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Development and validation of a basic library locational skills model for elementary school library,.. 1977

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DEVELOPMENT A N D VAL IDAT ION OF A BASIC LIBRARY L O C A T I O N A L SKILLS MODEL FOR ELEMENTARY S C H O O L LIBRARY, READ ING, A N D SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION by SHIRLEY A . HENSLOWE B.A. MacMaster University, 1953 B.L.S. University of British Columbia, 1965 M .Ed . University of British Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Department of THE FACULTY O F GRADUATE STUDIES Reading Education Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard External Examiner THE UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH COLUMB IA October, 1977 © S h i r l e y A . Henslowe, 1977 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Depart- ment or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The Faculty of Graduate Studies Reading Education Faculty of Education The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T.1W5 Dale: i q - l l ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to develop and val idate a model of basic library locational skil ls for print sources. The major processes of the study involved (1) the identif ication of an informa- tion base from which to draw the model, (2) the val idation of the information base, (3) the development of a tentative model, (4) a pilot val idation of the model, and (5) the f inal val idation of the model. The information base was identif ied from a wide variety of sources and fe l l into the f ive major categories of articles, books/instructional materials, curriculum guides, tests, and theses and dissertations. The val idation of the information base required judgments about the quality of the search for library sources by f ive school librarians with specif ic qual if ications. The referrent quality was defined in terms of the appropriateness of sources and comprehensiveness of the search. The conclusion was reached that the quality of the search was satisfactory. A tentative skills model was produced through a process of identifying a l l library learnings (skills and other behaviours) in the library literature, categorizing them and isolating a l l those learnings hypothesized to be basic library locational ski l l s. The model included the two major skills clusters of "Locating Materials in a Library" (LMIL) and "Locating Content/Data in Materials : Books - Standard F i c t i on/ Non-F ic t ion (LCIM). i i i A pilot val idation was then conducted. Five qual i f ied judges were asked to react to the locale for instruction and the level of skills and subskills included. The locale item was used to separate locational skills l i ke ly to be used in the library from locational skills used in other locales and was defined in terms of being either l ibrary- based* (LB) or not necessarily library-based (NNLB ) . The levels item was used to separate out basic locational skills from higher level locational skills and was defined in terms of the concepts basic (B) and non-basic (NB). Judges were asked to make appropriate additions to the list of ski l l s. The data were analyzed to obtain a revised skills model and to provide guide- lines for procedures in the projected Canada-wide val idat ion. As a result of the pilot val idation the LMIL cluster was retained the the LC IM cluster eliminated from the model. The decision was made for the f inal val idation to give judges an opportunity to react to the entire model by designating the eliminated skills/subskills as supplementary sets of items. It was also decided that the concept of Level O n e - and Level Two- Basic skills/subskills should be introduced. That is, a high degree of agreement (75-100%) should be a criterion for Level O n e - Basic and a lesser degree of agreement (51-74%) a criterion for Level Two- Basic skills and subskills. The revised model was prepared, cross-Canada judges identif ied and selected, and a f inal questionnaire package developed. The group of judges consisted of school librarians in department of education supervisory positions, university teaching positions and school district supervisory positions. In a l l , eighty Canadian school librarians with the same qualif ications as those in the two previous validations were asked to make i n - dependent judgments about the locale and level of items included in the skills model. iv Sixty-one librarians completed response forms and 92 percent of the data was useable. Using the criteria established, the data were analyzed to determine the f inal form of the basic skills model. A comparison was also made between the findings of the pilot and Canada-wide validations of the number of skills clusters, component skills and subskills agreed upon as being basic. Conclusions were drawn, the major conclusion being that a va l id model of basic library locational skills for print sources had been obtained. Implications were stated and suggestions made for further studies. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v LIST O F FIGURES v i i Chapters 1 THE PROBLEM 1 STATEMENT O F THE PROBLEM 5 S IGN I F ICANCE OF THE STUDY 5 DES IGN O F THE STUDY 6 LIMITATIONS O F THE STUDY 7 DEFINITIONS O F TERMS 8 O R G A N I Z A T I O N O F THE PAPER 9 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 INDEPENDENT LEARNERS : A BROAD G O A L OF EDUCATION 10 School Library Education 11 Reading Education 13 Social Studies Education 15 RELEVANCE OF LIBRARY RESEARCH A N D REPORTING AS A N A V E N U E TO DEVELOP ING INDEPENDENT LEARNERS 17 School Library Education 17 Reading Education 19 Social Studies Education 22 G O A L SETTING IN A PROGRAMME OF LIBRARY RESEARCH A N D REPORTING 25 Clar i ty of Objectives a Necessity 25 Clar i ty Lacking in Existing Literature on the Library Research and Reporting Process 26 Providing C lar i ty with a Hypothetical Three— Dimensional Model of the Target Process 26 C O N T E N T FOR A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF LIBRARY RESEARCH A N D REPORTING 27 Dimension One : Subprocesses 27 Dimension Three : Levels of Dif f iculty 31j Dimension Two : Ski l ls and Subskills 33 v i TABLE O F CONTENTS - continued Chapters Page 3 VAL IDAT ION O F THE INFORMAT ION BASE OF SOURCES IN ELEMENTARY S C H O O L LIBRARY E D U C A T I O N . . . . 43 NEED FOR VAL IDAT ION 43 PLAN FOR V A L I D A T I O N . . . / . 43 VAL IDAT ION PROCEDURES 44 ANALYS I S O F DATA : QUEST IONNAIRE 1 51 4 DEVELOPMENT A N D PILOT VAL IDAT ION OF THE BASIC LIBRARY L O C A T I O N A L SKILLS MODEL 55 DEVELOPMENT O F THE MODEL 55 DEVELOPMENT O F THE QUEST IONNAIRE INSTRUMENT.. 70 PILOT VAL IDAT ION PROCEDURES 72 RESULTS O F THE PISLOT VAL IDAT ION 75 5, VAL IDAT ION O F THE REVISED MODEL O F BASIC LIBRARY L O C A T I O N A L SKILLS 100 VAL IDAT ION PROCEDURES 100 ANALYS I S OF DATA : F INAL V A L I D A T I O N , QUEST IONNAIRE III 116 6 SUMMARY A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 148 SUMMARY OF F IND INGS 148 C O N C L U S I O N S 153 IMPLICATIONS 154 RECOMMENDAT IONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 156 BIBLIOGRAPHY 157 APPENDICES 167 A LIST OF JUDGES FOR THE THREE VAL IDAT IONS 168 B QUEST IONNAIRE I : VAL IDAT ION O F THE INFORMAT ION BASE.. . . 178 C QUEST IONNAIRE II : THE PILOT VAL IDAT ION OF THE SKILLS MODEL 218 D QUEST IONNAIRE III : THE F INAL VAL IDAT ION OF THE SKILLS MODEL 245 E FOLLOW-UP LETTER : THE F INAL VAL IDAT ION 280 vi i LIST OF TABLES Number Page 4.1 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level of Skills Cluster Locating Materials in a Library (LMIL) 77 4.2 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Arrangement of Materials in the Library : By Sections 82 4.3 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Arrangement of Materials in the Library : Within Sections 85 4.4 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Card Catalogue 89 4.5 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Vert ica l F i le 77777 92 4.6 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Skills (LMIL), Classif ication by Subject/D.D.C 92 5.1 Number and Percent of Questionnaire Returns : Responses by Groups 0 119 5.2 Judges' Characteristics : Percentages by Groups 122 5.3 LMIL : Basic Level Skil ls - Percentages by Groups 128 5.4 LMIL : Locale for Instruction - Percentages by Groups 129 5.5 LMIL Subskills : Arrangement of the Library - Percentages by Groups 130 5.6 LMIL Subskills : Arrangement of Materials in the Library - Percentages by Groups 132 5.7 LMIL Subskills : Card Catalogue - Percentages by Groups . . . . 135 • • • V I I I LIST O F TABLES - continued Number Page 5.8 LMIL Subskills : Vert ica l Fi le and Dewey Decimal Classif ication - Percentages by Groups 137 5.9 LMIL Subskills : Supplementary Checklist - Percentages by Groups 139 5.10 LCIM : Basic Level Skil ls - Percentages by Groups 141 5.11 LCIM : Locale for Instruction - Percentages by Groups 141 ix LIST O F FIGURES Number Page 1.1 Hypothetical Three-Dimensional Model of the Research and Reporting Process 3 1.2 Hypothetical Three-Dimensional Model of the Library Research and Reporting Process 4 2.1 Hypothetical Three-Dimensional Model of Research and Reporting : A Process-Centred Model 28 2.2 Scope and Sequence Chart for Grades 4-6 by Polette(1973) 35 2.3 A Framework for Teaching the Investigative and Research Ski l ls by Cleary (1968) : Charts 3 and 4 39 4.1 Co l lect ion of Individual Library Learnings on Cards 57 4.2 Analysis and Categorization of Library Learnings into Tentative Categories 58 4.3 Analysis and Categorization of Library Learningsiirito Two Major Categories and Three Subcategories 58 4.4 Analysis and Categorization of Library Learnings : 'ky By Level 61 4.5 A Section of the Summary Charts of Library Ski l ls and Subskills 63 4.6 Tentative Skil ls Model of Basic Library Locational Ski l l s 67 4 .7 Revised Model of Basic Library Locational Ski l ls and Subskills Obtained in the Pilot Val idat ion : Agreement Shown by Three out of Five Judges (60 Percent) 97 4.8 Revised Model of Basic Library Locational Ski l ls and Subskills Obtained in the Pilot Val idat ion : Agreement Shown by Four out of Five Judges (80 Percent) 98 X LIST OF FIGURES - continued Number Page 5.1 Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subskills Obtained in the Final Va l idat ion, Levels One and Two : Agreement shown by 51 to 100 Percent of the Total G roup . . . 144 5.2 Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subskills Obtained in the Final Va l idat ion, Levels One and Two : Agreement Shown by 75 to 100 Percent of the Total Group. . 146 6.1 Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subskills Obtained in the Pilot Val idat ion : Agreement Shown by 60 Percent and 80 Percent of the Five Judges 150 6.2 Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subskills Obtained in the Final Va l idat ion, Levels One * and Two - Basic Items : Agreement Shown by 51 to 100 Percent of the Total Group 152 x i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S To a l l those who generously provided essential guidance and encouragement throughout this study I am sincerely indebted. I am, above a l l , deeply grateful to my adviser and thesis chairman, Dr. Jane Catterson, who consistently provided an inspiring model of scholarship and dedication to the task. I am very appreciative of her patience during the study, her judicious advice, and her willingness to share with me the depth of her theoretical and practical knowledge of the research process. To other members of my committee I express my heartfelt gratitude: Professor Lois Bewley, Dr. Doreen Binnington, Dr. Harold Cove l l , Dr. Cl i f ford Pennock, and Dr. Todd Rogers. In the course of my studies they a l l were, as the need arose, readily avai lable for consultation and clear ly supportive of my endeavours. To Professor Lois Bewley and Dr. Todd Rogers I owe a special debt of thanks. Professor Bewley's guidance as library adviser was invaluable and her approachability and dependability were much appreciated. Dr. Rogers provided the kind of direction and insights about the measurement aspects of the study that made my association with him both a pleasurable and a highly enlightening experience. I am grateful to the British Columbia librarians who cheerfully assisted me with advice and by acting as independent judges: Mary Coggin, Joyce Davies, i Howard Hurt, Nancy McLean, Donald Rahrick, and Douglas Trounce. Their en - couragement and cr i t i ca l reactions aided me tremendously in bringing the study through its crucial first phase. To the Canadian school librarians who served as independent judges in the second major phase of the study I express my appreciation. I am indebted to these librarians not only for their w i l l ing participation but also for their thoughtful notes of interest and support. Without the cooperation of this professional group the study, as projected, simply could not have been completed. And f i na l l y , I must thank my typist, Ellen Moore, for her perseverance, interest in the study and her desire to achieve both an accurate and attractive finished product. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM A long-standing educational goal of curriculum theorists in various areas of education has been the development of independent learners, that is, learners who have acquired the skills and attitudes needed for self-directed inquiry. Such a goal is considered to be of value to both the learner and to society. The at ta in - ment of this goal is, in fact, often regarded as one of the most important contr ibu- tions that the school can make to students both as individuals and as future cit izens. Apparently educators are in clear agreement about the worth of the goal and its appropriateness to school-based education. What does not seem to be so clear in educational writ ing, including both the theoretical literature and curr icu- lum<iguides, is how independent learners are to be produced in the school system. Indeed, a number of possible approaches could be suggested. An avenue to independent learning frequently suggested is the teaching of the research and reporting process. Library, reading and social studies educa- tors have a l l suggested that the goal of producing independent learners can be at least partially attained through integrating instruction in research with the content of the various curriculum areas. Teachers of these subject areas have been urged to teach their students the processes of library research: seeking information and organizing their findings into oral and written reports. Students with such research ski l ls, it is argued, w i l l rely l i t t le on teachers and single texts as sources of 1 2 Information and more on such other sources as libraries when they need information for problem-solving either in a school setting or out of i t . Agreement that instruction in library research and reporting is an approp- riate avenue to teaching habits of independent learning does not ensure the easy provision of a programme. Curriculum theorists such as Tyler and Bloom consider that for any projected programme, c lar i ty is essential both to statements of goals and to models of target learnings. They stress always the importance of such c lar i ty if instruction is to be eff ic ient, outcomes measurable, and consistency maintained bet- ween general goals and specific programmes of instruction. A search of the school library education literature shows that the clar ity essential to providing an instructional programme in the library research and report- ing abi l it ies is now lacking. In fact, a first scanning of sources on the topic leaves the reader with a definite impression of lack of direct ion. A main problem, in fact, has been a tendency in many older books on school library education to avoid a c lear ly "process-centred" approach. That is, they meld together many pruposes and procedures in library instruction without identifying the research and reporting process spec i f ica l ly or attempting to isolate its subprocesses, skills/subskills, or levels. Any reading or social studies teacher attempting until recently to find specific guidance about library research instruction in library education sources would have had di f f iculty in finding sources that isolated the process itself and gave clear guidelines for teaching i t . Fortunately, more recent sources seem to have moved to a more process- centred approach and they provide a better focussed attention on the specifics of 3 library research programmes. Even so, they seem confused unless one creates some kind of organizer within which to place the pertinent sources. It is suggested that a useful organizer is provided by a hypothetical three- dimensional model for the target process research. In such a model Dimension One would specify the main categories of activit ies or subprocesses; Dimension Two would specify skills and subskills within each subprocess; and Dimension Three would specify levels within each subprocess. Essentially, then, a visual representation of the construct would have this shape: Figure 1.1 ,?; Hypothetical Three-Dimensional Model of the Research and Reporting Process If one examines the literature from the perspective provided by this three-dimensional model one finds that the sources of the confusion noted begin to emerge. It becomes clear that Dimension One is reasonably well agreed upon and can be conceptualized as having at least three basic subprocesses: locating, 4 co l lect ing, synthesizing and possibly a fourth, communicating information. Dimension Three is generally discussed in terms of a basic, intermediate and advanced leve l , if the two dimensions are accepted the visual conceptualization then becomes: Figure 1.2 Hypothetical Three-Dimensional Model of the Library Research and Reporting Process It is in Dimension Two that the problems seem to be most marked. One does f ind categorized under the various subprocess rubrics certain basic skills that logic and a knowledgeable researcher would suggest are appropriately placed. However, one also finds beyond these basic skills a puzzling inconsistency from source to source. Authors seem to be influenced by personal philosophy, subject specia l izat ion, or possibly the feel ing that it is better to be comprehensive than to be selective in providing listings of skills under subprocesses. As a result, one finds interleaved with lists of research skills items that seem to relate as much to general book reading as to doing research; 5 or, alternatively, items are listed as skills that seem to relate more to attitudes or appre- ciations than to abi l i ty to perform a specific task. There is, in fact, no evidence in any source of attempts to val idate the models of research impl ic it in the skills listed under each subprocess rubric. The val idation of models of the library research process is needed if curricula for library, reading, and social studies education are to have the c lar i ty already noted as desirable. If a va l id basic model, or series of models, of the research process as it pertains to library use could be developed, it would be possible for each of the other disciplines to adapt those basic models. It is suggested that a complete model of the library research and reporting . process would require a specification of Dimension Two (the skills and subskills) for each of the subprocesses of Dimension One at each of the levels in Dimension Three. The first step in developing such a complete model would be the development and validation of a model of the first subprocess ca l led locating, at the firstdfe .basic, l eve l . 'sveL STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of the study was the development and val idat ion of a taxonomic model of basic library locational skills for print sources. S IGN IF ICANCE OF THE STUDY The study is seen as having significance from the point of v iew of both its product and its processes. 6 The product, a taxonomic model of basic library locational ski l ls, should be an important contribution to the literature on library research and reporting skills as they apply to elementary school social studies, reading and library instruction. The model w i l l provide for the first time a val idated source for curriculum development of library,research skills through many subject areas. The model is expl ic i t about both the content and organization of the skills included and has been subjected to content val idation by qual i f ied judges. It should, therefore, provide an appropriate basis for developing both instructional materials and measures of basic library locational sk i l l s . A third potential contribution of the model lies in its adaptabil ity to integrat- ing _asic library locational skills with such subject areas as social studies, science and mathematics. The description of the process involved in both developing and val idating an expl ic i t taxonomic skills model for a specific curriculum area should be a useful contr i - bution to educational literature on model bui ld ing. Its procedural framework should be suitable for replication or adaptation in producing the additional models needed to provide a complete series of models for the research and reporting process. DES IGN O F THE STUDY The study was done in two major stages, the first related to the information base used and the second to the work on the model. Stage One required (1) identif ication of an appropriate information base for developing the skills model, and (2) the val idation by school library educators of that information base. 7 Stage Two involved three steps: (1) c r i t i ca l analysis of the school library information base to produce a tentative taxonomic model of the basic library locational ski l ls, (2) a pilot val idation by a panel of British Columbia school library educators to refine both the model and the val idation procedures, and (3) val idation of the refined model by various groups of school.library educators across Canada. L I M I T A T I O N S : ® ^ THE STUDY It was considered that there were a number of limitations to the study. These were: 1. The model was limited to the basic library locational ski l ls, a specific sub-set of skills within the broader area of the library research and reporting process. 2. The model was focussed on basic library locational skills for print sources and not on such audio-visual sources as f i lm, f i lm strips, picture c o l l e c - tions and recordings. Inherent commonalities among those locational skills needed for finding either print or non-print sources are not explored in the study. 3. Judges for the three validations of the study were selected from Canadian school librarians only. International val idation was not sought. 4. In the Canada-wide val idation of the skills model not every Canadian school librarian was polled to discover whether or not they met the required characteristics of judges. Rather, selection of qual i f ied judges was based largely on information provided by (1) provincial school library supervisors across Canada, (2) a number of school district and university librarians, and 8 (3) such sources as school library association directories. Other l i b - rarians may have met the criteria required for judges although they were not identified either by the sources located or individuals consulted during the val idation period. DEFINITION OF TERMS For purposes of the study it was necessary to define a number of terms. They were defined as follows: Library Locational Sk i l l s . The abil it ies required to use various locational aids or tools of a library to gain efficient access to the holdings of that library, e . g . , ab i l i ty to use a card catalogue to find a particular book in the library. Book Locational Sk i l l s . The abil it ies required to use various locational aids or tools to gain efficient access to the content of any book, e . g . , ab i l i ty to use the index of a social studies textbook to find whether or not certain topics are included in that book. Basic, as applied to library or book locational skills in this study, this term means the first or beginning level on a skills continuum. Library/Media Centre Programme. These terms and the concept of library or media centre are considered to be interchangeable in the study. "A library or media center program may be defined as a group of related activit ies consisting of a combination of personnel, space, materials, equipment, supplies and services which operate together to support the edu- cational program... . The concept of the library has expanded to include many new kinds of media and the tit le " l ib rary " is in the process of changing to media center. " (Ca l i forn ia, Staled DerxtrtmentroPlducation, 1,973, pp. 23 and 37). 9 Library locational skills could, therefore, be equated with media center locational ski l l s. Library Research and Reporting Process. As conceptualized for this study this process encompasses the abi l it ies required to produce a report from library sources and has the three dimensions of subprocesses, ski I Is and subski I Is, and levels of d i f f i cu l ty . O R G A N I Z A T I O N O F THE PAPER The first chapter contains1,the introduction, statement of the problem, state- ments about its s ignif icance, a brief description of the study, the definition of terms, and an outline of the organization of the study. Chapter 2 presents the review of the literature that provided the conceptual base for the study. Chapter 3 describes the val idation of the information base of sources by a panel of school librarians. In Chapter 4 the development of a tentative skills model from the val idated literature base is outlined and the pilot val idation of that model described. Chapter 5 presents the val idation procedures and the results obtained from the cross-Canada val idation of the refined skills model. Chapter 6 contains the summary of the study, and the conclusions drawn, suggests implications for application of the findings, and makes recommendations for related research. 10 Chapter 2 REVIEW O F THE LITERATURE The review of the literature is presented under headings that reflect the researcher's conceptualization of the problem. These headings are: (1) independent learners, a broad goal of education, (2) relevance of library research and reporting as an avenue to developing independent learners, (3) goal setting in a programme of library research and reporting, and (4) content in the library literature for a hypo- thetical three-dimensional model of research and reporting. Views about the first two topics have been drawn largely from sources in school library education, reading education and social studies education, the third from curriculum literature, and the fourth from library literature. INDEPENDENT LEARNERS : A BROAD G O A L OF EDUCAT ION One finds in the literatures of school library, reading and social studies edu- cation many statements supporting the long-standing educational aim of developing independent liearners. These statements suggest that school should take responsibility for helping produce individuals who have the desire and competency to pursue learning in school years and in later l i f e . The value of the goal is discussed in both the theoretical literature and in such practical applications of it as curriculum guides at both elementary and secondary leve l . Within such sources one finds support expressed in terms of either broad curriculum goals or in terms of the perceived contribution and responsibility of each area. 11 School Library Education Writers in the library area c lear ly acknowledge the importance of developing independent learners as a broad goal of education. They recognize it as both a long- established goal and one that is particularly appropriate for today's schooling. The most recent set of standards by the Canadian School Library Association (1967) referred to "an accepted principle that the aims of a school library w i l l reinforce the aims of general education" (p. 2). The authors added that if a general educational aim was, for example, developing an individual to his fullest potential, the library programme would "recognize each pupil 's needs in the areas of reading for personal interest and information, and the development of necessary skills essential to independ- ent use of a l l the materials of learning" J(>p; 2). In this same context Burham and Barker (1968) made impl ic i t reference to long-standing educational goals when they wrote, "There is no novelty in the desire of today's educator to create an educational system that w i l l cherish and foster the child 's normal drive to learn" (p. 1). (Gates* (1 °68) in discussing curriculum changes of the 1960's said that "the curriculum is viewed more broadly than ever be f o re . . . " and "learning is no longer only for children and youth; it is a l ifelong process and the school must prepare l i f e - time learners". "A<student", she continued, "should not learn just a set of facts,- any of which may soon be outdated; he should develop an effective mode of inquiry which w i l l serve him through l i f e " (p. 237). Cleary (1972) and Polette (1973) expressed similar views about the impetus provided by continual change and knowledge growth. Cleary said: 12 Since the extent of information increases and events occur with such startling rapidity, the student catches during his formal education only glimpses of the body of knowledge and ideas acquired by mankind. He must therefore develop the w i l l and skills to continue his quest for information and to so u t i l i ze it that he remains knowledgeable throughout his l i fe (p. 173). In summarizing a chapter on philosophies that determine educational programmes, Polette expressed concern that even in the seventies with knowledge growth ever expand- ing "many teachers w i l l insist that learning how to learn is only incidental to the real learning process." "It is performance", she fe l t , "rather than learning that is st i l l emphasized in many schools today ' . " She concluded that " i f we do indeed l ive in an ever-changing society, then learning how to learn should be a primary goal of education" (p. 21). Over the years a common viewpoint has been expressed about the potential contr i - bution of school library instruction to developing independent learners. Fargo, in 1947, wrote that library instruction "adds greatly to the possibilities for independent study in school and out and encourages lifelong use of library resources as a means of continuing education" (p. 83.) Elementary school library curricula from Seattle (1966), Idaho (1969) and Pittsburgh (1974), a l l reflected support for the goal as part of library instruction. The stated purpose of the Seattle guide was "to assist elementary teacher-librarians as they help boys and girls acquire library skills both for more effective study now and through- out l i f e . " Authors of the Idaho curriculum suggested that, among its other values, the school library is "a place where students learn the study skills and habits necessary for continuing se l f -educat ion" (p. 12). Prefacing a list of general objectives in the Pittsburgh guide was a statement that "one of the major responsibilities of the l ib rar ian. . . is to support the curriculum in a l l of its aspects while helping children become independ- ent in the use of the l ibrary" (p. i i i ) . Apparently, then, agreement is evident among school library educators about the worth of fostering independent learners through school-based instruction and the pertinence of the library programme to helping reach that goal . Reading Education The development of independent learners is endorsed as a highly desirable instructional goal by reading educators and regarded as a major contribution of reading programmes at a l l levels. The personal rewards of such learning are commonly c i ted, including its value in helping students deal with the diversity and massiveness of knowledge. In a 1970 text Dechant wrote that "one of the prime tasks of the elementary school is that of teaching the pupil how to learn" (p. 447). Heil/nan (1972) said that "the purpose of the school is to develop and expand concepts along with the tools that w i l l permit the ch i ld to assume responsibility for his own growth" (p. v i i ) . In discussing teacher responsibilities for fostering the self-directed learning, Lindbergi (1963) explored the self-perpetuating potential of the goal. She remarked: As a ch i ld searches and makes discoveries he becomes aware of his developing power. It is excit ing and wonderful to him. With this awareness comes the desire, to push h im- self st i l l further, a self-propell ing excitement which keeps him perpetually studying.. .(p. 46). The growth of knowledge, the fact that "there is simply too much to know for it a l l to be taught" impelled Shores and Snoddy (1971) to suggest as one alternative, "ample emphasis., .to the development of those skills that w i l l enable the student to continues to learn independently" (p. 648). Shores, in fact, has been so concerned with the value of independent learning that he conducted a series of studies directed at the skills he considered cr i t ica l in its development (Rodgers, 1966; Snoddy, 1967; Stinson, 1970; and N o l d , 1971), and produced three research reports about teaching and testing of these skills (Shores, 1967a, 1967b, and 1970). Many writers have focussed on the independent learner as a specific goal of reading instruction. Among these are Gates (1956), M i e l (1961), and Catterson (1965). In outlining guidance on reading in the content areas, Gates said that "the purpose of the program should be to teach youngsters superior techniques of learning so that they could learn at the time and continue to l ea rn . . . " (p. 95). He added that "no amount of instruction by the teacher or practice by the pupil is adequate unless it increases the pupil 's insight and his interest and sk i l l in trying to learn by himself" (p. 98) M i e l and Catterson both referred to the desired goal in the context of study skills guidance. M i e l felt it might behhelpful "to think of ourselves engaged in teach- ing study skills in reading for the purpose of developing students", that is, " individuals who have acquired both the disposition and skills for obtaining knowledge on their own" (p. 8). In summarizing a col lect ion of articles on study skills Catterson concluded: The authors of these papers have made it obvious that they think of study skills not as something to teach but as a way to teach - a way which advances not only the student's knowledge of subject matter but his ab i l i ty to learn other subject matter independently and at w i l l " (p. 158). Such statements make it evident that reading educators accept the goal as a v i ta l part of every chi ld 's education and agree that their area of interest should help lay the requisite foundations. The reading view>.is ref lected, in essence, by a statement in a 1975 Kentucky curriculum guide that said, "Learnisng to learn is the essential goal for pupils and reading is a complex tool that both hastens and broadens independent learn- i ng " (p. 2). Social Studies Education Statements made by many social studies educators convey strong conviction about the need and value of developing independent learners. Discussions about the goal commonly include reference to the implications of the future for current programme planning. Thomas and Brubaker (1971) and Joyce (1972) indicate concern about the un- certain nature of the future and its significance for today's curriculum. In their text, Decisions in Teaching Elementary Social Studies, Thomas and Brubaker stated: .. .we believe that children and youth who are sk i l led inquirers and investigators are in a much sounder position to deal with the puzzles of the future than those who possess only concepts or, even more l imit ing, know only a series of facts whose a p p l i - cab i l i ty to problems of the future may be highly questionable (p. 50). In a similar vein Joyce said that the "most important education is self-education for the future", that students should become " l i fe long learners" (p. 342). He added that although we are not sure what knowledge students wi II need in the future they can be taught "how to find information and build ideas" (p. 342). Concern about how best to prepare students for the future is strong in discussions of the perceived contribution of social studies education to producing independent learners. Students, it is fe l t , are best prepared through training in inquiry skills or in "learning how to learn " . With such ski l ls, it is bel ieved, they w i l l be better equipped to adjust to future uncertainties, constant change, and continual knowledge growth. 16 Price (1969) has suggested, in fact, that the methodology of social studies should focus more on the inquiry process than the coverage of information. Support for increased attention to process, he explained, is based on various factors. He listed: The rapid obsolescence of factual knowledge; the arbitrary and often capricious divisions of knowledge; and recognition, that because schooling cannot anticipate the problems and issues which face students 25 years from now as adults, we must provide the inquiry skills which w i l l aid students to be - come self-direct ive (p. 46). Sources in which similar views are expressed included a 1970 Pittsburgh social studies guide and texts by Michael is (1972) and Preston and Herman (1974). In each volume reference was made to acceleration of knowledge or continual f lux in knowledge and their impact on goal selection. Michael i s , for example, in outlining the contribu- tions of social studies to the goals of education said that "the accelerating explosion of knowledge characteristic of our time has given a new importance to v iew lifelong learn- ing as both a personal and a social responsibility. " Social studies, he added, "with other areas of curriculum, contribute directly to making the ideal of l i fe- long learning a r e a l i t y . . . " (p. 7). It seems to be clear, then, that development of the independent learner is regarded as an important goal for education in general and as a specif ic contribution of social studies education. The belief is held, as Jarolimek stated, that "the best edu- cation is one that w i l l encourage the ch i ld to continue learning" (1971, p. 45). Summary: Examination of statements within the three literatures leads one to con - clude that school library, reading and social studies educators regard the development of independent learners as a major responsibility of the school system and a goal to which each area can make a v i ta l contribution. 17 RELEVANCE OF LIBRARY RESEARCH A N D REPORTING AS A N A V E N U E TO DEVELOP ING INDEPENDENT LEARNERS As one approach to producing self-directed learners, school library, social studies and reading educators suggest that instruction should be given in library research and reporting act iv i t ies. Discussion is usually focussed on the perceived importance of the research task, in itself, and on instruction in that task as a specific responsibility of each area. School Library Education The relevance of instruction in research skills to helping produce independent learners is strongly emphasized in school library literature. Library research skills are regarded as important learnings in themselves and the l ibrary is viewed as a logical set- ting for acquiring the requisite sk i l l s . The potential benefits of library research training are noted in a 1969 Oklahoma library guide. It stated that students who become competent in research skills w i l l d is- cover that "they can satisfy curiosity, do independent reading and enjoy books., .w i th - out continued guidance of teachers and librarians. Acquis it ion of such learning in early years, it was suggested, helps youngsters " feel secure in their approach to school and public libraries and later in col lege and university l ibraries" (p. 1). In recent years references are commonly made to the impetus provided by rapidly accumulating knowledge to the need for promoting research ski l l s. O n this point M'e<Sui'r1e> (1967) speculated that acquiring "even a small part of such burgeoning knowledge in a lifetime becomes wel l -n igh impossible. " She identif ied, therefore, as a key object- ive the need "to imbue children with intel lectual curiosity, a real enthusiasm for learning 18 and to provide them with the ab i l i ty to seek and acquire knowledge independently" (p. 68). "The outmoded term for such knowledge-seeking", she explained, "was 'doing reference work 1, but that more currently we are prone to label it research even in the early stages of education. " (p. 68). A Chicago library skills chart (1965) and curriculum guide (1968) described the impact of knowledge growth as follows: In a world characterized by rapid technological progress, by an ever-expanding body of knowledge, and by its continuous change, there is need for instruction in the use of the library and its resources in order to assist each elementary pupil to develop essential study and research skil ls; to prepare each pupil for self-direction in learning as he moves into high school and knowledge; and to emphasize the pupil 's need for a l i f e - time of intel lectual growth toward responsible cit izenship and self-fulf i l lment (1965, Chart). Policy handbooks of the American and Canadian School Library Associations provide representative statements about the essential role and responsibility of the library in reaching the goal. The 1960 and 1969 editions of A . L . A . Standards for School Library Programs stated that: The library is a laboratory for research and study where students learn to work alone and in groups under the guidance of librarians and teachers. Thus it contributes to the growth and development of youth in independent thinking, in abi l i t ies to study effect ively and in desir- able attitudes towards other media of communication, and toward a l l learning and research (1960, p. 15). General guidelines provided in the C . S . L .A . Standards for School Library Service in Canadian Schools (1967) included the developing of "pupils ' sk i l l and re - sourcefulness in the use of l ibraries" and encouraging "the habit of personal investigation" (p. 2). They also stated within the same section that "throughout l i f e , whether in the university, the public library, the business library, or the technical school, men and women need to locate, master and use information. It is one function of the school to teach these sk i l l s " (p. 6). Many more references could be cited from the library literature to support the View that library educators believe in the significance of library research instruction for encouraging inquiry attitudes. The point is c lear, however, with only a few. Librarians in general regard development of independent learners as a highly significant goal of education. Reading Education Within the literature of reading education, one usually finds library research instruction and its implications for developing independent learners presented as part of guidance on the application or "uses" of reading. The frame of reference is made clear in Russell's statement (1961) that "children learn to read so that they can translate purpose into act ion. Reading is a tool whereby a l l sorts of printed materials are made avai lable in solving problems in curriculum fields and in out-of-school activities," (p. 358). Within this functional type of guidance, reading educators point out the value to students of learning skills involved in the research process and they recognize the intrinsic role of library services and resources. Four doctoral studies directed by Shores between 1965 and 1971 focussed on instructional programmes of research study skills (Rodgers, 1966; Snoddy, 1967; Stinson, 1970; and N o l d , 1971). The importance of the target skills discussed in each of these studies is c lear ly reflected in Snoddy's dissertation, Teaching Research Study 20 Skills in Gr;ab!e S ix. Snoddy stressed the need for acquisition of research skills whether programme emphasis was on "factual learnings involving substantive knowledge" or "methods of investigation of the scholars in the d i sc ip l i ne . " He continued: Regardless of which of these two kinds of learnings receives the greater emphasis in future curricular programs, the foundational skills necessary for the pupil to independently make use of existing as well as emerging knowledge w i l l remain important. If the knowledge of factual information is emphasized, then the abi l i ty to gather such information w i l l be a valuable sk i l l for the pupi l . If, on the other hand, the method of investigation of workers in a discipl ine is seen as an important elementary school learning, the abi l i ty to investigate printed sources eff ic ient ly is basic to the methods of investigation in many of the disciplines. Those skills that are basic to the gathering, integrating and applying of information from the expanding amount of knowledge that is avai lable in printed sources should be identif ied and programs should be developed for teaching these skills (p. 2). Guidance on library research skills has been provided in such elementary school reading texts as those by De Boer and Dallman (1970) and Spache (1973). De Boer and Dallman devoted two chapters to locating and using information including the ab i l i ty to locate material in the library for various purposes. As part of their rationale for i n - clusion of the chapters they said, "In our day of abundant newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias, dictionaries, almanacs and other kinds of printed matter, sk i l l in finding information is becoming ever more important. The increasing complexity of modern l i f e , too, has brought this new need into focus" (p. 259). Spache outlined some essential library skills for primary and intermediate grade levels and discussed the role of classroom teachers and certain commercial materials avai lable for teaching library research and reporting. Among library skills listed for intermediate grade children is their participation in doing "simple projects in finding resource materials related to a given top ic " and projects that involve making b i b l i o - graphies, producing outlines for a research report, summarizing information on a specified topic, and preparation of short reports using quotations from various sources (p. 416). He urged teachers, whether working alone or in conjunction with librarians, to promote "independent exploration of a variety of sources of information" (p. 418). Writers such as Kinder (1967) and Dechant (1970) noted the potential academic rewards of student acquisition of the research process.*. Kinder felt that student awareness of the importance of "reference-study sk i l l s " must be developed. "The long v i ew " , he said, "must be clear to the student that learning to handle the tools of reference can aid him immeasurably in a multitude of situations in school, college and throughout his l i fetime. ' 'Here are the building blocks of scholarship and academic success" (p. 82). A b i l i t y to locate information in libraries and books and use that information was stressed by Dechant. "The good pup i l " , he wrote, " is one who has ' learned to f ind the facts ' " (p. 426). He explained that particularly at the intermediate level "the pupil must! be able to locate materials in preparation for his assignments. There is a high degree of relationship between a pupil 's ab i l i ty to locate and use reference material and the grades that he gets in school. " In discussing the specific objectives of reading instruction the topic of library research and independent learning is generally categorized under the rubric "study sk i l l s " . The reason far this categorization becomes clear in Wagner's definition of study skills as "those which help a student to learn effect ively on an independent basis" (1965, p. 377). In a more recent publication Judson speci f ica l ly mentioned that "(library research is closely related to study" (1972, p. 275). The relationship between study ski l ls, research and the independent learner is c learly shown in a recent statement by Kar l in . He said: Ir should be apparent that one of the major principles involved (in study skills instruction) is helping children learn through their own efforts. The teacher is intimately involved in the learning process but the role the teacher plays is that of a catalyst who suggests and prods rather than tells and does. It is the children who think and react so that they might develop insights into the processes that govern their performance... . More dependence on searching and less on receiving is charac- teristic of this learning climate (1975, p. 287). In sources where the topic is discussed apart from study skills much the same viewpoint is expressed about the role of reading instruction. As one example, Thomas and Robinson (1972) covered the pertinent skills in a chapter on "Reading Skil ls for Problem Solving and Topic Development". They urged the teacher to take responsibility for providing such instruction to help prepare students "for tasks demanded in almost every subject and on every level and to develop "skills essential for solving l ife problems after their courses are over. " They asked whether the school could risk leaving "these v i ta l skills of reading - these basic tools of learning.. .to the studentJsfumbling: efforts to develop them for h imself? " (p. 170). The stance of reading educators toward instruction in library research and report- ing is obviously a positive one. Acquis it ion of these ski l ls, it is fe l t , w i l l help students become increasingly self-directed in their academic work and incl ined to pursue learning i:n later years. Social Studies Education Writers in the social studies, l ike those in library and reading education, c on - sider that instruction in the research process has direct bearing on helping develop perpetual students. Library research techniques are regarded as fundamental tools for a l l kinds of learning and as one approachito problem-solving in the social studies. The value of research in general has been indicated by Morse and McCune (1971) and-Hanna, Potter and Reynolds (1973). Under the heading "The Sk i l l of Acquir ing Information", Morse and McCune discussed library information search proced- ures and noted that "by teaching a ch i ld adequate research skills we provide him with the sk i l l to pursue a l ifelong search for information regardless of his future station or position in l i f e " tp.'»\7,),. Through participation in research tasks, Hanna, Potter and Reynolds fe l t , youngsters "satisfy their insatiable desire for facts : to know how and why and who and what. " Research act iv i t ies, they explained, provide "innumerable opportu- nities "for children to become acquainted with libraries and to practice work-study skills "needed for accurate and thorough reference work.. . ".(p. 186). In a subsequent chapter the authors again emphasized the importance of instruction in research skills beginning in early grades. They said: The abi l i ty to f ind information when it is needed and wanted is more important than memorizing unrelated facts that soon fade into insignificance because they do not meet the needs of the person compelled to memorize them. Research skills can and should be developed by children early in the elemen- tary grades. Such skills w i l l be useful to them throughout l i fe (p. 233). A 1962 Illinois guide noted the potential contribution of social studies prog- rammes to helping develop research competence. Social studies, it stated, affords "admirable opportunities for pupils to develop reference sk i l l s " and that "pupils so edu- cated have a feel ing of responsibility to use resource material as well as the fac i l i t y in gathering the needed information from the sources consulted" (p. 144). Instruction in research and other inquiry processes is regarded as necessary if students are to cope with the ever-expanding content of social studies. In the Illinois Guide it was noted that: As our social world becomes more complex, and knowledge included in the social science multiplies, it becomes apparent that no person can learn in school a l l of the material he needs for out-of-school l i v ing , either as a twelve-year-old or a th i r ty-year-o ld. Indeed the person must know how to obtain the information he requires.. .(1962, p. 144). Crowder (1973) took a similar stance, al luding to the "tremendous growth of knowledge" and the impossibility of students absorbing even a small part of existing print information'; " Students, he said, could "only be taught where and how to locate informa- tion when it is needed" (p. 329). It seems to be clear that social studies educators place a high priority on the acquisition of library research and reporting skills and emphasize the importance of learn- ing those skills in a meaningful context. As viewed by Estvan (1968) in a discussion of inquiry ski l ls, youngsters "are not merely to be taught about the work of the scholar. They should think - or more broadly speaking, act l ike social scientists. " Through this means, he continued, "the skills needed for continued independent learning may be acquired" (p. 333). Summary: Educators in the three areas, then, c lear ly advocate instruction in library research and reporting as a worthwhile approach to developing students and future citizens who are se l f - in i t iat ing and skilful inquirers. Each area has suggested that within its respective programmes^ ample opportunities should be provided for an integrated approach to library research and curriculum-based problems. 25 G O A L SETTING IN A PROGRAMME OF LIBRARY RESEARCH A N D REPORTING The discussion of goal setting for a programme of library research and reporting is set in the context of c lar i ty of objectives. C lar i ty of Objectives a Necessity Acceptance of a broad goal and a general approach to helping students reach that goal provides essential direction and a definite focus for educational planning. It does not, however, guarantee that provision of specific instructional programmes w i l l be an easy task. A v i ta l characteristic of any programme, it is suggested by such curriculum theorists as Tyler and Bloom, is c lar ity of objectives. They indicate that unless programme objectives are c lear ly specified potential users w i l l be impeded in their attempts to move eff ic ient ly towards the desired goal and to evaluate its successful attainment. Bloom, Hastings and Madaus (1971) commented on the need for c lar ity in trans- lating broad goals into more specific educational objectives. They said: Goals must of course be translated into school programs and ac t i v i t i e s . In turn, the expl ic i t behaviors that a program w i l l help the student develop are its immediate objectives and should be rfelated to the statement of long-range purpose that init iated i t . It is these immediate aims that must be made precise enough to guide instruction and evaluation (p. 21). Vaguel.y5statedto'b.'fectives have been noted by Tyler (1964) as a problem for curriculum makers. He wrote: . . .when objectives are identif ied and defined only casually, if at a l l , the students are l ike ly to get the wrong image of what the teacher is trying to teach and what the student is expected to be able to do. He is misguided rather than he lp- fu l ly steered in his learning efforts (p. 77). 26 Bloom, Hastings and Madaus (1971) dealt with teacher responsibility for making clear statements of objectives and the potential benefits of such c lar i ty . They explained: The short-range objectives must be stated in an unambiguous way so that they are clear not only to the teacher himself but also to his colleagues with whom he may wish to share his observations... . If a teacher is successful in c lar i fy ing his objectives in his own mind and expressing them clear ly to his colleagues, then it becomes possible to plan instruction and evaluation procedures more intel l igently (p. 23). C lar i ty , then, is regarded as an important criterion for any curriculum model. Curriculum theorists urge that consistency between statements of general and more spec i - f ic goals be evident and, as we l l , that statements of student learning outcomes be precise and consistent within themselves. C lar i ty Lacking in Existing Literature on the Library Research and Reporting Process Whi le agreement was indeed expressed in the three literatures about the worth of the broad goal and appropriateness of instruction in the research process, the criterion of clar ity seems not to be met by existing guidelines. A careful search for guidance within sources leads one to conclude that avai lable treatments are neither sufficiently internally consistent nor expl ic i t enough to fac i l i tate effective programme planning. An attempt to identify the specif ic obstacles to c lar i ty seems to require a kind of organizer on which to base one's reactions. Providing C lar i ty with a Hypothetical Three-Dimensional Model of the Target Process A logical organizer, it i is suggested, can be supplied by a hypothetical three- dimensional model of the focal process. In such a process-centered model Dimension One 27 would identify the major categories of tasks or "subprocesses". Dimension Two would specify the " sk i l l s " and "subskills" for each process, and Dimension Three would designate the " leve l s " of d i f f icu l ty. Illustrated graphical ly, the model would appear as shown in Figure 2 .1 . The specific content of a l l dimensions would depend to a large extent on the conceptualization of the projected product. C O N T E N T FOR A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL O F LIBRARY RESEARCH A N D REPORTING Support can be found for the notion of a three-dimensional model of library research and reporting in the recent library literature with Dimensions One and Three reasonably c lear ly set out and Dimension Two identified as a major source of confusion. Dimension One : Subprocesses School .librarians seem to identify as many as six or as few as two subprocesses in their treatment of the topic. Cleary (1968, 1972) noted six skills in her framework for teaching the invest i - gative and research ski l ls, those of locating and gathering information, organizing, evaluating and interpreting information and reaching conclusions (1968, p. 209). A n examination of the detailed skills chart included shows that the 'reaching conclusions' category also encompasses use of the information including the reporting task. 28 Figure 2.1 Hypothetical Three-Dimensional Model of Research and Reporting : A Process-Centred Model 29 In her text, Developing Independent Methods of Inquiry (1973), Polette r e - ferred to the research skills variously as "methods of inquiry" (p. 64), "research process" (p. 65), "work/study sk i l l s " , "skil ls for independent inquiry" , and the "research and reference sk i l l s " (p. 103). Her scope and sequence chart included the location ski l ls, skills of acquisit ion, skills of organization and recording, and skills of oral presenta- tion (p. 103). Obviously Cleary has designated certain cr i t ica l thinking skills as specif ic rather than impl ic i t tasks, but aside from that difference, the Polette and Cleary con - ceptualization of subprocesses is quite similar. An elementary school library skills chart produced by Montgomery County Public Schools (1973) was divided into six categories, three of which were designated as "research sk i l l s " . These were: selection of sources (discrimination in selection of materials) ut i l izat ion of sources (abi l i ty to use materials once selected) comprehension and study skills (main ideas, sequence outl ining, notetaking, etc.) The Montgomery chart also included a "production" category outside the cluster of "research sk i l l s " in which reporting is included as one act iv i ty . A handbook ca l led The Encyc lopedia, . . .(n.d.) also provided a chapter on developing sries!earch skills in which three steps were also ident i f ied. The "first important step was to learn how to find information" while "step number two was to learn how to use information" (p. 38). A third step - reporting - was c lear ly indicated on the page 30 fol lowing by the phrase "and then she wrote her report" (p. 39). Another source reflecting three sets of subprocesses is the Gatner and Cordasco guide on research and report writ ing. Following a general introduction on the research task the authors presented chapters on the uses of the library for finding materials, the col lect ion and organization of materials, and the techniques of composition (p. viii.1.961). Rossoff (1964), in a text designed to provide guidance on the "mechanics of individual library research" for high school students, divided the task essentially into "finding information" and "preparing the report". Within the " f ind ing" category were included six chapters describing different types of information-seeking. Beck and Pace (1966) and a Los Angeles secondary handbook on research skills and library resources (1966) both employed only the two categories of " l oca t ing " and "using" in connection with research. Beck and Pace, for example, mentioned that pre- paration of reports in the library involves abil it ies in locating information through the card catalogue or the Dewey Decimal Classif ication and in using various reference books (Book 3, p. 25). School library educators, then, seem to think that the research and reporting act iv i ty requires at least two jsu'bpno.cessesj, that is, " ' locating" and "obta in ing" of i n - formation from the library. If the reporting act iv i ty is separated out as a "compi l ing " or "composing" task using the information located and obtained, the minimum number of processes would rise to three. O f the various ""subprocesses)"1 mentioned it was observed that " l ocat ing " is most commonly placed first. G logau, Krause and Wexler (1972) make specific reference to its placement as "goal one of the media center program" and regarded the second goal, " u t i l i z a t i o n " , as being "somewhat more compl icated" (p. 37). 31 Summary: Components of Dimension One . One is led to conclude that writers in school library education acknowledge at least three major categories of activit ies within the research and reporting process, with the locating skills always placed first. The behaviours designated are c lear ly intended to serve the same purposes as subprocesses of the hypothetical model. That is, they are intended to serve as logical rubrics for clustering closely related sets of skills and subski I Is. Dimension Three : Levels of D i f f iculty One finds that school librarians writing about the topic over the past decade mention at least two levels of library research instruction, and imply the need for add i - tional levels. The stance of the Chicago Board of Education about levels has clear implications for instruction in library research. In one of their numerous library publications, a wall charti- entitled "Overv iew of Developmental Concepts for Instruction in the Use of the Library and its Resources" included the fol lowing statement: Listed on the chart are library concepts which have been carefully analyzed and organized within broad categories, at two-year levels, into a developmental sequence designed to introduce basic learnings, to systematically broaden and deepen comprehension of these learnings, . . . Each school w i l l adjust its teaching in accord with the needs of its pupils. Therefore, the grade placement of the various con - cepts may need to be adapted to coincide with existing levels of achievement (1965). Specif ic reference is made within the chart to helping elementary students attain necessary study and research skills partly to prepare students for se l f - in i t iated learning as they proceed to high school and col lege. 32 Apparently, authors of the Chicago library materials recognize at least a basic level and more advanced levels of library instruction for the elementary school leve l . G logau, Krause and Wexler (1972) and Polette (1973) referred to levels of library research within the elementary school programme. G logau, Krause and Wexler divided the research task for elementary grades into primary and elementary levels. For children in second and third year primary grades, they suggested, instruction can be given in "simple research sk i l l s " while for those in intermediate grades, the previously taught research skills are to be "ref ined, intensified and taught in greater depth" (p. 55). A beginning level of elementary school research and indication of higher levels are noted by Polette. She said that "simple research and reference skills can be acquired by primary students and should be introduced... in the kindergarten program and developed throughout the elementary school years" (p. 93). One can assume, then, that these educators conceptualize at least a basic and one higher level of elementary school library training. Other sources have incorporated both the elementary and high school instruction in their conceptualization of elementary levels. In a Los Angeles High School guide entitled Research Skills and Library Resources, Part Three (1966), the authors explained that "Part Three was an advanced book in the development of library skills and research techniques designed for individual and group study after the basic ski l ls, presented in Part Two, have been mastered" (p. iv ) . That is, they suggested at least two levels, basic and more advanced training. 33 An Idaho school library guide (1969), Saddler (1970), and Cleary (1972) a l l identified a series of levels ranging from elementary through high school. Beyond the primary grades the Idaho guide noted the existence of "two other more or less natural divisions in the program of library instruction: the transition from elementary school to junior high school, and the transition from there to senior high school " (p. 28). Saddler felt that "the job of teaching the techniques of information gathering cannot be done in an hour lec ture . . . " . Instead, she continued, time must be al lowed for it "at a l l levels of education, elementary school through higher education with an ever increasing degree of library sophistication" (p. 86). The locational skills as part of the research task were listed by Cleary (1972) under primary, intermediate and high school levels. She explained that " in the elemen- tary level only the groundwork can be laid for developing these sk i l l s " and "these founda- tions need to be solid if mastery of the more complex locational skills is to be r e a l i z e d . " Such statements suggest these librarians v iew library instruction as consisting of at least a basic and two higher levels of d i f f i cu l ty . One may conclude that at least a basic and advanced level is recommended and possibly a basic, intermediate and a d - vanced level of d i f f i cu l ty . Dimension Two : Skil ls and Subski I Is It is in the writing about skills and subski I Is within subprocesses that the obstacles to clar ity emerge even in the best recent literature on the topic (Polette, 1973; and Cleary, 1968, 1972). As has already been noted (Dimension One) , these authors have provided potentially very useful analyses of library research skills for elementary school, organized around the concept of a process-centred approach. That is, they identify 34 subprocesses of the library research task. There are, however, problems in each author's statement about skills and subskills of each subprocess, problems that make the listings less useful than they appear at first glance when one seeks to use them to f i l l in the matrixes of Dimension Two. Essentially, the quality of clar ity is lacking, the treatment given skills and sub- skills is not consistent enough, not specific enough and not selective enough to be used as a basis for planning pro'grdmmes. Polette on Dimension Two. Polette focussed on the subprocesses research in a chapter entitled "Developing Skil ls for Independent Study", in which she presented separate scope and sequence charts of skills for the primary grade levels, K-3 (pp. 94-96) and the intermediate grade levels, 4-6 (pp. 103-105). She gave some attention to subprocesses in the primary list by the inclusion of the categories "Locating F i c t ion " and "Locating Non f i c t i on " , and in the intermediate list, she organized skills entirely around the subprocesses of location, acquisition, organization and recording, and oral presentation. Polette's scope and sequence chart for grades four to six is shown in Figure 2.\i2.r., If one examines c r i t i ca l l y the skills listed under each subprocess one finds that there is inconsistency in what is included within each list. In the first place, the " sk i l l s " are not a l l skills but items labelled as "understandings" or, alternately, "understandings and abil it ies t o . . . " . If a desired outcome of locational skills is developing the student's ab i l i ty to find information eff ic iently and independently, a l l behaviours listed should reflect that objective. The curriculum developer, faced with the task of translating the skills into specif ic objectives, would have to separate the knowledge objectives from the actual locating behaviours before any kind of programme could be planned. Figure 2.2 Scope and Sequence Chart for Grades 4-6 by Polette (1973) Locational Skills Understanding and use of alphabetical order by first, second, third and fourth letter Understanding and use of the call number for fiction Ability to locate nonbook materials by call number Understanding of the Dewey Number as a symbol of location and subject identification Ability to locate library materials by the Dewey Number Understanding of and ability to use an index Understanding of the information contained on a catalog card Ability to differentiate between title, author and subject cards Understanding and use of the card catalog as an index to all materials contained in the media center Understanding of the nature, purpose and use of basic reference tools, including: General Encyclopedia Science Encyclopedia History Encyclopedia Standard Dictionary Geographical Dictionary Biographical Dictionary Thesaurus Atlas Almanac Readers' Guide Skills of Acquisition Understanding of the purpose for,reading or the purpose of the research activity Ability to grasp main ideas Ability to locate details related to the main idea Slumming skills Understanding of major topics and sub-topics in an article Ability to follow sequence of ideas or events Ability to determine cause and effect Ability to differentiate fact from opinion Ability to differentiate the significant from the less significant Ability to differentiate the real from the fanciful Ability to develop and/or follow directions Ability to summarize research material Skills of Organization and Recording Understanding of a bibliography and the ability to pre- pare a bibliography Ability to take notes relevant to information required Spelling skills Ability to place facts in sequence Ability to outline Use of interesting words Knowledge of grammar and sentence construction Ability to write a well-organized report Ability to evaluate the finished product Skills of oral presentation Organized and sequential Clear speech Able to present main points and details in order Able to answer questions on the subject - Able to defend a stated position with relevant information CO Another problem related to consistency is evident when one examines the treatment of obviously related ski l l s. The author makes three separate statements under "[locational sk i l l s " about card catalogue, yet lumps together the nature, purpose and use of ten reference tools. One would be led to assume that one category of sk i l l had more "facets" than the other or that one was more significant than the other. Ac tua l l y , any reasonably knowledgeable user of libraries would agree that a multitude of locating and using behaviours are inherent in each of the categories of " l ibrary reference tools" and "reference works", and that attempting to cover them in a single simple statement is misleading. The test maker or curriculum developer using this list of skills as a source would attempt to develop many more items on the card catalogue than on ten basic reference tools. It seems unl ikely that the author would consider that appropriate. She seems to have sacrif iced consistency to brevity. The issues raised about consistency are considered to have direct bearing on the criterion of speci f ic i ty. Aga in , under the rubric " locational s k i l l s " , skills listed for grades four to six include "understanding of and abi l i ty to use an index" , " ab i l i t y to locate nonbopk materials", and "ab i l i ty to locate library materials by the Dewey number". What kind of index? Which nonbook materials? Which Dewey numbers? Developmental psychology suggests that grade six children would be unl ikely to acquire a l l possible learnings within the areas indicated, but no restrictions are indicated by the author. The listriscdeceptively simple and w i l l not stand up to the need for spec i - f i c i t y . A third problem with Polette's lists is their lack of select iv ity. Under the sub- process "organization and recording" she lists "spell ing sk i l l s " and "use of interesting words". These are surely general skills of composition rather than skills related spec i - f i c a l l y to the process of library research. To place them in a list that purports to be focussed on one subprocess of an overall process is potentially very misleading. The writer of objectives is left with the task of selecting out his own set of skills and the purpose of the author's listing is lost. In sum, the Polette listings of skills make a useful beginning if one wishes to specify Dimension Two of a library research and reporting model but do not adequately meet a criterion of c lar i ty when one examines details. Cleary on Dimension Two. As has already been noted (Dimension One above) Cleary produced a list of subprocesses in her book Blueprints for Better Learning (1968) and reproduced it as part of her 1972 publication Blueprints for Better Reading. The list was entitled "A Framework for Teaching the Investigative and Research Sk i l l s " and provided a graphic presentation of her chapter on the same topic (Chapter 7,'The Investi- gative and Research Sk i l l s " , pp. 87-118). Cleary explained that her first eight charts outlined the skills needed for locat- ing and gathering information and the last three charts outlined the skills needed for organizing, evaluating and interpreting information and reaching conclusions. This description conveys the rather comprehensive coverage of the topic. Twenty-six pages, in fact, were devoted to eleven skills charts. Like Polette's model Cleary 's framework reflects a process-centred approach and includes many of the requisite behaviours for the research and reporting task. It offers, then, a promising base for planning a programme on the target skills and indeed offers some advantages over Polette's model since it is considerably more comprehensive than Polette's and offers, in addition, some refinements that Fblette's does not. As the three criteria for c lar i ty (consistency, specif ic i ty, selectivity) are applied to the Cleary model, however, one finds problems similar to those noted in Polette's conceptualization although the significance of each is weighted somewhat differently. The decisions Cleary made about her skills categories had ramifications for consistency within the various charts. Charts 3 and 4 have been reproduced as a basis for discussion of perceived inconsistencies. As shown over, the chart content is arranged by Cleary under the headings "Desirable Learnings for Pu,pi'ls" and "Act ion Recommendations for Teachers" . O f concern here are the "Desirable Learnings... " , that is, the specification of what is to be learned by students. Chart 3 shows that Cleary, l ike Polette, has not maintained consistency between the objective, " l ocat ing " , and the type of behaviour specif ied. The first item on Chart 3 involves a knowledge base (understanding of the opportunities for acquiring knowledge...) while the third item on Chart 4 involves reading and use of magazines. Each item, then, on these charts must be examined and the actual locating behaviours selected before instruction on locational skills can be planned. The lack of consistency, therefore, imposes on poten- t ia l users an extra decision-making step as they attempt to shift from the objectives stage to the practical planning stage. A second example of lack of consistency is found in the treatment of c lear ly related ski l l s. As shown in Chart 3 certain locational tools are highlighted (card catalogue, Dewey Decimal Classification) while others are subordinated to the know- ledge base (arrangement of the library, arrangement of the library col lect ion). The same dysjuncture is found on Chart 4 in terms of ephemeral materials. That is, magazines and newspapers are singled out as subcategories while such materials as pamphlets and Figure 2.3 *A Framework for Teaching the Investigative and Research Ski l ls by Cleary (1968) : Charts 3 and 4 Chart 3 Locating Books and Other Learning Materials in the Library Desirable Learnings for Pupils Action Recommendations for Teachers 1. Understanding of the opportunities for acquiring knowledge through the sk i l l fu l use of books and l ibrar ies. . 2. Acquaintance with and I faci l i ty in using the Dewey Class if ication System for locating books on l ibrary shelves. 3. Sk i l l in using the card catalog to locate books and other learning ma- ter ia l s in the l ibrary. 1 a. Explain the various opportunities that l ibrar ies offer for exploring, for f ind- ing out, for pursuing individual inter- ests, for obtaining materials for a variety of purposes.both in and out of school. b. Take classes to the school l ibrary for practice in locating learning ma- terials. Ca l l attention to special d i s - plays, exhibits and l ists, the location of files, f i lmstrips, records, and the shelf headings that designate the loca- tion of books. c. Take the class to the l ibrary and a r - range for the l ibrar ian to give i n - struction in the general arrangement of books in the l ibrary: the subject arrangement of non-fiction works,, the arrangement of fiction alphabeti- cally by author, the arrangement of biography, reference books and other special collections. Acquaint older pupils with some of the modifications used in public l ibrar ies, such as the Reader Interest Arrangement. 2 a. Give instruction about the Dewey Classification system, with emphasis on its origin and history; the ten gen- eral subject or class divisions; the the smaller divisions and sub-div i - sions; the arrangement of numbers for these groupings; the cal l number of books; the arrangement of books by call number on the shelves. b. Provide practice in locating and shelv- ing books by classification number. I a. Teach the arrangement and use of the card catalog as a tool for locating materials in the l ibrary. Instruction w i l l emphasize the alphabetical a r - rangement of the cards in the catalog; the author, t it le and subject cards in the catalog; the placement of the classification number of the book on each card, thereby making it pos- sible to locate the book on the shelf; the advantages of l isting books under the subject as well as by author and title; the use of " s e e " and " see a l - s o " references. b. Explain and show how non-book ma- t e r i a l s - f i l m s , f i lmstrips, records, real ia- -are cataloged in most l i b r a r - ies, emphasizing the use of colored cards, and the entries by title and subject. c. Provide practice for pupils in locat- ing books and other learning mate- r ia l s on shelves and in f i le s by using the card catalog. 4. Sk i l l in the use of l n - 4 a. Discuss the importance of indexes in locating informal materials: the index in a non-fiction book; the card cata- log; the periodical indexes and the i n - dexes to poetry, plays, short stories, essays, biographies, vocations and informational materials in periodicals and newspapers. b. Discuss arrangement and use of i n - dexes and bibliographies: Readers ' Guide to Periodical Literature, Grang- e r ' s Inclex to Poetry, Van Nostrand's Subject Index to High School Fiction, Cook arid Monroe*s Short Sfory IncTex, Haebich's Vocations in Biography and Fiction, Monroe and Cook 's Costume Index, the Rue Indexes, the B iog - raphy Index, and others as need for their use arises. dexes and l i s t s for locat- ing poetry, plays, biog- raphy, short stories, es - says, songs, fiction and other materials in co l lec - tions. Faci l ity in locating f i lms, 5 a f i lm strips, records, flat pictures and other audio- visual materials—those available in the school and those available through other agencies. Demonstrate the use of authoritative guides and indexes to audio-visual materials, emphasizing frequency of publication, scope, arrangement, and cumulation. b. Give practice in the use. of these t guides as pupils locate materials for units of study and for research pa- pers. c. provide practice In locating audio- visual materials that are housed in the school library. Explain how they are organized, cataloged and circulat- ed. d. Comment on the availability of pic- ture collections and symbolic mate- rials in public libraries and museums. CO Figure 2.3 (continued) . Chart 4 Locating and Using Current Materials Desirable Learnings for Pupils Action Recommendations for Teachers 1. Understanding of the value of current ephem- eral materials as sourc- es of information and knowledge. 2. Acquaintance with and facility in reading and using magazines as sources of information. 3. Skill in using magazine and newspaper indexes. 1 a. Provide many opportunities for the class to examine newspapers, clip- pings, magazines, flat pictures, bro- chures and other free or inexpensive materials in the library and class- room. Stress their importance as sources of information on current happenings and achievements. b. Give instruction in the location and arrangement of picture, pamphlet and vocational files in the library. c. Make available lists, bibliographies and sources of free and inexpensive materials for pupils gathering infor- mation on units or topics, and give instruction in how to order such ma- terials. 2 a. Introduce and allow pupils to examine and evaluate a large number of avail- able and appropriate magazines. E m - phasize their type or scope, such as whether pictorial, scientific, current events or literary; their quality, for- mat and authoritativeness. b. Develop methods of instruction that . encourage the use of periodicals; al - low time for pupils to read and dis- cuss special features of the period- icals. 3 a. Give instruction in the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, em- . phasizing frequency of publication; cumulation features; magazines in- dexed; arrangement—articles listed by author, title and sometimes sub- ject; information under each entry, including author, title of the article, name of magazine in which the ar- ticle appears, volume number, date . and page. using the Readers' Guide and other periodical and newspaper indexes to locate needed information on current subjects. 4 a. Involve pupils in the reading of news- papers and the skillful discussing of current events. b. Initiate projects designed to develop critical judgment regarding editorial policy, coverage of news, special fea- tures, possible bias in reporting, propaganda techniques. 5. Facility in using T. V. 5 a. Encourage pupils to listen to and Facility in using and evaluating newspapers as sources of informa- tion programs and documen- tary films as sources of information and know- ledge. evaluate news broadcasters and ana- lysts. Discuss programs that bring information to bear on problems and happenings of the day as well as . achievements in many fields of en- deavor. b. Make lists and publicize outstanding programs, documentary films and film strips that are vivid sources of knowledge and opinion. b. Demonstrate and provide practice in O 41 and pictures are not. Although Cleary is giving examples only, the relationships among skills and the weighting of items should be made clear to the potential users. The question of specif ic ity also arises in treatment of the ski l l s. An example of the problem is shown on Chart 3. While Cleary has listed several pertinent skills of the card catalogue and Dewey Decimal Classif ication she does not refer to the total range of subskills nor provide a categorization that would fac i l i tate addition of subskills and inclusion of levels. She has, it seems, assumed the reader to be knowledgeable about either the entire research task or the sources of information about the task. The criterion of select iv ity also emerges as a troublesome factor within the charts. Reference to such related tasks as reading might certainly be justified on the basis of their essential contribution to acquisition and mastery of the research and report- ing process. Their inclusion within a chart of locating skills (see Chart 4, Item 2), however, seemsid l i ke ly to distract attention from the target ski l ls, to foster a diffuse rather than precise type of guidance, and to inhibit eff icient and effective programme planning procedures. In sum, then, Polette and Cleary have provided potentially useful frameworks of research and reporting. Their models are process-centred and incorporate many directly relevant ski l l s. They are, in their present state, the most useful and clearest general conceptualizations of the library research task found by the researcher in elementary school library literature. The Polette and Cleary models do, however, need improvement to meet a proposed cr iter ia of c lar ity -(consistency, specif ic ity and selectivity);at the level of skills and subskills. If the content of their subprocess lists of skills and subskills could be refined and val idated they would be of enormous value to programme planners and a boon to the less knowledgeable teacher faced with the task of providing i n - struction in library research and reporting. 43 Chapter 3 VAL IDAT ION O F THE INFORMAT ION BASE OF SOURCES IN ELEMENTARY S C H O O L LIBRARY EDUCATION The chapter focusses on the val idation of the school library information base and includes the following topics: (1) the need for va l idat ion, (2) the plan for val idat ion, (3) the val idation procedures, and (4) the analysis of data. NEED FOR VAL IDAT ION In the course of developing the conceptual framework for the study a large variety of sources covering the areas of library, reading and social studies education were consulted. This survey convinced the researcher that the rationale was sound and the statement of the problem accurate. It was considered, however, that v a l i d a - tion of the elementary school library sources located in the search was crucial if the skills model produced from the projected analysis of the literature was to be regarded as having content va l id i ty . Evidence was needed, it was fe l t , to ensure content va l id i ty or "representativeness" (Kerl inger, 1973, p. 458) of the projected model and any instructional material or measure that might subsequently be derived from i t . It was decided, therefore, that a formal val idation of the information base should be undertaken as an integral part of the study. PLAN FOR VAL IDAT ION The plan for val idation was based in part on such guidelines in measurement literature as those provided by Kerlinger. He said: 44 Content val idation consists essentially in judgment. A lone or with others, one judges the representativeness of the items. .. .The universe of content must be clear ly defined; that is, judges must be furnished with specif ic directions for making judgments, as well as specification of what they are judging. Then, some method for pooling independent judgments can be used. (1973, p. 458). Based on such guidelines, ..with appropriate consultation and adv ice, three major decisions were made in a plan for va l idat ion. First, it was decided, a number of school librarians should be asked to make judgments about the located information base. Secondly, it was agreed that a questionnaire should be developed as the instrument for gathering their judgments, using the concept "qual i fy of the search" as its key concept. The third decision was that judges should be asked to respond to the questionnaire independently and then to discuss their responses ind iv idu- a l l y in a personal interview with the researcher. The referent, qual i ty, was considered to encompass two characteristics: defined in terms of appropriateness and comprehensiveness. A ppro pr i a ten ess was defined as the suitabil ity of sources while comprehensiveness was defined as the adequacy of coverage of sources considering the avai lable literature and the stated problem. TSVAiVibAJTieTsl :PR'OXg6E)'0RJ-ES'iES There were four main steps in the val idation procedures: (1) construction and assembly of the questionnaire package, (2) selection of judges, (3) distribution of questionnaire packages, and (4) col lect ion of judgments. 45 Step One : Construction and Assembly of the Questionnaire Package The questionnaire package required construction of four constituent parts: (a) a list of sources, (b) questionnaire section, (c) background information section, and (d) covering letter (see Appendix B, J D . 176). List of Sources: The list was, in fact, a bibliography produced in a slightly abridged form. Contents of the list were categorized (1) by type of material, and (2) by type of source, as outlined below: 1. Type of material a . Art ic les b. Books/Instructional Materials c. Curriculum Guides d. Tests e. Theses and Dissertations 2. Type of source a. Locational source b. Sources located "Locational Sources" were largely the reference tools used to find items under each of the f ive categories and "Sources Located" were the items found under each of these categories.(see Appendix B, p. 198). A total of forty-f ive locational sources was listed under a l l categories ranging from f ive sources under "A r t i c le s " to fourteen for "Books/Instructional Mater ia l s " . A number of such reference tools as Education Index and Library Literature had been useful for locating two or more categories of materials, resulting in a total of about twenty- f ive discrete locational sources. "Sources Located" included materials in which contents were focussed either entirely or partly on elementary school level library ski l ls. One hundred and twenty-nine items were listed for a l l categories with materials distributed by categories as follows: 46 Art ic les 38 Books/Instructional Materials 43 Curriculum Guides 28 Tests 10 Theses/Dissertations 10 O f these materials, the great majority were drawn from school library literature. A few other items considered potentially appropriate were drawn from elementary school reading and social studies education. The nineteen-page liis't of Sources was completed with the addition of a contents page on which was indicated the page number for each of the f ive categories according to both "Locational Sources" and "Sources Located" . The list was labelled as "Enclosure ^ 3 " of the questionnaire package. The Questionnaire Section. The questionnaire section consisted of two main parts: (1) response forms, and (2) directions for responding (see Appendix B, p. 190). To correspond with the organization of the bibliography, response forms wene arranged in f ive single-page sections beginning with "A r t i c le s " and ending with "Theses/Dissertations". For each category of material, items on "Locational Sources" were put in the upper half of a page and in the bottom half were placed items on "Sources Located" . For Sources Located a three-point Likert-type scale was used. Selection of Likert-type scaling for questionnaire items was based largely on statements by such writers as Kerlinger (1973) and also on logical analysis of the needs of the problem. First, Kerlinger noted that "as in a l l attitude scales the purpose of the summated rating sca le " - such as a Likert-type scale - "is to place an individual somewhere on an agreement continuum of the attitude in question" (p. 496). However, he added, in support of Likert-type scales, that of the three major kinds of attitude scales (summated rating, equal-appearing interval and cumulative scales) the summated rating scale seemed to be the most useful in behavioral research. He explained that it was less d i f f icult to construct, while y i e l d - ing about the same results for re l iab i l i ty as the more "laboriously constructed equal - appearing interval sca le " (p. 499). Cumulative scales, Kerlinger fe l t , were simply not so useful nor so widely appl icable as either of the other two scales. It was decided, therefore, that construction of a Likert-type scale would be both practical and approp- riate considering the data to be gathered. Items constructed around the type of measure selected required individuals to judge whether or not sources located for the study were appropriate and comprehensive. The three-point scale developed for appropriateness and comprehensiveness, respectively, was: N A , U, A (Not Appropriate, Undecided, Appropriate) and N C , U, C (Not Comprehensive, Undecided, and Comprehensive). Space was also provided for judges to list any additional titles of sources they wished to include, orrt'haf fheyEfelt-ishould have feeerieJoca.tedc! In terms of objective items, then, response forms consisted of a combination of dichotomous f ixed-alternative items for "Locational Sources", and Likert-type scale items for "Sources Located" . Including both item types, there was a total of fifteen objective items. Provision was also made for subjective comment by judges about items and about any aspect of the questionnaire package. Directions for Responding. A brief set of directions was prepared that provided both general and specific guidance for the judges. In general, judges were asked to express their reactions about the qual ity of the search in terms of the appropriateness and comprehensiveness of the sources listed. Specif ic instructions were also given for responding to objective items and subjective items arranged under the f ive categories of materials and the subcategories of "Locational Sources" and "Sources Located". It was explained that, for locational sources, either a 'yes' or "no 1 answer was to be checked and, for sources located one number, either ]_, 2 or 3, was to be c i rc led beside each of the referents appropriateness and comprehensiveness. For example, if a judge should consider the sources located to be appropriate, he was asked to c i rc le the answer that best expressed his judgment, that is, the number 3. Directions also included mention of possible responses for each category under "Addit ional Tit les" and some guidance about cr i t ica l comments judges might wish to make about sources under a "Remarks" section. A contents page was added and the questionnaire section designated as "Enclosure ^2 " of the package. Background Information Section. The purpose of this section was to provide potential respondents with frames of reference for the study, their judgments, the list of sources, and the questionnaire section. Five topics were included: (1) statement of the problem, (2) nature and purpose of the search, (3) nature and purpose of judgments, (4) descrip- tion of the "List of Sources" and (5) description of Questionnaire I. This section was kept deliberately brief, eight double-spaced pages in a l l , with three topics limited to a page or half a page in length. Much of the information prepared for judges in this section has/ been covered previously in the report. Therefore, only two points of information not previously out- lined are presented here. First, under the "List of Sources" it was explained that while the original intention had been to list books and instructional materials separately, the two types had been combined when it was found that a clear distinction could not always be 49 made between these materials. Secondly, in the same section, it was stated that " l oca ted " sources meant those that had been received, ordered, or that were accessible within the various local resources centres. With this information added, a l l the material on background of the study, with the addition of a contents page was labelled as "Enclosure ^ 1 " of the package (see Appendix B,. p. 181). Covering Letter. A covering letter provided judges with an overview of both the task and the contents of the questionnaire package, as well as an expression of g ra t i - tude to participants for their time and c-ooftenalii'onrc. It was explained to judges that after about two weeks interview appointments would be made with each person and the interview based on the response pattern of the questionnaire. Information about where to contact the researcher about any aspect of the val idation was also included (see Appendix B, p. 179). Assembly of the Questionnaire Package. The four parts of each package, when completed, were placed in a two-pocket portfolio - the letter and background section in one pocket, and the questionnaire section and list of sources in the other. Selection of Judges A decision was made that f ive British Columbia school librarians with certain characteristics should be asked to participate as judges for the va l idat ion. Required qualif ications for judges were: (1) training that included either a school library major or a degree in librarianship (B.L.S. , M . L . S . , or comparable training), (2) experience as an elementary school librarian or presently working with elementary teacher-librarians, and (3) experience in school library positions for f ive or more years. A desirable fourth characteristic was experience in elementary school teaching. Selection criteria were founded on logical assumptions. It was assumed that a librarian whose training and experience fe l l within this range of characteristics should be well qual i f ied to both understand the curriculum-based problem of the study and make the required judgments about sources in terms of that problem. A f inal decision about selection was concerned with the kinds of positions held by potential judges. To help ensure that various points of v iew were obtained it was concluded that three types of positions should be represented: (1) school district supervis ion- one judge, (2) elementary school library - two judges, and (3) faculty of education - two judges. With these characteristics in mind, a search was made for f ive qual i f ied local school librarians holding the designated types of positions. Two members of the School Libraries Department in the U.B .C. Faculty of Education were very helpful in provid- ing suggestions about potential judges, and also expressed a willingness to participate themselves. One of these faculty members, being a school librarian on leave to work at the university, qual i f ied for the panel as either a school librarian or faculty of education member. In the end, the planned distribution of fu l ly qual i f ied judges was achieved. Distribution of Questionnaire Packages The pocket portfolio containing questionnaire materials was put in a kraft envelope and delivered to judges either at their homes or places of employment. When individual judges had completed their responses independently, they contacted the researcher to arrange an interview at a mutually agreeable appointment time. Co l lect ion of Responses Responses were discussed with each judge in a semi-structured interview con- ducted by the researcher. Following the item format of the questionnaire, responses were e l ic i ted page by page, and noted for each of the questions (fifteen objective responses in a l l ) . Within this structured framework, discussion about responses was encouraged, especially about suggestions for additional titles and remarks about any sources or aspects of the study. As a useful check against possible additional suggestions by judges, a card f i l e of the entire pool of sources located in library, reading and social studies literature was avai lable during each interview. The time for responding to each category varied according to the particular concerns and conceptions of individual judges. O v e r a l l , however, interviews took an average of two-and-a-half hours. A l l materials were returned by judges, including their working copies of the response forms. Their written responses, with those recorded during the interview by the researcher, provided the total data base for the va l idat ion. ANALYS I S O F DATA : QUEST IONNAIRE I Procedures used in analyzing responses are briefly outl ined, followed by a report of results obtained in the val idat ion. Method of Analysis A hand analysis was used, since the amount of objective data was small and the subjective response fa i r ly extensive. A summary sheet of objective reactions was prepared corresponding in format to categories of the response sections. This part of the analysis simply involved recording the total number of "yes" and "no " responses for the comprehensiveness category and the check-marks on the Likert scale for the appropriateness category. Subject ivedata were then sorted, assembled and attached to the summary of objective data. Results of the Val idat ion The data are presented first by locational sources and then by sources located. Locational Sources. Judges expressed agreement that the essential locational sources had been used for a l l f ive categories of materials, i . e . , for articles, books/ instructional materials, curriculum guides, festsyiand theses<andcdissertations. N o additions were suggested as locational sources for articles, curriculum guides, tests and theses and dissertations. Under "Books/Instructional Mater ia l s " it was suggested by two judges that some multi-media indexes should have been consulted for instructional materials. The researcher explained that a number of these indexes had been consulted without locating any items of significantly different content for library instruction. However, it was agreed that some of these catalogues might have been included as locational sources. Under this category, also, one judge brought to the interviewer's attention the existence of the ninth edition by a new editor of a book locational source (#11, Gaver, 1973). The researcher requested possible additional sources for obtaining curriculum guides but only two were mentioned, both education libraries, one at a local university, and one at another Canadian university. 5 3 Under the "Remarks" section, one judge asked if the selected sources had been limited to Canada and the United States, while another asked why no theses and dissertations after 1969 were listed. The answer to the first was affirmative, and the second was that no appropriate studies after that date had been located. Sources Located. For each of the f ive categories presented, judges expressed agree- ment that, in relation to information provided about the study, the sources were approp- riate and that the search had been comprehensive. No additional titles were suggested under the categories of "Tests", "Theses and Dissertations". For the categories of "A r t i c le s " and "Books/Instructional Mater ia ls " a number of additional suggestions were made that individual judges thought might or might not be useful - three articles, fourteen books/instructional materials, and two curriculum guides. Some of these sources had already been located by the researcher and not found to be directly relevant to the model. Others were in the researcher's card f i l e but had not been selected for the list of sources. This latter group and any other potentially useful sources were noted for checking or re-checking during model construction, about twelve items in a l l . Judges also made a few comments about some of the sources located for articles and books/instructional materials. Two judges expressed surprise that there were so few recent articles on library ski l l s. However, both judges indicated that on checking various periodical indexes they had found the list to be an accurate reflection of the literature. Two other judges, when questioned about this point, said that considering the curriculum trends of the mid-sixties and seventies they had not been at a l l surprised to note fewer articles on teaching skills listed for more recent years. 5 4 It was suggested by one judge that in the list of materials the precise locat - ional source for each art ic le could have been noted, for example, whether Education Index or Library Literature had been the reference used for a particular a r t i c le . The researcher agreed that this was useful information and that, although it had been noted in her card f i l e , it had been omitted from the list of sources in the interests of brevity. In regard to books/instructional materials, it was felt by one judge that the original organization of six categories should have been maintained, that is, books and instructional materials should have been separated. The researcher agreed that the two ttypes should be separated as needed for succeeding parts of the study. Summary When the data col lect ion was complete it was evident that a l l judges (100%) agreed that the qual ity of the search was satisfactory. That is, the selected pool of sources had been considered by the panel to meet the criteria of both appropriateness and comprehensiveness. Beyond this pool of materials some additional or optional materials had been suggested for checking before or during model construction. A l l these materials, in tota l , were considered by the judges to provide an appropriate and comprehensive information base for developing the proposed model. 55 Chapter 4 DEVELOPMENT A N D PILOT VAL IDAT ION OF THE BASIC LIBRARY L O C A T I O N A L SKILLS MODEL This chapter includes the following topics: (1) the steps followed in the developing of the tentative model, (2) the development of the questionnaire instrument, (3) the pilot val idation procedures, and (4) the results of the pilot va l idat ion. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL Seven major steps were taken in developing the skills model. A f i l e of individual " l ibrary learnings" or "behaviours" was first developed. Items in this f i l e were then analyzed and placed into two tentative categories and three subcategories. The next step involved isolation of the concept " l e v e l " of library learnings. A selection was then made of categories and subcategories for the tentative model. As a fifth step the concept of " l oca t i on " skills was isolated. This was followed by the selection of basic locational skills and addition of subskills. Lastly, the selected content of the model was assembled in readiness for the pilot va l idat ion. A detailed description of these seven steps follows^ In outlining the first four steps the term " l ibrary learnings" or "behaviours" is used as a reflection of the rather general nature of avai lable library guidance from which " l ibrary sk i l l s " were selected. Step One : Co l lect ion of Library Learnings A review of the literature for the purpose of sifting out information about the library locational skills (as the core material for the projected model) could, it was 56 real ized, take a simple or more complex approach. In the simple approach the researcher would consult the index of any source for the term " l ibrary locational s k i l l s " , f ind the appropriate pages, and note the skills and subski I Is l isted. This process appeared, at least on the surface, to be the most direct route to fo l low. It d id , however, present a problem. The researcher, in reviewing the literature for • the development of the rationale for the research, had found that the term "l ibrary locational sk i l l s " did not, in fact, appear2in the index of most sources even when it was mentioned in the body of the text; that where it did appear, not a l l occurrences of the term were accounted for; and that certain locational skills and subski I Is that the researcher as a trained librarian knew should be included were not always mentioned. It was concluded, therefore, that a much more time-consuming but thorough process would have to be used if a va l id model were to be developed. This process i n - volved the col lect ion of a l l suggestions within the relevant sources that appeared to relate to what could be ca l led a library learning. A procedure was therefore adapted in which each learning from each source was noted on a 3" by 7" card. On the card, as shown in Figure 4.1, were also noted: (a) the source in which the behaviours appeared, and (b) any suggested grade levels for instruction. No learning was ever noted twice, and the procedure was continued until learnings began to reappear and some major categories had begun to emerge. To reach this point about twenty-five sources were analyzed, a l l of which had been selected sub- jeciiyeiy^from the val idated information base. It was considered that this process, although somewhat laborious, would ensure the content va l id i ty of the model and serve 57 as well as a core of information for any further research. In a subjective evaluation the researcher concluded that the process selected had been appropriate. Figure 4.1 Co l lect ion of Individual Library Learnings on Cards Step Two : Analysis and Categorization of Library Learnings into Two Major Categories and Three Subcdt.egoniesss In a hand-sorting process, the slips were arranged in a f i l e box, as shown in Figure 4.2, according to such tentative categories of learnings as "Card Catalogue", "C irculat ion Procedures" and "Book Interests". Some of the categories already existed in the literature. Others were created by the researcher as a means of organizing what would otherwise have been an unmanageably large number of discrete items. Always, as categories were used or created, the tentative goal was kept in mind of creating even larger and more general rubrics that might prove useful in later research on subsequent models of subprocesses. As a result, the gradual process of categorization and re-categori zation produced a system (shown in Figure 4.3) in which two broad categories and three 58 Figure 4.2 Analysis and Categorization of Library Learnings into Tentative Categories Figure 4.3 Analysis and Categorization of Library Learning into Two Major Categories and Three Subcategories _ e j s j ' Reading Library f" Books Skills Reading Books 59 subcategories emerged. The two broad categories were: (a) Attitudes/Appreciations and (b) Sk i l l s . The subcategories for each larger category were Library, Books and Reading. It was considered, then, that the library learnings gathered could be concep- tual ized as (1) Attitudes/Appreciations about the library, books and redding, and (2) Skil ls involved in using the library, books, and reading. The process of deriving these rubrics should, perhaps, be noted since it may prove useful to subsequent model making. As it happened the three subcategories were developed first in response to the problem noted in the in i t ia l review of the literature, namely, that library education appeared to "borrow" skills from other subject areas without c lear ly indicating the origins of such borrowing. As the researcher sought to separate the learnings it seemed appropriate to try to place together items that related mainly to library use, mainly to book use (real ly, use of book parts), or mainly to reading as a means of getting mean- ing from connected prose. Obviously, there would be differences of opinion about the placement of certain leanniiings and there is no attempt here to suggest that the categor i - zat ion is, in fact, "cor rect " . It served a purpose at this stage of research in making the f i l e manageable and it later had significance for the tentative model. It was while the categories Library, Books and Reading were being used that it seemed evident to the researcher that the organization would profit from the creation of two large categories, Attitudes/Appreciations and Ski l l s , retaining the three rubrics already noted as subcategories. These two large classifications emerged as the researcher attempted to use the Library, Books and Reading categories for a l l library learnings and found it d i f f icu lt to place such learnings as knowledge of book production with sk i l l in using a book index or good library cit izenship with ab i l i ty to use a card catalogue. It seemed evident that a dichotomy existed in the kind of thinking involved and the Attitudes/Appreciations and Ski l ls labels seemed to express the dichotomy neatly. They proved their usefulness as the sorting process continued. Step Three : Isolation of the Concept " L e v e l " of Library Learnings Steps One and Two had produced a co l lect ion of a l l library learnings. What had not been developed was a clear idea of which skills could be considered to be basic, which intermediate, and which advanced level sk i l l s . This information was partially avai lable on the col lected slips but required organization into a format that would c lar i fy the various relationships and later make possible the identif ication of the basic library locational sk i l l s . It was decided that level of d i f f iculty could be c lar i f ied through construction of charts for each sk i l l category. These charts, it was considered, would serve to organize in a logical concise way information already gathered, and that to be gathered from remaining sources. As the additional information was recorded the existing cate- gories would, it was expected, undergo refinement and possible extension. O f primary concern was the ver if icat ion and possible elaboration of information about locational sk i l l s . After a few trials the following procedures were selected: First, on 8" by 11" paper a chart format was devised, as shown in Fibure 4.4, that would accommodate (2) each library learning and sub-learning, (2) 'Sources cited for that learning, the type of source, page and year of publication, and (3) a range of either suggested grade levels 61 Figure 4.4 Analysis and Categorization of Library Learnings : By Level Skill/Subskills : CARD C A T A L O G U E (General : Introduction up) Levels i 2 3 4 Type Author Page Year Grades K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 thesis QOve r l y 2 71 P a bk. Brewer/Willis 79 7 0 i e.g . Pittsburgh ( 7 4 i 1 - jui bk. Glogau et al 55 7 2 Wi (till 1 thesis Mains 40 '68 II •III e.g. Chicago 78 '68 (m (flu 1 enqnti; Winnipeg 1 n.d fi thesis Dugas 14 '67 - Elementary f - No Grade Level Stated bk. Douglas 7119 . 4 9 i . ml.. Zimmerman — '60 . art. T i l l i n 38 •44 a Int. introduction of sk i l l 62 for instruction from kindergarten to grade eight, or broader levels such as combined grades or simply levels One , Two and up as appropriate. Space was left at the bottom of each page to record any sources in which no specific elementary levels were suggested. Once this format had been devised, the information already noted on cards was transferred to the appropriate charts. Following the transfer, data col lect ion from remaining sources was undertaken and continued. For such major sk i l l categories as the "card catalogue" and the "Dewey Decimal System" a considerable number of sources were found that suggested grade levels or a range of grade levels, while for some subskills only a few citations were found about leve l . In the end about f i f ty-eight skills and subskills charts were completed and placed in a three-ring binder according to major categories and subcategories, with tabbed dividers providing quick access to major categories. From the notebook information on skills and subskills, summary charts were next constructed on 8" by 11" graph paper. The two categories of Attitudes/Appreciations and Skills were used with the three subcategories - Library, Books and Reading. The range of most frequently cited grade levels was shown and the main grade level for intro- duction of a particular sk i l l indicated. The charts were kept concise, with items con - fined mainly to first level subskills such as "outside labels" under such skills clusters as the "card catalogue". A segment of one chart is shown in Figure 4.5. With the completion of the notebook and summary chart information it was con - cluded that enough data had been gathered to identify tentatively the basic level of library sk i l l s . 63 Figure 4.5 A Section of the Summary Charts of Library Skil ls and Subski I Is Grades A R R A N G E M E N T OF LIBRARY Library floor plan A R R A N G E M E N T O F BOOKS IN THE LIBRARY By Sections easy bks, picture bks, mdinl id i$i si ons-sf iie/n. f. Within Sections f ict ion non-f ict ion biography shelf labels CARD C A T A L O G U E Outside labels Gu ide cards (inside) 3 Ma in types of cards Basic f i l ing rules CLASS IF ICAT ION/D.D.C. D.D.C. - general introduction ten general divisions m&m®fiiiiiim///ww/iiM mmMff/////w////w//////////A lA&l^i^Y////////////'//- i'.-'.'-J////.v/' H I i 'Hi 7/f/ff// ] I n c i d e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n o f s k i l l r e v i e w a n d / o r e x t e n s i o n o f s k i l l m a i n g r a d e l e v e l f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n Step Four : Selecting Categories and Subcategories for the Tentative Model With a l l library learnings co l lected, categorized and identif ied by suggested levels, the process was begun of selecting content for the tentative model. This became a process of applying inclusion/exclusion criteria first to the major categories and secondly to the subcategories. Excluding the Attitudes/Appreciations Category. Since the problem of the study was focussed on Skills it was concluded that the Attitudes/Appreciations category should be excluded from the model. N o further attention, then, was devoted to this set of learnings. Apply ing Inclusion/Exclusion Criter ia to Subcategories of the Skil ls Category. The next logical decision to be taken was determination of which of the three subcategories under Skills contained material that should be included in the model. It was concluded that Reading skills should be excluded since these were considered by the researcher as f itt ing more appropriately under reading instruction than library instruction. Among these skills were such word skills as " letter name knowledge" and "a lphabet iz ing" and such special ized comprehension skills as "reading maps, globes, tables and diagrams". As it happened, some discussion developed in the pilot val idation about the a lphabet iz- ing skills but it was excluded in the f inal va l idat ion. It was next decided that the category designated as "Library Sk i l l s " should be considered for inclusion in the model, and its subskills tested against the criteria of the previously hypothesized :subproc;essess of research and reporting. The remaining decision was whether or not to include the "Book" skills so commonly listed as part of library instruction. Some local librarians consulted said thai - they did not consider instruction in book skills to be a basic responsibility of the librarian except for instruction about use of special ized reference books. Instead, they felt that the librarian should supplement skills introduced by the classroom teacher. They added, however, that the inclusion of book skills in library skills listings was based on school librarians' concern about both their importance and possible neglect of these skills in classroom instruction. After these discussions, and consultation with the library adviser for the study it was decided to include basic book locational skills in the model and ask for librarians' reaction to them. This procedure, it was decided, would al low a wider range of librarians to react to the question of inclusion/exclusion of book skills within library instruction and throw light on a basic issue. In sum, out of the three ;subcategoriess under " Sk i l l s " it was concluded that Reading skills should be excluded, and both Library and Book skills considered for inclusion. Step Five : Isolation of the Concept "Locat ion " Skil ls PoQk BoqkAII 'Skills - Library and Skil ls - BooksMWer.e^tested against the criteria of the previously hypothesized isubprocessess of research and reporting, that is, " l o ca t i ng " , " c o l l e c t i n g " and "synthesizing". It was then that the researcher real ized most c lear ly that most of the learnings that had emerged as Skil ls - Library, seemed to f i t log ica l ly under the " l oca t ing " rubric as processes of either locating materials in a library or of locating information in books, especially special ized reference books. This insight made a significant impact on the researcher's thinking since it crystal l ized again an idea that had been in the background of the study: that is, the school library literature may be weakened by its tendency to claim nearly a l l skills that relate to books and 66 l i teracy. If " l ib rary " skills are essentially " l oca t i ona l " skills this should be made clear to teachers of library use whether they are trained librarians or classroom teachers. As has already been indicated above, it had been concluded that a l l Skil ls - Book essentially involving locating information in books should be considered for inclusion. Step Six : Selection of Basic Locational Skills and Adding Appropriately to the Content Using the charts developed in Step Three, skills and subskills were drawn from the lower end of the continuum of Skil ls - Library and Skil ls - Book. It was noted that there was a tendency to suggest introduction of Book skills in Grades one to three, while the introduction of Library skills was most often left to Grades three to six. When the process of selection from the charts was complete it seemed evident that some subskills should be added to ensure balance and coherence. The combined training of the researcher and her library adviser were applied to this problem with the idea that the judges would act as referees in the projected va l idat ion. With the add i - tion of some subskills it was concluded that the content had been largely determined and that items were ready for assembly into a unified model. Step Seven : Assembly of the Content into a Coherent Ski l ls Model The completed model is shown in Figure 4.6 for reference throughout this description. In the process of skills identif ication the researcher had constantly sought classifications within subcategories for organizing a l l selected items into a coherent Figure 4.6 Tentative Skil ls Model of Basic Library Locational Ski l ls Cluster 1̂ : Locating Materials in a Library (LMIL) : Ski l ls and Subskills A R R A N G E M E N T O F THE LIBRARY simple library floor plan A R R A N G E M E N T O F MATERIALS IN A LIBRARY By Sections picture books easy books non-f ict ion books reference materials magazines/ periodicals Within Sections : Books f i c t i on , alphabetical by author non-f ict ion, by subject - D .D.C. , then alphabetical by author biography by B or 92 then alphabetical by biographee ca l l number (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) PB - form E - content R - purpose (SuauthbrJs-sunnameJTjiinijtiial (number identifiers) author's surname - number shelf labels v for section identif ication for subject identif icat ion Within Sections : Magazines alphabetical by t i t le (ignoring articles a , an, the) CARD C A T A L O G U E outside labels guide cards (inside trays) author card author - top l ine surname first t i t le of book date of publication ca l l number - recognition subject identifiers - D.D.C. letter identifiers number identifiers : author's surname : number t i t le card t i t le on first l ine subject card subject on first line . heading cap i ta l i zed cross-reference cards "see" "see also" f i l i ng rules alphabetical order word -by-word arrangement ' M a c / M c ' as if spelled ' M a c ' numbers as if spelled out books by an author before books about an author ' a n ' , ' a ' , ' the ' in titles disregarded (at beginning of t i t le VERTICAL FILE drawer labels envelope/folder labels alphabetical by subject headings CLASS IF ICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. the ten general divisions of the D .D.C. some subdivisions to first decimal (classif ication by) fairy tales biography t it 67 Cluster ^2 : Locating Content/Data in Materials (LCIM) : Books : Standard F ict ion/Non- f ic t ion : Ski l ls and Subskills FORMAT cover spine (col lation) t i t le page ; text/body matter graphic material BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA appendix author (name) bibliography charts (listing) copyright date/or date of publication edition foreword/ preface glossary illustrations index cross-reference introduction key, guides maps series tables titles table of contents volume number 68 format. Such logical classifications as "arrangement of the l ibrary" , the "card ca ta - logue" and the "Dewey Decimal C lass i f icat ion" were already in the literature. These classifications, though essential, were not sufficient in themselves to ensure clear organization of the content, particularly if the model was to be considered useful to classroom teachers and an appropriate base for curriculum development. It was decided, therefore, that some additional categories should be developed using guidance from the focal literatures and the combined judgments of the researcher and her library adviser. The added categories ranged from a broad to increasingly specific focus. First, as shown in Figure 4.6, the two major divisions of the model were identif ied as Skil ls Clusters #1 and #2. The concept of ' "skills clusters" was considered l ike ly to be more meaningful and familiar to potential judges than the term "subprbcesses" introduced in the study as part of the hypothetical model. Labels for the two clusters were selected for both their relevance to the skills on hand and their potential application in developing locational skills models for a l l kinds of media. Cluster #1 was identif ied as "Locating Materials in a L ibrary" (LMIL) and Cluster #2 as "Locating Content/Data in Mater ia l s " (LCIM). Future production of models, it was speculated, might lead one to substitute "media" for "materials" depend- ing on its implications for a comprehensive model of research and reporting. The label for Cluster #2 was derived from the fa i r ly common reference in the literature to locating information in books. This, in fact, was found to be the main thrust of locational ski l ls, guidance in reading education. The phrase was selected to make exp l ic i t the difference between locating in books and locating in the library. It was subsequently expanded by substitution of "content/data" and "materials" for "information/books". Whi le a single term in place of "content/data" was considered 69 desirable, such a term could not be found to cover a l l possible forms of rhetoric. The decision was made next to label the specific type of materials in Cluster #2 of the model as "Books : Standard F i c t i on/Non- f i c t i on " . In the researcher's opinion, locating content in such books was a logical first or basic locational sk i l l for the Books category, J. Thirdly, the label "arrangement of materials in the l ibrary" was e l ic i ted from the literature as a potentially useful category and two .'•subcategories - "by sections" and "within sections" were attached to fac i l i tate a logical clustering of subski I Is. C lar i ty of the "within sections" category would be further enhanced, it was decided, by inclusion of "books" and "magazines" as additional subcategories. The f inal major decision made about category labels was to seek an alternate term for the rather global "book parts". A search of relevant glossaries and other reference books led to the selection of "format" and "bibliographic data " as being some- what more discrete terms for clustering constituent book ski l ls. "Format" was intended to encompass the idea of the physical parts of the book while "bibl iographic data " was intended to cover the information generally found about library books on the main entry catalogue card. If these terms did not provide a more definit ive concept or i f , in fact, they were not appropriate, it was assumed that judges would provide that information during the va l idat ion. Development and assembly of the skills model was, therefore, the outcome of numerous objective and subjective decisions based on both expl ic i t and impl ic it gu id - ance in educational literature. The conclusion was drawn at this point in the procedure that an essential framework for organizing the content had been achieved and that this form of the model was ready for val idation by judges. 70 DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUEST IONNAIRE INSTRUMENT With the content of the tentative model selected and arranged in a logical format, the next step was to develop a suitable measurement instrument. This step involved establishment of cr iteria for e l i c i t ing judgments and production of the question- naire section for gathering the judgments. Cr iter ia needed for col lect ing judgments were actual ly inherent in the goal of the va l idat ion, that is, identif ication of a set of basic library locational ski l l s. From this starting point emerged the key concepts of basic and non-basic level of skills and a library-based or not necessarily library-based locale for instruction as bases for res- ponses. Items built around these criteria would, it was fe l t , draw out the desired judg- ments and provide a va l id skills model. Object ive Responses The two major skills clusters of "Locating Materials in a Library" and "Locating Content/Data in Mater ia l s " were designated as Section A of the response forms while their respective subski I Is were designated as Section B. Skills and subski I Is content was drawn directly from tentative model shown in Figure 4.6, p. 67 , and items constructed around the key concepts of level of d i f f iculty and locale for instruction. Judges were given two directions for responding to objective items. First, they were asked to react to the level of each component s k i l l , that is, whether or not they considered these skills to be a basic (B) or non-basic (NB) level according to definitions provided as part of the questionnaire»(see Appendix C, p. 228). 71 Secondly, for each skills cluster they were to judge whether the locale was library-based (LB) or not necessarily library-based (NNLB ) , also according to given definitions. This second response controlled whether or not each respondent would proceed to either of the subskills sections. If the response N N L B was given, judges were not to proceed further. However, if they had checked LB they were asked to react to the related subskills section. These directions were focussed on identifying not just basic locational skills but the basic library locational ski l l s. If respondents had checked library-based (LB) their task within the relevant subskills section was to indicate by checking whether they considered each subskill as being at a basic (B) or non-basic (NB) level of d i f f icu l ty. Between sections, sets of directions for branching were interleaved in which were explained options avai lable to judges dependent on their reactions to locale items. These directions permitted judges to by-pass subskills sections deemed to;be not necessarily library-basedo(see Appendix C , pp. 232, 239, 240). Subjective Responses Within the sets of directions provision was also made for gathering subjective judgments. Individuals were asked, if they wished, to add items, either skills or subskills, they felt should be included. For judges' reference in making such suggestions, supple- mentary subskills were listed under those skills for which fa ir ly large numbers of sub- skills had been found in the literature, spec i f ica l ly , for the "card catalogue" and " f o r m a l bibliographic data " (book parts). Space was also left on the last page of the questionnaire for respondents to make any remarks about the content or organization of the package. Definitions Further guidelines were given librarians by including definitions for: (1) Locating Materials in a Library, (2) Locating Content/Data in Materials, (3) Basic and Non-Basic Levels, and (4) Library-Based/Not Necessarily Library-Based Skil ls (see Appendix C, p. 226). It was assumed that judges would, as part of the val idation process, react c r i t i ca l l y to the appropriateness and explicitness of the-definitions provided. Physical Format To fac i l i tate access to sections, items on LMIL ski I Is/subski I Is were printed on pink paper and those on LC IM ski I Is/subski I Is printed on yel low paper. When a l l parts of the questionnaire section had been prepared they were assembled into a nineteen-page booklet with a cover page identifying this part as Enclosure #2. O f the nineteen pages, eight pages contained items for judges' responses whilei the*rest consisted of definitions and directions (see Appendix C, p. 218). PILOT VAL IDAT ION PROCEDURES Within the fol lowing section six topics are presented: (1) purpose of the pilot va l idat ion, (2) method of va l idat ion, (3) cr iteria for judgments, (4) the questionnaire package, (5) selection of judges, and (6) col lect ion of judgments. Purpose of the Pilot Val idat ion The pilot val idation had three major purposes. The first was to establish the content va l id i ty or representativeness of the skills model. Judgments by trained school librarians, it was fe l t , would help determine whether or not the skills as outlined adequately sampled the potential domain of basic library locational skills avai lable in school library literature. A second purpose was refinement by participating librarians of the skills model, especially aspects of it about which subjective decisions had been made such as the decisions as to which subskills were basic and whether or not the book locational skills should be included. It was decided, thirdly, that librarians participating in the pilot val idation could be helpful through their reactions to the design of the questionnaire package, particularly the questionnaire section itself. For any subsequent val idation of the model through questionnaires, it would be valuable to know of any problems encountered by judges in understanding either the content or organization of materials in the package. Method of Val idat ion Judgments were to be e l i c i ted from trained experienced school librarians about items in the proposed taxonomic model through a questionnaire designed to e l i c i t the desired responses. Cr i ter ia for Judgments It was decided that for any item to be accepted for inclusion in the proposed skiJJs[modely jtbr.e^e ̂ ut-ofjftrjejf iyjef jud^^ suitabi l i ty. In essence, then, a 60 percent agreement would make an item acceptable for retention in the revised model. Items for which this extent of agreement was expressed would form the content of a revised skills model. Rejected items, it was also decided, would 74 not necessarily be discarded but instead would be listed as supplementary items for reaction by judges in a wider va l idat ion. The Questionnaire Package Three items were developed for the val idation package, spec i f ica l ly , (1) a questionnaire section, (2) a background information section embodying the proposed model, and (3) a covering letter. G u Questionnaire Section. This part of the package was described in the previous section on the development of the questionnaire instrument.;(see pp. 70-72). Background Information Section. The purpose of this three-page enclosure was to provide judges with frames of reference considered essential in helping them make their judgments. The information given to judges was: (1) a statement of the problem, (2) a plan of the study and status to date, (3) information about the construction of the model, and (4) the nature and purpose of the judgments (see Appendix C , p. 221). The statement of the problem was similar to that presented to judges in Quest ion- naire I. When the covering letter, background information and questionnaire were ready they were placed in a pocket portfolio as in the first val idation and then placed into a manila envelope for del ivery to judges. Selection of Judges The characteristics required for judges responding to Questionnaire I were also required for the pilot val idation - namely, a library major or degree in school l ibrar ian- ship, f ive or more years' experience in library work, experience as an elementary school 75 l ibrarian, or currently working with elementary school teachers or librarians and, idea l ly , experience as an elementary school teacher. Since the f ive judges responding to Questionnaire I had a l l indicated an interest in continuing as judges, they were contacted first. Four of the f ive judges were w i l l i ng to take part. The fifth judge, although expressing interest in the task, declined for two reasons: the demands of a doctoral programme out of the local area, and lack of e lem- entary school library experience. An alternate judge was selected, a local elementary school librarian whose addition to the panel made the distribution as follows: two Faculty of Education members, two librarians at the school l eve l , and one school district library supervisor. As soon as the questionnaire package was ready it was delivered by the researcher to each of the f ive judges. Co l lect ion of Judgments A t a time mutually convenient to each judge and the researcher, a semi- structured interview was held. Following the format of the questionnaire the researcher col lected responses, both objective and subjective, from each respondent, Interviews ranged from one-and-a-half to three hours. A l l materials were returned to the researcher including the working copies of the questionnaire. RESULTS OF THE PILOT VAL IDAT ION The f inal section of the chapter is organized according to: (1) the method of analysis and (2) the analysis of responses. Method of Analysis The pilot val idation yielded both subjective and objective data from a small number of judges. The size of the panel, therefore, made analysis by hand the most practical method. A summary of objective data was made on a copy of the response form and subjeetiwerdbtCT werevcategorize'd ana" attache'd:as:pertinent to each section. Analysis of Responses In this section the objective data and pertinent comments are first presented according to each of the four sections of the questionnaire, specif ical ly under the headi ngs: (1) Section A , Skills Cluster # 1 , (2) Section A , Skills Cluster # 2 , (3) Section B, Subski I Is Cluster # 1 , and (4) Section B, Subski I Is Cluster # 2 . Results are reported in terms of frequencies and percentages for judgments about basic level items and library-based loca le. General comments made by judges about various aspects of the questionnaire are also outl ined, including comments about c lar i ty of the definitions provided. Section A : Skil ls Cluster #1 : Locating Materials in a Library (LMIL). As shown in Table 4.1 the f ive component skil ls in this cluster were the "arrangement of the l ibrary" , "arrangement of materials in the l ibrary" , "card catalogue", "vert ical f i l e " and the "Dewey Decimal C lass i f icat ion" . a. Results : Level . ATmajorfty fof/thefp^ component skills to be at a basic leve l . With the exception of the Dewey Decimal Classification (D .D .C . ) , a l l judges (100%), in fact, agreed that items listed were basic. Four out of f ive (80%) respondents regarded the D.D.C. as basic. Table 4.1 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level of Skills Cluster ft\, Locating Materials in a Library (LMIL) n=5 Basic Level Skil ls Agreement N o . % arrangement of the library 5 100 arrangement of materials in the library 5 100 card catalogue 5 .100 vert ical f i l e 5 100 Dewey Decimal Classif ication 4 80 b. Comments.: Leve l . Some reservations were expressed by one judge about the Dewey Decimal Classif ication being appropriate to a basic level of instruction for primary pupils. This librarian felt that younger pupils, especially those in grades one and two, should find materials by other means, for example, by browsing along shelves or through assistance from library monitors or fel low pupils. However, this judge did consider the Dewey Decimal Classif ication to be basic learning for older students beginning at either high grade three or from grade four up. The same judge commented on instructional procedures saying that he thought the Decimal Classif ication should be acquired inductively rather than by memorizing the main divisions. What was considered by this librarian to be the most important learning in locating materials was pupil understanding of the relationship between the number on the card catalogue and the order of books on library shelves, i . e . , arrange- ment of materials within sections. Four judges, then, agreed on the ab i l i ty to use the Dewey Decimal System as basic while one judge did not consider it to be basic for primary pupils. No additions were made to the five skills comprising the LMIL cluster. c . Results : Locale. Eighty percent or four of the f ive librarians considered Skil ls Cluster ^1, "Locating Materials in a Library", to have a library-based conno- tation. d . Comments : Locale. One judge expressed a preference for introduction of these skills in the classroom and their ut i l izat ion in the library, therefore agreeing only in part with a library-based locale. The judge added, however, that library skills should be taught in whatever locale - classroom or library - was considered to be the more physically comfortable and convenient for both pupils and teachers. In this judge's opinion it was part of the role of the classroom teacher, not the l ibrarian, to teach library sk i l l s . It was felt that the librarian should instead con - centrate on building the co l lect ion, providing reference help for students and helping teachers with curriculum planning. A l l other judges thought the library was the appropriate locale for instruction whether it was the librarian or classroom teacher who provided skills instruction. Section B. Skil ls Cluster ^2 : Locating Content/Data in Materials. There were two component skills in Cluster ^2 - "format" and "bibl iographic data " . a . Results : Level . Both itsms were regarded as basic by the majority of judges. Four respondents (80%) considered "format" as basic while three respondents (60%) felt "bibliographic data" should be so categorized. b. Comments : Leve l . The one judge who checked both "format" and " b i b l i o - graphic data " as being non-basic expressed the opinion that " locat ing the book" came first and was a basic sk i l l while "use of book parts" would log ical ly follow book l oca - tion and, therefore, be beyond the basic l eve l . From this response it was concluded that rather limited interpretation had been made of what might constitute a cluster of basic ski l l s. Another judge checked non-basic for bibliographic data but said no clearcut reason could be given for this choice. The judge simply stated that some skills under this category were considered basic and some were not. No additions were suggested for Cluster #2 under either "format" or " b i b l i o - graphic da ta " . b. Results : Locale. None of the judges considered Cluster #2, Locating Content/ Data in Materials, to have a library-based connotation. That is, a l l judges checked the N N L B column. c. Comments : Locale. As a group the judges felt that instruction in the book skills definitely need not be library-based. They suggested, in fact, that such skills should preferably be taught by the classroom teacher and supplemented by librarians as needed. A l l judges agreed that such instruction should apply to standard f ict ion/non- f ict ion books, textbooks in various subject areas, dictionaries, atlases and standard encyclopedias. What was considered as more appropriate for library-based instruction was instruction in use of such special ized references as gazetteers, special dictionaries •emd- The,ReadeKfcGuifreJ&jPferi other indexes. 80 Results of the data for Section A , then, showed that three or more judges considered: (1) the component skills of Cluster $\, "Locating Materials in a Library", to be at a basic level and the locale for instruction to be library-based, and (2) the component skills of Cluster ^2 "Locating Content/Data in Mater ia l s " (Books, Standard F ict ion/Non-f ict ion) to be basic and the locale for instruction as not necessarily l ibrary- based. According to these reactions, a l l judges were to complete the subskills section for Cluster # 1 , (LMIL), but not for Cluster #2y(LCIM). Through their responses to Section A of the questionnaire, therefore, the judges had begun to shape the model by accepting one skills cluster and rejecting the other. A t this point in the data analysis, it was already evident that the model would consist at least of the skills cluster "Locating Materials in a Library" and whichever of its subskills in Section B were judged to be basic by the majority of respondents. Section B : Subskills Cluster 1̂ : Locating Materials in a Library. Judges were asked in this section to respond only to the level of items as being basic or non-basic. Fifty-eight subskills were included, grouped under the fol lowing headings: (1) arrange- ment of the library, (2) arrangement of materials in the library (by sections and within sections), (3) card catalogue, (4) vertical f i l e , and (5) classif ication/D. D.C. Ob jec t - ive data and related comments are ordered under these f ive headings. Arrangement of the Library. The one subskill was "ab i l i t y to comprehend and to use a simple library floor p l an " . 81 a. Results: Four judges (80%)checked this item as being basic, one of these checking it with certain qual if ications. The remaining judge checked neither basic nor non-basic but responded instead with a comment. b. Comment. The qual i f icat ion given by the librarian who checked the basic column was that a three-dimensional model of the library would be more suitable for younger chi ldren. However, for older (intermediate grade level) pupils it was felt that a floor plan (diagram) was an appropriate guide. The judge who marked neither the basic nor non-basic columns suggested it was unnecessary to give individual pupils a floor plan. What could be made a v a i l - able for upper primary and older students in larger school libraries was a wall chart of the library floor plan. It was this judge's opinion that primary students from kinder- garten to Grade Two would probably have di f f iculty understanding a diagram, where- as they could readily understand information given in guided tours spread over two or three brief visits. This respondent, then, considered floor plans for individuals as non-basic but comprehension of the arrangement of the library as basic. This judge also thought that the designation "by sections" f itted better under "Arrangement of the Library" than under "Arrangement of Materials in the Library". The reason given was that various sections either already existed physically or had been planned by the librarian before the materials were added. The four other judges inter- preted the'term "arrangement of the l ibrary" as itiiis commonly used in the literature, to mean layout of the library, its furnishings, shelving, and large areas such as the librarian's workroom. However, to avoid any possible confusion about this term in the wider va l idat ion, the decision was made by the researcher to provide a definition of "arrangement of the l ibrary" in the next questionnaire. No additional subskills were suggested by any judge. Arrangement of Materials : By Sections. The six subskills comprising this cate - gory were picture books, easy books, f ict ion books, non-f ict ion books, reference materials, and magazines/periodicals. a . Results. As shown in Table 4.2 the majority of judges checked the six items as being basic, with the first f ive items being regarded as basic by a l l judges (100%). One judge, while checking non-basic for magazines/periodicals, expressed ambivalence about the choice. Table 4.2 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Arranger^ ment of Materials in the Library : By Sections Basic Level Subskills ^Agreement^ picture books 5 ]00 easy books 5 1 0 0 f ict ion books 5 100 non-f ict ion books 5 100 reference materials 5 ]QQ magazines/periodicals 4 80 b. Comments. About picture and easy books, especially the latter, there was considerable discussion by four of the judges about the arrangement of these books, relationship between the two types, and rationale for their various arrangements. One judge fell" that a l l easy books should definitely be inter-shelved with the regular co l lect ion so that older pupils and those with reading problems could have access to them without embarrassment. In this person's experience, individual students from either group were not incl ined to choose books marked " E " over unmarked books on the same topic, even when the " E " book was more appropriate in content or redding leve l . Another respondent believed that there should be both a separate easy books section and a duplicate set of easy books inter-shelved with the regular co l lect ion. A third judge felt that either type - picture books or easy books - could be combined with regular f ict ion and non-f ict ion. The fourth judge suggested that very easy and picture books should be placed together in a section using the criterion "books that had very l i t t le print" while some relat ively easy books with more print should be inter-shelved with the main co l lect ion. The criteria for applying a judgment of "very l i t t le print" and "more print" were not pursued by either judge or researcher. The main concern of this respondent, l ike that of the first judge, was consideration of students with reading problems and fac i l i tat ing their access to easier books. On the basis of statements made by four librarians, it could be concluded that "easy" books formed an important part of elementary school library co l lec t ion . However whether these books were to be kept separate or inter-shelved was a pol icy that seemed to vary from librarian to l ibrarian. Two librarians explained that they maintained specia reading or leisure corners in their libraries where they provided a min i -co l lect ion of many types and levels of reading matter for students of a l l ages. Ove r a l l , a desire was expressed by the majority of judges to avoid possible inhibition of easy reading by older pupils, a situation that might arise if a separate col lect ion of these books were maintained. 84 The only other comment was that by a judge who suggested that paperback sections might have been included. Majority agreement was expressed for the six items under "By Sections" with the variations noted in the handling of picture and easy books. No additional sub- skills were mentioned. Arrangement of Materials in the Library : Within Sections. There were sixteen subskills listed in this category. a . Results. As shown in Table 4 .3 , the majority of judges agreed that eleven items were basic and f ive items were non-basic. The items judged to be basic by 60 percent or more respondents were: Books: f i c t i on , alphabetical by author non-f ict ion, by subject (biography) alphabetical by biographee ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) E (content) R (purpose) author's surname ( in i t ia l ) shelf labels for section identif ication for subject identif ication Magazines alphabetical by t i t le The items judged to be non-basic were: Books: (non-f ict ion, by subject) then alphabetical by author biography by B or 92 PB (form) author's surname - number 85 Table 4.3 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Arrangement of Materials in the Library : Within Sections n = 5 R - i I c L i • 11 Agreement Basic Level Subskills K ! o/ I N O . /O Within Sections: Books: f i c t i on , alphabetical by author 4 80 non-f ict ion, by subject (DDC), 4 80 then alphabetical by author 1 20 biography by B or 92 1 20 then alphabetical by biographee 3 60 ca l l number (recognition) 5 100 (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) PB(form) 2 40 E (content) 4 80 R (purpose) 4 80 author's surname ( in it ia l ) 4 80 (number identifiers) author's surname (number) shelf labels: 3 60 for sectioni identif ication 3 60 for subject identif ication 3 60 Within Sections: Magazines: a lphabet ical , by t i t le (ignoring articles a, an, the) 4 80 86 b. Comments. Judges directed their remarks mainly to the designation for " b i o - graphy" and, to a lesser degree, to " letter identif iers" and "shelf ident i f i cat ion " . Two judges considered instruction on biography, whatever its symbolic repre- sentation, to be non-basic. Another judge preferred "921 " as the symbolic representa- t ion, while a fourth favoured "920" and "921 " . It was suggested by both these judges that the three numbers were more consistent with the Dewey Decimal Classif ication than 92. Judges 3 and 4 regarded instruction as basic. A fifth judge also checked basic and accepted "92 " as the appropriate classif ication. Three judges indicated that currently the designations " B " , " 92 " or "920/921" were issues in school library cataloguing. It was explained by one person that a major book jobber had almost settled on " 92 " , then decided on "921 " as being the most widely accepted class if ication. However, it was added, most librarians within this judge's acquaintance were using both 920 and 921 (group biography and individual biography). O v e r a l l , the greatest agreement was expressed about "921 " as being the most approp- riate choice and being at the basic l eve l . Regarding "letter identif iers" such as "PB" and "R" one judge expressed a preference for using such symbols as l i tt le as possible and of the three listed, would use only the "R" symbol. A l l other judges checked this item as basic. O f the four judges checking " E " as basic one said this symbol should be con - sidered basic if used in a particular library while another explained that a "+" symbol was substituted for " E " in the school district. The "+" in this instance was intended for use of library monitors and teachers only. Judges considered "R" as the most useful of the three symbols presented and clear ly regarded it as basic. That is, four judges checked "R" as basic and the fifth said that it would be basic if used in a particular library. Two judges made comments about shelf labels. One person agreed this item was basic if used in a school library but did feel that it was needed more in the public than school l ibrary. The one judge checking non-basic thought that shelf identif ication was a potential source of l imiting a student's search for materials. Preference was expressed for students first locating items in the card catalogue, then using shelf arrange- ments to find those items. Shelf ident i f icat ion, therefore, was considered to be basic by three judges, basic with some qualifications by a fourth, and as non-basic by a fifth judge. A few miscellaneous comments were offered under this subcategory. First, it was suggested by one judge that the first two letters and preferably the first three of the "author's surname ( in i t i a l ) " should be considered as basic. Secondly, the item "non- f ic t ion, alphabetical by author" was regarded by one judge as basic in a large col lect ion but non-basic in the average elementary school l ibrary. As to additions to this sub-section, one judge suggested inclusion of a paper- back rack (section) even if this section was already implied under f ict ion and non-fiction books. O f the sixteen items designated AMj/iL- Wrthin Sections, then, eleven were judged basic, and five as non-basic. For^ thelbio'graphy items (B, 92) that were judged non-basic, the majority of librarians substituted "921 " making a total of twelve basic items under this category. In summary, for Arrangement of Materials in a Library - By and Within Sections, judges expressed agreement about seventeen of twenty-two skills being basic, a l l six subskills under "by sections" and eleven subskills under "within sections". A substitution 88 by judges raised the latter category to twelve items, a total of eighteen subski I Is. Card Catalogue. This section included twenty-seven subski I Is, seventeen related to different types of catalogue cards and eight concerned with f i l ing rules. a. Results. As shown in Table 4.4, of the twenty-seven subski I Is, the majority of judges agreed that nineteen items were basic, and eight items were non-basic. The nineteen items judged to be basic were as follows: outside labels guide cards author card author - top line - surname first t i t le of book ca l l number (recognition) t i t le card t it le on first line subject card subject on first line heading capita l ized cross-reference cards "see" f i l i ng rules alphabetical order numbers as if spelled out abbreviations as if spelled out an, a, the, - disregarded at beginning of t i t le The non-basic items were: date of publication (author card) subject identifiers - D .D.C. (ca l l no. - parts) number identifiers - author's surname : number "see also" (cross-reference cards) word by word arrangement ( f i l ing rules) " M c / M a c " as if spelled " M a c " books by before about an author 89 Table 4.4 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Card Catalogue n=5 Basic Level Subskills Agreement N o . % outside labels 5 100 guide cards (inside trays) 5 100 author card (see also: f i l i ng rules) 5 100 author - top l ine 5 100 surname first 4 80 t i t le of book 3 60 date of publication 2 20 ca l l number (recognition) 3 60 (parts of ca l l number)2 subject identifiers - D .D.C. 2 40 letter identifiers 2 40 number identifiers, author's surname: number t i t le card (see also: f i l i ng rules) 5 100 t it le on first line 4 80 subject card (see also: f i l i ng rules) 5 100 subject on first line 3 60 heading capita l ized 3 60 cross reference cards 4 80 "see" 4 80 "see also" 2 40 filingj rules* 4 80 alphabetical order 4 80 word-by-word arrangement 2 40 ' M a c V M c ' as if spelled " M a c ' 2 40 numbers as if spelled out 3 60 abbreviations as if spelled out 3 60 books by an author before books about an author 'an, ' a ' , ' the ' in titles disregarded (at beginning of tit le) 3 60 The two items fa l l ing between basic/non-basic were letter identifiers (under ca l l number) and word-by-word arrangement (under f i l ing rules). Each subskill was judged basic by two librarians and non-basic by two others. The f ifth librarian responded in a way that placed the item somewhere between the two categories. In the end it was decided that since some ambiguity existed these two subski I Is should be considered as non-basic. No additions were suggested for the card catalogue cluster. b» Comments. Six comments arose mainly from judgments about non-basic subski I Is or those not receiving a clear majority. Whi le "date of publ icat ion" under "author card " was judged to be non-basic by the majority of judges, four librarians said they would check this item as basic for non-f ict ion books. It was decided by the researcher that for a wider val idation the two choices " f i c t i o n " and "non- f i c t ion " should be included under this item. Since this kind of expl ic i t breakdown had not been used in the validation package, the subskill " non- f i c t ion " was then regarded as an additional item provided by the judges. One judge felt that "letter identif iers" would be non-basic in an average school library col lect ion but basic in a large co l lect ion. He added that he would apply the same criteria to the item "number identifiers, author's surname : number". Three judges checked "see also" as non-basic expressing their preference for its postponement until high school leve l . One person felt that instruction about "see also" cards would be basic in elementary schools having large collections. About "word-by-word arrangement" under " f i l i ng rules" one respondent was ambivalent, checking non-basic with a question mark. No firm decision was reached 91 about this item during the interview. Commenting about basic level items one participant stated an opinion that only four subski I Is were basic and the remainder were a somewhat higher l eve l . The four subski I Is suggested were "outside labels", "author ca rd " , "subject card " and " t i t l e ca rd " . Although a l l other judges agreed that these items were indeed basic they also selected other items as being at this l eve l . O v e r a l l , there was considerable agreement expressed among judges about the twenty-seven subski I Is listed for the card catalogue. Nineteen items were judged to be basic by 60 percent or more judges. Eight items were designated as non-basic i nc lud - ing "date of publ icat ion" and two items for which a clear majority was not obtained (letter identifiers, and word-by-word arrangement). "Date of publication - non- f ic t ion " was considered by a l l to be a more appropriate item than just "date of publ icat ion" and this substitution was made. Based on these judgments, then, there were twenty card ca ta - logue subski I Is to be included in the revised form of the model. Vert ica l Fi le Three subski I Is were listed in the questionnaire, spec i f ica l ly , drawer labels, envelope/folder labels, and alphabetical by subject headings. a . Results. Table 4.5 shows that the majority of judges agreed that the three sub- skills were regarded as basic, drawer labels by 100 percent, envelope folder/labels by 80 percent, and alphabetical according to subject headings by 60 percent of the judges. b. Comment. In the discussion some judges wished to add organization of vert ical f i l e "by Dewey Decimal Class i f icat ion" and suggested that basic instruction should be Table 4.5 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Subskills (LMIL), Vert ica l F i le n = 5 Basic Level Subskills Agreement N o . % 5 100 4 80 3 60 3 60 4 80 drawer labels envelope/folder labels alphabetical by subject headings by D .D .C . 1 main divisions only 1 items added during data co l lect ion. Table 4.6 Frequency and Percent : Basic Level Skills (LMIL), Classif ication by Subject/D.D.C. n = 5 Basic Level Skills .k.l,^reeni?nL _——— N o . % the ten general divisions of the D.D.C. 4 80 some subdivisions in relation to a subject area, say, social studies 2 40 to first decimal 1 20 classification by fairy tales biography 1 1 20 20 concerned with "main divisions on l y " . These additions were acceptable to the research© and considered as useful items for inclusion in a revised model and any further val idation With an option provided for either "alphabetical by subject headings" or "by D .D .C . " according to a particular library's preference, this section was expanded to f ive items, a l l of which were considered to be basic by the judges. No other additions w§r-e?.suggeste'd for the^verctiiicaLfiile^cluster. Classif ication by Subject/D.D.C. The subski I Is in this last category were the ten general divisions, some subdi- visions, some subdivisions to the first decimal and classification by fairy tales and b io - graphy, f ive items i n ^ a l l . a . Results. As shown in Table 4.6 the only one item clear ly judged to be basic was the ten general divisions of the D.D.C. ( 80% agreement). Three items judges as definitely non-basic (20%) were some subdivisions... to the first decimal, and classification by fairy tales, and by biography. O n l y one person checked each of these subski I Is. Ambivalence was expressed by one judge about the item "some subdivisions in relation to a subject area, say social studies". Based on discussion about the item it was decided to regard it as a non-basic subski 11. b. Comments (Level). The one judge marking non-basic for "the ten general d iv is ions... " referred again to a preference for inductive learning rather than directed instruction for this subskill. No clear majority was expressed under either basic or non-basic for "some subdivisions... " . Whi le three judges checked basic for the former item, one person explained that this item was not regarded as so basic as the "ten main d i v i s i ons . . . " . One respondent who selected non-basic for this item suggested that learning a few sub- divisions could limit student exploration of the co l lect ion. It was added that students when seeking information on particular topics, say in social studies, should be en - couraged not to consider only that subject, but also to explore related information under such topics as science, mythology and animals. One of the two judges choosing as basic (D .D.C. ) "to the first dec ima l " exp- lained that this subskill was more appropriate for instruction at upper elementary school level (Grade 7). Under the f inal item the one judge checking basic for such categories as "fairy tales" and "biography" said this kind of instruction had been found to be useful to students, helping make them feel independent in locating popular book sections. O n the basis of the data obtained, and comments, it was clear for "C las s i f i ca - tion by Subject/D. D .C . " one subskill should be retained in the model (the ten general divisions) and the other four would become supplementary items in a revised model and future va l idat ion. No additions were made by judges. As well as providing objective data for a l l subskills and comments on some items, judges also offered a number of related remarks. First, one judge was concerned about the phrase "whatever their age l e ve l " in the definition of basic. This qual i f icat ion was considered to be confusing rather than clar i fy ing as it implied to the judge that very young children would be involved. Deletion of the phrase, it was suggested, would make the selection of basic versus non-basic level skills/subskills an easier task. It was concluded that the phrase should be deleted. 95 Another judge commented that a definition of "format" would have been useful. It was intended by the researcher that this subskills cluster convey the meaning "organi - zat ion or layout of the book". It was, however, felt that such a definition might well have been included. Judges were asked indiv idual ly if they could suggest terms for "book parts" other than those used in the study, preferably a single term. A t the time judges felt that they had no more appropriate terms to suggest. Judges indicated that they had no problems in using the questionnaire package other than questions about the terms and definitions already mentioned. Summary : The Revised Model The majority of judges, ( 60% or more), designated Ski l ls Cluster "Locating Materials in a L ibrary", as being library-based and its f ive component skills as being basic. Whi le the majority of judges agreed that the two component skills of Skil ls Cluster ^2, "Locating Content/Data i n . . .Books", were basic they did not consider this cluster to be library-based. Sixty percent or more judges classified LMIL subskills as follows: LMIL Skil ls Subskills Basic Non-Basic Arrangement of the Library 1 Arrangement of Materials in the Library By Sections 6 Within Sections 11 5 Card Catalogue 19 8 Vert ical Fi le 3 Classif ication by Subject/D.D.C. 1 4 4T I T (58) Two of the 17 non-basic subski lis were adjusted on the basis of judges' r e - actions by making substitutions for these items. "Biography by 921 " was substituted for "biography by B" or "by 92 " and "date of publication - non- f i c t ion " was substi- tuted for "date of publ icat ion" . These adjustments resulted in 43 basic subski I Is and 15 non-basic subski I Is. To the 43 subski I Is, 2 items were added under the vert ical f i l e category (arrange- ment by D.D.C. and main divisions only) making a total of 45 basic and 15 non-basic subski I Is. As shown in Figure 4.7 the tentative model had been refined and altered by 60 percent or more of the panel to consisteof 5 skills and 45 subski I Is under the skills cluster "Locating Materials in a L ibrary" . In analyzing the data it was also noted which of the skills and subski I Is were identif ied as basic by an even larger majority of judges, that is, 4 or 5 librarians (80 or 100%). That set of sk i l l s , as shown in Figure.4.8, consisted of the 5 component skills of the LMIL cluster and 31 subski I Is. These results, then, indicated existence of potential categories that were identif ied as first and second level of basic ski I Is/subski I Is. "First l e v e l " ski I Is/subski I Is emerged as those designated basic by the larger majority of judges, that is 4 or 5 librarians (80 or 100%), while "second l e v e l " ski I Is/subski I Is emerged as those so designated by the smaller majority, that is, 3 of the 5 judges (60%) . Based on these data it was decided that "ski I Is/subski Ms" fa l l ing within the first level of judgments, as shown in Figure 4.8, could be regarded as the most fundamental of the library locational sk i l l s . Conclusions About the Data Analysis: Overa l l it was concluded by the researcher and her library adviser that through the pilot val idation a satisfactory in i t ia l revision and refinement of a model of basic library locational skills had been achieved. 97 Figure 4.7 Revised Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subskills Obtained in the Pilot Val idat ion : Agreement Shown by Three out of Five Judges (60 Percent) ARRANGEMENT O F THE LIBRARY simple library floor plan ARRANGEMENT O F MATERIALS IN THE LIBRARY By Sections picture books easy books f ict ion books non-fiction books reference books magazines/periodicals Within Sections: Books: f i c t ion , alphabetical by author non-fiction by subject ̂ -ID.ID.1C.1* biography by 921° alphabetical by biographee ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) E - content R - purpose author's surname - in i t ia l shelf labels for section identif ication for shelf identif ication Magazines: alphabetical by t it le CARD C A T A L O G U E outside labels : guide cards author cards author - top line surname first t i t le of book date of publication - non - f i c t i on a ca l l number - recognition t i t le card t i t le on first line subject card subject on first line heading capita l ized cross-reference cards "see" f i l ing rules alphabetical order numbers as if spelled out abbreviations as if spelled out ' ' the ' an aj rule VERTICAL FILE drawer labels envelope/folder labels alphabetical by subject headings by D . D . C . b main divisions only ' 3 CLASSIF ICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. "ten general divisions items substituted during data col lect ion items added during data col lect ion 98 Figure 4.8 Revised Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subski I Is Obtained in the Pilot Val idat ion : Agreement Shown by Four out of Five Judges (80 Percent) ARRANGEMENT O F THE LIBRARY simple library floor plan ARRANGEMENT O F MATERIALS IN THE LIBRARY By Sections picture books easy books f ict ion books non-fiction books reference books magaz ines/peri odi cq Is Within Sections: Books: f i c t ion , alphabetical by author non-f ict ion by subject - D.D.C. ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) E - content R - purpose author's surname - in i t ia l CARD C A T A L O G U E outside labels guide cards author cards author - top l ine surname first date of publication - non-fiction t i t le card t i t le on first line subject card crossrrefenence cards n„„„ II see f i l i ng rules alphabetical order VERTICAL FILE drawer labels envelope/folder labels by D.D.C. main divisions only CLASS IF ICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. ten general divisions Magazines: alphabetical by t i t le 99 Conclusions About the Final Va l idat ion. Conclusions were drawn about the model to be presented in the final val idation and about criteria to be used for determining the basic level of items. It was concluded that when presented to the larger group of judges the model should reflect the fol lowing: (1) the skills and.subskills cluster selected as being basic by the majority of judges, (2) inclusion of the three items not c lear ly selected by the judges as basic or non-basic items, (3) inclusion of most non-basic items in supplementary lists, (4) addition or revisions of definitions suggested by judges or perceived to be useful by the researcher, and (5) provision for judges to react to the book locational skills as part of the model. The conclusion was also drawn that, in establishing criteria for the f inal set of judgments, the concept of first and second level should be acknowledged. Cr i ter ia , it was decided, should be determined for the ranges of agreement constituting a small and a large majority. Addit ion of these criteria would be useful, it was fe l t , both for identifying the most fundamental set of items and providing a logical basis for comparing data obtained in the pilot and f inal validations. 100 Chapter 5 VAL IDAT ION OF THE REVISED MODEL OF BASIC LIBRARY L O C A T I O N A L SKILLS Two major topics are discussed in the chapter: (1) procedures used in the v a l i - dation of the revised model, and (2) analysis of the data obtained in the val idat ion. VAL IDAT ION PROCEDURES Val idat ion procedures are presented under the fol lowing headings: (a) purpose, (b) method, (c) criteria to be appl ied, (d) the questionnaire package, (e) selection of judges, (f) advance letters, (g) distribution of questionnaire materials, and (h) co l lect ion of responses. Procedures followed in the pilot survey were replicated wherever possible in the second va l idat ion. Therefore the discussion highlights any differences in procedures. Purpose of the Val idat ion The general purpose of the val idation was to derive the f inal version of a basic library locational skills model. Spec i f ica l ly , the val idation was intended to determine: (1) which skills and subskills were judged by the majority of judges to be the basic library locational skills and (2) the extent of agreement between judges in the pilot and second validations about the content of the model. 101 Method of Val idat ion Selected groups of school librarians across Canada were provided with a questionnaire package developed around structured response forms containing items on locational skills and subski I Is. The f inal model was to be based on anal/sis of the data provided by the responses, and on comparisons with the findings of the pilot study. Essentially, skills in the tentative model were to be rated as basic or non-basic and library-based or not necessarily library-based to derive a model of basic library l o ca - tional ski l ls. Cr iter ia to be App l ied The various skills and subski I Is to be accepted as part of the basic model must, it was decided, be judged to be basic and library-based by 51 per cent of the judges. Any skills and subski I Is fa l l ing below this range of judgments, i . e . , below 51 per cent, would be regarded as being at a higher level on the skills continuum. To provide refinement of the concept "bas ic " a decision was made to apply criteria to separate Basic : Level 1 and Basic : Level 2. Skil ls and subski I Is judged to be basic ty 75 to 100 per cent of the respondents were to be considered as being Basic : Level 1, or those library locational skills and subski I Is that would most log ica l ly be learned i n i t i a l l y . Skil ls and subski I Is judged to be basic by 51 to 74 per cent of the respondents were to be regarded as Basic : Level 2, or those fundamental library locational skills and subski I Is that would most log ical ly be learned after the first level skills in the continuum. 102 A further decision was made that no mention of these criteria should be i n - cluded in the questionnaire for the f inal val idation on the grounds that the length of the questionnaire package as it had or ig inal ly been prepared would in itself be a deter- rent to its being completed by the judges. The addition of a further concept to be judged might, it was fe l t , prevent the questionnaires from being returned at a l l . In any case, it seemed that the addition of criteria in a post-hoc analysis did not in any way distort the goal of the study, to produce a basic library locational skills model. Users of the two additional models, it was fe l t , need only be aware of their origins. It was concluded, therefore, that the plan to use special criteria could be supported on logical grounds. The Questionnaire Package In the production of the package there were f ive main steps. The steps were: (1) a revised form of the questionnaire, (2) demographic information on judges, (3) background information on the study, (4) the covering letter, and (5) assembly of the questionnaire package. A Revised Form of the Questionnaire. This section of the val idation package con - sisted of: (1) statement of purpose, (2) response forms, (3) definitions, and (4) sets of directions. Each aspect is described in terms of its content and organization within sections of the questionnaire. As in the pilot survey, the statement of purpose dealt with the intent of gathering judges' reactions about the appropriate level and locale of two sets of 103 skills and the level of two sets of subski I Is. The purpose was stated in three parts of the questionnaire, in each case preceding the definitions (see Appendix D, Questionnaire 111, pp. 257, 264, 274). Response forms were almost the same in both content and organization as those in Questionnaire II. For the two skills cluster sections "Locating Materials in a Library" (LMIL) and "Locating Content/Data in Materials : Books" (LCIM), the only difference between Questionnaire II and Questionnaire III was placement of the LC IM cluster. In Questionnaire III it was placed after the LMIL subski I is, rather than after the LMIL skills cluster. With this slight rearrangement of sections, judges reacted first to the revised basic skills model obtained in the pilot survey, that is, the LMIL skills cluster and its subski I Is. The content was the same as in Questionnaire II for the subski I Is section of "Locating Materials in a L ibrary", except for f ive items. Based on data from the pilot va l idat ion, changes were made in one subskill under "Arrangement of Materials in a Library" (AM/L), two subski I Is under "Card Catalogue" (CC) and two subski I Is under "Vert ica l Fi le (VF) (see Appendix D, pp. 266-268). The changes made were as follows: 104 Page Ca tegory Questionnaire II Questionnaire III 10 Arrangement of 1. biography by B or 92 materials 12 Card Catalogue 1. cross-reference cards 2. date of publication 12 Vert ica l F i le alphabetical by subject headings biography by 921 cross-reference cards (recognition) date of publication non-f ict ion alphabetical by subject headings or D.D.C. main divisions only A number of changes were also made in the organization of LMIL subskills, two involving items within sections and three concerned with arrangement or desig- nation of sections. First, to help ensure accuracy, and for convenient reference by judges in writing comments, the numbers 1 to 45 were assigned to those basic subskills selected in the pilot val idat ion t (p. -97-);^ Fori the.same reasons, abbreviations of the f ive LMIL skills categories were inserted in parentheses after the ful l labe l , for example, (CC) after "Card Catalogue" and (VF) after "Vert ica l F i l e " . One change in section organization involved placement of thirteen items eliminated in the pilot val idation on a separate page immediately fol lowing the forty- f ive basic subskills. It was designated as a "Checkl ist of Supplementary Subskills" (see Appendix D, p. r269). )<> Below this list of thirteen^subskills, .space was left for judges to note any additional subskills they thought should be included. However, in Questionnaire III, no items were listed for judges as possible choices for additional card catalogue subskills as had been done in Questionnaire II, page 13. No pilot 105 judges had drawn upon these seven items, and a supplementary checklist had been i n - corporated within LC IM subskills. It was fe l t , therefore, that enough items had been included for reaction. Any additions made would instead reflect unaided judgments of respondents. A f inal minor change in organization arose from re-ordering the LMIL and LC IM sections; In Questionnaire II the LMIL skills and subskills had been labelled Sections A and B respectively. They were now ordered consecutively and, therefore, designated more log ica l ly as Section A in Questionnaire III. Section A , then, i n - cluded the ski l ls, subskills and supplementary subskills of "Locating Materials in a Library" (see Appendix D, ,263). )« On response forms for the second set of subskills, "Locating Content/Data in Materials/Books", allvitems" weneiitbe'same in Questionnaires.! I ^arid III. As an optional addition, however, judges were asked if they could suggest alternate terms for the labels "book parts" (as used in library literature) or "format/bibliographic data " (as used by the researcher). Three changes were made in organization of LC IM subskills, a l l concerned with arrangement or designation of sections. First, although the book locational skills had largely been eliminated by the judges of the pilot va l idat ion, it was considered important to have the larger group of judges express opinions about the inclusion or exclusion of these same ski l l s . The decision was made to place the book skills in a separate appendix including the original twenty-four skills and some optional subskills. Following the internal organization of Questionnaire II, the f ive items under "Format" and nineteen under "Bibl iographical Data " were placed in the separate appendix. 106 Using a similar rationale, a decision was made to use the seventeen items from the "not inc luded" category of Questionnaire II, (p. 19), as supplementary content in the LC IM section. O n a separate sheet attached to the LC IM subskills three supplementary subskills under "Format" and fourteen under "Bibliographic Data" were l isted. Judges were asked to add further subskills if they wished. Labell ing of the book skills and subskills as Section B was the f inal orga- nizational change in the response forms. LC IM skills became Section B (part 1) of the main questionnaire while LC IM subskills and supplementary checklist were designated as Section B (part 2). In Questionnaire III, including a l l objective items dealing with basic leve l , there were provided for judges' reactions 106 objective items - 5 LMIL ski l ls, 45 LMIL subskills, 113 LMIL supplementary subskills, 2 LC IM ski l ls, 24 : LC IM subskills, and 17 LC IM supplementary subskills. There also 2 objective items concerned with locale for instruction, making a total of 108 items. O n t h e response forms in the second va l idat ion, then, judges were asked to react to essentially the same content as in the pilot survey. The changes were minor changes in certain items and in re-organization. Changes in definitions were based largely on the results of the pilot v a l i - dation, taking into account both objective data and judges' comments. Two de f i n i - tions were expanded and another modified. A fourth change, addition of a def init ion, was made >© Kelp.e.hsurer.ckrjf^td^d3biiiaD<^griiy a i d b ^ b i - t o 107 The definitions for Skills Cluster $\, LMIL, was enlarged to include explana- tions of "arrangement of the l ibrary" and "arrangement of materials in the l ibrary" . Within Skills Cluster * 2 , LC IM , definitions were added of its component skills "format" and "bibliographic data " and of "materials". As suggested by a pilot judge, the phrase "whatever their age l e v e l " was removed from the definition of basic subskills. With the addition of a brief explanation and example of the term "subskills", changes to the definitions were completed. The placement of definitions fol lowing the statement of purpose and preceding directions was maintained in Questionnaire III. Minor alterations were made in wording and numbering of directions for res- ponding to the questionnaire both in those directions preceding each set of response items and branching directions between sections.(ss« Appendix , j. When al l parts of the questionnaire had been completed, they were assembled into a main questionnaire section (Enclosure ^2) and an appendix with a table of contents page attached to each. The LMIL skills and subskills were printed in goldenrod colour, the LCIM sections in green, and the resteof the questionnaire on white paper. Demographic Information on Judges. It was considered essential to gather accurate information about respondents as a basis for (1) preparing a list of judges' names, position and place of employment to be included in the study, and (2) reporting judges' character- istics as part of the data analysis. In the pilot val idation it had been possible to gather such information in an interview. It now became necessary to design a form to accompany Questionnaire III. The same type of identif ication data was requested in both validations. 108 O n the form constructed, the purpose was stated, with the indication in paren- theses that the judge's name need not be included on this sheet. Names were not needed since judges could be identified by the researcher from the inside address of the cover- ing letter when questionnaire packages were returned. Four categories of information were requested: place of employment, position, experience and training, with various options given under the last three categories. A checklist format was employed under each heading, whenever possible. The content was arranged on d single sheet and entitled "Background on Judges" (see Appendix D,i,pp»250)..„. This form, along with the main questionnaire and its appendix, constituted three of the four enclosures of the package. Background Information on the Study. As in the pilot val idation a "Background Information" section was developed to give librarians necessary frames of reference for the study as part of the understanding needed for making their judgments. The content and organization in both validations was basically the same, with incidental adjustments in wording or format and two additions. One addition was simply the updating of progress under "Plan of the Study and Status to Date" while the other was the inclusion of a brief statement of the rationale for the study, information that had been communicated verbal ly to pilot judges. With the addition of a table of contents page, the background information section was assembled as Enclosure 1̂ of the package (see Appendix D, p. 251). The Covering Letter. When the four parts of Questionnaire III had been prepared, a covering letter was written to invite selected librarians to participate and to outline the task and contents of the questionnaire package. Essentially, there were no differences 109 in organization of the letter in the two validations and only slight changes in content. For example, in the Questionnaire III covering letter, reference was made to the pilot survey, additional telephone information was included, and four rather than two en- closures were mentioned (see Appendix D, p. 248). Assembly of the Questionnaire Package. Six items were assembled in a two-pocket portfolio ready for mailing to each potential judge. In one pocket were placed a folded self-addressed kraft envelope for returning the package, a copy of "Background Informa- t i o n " , a form for gathering demographic data on judges and, on top, a covering letter. In the other pocket were inserted a copy of the appendix and, on top, a main question- naire section. Selection of Judges For this part of the va l idat ion, criteria for selecting judges was first estab- lished and then procedures were followed for identifying those librarians who met the cr i ter ia . Cr i ter ia for Selecting Judges. Three general and three specific cr iteria were out- lined for selecting judges. A first general guideline provided that a l l judges should be responsible for leadership in some aspect of school library curriculum development and implementation. The three groups considered to have a definite leadership role were those employed at (1) the department of education supervisory leve l , (2) the university leve l , and (3) the school district supervisory l e ve l . These were designated as the three groups of judges for the va l idat ion. For brevity in reporting data it was decided to use "p rov inc i a l " , n o "university" and "school d istr ict " as the labels for identifying the three groups of judges. It was felt that department of education personnel would probably be responsible for directing development of curriculum, those at university level for providing instruc- tion about its development, and those in school supervision for guiding its implementation. It was also assumed that a l l three groups would be in influential positions to init iate curriculum projects and offer guidance on their development and use. When the first general guideline had been determined and weighed in regard to identifying a l l potential judges, the decision was made to limit the val idation to Canadian librarians. The adoption of this plan made it feasible in terms of avai lable resources and the time avai lable to identify most qual i f ied librarians within each cate - gory of respondent. A l so , since it was estimated that between f i f ty to one hundred qual i f ied Canadian librarians could be located, the decision raised no obstacles to the goal of establishing reasonable content va l id i ty for the skills model. The f inal general guideline was concerned with the parts of Canada to be included in the second survey. Since the pilot val idation had been done by British Columbia school librarians it was decided that the f inal val idation should involve school librarians in a l l other provinces and territories of Canada - i . e . , the provinces of A lber ta , Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontar io, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scot ia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland/Labrador, and the Yukon Territory, and the Northwest Territories. Specif ic criteria beyond the general criteria for selecting judges largely ref- lected those used in the previous validations. Desired characteristics for judges were: (1) f ive or more years experience in library work, (2) library training in the form of a school library major, B.L.S. degree, M . L.S.. degree or comparable training, (3) elementary school library experience or presently working with elementary teacher- librarians, and (4) ideal ly, elementary school teaching experience. Respondents from the university level category, as well as having the three main characteristics, were to be responsible for teaching a course about elementary school libraries, that is, a course that, in part, involved Instruction about school library curriculum development and its appl icat ion. Provincial school library super- visors, owing to the leadership role in programme development, were to be requested to participate whether or not they met the first qua l i f icat ion. Procedures Used in Selection of Judges. The specific purpose of the procedures was identif ication of Canadian librarians within each of the three proposed categories of respondents and selection of those who met the various criteria outlined for the v a l i - dation. This process took approximately two months beginning in late A p r i l , and end- ing past mid-June, 1976. Procedures mainly involved location of data sources and gathering of relevant information from these sources. The search focussed on three approaches - a hand search for print information, consultation with local librarians and contact with provincial library supervisors. First, the university library col lect ion was searched, including library school holdings, as a source of useful directories and listings of Canadian school librarians. Any information found, however, was not specific enough in terms of position, training and experience of the librarians listed to be pertinent to the projected selection of judges. 112 Consultation with several local librarians, including most of the pilot judges who were very helpful, proved to be very profitable in obtaining names and general information about the Canadian school library scene. Especially useful were three lists of personnel, one at each level - provincial, university and school district (Provincial s Supervisors, 1974; C . S . L .A . , 1975; Jenkinson, 1975). Although this information was not entirely current or complete it did provide valuable guidance for further exploring the three groups of potential judges. Based on information from the 1974 list of provincial supervisors, ^letters were written or contacts made with each person identif ied at the department of education leve l . In the letter a brief description was given of the study and the proposed val idation and the need for judges of three types was explained. O n a hand-printed enclosure, super- visors were asked to respond to four questions, three about identif ication and relevant qualif ications of school district supervisors and one about identif ication of university lecturers. O n this enclosure reference was made to the 1975 C . S . L .A . Directory for obtaining information about supervisors while for university personnel a list of i n d i v i - duals tentatively identified as having the required characteristics were given for ve r i f i - cation and possible additions.(see Appendix , pZ ) Contact other than by letter was also made with some department of education librarians. In a l l , nine letters were written, two personal contacts made at a local library conference, and nine long-distance calls completed. As a result of these various communications, responses were received from supervisors or their assistants in the nine target provinces and two territories. The information, usually a letter and list of names, was extremely useful in identifying the names for the f inal group, which included ten provincial librarians, sixteen university lecturers and f ifty-four school library supervisors. With the exception of Quebec and the Yukon Territory, representation was obtained for at least one or more of the three groups in a l l provinces outside British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Besides the three main procedures fol lowed, other personal contacts were made and letters written as a means of identifying university and school district personnel. These communications were generally more helpful in verifying than in extending infor- mation gathered from provincial librarians and local judges. Advance Letters A two-page advance letter was prepared during the period of package assembly and in i t ia l states of identifying judges. Like the covering letter, its main purpose was to invite certain school librarians to participate as independent judges in val idating the skills model. The content dealt in part with relevant information about the study, the per- ceived contribution of judges and some mechanics of responding to the questionnaire. Librarians were also informed about how judges were being selected and of the two ways in wh i ch their participation would be acknowledged. Lastly, an explanation was made about distribution procedures and the general nature of the val idation task (see Appendix D, p.p246).)» For a l l school district supervisors in Nova Scotia and some in Ontar io - the last groups of librarians to be contacted - a one-page handwritten form letter was prepared and attached to the advance letter. Apologies were made in this letter for contacting individuals so late in the school year (Nova Scot ia, June 16; Ontar io, June 19). Brief reference was made to the composition of the three groups as well as to the number of selected judges in Nova Scotia and Ontario respectively. Encourage- ment was given for each person's participation so that his/her province might be ade- quately represented in the survey. In conclusion, the researcher indicated when packages might be expected to arrive; and a range of time suggested for responses to be returned. Unl ike the pilot va l idat ion, then, in which personal contact was feasible, Questionnaire III involved preparation of an advance letter and, for about twenty librarians, inclusion of an informal supplement to that letter. Distribution of^uest iohndi re Materials Eighty sets of questionnaire materials were distributed by mail from late Apr i l through June 22, 1976. The period of distribution was governed by ava i lab i l i ty of information about qual i f ied judges. In most cases advance letters preceded the questionnaire package by from five to seven days. Towards the end of the school year in June, less time was allowed between letter and package and sometimes the period was as l i t t le as two days. However, the principle was adhered to of preparing the way for the question- naire. Distribution of fo l low-up materials is discussed in the next section and under the "analysis of data" section of this chapter. Co l lect ion of Questionnaire Responses In the covering letter librarians had been requested to return a l l materials to the researcher when their responses had been completed. Packages were to be mailed in a self-addressed envelope enclosed in the pocket portfolio. Initial Responses. The period for col lect ion of data ranged from late May into early f a l l . O r i g ina l l y , it had been estimated that most data would be returned through late May, June and Ju l y . However, it was apparent that the establishment of groups would continue into June and it was real ized that, considering year-end responsibilities and summer holidays, few questionnaires would be returned during the summer. The period for returns was, therefore, extended through August and September. General Fol low-up. About a month after distribution of the last sets of question naires, as returns began to taper off, fol low-up letters were sent. Forty letters were distributed, mostly of a form letter type. In a few instances, where correspondence had been received from a l ibrarian, a personal reply seemed to be more appropriate. The fo l low-up letter simply encouraged librarians to consider completing the questionnaire if they had not already done so. Enclosed were a stamped self-addressed envelope and a checkl ist. O n the checklist judges were first asked to check whether or not they would plan to complete the questionnaire. If the response was to be "Yes " , they were asked to decide from among f ive time options when they might respond. Options ranged from July to the "deadl ine " , September 5. A l ternat ive ly, if the response was to be " N o " , judges were asked to indicate by a check whether or not they would return unused materials. Below the four choices a note was added reminding judges to return'cthescover.ing letler.ifor^identifi'cation.puT?poses~or to otherwise identify themselv^s^see ^Rpendi^gE,/p..2BQ), ~ 280),. During late August and early September, another type of fo l low-up was sent. Extension notices, mostly on pre-stamped postcards, informed judges that a week or two more could be taken for returning material. Nineteen were sent making, in a l l , f i f ty-n ine fo l low-up forms. With the distribution of extension notices in early September, procedures to obtain val idation data were essentially complete. The only other procedures involved during the val idation period were communications with some judges about omissions of certain responses in their returns. ANALYS I S OF DATA : F INAL VAL IDAT ION , QUEST IONNAIRE III For the f inal val idation three sets of data were analyzed: (1) numbers of returns from the questionnaire survey, (2) characteristics of judges, and (3) the question naire responses on skills and subskills. In this section of the chapter the analysis is described, and the description followed by a presentation of results of each analysis. Design of the Analysis The first set of data, that is, the data on numbers of returns, was processed by hand. As the questionnaires'arrive'd^the data were ta l l i ed , including returns obtained through fol low-up letters and notices. Responses to questionnaire items were processed partly by hand and partly by computer - depending on the type of response involved. Hand processing was used mainly for subjective data and a few irregular objective items. Subjective data pro- vided by librarians in letters or response forms were organized into several categories and subcategories';. Within each category, if it was considered relevant, names of 117 judges were listed and the essence of their remarks noted. This indexing procedure provided a useful overview and means of clustering comments. The bulk of the objective data lent itself readily to computer processing. In- cluded were 8 items of background information, 110 objective items on skills and sub- skills sections, and 5 other items, mainly "addit ions". The 123 responses and ident i f i - cation data were coded and transferred to Fortran computer forms. A master form was also prepared as a reference to each item of data. UBC MVTAB (The University of British Columbia Mult ivar iate Contingency Tabulations) (1974) was the computer programme used for data analysis. The programme is one commonly employed for analyzing questionnaire data in the social sciences. As applied to Questionnaire III, the programme considered two variables at a time and constructed a bivariate frequency table for each pair of responses. The variables of groups and questionnaire items were therefore accommodated. MVTAB also counted the number of subjects who gave each response and produced tables of horizontal, vert ical and total percentages for each bivariate entry. Small bivariate tables were appropriate, that is, tables with a maximum size of 8 x 8 and in which variable values el ig ib le for tabulation were 0, 1, 7. The majority of Questionnaire III responses had been given values of either 1 or 2 for basic or non-basic while a few responses had a value of 1, 2 or 3, such as those referring to positions held by judges. Irregular responses were coded as ' 6 ' i These four values (1, 2, 3 and 6), then, were considered in the type of table selected. Analysis : Number of Returns from the Questionnaire Survey For each set of data throughout the section, results are reported by group and total percentages rounded to the nearest whole number. O n a l l tables the name of each group is abbreviated to " P " (provincial), "LJ " (university) and "SJD" (school district). The key to these symbols.is presented only on the first table. As shown in Table 5.1, three groups of data were obtained, those received (1) on original mai l ing, (2) with fo l low-up letters, and (3) with fo l low-up extensions. O f these categories the largest percentage of returns was received without fol low-up during the period of late May, 1976 until the close of the survey in mid-September, 1976. For the original mailing category Table 5.1 shows that by groups the return was 50 percent for the provincial group, 63 percent for the university group, and 43 percent for school district supervisors. In this May to September period, then, 48 percent of the judges responded by providing either a completed questionnaire or notice that they would not be participating in the survey. Fol low-up letters sent through July and August brought another 10 percent response from provincial judges, 25 percent from university judges and 24 percent from school district judges. The eighteen additional questionnaires represented 23 percent of possible returns and with returns already received totalled f i f ty-s ix question- naires or approximately a 71 percent return. Extension notices sent in late August and fearly September brought a further 33 percent response from provincial librarians and 13 percent from the school district group, giving overall about 13 percent added response. Combined with previous returns the ten additional sets brought the total to sixty-six sets of data, about 83 percent of returns possible. O f the ^ikty.-six-questionnair'e^respdnsesit92r percent,..provided data that were useable .in the; anaJysN^'^hesesuie ' i '^S' were, provided .by 81 percent of provincial Table 5.1 Number and Percent of Questionnaire Returns : Responses by Groups 0 'P ft SD Total n=10 n=16 n=54 n=80 Or ig ina l Ma i l i ng May 1 1 June 3 9 1.21 33 Ju ly 1 1 1 3 September 1 1 5(50.0) 10(62.5) 23(42.6) 38(48.0) Fol low-up Letters 1 (10o0) (July/August) 1 (10.0) 4 (25.0) 13(24.1) 18 (22.5) Fol low-up Extensions (August/September) 3(33.3) 7(13.0) 10(12.5) Total Returns U Useable and N o n - useabIe Returns 9(90.0) 14(87.5) 43(79.6) 66(82.5) Useable Returns 8 (80.0) 13 (81.3) 40 ( 74.1) 61 (76.3) Non-useable Returns 1(10.0) 1 ( 6 . 2 ) 3 ( 5 . 5 ) 5 ( 6 . 3 ) a Groups : P= provincia l , U = university, SD = school district. 120 judges, 81 percent of university judges and 74 percent of school district supervisors. The remaining 8 percent of the data was non-useable. That is, judges had indicated that they would not be completing their questionnaires. O f the f ive judges providing non-useable data one was in the provincial group, one in the un i - versity group, and three in the school district group. Four of the f ive judges explained that either travel plans or work commit- ments prevented them from participating in the survey. The f i fth judge requested more comprehensive information about the study as a prerequisite to responding. Further background on some aspects of the study was given by letter to this f ifth judge but apparently did not provide the specific background sought, and no further communi- cation was received. Seventeen percent of librarians did not respond in any way. O f the fourteen non-respondents, one person was in the provincial group, two were at university and eleven were part of the school district group. When final returns had been received and the distribution analyzed, it was concluded that response by librarians had been most satisfactory. In fact, considering potential hindrances to a successful outcome (selection and mailing delays, time of year) the response, it was fe l t , could be regarded as excel lent. Not only did 92 per- cent of the 66 respondents provide useable data, but 100 percent of the librarians contacted subsequently about minor omissions in questionnaire data responded promptly with the information requested. Analysis : Characteristics of Judges Data were col lected from judges on professional background. As shown in Table 5.2 data on background was categorized broadly as "exper ience" and " t ra in ing " . "Experience" was further categorized by "number of years service" and "type of exper ience". Experience : Number of Years' Service. Table 5.2 shows that of the eight provin c ia l supervisors providing data, 25 percent indicated they had less than f ive years experience and 75 percent indicated they had more than f ive years experience. O f the thirteen librarians in the university group, 100 percent indicated that they had more than f ive years' experience. Data provided by forty school district respondents showed that 20 percent had less than f ive years experience, 10 percent had f ive years, and 70 percent had more than f ive years experience. In tota l , the three groups ranged from 16 percent with less than f ive years service, through 7 percent with f ive years' service to 77 percent with more than five years. O f the sixty-one judges responding, then, about 84 percent (51 judges) had five or mone years library experience while only 16 percent (10 judges) indicated they had less than f ive years f experience. It seems appropriate to suggest, on the basis of these data, that the val idation of the questionnaire reflects the judgment of a w e l l - experienced group of school librarians. Experience - Type. A l l judges were asked about elementary school library exper ence. The results, as shown in Table 5.2 indicated that 38 percent of the provincial 122 Table 5.2 Judges' Characteristics : Percentages by Groups n = 61 Characteristics P n=8 U n=13 SD . n=4.0 Total Experience Number of years less than f ive 25.0 20.0 16.4 f ive 10.0 6.6 more than f ive 75.0 100.0 70.0 77.0 Type elementary school 37.5 41.7 81.6 67.2 library experience elementary school 25.0 45.5 66.7 57.0 teaching experience pre-service course, (20.0) 92.3 (12.5) 92.3 elementary 0 Training library major 50: 0 24.0 16.4 B .L .S . b 50.0; £46.cl 27.5 34.4 M . L . S . C 25.0 53.9 37.5 39.3 alternate? training 25.0 10.5 10.0 ° Required only of the university group Bachelor of Library Science c Master of Library Science 123 supervisors and 42 percent of the university librarians had such experience. O f the forty school district supervisors involved, two did not respond to this item. O f the thirty-eight who did respond, 82 percent indicated that they had such experience. In combination, 67 percent of the f i f ty-n ine responding judges answered that they had elementary school library experience. As an cadditiidn'ali? desired characteristic a l l judges were asked to indicate whether or not they had elementary school teaching experience. Table 5.2 shows that 25 percent of the provincial group had this qual i f icat ion. O f the eleven un i - versity participants responding, 46 percent had this characteristic while 67 percent of the thirtySnine school district judges had elementary school teaching experience. No response to this item was received from two university judges and one school district supervisor. O ve r a l l , 57 percent of the f i f ty-eight responding judges replied aff i rma- t ive ly to this item. For this third type of experience only individuals at university were asked to respond. These judges were to indicate whether or not they had taught a pre-service course on elementary school libraries. Although these data were not requested from other judges, their responses were noted wherever g iven. O f the thirteen university judges providing data, 92 percent checked this item. Within the other two groups, 20 percent of the provincial supervisors and 12 percent of school district personnel replied that they taught such a course. It was assumed by the researcher that percentages for these two groups might have been higher had the information been speci f ica l ly sought from them. 124 Data for one other experience qual i f icat ion was not col lected directly on the background information form. A l l judges were to be currently or recently work- ing with elementary school librarians, a characteristic considered impl ic i t in positions held within a l l groups and reflected in certain background items (such as that on a pre-service course). When a l l background data had been gathered it seemed that a l l judges except one university librarian did meet this qua l i f i cat ion. The judge in question, when contacted about this matter, confirmed the lack of such qual i f icat ion. O f the sixty-one judges, then, 100 percent of the provincial group, 92 percent of the university group and 100 percent of the school district group had had experience in working with elementary school teacher-librarians. Training. Table 5.2 shows that there were four possible categories of training - a library major, B.L.S., M . L . S . , or alternate training. A number of librarians i n - dicated that they had two library degrees or an academic degree and library training. The results presented reflect the main information needed from judges, i . e . , the highest library degree held, and the identif ication of the category into which the individual 's training best f i t ted. Table 5.2 shows that 50 percent of the eight provincial supervisors had a B.L.S. degree, 25 percent had an M . L . S . , and 25 percent had other training. O f the two librarians who indicated they had other training one had training considered comparable to a B.L.S., and had been granted permission to begin an M . L . S . prog- ramme. The other person had taken library training in the United Kingdom. 125 Data provided by the thirteen university judges showed that 46 percent had B.L.S. degrees and 54 percent had M .L . S . degrees. O f the six librarians with a B.L.S., three added that they had a master's degree in either Arts or Education. O f the seven librarians with an M . L . S . , one also indicated an advanced M . L . S . , and another an EdcD. with a minor in library science. Among school district supervisors 24 percent had a library major, 28 percent had a B.L.S. degree, 38 percent a M . L . S . , and 11 percent indicated another type of training. Where Ontario specialist certificates in school librarianship were men- tioned by judges, and no category checked, the data were added to the " l ibrary major" category. For the four respondents with alternate responses, training could be cate - gorized as " l ib rary " for two persons and "non- l ibrary " for the other two. In the library category one person had taken four school library courses, a l l that were a v a i l - able in the local area, and the other had taken library training in the United Kingdom. In the non-library category one judge had taken an audio-visual major and the other a master's degree in curriculum and instruction with a media major. For the total group, it was found, a library major, including Ontar io specialist certif icates, were held by 16 percent, a B.L.S. degree by 34 percent, an M . L . S . by 39 percent, and alternate library training by 10 percent. O f the judges with alternate training, four had background in librarianship and two were trained in audio-visual or media programmes. 126 In sum, 84 percent of the respondents had f ive or more years' experience. The criterion of experience as elementary school librarians or the alternate q u a l i f i - cation of working with elementary school librarians was met by 67 percent and 92 percent of the judges respectively. Pre-service courses on elementary schools l i b - rary programmes were taught by 92 percent of the university librarians. Library training ranging from some coursework to an advanced M . L . S . degree was held by 97 percent (59) of the judges. The most commonly reported trainr ing was in the B.L.S. and M . L . S . categories, accounting for 73 percent of the total response. Based on a l l data received it was concluded that judges met the desired characteristics to a high degree both in the experience and training categories. Analysis : Questionnaire Responses on Skil ls and Subski I Is Results of the data analysis are presented in order of questionnaire response sections, i . e . , (1) Ski l ls Cluster #1, Locating Materials in a Library (LMIL), (2) Sub- skills Cluster #1, (3) Skil ls Cluster #2, Locating Content/Data in Materials #2, and (4) Subski I Is Cluster # 2 . Data analysis for the total group, i . e . , the prov inc ia l , university and school district responses in combination, is reported in three ways: These ways are: 1. identif ication of items judged basic by the majority of judges, i . e . , more than 50 percent of a l l respondents; 2. categorization of these items as either Level One or Level TworBasic * ski I Is/subski I Is^ i . e . , items for which agreement was expressed by either 75 to 100 percent of respondents (Basic : Level One) or by 51 to 74 percent of respondents (Basic : Level Two). 3. identif ication of items judged non-basic by the majority of judges. Data analysis by-groups, i . e . , the provincial , university and school district responses considered separately, is presented mainly in terms of items judged to be non- basic by one or more groups. Titles and contents of tables are kept concise with wording abridged and abbrev- iations used for frequently repeated items. The one abridged item requiring explanation here is the term "ab i l i ty to use... " . Whenever this phrase appears in tables or text it means ab i l i ty to use in l ocat ing . . . . Brief reference is also made to subjective data obtained in the val idat ion. Section A : Skills Cluster ^1 : Locating Materials in a Library (LMIL). For the skills sections there are items on both level and locale for instruction. Leve l . As shown in Table 5.3 the f ive skills were judged basic by the majority of judges. O f these ski l ls, four were considered basic by 75 to 97 percent of the total group. They were: arrangement of the library 9 1 . 7 % arrangement of materials in the library 9 6 . 7 % card catalogue 9 0 . 2 % Dewey Decimal Classif ication , 7 5 . 0 % These ski l ls, then, would a l l be categorized as Level One - Basic Sk i l l s . The remaining component skill> t the vert ical f i l e , was judged basic by 57 . percent of the respondents and was, therefore, considered as a Level Two - Basic S k i l l . 128 Table 5.3 LMIL : Basic Level Skil ls - Percentages by Groups n = 61 Skil ls P n=88 U n=13 SD n=40 Total Arrangement of the Library (A/L) 62.5 84.6 100.0 91.7 Arrangement of Materials in the Library (AMIL) 87.5 100.0 97.4 96.7 Card Catalogue (CC) 87.5 84.6 92.5 90.2 Vert ica l Files (VF) 75.0 38.5 59.0 56.7 Dewey Decimal Classif ication (DDC) 87.5 69.2 74.4 75.0 By-groups analysis showed that the same four skills were considered to be basic by the majority of judges. The fifth s k i l l , ab i l i ty to use the vert ical f i l e , while judged basic by provincial and school district groups, received only a 39 percent agreement from the university group. For the LMIL skills cluster, then, results showed that a l l f ive skills were checked as basic by 51 percent of the total group. The by-groups analysis, however, showed that the majority of university judges regarded the vert ical f i l e as a non-basic s k i l l . Locale. Judgments about locale for instruction are shown in Table 5.4. A library 1 based (LB) locale was selected by 90 percent of a l l respondents while 8 percent checked not necessarily library-based (NNLB) and 2 percent marked both LB and N N L B . Table 5.4 LMIL : Locale for Instruction - Percentages by Groups n = 61 Cr iter ia for Locale P U ,SD Total n*=8 n=13 n=40 Library-based (LB) 87.5 84.6 92.5 90.2 Not necessarily library-based (NNLB) 12.5 7.7 7.5 8.2 Alternate Response — 7.7 — 1.6 By-groups analysis showed agreement expressed for a library-based locale (LB) by 88 percent of the provincial group, 85 percent of the university group and 93 percent of the school district group. Thirteen percent or fewer of the judges in any group considered instruction to be not necessarily library-based (NNLB ) and 8 percent of the university group regarded instruction as being leitJienfLrBcpr N N L B . sk i l l Both total and group percentages, therefore, showed clear agreement about a library locale being most appropriate for the LMIL sk i l l s . Based on their reactions to the LB column, a group of f i fty-four (90%) of the judges were to complete the LMIL subski I Is section. However, this group was made even larger by the reactions of certain judges. First, the two judges who had checked both the LB and N N L B columns were also to respond to the subski I Is section thereby increasing the group to f i f ty-s ix judges (about 92%) . Secondly, another three judges who had checked N N L B voluntari ly completed the subski I Is section bringing the total number of respondents to f i f ty-n ine judges (about 9 6 % ) . O f those 130 responding N N L B yet completing the subskills, one judge was in the provincial group and two in the school district group. Apparently, despite their N N L B responses, these individuals were interested in expressing judgments about which were the basic subskills. Two judges (about 4%)/~rhen / did not react to the LMIL ski l l s. These librarians, one in the unversity group and one in the school district group responded N N L B and, accord- ing to the directions provided, were not required to complete the subskills section. F i f ty - nine judges in a l l , then, responded to the LMIL subskills section. Section A : Subskills Cluster 1̂ : Locating Materials in a Library. For both sub- skills sections, items are concerned only with level .as being basic or non-basic. The LMIL cluster consisted of forty-f ive core subskills and thirteen supplementary subskills. categorized as appropriate under the five components skills: (1) arrangement of the .—•> library, (2) arrangement of materials in the library (by and within sections), (3) card catalogue, (4) vert ical f i l e , and (5) classification/DI D.C. Arrangement of the Library. Results of data for the one subskil l, "ab i l i ty to use a simple library floor p lan " , are shown in Table 5.5. Table 5.5 / LMIL Subskills : Arrangement of the Library - Percentages by Groups n = 59 Subskill Item P U SD Total n=8 n=12 n=39 A/L : simple library floor plan 87.5 36.4 76.9 70.7 131 This subskill was judged as basic by 71 percent of a l l respondents, that is, a Level Two - Basic Subskil l. By-groups analysis showed that 88 percent of provincial judges and 77 percent of school district judges considered the subskill to be basic, while only 36 percent of the university group so judged i t . Obviously the university group did not consider this item to be appropriately placed among most fundamental subski I Is. Ab i l i t y to use a simple library floor plan, then, was judged as a "basic-level subskill by the majority of librarians (71%) and, therefore, within the range of a second-level basic subskil l. No items were added to this category. Arrangement of Materials in the Library: In Table 5.6 are shown the data obtained for the nineteen subski I Is of this cluster, six subski I Is in the "by sections" category and thirteen in the "within sections" category. The six items concerned with Arrangement of Materials - By Sections were judged as basic by the majority of respondents, that is, picture books, easy books, f ict ion books, non-f ict ion books, reference materials, and magazines/periodicals. For the total group percentages of agreement ranged from 80 to 98 percent. A l l sub- ski l ls, therefore, met the criteria for Level One - Basic. By-groups analysis also showed agreement on these six subski I Is as being Level One - Basic with percentages of agreement ranging from 77 percent for the university group to 87 percent for the provincial group. O f the thirteen subski I Is under Arrangement of Materials - Within Sections, it is shown that twelve items were judged basic by the majority of librarians. Eight of these items, so judged by 77 to 97 percent of the librarians, met the criteria for Level One - Basic subski I Is. These were: 132 Table 5.6 LMIL Subskills : Arrangement of Materials in the Library - Percentages by Groups n = 59 Subskill Item P n=8 U n=12 SD n=39 Total By Sections Picture books 87.5 91.7/ 94.9 93.2 Easy books 87.5 100.0 94.9 94.9 Fiction books 87.5 91.7 87.4 94.9 Non- f i c t ion books 100.0 91.7 100.0 98.3 Reference /materials 87.5 91.7 89.7 89.8 Magazines/periodicals 87.5 76.9 83.3 79.7 Within Sections Books F ict ion, alphabetical by author 100.0 83.3 94.9 93.2 Non- f i c t i on by subject (D .D .C . ) 100.0 83.3 87.1 88.1 Biography by 921 87.5 45.5 69.2 67.2 alphabetical by biographee 87.5 50.0 64.1 64.4 Ca l l number (recognition) 100.0 91.7 82.0 86.4 Parts of ca l l number: Letter identifiers E (content) 62.5 75.0 81.1 77.2 R (purpose) 62.5 50.0 75.7 68.4 Author's surname ( init ia l ) 100.0 58.3 82.0 79.3 Number identifiers Author's surname (number) 50.0 25.0 44.7 41.1 Shelf labels 100.0 91.7 94.6 94.6 For section identif ication 100.0 91.7 97.4 96.6 For shelf identif ication 100.0 75.0 81.6 82.5 Magazines A lphabet ica l , by t i t le 75.0 63.0 59.0 62.1 the) an, 133 Books: f i c t i on , alphabetical by author 9 3 % 8 8 % 8 6 % non-fiction by subject - D.D.C. ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) E - content 7 7 % 7 9 % 9 5 % 9 7 % 8 3 % author's surname - in i t ia l shelf labels for section identif ication for shelf identif ication For four of the twelve subskills agreement was expressed by 62 to 68 percent of the respondents placing them within the category of Level Two - Basic subskills. One s k i l l , "author's surname (number)" was considered basic by only 41 percent of the total group. Analysis by-groups showed that three other subskills were checked by less than 51%percent of the university librarians, placing these items in a non-basic category in the opinion of this group. These items were: Books: biography by 921 alphabetical by biographee (letters identifiers - ca l l no.) R - purpose 6 8 % 6 7 % 6 4 % Magazines: alphabetical by t i t le 6 2 % biography by 921 alphabetical by biographee (letter identifiers) R - purpose 4 6 % 5 0 % 5 0 % Viewed in combination, the results of data analysis for Arrangement of Materials - By and Within Sections showed that the majority of judges expressed 134 agreement about eighteen of the nineteen subskills being basic, a l l six items under "by sections" and twelve "within sections" items. The one subskill designated as non-basic was the author's surname - number as part of the ca l l number. Card Catalogue. In Table 5.7 results are shown for the twenty card catalogue subskills. A l l items were judged basic by 51 percent or more of the total group. O f the twenty subskills listed, fourteen were checked as basic by 78 to 98 percent of the judges, that is, within the Level One - Basic category. These subskills were: outside labels 9 8 % guide cards 8 3 % author card 8 3 % author - top line 8 1 % surname first 8 3 % t i t le of book 9 1 % ca l l number - recognition 9 5 % t i t le card 8 6 % t it le on first line 8 6 % subject card 9 1 % subject on first line 8 6 % heading capita l ized 7 8 % ( f i l ing rules) alphabetical order 8 8 % ' an 1 , ' a ' , ' the ' rule 8 5 % The remaining six subskills were judged basic by 55 to 66 percent of respondents or as items belonging in the Level Two - Basic category. These were: date of publication : non-f ict ion 5 5 % cross reference cards - recognition 6 1 % 'see' 6 0 % f i l i ng rules 6 6 % numbers as if spelled out 5 6 % abbreviations as if spelled out 5 6 % 135 Table 5.7 LMIL Subski I Is : Card Catalogue - Percentages by Groups n=59 Subskill Items n=8 n=12 n=39 outside labels 100.0 91.7 100.0 98.3 guide cards (inside trays) 87.5 58.3 89.7 83.1 author cards 87.5 90.9 79.5 82.8 author--ctop line 87.5 82. or. 75.0 81.4 surname first 100.0 66.7 84.2 82.8 t i t le of book 100.0 91.7 89.5 91.4 date of publication non-f ict ion 75.0 27.3 59.0 55.2 ca l l number (recognition) 100.0 100.0 92.3 94.9 t i t le card 87.5 83.3 87.2 86.4 t i t le on first line 87.5 66.7 92.1 86.2 subject card 87.5 100.0 89.5 91.4 subject on first line 87.5 75.0 89.7 86.4 heading capita l ized 87.5 58.3 81.6 77.6 cross reference cards (recognition) 62.5 50.0 64.1 61.0 "see" 62.5 50.0 62.2 59.7 f i l i ng rules 75.0 60.5 80.0 66.1 alphabetical order 87.5 91.7 87.2 88.1 numbers as if spelled out 62.5 50.0 56.4 56.0 abbreviations as if spelled out 62.5 50.0 56.4 56.0 ' an ' , ' a ' , ' the ' in titles disregarded (at beginning of t it le) 85.7 83.3 84.7 84.5 136 Analysis by-groups showed that provincial and school district groups would consider a l l items basic while the university group checked f ive items as non-basic, one item as definitely non-basic and four items as marginally non-basic. These were: Results of data analysis for 51 percent or more of the total group, then, showed that the twenty subskills of the card catalogue cluster were judged as being basic items in the skills model. Vert ica l F i l e . EefrJtlfoe went i ca It f i l e it was or ig inal ly intended that results would be reported for four rather than f ive subskills. However, many judges responded to both parts of what was intended as an either/or item, that is, item 43 - alphabetical by subject headings or by D.D.C. Since the additional data obtained was considered to be useful the decision was made to regard the D.D.C. item as a forty-sixth subskill in the model. O f the f ive items listed in Table 5.8 a l l were judged basic by the total group. Items fa l l ing within the Level One - Basic range were "drawer l labels" (90%), "envelope/ folder labels" (88%) , and "alphabetical by subject headings" (85%) . Those fa l l ing w i th - in the Level Two - Basic range were arrangement "by D.D.C. " (54%) and D.D.C. by "main divisions on ly " (69%) . Analysis by-groups showed that a l l items were judged basic by the provincial and school district groups. The last two items, however, were considered non-basic by university judges.^Tjhiintynthree' percent agreement was expressed by these judges about the D.D.C. item and 36 percent about the main divisions only item. non-f ict ion - date of publication cross-reference card - recognition 2 7 % 5 0 % 5 0 % ( f i l ing rules) numbers as if spelled out abbreviations as spelled out 5 0 % 5 0 % O v e r a l l , percentage response by the total group placed the f ive subski I Is into the basic skills category, i . e . , Level One and Two - Basic combined. Table 5.8 . LMIL Subski I Is : Vert ica l Fi le and Dewey Decimal Classif ication - Percentages by Groups n = 59 Subskill Items P >n=8 U n=12 ' S D n=39 Total Ver t i ca l F i le drawer labels 100.0 83.3 89.7 89.8 envelope/folder labels 100.0 91.7 84.6 88.1 alphabetical by subject headings 100.0 91.7 79.0 84.5 or by D.D.C. 66.7 33.3 56.0 54.1 main divisions only 83.3 36.4 76.5 68.6 Dewey Decimal Classif ication the fen general divisions of the D.D.C. 100.0 54.6 82.1 79.3 Classif ication by Subject/D.D.C. Table 5.8 shows that 79 percent of the res- pondents considered the one item "ten general d iv i s ions . . . " as basic and, therefore, among the Level One - Basic subski I Is. By groups analysis indicated that the majority of judges would assign the item . to a basic skills model with agreement ranging from 100 percent of the provincial judges, 82 percent of the school district group to 55 percent of the university group. That is, in the judgment of the provincial and school district groups, the item would be at Level One , while the university group's judgments would place the item within Level Two - . • ><'••• Vho ' Basic subskills. Checklist of Supplementary Subskills. Results of the supplementary skills check- list are shown in Table 5.9. It is shown that only three of the thirteen subskills were judged as basic by the total group. These were "non-f ict ion, alphabetical by author" (57%), "subject identifiers, D. D .C . " (53%), and "the ab i l i ty to use classification by particular categories such as fairy tales, biography etc. " (59%) . These items would, therefore, be considered as Level Two - Basic subskills. Analysis by-groups showed that the university group regarded a l l supplementary items as non-basic. Provincial judges indicated that a l l other items were non-basic with three exceptions, a l l within the card catalogue cluster. These were: subject identifiers - D.D.C. (ca l l no.) 6 3 % word-by-word arrangement ( f i l ing rules) 6 3 % 'Mac/Mc'.r.ule 6 3 % The provincial group would, therefore, reassign f ive supplementary subskills to the model a l l within the Level Two - Basic category. The school district group judged a l l other items as non-basic with the fol lowing f ive exceptions: letter identifiers (AM/L) 5 1 % letter identifiers (CC) 5 9 % number identifiers 5 1 % cross-reference cards - "see a l so" 5 1 % »a*ne subdivli'.;---. ... socsc! ' L : " ' D . . D - C ) 5i% some subdivisions.. .social studies (D .D .C . ) 5 4 % 139 Table 5.9 LMIL Subski I Is : Supplementary Checklist - Percentages by Groups n = 59 P U SD Total n=8 n=12 n=39 A R R A N G E M E N T O F MATERIALS IN A LIBRARY within sections : books non-f ict ion, alphabetical by author 87.5 33.3 59.0 57.0 letter identifiers - PB 50.0 16.7 51.3 44.1 CARD C A T A L O G U E date of publication - f ict ion 25.0 8.3 33.3 27.1 ca l l number - parts subject identifiers (D .D .C . ) 62.5 8.3 '64.1 52.5 letter identifiers - R, E etc. 37.5 25.1 59.1 49.6 number identifiers author's surname/number 25.0 25.0 51.3 42.4 cross-reference cards - "see also" .50.0 25.0 51.3 45.8 f i l ing rules word-by-word arrangement 62.5 33.3 51.3 49.6 Mac/Mc as if spelled ' M a c ' 62.5 25.0) 48.7 45.8 books by an author before books about an author 37.5 — 25.6 22.0 CLASS IF ICATION BY SUBJECT (D .D.C . ) some subdivisions in relation to a subject area, say social studies 25.0 8.3 53.8 40.7 to. first decimal 37.5 — 35.9 28.8 ab i l i ty to use classification by part i - cular categories such as fairy tales, biography, etc. 50.0 25.0 74.3 61.0 140 While some of these items are barely within the Level Two - Basic cr i ter ia, the results do, however, show that at least a small majority of the school district group would reassign eight supplementary subski I Is to the model. Apparently the provincial and school district groups were more inclusive in their al location of basic subski I Is than the university group. O f the thirteen subski I Is, then, results for the total group show that three subski I Is were judged as basic, a l l within the range of Level Two - Basic. These were: non-f ict ion, alphabetical by author (AM/L) 5 8 % subject identifiers (D .D.C. ) (CC) 5 3 % ab i l i ty to use c las s i f i cat ion. . . (D .D .C . ) 61% Based on these data, the three subski I Is were returned to the skil ls model. Ski l ls Cluster #2, Locating Content/Data in Materials: Books : Standard F ict ion/Non-F ict ion Data are presented first by leve l , then by locale for instruction. One provincial judge omitted responses under both categories. Leve l . Table 5.10 shows that the majority of the sixty judges checked the two component sk i l l s , "format" and "bibliographic da ta " , as basic. However, format was so designated by 88 percent of the judges (Level One - Basic) while bibliographic data received a 60 percent positive response (Level Two —-Basic). 141 Table 5.10 LCIM : Basic Level Skills - Percentages by Groups n=61 Sk i l l Items P U SD Total n=8 n=13 n=40 Format 100.0 76.9 89.7 ~ 88.3 Bibliographic Data 62.5 46.2 64.1 60.0 Considered by-groups, both items were judged ibasic by provincial and school district groups. However, only 46 percent of the university librarians checked b i b l i o - graphic data as basic, therefore placing it with a non-basic level of subskills. No additions were suggested for this skills cluster. Locale. As shown on Table 5.11, "Locating Content/Data in Books" was con - sidered to be basic by only 17 percent of the sixty respondents, and not necessarily l ibrary- based by 80 percent. Three percent of the judges checked both LB and N N L B . Table 5.11 LC IM : Locale for Instruction - Percentages by Groups n=60 Cr iter ia for Locale P U SS'D Total n=77 n=l 3 nri^tO Library-based (LB) 14.3 7.7 20.0 16.7 Not necessarily l ibrary- 92,3- based (NNLB) 85.7 92.3 75.0 80.0 Alternate response — — 5.0 3.3 142 Analysis by-groups showed thai- a majority of librarians in each group judged the locale to be not necessarily library-based with agreement ranging from 92 percent for the university group, 86 percent for the provincial group, to 75 percent for the school district group. Based on judges' responses to the locale for book locational sk i l l s , it was decided that book skills and subskills should be eliminated from the model. The subskills appendix was completed by only a small percentage of judges and the results are not reported. ln addition to the objective data, a considerable amount of subjective data were received in the form of letters or notations on the response forms. These data can be largely categorized under comments about (1) the study, (2) the questionnaire, and (3) library i n - struction. Comments on response forms were directed mainly to specific items, including suggestions for additions. Some reference was also made to definitions or directions. The main concern of the researcher in examining data was to identify possible appropriate additional ski l l s. Any such items recommended by the majority of judges might have had direct bearing for the f inal model. However, after the data had been categorized and studied it was concluded that no additions should be made, since items were usually sug- gested by one or two librarians and often had been covered in another part of the study. For example, under the LMIL skills cluster, one librarian suggested as an addition "a lphabet izat ion" , an item considered for the tentative model, but not included. Summary : The Final Model The majority of the total group of judges ( 5 1 % or more) designated Skil ls Cluster ft], "Locating Materials in a L ibrary", as being library-based and its f ive 143 component skills as being basic. Whi le the majority of judges agreed that the two component skills of Cluster #1, "Locating Content/Data i n . . .Books", were basic they did not consider this cluster to be library-based. In responding to the 46 core subski I Is and 13 supplementary subski I Is of Cluster #1 (LMIL) 51 percent or more judges classified subski I Is items as follows: LMIL Skil ls Core Subski I Is Basic Non-Basic Arrangement of the Library 1 Arrangement of Materials in the Library By sections 6 Within sections 12 1 Card Catalogue 20 Vert ica l F i le 5 Classif ication by Subject/D.D.C. 1 45 T (46) Supplementary Subski I Is _3 M (13) 48 11 (59) As shown in Figure 5.1, the f inal model consisted of 5 LMIL basic skills and 48 subski I Is under the skills cluster "Locating Materials in a L ibrary" . By-groups data analysis showed that 51 percent or more of each group agreed upon the fol lowing numbers of skills and subski I Is as being basic. Group LMIL M i s Subski I Is Provincial 5 45 School District 5 44 University 4 37 144 Figure 5.1 Model of Basic Library Locational Skills and Subski I Is Obtained in the Final Va l idat ion, Levels One and Two : Agreement shown by 51 to 100 Percent of the Total Group A R R A N G E M E N T O F THE LIBRARY simple library floor plan A R R A N G E M E N T OF MATERIALS IN THE LIBRARY By Sections picture books easy books f ictjon books non-f ict ion books reference books magazines/periodicals Within Sections: Books: f i c t i on , alphabetical by author non-f ict ion by subject - D.D.C. non-f ict ion, alphabetical by author Biography by 921 alphabetical by biographee ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) E - content R - purpose author's surname - in i t ia l shelf labels for section identif ication for shelf identif ication iv/ Magazines: - ' 0ng[pjnab^ti£a iVbfet'i 11 e CARD C A T A L O G U E outside labels guide cards author card author - top line surname first t i t le of book date of publication - non-f ict ion ca l l number (recognition) subject identifiers - D.D.C. t i t le card t i t le on first line subject card subject on first line heading capita l ized cross-reference cards "see" f i l i ng rules alphabetical order numbers as if spelled out abbreviations as i f spelled out ' an ' ' a ' ' the ' rule VERTICAL FILE drawer labels envelope holder labels alphabetical by subject headings by D.D.C. main divisions only CLASS IF ICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. ten general divisions ab i l i ty to use some classifications by particular categories... . 145 Apparently the university group was the most stringent about placement of items into a basic or first level skills model. The data were also analyzed to determine which were the Level One - Basic skills/subskills, that is, those items judged basic by 75 to 100 percent of the judges. As shown in Figure 5.2 this Level One model consists of 4 skills and 32 subskills. The ve r t i - cal f i l e (shown in parentheses)) was excluded from this form of the model since it received only 57 percent agreement by the total group as being a basic s k i l l . On the skillseharit?,lastenisks indicate the skills and subskills for which agreement was expressed by 75 to 100 percent of each group as well as the total group. Figure 5.2 shows that there are 2 component LMIL skills and 25 subskills. This set of skills/subskills would, then, be considered the most fundamental items of the final model. A comparison was made of the models obtained through the pilot and the final validations. The basic model derived from judgments by 60 percent of the pilot judges (Figure 4 .7 , p.97) and by 51 percent or more of the f inal judges (Figure 5.1) differed only by 3 subskills. The revised model consisted of 5 LMIL skills and 45 subskills while the f inal model consisted of 5 LMIL skills and 48 subskills. The 3 additional subskills in the f inal val idation were items on the supplementary checklist judged as basic and re - assigned to the model, spec i f ica l ly non-f ict ion a l phabe t i c a l . . . , subject identifiers, D . D . C , and some divisions, . . . D . D . C . The model derived from judgments by 80 or 100 percent of the pilot judges and by 74 to 100 percent of the f inal judges (Level One - Basic) differed by one component sk i l l and by several subskills. The revised (spilot) model was comprised of 5 LMIL skills (AL, A/ML, C C , VF and the D.D.C.) and 31 subskills while the final model was comp- rised of 4 LMIL skills (AL, A/ML , CC and the D.D.C.) and 32 subskills. The two Figure 5.2 Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subski lis Obtained in the Final Va l idat ion, Level One*: Agreement Shown by 75 to 100 Percent -.1 Ai; of The (Total,Group A R R A N G E M E N T OF THE LIBRARY * A R R A N G E M E N T OF MATERIALS IN THE LIBRARY By Sections * picture books * easy books * f ict ion books * non-f ict ion books * reference books * magazines/periodicals Within Sections: Books: * f i c t i on , alphabetical by author * non-f ict ion by subject - D.D.C. * ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) E - content author's surname - in i t ia l * shelf labels * for section identif ication * for shelf identif ication *CARD C A T A L O G U E * outside labels guide cards *author cards * author - top line surname first * t i t le of book * ca l l number - recognition * t i t l e card t i t le on first l ine *subject card * subject on first line heading capita l ized (f i l ing rules) * alphabetical order * ' an ' ' a ' ' the ' rule (VERTICAL FILE) * drawer labels * envelope/folder labels * alphabetical by subject headings CLASS IF ICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. ten general divisions McMgjggzjnes: *items considered basic by 75 to 100 percent of each of the three groups (Level One) Level One - Basic models shared 4 component skills and 25 subskills in common. Summary: In this part of the chapter the analysis of data was presented for number of returns and responses to the questionnaire items. O f the questionnaires returned 92 percent provided useable data and 8 percent provided non-useable data. Background information included data about judges' education and experience. Judges were apparently we'll qual i f ied in terms of training and experience. Responses to the questionnaireshowed that essentially few changes were made in the model obtained through the pilot va l idat ion. In its f inal form, the model as judged by the majority of judges (51 percent or more) consisted of 5 LMIL skills and 48 subskills. The model as judged by the larger majority of judges (74 to 100 percent) consisted of 4 skil ls and 32 subskills. It was concluded that a va l id model of basic library locational skills had been ident i f ied. 148 Chapter 6 SUMMARY A N D C O N C L U S I O N S The purpose of the study was the development and pilot val idation of a model of basic library locational skills for print sources. This chapter includes (1) a summary of findings, (2) the conclusions reached, (3) a statement of suggested implications, and (4) recommendations for further studies. 5USUM'MAW©"F F IND INGS The study involved three validations: a quality of the search val idat ion; a pilot val idation of the model by f ive British Columbia .'school library educators; and Canada- wide val idation by sixty-one Canadian school library educators. Findings : Qua l i t y of the Search Va l idat ion, Questionnaire I In a val idation of the quality of the search for school library literature, the qual ity was judged to be satisfactory. That is, the f ive librarian judges considered the sources appropriate and the search comprehensive enough to provide a va l id information base for developing the proposed skills model. Findings : Pilot Val idat ion of the Skil ls Mode l , Questionnaire II A tentative skills model was submitted to f ive local school librarians for their reactions. It consisted of two major skills clusters: (1) Locating Materials in the Library (LMIL) and (2) Locating Content/Data in Materials (LCIM). The first skil ls cluster (LMIL) included 5 skills and 58 subskills. The second skills cluster (LCIM) included 149 2 ski l ls and 24 subskills. Judges were asked to rate the content of the model as Basic or Non-Bas ic and Library Based or No t Necessari ly Library Based according to definit ions provided for these terms. As shown in Figure 6.1 the fcrm of the skil ls model agreed upon by 3 out of 5 (60 percent) of the judges consisted of one major skills cluster "Locct ing Materials in the L ibrary " (LMIL), its 5 component skills and 45 subskills. Figure 6.1 also shows that 4 or 5 (80 or 100 percent) of the judges expressed agreement about the f i ve component LMIL skills and 31 of the subskills as being bas ic. It was concluded that data from the f ina l val idat ion should be analyzed to make it possible to present the skills and subskills in terms of a Level One - Basic and Level Two - Basic cr i ter ion. Level One - Basic skil ls were to be those skills regarded by 75 to 100 percent of the judges as basic. Level Two •- Basic skills were to be those skil ls regarded by only 51 to 74 percent of the judges as basic. A l l respondents in the pilot val idat ion agreed that the second major ski l ls cluster, "Locat ing Content/Data in Materials : Books - Standard F i c t i o n/Non - F i c t i o n " (LC IM) should not be considered to be l ibrary-based. That is, they felt this cluster was not appropriate for inclusion in a basic l ibrary locational ski l ls model. The revised form of the model obtained in the pilot va l idat ion v/as then prepared for the f inal va l idat ion and another questionnaire package constructed. Response forms were almost the same in content and organization as those in Questionnaire II with some adjustments made according to results of objective and subjective data from the pi lot va l ida t ion . Basical ly, definitions were adjusted and others added, the LC IM subskilis section that had been el iminated from the model was included as an appendix, and a l l subskills were assigned numbers for more convenient reference and ident i f i cat ion. 150 Figure 6.1 Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and Subski I Is Obtained in the Pilot Val idat ion : Agreement Shown by 60 Percent and 80 Percent of the Five Judges ARRANGEMENT OF THE LIBRARY simple, library floor plan A R R A N G E M E N T O F MATERIALS IN THE LIBRARY By Sections picture books easy books f ict ion books non-f ict ion books reference books magazines/ periodicals Within Sections: Books: f i c t i on , alphabetical by author non-f ict ion by subject - D.D.C. biography by 921 alphabetical by biographee ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca:l II number) (letter identifiers) E - content R - purpose author's surname - in i t ia l shelf labels for section identif ication for shelf identif ication lazines: alphabetical by t i t le *CARD C A T A L O G U E *outside labels *guide cards *author cards * author - top line * surname first t i t le of book * date of publication - non-fiction ca l l number - (recognition) * t i t l e card * t i t le on first line *subject card subject on first l ine heading capita l ized *cross-reference cards * " see" * f i l i n g rules * alphabetical order numbers as if spelled out abbreviations as i f spelled out ' an ' ' a ' ' the ' rule *VERTICAL FILE * drawer labels * envelope/folder labels alphabetical by subject headings by D.D.C. * main divisions only C L A S S I F I C A T I O N BY SUBJECT/D.D.C, * ten general divisions *iterns judged basic by four judges (80 percent) 151 Findings : Final Va l idat ion, Questionnaire III For the f inal val idation the revised skills model was submitted to three groups of Canadian school librarians (provincia l , university and school district groups), eighty judges in a l l . This version of the model included the skills cluster "Locating Materials in the Library" (LMIL) and its accompanying 5 skills and 45 subskills, and the skills cluster, "Locating Content/Data in Mater ia l s " (LCIM) with its accompanying 2 skills and 24 sub- ski l ls. Judges were again asked to react to the content of the model as being Basic/Non- Basic and Library-Based/Not Necessarily Library-Based. As shown in Figure 6.2 the f inal form of the skills model agreed upon by 51 per- cent or more of the sixty-one judges completing the questionnaire consisted of one major skills cluster "Locating Mater ia l in the Library" (LMIL), its 5 component skil ls and 48 subskills. Three of the subskills from the supplementary checklist hdd been reassigned to the model by these judges. The items shown comprise both Level One and Level Two - Basic skills and subskills or those considered to be basic by 51 to 100 percent of the judges. Figure 6.2 also shows that 75 to 100 percent of the judges expressed agreement about the 4 component LMIL skil ls and 32 of the subskills as being basic. The vert ical f i l e was the component sk i l l eliminated from the f inal model. The items shown comprise only Level One - Basic skills and subskills or those considered to be the most fundamental learnings by the larger! majority of judges. The majority of judges in the f inal val idation agreed that the second major skills cluster, "Locating Content/Data in Materials : Books - Standard F i c t ion/Non-F i c t ion " (LCIM) should not be regarded as library-based. This set of skills was rejected as not necessarily library-based as it had been in the pilot va l idat ion. Figure 6.2 Model of Basic Library Locational Skil ls and SubskiEIs Obtained in the Final Va l idat ion, Levels O n e * and Two - Basic Items : Agreement Shown by 51 to 100 Percent of the Total Group A R R A N G E M E N T OF THE LIBRARY simple library floor plan ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIALS IN THE LIBRARY By Sections picture books easy books f ict ion books non-f ict ion books reference books magazines/periodicals Within Sections: Books: f i c t i on , alphabetical by author non-f ict ion, alphabetical by author non-f ict ion by subject - D.D.C. biography by 921 alphabetical by biographee ca l l number - recognition (parts of ca l l number) (letter identifiers) E - content R - purpose author's surname — in i t ia l shelf labels for section identif ication for shelf identif ication Magazines: alphabetical by t i t le *CARD C A T A L O G U E *outside labels *guide cards *author cards * author - top l ine * surname first * t i t le of book date of publication - non-fiction * ca l l number (recognition) subject identifiers - D.D.C. * t i t l e card * t i t le on first l ine *subject card * subject on first line * heading capita l ized cross reference cards "see" * f i l i n g rules *<.:/ alphabetical order numbers as if spelled out abbreviations as if spelled out ' an ' ' a ' ' the ' rule VERTICAL FILE *drawer labels *envelope/folder labels *alphabetical by subject headings by D.D.C. main divisions only CLASS IF ICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. * ten general divisions some subdivisions in relation to a subject area, say social studies Level One - Basic : 75 to 100 percent agreement 153 C O N C L U S I O N S Conclusions were drawn within the limitations of the study about both the product obtained and the processes followed in obtaining that product. The Product There were two major conclusions drawn about the product attained. 1. The model in its f inal form can be considered a va l id model of basic library J locational skills for print sources as they are perceived by groups of Canadian school library education specialists in provincial , university and school district supervisory positions. 2. The data obtained in the f inal val idation show that there is a difference in the reactions of school library specialists to the teaching of library skills according, to the role of the specialist. If the model were differentiated in terms of occupation of library educators the model produced by university library educators would differ somewhat from the model accepted by the majority of judges in the study. The university teacher of school library edu- cation appears to choose fewer skills and subskills to be taught at beginning levels (in this case 4 LMIL skills and 37 subskills) than does the provincial library supervisor (in this case 5 skills <and 45 subskills) or the school district library supervisor (in this case 5 skills and 44 subskills). The reasons for this difference are not clear in either literature examined for the study or subject- ive data provided by respondents. The Processes A number of conclusions were also drawn about processes used in the study. 1. G i ven the "state of the art " in library, reading and social studies education the processes followed in developing and val idat ing the skills model were considered to be appropriate. 2. The qual i fy of the search val idation was both necessary and productive. There seems to have been a tendency in educational circles to take on faith the source from which taxonomic skills models are developed. With recent new emphasis on objective-based instruction and measurement, the qual ity of the sources for models becomes c r i t i c a l . 3. The pilot val idation supplied important information and yielded clear benefits that improved the qual ity of the final va l idat ion. 4 . The final val idation could have suffered from lack of information about potential judges, since printed sources of such information are lacking in Canada. The information communication systems that were made avai lable generously through personal contacts with interested school library educators throughout the country and energetic fo l low-up procedures made it possible to bring the final val idation to a successful conclusion. IMPLICATIONS There are certain implications of the study for classroom teachers and for writers of both theoretical literature and practical guidance on school library skills instruction. 155 1. Since librarians classified skills of locating content in books as not necessarily library-based, classroom teachers should not assume that librarians w i l l take ful l responsibility for the teaching of the skills of locating information in books. This set of skills may be taught as a library sk i l l for standard materials found in libraries but should be also taught as part of a classroom programme. 2. The existing library literature may be more all-encompassing than it ought to be. It is c lear, for example, that many subskills included in library skills lists are, in fact, rejected by school library specialists as being speci f ica l ly library ski l ls. 3. The dysjuncture evident between the model developed and the content of the library literature suggests the need for more exp l ic i t models of library processes as a basis for curriculum building in that instructional area. 4. Inconsistencies found within and across literature sources suggest that any proposed skills programme should be accompanied by a clear rationale for the selected skills content, and its organization, with a theoretical over- view showing parts of the programme, the relationship among those parts, and definitions of terms. Essentially, library literature would profit from the injection of the curriculum literature and the literature related to objectives-based instruction. 5. Library skills models seem to be required in which learnings are not speci f ica l ly assigned to grades but instead are arranged by levels of increasing d i f f icu l ty. Such models would be useful in accommodating students at a l l ages whatever their individual level of skills mastery. 156 RECOMMENDAT IONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES There are a number of recommendations that are suggested by the study. 1. The model produced in this study should be val idated in the United States using comparable position groups so that comparisons can be made between the results obtained. 2. The process of producing the remaining necessary models of the subprocesses of the research and reporting process should be undertaken, with at least three models produced beyond the locating task, that is, models of co l lect ing , synthesis and reporting tasks. 3. An attempt should be made to adapt the model produced in this study for spec i - f ic application to the subject areas of social studies, science or mathematics. 4 . A parallel model of basic library locational skills for audio-visual sources should be produced and val idated. 5. For the locating task itself, a number of models should be produced including those at intermediate and advanced levels. 6. The model as produced should be used as an information base for the production of tests and instructional materials, and their experimental evaluation. 7. The work begun on the book locational skills should be extended to produce val idated models of basic and higher levels of d i f f icu l ty. 8. A study should be done to explore the differences between the responses of school librarians and university teachers of school librarians to the content of the model. The differences seem to be marked and seem to warrant further investigation. 157 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Alberta Department of Education. Reading Subcommittee. A Reading Handbook. Edmonton, A lberta, 1968. American Association of School Librarians. Knapp School Libraries Project. Realization : The Final Report of the Knapp School Libraries Project. Peggy Su l l i van, ed. Chicago : American Library Association, 1968. . Standards for School Libraries Programs. Chicago : American Library Association, 1960. A r t ley , A . Sterl, "Effective Study - Its Nature and Nurture" . In: J . A l l e n Figurel, (ed.) Forging Ahead in Reading. 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Improving the Teaching of Reading. 2d. ed. Englewood Cl i f f s , New Jersey : Prent ice-Hal l , 1970. Delaware C i t y Schools. Scope and Sequence for Social Studies, Grades 1-8. , Delaware, Oh io , October, 1971. Ebel, Robert L. "Obtain ing and Reporting Evidence on Content V a l i d i t y " , Educational and Psychological Measurement XVI :(Autumn,( W56%, 269-82. Educational Reference Publishers Association. The Encyclopedia : Key to Effective Teaching and Learning. Toronto, Ontar io, |196-^j. Eikenberry, A l i c e and Ruth Ellsworth. "Organiz ing and Evaluating Information" In: Helen Mr."iGanpenter (ed.). Sk i l l Development in Social Studies. Thirty-Third Yearbook of the Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies. Washington, D . C : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1963, pp. 74-93. The Encyclopedia : A Resource for Creative Teaching and Independent Learning. Chicago Field Enterprises Educational Corporation, 1968. Estvan, Frank J . Social Studies in a Changing World : Curriculum and Instruction. New York : Harcourt, Brace and World, 1968. Chapter td> "Developing Inquiry Sk i l l s " , pp. 333-368. 160 Fargo, L i l l i a n . The Library in the School. 4th ed. rev. Chicago : American Library Association, 1947. Gates, Arthur I., "Developing Higher Levels of Reading Competence". In : Wi l l iam S. Gray and Nancy Larrick (eds.) Better Readers for Our Times. Proceedings of the International Reading Association, V o l . I. New York : Scholastic Magazines, pp. 95-98. Gates, Jean K. Introduction to Librarianship. New York : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1968. ch . 16 : pp. 210-260. Gatner, Elliott S., and Francesco Cordasco. Research and Report Writ ing. New York : Barnes & Nob le , 1961. G logau, L i l l i an and Mir iam Krause. Developing a Successful Elementary School Media Center. West Nyack, N . Y . : Parker Publications, 1972. Gouvernement de Quebec. Ministere d I 'Education. "Commissions Scolaires Regionales et Coordonnateurs". Quebec, Quebec. November, 1974. (Mimeographed). Grand Rapids Public Schools. Instructional Divis ion, Reading Department. Reading Per- formance Object ives, Kindergarten - Grade 8. (rev. ed.) Grand Rapids, M ich igan; C 1974. Hagen, Owen A . , and Steve T. Stansberry, "Why Inquiry? " In: Huber M . Walsh. (ed.). An Anthology of Readings In Elementary Social Studies. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1971. pp. 24-31. Hanna, Lavone A . , Gladys L. Potter, and Robert W. Reynolds. Dynamic Elementary Social Studies : Unit Teaching. 3d. ed. New5York : Holt, Rhinehart& Winston, 1973. Hanover, New Hampshire. Regional Center for Educational Training. Elementary Social Studies. Course Out l ine and Rationale. Hanover, 1970. Heilman, Arthur W. Principles and Practices of Teaching Reading. 3d. ed. Columbus, Oh io : C M e r r i l l , 1972. Herber, Harold L. comp. ed. Developing Study Skil ls in Secondary Schools. Newark, Delaware : International Reading Association, 1965. (Perspectives in Redding N o . 4). Hook, Lucy I e and Mary V . Gaver . Research Paper : Gathering Library Mate r i a l , O rgan i z - ing and Preparing the Manuscript. 4th ed. Englewood Cl i f f s , New Jersey : Prentice- H a l l . 1969. Idaho State Department of Education, Division of Instruction. Reading Program for Idaho Elementary Schools, Grades 1-6. Prepared by Ruth A . Marks. Boise, Idaho, September, 1965. 161 . Division of Instructional Improvement. Social Studies Program for Idaho / Public Schools, Grades K-T2. (rev. ed.) Boise, Idaho, 1974. '' . Division of Instructional Services. Managing Learning Resources in Elementary and Secondary Schools. Prepared by Rudy H. Liveritte. Boise, Idaho, 1969. Il l inois State Department of Education. O f f i c e of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Ill inois Curriculum Program. Teaching the Social Studies in Grades K -N i r i e . Springfield, I l l inois, 1962. Indiana Department of Public Instruction. Division of Reading Effectiveness. Reading Effectiveness Program : Elementary School Gu ide , Indianopolis, Indiana, 1974. lowa.^iS-tateTofr.Io.Wa?: Department of Public Instruction. Smith, Lloyd L., and Joan E. Schreiber. Social Studies K-6 : A Gu ide for Curriculum Revision. Des Moines, Iowa : 1972. Jarolimek, John. Guidel ines for Elementary Social Studies. Washington, D. C . : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Nat ional Education Association, 1967. Jaro ' lTielc , and Huber M . Walsh. Readings for Social Studies in Elementary Education. 3d. ed. New York : Macmi l l an , 1974. . Social Studies in Elementary Education. 4th ed. New York : MacmiMan, 1971. Jenkinson, Dave, comp. "A Directory of School Library Educators in Canada" , rev. Compiled for the Education for School Librarianship of the Canadian School Library Association. January 1, 1975. (Mimeographed). Johns, Eunice and Dorothy M . Fraser. "Social Studies Ski l ls : A Gu ide to Analysis and Grade Placement". In: Helen M . Carpenter (ed.). Sk i l l Development in Social Studies. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1963, Appendix, pp. 310-327. Joint Committee of the American Association of School Librarians and the Department of Audiovisual Instruction of the National Education Association. Standards for School Media Programs. Chicago : American Library Association, 1969). Joyce, Bruce R. New Strategies for Social Education. Chicago : Science Research Associates, 1972. Judson, Horace. The Techniques of Reading : An Integrated Program for Improved Comprehension and Ski l l s . 3d. ed. New York : Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1972. 162 Kar l in , Robert. Teaching Elementary Reading : Principles and Strategies. 2d. ed. New York : Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1975. Ke i th, Pauline A . , and Paul J . Karish. How to Teach Library Research Skil ls in Second- ary School Social Studies. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1968. (How To Do It Series - N o . 23). Kentucky Department of Education. Division of Program Development, Bureau of Instruction. New Directions, New Dimensions : Practical Programs in Reading. Frankfort, Kentucky, 1975. Kerlinger, Fred N . Foundations of Behavioral?Research. 2d. ed. New York : Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1973. Kinder:,, Robert F. "Learning Reference Study Sk i l l s " . In: Ralph Staiger and David A . Sohn (eds.) New Directions in Reading. New York : Bantam Books, 1967. pp. 75-82. Lennon, Roger T. "Assumptions Underlying the Use of Content Val id ity",; Educational and Psychological Measurement. XVI (Autumn, 1956); 283-93. Leppert, Ella C . "Locating and Gathering Information". In: Sk i l l Development in Social Studies. Helen M . Carpenter (ed.). Thirty-Third Yearbook. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1963.. pp. 53-73. Lindberg, Luc i le . "Learning Through Sear ch ing " . In: Albert J . Harris (ed.) Readings on Reading Instruction. New York, McKay , 1963. pp. 44-47. Los Angeles C i ty Schools. Division of Instructional Services. Research Skil ls and Library Resources : Part Three, Los Angeles, 1966. McK'ee;pPquIy-gReadings^ArProgramioftlnsfructidn3forjthe Elementany-School. New York : .Houghton M i f f l i n . 1966. 7vkK McLendon, Jonathan C , Wi l l i am W. Joyce and John R. Lee. Readings on Elementary Social Studies : Emerging Changes. Boston : A l l y n & Bacon, 1970. M c G u i r e , /Alice B. "Research Among the Very Young", RQ, 7 (Winter, 1967), pp. 61-71. Manitoba Department of Education. School Library Services Branch. "1975-1976 Manitoba Department of Education Supervisors of School Library Services". Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1975. (Mimeographed). Massachusetts. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts : Department of Education. Division of Curriculum and Instruction. Reading Curriculum Gu ide , Grades 1-12, Part I. Boston, Massachusetts, 1975. 163 Michae l i s , John U. Social Studies for Children in a Democracy : Recent Trends and Developments. EngIewood C l i f f s , New Jersey : Prent ice-Hal l , 1972. . (ed.). Social Studies in Elementary Schools. 32nd Yearbook. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1962, p. 334. Michigan Department of Education. Minimal Performance Objectives for Social Studies,, Education in M ich igan. Lansing, M ich igan, 1974. M i e l , A l i c e . "How to Make a Student", The ''Reading Teacher, X V (September, 1961), '8.413. Ministry of Education, Ontar io. "Ontar io School Media Consultants", rev. Toronto, Ontar io, December, 1974. (Mimeographed). Montgomery County Public Schools. "Media Research and Communication Skills : Suggested Scope and Sequence Chart " . (Work Copy 7). Montgomery, Alabama, May, 1973. Morse, Horace T., and George H. McCune. Selected Items for the Testing of Study Ski l ls and Cr i t i ca l Thinking. Rev. by Lester E. Brown and Ellen Cook. 5th ed. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1971. Musseig, Raymond H. Social Studies Curriculum Improvement : A Gu ide for Local Committees. BuIletin N o . 36. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1965. Nat ional Assessment of Educational Progress : A Project of the Education Commission of the States. Reference Materials, Theme 4 : Reading. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Government Printing O f f i c e , Ju ly , 1973. (Report 02-R-04). Nebraska State Department of Education. Division of Educational Services. Handbook on Inquiry Teaching for Elementary Social Studies. Prepared by Ed. Walker. L incoln, Nebraska, 1973. New Brunswick Department of Education. Library Service. "Libraries - New Brunswick" rev. Fredericton, New Brunswick, March 4, 1976. (Mimeographed). New York. Board of Education of the C i ty of New York - Bureau of Curriculum Develop- ment. A Gu ide for Beginning Teachers of Reading, Grades 5-8. New York, 1968. (Curriculum Bulletin N o . 6, 1967-68 Series). " . Sequential Levels of Reading Skil ls : Prekindergarten-Grade 12. New York, 1968. (Curriculum Bul let in, 1967-68 Series, N o . 4). N o l d , Jack T. "Teaching Research Study Skills in the Fifth G rade " , unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of 11 linois at Urbana, 1971. 164 North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Social Studies for North Dakota Schools. Bismarck, North Dakota, 1972. Oklahoma C i t y . Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission. A Gu ide for the Teaching of Library Sk i l l s , Grades K-12. Oklahoma C i t y , 1969. Oklahoma State Department of Education. Curriculum Section. Reading K-12. Prepared by the State Reading Committee of the Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Com- mission. Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma, 1975. Ottawa Board of Education Social Studies Curriculum Committee. Social Studies G u i d e - lines. Ottawa, Ontar io, June 1973. Philadelphia. The School District of Philadelphia - Instructional Services. The Develop- mental Reading Program in the Elementary School Language Arts Supplemental to Suggestions for the Teaching of Reading. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, n.d. Pittsburgh Department of Educational Program Development. The Board of Public Education. Gu ide for Elementary School Librarians. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, A p r i l , 1974. Polette, Nancy . Developing Methods of Inquiry : A Source Book for Elementary Media Personnel. Metuchen, N . J . : Scarecrow, 1973. Preston, Ralph C . comp. ed. A New Look at Reading in the Social Studies. Newark, Delaware, I.R.A., 1969. (Perspectives in Reading N o . 12). . , and Wayne L. Herman, J r . Teaching Social Studies in the Elementary School. 4th ed. New York : Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1974. Price, Roy A . "Goals for the Social Studies". In: Dorothy M . Fraser, (ed.) Social Studies Curriculum Development : Prospects and Problems. Thirty-ninth Yearbook of the Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1969. pp. 33-64. Prince Edward Island Department of Education. A Curriculum Guide for Social Studies •': Grades I-VI. Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, n.d. "Provincial Supervisors. Representatives Attending Annual Meet ing " . North Star Inn, Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 21, 1974. (Mimeographed). "Registrants, Pacif ic Rim Conference on Childrens 1 L iterature". Vancouver, British Columbia, May, 1976. (Mimeographed). Robinson, Ruth, and others. "Speaking and Writing Sk i l l s " . In: Helen M . Carpenter, (ed.) Skil ls in the Social Studies. Twenty-Fourth Yearbook of the Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies, 1953. pp. 129-145. 165 Rodgers, Frederick A . "Basic Study :Skil ls as Related to Each Other and to General Achievement, Mental A b i l i t y , and Redding Ab i l i t ies in Grade S i x " , unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ill inois at Urbana, 1966. Rossoff, Mart in . Using Your High School Library. 2d. ed. New York : H.W. Wilson, 1964. Russell, David H. Children Learn to Read. 2d. ed. New York : G i n n , 1961. Saddler, V i rg in ia B. Role of the Library in Education : The Library Image as Presented in Selected Teacher Training Textbooks in Use in the State o f Kentucky. Barbourville, Kentucky : Union Col lege, January, 1970. San Diego County Schools, O f f i c e of the Superintendent of Schools. Reading - Grades One Through Eight. San Diego, Ca l i forn ia, 1959. Saskatchewan Department of Education. The Language Arts Curriculum : Saskatchewan Elementary Schools, Divisions One and Two. Regina, Saskatchewan, September, 197T c - ' : ca i c i iewc;n Supervisory Servlcesi'Br.anchSup-rUnit Supervisory Personnel, 1975-76". Regina, Saskatchewan, 1975. (Mimeographed). . "Non -Un i t System Comprehensive, School and C i ty System Librarians" Regina, Saskatchewan, 1975. (Mimeographed). Seattle Public Schools Curriculum Development Divis ion, Department of Instructional Materials and Med ia . Library Experiences for Elementary School Chi ldren. Seattle, Washington, 1966. Shores, v J : . ' •Harlan?a;Deye1opmerircof Diagnostic Instruments •"for iReseaiich Study Skills in Grqdest4, •5^,arid;^S3c, Urbana, Il l inois : Final Report to the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1970. . Teaching the Research Study Ski l l s , Phase I, Urbana, I l l i no i s : Report to Gro l i e r , 1967a. . Teaching the Research Study Ski l l s , Phase II, Urbana, Il l inois : Report to Gro l ie r , T967b. . , and James E. Snoddy. "Organiz ing and Teaching the Research Study Skills in Elementary School " , Elementary English, (October, 1971), 648-652. Smith, N i l a B. Reading Instruction for Today's Chi ldren. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey : Prent ice-Hal l , 1963. Snoddy, James, E. "Improving Study Skills : A Review of Selected Research". Barrett, T . C . , and D. J . Johnson, eds. Views on Elementary Reading Instruction. Newark, Delaware : International Reading Association, 1973, pp. 81-87. 166 "Teaching Research Study Skills in Grade S i x " , unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ill inois at Urbana, 1967. and Harlan J . Shores. "Teaching the Research Study Sk i l l s " . In : J . A l l e n Figurel (ed.) Reading and Realism, 1968 Proceedings, V o l . 13, Part I, Newark, Delaware : International Reading Association 1969. pp. 681-688. Spache, George D. and Evelyn B. Spache. Reading in the Elementary School. 3d. ed. Boston : A l l y n and Bacon, 1973. Stinson, L i l l i an P. "Teaching a Reading-Study Ski Ills Program at the Sixth Grade Leve l " , unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ill inois at Urbana, 1970. Texas Education Agency. Framework for the Social Studies. Grades K-12. Aust in, Texas, 1970. Thomas, Ellen Lamar and H. A l an Robinson. Improving Reading in Every Class. (Abridged edition). Boston, A l l y n and Bacon, 1972. Thomas, R. Murray and Dale L. Brubaker. Decisions in Teaching Elementary Social Studies. Belmont, Cal i fornia : Wads worth, 1971. eds. Teaching Elementary Social Studies : Readings. Belmont, Cal i fornia : Wadworth, 1972. Tinker, Mi les A . , and Constance M . McCul lough. Teaching Elementary Reading. 4th ed. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey : 1975. Todd, Lewis Paul. "Wr i t i ng " . In: Helen M . Carpenter, Oed.) Sk i l l Development in the Social Studies. Thirty-third Yearbook of the Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies. Washington, D.C. : Nat ional Counci l for the Social Studies. 1963, pp. 115-130. Turner, Wi l l iam E. "Ungraded Social Studies Through a Library Approach" . Elementary School Journal. LXVIII (October, 1967), 26-30. Wagner, Guy . "What Schools are Doing : Promoting Study Skil ls and Habits " . Education, Wyoming State Department of Education. Framework for the Social Studies : K-12 - A Guide for Curriculum Development. Cheyenne, Wyoming, 1969. APPENDICES APPENDIX A . LIST O F JUDGES FOR THE THREE VAL IDAT IONS APPENDIX B. QUEST IONNAIRE I : VAL IDAT ION O F THE INFORMAT ION BASE APPENDIX C. QUEST IONNAIRE II : THE PILOT VAL IDAT ION O F THE SKILLS MODEL APPENDIX D. QUEST IONNAIRE III : THE FINAL VAL IDAT ION OF THE SKILLS MODEL APPENDIX E. FOLLOWUP LETTER : THE F INAL VAL IDAT ION APPENDIX A LIST OF JUDGES FOR THE THREE VAL IDAT IONS Librarians Who Participated as Independent Judges in the Three Validations Questionnaire I : Val idat ion of the School Library Literature Base, August, 1975 C O G G I N , Mary Supervisor of Instruction (Libraries) School District N o . 36, Surrey Surrey, B.C. HURT, Howard Head, Curriculum Laboratory Faculty of Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. M c L E A N , Nancy Assistant Professor, School Libraries Dept. Faculty of Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. RAHRICK, Donald Head Librarian, John O l i ve r Secondary School School District N o . 39, Vancouver Vancouver, B.C. (Visit ing Lecturer, U.B.C. School Libraries Dept. 1974-76) TROUNCE, Douglas Librarian, Parkcrest Elementary School Burnaby School District N o . Burnaby, B.C. Questionnaire II : Pilot Val idat ion of a Model of Basic Library Locational Ski l ls, January, 1976 As in Questionnaire I: C O G G I N , Mary HURT, Howard RAHRICK, Donald TROUNCE, Douglas and: DAVIES, Joyce Librarian, Canyon Heights Elementary School North Vancouver School District 44 North Vancouver, B.C. 171 Questionnaire III : Second Val idat ion of a Model of Basic Library Locational Skills May-September, 1976 A B R A H A M S O N , Merce Resources Co-ordinator North Battleford School District North Battleford, Saskatchewan A C T O N , Connie Learning Resources Consultant Regina Board of Education Regina, Saskatchewan AMIS , Terence K. Act ing Assistant Regional Librarian Albert Westmoreland - Kent Regional Library Moncton, New Brunswick A N G L I N , Patricia Library Supervisor Humber - St. Barbe Roman Cathol ic School Board Corner Brook, Newfoundland A R M S T R O N G , Catherine Library Supervisor - Elementary Kent County Board of Education Chatham, Ontario BERTRAND, Doreen Chief Library Consultant Sudbury Board of Education Sudbury, Ontario BLACK, Arthur Co-ordinator of School Libraries Sidney, Nova Scotia BOUDREAU, Soeur Berthe Assistant Professor, Faculte d'Education Universite' de Moncton Moncton, New Brunswick 172 BRAINE, Linda Supervisor of School Libraries Avalon North Integrated School Board Bay Roberts, C . B., Newfoundland BRETT, Betty Associate Professor Faculty of Education Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland BROWN, Gera ld R. Co-ordinating Consultant, Educational Resources Centre Service Teachers' Library and Resource Centre Winnipeg School Division N o . 1 Winnipeg, Manitoba BROWN, Reverend Wi l l iam J . Co-ordinator of Library Services Metropolitan Separate School Board Toronto, Ontario C O N R A N , Bernadine District Librarian Bay of Islands - St. George's Integrated School Board Corner Brook, Newfoundland COULTER, Shirley Supervisor, School Libraries Section Provincial Library Hal i fax, Nova Scotia DAVIS, V i rg in ia Consultant, School Library Services Department of Education Winnipeg, Manitoba DEWSNAP, Barbara Librarian-Consultant Education Centre Resource Library Etobicoke Board of Education Etobicoke, Ontario DOBBINS, Janet P. Consultant-Learning Materials, Learning Materials Centre London Board of Education London, Ontario D O N A L D S O N , Helen Co-ordinator-Libraries Board of Education for the Borough of East York - Metropolitan Toronto, Ontario DUBUC, Betty Supervisor of Library Services Edmonton Cathol ic School Board Edmonton, Alberta FACEY, Geordy Director-Learning Resources County of Strathcona Edmonton, Alberta F E N N ELL, Doris Education Of f i ce r , Curriculum Services Branch Ontario Ministry of Education Toronto, Ontar io FLORENCE, Agnes Chief Librarian, Teachers' Library and Resource Centre Winnipeg School Division N o . 1 Winnipeg, Manitoba F O R G A Y , Art Program Consultant - School Libraries Department of Education Regina, Saskatchewan FRIDERICHSEN, Blanche Consultant, Media and Curriculum Alberta Department of Education Edmonton, Alberta FRIES EN , Ron Co-ordinator of School Libraries Western School Division N o . 47 Morden, Manitoba G U I G N A R D , A l i c e Co-ordinator of Resource Centre Services Etobicoke Board of Education Etobicoke, Ontario HAMMEL, Phi l ip J . Associate Professor, Col lege of Education The University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan HAST INGS, Cora J . Associate Professor, Faculty of Education The University of Lethbridge Lethbridge, Alberta H A Y C O C K , Ken Library Co-ordinator, Vancouver School District N o . 39 Vancouver, British Columbia, September, 1976 (formerly Educational Media Consultant - K-13, Gue lph, Ontario) HUME, Mary Supervisor of School Libraries Brandon School Division N o . 40 Brandon, Manitoba H W A N G , June Library Supervisor Swift Current Public School Board 167 Swift Current, Saskatchewan J E N K I N S O N , Dave Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education The University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba (on leave for doctoral studies at The University of Minnesota, 1975-76) L A L O N D E , Agathe Assistant Professor, Faculte d'Education Universite d 'Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario LIEBOLD, Christine Staff Assistant - Elementary School Board of Education for the C i t y of Hamilton Hamilton, Ontario MacFARLANE, Marjorie Supervisor of School Libraries Halifax County Munic ipa l i ty of the County of Hal i fax, Nova Scotia Mc lNTYRE , Margaret Systems Librarian Moose Jaw Board of Education Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan M a c L E A N , Effie Library Consultant Saskatoon Public Board of Education Saskatoon, Saskatchewan M c L E A N , Mary High School Librarian and Act ing School Librarian of the Barrington Munic ipa l Board Barrington Passage, Shelborne County, Nova Scotia MacRAE, Lome Media Specialist Calgary Board of Education Calgary, Alberta M A K O W S K Y , A l v i n A . Supervisor of School Libraries Kamsack School Unit #35 Kamsack, Saskatchewan MARSHALL, Penny School Libraries Consultant Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Education St. John's, Newfoundland M O O R E , Larry A . Associate Professor, Faculty of Education Queen's University Kingston, Ontario NEILL, Samuel Professor School of Library and Information Science The University of Western Ontario London, Ontario 176 PAMMETT, Maureen Library Resource Teacher Head Peterborough County Board of Education Peterborough, Ontario PARK, Robert Librarian, Pembina Crest School Fort Garry School Division Winnipeg, Manitoba (Sessional Lecturer, University of Manitoba) PETTI GREW, Karen Media Consultant The Ottawa Board of Education Media Centre Ottawa, Ontar io ROSS, Margaret Supervisor of Library Service, Department of Libraries Halifax Board of School Commissioners Hal i fax, Nova Scotia RUF, June I. Librarian School Unit Library, S .U. #15 Swift Current, Saskatchewan ST. PIERRE, Sister O d i l e Divisional Librarian Lakeshore School Division N o . 23 Eriksdale, Manitoba SAWATZKY, Elsie Supervisor of Libraries, Central Library Saskatoon (West) S .U. # 4 2 Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S HEN N A N , Grace Media Consultant (Library) The Ottawa Board of Education Ottawa, Ontario SMITH, Patricia L. Chief, Library Services N .W.T. Library Services Division Hay River, North West Territories 177 SMITH, Roger J . Assistant Professor, School Librarianship Department Faculty of Education The University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario SMITH, Ruth Library Supervisor, Library Service Centre Yorkton School District # 159 Yorkton, Saskatchewan S N O W , Kathleen Associate Professor, Faculty of Education The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta TAYLOR, Sandra School Librarians' Resource Centre Consultant, Provincial Library Department of Education Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island TOMEY , Pearl M . Consultant, School Libraries Toronto Board of Education Toronto, Ontario WALLACE, Eileen Associate Professor, Faculty of Education The University of New Brunswick Fredericton, New Brunswick WEBSTER, A lma Library Supervisor Edmonton Public School Board Edmonton, Alberta WIEDRICK, Laurie (Dr.) Professor of Elementary Education Faculty of Education The University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta WYDER, Pat Learning Materials Chairperson Kenora Board of Education Kenora, Ontario APPENDIX B QUEST IONNAIRE I : VAL IDAT ION OF THE INFORMAT ION BASE A l l sections were printed on white paper. Reading Educa t i o n Department, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbi J u l y 30, 1975. Dear E a r l i e r t h i s month you k i n d l y agreed t o a c t on my study as an independent judge to assess the q u a l i t y of a search f o r sources on l i b r a r y s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n a t the e l e - mentary s c h o o l l e v e l . I am g r a t e f u l f o r your w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t i n t h i s major aspect of my d o c t o r a l study. As I i n d i c a t e d , d u r i n g our d i s c u s s i o n , the v a l i d i t y of the pro- posed model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and any. future measure of those s k i l l s w i l l , o f course, depend a good deal on the q u a l i t y of the sources on which both are based. Your a s s i s t a n c e i n judging t h a t q u a l i t y i s , t h e r e f o r e , very im- p o r t a n t . The o v e r a l l p l a n f o r o b t a i n i n g your r e a c t i o n s t o the search i s to request t h a t you: 1) examine a l l e n c l o s u r e s i n t h i s envelope, 2) draw c o n c l u s i o n s about your r e a c t i o n s to the q u a l i t y of the search f o r sources and 3) to respond v e r b a l l y to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a copy of which i s e n c l o s e d and which w i l l be presented i n a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r completing these three steps i s p r o v i d e d i n v a r i o u s e n c l o s u r e s of t h i s package. W i t h i n the package you w i l l f i n d t hree items. The f i r s t i s an o u t l i n e of g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the study which i s intended t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r your judgments. I t i n c l u d e s s i x s e c t i o n s : a) statement of the problem, b) nature and purpose of the search, c) nature and purpose of judgments, d) d e s c r i p t i o n o f the v a r i o u s l i s t s of sources, and e) d e s c r i p t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d i n g an explan- a t i o n of the term q u a l i t y . S p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s f o r making judgments are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . 180 The second item i s a copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which has been c o n s t r u c t e d to gather your judgments about the q u a l i t y of the sear c h . T h i s i s your working copy t o use, i f you wish, to r e c o r d your r e a c t i o n s as you examine the r e l e v a n t e n c l o s u r e s . The t h i r d item i s a l i s t o f sources-* bothy the l o c a - t i o n a l sources and the sources l o c a t e d i n the search. These e n c l o s u r e s , p r o v i d e , I t h i n k , much of the gen e r a l and s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n f o r making the necessary judgments. You are asked to take a two-week p e r i o d to examine the enclo s e d m a t e r i a l s and draw your c o n c l u s i o n s . Towards the end of the second week I w i l l c o n t a c t you about making an i n t e r v i e w appointment. During the i n t e r v i e w I w i l l f o l l o w the response p a t t e r n of "Questionnaire I" i n d i r e c t i n g ques- t i o n s and r e c o r d i n g your judgments on my copy of the q u e s t i o n - n a i r e . I f you have any q u e r i e s a t a l l about procedures, p l e a s e c o n t a c t me a t home i n the evenings or through the Reading Educa t i o n s e c r e t a r y , Hut 03, du r i n g the day Thank you again f o r your w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. I hope t h a t you w i l l f i n d the time spent on judgments worthwhile and of i n t e r e s t i n r e l a t i o n to your work. Yours s i n c e r e l y , S h i r l e y Henslowe SH/jdj E n c l o s u r e s (3) E n c l o s u r e #1 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE STUDY Statement of the Problem p. 1 Nature and Purpose o f the Search p. 2 Nature and Purpose of Judgments p. 3 D e s c r i p t i o n o f the " L i s t s o f Sources" p. 4 D e s c r i p t i o n o f "Questionnaire I" p. 6 (Questionnaire I) S. Henslowe J u l y , 1975 182 Henslowe/75 1. a. Statement o f the Problem The purpose o f the study i s to develop a model o f b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s f o r p r i n t sources a t the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . A s k i l l s model w i l l be produced through a n a l y s i s of l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , c u r r i c u l a , p u b l i s h e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l mat- e r i a l s and t e s t s . The model t h a t emerges from t h i s process w i l l be submitted t o a number o f s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s f o r v a l i d a t i o n through independent judgments. I t i s hoped t h a t the study w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o re s e a r c h i n the area o f l i b r a r y s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n as i t i s c a r r i e d on through elementary s c h o o l l i b r a r y and r e a d i n g cur- r i c u l a . A p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the model i s seen to be i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o an i n i t i a l u n i t on r e s e a r c h and r e p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e grade l e v e l i n a s u b j e c t area such as s o c i a l s t u d i e s . In order t o r e a c t t o the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f sources l o - cated, judges should, I f e e l , be aware t h a t the s k i l l s which seem to be emerging from l i t e r a t u r e sources as the b a s i c l i b - r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s are those concerned w i t h the arrangement of the l i b r a r y , the card catalogue and the Dewey Decimal C l a s s i - f i c a t i o n . 183 Henslowe/75 2. b. Nature and Purpose o f the Search The search was undertaken to l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on l i b r a r y s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n from three c u r r i c u l a r areas — l i b r a r y , r e a d i n g and s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n was e s p e c i a l l y focussed on the b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and t h e i r v a r - i o u s p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s . The search was c o n s i d e r e d necessary t o p r o v i d e a v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o - c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . 184 Henslowe/75 3. c. Nature and Purpose of Judgments You are one of f i v e educators, t r a i n e d i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n - s h i p , who has been asked to form a p a n e l of independent judges. As i m p l i e d by the term "independent", i t i s asked t h a t r e a c t i o n s be made without c o n s u l t a t i o n among judges e i t h e r d u r i n g or f o l l o w i n g j u d ging procedures. Judges are being asked to r e a c t to the q u a l i t y of the search f o r sources on l i b r a r y s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n a t the elemen- t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . The r e f e r e n t q u a i l t y , as d e s c r i b e d f u l l y i n S e c t i o n 5 below, i s c o n s i d e r e d to be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the con- t e n t v a l i d i t y o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s i n the proposed model. 185 Henslowe/75 4. d. L i s t o f Sources The " L i s t of Sources" i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s and two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . W i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s items are arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and numbered f o r easy r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g your examination and the i n t e r v i e w . The f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s are a c c o r d i n g to types o f mater- i a l s : 1) a r t i c l e s , 2) books and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , 3) c u r r i c u l u m guides, 4) t e s t s and 5) theses and d i s s e r t a t i o n s . O r i g i n a l l y , the i n t e n t i o n was to l i s t books and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s s e p a r a t e l y but i t was found that a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n c o u l d not always be made between these m a t e r i a l s i n r e l a t i o n to the study. Under each o f the f i v e broad c a t e g o r i e s are two sub- c a t e g o r i e s . They are: 1) l o c a t i o n a l sources and 2) sources l o c a t e d . For each category of m a t e r i a l the l o c a t i o n a l sources which are l i s t e d i n c l u d e some g e n e r a l sources, but mainly such s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s as certain'^indexes or b i b l i o g r a p h i e s . In t h i s category o n l y t i t l e s , and not f u l l b i b l i o g r a p h i c data, are give n f o r standard l o c a t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s such as Ed u c a t i o n Index. For each category of m a t e r i a l the sources l o c a t e d are l i s t e d item by item i n f a i r l y f u l l b i b l i o g r a p h i c form. A l l Henslowe/75 5. items which are l i s t e d have been ordered, r e c e i v e d , w i l l be ordered or are a c c e s s i b l e i n v a r i o u s U.B.C. resource c e n t r e s . Of the two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s the l i s t i n g s o f sources l o c a t e d are g e n e r a l l y the more e x t e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d i n content. Reac- t i o n s to t h i s second group o f sources w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , probably be the more demanding i n terms of judgments. 187 Henslowe / 7 5 6 . e. General Information About Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I, i n c l u d i n g the term Q u a l i t y Q u a l i t y . In the context of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e q u a l i t y i s d e f i n e d as having two dimensions or bases f o r making judgments, s p e c i f i c a l l y , the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and the comprehensiveness o f sources. The f i r s t dimension, a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , r e f e r s to the s u i t a b i l i t y o f sources i n r e l a t i o n to a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e and to the s t a t e d problem. The second dimension comprehensiveness, r e f e r s to the adequacy of coverage or scope o f sources i n r e l a - t i o n to e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e and the s t a t e d problems. Other I n f o r m a t i o n . The o v e r a l l format of the q u e s t i o n - n a i r e i s designed to correspond w i t h t h a t of the " L i s t of Sources". T h e r e f o r e , f o r each of the f i v e types of m a t e r i a l s t h e r e i s a separate s e c t i o n on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . And w i t h i n each of the f i v e s e c t i o n s separate r e a c t i o n s are requested f o r both " L o c a t i o n a l Sources" and f o r "Sources Located". The r e q u i r e d response under " L o c a t i o n a l Sources" i s a "Yes" or "No" with a request t h a t a d d i t i o n a l t i t l e s be i d e n t i f i e d i f judges f e e l t h a t r e l e v a n t sources have been omitted. "Yes" i s to be checked i f judges c o n s i d e r the search to 188 Henslowe/75 7. have been of adequate q u a l i t y — , i . e . l o c a t i o n a l sources were both a p p r o p r i a t e and comprehensive i n r e l a t i o n t o the type o f m a t e r i a l sought and the s t a t e d problem. For "Sources Located" the r e q u i r e d response i s to be made on a t h r e e - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . A separate r a t i n g s c a l e i s p r o v i d e d f o r each of the two dimensions o f q u a l i t y . For the f i r s t dimension, a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , 1 means "not a p p r o p r i a t e " (NA), 2 means "Undecided"(U), and 3 means " a p p r o p r i a t e " (A). For the second dimension, comprehensiveness, 1 means "not comprehen- s i v e " (NC), 2 means "Undecided" (U), and 3 means "comprehensive" (C). In t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n judges are a l s o asked t o i d e n t i f y any a d d i t i o n a l t i t l e s t h a t they c o n s i d e r t o be u s e f u l sources f o r the study, and to o f f e r c r i t i c a l comments about any aspect of the search under each type of m a t e r i a l . I f the sources are judged to be both a p p r o p r i a t e and com- prehensive i t w i l l mean t h a t the q u a l i t y of the search has been s a t i s f a c t o r y . On t h i s b a s i s i t w i l l be assumed t h a t an adequate p o o l o f i n f o r m a t i o n has been l o c a t e d and t h a t I, t h e r e f o r e , may proceed w i t h : 1) c o l l e c t i n g s p e c i f i c data from the sources l o c a t e d and 2) c o n s t r u c t i n g the proposed model. To a v o i d any. c o n f u s i o n i n judges'minds about the s e c t i o n on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l t i t l e s I should e x p l a i n , t h a t even though judges may r a t e a p a r t i c u l a r category as being 189 Henslowe/75 8. appropriate and comprehensive, i . e . a rating of 3, they may s t i l l wish to suggest some supplementary t i t l e s of sources. Any such suggestions, w i l l of course, be most welcome. In summary, the reactions to the appropriateness and comprehensiveness, w i l l indicate the extent to which the quali t y of the search as r e f l e c t e d i n the " L i s t of Sources" and r e l a t i o n to the stated problem i s acceptable to each of the f i v e judges. E n c l o s u r e #2 QUESTIONNAIRE I ARTICLES p. 1 BOOKS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS p. 2 CURRICULUM GUIDES p. 3 TESTS p. • 4 THESES AND DISSERTATIONS p.. 5 (Questionnaire I) S. Henslowe J u l y , 1975 191 Henslowe/75 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I D i r e c t i o n s : On the b a s i s of your l i b r a r y t r a i n i n g , experience and knowledge o f l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e you are asked to express your r e a c t i o n s to statements about the q u a l i t y of the search (appropriateness and comprehensiveness). As d e s c r i b e d i n mater- i a l s accompanying the q u e s t i o n n a i r e you. are asked to r e a c t to l o c a t i o n a l sources and sources l o c a t e d under f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of m a t e r i a l s . Under " L o c a t i o n a l Sources" f o r each type o f m a t e r i a l you are asked t o r e a c t by checking a "yes" or "no" response. The i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d here i s whether or not a l l important sources were covered i n the s e a r c h . I f , i n your o p i n i o n , some sources were missed, you are asked to i d e n t i f y those l o c a t i o n a l sources under the " A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s " s e c t i o n . Under "Sources Located" you are asked to express on a t h r e e - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e the extent of your agreement w i t h statements on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ( s u i t a b i l i t y ) and comprehen- si v e n e s s (adequate coverage o r range o f the s o u r c e s ) . The r a t i n g s c a l e s are s e t up as f o l l o w s : 1. (NA) Not a p p r o p r i a t e (U) Undecided (A) A p p r o p r i a t e 1 2 3 2 . (NC) Not comprehensive (U) Undecided (C) Comprehensive I n d i c a t e by c i r c l i n g the number from 1 t o 3 t h a t b e s t ex- 192 Henslowe/75 pre s s e s your judgments. I f you f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r sources should be l o c a t e d you are asked to i d e n t i f y those sources under the " A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s " s e c t i o n . Under the "Remarks" s e c t i o n you are asked t o o f f e r any c r i t i c a l comments t h a t you wish about the search f o r e i t h e r l o c a t i o n a l sources or sources l o c a t e d . 193 Henslowe/75 1. ARTICLES L o c a t i o n a l Sources In r e l a t i o n to the type of Yes source, the e s s e n t i a l l o c a t i o n a l sources were used: No A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : Sources L o c a t e d In r e l a t i o n to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d about the study the sources l o c a t e d are: (NA) (U) (A) 1. A p p r o p r i a t e 1 2 3 2. Comprehensive (NC) (U) (C) 1 2 3 A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : Remarks: ( L o c a t i o n a l Sources or Sources Located) BOOKS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS L o c a t i o n a l Sources In r e l a t i o n to the type o f source, the e s s e n t i a l l o c a t i o n a l sources were used: A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : Sources Located Yes No 194 Henslowe/75 2. In r e l a t i o n t o i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d about the study the sources l o c a t e d are: 1. A p p r o p r i a t e 2. Comprehensive A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : (NA) (U) (A) 1 2 3 (NC) (U) (C) 1 2 3 Remarks: ( L o c a t i o n a l Sources or Sources Located) 195 Henslowe/75 3. CURRICULUM GUIDES L o c a t i o n a l Sources In r e l a t i o n to the type of Yes source, the e s s e n t i a l l o c a t i o n a l sources were used: No A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : Sources Located In r e l a t i o n to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d about the study the sources l o c a t e d are: (NA) (U) (A) 1. A p p r o p r i a t e 1 2 3 (NC) (U) (C) 2. Comprehensive 1 2 3 A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : Remarks: ( L o c a t i o n a l Sources or Sources Located) 196 Henslowe/75 4. TESTS L o c a t i o n a l Sources In r e l a t i o n to the type o f Yes source, the e s s e n t i a l l o c a t i o n a l sources were used: No A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : S ources Located In r e l a t i o n to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d about the study the sources l o c a t e d are: 1. A p p r o p r i a t e 2. Comprehensive. A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : (NA) (U) (A) 1 2 3 (NC) (U) (C) 1 2 3 Remarks: ( L o c a t i o n a l Sources or Sources Located) 197 Henslowe/75 5. THESES AND DISSERTATIONS L o c a t i o n a l Sources In r e l a t i o n to the type of source, the e s s e n t i a l l o c a t i o n a l sources were used: A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : Sources Located In r e l a t i o n to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d about the study the sources l o c a t e d a r e : (NA) (U) (A) 1. A p p r o p r i a t e 1 2 3 (NC) (U) (C) 2. Comprehensive 1 2 3 A d d i t i o n a l T i t l e s : Yes No Remarks: ( L o c a t i o n a l Sources or Sources Located) E n c l o s u r e #3 LIST OF SOURCES A r t i c l e s Books, I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s C u r r i c u l u m Guides T e s t s Theses, D i s s e r t a t i o n s L o c a t i o n a l Sources Sources Located Page 1 2 5 7 10 11 14 16 17 18 (Questionnaire I) S. Henslowe J u l y , 1975 199 Henslowe/75 1. ARTICLES L o c a t i o n a l S o u r c e s 1. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s f r o m books and a r t i c l e s . 2. C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n I n d e x 3. E d u c a t i o n I n d e x 4. a) Hand s e a r c h o f E R I C / C u r r e n t I n d e x t o J o u r n a l s i n E d u c a t i o n ( C U E ) b) Two E R I C / C U E computer s e a r c h e s , one on s t u d y s k i l l s , one o f s t u d y and l i b r a r y s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n t o c e r t a i n s u b j e c t a r e a s . B o t h s e a r c h e s r a n g e d f r o m e l e m e n t a r y t o c o l l e g e l e v e l . ( E J numbers) 5. L i b r a r y L i t e r a t u r e 200 Henslowe/75 2. ARTICLES Sources Located 1. A h l e r s , E.E., I n s t r u c t i o n i n L i b r a r y S k i l l s . School L i b r a r i e s , 21:23-5, S p r i n g '72. 2. Ayres, L.B., L e a r n i n g the L i b r a r y i n Grades K-6. School L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 8:28-29, Jan. '62. 3. Barthelmess, H.M., T e s t i n g the A b i l i t y t o Use the Index and D i c t i o n a r y . N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Proceedings, 380-82, '34. 4. Baugh, K.E., Teaching the Use of the L i b r a r y . S o c i a l S t u d i e s . 35:15-16, Jan. '44. 5. Bond, G.W., Developing Study S k i l l s i n the Intermediate Grades. Elementary E n g l i s h , 29:397-401, N. '52. 6. Chan, L.M., The Tenth Abridged Dewey Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . and C h i l d r e n ' s Room/School L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n s . S chool L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 98:38-43, S. '73. 7. Cole, T .J., Ladder o f L i b r a r y S k i l l s . Elementary School J l . , 61: 427-30, My. '61. 8. Dallman, M., Development o f L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s . Grade Teacher, 75:56-57, J a . "58. 9 . Davidson, L.M., L i b r a r y Lessons Can Be Fun. Wilson L i b r a r y B u i l e t i n, 23:695-96, My. '49. (Gr. 7 up) 10. E l l i s , . O., V i t a l i z i n g the School L i b r a r y Program. Wilson L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 16:49-53, S. '41. ( j h . up) 11. E r i c s o n , L.S., and J . Carmody, I n t e g r a t i n g L i b r a r y S k i l l s With I n s t r u c t i o n . Wisconsin L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 67:23-26, J a . - F . '71. 12. Estvan, E.J.,. Teaching the Very Young Procedures f o r Developing I n q u i r y S k i l l s , P h i D e l t a Kappan, 50:389-93, Mr. '69. 13. Gengler, C.R., Developing S k i l l s f o r Problem-Solving: A Study. School L i b r a r i e s , 15:31-35, My. "66. 14. Gorden, S., I t ' s Fun to Learn L i b r a r y S k i l l s . Wisconsin L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 62:102-3, M. '66. 201 Henslowe/75 3. 15. Gray, B., Teaching L i b r a r y S k i l l s i n Elementary S c h o o l . L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 83:2457-9, S. '58. 16. H e i t e r t , S., Card C a t a l o g Teaching A i d . School L i b r a r y Journal,20:44, S. *73. 17. Henne, F., L e a r n i n g t o Learn i n School L i b r a r i e s . School L i b r a r i e s , 15:15-23, My. "66. 18. Hermann, B., and A. S h a f f n e r , E f f e c t i v e L i b r a r y I n s t r u c t i o n i n the C r e a t i v e Elementary School L i b r a r y . Wilson L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 37:65-67, S.'62. 19. Jones, V., Teaching L i b r a r y S k i l l s to Elementary Students. Texas Outlook, 50:16-17, Ap. '66. (als o i n T r i n k e r , 1970; pp. 15-19) . 20,. Krohn, M.L., Study i n S e l f R e l i a n c e . Shaker Heights L e a r n i n g Experiment. School L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 12: 134-36, 0. *65. 21. L i b r a r y S k i l l s : What P u p i l s Need Grade by Grade. Grade Teacher, 84:126-284, N. "66. 22. L i g d a , D., D o - i t - y o u r s e l f Tape f o r L i b r a r y I n s t r u c t i o n . School L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 8:23-24, N. '61. (Gr. 7-8). 23. McGuire, A.B., L i b r a r y and the S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Theory In t o P r a c t i c e , 6 : 1 3 , F . " 6 7 . 24. McGuire, A.B., Research Among the Very Young. RQ, 7:68-71, Winter '67. 25. Mahoney, S., B a s i c Study S k i l l s and T o o l s . Elementary E n g l i s h , 42:905-15, D. '65. 26. M i l l e r , M.J., C o n n e c t i c u t School L i b r a r i a n ' s Resources f o r Teaching L i b r a r y S k i l l s , Wilson L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 46:539, F. '72. 27. Monroe, B.A., They Compete to Learn the C a t a l o g . L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 81:990-91, Ap. '56. 28. Nelson, V., Teaching of L i b r a r y S k i l l s . Wisconsin L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 63:171-72, My. '67. 29. Oak Park ( I l l i n o i s ) S c h o o l System, Oak Park S k i l l s C h a r t . I n s t r u c t o r , 76:63-74, Ap. '67. 30. P i n c h , E., Wauwatosa Elementary SchooUTeach Good L i b r a r y H a b i t s . L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 75:253-254, F. '50. 202 Henslowe/75 4. 31. S a y l e s , L.A., Teaching L i b r a r y S k i l l s Through S u b j e c t Matter. E d u c a t i o n , 86:412-16, Mr. '66. 32. Serck, L.M.., We Learn About the L i b r a r y . Grade Teacher, 78:102-4, N. *60. 33. Shankman,, F.V., I n t r o d u c i n g the Study S k i l l s . E d u c a t i o n , 86:230-34, D. '65. 34. Shufro, H., A Workshop P r o j e c t i n Using the Elementary S c h o o l L i b r a r y . I n s t r u c t o r , 74:98, F.'65. 35. Smith, B.F., A b i l i t y to Locate and Use Reading M a t e r i a l s . Wilson L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 22:452-53, F. '48. (High- school) 36. Stacy, G., The Fourth Grade and the Card C a t a l o g . Wilson L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n , 29:643-644, Ap. '55. 37. Swenson, S., Flow Chart on L i b r a r y S e arching Techniques. S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s . 56:239-42, Ap. '65. (Adult) 38. T i l l i n , A., Elementary School C h i l d r e n Learn to Use the L i b r a r y , L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 69:38, J a . *44. 203 Henslowe/75 5. BOOKS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS L o c a t i o n a l Sources 1. B.C.T.F. Lesson A i d s Catalogue ( f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l mater- i a l s only) . 2. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s of books and a r t i c l e s . 3. Bowker p u b l i c a t i o n s : a) Books i n P r i n t (BIP) b) ' ' ' ' Supplement c) C h i l d r e n ' s Guide to BIP d) E l - H i Textbooks i n P r i n t e) Paperbound BIP f) S u b j e c t Guide t o BIP g) S u b j e c t Guide to C h i l d r e n ' s BIP 4. Canadian Books i n P r i n t and S u b j e c t Guide to CBIP. 5. Canadian E d u c a t i o n Index. 6 . Card' Cat a l o g u e / C o l l e c t i o n s ^ o f ' " the. U. B.C. : a) Main L i b r a r y b) C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory c) Reading Resource Centre d) School of L i b r a r i a n s h i p 7. Cumulative Book Index. 8. E d u c a t i o n Index. 9. ERIC/ a) E d u c a t i o n a l Documents Index b) E d u c a t i o n a l Documents A b s t r a c t s c) r e f e r e n c e as needed to i s s u e s of /Research i n 10. Hopkinson, S h i r l e y , L., I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r Teaching the Use o f L i b r a r y . 4th ed. San Jose, C a l i f o r n i a , Claremont House, 1971 ( i n c l u d e s books, t e s t s , p r i n t and a u d i o - v i s u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ) . 11. Gqver, M.V., ed. The Elementary School L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n ; A Guide to Books and Other Media, Phase 1-2-3, 8th ed. Newark, N.J. :Bro-dart, 1973. E d u c a t i o n (RIE). 12. L i b r a r y L i t e r a t u r e Henslowe/75 6. P u b l i s h e r ' s Catalogues, Canadian and American and r e l a t e d correspondence r e q u e s t i n g c a t a l o g u e s . Wynar, C h r i s t i n e L., Guide t o Reference Books f o r School Media Centers, L i t t l e t o n , Colorado: L i b r a r i e s Un- l i m i t e d , 1973. 205 Henslowe/75 7. BOOKS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS S purees Locate d 1. a) B.C.T.F. Lesson Aids S e r v i c e . Treasure Hunt, Vancouver, B.C. B.C.T.F., n.d~ (Gr. 3-6) . b) • C a r d C a t a l o g , Vancouver, B.C. B.C.T.F., 1972. (Gr. 4-7). 2. Barnes, D.L. and A.B. Burgdorf, Study S k i l l s f o r Information R e t r i e v a l . Boston, A l l y n and Bacon, 19 70 and 1974, (Bks. 1,2,3,4, elem. up). 3. Ba r r , J . , Miss T e r r y At the L i b r a r y . Ardmore, Pennsylvania, Whitman, 1962. (K-Gr. 2) 4. Berner, E., I n t e g r a t i n g L i b r a r y I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h Classroom Teaching a t P l a i n v i e w J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . Chicago: A.L.A. 1958. (Gr. 7 up) 5. Bowers, M.K., L i b r a r y I n s t r u e t i o n i n the Elementary School. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow P r e s s , 1971. 6. Brewer, M.L. and S.O. W i l l i s , The Elementary School L i b r a r y . Hamden,.Conn.: Shoe S t r i n g P r e s s , 1970. 7. Beck, M. and V.M. Pace, A Guidebook f o r Teaching L i b r a r y S k i l l s . M i n n e a p o l i s : Denison, 1967.(K-Gr. 7;5 books) 8. Beech, L., Through L i b r a r y Doors,, New York: S c h o l a s t i c , 1968. (el.> 9. Biermann, L.M., Your L i b r a r y : How to Use I t . New York: Harper and Row, 1962. ( e l . - j h . ) 10. Bongiorno, M. and M. Gee. How Can I F i n d Out? Chicago: C h i l d r e n ' s P r e s s , 1963"! (el. ) 11. Boyd., J e s s i e E., Books, L i b r a r i e s and You. 3d.ed. New York: S c r i b n e r , 1965. (jh.-sh.) 12. Busby, E d i t h , Behind the Scenes a t the L i b r a r y . New York: Dodd Mead, 1960. (el.) 13. C l e a r y , F.P., B l u e p r i n t s f o r B e t t e r Reading: School Programs f o r Promoting S k i l l and I n t e r e s t i n Reading. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1972. 206 Henslowe/75 8. 14. C l e a r y , F.D., D i s c o v e r i n g Books and L i b r a r i e s : A Handbook f o r Upper Elementary and J u n i o r Hrgh School Grades. New York: H.W. Wilson, 19 72. 15. C o l o n i u s , L. and G.W. Schroeder, A t The L i b r a r y , Rev. ed., Chicago: Melmont, 1967. (Gr. 2) 16. Conlon, E.E., Books Lead the Way: L i b r a r y and S k i l l - T e x t . New York: Scarecrow P r e s s , 1964. (Gr. 4-jh.) 17. Daly, M., P a t r i c k V i s i t s the L i b r a r y . New York: Dodd Mead, 1963. ( e l . pub. l i b . ) 18. Douglas, M.P., The Teacher's L i b r a r i a n ' s Handbook. 2d.ed. Chicago A.L.A., 1949. 19. Freund, R.B., Open the Book. 2d.ed. Scarecrow, 1966. (el.-sh.) 20. Guide to the L i b r a r y W a l l Chart: P a r t 1, 2. Logan, Iowa: P e r f e c t i o n Form Co., 1973. ( e l . ) 21. IPX. Language A r t s : Study and Reference S k i l l s , Grades K-12. Los Angeles: I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Exchange, 1972. (ED 066 745). 22. Knight, H.M., The 1-2-3 Guide to L i b r a r i e s . 4th ed., Iowa: W.C. Brown, 1970. 23. Landman, J.M., A Teacher's Guide to the Elementary School L i b r a r y . M i n n e a p o l i s : Denison, 1969. 24. Leopold, C.C., School L i b r a r i e s Worth T h e i r Keep: A Phi l o s o p h y P l u s T r i c k s . Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1972. (el.) 25. MLI A s s o c i a t e s , How to Use the L i b r a r y . Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1966. (Gr. 4 up, programmed text) 26. Margrabe, M., The "Now" L i b r a r y A S t a t i o n s Approach Media Center Teaching K i t . Washington, A c r o p l i s Books, 1973. (hs.) 27. Mott, C , C h i l d r e n ' s L i b r a r y Lesson Book. rev.ed. New York: S c r i b n e r , 1964. (el.) 28. Mott, C. and L. Baisden, The C h i l d r e n ' s Book on How t o Use Books and L i b r a r i e s . New York: S c r i b n e r , 1968. (el.) 29. P a l o v i c , L. and E. Goodman, The Elementary School L i b r a r y i n A c t i o n . W. Nyack, New York: Parker P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968. 207 Henslowe/75 9. 30. P o l e t t e , Nancy, Developing Methods o f I n q u i r y : A Source Book f o r Elementary Media P e r s o n n e l . Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1973. (el.) 31. P r a c t i c e i n L i b r a r y S k i l l s and P r a c t i c e i n Research and Study S k i l l s . Duluth, Minn.: I n s t r u c t o r P u b l i s h i n g , 1973. ( d u p l i c a t i n g masters) (el.) 32. Santa, B.M. and L.L. Hardy, How to Use the L i b r a r y . 2d.ed. Pal o A l t o : P a c i f i c Books, 1966. (jh./sh.) 33. School L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a l i f o r n i a , North S e c t i o n , L i b r a r y S k i l l s ; Teaching Use Through Games and Devices, P a l o A l t o : Fearon, 19 58. ( e l . / j h . ) 34. S c r i p t u r e , E., F i n d I t Y o u r s e l f . New York: H.W. Wilson, 1955. (Gr. 5 up) 35. Shankman, F.V., How to Teach Reference and Research S k i l l s . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1964. ( e l . ) 36. Shor, P., L i b r a r i e s and You. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1964. ( e l . / j h . ) 37. Study S k i l l s L i b r a r y : Reference S k i l l s K i t . Huntingdon, N.Y.: (EDL) E d u c a t i o n a l Developmental L a b o r a t o r i e s , 1965. (gr. 4-9) 38. Swarthout, C.R., The School L i b r a r y As P a r t o f the I n - s t r u c t i o n a l System. Metuchen, New J e r s e y : Scarecrow P r e s s , Inc., 1967. 39. T r i n k e r , C.L., ed., Teaching f o r B e t t e r Use o f L i b r a r i e s . (Readings) Hamden, Conn.: Shoe S t r i n g P r e s s , 1970. 40. T a y l o r , M. and K. L i e b o l d , L i b r a r i e s Are f o r C h i l d r e n : A Teaching Guide and Mannual f o r L i b r a r y S k i l l s . New York: Fordham Pub., 1965. (Gr. 4-6) 41. Toser, M.A., L i b r a r y 1 Manual; A Study-Work Manual o f Lessons on: the : use o f Books and L i b r a r i e s . 6th ed. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1964. (jh./sh.) 42. Vreeken, E., Ramon's Adventures i n the L i b r a r y . Oceana, 1967. ( e l . ) 43. Zimmerman, M.T., M. P e t r u c c i G. and J . Mathy, Using the L i b r a r y : A Guide t o L i b r a r y S k i l l s . Columbus, Ohio, M e r r i l l , 1960. ( e l . / j h . ) I 208 Henslowe/75 10. CURRICULUM GUIDES L o c a t i o n a l Sources 1. A.L.A. School L i b r a r y Guides and S t a f f Manuals i n A.L.A. Headquarters. 2. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s i n books and a r t i c l e s . 3. CEA Handbook, Toronto, O n t a r i o , Canadian E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972. (Used f o r Canadian s c h o o l board addresses) 4. Card C a t a l o g u e / C o l l e c t i o n s _ o f the: a) U.B.C. Cu r r i c u l u m Laboratory b) U.B.C. Reading Resource Centre c) Vancouver Teacher's P r o f e s s i o n a l L i b r a r y d) B.C.T.F. Teacher's L i b r a r y 5. Correspondence to v a r i o u s Canadian and American e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s r e q u e s t i n g l i s t s o r c o p i e s o f guides. Responses were o b t a i n e d from 79% of the c e n t r e s . 6. a) ERIC/Educational Documents Index, i n c l u d i n g the " I n s t i t u t i o n Index" b) E d u c a t i o n a l Documents A b s t r a c t s c) i s s u e s Of Research i n Ed u c a t i o n (RIE) 209 Henslowe/75 11. CURRICULUM GUIDES Sources Located At t h i s stage, t h a t i s , the l o c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was decided to i n c l u d e a l l t e c h n i c a l manuals o b t a i n e d and examine them more c l o s e l y d u r i n g the c o l l e c t i o n stage. Note s t a r r e d items.* 1. Andrews Independent School D i s t r i c t , Language A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide: A Planned Program f o r Grades 1-12, Andrews, Texas, 1964. (Intermediate ed., 4 guides, emphasis on l i b r a r y s k i l l s ) 2. B a l t i m o r e County, A Manual of Procedures f o r School Media S p e c i a l i s t s . 3d.rev.ed., Towson, Maryland, 19 70.* 3. a) B e l l e v u e P u b l i c Schools, B e l l e v u e , Washington, G e t t i n g i t A l l Together: L i b r a r y - C l a s s r o o m Reference S k i l l s Guide f o r Kindergarten-Twelve, 1973. b) Kindergarten-:slx.th7,19 73, rev. 1974. 4. Birmingham P u b l i c Schools, L i b r a r y S k i l l s and A t t i t u d e s C u r r i c u l u m Guide f o r the L i b r a r y Program, Grades K-6, Birmingham, Michigan, 1963. (ED 001 740) 5. Bloomington P u b l i c Schools, Handbook f o r Resource Center P e r s o n n e l , Elementary-Secondary. Bloomington, Minnesota, Sept., 1974. 6. B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. o f E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n of C u r r i c u l u m , L i b r a r y Manual f o r The P u b l i c Schools o f B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1948, 1955 and 1968. 7. C a l g a r y School Board, T e a c h e r - L i b r a r i a n Handbook. Cal g a r y , A l b e r t a , 1970.* v 8. C e n t r a l Okanagan, L i b r a r y Committee, L i b r a r y Manual. School D i s t r i c t No. 23, B.C., A p r i l , 1972. 9. Contra Costa County, C a l i f o r n i a School L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r s , Guide to Elementary L i b r a r y I n s t r u c t i o n . P l e a s a n t H i l l , C a l i f o r n i a : C.C.C., Dept. o f E d u c a t i o n , 1968. 10. Idaho S t a t e Dept. o f E d u c a t i o n , Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , Your Media Program, K-12 . B o i s e , Idaho, 1972. Henslowe/75 12. Chicago, Board of E d u c a t i o n , C i t y of Chicago, I l l i n o i s : a) C u r r i c u l u m Guide f o r , L i b r a r y S c i e n c e , Grades 1-8, 1968. b) C u r r i c u l u m Guide f o r the Reading Guidance Program of the Elementary School L i b r a r y , 1971. c) Handbook f o r the Elementary School L i b r a r i a n , 1972. d) Overview of Developmental Concepts f o r I n s t r u c t i o n i n the Use of the L i b r a r y and I t s Resources, 1965. D a l l a s Independent School D i s t r i c t , C u r r i c u l u m B u l l e t i n S e r i e s , The L i b r a r y i n the S c h o o l . D a l l a s , Texas, 1965. F u l t o n County School System, Elementary School L i b r a r i a n s , A Guide f o r Teaching the A p p r e c i a t i o n o f Good Books and the Use of the School L i b r a r y . 2d.ed., A t l a n t a , Georgia, F u l t o n County, 1960. Los Angeles C i t y S c hools, D i v i s i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a . a) L i b r a r y Manual. Rev., 1957. b) L i b r a r y " L e s s o n s , Sept., 1966. ( T e n t a t i v e ed.) c) L i b r a r y S k i l l s , Teacher's Guide, K-6, 1966. d) Research S k i l l s and L i b r a r y Resources: P a r t Three, 1966. (Highschool l e v e l ) Montana, Montana Teachers and L i b r a r i a n s , A Guide f o r Montana School L i b r a r i e s : A Manual of B a s i c L i b r a r y Procedures f o r Montana Schools, Helena: S t a t e Dept. o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n s , Jan., 1971. (ED 042 483) New England School Development C o u n c i l and the N.E. School L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , Your Goals f o r a School L i b r a r y Program. Cambridge, Mass., 19 61. North C a r o l i n a , S t a t e Dept. o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s S e c t i o n , Developing a Good School L i b r a r y Program. R a l e i g h , North C a r o l i n a , 1961 Oklahoma C i t y , A Guide f o r the Teaching o f L i b r a r y S k i l l s , Grades K-12. Oklahoma C u r r i c u l u m Improvement Committee, Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma, 1969. (ED 045 158) P e n n s y l v a n i a Dept. of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , H a r r i s b u r g , P e n n s y l v a n i a . a) A Guide f o r S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n s , 1969. b) The S c h o o l I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Center and the C u r r i c u l u m : The L i b r a r y A u d i o - V i s u a l Center, 1962. P r i n c e George, H i n t s f o r New L i b r a r i a n s : A Handbook f o r S chool L i b r a r i a n s New to D i s t r i c t 57. Prepared by Mrs. -F.L. Wilson, P r i n c e George, B r i t i s h Columbia, Sept., 1974.* 211 Henslowe/75 13. 21. R i c h l a n d P u b l i c Schools, The Teaching of L i b r a r y S k i l l s , Grades K-6. rev.ed., 1965, R i c h l a n d , Washington, 1965. 22. S e a t t l e P u b l i c Schools, C u r r i c u l u m Development D i v i s i o n , Dept. of I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s and Media, L i b r a r y E x periences f o r Elementary School C h i l d r e n , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1966. 23. Sulphur S p r i n g s , Texas, Guide f o r the Development o f L i b r a r y S k i l l s and S e r v i c e s i n the Sulphur S p r i n g s Independent School D i s t r i c t , K-12, 1972. (ED 066 176) 24. Vancouver, Dept. of Elementary E d u c a t i o n , The School L i b r a r i a n . Prepared by the School L i b r a r i a n ' s Committee, Vancouver, B.C> 1st e d i t i o n undated, rev. 1964. Mimeographed exc e r p t s r e c e i v e d 1. D e t r o i t P u b l i c S c hools, " C o o r d i n a t i n g the Teaching of the Research S k i l l s " . D e t r o i t , . M i c h i g a n , n.d. 3p. 2. Quebec, Dept. o f E d u c a t i o n , School L i b r a r y B u l l e t i n s . Quebec, Quebec. 1965-66.* 3. Sudbury Board of E d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r y Dept., " L i b r a r y Resource Centre G u i d e l i n e s , K-6", and " C h e c k l i s t f o r L i b r a r y Resource Centre G u i d e l i n e s , K-6", Sudbury, O n t a r i o n.d. 4. Winnipeg, Manitoba, L i b r a r y S e r v i c e Centre, "Teaching the Use o f the L i b r a r y " , School D i v i s i o n No. 1, Winnipeg, Manitoba. n.d. 212 Henslowe/75 14. TESTS L o c a t i o n a l S ources 1. B.C.T.F. Lesson A i d s Catalogue. 2. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s from a r t i c l e s , books and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . 3. a) Buros, O.K., Reading Tests' and Reviews. Highland Park, New J e r s e y : Gryphon P r e s s , 196 8. b) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ T e s t s i n P r i n t _______ 1961. c) ' T e s t s i n P r i n t I I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1974. d) r e f e r e n c e as needed to copies of the seven e d i t i o n s of Buros Mental Measurements Yearbooks. 4. Card'. C'at-lo'gu'e?/^ .®.,B'.,C. : a) C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory b) E d u c a t i o n a l C l i n i c c) Reading Resource Centre 5. E d u c a t i o n Index ( i n f o r m a l t e s t s ) 6. a) ERIC/Educational Documents Index. b) / A b s t r a c t s . c) r e f e r e n c e as needed to i s s u e s o f ERIC/Research i n Ed u c a t i o n (RIE). 7. Hopkinson, S h i r l e y L., I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r Teaching the Use of the L i b r a r y . 4th ed. San Jose, C a l i f o r n i a : Claremont House, 1971. 8. I n d i v i d u a l s (contacts i n person or through correspondence): (*for O u t - o f - P r i n t Tests) a) U.B.C. F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n . . .1 b) U.B.C. School of L i b r a r i a n s h i p . . .2 c) Boston U n i v e r s i t y . . .1* d) U. o f Colorado (Boulder) . . .1* e) ETS ( E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e ) . . .1* f) U. o f I l l i n o i s a t Urbana . . .1 g) U. o f I l l i n o i s , I n s t r u c t i o n a l R.C. 1* h) U. o f Minnesota 1* i ) NWRL. (Northwest R e g i o n a l Lab) . . .1* j) School d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . . .2 213 Henslowe/75 15. 9. L i b r a r y L i t e r a t u r e ( i n f o r m a l t e s t s ) . 10. L o c a t i o n a l sources f o r theses and d i s s e r t a t i o n s were a l s o checked f o r s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g l i b r a r y t e s t development. 11. P u b l i s h e r ' s Catalogues were checked, i n c l u d i n g a number of s p e c i a l i z e d t e s t catalogues such as those from the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t Bureau and American T e s t i n g Co. 214 Henslowe/75 16. TESTS Sources Located Commercial T e s t s : 1. Comprehensive T e s t of B a s i c S k i l l s : Study S k i l l s . (Grades 2-12; 2 forms; 4 l e v e l s ) , Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a : CTE/ McGraw-Hill, 1968-1971. 2. Canadian T e s t of B a s i c S k i l l s (Work-Study s e c t i o n , Gr. 3-8;.Canadian a d a p t a t i o n of Iowa Tes t s of B a s i c S k i l l s ) , Toronto: T. Nelson, 1955-70. 3. D i a g n o s t i c Reading T e s t , P u p i l Progress S e r i e s , E l e - mentary L e v e l (Grades 4-6) , B e n e s v i l l e , I l l i n o i s : S c h o l a s t i c T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , 1956, rev. 1957. 4. IPX, Language A r t s L i b r a r y and L i t e r a r y S k i l l s (K-6 ~ Form A; 10 " l i b r a r y " s u b t e s t s ) , Los Angeles: I n s t r u c t i o n a l P b j e c t i v e s Exchange, 1973. 5. L i b r a r y S k i l l s T e s t - P a r t s I and I I . (ED 001589 - on order from ERIC/EDRS). 6. L i b r a r y Survey, T e s t 1. (Gr. 7-8), rev. Logan, Iowa: P e r f e c t i o n Form Co., 1973. 7. N a t i o n a l T e s t o f L i b r a r y S k i l l s . (Gr. 4-12), F o r t Lauderdale, F l o r i d a : American T e s t i n g Co., 1967. 8. SRA Achievement S e r i e s : Work Study S k i l l s . (Gr. 4-6, 6-9; 2 forms), Chicago: Science Research A s s o c i a t e s , 1954-57. 9. Wisconsin T e s t s o f Reading S k i l l Development: Study S k i l l s . (Levels A-G f o r K, Gr. 1-7), M i n n e a p o l i s : NCS I n t e r p r e t i v e S c o r i n g Systems, 1970-73. (Specimen s e t on o r d e r ) . 10. Gne t e s t i n e x p e r i m e ntal form: Shores, J.H., Development of D i a g n o s t i c Instruments f o r Research Study S k i l l s i n Grade 4, 5 and 6" Urbana, I l l i n o i s : F i n a l Report to U.S./DHEW, 1970. (ED 053 224) Informal T e s t s : (excerpts from books, a r t i c l e s or i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s or t e s t s from i n d i v i d u a l s ) : not l i s t e d . 215 Henslowe/75 17. THESES AND DISSERTATIONS L o c a t i o n a l Sources Theses and D i s s e r t a t i o n s (minor s o u r c e s ) : 1. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s of a r t i c l e s and books. 2. L i b r a r y L i t e r a t u r e 3. P h i D e l t a Kappan: Research S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . 4. U.B.C. f i l e o f theses, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s Dept. (Theses). Theses (major s o u r c e s ) : 1. B l a c k , Dorothy M., comp., Guide to L i s t s of Master's Theses. A.L.A., 1965. 2. Canada, N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , Canadian Theses. Theses Canadiennes. 1952-. 3. Master's Theses i n E d u c a t i o n , 19 51/52- Cedar F a l l s , U. of North Iowa. D i s s e r t a t i o n s : 1. Comprehensive D i s s e r t a t i o n Index, 1861-1972. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Z e r o x / U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 19 73. 2. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Ann Arbor, Michigan: Z e r o x / U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1952-. 216 Henslowe/75 18. THESES AND DISSERTATIONS Sources Located S t u d i e s which are l i s t e d e i t h e r have been ordered or are t o be ordered through U.B.C.'s i n t e r - l i b r a r y loan s e r v i c e . Theses: 1. Dugas,.Sister. Mary R., The Measurement of L i b r a r y S k i l l s Among P u p i l s o f Upper Elementary Grades. C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America, Washington, D.C, 1966-67. 2. Kron, Mary E., A Developmental S e q u e n t i a l Method of Teaching L i b r a r y S k i l l s . C e n t r a l Washington S t a t e C o l l e g e , . E l l e n s b u r g , Washington, 1968-69. 3. Mains, C l a r e n c e , Techniques i n T r a i n i n g Intermediate P u p i l s i n L i b r a r y S k i l l s . Drake U n i v e r s i t y , Des Moines, 1968-69. 4. Ruel, Joseph A., The Use o f the L i b r a r y In Teaching S i x t h Grade S o c i a l S t u d i e s . C e n t r a l C o n n e c t i c u t S t a t e C o l l e g e , New B r i t a i n , Conn., 1962-63. 5. White, G l o r i a B.> Teaching o f the Use o f L i b r a r y From Elementary School Through S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . E a s t Texas S t a t e C o l l e g e , Commerce, Texas, 1962-63. D i s s e r t a t i o n s : 1. No'l'd., Jack T., Teaching Research Study S k i l l s i n the F i f t h Grade. U. of I l l i n o i s a t Urbana, 1971. 2. Rogers, F r e d e r i c k A., B a s i c Study S k i l l s as R e l a t e d to Each Other and to~G"eneral Acnievement, Mental A b i l i t y and Reading A b i l i t i e s i n Grade S i x . U. of I l l i n o i s a t Urbana, 1966. 3. Snoddy, James C., Teaching Research Study S k i l l s i n Grade S i x . U. o f I l l i n o i s a t Urbana, 1967. 4. S t i n s o n , L i l l i a n P., Teaching a Reading-Study S k i l l s Pro- gram a t the : S i x t h Grade L e v e l . U. of I l l i n o i s a t Urbana, 19 70. Henslowe/75 19. Y a r l i n g , James, R., C h i l d r e n ' s Understanding and Use of S e l e c t e d L i b r a r y - R e l a t e d S k i l l s i n Two Elementary. Schools, One With and One Without a C e n t r a l i z e d L i b r a r y , 1968, B a l l S t a t e U. APPENDIX C QUEST IONNAIRE II : THE PILOT VAL IDAT ION OF THE SKILLS MODEL LMIL Skills/Subskills items were printed on pink paper LC IM Skil ls /Subskills items were printed on yel low paper Other parts were printed on white paper 219 Reading Educa t i o n Department, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, December , 1975. E a r l i e r t h i s year you generously agreed to a c t as a judge on my d o c t o r a l study to help shape and v a l i d a t e a model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . I am g r a t e f u l f o r your w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s important phase of my study. As I mentioned i n the f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e package, i n f o r m a t i o n gathered from the l i t e r a t u r e search and the e x p r e s s i o n o f p r o f - e s s i o n a l judgments are c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l i n e s t a b l i s h - i n g the content v a l i d i t y o f the proposed model (and any f u t u r e measure o f b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s ) , . Your judgments w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the study. The p l a n f o r e l i c i t i n g your judgments i s to request t h a t you: 1) examine the e n c l o s u r e s i n t h i s envelope, 2) draw c o n c l u s i o n s about your r e a c t i o n s t o the model based on the c r i t - e r i a f o r making judgments, and 3) respond t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e about l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and s u b s k i l l s . W i t h i n the package you w i l l f i n d two e n c l o s u r e s . The f i r s t p r o v i d e s c e r t a i n background i n f o r m a t i o n on the study t h a t w i l l , I b e l i e v e , be needed i n making your judgments. The second i s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . The background i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e s f o u r s e c t i o n s : 1) statement of the problem, 2) p l a n of the study and s t a t u s t o date, 3) c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the model, and 4) nature and purpose of the judgments. There are two s e c t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : 1) S e c t i o n A, " L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s " , c o n s i s t i n g o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f c r i t e r i a , d i r e c t i o n s and response forms, and 2) S e c t i o n B, " L o c a t i o n a l Sub- s k i l l s " , c o n s i s t i n g of d i r e c t i o n s and response forms. Would you p l e a s e , w i t h i n the next week or so, examine the e n c l o s e d m a t e r i a l s and make your judgments. Any time t h a t you are ready we can arrange an i n t e r v i e w appointment. During 220 the i n t e r v i e w we w i l l d i s c u s s your responses, i n c l u d i n g any sug- g e s t i o n s and remarks t h a t you may wish t o make about any aspect of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I f you have any quest i o n s on r e c e i v i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , or d u r i n g judgments, p l e a s e c o n t a c t me a t home i n the evenings or at the Reading Educa t i o n Department, by l e a v i n g a message wit h our s e c r e t a r y Once again , I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I hope t h a t you w i l l f i n d the experience i n t e r - e s t i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y rewarding. Yours s i n c e r e l y , S h i r l e y Henslowe SH:egm En c l o s u r e s . E n c l o s u r e #1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION Page Statement of the Problem 1 Pl a n of the Study and Status t o Date ' 1 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Model 2 Nature and Purpose of the Judgments '2 S. Henslowe December, 1975 (Questionnaire Henslowe/75 1 1. Statement of the Problem The purpose o f the study i s to develop a model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s f o r p r i n t sources a t the elementary sc h o o l l e v e l . A s k i l l s model w i l l be produced through a n a l y s i s of l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , c u r r i c u l a , p u b l i s h e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l mat- e r i a l s and t e s t s . The model t h a t emerges from t h i s process w i l l be submitted to a number of s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s f o r v a l i d a t i o n through independent judgments. I t i s hoped t h a t the study w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e s e a r c h i n the area of l i b r a r y s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n as i t i s c a r r i e d on through elementary s c h o o l l i b r a r y and r e a d i n g c u r r i - c u l a . A p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the model i s seen to be i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o an i n i t i a l u n i t on r e s e a r c h and r e p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e grade l e v e l i n a s u b j e c t area such as s o c i a l s t u d i e s . 2. P l a n of the Study and Status to Date Stage One: C o n s t r u c t i o n of the Model a. L o c a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e base i n l i b r a r y , s o c i a l s t u d i e s and r e a d i n g education - completed J u l y , 1975. b. C r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n t o l i t e r a t u r e base by l i b r a r i a n s - completed August, 1975. c. Review of l i t e r a t u r e - completed October, 1975. d. C o n s t r u c t i o n of model - completed November, 197 5. e. C r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s to model - the a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e (December, 1975) Henslowe/75 2 Stage Two : R e v i s i o n and F i n a l V a l i d a t i o n of The Model (projected) a. R e v i s i o n : o f . the s k i l l s model based on the p i l o t v a l i d a t i o n - w i n t e r , 1976. b. V a l i d a t i o n of the s k i l l s model by s e l e c t e d judges across Canada - spring/summer, 1976. 3. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Model In the review of l i t e r a t u r e from l i b r a r y , r e a d i n g and s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n the term " b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s " was sought f i r s t . I t was not found although the terms " b a s i c t o o l s " , " b a s i c s k i l l s " , " l i b r a r y s k i l l s " and " l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s " were found f r e q u e n t l y . I t was decided by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t i t would be most e f f i c i e n t t o develop f i r s t a model of l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and then t o r e f i n e t h a t model through v a l i d a t i o n of the terms b a s i c and l i b r a r y a p p l i e d to the model. I t was concluded t h a t the product would be a model t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a model of b a s i c l i b - r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . 4;; Nature and Purpose of Judgments You are one of f i v e l i b r a r i a n s / e d u c a t o r s , t r a i n e d i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s h i p , who has been asked t o form a p a n e l of i n - dependent judges. As i m p l i e d by the term "independent", i t i s asked t h a t r e a c t i o n s be made without c o n s u l t a t i o n among judges 224 Henslowe/75 3 e i t h e r d u r i n g or f o l l o w i n g judging procedures. You are being asked to r e a c t to l i s t i n g s o f v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n to two aspects of s k i l l s i n s t r u c t - i o n : 1) l e v e l i n the s k i l l s h i e r a r c h y , t h a t i s , whether the s k i l l s and t h e i r s u b s k i l l s are b a s i c (B) or non-basic (NB), and 2) whether the s k i l l s are l i b r a r y - b a s e d (LB) or not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d (NNLB). These r e f e r e n t s , along with f o u r other items, are d e f i n e d w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . The r e f e r e n t s mentioned above are c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l i n r e f i n i n g a g e n e r a l model of l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s i n t o a more s p e c i f i c model, i . e . , a model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , c o n s t r u c t i o n of such a model i s a major purpose of the study. Your judgments, t h e r e f o r e , are intended t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the content v a l i d i t y or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e - ness of the proposed model. The s p e c i f i c focus i s the v a l i d a t i o n of the terms b a s i c and l i b r a r y a p p l i e d to a model of l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . 225 E n c l o s u r e #2 QUESTIONNAIRE I I Pages SECTION A: LOCATIONAL SKILLS CLUSTERS 1-4 SECTION B: LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS 5-19 S. Henslowe December, 19 75 226 Henslowe / 7 5 1 SECTION A: LOCATIONAL SKILLS CLUSTERS The purpose o f S e c t i o n A i s to o b t a i n your r e a c t i o n s to two l o c a t i o n a l " s k i l l s c l u s t e r s " i n terms of a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l and l o c a l e f o r s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n . The two s k i l l s c l u s t e r s developed by the r e s e a r c h e r a r e : 1) l o c a t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n a l i b r a r y , and 2) l o c a t i n g content/data i n m a t e r i a l s . L e v e l , as proposed f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n , r e f e r s t o b a s i c or non-basic l e v e l w h ile l o c a l e i n d i c a t e s l i b r a r y - b a s e d or not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n s 1. L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y : These are the s k i l l s used i n a c t u a l l y f i n d i n g the mat- e r i a l s themselves, but not the s k i l l s used i n l o c a t i n g data or content w i t h i n the m a t e r i a l . T h i s c l u s t e r i s comprised of a) arrangement o f the l i b r a r y , b) arrangement of m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y , c) card c a t a l o g u e , d) v e r t i c a l f i l e and, e) Dewey Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . For example, use of the card catalogue to l o c a t e a s p e c i f i c s c i e n c e book i n the l i b r a r y would be such a s k i l l but not use of the'book's index to l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the m a t e r i a l . 227 Henslowe/75 2 2. L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s : These are the s k i l l s used i n a c t u a l l y f i n d i n g c o n t e n t / data but not the s k i l l s used i n c o l l e c t i n g data from the mater- i a l s . For v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s t h i s s k i l l s c l u s t e r i s comprised o f : a) format and, b) b i b l i o g r a p h i c data ( f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to as book p a r t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e ) . For example, use of c e r t a i n b i b l i o g r a p h i c data t o l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a t e x t would be such a s k i l l , but not the use of such s k i l l s as o u t l i n i n g or n o t e t a k i n g to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from the t e x t book. " M a t e r i a l s " would i n c l u d e standard f i c t i o n / n o n - f i c t i o n books, standard and s p e c i a l i z e d r e f e r e n c e books and magazines/ p e r i o d i c a l s . I t i s f e l t by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t l o c a t i o n a l a i d s of the standard f i c t i o n / n o n - f i c t i o n books would l o g i c a l l y r e c e i v e f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n . 3. Basic/Non B a s i c ( S k i l l s or S u b s k i l l s ) : B a s i c s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and s u b s k i l l s t h a t , f o r purposes o f i n s t r u c t i o n , would l o g i c a l l y be p l a c e d a t the lower l e v e l s of a s k i l l s continuum. For users u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the l i b r a r y , whatever t h e i r age l e v e l , these s k i l l s would be c o n s i d e r e d to be b a s i c or fundamental s k i l l s . (B) 228 Henslowe/75 3 Non-basic s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t h a t would l o g i c a l l y be postponed u n t i l f i r s t - l e v e l or foundation s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n had taken p l a c e . Non-basic s k i l l s would, t h e r e f o r e , be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d i n second or h i g h e r l e v e l s of a s k i l l s continuum. (NB) 4. Library-Based/Not N e c e s s a r i l y L i b r a r y - B a s e d S k i l l s : L i b r a r y - b a s e d s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t h a t would be most a p p r o p r i a t e l y taught and u t i l i z e d i n the l i b r a r y . (LB) Not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t h a t would not n e c e s s a r i l y be taught and u t i l i z e d i n the l i b r a r y . (NNLB) D i r e c t i o n s Please r e a c t to each l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s c l u s t e r by f i r s t c l a s s i f y i n g i t s component s k i l l s as being b a s i c (B) or non-basic (NB) a c c o r d i n g to the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n above. Then r e a c t to each s k i l l s c l u s t e r by i n d i c a t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l e as being l i b r a r y - b a s e d (LB) or not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d (NNLB) a c c o r d i n g to the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n above. 229 Henslowe/75 4 The r a t i n g s c a l e s are s e t up as f o l l o w s : 1. B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 2 . LB (Library-Based) NNLB (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Library-Based) For each statement g i v e n , i n d i c a t e your r e a c t i o n by checking (/) the one category t h a t b e s t expresses your judgment. I f you f e e l t h a t o t h e r s k i l l s should be i n c l u d e d p l e a s e i d e n t i f y those s k i l l s under "Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s " . 230 Henslowe/75 5 RESPONSE FORMS: SECTION A LOCATIONAL SKILLS: (LEVEL AND LOCALE FOR INSTRUCTION) S k i l l s Cluster #1: Locating Materials i n a Library a. Level., i n S k i l l s Hierarchy To locate materials i n the l i b r a r y , B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) the a b i l i t y to use the i s : 1. arrangement of the l i b r a r y 2. arrangement of materials i n the l i b r a r y 3 . card catalogue 4. v e r t i c a l f i l e 5. Dewey Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n b. Locale for Instruction S k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n for locating materials i n a l i b r a r y should be: LB NNLB (Library- (Not Necessarily Based) Library-Based) Suggestions for Additional Locational S k i l l s : Locating Materials i n a Library: 231 A cont'd. Henslowe/75 6 LOCATIONAL SKILLS: (LEVEL AND LOCALE FOR INSTRUCTION) S k i l l s C l u s t e r #2: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s BOOKS (Standard F i c t i o n / N o n - F i c t i o n ) L e v e l i n S k i l l s H i e r a r c h y To l o c a t e data i n books the a b i l i t y t o use the of a book i s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 1. format 2. b i b l i o g r a p h i c data L o c a l e f o r I n s t r u c t i o n S k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r l o c a t i n g data i n books should be LB NNLB ( L i b r a r y - (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Based) Library-Based) Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s : L o c a t i n g C o n t e n t / D a t a i n BOOKS. ( S t a n d a r d F i c t i o n / N o n - F i c t i o n ) Henslowe/75 7 I f , i n S e c t i o n A, S k i l l s C l u s t e r #1: L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y , you checked LB ( L i b r a r y - Based) p l e a s e t u r n t o Page 8̂, ( S e c t i o n B) . I f you checked NNLB (Not N e c e s s a r i l y L i b r a r y - Based) pl e a s e t u r n t o Page 1_5, ( S e c t i o n B) . 233 Henslowe/75 8 SECTION B LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS The purpose of S e c t i o n B i s to o b t a i n your r e a c t i o n s to l o c a t i o n a l s u b s k i l l s i n terms of t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l ; t h a t i s , whether each s u b s k i l l i s judged t o be b a s i c o r non- b a s i c a c c o r d i n g to d e f i n i t i o n s given i n S e c t i o n A. S u b s k i l l s are those s k i l l s u n d e r l y i n g each s k i l l c l u s t e r . For example, under " L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y " a s u b s k i l l would be u s i n g the author car d of a c a r d catalogue w h i l e under " L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s " a s u b s k i l l would be u s i n g the index of a book (part of the b i b l i o g r a p h i c data) . D i r e c t i o n s You are asked to r e a c t t o s u b s k i l l s l i s t e d on pages 10 t o .13 by c l a s s i f y i n g each as being b a s i c or non-basic. The r a t i n g s c a l e i s s e t up as f o l l o w s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) For each statement g i v e n , i n d i c a t e your r e a c t i o n by c h e c k i n g the category t h a t b e s t expresses your judgments. I f you f e e l t h a t other s u b s k i l l s should be i n c l u d e d , you are asked to i d e n t i f y these s u b s k i l l s under "Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l Loca- t i o n a l S u b s k i l l s " 234 Henslowe/75 9 Under the "Remarks" s e c t i o n , you are asked to o f f e r any c r i t i c a l comments t h a t you wish about the s e c t i o n s on e i t h e r c l u s t e r s or s u b s k i l l s . 235 Henslowe/75 10 RESPONSE FORMS: SECTION B LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS: LEVEL FOR INSTRUCTION* S k i l l s C l u s t e r #1 - L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y . S u b s k i l l s : L e v e l i n S k i l l s H i e r a r c h y 1. ARRANGEMENT OF THE LIBRARY In r e l a t i o n to placement on a l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s con- tinuum, a b i l i t y t o comprehend and use a i s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) simple l i b r a r y f l o o r p l a n 2. ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIALS IN A LIBRARY In r e l a t i o n t o placement on a l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s con- tinuum, a b i l i t y t o f i n d m a t e r i a l s -. :__ i s : by s e c t i o n s : p i c t u r e books easy books f i c t i o n books n o n - f i c t i o n books r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s m a g a z i n e s / p e r i o d i c a l s w i t h i n s e c t i o n s : books: f i c t i o n , a l p h a b e t i c a l by author n o n - f i c t i o n , by s u b j e c t (DDC) , then a l p h a b e t i c a l by author biography by B or 92, then a l p h a b e t i c a l by biographee 236 Henslowe/75 11 w i t h i n s e c t i o n s : books: cont'd. B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) c a l l number p a r t s of c a l l number: l e t t e r i d e n t i f i e r s PB (form) ' E (content) R (purpose) author's surname ( i n i t i a l ) number i d e n t i f i e r s author's surname (number) s h e l f l a b e l s : f o r s e c t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n s e c t i o n s : magazines: a l p h a b e t i c a l , by t i t l e ( i g n o r i n g a r t i c l e s a, an, the) 3. CARD CATALOGUE* In r e l a t i o n to placement on a l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s con- tinuum, a b i l i t y t o use the i s : o u t s i d e l a b e l s guide cards ( i n s i d e t r a y s ) author car d (see a l s o : f i l i n g r u l e s ) author - top l i n e surname f i r s t t i t l e of book date of p u b l i c a t i o n c a l l number ( r e c o g n i t i o n ) s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e r s (DDC) l e t t e r i d e n t i f i e r s number i d e n t i f i e r s : author's surname: number 237 Henslowe/75 CARD CATALOG, cont'd. 1 2 B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) t i t l e c a r d (see a l s o : f i l i n g r u l e s ) t i t l e on f i r s t l i n e s u b j e c t c a r d (see a l s o : f i l i n g r u l e s ) s u b j e c t on f i r s t l i n e heading c a p i t a l i z e d c r o s s r e f e r e n c e cards "see" "see a l s o " f i l i n g r u l e s a l p h a b e t i c a l order word-by-word arrangement 'Mac'/"Mc' as i f s p e l l e d 'Mac' numbers as i f s p e l l e d out a b b r e v i a t i o n s as i f s p e l l e d out books by an author before books about an author 'an', 'a', 'the' i n t i t l e s d i s - regarded (at begin n i n g o f t i t l e ) * not i n c l u d e d : s u b - t i t l e ; p u b l i s h e r ; t r a c i n g s ; only f i r s t l e t t e r o f t i t l e c a p i t a l i z e d ; a r t i c l e s counted i f w i t h i n t i t l e s ; c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e cards c a p i t a l i z e d ; and a n a l y t i c cards. 4. VERTICAL FILE B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) drawer l a b e l s e n v e l o p e / f o l d e r l a b e l s a l p h a b e t i c a l by s u b j e c t headings _ 238 Henslowe/75 13 5. CLASSIFICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. a. In r e l a t i o n t o placement on a l i b - r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s continuum, a b i l i t y t o use i s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) the t e n g e n e r a l d i v i s i o n s of the D.D.C. some s u b d i v i s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to a s u b j e c t area, say, s o c i a l s t u d i e s . to f i r s t decimal b. In r e l a t i o n to placement on a s k i l l s continuum of l i b r a r y con- tinuum of l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , a b i l i t y t o use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by i s : f a i r y t a l e s biography Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S u b s k i l l s : L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y Henslowe/75 14 I f , i n S e c t i o n A, S k i l l s C l u s t e r #2: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s you checked LB ( L i b r a r y Based) pl e a s e t u r n to Page _18, (S e c t i o n B) . Comp l e t e Pages 18 and 19, u s i n g the same d i r e c t i o n s you f o l l o w e d f o r the f i r s t s u b s k i l l s s e c t i o n . I f you checked NNLB (Not N e c e s s a r i l y L i b r a r y - Based) pl e a s e t u r n t o Page 19_, (S e c t i o n B) . Henslowe/75 15 I f , i n S e c t i o n A, S k i l l s C l u s t e r #2: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s you checked LB ( L i b r a r y - Based) , p l e a s e t u r n to Page 16_, ( S e c t i o n B) . I f you checked NNLB (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Library-Based) p l e a s e t u r n t o Page 19, ( S e c t i o n B). 241 Henslowe/75 16 SECTION B LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS The purpose of S e c t i o n B i s to o b t a i n your r e a c t i o n s to l o c a t i o n a l s u b s k i l l s i n terms of t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l ; t h a t i s , whether each s u b s k i l l i s judged to be b a s i c or non- b a s i c a c c o r d i n g to d e f i n i t i o n s given i n S e c t i o n A. S u b s k i l l s are those s k i l l s u n d e r l y i n g each s k i l l c l u s t e r . For example, under " L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y " a s u b s k i l l would be u s i n g the author c a r d of a card catalogue while under " L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s " a s u b s k i l l would be u s i n g the index of a book (part of the b i b l i o g r a p h i c d a t a ) . D i r e c t i o n s - You are asked to r e a c t to s u b s k i l l s l i s t e d on pages 18 and 19 by c l a s s i f y i n g each as being b a s i c or non-basic. The r a t i n g s c a l e i s s e t up as f o l l o w s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) For each statement g i v e n , i n d i c a t e your r e a c t i o n by checking the category t h a t b e s t expresses your judgments. I f you f e e l t h a t o t h e r s u b s k i l l s should be i n c l u d e d , you are asked to i d e n t i f y these s u b s k i l l s under "Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S u b s k i l l s " . 242 Henslowe/75 17 Under the "Remarks" s e c t i o n , you are asked to o f f e r any c r i t i c a l comments t h a t you wish about the s e c t i o n s on e i t h e r c l u s t e r s or s u b s k i l l s . 243 Henslowe/75 18 LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS: LEVEL FOR INSTRUCTION: S k i l l s C l u s t e r #2: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s BOOKS (Standard F i c t i o n / N o n - F i c t i o n ) S u b s k i l l s : L e v e l i n S k i l l s H i e r a r c h y 1. FORMAT* In r e l a t i o n to placement on a "book" l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s continuum, a b i l i t y to use such l o c a t i o n a l a i d s as the i s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) cover spine c o l l a t i o n : t i t l e page text/body matter g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l ( i l l u s t r a t i o n s , c h a r t s , etc.) * not i n c l u d e d : end papers, s i z e , type f a c e . 2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA* appendix author (name) b i b l i o g r a p h y c h a r t s ( l i s t i n g ) c o p y r i g h t date/or date o f p u b l i c a t i o n e d i t i o n foreword/preface g l o s s a r y i l l u s t r a t i o n s 244 BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA - cont'd index c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s i n t r o d u c t i o n key, guides (e.g., f o r symbols) maps s e r i e s t a b l e s t i t l e t a b l e of contents volume number Henslowe/75 19 B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic *not i n c l u d e d ; compiler, d e d i c a t i o n , e d i t o r , e p i l o g u e , f o o t n o t e s , h a l f - t i t l e , number of pages, p l a c e of p u b l i c a t i o n , p l a t e s , pro- logue, p u b l i s h e r , r e v i s i o n , s u b t i t l e and t r a n s l a t o r . Chapter and s e c t i o n headings are i m p l i e d under t a b l e o f contents. Suggested A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S u b s k i l l s ; L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n BOOKS REMARKS: NNLB; Page 19; The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s completed. Thank you. 245 APPENDIX D QUEST IONNAIRE III : THE F INAL VAL IDAT ION O F THE SKILLS MODEL LMIL Skills/Subskills items were printed on goldenrod paper (p. 6, pp. 10-13) LCIM Skills/Subskills items were printed on green paper (p. 15, pp. 14-17) Other parts were printed on white paper 246 Reading E d u c a t i o n Department U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia May - June, 1976 . \I am p r e s e n t l y working on the f i n a l stages of a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n i n Reading Education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The study w i l l , I b e l i e v e , be of i n t e r e s t to you. I t i s concerned w i t h the development and v a l i d a t i o n o f a model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s f o r p r i n t sources, a f a c e t o f r e - search and r e p o r t i n g s k i l l s f o r elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . As a former l i b r a r i a n I f e e l t h a t the study w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to both l i b r a r y and r e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n s i n c e i t should p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g l i b r a r y s k i l l s w ith v a r i o u s s u b j e c t areas. In i t s present form the s k i l l s model i s based on (1) an ex t e n s i v e v a l i d a t e d search of e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d i n g a r t i c l e s , t e s t s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l mater- i a l s and theses and, (2) a p i l o t v a l i d a t i o n of the model by a number of B r i t i s h Columbia school l i b r a r i a n s . That i s , two v a l i d - a t i o n s have been done - one concerned w i t h the q u a l i t y of the l i t - e r a t u r e search and the other w i t h the t e n t a t i v e s k i l l s model. The p i l o t v a l i d a t i o n of the model was done through i n - dependent judgments by a panel of B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r i a n s , some u n i v e r s i t y and some s c h o o l system p e r s o n n e l . Through a n a l y s i s of these judgments a r e f i n e d model was d e r i v e d and t h a t model i s now ready f o r f i n a l v a l i d a t i o n by l i b r a r y s p e c i a l i s t s o u t s i d e B r i t i s h Columbia. Judgments by experts i n sc h o o l l i b r a r i a n s h i p , both i n B r i t i s h Columbia and elsewhere i n Canada, are c o n s i d e r e d to be e s s e n t i a l i n e n s u r i n g content v a l i d i t y of the s k i l l s model. Through v a r i o u s avenues, i n c l u d i n g correspondence with p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r s and r e f e r e n c e to l i b r a r y d i r e c t o r i e s , i t has been p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n p u b l i c s c h o o l system and u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i a n s who are q u a l i f i e d to r e a c t to the model. From t h a t r o s t e r of l i b r a r i a n / e d u c a t o r s you have been s e l e c t e d t o a c t as an independent judge i n the f i n a l v a l i d a t i o n o f the b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s model. I hope t h a t you w i l l f i n d i t p o s s i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e and t h a t you f i n d your p a r t i c i p - a t i o n both i n t e r e s t i n g and worthwhile. A l l p r e v i o u s judges have 247 Page 2 i n d i c a t e d t h a t they have found t h e i r involvement p r o f e s s i o n a l l y rewarding. About a week a f t e r you r e c e i v e t h i s advance l e t t e r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e package w i l l a r r i v e , c o n t a i n i n g a l l p e r t i n e n t i n - formation i n c l u d i n g background on the study, d i r e c t i o n s and d e f i n - i t i o n s . E s s e n t i a l l y , the tasks f o r judges i n v o l v e r e a c t i o n s to (1) s e l e c t e d s k i l l s as being L i b r a r y - B a s e d or Not N e c e s s a r i l y L i b r a r y - B a s e d and (2) s e l e c t e d s k i l l s and s u b s k i l l s as being B a s i c or Non-Basic ( d e f i n i t i o n s p r o v i d e d ) . A c h e c k l i s t format i s used and the B.C. judges i n d i c a t e d t h a t both q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n s t r u c - t i o n s were a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o n c i s e and e x p l i c i t . An average of t h r e e to f i v e hours has been i n v o l v e d i n completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d i n g r e a d i n g of the background i n f o r m a t i o n , frames of r e f e r e n c e and responding to items. In r e p o r t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e data from the second v a l i d a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l judges' o p i n i o n s w i l l , o f course, not be i d e n t i f i e d spec- i f i c a l l y . However, your p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be c r e d i t e d i n two ways: (1) i n a l i s t i n g o f judges w i t h i n the study and, (2) by a f o l l o w - up l e t t e r f o r your v i t a e f i l e s acknowledging your p a r t i c i p a t i o n as an independent judge f o r my d o c t o r a l study. Since I have been i n v o l v e d f o r many years i n v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s and have been a l i b r a r i a n , I am w e l l aware of the demands a response to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e makes on your time. I can assure you, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t any time and thought devoted to my study w i l l be much a p p r e c i a t e d . You w i l l , I hope, f e e l some s a t i s - f a c t i o n i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to a d i s s e r t a t i o n concerned w i t h the l o n g - s t a n d i n g i s s u e of an i n t e g r a t e d approach to l i b r a r y s k i l l s t e a c h i n g . We b e l i e v e t h a t the study i s unique i n North America and hope t h a t i t s product w i l l have long range v a l u e . Yours s i n c e r e l y , (Mrs.) S h i r l e y Henslowe B.A., B.L.S., M.Ed. Ed.1-? • candidate A d v i s e r : Dr. Jane H. C a t t e r s o n , P r o f e s s o r , Reading Education. 248 Reading E d u c a t i o n Department U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, May - June, 1976. As you w i l l r e c a l l , I very r e c e n t l y c o ntacted you by l e t t e r about p a r t i c i p a t i n g as an independent judge on my d o c t o r a l study. In the advance l e t t e r i t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t you were one of the Canadian l i b r a r i a n s chosen to help i n the f i n a l v a l i d a t i o n of a model of l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . I am g r a t e f u l f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s important phase of my study. Information gathered from the l i t e r a t u r e search and e x p r e s s i o n s of p r o f e s s i o n a l judgments are c o n s i d e r e d to be e s s e n t i a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the content v a l i d i t y o f the pro- posed model. Your judgments w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f - i c a n t l y t o the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the study. As I a l s o e x p l a i n e d i n my p r e l i m i n a r y l e t t e r , a t e n t - a t i v e form of the model was r e c e n t l y submitted to a group of sc h o o l l i b r a r i a n s f o r t h e i r independent judgments. Through a n a l y s i s o f data gathered i n t h i s p i l o t study a more r e f i n e d v e r s i o n of the model was d e r i v e d . I t i s the r e f i n e d form of the s k i l l s model t o which you are being asked to r e a c t . The p l a n f o r e l i c i t i n g your judgments i s to request t h a t you: 1) examine the e n c l o s u r e s i n t h i s envelope, 2) draw c o n c l u s i o n s about your r e a c t i o n s to the model based on c r i t e r i a g i ven f o r making judgments and, 3) respond to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e about l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and s u b s k i l l s . W i t h i n the package you w i l l f i n d f o u r e n c l o s u r e s . The f i r s t o u t l i n e s c e r t a i n background i n f o r m a t i o n on the study t h a t w i l l , I b e l i e v e , be needed i n making your judgments. The second i s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . The t h i r d , a l o c a t i o n a l s u b s k i l l s appendix, i s a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n of s k i l l s i n the model which were e l i m i n a t e d by judges i n the p i l o t study. Your answers on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l determine whether or not you w i l l respond t o items i n the appendix. The f o u r t h e n c l o s u r e i s a s i n g l e sheet designed to gather c e r t a i n data about p a r t i c i p a n t s . 249 Page 2 The background i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e s f i v e s e c t i o n s : (1) r a t i o n a l e f o r the study; (2) statement o f the problem; (3) p l a n of the study and s t a t u s to date; (4) c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the model; and (5) nature and purpose of the judgments. There are two s e c t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : 1) "Locat- i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y : S k i l l s C l u s t e r s and S u b s k i l l s " , and (2) " L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s : S k i l l s C l u s t e r s " , each c o n s i s t i n g of e s s e n t i a l d e f i n i t i o n s , d i r e c t i o n s and response forms. In the s u b s k i l l s appendix there i s a l i s t i n g of s u b s k i l l s f o r " L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s " c o n s i s t i n g of d i r e c t i o n s and response forms. Would you p l e a s e , w i t h i n the next two or th r e e weeks, examine the enc l o s e d m a t e r i a l s and make your judgments. When you are f i n i s h e d would you k i n d l y r e t u r n the e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e package ( f i v e enclosures) i n the envelope p r o v i d e d f o r t h a t pur- pose. You w i l l , I hope, f i n d t h a t the contents of the package p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e and e x p l i c i t guidance f o r making your judg- ments. Thank you again f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n as an independent judge i n the study. I t r u s t you w i l l f i n d the experience i n t e r e s t - i n g and worthwhile i n r e l a t i o n to your work. Yours s i n c e r e l y , S h i r l e y Henslowe SH:egm E n c l s . A d v i s e r : Dr. Jane H. C a t t e r s o n P r o f e s s o r , Reading E d u c a t i o n Henslowe/76 BACKGROUND ON JUDGES: I I I To ensure accuracy and c o n s i s t e n c y of i n f o r m a t i o n about judges i n the study you are asked to complete the f o l l o w i n g c h e c k l i s t and add, as i n d i c a t e d , c e r t a i n data about your p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n and experience (name o m i t t e d ) . P l a c e of Employment: P o s i t i o n : P l e a s e check (\/) a c c o r d i n g to your p r e s e n t s t a t u s . School System a) S u p e r v i s o r y b) Other_ Dept. of Education a) S u p e r v i s o r y b) Other_ U n i v e r s i t y * a) F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n School L i b r a r i e s Dept. Other b) School of L i b r a r i a n s h i p *Course taught on elementary school l i b r a r y ( p r e - s e r v i c e ) Yes No Present P o s i t i o n ( t i t l e ) : E x p erience: Elementary School L i b r a r y Experience Yes No Elementary Teaching Experience Yes No Experience i n L i b r a r y Work <5 y r . 5 y r . > 5 Yr, T r a i n i n g : School L i b r a r y Major BLS MLS'i E n c l o s u r e #1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION Page R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Plan of the Study and Status to Date 2 C o n s t r u c t i o n of the T e n t a t i v e and R e f i n e d Models 2 Nature and Purpose o f the Judgments 3 1976 S. Henslowe Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I May-June, 1976 252 Henslowe/76 1 1. R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study School i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h and r e p o r t i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d by both l i b r a r i a n s and t e a c h e r s to l a c k adequate p o i n t and d i r e c t i o n . I t i s proposed t h a t at l e a s t p a r t of any problem t h a t e x i s t s l i e s i n the l a c k of v a l i d a t e d models f o r the a) l o c a t i o n , b) c o l l e c t i o n , and c) s y n t h e s i s s k i l l s t h a t are demanded i n the l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h and r e p o r t i n g t a s k s . 2. Statement o f the Problem The purpose of the study i s to develop a model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s f o r p r i n t sources a t the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . A s k i l l s model w i l l be produced through a n a l y s i s of l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , c u r r i c u l a , p u b l i s h e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l mat- e r i a l s and t e s t s . The model t h a t emerges from t h i s process w i l l be submitted to a number of school l i b r a r i a n s f o r v a l i d a t i o n through independent judgments. I t i s hoped t h a t the study w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e s e a r c h i n the area o f l i b r a r y s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n as i t i s c a r r i e d on through elementary school l i b r a r y and r e a d i n g c u r r i c u l a . A p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the model i s seen to be i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o an i n i t i a l u n i t on r e s e a r c h and r e p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r i n t - ermediate grade l e v e l i n a s u b j e c t area such as s o c i a l s t u d i e s . 253 Henslowe/76 2 3. P l a n o f the Study and Status to Date a. The stages t h a t have been completed are: (1) L o c a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r d e v e l o p i n g the model - J u l y , 1975. (2) C r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n to the i n f o r m a t i o n base by a group of independent judges, a l l l i b r a r i a n s - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I, " Q u a l i t y of the Search", August, 1975. (3) Data c o l l e c t i o n from the l i t e r a t u r e base to produce a t e n t a t i v e s k i l l s model - October, 1975. (4) T e n t a t i v e model ready f o r judgments - November, 1975. (5) C r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o the t e n t a t i v e model by a group of independent judges, a l l l i b r a r i a n s - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I I , the p i l o t study or f i r s t v a l i d a t i o n , January, 1976. (6) Summary of data from Q u e s t i o n n a i r e II and d e r i v a - t i o n of the r e f i n e d s k i l l s model, January, 1976. b. The stage to be completed i s a second v a l i d a t i o n , t h a t i s , c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s to the r e f i n e d model by independ- ent l i b r a r y judges o u t s i d e B r i t i s h Columbia - Question- n a i r e I I I , April-May, 1976. (See attached) 4. C o n s t r u c t i o n of the T e n t a t i v e and R e f i n e d Models In the review of l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e , r e l a t e d sources, and a p r e v i o u s review of r e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , the term " b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s " was sought f i r s t . I t was not found, although the terms " b a s i c t o o l s " , " b a s i c s k i l l s " , " l i b r a r y s k i l l s " and " l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s " were found f r e q u e n t l y . I t was decided by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t i t would be most e f f i c i e n t to develop f i r s t a model of l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and then 254 Henslowe/76 3 t o r e f i n e t h a t model through a p i l o t study v a l i d a t i o n of the terms b a s i c and l i b r a r y a p p l i e d t o the model. I t was a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t f o r each s k i l l and s u b s k i l l t o be r e t a i n e d i n the model at l e a s t 60% agreement would have to be expressed by p a r t i c i p a t i n g judges. The product of these judgments, i t was concluded, would be con- s i d e r e d to be a r e f i n e d model of b a s i c l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . 5. Nature and Purpose of the Judgments You are one of a number o f l i b r a r y educators, t r a i n e d and experienced i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s h i p , who has been asked to p a r t i c i p a t e as an independent judge i n a second v a l i d a t i o n of the model. As i m p l i e d by the term "independent" i t i s asked t h a t your r e a c t i o n s be made without c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h other judges or l i b - r a r y a s s o c i a t e s . On the q u e s t i o n n a i r e you are asked to r e a c t to l i s t i n g s of v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n t o two aspects of s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n : 1) l e v e l i n the s k i l l s h i e r a r c h y , t h a t i s , whether the s k i l l s and t h e i r s u b s k i l l s are b a s i c (B) or non-basic (NB) and 2) whether the s k i l l s are l i b r a r y - b a s e d (LB) or not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d (NNLB). These r e f e r e n t s along with s e v e r a l o t h e r terms are d e f i n e d w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . Depending on your answers i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e you may be asked to proceed t o the s u b s k i l l s appendix. I f so, you w i l l then be requested to r e a c t as to whether or not these s u b s k i l l s 255 Henslowe/76 4 are c o n s i d e r e d to be b a s i c (B). W i t h i n both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and appendix, c h e c k l i s t s of supplementary s u b s k i l l s are p r o v i d e d f o r your r e f e r e n c e about a d d i t i o n a l s k i l l s . You w i l l , I hope, f i n d t h a t the format of the q u e s t i o n - n a i r e f a c i l i t a t e s your judgments. Branching d i r e c t i o n s have been used w i t h i n response forms so t h a t you may proceed s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and without n e c e s s a r i l y r e f e r r i n g t o every page. 256 E n c l o s u r e #2 QUESTIONNAIRE I I I Pages SECTION A: LOCATING MATERIALS IN A LIBRARY: SKILLS CLUSTERS AND SUBSKILLS 1-13 SECTION B: LOCATING CONTENT/DATA IN MATERIALS: SKILLS CLUSTERS 14-17. S. Henslowe © 1976 May-June, 19 76 . 257 Henslowe/76 1 SECTION A: LOCATIONAL SKILLS CLUSTERS Two s k i l l s c l u s t e r s developed by the r e s e a r c h e r are: 1) l o c a t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n a l i b r a r y , and 2) l o c a t i n g content/data i n m a t e r i a l s . The purpose o f S e c t i o n s A and B i s t o o b t a i n your re- a c t i o n s about the two l o c a t i o n a l " s k i l l s c l u s t e r s " i n terms of a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l and l o c a l e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . L e v e l , as proposed f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n , r e f e r s to b a s i c or non-basic l e v e l while l o c a l e i n d i c a t e s l i b r a r y - b a s e d or not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d s k i l s i n s t r u c t i o n . 258 Henslowe/76 2 D e f i n i t i o n s In the order presented i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e the d e f i n - i t i o n s f o r S e c t i o n A are as f o l l o w s : 1. L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y 2. L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s 3. Basic/Non-Basic S k i l l s and S u b s k i l l s 4. Library-Based/Not N e c e s s a r i l y L i b r a r y - B a s e d W i t h i n these d e f i n i t i o n s r e f e r e n c e i s a l s o made to the meaning o f some r e l a t e d terms such as "arrangement of the l i b r a r y " and " m a t e r i a l s " . 1. L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y These are the s k i l l s used i n a c t u a l l y f i n d i n g m a t e r i a l s , but not the s k i l l s used i n l o c a t i n g data o r content w i t h i n such m a t e r i a l . T h i s c l u s t e r i s comprised of a) arrangement of the l i b - r a r y , b) arrangement o f m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y , c) card catalogue, d) v e r t i c a l f i l e , and e) Dewey Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . For ex- ample, use o f the card catalogue t o l o c a t e a s p e c i f i c s c i e n c e book i n the l i b r a r y would be a s k i l l f o r l o c a t i n g m a t e r i a l , but use of the book's index t o l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the m a t e r i a l would not be such a s k i l l . To a v o i d any c o n f u s i o n about the term "arrangement" i t should be noted t h a t "arrangement of the l i b r a r y " r e f e r s to gen e r a l l a y o u t of the l i b r a r y , i n c l u d i n g v a r i o u s work areas and f u r n i s h i n g s 259 Henslowe/76 3 w h i l e "arrangement of m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y " r e f e r s t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the book c o l l e c t i o n by s e c t i o n s and w i t h i n s e c t i o n s . 2. L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s These are the s k i l l s used i n a c t u a l l y f i n d i n g c o n t e n t / data but not the s k i l l s used i n c o l l e c t i n g data from the m a t e r i a l s . For v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s t h i s s k i l l s c l u s t e r i s comprised o f : a) format and, b) b i b l i o g r a p h i c data ( f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to as book p a r t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e ) . For example, use of c e r t a i n b i b - l i o g r a p h i c data to l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a t e x t would be a " l o c a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " s k i l l , but not such s k i l l s as o u t l i n i n g or n o t e t a k i n g to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from the t e x t book. As used i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t should be noted t h a t "format" r e f e r s to the make-up/general l a y o u t of the book, while " b i b l i o g r a p h i c data" r e f e r s t o i n f o r m a t i o n about the book which c o u l d be i n c l u d e d on the catalogue c a r d . Although these two terms are not regarded by the r e s e a r c h e r as being e n t i r e l y p r e c i s e and d i s c r e t e they are c o n s i d e r e d t o be f a r l e s s ambiguous than the term "book p a r t s " . " M a t e r i a l s " i n c l u d e s standard f i c t i o n / n o n - f i c t i o n books, standard and s p e c i a l i z e d r e f e r e n c e books and m a g a z i n e s / p e r i o d i c a l s . I t i s f e l t by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t l o c a t i o n a l a i d s f o r the standard f i c t i o n / n o n - f i c t i o n books would l o g i c a l l y r e c e i v e f i r s t c o n s i d e r a - t i o n i n s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n . ; 260 Hensiowe/76 4 3. Basic/Non-Basic ( S k i l l s or S u b s k i l l s ) B a s i c s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and s u b s k i l l s t h a t , f o r purposes of i n s t r u c t i o n , would l o g i c a l l y be p l a c e d at the lower l e v e l s of a s k i l l s continuum. For users u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the l i b r a r y , these s k i l l s would be c o n s i d e r e d to be b a s i c or funda- mental s k i l l s t o be taught (B). Non-basic s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t h a t would l o g i c a l l y be postponed u n t i l f i r s t - l e v e l or b a s i c s k i l l s i n s t r u c - t i o n had taken p l a c e . Non-basic s k i l l s would, t h e r e f o r e , be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d i n second o r h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a s k i l l s cont- inuum. (NB) . 4. Library-Based/Not N e c e s s a r i l y L i b r a r y - B a s e d S k i l l s L i b r a r y - b a s e d s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t h a t would be most a p p r o p r i a t e l y taught and u t i l i z e d i n the l i b r a r y . (LB) . Not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d s k i l l s are those l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t h a t would not n e c e s s a r i l y be taught and u t i l i z e d i n the l i b r a r y . (NNLB) 261 Henslowe/76 5 SECTION A LOCATIONAL SKILLS CLUSTER I D i r e c t i o n s P l e a s e r e a c t t o the l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s c l u s t e r by f i r s t c l a s s i f y i n g i t s component s k i l l s as being b a s i c (B) or non-basic (NB) a c c o r d i n g to the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n above. Then r e a c t t o the s k i l l s c l u s t e r by i n d i c a t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l e as being l i b r a r y - b a s e d (LB) or not n e c e s s a r i l y l i b r a r y - b a s e d (NNLB) a c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i o n s given above. The r a t i n g s c a l e s are s e t up as f o l l o w s : 1. B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 2. LB (Library-Based) NNLB (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Library-Based) For each statement g i v e n , i n d i c a t e your r e a c t i o n by checking (V) the one category t h a t b e s t expresses your judgment. I f you f e e l t h a t o t h e r s k i l l s should be i n c l u d e d p l e a s e i d e n t i f y those s k i l l s under "Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s " . Henslowe/76 7 262 I f , i n S e c t i o n A, S k i l l s C l u s t e r #1: L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y , you checked LB ( L i b r a r y - Based) p l e a s e t u r n t o Page 8, ( S e c t i o n A). I f you checked NNLB (Not N e c e s s a r i l y L i b r a r y - Based) p l e a s e t u r n t o page 14 ( S e c t i o n B). 263 Henslowe/76 6 RESPONSE FORMS: SECTION A LOCATIONAL SKILLS: (LEVEL AND LOCALE FOR INSTRUCTION) S k i l l s C l u s t e r #1: L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y a. L e v e l i n S k i l l s H i e r a r c h y To l o c a t e m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y , B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) the a b i l i t y t o use the i s : 1. arrangement of the l i b r a r y 2. arrangement of m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y 3. card catalogue 4. v e r t i c a l f i l e 5. Dewey Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n B. L o c a l e f o r I n s t r u c t i o n S k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r l o c a t i n g LB NNLB m a t e r i a l s i n a l i b r a r y should be: ( L i b r a r y - (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Based) Library-Based) Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s : L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y : 264 Henslowe/76 8 SECTION A LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS 1 The purpose of t h i s p a r t of S e c t i o n A i s to o b t a i n your r e a c t i o n s t o l o c a t i o n a l s u b s k i l l s i n terms of t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l ; t h a t i s , whether each s u b s k i l l i s judged to be b a s i c or non-basic a c c o r d i n g t o d e f i n i t i o n s given on page 2. S u b s k i l l s are those s k i l l s u n d e r l y i n g each s k i l l c l u s t e r . For example, under " L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y " a s u b s k i l l would be u s i n g an author card i n a c a r d catalogue while under " L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s " a s u b s k i l l would be u s i n g the index o f a book (part of the b i b l i o g r a p h i c d a t a ) . D i r e c t i o n s You are asked to r e a c t to s u b s k i l l s l i s t e d on pages 10 to 13 by c l a s s i f y i n g each as being b a s i c or non-basic. The r a t i n g s c a l e i s s e t up as f o l l o w s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) For each statement given, i n d i c a t e your r e a c t i o n s by checking (vO the category t h a t best expresses your judgments. At the bottom o f each page some space i s l e f t f o r any p e r t i n e n t remarks t h a t you might wish to add about p a r t i c u l a r s u b s k i l l s . You are asked to r e f e r to s u b s k i l l s by e i t h e r number or name. 265 Henslowe/76 9 I f you wish to c o n s i d e r adding some s u b s k i l l s you have been p r o v i d e d w i t h a supplementary c h e c k l i s t f o r t h a t purpose (page 1 3 ) . You are asked to i n d i c a t e any s k i l l s t h a t you regard as a l s o being b a s i c by checking the B (Basic) column beside those items. A l s o , you are welcome t o add any s k i l l s to the c h e c k l i s t which you f e e l are r e l e v a n t to the model, i . e . , b a s i c . 266 Henslowe/76 10 RESPONSE FORMS: SECTION A LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS: LEVEL FOR INSTRUCTION: S k i l l s C l u s t e r #1 - L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y S u b s k i l l s : L e v e l i n S k i l l s H i e r a r c h y ARRANGEMENT OF THE LIBRARY (A/L) In r e l a t i o n to placement on a l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s con- tinuum, a b i l i t y to comprehend and use a i s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 1. simple l i b r a r y f l o o r p l a n ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIALS IN A LIBRARY (AM/L) In r e l a t i o n to placement on a l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s continuum, a b i l i t y t o f i n d m a t e r i a l s i s : by s e c t i o n s : 2. p i c t u r e books 3. easy books 4. f i c t i o n books 5. n o n - f i c t i o n books 6. r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s 7. m a g a z i n e s / p e r i o d i c a l s w i t h i n s e c t i o n s : books: 8. f i c t i o n , a l p h a b e t i c a l by author 9. n o n - f i c t i o n , by s u b j e c t (DDC) 10. biography by 921 11. a l p h a b e t i c a l by biographee 267 Henslowe/76 11 w i t h i n s e c t i o n s : books: cont'd B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 12. c a l l number ( r e c o g n i t i o n ) p a r t s o f c a l l number: l e t t e r i d e n t i f i e r s 13. E (content) 14. R (purpose) 15. author's surname ( i n i t i a l ) " number i d e n t i f i e r s 16 author's surname (number) 17. s h e l f l a b e l s : 18. f o r s e c t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 19. f o r s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n s e c t i o n s : magazines: 20. a l p h a b e t i c a l , by t i t l e ( i g n o r i n g a r t i c l e s a, an, the) CARD CATALOGUE (CC) In r e l a t i o n to placement on a l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s continuum, a b i l i t y to use the i s : 21. o u t s i d e l a b e l s 22. guide cards ( i n s i d e t r a y s ) 23. author car d (see a l s o : f i l i n g r u l e s ) 24. author - top l i n e 25. surname f i r s t 26. t i t l e of book 27. date of p u b l i c a t i o n n o n - f i c t i o n 28. c a l l number ( r e c o g n i t i o n ) 268 Henslowe/76 12 CARD CATALOGUE - continued B(Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 29. t i t l e card (see also: f i l i n g rules) 30. t i t l e on f i r s t l i n e 31. subject card (see also: f i l i n g rules) 32. subject on f i r s t l i n e 33. heading c a p i t a l i z e d 34. cross reference cards (recognition) 35. "see" 36. f i l i n g rules 37. alphabetical order 38. numbers as i f spelled out 39. abbreviations as i f spelled out 40. 'an', 'a', 'the' i n t i t l e s d i s - regarded (at beginning of t i t l e ) VERTICAL FILE (VF) 41. drawer labels 42. envelope/folder labels 43. alphabetical by subject headings or by DDC 44. main d i v i s i o n s only CLASSIFICATION BY SUBJECT/D.D.C. (DDC) In r e l a t i o n to placement on a l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s continuum a b i l i t y to use i s : 45. the ten general d i v i s i o n s of the DDC 269 Henslowe/76 13 SECTION A: CHECKLIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY SUBSKILLS: LEVEL FOR INSTRUCTION S k i l l s C l u s t e r #1: L o c a t i n g M a t e r i a l s i n a L i b r a r y B (Basic) ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIALS IN A LIBRARY w i t h i n s e c t i o n s : books 1. n o n - f i c t i o n , a l p h a b e t i c a l by author 2. l e t t e r i d e n t i f i e r s - PB CARD. CATALOGUE 3. date o f p u b l i c a t i o n - f i c t i o n c a l l number - parts. 4. s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e r s (DDC) 5. l e t t e r i d e n t i f i e r s - R, E e t c . number i d e n t i f i e r s 6. author's surname/number 7. c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e cards -*see a l s o " f i l i n g r u l e s ' 8. word-by-word arrangement 9. Mac/Mc as i f s p e l l e d 'Mac' 10. " books by an author b e f o r e books about an author CLASSIFICATION BY SUBJECT (DDC) 11. some s u b d i v i s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to a s u b j e c t area, say s o c i a l s t u d i e s 12. to f i r s t decimal 13 ; a b i l i t y to use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s such as f a i r y t a l e s , biography, e t c . ADDITIONAL SUBSKILLS: Henslpwe/76 14 SECTION E LOCATIONAL SKILLS CLUSTER 2 Directions Please react to the l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s c l u s t e r by f i r s t c l a s s i f y i n g i t s component s k i l l s as being basic (B) or non-basic (NB) according to the d e f i n i t i o n s given above. Then react to the s k i l l s c l u s t e r by i n d i c a t i n g the appropriate locale as being library-based (LB) or not necessarily library-based (NNLB) according to the d e f i n i t i o n s given above. The r a t i n g scales are set up as follows: 1. B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 2. LB (Library-Based) NNLB (Not Necessarily Library-Based) For each statement given, indicate your reaction by checking (V) the one category that best expresses your judgment. If you f e e l that other s k i l l s should be included please i d e n t i f y those s k i l l s under "Suggestions for Additional Locational S k i l l s " . 271 Henslowe/76 15 RESPONSE FORMS: SECTION B LOCATIONAL SKILLS: (LEVEL AND LOCALE FOR INSTRUCTION) S k i l l s C l u s t e r #2: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s BOOKS (Standard F i c t i o n / N o n - F i c t i o n ) L e v e l i n S k i l l s H i e r a r c h y To l o c a t e data i n books the a b i l i t y to use the of a book i s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) 1. format 2. b i b l i o g r a p h i c data L o c a l e f o r I n s t r u c t i o n S k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r l o c a t i n g data i n books should be LB NNLB ( L i b r a r y - (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Based) Library-Based) Suggestions f o r A d d i t i o n a l L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s : L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n BOOKS. (Standard F i c t i o n / N o n - F i c t i o n ) Henslowe/76 16 I f , i n S e c t i o n B, S k i l l s C l u s t e r #2: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s you checked LB ( L i b r a r y - Based) p l e a s e proceed t o E n c l o s u r e #3, Appendix, S e c t i o n B. I f you checked NNLB (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Library-Based) p l e a s e t u r n t o Page 17, (Se c t i o n B). Henslowe/76 17 SECTION B: S u b s k i l l s C l u s t e r #2 A/ NNLB Thank you. You have completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e u n l e s s you wi to add any c r i t i c a l comments about the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o v e r a l l . REMARKS: Henslowe/76 18 SECTION B_ LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS 2 The purpose of t h i s part of Section B i s to obtain your reactions to l o c a t i o n a l s u b s k i l l s i n terms of t h e i r appropriate l e v e l ; that i s , whether each s u b s k i l l i s judged to be basic or non- basic according to d e f i n i t i o n s given on page 4. ( S e c t i o n A) Subs k i l l s are those s k i l l s underlying each s k i l l c l u s t e r . For example, under "Locating Materials i n a Library" a s u b s k i l l would be using the author card of a card catalog while under "Loc- ating Content/Data i n Materials" a s u b s k i l l would be using the index of a book (part of the bibliographic data). Directions You are asked to react to s u b s k i l l s l i s t e d on pages 2 0 and 21 by c l a s s i f y i n g each as being basic or non-basic. The r a t i n g scale i s set up as follows: B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) For each statement given, indicate your reactions by checking (/) the category that best expresses your judgments. At the bottom of each page some space i s l e f t for any pertinent remarks that you might wish to add about p a r t i c u l a r sub- s k i l l s . You are asked to r e f e r to s u b s k i l l s by eith e r number of name. 275 Henslowe/76 19 I f you wish to consider adding some s u b s k i l l s you have been provided with a supplementary c h e c k l i s t for that purpose (page 22). You are asked to indicate any s k i l l s that you regard as also being basic by checking the B (Basic) column beside those items. Also, you are welcome to add any s k i l l s to the c h e c k l i s t which you f e e l are relevant to the model, i . e . , basic. 276 APPENDIX Pages SECTION B: LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS - 14-17 NOTE: Sinc e , i n the p i l o t study, these s k i l l s were judged t o be NNLB' (Not N e c e s s a r i l y Library-Based) they were detached from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h i s judgment. I f you t h i n k t h a t they should be LB- ( L i b - rary-Based) you are asked to r e a c t to the items presented on pages 20 and 21 a c c o r d i n g to the d i r e c t i o n s given. © 1976 S. Henslowe : May-June, 1976 277 Henslowe/76 20 LOCATIONAL SUBSKILLS: LEVEL FOR INSTRUCTION: S k i l l s C l u s t e r #2: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s BOOKS (Standard F i c t i o n / N o n - F i c t i o n ) S u b s k i l l s : L e v e l i n S k i l l s H i e r a r c h y 1. FORMAT* In r e l a t i o n to placement on a "book" l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s continuum, a b i l i t y to use such l o c a t i o n a l a i d s as the i s : B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) cover spine c o l l a t i o n : t i t l e page text/body matter graphic m a t e r i a l ( i l l u s t r a t i o n s , c h a r t s , etc.) 2. BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA* appendix author (name) b i b l i o g r a p h y c h a r t s ( l i s t i n g ) c o p y r i g h t date/or date o f p u b l i c a t i o n e d i t i o n foreword/preface g l o s s a r y i l l u s t r a t i o n s 278 Henslowe/76 21 BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA - dont'd B (Basic) NB (Non-Basic) Index c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s i n t r o d u c t i o n key, guides (e.g., f o r symbols) maps s e r i e s 1 .• • t a b l e s t i t l e t a b l e of contents volume number *OPTIONAL: Suggestions are welcomed f o r p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t e terms to "book p a r t s " o r " f o r m a t / b i b l i o g r a p h i c data". You w i l l , of course,- be c r e d i t e d f o r suggested terms which are c o n s i d e r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r to be more a p p r o p r i a t e than those used i n the study. 279 Henslowe/76 22 SECTION B: CHECKLIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY SUBSKILLS: LEVEL FOR INSTRUCTION S k i l l s C l u s t e r #1: L o c a t i n g Content/Data i n M a t e r i a l s B (Basic) Format end papers s i z e type face B i b l i o g r a p h i c Data compiler d e d i c a t i o n e d i t o r • e p i l o g u e f o o t - n o t e s h a l f - t i t l e number o f pages p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n p l a t e s prologue - p u b l i s h e r r e v i s i o n s u b t i t l e t r a n s l a t o r A d d i t i o n a l S u b s k i l l s : APPENDIX E FOLLOWUP LETTER : THE F INAL VAL IDAT ION Content o f Hand-written Followup L e t t e r : Summer, 1976. I hope t h a t you do not mind me w r i t i n g to you i n f o r m a l l y to i n q u i r e whether or not you have had an o p p o r t u n i t y y e t to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on l i b r a r y l o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s (sent to you about ). I t may be t h a t you have completed and mailed i t r e c e n t l y . I f so, I thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n and w i l l look forward t o r e c e i v i n g your r e a c t i o n s . I f you have not as y e t made your judgments would you k i n d l y respond to one of the two q u e s t i o n s on the attac h e d sheet? Whatever your response w i l l you p l e a s e r e t u r n the form i n the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d stamped envelope p r o v i d e d f o r your use. The i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be very h e l p - f u l t o me i n p l a n n i n g the remainder of the study. I hope t h a t you can f i n d time t o respond to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e so t h a t your p r o v i n c e and your o p i n i o n s w i l l be represented i n the study. Yours s i n c e r e l y , (Mrs.) S h i r l e y Henslowe 282 (Summer, 1976) HENSLOWE QUESTIONNAIRE : B a s i c L i b r a r y L o c a t i o n a l S k i l l s 1. I w i l l be completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d u r i n g ( >/ ) J u l y e a r l y August mid-August l a t e August by September 5 ( d e a d l i n e ) . . 2. I w i l l not be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study., and w i l l be r e t u r n i n g the unused q u e s t i o n - n a i r e package N.B. When r e t u r n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e p l e a s e e n c l o s e the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r or add your name to the survey sheet. A r e t u r n address w i l l a l s o s u f f i c e . Names are not needed f o r r e p o r t i n g the data but are e s s e n t i a l f o r producing an accurate l i s t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g judges.

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