90 .99 I1CCL 11.04 4.43 .96 I1LPL 13.65 4.90 .98 I2CCH 14.00 4.71 .97 I2LPH 15.20 4.57 .98 I2CCL 11. 33 4.31 .96 I2LPL 13.40 5.04 .98 I l l TABLE 12 INSTRUMENT CHARACTERISTICS DATA: TEST-RETEST RELIABILITIES FOR INTENTION MEASURES ( I I , 12) FOR FOUR CURRICULUM PLANNING DECISIONS 1 2 3 4 .77 .71 . 82 . 84 112 Instrument data was gathered (II) and a t the time when the B e h a v i o u r a l O b s e r v a t i o n Instrument was a d m i n i s t e r e d (1.2) . The ob t a i n e d r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e an adequate l e v e l of s t a b i l i t y f o r the purposes o f the study. Although s t a b i l i t y measures were not a v a i l a b l e f o r the Ao, Ab, and SN instruments i n the p r e s e n t study, F i s h b e i n and Raven (1962) c o r r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e (A) scores of f o r t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s i n a study of the concept ESP ( E x t r a - sensory P e r c e p t i o n ) a f t e r a four-day i n t e r v a l and o b t a i n e d a c o r r e l a t i o n of .90. The cor r e s p o n d i n g c o r r e l a t i o n f o r b e l i e f (B) scores was .91 on t h i s concept. 3.5 Method of A n a l y s i s To i n v e s t i g a t e the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the F i s h b e i n Model i n the context o f the p r e s e n t study, a n a l y s i s o f the gathered data was guided by the p r e d i c t i v e and e x p l a n a t o r y purposes of the study. The a n a l y t i c procedures o u t l i n e d below thus r e l a t e to an assessment o f : 1) the n e c e s s i t y and s u f f i c i - ency of the F i s h b e i n Model v a r i a b l e s i n p r e d i c t i n g Behaviour and I n t e n t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f o u r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s under study; 2) the e f f e c t of p r i o r t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s assumed i n the Model. 3.5.1 The N e c e s s i t y and S u f f i c i e n c y o f the F i s h b e i n Model The s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed i n examining the u t i l i t y of the F i s h b e i n Model f o r p r e d i c t i n g I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour are gi v e n below t o g e t h e r w i t h the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h i s purpose. 113 a) Are I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d ? A c c o r d i n g to the Model, the immediate determinant of a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour i s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e n t t o perform t h a t behaviour. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s of b e h a v i o u r a l p r e d i c t i o n from a t t i t u d e s which t y p i c a l l y employ standard A t t i t u d e Toward the O b j e c t (Ao) measures as antecedent v a r i a b l e s . To assess the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n (I)"*" and Behaviour (B) i n the p r e s e n t study, p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed between these measures f o r each c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n and a c r o s s a l l s u b j e c t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of these c o e f f i c i e n t s was r e p o r t e d u t i l i z i n g a t w o - t a i l e d t e s t of t h e i r departure from zero v a l u e . In a d d i t i o n to examining the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n - s h i p between I and B over the one-week time p e r i o d which i n t e r - vened between t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e assessment, A t t i t u d e (Ao)-Behaviour c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r a s i m i l a r time p e r i o d were computed. A t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between I-B and Ao-B c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r (non-independent) samples was made f o r comparison (Glass and S t a n l e y , 19 70). b) Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h g r e a t e r than chance accuracy from v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ? To assess the accuracy of p r e d i c t i o n g i v e n by the ^ A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s to I r e f e r to the f i r s t assessment of t h a t v a r i a b l e ( i e . I l ) . 114 a t t i t u d i n a l and normative v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d by the Model, a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n procedure was employed w i t h I n t e n t i o n as the c r i t e r i o n . M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and c o e f f i c - i e n t s of d e t e r m i n a t i o n were computed acr o s s s u b j e c t s and f o r each c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n . T h i s procedure allowed i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the j o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n of A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab) and S o c i a l Norm (SN) toward p r e d i c t i n g v a r i a t i o n i n I n t e n t i o n . S i n c e a unique f e a t u r e of F i s h b e i n ' s Model i s i t s i n c l u s i o n of a normative term i n the. r e g r e s s i o n , the n e c e s s i t y of i n c l u d i n g SN i n a d d i t i o n t o Ab was examined. T h i s was done i n terms of the increment i n p r e d i c t e d c r i t e r i o n v a r i a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the normative term a f t e r t h a t due to a t t i t u d e had been taken i n t o account. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r e d i c t i v e S r o l e o f both a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components i n p r e v i o u s e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has shown a degree of c o r r e l a t i o n among these p r e d i c t o r s . As a r e s u l t , not onl y the j o i n t and unique p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y o f Ab and SN but a l s o t h e i r d i r e c t a s s o c i a - t i o n w i t h I n t e n t i o n was r e p o r t e d to b e t t e r p r e s e n t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among Model v a r i a b l e s . The r e l e v a n t s t a t i s t i c s thus c o n s i d e r e d were: 2 b l ) the c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n (R ) between the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e (I) and p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s (Ab and SN) , b2) the increment i n p r e d i c t e d I v a r i a t i o n due to the 2 i n d i v i d u a l terms Ab and SN ( A R ) 115 b3) the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (R) of I w i t h Ab and SN, b4) the f i r s t - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (r) between I and each p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e Ab and SN, b5) the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n (beta) weights a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each p r e d i c t o r . D e r i v a t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e F t e s t s t a t i s t i c s from the r e g r e s s i o n i s g i v e n by Kim and Kohout (1975). c) Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n c r e a s e d accuracy by the a d d i t i o n of v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ? To examine the c l a i m made by F i s h b e i n t h a t the a t t i - t u d i n a l and normative components mediate the e f f e c t of any a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n , the v a r i a b l e s of Teacher Experience (TE), Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n (TP), t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n (TE X TP) and A t t i t u d e Toward the Object (Ao) were i n c l u d e d i n m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equations c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n and computed across a l l s u b j e c t s . This procedure allowed the e f f e c t of Ab and SN to be h e l d constant w h i l e any s i g n i f i c a n t increment of the p r e d i c t e d v a r i a t i o n i n I n t e n t i o n due to the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s was examined. D e r i v a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e F t e s t s t a t i s t i c s from r e g r e s s i o n which r e f l e c t s an o r d e r i n g l o g i c f o r e n t e r i n g v a r i a b l e s i n the equation i s g i v e n by Kim and Kohout (1975). I n t e r p r e t i v e c a u t i o n s i n employ- i n g q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s i n r e g r e s s i o n w i t h unequal numbers of 116 s u b j e c t s f o r - e a c h l e v e l or category of these v a r i a b l e s (eg.. TE and TP) have been d i s c u s s e d by O v e r a l l and S p e i g e l (1969), Kaufman and Sweet (19 74) and Marks (19 74). F i s h b e i n has s t a t e d t h a t where e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s are r e l a t e d to I n t e n t i o n they are a l s o d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o Ab and SN. To more c l e a r l y examine the r e l a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n , e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h I n t e n t i o n and w i t h the F i s h b e i n p r e d i c t o r terms. 3.5.2 The E f f e c t of P r i o r Teacher E x p e r i e n c e and L e a r n i n g on the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Assumed i n the F i s h b e i n Model. The s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed i n examining the e f f e c t of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s on components of the F i s h b e i n Model and the b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a are g i v e n below t o g e t h e r w i t h the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h i s e x p l a n a t o r y purpose. Si n c e the a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d examination of the e f f e c t s of p r i o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e (TE) and formal l e a r n i n g (TP) on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c r i t e r i o n and p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , the TE and TP v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d as design f a c t o r s . The r e s u l t a n t sub-groupings of s u b j e c t s were l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s . Group 1: s u b j e c t s who possessed both primary c l a s s - room t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and fo r m a l l e a r n i n g s r e l e v a n t t o primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Group 2: s u b j e c t s who possessed primary classroom t e a c h i n g experience but no formal l e a r n i n g s r e l a t e d to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 117 Group 3: s u b j e c t s who had no p r i o r primary c l a s s - room t e a c h i n g experience but who d i d possess fo r m a l l e a r n i n g s r e l e v a n t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n • Group 4: s u b j e c t s who possessed n e i t h e r classroom « t e a c h i n g experience a t the primary l e v e l nor formal l e a r n i n g s r e l e v a n t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . a) What i s the e f f e c t of p r i o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour ? A c c o r d i n g to F i s h b e i n ' s f o r m u l a t i o n , the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e n t and behaviour i s , i n l a r g e p a r t , determined by the degree of v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l i n d i v i d u a l s have over performance of the behaviour. In the p r e s e n t study v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l was indexed i n terms of s u b j e c t s ' p o s s e s s i o n of r e l e v a n t p r i o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and formal l e a r n i n g s . A c c o r d i n g l y , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed between I and B f o r e a c h ^ c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n and sub-group of s u b j e c t s . The procedure suggested by M a r a s c u i l o (1966) f o r examining d i f f e r e n c e s among m u l t i p l e ( f i r s t - o r d e r ) c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s was employed. T h i s procedure i n v o l v e s f i r s t a t e s t of the e q u a l i t y of K c o e f f i c i e n t s f o l l o w e d by the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of c o n t r a s t s among a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s or s e l e c t e d combinations of these c o e f f i c i e n t s to determine the source o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n i t i a l l y found. 118 b) What i s the e f f e c t o f p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ? A c c o r d i n g t o the Model, persons and s i t u a t i o n s elements w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t upon the ( r e g r e s s i o n ) weights g i v e n the Ab and SN terms i n the p r e d i c t i o n of I n t e n t i o n . Separate r e g r e s s i o n equations were t h e r e f o r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n and each sub-group of s u b j e c t s to assess the r e l a t i v e p r e d i c t i v e importance of these components. While the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative terms are c o n s i d e r e d to be formed by d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s , p r e v i o u s e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has shown a l a c k o f independence. To i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i v e importance a s s i g n e d Ab and SN i n p r e d i c t i n g I and at the same time take i n t o account any i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n among p r e d i c t o r s , simple c o r r e l a t i o n s and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s between c r i t e r i o n and p r e d i c t o r s as w e l l as s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n weights were r e p o r t e d and examined f o r t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS OF ANALYSIS Chapter Four p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s f o r the a n a l y s e s o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 3.5 of the p r e v i o u s chapter. The s t a t i s t i c a l a nalyses of data were performed on an IBM 360/67 computer u s i n g the a p p l i c a b l e s u b - r o u t i n e s of the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s : SPSS (Nie e t a l , 1975). S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s of l e s s than .05 are r e p o r t e d f o r s u b s t a n t i v e d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of two phases, each of which r e l a t e d t o the major r e s e a r c h purposes i d e n t i f i e d i n the study. These r e f e r r e d f i r s t t o the n e c e s s i t y and s u f f i c i e n c y of the F i s h b e i n Model i n the p r e d i c t i o n of Elementary t e a c h e r s ' i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours w i t h r e s p e c t to recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of b a s a l r e a d i n g programs w i t h d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y - g r o u p s of primary l e v e l s t u d e n t s . The p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t s examined r e l a t e d t o the f o l l o w i n g d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s : 1) recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of the Copp-Clark s e r i e s w i t h a High a b i l i t y group of grade two s t u d e n t s ; 2) recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s w i t h a High a b i l i t y group of grade two s t u d e n t s ; 3) recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of the Copp-Clark s e r i e s w i t h a Low a b i l i t y group of grade two s t u d e n t s ; and 4) recommending the - 119 - 120 i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of the Language P a t t e r n s s e r i e s w i t h a Low a b i l i t y group of grade two s t u d e n t s . The second phase of a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of an examination of the e f f e c t s of p r i o r t e a c h i n g experience and formal l e a r n i n g f a c t o r s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s ' Recommending I n t e n t i o n s and Behaviour and on the r e l a t i v e importance of the Model's a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components i n p r e d i c t i n g I n t e n t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between and among v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l to the Model were of i n t e r e s t as were t h e i r n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were thus i n c l u d e d f o r e l a b o r a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 5.1 The N e c e s s i t y and S u f f i c i e n c y of the F i s h b e i n Model. The f i r s t phase of a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d t e s t i n g the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the F i s h b e i n Model to the p r e d i c t i o n of Behaviour (B) and I n t e n t i o n (I) f o r a l l s u b j e c t s and each of the c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s under study. The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s which guided the a n a l y s i s are g i v e n below to g e t h e r w i t h the r e l a t e d f i n d i n g s . a) Are I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d ? To assess the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s ' Recommending Behaviour and B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t , p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed acr o s s s u b j e c t s f o r each c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are g i v e n i n Table 13. Here, the f o u r TABLE 13 . RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIOUR, INTENTION AND ATTITUDE (Ao) D e c i s i o n C o r r e l a t i o n s I-B Ao-B Observed Z Values f o r C o r r e l a t i o n Comparisons DI .49 * .21 * 3.00 ** D2 .54 * .19 * 4.30 ** D3 .54 * -.11 * 5.56 ** D4 .49 * .29 * 2.27 ** 122 c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s -- Copp-Clark-High Group, Language P a t t e r n s - H i g h Group, Copp-Clark-Low Group, and Language Patterns-Low Group -- are indexed as D e c i s i o n One ( D l ) , D e c i s i o n Two (D2), D e c i s i o n Three (D3), and D e c i s i o n Four (D4), r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t may be seen t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between I and B measures were moderately s t r o n g and p o s i t i v e over a l l c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r each p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n were .49, .54, .54 and .49 (p<C.05) r e s p e c t i v e l y . These r e s u l t s are comparable to the f i n d i n g s of r e l a t e d s t u d i e s where the Model has been a p p l i e d i n n o n - l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g s . For purposes of comparison, c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o computed between the A t t i t u d e Toward the O b j e c t (Ao) measure and Behaviour (B) f o r each p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n . The o b t a i n e d c o e f f i c i e n t s were .21, .19, -.11 and .29 (p<.05) f o r D e c i s i o n s One to Four, r e s p e c t i v e l y . While s i g n i f i c a n t f o r each of the f o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , the Ao-B c o r r e - l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y low and i n one i n s t a n c e ( D e c i s i o n Three) demonstrated an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Comparison of the I-B and Ao-B c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each d e c i s i o n produced s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n favour of the I-B c o r r e l a t i o n s i n a l l cases. The observed Z v a l u e s f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s were 3.00, 4.30, 5.56 and 2.27 (p<.05) f o r the r e s p e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s . These r e s u l t s lend support to F i s h b e i n ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e are not h i g h l y r e l a t e d 123 to p a r t i c u l a r behaviours and t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n pro- v i d e s an improved antecedent measure. b. Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h g r e a t e r than chance accuracy from v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ? To assess the a b i l i t y o f v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d as i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model — A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab) and S u b j e c t i v e Norm (SN) -- to a c c u r a t e l y pre- d i c t I n t e n t i o n , m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equations were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n . Tables 14, 15, 16 and 17 r e p o r t the r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i n terms of the c o e f f i c i e n t of 2 de t e r m i n a t i o n (R ). The o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t v a r i a t i o n i n I n t e n t i o n c o u l d be accounted f o r wi t h some p r e c i s i o n from the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative com- ponents of the Model. For a l l d e c i s i o n s , the j o i n t p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e s o f Ab and SN were s t r o n g and p o s i t i v e although 2 c o n s i d e r a b l e range i n these v a l u e s ( T o t a l R ) was apparent a c r o s s d e c i s i o n s ; c o e f f i c i e n t s of d e t e r m i n a t i o n o b t a i n e d f o r D e c i s i o n s One to Four were .54, . 62, . 47, and .72 (p<.05), r e - s p e c t i v e l y . These r e s u l t s are comparable to those found i n ot h e r f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n s of the Model where c o n d i t i o n s do not permit the degree of ex p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l a v a i l a b l e i n l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s . In the co n t e x t o f the p r e s e n t study, the Ab and SN terms of the Model were s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e d i c t i v e o f I n t e n t i o n 124 TABLE 14 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION ONE Source A R 2 Degrees o f Freedom Fobs Ab .51 1 38.47 * SN .04 1 8. 81 * T o t a l . 55 2 65.07 * E r r o r .45 109 * p < . 05 0 125 TABLE 15 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION TWO Source A R 2 Degrees of Freedom Fobs Ab .53 1 36.67 * SN .09 1 26.77 * T o t a l . 62 2 88.44 * E r r o r . 38 109 * p < . 05 126 TABLE 16 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION THREE Source 2 A R Degrees of Freedom Fobs Ab .46 1 46.39 * SN .02 1 3.19 * T o t a l .48 2 48.47 * E r r o r .52 109 * p < . 05 127 TABLE 17 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION FOUR Source AR2 Degrees of Freedom Fobs Ab . 61 1 79.09 * SN .11 1 44.83 * T o t a l . 72 2 142.36 * E r r o r .28 109 * p < .05 128 to p r o v i d e support f o r F i s h b e i n ' s g e n e r a l f o r m u l a t i o n . To assess the n e c e s s i t y of the Ab and SN terms i n p r e d i c t i o n , the I n c r e m e n t a l - - c o n t r i b u t i o n of each to the r e g r e s s i o n was examined f o r the f o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . For a l l d e c i s i o n s , the a t t i t u d i n a l term made the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i - b u t i o n ; as r e p o r t e d i n Tables 14, 15, 16 and 17, R v a l u e s f o r D e c i s i o n s One to Four were .51, .53, .46 and .61 (p< .05), r e s p e c t i v e l y . In each d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n SN accounted f o r a s m a l l but s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the I v a r i a t i o n beyond t h a t p r o v i d e d by Ab. For the f o u r d e c i s i o n s the r e s p e c t i v e 2 increments i n R due to SN were .04, .09, .02 and .11 (p<.05). While the n e c e s s i t y of both components i n p r e d i c t i o n was i n d i c a t e d , the r e l a t i v e importance of Ab i n the r e g r e s s i o n was c l e a r l y g r e a t e r . However, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was compli- cated by the c o r r e l a t i o n among p r e d i c t o r s f o r the r e s p e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s (r = .77, .71, .82 and .84; p<£.05). Reference to Table 18 p r o v i d e s a~ more complete p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between I n t e n t i o n and the p r e d i c t o r s as w e l l as r e l a t i o n s among p r e d i c t o r s . In terms of the r e g r e s s i o n , the r o l e of Ab and SN may be seen i n the r e l a t i v e weights a s s i g n e d each p r e d i c t o r (i.e. the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ) . As i n d i c a t e d , the a t t i t u d i n a l term r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t w e i g h t i n g f o r a l l d e c i s i o n s . However, measures of the d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n of I n t e n t i o n w i t h Ab and SN showed both t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the c r i t e r i o n . Respective f i r s t - o r d e r c o r r e - l a t i o n s of Ab and I f o r the f o u r d e c i s i o n s were .71, .73, .78 129 TABLE 18 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INTENTION AND INTERNAL VARIABLES FOR FOUR CURRICULUM PLANNING DECISIONS * D e c i s i o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Ab SN Regr e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Ab SN M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n D l .71 . 62 .54 .26 .74 D2 . 73 .69 . 48 .39 .79 D3 . 68 .50 . 59 .15 . 69 D4 . 78 .72 .55 . 41 . 85 * a l l r e p o r t e d v a l u e s have p<C-05. 130 and .78 (p<.05) w h i l e those between SN and I were .62, . 69, .50 and .72 ( p < . 0 5 ) . The e f f e c t of c o r r e l a t i o n among p r e d i c t o r s i s made apparent by a comparison of the f i r s t - o r d e r c o r r e - l a t i o n s of Ab and SN w i t h I to the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s of both w i t h the c r i t e r i o n a c r o s s d e c i s i o n s (R = .74, .79, .69 and .85; p < . 0 5 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In the c o n t e x t of t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t would appear t h a t the a t t i t u d i n a l term i s a necessary component of the Model and i n c l u s i o n of the normative term i n c r e a s e s p r e d i c t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . c) Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n c r e a s e d accuracy by the a d d i t i o n of v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ? Another aspect o f the s u f f i c i e n c y of the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components of the F i s h b e i n Model r e l a t e s to t h e i r r o l e i n m e d i a t i n g the i n f l u e n c e of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s on I n t e n t i o n . To assess the p o t e n t i a l of v a r i a b l e s not s p e c i f i e d i n the model to i n c r e a s e the p r e c i s i o n of p r e d i c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g terms were added to the r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a t i o n : Teacher Experience (TE), Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n (TP) and A t t i t u d e Toward the Object (Ao). The r e g r e s s i o n procedure employed i n t h i s a n a l y s i s allowed the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s (Ab and SN) to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y h e l d c o n s t a n t i n o r d e r to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s . Tables 19, 20, 21 and 22 show the increment i n p r e d i c t e d I v a r i a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s f o r each 131 TABLE 19 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION ONE Source AR 2- Degrees of Freedom Fobs (Ab SN) .54 2 65.07 * Ao .005 1 . 57 TE X TP .02 1 3. 83 * TE .007 1 1. 68 TP . 001 1' . 26 T o t a l .58 6 E r r o r . 42 105 * p < .05 132 TABLE 20 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION TWO Source A*2 Degrees of Freedom Fobs (Ab SN) .62 2 88.44 * Ao .005 1 .69 TE X TP .001 1 . 58 TE .01 1 4.14 * TP .00 1 .00 T o t a l .64 6 E r r o r . 36 105 * p <.05 133 TABLE 21 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION THREE SOURCE A E 2 Degrees of Freedom Fobs (Ab SN) . 47 2 48.47 * Ao .002 1 .12 TE X TP .00 1 .00 TE .005 1 .99 TP .00 1 .03 T o t a l .48 6 E r r o r .52 105 * p<.05 TABLE 22 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VARIABLES ON INTENTION FOR DECISION FOUR Source A R 2 Degrees of Freedom Fobs (Ab SN) . 72 2 142.36 * Ao .00 1 .00 TE X TP .00 1 .00 TE .00 1 .00 TP .00 1. .00 T o t a l .73 6 E r r o r . 27 105 * p < . 05 135 c u r r i c u l u m -planning d e c i s i o n . These r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y supported the s u f f i c i e n c y o f the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components i n media t i n g the e f f e c t o f a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . E x c e p t i o n s were found w i t h the TE v a r i a b l e and the con- s t r u c t e d v a r i a b l e TE X TP which gave s m a l l but s i g n i f i c a n t increments i n p r e d i c t e d c r i t e r i o n v a r i a t i o n f o r D e c i s i o n Two and One r e s p e c t i v e l y (TE = .01, p<.05; TE X TP = .02, p < . 0 5 ) . F i s h b e i n has s t a t e d t h a t where e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s are r e l a t e d to I n t e n t i o n , they a l s o w i l l be r e l a t e d to e i t h e r or both the Ab and SN components. To examine these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f i r s t - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed between each e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e , I n t e n t i o n , and the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s . Table 23 p r o v i d e s these r e s u l t s . Among the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r e s e n t study, Ao was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to I i n three of the f o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . Obtained Ao-I c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r D e c i s i o n s One to Four were .37, .53 (p<C.05), -.05 ( p > . 0 5 ) , and .42 (p<.05), r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Ao, Ab, and SN conformed to t h a t o u t l i n e d by F i s h b e i n ; c o r r e l a t i o n s between Ao and Ab and between Ao and SN were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r D e c i s i o n s One, Two and Four but not Three. S i m i l a r l y f o r D e c i s i o n Two, where TE gave a s i g n i f i c a n t increment i n p r e d i c t e d I v a r i a t i o n , the I-TE c o r r e l a t i o n was .45 (p<.05) and the TE-Ab and TE-SN c o r r e l a t i o n s were .47 (p<£.05) and .30 ( p < - 0 5 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . For the f i r s t p l a n - n i n g d e c i s i o n , where the independent c o n t r i b u t i o n of the TE X TP v a r i a b l e to p r e d i c t e d I v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , the 136 TABLE 2 3 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTENTION AND (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL) PREDICTORS AND AMONG PREDICTORS FOR FOUR CURRICULUM PLANNING DECISIONS V a r i a b l e s D e c i s i o n s DI D2 D3 D4 Ao-I .39 * .53* -.05 . 42* Ao-Ab .52 * .56* .00 .56* Ao-SN . 21* .51* -.07 .40* TE X TP-I -.11 .05 .01 -.13 TE X TP-Ab .07 .15 . 03 -.13 TE X TP-SN -.02 .05 .01 -.06 TE-I . 14 . 45* .03 .23* TE-Ab .32* .47* .17 .17 TE-SN . 22* . 30* .03 . 32* TP-I .17 .16 -.07 .12 TP-Ab . 21* . 19* -.09 .09 TP-SN .12 .16 -.10 .14 * p < .05. 137 I-TE X TP c o r r e l a t i o n was not l a r g e and n e g a t i v e l y s i g n e d (-.11; p < . 0 5 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of TE X TP w i t h Ab was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t (.07; p">.05) as i t was wit h SN (-.02; p > .05) . Claims f o r the s u f f i c i e n c y of the Model i n the sense t h a t the s p e c i f i e d a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components mediate the e f f e c t o f e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s were g e n e r a l l y supported. Where the Model f a i l e d to mediate completely the i n f l u e n c e of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h I n t e n t i o n was g r e a t l y a t t e n u a t e d . 5.3.2 The E f f e c t of P r i o r Teacher Experience and Le a r n i n g on the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Assumed i n the F i s h b e i n Model. T h i s phase of the a n a l y s i s was d i r e c t e d toward examining the e f f e c t of p r i o r classroom t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and formal l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on: 1) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour and 2) the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components of the Model i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f I n t e n t i o n . To examine the e f f e c t of the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s on these r e l a t i o n - s h i p s , the sample was p a r t i t i o n e d i n terms of ex p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g background to form f o u r subgroups: Group One s u b j e c t s possessed both experience and l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d t o primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ; Group Two s u b j e c t s possessed o n l y e x p e r i - ence; Group Three s u b j e c t s possessed o n l y l e a r n i n g and Group 138 Four s u b j e c t s possessed n e i t h e r experience nor l e a r n i n g . The r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and f i n d i n g s are summarized below. a) What i s the e f f e c t of p r i o r t e a c h i n g experience and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour ? In the p r e s e n t study i t was c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t r e l e v a n t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g experience and formal l e a r n i n g s would s i g - n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t the s t r e n g t h of the I n t e n t i o n - B e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p . To assess the e x t e n t of t h i s i n f l u e n c e , I-B c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r each c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n and each sub-group of t e a c h e r s as d e f i n e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g background. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s r e l e v a n t to the a n a l y s i s are g i v e n i n Table 24. 2 R e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s used to t e s t the e q u a l i t y of the I-B c o e f f i c i e n t s between groups are r e p o r t e d i n Table 25. I t may be seen t h a t f o r three of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t 2 d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the groups; observed v a l u e s f o r D e c i s i o n s One t o Four were 7.37 ( p > . 0 5 ) , 14.57, 9.03 and 11.57 ( p < . 0 5 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s p e c i f i c nature of group d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be u s e f u l l y e x p l o r e d f o r D e c i s i o n s Two, Three and Four. With the e x c e p t i o n of D e c i s i o n One, which r e q u i r e d a matching of the Copp-Clark pro- gram w i t h a L o w - a b i l i t y group of s t u d e n t s , the e f f e c t of s u b j e c t s ' p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the I-B r e l a t i o n s h i p was f u r t h e r examined by d e f i n i n g p a i r w i s e c o n t r a s t s between 139 TABLE 24 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR INTENTION-BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS BY SUBJECT GROUPS V a r i a b l e s Group I n t e n t i o n Behaviour C o r r e l a t i o n of I w i t h B X S.D. P* r D e c i s i o n One G l 14.08 5.66 . 62 . 67 G2 13. 80 4. 75 . 72 . 55 G3 14.07 3. 47 . 82 . 38 G4 11. 04 3. 69 .57 .08 D e c i s i o n Two Gl 17.54 4.94 . 84 . 79 G2 16. 36 4.04 . 84 . 45 G3 13. 33 4. 36 . 59 . 36 G4 11. 74 3. 83 .39 .06 D e c i s i o n Three G l 10.95 5. 47 .38 .72 . G2 11. 44 4.28 . 28 . 67 G3 10. 59 3.52 . 30 . 48 G4 11. 49 4. 01 . 39 .10 D e c i s i o n Four G l 14. 46 5.97 .57 .70 G2 15. 00 4.23 . 68 . 48 G3 13.70 4.13 . 74 .48 G4 10. 83 3. 59 .39 -.11 * P r o p o r t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n group who chose i n d i c a t e d program. 140 TABLE 25 GROUP DIFFERENCES ON INTENTION-BEHAVIOUR CORRELATIONS FOR FOUR CURRICULUM PLANNING DECISIONS D e c i s i o n s Group D l D2 D3 D4 Observed Zr Values G l . 816 1.064 .908 . 863 G2 . 614 .489 .787 . 517 G3 . 393 .381 .517 .520 G4 .084 .056 .103 -.114 2 Observed X Values f o r Group D i f f e r e n c e s 7. 37 14.57 * 9.03 * 11.57 * * -)C 2 (3, .95) = 7. 81 141 groups f o r the f o l l o w i n g d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s : 1. D e c i s i o n Two: Language P a t t e r n s - H i g h Group (students) Table 26 g i v e s the r e s u l t s of the p a i r w i s e c o n t r a s t s between groups f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n . Reference to these r e s u l t s and t o the c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n Table 24 i n d i c a t e t h a t Group One, composed of s u b j e c t s who had primary c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g experience and formal l e a r n i n g s r e l a t e d to primary l e v e l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r I-B c o r r e l a t i o n (.79) than d i d the Group Four s u b j e c t s (.06) who had n e i t h e r e x p e r i e n c e nor l e a r n i n g s r e l e v a n t to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between groups. 2. D e c i s i o n Three: Copp-Clark-Low Group (students) The r e s u l t s f o r the p a i r w i s e c o n t r a s t s among the groups f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n are g i v e n i n Table 27. These r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r t o those found f o r D e c i s i o n Two. Group One sub- j e c t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r I-B c o r r e l a t i o n (.72) than d i d Group Four s u b j e c t s (.10). No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - ences were noted between the groups. 3. D e c i s i o n Four: Language Patterns-Low Group(students) The r e s u l t s f o r the p a i r w i s e c o n t r a s t s among groups f o r t h i s p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n are presented i n Table 28. As i n D e c i s i o n s Two and Three, Group One s u b j e c t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y 142 TABLE 26 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF PAIRED COMPARISONS BETWEEN GROUPS FOR DECISION TWO Observed Zr D i f f e r e n c e G2 Group G3 G4 G l .575 .683 1.008 G2 .108 .433 G3 .325 Confidence I n t e r v a l s About Observed Zr D i f f e r e n c e s G2 Group G3 G4 G l (-.190, + 1. 4Q0) (-.063, + 1.428) (+.220, + 1. 80) G2 (-.718, + .933) (-.431, + 1. 296) G3 (-.521, + 1. 171) 143 TABLE 27 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF PAIRED COMPARISONS BETWEEN GROUPS FOR DECISION THREE Observed Zr D i f f e r e n c e s G2 Group G3 G4 G l .121 . 391 # 805 G2 .270 • 684 G3 • 414 Confidence I n t e r v a l s About Observed Zr D i f f e r e n c e s G2 Group G3 G4 G l (-.644, + .886) (-.355, + 1.136) (+.018, + 1. 593) G2 (-.556, + 1.095) (-.180, + 1. 547) G3 (-.432, + 1. 260) 144 TABLE 28 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF PAIRED COMPARISONS BETWEEN GROUPS FOR DECISION FOUR Observed z r D i f f e r e n c e s Group G2 G3 G4 G l .346 .343 .977 G2 -.003 .631 G3 . 634 Confidence I n t e r v a l s About Observed Zr D i f f e r e n c e s Group G2 G3 G4 G l (-.419, + 1.111) (-.402, + 1.088) (+. 189, + 1. 764) G2 (-.828, + ..822) (-. 233, +11. 494) G3 (-. 212, + 1. 480) 145 h i g h e r I-B c o r r e l a t i o n (.70 ) than d i d Group Four s u b j e c t s (-.11). A l l o t h e r comparisons were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . S i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d between Group One s u b j e c t s and s u b j e c t s i n Groups Two and Three, nor were there s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Group Four s u b j e c t s and s u b j e c t s i n Groups Two and Three, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s was not s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n terms of e i t h e r experience or p r e p a r a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f a c t t h a t Group One s u b j e c t s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r I-B c o r r e l a t i o n s than d i d Group Four s u b j e c t s i n three of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s does suggest t h a t p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge operate j o i n t l y t o produce g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y between b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t and subsequent a c t i o n s . b) What i s the e f f e c t of p r i o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and formal l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model ? To assess the i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s on the r e l a t i v e importance of Ab and SN i n p r e d i c t i n g s u b j e c t s ' Recommending I n t e n t i o n f o r each p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n under study, separate r e g r e s s i o n equations were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n and s u b j e c t group, as d e f i n e d by t h e i r p r e v i o u s classroom t e a c h i n g and formal l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s r e l e v a n t to the a n a l y s i s are g i v e n i n T a b l e 29. 146 TABLE 29 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR FISHBEIN-MODEL ANALYSIS BY SUBJECT GROUPS Group V a r i a b l e s Ab SN X S.D. X S.D. D e c i s i o n One G l G2 G3 G4 16. 46 15. 00 14. 22 12.91 3. 37 4.03 3. 38 2.17 15. 27 14. 80 13. 85 12.44 5.16 4.04 4.13 2.47 D e c i s i o n Two G l G2 G3 G4 17. 84 16.12 13. 82 13.17 3. 66 3.42 3.48 2.52 16. 68 15. 48 14.15 12.87 4. 40 4.09 4.43 3.94 D e c i s i o n Three G l G2 G3 G4 12.16 12. 80 10. 6 7 11. 61 5.12 3. 86 3.26 1. 88 11. 62 12. 36 11. 26 12. 22 5.12 4. 60 3. 25 2. 49 D e c i s i o n Four G l G2 G3 G4 14.16 14. 64 13.96 11. 78 5.03 3.76 4.04 2.28 15. 89 15. 80 13.96 11. 65 5. 74 3. 22 3. 71 3.74 147 The r e s u l t s of the ( r e g r e s s i o n ) a n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d i n Table 30 i n d i c a t e f i r s t t h a t I n t e n t i o n c o u l d be adequately determined from e i t h e r or both p r e d i c t o r s f o r each d e c i s i o n and f o r a l l s u b j e c t groups but the F o u r t h which was composed of s u b j e c t s who had no p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e or l e a r n i n g . Here, c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n f i r s t - o r d e r and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e d i c t o r s and c r i t e r i o n was e v i d e n t f o r the f o u r de- c i s i o n s . S i n c e the Ab and SN v a r i a b l e s were c o r r e l a t e d , t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance i n the r e g r e s s i o n s was r e p o r t e d i n terms of three v a l u e s : 1) the simple c o r r e l a t i o n between each p r e d i c t o r and I n t e n t i o n ; 2) the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n between I n t e n t i o n and both p r e d i c t o r s ; and 3) the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each p r e d i c t o r . These r e s u l t s are g i v e n i n Table 30. I t may be seen t h a t I n t e n t i o n was r e l a t e d t o both the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components w i t h r e s p e c t to the d i r e c t measure of a s s o c i a t i o n and the m u l t i p l e c o r r e - l a t i o n f o r a l l s u b j e c t groups. Fo r the f o u r d e c i s i o n s , both Ab and SN r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e g r e s s i o n weights i n the p r e d i c t i o n of I n t e n t i o n . F o r Group One s u b j e c t s who possessed both p r i o r classroom t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and formal l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d to primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and f o r Group Two sub- j e c t s who possessed r e l e v a n t classroom t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , n e i t h e r the Ab nor SN terms appeared to be dominant acr o s s a l l d e c i s i o n s . However, f o r D e c i s i o n s One and Three, Group One s u b j e c t s had s i g n i f i c a n t r e g r e s s i o n weights f o r the Ab term 148 TABLE 30 EFFECT OF'PRIOR TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND FORMAL LEARNING ON THE ATTITUDINAL AND NORMATIVE COMPONENTS OF FISHBEIN'S MODEL IN PREDICTING INTENTION C o r r e l a t i o n R e gression M u l t i p l e D e c i s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s C o e f f i c i e n t s * C o r r e l a t i o n Ab SN Ab SN Group One Dl .81 .58 .82 -.02 NS . 81 D2 .72 . 77 .38 .53 . 83 D3 . 83 . 49 . 83 -.01 NS . 83 D4 .78 . 82 - .43 .55 . 89 Group Two D l .78 .80 . 43 .49 . 86 D2 . 84 .56 . 78 .11 NS . 84 D3 .60 . 65 .27 NS .45 . 68 D4 . 84 . 74 .62 .38 . 89 Group Three D l . 71 .57 .57 . 25 NS .74 D2 . 70 .61 .55 .19 NS . 71 D3 .81 .79 .55 .50 .92 D4 .72 .31 .72 .00 NS . 72 Group Four D l . 31 . 42 .19 NS .36 .46 D2 .03 .52 .00 NS .52 .52 D3 -.11 -.17 -.09 NS -.16 NS .19 D4 .69 . 65 .55 .49 . 83 * A l l r e p o r t e d values have p<.05 except where i n d i c a t e d as non- s i g n i f i c a n t (NS) . 149 (.82 and .83; p < . 0 5 ) . Fo r Group Three s u b j e c t s who possessed r e l e v a n t formal l e a r n i n g , the a t t i t u d i n a l term was c l e a r l y dominant i n three of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s but had o n l y a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r r e g r e s s i o n weight a s s i g n e d the Ab term f o r the remaining d e c i s i o n ( D e c i s i o n Three). S t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n weights r e p o r t e d f o r the Ab term f o r the f o u r d e c i s i o n s were .57, .55, .55 and .72 ( p <.05), r e s p e c t i v e l y ; f o r the SN term, the corresponding weights were .25, .19 (p>.05), .50 (p<.05) and .00. For Group Four s u b j e c t s the normative term r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e r weighting i n two of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s . Standard- i z e d r e g r e s s i o n weights r e p o r t e d f o r the SN term f o r Decisions' One to Four were .19, .00, . 09 (p>.05) and .54-(p<.05), r e s p e c t i v e l y . Corresponding weights f o r the SN term were .36, .52 (p<.05), -.16 (p>.05) and .49 (p<-05). The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s thus suggested a p a t t e r n of r e g r e s s i o n weights which was i n t e r p r e t a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t to the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d f o r three of the f o u r s u b j e c t groups. Subje c t s who had r e l e v a n t t h e o r e t i c a l experience tended to g i v e primary emphasis to a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r s f o r three of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s w h i l e f o r s u b j e c t s w i t h n e i t h e r p r i m a r y - l e v e l experience nor r e l e v a n t formal l e a r n i n g , normative c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were to the f o r e i n two of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s . S u b j e c t s who possessed both p r i m a r y - l e v e l experience and r e l a t e d formal l e a r n i n g emphasized a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r s i n two of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s . CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Statement of the Problem The purpose of the study was to examine the b a s i s f o r elementary t e a c h e r s ' c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g behaviours i n v e s t i g a t e d i n v o l v e d recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of b a s i c r e a d i n g programs wi t h d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y groups o f p r i m a r y - l e v e l s t u d e n t s . Recommending behaviour was seen t o be an i n s t a n c e of autonomous teacher a c t i v i t y ; t h a t i s , an aspect of i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n the v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l of t e a c h e r s . Under these c o n d i t i o n s , Dunkin and B i d d l e (1974) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s ' behaviour may b e s t be p r e d i c t e d from a knowledge of t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Three c a t e g o r i e s of p r e d i c t i v e v a r i a b l e s were proposed: 1) f o r m a t i v e , r e l a t i n g to the p r a c t i c a l experiences of t e a c h e r s ; 2) academic, r e l a t i n g to r e l e v a n t theory a c q u i r e d i n p r e s e r v i c e o r i n s e r v i c e l e a r n i n g ; and 3) p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , i n v o l v i n g the b e l i e f s , m o t i v a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t h a t teachers b r i n g to the i n s t r u c - t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Dunkin and B i d d l e , the e f f e c t of formative experiences and academic l e a r n i n g s on teachers' i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour i s r e f l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i r a f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s . The problem of r e l a t i n g the proposed antecedent v a r i a b l e s t o b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a was thus c o n s i d e r e d i n terms - 150 - 151 of the more g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r i s s u e of c u r r e n t concern i n ( s o c i a l ) p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . In t h i s context, the framework of Dunkin and B i d d l e was i n v e s t i g a t e d by r e f e r e n c e to F i s h b e i n ' s B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n Model. F i s h b e i n (1967; F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975) has developed a r e g r e s s i o n model f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n and behaviour from a t t i t u d i n a l and normative v a r i a b l e s . The model r e p r e s e n t s an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n to t h a t t y p i c a l l y employed i n s t u d i e s which have attempted to e x p l a i n behaviour from a t t i t u d e u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e instruments. Evidence t h a t standard Attitude-Toward-The-Object (Ao) measures are not r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r behaviours r e q u i r e s t h a t o t h e r v a r i a b l e s be i n c l u d e d i n p r e d i c t i o n . F i s h b e i n c o n s i d e r s the a p p r o p r i a t e antecedent measure f o r a g i v e n behaviour to be an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e n t i o n to perform t h a t behaviour ( I ) . The formation of b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i s f u r t h e r seen to be r e l a t e d to the person's a t t i t u d e toward performance of the behaviour (Ab) and h i s s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (SN) as to whether he should perform the behaviour. The a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components o f the Model are assumed to p r o v i d e the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r s of I n t e n t i o n . V a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d e x t e r n a l to the Model, i n c l u d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e measures, are assumed not to add to p r e d i c t i v e accuracy. However, e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the p r e d i c t i o n by t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the Models components. B e h a v i o u r a l p r e d i c t i o n from c o n a t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and normative v a r i a b l e s thus p a r a l l e l s the p o s i t i o n of Dunkin and B i d d l e w i t h regard to i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 152 A second aspect of the study i n v o l v e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e o f f o r m a t i v e and academic f a c t o r s on the p r e d i c t i o n o f Behaviour and I n t e n t i o n from a t t i t u d i n a l and normative v a r i a b l e s . The fo r m a t i v e and academic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s u b j e c t s were d e f i n e d i n terms of teacher classroom e x p e r i - ence (TE) i n primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and tea c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n (TP),the a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e l e v a n t t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g s from p r e s e r v i c e or i n s e r v i c e e x p e r i e n c e s . These i n d i c e s were assumed t o r e f l e c t the p o s s e s s i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge r e q u i r e d of t e a c h e r s f o r autonomous and e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . S p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were posed to d i r e c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r e d i c t i v e and e x p l a n a t o r y p o t e n t i a l of the F i s h b e i n f o r m u l a t i o n : 1) Are Behaviour and I n t e n t i o n h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d ? 2) Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h g r e a t e r than chance accuracy from v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the F i s h b e i n Model ( i e . Ab and SN) ? 3) Is I n t e n t i o n p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n c r e a s e d accuracy by the a d d i t i o n o f e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s ( i e . Ao, TE, TP, and TE X TP) ? 4) What i s the e f f e c t o f p r i o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour ? 5) What i s the e f f e c t of p r i o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the Model? 5.2 R e s u l t s and C o n c l u s i o n s A number of t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s can be o f f e r e d to the problems t h a t p r o v i d e d d i r e c t i o n f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These r e l a t e t o the p r e d i c t i v e and e x p l a n a t o r y aims of the study. 5.2.1 The P r e d i c t i o n of I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour The r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the F i s h b e i n Model p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l approach to the p r e d i c t i o n o f Behaviour and I n t e n t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d between I and B averaged .51 over the f o u r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s examined and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those observed between Ao and B which averaged .20 over the d e c i s i o n s . While on l y moderate, the I-B c o r r e l a t i o n s found i n the study are s i m i l a r t o those r e p o r t e d f o r o t h e r s t u d i e s of an a p p l i e d n a t u r e . I t may be concluded t h a t w h i l e i n t e n t i o n does not p r o v i d e a necessary and s u f f i c i e n t antecedent measure of s u b j e c t s ' c u r r i c u l u m recommendations i t does o f f e r a much b e t t e r e s t i m a t e than t h a t g i v e n by the standar d a t t i t u d e measure. In f o r e c a s t i n g Recommending I n t e n t i o n , the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d i n the F i s h b e i n Model were adequately p r e d i c t i v e . Obtained c o e f f i c i e n t s of d e t e r m i n a t i o n were g r e a t e r than those p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d i n 154 a p p l i e d s t u d i e s where approximately f i f t y per cent of I v a r i a t i o n was accounted f o r from AB and SN. In the p r e s e n t study, approximately s i x t y per cent of the v a r i a t i o n i n I was accounted f o r from the Model's p r e d i c t o r s over the f o u r p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . With r e g a r d t o the n e c e s s i t y of the Model's components, p a r t i c u l a r l y the normative term, i t may be concluded t h a t Ab i s c e n t r a l to p r e d i c t i o n w h i l e i n c l u s i o n of the normative term- i n c r e a s e s p r e d i c t i v e e f f i c i e n c y and accuracy. However, assessment of the r e l a t i v e importance of these v a r i a b l e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n was c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e i r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n . Moreover, examination of the d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n between I n t e n t i o n and each p r e d i c t o r showed t h a t both were h i g h l y r e l a t e d to the c r i t e r i o n . T h i s r a i s e s doubts as to the adequacy of the p a r t i c u l a r f o r m u l a t i o n of the normative term employed i n the p r e s e n t study. T u r n i n g a g a i n to the s u f f i c i e n c y of the Model but i n terms of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of i t s components to e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s , i t may be concluded t h a t the l a t t e r are i n l a r g e measure r e f l e c t e d i n a t t i t u d e and norm. Where Ab and SN were s t a t i s t i c a l l y h e l d constant the e f f e c t on I of Ao, TE, TP and the c o n s t r u c t e d v a r i a b l e TE X TP was removed or g r e a t l y a t t e n u a t e d . 5.2.2 The E f f e c t of P r i o r E x p e rience and L e a r n i n g on the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Assumed i n the Model. The r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s had a t l e a s t some e f f e c t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s which were of i n t e r e s t . These were: 1) the r e l a t i o n s h i p ' b e t w e e n I and B; and 2) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I and the p r e d i c t o r s Ab and SN. The i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r s were TE and TP. P a r t i t i o n i n g the sample i n t o subgroups as d e f i n e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and p r e p a r a t i o n d e f i n e d f o u r such groups. Required c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r each group on each d e c i s i o n and compared. With r e s p e c t to the i n f l u e n c e of p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and p r e p a r a t i o n on the c o r r e l a t i o n between I and B, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were noted between s u b j e c t s who possessed both classroom t e a c h i n g and formal l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e (Group One) and s u b j e c t s who possessed n e i t h e r (Group F o u r ) . Of the s u b j e c t groups which possessed o n l y one of these e x p e r i e n c e s (Groups Three and Four) none d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from Group One or Four s u b j e c t s . I t may be concluded t h a t both s i t u a t i o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge are necessary to produce b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t s which are a c t e d upon i n a manner s t r o n g l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r i n i t i a l f o r m a t i o n . Such a f i n d i n g i s consonant wi t h n o t i o n s of r a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making which presume t h a t knowledge of s i t u a t i o n a l elements as w e l l as r e l e v a n t concepts and p r i n c i p l e s are r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e problem f o r m u l a t i o n and a c t i o n . Assessment of the r e l a t i v e importance of the Ab and SN components i n p r e d i c t i n g I produced some s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s However, examination of the r e g r e s s i o n weights a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each term d i d not demonstrate a c l e a r c u t p a t t e r n f o r a l l groups. For Group One and Group Two (which possessed p r i m a r y - l e v e l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e only) the Ab term r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e r weight i n two d e c i s i o n s w h i l e the SN term was most h e a v i l y weighted f o r two d e c i s i o n s . For Group Three, which possessed a r e l e v a n t t h e o r e t i c a l background, the a t t i t u d i n a l term r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t weight f o r a l l d e c i s i o n s . For s u b j e c t s i n Group Four, the normative term r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t weight i n t h r e e of the f o u r d e c i s i o n s . An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a t t i t u d i n a l component i n terms of e v a l u a t i v e b e l i e f s and the normative component as compliance i s p o s s i b l e from these r e s u l t s . Group Three s u b j e c t s may w e l l have been unaware of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of p r i n c i p a l s or c u r r i c u l u m s u p e r v i s o r s r e g a r d i n g the classroom use of b a s i c r e a d i n g programs and r e l i e d i n s t e a d on t h e i r a c q u i r e d l e a r n i n g s t o form e v a l u a t i v e b e l i e f s . C o n v e r s e l y , Group Four s u b j e c t s , l a c k i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l background, would have been more l i k e l y to c o n s i d e r the p e r c e i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a u t h o r i t i e s . For Group One and Two s u b j e c t s , both of whom had a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i n primary r e a d i n g , e v a l u a t i v e and normative c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would l i k e l y have been e n t e r t a i n e d . While p l a u s i b l e i n the c o n t e x t of the r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a t i o n proposed by F i s h b e i n , the above e x p l a n a t i o n must be q u a l i f i e d by the e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s found among I , Ab and SN v a r i a b l e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among p r e d i c t o r s and s i g n i f i c a n t f i r s t - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between each p r e d i c t o r and the c r i t e r i o n were noted f o r a l l groups and d e c i s i o n s . Some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn wit h r e s p e c t to the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the F i s h b e i n Model to the problems i d e n t i f i e d i n the study. 157 F i r s t , the Model g i v e s a reasonably good p r e d i c t i o n of behaviour i n the sense t h a t I n t e n t i o n , when viewed as an antecedent v a r i a b l e , i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Recommending Behaviour. The s t r e n g t h of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was much g r e a t e r than t h a t observed between Behaviour and the t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e measure Ao. Secondly, the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components of the Model are adequately p r e d i c t i v e of I n t e n t i o n and mediate the e f f e c t of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s on the I n t e n t i o n measure. These r e s u l t s conform to Dunkin and B i d d l e ' s n o t i o n t h a t the immediate determinants of i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour are the c o n a t i v e , e v a l u a t i v e , and normative b e l i e f s h e l d by t e a c h e r s . S i m i l a r l y , they support the view t h a t f o r m a t i v e and academic v a r i a b l e s are r e f l e c t e d i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s v a r i a b l e s although not always and not e n t i r e l y i n te a c h e r s ' a f f e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s . Less f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s are p o s s i b l e w i t h r e s p e c t to the s p e c i f i c nature o f the e f f e c t t h a t f o r m a t i v e and' academic f a c t o r s have on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c r i t e r i o n and Model v a r i a b l e s . I t would appear t h a t the n o t i o n of v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l , as d e f i n e d i n the study (e.g.. TE and TP) was inadequate t o c l e a r l y demonstrate the r o l e of t h i s c o n d i t i o n i n i n f l u e n c i n g the for m a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s . A b a s i c aim of the study was to demonstrate the u t i l i t y o f the F i s h b e i n Model i n an e d u c a t i o n a l context. The f a c t t h a t some c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were o b t a i n e d i n p r e d i c t i o n and t h a t these r e s u l t s were comparable t o those found i n s i m i l a r 158 a p p l i e d s t u d i e s suggests t h a t the Model i s s u i t a b l y g e n e r a l to have a p p l i c a t i o n t o antecedent-process s t u d i e s i n t e a c h i n g r e s e a r c h . 5.3 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The f o l l o w i n g are some l i m i t a t i o n s which a f f e c t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s found i n the study: a) D i r e c t measures o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r a l l instruments used i n the study, based on t h e i r s t a b i l i t y , were not o b t a i n e d . With r e g a r d t o the B e h a v i o u r a l Record Instrument, the s u b s t a n t i v e i n t e r e s t of the study d i c t a t e d t h a t a s i n g l e - a c t b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i o n be used. However, such measures are i n h e r e n t l y l e s s r e l i a b l e than e i t h e r m u l t i p l e - a c t or repeated measures c r i t e r i a . b) The non-random sampling of s u b j e c t s and the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s e l e c t e d as the study s i t e l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i t y of the f i n d i n g s . The r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s are l i m i t e d t o teach e r s who are s i m i l a r l y s i t u a t e d and who possess the p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those i n v o l v e d i n the study. c) R e l a t e d t o the sampling problem mentioned above were the unequal numbers of s u b j e c t s i n each subgroup as d e f i n e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g backgrounds. T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t some c a u t i o n be taken i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . d) An important l i m i t a t i o n concerns the o p e r a t i o n - 159 a l i z a t i o n o f the normative component of the F i s h b e i n Model. While e v a l u a t i v e and normative b e l i e f s are c o n c e p t u a l i z e d to be the products of d i s t i n c t i n f l u e n c e s , the Ab and SN terms were found to be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d i n the p r e s e n t study. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t had an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n of the SN term been used, i n v o l v i n g the product of normative b e l i e f s and m o t i v a t i o n to comply wi t h s i g n i f i c a n t r e f e r e n t s , l e s s c o r r e l a t i o n among Model components would have o c c u r r e d . e) L a s t l y , the assumption t h a t the TE and TP f a c t o r s were adequate i n d i c e s of both the p o s s e s s i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge may be q u e s t i o n e d . Both 'years of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ' and ' a c c r e d i t a t i o n ' measures are t y p i c a l l y employed i n e d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s to d e s c r i b e the i n f o r m a t i o n a l a c q u i s i t i o n s of t e a c h e r s presumed used i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . However, i n the p r e s e n t study TE and TP were onl y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t e a c h e r s i n terms of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e n t i o n and Behaviour. Problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s may be assumed d i f f e r e n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but such p e r c e p t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s were not t r a c e d i n the p r e s e n t study. I t may w e l l be t h a t s u b j e c t s i n Groups One, Two, and Three drew upon a broader, and common, i n f o r m a t i o n base to form and execute b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t s . S i m i l a r argument may be o f f e r e d to e x p l a i n the l a c k of a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on the r e l a t i v e p r e d i c t i v e importance of Ab and SN f o r these groups. 160 5. 4 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research a) The p r e s e n t study has been c o n f i n e d to i n v e s t i - g a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e l e c t e d antecedent and process v a r i a b l e s i n teacher c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g f o r primary r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s were n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t o d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g o t h e r c u r r i c u l a r o b j e c t s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , e x p r e s s i o n s of c u r r i c u l a r m e r i t o t h e r than recommending behaviour should be examined. b) F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the F i s h b e i n Model under v a r y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h a v a r i e t y of teacher groups and c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s , would p r o v i d e a f i r m e r b a s i s f o r e l a b o r a t i o n of p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y , the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components of the model may be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d i n a t e a c h i n g r e s e a r c h c o n t e x t . With r e s p e c t to the a t t i t u d i n a l term, i t was noted t h a t an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n i s g i v e n by the p r o d u c t of b e l i e f s and e v a l u a t i o n s f o r s a l i e n t outcomes of a behaviour. T h i s expectancy-value f o r m u l a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y e q u i v a l e n t to s u b j e c t i v e expected u t i l i t y models i n d e c i s i o n theory ( E t t e r , 1975). S i n c e a b a s i c a s p e c t of t h i s approach i n v o l v e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of b e h a v i o u r a l outcomes as p e r c e i v e d by the d e c i s i o n maker, a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s model to teacher c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g would address d i r e c t l y a c u r r e n t i s s u e i n c u r r i c u l u m development. When teache r s are a l l o c a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i d i n g q u e s t i o n s of c u r r i c u l a r worth f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p lans and programs, 161 t r a d i t i o n a l assumptions of c u r r i c u l u m theory r e q u i r e t h a t t e a c h e r s s t a t e t h e i r i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g outcomes. A c c o r d i n g to t h i s view, s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s p r o v i d e the necessary e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a upon which t o decide c u r r i c u l a r m e r i t . That t e a c h e r s may h o l d purposes o t h e r than those c o n t a i n e d i n s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s has been argued i n the l i t e r a t u r e , but not i n v e s t i g a t e d e m p i r i c a l l y t o any e x t e n t (Wise, 1976). An assessment of the b a s i s f o r t e a c h e r s e v a l u a t i v e d e c i s i o n s i n the c o n t e x t of an expectancy-value a t t i t u d e model would p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a u t i l i z e d i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making at the classroom l e v e l . An e x t e n s i o n of t h i s approach to i n c l u d e a l l persons and groups i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m - t e a c h e r s , c u r r i c u l u m and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s , e t c . - would make q u a n t i t a t i v e and v i s i b l e the areas of agreement and c o n f l i c t , thus f a c i l i t a t i n g the process of development and implementation. E l a b o r a t i o n of the manner i n which teac h e r s combine i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o p o s s i b l e i n terms of the expectancy-value model. Such study c o u l d draw upon e x i s t i n g work i n c o g n i t i v e m o d e l l i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g ( S l o v i c and L i c h t e n s t e i n , 1973). Examples of a p p l i e d uses of a t t i t u d e models i n t h i s framework are a v a i l a b l e i n the consumer l i t e r a t u r e (e.g.. W i l k i e and P e s s i m i e r , 1972). The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of normative elements i n t e a c h e r s ' p l a n n i n g c o u l d proceed along s i m i l a r l i n e s . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t the SN term i n F i s h b e i n ' s Model may be r e p r e s e n t e d by the 162 product of normative b e l i e f s and m o t i v a t i o n t o comply. S p e c i f i - c a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t r e f e r e n t s f o r teachers would p r o v i d e a means of o u t l i n i n g the sources of i n f l u e n c e f o r t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . Knowledge of the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of say, c o l l e a g u e s , c u r r i c u l u m s u p e r v i s o r s or u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s would l o c a t e those i n d i v i d u a l s or groups p e r c e i v e d as most capable of p r o v i d i n g meaningful i n s e r v i c e programs. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abramson, K.H. An a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s a t t i t u d e theory. 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"The r e a d i n g process and the t e a c h i n g o f b a s i c r e a d i n g s k i l l s from b e g i n n i n g stages through the elementary s c h o o l . " a) S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l Theory and P r a c t i c e . "Development of t e a c h i n g s k i l l s and e d u c a t i o n a l concepts through work shops, seminars and d i r e c t e d and independent study." b) Designs f o r L e a r n i n g : Reading. "Pl a n n i n g f o r l e a r n i n g ; c r e a t i n g l e a r n i n g environments; d e v e l o p i n g t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and m a t e r i a l s . " a) Foundations of Reading. " C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the processes and psychology of r e a d i n g . " 2. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . 3. U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . Reading i n the School. "Components of a t o t a l r e a d i n g program: examination, e v a l u a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; c u r r i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . " APPENDIX B Instruments Used i n the Study W r i t t e n D i r e c t i o n s f o r S c a l e s . The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and A t t i t u d e Toward the Obj e c t Instrument (Ao). The F i s h b e i n Instruments 2.1 A t t i t u d e Toward the Behaviour (Ab). 2.2 S o c i a l Norm (SN). 2.3 B e h a v i o u r a l I n t e n t i o n ( I ) . The B e h a v i o u r a l Record Instrument (B). Written Di r e c t i o n s f o r Scales 180 Here i s how you are to use the following scales i n judging the programs and program aspects involved i n the study. Each set of scales has a "concept" l i s t e d above i t . When judging the concept, do so on the basis of what i t represents or means to you. For example, i f the concept i s : "Choosing Coca-Cola provides a refreshment that i s sweet:" you would respond as below: 1. I f you f e e l that the concept i s very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to one end of the s c a l e , you would respond by p l a c i n g an "X" as follows: probable X i : : : : : improbable OR probable . :___L__: : : ; X improbable 2. I f you f e e l that the concept i s quite c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to one or the other end of the scale (but not extremely so) , you would place an "X" as follows: good : X : : : : ' • good bad OR : : X bad 3. I f the concept seems only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to one side of the scale as opposed to the other (but not r e a l l y n e u t r a l ) , then you would place an "X" as follows: harmful : : X : : : 5 b e n e f i c i a l OR harmful : : : : X : : b e n e f i c i a l The d i r e c t i o n toward which you place an "X" depends upon which of the two ends of the scale seem more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of your f e e l i n g toward the concept you are judging. 4. I f you consider the concept to be n e u t r a l on the scale - both sides of the scale equally associated with the concept, or i f you f e e l completely i n d i f f e r e n t toward the concept - then you would place an "X" i n the middle space: probable : : X • : : improbable PHASE I: BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 181 PERSONAL III, 1. Age: 2. Sex: I I . TEACHING EXPERIENCE 1. Grades Taught: Grade K: years Grade 1: years Grade 2: years Grade 3: years 2. Grade Currently Registered: Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 or S p l i t : 3. Number of Students Currently Registered i n Class: or S p l i t : TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS 1. Name of Degree Held (eg. BA, BEd, etc.) 2. Reading Education Courses Taken: a) Developmental Reading b) Remedial Reading c) Other 3. I n s t i t u t i o n at Which Teacher T r a i n i n g Taken: a) U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. b) Simon Fraser U. c) U. of V i c t o r i a ..... d) Other years years years years and and 182 PHASE I: SECTION 2 In t h i s s e c t i o n we would l i k e you to i n d i c a t e your degree of favourableness or unfavourableness toward the basic reading programs l i s t e d below. In doing so, please consider the t o t a l program, i e . the readers, workbooks, guidebooks, etc. Also, consider the programs with respect to second year primary (grade two) only. COPP-CLARK harmful : : : : : : b e n e f i c i a l w i s e : : : : : : f o o l i s h bad : : : : : . g o o _ LANGUAGE PATTERNS harmful : : : _ : : : b e n e f i c i a l wise f o o l i s h PHASE II In t h i s p a r t of the study we would l i k e you to i n d i c a t e your f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s toward recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of basic reading programs with d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y - g r o u p i n g s of students at the second year primary l e v e l (grade two). Consider the four planning s i t u a t i o n s l i s t e d below to occur at the beginning of the school year ( i e . September). SI: Recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of COPP-CLARK with a HIGH a b i l i t y group of students. S2: Recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of LANGUAGE PATTERNS with a HIGH a b i l i t y group of students. 53. Recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of COPP-CLARK with a LOW a b i l i t y group of students. 54. Recommending the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of LANGUAGE PATTERNS, with a LOW a b i l i t y group of students. 184 PHASE II SECTION 1 * i ' * t h l s s e c t i o n w e w o u l<3 l i k e you to i n d i c a t e your f e e l i n g s of favourableness or unfavourableness toward recommending Sf 1t;; t r U C t l° n aJ U! 6 ° f b a s i c r e a d i n 9 Programs with d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y groups of students. SI: COPP-CLARK - HIGH GROUP harmful wise bad harmful wise bad harmful wise bad harmful wise S2: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - HIGH GROUP S3: COPP-CLARK - LOW GROUP S4: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - LOW GROUP b e n e f i c i a l f o o l i s h good b e n e f i c i a l f o o l i s h good b e n e f i c i a l f o o l i s h good b e n e f i c i a l f o o l i s h PHASE I I : SECTION 2 185 In t h i s s e c t i o n we would l i k e you to in d i c a t e your b e l i e f s concern- ing what program recommendations other people who are important to you would expect you to make i n each planning s i t u a t i o n . Eg. For each planning s i t u a t i o n consider the statement: 'Most people who are important to me would expect me to recommend the XXX program f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l use with the XXX a b i l i t y group of students'. SI: COPP-CLARK - HIGH GROUP possi b l e u n l i k e l y probable po s s i b l e u n l i k e l y probable impossible l i k e l y improbable S2: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - HIGH GROUP : :_ : : : impossible : : : : : l i k e l y : : : : : improbable S3: COPP-CLARK - LOW GROUP po s s i b l e : : : : : : impossible u n l i k e l y : : . . . . U k e l y probable p o s s i b l e S4 LANGUAGE PATTERNS - LOW GROUP improbable ' * : : : impossible u n l i k e l y : . . . : ; U k e l y probable improbable PHASE II SECTION 3 In t h i s s e c t i o n we would l i k e you to i n d i c a t e your i n t e n t i o n s to recommend a basic reading program i n each planning s i t u a t i o n . Eg. For each planning s i t u a t i o n consider the statement: *I intend to recommend the XXX program f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l use with the XXX a b i l i t y group of students'. 1 8 6 SI: COPP-CLARK - HIGH GROUP pos s i b l e u n l i k e l y probable p o s s i b l e u n l i k e l y probable po s s i b l e u n l i k e l y probable po s s i b l e u n l i k e l y S2: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - HIGH GROUP S3: COPP-CLARK - LOW GROUP S4: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - LOW GROUP impossible l i k e l y improbable impossible l i k e l y improbable impossible l i k e l y improbable impossible l i k e l y probable improbable PHASE I I I : SECTION J. 187 In t h i s s e c t i o n we would l i k e you to in d i c a t e your i n t e n t i o n s to recommend a basic reading program i n each planning s i t u a t i o n . Eg. For each planning s i t u a t i o n consider the statement: 'I intend to recommend the XXX program f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l use with the XXX a b i l i t y group of students'. SI: COPP-CLARK - HIGH GROUP possi b l e u n l i k e l y probable p o s s i b l e u n l i k e l y probable p o s s i b l e u n l i k e l y probable p o s s i b l e u n l i k e l y prohable S2: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - HIGH GROUP S3: COPP-CLARK - LOW GROUP S4: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - LOW GROUP impossible l i k e l y improbable impossible l i k e l y improbable impossible l i k e l y improbable impossible l i k e l y improbable 188 PHASE I I I SECTION 2 am In t h i s section we would l i k e you to make a c t u a l progr recommendations f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l use with d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y groups of students. For each planning s i t u a t i o n l i s t e d below i n d i c a t e your recommendation with a check ( ). SI: COPP-CLARK - HIGH GROUP YES NO S2: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - HIGH GROUP YES NO S3: COPP-CLARK - LOW GROUP YES NO S4: LANGUAGE PATTERNS - LOW GROUP YES NO

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