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The relationship between story grammar instruction and first graders’ understanding of narrative material 1982

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STORY GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION AND FIRST GRADERS'' UNDERSTANDING OF NARRATIVE MATERIAL by KAREN ANNIE NELSON B .Ed . , The Univers i ty of Calgary, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education We accept th is thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1982 c . Karen Ann i e Nel son, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . / Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (2/81) ABSTRACT T h i s s t udy examined the e x t e n t to wh ich i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar improved c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . E x p e r i m e n t a l group s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n ove r a f i v e week p e r i o d ; c o n t r o l group s u b j e c t s l i s t e n e d to the same s t o r i e s as the e x p e r i m e n t a l group d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , but d i d not r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar. I t was found t h a t s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar were a b l e to com- prehend n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than s u b - j e c t s not r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t a l group s u b - j e c t s were a l s o a b l e to r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n the c o r r e c t sequence and answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s - t i o n s b e t t e r than c o n t r o l group s u b j e c t s , a l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were no t s i g n i f i c a n t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION .. 1 Need f o r the Study 2 THE PROBLEM 2 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 3 GENERAL PROCEDURES 4 SUMMARY.... 7 ORDER OF PRESENTATION 7 II RELATED RESEARCH 8 The Importance o f Teaching Reading Comprehension 8 Schema Theories of Knowledge 9 Researched-based Support of Story Grammar 14 SUMMARY 2 0 III METHODOLOGY 2 1 S e l e c t i o n of Subjects 2 1 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 2 3 Instruments Used 2 3 C o l l e c t i o n o f Data 2 5 Teaching Methods 2^ on Scoring o f the Data 3 Data A n a l y s i s 3 0 SUMMARY 3 2 i v Chapter Page IV PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 33 Part 1: Pretest Results 33 Part 2: Posttest Results 37 Part 3: Recal l ing Narrat ive Material 42 Part 4: Posttest Results (Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s ) 44 SUMMARY 47 V SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS 49 SUMMARY 49 Administrat ion of Instruments 50 Treatment of the Data 50 FINDINGS 51 Comprehension of Narrat ive Material 51 L i t e r a l Questions 51 In ferent ia l Questions . . . — 52 Recal l ing Narrat ive Material . 53 Recal l ing Narrat ive Material in the Correct Sequence.. 53 CONCLUSIONS 53 RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . 5 5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 5 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 9 APPENDICES - INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND TEACHING PROCEDURES 6 6 A Pretest Measures 6 7 B Experimental Group Procedures 70 C Posttests 98 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page I D is t r ibu t ion of Age and Sex in Experimental and Control Groups . 22 II Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups on Total Comprehension as Measured by the Gates-MacGinit ie (Level A, Form 1) Pre-Reading Tes t . . 3 4 III Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups on Total Comprehension as Measured by the Experimenter Designed Pretest 3 5 IV Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for L i t e ra l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Pretest 3 6 V Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for In ferent ia l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Pretest 3& VI Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups on Total Comprehension as Measured by the Gates-MacGinit ie (Level A, Form 2) Post-Reading Test. 3& VII Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for Total Comprehension as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Posttest 3 9 VIII Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for L i t e ra l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Posttest 40 IX Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for In ferent ia l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Posttest 40 X Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for Recal l ing Narrative Material as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Free-reca l l Measures 42 XI Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for Recal l ing Narrative Material in the Correct Sequence as Measured by the Experimenter- Designed Free-Recal l Measure ^3 Table XII Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for Total Comprehension as Measured by the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (Primary Bat tery, Level 7, Form 3 M) Posttest XIII Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for L i t e r a l Questions as Measured by the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (Primary Battery, Level 7, Form 3 M) Posttest XIV Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups for In ferent ia l Questions as Measured by the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (Primary Bat tery, Level 7, Form 3 M) Posttest v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wou ld l i k e to e x t e n d my s i n c e r e thanks to my a d v i s o r , Dr . To ry Wes te rmark , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and g u i d a n c e i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n , I wou ld l i k e to e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e to Dr . Lee Gunderson f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and s u g g e s t i o n s i n the a n a l y s i s o f the da ta and to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s i n Schoo l D i s t r i c t #7 ( N e l s o n , B . C . ) , who w i l l i n g l y c o o p e r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 1 C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION There i s an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t by r e s e a r c h e r s i n a v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s such as c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y , p s y c h o - l i n g u i s t i c s , l i n g u i s t i c s and e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s t o r y s t r u c t u r e o r s t o r y grammar, and t h e i r comprehens ion o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . S t o r y grammar r e f e r s to a s e t o f r u l e s wh ich c l a s s i f y the components o f a s t o r y and s p e c i f y the r e l a - t i o n s h i p s among the p a r t s . Many c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s s h a r e a common a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e , i n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t s about an i n i t i a l s e t t i n g , the a d v e n t u r e s o f the main c h a r a c t e r and an outcome o r e n d i n g . S i n c e the ma jor emphas is i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f o r e l e m e n t a r y g rades i s n a r r a t i v e , c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar w i l l improve comprehens ion o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . " T h i s knowledge o f the grammar o f a s t o r y f a c i l i t a t e s comprehen- s i o n and r e c a l l . In o t h e r w o r d s , s t u d e n t s use grammar w h i l e r e a d i n g t o o r g a n i z e the p a r t s o f a s t o r y and s t o r e them i n memory. T h e n , when comprehens ion i s t e s t e d t hey use the same s t o r y s t r u c t u r e to h e l p them r e c a l l the s t o r y " (D rehe r and S i n g e r , 1980 , p. 2 6 3 ) . 2 Need f o r the S tudy R e c e n t l y , r e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s have d e v e l o p e d a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s comprehen- s i o n . Whaley (1981 a ) d i s c u s s e s some t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge o f s t o r y s t r u c t u r e s and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t now f o r e d u c a t i o r s to b r i d g e the gap between t h e o r y f o r m u l a t i o n and c l a s s r o o m a p p l i c a - t i o n : I t i s i m p o r t a n t now f o r e d u c a t o r s and i n v e s t i - g a t o r s a l i k e , i n c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s and i n - f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s t o i n t r o d u c e a new p e r s p e c - t i v e i n t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s t o r y schemata by u s i n g some o f t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i - ques (p . 7 7 0 ) . D u r k i n ( 1 9 8 1 , p. 41) s t a t e s t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a - t i o n s r e l a t e d to i n c r e a s i n g l e a r n i n g f rom p rose need to be c o n s i d e r e d i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s : " B e f o r e any r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s can be g e n e r a l i z e d . . . s y s t e m a t i c r e p l i c a t i o n o f s t u d i e s u s i n g s u b j e c t s who v a r y i n a g e , i n t e l l i g e n c e , read> i n g a b i l i t y and s o c i o e c o n o m i c backg round i s e s s e n t i a l . " The i n t e n t i o n o f the p r e s e n t s t udy i s to i n c o r p o r a t e some of t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n i s a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r i m p r o v i n g f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . THE PROBLEM The purpose o f the p r e s e n t s t udy i s to d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t to wh ich i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar improves 3 c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t he s t udy seeks to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What i s the e f f e c t o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n on c h i 1 d r e n ' s a b i 1 i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n the c o r r e c t sequence? 2. What i s the e f f e c t o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s ? D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms For the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y the f o l l o w i n g terms were d e f i n e d : S t o r y Grammar. S t o r y grammar c o n s i s t s o f a s e t o f r u l e s wh ich c l a s s i f y the components o f a s t o r y and s p e c i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the p a r t s (D rehe r and S i n g e r , 1980 , p. 2 6 2 ) . Comprehens i o n . T h i s s t u d y d e f i n e s comprehens ion as the grade s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the comprehens ion s e c t i o n s o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) and Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) r e a d i n g t e s t s as w e l l as the raw s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t - t e s t s . Fo l k t a l e . A s t o r y o f unknown o r i g i n but w e l l - k n o w n th rough r e - pea ted s t o r y t e l l i n g , as Pau l Bunyan f o l k t a l e s ( H a r r i s and Hodges , 1 9 8 1 , p. 121 ). F a b l e . A s h o r t t a l e i n p rose o r v e r s e to t e a c h a m o r a l , e s p e c i a l l y a t a l e u s i n g a n i m a l s and i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s as c h a r a c t e r s ( H a r r i s and Hodges , 1 9 8 1 , p. 1 1 5 ) . S u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s tudy were s e l e c t e d f rom t h r e e grade one p u b l i c s c h o o l c l a s s e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the g e o g r a p h i c a rea o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #7, N e l s o n , B . C . GENERAL PROCEDURES The g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s were as f o l l o w s : 1. The l i t e r a t u r e was s u r v e y e d to f i n d e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a - t i o n on t he s u b j e c t , to no te the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n s i m i l a r . . s t u d i e s and to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a need f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 2. The t h r e e s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the D i s t r i c t C o u n s e l l o r i n Schoo l D i s t r i c t #7, N e l s o n , B . C . They were j udged to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the seven teen e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t . 3. P u p i l s i n each s c h o o l were randomly a s s i g n e d to two g r o u p s ' - e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l . 4 . S t u d e n t d a t a - - a g e , s e x , b i r t h da te and s c h o o l - - w e r e c o l 1 e c t e d . 5. The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d and d a t a c o l 1 e c t e d : a) The comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing T e s t , ( L e v e l A , Form 1) was a d m i n i s t e r e d to both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group s t u d e n t s as a p r e t e s t measure ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 8 2 ) . L e v e l A Form 2 o f t h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group s t u d e n t s as a p o s t t e s t measure ( J u n e , 1 9 8 2 ) . b) E x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre ( A p r i l ) and pos t com- p r e h e n s i o n (June) t e s t s c o n s i s t i n g o f both l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to both e x p e r i - menta l and c o n t r o l group s t u d e n t s . c ) F r e e - R e c a l l Measu re . S t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s o f a s p e c i f i c s t o r y ("The G r u f f L i o n " ) were taped and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f rom s t u d e n t s i n bo th e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g roups and was used to de te rm ine the e x t e n t to wh ich c h i l d r e n f rom each group d i f f e r e d i n the number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d and i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e c a l l s t o r y even t s i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e : b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e and e n d i n g . d) The Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S i l l s , ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M-comprehens ion s e c t i o n ) was a d m i n i - s t e r e d d u r i n g the second week ( J u n e , 1982) f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i m e n t to bo th e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group s t u d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g da ta were t a b u l a t e d : a) r e a d i n g grade l e v e l s c o r e s - c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n s o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing T e s t s ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) and the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) . b) t o t a l comprehens ion s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the e x p e r i - m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p re and p o s t t e s t s . c) t o t a l number o f l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r - r e c t l y on the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t t e s t s . d) t o t a l number o f i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y on the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t - t e s t s . e) t o t a l number o f l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r - r e c t l y on the comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) . f ) t o t a l number o f i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y on the comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) . g) t o t a l number of s t o r y even t s remembered f rom the f r e e - r e c a l l measure . h) a c o d i n g sys tem was used to i n d i c a t e i f t he s t o r y e v e n t s were r e c a l l e d i n the c o r r e c t sequence f rom the f r e e - r e c a l l measure . The t r e a t m e n t o f d a t a was as f o l l o w s : Each c h i l d ' s comprehens ion s c o r e s were t a b u l a t e d and mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were computed . S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was r e p o r t e d u s i n g a t - t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) . 9. C o n t r o l Group P r o c e d u r e s : The c o n t r o l group read the same s t o r i e s as the e x p e r i m e n t a l group but d i d not r e c e i v e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar. SUMMARY C h a p t e r one has i n t r o d u c e d t he purpose o f the s t udy wh ich was to de te rm ine the e x t e n t to wh ich s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n improves c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . ORDER OF PRESENTATION The c o n t e n t and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c h a p t e r s a r e : 1 . C h a p t e r I p r e s e n t s the p r o b l e m , the need f o r the s t u d y , l i m i t s o f the s t u d y and g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s . 2. C h a p t e r I I p r o v i d e s a s u r v e y o f t he p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a - t u r e on r e s e a r c h - b a s e d s u p p o r t f o r s t o r y grammar a p p l i c a t i o n . 3. C h a p t e r I I I d e s c r i b e s the method employed i n t h i s s t u d y - - s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , i n s t r u - m e n t a t i o n , t e a c h i n g me thods , and the c o l l e c t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , c o d i n g , s c o r i n g and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . 4. C h a p t e r IV i s conce rned w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d a t a . 5. C h a p t e r V i s conce rned w i t h the f i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendat ions f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i s e and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 8 C h a p t e r II RELATED RESEARCH The pu rpose o f C h a p t e r two i s to p r o v i d e a s u r v e y o f e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to s t o r y grammar, to no te the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n s i m i l a r s t u d i e s and to d e t e r m i n e a need f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The Impor tance o f T e a c h i n g Read ing Comprehens ion "An unp receden ted i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h i s r e v e a l e d as we sk im th rough c u r r e n t j o u r n a l s . I n d i v i d u a l s f rom a v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s such as c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y , p s y c h o ! i n g u i s t i c s , e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , and l i n g u i s t i c s a re w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g on the t o p i c " ( D u r k i n , 1 9 8 1 , p . 2 3 ) . What i s r e a d i n g comprehens ion? Pea rs on and Johnson (1978) o f f e r some answers based on e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s : Read ing i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as a complex p r o c e s s . In f a c t , Edmund Burke Huey , i n 1908 , b e l i e v e d t h a t i f we c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d r e a d i n g we would unde r - s t and the m y s t e r i e s o f the human m ind . Edward T h o r n d i k e (1917) wro te an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , " R e a d - i n g as R e a s o n i n g . . . . " D a v i d R u s s e l l , i n 1 9 6 1 , c o n s i d e r e d r e a d i n g to be an a p p l i c a t i o n o f b a s i c c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . The most r e c e n t i n f l u e n c e on u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a d i n g comes f rom the academic d i s c i p l i n e o f c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y and a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e (Computer s i m u l a t i o n o f menta l p r o - c e s s e s ) . In t h e s e works ( f o r e x a m p l e , A n d e r s o n , 1 9 7 7 ) , r e a d i n g comprehens ion i s v iewed as a p r o - c e s s s u b j e c t to the same c o n s t r a i n t s as human memory and p rob lem s o l v i n g ( p . 8 ) . 9 D u r k i n (1979) o b s e r v e d a v a r i e t y o f c l a s s r o o m s and no ted t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r t ime was devo ted to g i v i n g and mark ing a s s i g n m e n t s and ve ry l i t t l e was spen t t e a c h i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . B a r r (1975) r e p o r t e d t h a t l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d on how the r e a d i n g t a s k may be m o d i f i e d to h e l p the b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r " . . . t h e l e a r n e r r e c e i v e s l i t t l e s u p p o r t and somet imes i n t e r f e r e n c e f rom i n s t r u c t i o n s i n o r g a n i z i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e f rom p r i n t . The d e s i g n o f the p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and t e a c h i n g methods employed d e t e r m i n e the dominant s t r a t e g y t h a t c h i l d r e n w i l l use f o r t r a n s l a t i n g p r i n t to s p e e c h . There i s a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n between the c h i l d ' s menta l s t r u c t u r e s and i n s t r u c t i o n " ( p . 1 3 ) . In o t h e r w o r d s , e d u c a t o r s must be aware o f how c h i l d r e n l e a r n and t a k e advan tage o f t h i s i n d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h - i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A s e a r c h o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a g row ing i n t e r e s t i n s t o r y grammar and the r o l e i t p l a y s i n f a c i l i t a t i n g com- p r e h e n s i o n o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l . The p r e s e n t s tudy was d e - s i g n e d to d e t e r m i n e i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n and improved comprehens ion o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . Schema T h e o r i e s o f Knowledge R e l a t e d to I d e n t i f y i n g Tex t O r g a n i z a t i o n Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e to t h i s s t u d y i s r e s e a r c h r e - l a t e d to schema t h e o r y o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r 10 s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t e x t . A l t h o u g h Kant (1781) was p r o b a b l y the f i r s t to r e f e r to knowledge s t r u c t u r e s as s c h e m a ( t a ) , i t was not u n t i l B a r t l e t t (1932) f o r m u l a t e d a ve ry g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f memory t h a t the term "schema" and the o r i e n t a t i o n came i n t o p r o m i n e n c e . B a r t l e t t d e f i n e d schemata as a t ype o f menta l f ramework based on c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t o wh ich new f a c t s a re f i t t e d . O r g a n i z a t i o n o r s t r u c t u r a l s c h e m a t a . Schema t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p an i m p l i c i t awareness o f the p a t t e r n s i n wh ich d i s c o u r s e can be o r g a n i z e d . These p a t t e r n s o r " s c h e m a t a " f o r d i s c o u r s e a re b e l i e v e d to be r e l a t e d to the way i n wh ich knowledge i s o r g a n i z e d i n memory ( B r a n s f o r d and M c C a r r e l l , 1974 ; Rumelhar t and O r t o n y , 1 9 7 1 ; Rumelhar t and Norman, 1 9 7 8 ) . A s c h e m a - t h e o r e t i c v iew o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . Schema t h e o r y v iews comprehens ion as an i n t e r a c t i v e a n d / o r r e c o n - s t r u c t i v e p r o c e s s . Du r i ng c o m p r e h e n s i o n , schemata wh ich a re a b s t r a c t knowledge s t r u c t u r e s have a p o t e n t i n f l u e n c e on what w i l l be comprehended o r r e c a l l e d f rom exposu re to d i s c o u r s e ( F r e d e r i k s o n , 1975 ; A n d e r s o n , R e y n o l d s , S c h a l l e r t and G o e t z , 1977 ; K i n t s c h , 1977 ; H a n d l e r and J o h n s o n , 1977 ; M a n d l e r , 1978 ; R u m e l h a r t , 1977 ; Rume lha r t and Norman, 1978 ; S t e i n , 1979 ; S t e i n and G l e n n , 1 9 7 9 ) . New i d e a s become anchored i n a b s t r a c t knowledge s t r u c t u r e s ( the known) and 11 c o n t r i b u t e to the u n i q u e n e s s o f the comprehens ion and u l t i - mate menta l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Not o n l y a re schemata used i n p e r c e p t i o n , comprehens ion and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the schemata t h e m s e l v e s may change i n v a r i o u s ways as a r e s u l t o f the p r o c e s s ( A n d e r s o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . Schema t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t r e a d e r s use schemata a t two p o i n t s . F i r s t l y , a t the i n p u t ( r e a d i n g ) s t a g e . Schemas he lp to chunk the i ncom ing i n f o r m a t i o n . They t e l l the r e a d e r when an e p i s o d e i s i n c o m p l e t e . They a l e r t him o r he r t o unexpec ted or d e v i a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . I f , a f t e r r e a d i n g , a pe rson t r i e s to remember what he o r she has r e a d , schemas once more become u s e f u l . They t e l l you what to l o o k f o r n e x t . They he lp s o r t out whe ther someth ing i m p o r t a n t h a s n ' t been remembered y e t (Tu imann , 1 9 8 0 ) . The r o l e o f t e x t u a l schemata i n e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t e x t i n f o r m a t i o n i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d has been i n c l u d e d i n v a r i o u s s t u d i e s : ( K i n t s c h , 1974 ; M e y e r , 1975 ; R u m e l h a r t , 1 9 7 5 ; S c h a n k , 1 9 7 5 ) . S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have p roven t h a t the memory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a t e x t i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n wh ich i n f o r m a t i o n i s o r d e r e d f rom most i m p o r t a n t to l e a s t i m p o r t a n t ( A u s b e l , 1963 ; M a n d l e r , 1967 ; Meyer and M c C o n k i e , 1973 ; K i n t s c h and Keenan , 1974 ; K i n t s c h , 1974 ; K i n t s c h , K o x i m i n s k y , S t r e b y , McKoon and Keenan , 1975 ; McKoon, 1977 ; M a r s h a l l and G l o c k , 1978 ; G a b r i e l , Braun and N e i l s e n , 1980 ; M e y e r , B rand t and B l u t h , 1980 ; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . 12 S t u d i e s by Meyer and McConk ie (1 973) and K i n t s c h e t a l . , (1975) have shown t h a t s u p e r o r d i n a t e p r o p o s i t i o n s were r e - c a l l e d b e t t e r than s u b o r d i n a t e p r o p o s i t i o n s and f o r g o t t e n l e s s when r e c a l l was d e l a y e d . T h i s was f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d th rough an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f n i n t h grade s t u d e n t s ' use o f a r e a d i n g s t r a t e g y wh ich f o c u s e d on f o l l o w i n g the s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e x t i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e what was impo r - t a n t to remember (Meyer e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x p l i c i t y s t a t i n g the t e x t u a l schema u s e d , f a c i l i t a t e d r e c a l l f o r poor n i n t h grade r e a d e r s . Good r e a d e r s a p p a r e n t l y had w e l 1 - d e v e l o p e d schemata f o r t e x t , w h i l e poor r e a d e r s d i d n o t , G a b r i e l e t a l . , (1980) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s e v e n t h grade s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s to u t i l i z e an a u t h o r ' s schema i n r e c a l l , and the e f f e c t s o f s i g n a l l i n g on the amount and i m p o r t a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e - c a l l e d f rom passages w i t h d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . When the r e s u l t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , t hey tended to s u p p o r t the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. Good comprehenders appear to have b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d schemata than poor comprehende rs . 2 . Both good and poor comprehenders appear to have b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d schemata f o r p a r a t a c t i c c o l l e c t i o n s ( s e l e c - t i o n s wh ich c o n t a i n a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t and s e v e r a l arguments o f equa l w e i g h t i n a t ime sequence) than f o r r esponse r h e t o r i c a l p r e d i c a t e s ( s t r u c t u r e s c o n t a i n i n g 13 a p rob lem and two s o l u t i o n s o f equa l w e i g h t ) . 3 . S i g n a l l i n g s t r u c t u r e and t o p - l e v e l c o n t e n t appear to a f f e c t s e v e n t h grade good and poor comprehenders s i m i - l a r l y f o r d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e t y p e s ( p . 1 2 ) . The r o l e o f t e x t u a l schemata i n n a r r a t i v e s . Many c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s s h a r e a common a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e , i n - c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t s about an i n i t i a l s e t t i n g , the a d v e n t u r e s o f the main c h a r a c t e r and so f o r t h ( B r a n s f o r d , 1 9 7 9 ) . C u r - r e n t l y , t h e r e a re f i v e ma jor s t o r y grammars t h a t have been d e r i v e d f rom the o r a l f o l k t a l e t r a d i t i o n . These have been d e v e l o p e d by ( R u m e l h a r t , 1975 ; Bower , 1 9 7 6 ; Mand le r and J o h n s o n , 1977 ; Johnson and M a n d l e r , 1980 ; T h o r n d y k e , 1977 ; S t e i n and G l e n n , 1 9 7 9 ) . S t o r y grammar can be d e f i n e d as "An i d e a l i z e d i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the p a r t s o f a t y p i c a l s t o r y and the r e l a - t i o n s h i p s among t hose p a r t s (Mand le r and J o h n s o n , 1977 , p. 1 1 1 ) . I t has been shown t h a t c h i l d r e n as young as s i x y e a r s o l d have an i n t e r n a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the p a r t s o f a s t o r y even i f i t i s a r u d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f a b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e and end (B rown , 1977 ; Mand le r and J o h n s o n , 1977 ; A p p l e b e e , 1978 ; D rehe r and S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l o f the s t o r y grammars have been found to be u s e f u l i n r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the p r e s e n t s tudy w i l l d i s c u s s the s t o r y grammar d e v e l o p e d by G u t h r i e ( 1 9 7 7 ) , d e p i c t e d i n the form o f a d iag ram shown on page 15 o f t h i s 14 s t u d y . The r u l e s f o r the g rammat i ca l s t r u c t u r e a re e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s : The f i r s t r u l e s i m p l y d e f i n e s a s t o r y as c o n s i s - t i n g o f a s e t t i n g , theme, p l o t , and a r e s o l u t i o n , wh ich u s u a l l y o c c u r i n t h a t sequence . The second r u l e i s t h a t the s e t t i n g c o n s i s t s of the c h a r a c t e r s and u s u a l l y the l o c a t i o n and t ime o f a s t o r y . The t h i r d r u l e i s t h a t the theme of a s t o r y c o n s i s t s o f the main c h a r a c t e r . . . . T h e p l o t c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f e p i s o d e s , wh ich a re d e s i g n e d to h e l p the main c h a r a c t e r r e a c h h i s g o a l . Each e p i s o d e c o n s i s t s o f a subgoa l , and a r e s o l u t i o n o f the a t t e m p t . . . . A f t e r s e v e r a l e p i s o d e s an outcome o c c u r s wh ich matches the goa l o f the main c h a r a c - t e r , u s h e r i n g i n a f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n . These r u l e s a p p l y to many s t o r i e s , f o l k t a l e s and dramas and g i v e us a common f ramework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g them. R e s e a r c h - b a s e d Suppo r t f o r S t o r y Grammar A p p l i c a t i o n s ( T h o r n d y k e , 1977 ; N e i l s e n , 1977) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s o f s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e s on memory and comprehens ion o f p rose p a s s a g e s . Thorndyke c o n d u c t e d two e x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g 64 u n d e r - g r a d u a t e s i n the f i r s t and 48 i n the s e c o n d . N e i l s e n t e s t e d s u b j e c t s f rom f i f t h and n i n t h grade l e v e l s as w e l l as c o l - l e g e s t u d e n t s i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e e x p e r i m e n t s . In each i n v e s t i g a t i o n , comprehens ion and r e c a l l were found to be a f u n c t i o n o f the amount o f p l o t s t r u c t u r e i n the s t o r y , i ndependen t o f passage c o n t e n t . S u b j e c t s tended to r e c a l l f a c t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to h i g h - l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t o r y e l emen ts r a t h e r than l owe r d e t a i l s . S t o r y sum- m a r i z a t i o n s f rom memory tended to emphas ize g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t . 15 Figure 1 • Story- Setting Theme A Location, 1 Events. 5—Goal. 7-8 B 2 - 3 - 4 9 10 Plot ( EPISODE A: ~1 Subgoal. 11 f Attempt. 12—Outcome. 13 J ( EPISODE B: ^ Subgoal. 14 ( Attempt, 15-Outcome, 20 J 16—17 18—19 21 Resolution State. 22 23 25-26 Source: John T. Guthrie, "Story Comprehension". The Reading Teacher, 1977, 20, 57 /+-577. (Cited in Dreher and Singer, 1980, p. 262 . ) 1 6 N e i l s e n (1977) a l s o found t h a t n i n t h grade and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s pe r fo rmed s i m i l a r l y , but b e t t e r than f i f t h g r a d e r s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t the schemata o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , due to w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e a re more comp le te than the schemata o f young c h i l d r e n . Canney and Winograd (1979) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s i n a s t u d y u s i n g s e c o n d , f o u r t h and s i x t h g rade c h i l d r e n . In an a n a l y s i s o f the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f s i m p l e s t o r i e s , 21 s u b j e c t s f rom f i r s t and f o u r t h grade and u n i - v e r s i t y l e v e l were r e q u i r e d to l i s t e n to and r e c a l l two d i f f e r e n t s t o r i e s (Mand le r and J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . A n a l y s i s o f f i n a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t bo th c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a re s e n s i t i v e to the s t r u c t u r e o f s t o r i e s . The b e g i n n i n g s and f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s were e x t r e m e l y s a l i e n t f o r young c h i l d r e n . Gordon (1979) examined the e f f e c t o f two i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s on the comprehens ion o f n a r r a t i v e s e l e c t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m , u s i n g 42 f i f t h grade s t u d e n t s o f ave rage and above ave rage r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . S u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d to t h r e e t r e a t m e n t groups (Con ten t and S t r u c t u r e , I n f e r e n c e - A w a r e n e s s , and C o n t r o l ) . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t udy p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r c o n t e n t i o n s t h a t : 1) bo th p r e - e x i s t i n g schemata and m e t a c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g y use (knowing when and how to use c o n t e n t schemata) a re i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g i m p l i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and 2) the e f f e c t i v e - ness o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s v a r i e s under s p e c i f i c t a s k demands. 1 7 An e x p e r i m e n t conduc ted by Drehe r and S i n g e r (1980) u s i n g 28 f i f t h g r a d e r s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group demons t ra ted a b e t t e r a b i l i t y to c a t e g o r i z e s t o r y i n - f o r m a t i o n than a s e p a r a t e , u n i n s t r u c t e d g roup . However , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on the number o f p r o p o s i - t i o n s r e c a l l e d , the p a t t e r n o f r e c a l l o r on t h e i r r e c a l l o f p r o p o s i t i o n s f rom each o f the f o u r s e c t i o n s o f a s t o r y . D rehe r and S i n g e r (1980) c o n c l u d e d t h a t f i f t h g r a d e r s can l e a r n to i d e n t i f y the s t r u c t u r e o f a s t o r y , but f e l t t h a t s t o r y grammar t e a c h i n g i s not a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r e n h a n c i n g r e c a l l a t t h i s g rade l e v e l . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h n e c e s s a r y i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s r e l a t e d to s t o r y grammar. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t t he c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a n t i c i p a t e s t o r y s t r u c t u r e and use schemata to u n d e r s t a n d and remember s t o r i e s (Mand le r and J o h n s o n , 1977 ; T h o r n d y k e , 1977 ; M a n d l e r , 1978 ; Rumel - h a r t , 1977 ; S t e i n , 1979 ; S t e i n and G l e n n , T 9 7 9 ; Wha ley , 1981b ; G l e n n , 1980 ; Summers, 1980 ; S i n g e r and D o n l a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . To d a t e , t h e r e have o n l y been a few cases i n wh ich i n - v e s t i g a t o r s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t schemata a re not used f o r remember ing t e x t ( B a k e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . Whaley (1981 b) c i t e s s e v e r a l s t u d i e s wh ich have d e a l t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y to s e n s i t i v i t y o f v a r i o u s d i s c o u r s e e lemen ts such as i n f e r e n c e s and m a c r o - l e v e l 18 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e x t v e r s u s m i c r o - l e v e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( S m i l e y e t a l . , 1977 ; H i l y a r d and O l s o n , 1978 ; Eamon, 1978 ; M a r s h a l l and G l o c k , 1978 ; T i e r n e y e t a l . , 1978 ; Meyer e t a l . , 1980 ; Pa lmer e t a l . , 1980 ; S p i r o , 1980 ; T a y l o r , 1980 ; V i s p o n d , 1 9 8 0 ) . In r e l a t i o n to t h e s e s t u d i e s , Whaley (1981 b) p o i n t s ou t t h a t s t o r y grammar s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e a d i n g a c h i e v e - ment and s e n s i t i v i t y to s t r u c t u r e s i n n a r r a t i v e s to da te a re s c a r c e . She goes on to s u g g e s t t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h emana-k t i n g f rom her (1981 b) s t u d y wou ld be to u t i l i z e p r e d i c t i o n t a s k s and m a c r o - c l o z e t a s k s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r p r o - cedu res such as r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n to a s s e s s the r e l a t i o n - s h i p between r e a d i n g , ach ievemen t and r e a d e r s ' s t r u c t u r a l p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t i e s . The n o t i o n t h a t s t o r y - s c h e m a i n f o r m a t i o n i n and o f i t - s e l f i s not enough (Mand le r and J o h n s o n , 1977 ; Dreher and S i n g e r , 1980 ; Wha ley , 1981 b) i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by a r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n conduc ted by S i n g e r and Donlan ( 1 9 8 2 ) . F i f t e e n e l e v e n t h grade s t u d e n t s were t augh t to d e r i v e s t o r y - s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s f rom schema-gene ra l q u e s t i o n s as they read complex s h o r t s t o r i e s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d between the t r e a t m e n t group and a c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h i s e v i d e n c e ' i m p l i e s ' 1) t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n can he lp s t u d e n t s improve r e a d e r - b a s e d p r o c e s s i n g o f t e x t and 2) t h a t s t o r y grammar s t r u c t u r e s a c - q u i r e d p r i o r to o r d u r i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l may be enough f o r p r o c e s s i n g s i m p l e f a b l e s , but more adequate and more a p p r o p r i a t e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s f o r making schema- g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s s t o r y - s p e c i f i c a re n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o c e s s i n g , s t o r i n g and r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a - t i o n d e r i v e d f rom r e a d i n g complex s h o r t s t o r i e s ( S i n g e r and D o n l a n , 1982 , p. 1 6 6 ) . In a v e r y r e c e n t a r t i c l e , Sadow (1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s based on s t o r y grammar, e d u c a t o r s w i l l be a b l e t o e l i c i t both l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l l e v e l s o f t hough t as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a means th rough wh ich c h i l - d ren a re a b l e to i n t e r n a l i z e the s t r u c t u r e o f a s t o r y t h a t a grammar d e s c r i b e s . She i n d i c a t e s t h a t q u e s t i o n s based on s t o r y grammar a re d i f f e r e n t f rom t r a d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g app roaches i n t h a t i t i s d i s c o u r s e o r i e n t e d r a t h e r than m e n t a l - p r o c e s s or s k i l l o r i e n t e d . In d e s i g n i n g q u e s t i o n s based on s t o r y grammar, Sadow (1982) e x p l a i n s t h a t i t i s h e l p f u l to t h i n k o f a s t o r y as p r o v i d i n g the answer to f i v e q u e s t i o n s based on R u m e l h a r t ' s (1975) grammar ( p . 5 2 0 ) : 1. Where and when d i d the e v e n t s i n the s t o r y t a k e p l a c e and who was i n v o l v e d i n them? ( s e t t i n g ) 2 . What s t a r t e d the c h a i n o f e v e n t s i n the s t o r y ? ( I n i t i a t i n g Even t ) 3. What was the main c h a r a c t e r ' s r e a c t i o n to t h i s e v e n t ? ( R e a c t i o n ) 4 . What d i d the main c h a r a c t e r do about i t ? ( A c t i o n ) 5 . What happened as a r e s u l t of what the main c h a r a c t e r d i d ? (Consequence) 20 S t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a r y i n the e a r l y p r i m a r y g r a d e s . There i s e v i d e n c e f rom s e v e r a l s t u d i e s t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r more i n v e s t i g a t i o n to be c a r r i e d out i n wh ich i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s r e l a t e d to s t o r y grammar a re a p p l i e d to c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s ( G u t h r i e , 1977 ; Cunningham and F o s t e r , 1978 ; Dreher and S i n g e r , 1980 ; Wha ley , 1981 a ; Wha ley , 1981 b ; Sadow, 1982 ; S i n g e r and D o n l a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . A s e a r c h o f the l i t e r a t u r e a l s o r e v e a l s a l a c k o f s t u d i e s c a r r i e d ou t a t the l o w e r - e l e m e n t a r y grade l e v e l s (D reher and S i n g e r , 1980 ; S c h w a r t z , 1980 ; Summers, 1980 ; Wha ley , 1981 b ) . The purpose o f the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to i n c o r - p o r a t e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l and q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s as o u t l i n e d by (Wha ley , 1981 a ; Sadow, 1982) i n an a t t emp t to d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n has upon Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . SUMMARY C h a p t e r II has p r e s e n t e d a d i s c u s s i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e - s e a r c h r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t s t u d y , r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n s i m i l a r s t u d i e s as w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C h a p t e r I I I 21 METHODOLOGY The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s to d e s c r i b e : 1) the s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s , 2 ) the s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s , 3) the i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d , 4) the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a , 5) the t e a c h i n g methods i n c o r p o r a t e d , 6) the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d a t a , 7) s c o r i n g o f the d a t a , and 8) the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a . S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s o f the s tudy were 78 Grade One s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n Schoo l D i s t r i c t #7, N e l s o n , B . C . (38 boys and 40 g i r l s ) . T a b l e I shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f males and f ema les i n each group and the mean age o f each s t u d e n t . As the t a b l e i n d i c a t e s , t h e r e were 20 males and 18 f e m a l e s i n the c o n t r o l group and 18 males and 20 f e m a l e s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . The mean age o f the c o n t r o l group s t u d e n t s was 6 y e a r s , 3 months and the mean age o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was 6 y e a r s , 5 months . The c h i l d r e n w i t h i n each s c h o o l were randomly a s s i g n e d to c o n t r o l o r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . The t h r e e s c h o o l s were chosen i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the D i s t r i c t C o u n s e l l o r and were j udged to be r e p r e s e n t a - t i v e o f the seven teen e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t . 22 T a b l e I D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Age and Sex i n E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups Groups Mean Age i n Y e a r s , Months Mai es Females E x p e r i m e n t a l 6 .5 18 20 C o n t r o l 6 .3 20 18 T o t a l 6 .4 39 39 Hume e l e m e n t a r y i s s i t u a t e d i n an e s s e n t i a l l y m i d d l e c l a s s a r e a . P u p i l s a t t e n d i n g Rosemont E l e m e n t a r y come f rom a v a r i e t y o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s , B r e n t Kennedy i s l o c a t e d ten m i l e s o u t s i d e the c i t y l i m i t s , the m a j o r i t y o f p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g t h i s s c h o o l have E . S . L . b a c k g r o u n d s . The 39 c h i l d r e n a s s i g n e d to the e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n i n a t h r e e - s t e p s t r a t e g y s p r e a d ove r f i f t e e n l e s s o n s , t h r e e days a week ( T u e s d a y , Wednesday, Thu rsday ) o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y m inu tes each ( S i n g e r , 1978 ; S i n g e r and D o n l a n , 1980 ; Dreher and S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . The c o n t r o l group read the same s t o r i e s as the e x p e r i - menta l group each d a y , but r e c e i v e d no s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Three f a b l e s and two f o l k t a l e s f rom the p r e s c r i b e d e n d - o f - g r a d e one b a s a l r e a d e r , May I Come In (G inn 720 s e r i e s ) and seven s i m i l a r l y o r g a n i z e d n a r r a t i v e s t aken f rom a r e a d e r not used i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s , a l o n g w i t h a c h a r t p r e p a r e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r were used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . "No a t t emp t was made to c o n t r o l f a c t o r s such as l e n g t h , word f r e q u e n c y , imagery v a l u e , o r i n t e r e s t o f the s t o r i e s . I t was f e l t t h a t i t wou ld be i m p o r t a n t f o r e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y to use s t o r i e s t h a t were as much l i k e n a t u r a l l y e x i s t i n g s t o r i e s as p o s s i b l e " (Wha ley , 1981 b, p. 9 6 ) . These p a r t i c u l a r n a r r a t i v e s were chosen because as Whaley (1981 a , p. 769) s t a t e s : "These m a t e r i a l s a re good s o u r c e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n because t h e i r s t o r y e lemen ts a re i d e n t i f i e d e a s i l y . " I n s t r u m e n t s Used 1. G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing Tex t ( L e v e l A , Form 1 ) . The comprehens ion s e c t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p r e t e s t measure d u r i n g the l a s t week o f F e b r u a r y , 1982 to s t u d e n t s i n bo th e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . 2. E x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e t e s t . P r i o r to the e x p e r i - ment , s t u d e n t s f rom both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g roups l i s t e n e d to one s t o r y chosen by the e x p e r i m e n t e r 24 f rom a r e a d e r not used i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s . ("The Pot That Would Not S top B o i l i n g " pp . 1 8 1 - 1 8 5 , f rom the r e a d e r , I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k s e r i e s , e n d - o f - g r a d e one l e v e l ) . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , 14 q u e s t i o n s , 7 l i t e r a l and 7 i n f e r e n t i a l were read a l o u d , a l o n g w i t h a c h o i c e o f a n s w e r s . P u p i l s f o l l o w e d a l o n g w i t h t h e i r own typed c o p i e s . E x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p o s t t e s t . An e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p o s t t e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 14 comprehens ion q u e s t i o n s , 7 l i t e r a l and 7 i n f e r e n t i a l was a d m i n i s t e r e d to both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g roups f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . ("The Boy and the G o a t s " pp . 1 6 1 - 1 6 6 , f rom the r e a d e r , I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k s e r i e s , e n d - o f - g r a d e one l e v e l ) . P r o c e d u r e s were the same as f o r the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e t e s t . G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing T e s t ( L e v e l A , Form 2 ) . The comprehens ion s e c t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t measure d u r i n g the f i r s t week o f J u n e , 1982 to s t u d e n t s i n both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . F r e e - r e c a l l measure . A f r e e - r e c a l l measure was a d m i n i - s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y to s t u d e n t s i n both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups d u r i n g the f i r s t week f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i m e n t ( J u n e , 1 9 8 2 ) . A v o l u n t e e r , chosen by the e x p e r i m e n t e r , read a n a r r a - t i v e , s e l e c t i on to each s t u d e n t from both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . ("The G r u f f L i o n " , p. 192 f rom the T e a c h e r ' s Guidebook f o r the r e a d e r I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k s e r i e s ) . P r i o r to t h i s , t he f o l l o w i n g i n - s t r u c t i o n s were p r o v i d e d : I want you to l i s t e n v e r y c a r e f u l l y to a s t o r y I am go ing to read to y o u . When I f i n i s h , I w i l l ask you to t e l l me e v e r y - t h i n g t h a t you can remember about the s t o r y . P l e a s e do y o u r ve ry b e s t . S t u d e n t ' s r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s o f the s t o r y were taped and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d . Each s t u d e n t ' s v e r s i o n was l o o s e l y a n a l y z e d r a t h e r than p r o p o s i t i o n a l l y s e g - mented to a s s e s s the number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d and to d e t e r m i n e i f the even t s were r e c a l l e d i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . 6. Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) . The comprehens ion s e c t i o n was a d m i n i - s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t measure d u r i n g the second week o f J u n e , 1982 to s t u d e n t s i n both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n - t r o l g r o u p s . C o l l e c t i o n o f Data The i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the l a s t week o f A p r i l and the e n t i r e month o f May, 1982. A p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o n t r o l group d e s i g n was u s e d . P u p i l s i n each s c h o o l were randomly a s s i g n e d to two g r o u p s - e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n i n a t h r e e - s t e p s t r a t e g y s p r e a d ove r f i f t e e n l e s s o n s , 26 t h r e e days a week ( T u e s d a y , Wednesday, Thu rsday ) o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y m inu tes e a c h . The c o n t r o l group read the same s t o r i e s as the e x p e r i - menta l group each d a y , but d i d not r e c e i v e any s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar. A d d i t i o n a l f o l k and f a i r y - t a l e s were read on days when the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was r e v i e w i n g a s t o r y a l r e a d y r e a d . I n s t r u c t i o n took p l a c e a t the same t ime each day f o r each o f the groups i n v o l v e d . T e a c h i n g Methods S tep one , a) The t e a c h e r read a s t o r y f rom the p r e - s c r i b e d b a s a l r e a d e r May I Gome In (G inn 720 s e r i e s ) w h i l e p u p i l s f o l l o w e d a l o n g i n t h e i r own r e a d e r s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the t e a c h e r s asked p u p i l s f i v e q u e s t i o n s based on s t o r y gram- mar c a t e g o r i e s as s u g g e s t e d by Sadow ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The same p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d w i t h each o f the f o u r r e m a i n i n g s t o r i e s f rom the l a s t u n i t o f t h i s r e a d e r . b) Du r i ng the second h a l f of t h i s s t e p , t e a c h e r s , i n t r o d u c e d p u p i l s to the s t o r y s t r u c t u r e c h a r t . The f o l l o w - i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were p r o v i d e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s : When we read a s t o r y we are somet imes a b l e to remember i t b e t t e r i f we can t h i n k about the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s i n the s t o r y and what happened i n each o f t hose p a r t s . T o d a y , I read you the s t o r y ' ' ' ' • > a f t e r w a r d s , I asked you some q u e s t i o n s . Each o f the q u e s t i o n s were f rom a d i f f e r e n t p a r t o f the s t o r y . Some were f rom the b e g i n n i n g , the m i d d l e and the e n d . Now I'm go ing to show you a c h a r t w i t h some new q u e s t i o n s and see i f you can remember t h i s s t o r y w e l l enough to answer them and comp le te t h i s c h a r t t o g e t h e r w i t h me. 27 A s t o r y s t r u c t u r e c h a r t adap ted f rom the one d e v e l o p e d by Dreher and S i n g e r ( 1980 , p. 2 6 4 ) , was used f o r t h i s p a r t o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S tep two. P u p i l s were d i v i d e d i n t o groups o f t h r e e and f o u r and g i v e n t yped c o p i e s o f s p e c i f i c p h r a s e s r e l a t e d t o the s t o r y read on day one o f each week. Each o f the p h r a s e s were cu t a p a r t and p u p i l s were i n s t r u c t e d to p a s t e t h e s e where they be longed on i n d i v i d u a l c h a r t s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , p u p i l s d i s c u s s e d t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r c o m p l e t i n g the c h a r t s . Throughout t h i s i t was emphas ized t h a t " . . . t h e p a r t s o f a s t o r y as o u t l i n e d i n the c h a r t c o u l d be used to he lp u n d e r - s t a n d what i s happen ing i n i t as w e l l as an a i d i n remember- i ng i t " (D rehe r and S i n g e r , 1980 , p. 2 6 5 ) . S tep t h r e e . A d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y was used f o r s t ep t h r e e each week, i n some c a s e s i n c o r p o r a t i n g u n f a m i l i a r n a r - r a t i v e s w i t h s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Week one . P r e d i c t i o n T a s k . S t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d to an i n c o m p l e t e s t o r y read to them (A S l y Fox p. 196 , G u i d e b o o k , I t ' s S t o r y t i m e ) i n t h i s c a s e , o n l y the s e t t i n g was r e a d . O r a l d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w e d w i t h the t o t a l g r o u p , e n c o u r a g i n g p u p i l s to t e l l what would come n e x t . " F o r e x a m p l e , i f s t u d e n t s f i r s t read o n l y a S e t t i n g , the s t o r y grammar p r e - d i c t s they w i l l i n s t i n c t i v e l y add to i t a B e g i n n i n g , why i t o c c u r s a t t h i s p o i n t and so on " (Wha ley , 1 9 8 1 , p. 7 6 8 ) . 28 Week Two. Scramb1ed S t o r i e s . The same s t o r y as used on day one o f t h i s week was s e p a r a t e d i n t o s t o r y grammar c a t e g o r i e s and j u m b l e d . V a r i o u s s t o r y p a r t s were w r i t t e n on s e p a r a t e p i e c e s o f t r a n s p a r e n c y m a t e r i a l . S t u d e n t s then read the s c r a m b l e d s t o r y and r e o r d e r e d i t to make a good s t o r y by r e a d i n g a l o n g w i t h the t e a c h e r f rom the ove rhead p r o j e c t o r . D i s c u s s i o n then c e n t e r e d on r a t i o n a l e s f o r d i f - f e r e n t o r d e r s and on the f u n c t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t o r y p a r t s . The same p r o c e d u r e took p l a c e u s i n g an u n f a m i l i a r s t o r y s u p - p l i e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . ( T h e G i n g e r b r e a d G i r l " p . 1 8 5 , G u i d e b o o k , I t ' s S t o r y t i m e . ) Week T h r e e . M a c r o - C l o z e . A whole s t o r y c a t e g o r y was d e l e t e d . L i n e s were drawn to show where m a t e r i a l was o m i t - t e d . The t e a c h e r used the same s t o r y as used on day one o f t h i s week, e n c o u r a g i n g p u p i l s to p r o v i d e the c o r r e c t m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , p u p i l s were g i v e n t yped c o p i e s o f the same s t o r y w i t h a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y o m i t t e d and asked to comp le te the s t o r y . T h i s was done i n groups o f t h r e e o r f o u r , each group h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y to c o m p l e t e . Week F o u r . R e t e l 1 i n g S t o r i e s . The t e a c h e r s r e t o l d one o f the s t o r i e s p r e v i o u s l y read d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t (The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r " p. 166 , May I Come 'In)'. Four v e r s i o n s were s u p p l i e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . P u p i l s were encouraged to p o i n t out any i n a c c u r a c i e s and reasons were to be p r o v i d e d f o r a c c e p t i n g or r e j e c t i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s . 29 F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the t e a c h e r s read an u n f a m i l i a r s t o r y (The T i g e r ' s W h i s k e r " c i t e d i n Whaley (1981 a , p. 7 6 5 ) , u s i n g f o u r v e r s i o n s s u p p l i e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . S t u d e n t s were to choose the c o r r e c t v e r s i o n and p r o v i d e r e a s o n s . Week F i v e . Q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to s t o r y s t r u c t u r e c h a r t . Each c h i l d i n d e p e n d e n t l y comp le ted f i v e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to a s t o r y s t r u c t u r e c h a r t a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to a new s t o r y read o r a l l y , ( A l b e r t the F i s h , c i t e d i n Whaley (1981 a , p. 7 6 4 ) . P u p i l s f o l l o w e d a l o n g w i t h t h e i r own t yped c o p i e s . G a b r i e l e t a l . (1980) c i t e a s tudy by C a r r o l l (1977) who argues t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n o f r e a d i n g comprehens ion has to be a d i s c u s s i o n o f o r a l l anguage comprehens ion and t h a t o r a l l anguage comprehens ion i s r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p - ment. T h e r e f o r e i t would be i m p o r t a n t to e s t a b l i s h whether poor r e a d e r s a re e x p e r i e n c i n g more d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i n g to o r a l l anguage and perhaps to c o n t r o l o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . T h e r e f o r e , f o r pu rposes o f t h i s s t u d y , a l l s t o r i e s o t h e r than the ones i n c l u d e d i n the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing t e s t s and the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s were read o r a l l y to the p u p i l s . S c o r i n g o f the Data The comprehens ion s e c t i o n s o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e pre and p o s t r e a d i n g t e s t s ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2 ) , the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t t e s t s and the compre- h e n s i o n s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s 30 ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) p o s t t e s t were a l l hand- s c o r e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f rom each o f the t h r e e s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t . T e a c h e r s were g i v e n answer keys to f o l l o w w h i l e s c o r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t s . The Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s and the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e s t s were s c o r e d by u s i n g the s c o r i n g masks d e v e l o p e d f o r each t e s t . The e x p e r i m e n t e r t r a n s c r i b e d each s t u d e n t ' s r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s o f the s t o r y "The G r u f f L i o n " a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to a t a p e - r e c o r d i n g o f e a c h . Each s t u d e n t ' s v e r s i o n was l o o s e l y a n a l y z e d r a t h e r than p r o p o s i t i o n a l l y segmen ted , to a s s e s s the number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d and to de te rm ine i f the e v e n t s were r e c a l l e d i n the c o r r e c t sequence . Data A n a l y s i s In e x a m i n i n g the e f f e c t o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r i t i v e mate- r i a l , the da ta was examined or t r e a t e d as f o l l o w s : A f t e r pre and pos t t e s t s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d and coded f o r each c h i l d , a computer c a r d , one f o r each c h i l d was key punched . The da ta was then run t h rough the SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) , pe r fo rmed on an IBM com- p u t e r u s i n g the a p p l i c a b l e s u b r o u t i n e s o f SPSS. The p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f l e s s than or equa l to .05 was a c c e p t e d as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e o f a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e and w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r IV f o r s u b s t a n t i v e d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was t e s t e d u s i n g a t - t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i ndependen t samples ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) . The a n a l y s i s was r e l a t e d to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : To what e x t e n t do c h i l d r e n i n s t r u c t e d i n s t o r y grammar d i f f e r f rom a c o n t r o l group i n a b i l i t y t o : 1. Comprehend n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . The comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) and the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d . Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d . The s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s employed i n e x a m i n i n g the q u e s t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f t r e a t m e n t on group d i f - f e r e n c e s was a t - t e s t . The p a r t i c u l a r t - t e s t used was a t - t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i ndependen t samples ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) . 2 . A b i l i t y to answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t t e s t s and the comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) p o s t t e s t were a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the number o f l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y by each s t u d e n t . Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f rom the r e c o r d e d s c o r e s . The s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s employed i n exam in ing the q u e s t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f t r e a t m e n t on group d i f f e r - ences was a t - t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r 32 i ndependen t s a m p l e s . 3. A b i 1 i t y to- r e c a l 1 s t o r y e v e n t s . The number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d by each s t u d e n t a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to the s t o r y "The G r u f f L i o n " , were r e c o r d e d and mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d . The s t a t i - s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s employed i n exam in ing the e f f e c t o f t r e a t m e n t on group d i f f e r e n c e s was a t - t e s t of s i g n i f i - can t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s . 4 . A b i l i t y to r e c a l l s t o r y even t s i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . S t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s to r e c a l l the s t o r y : "The G r u f f L i o n " i n the c o r r e c t sequence were r e c o r d e d u s i n g a c o d i n g s y s t e m . Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d . The s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s used i n e x a m i n i n g the q u e s - t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f t r e a t m e n t o f group d i f f e r e n c e s was a t - t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s . SUMMARY The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s ; i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , i n - s t r u m e n t a t i o n ; t e a c h i n g me thods ; and the c o l 1 e c t i o n , c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n , c o d i n g , s c o r i n g - a n d a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . 33 C h a p t e r IV PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s o f the da ta a n a l y s i s and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n f o u r s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s p r e t e s t r e s u l t s as d e t e r m i n e d by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and e x p e r i - m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t s . The second s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s as d e t e r m i n e d by G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and e x p e r i - m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the e f f e c t s o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n on p u p i l s ' a b i l i t i e s to r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l and to r e c a l l i t i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . S e c t i o n f o u r p r e s e n t s p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s . PRETEST RESULTS The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing T e s t ( L e v e l A , Form 1 ) and an e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l s u b - j e c t s p r i o r to the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . T o t a l compre- h e n s i o n s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d as w e l l as the number o f l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y on the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t . G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e T o t a l Comprehens ion T e s t S c o r e s The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f g rade 34 2 . 0 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 7 2 , w h i l e the mean s c o r e f o r the c o n t r o l group was grade 1 . 9 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .70 ( T a b l e I I ) . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups (p< : 5 5 ) , t (76) = . 3 4 3 . T a b l e I I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups on T o t a l Comprehens ion as Measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1) P r e - r e a d i n g T e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d Devi a t i on E x p e r i m e n t a l 2 .0 .72 C o n t r o l 1.9 .70 E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d T o t a l Comprehens ion T e s t S c o r e s The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 1 1 . 8 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 . 1 1 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 1 1 . 5 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1.06 ( T a b l e I I I ) . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups (p< . 2 2 ) , t ( 7 6 > = 1 .54 . 35 T a b l e I I I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups on T o t a l Comprehens ion as Measured by the E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d P r e t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d Devi a t i on E x p e r i m e n t a l 11 .8 1.11 C o n t r o l 1 1 . 5 1.06 A n a l y s i s o f L i t e r a l and I n f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s on the E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d T e s t A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t was done to de te rm ine the number o f i n f e r e n t i a l and l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y . R e s u l t s o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d comprehens ion t e s t s c o r e s on l i t e r a l .quest ions. • - ; The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 5 . 5 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 . 0 2 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 5 . 1 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .85 (Tab le I V ) . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t samples t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups (p< . 1 2 ) , t (76) = 2 . 4 4 . 36 T a b l e IV Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r L i t e r a l Q u e s t i o n s as Measured by the E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d P r e t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d Devi a t i on E x p e r i menta l 5 .5 1 .02 C o n t r o l 5.1 .85 R e s u l t s o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d comprehens ion t e s t s c o r e s on i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o h s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 6 . 3 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 9 0 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 6 . 4 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .,81 (Tab le V ) . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i - can t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups (p< . 8 9 ) , t (76) = . 01 7. T a b l e V Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r I n f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s as Measured by the E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d P r e t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d Devi a t i on E x p e r i m e n t a l 6 .3 .90 C o n t r o l 6 .4 .81 37 SUMMARY E x a m i n a t i o n o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing T e s t ( L e v e l A , Form 1 ) , and the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g roups p r i o r to the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t i n : 1) a b i l i t y to comprehend n a r - r a t i v e m a t e r i a l ; 2) a b i l i t y to answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s ; and 3) a b i l i t y to answer i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . POSTTEST RESULTS The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing Tes t ( L e v e l A , Form 2) and the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d as p o s t t e s t s to a l l s u b j e c t s f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t - ment. T o t a l comprehens ion s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d as w e l l as the number o f l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y on the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t . G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e T o t a l Comprehens ion T e s t S c o r e s The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f g rade 2 . 7 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 7 3 , w h i l e the mean s c o r e f o r the c o n t r o l group was grade 2 . 2 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a - t i o n o f .89 ( T a b l e V I ) . A c c o r d i n g t o the r e s u l t s o f a t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group made a mean g a i n o f 6 . 9 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 6 .14 w h i l e the c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s 38 mean g a i n was 3 . 6 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 6 . 1 0 , i n wh ich T (df=76) = 2 . 4 2 , wh ich i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l p h a . 0 5 . T a b l e VI Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups on T o t a l Comprehens ion as Measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 2) P o s t - R e a d i n g T e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d Devi a t i on E x p e r i m e n t a l 2 .7 .73 C o n t r o l 2 .2 .89 E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d T o t a l Comprehens ion T e s t S c o r e s The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 1 3 . 2 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2 . 6 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 1 1 . 7 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1.1 ( T a b l e VI I ) . . A c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s o f a t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples the e x p e r i m e n t a l group made a mean g a i n o f 1 . 3 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2 . 8 8 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s mean g a i n was . 2 0 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 . 4 1 , i n wh ich T (df=76) = 2 . 1 4 , wh ich i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l p h a . 0 5 . 39 T a b l e VI I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups on' T o t a l Comprehens ion as Measured by the E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d P o s t t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n E x p e r i menta l 13 .2 2 .6 C o n t r o l 11 .7 1.1 A n a l y s i s o f L i t e r a l and I n f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s on the e x p e r i - m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d T e s t . A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t was done to d e t e r m i n e the number o f i n f e r e n t i a l and l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y . R e s u l t s o f t he e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d comprehens ion t e s t s c o r e s on l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 6 . 3 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 7 0 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 5 . 7 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .75 ( T a b l e V I I I ) . A c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s o f a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group made a mean g a i n o f . 8 4 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 . 1 5 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s mean g a i n was . 5 6 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 . 0 4 , i n wh ich T (df=76) = 1 . 1 3 , wh ich i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l p h a . 0 5 . 40 T a b l e V I I I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r L i t e r a l Q u e s t i o n s as Measured by the Expe r i r oen te r -Des i gned P o s t t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l 6 .3 .70 C o n t r o l 5 .7 . 75 R e s u l t s o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d comprehens ion t e s t s c o r e s on i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 6 . 4 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 6 4 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 6 . 0 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1.0 ( T a b l e I X ) . T a b l e IX Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r I n f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s as Measured by the E x p e r i m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d P o s t t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l 6.4 .64 C o n t r o l 6 .0 1.0 41 A c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s o f a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l g roup made a mean g a i n o f . 0 7 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 . 0 8 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s mean ga in w a s - . 4 1 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 . 2 , i n wh ich T (df=76) = 1 . 8 2 , wh ich i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l p h a . 0 5 . SUMMARY The r e s u l t s o f a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t samples on the d i f f e r e n c e s between pre and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t : 1) the e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s compared to the c o n t r o l group i n t o t a l comprehens ion as measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) and e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and pos t r e a d i n g t e s t s ; , 2) no s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were made by e i t h e r group i n a b i l i t y to answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s as measured by the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t t e s t s ; 3) No s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were made by e i t h e r group i n a b i l i t y to answer : i n f e r - e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s as measured by the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t t e s t s . The d i f f e r e n c e between the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group on the t o t a l e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t s i n d i c a t e s an o v e r a l l g a i n f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . The d i f f e r e n c e i n g a i n f o r the c o n t r o l group was p o s i t i v e f o r l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s and n e g a t i v e f o r i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . 42 RECALLING NARRATIVE MATERIAL A f r e e - r e c a l l measure was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y to a l l s u b j e c t s f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . S t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s were taped and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d . Each s t u d e n t ' s v e r s i o n was a n a l y z e d to d e t e r m i n e : 1) the number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d and 2) i f the e v e n t s were r e c a l l e d i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . A b i l i t y to R e c a l l S t o r y Even ts The mean number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d by the e x p e r i - menta l group was 4 . 9 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3 . 0 , w h i l e the mean number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d by the c o n t r o l group was 2 . 8 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 .3 (Tab le X ) . A c c o r d - i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t samples the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were s i g n i f i c a n t ( p « . 0 0 0 2 ) j ( t ( i 76 ) = 1 5 . 8 0 . T a b l e X Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r R e c a l l i n g N a r r a t i v e M a t e r i a l as Measured by t he E x p e r i m e n t e r - Des igned F r e e - R e c a l l Measu re . Group Mean S t a n d a r d u e v i a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l 4 . 9 3 . 0 C o n t r o l 2 . 8 1 .3 43 A b i l i t y to R e c a l l S t o r y E v e n t s i n the C o r r e c t Sequence T a l b e XI shows the mean sequence s c o r e s f o r the e x p e r i - menta l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . A number 1_ was a s s i g n e d f o r e v e n t s r e c a l l e d i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e , and a number 2_ was a s s i g n e d f o r e v e n t s r e c a l l e d i n the i n c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ' s mean sequence s c o r e was 1 . 4 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 4 9 , w h i l e the mean sequence s c o r e f o r the c o n t r o l group was 1 . 6 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 4 8 . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a b l e to r e c a l l s t o r y even t s i n the c o r r e c t sequence b e t t e r than the c o n t r o l g r o u p . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , t he d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t ( p « : 0 4 ) , t ( 7 6 ) = 4 . 2 8 . SUMMARY E x a m i n a t i o n o f the f r e e - r e c a l l s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t f a v o r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l group i n : 1) the number o f s t o r y even ts r e c a l l e d , but not i n : 2) the a b i l i t y to r e c a l l s t o r y even t s i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . T a b l e XI Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r R e c a l l i n g N a r r a t i v e M a t e r i a l i n the C o r r e c t Sequence as Measured by the E x p e r i - m e n t e r - D e s i g n e d F r e e - R e c a l l Measu re . Group Mean S t a n d a r d Devi a t i on E x p e r i m e n t a l 1.4 .49 C o n t r o l 1.6 .48 POSTTEST RESULTS CANADIAN TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS The Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l s u b j e c t s f o l l o w - i ng the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . T o t a l comprehens ion s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d as w e l l as the number o f l i t e r a l and i n f e r - e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s answered c o r r e c t l y . Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s T o t a l Comprehens ion T e s t S c o r e s The r e s u l t s o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3>M) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f g rade 2 . 8 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f . 7 6 , w h i l e the mean s c o r e f o r the c o n t r o l group was grade 2 . 2 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .68 ( T a b l e X I I ) . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were s i g n i - f i c a n t (p< . 0 0 0 2 ) , t ( 7 6 ) = 1 5 . 8 0 . Tab !e XII Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r T o t a l Comprehens ion as Measured by the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) P o s t t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d Devi a t i on E x p e r i m e n t a l 2 .8 .76 C o n t r o l 2 .2 .68 45 R e s u l t s o f Canad ian t e s t s o f b a s i c s k i l l s t e s t s c o r e s on- l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 3 0 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 6 . 2 , w h i l e t he c o n t r o l g roup a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 2 4 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 7.4 ( T a b l e X I I I ) . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were s i g n i f i c a n t (p< . 0 0 1 ) , t ( 7 6 ) = 1 1 . 6 1 . T a b l e X I I I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r L i t e r a l Q u e s t i o n s as Measured by the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) P o s t t e s t . Group Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l 30 6. 2 C o n t r o l 24 7. 4 R e s u l t s o f Canad ian t e s t s o f b a s i c s k i l l s t e s t s c o r e s on i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 1 8 . 3 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 4 . 2 , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 1 4 . 6 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 4 . 7 ( T a b l e X I V ) . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were s i g n i f i c a n t (p< , 0 0 0 5 ) , t ( 7 6 ) = 1 3 . 2 8 . 46 T a b l e XIV Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups f o r I n f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s as Measured by the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) P o s t t e s t . i Group Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l 1 8 . 3 4 .2 C o n t r o l 14 .6 4 .7 SUMMARY The Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a b l e t o : 1) comprehend n a r - r a t i v e m a t e r i a l ; 2) answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s ; and 3) answer i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s as compared to the c o n t r o l g r o u p , f o l - l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . 47 SUMMARY The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d the d a t a c o l l e c t e d . P re and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s were s u b j e c t e d to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s to d e t e r m i n e : The e x t e n t to wh ich i n - s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar improved c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s t o : 1) comprehend n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l ; 2) answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s ; 3) answer i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s ; 4) r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l ; and 5) r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . The major f i n d i n g s are summar ized b e l o w : 1 . A c c o r d i n g to a t - t e s t f o r i ndependen t s a m p l e s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n a b i l i t y to comprehend n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l as measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 , and L e v e l A , Form 2) and e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and pos t r e a d i n g t e s t s , as compared to the c o n t r o l g r o u p . 2 . A c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s o f a t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed g r e a t e r g a i n i n a b i l i t y to answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s than the c o n t r o l group as measured by the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and pos t r e a d i n g t e s t s . Howeve r , t he d i f f e r - ences in g a i n between the two groups were not s i g n i f i - c a n t . 3 . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a b l e to comprehend n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the c o n t r o l group f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t as measured by the 48 comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L i n e 7 , Form 3 M ) , a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a b l e to answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the c o n t r o l group f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t as measured by the comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a b l e to r e c a l l s t o r y even t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the c o n t r o l group f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t as measured by the f r e e - r e c a l l measure a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a b l e to r e c a l l s t o r y e v e n t s i n the c o r r e c t sequence b e t t e r than the c o n t r o l group f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t as measured by the f r e e - r e c a l l measure a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t . How- e v e r , the d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t . C h a p t e r V 49 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS S e v e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s s t udy to d e t e r m i n e whether s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n i s a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s comprehens ion and r e c a l l o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . P r i o r to the p r e s e n t s t u d y , few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s had been c a r r i e d out i n wh i ch i n s t r u c - t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s r e l a t e d to s t o r y grammar have been a p p l i e d to the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the grade one l e v e l . The p r e s e n t s t u d y s u p p o r t s the use o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n as an a i d i n i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . SUMMARY The pu rpose o f t h i s s t udy was to d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t to wh ich i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar improves c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the s t udy sought to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What i s the e f f e c t o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to comprehend and r e c a l l n a r - r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n the c o r r e c t sequence? 2. What i s the e f f e c t o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n on 50 c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s ? A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n s t r u m e n t s The comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) and the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d r e a d i n g t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l s u b j e c t s as pre and p o s t t e s t s . A f r e e - r e c a l l measure was a d m i n i - s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o a l l s u b j e c t s as a p o s t t e s t m e a s u r e , f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . The comprehens ion s e c - t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l s u b j e c t s as a p o s t t e s t measure f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . T rea tment o f Data Each c h i l d ' s pre and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on each o f the measures were r e c o r d e d and coded and a computer c a r d , one f o r each c h i l d was k e y - p u n c h e d . The d a t a were then run t h rough an SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) , pe r fo rmed on an IBM c o m p u t e r , u s i n g the a p p l i c a b l e s u b - r o u t i n e s o f SPSS. Mean s c o r e s were computed f o r t o t a l com- p r e h e n s i o n , l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s , i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s , number o f s t o r y e v e n t s r e c a l l e d , and c o r r e c t r e p o r t i n g of s t o r y s e q u e n c e . The s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e employed i n e x a m i n i n g the q u e s t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t on group d i f f e r e n c e s was a t - t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s , s i g n i f i - can t a t the 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . 51 FINDINGS B r i e f l y , the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d at the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were answered i n the f o l l o w i n g manner based on the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r IV . , Comprehens ion o f N a r r a t i v e M a t e r i a l C h i l d r e n i n tb& e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n a b i l i t y to comprehend n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l as measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) and e x p e r i - m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t r e a d i n g t e s t s , as compared to c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l group who d i d not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . A l t h o u g h no p r e t e s t s c o r e s a re a v a i l a b l e f rom the comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s , f o r c o m p a r i s o n , c h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean s c o r e s on the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7, Form 3 M) when a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t o n l y , as compared to c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l group who d i d not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . A b i l i t y to Answer L i t e r a l Q u e s t i o n s C h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n showed a g r e a t e r g a i n i n a b i l i t y to answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s as measured by the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and posttests than c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n who d i d 52 not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . However , the d i f - f e r e n c e s i n g a i n between the two groups were not s i g n i f i - c a n t . A l t h o u g h no p r e t e s t s c o r e s a re a v a i l a b l e f rom the comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s , f o r c o m p a r i s o n , c h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n answered s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y as measured by the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) when a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t o n l y , as compared to c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l group who d i d no t r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . A b i l i t y to Answer I n f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s C h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n showed a g r e a t e r g a i n i n a b i l i t y to answer i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s as measured by the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p re and p o s t t e s t s than c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n who d i d no t r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . However , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n g a i n between the two groups were not s i g n i - f i c a n t . A l t h o u g h no p r e t e s t s c o r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f rom the com- p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s , f o r c o m p a r i s o n , c h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n answered s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y as measured by the Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7, Form 3 M) when a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t o n l y , as compared to c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n who d i d not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . A b i l i t y to R e c a l l S t o r y Even ts C h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n r e c a l l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean number o f s t o r y even t s when asked to r e c a l l a s t o r y read o r a l l y to them, as compared to c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l group who d i d not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . A b i l i t y to R e c a l l S t o r y Even ts i n the C o r r e c t Sequence C h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n were b e t t e r a b l e to r e c a l l s t o r y even t s i n the c o r r e c t sequence when asked to r e c a l l a s t o r y read o r a l l y to them than c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l group who d i d not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n . However , the d i f - f e r e n c e s between the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t . CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n seem to w a r r a n t the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. S t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n appears to be an e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s o v e r a l l com- p r e h e n s i o n o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . 54 The e x p e r i m e n t a l group made g r e a t e r g a i n s i n a b i l i t y to answer both l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s compared to the c o n t r o l group as measured by the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre and p o s t t e s t s . The reason the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t may be due to the f a u l t o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t , wh ich was not t e s t e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y o r v a l i d i t y p r i o r to the e x p e r i m e n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l group c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a b l e to answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s on the comprehens ion s e c t i o n o f the Canad ian T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t than c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n . However , on the b a s i s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t canno t be p o s i t i v e l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t o r y grammer i n s t r u c t i o n i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to answer l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . E x p e r i m e n t a l group c h i l d r e n were a b l e to r e c a l l s t o r y e v e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n as measured by a f r e e - r e c a l l m e a s u r e , a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t . However , s i n c e no p r e t e s t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p a r i s o n , i t canno t be p o s i t i v e l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n i s an e f f e c - t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . 55 E x p e r i m e n t a l group c h i l d r e n were a b l e to r e c a l l s t o r y e v e n t s i n the c o r r e c t sequence b e t t e r than c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n as measured by the f r e e - r e c a l l measure a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t . However , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e - f o r e , on the b a s i s o f t h i s s t udy i t canno t be p o s i t i v e l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g Grade One c h i1 d r e n ' s a b i 1 i t i e s to r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e . RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s s t u d y recommends t h a t s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r i m p r o v i n g Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s comprehens ion o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . A l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between groups i n a b i l i t y t o answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s , the e x p e r i m e n t e r d i d o b s e r v e t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l group c h i l - dren who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n were b e t t e r a b l e to answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t than c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n who d i d not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n , on both the e x p e r i - m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d and Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M ) , p o s t t e s t s . Based on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h i s s t u d y recommends t h a t s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r i m p r o v i n g Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to answer l i t e r a l q u e s t i o n s . 56 A l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between groups i n a b i l i t y to answer i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s , the e x p e r i m e n t e r d i d o b s e r v e t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l group c h i l - dren who r e c e i v e d s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n were b e t t e r a b l e to answer i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i - menta l t r e a t m e n t t h a t c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n who d i d not r e c e i v e s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n , on both the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d and Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) p o s t t e s t s . Based on t hese o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h i s s tudy recommends t h a t s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r i m p r o v i n g Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to answer in -r f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s . T h i s s t udy recommends t h a t s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n be i n t r o d u c e d i n the e a r l y p r i m a r y g rades r a t h e r than p o s t p o n i n g t h i s t ype o f i n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l the m i d d l e o r upper i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be aware t h a t s t o r y grammar i n f o r m a t i o n i n and o f i t s e l f i s not enough. The p r e - s e n t s t udy i n c o r p o r a t e d the use o f m a c r o - c l o z e , p r e - d i c t i o n t a s k s and q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to s t o r y grammar s t r u c t u r e . As S i n g e r and Donlan no ted i n t h e i r (1982) s t u d y , t h i s may a l s o be why the r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t were f a v o r a b l e , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h p r e v i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar wh ich o n l y t augh t know- l edge s t r u c t u r e s and t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d c a t e g o r i z a t i o n 57 u n d e r t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s . SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1„ A r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y u s i n g g r a d e one c h i l d r e n i n o t h e r g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s o f C anada w o u l d add t o t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s , and t o t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e f i n d i n g s t o a w i d e r p o p u l a t i o n . 2. I t i s recommended t h a t a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t l o n g i t u d i n a l l y so as t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l o f s t o r i e s i n s u b s e q u e n t g r a d e s . 3. I t i s recommended t h a t a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y be c o n - d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e c h i l r e n r e c e i v i n g s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n and t h o s e r e c e i v i n g c o m p r e h e n - s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s o l e l y t h r o u g h t e c h n i q u e s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e b a s a l r e a d e r . T h i s w o u l d be done d u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t y e a r i n s c h o o l i n o r d e r t o n o t e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s . 4. I t i s recommended t h a t a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t l o n g i t u d i n a l l y so as t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s i n s u b s e q u e n t g r a d e s . 5. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d i n w h i c h a d d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s can be a d m i n i s t e r e d as pre and p o s t - t e s t measures to f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e the e f f e c t o f s t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to compre- hend and r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n , R . C . , R e y n o l d s , R . E . , S c h a l l e r t , D .L . & G o e t z , E . T . Frameworks f o r comprehens ion d i s c o u r s e . Amer i can E d u c a t i o n a l Resea rch J o u r n a l , 1 977 , 1_4, 3 6 7 - 3 8 1 . A p p l e b e e , A . N . C h i l d ' s c o n c e p t o f s t o r y : ages 2 - 1 7 . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1978. Ausbe l , D . P . The p s y c h o l o g y o f m e a n i n g f u l v e r b a l l e a r n i n g : an i n t r o d u c t i o n to s c h o o l l e a r n i n g . New Y o r k : Grune & S t r a t t o n , 1963. B a k e r , L. P r o c e s s i n g tempora l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s i m p l e s t o r i e s ; e f f e c t o f i n p u t s e q u e n c e s . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1978 , 1 7 , 5 5 9 - 5 7 2 . B a k e r , L. & S t e i n , N. The deve lopment o f p rose comprehen- s i o n . In C. San ta & B. Hayes ( E d s . ) , Chi 1 d r e n ' s p rose c o m p r e h e n s i o n : r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i s e . Newark D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Read ing A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981 . B a r r , R. I n f l u e n c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n on e a r l y r e a d i n g . I n t e r c h a n g e , 1 975 , 5 , 1 3 - 2 2 . B a r t l e t t , F . C . Remember ing: a s t udy i n e x p e r i m e n t a l and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : Cambr idge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932. B o r g , R. & G a l l , M. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n s : P a r t 1. E d u c a - t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , Longman I n c . , New Y o r k , 1979. Bower , G. E x p e r i m e n t s on s t o r y and r e c a l l . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1976 , _ 8 , 5 7 1 - 7 5 , 577. B r a n s f o r d , J . D . Human c o g n i t i o n : l e a r n i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and remember ing . Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a , 1979. B r a n s f o r d , J . D . & M c C a r r e l l , N . S . A s k e t c h o f a c o g n i t i v e approach to c o m p r e h e n s i o n . In W. Weimer & D . S . Pa le rmo ( E d s . ) , C o g n i t i o n and the s y m b o l i c p r o c e s s e s . H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Lawrence Er lbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1974. B rown, G . H . Development o f s t o r y i n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . Theory In to P r a c t i s e , 1 977 , 1_6, 357-362 . 60 Canney , G. & W i n o g r a d , P. Schema f o r r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . ( T e c h . Rep. No. 1 2 0 ) . B o l t , Beranek & Newman I n c . , C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , U r b a n a . C e n t e r f o r the s t udy o f R e a d i n g , A p r i l , 1979. ( E r i c Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 169 5 2 0 ) . C a r r o l l , J . B . Deve lopmen ta l Pa rame te rs o f Read ing Compre- h e n s i o n . In J...T. G u t h r i e ( E d . ) , C o g n i t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m and C o m p r e h e n s i o n . Newark , D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Read ing A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977. Cunn ingham, J . W . & F o s t e r , E. The i v o r y tower c o n n e c t i o n : a c a s e s t u d y . The Read ing T e a c h e r , 1 9 7 8 , 3J_, 3 6 5 - 3 6 9 . D r e h e r , M . J . & S i n g e r , H. S t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n un - n e c e s s a r y f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e grade s t u d e n t s . The Read ing T e a c h e r , 1980 , 34_, 2 6 1 - 2 6 8 . D u r k i n , D. What c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s r e v e a l about r e a d i n g comprehens ion i n s t r u c t i o n . Read ing R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 7 9 , 1_4, 4 8 1 - 5 3 3 . D u r k i n , D. What i s the v a l u e o f the new i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g comprehens ion? Language A r t s , 1981 , 58_, 2 3 - 4 1 . Eamon, D .B . S e l e c t i o n and r e c a l l o f t o p i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n p rose by b e t t e r and p o o r e r r e a d e r s . Read ing R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 7 9 , 1 4 , 2 4 4 - 2 5 7 . F r e d e r i c k s o n , C H . E f f e c t s o f c o n t e n t - i n d u c e d p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s on s e m a n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d f rom d i s c o u r s e . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , 1975 , 5_, 1 3 9 - 1 6 6 . G a b r i e l , H . , B r a u n , C & • N e i l s e n , A. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s o f t e x t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f good and poor r e a d e r s . U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , 1980 ( A v a i l a b l e i n U . B . C . Read ing R e s o u r c e s Room). G l e n n , C G . R e l a t i o n s h i p between s t o r y c o n t e n t and s t r u c - t u r e . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1980 , 7 2 , 5 5 0 - 5 6 0 . G o r d o n , C J . The e f f e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n and metacomprehen- s i o n and i n f e r e n c i n g o f c h i l d r e n ' s comprehens ion a b i l i t i e s ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1 9 7 9 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r r i a t i o n a T , 1 9 8 0 , 4J_, 1004-A ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 80 95 2 8 ) . 61 G u t h r i e , J . T . R e s e a r c h v i e w s : s t o r y c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The Read ing T e a c h e r , 19 7 7 , 3_0, 5 7 4 - 5 7 5 , 577.- H a r r i s , T . L . & Hodges , R . E . A d i c t i o n a r y o f r e a d i n g and r e l a t e d t e r m s . Newark D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Read- i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981 . H i l y a r d , A . & O l s o n , D.R. Memory and i n f e r e n c e i n the com- p r e h e n s i o n o f o r a l and w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e . D i s c o u r s e P r o c e s s e s , 1 978 , 1, 91 -1 18. Huey, E . B . P s y c h o l o g y and pedago logy o f r e a d i n g . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1908 J o h n s o n , N. & M a n d l e r , J . A t a l e o f two s t r u c t u r e s : unde r - l y i n g and s u r f a c e forms i n s t o r i e s . P o e t i c s , 1 9 8 0 , 9 , 5 1 - 8 6 . K a n t , E. C r i t i q u e o f pure reason ( N . K . S m i t h , E d . , and t r a n s . ) London : Macmi11 a n , 19 63 ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , 1781 ). K i n t s c h , W. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f meaning i n memory. H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Lawrence Er lbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1974. K i n t s c h , W. On comprehend ing s t o r i e s . In P. C a r p e n t e r & M. J u s t ( E d s . ) , C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n . H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Lawrence Er lbaum A s s o c i a t e s , T977T K i n t s c h , W. & Keenan , J . M . Read ing r a t e as a f u n c t i o n o f the number o f p r o p o s i t i o n s i n the base s t r u c t u r e o f s e n t e n c e s . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , 1974 , 2 5 7 - 2 7 4 . K i n t s c h , W. , K o x m i n s k y , W . J . , S t r e b y , G. , McKoon, G. & Keenan , J . M . Comprehens ion and r e c a l l o f t e x t as a f u n c t i o n o f c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1 975 , 1_4, 196 -214 . McKoon, G. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e x t memory. J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1977 , 1_6, 2 4 7 - 2 6 0 . M a n d l e r , G. O r g a n i z a t i o n and memory. In K.W. Spence & J . T . Spence ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o l o g y o f l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a - t i o n . ( V o l . 1 ) . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1967. M a n d l e r , J . M . A code i n the node : the use o f a s t o r y schema i n r e t r i e v a l . D i s c o u r s e P r o c e s s e s , 1978 , 1_, 14^35 . 62 M a n d l e r , J . & J o h n s o n , N. Remembrance o f t h i n g s p a r s e d : s t o r y s t r u c t u r e and r e c a l l . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , 1977 , 9 , 1 1 1 - 1 5 1 . M a r s h a l l , N. & G l o c k , M . . Comprehens ion o f c o n n e c t e d d i s - c o u r s e : a s t udy i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s t r u c t u r e o f t e x t and i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l e d . Read ing R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 7 9 , _ 4 , 1 0 - 5 6 . M e y e r , B . J . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f p r o s e and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s tudy o f r e a d i n g and memory. J o u r n a l o f Read ing B e h a v i o r , 1975 , _» 7 - 4 7 . M e y e r , B . J . , B r a n d t , D.M. & B l u t h , G . J . Use o f t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e i n t e x t : key f o r r e a d i n g comprehens ion o f n i n t h g rade s t u d e n t s . Read ing R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1980 , 1_6, 72-1 03 . M e y e r , B . J . & M c C o n k i e , G.W. What i s r e c a l l e d a f t e r h e a r - i n g a passage? J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1973 , 6 5 , 1 0 9 - 1 1 7 . N e i l s e n , A . R . The r o l e o f m a c r o s t r u c t u r e and l i n g u i s t i c c o n n e c t i v e s i n comprehend ing f a m i l i a r and u n f a m i l i a r w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1977) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l 1978 , 3 8 , 12-A ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 8 - 0 9 6 6 4 ) . P a l m e r , R . J . , S l a t e r , W . J . & G r a v e s , M . F . The e f f e c t o f passage d i f f i c u l t y on good and poor r e a d e r s ' use o f a u t h o r ' s schema i n w r i t t e n r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s . In M . L . Kami l & A . J . Moe ( E d s . ) , P e r s p e c t i v e s on r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h and i n s t r u c t i o n . T w e n t y - n i n t h Yearbook o f t he N a t i o n a l Read ing C o n f e r e n c e , 1980. P e a r s o n , P. & J o h n s o n , D. T e a c h i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1978. R u m e l h a r t , D . E . Notes on a schema f o r s t o r i e s . In D .G. Bobrow & A . M . C o l l i n s ( E d s . ) , R e p r e s e n t a t i o n an d u n d e r s t a n d i n g : s t u d i e s i n c o g n i t i v e s c i e n c e . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1975. R u m e l h a r t , D . E . Toward an i n t e r a c t i v e model o f r e a d i n g . In S . D o r n i c ( E d . ) , A t t e n t i o n and pe r fo rmance ( V o l . 6 ) . H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Lawrence Er lbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1977 , 5 7 3 - 6 0 3 . 63 R u m e l h a r t , D . E . & Norman, D. A c c r e t i o n , t u n i n g and r e - s t r u c t u r i n g : t h r e e modes o f l e a r n i n g . In J . W . C o t t o n & R . L . i'.Kl arsky ( E d s . ) , Seman t i c f a c t o r s i n c o g n i t i o n . San ta B a r b a r a : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1978. R u m e l h a r t , D . E . & O r t o n y , A. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f knowledge i n memory. In R . C . A n d e r s o n , R . J . S p i r o & W.E. Montague ( E d s . ) , S c h o o l i n g and the a c q u i s i t i o n o f know ledge . H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Lawrence Er lbaum A s s o c i a - t e s , 1 977 . R u s s e l l , D .H. C h i l d r e n l e a r n to r e a d . B o s t o n : G i n n , 1961 . Sadow, M.L . The use o f s t o r y grammar i n the d e s i g n o f q u e s t i o n s . The Read ing T e a c h e r , 1982 , _ _ , 5 1 8 - 5 2 2 . S c h a n k , R . C . C o n c e p t u a l dependency : a t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l l anguage u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , 1975 , 3 , 5 5 2 - 6 3 1 . S c h w a r t z , R .M. L e v e l s o f p r o c e s s i n g : the s t r a t e g i c demands o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The Read ing Resea rch Q u a r t e r l y , 1980 , 1_5, 4 3 3 - 4 4 9 . S i n g e r , H. A c t i v e c o m p r e h e n s i o n : f rom a n s w e r i n g to a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . The Read ing T e a c h e r , 1978 , 3 1 , 9 0 1 - 9 0 8 . S i n g e r , H. & D o n l a n , D. Read ing and l e a r n i n g f rom t e x t . B o s t o n , M a s s . : L i t t l e B rown, 1980. S i n g e r , H. & D o n l a n , D. A c t i v e c o m p r e h e n s i o n : P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g schema w i t h q u e s t i o n g e n e r a t i o n f o r comprehen- s i o n o f complex s h o r t s t o r i e s . Read ing R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1982 , 1_7, 1 6 6 - 1 8 6 . S m i l e y , S . S . , O a k l e y , D.D. , Wo r t hen , D . , Campime, J . C . & B rown , A . L . R e c a l l o f t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l by a d o l e s c e n t good and poor r e a d e r s as a f u n c t i o n o f w r i t t e n v e r s u s o r a l p r o d u c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1977 , 6 9 , 3 8 1 - 3 8 7 . S p i r o , R . J . P r i o r knowledge and s t o r y p r o c e s s i n g : I n t e g r a - t i o n , s e l e c t i o n and v a r i a t i o n . P o e t i c s , 1980 , 9_, 313- 327. S t e i n , N . L . How c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d s t o r i e s : a d e v e l o p - menta l a n a l y s i s , , i n L. Ka tz ( E d . ) , C u r r e n t t o p i c s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . ( V o l . 2 ) . H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : Ab l -ex , 1 979 . 64 S t e i n , N. & G l e n n , C. An a n a l y s i s o f s t o r y comprehens ion i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . In R. F r e e d l e ( E d . ) , New d i r e c t i o n s i n d i s c o u r s e p r o c e s s i n g . ( V o l . 2 ) . Norwood, N . J . , A b l e x , 1979. Summers, P . F . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between demons t ra ted s t o r y grammar usage by t h i r d g r a d e r s and t h e i r s c o r e s on s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g comprehens ion t e s t s ( D o c t o r a l d i s - s e r t a t i o n , Bos ton Uni v e r s i t y ; Schoo l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I r i t e r n a t i ona l , 1 9 8 0 , 41_, 2039-A ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 80-241 6 2 ) . T a y l o r , B. C h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y t e x t a f t e r r e a d i n g . Read ing Resea rch Q u a r t e r l y , 1980 , 1_5, 399- 4 1 1 . T h o r n d i k e , E . L . Read ing as r e a s o n i n g , a s tudy o f m i s t a k e s i n p a r a g r a p h r e a d i n g . The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1917 , 8 , 3 2 3 - 3 3 2 . T h o r n d y k e , P. C o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n comprehens ion o f n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u s e . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , 1977 , 9_, T i e r n e y , - R . J . , • B r i d g e , C. & C e r a , M . J . The d i s c o u r s e p r o - c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n . Read ing R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 7 9 , 4 , 5 3 7 - 5 3 9 . Tu inmann , J . J . The schema-schemers . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 1980 , 2 3 , 4 1 4 - 4 1 9 . V i s p o n d , D. M i c r o and m a c r o p r o c e s s e s i n t e x t comprehen- s i o n . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1980 , 19, 2 7 6 - 2 9 8 . Wha ley , J . F . S t o r y grammars and r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The Read ing T e a c h e r , 3 4 , 1981 a , 7 6 2 - 7 7 1 . Wha ley , J . F . R e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s t o r y s t r u c t u r e s . Read ing Resea rch Q u a r t e r l y , 1981 b, _17_, 9 0 - 1 1 4 . I n s t r u c t i o n a l ' M a t e r i a l s R e f e r e n c e s I t ' s S t o r y t i m e . The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , V a n c o u v e r , 1962. May I Come I n . Ginn & C o . , A D i v i s i o n o f Xerox o f Canada L t d . , 1977. T e s t R e f e r e n c e s Canad ian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s . ( P r i m a r y B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) Thomas Ne l son & Sons (Canada) L t d . , 1974 -1976 . G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Read ing T e s t s ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) W a l t e r H. M a c G i n i t i e , Co lumb ia U n i v e r s i t y ; Teache rs C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1978. APPENDICES INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND TEACHING PROCEDURES Append ix A 67 P r e t e s t Measures (To be conduc ted A p r i l 22 or 2 3 , 1982 . ) An e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e t e s t w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g the second to l a s t , o r the l a s t day o f the week p r i o r to the e x p e r i m e n t . Each s t u d e n t f rom both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g roups w i l l l i s t e n to one s t o r y read o r a l l y by the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , 14 comprehens ion q u e s t i o n s , 7 l i t e r a l and 7 i n f e r e n t i a l w i l l be read a l o u d , a l o n g w i t h a c h o i c e o f two p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s . P u p i l s w i l l f o l l o w a l o n g w i t h t h e i r own t yped c o p i e s and mark the a p p r o p r i a t e a n s w e r s . ( S t o r y read w i l l b e : The Pot That Would Not Stop B o i l i n g " , p p . . 1 8 1 - 1 8 5 , f rom the r e a d e r I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k , l e v e l f o u r . ) PRETEST "The Pot That Would Not S top B o i l i n g " 1. Who d i d the l i t t l e g i r l l i v e w i t h ? a) her mother b) her g randmother 2. Who d i d the l i t t l e g i r l meet i n the woods? a) an o l d woman b) her mother 68 Where d i d the o l d woman get the pot from? a) under her coat b) behind a t r e e . What d i d the mother say to t r y to get the pot to stop b o i l i n g ? (Choose 3) a) don't, don 11 b) now, now c) s t o p , stop d) p l e a s e , p l e a s e e) no , no Where was the l i t t l e g i r l s t a y i n g when the pot wouldn't stop b o i l i n g ? a) i n a n o t h e r v i l l a g e b) down the s t r e e t a t a f r i e n d ' s house. What d i d the mother say to the pot when she wanted p o r r i d g e ? a) cook, cook b) cook, l i t t l e p o t , cook. How d i d the people get a road made through the p o r r i d g e a) they ate t h e i r way through b) they ploughed t h e i r way through Why was the l i t t l e g i r l l o o k i n g f o r b e r r i e s ? a) because they d i d n ' t have enough to eat at home. b) because she wanted to make a p i e . Why d i d the o l d woman g i v e the l i t t l e g i r l an i r o n po t? a) because i t was t o o heavy to c a r r y b) because the l i t t l e g i r l was v e r y poor and she wanted to he lp h e r . Why d i d t he l i t t l e g i r l thank the o l d woman? a) because her mother t o l d her t o . b) because she was g l a d to ge t the p o t . Why w o u l d n ' t the pot s t op b o i l i n g f o r the l i t t l e g i r l ' s mother? a) because i t d i d n ' t l i k e her b) because she d i d n ' t say the r i g h t words Why d i d the mother want p o r r i d g e when the l i t t l e g i r l was away? a) because she was hung ry . b) because she wanted to see i f the pot would work f o r h e r . Why d i d the l i t t l e g i r l run home when she saw the p o r r i d g e coming down the s t r e e t ? a) she heard her mother c a l l i n g f o r h e l p b) she wanted t o h e l p her mother Why wou ld the v i l l a g e p e o p l e be unhappy w i t h a l l the p o r r i dge? a) i t made e v e r y t h i n g messy b) they d i d n ' t l i k e p o r r i d g e . Append ix B 70 E x p e r i m e n t a l Group P r o c e d u r e s I n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be i n a t h r e e - s t e p s t r a t e g y s p r e a d ove r f i f t e e n l e s s o n s , t h r e e days a week ( T u e s d a y , Wednesday, T h u r s d a y ) , o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y m inu tes each f o r a t o t a l o f f i v e weeks . S tep 1(a) Tuesday o f each week The t e a c h e r w i l l read a s t o r y , f o r example "The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r " , o r a l l y to the s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s w i l l f o l l o w a l o n g w i t h t h e i r own r e a d e r s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the t e a c h e r w i l l ask p u p i l s f i v e q u e s t i o n s , o r a l l y . ( Q u e s t i o n s w i l l be p r e p a r e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . ) The same p r o c e d u r e w i l l be f o l l o w e d w i t h each o f the f o u r r e m a i n i n g s t o r i e s f rom U n i t V o f May I Come I n , ove r the f o l l o w i n g f o u r weeks . S tep 1 (a) Tuesday Week One S t o r y : "The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r " I S e t t i n g : 1. Who d i d the g r a s s h o p p e r want to p l a y w i t h ? 2. Where d i d the g r a s s h o p p e r want to p l a y ? 3. What k i n d o f game d i d he want to p l a y ? 71 I II I n i t i a t i n g E v e n t : 1. D id the an t want to p l a y ? Why no t? I I I R e a c t i o n : 1.. D id the g r a s s h o p p e r t h i n k i t was a good i d e a f o r the ant to spend a l l h i s t ime w o r k i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y ? IV A c t i o n : 1. D id the g r a s s h o p p e r t a l k the an t i n t o p l a y i n g w i t h him? 2. D id the ant t a l k the g r a s s h o p p e r i n t o w o r k i n g ? 3. What d i d the ant do? What d i d the g r a s s h o p p e r do? V. Consequence : 1. What d i d the g r a s s h o p p e r do when the snow came? 2 . How d i d the ant f e e l about the g r a s s h o p p e r now? D id he h e l p him? 3. What do you t h i n k w i l l happen to the g r a s s h o p p e r ? How w i l l he spend the w i n t e r ? Step 1 (a) T u e s d a y - - - - W e e k Two S t o r y : " In the C o u n t r y " I „ S e t t i n g : I. Where does the c o u n t r y mouse l i v e ? What do you t h i n k the p l a c e where he l i v e s l o o k s l i k e ? I I . I n i t i a t i n g E v e n t : 1. Why d i d the c i t y mouse d e c i d e to s u r p r i s e the c o u n t r y mouse? 72 I I I R e a c t i o n : 1. Was the c o u n t r y mouse s u r p r i s e d to see the c i t y mouse? What d i d he say t h a t makes you f e e l t h i s way? IV A c t i o n : 1. What was t h e f i r s t t h i n g the c i t y mouse asked about a f t e r he a r r i v e d ? 2 . Where do you t h i n k the c o u n t r y mouse took the c i t y mouse to f i n d food? V Consequence : 1. What d i d the c i t y mouse s u g g e s t t hey s h o u l d do a t the end o f the s t o r y ? Why do you t h i n k the c o u n t r y mouse d e c i d e d to go a l o n g w i t h him? Step 1 (a) Tuesday Week Three S t o r y : " In the C i t y " I S e t t i n g : 1. Where does c i t y mouse l i v e ? What do you t h i n k the p l a c e where c i t y mouse l i v e s l o o k s l i k e ? II I n i t i a t i n g ' E v e n t : 1. Where d i d the c i t y mouse take the c o u n t r y mouse? I I I . R e a c t i o n : 1. How d i d the c o u n t r y mouse f e e l about go ing i n t o the c i t y house? 73 2. Why d i d n ' t the c o u n t r y mouse l i k e p e o p l e ? 3 . How d i d the c o u n t r y mouse f e e l about the c i t y a f t e r he f i r s t s t a r t e d e a t i n g ? IV A c t i o n : 1. What f r i g h t e n e d the c o u n t r y mouse and changed h i s mind about s t a y i n g i n the c i t y ? 2. What d i d the c o u n t r y mouse do a f t e r he saw the c a t ? V. C o n s e q u e n c e s : 1. Where d i d the c o u n t r y mouse d e c i d e i t was bes t to 1 i ve? Why? S tep 1 (a) Tuesday Week Four S t o r y : "The Three B i l l Goats G r u f f " I S e t t i n g : 1. Where d i d the goa ts want to go? 2. What a re the t h r e e g o a t s ' f u l l names? ( e . g . L i t t l e B i l l y Goat G r u f f ) 3 . What i s a t r o l l ? II I n i t i a t i n g E v e n t : 1. How d i d the T r o l l know someone was w a l k i n g on the b r i d g e ? 2. How d i d he f e e l about goa ts w a l k i n g on h i s b r i d g e ? Why d i d n ' t he want them to c r o s s the b r i d g e ? 74 I I I R e a c t i o n : 1. Was L i t t l e B i l l y a f r a i d o f the T r o l l ? How do you know? 2 . What d i d L i t t l e B i l l y do to c o n v i n c e the t r o l l not to ea t him? 3. Why d i d the T r o l l d e c i d e to w a i t f o r B i g , B i g B i l l y Goat? IV A c t i o n : 1. What happened to the T r o l l ? V. Consequence : 1. W i l l the goa ts be a f r a i d to c r o s s the b r i d g e now? Why no t? S tep 1 (a) Tuesday -Week F i v e S t o r y : "Henny Penny" I S e t t i n g : 1. Who i s Henny Penny? 2 . Where do you t h i n k she was when she was e a t i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y ? II I n i t i a t i n g E v e n t : 1. What happened to upse t Henny Penny? I I I R e a c t i o n : 1. What d i d she t h i n k was happen ing? 75 IV A c t i o n : 1. What d i d Henny Penny d e c i d e to do about what happened? 2. Who went w i t h her? 3. D id they a l l t r y to h e l p her? V Consequence : 1. D id Henny Penny e v e r t e l l the K ing? Why no t? Step 1 (b) ( I n t r o d u c t i o n o f s t o r y c a t e g o r i e s ) Tuesday o f each week. The f o l l o w i n g o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be p r o v i d e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r : When we read a s t o r y we a re somet imes a b l e to remember i t b e t t e r i f we can t h i n k about the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s i n the s t o r y and what happened i n each o f t hose p a r t s . T o d a y , I read you the s t o r y , a f t e r w a r d s I asked you some q u e s t i o n s . Each o f the q u e s t i o n s were f rom a d i f f e r e n t p a r t o f the s t o r y . Some were f rom the b e g i n n i n g , the m i d d l e and the e n d . Now, I'm go ing to show you a c h a r t w i t h some new q u e s t i o n s and see i f you can remember the s t o r y , w e l l enough to answer them and comp le te t h i s c h a r t . ( S t o r y grammar c h a r t on ove rhead p r o j e c t o r . ) 76 S t o r y S t r u c t u r e C h a r t I S e t t i n g : a) Where does the s t o r y take p l a c e ? b) Who i s / a r e t h e main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) ? I I B e g i n n i n g a) What do /does "the main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) want to do a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y ? b) Why do you t h i n k the main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) want t o do t h i s ? c ) How d o / d o e s the main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) t r y t o ge t what h e / t h e y want? I I I M i d d l e a) Someth ing happens to change the main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) ; p l a n s . b) What do /does the main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) d e c i d e to do now? IV End ing How d i d the s t o r y end? D id the main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) ge t what h e / t h e y wanted? Step 2 Wednesday o f each week a) P u p i l s w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o groups o f t h r e e or f o u r and g i v e n t yped c o p i e s o f s p e c i f i c p h r a s e s r e l a t e d to the s t o r y read on day one o f each week. Each o f the p h r a s e s w i l l be cu t a p a r t and the p u p i l s w i l l be 77 i n s t r u c t e d to p a s t e t h e s e where they be long on i n - d i v i d u a l c h a r t s p r e p a r e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . b) P u p i l s w i l l d i s c u s s t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r c o m p l e t i n g the c h a r t s done i n the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s s t e p . Throughout t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i t s h o u l d be emphas ized t h a t the p a r t s o f a s t o r y as o u t l i n e d i n the c h a r t can be used to he lp u n d e r s t a n d what i s happen ing i n a s t o r y as w e l l as an a i d i n remember ing i t . The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r In the g r a s s . The ant and the g r a s s h o p p e r . The g r a s s h o p p e r kept a s k i n g the an t to p l a y w i t h h im . The g r a s s h o p p e r went to the ant f o r h e l p . The g r a s s h o p p e r saw the snow. Because the ant d i d n ' t know he would need food f o r w i n t e r . The ant would not h e l p and the g r a s s h o p p e r was l e f t a l o n e w i t h no f o o d . In the Coun t r y The C i t y Mouse. In the c o u n t r y . The C i t y Mouse wanted to see the Coun t r y Mouse. The C i t y Mouse d i d n ' t l i k e c o u n t r y f o o d . The C i t y Mouse d e c i d e d to go back to the c i t y because the food was b e t t e r . " : , .-i •  : ,i The C i t y Mouse and the Coun t r y Mouse l e a v e f o r the c i t y . No, the C i t y Mouse d i d not ge t what he wan ted . He ran and ran u n t i l a t l a s t he came to the c o u n t r y . Because he h a d n ' t seen the Coun t r y Mouse f o r a l ong t i m e . In the C i t y C i t y Mouse and Coun t r y Mouse. In the c i t y . They wanted to f i n d some f o o d . The C i t y Mouse saw someth ing b i g . The Coun t r y Mouse d e c i d e d to run home to the c o u n t r y . The Coun t r y Mouse ran home and l e f t the C i t y Mouse i n the c i t y . The C i t y Mouse got what he w a n t e d , b u t the Coun t r y Mouse d i d n ' t . The C i t y Mouse and the Coun t r y Mouse went i n t o a house to f i n d f o o d . Because C i t y Mouse d i d n ' t l i k e c o u n t r y f o o d . The Three B i l l y Goats G r u f f The t h r e e B i l l y Goats G r u f f . On a h i l l . They wanted to ea t g reen g r a s s . The T r o l l d i d n ' t want them on h i s b r i d g e . The goa ts t o l d the T r o l l to w a i t f o r B i g , B i g B i l l y Goat G r u f f . The goa ts got to e a t g r a s s l i k e they wanted t o . The t h r e e goa ts went up to ea t g r a s s and t h e r e i s no T r o l l . They t r i e d to wa lk a c r o s s the b r i d g e . Because they needed to f i n d more g r a s s to e a t . Henny Penny She kept r u n n i n g and r u n n i n g to f i n d the k i n g . Henny Penny . In a f a r m y a r d . Because someth ing f e l l on her t a i l . Henny Penny wanted to t e l l the k i n g the sky was f a l l i n g . The Fox took the a n i m a l s i n t o h i s den . Henny Penny ran away f rom the f o x . A l l the a n i m a l s ran away and Henny Penny never t o l d the k i n g the sky was f a l l i n g . S tep 3 Thursday o f each week A d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y w i l l be used f o r s t e p t h r e e each week. These a c t i v i t i e s a re o u t l i n e d f o r each week w i t h the accom- p a n y i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t t a c h e d . P r e d i c t i o n Task I n s t r u c t i o n s ("A S l y F o x " ) Week one (a) J u s t read the S e t t i n g , wh ich i s u n d e r l i n e d . A f t e r the c h i l d r e n have d i s c u s s e d what c o u l d come n e x t , the t e a c h e r w i l l read the comp le te s t o r y to them and d i s c u s s how t h e i r s t o r i e s a re s i m i l a r . 80 The S l y Fox A s l y fox l i v e d i n a den i n the f o r e s t . Every day the f ox s e a r c h e d the f o r e s t f o r f o o d . He o f t e n w i shed f o r some- t h i n g d i f f e r e n t to e a t . He t hough t o f the r a t s and bugs he u s u a l l y d i n e d o n . S u r e l y somewhere i n t h i s f o r e s t t h e r e had to be someth ing more i n t e r e s t i n g to f e a s t o n ; S u d d e n l y , the fox s p o t t e d a r o b i n up i n a t r e e e a t i n g j u s t what the fox wanted - a p i e c e o f c h e e s e ! The f ox began to c l i m b the t r e e . J u s t as he was g e t t i n g c l o s e , the b i r d f l e w to a n o t h e r t r e e . The f o x ' s mouth was w a t e r i n g as he s t a r e d up a t the c h e e s e . He d i d not want to ea t a r a t , when he c o u l d have a d e l i c i o u s c h e e s e . "Tha t b i r d w i l l f l y away a g a i n i f I t r y c l i m b i n g the t r e e " ! he t h o u g h t . " B u t I have to have t h a t c h e e s e ! " Then the f ox d e c i d e d to t r y to t r i c k the r o b i n i n t o g i v i n g up the c h e e s e . " M r s . R o b i n , " s a i d the f o x , "I have heard t h a t y o u r v o i c e i s the b e s t i n the f o r e s t , : I wou ld l o v e to hear one o f y o u r b e a u t i f u l songs f o r m y s e l f . " The proud r o b i n l i f t e d her head to s i n g , but the moment she opened her mouth the p i e c e o f cheese f e l l t o the g r o u n d . The fox l aughed as he l o o k e d up a t the s u r p r i s e d b i r d . He was g l a d t h a t i t had been so easy to f o o l the r o b i n . So the f ox a te the c h e e s e , w h i l e the r o b i n went hung ry . Then the fox went on h i s way, l o o k i n g f o r a d e s s e r t . He was proud o f h i m s e l f f o r o u t s m a r t i n g the r o b i n . ( S t o r y U s e d : A S l y F o x , c i t e d i n Dreher and S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 6 6 ) . 81 P r e d i c t i o n Task I n s t r u c t i o n s ' Week One (b) Read the S e t t i n g and B e g i n n i n g e v e n t , as u n d e r l i n e d . A f t e r the c h i l d r e n have d i s c u s s e d what c o u l d come n e x t , the t e a c h e r w i l l read the comp le te s t o r y to them and d i s c u s s how t h e i r s t o r i e s a re s i m i l a r . l i t t l e B l a c k Hen : f L i t t l e B l a c k Hen was coming a l o n g the road w i t h her s c i s s o r s i n her hand . She and M r s . Duck had made a new c o a t f o r L i t t l e Red Hen. "I hope L i t t l e Red Hen has our d i n n e r r e a d y , " she s a i d to h e r s e l f . "I never had such a day . I am so hungry I c o u i d ea t a h o r s e . " L i t t l e B l a c k Hen got home and l o o k e d a r o u n d . There was no pot b o i l i n g on the f i r e . There were no worms i n the c u p b o a r d . But t h e r e was L i t t l e Red Hen s n o r i n g i n b e d . "What i s t h i s ? " s c o l d e d L i t t l e Red Hen. "You have no d i n n e r r e a d y . You d i d n ' t ge t any worms. I worked a l l day making a new coa t f o r you and a l l you d i d was s l e e p . J u s t f o r t h a t , I w i l l keep the c o a t f o r m y s e l f . " And she d i d ! ( T h i s s t o r y was t aken f rom p.180 o f the T e a c h e r ' s Gu idebook f o r the r e a d e r : I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k s e r i e s . ) Thursday Week Two (Sc ramb led S t o r i e s ) a) The same s t o r y as used on day one o f t h i s week ( In the C o u n t r y ) w i l l be s e p a r a t e d i n t o s t o r y grammar c a t e g o r i e s and j u m b l e d . V a r i o u s s t o r y p a r t s w i l l be w r i t t e n on s e p a r a t e p i e c e s o f t r a n s p a r e n c y m a t e r i a l . S t u d e n t s w i l l then read the s c r a m b l e d s t o r y and r e o r d e r i t to make a good s t o r y by r e a d i n g a l o n g w i t h the t e a c h e r f rom the ove rhead 1 p r o j e c t o r . D i s c u s s i o n w i l l c e n t r e on r a t i o n a l e s f o r d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s and on the f u n c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s s t o r y p a r t s . b) The same p r o c e d u r e w i l l t ake p l a c e u s i n g a new and d i f f e r e n t s t o r y s u p p l i e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . (The G i n g e r b r e a d G i r l , p. 185 o f T e a c h e r ' s G u i d e b o o k : I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k r e a d e r . ) In the Coun t r y A c t i v i t y (a) The C i t y Mouse wanted to see the Coun t r y Mouse. He ran away u n t i l he came to the c o u n t r y . " I ' m g o i n g to the c o u n t r y . I w i l l s u r p r i s e Coun t r y M o u s e , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "Can I have some f o o d ? " asked C i t y Mouse. C i t y Mouse d i d not l i k e Coun t r y Mouse ' s f o o d . C i t y Mouse and Coun t r y Mouse went away to the c i t y . 83 The G i n g e r b r e a d G i r l A c t i v i t y (b) Once upon a t i m e , a l i t t l e o l d woman l i v e d i n a g i n g e r b r e a d house deep i n the woods. The woman was l onesome , so she d e c i d e d to make a g i n g e r b r e a d g i r l to l i v e w i t h h e r . A f t e r she had worked and worked to make the b e s t g i n g e r - b read g i r l she c o u l d , she put her i n the o v e n . Soon she heard someth ing f o r i n s i d e the o v e n , " I ' m ready now. L e t me o u t , p l e a s e . " Someone s a i d . The l i t t l e o l d woman opened the oven door and out jumped a l i t t l e g i n g e r b r e a d g i r l . She s t a y e d w i t h the l i t t l e o l d woman and they l i v e d h a p p i l y e v e r a f t e r . Thursday Week T h r e e : ( M a c r o - C l o z e ) A whole s t o r y c a t e g o r y i s d e l e t e d . L i n e s a re drawn to show where m a t e r i a l i s o m i t t e d . The t e a c h e r w i l l use the same s t o r y as used on day one o f t h i s week ( In the C i t y ) , e n c o u r a g i n g p u p i l s to p r o v i d e the c o r r e c t m i s s i n g i n f o r m a - t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , p u p i l s w i l l be g i v e n t yped c o p i e s o f the same s t o r y w i t h a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y o m i t t e d and asked to comp le te the s t o r y . T h i s w i l l be done i n groups o f f o u r o r f i v e , each group w i l l have d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n d e l e t e d . 84 In the C i t y 4 C i t y Mouse and Coun t r y Mouse ran up h i l l and down h i l l . At l a s t t hey were i n the c i t y . "I know where we can get some f o o d , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. " F o l l o w me. " "I w i l l , " s a i d Coun t r y Mouse. "A t l a s t we a re h e r e , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "We w i l l go i n t o t h i s house . The p e o p l e w i l l be i n b e d . " "Do p e o p l e l i v e h e r e ? " asked Coun t r y Mouse. "I d o n ' t l i k e p e o p l e . " C i t y Mouse s a i d , "The p e o p l e a re i n b e d . They c a n ' t see y o u . Come w i t h me. " And he went i n t o the house . Coun t r y Mouse went i n t o the house t o o . He l o o k e d f o r C i t y Mouse , and he c a l l e d , "Where a re y o u ? " "Here I am, " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "Jump up here w i t h me. " When C o u n t r y Mouse j umped , he saw some f o o d . " E a t away . " s a i d C i t y Mouse. You w i l l l i k e t h i s f o o d . " C i t y Mouse s a i d , " D o n ' t go b a c k . You can l i v e here w i t h me. " When they were e a t i n g , C i t y Mouse saw someth ing b i g . He s a i d , " R u n , Run , Coun t r y Mouse. And d o n ' t s t o p . " C i t y Mouse c a l l e d , "Come b a c k , Coun t r y Mouse, There i s no danger now. The c a t went back i n t o the h o u s e . " But Coun t r y Mouse d i d not s t o p . He c a l l e d , " N o , I d o n ' t l i k e to l i v e where t h e r e i s d a n g e r . I'm go ing home." 85 C o u n t r y Mouse ran up a h i l l and i n t o the c o u n t r y . When he got home, he s a i d , "A t l a s t I can s t o p . I w i l l not go back to the c i t y . Not where the c a t i s . I w i l l ea t c o u n t r y f o o d , and C i t y Mouse can l i v e i n d a n g e r . " In the C i t y C i t y Mouse and Coun t r y Mouse ran up h i l l and down h i l l . At l a s t t hey were i n the c i t y . "I know where we can get some f o o d , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. " F o l l o w me. " "I w i l l , " s a i d Coun t r y Mouse. "A t l a s t we are h e r e , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "We w i l l go i n t o t h i s house . The p e o p l e w i l l be i n b e d . " "Do peop le l i v e h e r e ? " asked Coun t r y Mouse. "I d o n ' t l i k e p e o p l e . " C i t y Mouse s a i d , Coun t r y Mouse went i n t o the house t o o . He l o o k e d f o r C i t y Mouse, and he c a l l e d , "Where a re y o u ? " "Here I am, s a i d 86 In the C i t y C i t y Mouse and C o u n t r y Mouse ran up h i l l and down h i l l . At l a s t they were i n the c i t y . "I know where we can get some f o o d , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. " F o l l o w me. " "I w i l l , s a i d Coun t r y Mouse. " A t l a s t we a re h e r e , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "We w i l l go i n t o t h i s house . The peop le a re i n b e d . " "Do p e o p l e l i v e h e r e ? " asked C o u n t r y Mouse. "I d o n ' t l i k e p e o p l e . " C i t y Mouse s a i d , "The peop le a re i n bed . They c a n ' t see y o u . Come w i t h me. " And he went i n t o the house . Coun t r y Mouse went i n t o the house t o o . He l o o k e d f o r C i t y Mouse, and he c a l l e d , "Where a re y o u ? " "Here I am, " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "Jump up here w i t h me. " When Coun t r y Mouse jumped , he saw some f o o d , " E a t away . " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "You w i l l l i k e t h i s f o o d . " Coun t r y Mouse s a i d , "I do l i k e i t . I may no t go back to the c o u n t r y . " C i t y Mouse s a i d , " D o n ' t go b a c k . You can l i v e here w i t h me. " When they were e a t i n g , C i t y Mouse saw someth ing b i g . He s a i d , " R u n , Run , Coun t r y Mouse. And d o n ' t s t o p . " Away went C i t y Mouse. And away went Coun t r y Mouse. They ran out o f the house . C i t y Mouse c a l l e d , "Come b a c k , Coun t r y Mouse. There i s no danger now. The c a t went back i n t o the h o u s e . " But Coun t r y Mouse d i d not s t o p . He c a l l e d , " N o , I d o n ' t l i k e to l i v e where t h e r e i s d a n g e r . I'm go ing home." Coun t r y Mouse ran up a h i l l and i n t o the c o u n t r y . When he got home, he s a i d , 87 In the C i t y C i t y Mouse and Coun t r y Mouse ran up h i l l and down h i l l . At l a s t they were i n the c i t y . "I know where we can get some food s a i d C i t y Mouse. " F o l l o w me. " "I w i l l , " s a i d Coun t r y Mouse. "A t l a s t we a re h e r e , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "We w i l l go i n t o t h i s house . The p e o p l e w i l l be i n b e d . " "Do peop le l i v e h e r e ? " asked the Coun t r y Mouse. "I d o n ' t l i k e p e o p l e . " C i t y Mouse s a i d , "The p e o p l e a re i n b e d . They c a n ' t see y o u . Come i n w i t h me. " And he went i n t o the house . Coun t r y Mouse went i n t o the house t o o . He l o o k e d f o r C i t y Mouse, and he c a l l e d , "Where a re y o u ? " "Here I am, " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "Jump up here w i t h me. " When Coun t r y Mouse j umped , he saw some f o o d , " E a t away , " s a i d C i t y Mouse. "You w i l l l i k e t h i s f o o d . " Coun t r y Mouse s a i d , "I do l i k e i t . I may not go back to the c o u n t r y . " 88 C i t y Mouse s a i d , " D o n ' t go back . You can l i v e here w i t h me. " When they were e a t i n g , C i t y Mouse saw someth ing b i g . He s a i d , " R u n , Run , C o u n t r y Mouse. And d o n ' t s t o p . " Away went C i t y Mouse. And away went Coun t r y Mouse. They ran out o f the house . C i t y Mouse c a l l e d , "Come b a c k , Coun t r y Mouse. There i s no danger now. The c a t went back i n t o the h o u s e . " But Coun t r y Mouse d i d not s t o p . He c a l l e d , " N o , I d o n ' t l i k e to l i v e where t h e r e i s d a n g e r . I 'm g o i n g home." Coun t r y Mouse ran up a h i l l and i n t o the c o u n t r y . When he got home, he s a i d , "A t l a s t I can s t o p . I w i l l not go back to the c i t y . Not where the c a t i s . I w i l l ea t c o u n t r y f o o d , and C i t y Mouse can l i v e i n d a n g e r . " Thu rsday Week F o u r : ( R e t e l l i n g S t o r i e s ) a) The t e a c h e r w i l l r e t e l l one o f the s t o r i e s p r e v i o u s l y read d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t and w i l l a l l o w the c h i l d r e n to p o i n t ou t any i n a c c u r a c i e s . A l t e r a t i o n s w i l l be made by the e x p e r i m e n t e r and s u p p l i e d f o r the t e a c h e r . Reasons s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d by the c h i l d r e n f o r a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t - i n g the a l t e r a t i o n s . b) The t e a c h e r w i l l read a new and d i f f e r e n t s t o r y u s i n g t h r e e v e r s i o n s ( s u p p l i e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r ) . S t u d e n t s w i l l choose the c o r r e c t v e r s i o n and p r o v i d e r e a s o n s . ( S t o r y u s e d : The T i g e r ' s W h i s k e r , c i t e d i n Whaley (1981 a , p. 7 6 5 ) . i Thursday Week Four ( R e t e l l i n g s t o r i e s ) 8 9 S t o r y (a.) The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r " . ( v e r s i o n one) " H e l l o , L i t t l e A n t , " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " W i l l you come and p l a y w i t h me? I w i l l h i d e i n the g r a s s , and you can l o o k f o r me t h e r e . " The an t s a i d , "You h i d e i n the g a s s . But I c a n ' t l o o k f o r you t h e r e . I have work to d o . " " D o n ' t w o r k , " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . "When do you p l a y , L i t t l e A n t ? " "I d o n ' t have t i m e to p l a y , " s a i d the a n t . " I ' m l o o k i n g f o r f o o d . I'm g o i n g to put the food away. And when the snow comes, I w i l l have food to e a t . " "Work a w a y ! " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " I ' m go ing to p l a y now." And away he went i n the g r a s s . The an t went on work - i n g . "You can p l a y , but I w i l l w o r k , " the ant s a i d . "And I w i l l have food to ea t when the snow c o m e s . " The g r a s s h o p p e r saw the snow. "What am I go i ng to do?"he s a i d . "I c a n ' t p l a y now. I want some f o o d , but what can I e a t ? " The an t saw the g r a s s h o p p e r i n the snow. "What a re you do ing t h e r e ? " the ant a s k e d . " A r e you l o o k i n g f o r some- t h i n g ? " " Y e s , I am, " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " I ' m l o o k i n g f o r y o u . He lp me, L i t t l e A n t . Le t me have someth ing to e a t . " The ant s a i d : " O . K . , I s h o u l d have p l a y e d w i t h y o u . I was f o o l i s h to work a l l the t ime w h i l e you p l a y e d , I w i l l sha re my food w i t h y o u . " 90 Thursday Week Four ( R e t e l l i n g s t o r i e s ) S t o r y 1 (a) "The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r " ( v e r s i o n two) ; "I w i l l h i d e i n the g r a s s , and you can l o o k f o r me t h e r e . " " H e l l o , L i t t l e A n t , " s a i d a g r a s s h o p p e r . The ant s a i d , "You can h i d e i n the g r a s s . But I c a n ' t l ook f o r you t h e r e . I have work to d o . " " D o n ' t w o r k , " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . "When do you p l a y , L i t t l e A n t ? " "I d o n ' t have t ime to p l a y , " s a i d the a n t . " I ' m l o o k i n g f o r ' f ood . I'm go ing to put the food away. And when the snow comes, I w i l l have f o o d to e a t . " "Work away ! " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . I'm go ing to p l a y now." And away he went i n the g r a s s . The ant went on w o r k i n g . "You can p l a y , but I w i l l w o r k , " the ant s a i d . "And I w i l l have food to e a t when the snow c o m e s . " ! The g r a s s h o p p e r saw the snow. "What am I g o i n g to d o ? " he s i a i d . I c a n ' t p l a y now. I want some f o o d , but what can I e a t ? " The ant saw the g r a s s h o p p e r i n the snow. "What a re you d o i n g t h e r e ? " the ant a s k e d . "A re you l o o k i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g ? " "Yes I a m , " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " I ' m l o o k - i n g f o r y o u . He lp me, L i t t l e A n t . L e t me have someth ing to e a t . " But the an t s a i d " N o . You p l a y e d when I w o r k e d . You d i d n ' t wo rk , G r a s s h o p p e r . " And away went the a n t . " S t o p P " c a l l e d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " D o n ' t go away . " He c a l l e d and c a l l e d , but the ant s t i l l d i d not s t o p . And the g r a s s h o p p e r wa lked away. On and on he went i n the snow. 91 Thursday Week Four ( R e t e l l i n g s t o r i e s ) S t o r y 1 (a) "The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r " ( v e r s i o n t h r e e ) " H e l l o , L i t t l e A n t , " s a i d a g r a s s h o p p e r . " W i l l you come and p l a y w i t h me? I w i l l h i de i n the g r a s s , and you can l o o k f o r me t h e r e . " The ant s a i d , "You can h i d e i n the g r a s s . But I c a n ' t l o o k f o r you t h e r e . I have work to d o . " " D o n ' t w o r k , " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . "When do you p l a y , L i t t l e A n t ? " "I d o n ' t have t ime to p l a y , " s a i d the a n t . " I ' m l o o k i n g f o r f o o d . I'm go ing to put t h e food away. And when the snow comes, I w i l l have food to e a t . " "Work away , " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " I ' m go ing to p l a y now. " And away he went i n the g r a s s . The ant went on w o r k i n g , "You can p l a y , but I w i l l w o r k , " the ant s a i d . "And I w i l l have food to ea t when the snow c o m e s . " The g r a s s h o p p e r saw the snow. "What am I go i ng to d o ? " he s a i d . "I c a n ' t p l a y now. I want some f o o d , but what can I e a t ? " The ant saw the g r a s s h o p p e r i n the snow. "What a re you do ing t h e r e ? " the ant a s k e d . "A re you l o o k i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g ? " "Yes I am, " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " I ' m l o o k - i n g f o r y o u . I s t i l l want you to come and p l a y w i t h me, come and p l a y w i t h me i n the snow . " 92 Thursday Week Four ( R e t e l l i n g S t o r i e s ) S t o r y 1 (a.) "The Ant and the G r a s s h o p p e r " (version four (o r ig ina l ) ) H e l l o , L i t t l e A n t , " s a i d the G r a s s h o p p e r . " W i l l you come and p l a y w i t h me? I w i l l h i d e i n the g r a s s , and you can l ook f o r me t h e r e . " The ant s a i d , "You can h ide i n the g r a s s . But I c a n ' t l o o k f o r you t h e r e . I have work to d o . " " D o n ' t w o r k , " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . When do you p l a y ? " S a i d the a n t , " I ' m l o o k i n g f o r f o o d . I'm go ing to put the food away. And when the snow comes, I w i l l have food to e a t . " "Work a w a y ! " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " I ' m go ing to p l a y now. " And away he went i n the g r a s s . The an t went on work ing- . "You can p l a y , but I w i l l w o r k , " the ant s a i d . "And I w i l l have food to ea t when the snow c o m e s . " The g r a s s h o p p e r saw the snow. "What am I go i ng do d o ? " he s a i d . "I c a n ' t p l a y now. I want some f o o d , but what can I e a t ? " The ant saw the g r a s s h o p p e r i n the snow. "What a re you do ing t h e r e ? " the ant a s k e d . " A r e you l o o k i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g ? " "Yes I am, " s a i d the g r a s s h o p p e r . I'm l o o k - i n g f o r y o u . He lp me, L i t t l e A n t . L e t me have someth ing to e a t . " But the ant s a i d , " N o . You p l a y e d when I w o r k e d . You d i d n ' t w o r k , G r a s s h o p p e r . " And away went the a n t . " S t o p ! " c a l l e d the g r a s s h o p p e r . " D o n ' t go away . " He c a l l e d and c a l l e d , but the ant s t i l l d i d not s t o p . And the g r a s s h o p p e r wa lked away. On and on he went i n the snow. S t o r y (b) "The T i g e r ' s W h i s k e r s " ( v e r s i o n one) Once t h e r e was a woman who l i v e d w i t h her husband i n the woods. One d a y , he r husband got v e r y s i c k . The woman was d e l i g h t e d by her h u s b a n d ' s i l l n e s s and hoped he wou ld d i e . She t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g she c o u l d t h i n k o f but n o t h i n g w o r k e d . At l a s t she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f rom a t i g e r ' s w h i s k e r would h e l p him get w e l l . So the woman s e t out to get a t i g e r ' s w h i s k e r . She went to a t i g e r ' s cave and put some food i n f r o n t o f the open ing to the cave and sang s o f t m u s i c . The t i g e r came o u t , a te the f o o d , and thanked the woman f o r the food and m u s i c . The woman q u i c k l y c u t o f f one o f h i s w h i s k e r s and ran home. The t i g e r was l o n e l y and s a d , but the woman's husband got wel 1. "The T i g e r ' s W h i s k e r s " ( v e r s i o n two) Once t h e r e was a woman who l i v e d w i t h her husband i n the woods. One d a y , her husband got v e r y s i c k . The woman was v e r y upse t by her h u s b a n d ' s i l l n e s s and wanted him t o get w e l1. She t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g she c o u l d t h i n k o f but n o t h i n g wo rked . A t l a s t she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f rom a t i g e r ' s w h i s k e r wou ld h e l p him get w e l l . So the woman s e t out to get a t i g e r ' s w h i s k e r . She went to a t i g e r ' s cave 94 and put some food i n f r o n t o f the open ing to the cave and sang s o f t m u s i c . The T i g e r came o u t , a te the f o o d , and thanked the woman f o r the food and m u s i c . The woman q u i c k l y cu t o f f one o f h i s w h i s k e r s . . ( S t o p r e a d i n g h e r e . The c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be a b l e to d e t e r m i n e t h a t the s t o r y i s i n c o m p l e t e . ) "The T i g e r ' s W h i s k e r s " ( v e r s i o n t h r e e ( o r i g i n a l ) ) Once t h e r e was a woman who l i v e d w i t h her husband i n the woods. One d a y , her husband got ve ry s i c k . The woman was ve ry upse t by her h u s b a n d ' s i l l n e s s and wanted him to get w e l 1 . She t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g she c o u l d t h i n k o f but n o t h i n g w o r k e d . At l a s t she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f rom a t i g e r ' s w h i s k e r would h e l p him ge t w e l l . So the woman s e t out to ge t a t i g e r ' s w h i s k e r . She went to a t i g e r ' s cave and put some food i n f r o n t o f the open ing to the cave and sang s o f t m u s i c . The t i g e r came o u t , a te the f o o d , and thanked the woman f o r the food and m u s i c . The woman q u i c k l y c u t - o f f one o f h i s w h i s k e r s and ran home. The t i g e r was l o n e l y and s a d , but the woman's husband got w e l l . "The T i g e r ' s W h i s k e r s " ( v e r s i o n f o u r ) One d a y , her husband got ve ry s i c k . Once t h e r e was a woman who l i v e d w i t h her husband i n the woods. The woman was v e r y upse t by her h u s b a n d ' s i l l n e s s and wanted him to get w e l l She t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g she c o u l d t h i n k o f but n o t h i n g w o r k e d . At l a s t she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f rom a t i g e r ' s w i s k e r would he lp him get w e l l . So the woman s e t out to get a t i g e r ' s w i s k e r . She went to a t i g e r ' s cave and put some food i n f r o n t o f the open ing to the cave and sang s o f t m u s i c . The t i g e r came o u t , a te the f o o d , and thanked the woman f o r the food and m u s i c . The woman q u i c k l y cu t o f f one o f h i s w h i s k e r s and ran home. The t i g e r was l o n e l y and s a d , but the woman's husband got w e l l . Thursday Week F i v e : Each c h i l d w i l l i n d e p e n d e n t l y comp le te f i v e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to a s t o r y s t r u c t u r e c h a r t a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to a new s t o r y read o r a l l y and f o l l o w i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e i r own typed c o p i e s ( S t o r y u s e d : A l b e r t the F i s h , c i t e d i n Whaley (1981 a , p . 7 6 4 ) . " A l b e r t the F i s h " Once t h e r e was a b i g g ray f i s h named A l b e r t who l i v e d i n a b i g i c y pond near the edge o f a f o r e s t . One d a y , A l b e r t was swimming around the pond when he s p o t t e d a b i g j u i c y worm on top o f the w a t e r . A l b e r t knew how d e l i c i o u s worms t a s t e d and wanted to ea t t h a t one f o r h i s d i n n e r . He swam v e r y c l o s e to the worm and b i t i n t o h im. S u d d e n l y , A l b e r t was p u l l e d t h rough the wa te r i n t o a b o a t . A l b e r t f e l t v e r y sad and w ished he had been more c a r e f u l . 96 " A l b e r t t h e F i s h " 1. Who i s A l b e r t ? a) a l i t t l e brown f i s h b) a b i g g r e e n f i s h c ) a b i g g r a y f i s h 2. Where does A l b e r t l i v e ? a) i n a b i g b l u e l a k e b) i n a s m a l l f i s h pond c) i n a b i g i c y pond 3. What d i d A l b e r t s e e one day w h i l e he was swimming a r o u n d i n h i s pond? a) some d e l i c i o u s f i s h f o o d b) a b i g j u i c y worm c) a f i s h hook w i t h b a i t on i t 4. Why d i d A l b e r t want t o e a t t h e worm? a) he knew how d e l i c i o u s t h e y t a s t e d b) he was v e r y h u n g r y c) he w a n t e d t o k i l l t h e worm 5. How d i d he t r y t o g e t t h e worm? a) he g r a b b e d a t i t b) he b i t i n t o i t c) he swam o v e r i t 6. What h a p p e n e d t o A l b e r t a f t e r he t r i e d t o g e t t h e worm? a) he a t e t h e worm b) he g o t c a u g h t by a f i s h e r m a n c ) he swam away v e r y h a p p i l y How d i d A l b e r t f e e l about what he had done? a) he w ished he had been more c a r e f u l b) he was g l a d he got the worm c) he was angry w i t h the f i s h e r m a n f o r c a t c h i n g h im. F o l l o w - u p P r o c e d u r e s P o s t t e s t The f i n a l day o f week f i v e w i l l be used to a d m i n i s t e r the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p o s t t e s t . A s t o r y taken f rom a b a s a l r e a d e r not used i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s w i l l be read o r a l l y to the s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d by 14 comprehens ion q u e s t i o n s , 7 l i t e r a l and 7 i r i f e r e n t i a l . ( S t o r y u s e d : "The Boy and the G o a t s " , pp . 161-166 f rom the r e a d e r , I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k s e r i e s ) . F r e e - R e c a l l Measure A f r e e - r e c a l l measure w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g the week f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i m e n t . A v o l u n t e e r , chosen by the e x p e r i m e n t e r w i l l read a n a r r a t i v e s e l e c t i o n to each s t u d e n t . P r i o r to t h i s , the f o l l o w i n g i n - s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be p r o v i d e d : I want you to l i s t e n ve ry c a r e f u l l y to a s t o r y I am go ing to read to y o u . When I f i n i s h , I w i l l ask you to t e l l me e v e r y t h i n g t h a t you can remember about the s t o r y . P l e a s e do y o u r ve ry b e s t . S t u d e n t ' s r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s o f the s t o r y w i l l be taped and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d . Appendix C 98 P o s t t e s t "The Boy and the Goats" 1. Where d i d the boy take the goats every morning? a) up to the green g r a s s on the h i l l . b) down to the r i v e r . 2. Who jumped over the fence f i r s t ? a) one b i g goat b) a l l t h r e e goats jumped over t o g e t h e r 3. Who's garden d i d they jump i n t o ? a) the farmer's b) the l i t t l e boy's 4. Who was the second animal -that came along? a) a fox b) a r a b b i t 5. Who got the goats out? a) the boy b) the l i t t l e bee 6. What d i d the bee do when he s a t on the b i g goat's nose? a) he s a i d "buzz, buzz". b) he stung the goat's nose 7 . What d i d the boy do to t r y and get the goats back? a) he coaxed and s c o l d e d b) he c r i e d and c r i e d 99 8. Why w o u l d n ' t the f a rmer want the goa ts i n h i s garden? a) because he d i d n ' t 1 i ke g o a t s . b) because they would ea t a l l h i s g r a s s . 9. Why d i d the boy s i t down and s t a r t to c r y ? a) because the goa ts w o u l d n ' t come out b) because the goa ts k i c k e d h im. 10. Why d i d the b o y , the r a b b i t and the f ox l augh a t the 1 i t t l e bee? a) because o u t . t hey d i d n ' t t h i n k he c o u l d ge t the goa ts b) because he s a i d someth ing funny 11 . Why d i d the two o t h e r goa ts jump ove r the f e n c e ? a) because they saw the b i g goat jump ove r b) because they wanted to run and jump 12 . Why d i d the boy go r u n n i n g a f t e r the g o a t s ? a) because he wanted to s c o l d them b) because he had to t a k e the goa ts home f o r the n i g h t 13 . Why d i d the bee o n l y have to s a y : " B u z z , b u z z " a) because t h a t ' s a l l bees can say b) because the goa ts were a f r a i d o f be i ng s tung . 14. Why d i d the boy t ake the goa ts up to the green g r a s s e v e r y morn ing? a) so they c o u l d have green g r a s s to ea t b) so they c o u l d run and p l a y . 100 F r e e - R e c a l 1 Measure I n s t r u c t i o n s p r i o r to r e a d i n g the s t o r y : I want you to l i s t e n ve ry c a r e f u l l y to a s t o r y I am go ing to read to y o u . When I f i n i s h , I w i l l ask you to t e l l me e v e r y t h i n g t h a t you can remember about the s t o r y . P l e a s e do y o u r ve ry b e s t . I n s t r u c t i o n s a f t e r h e a r i n g what the c h i l d has s a i d : Is t h a t a l l you can remember? Can you remember a n y t h i n g e l s e you wou ld l i k e to t e l l me? Thank- you f o r coming to see me t o d a y . "The G r u f f L i o n " Once upon a t i m e , a g r u f f o l d l i o n l i v e d i n the woods. He had a t h i c k mane and a l ong t a i l . He was the k i n g o f a l l the a n i m a l s and t hey were a f r a i d o f h i m . I f he f rowned o r g row led they a l l shook w i t h f e a r . "He i s a b e a s t , " s a i d a monkey. "He b o a s t s t h a t he can beat e v e r y o n e . I d o n ' t t r u s t h i m . " But no one c o u l d t e l l o f a way to get r i d o f h im. One day a t r o o p o f men came i n t o the woods. They had a b i g c r a t e and were l o o k i n g f o r a n i m a l s to take back to the z o o . 101 "I know now how to ge t r i d o f t h a t mean o l d l i o n , " s a i d a l i t t l e g ray mouse to h i m s e l f as he watched the men d i g a deep h o l e . The l i t t l e mouse rushed o f f down the t r a i l . He soon saw some f r e s h paw marks . " A h ! Here a re t h a t o l d l i o n ' s t r a c k s . Now, to get him to chase me. " The mouse s t o o d up b e s i d e the pa th and w a i t e d f o r the l i o n to come a l o n g . As soon as the l i o n saw the mouse, he s t a r t e d a f t e r h im. Away went the mouse as f a s t as h i s l i t t l e l e g s c o u l d c a r r y h im. The mouse l e d the l i o n r i g h t up to the t r a p . The mouse s t o p p e d . The l i o n was go ing f a s t and not w a t c h i n g where he was g o i n g . He f e l l r i g h t i n t o the h o l e . What a f u s s he made! The men heard him g r o w l i n g and s n a r l i n g and came r u n - n i n g up w i t h c h a i n s . They put him i n the c r a t e and took him o f f to the zoo w h i l e a l l the o t h e r a n i m a l s l aughed and l a u g h e d . "We a re f r e e ! We a re f r e e ! " they a l l c a l l e d . " L e t ' s have a p a r t y f o r smart L i t t l e Gray M o u s e ! " ( p . 1 9 2 I t ' s S t o r y t i m e , T e a c h e r ' s G u i d e b o o k , Copp C l a r k s e r i e s . )

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