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An analysis of the oral reading errors of grade one pupils in terms of two teaching emphases Bryce, Joy Alberta 1978

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE ORAL READING ERRORS OF GRADE ONE PUPILS IN TERMS OF TWO TEACHING EMPHASES  by Joy Alberta Bryce  A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of .. MASTER OF. ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Faculty of Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 ©  Joy Alberta Bryce, 1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  representatives.  this  thesis  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department of  Education.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  September,  1978  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT This study examined differences i n o r a l reading behaviour of 58 grade one children attending achool i n Richmond, B.C.  Half the subjects  received  i n i t i a l reading i n s t r u c t i o n through a phonics approach; h a l f the subjects received i n i t i a l reading i n s t r u c t i o n through a language experience approach.  Among the findings were that subjects taught by the phonics app-  roach, which emphasized letter-sound correspondence, produced more o r a l reading e r r o r s , more nonwords, and more substitutions with graphic and sound s i m i l a r i t y to the response word than did c h i l d r e n instructed by the language experience approach.  Subjects taught by the language experience  approach produced fewer errors and more substitutions s y n t a c t i c a l l y and semantically  acceptable, and more substitutions that did not a l t e r the  meaning of the sentence than the children instructed by the phonics approach.  An analysis of the children's s u b s t i t u t i o n errors f o r high, middle  and low achievement groups was also  discussed.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I.  Page INTRODUCTION  1  Need f o r the Study  2 k  THE PROBLEM  h  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  II.  GENERAL PROCEDURES  7  SUMMARY  8  ORDER OF PRESENTATION  8  RELATED RESEARCH  10  Background  10  Whole Word Approach  13  Phonics Approach  17  •  Comparison o f Approaches .  • • •  SUMMARY III.  18  26  DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE 28  INSTRUMENTS S e l e c t i o n of Subjects  . . . . . . .  Selection o f Subgroups  ..  28  •  29  Reading Instruction Provided  29  Instruments Used  30  C o l l e c t i o n of Data  ••  31  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Coding of Data Scoring o f the Data Data Analysis SUMMARY  30  • • •  36 36 37  iv Chapter IV.  Page 38  PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Part 1:  Oral Reading Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . .  38  Part 2:  Substitution Components  Ui  ••  •  56  SUMMARY V.  SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS  59  SUMMARY  59  Administration of Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60  Treatment o f the Data  60  •  61  FINDINGS Part 1:  Reading Behaviour  Part 2:  Substitution Components  6l 62  •  CONCLUSIONS  6U  RECOMMENDATIONS  65  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  68  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  70  V  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  2#  3«  km  5.  6.  Page Means, Standard Deviation and t-value f o r Reading Behaviours f o r Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers . .  ••  Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation and t-values f o r Substitution Components f o r the Phonics Group and the Language Experience Group Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation and t-value f o r Nonwords f o r High, Middle, and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers  hO  U 5  •  h9  Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation, t-value f o r Graphic S i m i l a r i t y of Substitution Errors, Words and Nonwords, f o r High, Middle and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers • . . . . . .  51  Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation and t-value f o r Sound S i m i l a r i t y of Substitution Errors, Words and Nonwords, f o r High, Middle and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers . .  53  Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation and t-value f o r No Meaning Change and Contextually Appropriateness of Substitution Errors f o r High, Middle, and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers . . . . . . . . . .  55  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to extent sincere thanks t o my advisor, Dr. Tory Westermark, f o r h i s patience, understanding and guidance, and to Dr. Kenneth Slade and Dr. Florence Pieronek, members of the examining committee, f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l advice. In addition, I would l i k e to express my gratitude to Dr. Robert Sweet f o r h i s guidance and suggestions i n the analysis of the data and to the administrators, teachers and students who w i l l i n g l y the study.  cooperated i n  Chapter I INTRODUCTION Considerable research has focused on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading achievement and the method of reading i n s t r u c t i o n employed  (Robinson,  197Uj C h a l l , 1967s Bond & Dykstra, 1967j Weber, 1968). In recent years, however, some researchers have f e l t that i n order to understand the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to acquire reading s k i l l s , or h i s f a i l u r e to do so, we should look not s o l e l y to the method of i n s t r u c t i o n and achievement but also to the strategies the c h i l d employs i n h i s attempt to read.  Barr  (197k) states:  In order to understand the processes used by beginning readers, we . . . must obtain independent evidence of what beginning readers do by observing them as they learn  to read.  (pp. 13-lU.)  I t has been suggested that the processes used by c h i l d r e n learning to read might be successfully investigated by an analysis of o r a l reading errors (Smith, Goodman & Meredith,  1970j Goodman & Goodman, 1977j Weber,  1970j B i e m i l l e r , 1970; Barr and Page, 197U; Hood, 1976). Such an analysis should not be simply a tabulation of errors (such as i n s e r t i o n s , omissions, and substitutions) that the c h i l d makes. An evaluation of each of these types of e r r o r should be made to determine how c l o s e l y the e r r o r approximates the correct response i n categories such as syntactic, semantic, and graphophonics appropriateness.  "The number of miscues a reader makes i s  much l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t than the meaning of the language which r e s u l t s when a miscue has occurred."  (Y. Goodman, 1972,  1  p.  32.)  2 Many educators (Weber, 1970; Weber, 1968; Goodman, 1969j Burke, 1973) believe that errors should not be treated simply as "incorrect" responses.  As Weber (1970) s t a t e s : Even casual observation shows that, i n one way or another, an e r r o r i s p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t . The correct features of an error are s i g n i f i c a n t because they reveal what the reader chose as the basis f o r h i s response i n a p a r t i c u l a r instance. More generally, correct features of errors can be seen to r e f l e c t the sorts of information that a reader r e g u l a r l y u t i l i z e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g words. He uses the same strategies, presumably, whether or not the response i s f u l l y accurate, (p. U29.) Goodman (1965, 1969) suggests that the term error might have nega-  t i v e connotations.  He prefers to use the term "miscue" to indicate any  deviation from the written material. i n g process at work."  "Miscues are the windows of the read-  (Goodman & Goodman, 1977, p. 323.)  I t would thus appear that an analysis of o r a l reading errors on a q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as quantitative b a s i s w i l l provide important t i o n f o r the teacher.  informa-  Barr and Page (197U) state:  Teachers who are able to observe, analyze, and interpret o r a l reading responses possess one of the most useful s k i l l s f o r assessing children's reading. From understanding gained about the students' reading processes, a teacher can plan appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n and evaluate i t s effectiveness, (p. 103.) Need f o r the Study A number of educators have emphasized the importance of studying the o r a l reading behaviour of c h i l d r e n as i t relates to reading i n s t r u c tion.  Chall (1973) states: The implications of these kinds of e r r o r data f o r understanding the beginning reading process and f o r diagnosis and teaching based on i n d i v i d u a l needs are enormous, (p. 189.) Weber (1968) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to o r a l reading  3  errors and concluded that the child's errors may be due to the type of reading instruction that child has received. A few studies have compared and analyzed the oral reading errors of beginning readers who have been taught by different reading methods (for example, Barr, 1972$ Elder, 1971j DeLawter, 197Uj Burke, 1973 j Norton, 1976). These studies found that children taught by a phonics approach tended to use oral reading strategies related to the letters.  Many of their errors were nonwords and/or  words not from their reading vocabulary. On the other hand, children taught by the sight word approach tended to use oral reading strategies related to the whole word. They used few or no nonword responses and tended to choose their substitutions from words being taught at that particular time. Most research analyzing the oral reading errors of beginning readers has been concerned with a sight word basal reader approach and/or a phonics approach.  There appears to have been only three studies which  have mentioned language experience (Dank, 1976j DeLawter, 197Uj Ewoldt, 1976).  However, i n each of these studies the language experience approach  did not refer to a teacher developed program using the child's natural language and self selected sight words. Instead, basal readers called language experience readers were used such as the Oinn 360 and the Chandler Language Experience Readers.  As MaryAnne Hall (1978) has recently pointed  out i n her survey of language experience research: Investigations of children's oral reading performance, using miscue analysis procedures, could be conducted with language experience materials. . . . However, no study investigating children's reading performance i n conjunction with the language experience approach was located i n this survey of the literature, (p. UO.) The intention of this study i s to analyze and compare the oral  k reading behaviour of children learning t o read by a language experience method with children learning to read by a phonics method, THE PROBLEM The purpose of the present study i s t o determine the extent t o which children instructed i n i n i t i a l reading by a language experience approach d i f f e r i n t h e i r reading behaviours from children who have been instructed i n i n i t i a l reading by a phonics approach. This study seeks t o answer s p e c i f i c a l l y the following questions: 1,  What i s the e f f e c t of alternative i n s t r u c t i o n on the following  aspects of r e a d i n g — o r a l reading errors, r e p e t i t i o n s , s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s , comprehension and fluency? 2,  What i s the e f f e c t of alternative i n s t r u c t i o n on the following  aspects of s u b s t i t u t i o n errors—words/nonwords, graphic s i m i l a r i t y o f words, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, sound s i m i l a r i t y of words, sound s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, no meaning change and contextual appropriateness? (a)  What are the e f f e c t s of treatment on the seven components f o r the children instructed through a phonics approach and f o r the c h i l d r e n instructed through a language experience approach?  (b) What are the e f f e c t s of treatment on these seven components f o r achievement subgroups—high, middle and low phonics subgroups and high, middle and low language experience subgroups? D e f i n i t i o n of Terms For the purpose o f t h i s study the following terms were defined:  5 language Experience Approach. The Language Experience Approach i s a process of teaching reading which u t i l i z e s the c h i l d ' s own o r a l language and concepts to develop an i n i t i a l sight vocabulary and beginning word recognition s k i l l s . • • • (Dorchester, 197U, P. 3.) This approach to reading begins with the c h i l d r e n choosing the words they want to l e a r n — t h e i r "key vocabulary" as developed by Sylvia Ashton Warner (1963).  The c h i l d r e n proceed from words t o sentences, from  d i c t a t i n g to w r i t i n g t h e i r own s t o r i e s and from reading t h e i r own compositions t o reading commercial materials. The c h i l d ' s f i r s t introduction to reading i s v i a the whole word and reading f o r meaning i s stressed from the beginning.  Phonetic analysis and s t r u c t u r a l analysis are also a part of  t h i s program. Phonics Approach.  This approach to reading refers to the code  emphasis approach developed i n the Language Patterns Series published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. l e t t e r s of the alphabet.  The pupils l e a r n the names and sounds of the  Once the children have learned a few of these  sound-symbol relationships and can blend the sounds i n t o words they progress through a series of readers.  The vocabulary i n the readers i s con-  t r o l l e d and i n i t i a l l y only phonetically regular words using short vowel sounds and consonants are introduced.  Once the process o f blending has  been mastered, sight words and i r r e g u l a r spellings are introduced gradually. In summary, the c h i l d ' s f i r s t introduction t o reading i s v i a the sounds and blending the sounds together t o make words--the emphasis i s on the synthesis of words rather than upon memorization of whole words.  High. Middle and Low Subgroups.  Subjects were divided i n t o sub-  groups on the basis of t h e i r number of substitution e r r o r s .  The abbreviations  6  used i n t h i s paper f o r each subgroup and the number of subjects within each subgroup i s l i s t e d below: high phonics subgroup middle phonics subgroup low phonics subgroup  9 subjects 10 subjects 9 subjects  high LE subgroup middle LE subgroup low LE subgroup  9 subjects 10 subjects 9 subjects  Oral Reading E r r o r s .  An e r r o r occurs when the observed o r a l read-  ing of the c h i l d d i f f e r s from that i n the w r i t t e n t e x t . ors  were -  Oral reading e r r -  analyzed according t o the following categories: No Response or Don't Know Insertions Omissions Substitutions Sounding Out  Reading Behaviour.  This refers to the various ways i n which c h i l d -  ren process information when reading.  Aspects considered w i l l be the type  of o r a l reading errors produced, the number o f r e p e t i t i o n s and corrections produced, the speed at which they process information and the understanding of the information processed.  Substitution Components.  Substitution e r r o r s were analyzed f o r :  - words/nonwords -graphic s i m i l a r i t y of words -graphic s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords -sound s i m i l a r i t y of words -sound s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords -no meaning change -contextual appropriateness Subjects,  (a)  The subjects f o r t h i s study were randomly selected  from grade one public school classes located i n the geographic area o f  7 Richmond, 6. C. (b)  A l l non-readers, repeaters, transfers i n and c h i l d -  ren who could read before entering grade one were eliminated. (b)  A l l subjects with observable v i s u a l and auditory  defects were eliminated. GENERAL PROCEDURES The general procedures were as follows: 1.  The l i t e r a t u r e was surveyed t o f i n d e x i s t i n g information on  the subject, t o note the research design used i n s i m i l a r studies and t o determine i f there was a need f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 2. A study was made o f reading achievement t e s t s and diagnostic tests t o determine the s u i t a b i l i t y o f using such. 3.  The schools were selected i n consultation with the Supervisor  of E a r l y Childhood Instruction i n the c i t y of Richmond, B. C. They were located i n similar socioeconomic areas. U.  The exceptional c h i l d r e n , i . e . , those with observable v i s u a l  and auditory defects, those who had repeated grade one, transfers i n , pregrade one readers and non-readers were eliminated. 5.  Twenty-eight c h i l d r e n from each treatment group ( i . e . , 28  taught by the language experience approach and 28 taught by the phonics approach) were selected at random. 6.  Student data—age, sex, and birthdate—were c o l l e c t e d .  7»  The following instruments were administered and data collected  during the l a s t two weeks of May, 1978. (a)  Wide Range Achievement Test (Jastak,  1965).  8 (b) Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales (1972). Tests 1A, IC, 2A, 3A, and 3C were used. 8.  The following data were tabulatedt (a) reading grade level, (b) oral reading errors according to the above-mentioned categories, (c) comprehension on each selection, (d)  self-corrections,  (e) time required to read each selection, (f) 9.  repetitions.  The treatment of the data was as follows: The results of each child's oral reading were tabulated and  mean scores computed for oral reading errors, repetitions, self-corrections, fluency and comprehension.  Mean percentages were computed for sub-  stitution components. The t-test for independent samples was used to determine differences between groups and between subgroups. SUMMARY Chapter one has introduced the purpose of the study which was to analyze the oral reading behaviours of beginning readers taught by either a phonics approach or by a language experience approach. The need for this study and a brief description of the general procedures were also included. ORDER OF PRESENTATION The content and organization of the chapters are: 1.  Chapter I presents the problem, the need for the study, limits  of the study, and general procedures.  9 2,  Chapter II provides a survey of the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e on  o r a l reading behaviour and method of reading 3,  instruction.  Chapter I I I describes the method employed i n t h i s  study-  s e l e c t i o n of subjects, instrumentation, c o l l e c t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and analysis o f data. U.  Chapter IV i s concerned with the presentation and  interpreta-  t i o n o f the data. 5.  Chapter V i s concerned with the findings,  mendations f o r educational practice  conclusions and recom-  and future research.  Chapter II RELATED RESEARCH  Daring the past there has been increased research on children's oral reading behaviour*  The studies covered such diverse variables as:  (1) language—bilingualism (Hodes, 1977; Williamson and Young, 1976j Folman, 1977), speakers of Spanish (Hood, et al., 1976), (2) functionally illiterate adults (Russell, 1973), and (3) reflection and impulsivity (Waltz, 1977; Butler, 197U; Hood, 1975). This chapter, however, will concern itself primarily with research relating to the effect of reading instruction on oral reading errors of beginning readers. The pertinent research will be discussed in the following order:  (a) background, (b) whole word approach, (c) phonics approach,  and (d) comparison of approaches. Background Although researchers have analyzed oral reading errors in numerous ways, i t i s useful to divide research in this area into two main categories (Weber, 1968). The f i r s t category consists of research in which oral reading errors were considered to be indicative of deficient reading s k i l l and were viewed in a negative sense (for example, Monroe, 1928; Payne, 1930; Madden and Pratt, 19Ul). In the second category lies the research that has attempted to analyze oral reading behaviour to gain better understanding of the processes or strategies which result in the error (for example, Goodman, 1965; 10  11 Clay,  1967} Weber, 1970), The errors are analyzed to see which part o f  the erroneous response i s correct.  I t i s t h i s type of research that w i l l  be the concern of t h i s chapter. One  of the e a r l i e s t investigations concerned with the q u a l i t y of  the o r a l reading errors and the processes which contributed to those errors was  conducted by Bennett (19^2).  In an analysis of over  3U,000 errors  made by retarded readers she found that l e t t e r s or word parts were the important areas; that context played a major r o l e i n word recognition  two and  that errors were usually the same part of speech as the written word. (The l a t t e r f i n d i n g was  l a t e r confirmed by T. Goodman (1967), who  noted  Ul percent of the e r r o r s were c l o s e l y associated i n meaning with the written  text.) MacKinnon (19">9) analyzed the o r a l reading errors of grade one  children who  were being taught to read by a programme which emphasized  sentences and had a controlled vocabulary.  He discovered  that the  first  graders attempted to read sentences as grammatical wholes rather than responding to word-by-word s t i m u l i .  Their errors were not haphazard.  Often  the second error would be brought about by the grammatical constraints of the f i r s t e r r o r . MacKinnon also found that the children's errors developed from contextually constrained, to non-response, and f i n a l l y to graphically constrained (as did K. Goodman,  1967j Y. Goodman, 1967} Weber, 1970}  Clay,  1967). He noted also that once the c h i l d r e n started using graphic cues, t h e i r reading became more "word by word." Further evidence of the importance of contextual and syntactic cues i s provided i n Goodman's  (1965) descriptive study i n which he studied the  12 errors of 1GG children i n grade one, two and three.  He found that young  readers recognized with greater accuracy words i n context than words presented i n l i s t s *  Therefore, he concluded that the syntactic and  semantic  constraints of language were used by the c h i l d r e n when reading. Goodman noted that i n grade one h a l f the errors were omissions, i n grade two the children t r i e d to f i g u r e out the word and made more substitut i o n s , and by grade three the children "showed a pronounced increase i n the percent of substitutions among t h e i r l i s t errors."  (p.  6Ul.)  Another f i n d i n g o f the study was that " v i r t u a l l y every regression • • • was f o r the purpose of correcting previous reading."  (p.  6U2.)  However, when reading the words on the l i s t , the children seldom regressed. Y. Goodman  (1967) analyzed the miscues of three "slow" readers and  three "average" readers as they progressed through grade one.  She found  that the slower readers make more Miscues Per Hundred Words (MPHW) than did  the average readers, but no relationship was found between number of  miscues and comprehension scores. (Goodman,  This study was continued f o r four years  1971). In 1971 Goodman discovered that as the c h i l d ' s reading  s k i l l increased so did h i s a b i l i t y to use grammatical constraints.  The  average readers seemed able to use a l l cues,—graphic, phonic, semantic and syntactic, while the slower readers produced primarily graphic responses.  This l a t t e r f i n d i n g i s i n agreement with B i e m i l l e r  (1970),. Clay  (1968) and Weber (1970). Goodman i d e n t i f i e d three stages which are s i m i l a r to B i e m i l l e r  (1970) and MacKinnon (1959). In the f i r s t stage unknown words are omitted. In the second stage the children begin to sound out the words, and nonwords may r e s u l t . lus  word.  The errors tend to have close graphic proximity t o the stimuIn the t h i r d stage the c h i l d r e n employ a v a r i e t y of cues.  13 Goodman and Burke  (1969) studied the o r a l reading errors made by  p r o f i c i e n t readers i n grade two, of Reading MLscues.  four and s i x using the Goodman Taxonomy  The errors were divided i n t o two  groups—non-trans-  formation miscues (those which did not a l t e r syntactic structure) and retransformation  miscues (those which did a l t e r syntactic s t r u c t u r e ) .  The  authors found that the errors often served the same grammatical function as the stimulus word.  This tendency existed even when the children changed  the text to a more f a m i l i a r language pattern. same grammatical function i n retransformation two to s i x . ing  This was  This tendency to r e t a i n the errors increased from grade  seen as an i n d i c a t i o n that the readers were develop-  increasing control of the English language. The above-mentioned studies i l l u s t r a t e several important points  about recent trends i n t h i s area of research.  Emphasis of the  research  has moved from s o l e l y an analysis of word errors to an attempt to understand the strategies the children b r i n g to the reading process. Whole Word Approach A s e l e c t i o n of recent studies discusses the e f f e c t of basal readers on beginners' o r a l reading behaviour. Clay's three related a r t i c l e s  (1967, 1968, 1969) examined the o r a l  reading errors of beginning readers f o r one year.  The c h i l d r e n were being  instructed i n reading by a method which "stressed fluency, meaning, and •learning as one reads'."  (p. 12).  Minimal attention was  given to the  teaching of sounds or the development of a sight vocabulary. At the end of the f i r s t year the c h i l d r e n were divided into quart i l e groups on the basis of a word recognition t e s t . ence between subgroups on number of errors was  noted.  A significant differThe median c h i l d i n  lU each group—high, error i n  high middle, low middle, and low, r e s p e c t i v e l y made one  37.29, 15.20, 7.86,  and  2.58 words. I t was a l s o noted that 72  percent of a l l substitution errors were " l i n g u i s t i c a l l y equivalent" (p. 22) to the w r i t t e n t e x t .  A grapheme/phoneme correspondence existed f o r Ul  per-  cent of the e r r o r s . The high group's substitutions were more graphically s i m i l a r to the stimulus words than were those of the low group. s i m i l a r to Bennett's 19U2  (This i s  study.)  The high group corrected more errors than the low group.  Clay  concluded that the high group's low e r r o r , high s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n rates were the r e s u l t of e f f i c i e n t processing of cues. Clay further analyzed the data i n two a r t i c l e s .  (1969)  Clay noted that grammatical  s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n behaviour.  In one a r t i c l e  competency was the main reason f o r  In the other a r t i c l e Clay  (1968)  noted that  guesses at uncertain words seemed to be the r e s u l t of the syntactic aspects of the sentence rather than by the phoneme/grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p i n words. Biemiller  (1970)  examined the o r a l reading errors of k2  children from October to May.  grade one  The c h i l d r e n were using a basal reader and  were observed on the average of 23  times.  Biemiller's purpose was to examine changes i n the use of contextual and graphic information f o r word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  He analyzed the e r r -  ors i n terms of semantic and graphic constraints and non-response errors and thus developed  three main phases of reading a c q u i s i t i o n .  In the f i r s t phase, Pre Non-Response, the c h i l d r e n made predominant use of contextual information f o r a n t i c i p a t i n g or guessing unknown words. Their substitutions were appropriate to the sentence context but not appropriate g r a p h i c a l l y . Ninety-nine percent of the substitution and i n s e r t i o n responses came from sight words previously learned (as did those i n  15 Bennett's study, 19k2). Biemiller suggested that this heavy reliance on context was the result of the children avoiding the use of graphic information. In the second phase, Non-Response, there was a predominance of nonresponse errors (50 percent or more of a l l errors). The number of contextually constrained errors decreased but there was a significant increase in graphically constrained errors. The children did not use both contextual and graphic information but tended to rely on one or the other. Ninetyfour percent of the substitutions came from words previously learned. Biemiller interpreted this phase as the child becoming interested in and paying close attention to graphic information and realizing that "one specific word is associated with each graphic pattern." (p. 93.) In the third phase, Post Non-Response, there was a drop in nonresponse errors to below 50 percent of a l l errors. The children made significantly more substitution errors that were both contextually and graphically acceptable—82 percent. The children now seemed able to use both graphic and contextual information and there was an increase in speed of word recognition. Ninety-one percent of the substitutions came from words previously learned, Biemiller (in agreement with Weber, 1970) believed that poorer readers moved slowly from stage to stage because of difficulty in handling graphic information. Throughout the year, only the better readers progressed through the three phases. He noted that the slower readers seemed unable to develop reading strategies. It seemed as i f they "started off on the wrong track." (p. 95.) Weber (1970) studied the oral reading errors of a class of 21 grade one children (10 boys and 11 girls) in order to determine the  16 strategies used by beginning readers to i d e n t i f y words*  The c h i l d r e n had  a mean age of 6.3 upon school entry and were taught t o read from a basal reading s e r i e s .  The class was divided i n t o high achievers and low achiev-  ers. The errors recorded were reversals, i n s e r t i o n s , omissions and substitutions.  They were analyzed f o r letter-sound correspondence,  i c a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y , semantic appropriateness and grammatical  grammat-  function.  Eighty percent of the t o t a l errors were substitutions while the remaining 20 percent were divided, almost equally, between omissions and i n s e r t i o n s . About 9$ percent of the errors were words the children had encountered previously.  (Bennett  (19U2)  observed similar behaviour.)  Weber found that the substitutions of the b e t t e r readers were more graphically s i m i l a r to the text.  For the t o t a l group, about two-thirds of  the errors were grammatically acceptable to the whole sentence.  Of those  errors judged f o r semantic appropriateness, a l l of which were grammatica l l y acceptable, 92.8 ing  percent were found to be "consistent with the mean-  of the r e s t of the sentence," (p. UU9)  to the preceding context.  and that two-thirds conformed  I n f a c t , Weber found almost complete overlap  between semantic and syntactic appropriateness. i n the study of Y. Goodman,  (This f i n d i n g i s supported  1967.)  Weber concluded that both high and low readers used semantic and grammatical constraints equally w e l l i n reading.  She f e l t that perhaps  there e x i s t s an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between the beginners' use of graphic cues and syntactic cues.  She states that, "Learning the optimal balance  i n the use of graphic information and o f s t r u c t u r a l constraints may i n f a c t be one of the main tasks f o r the novice reader."  (p. kkl»)  I t should be noted that these two groups read d i f f e r e n t stories  17 with d i f f e r e n t quantities of errors analyzed. Phonics Approach Only one recent study t o date discusses the e f f e c t o f the phonics approach on beginning reading strategies. Cohen  (197b-75) studied the o r a l reading errors of 50 grade one  children (2k boys and 26 g i r l s ) i n two heterogeneously grouped classes. The children were being instructed by a phonics approach.  The study  spanned the l a s t eight months of grade one and i t focused on changes i n ' word recognition strategies when o r a l reading errors were analyzed according t o type of error—word substitution, no response, sound out and s e l f correction.  Also examined were graphic s i m i l a r i t y o f the e r r o r t o the  written word and grammatical a c c e p t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the sentence. The errors o f good and poor readers were analyzed and compared as well as the t o t a l group's e r r o r s .  The three most common errors noted were  word substitutions, no response and nonsense.  During the f i r s t four months  no response errors occurred most frequently f o r a l l groups. ary,  A f t e r Janu-  however, the good readers' nonsense errors began t o decline and by the  end of the study were very low.  On the other hand, the nonsense errors of  the poor readers slowly increased throughout the eight months.  I n the  s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n category, a l l groups increased, although the increase was only " s l i g h t " f o r poor readers and "substantial" f o r good readers. The substitutions of a l l the groups showed a steady improvement i n graphic s i m i l a r i t y t o the stimulus word and by the l a t t e r h a l f o f the study the non-systematic errors had nearly disappeared.  The poorer readers  continued t o make substitutions with s i m i l a r f i r s t and/or l a s t l e t t e r s but for the better readers the substitutions were on small function words.  18 The grammatically acceptable substitutions increased f o r a l l groups and by the end of the study they exceeded substitutions which were not grammatica l l y correct. Cohen concludes that the good readers' large number of nonsense errors early i n the study appeared to be related to t h e i r a b i l i t y to l e a r n to use phonics before they used semantic cues.  The strategies f o r poor  readers were l e s s systematic. Comparison of Approaches In t h i s section several studies, each dealing with two methods of i n s t r u c t i o n , are summarized. DeLawter  (197U) examined the e r r o r patterns of 169 grade two c h i l d -  ren from a low income area.  A l l the children had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a Begin-  ning Reading Project f o r two and one-half years and had received reading i n s t r u c t i o n i n one o f two reading systems.  The decoding group received  reading i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Miami L i n g u i s t i c Readers and the M e r r i l l Lingu i s t i c Readers—a  programme with a phonic emphasis, and the meaning oriented  group received i n s t r u c t i o n with the Chandler Language Experience Readers which emphasized the content of the s t o r i e s . The purpose o f the study was to f i n d out i f d i f f e r e n t patterns of errors resulted from d i f f e r e n t reading approaches.  She found that most  of the substitutions made by the children i n the decoding group were nonwords—about twice as many nonwords as words—which c l o s e l y resembled the words i n graphophonemic s i m i l a r i t y to the stimulus word. cent were considered poor attempts a t decoding.  Sixty-four per-  The c h i l d r e n tended to  respond h a s t i l y . DeLawter then studied the errors f o r syntactic and semantic  19 acceptability.  Almost a l l the words were syntactically acceptable and  half were semantically acceptable for both groups. DeLawter concluded that there appears to be a relationship between error pattern and beginning reading instruction, and that the error patterns "demonstrate strategies that are predictable, given particular instructional emphases."  (p. U 8 . )  She also mentioned that after two years of i n -  struction these patterns are s t i l l evident and this "reinforces the finding of the study."  (p. U 8 . )  Elder (1971) analyzed the oral reading errors of h9 Scottish children and 98 American children whose mean age was 91 months. The Scottish children were taught by a phonics method while the American children had been instructed by a sight word approach. The children were analyzed on their performance on the Gray's Standardized Oral Reading Paragraphs. The Scottish children displayed fewer word recognition errors, i n cluding fewer word substitutions but significantly more nonword substitutions than the American children.  The Scottish children were found to be  "highly accurate but comparatively slower readers," while the American children were "fluent but relatively less accurate readers."  (p. 220.)  The Scottish children had a significantly higher percent of omissions and repetitions than the American children. An analysis of the word substitutions revealed that the Scottish children made significantly more substitutions that changed the meaning, while the American children seemed more attentive to meaning. The children did not differ i n self-corrections. Elder's conclusions were as follows: 1. Children who begin reading at age five rather than  20 age six can, on the average, be expected to gain at • least an initial advantage in ability to read orally. 2* A stress on phonics in beginning reading tends to promote accurate word recognition, but slows the process of recognition. 3* A reliance on sight recognition tends to decrease accuracy, but increases rate of recognition. U* The oral reading of children who rely on sight recognition tends to have a high frequency of word substitutions and initially a need for much assistance. 5* The oral reading of children who rely on phonics tends to have a high frequency of mispronunciations* 6* A reliance on phonics tends to divert children from the meaning of what they read* (p. 228.) Barr (1972) analyzed the word recognition errors made by pre-reading grade one children—18 urban subjects (9 boys and 9 girls), and 2h suburban subjects (12 boys and 12 girls).  The mean age was 6 years 5  months. The children were taught by two reading methods, a sight word or a phonics. As well as examining the error patterns resulting from the two instructional conditions, Barr was also interested in comparing these error patterns with those found by Biemiller (1970) to see i f the changes were related to instructional method* Barr found that children instructed by the phonics approach made substitution errors that came from words other than those taught* A high proportion of the substitutions were nonwords and the substitutions were significantly more graphically constrained*  They also made a significantly  higher percent of non-response errors than the sight group* Children instructed by a sight word approach made more substitutions that were the same as the words being taught at the same time. Rarely were the substitutions words the children had not learned, or words taught earlier, or nonwords* Also, these children seldom made substitutions which reflected graphic cues* Barr noted that the error patterns for sight word learning resembled  21 the f i r s t phase of Biemiller*s study, while the e r r o r patterns f o r phonics learning resembled B i e m i l l e r ' s second phase.  Barr concluded that these  findings suggest that " d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods influence d i f f e r e n t i a l l y the pattern of word recognition e r r o r s .  Different i n s t r u c t i o n  e n t a i l s d i f f e r e n t strategies f o r word recognition."  (p. 527.)  I t should be noted that the words were presented i n i s o l a t i o n and not i n context so t h i s l i m i t s the strategies a c h i l d can use.  (197U-75), i n reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e , determined that f i n d -  Barr  ings to t h i s point i n time strongly suggested that i n s t r u c t i o n a l method does influence the strategies of c h i l d r e n i n t r a n s l a t i n g "the printed word to language."  (p. 569.)  In a l l of t h i s research two questions had not  been addressed according to Barr; namely, ( l ) t o what extent can r e s u l t s obtained f o r groups be confidently applied to i n d i v i d u a l s , and (2) how do strategies a l t e r over time. Consequently Barr undertook to study the o r a l reading responses of 32 grade one c h i l d r e n i n December and May to determine word recognition strategies.  She also studied i n d i v i d u a l children's strategies i n order t o  see i f they were determined by the c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n a l method.  Half the  subjects received i n s t r u c t i o n by a phonics approach and the other h a l f with an e c l e c t i c basal approach. Barr discovered  that children who l e a r n by a phonics approach pro-  duced substitutions which were not cognizant of the constraints of the printed word as a representation ors were nonsensical.  of natural language and often t h e i r e r r -  However, c h i l d r e n instructed by a sight word method  provided responses which f i t t e d contextually although t h e i r substitutions were limited by t h e i r vocabulary.  22 Barr concluded that: I t appears to be possible t o determine the strategies that beginning readers use f o r t r a n s l a t i n g p r i n t to speech [andj. . • the response patterns f o r groups of pupils instructed by p a r t i c u l a r methods are representat i v e of most members within the group rather than a function of the d i s t i n c t i v e patterns o f a few. (p. $77.) Since the subjects read l i s t s of words no analysis could be made with regard t o semantic, syntactic or correction s t r a t e g i e s .  (1973) examined the o r a l reading errors of 3 grade one  M.S. Burke  children taught by a synthetic method (emphasized phoneme-grapheme  corres-  pondence) and 3 grade one c h i l d r e n instructed by an a n a l y t i c method (basal reader sight words).  Burke noted that the c h i l d r e n learning t o read by a  synthetic method made more errors and many of the errors stressed the phoneme-grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p , while few,were s y n t a c t i c a l l y and semantica l l y acceptable.  These children had lower comprehension ratings than the  children taught with the  analytic,approach.  The children taught by the analytic approach made s l i g h t l y fewer errors that displayed the phoneme-grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p .  These c h i l d r e n ,  however, tended to produce more varied patterns of errors and used semant i c , syntactic, and phoneme-grapheme constraints although the semantic system was s t i l l inadequate.  Burke f e l t that the c h i l d r e n taught by the  a n a l y t i c approach d i d not often resort t o word-by-word processing because they seem to have an understanding of the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the various cueing systems.  The subjects of t h i s study ( l i k e those o f Y. Goodman, 1967)  showed an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between phoneme-grapheme correspondence and grammatical and semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y . Burke concluded that the method of reading i n s t r u c t i o n can a f f e c t reading behaviour.  23 Norton  (1976) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t o f two r e a d i n g approaches  on t h e r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f hO grade one and grade t h r e e p u p i l s o f h i g h and l o w a b i l i t y .  They f o u n d t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d b y a s y n t h e t i c  p h o n i c s emphasis developed h i g h e r p h o n i c , g r a p h i c and s y n t a c t i c s t r a t e g i e s , more nonwords, b u t produced c o m p a r a t i v e l y few s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s .  On t h e  o t h e r hand, t h o s e c h i l d r e n t a u g h t b y a n a n a l y t i c - e c l e c t i c approach produced more m i s c u e s s e m a n t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , more miscues t h a t d i d n o t change meaning, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s t h a n t h e p h o n i c s emphasis group.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f  miscues o r f o r t h e i r s y n t a c t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y .  The c o m p a r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s  h e l d a t b o t h grade l e v e l s . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e method o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n d e v e l oped i n t h e f i r s t grade seems t o r e s u l t i n l o n g range o r a l r e a d i n g behavi o u r s a s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e e r r o r s o f t h e grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n . However, t h e grade one and grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n were d i f f e r e n t samples, Norton, and Hubert  (1977) examined t h e o r a l r e a d i n g e r r o r s o f 60  grade one c h i l d r e n i n two comparable d i s t r i c t s i n T e x a s .  W i t h i n each o f  t h e two i n s t r u c t i o n a l g r o u p s — e c l e c t i c b a s a l and p h o n i c s  emphasis—were  t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s — H i g h , A v e r a g e , and Low.  The purpose o f t h e s t u d y  was t o d e t e r m i n e how c h i l d r e n t a u g h t b y t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t approaches compared i n o r a l r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s . N o r t o n found t h a t c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d b y t h e p h o n i c s approach p r o duced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more miscues w i t h a h i g h g r a p h i c o r p h o n i c p r o x i m i t y and more m i s c u e s t h a t were nonwords.  The c h i l d r e n a c h i e v e d h i g h e r word  r e c o g n i t i o n grade s c o r e s t h a n comprehension grade s c o r e s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l word r e c o g n i t i o n l e v e l s .  The c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d b y  2U the e c l e c t i c basal approach produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more miscues that were s y n t a c t i c a l l y acceptable, that were semantically acceptable, that caused no change i n meaning, and that were self-corrected.  The c h i l d r e n achieved  higher comprehension grade scores than word recognition grade scores and s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n s t r u c t i o n a l comprehension grade l e v e l s .  There was  no s i g n i f i c a n t difference f o r grammatical function. Norton concluded that the method of i n s t r u c t i o n does produce d i f f erent o r a l reading strategies and that a l l a b i l i t y groups within each approach "demonstrated very s i m i l a r o r a l reading p r o f i l e s . " E. Burke  (p.  23»)  (1976-77) studied the decoding strategies used by 216  seven, eight and nine year old c h i l d r e n i n terms of graphic, syntactic, and semantic cues.  Age, sex, school-type, and school emphasis on reading  were the v a r i a b l e s considered. Burke's study revealed that the q u a l i t y of children's miscues improved with age, although not uniformly.  In the graphic category the qual-  i t y of miscues only s l i g h t l y increased with age whereas i n the category the increase was continuous.  semantic  Por the syntactic category a large  increase occurred at the 8 year l e v e l followed by a s l i g h t decrease at the age of 9#  These differences i n pattern f o r these three categories were  s i g n i f i c a n t at the one percent l e v e l .  No other e f f e c t was  s i g n i f i c a n t although differences were evident.  found to be  Burke stated that "no f i r m  conclusions as t o the r e l a t i v e merits of the d i f f e r e n t approaches to the teaching of reading can be i n f e r r e d . " Ewoldt  (p. Ul.)  (1976) studied the o r a l reading errors of 73 grade three  children i n the seventh month of grade three. groups—Follow  Through and Non Follow Through.  The subjects were i n two The Follow Through group  25  had participated in a programme since grade one that emphasized the language experience approach, while the Non Follow Through group had not. However, during grade three only 8 of the Follow Through Group used any language experience. Basal readers were used by a l l 37 Non Follow Through subjects. The main purpose of the study was to "identify differences between the two groups of readers which may be the result of the types of instruction received... • ."  (p. 3.) Twenty-five miscues were analyzed for each  child. She found that both groups of children employed effective use of strategies. The mean scores were similar for syntactic and semantic acceptability and meaning change, graphic similarity, sound similarity and grammatical function. She felt that the Non Follow Through readers appeared to be less efficient readers as evidenced by their correction strategies —they "wasted too much time on unsuccessful attempts at corrections." (pp. 90-91.) Ewoldt concluded that: "Differences in favor of the Follow Through readers may be attributable more to differences in the program in prior years than to the third grade program." (p. 92.) Dank (1976) analyzed and compared the oral reading errors and comprehension of 20 selected grade two children. The children received instruction with the McGraw Hill Programmed Reader which emphasized the grapheme-phoneme approach or with the Ginn 360. a language experience series. Dank found that the children taught by the approach that emphasized the letter sound relationships produced fewer omissions, more nonwords and more miscues with high graphic and sound proximity. Those children taught  26 by the language experience approach of the Ginn 360 programme produced more aemantically  acceptable e r r o r s .  Their understanding o f what they  had read, r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e t e l l i n g of the story, was superior to the Programmed Reading Group. She concluded that the c h i l d r e n i n both groups made errors that r e f l e c t e d the reading i n s t r u c t i o n they had received. SUMMARY The present chapter has summarized some of the research to o r a l reading behaviour o f beginning readers.  pertaining  These studies seem to  suggest that differences i n reading behaviour may be influenced by the method of reading i n s t r u c t i o n .  Children taught by a whole word approach  tended t o use strategies related to the word and they seldom made nonword responses.  Many o f t h e i r substitutions were from words taught a t that par-  t i c u l a r time.  These children made s a t i s f a c t o r y use of syntactic constraints  and t h e i r substitutions often were related to the meaning of the sentence. Children taught by a phonics approach, however, produced substitutions that often d i s t o r t e d the meaning of the sentence.  They produced many  nonwords and t h e i r substitutions were usually graphically s i m i l a r t o the stimulus word.  These c h i l d r e n also made s a t i s f a c t o r y use o f syntactic  constraints. These studies seemed t o indicate that children who experience l i t t l e trouble learning t o read quickly l e a r n t o use a l l cue systems, while the children having trouble learning to read tend t o r e l y heavily on one cue system and neglect the others. To date most o f the research i n t h i s area has been conducted with children being taught to read by a phonics or a basal reader sight  27  vocabulary approach.  There appears to be no research evaluating the e f f e c t  of a teacher developed language experience programme using the child's natural language and s e l f - s e l e c t e d sight vocabulary on the o r a l reading behaviour of beginning readers.  Chapter III DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTRUMENTS The purpose of this chapter is to describe (l) the selection of subjects, (2) the selection of subgroups, (3) the reading instruction provided, (k) the instruments used, (5) the collection of data, (6) the classification of data, (7) scoring of the data, and (8) the analysis of data. Selection of Subjects The subjects for the study were £6 grade one children attending four public schools in Richmond, B. C. Each school contained the same socio-economic levels, ranging from lower to upper middle class. Two of these schools taught beginning reading by a phonics approach; two taught beginning reading by a language experience approach. The individual children within the schools were randomly selected. Twenty-eight children (13 boys and 15 girls) were selected from the total population of grade one children using a phonics approach i n the two schools, and 28 children (12 boys and 16 girls) were selected from the total population of grade one children using a language experience approach in the other two schools. The following children were excluded from the population before the random selection occurred—children with obvious auditory and visual defects, children who had transferred in during the school year, children who could read before they entered grade one, and 28  29 children who were non-readers.  At the time of t e s t i n g , chronological  age  of the c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n through phonics ranged from 6.5 years to 7.U years, with a mean age of 6.513.  Chronological age of the  children receiving i n s t r u c t i o n through language experience ranged from 6.5 years to 7.U years, with a mean age of 6.618. Selection of Subgroups Substitution errors were used as the c r i t e r i o n f o r the s e l e c t i o n of achievement groups.  Three achievement groups—high, middle and  low-  were separated out of the language experience treatment group, and three achievement groups—high middle and low—were separated out o f the phonics treatment group, Reading Instruction Provided The 28 children being instructed by the phonics approach received heavy emphasis on decoding but minimal sight word development.  Some supple-  mentary reading took place i n books other than the phonetically controlled readers. The 28 children being instructed by the language experience approach began reading with sight words they had chosen.  They were exposed  to many commercial books as w e l l as numerous and varied reading s e r i e s . Instruction i n phonics and i n s t r u c t u r a l analysis formed a part of the reading programme. For convenience, throughout the rest of t h i s paper the two groups w i l l be referred t o according to the i n i t i a l teaching emphasis—phonics and language experience.  30 Instruments Used 1*  Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales Six selections were chosen from this measure: 1A, IC, 2A, 2C,  3A and 3 C The readability of the selections was grade 1.6, 1.8, 2.3, 2.8, 3.3 and 3.8 respectively.  The two selections at the grade three level  were necessary to provide d i f f i c u l t enough material so a l l subjects would produce at least 5 errors. The use of this instrument provided content validity. 2,  The Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) The reading section was administered.  test of words presented i n isolation. validity.  I t i s a pronunciation  This test provided criterion related  The correlation between the Wide Range Achievement Test and  other achievement tests was as follows: WRAT reading (19U6) vs. New Stanford Paragraph Reading WRAT reading (19U6) vs. New Stanford Word Reading  +.81  +.8U  (Jastak, 1965, p» 15.) Collection of Data The information was collected during the last two weeks of May, 1978,  The procedure was the same for each subject.  read the words from the Wide Range Achievement Test.  First each subject Then they read the  six selections from the Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales and answered the comprehension questions.  The children were tested individually i n a separ-  ate room. Prior to the testing the examiner told the child:  "Try to read  this aloud to me as well as you can. I'm not going to t e l l you any words, because I want to see how well you read i t by yourself. I f you meet some words you don't know, just try them and go on.  I ' l l ask you some questions  31 about the story when you f i n i s h . "  (Spache, 1972, p. 16.) I f the c h i l d  hesitated f o r more than 10 seconds, he was t o l d to continue reading. The examiner recorded the errors on a t r a n s c r i p t o f each s e l e c t i o n . The examiner recorded deviations from the written text i n p e n c i l above the typed word o f her copy of the s e l e c t i o n s .  Following the reading of each  s e l e c t i o n , the c h i l d responded to the questions asked by the examiner. A l l performances were recorded onto tape f o r l a t e r analysis and v e r i f i c a t i o n of e r r o r s , comprehension, r e p e t i t i o n and s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n . The reading o f each s e l e c t i o n was timed using a stop watch.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Coding of Data The data f o r t h i s study was c l a s s i f i e d according t o the following categories:  types of e r r o r s , r e p e t i t i o n s , s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s , comprehension,  fluency, and substitution components. 1.  Types o f errors a)  No response or don't know.  The c h i l d hesitates before a  word and i s unable to read i t or else says, "I don't know," before proceeding with reading.  This was indicated by a  NR or DK above the text and crossing out the written word i n the t e x t .  DK Example: b)  At n ^ i t she i s very t i r e d .  Insertions.  The c h i l d adds a word.  This was indicated by  a caret ( /\) and the recording of the inserted word. Example:  <* y Mary saw the car and ran/\the r e s t o f the way. uickl  32 c)  Omissions.  The c h i l d leaves out a word i n a sentence.  This was indicated by drawing a l i n e through the omitted word. Example: d)  Bob stopped to watch-%tee-other animals.  Substitutions.  The c h i l d says a d i f f e r e n t word from  the one i n the sentence. w e l l as words.  This includes nonwords as  This was indicated by crossing out the  word i n the text and recording the s u b s t i t u t i o n above the  o r i g i n a l word.  Example: word nonword e)  He pu)tffed the dog up the h i l l , ared Mary was af^srfd but she was glad she wasn't hurt.  Sounding out. The c h i l d unsuccessfully attempts t o sound out the word.  This was indicated by recording the l e t t e r s  sounded, followed by dashes. ' " caa— Example: The keeper didn't enter the cage. 2.  Repetitions.  The c h i l d repeats a word or words.  indicated by underlining the repetitions with a wavy l i n e .  This was  Each group of  words repeated together counted as one r e p e t i t i o n . Example:  The keeper wasjfeeding the wolf from a p a i l of food. 3.  istance.  Self-corrections.  The c h i l d corrects the e r r o r without ass-  This was indicated by recording the f i r s t response and then  drawing a c i r c l e around the correction. Example: ^J}®" (On)the way out of the park Bob stopped to watch the other animals.  33 h.  Comprehension.  To check comprehension each c h i l d answered  o r a l l y the comprehension questions following each s e l e c t i o n on the Spache Diagnostic Scales.  Each student began reading a t the grade 1.6 l e v e l and  read through to the grade 3»8 l e v e l .  Each question was worth one-half t o  one mark determined by the directions i n the manual. 5# timed.  Fluency. To check fluency each s e l e c t i o n the c h i l d read was  This was recorded i n seconds.  The c h i l d thus received s i x scores,  one f o r each s e l e c t i o n , which were then t o t a l l e d . 6.  Substitution Components.  Each c h i l d ' s s u b s t i t u t i o n responses  were f u r t h e r analyzed according to the following categories: a)  Words/Nonwords.  I n t h i s category i t was determined  whether or not the substitution e r r o r was a word or a nonword.  Nonwords are nonsense words composed of a  series of sounds.  b)  Some examples are:  text: re sponse:  cages eagers  (nonword)  text: response:  feeding fenting  (nonword)  text: response:  strong storing  (word)  Graphic s i m i l a r i t y f o r words.  I n t h i s category i t was  determined whether the f i r s t l e t t e r of the substituted word was the same as the t e x t . ure  Biemiller  This was the same proced-  (1970) used when he noted "whether the f i r s t  l e t t e r of the response matched the f i r s t l e t t e r of the stimulus word." text: response:  (p. 80)  sound song  An example i s :  3U Graphic s i m i l a r i t y f o r nonwords.  I n t h i s category i t was  determined whether the f i r s t l e t t e r of the nonsense word was the same as the t e x t . text: response:  An example i s :  skunk skunt  Sound s i m i l a r i t y f o r words.  I n t h i s category i t was noted  whether the substituted words were s i m i l a r i n sound to the text.  The sounds o f the words were considered and not  necessarily the l e t t e r s .  For a word t o be considered  s i m i l a r i n sounds, two sounds i n the word e r r o r had t o be the same as i n the text word.  Also the sounds had t o be  i n the same p o s i t i o n i n both words.  Digraphs (sh, t h , wh,  ch) and consonant blends (such as gr, s l , c l ) were considered as one sound.  Some examples a r e :  text: response:  walked worked  text: response:  greet green  text: response:  roar road  Sound s i m i l a r i t y f o r nonwords.  In t h i s category i t was  noted whether the nonsense words were s i m i l a r i n sound t o the text word, using the same c r i t e r i a noted i n (d) above. Some examples as: text: response:  week wenk  text: response:  cages cags  35 Contextual appropriateness.  This category analyzed the  c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use syntactic and semantic constraints. A sentence can be grammatically and semantically  correct  but not have the same meaning as the written t e x t .  In this  category, as d i d B i e m i l l e r , the substitutions were considered contextually appropriate  i f they were "grammatically  and semantically acceptable up t o and including the error." (p. 82.) Later errors were judged using the previous e r r ors i n the context of the sentence. Some examples a r e : text: response:  At night she i s very t i r e d , At night she was very t i r e d .  text: response:  One day Bob took. • . One day Bob looked. . .  The following example i s not contextually appropriate  up to  and including the e r r o r : text: response:  Then they rode down the h i l l , Then they rude down the h i l l .  No meaning change.  This category analyzed the e r r o r i n  terms of whether o r not i t altered the meaning o f the t e x t . Some examples of errors that resulted i n l i t t l e or no change are: text: response:  Then she slowly comes home, Then she slowly came home.  text: response:  But the dog d i d not l i k e to r i d e down, But the dog d i d not l i k e the ride down.  text: response:  He was a l i t t l e frightened, He was a l i t t l e a f r a i d .  The following example resulted in-meaning l o s s :  36 text: response:  He p u l l s i t slowly up the h i l l , He p u l l s i t s o f t l y up the h i l l .  Scoring of the Data A f t e r t e s t i n g the examiner l i s t e n e d to the tape recordings twice and checked her written record of the o r a l reading behaviour o f each c h i l d on each s e l e c t i o n .  Then the data of ten randomly chosen subjects were  analyzed by another scorer. scorers ranged from  The percent of agreement between the two  96.05 to 100 percent. This was higher than the res-  u l t s reported by Weber  (1970) who found agreement of over 90 percent.  Having two judges double score 10 percent o f the papers was found t o provide adequate interjudge r e l i a b i l i t y . (Weber,  1970; Norton, 1976j Hood,  1975-76). Data Analysis In examining the e f f e c t of the a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t ments ( i . e . , phonic and language experience) on beginners* o r a l reading performance the data was examined or treated as follows. A f t e r the reading behaviour was recorded and coded f o r each c h i l d , a computer card, one f o r each child,was key punched.  The data was then  run through as SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences), performed on IBM  360/67 computer using the applicable sub routines of SPSS.  The p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of l e s s than or equal to .05 was accepted as being i n d i c a t i v e of a s i g n i f i c a n t difference and w i l l be reported i n Chapter four f o r substantive discussion and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Statistical  significance w i l l be reported using a 2 t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The analysis was related to the two problems.  37 1.  Group difference  and o r a l reading behaviour*  d i s t r i b u t i o n was performed and mean scores were calculated  A frequency f o r types of  o r a l reading errors, r e p e t i t i o n s , s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s , fluency and comprehension* The  s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed i n examining the question o f  treatment group differences  on reading behaviour of subjects was the t - t e s t .  The p a r t i c u l a r t - t e s t used was the t - t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t difference  for  independent samples (Glass and Stanley, 1970)* 2.  E f f e c t o f treatment on substitution a)  components*  A frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n was performed and mean percentages were calculated  f o r words/nonwords, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of  words, graphic s i m i l a r i t y o f nonwords, sound s i m i l a r i t y of words, sound s i m i l a r i t y o f nonwords, no meaning change and contextual appropriateness* To determine the e f f e c t s of i n s t r u c t i o n on substitution components a t - t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n t difference  f o r independ-  ent samples was employed. b)  S i m i l a r l y , the e f f e c t s of treatment on substitution  errors  between achievement subgroups were examined using the t - t e s t f o r independent samples.  SUMMARY This present chapter has presented information pertaining  t o selec-  t i o n of subjects; teaching methods; instrumentation; and the c o l l e c t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , coding, scoring and analysis of data.  Chapter IV PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the results of the analysis of the data and interpretation of these results. The presentation will be in two sections. The first section will present the data on the effect of two methods of reading instruction on these types of reading behaviour—oral reading errors, self-corrections, repetitions, fluency and comprehension. The second section will present the data on the effects of the two methods of instruction on some aspects of substitution errors (words/nonwords, graphic similarity of words, graphic similarity of nonwords, sound similarity of words, sound similarity of nonwords, no meaning change, and contextual appropriateness) on the two treatment groups and between substitution achievement subgroups. Part It Oral Reading Behaviour 1, Types of oral reading errors. The total number of errors made by the children instructed through the language experience approach and the phonics approach were tabulated. The children instructed through the language experience approach made 1007 errors, which was one error per 13,U6 running words. The children instructed through the phonics approach made 1607 errors, which was one error per 8,1*3 running words. This finding supports earlier research by Burke (1973) who found that the phoneme-grapheme group made more errors than a basal reader sight vocabulary group. 38  39  The oral reading errors were categorized according to type, and the numbers for each category were tabulated for the two instructional groups. The mean score and the standard deviation were calculated for each group. The t-test for independent samples was applied to determine the differences between groups. The data are presented in Table 1. a) No Response/Don't Know. Por the children instructed through the phonics approach, the average number of errors in this category was 1*2$, or 2.18 percent of the total errors. Por the group instructed through a language experience approach, the average number of errors was 1.39, or 3.87 percent of the total errors. There was no significant difference between the two groups. The findings do not support the findings of other studies. Barr (1972) found that children instructed by a phonics method made a significantly greater number of non-response errors than children instructed by a sight recognition method. Cohen (197U-75) found that non-response errors made by children taught by a phonics method were 29 percent of the total errors, far exceeding the percentage found in this study. b) Insertions.  The children instructed through the phonics  approach had an average of 1.82 insertions, or 3.17 percent of the total errors. The children instructed through the language approach had an average of 1.96 insertions, or 5.U6 percent of the total errors. There was no significant difference between the two groups. c) Omissions. For the children Instructed through the phonics approach the average number of errors in this category was l » 6 l , or 2.80 percent of the total errors. For the group instructed through a language experience approach the average number of errors in this category was 1.11  Table 1 Means, Standard Deviation and t-value f o r Reading Behaviours f o r Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers  Phonics Reading Behaviour Category  Language Experience  Mean  Standard Deviation  Mean  Standard Deviation  t-value  1* No Response/ Don»t Know  1.25  2.012  1.39  3.370  - 0.19  2. Insertions  1,82  1.611  1.96  2.099  - 0.29  3. Omissions  1.61  3.083  1.11  1.3U3  .79  50.25  37.920  31.25  3U.171  1.97 *  2.U6  3.707  .25  .701  3.U6  2.603  iuOO  2.815  - 0.7U  10.00  7.727  7.U3  5.928  l.Uo 1.U3  A. Type of E r r o r  k.  Substitutions  5. Sounding Out B. Repetition C. Self-Corrections D. Fluency  E. Comprehension ^Significant  113.60  50.39U  91.99  62.339  29.6U  5.86U  32.U3  5.371  a t the .05 l e v e l .  LH.  Significant  at the .01 l e v e l .  3.11 * *  -  1.85  la or  3»08 percent of the t o t a l e r r o r s .  between the two groups.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  Two related studies, Dank  report c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s .  (1976) and Elder (1971)  Dank found that c h i l d r e n taught by a phonics  method made fewer omissions than the language experience Oinn 360 group, while Elder  (1971) found that the phonics group produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y  more omissions than the basal reader sight vocabulary group. d)  Substitutions.  The c h i l d r e n instructed through the phonics  approach made a t o t a l of llt07 substitutions, with an average of  50.25  substitutions, while the children instructed through the language experience approach made a t o t a l of 875 substitutions, with an average of 31.25 substitutions.  The children instructed by the phonics approach produced  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of substitutions than did c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c ted by the language experience approach. The percentage of t o t a l errors that were substitutions i s s i m i l a r , with the children instructed through the phonics approach producing  87.55  percent and the c h i l d r e n instructed through the language experience approach producing  86.89 percent. The findings of t h i s study are higher than  those noted by Barr  (1972) who found that the phonics group produced 71.3k  percent substitutions and the sight word group produced 76.21 percent subs t i t u t i o n s , and higher than the  79.9 percent that Weber (1970) found with  her grade one children using a sight word approach. also d i f f e r from those of Elder  The present findings  (1971) who noted that the phonics group  produced 38 percent substitutions while the sight word group produced U8 percent substitutions. e)  Sounding Out.  The children instructed through the phonics  approach had an average of 2.U6 sounding out e r r o r s , or U.29 percent of  U2  the t o t a l e r r o r s .  The children instructed through the language experience  approach had an average of . 2 5 sounding out errors, or .70 percent of the total errors.  The difference was s i g n i f i c a n t .  These findings support  those o f Elder (1971) who found that the children taught by a phonics method produced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher percentage o f errors i n t h i s category (2556) than the children taught by a sight recognition method ( 8 $ ) , although the proportions f o r both groups i n h i s study were greater than those i n the present study. 2.  Repetitions. Repetitions were not considered errors f o r as Clay (1967) com-  mented, a " r e p e t i t i o n may be a form of h e s i t a t i o n — a f i l l e d pause—or an act of confirmation rather than an error."  (pp. 101-102.)  The children instructed through the phonics approach had a mean number of 3.U6 r e p e t i t i o n s , whereas the children instructed through the language experience approach had a mean of luOO r e p e t i t i o n s . s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups.  There was no  These findings do not concur  with Elder (1971) who found that the group taught by a phonics approach made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of r e p e t i t i o n s . 3.  Self-Corrections. For the children instructed through the phonics approach the  average number of self-corrections was 10.00. For the c h i l d r e n instructed through the language experience approach the average number of s e l f - c o r r e c tions was 7.U3.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups.  The children instructed through the phonics approach self-corrected 1U.8U percent** of the errors or one i n every 57.85 words.  *»  J. ,, . ,, percentage obtained by " r  0  The group  number of self-corrections v r • • • number of errors + number of number of errors + number of self-corrections A  100 =  1*3 instructed through the language experience approach self-corrected 20.66 percent of the errors or one in every 1*2.98 words. These percentages are lower than those of Clay (1967) and Norton and Hubert (1977). In the study by Clay (1967) the children learning to read by a meaning emphasis corrected 26 percent of their errors. In the study by Norton and Hubert (1977) the eclectic readers corrected approximately 50 percent of their errors which was significantly more than the phonics group self-corrected. 1*. Fluency. The children instructed through the phonics approach took an average of 113.60 seconds to read a selection, whereas the group instructed by the language experience approach took an average of 91.99 seconds to read a selection. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Elder (1971) found that the Scottish children instructed by a phonic approach were slower readers than the American children instructed by a sight recognition approach. DeLawter (197U) also noted that the phonics group "frequently took longer attempting to figure out unknown words" (p. 1*6) than did the meaning emphasis group. 5. Comprehension. The group taught through the phonics approach achieved a mean score of 29.61* i n comprehension while the children taught through the language experience approach achieved a mean score of 32.1*3 in this area. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Dank (1976), Norton and Hubert (1977), and Burke (1973) noted that children taught by a phonics approach produced lower comprehension scores than children taught by a sight recognition approach.  Part 2:  Substitution Components The substitution errors were further examined and categorized f o r  words/nonwords, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of words, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, sound s i m i l a r i t y of words, sound s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, no meaning change, and contextual appropriateness.  The number of substitutions f o r  each component category were tabulated f o r the two i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups. The mean percentage score, the standard deviation were calculated f o r each group.  The t - t e s t f o r independent samples was applied to determine the  differences between groups.  The data are presented i n Table 2.  Trends Between Groups 1.  Nonwords. For children learning to read through the phonic  approach,  2U.90 percent of t h e i r substitutions were nonwords. For children learning to read through a language experience approach 15.U5 s t i t u t i o n s were nonwords.  The difference was  percent o f t h e i r sub-  significant.  This f i n d i n g supports e a r l i e r research by Elder (1971), Dank (1976), Norton and Hubert (1977), Norton (1976), Cohen (197U-75), and DeLawter  (197U).  The percentages of nonwords i n DeLawter's study were considerably  higher—65 percent f o r children being instructed by a phonics approach and U6 percent f o r children being instructed by a whole word approach, i n the present study.  than  On the other hand, Bennett (19U2) reported that  none of the 3U,39U errors analyzed i n her study were nonsense words. 2.  Graphic s i m i l a r i t y of word substitutions. The children being instructed through the phonics approach had  an average of 6$.29 percent graphically s i m i l a r word substitutions.  The  group being instructed through the language experience approach had an  Table 2 Comparison of means, standard deviation and t-values for Substitution Components for the Phonics Group and the Language Experience Group Language Experience Standard Means Deviation t-value  Substitution Component  Phonics Standard Means Deviation  Nonwords  .2U90  .11*8  .15U5  .115  2.67  Graphic Similarity of words  .6529  .186  .6366  .231  .29  Graphic Similarity of nonwords  .9317  .109  .9529  .109  Sound Similarity of words  .6963  .139  .6023  .211  1.97  Sound Similarity of nonwords  .9687  .053  .9623  .111  .27  No Meaning Change  .2klh  .113  .U966  .282  -U.U5  Contextual Appropriateness  .6508  .156  .7U92  .2U8  -1.78  **Signif leant at the .01 level.  **  -0.73  **  U6 average of 63,66 percent graphically similar word substitutions. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Earlier research (Barr, 1972, 1975J DeLawter, 197Uj Dank, 1976j Norton and Hubert, 1977j Norton, 1976) found that children instructed by a phonics approach produced more graphically similar substitutions than did children instructed by a whole word approach. 3,  Graphic similarity for nonword substitutions. The nonsense words that were substituted for text words were  also analyzed for graphic similarity. For the children taught by the phonics approach the mean percentage was 93.17 percent and for the children taught by the language experience approach the mean percentage was 95*29 percent. There was no significant difference between groups. U. Sound similarity of word substitutions. For children taught by the phonics approach the mean percentage of words in this category was 69.63 percent. For the group taught by the language experience approach the mean percentage of words in this category was 60.23 percent. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Previous research (DeLawter, 197Uj Dank, 1976; Norton and Hubert, 1977j and Norton, 1976) reported that children taught by a phonic approach produced a higher percentage of word substitutions that were similar in sound to the stimulus word. 5. Sound similarity of nonword substitutions. The nonwords produced by both the children taught by the phonics approach and the children taught by the language experience approach were closely related i n sounds to the stimulus word. The mean percentage for the children taught by the phonics approach was 96.87 percent and for  1*7 children taught by the language experience approach 96.23 percent.  There  was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . 6.  No meaning change. For c h i l d r e n instructed by the phonics approach the mean per-  centage of substitutions that did not change the meaning o f the sentence was 2U.2U percent. For c h i l d r e n instructed by the language experience approach the mean percentage of substitutions that d i d not change the meani n g of the sentence was 1*9.66 percent. was  The difference between the groups  significant. This f i n d i n g supports e a r l i e r research by E l d e r (1971), Burke  (1973), Norton and Hubert (1976), and DeLawter (1971*) which noted that c h i l d r e n instructed by a phonics approach produced more substitutions that changed the meaning of the sentence than did c h i l d r e n being instructed by a sight recognition approach. 7.  Contextual appropriateness. For children taught by a phonics approach 65.08 percent of  t h e i r substitutions were contextually appropriate.  For the c h i l d r e n taught  by the language experience approach 71*.92 percent o f t h e i r substitutions were contextually appropriate with the preceding part of the sentence.  The  difference between the groups was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean percentages i n the present study are somewhat lower than the 91 percent of the substitutions that Weber (1970) noted were grammatica l l y appropriate to the preceding context but higher than the 58 percent produced by the meaning emphasis group i n Clay's (1967) research.  Trends Between Subgroups. divided i n t o three groups:  The subjects i n each treatment group were  high, middle and low, based on the number of  1*8 substitution errors they had produced.  The mean percentage score and the  standard deviation were calculated f o r each subgroup—high, middle, and low subgroups f o r c h i l d r e n taught by a phonics approach, and high, middle, and low subgroups f o r children taught by a language experience approach. The t - t e s t f o r independent samples was applied t o determine the differences between subgroups.  The data are presented i n Table 3 f o r nonwords, Table  1* f o r graphic s i m i l a r i t y o f words and of nonwords, Table 5 f o r sound simil a r i t y of words and o f nonwords, and Table 6 f o r no meaning change and f o r contextual appropriateness. The subgroups w i l l be referred t o i n the following manner: The children instructed through the phonics approach w i l l be r e ferred to as the high phonics subgroup, the middle phonics subgroup and the low phonics subgroup. The c h i l d r e n instructed through the language experience approach w i l l be referred t o as the high LE subgroup, the middle LE subgroup and the low LE subgroup. The phonics achievement subgroups (high, middle, low) produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more substitutions than the comparable high, middle, and low language experience subgroups. 1.  Nonwords. The high phonics subgroup produced a mean percentage of  20.73  percent nonwords.  The high LE subgroup produced a mean percentage of 6.22  percent nonwords.  This difference was s i g n i f i c a n t .  For the middle phonics subgroup the mean percentage of nonwords was  29*86 percent. For the middle LE subgroup the mean percentage o f non-  words was 18.95 percent. groups*  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the  Table 3 Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation and t-value for Nonwords for High, Middle, and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers  Standard Deviation  Group  Mean  high phonics high LE  ,2073 .0622  .lit? ? .11.7} .097 J  2.U7  middle phonics middle LE  .2986 .1895  .182 ) .108j  1.63  low phonics  .2356  .099 .099 ))  .63  low LE  .2079  .086/  *Significant at the .05 level.  t-value *  50 The low phonics subgroup produced 23.56 percent nonwords and the low LE subgroup produced 20,79 percent nonwords.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference between these two groups. In each achievement subgroup—high, middle, and low—the children receiving i n s t r u c t i o n by a phonics method produced more nonword substitut i o n s than c h i l d r e n receiving i n s t r u c t i o n by a language experience method, 1.  Graphic s i m i l a r i t y of word substitutions. For the high phonics subgroup the mean percentage o f graphic-  a l l y s i m i l a r words was U9.66 percent. For the high LE subgroup the mean percentage of graphically s i m i l a r words was U7.U1 percent. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the subgroups. The middle phonics subgroup produced a mean percentage o f 70.97 percent f o r t h i s aspect o f substitutions. a mean percentage of 68.21  The middle LE subgroup produced  percent f o r t h i s aspect o f substitutions.  There  was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two subgroups. The mean percentage f o r the low phonics group was 7U.62 percent and 71**85 percent f o r the low LE group.  The low LE subgroup had the high-  est percentage o f graphically s i m i l a r words while the high LE subgroup had the lowest percentage o f graphically s i m i l a r words.  The high subgroups  of both treatment groups produced a lower percentage of graphically simil a r words than did the middle and low subgroups.  Cohen ( 1 9 7 U - 7 5 ) also  noted that the poorer readers a t the end o f the school year s t i l l produced many substitutions graphically s i m i l a r t o the stimulus word, while the better readers' substitutions were on small function words. The findings o f t h i s study do not agree with those of Weber ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Bennett (191*2), and Clay ( 1 9 6 7 ) , who noted that the high group made more  51  Table h Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation, t-value f o r Graphic S i m i l a r i t y of Substitution E r r o r s , Words and Nonwords, f o r High, Middle, and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers  Words  Group Mean  Standard Deviation  Nonwords t-value  Mean  high phonics high LE middle phonics middle LE low phonics low LE  1.000 .9296 .9018 .9213 .9593  Standard Deviation  t-value  .0 .0861  -1.00  .061 ) .088  -1.07  .167] j  j  JUS  52 graphically similar substitutions than did the low group. 3.  Graphic similarity of nonword substitutions. The mean percentages of graphically similar nonwords produced  by the three phonics subgroups and the three language experience subgroups were a l l above 90 percent. There were no significant differences between subgroups of comparable achievement. U.  Sound similarity of word substitutions. For the high phonics subgroup the mean percentage of word sub-  stitutions in this category was 70.07 percent. For the high LE subgroup the mean percentage of word substitutions in this category was U7.U1 percent. This difference was not significant. A comparison of Table h and Table 5 shows that the high LE subgroup produced the same mean percentage of word substitutions similar in sound as graphically similar.  The high  phonics subgroup, by contrast, had a higher mean percentage of words similar in sound than words graphically similar. The mean percentage for the middle phonics subgroup was 71.08 percent, and the mean percentage for the middle LE subgroup was 69.37 percent. There was no significant difference between the two subgroups. The low phonics subgroup had a mean percentage of 67.60 percent for this category while the low LE subgroup had a mean percentage of 62.90 percent* There was no significant difference between the two subgroups. The mean percentages in this study are higher than those mentioned in the study by Norton and Hubert (1977), in which they noted that the high phonic group produced 66.0 percent, the high eclectic produced UO.U percent, the low phonic produced 55*2 percent, and the low eclectic produced 32.8 percent.  53  Table 5 Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation and t-value f o r Sound S i m i l a r i t y of Substitution E r r o r s , Words and Nonwords, f o r High, Middle and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers Words Group high phonics high LE middle phonics middle I E low phonics low LE  Mean  Standard Deviation  Nonwords t-value  Mean  1.000 1.000 .9588 .9667 .9U81* .9198  Standard Deviation .0 0.0 0  )  .056 .105  t-value  o.o  -.21 .50  5U 5.  Soond similarity of nonword substitutions. The phonics subgroups and the language experience subgroups  a l l attained mean percentages above 90 percent*  The high phonics sub-  group and the high LE subgroup produced mean percentages of 100 percent* The middle phonics subgroup produced an average of 95*88 percent nonword substitutions with sound similarity, and the middle LE subgroup produced an average of 96*67 percent. For the low phonics subgroup the mean percentage was 9U.8U percent, and for the low LE subgroup the mean percentage was 91*98 percent*  There  was no significant difference between comparable subgroups* 6. No meaning change. For the high phonics subgroup 3U.69 percent of their substitutions did not change the meaning of the sentence.  For the high LE sub-  group 79.U2 percent of the substitutions did not change the meaning of the sentence.  This difference was significant.  The mean percentage of substitutions that did not change the meaning of the sentence was 20.82 percent for the high phonics group and U5.19 percent for the high LE subgroup.  This difference was significant.  For the low phonics subgroup 17*29 percent of their substitutions did not change the meaning of the sentence.  For the low LE subgroup 2U.87  percent did not change the meaning of the sentence.  This difference was  significant. For both the phonics subgroups and the language experience subgroups the mean percentages decreased as the achievement level of the subgroups decreased.  Norton and Hubert (1977) also noted this decrease i n  mean percentages with the decrease i n ability level of the subgroups.  55  Table 6 Comparison of Means, Standard Deviation and t-value f o r No Meaning Change and Contextually Appropriateness of Substitution Errors f o r High, Middle, and Low Achieving Phonics and Language Experience Beginning Readers No Meaning Change Qroup high phonics high LE middle phonics middle LE low  phonics  low LE  Mean  Standard Deviation  .31*69 .791*2  .119 ?  .2082 .1*519  .081*)  .1729 .21*87  t-value -5.69  .201; J  -3.50  .203/ .01*2)  Contextually Appropriate Mean  -2.27  Significant  a t the ,05 l e v e l .  Significant  a t the .01 l e v e l .  t-value  .8018  .11*61 -0. 36  .81*1*1*  .328 /  .6305  .111) .180/  -2.59  .051) .11*7 (  -1.37  .8031*  .09l}  Standard Deviation  .5225 .5937  56  7.  Contextual appropriateness. For the high phonics subgroup 80.18 percent of the substitu-  tions were contextually appropriate, and f o r the high LE subgroup 8U.UU percent of the substitutions were contextually appropriate.  There was  no  s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two subgroups. For the middle phonics subgroup 6 3 . 0 5 percent of the substitutions were contextually appropriateJ f o r the middle LE subgroup 80.3k percent of the substitutions were contextually appropriate.  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference between the two subgroups. The low phonics subgroup had a mean percentage of 5 2 . 2 5 percent contextually appropriate substitutions, and the low LE subgroup had a mean percentage  of 59,37 percent contextually appropriate s u b s t i t u t i o n s .  was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between these two subgroups.  There  In t h i s study  the number of contextually appropriate errors diminished as the achievement l e v e l of the subgroups diminished,  unlike the study by Weber (1970),  which found " n e g l i g i b l e " difference between the high and low groups i n t h i s category. SUMMARY  The present chapter has presented and interpreted the data c o l l e c ted.  The o r a l reading behaviours were coded and subjected to s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis to determine what s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences existed between c h i l d r e n taught by a phonics approach and c h i l d r e n taught by a language experience approach.  Behaviours examined were types of o r a l reading e r r -  ors, r e p e t i t i o n s , s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s , comprehension, and fluency.  The sub-  s t i t u t i o n errors were further analyzed f o r nonwords, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of  57 words, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, sound s i m i l a r i t y of words, sound s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, no meaning change and contextual appropriateness. The major findings are summarized below. 1.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between groups i n the error  categories, no response/don't know, i n s e r t i o n s , omissions. 2.  The children taught by the phonics approach made a s i g n i f i c -  antly greater number of substitutions and sounding out type e r r o r s . 3.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between groups f o r repe-  t i t i o n s , s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s , fluency and comprehension. U.  In the analysis of s u b s t i t u t i o n components there were no s i g -  n i f i c a n t differences between groups f o r graphic s i m i l a r i t y of words, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, sound s i m i l a r i t y of words, sound s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, and contextual appropriateness. 5.  In the analysis of s u b s t i t u t i o n components the children taught  by the phonics approach produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more nonwords than did the children taught by the language experience approach. 6.  In the analysis of s u b s t i t u t i o n components the c h i l d r e n taught  by the language experience approach produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more substitutions that d i d not change the meaning of the sentence than did the children taught by the phonics approach. 7.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences l n mean percentages bet-  ween the high, middle, and low phonics subgroups and the comparable language experience subgroups f o r graphic s i m i l a r i t y of words, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, sound s i m i l a r i t y of words and sound s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords. 8.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the middle phonics  subgroup and the middle LE subgroup, and between the low phonics subgroup and the low LE subgroup i n the mean percentage of nonword substitutions,  58 but  the high phonics subgroup produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more nonwords than  the high LE subgroup. 9»  The high, middle and low language experience subgroups prod-  uced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of substitutions that did not change the meaning of the sentence than the high, middle and low phonics subgroups. 10,  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the high phonics  subgroup and the high LE subgroup, and between the low phonics subgroup and the low LE subgroup i n the mean percentage of contextually appropriate errors.  The middle LE subgroup produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more contextually  appropriate substitutions than the middle phonics subgroup.  Chapter V SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Several investigations i n the area o f o r a l reading behaviour have been conducted.  These studies have noted the e f f e c t o f a phonics emphasis  and/or a basal reader sight vord emphasis on the o r a l reading behaviour of children.  Prior t o the present study no study could be found which exam-  ined and compared the o r a l reading behaviour of c h i l d r e n being taught t o read by a language experience emphasis—a teacher developed program using the c h i l d ' s natural language and s e l f - s e l e c t e d sight vocabulary—with the o r a l reading behaviour of children being taught to read by a phonics emphasis.  The present study adds evidence concerning the e f f e c t o f a language  experience emphasis on the o r a l reading behaviour of beginning readers and the e f f e c t o f a phonics emphasis on the o r a l reading behaviour o f beginning readers,  SUMMARY The purpose of t h i s study was t o determine the extent t o which children instructed i n i n i t i a l reading by a language experience approach d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r o r a l reading behaviours from children who had structed i n i n i t i a l reading by a phonics approach.  been i n -  The study sought ans-  wers t o the following questions: 1. What i s the e f f e c t o f alternative i n s t r u c t i o n on the following aspects of reading b e h a v i o u r — o r a l reading e r r o r s , s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s ,  59  60  repetitions, comprehension and fluency? 2. What i s the effect of alternative instruction on the following aspects of substitution errors—words/nonwords, graphic similarity of words, graphic similarity of nonwords, sound similarity of words, sound similarity of nonwords, contextual appropriateness, and no meaning change? a) What are the effects of treatment on these seven components for the group taught by the phonics emphasis and the group taught by the language experience emphasis? b)  What are the effects of treatment on these seven components for achievement groups—high, middle, and low phonics subgroups and high, middle, and low language experience subgroups?  Administration of Instruments The children were administered individually the Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales—tests 1A, IC, 2A, 2C, 3A, 3C during the last two weeks of May, 1978. Treatment of the Data The results of each child's oral reading of the Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales was recorded and coded and a computer card, one f o r each child, was key punched.  The data was then run through an SPSS (Statistical  Package for the Social Sciences), performed on IBM 360/67 computer using the applicable sub-routines of SPSS. Mean scores were computed for oral reading errors, repetitions, self-corrections, fluency and comprehension. Mean percentages were computed for substitution components. The t-test for independent samples was subsequently applied to determine differences, significant at the $ percent level of confidence, between groups and between subgroups.  61 FINDINGS Briefly, the questions raised at the beginning of this investigation were answered in the following manner based on the data presented in Chapter four. Part 1: Reading Behaviour 1. Errors. Children taught by a phonics emphasis made substantially more errors (1607) than children taught by a language experience emphasis (1007). They produced a significantly higher mean for number of substitution errors and number of sounding out errors than did the children taught by a language experience approach. As many studies have reported, substitution errors comprised the largest percentage of errors produced for the group taught to read by the language experience approach, and for the group taught to read by the phonics approach. 2. Repetitions. No significant difference was found in this category between the group taught by the phonics approach and the group taught by the language experience approach. 3. Self-corrections. No significant difference was found in this category between the group taught by the phonics approach and the group taught by the language experience approach.  The children taught by the phonics approach  self-corrected LU.8U percent of the errors produced while the group taught by the language experience approach corrected 20.66 percent of the errors produced.  62 U.  Fluency. No s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found i n t h i s category between  the children taught by the phonics approach and the children taught by the language experience approach. 5.  Comprehension. The children taught by the phonics approach produced lower mean  comprehension scores than the children taught by the language experience approach. Part 2:  The difference was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Substitution Components  !•  Between treatment  groups.  Of the seven substitution components analyzed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f erences were noted f o r two components.  The c h i l d r e n taught through the  phonics approach made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean percentage of nonword substitutions than the children taught through the language experience approach.  The children taught through the language experience approach pro-  duced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean percentage of substitutions which did not change the meaning of the sentence. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between c h i l d r e n taught by the phonics approach and c h i l d r e n taught by the language experience approach f o r graphic s i m i l a r i t y of words, graphic s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, sound s i m i l a r i t y of nonwords, and contextually appropriate substitutions. The children taught through a phonics method made a higher mean score o f word substitutions s i m i l a r i n sound to the stimulus word than d i d the group taught through the language experience approach. approached s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The difference  63 2.  Between achievement sabgroups. The high, middle and low phonics subgroups produced s i g n i f i -  cantly more substitutions than d i d the high, middle and low language experience subgroups* The high phonics subgroup made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean percentage of nonword substitutions than did the high LE subgroup.  The middle and  the low phonics subgroups made higher mean percentages of nonword substitut i o n than did the middle and low LE subgroups but the differences were not significant. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the high, middle and low achieving phonics subgroups and the high, middle and low language experience subgroups on the mean percentage o f graphically s i m i l a r words produced.  The low phonics subgroup and the low LE subgroup had the highest  scores f o r graphic s i m i l a r i t y with the two high subgroups producing the lowest mean percentages of graphically s i m i l a r words. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the high, middle and low phonics subgroups and the high, middle and low LE subgroups i n mean percentages o f graphically s i m i l a r nonwords produced and nonwords s i m i l a r i n sound t o the stimulus word. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the high, middle and low phonics subgroups and the high, middle and low LE subgroups i n mean percentage of words produced that were s i m i l a r i n sound t o the stimulus word.  The high, middle and low phonics subgroups produced higher mean  percentages o f words s i m i l a r i n sound than did the comparable language experience subgroups and the difference between the high phonics subgroup and the high LE subgroup approached s i g n i f i c a n c e . The high, middle and low language experience subgroups produced  6k s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean percentages o f substitutions that d i d not change the meaning of the sentence than d i d the high, middle and low phonics subgroups. The middle LE subgroup made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean percentage of contextually appropriate substitutions than d i d the middle phonics subgroup.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the high phonics sub-  group and the high LE subgroup, or between the low phonics subgroup and the low LE subgroup, CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s o f the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n seem to warrant the following conclusions: 1,  Among c h i l d r e n taught by e i t h e r a phonics approach o r a lang-  uage experience approach, substitution of a word d i f f e r e n t from the expected word was the most frequent e r r o r . 2,  The phonics approach produces readers who make more errors than  the readers taught by the language experience approach.  This trend was  consistent when the high, middle and low phonics subgroups were compared with the high, middle and low language experience subgroups. 3,  The phonics approach produces readers who make many nonwords  and many substitutions which a l t e r the meaning of the sentence while the language experience approach, with i t s emphasis on meaning, develops readers who produce few nonwords and many meaningful substitutions that do not d i s t o r t the meaning of the sentence.  I t would appear that an approach  which emphasizes the sound symbol r e l a t i o n s h i p , as does the phonics approach, produces readers who f a i l to pay attention to what the author i s  65 saying.  This trend was consistent when the high, middle and low phonics  subgroups were compared with the high, middle, and low language experience subgroups, U,  The phonics approach and the language experience approach pro-  duces readers capable i n the use o f graphic and sound elements, although the phonics approach produces readers who make more use of the sound elements than readers taught by the language experience approach.  This trend  was consistent f o r the phonics and language experience subgroups as well; the exception being the high language experience subgroup.  The f a i l u r e of  the high achieving readers taught by the language experience approach t o use graphic and phonic elements i s i n d i c a t i v e of the t h i r d stage i n reading development mentioned by B i e m i l l e r (1970), MacKinnon (1959), and Goodman (1971), i n which the reader pays less attention to the grapho-phonemic elements and more to the syntactic and semantic 5,  elements.  Although both the phonics and the language experience  approaches  produce readers aware o f syntactic and semantic constraints, the language experience group used these constraints more e f f e c t i v e l y .  This trend was  consistent w i t h i n the phonics and language experience achievement groups. The average achieving language experience readers seem more cognizant of syntactic and semantic constraints than those taught by the phonics approach, RECOMMENDATIONS 1, teacher.  Oral reading analysis may be b e n e f i c i a l to the classroom  I t i s recommended that such analysis be used as a diagnostic t o o l  by the classroom teacher i n order t o discover the strengths and weaknesses of each c h i l d ,  Weber  (1968) states:  66 • • . the study of reading errors can provide significant clues to the nature of the reading process and, in this way, can contribute to a substantive rationale for both basic and remedial instruction in reading, (p. 98.) Goodman (1971*) also notes that; Miscues are not simply errors. They show more about the learner's strengths than about his weaknesses. In reading they are the best possible indications of how efficiently and effectively the reader i s using the reading process, (p. 61*.) 2, It is recommended that the classroom teacher use the results of the oral reading analysis to plan an individualized programme for the child that will strengthen the reading strategies the child uses effectively, and will teach him strategies he i s deficient in. Yetta Goodman (197U) states that, "Strategy lessons help readers focus on aspects of written language they are not processing effectively."  (p. 36.)  3. Classroom teachers should be cognizant of the fact that, . . . i t is most likely that at least as many children are suffering from difficulties caused by overusing particular learning strategies in reading as are suffering from a lack of such strategies. (Goodman, 1965, p. 61*3.) 1*.  Teachers should ensure that children are taught to read for  meaning. It is recommended that teachers using a heavy phonics emphasis program such as the Language Patterns Program, add to and strengthen the program by ensuring that children are made aware that the major purpose of reading i s to understand what the author is saying, 5,  It i s recommended that a l l children who f a i l to read for mean-  ing should receive instruction in doing so. Stauffer (1970) states: It is possible to direct the reading-thinking process in such a way that children will be encouraged to think when reading—to speculate, to search, to evaluate, and to use. . (p. 3U8.) The children should be taught to pause and to think about what they have  67 read.  They c a n r e s t a t e i n t h e i r own words what t h e y have r e a d .  Allow the  c h i l d r e n t o d i c t a t e and w r i t e t h e i r own s t o r i e s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e language and c o n t e n t w i l l be t h e i r own and w i l l be f a m i l i a r t o them.  I t i s import-  a n t t o l e t c h i l d r e n r e a d about e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h f o r a s Pikulski  (1976)  states:  . . . t h e r e a d e r p r o c e s s e s v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f what he o r she a l r e a d y "knows" w h i c h r e f e r s b o t h t o what i s known a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f language and what i s known i n terms o f background o f i n f o r m a t i o n , ( p . 376.) The t e a c h e r must a l s o p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e n c e s s a r y e x p e r i e n c e s t o ena b l e them t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l t o be r e a d . C h i l d r e n c a n b e t a u g h t t o r e a d p a s t t h e d i f f i c u l t word t o see i f t h e y can f i g u r e o u t t h e meaning o f t h e word i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s t o f t h e sentence. 6. for  I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o make m i s t a k e s ,  a s Prank Smith (1971) s t a t e s : . . . f l u e n t r e a d i n g and l e a r n i n g t o r e a d f l u e n t l y , r e q u i r e a w i l l i n g n e s s t o 'make m i s t a k e s . ' And t h e extent t o which a c h i l d i s prepared t o r i s k mistakes i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the tolerance o f the teacher i n a c c e p t i n g them. ( p . 230.) 7.  I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s a l l o w t h e c h i l d r e n t o f i g u r e  out t h e word, i f p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t prompting.  I f a n e r r o r i s made, t h e  t e a c h e r s h o u l d encourage t h e c h i l d t o r e g r e s s and a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t t h e e r r o r , f o r a s Recht  (1976)  states:  The r e a d e r who i s encouraged t o r e g r e s s and a t t e m p t t o make sense o f an i n c o n s i s t e n c y encountered d u r i n g o r a l r e a d i n g l e a r n s f r o m t h e p r o c e s s , ( p . 638.) 8.  I t i s recommended t h a t a c h i l d who i s u n s u c c e s s f u l u s i n g one  r e a d i n g approach w h i c h emphasizes a p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g y s h o u l d b e h e l p e d t o i d e n t i f y new s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e hope he w i l l e x p e r i e n c e s u c c e s s a t r e a d i n g .  68 9.  Teachers must be cautioned not to judge a child's reading  a b i l i t y s t r i c t l y on the number o f o r a l reading errors he makes because, as Yetta Goodman  (197U) comments:  The grammatical structure, s t y l e of w r i t i n g or concept load of any p a r t i c u l a r part of a story a l l are involved i n the complex reasons which cause readers to produce miscues and which cause miscue numbers to vary from one part of the story to another, (p. 67.) Rather, look c l o s e l y a t o r a l reading errors i n order t o see whether they d i s t o r t the meaning o f the story.  Also,  I t i s not enough to say that the reader sometimes substituted a f o r the. I t must be seen that such behavior can~only r e s u l t from the l i n g u i s t i c competence of the reader which makes i t possible f o r him to produce a determiner, where one i s needed. I t must also be seen that something more than word recognition or l e t t e r perception i s involved. (Goodman, 1969, p. 13.) SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1.  A r e p l i c a t i o n of the present study using grade one c h i l d r e n i n  other geographical areas of Canada would add to the present f i n d i n g s , and to the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the findings to a wider population. 2.  I t i s recommended that a r e p l i c a t i o n of the present study could  be carried out l o n g i t u d i n a l l y so as to determine whether strategies taught i n beginning reading are s t i l l evident i n subsequent 3.  grades.  I t i s suggested that a l o n g i t u d i n a l study be conducted i n order  to examine children taught by a phonics approach and a language experience approach throughout t h e i r f i r s t year i n school, to note developmental trends. It.  Further research i s needed to determine how children expand  t h e i r i n i t i a l reading strategy and adopt d i f f e r e n t reading s t r a t e g i e s . it  Is  developmental? !>•  I t i s recommended that an indepth study o f the s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n  69 strategies of children learning t o read by a method emphasizing language experience be compared with children learning t o read by a method emphasizing phonics.  When i s a c h i l d more prone to correct an error?  70 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashton-Warner, S y l v i a .  Teacher.  New York:  Bantam Books,  1963.  Barr, Rebecca. "The Influence of Instructional Conditions on Word Recognition Errors," Reading Research Quarterly, 7:3 (Spring 1972),  509-529.  Barr, Rebecca.  "Influence of Instruction on Early Reading," Interchange,  5:U (197U), 13-22.  Barr, Rebecca. "The E f f e c t of I n s t r u c t i o n on Pupil Reading Strategies," Reading Research Quarterly. 10:1* (197U-75), 555-582. Bennett, Annette. "An Analysis of Errors i n Word Recognition Made by Retarded Readers," Journal of Educational Psychology, 33 (19l*2),  25-38.  B i e m i l l e r , Andres. "The Development of the Use of Graphic and Contextual Information as Children Learn to Read," Reading Research Quarterly, 6:1 ( F a l l 1970), 78-96. Bond, Guy L., and Robert Dykstra. "The Cooperative Research Program i n First-Grade Reading Instruction," Reading Research Quarterly. 2:1*, (Summer 1967), 5-U*2. Burke, Carolyn. "The Reading Process Oral Reading Analysis: A View of the Reading Process," i n William Page (ed.), Help f o r the Reading Teacher: New Directions i n Research. Urbana, I l l i n o i s : ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication S k i l l s , National Conference on Research i n England, 197i*, pp. 25-35, Burke, Elizabeth. "A Developmental Study of Children's Reading Strategies," Birmingham University Educational Review, 29:1* (1976-77), 30-1*6. Burke, M.S. "A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Oral Reading by Selected First-Graders Taught A n a l y t i c a l l y or Synthetically." Unpublished Master's Equivalency Thesis, Rutgers University, 1973. Butler, Lester G. "A Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Oral Reading Behavior of Selected Impulsive and Reflective Second Grade Boys."  (May 1971*), ED 09l* 325.  C h a l l , Jeanne S. Learning to Read: McGrawrHill, 1967.  The Great Debate.  New York,  N.Y.:  C h a l l , Jeanne. "Research i n L i n g u i s t i c s and Reading Instruction: Implicat i o n s f o r Further Research and Practice," i n J.A. F i g u r a l (ed.), Reading and Realism, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Convention of the International Reading Association, Part I . 13 (1969), 560-571,  71 C h a l l , Jeanne. "Research i n l i n g u i s t i c s and Reading I n s t r u c t i o n : Implications f o r Further Research and Practice," i n Robert K a l i n (ed.), Perspectives on Elementary Reading. New York: Harcourt Brace  Jovanovich, 1973, pp. 188-201.  Clay, Marie M. "The Reading Behaviour of Five Year Old Children: A Research Report," New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 2 (May  1967), 11-31.  Clay, Marie M. "A Syntactic Analysis of Reading E r r o r s , " Journal of Verbal Learning and Behavior, 7 (1968), l*3l*-l*38. Clay, Marie. "Reading Errors and Self-Correction Behavior," B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology. 39 (Feb. 1969), 1*7-56. Cohen, A l i c e Sheff. "Oral Reading Errors of F i r s t Grade Children Taught by a Code Emphasis Approach," Reading Research Quarterly, 10:1*  (197U-75), 616-6U9.  Dank, Marion Edelson. "A Study of the Relationship of Miscues to the Mode of Formal Reading Instruction Received by Selected Second Graders,  1976." ED 126 1*31.  DeLawter, Jayne A. "Miscue Patterns: The Relationship of Beginning Reading Instruction and Miscue Patterns," i n William Page (ed.), Help f o r the Reading Teacher: New Directions i n Research. Urbana, I l l i n o i s : ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication S k i l l s , National Conference on Research i n England, 197i*, 1*2-51. Dorchester County Board of Education. "Right to Read Language Experience Program." Cambridge, Md.: ERIC Document No. ED 105 1*1*9, 197U. Elder, Richard D. "Oral Reading Achievement of Scottish and American Children," Elementary School Journal, 71 (Jan. 1971), 216-230. Ewoldt, Carolyn. "Miscue Analysis of the Reading of Third Grade Follow Through and Non-Follow Through Children i n Wichita, Kansas." ERIC Document ED 136 219, October, 1976. Folman, Shoshana. "A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Miscues Generated by a Selected Group of I s r a e l i Non-Native Speakers of English During the Oral Reading of an Unadapted American Story--A Descriptive Study," Dissertation Abstracts, 38:1* (October 1977), 19i*3A. Glass, Gene V., and J u l i a n Stanley. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n Education and Psychology. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970. Goodman, Kenneth S. "A L i n g u i s t i c Study o f Cues and Miscues i n Reading," Elementary English. 1*2 (1965), 639-61*3. Goodman, Kenneth S. "Analysis of Oral Reading Miscues: Applied Psychol i n g u i s t i c s , " Reading Research Quarterly. 1 ( F a l l 1969), 9-31.  72 Goodman, Kenneth S., and C. Burke. A Study of Oral Reading Miscues That Result in Grammatical Re-Transformation, U.S.O.E. Final Report, Project No. 7-E-219, Contract No. OEG-0-8-070219-28O6 (010), U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, June, 1969. Goodman, Kenneth. "Reading: A Psycholinguistic Guessing Game," in H. Singer and R.B. Ruddell (eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading. Newark* Delaware:- International Reading Association, 1970, pp. 259-271. Goodman, Kenneth S. "Reading: You Can Get Back to Kansas Anytime You*re Ready Dorothy," English Journal. 63:8 (Nov. 197b), 62-61*. Goodman, K.S., and Yetta M. Goodman. "Learning About Psycholinguistic Processes by Analyzing Oral Reading," Harvard Educational Review, 1*7:3 (Aug. 1977), 317-333. Goodman, Yetta. "A Psycholinguistic Description of Oral Reading Phenomena in Selected Young Beginning Readers." Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1967. Goodman, Yetta. "Using Children's Miscues for Teaching Reading Strategies," Reading Teacher. 23 (Feb. 1970), 1*55-1*59. Goodman, Yetta. Longitudinal Study of Children's Oral Reading Behavior, Final Report, Project No. 9-E-062, Grant No. OEG-5-9-325062-001*6, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Research, Sept. 1971. Goodman, Yetta. "Reading Diagnosis—Qualitative or Quantitative?" Reading Teacher. 26 (1972), 32-37. Goodman, Yetta. "I Never Read Such a Long Story Before," English Journal, 63:8 (Nov. 197b), 65-71. Goodman, Yetta. "Reading Strategy Lessons: Expanding Reading Effectiveness," in William Page (ed.), Help for the Reading Teacher: New Directions in Research. Urbana, Illinois: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, National Conference on Research i n England, 197U, pp. 36-1*3. Hall, Mary Anne, The Language Experience Approach for Teaching Reading, ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, National Institute of Education, International Reading Association, 800 Barksdale Road, Newark, Delaware: 1978, Hodes, Phyllis. "Oral Reading of Bilingual Yiddish/English Children," ED 137 731, May, 1977. Hood, Joyce, and Janet Kendall. "A Qualitative Analysis of Oral Reading Errors of fteflective and Impulsive Second Graders: A Follow-Up Study," Journal of Reading Behavior. 7 (1975), 269-281,  73 Hood, Joyce. "Qualitative Analysis of Oral Reading Errors: The InterJudge Reliability of Scores," Reading Research Quarterly, 11 (1975-76), 577-598. Hood, Joyce, and Clara Gonzalez. "The Oral Reading of Columbian Secondand Fourth-Graders: An Illustration of Issues in Cross-Cultural Oral Reading Research." ED 130 226, 1976. Jastak, J.F. Wide Range Achievement Test. Wilmington, Delaware: Guidance Associates of Delaware, 1965. Jastak, J.F., and S.R. Jastak. The Wide Range Achievement Test Manual. Wilmington, Delaware: Guidance Associates of Delaware, 1965. Linn, J.R., Mabel Bruce, Dorothy Donaldson, Jean Ellis, Anne Saunders, and Janet Trischuk. Language Patterns. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Ltd., 1967* MacKinnon, A.R. 1959.  How Do Children Learn to Read? Vancouver: Copp Clark,  Madden, Marie, and Marjorie Pratt. "An Oral Reading Survey as a Teaching Aid," Elementary English Review. 18 (19kl), 122-26, 159. Monroe, Marion. "Methods for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cases of Reading Disability," Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1* (1928), 335-U56. Norton, Donna E. "A Comparison of the Oral Reading Errors of High and Low Ability First and Third Graders Taught by Two Approaches—SyntheticPhonic and Analytic-Eclectic." Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976. ED 136 191. Norton, Donna E., and Patty Hubert. "A Comparison of the Oral Reading Strategies and Comprehension Patterns Developed by High, Average, and Low Ability First Grade Students Taught by Two Approaches—Phonic Emphasis and Eclectic Basal." ED 1U5 393, 1977. Page, William D., and Rebecca C. Barr. "Use of Informal Reading Inventories," in William Page (ed.), Help for the Reading Teacher: New Directions in Research. Urbana, Illinois: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, National Conference on Research in England, 197k, p. 103. Pikulski, John. "Linguistics Applied to Reading Instruction," Language Arts. 53:lt (1976), 373-77, 381*. Payne, C.S. "The Classification of Errors in Oral Reading," Elementary School Teacher. 31 (1930), ll*2-H*6. Recht, Donna. "The Self-Correction Process i n Reading," Reading Teacher, 29:7 (1976), 632-636.  7k Robinson, Helen. "Insights From Research: Children's Behavior While Reading," i n William Page (ed.), Help f o r the Reading Teacher: New Direction i n Research. Urbana, I l l i n o i s : ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication S k i l l s , National Conference on Research i n England, 197k, pp. 9-22. R u s s e l l , Sheldon Noel. "Error Pattern Relationship o f Developmental Readers and Functionally I l l i t e r a t e Adults." ED 133 689, 1973. Smith, Brooks E., Kenneth S. Goodman, and Robert Meredith. Language and Thinking i n the Elementary School. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. ' Smith, Frank. Understanding Reading. Winston, 1971*  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and  Spache, . Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales, rev. ed. Monterey, C a l i f . : CTB/Tlc Graw H i l l , Delmonte Research Park, 1972. Stauffer, R u s s e l l . The Language Experience Approach t o the Teaching of Reading. New York: Harper and Row, 1970. Waltz, Pennie A l i c e . "Reflection-Impulsivity and Oral Reading Miscues Among Fourth-Grade Boys." ED 132 510, June 1977. Weber, Rose-Marie. "The Study o f Oral Reading E r r o r s : A Survey o f the L i t e r a t u r e , " Reading Research Quarterly, k (1968), 96-119. Weber, Rose-Marie. "A L i n g u i s t i c Analysis of First-Grade Reading E r r o r s , " Reading Research Quarterly. 3 (Spring 1970), Ij27-U5l. Williamson, Leon, and Freda Young. "The Reading Performance o f Monol i n g u a l s and B i l i n g u a l s Compared." ED 130 252, 1976.  

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