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The relationship between story grammar instruction and first graders’ understanding of narrative material Nelson, Karen Annie 1982

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STORY GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION AND FIRST GRADERS'' UNDERSTANDING OF NARRATIVE MATERIAL by KAREN ANNIE NELSON B.Ed.,  The U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary,  1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of  Education  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1982  c . Karen Ann i e Nel son, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  in partial  advanced degree at  Columbia,  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  understood for  that  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  /  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (2/81)  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  agree that p e r m i s s i o n department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  written  ABSTRACT This story  study examined the e x t e n t  grammar i m p r o v e d c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s  and r e c a l l  narrative  received story control  material.  instruction receiving  in  story  instruction  prehend n a r r a t i v e  this  grammar. in story  material  jects  not  jects  were a l s o a b l e t o  correct  over a f i v e  l i s t e n e d to  group d u r i n g  the  time, It  differences  between t h e  week p e r i o d ;  d i d not  as  subjects com-  than  sub-  E x p e r i m e n t a l group  sub-  narrative  better  the  receive  was f o u n d t h a t  s e q u e n c e and answer l i t e r a l than c o n t r o l  subjects  grammar were a b l e t o  receiving instruction.  better  but  in  comprehend  same s t o r i e s  significantly  recall  to  E x p e r i m e n t a l group  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  group s u b j e c t s  experimental  tions  to which i n s t r u c t i o n  material  in  and i n f e r e n t i a l  group s u b j e c t s , a l t h o u g h  two g r o u p s were n o t  the ques-  the  significant.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  Page INTRODUCTION  ..  1  Need f o r the Study  2  THE PROBLEM  2  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  II  GENERAL PROCEDURES  4  SUMMARY....  7  ORDER OF PRESENTATION  7  RELATED RESEARCH  8  The Importance o f Teaching Reading Comprehension  8  Schema Theories o f Knowledge  9  Researched-based Support o f Story Grammar  III  3  14  SUMMARY  2 0  METHODOLOGY  21  S e l e c t i o n o f Subjects  21  Instructional Materials  2 3  Instruments Used  2 3  C o l l e c t i o n o f Data  2 5  Teaching Methods  2  ^  on  S c o r i n g o f the Data Data A n a l y s i s SUMMARY  3  3 0  3 2  iv Chapter IV  Page PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA  33  Part 1:  Pretest Results  33  Part 2:  Posttest Results  37  Part 3:  R e c a l l i n g Narrative Material  42  Part 4:  Posttest Results (Canadian Tests of Basic Skills)  44  SUMMARY V  47  SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS  49  SUMMARY  49  Administration of Instruments  50  Treatment of the Data  50  FINDINGS  51  Comprehension of Narrative Material  51  L i t e r a l Questions  51  I n f e r e n t i a l Questions . . R e c a l l i n g Narrative Material  .  52  —  .  53  R e c a l l i n g Narrative Material in the Correct Sequence.. CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS  53 53  ...  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  .  5 5  5 7  BIBLIOGRAPHY  5 9  APPENDICES - INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND TEACHING PROCEDURES  6 6  A  Pretest Measures  6 7  B  Experimental Group Procedures  70  C  Posttests  98  V  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  I  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Age and Sex in Experimental and Control Groups .  II  Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups on Total Comprehension as Measured by the Gates-MacGinitie (Level A, Form 1) Pre-Reading T e s t . .  III  IV  V  VI  VII  VIII  IX  X  XI  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups on Total Comprehension as Measured by the Experimenter Designed Pretest Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups for L i t e r a l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Pretest Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups f o r I n f e r e n t i a l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Pretest Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups on Total Comprehension as Measured by the Gates-MacGinitie (Level A, Form 2) Post-Reading Test. Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups f o r Total Comprehension as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Posttest  22  3 4  3  5  3  6  3  &  3  &  3 9  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups f o r L i t e r a l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Posttest  40  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups f o r I n f e r e n t i a l Questions as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed Posttest  40  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups f o r R e c a l l i n g Narrative Material as Measured by the Experimenter-Designed F r e e - r e c a l l Measures  42  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups f o r R e c a l l i n g Narrative Material in the Correct Sequence as Measured by the ExperimenterDesigned Free-Recall Measure  ^3  Table XII  Means and Standard Control Groups f o r the Canadian Tests Level 7, Form 3 M)  Deviations f o r Experimental and Total Comprehension as Measured by of Basic S k i l l s (Primary B a t t e r y , Posttest  XIII  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups f o r L i t e r a l Questions as Measured by the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (Primary Battery, Level 7, Form 3 M) Posttest  XIV  Means and Standard Deviations f o r Experimental and Control Groups for I n f e r e n t i a l Questions as Measured by the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (Primary B a t t e r y , Level 7, Form 3 M) Posttest  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e Dr.  Tory Westermark, f o r  guidance  in  his  the w r i t i n g of  In a d d i t i o n , Dr.  t o e x t e n d my s i n c e r e t h a n k s  of  t h e d a t a and t o  students  in School D i s t r i c t this  this to  and  thesis. e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e  h i s g u i d a n c e and s u g g e s t i o n s i n  analysis  cooperated in  patience, understanding  I would l i k e  Lee G u n d e r s o n f o r  t o my a d v i s o r ,  study.  the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , #7  to the  t e a c h e r s and  ( N e l s o n , B . C . ) , who  willingly  1 Chapter  I  INTRODUCTION There i s variety  of  an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t  fields  s u c h as c o g n i t i v e  linguistics,  linguistics  relationship  of  or s t o r y  children's  the  tionships  components o f  among t h e  a common a b s t r a c t initial  understanding  setting,  to  including  adventures  of  S i n c e the major  instructional  for  will  the  and r e c a l l .  reading to memory.  grammar o f  a story  o r g a n i z e the p a r t s  of  structure  to  a story  263).  which  the  rela-  stories  in  share  about  and  narrative,  material.  grammar "This  comprehen-  use grammar  and s t o r e  tested the  an  the  story  facilitates  h e l p them r e c a l l  ( D r e h e r and S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 , p.  rules  grades i s  students  T h e n , when c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s  same s t o r y  narrative  emphasis i n  instruction  In o t h e r w o r d s ,  structure  statements  improve comprehension of n a r r a t i v e  knowledge of sion  elementary  research suggests that  the  t h e main c h a r a c t e r  an outcome o r e n d i n g .  current  story  and s p e c i f y  Many c h i l d r e n ' s  structure,  material  of  a set of  a story  parts.  the  psychology in  comprehension of  S t o r y grammar r e f e r s  classify  psychology, psycho-  and e d u c a t i o n a l  grammar, and t h e i r  material.  by r e s e a r c h e r s i n a  them  t h e y use story"  while  the  in  2 Need f o r  the  Study  Recently, of  teaching strategies  sion. for  Whaley (1981  improving  for  it  have d e v e l o p e d a  improving  a ) discusses  children's  suggests that the  reading a u t h o r i t i e s  is  children's  comprehen-  some t e a c h i n g  strategies  knowledge of  story  i m p o r t a n t now f o r  gap between t h e o r y  formulation  variety  structures  educatiors  to  and  bridge  and c l a s s r o o m a p p l i c a -  tion: I t i s i m p o r t a n t now f o r e d u c a t o r s and i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l i k e , i n c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s and i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s t o i n t r o d u c e a new p e r s p e c t i v e i n t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s t o r y schemata by u s i n g some o f t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i ques (p. 770). Durkin tions  ( 1 9 8 1 , p.  related  considered findings studies  in  to  41)  states  that  increasing learning  classroom s e t t i n g s :  further  investiga-  f r o m p r o s e need t o  " B e f o r e any r e s e a r c h  can be g e n e r a l i z e d . . . s y s t e m a t i c r e p l i c a t i o n u s i n g s u b j e c t s who v a r y  ing a b i l i t y  in age, i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  the  present  some o f  these  instructional  whether  story  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  and r e c a l l  of read>  and s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d i s e s s e n t i a l . "  The i n t e n t i o n o f  improving  be  first  strategies is  grade c h i l d r e n ' s  narrative  study  is in  to  incorporate  order to  a useful  abilities  to  determine  technique  for  comprehend  material. THE PROBLEM  The p u r p o s e o f extent  to which  the  present  instruction  in  study story  is  to determine  grammar  improves  the  3 children's  abilities  to  comprehend and r e c a l l  narrative  materi a l . Specifically,  the  study  seeks to  answer the  following  questi ons: 1.  What i s t h e chi1dren's material  2.  in  What i s t h e children's  effect  of  abi1ities  story to  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  comprehend and r e c a l l  on narrative  the c o r r e c t sequence? effect  of  abilities  story to  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  answer l i t e r a l  and  on  inferential  questions? Definition  of  For the  Terms purpose of  this  study the  following  terms  were  defined: S t o r y Grammar. S t o r y grammar c o n s i s t s o f a s e t o f r u l e s w h i c h c l a s s i f y t h e components o f a s t o r y and s p e c i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e p a r t s ( D r e h e r and S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 , p. 2 6 2 ) . Comprehens i o n . T h i s s t u d y d e f i n e s c o m p r e h e n s i o n as t h e g r a d e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n s o f t h e G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) and Canadian Tests of B a s i c S k i l l s (Primary B a t t e r y , Level 7 , Form 3 M) r e a d i n g t e s t s as w e l l as t h e raw s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t tests. Fol k t a l e . A s t o r y o f unknown o r i g i n but p e a t e d s t o r y t e l l i n g , as P a u l and H o d g e s , 1 9 8 1 , p. 121 ).  well-known through r e Bunyan f o l k t a l e s ( H a r r i s  Fable. A s h o r t t a l e in prose or verse to teach a m o r a l , e s p e c i a l l y a t a l e u s i n g a n i m a l s and i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s as c h a r a c t e r s ( H a r r i s and H o d g e s , 1 9 8 1 , p. 1 1 5 ) . Subjects. from t h r e e  The s u b j e c t s  g r a d e one p u b l i c  geographic area of  for  this  s t u d y were  school classes  School D i s t r i c t  #7,  selected  located within  the  Nelson, B.C.  GENERAL PROCEDURES The 1.  general  The l i t e r a t u r e t i o n on t h e in  subject,  further  The t h r e e the B.C.  4.  to note  find  existing  informa-  the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used  determine  if  there  was a  investigation.  s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n  District  C o u n s e l l o r in School D i s t r i c t  They were j u d g e d  seventeen elementary 3.  follows:  was s u r v e y e d t o  s i m i l a r . . s t u d i e s and t o  need f o r 2.  p r o c e d u r e s were as  to  #7,  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  schools in  the  Nelson,  of  the  district.  P u p i l s i n e a c h s c h o o l were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o and  with  two  groups'-  experimental  control.  Student  d a t a - - a g e , s e x , b i r t h d a t e and s c h o o l - - w e r e  col 1ected. 5.  The f o l l o w i n g  instruments  were a d m i n i s t e r e d and d a t a  col 1 e c t e d : a)  The c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n o f  Reading  Test,  (Level  both e x p e r i m e n t a l  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  A , Form 1) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  and c o n t r o l  group  students  as a  to  pretest this  measure ( F e b r u a r y ,  test  control  1982).  was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o  group  students  L e v e l A Form 2 o f  both e x p e r i m e n t a l  as a p o s t t e s t  measure  and  (June,  1982). b)  E x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d pre  prehension inferential mental c) of  (June)  tests  group  a specific story transcribed.  Students'  ("The  Gruff  This  determine  in d)  the  correct  the  7,  the  ability  sequence:  recall  to  experiment  the  groups  to which  recall  from and  children  number o f  story  story  events  events  b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e and e n d i n g . Basic S i l l s ,  (Primary  Form 3 M - c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n )  stered during  protocols  was o b t a i n e d  and c o n t r o l  extent in  The C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f  Level  the  their  both e x p e r i -  L i o n " ) were t a p e d and  information  from each group d i f f e r e d r e c a l l e d and i n  and  students.  in both experimental  was used t o  both l i t e r a l  q u e s t i o n s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o  and c o n t r o l  students  and p o s t com-  c o n s i s t i n g of  F r e e - R e c a l l Measure.  later  (April)  s e c o n d week  was a d m i n i -  ( J u n e , 1982)  to both e x p e r i m e n t a l  Battery,  following  and c o n t r o l  group  students. The f o l l o w i n g a) of  d a t a were  r e a d i n g grade l e v e l  tabulated: scores-comprehension sections  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Tests  and L e v e l A , Form 2)  and t h e  S k i l l s (Primary Battery,  ( L e v e l A , Form 1  Canadian Tests of  Level 7,  Form 3 M ) .  Basic  b)  total  comprehension scores obtained  menter-designed c)  total  rectly d)  p r e and  number o f  on t h e  total  correctly  questions  experimenter-designed  on t h e  experi-  posttests.  literal  number o f  on t h e  inferential  answered  p r e and  questions  experimenter-designed  cor-  posttests.  answered  p r e and  post-  tests. e)  total  rectly Tests  number o f  on t h e of  literal  questions  answered  comprehension s e c t i o n of  Basic  Skills  (Primary  the  Battery,  cor-  Canadian  Level  7,  Form 3 M ) . f)  total  number o f  correctly Tests of  inferential  questions  on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n o f Basic  Skills  (Primary  Battery,  answered the  Canadian  Level  7,  Form 3 M ) . g)  total  number o f  free-recall h)  story  events  e v e n t s were r e c a l l e d  in  the  indicate  correct  the  story  sequence from  d a t a was as f o l l o w s :  c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s were t a b u l a t e d and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  for  Each  the  using a t - t e s t  independent  child's  and mean s c o r e s  were c o m p u t e d .  s i g n i f i c a n c e was r e p o r t e d  1 970).  if  measure.  The t r e a t m e n t o f  differences  the  measure.  a c o d i n g s y s t e m was used t o  free-recall  remembered f r o m  Statistical of  significant  s a m p l e s ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y ,  9.  Control  Group P r o c e d u r e s :  same s t o r i e s receive  The c o n t r o l  as t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  specific  instruction  in  group read  group but story  did  the  not  grammar.  SUMMARY C h a p t e r one has i n t r o d u c e d w h i c h was t o instruction recall  determine  the e x t e n t  improves c h i l d r e n ' s  narrative  the  purpose of  the  to which s t o r y  abilities  study  grammar  t o comprehend and  material. ORDER OF PRESENTATION  The c o n t e n t 1.  Chapter I presents study,  2.  and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  limits  C h a p t e r II  of  the  the  the  chapters  are:  p r o b l e m , the  need f o r  the  s t u d y and g e n e r a l  provides a survey of  t u r e on r e s e a r c h - b a s e d s u p p o r t  procedures.  the p e r t i n e n t for  story  litera-  grammar  application. 3.  Chapter III selection mentation,  d e s c r i b e s t h e method e m p l o y e d i n of  subjects,  t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s , and t h e  classification, 4.  C h a p t e r IV i s interpretation  5.  Chapter V i s and  instructional  this  materials,  concerned w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n the  data.  and  data.  concerned w i t h the f i n d i n g s ,  recommendations f o r  future research.  instru-  collection,  c o d i n g , s c o r i n g and a n a l y s i s o f  of  study--  educational  conclusions  practise  and  8 Chapter  II  RELATED RESEARCH The p u r p o s e o f existing  information  C h a p t e r two related  r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n need f o r  further  The I m p o r t a n c e  to  similar  of  psycho!inguistics,  offer  story  a survey  grammar, t o n o t e  of the  s t u d i e s and t o d e t e r m i n e a  fields  in  current  reading research journals.  s u c h as c o g n i t i v e  educational  a r e w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g on t h e  (1978)  provide  o f Teaching Reading Comprehension  r e v e a l e d as we s k i m t h r o u g h  What i s  to  investigation.  "An u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n t e r e s t  from a v a r i e t y  is  reading comprehension?  Individuals  psychology,  p s y c h o l o g y , and topic"  is  (Durkin,  linguistics 1981,  p.23).  P e a r s o n and J o h n s o n  some a n s w e r s b a s e d on e a r l i e r  findings:  R e a d i n g i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as a c o m p l e x p r o c e s s . In f a c t , Edmund B u r k e H u e y , i n 1 9 0 8 , b e l i e v e d t h a t i f we c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d r e a d i n g we w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e m y s t e r i e s o f t h e human m i n d . Edward T h o r n d i k e ( 1 9 1 7 ) w r o t e an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , " R e a d i n g as R e a s o n i n g . . . . "David R u s s e l l , in 1961, c o n s i d e r e d r e a d i n g t o be an a p p l i c a t i o n o f b a s i c cognitive processes. The most r e c e n t i n f l u e n c e on u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a d i n g comes f r o m t h e a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e o f c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y and a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e (Computer s i m u l a t i o n of mental p r o cesses). In t h e s e w o r k s ( f o r e x a m p l e , A n d e r s o n , 1 9 7 7 ) , r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s v i e w e d as a p r o c e s s s u b j e c t t o t h e same c o n s t r a i n t s as human memory and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g ( p . 8 ) .  9 Durkin noted t h a t giving  (1979)  observed a v a r i e t y  the m a j o r i t y  of  attention  is  help the  support  Barr  (1975)  f o c u s e d on how t h e beginning reader  little  reported  "...the  learner  strategy  that  print  speech.  There i s  child's  mental  ing  little modified  receives  The d e s i g n o f  children will  structures  use f o r  a reciprocal  little in the  and i n s t r u c t i o n "  advantage of t h i s  the  translating  relation  o t h e r w o r d s , e d u c a t o r s must be aware o f and t a k e  that  and t e a c h i n g methods e m p l o y e d d e t e r m i n e  dominant to  spent  from i n s t r u c t i o n s  o r g a n i z i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e from p r i n t . material  was  to  r e a d i n g t a s k may be  and s o m e t i m e s i n t e r f e r e n c e  printed  c l a s s r o o m s and  t e a c h e r t i m e was d e v o t e d  and m a r k i n g a s s i g n m e n t s and v e r y  teaching comprehension.  to  of  (p.  between  13).  the  In  how c h i l d r e n  in developing appropriate  learn teach-  strategies. A search of  in s t o r y  literature  grammar and t h e  prehension of signed to  the  printed  determine  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  if  role  r e v e a l s a growing it  material.  plays  in f a c i l i t a t i n g  The p r e s e n t  a relationship  interest  exists  com-  s t u d y was d e between  and i m p r o v e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f  story  narrative  materi a l .  Schema T h e o r i e s o f  Knowledge R e l a t e d t o  Identifying  Text  Organization Of p a r t i c u l a r lated  to  importance  schema t h e o r y  to  this  study  o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  is  research  expectations  refor  10 structural  aspects of  Although knowledge (1932) term  Kant  was p r o b a b l y  as s c h e m a ( t a ) ,  a very  general  defined  on c u l t u r a l  patterns or  related  to  or s t r u c t u r a l  individuals in which  and M c C a r r e l l ,  abstract  process. knowledge  Bartlett  of mental  schemata.  framework are  Schema  is  theory  awareness  of  These be  organized in  1974; Rumelhart  based  fitted.  d i s c o u r s e are b e l i e v e d to knowledge  the  prominence.  memory  and O r t o n y ,  view of r e a d i n g  1971;  c o m p r e h e n s i o n . Schema  v i e w s c o m p r e h e n s i o n as an i n t e r a c t i v e  structive  until  to  1978).  A schema-theoretic theory  refer  d i s c o u r s e can be o r g a n i z e d .  "schemata" for  and N o r m a n ,  to  o f memory t h a t  d e v e l o p an i m p l i c i t  t h e way i n w h i c h  (Bransford Rumelhart  was n o t  e x p e r i e n c e i n t o w h i c h new f a c t s  that  patterns  it  first  came i n t o  s c h e m a t a as a t y p e  Organization suggests  the  theory  " s c h e m a " and t h e o r i e n t a t i o n  Bartlett  the  (1781)  structures  formulated  text.  During  and/or  recon-  c o m p r e h e n s i o n , schemata which  structures  have a p o t e n t  influence  are  on  what w i l l  be comprehended o r r e c a l l e d f r o m e x p o s u r e  discourse  ( F r e d e r i k s o n , 1975; Anderson, Reynolds, S c h a l l e r t  and G o e t z , Mandler, Stein,  1 9 7 7 ; K i n t s c h , 1 9 7 7 ; H a n d l e r and J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 7 ;  1978; Rumelhart,  1977; Rumelhart  1 9 7 9 ; S t e i n and G l e n n ,  anchored in  to  abstract  knowledge  1979).  and N o r m a n , 1 9 7 8 ;  New i d e a s become  structures  (the  known)  and  11 contribute  to  the  uniqueness of  the  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and  mate m e n t a l  representation.  perception,  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  t h e m s e l v e s may change i n process  (Anderson,  help  to  the  at  sort  been remembered y e t The r o l e  of  The h y p o t h e s i s  information.  remember what  They h e l p  (Tuimann,  textual  that  text  which  information  important 1973;  a text is  If,  is  Meyer,  Schemas the  reader to  reading, a  to  look  for  important  hasn't  1980).  is  various  studies:  have p r o v e n  (Kintsch,  1975).  that  a hierarchical  ( A u s b e l , 1963; Mandler,  material.  hierarchically  1975; Schank,  the  memory  structure  important  to  in least  1 9 6 7 ; Meyer and M c C o n k i e ,  1974; K i n t s c h ,  K o x i m i n s k y , S t r e b y , McKoon and K e e n a n , Marshall  after  something  information in  at  him o r h e r  you what  o r d e r e d f r o m most  K i n t s c h and K e e n a n ,  stage.  schemata i n e x p o s i t o r y  investigations of  the  he o r she has r e a d , schemas  out whether  1974; Meyer, 1975; Rumelhart,  representation  of  They t e l l  They a l e r t  They t e l l  o r g a n i z e d has been i n c l u d e d  Several  in  schemata  use s c h e m a t a  (reading)  information.  once more become u s e f u l . next.  readers  input  incomplete.  unexpected or d e v i a n t to  the  incoming  when an e p i s o d e i s  person t r i e s  the  v a r i o u s ways as a r e s u l t  suggests that  Firstly,  chunk  a r e s c h e m a t a used  1977).  Schema t h e o r y two p o i n t s .  Not o n l y  ulti-  1974;  Kintsch,  1975; McKoon,  1977;  and G l o c k , 1 9 7 8 ; G a b r i e l , B r a u n and N e i l s e n , 1 9 8 0 ;  Brandt  and B l u t h ,  1980; T a y l o r ,  1980).  12 Studies  by Meyer and M c C o n k i e (1 973)  (1975)  have shown t h a t  called  better  than  l e s s when r e c a l l through  subordinate  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  organization  of  tant  to  that  explicity  of  text  the  T h i s was f u r t h e r  supported  to  a l . , 1980). textual  schema u s e d ,  did not,  reported  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n utilize  of  an a u t h o r ' s  signalling  on t h e  c a l l e d from passages w i t h d i f f e r e n t  r e s u l t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r ,  the  following  Good c o m p r e h e n d e r s a p p e a r t o  similar  results  abilities  of  effects  they  of re-  When  tended to  support  have b e t t e r  developed  poor comprehenders.  developed schemata f o r which c o n t a i n  arguments  in  to  information  Both good and p o o r c o m p r e h e n d e r s a p p e a r t o  tions  apparently  conclusions:  schemata than 2.  facilitated  organizations.  the  1.  indicated  readers  r e c a l l , and t h e  amount and i m p o r t a n c e  impor-  poor  seventh grade s t u d e n t s ' schema i n  of  structural  Good r e a d e r s  text, while  (1980)  the  Results  had w e l 1 - d e v e l o p e d s c h e m a t a f o r al.,  use  d e t e r m i n e what was  poor n i n t h grade r e a d e r s .  G a b r i e l et  re-  forgotten  n i n t h grade s t u d e n t s '  in order  stating  were  al. ,  and  w h i c h f o c u s e d on f o l l o w i n g  remember ( M e y e r e t  for  propositions  propositions  was d e l a y e d .  a reading strategy  recall  superordinate  and K i n t s c h e t  of  paratactic  a general  equal weight  response r h e t o r i c a l  collections  statement  in a time  predicates  have  better  (selec-  and s e v e r a l  sequence) than  (structures  for  containing  13 a p r o b l e m and two s o l u t i o n s 3.  Signalling structure affect  for  The r o l e children's  of  different of  stories  there  derived  from the  content  types  schemata i n  about  are f i v e oral  an i n i t i a l  Story  major  story  folktale  narratives.  to simi-  Many  structure, the  in-  adventures  1979).  grammars t h a t  tradition.  Cur-  have been  These have been  1975; Bower, 1976; Mandler  and  1980; Thorndyke,  1977;  1979).  grammar can be d e f i n e d  representation  of  the  parts  among t h o s e p a r t s  of  as "An i d e a l i z e d  a typical  story  internal  and t h e  ( M a n d l e r and J o h n s o n ,  rela-  1977,  111). It  has been shown t h a t  o l d have an i n t e r n a l i z e d story  even i f  it  is  b e g i n n i n g , middle  children  as young as s i x  representation  a rudimentary  and end ( B r o w n ,  of  structure  Although be u s e f u l  will  several in  d i s c u s s the  depicted  in  the  of  recent story form of  the  story  the  of a  c o n s i s t i n g of a Johnson,  1980).  grammars  investigations,  years  parts  1 9 7 7 ; M a n d l e r and  1 9 7 7 ; A p p l e b e e , 1 9 7 8 ; D r e h e r and S i n g e r ,  to  appear  12).  (Bransford,  1 9 7 7 ; J o h n s o n and M a n d l e r ,  S t e i n and G l e n n ,  (p.  setting,  and so f o r t h  d e v e l o p e d by ( R u m e l h a r t ,  tionships  weight).  s h a r e a common a b s t r a c t  t h e main c h a r a c t e r  rently,  p.  and t o p - l e v e l  structure  textual  statements  Johnson,  equal  s e v e n t h g r a d e good and p o o r c o m p r e h e n d e r s  larly  cluding  of  the  have been present  found  study  grammar d e v e l o p e d by G u t h r i e a d i a g r a m shown on page 15 o f  (1977), this  14 study. as  The r u l e s  for  the  grammatical  structure  are  explained  follows: The f i r s t r u l e s i m p l y d e f i n e s a s t o r y as c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e t t i n g , t h e m e , p l o t , and a r e s o l u t i o n , which u s u a l l y occur in that sequence. The s e c o n d r u l e i s t h a t the s e t t i n g c o n s i s t s of the c h a r a c t e r s and u s u a l l y t h e l o c a t i o n and t i m e o f a s t o r y . The t h i r d r u l e i s t h a t t h e theme o f a s t o r y c o n s i s t s o f t h e main c h a r a c t e r . . . . T h e p l o t c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s of e p i s o d e s , which are designed to help t h e main c h a r a c t e r r e a c h h i s g o a l . Each e p i s o d e c o n s i s t s o f a s u b g o a l , and a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e a t t e m p t . . . . A f t e r s e v e r a l e p i s o d e s an outcome o c c u r s w h i c h m a t c h e s t h e g o a l o f t h e main c h a r a c t e r , ushering in a f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n . These r u l e s a p p l y to many s t o r i e s , f o l k t a l e s and dramas and g i v e us a common f r a m e w o r k f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m .  Research-based Support (Thorndyke, structure of  graduates subjects  in  in  and 48 i n  three  independent facts  elements  marizations than  the  and n i n t h g r a d e  be a f u n c t i o n  recall  rather  the  effects  of  v a r i a b l e s on memory and c o m p r e h e n s i o n  separate  each i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  story,  story  first  from f i f t h  found to  to  studied  c o n d u c t e d two e x p e r i m e n t s  the  lege students  the  1977)  Applications  passages.  Thorndyke  In  S t o r y Grammar  1977; N e i l s e n ,  and c o n t e n t  prose  for  levels  of  t h e amount o f  of  passage c o n t e n t .  than  Neilsen  as w e l l  to  plot  high-level  lower d e t a i l s .  content.  tested  as  col-  experiments.  f r o m memory t e n d e d t o specific  second.  under-  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l  corresponding rather  u s i n g 64  were  structure Subjects  in tended  organizational S t o r y sum-  emphasize general  structure  15  Figure 1 • StorySetting A Location, 1  B  Events. 5—Goal. 7-8  9  2-3-4  Resolution  Plot  Theme  10  ( (  EPISODE A: ~1 Subgoal. 11 f Attempt. 12—Outcome. 13 J EPISODE B: Subgoal. 14 Attempt, 1 5 - O u t c o m e , 20  16—17  John T. Guthrie, "Story Comprehension". 1977, 20, 57 +-577. /  23  21  18—19  Source:  ^ ( J  State. 22  25-26  The Reading Teacher,  (Cited i n Dreher and Singer, 1980, p. 2 6 2 . )  16  Neilsen students  (1977)  performed  He s u g g e s t e d t h a t  a l s o found t h a t similarly,  the  but  n i n t h g r a d e and c o l l e g e  better  schemata of  than  older  fifth  children  and  due t o w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e a r e more c o m p l e t e t h a n t h e o f young c h i l d r e n . similar grade  findings  an a n a l y s i s o f  stories, versity  21 s u b j e c t s level  different  results to  using second,  underlying  from f i r s t  schemata  reported  f o u r t h and  sixth  to  strategies  listen  indicated the  of  on t h e  examined the  treatment  existing  support  in  implied  constructing  demands.  instructional  Analysis  of  young  two  (Content  children.  randomly  and  Structure,  The f i n d i n g s  strategy  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and 2) varies  in  a v e r a g e and  in  this  1) b o t h use  the  pre-  (knowing  schemata) are i m p o r t a n t  strategies  and  instructional  of  that:  of  are  selections  S u b j e c t s were  s c h e m a t a and m e t a c o g n i t i v e use c o n t e n t  for  grade s t u d e n t s  groups  two  and a d u l t s  narrative  contentions  when and how t o  ness of  effect  and C o n t r o l ) . for  simple  The b e g i n n i n g s  salient  comprehension of  Inference-Awareness,  1977).  stories.  above a v e r a g e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . three  of  and r e c a l l  t h a t both c h i l d r e n  structure  (1979)  study provide  to  ( M a n d l e r and J o h n s o n ,  c l a s s r o o m , u s i n g 42 f i f t h  assigned to  structure  and f o u r t h g r a d e and u n i -  c o n c l u s i o n s were e x t r e m e l y Gordon  the  the  were r e q u i r e d  stories  sensitive final  in a study  (1979)  adults,  children. In  final  Canney and W i n o g r a d  graders.  factors effective-  under s p e c i f i c  task  17 An e x p e r i m e n t 28 f i f t h  graders,  c o n d u c t e d by D r e h e r and S i n g e r indicated  group d e m o n s t r a t e d formation  than  significant tions  a better  r e c a l l e d , the  that  story  identify  Additional incorporating  (1980) the  that  use s c h e m a t a t o and J o h n s o n ,  at  this  not  grade  is  understand  in-  However,  no  o r on t h e i r  proposi-  recall  a  graders  but  felt  technique  for  anticipate  settings  related  to  story  support  story  the  structure  and remember s t o r i e s 1977; M a n d l e r ,  1 9 7 9 ; S t e i n and G l e n n ,  have o n l y  1978;  T 9 7 9;  been a few c a s e s  text (1981  (Baker, b)  relationship  Rumel-  Whaley, 1982).  in which  schemata are not  used  in-  for  1978).  cites of  and  (Mandler  1 9 8 0 ; Summers, 1 9 8 0 ; S i n g e r and D o n l a n , there  of  story.  fifth  a story,  c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence to  individuals  story  number o f  a useful  techniques  remembering  various  group.  s e c t i o n s of  of  experimental  categorize  on t h e  using  level.  have c o n c l u d e d t h a t  w i t h the  the  concluded that  vestigators  Whaley  in  research necessary inclassroom  1977 ; S t e i n ,  To d a t e ,  four  is  1977; Thorndyke,  1981b; G l e n n ,  to  recall  structure  instructional  There  contention  hart,  the  grammar t e a c h i n g  enhancing r e c a l l  grammar.  were f o u n d  from each of  to  ability  p a t t e r n of  D r e h e r and S i n g e r can l e a r n  subjects  a separate, uninstructed  differences  propositions  that  (1980)  several  reading  d i s c o u r s e elements  s t u d i e s w h i c h have  ability  to  sensitivity  s u c h as i n f e r e n c e s  dealt of  and m a c r o - l e v e l  18 characteristics (Smiley et Marshall 1980;  text  a l . , 1 9 7 7 ; H i l y a r d and O l s o n ,  Palmer et  that  story  to  grammar s t u d i e s  ship  structures  She goes on t o  s u c h as r e c a l l  between r e a d i n g ,  Singer, recent  not  b)  future  reading achieve-  and r e c o g n i t i o n  to  with other  to assess  a c h i e v e m e n t and r e a d e r s '  that story-schema information  enough ( M a n d l e r and J o h n s o n ,  1 9 8 0 ; W h a l e y , 1981 b) investigation  story-specific  control  pro-  the  relation-  structural  is  further  i n and o f  questions  it-  1 9 7 7 ; D r e h e r and supported  c o n d u c t e d by S i n g e r and D o n l a n  read complex s h o r t  differences  are  prediction  F i f t e e n e l e v e n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t  they  date  r e s e a r c h emana-k  utilize  in conjunction  points  abilities.  The n o t i o n is  al.,  1980;  in n a r r a t i v e s  suggest that  and m a c r o - c l o z e t a s k s  predictive  self  to  investigating  f r o m h e r (1981 b) s t u d y w o u l d be t o  cedures  1978;  a l . , 1978; Meyer e t  t h e s e s t u d i e s , Whaley (1981  ment and s e n s i t i v i t y  tasks  1 9 7 8 ; Eamon,  1980). relation  ting  characteristics  a l . , 1980; S p i r o , 1980; T a y l o r ,  In  scarce.  versus m i c r o - l e v e l  and G l o c k , 1 9 7 8 ; T i e r n e y e t  Vispond,  out  of  to  by a (1982). derive  f r o m s c h e m a - g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s as stories.  Statistically  were o b t a i n e d between t h e  treatment  significant g r o u p and a  group.  T h i s e v i d e n c e ' i m p l i e s ' 1) t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n can help s t u d e n t s improve r e a d e r - b a s e d p r o c e s s i n g of t e x t and 2) t h a t s t o r y grammar s t r u c t u r e s a c q u i r e d p r i o r t o o r d u r i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l may  be enough f o r p r o c e s s i n g s i m p l e f a b l e s , b u t more a d e q u a t e and more a p p r o p r i a t e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s f o r making schemageneral q u e s t i o n s s t o r y - s p e c i f i c are necessary f o r p r o c e s s i n g , s t o r i n g and r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from r e a d i n g complex s h o r t s t o r i e s ( S i n g e r and D o n l a n , 1 9 8 2 , p. 1 6 6 ) . In a v e r y r e c e n t a r t i c l e ,  Sadow ( 1 9 8 2 )  a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s b a s e d on s t o r y able to  elicit  both  thought  as w e l l  literal  internalize  a grammar d e s c r i b e s . story  in  mental-process  that  it  explains that  providing (1975)  the  grammar  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  structure  it  answer to  be  chil-  a story  that questions  by  of  which  of  from t r a d i t i o n a l  that  b a s e d on  questioning rather  than  oriented.  In d e s i g n i n g q u e s t i o n s (1982)  the  is discourse oriented  or s k i l l  levels  a means t h r o u g h  She i n d i c a t e s  grammar a r e d i f f e r e n t  approaches  grammar, e d u c a t o r s w i l l  and i n f e r e n t i a l  as p r o v i d i n g  dren are a b l e to  suggests that  is  b a s e d on s t o r y helpful  five  to  questions  grammar, Sadow  t h i n k of  a story  as  b a s e d on R u m e l h a r t ' s  (p.520):  Where and when d i d t h e e v e n t s i n t h e s t o r y t a k e p l a c e and who was i n v o l v e d i n them? (setting) What s t a r t e d t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s i n t h e story? ( I n i t i a t i n g Event) What was t h e main c h a r a c t e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h i s event? (Reaction) What d i d t h e main c h a r a c t e r do a b o u t i t ? (Action) What happened as a r e s u l t o f what t h e main c h a r a c t e r d i d ? (Consequence)  20 Story primary  grammar  grades.  There  there  is  which  instructional  applied  a need f o r  to  1981 b ;  (Dreher  and S i n g e r ,  Whaley,  1981  out  studies  that  to  be c a r r i e d  techniques  to  story  grammar  (Guthrie,  1977;  Cunningham  related  out  in are  the  also reveals  lower-elementary  1982).  a lack grade  a;  of  levels  1 9 8 0 ; S c h w a r t z , 1 9 8 0 ; Summers, 1 9 8 0 ;  b).  specific by  literature at  The p u r p o s e o f  the present  instructional  (Whaley,  the  effect  Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s narrative  e v i d e n c e from s e v e r a l  more i n v e s t i g a t i o n  the  carried  determine  early  Sadow, 1 9 8 2 ; S i n g e r and D o n l a n ,  studies  outlined  the  1 9 7 8 ; D r e h e r and S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 ; W h a l e y , 1981  A search of  porate  is  necessary in  classroom s i t u a t i o n s  and F o s t e r , Whaley,  instruction  investigation  and q u e s t i o n i n g  1981 a ; Sadow, 1982) story  is  grammar  abilities  to  in  to  incor-  techniques an a t t e m p t  instruction  as to  has upon  comprehend and  recall  material.  SUMMARY Chapter  II  search r e l a t e d in  similar  has p r e s e n t e d a d i s c u s s i o n o f to  studies  investigation.  the  present  as w e l l  study,  existing  research design  as i n d i c a t i n g  a need f o r  re-  used further  21 Chapter  III  METHODOLOGY The p u r p o s e o f selection the  of  chapter  subjects,2)  instruments  used,  teaching  methods  data,  scoring of  7)  this  4)  to  d e s c r i b e : 1)  the  the  s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s ,  the  collection  incorporated, the  is  6)  the  d a t a , and 8)  of  data,  5)  3) the  classification the  of  a n a l y s i s of  the  data. Selection  of  Subjects.  The s u b j e c t s attending Nelson,  three  of  the  public  s t u d y were 78 Grade One  schools in  o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s  mean age o f  each s t u d e n t .  As t h e  were 20 m a l e s and 18 f e m a l e s m a l e s and 20 f e m a l e s age o f  the  control  t h e mean age o f  the  The c h i l d r e n w i t h i n control  tive  District of  in  group  the  in  in  Table  table  the  students  #7,  I shows  each group  and  indicates,  control  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  experimental  group  group.  the the there  and 18 The mean  was 6 y e a r s , 3 months g r o u p was 6 y e a r s ,  e a c h s c h o o l were r a n d o m l y  or experimental  The t h r e e the  School D i s t r i c t  B . C . (38 boys and 40 g i r l s ) .  distribution  students  and  5 months.  assigned  to  groups.  s c h o o l s were c h o s e n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n  C o u n s e l l o r and were j u d g e d seventeen elementary  to  schools in  be  with  representa-  the  district.  22 Table I  Distribution  of  and C o n t r o l  Experimental  Groups  Mean Age i n Y e a r s , Months  Groups  Females  Mai es  Experimental  6.5  18  20  Control  6.3  20  18  Total  6.4  39  39  Hume e l e m e n t a r y area.  is  situated  Pupils attending  variety  of  located  ten m i l e s  of  Age and Sex i n  pupils  an e s s e n t i a l l y  Rosemont E l e m e n t a r y  socioeconomic backgrounds, o u t s i d e the c i t y  attending  The 39 c h i l d r e n received story spread over  this  fifteen  school  a s s i g n e d to  grammar  Wednesday, Thursday) (Singer,  in  limits,  the  instruction  in  Kennedy  backgrounds.  experimental  group  a three-step  thirty  is  majority  days a week  approximately  class  come f r o m a  the  have E . S . L .  l e s s o n s , three of  Brent  middle  strategy  (Tuesday,  minutes  1 9 7 8 ; S i n g e r and D o n l a n , 1 9 8 0 ; D r e h e r and  each Singer,  1980). The c o n t r o l mental in  group  story  group  each d a y ,  grammar.  read the but  same s t o r i e s  as t h e  r e c e i v e d no s p e c i f i c  experi-  instruction  Instructional  Materials  Three f a b l e s end-of-grade series)  one b a s a l  not  with a chart  factors  used i n  purposes.  of  important for  stories.  naturally  1981 b ,  p.  sources  for  identified Instruments 1.  a , p.  participating experimenter  It  validity  existing  to  were used  that  narratives  769)  instruction  for  value,  it  would that  be were  as p o s s i b l e "  states:  were c h o s e n b e c a u s e as "These m a t e r i a l s  because t h e i r  story  are  elements  good are  easily." Used  measure d u r i n g students  (Level  in  the  last  week o f  both experimental  A , Form 1 ) .  students listened  from both the to  one s t o r y  as a  February,  P r i o r to  The  pretest  1982  and c o n t r o l  Experimenter-designed pretest.  groups  along  control  use s t o r i e s  stories  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Text  ment,  taken  imagery  was f e l t  720  schools,  c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d  2.  (Ginn  96).  These p a r t i c u l a r (1981  May I Come In  word f r e q u e n c y ,  ecological  as much l i k e (Whaley,  the  prescribed  "No a t t e m p t was made t o  s u c h as l e n g t h ,  interest  from the  organized narratives  the  p r e p a r e d by t h e  instructional  Whaley  reader,  and s e v e n s i m i l a r l y  from a reader  or  and two f o l k t a l e s  to  groups. the  experimental c h o s e n by t h e  experi-  and  control  experimenter  24 from a r e a d e r not ("The from  used i n  the  participating  P o t T h a t Would Not S t o p B o i l i n g " p p . the  reader,  end-of-grade 7 literal  It's  their  Storytime,  one l e v e l ) .  own t y p e d  answers.  Pupils followed  the  ("The  reader,  end-of-grade  same as f o r  of  was  groups  both  stered  the  Storytime,  one l e v e l ) .  first  individually  and c o n t r o l experiment  groups (June,  A volunteer,  week o f  students  during  the  Copp C l a r k the  pretest. A , Form 2 ) . as a  The  posttest  J u n e , 1982 t o  students  groups.  A free-recall to  Goats" pp.  P r o c e d u r e s were  (Level  and c o n t r o l  measure.  administered  Boy and t h e  It's  Reading Test  experimental  Free-recall  with  following  c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d  in  along  experimenter-  experimenter-designed  Gates-MacGinitie  measure d u r i n g  along  14 c o m p r e h e n s i o n  and c o n t r o l  treatment.  from the  An  and 7 i n f e r e n t i a l  experimental  161-166, series,  consisting  7 literal  experimental  14 q u e s t i o n s ,  copies.  designed posttest  both  this,  series,  were r e a d a l o u d ,  Experimenter-designed posttest.  questions,  181-185,  Copp C l a r k  Following  and 7 i n f e r e n t i a l  with a choice of  to  schools.  in  first  measure was both  admini-  experimental  week f o l l o w i n g  the  1982).  c h o s e n by t h e  experimenter,  t i v e , s e l e c t i on t o e a c h s t u d e n t from b o t h  read a n a r r a -  experimental  and  control  groups.  Teacher's  ("The  Gruff  Guidebook f o r  Copp C l a r k s e r i e s ) . structions  were  Lion",  the  reader  P r i o r to  p.  192 f r o m  It's  this,  the  Storytime,  the  following  in-  provided:  I want you t o l i s t e n v e r y c a r e f u l l y t o a s t o r y I am g o i n g t o r e a d t o y o u . When I f i n i s h , I w i l l ask y o u t o t e l l me e v e r y t h i n g t h a t you can remember a b o u t t h e story. P l e a s e do y o u r v e r y b e s t . Student's  recall  and l a t e r  transcribed.  loosely  assess the  determine  if  of  the  s t o r y were  Each s t u d e n t ' s  analyzed rather  mented t o and t o  protocols  than  v e r s i o n was  propositionally  number o f the  taped  story  events  segrecalled  e v e n t s were r e c a l l e d i n  the  c o r r e c t sequence. 6.  Canadian Tests of 7,  Form 3 M ) .  Basic S k i l l s  trol Collection  1982 t o  of  s e c o n d week  both e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  of  con-  Data  entire  was c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g  the  month  A  of May, 1982.  g r o u p d e s i g n was u s e d .  randomly a s s i g n e d to The e x p e r i m e n t a l in  in  the  groups.  and t h e  control  measure d u r i n g  students  The i n f o r m a t i o n April  Level  The c o m p r e h e n s i o n s e c t i o n was a d m i n i -  s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t June,  (Primary Battery,  a three-step  last  P u p i l s i n each s c h o o l  received story  strategy  grammar  spread over f i f t e e n  of  pretest-posttest  two g r o u p s - e x p e r i m e n t a l  group  week  and  were  control.  instruction lessons,  26 three  d a y s a week  approximately  ( T u e s d a y , Wednesday, Thursday)  thirty  The c o n t r o l mental  group  tales  in  story  a story  same t i m e  Teaching  d i d not  grammar.  already  The t e a c h e r  along  in  their  teachers asked p u p i l s  mar c a t e g o r i e s  fairy-  place  at  involved.  from the During  introduced  from the  ( G i n n 720 s e r i e s )  own r e a d e r s .  five  questions  last the  pupils  instructions  to  w i t h each of unit  of  this  second h a l f the  story  were p r o v i d e d  of  the  prewhile  Following  this,  b a s e d on s t o r y  as s u g g e s t e d by Sadow ( 1 9 8 2 ) .  p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d  b)  took  groups  read a s t o r y  r e a d e r May I Gome In  followed  stories  the  and  g r o u p was  Instruction  each of  specific  folk  experimental  experi-  Methods  scribed basal pupils  as t h e  r e c e i v e any  Additional  read.  e a c h day f o r  S t e p o n e , a)  ing  same s t o r i e s  were r e a d on d a y s when t h e  reviewing  the  each.  read the  g r o u p e a c h d a y , but  instruction  the  minutes  of  four  gram-  The same remaining  reader. this  structure by t h e  step,  teachers,  chart.  The  follow-  classroom teachers:  When we r e a d a s t o r y we a r e s o m e t i m e s a b l e t o remember i t b e t t e r i f we can t h i n k a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s i n t h e s t o r y and what happened i n each of those p a r t s . T o d a y , I read you the story ' ' ' ' • > a f t e r w a r d s , I a s k e d you some q u e s t i o n s . Each o f t h e q u e s t i o n s were from a d i f f e r e n t p a r t of the s t o r y . Some were f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e m i d d l e and t h e e n d . Now I'm g o i n g t o show you a c h a r t w i t h some new q u e s t i o n s and s e e i f y o u can remember t h i s s t o r y w e l l enough t o a n s w e r them and c o m p l e t e t h i s c h a r t t o g e t h e r w i t h me.  27 A story  structure  by D r e h e r and S i n g e r of  the  the  and g i v e n story  were c u t  pupils  c o p i e s of  and p u p i l s  discussed their  s t a n d what it"  this  it  is  in  the  in  Week o n e .  read to  Oral  discussion followed  dicts it  this  part  they w i l l  this  read o n l y  to  three  the  "...the  to  phrases  this,  charts.  parts  as an a i d  and  these  Following  c o u l d be used t o as w e l l  the  paste  completing  1 9 8 0 , p.  them case,  help in  of a under-  remember-  265).  activity  was used f o r  incorporating  Students  (A S l y Fox p. only  w i t h the  the  step  unfamiliar  nar-  point  and so o n "  it  to  an  196, Guidebook,  group,  was r e a d . encouraging  "For example, the  add t o  listened  setting  total  a Setting,  instinctively  this  Each o f  charts.  what w o u l d come n e x t .  first  occurs at  in  of  organization.  Storytime)  students  it  groups  instructed  P r e d i c t i o n Task.  story  tell  in  some c a s e s  It's  to  chart  A different  with s i m i l a r  incomplete  were  and S i n g e r ,  each week,  ratives  e a c h week.  reasons for  happening  (Dreher  into  was e m p h a s i z e d t h a t  Step t h r e e .  pupils  developed  s p e c i f i c phrases r e l a t e d  b e l o n g e d on i n d i v i d u a l  as o u t l i n e d  three  one  2 6 4 ) , was u s e d f o r  P u p i l s were d i v i d e d typed  apart  Throughout  ing  p.  r e a d on day one o f  where t h e y  story  (1980,  adapted from the  investigation. Step two.  four  chart  story  grammar  if pre-  a B e g i n n i n g , why  (Whaley,  1 9 8 1 , p.  768).  28 Week Two. on day one o f categories  Scramb1ed S t o r i e s . this  week was s e p a r a t e d i n t o  and j u m b l e d .  separate p i e c e s of r e a d the story  projector. ferent  transparency  and on t h e  The same p r o c e d u r e  Guidebook,  It's  this  took  to  used t h e  of  the  to  complete  Following  same s t o r y the  Week F o u r .  this,  having  various  A whole  then  overhead for  story  dif-  parts. story  sup-  p.185,  to  previously  pupils  the  point  was  omit-  category  omitted  groups  category  of  to  and a s k e d three  retold  experiment  experimenter.  copies  or  complete.  The t e a c h e r s the  of  missing  typed  1 6 6 , May I Come 'In)'.  encouraged to  was  correct  were g i v e n  read d u r i n g  s u p p l i e d by t h e  for  category  as used on day one  provide  Retel1ing Stories.  out  story  show where m a t e r i a l  a different  v e r s i o n s were  be p r o v i d e d  on  t o make a good  from the  T h i s was done i n  A n t and t h e G r a s s h o p p e r " p.  to  Students  Gingerbread G i r l "  with a different  story.  each group  stories  of  same s t o r y  week, e n c o u r a g i n g p u p i l s  the  were w r i t t e n  p l a c e u s i n g an u n f a m i l i a r  L i n e s were drawn  information.  of  teacher  function  Macro-Cloze.  The t e a c h e r  four,  it  grammar  Storytime.)  Week T h r e e .  ted.  material.  the  by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . ( T h e  deleted.  parts  and r e o r d e r e d  along with  story  as u s e d  D i s c u s s i o n t h e n c e n t e r e d on r a t i o n a l e s  orders  plied  Various story  scrambled story  by r e a d i n g  The same s t o r y  one  (The  Four  Pupils  were  any i n a c c u r a c i e s and r e a s o n s were  a c c e p t i n g or  rejecting  the  alternatives.  29 Following Tiger's four to  this,  the  Whisker"  versions  teachers  cited  in  supplied  choose the  correct  Week F i v e .  Questions  to  structure  read o r a l l y , ( A l b e r t Pupils Gabriel who a r g u e s  et  al.  that  language  ment.  Fish,  (1980)  oral  it  would  readers  oral  l a n g u a g e and p e r h a p s  cite  is  the  ones i n c l u d e d  in  the  Canadian T e s t s of  a new  Whaley  (1981  story a,  copies.  by C a r r o l l  (1977)  comprehension  comprehension  p.  and  has  to  that  cognitive  develop-  be i m p o r t a n t t o  establish  whether  to  of  the  own t y p e d  chart.  related  to  reading  were  structure  questions  a study  related  using  to  are e x p e r i e n c i n g  purposes  765),  (The  reasons.  listening in  story  Students  story  five  cited  language  poor  for  to  along with t h e i r  comprehension  Therefore  Therefore,  after  a d i s c u s s i o n of  be a d i s c u s s i o n o f oral  completed  the  a , p.  and p r o v i d e  related  chart  followed  (1981  experimenter.  version  independently  764).  Whaley  by t h e  Each c h i l d a story  r e a d an u n f a m i l i a r  more d i f f i c u l t y control  this  of  study,  relating  cognitive all  processes.  stories  other  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading t e s t s  Basic  to  S k i l l s were r e a d o r a l l y  to  than and the  pupils. S c o r i n g of  the  Data  The c o m p r e h e n s i o n and p o s t the  reading  tests  sections (Level  experimenter-designed  hension  section  of  the  of  the  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e pre  A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form  p r e and p o s t t e s t s  Canadian T e s t s of  and t h e  Basic  2),  compre-  Skills  30 (Primary B a t t e r y , s c o r e d by t h e schools  L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) p o s t t e s t  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s from each of  involved  answer k e y s t o  in the  follow  experiment.  while  s c o r i n g the  The C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f  Gates-MacGinitie  tests  The protocols  of  the  a tape-recording analyzed rather t h e number o f  of  Basic  "The G r u f f  each.  events  e v e n t s were r e c a l l e d i n  given  S k i l l s and  the  scoring  each s t u d e n t ' s Lion"  after  Each s t u d e n t ' s  than p r o p o s i t i o n a l l y  story  three  test.  transcribed  story  hand-  experimenter-  were s c o r e d by u s i n g t h e  each  experimenter  the  T e a c h e r s were  designed t e s t s .  masks d e v e l o p e d f o r  were a l l  correct  listening  v e r s i o n was  segmented, to  r e c a l l e d and t o  the  recall to  loosely  assess  determine  if  the  sequence.  Data A n a l y s i s In e x a m i n i n g t h e children's rial,  the  abilities  to  p r e and p o s t  test  the  Social  probability  run t h r o u g h  Sciences),  level  of  a c c e p t e d as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e and  will  be r e p o r t e d  in  on  as  follows:  s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d and c o d e d e a c h c h i l d was key t h e SPSS  performed  u s i n g the a p p l i c a b l e s u b r o u t i n e s The  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  c a r d , one f o r  The d a t a was t h e n  Package f o r puter  story  comprehend and r e c a l l n a r r i t i v e m a t e -  each c h i l d , a computer  punched.  of  d a t a was e x a m i n e d o r t r e a t e d  After for  effect  of  on an IBM com-  SPSS.  l e s s than or equal of  a significant  C h a p t e r IV f o r  (Statistical  to  . 0 5 was  difference  substantive  discussion  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . using a t - t e s t samples  of  Statistical significant  ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y ,  differences  differ 1.  extent  do c h i l d r e n  from a c o n t r o l  s e c t i o n of Level  the  independent  the  following  in  in  ability  material.  story  questions: grammar  to:  The c o m p r e h e n s i o n  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and  A , Form 2)  and p o s t t e s t  to  instructed  group  Comprehend n a r r a t i v e  for  tested  1970).  The a n a l y s i s was r e l a t e d To what  s i g n i f i c a n c e was  and t h e  experimenter-designed  s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d .  pre  Mean s c o r e s and  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d . The s t a t i s t i c a l q u e s t i o n of  2.  p r o c e d u r e s employed i n e x a m i n i n g  the e f f e c t  of  treatment  on g r o u p  f e r e n c e s was a t - t e s t .  The p a r t i c u l a r  a t-test  differences  of  significant  samples  ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y ,  Ability  to  answer l i t e r a l  1970).  and i n f e r e n t i a l  comprehension s e c t i o n of  the  Skills  Level 7,  were a n a l y z e d i n inferential student.  Battery, terms  questions  of  questions.  the  and  Canadian Tests of Form 3 M)  number o f  from the  The s t a t i s t i c a l q u e s t i o n of  answered c o r r e c t l y  Basic  posttest and  by e a c h were  recorded scores.  p r o c e d u r e s employed i n  the e f f e c t  e n c e s was a t - t e s t  the  literal  Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  calculated  used was  independent  The e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t t e s t s  (Primary  dif-  t-test  for  the  of  of  treatment  significant  examining  on g r o u p  differences  the  differfor  32 independent samples. 3.  Abi1ity  to- r e c a l 1  story  events.  e v e n t s r e c a l l e d by e a c h s t u d e n t story and  "The G r u f f  Lion",  after  p r o c e d u r e s employed i n  differences  Ability  to  Students' Lion"  in  for  recall  to  the c o r r e c t  coding system.  the  The  examining the was a t - t e s t  stati-  effect of  of  signifi-  independent samples.  story  abilities  to  were r e c o r d e d and mean s c o r e s  t r e a t m e n t on g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s cant  story  listening  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d .  stical  4.  The number o f  events recall  in the  the  correct  story:  sequence.  "The  Gruff  s e q u e n c e were r e c o r d e d u s i n g a  Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d  deviations  were c a l c u l a t e d . The tion was  statistical of  the  a t-test  p r o c e d u r e s used i n e x a m i n i n g t h e  effect of  of  t r e a t m e n t of  significant  group  differences  ques-  differences for  independent  samples. SUMMARY The to  the  present  chapter  s e l e c t i o n of  strumentation; fication,  has p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n  subjects;  instructional  t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s ; and t h e  c o d i n g , s c o r i n g - a n d a n a l y s i s of  pertaining  materials,  col 1ection , data.  in-  classi-  33 Chapter  IV  PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This and t h e is  in  chapter  interpretation  four  results  sections.  results  to  of  recall  tests.  sequence.  data  The  analysis  presentation  section presents  pretest  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and e x p e r i presents  post-  by G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and e x p e r i -  instruction  material  Section four  Canadian T e s t s of  results.  the  The t h i r d s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s  grammar  narrative  of  The s e c o n d s e c t i o n  as d e t e r m i n e d  story  results  these  by t h e  tests.  menter-designed effects  of  the  The f i r s t  as d e t e r m i n e d  menter-designed test  presents  and t o  presents  Basic  on p u p i l s ' recall  posttest  it  the  abilities  in  the  results  correct  of  the  Skills.  PRETEST RESULTS The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t an e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d jects  prior  to  the  test  experimental  and i n f e r e n t i a l  experimenter-designed Gates-MacGinitie Total The e x p e r i m e n t a l  A , Form 1 )  were a d m i n i s t e r e d treatment.  h e n s i o n s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d as w e l l literal  (Level  questions  to  Total  as t h e  all  and  sub-  compre-  number  of  answered c o r r e c t l y  on  the  test. Comprehension Test group  Scores  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  grade  34 2 . 0 , with a standard deviation score  for  the  deviation  of  control .70  (Table  II).  samples, there  between t h e  two g r o u p s  II  .72, while  g r o u p was g r a d e 1 . 9 ,  independent  Table  of  A c c o r d i n g to  with a standard a t-test  were no s i g n i f i c a n t  (p< : 5 5 ) ,  t (76)  =  G r o u p s on T o t a l  M e a s u r e d by t h e  for  differences  .343.  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r and C o n t r o l  t h e mean  Experimental  C o m p r e h e n s i o n as  Gates-MacGinitie (Level  A,  Form 1) P r e - r e a d i n g T e s t .  Experimental  2.0  .72  Control  1.9  .70  Experimenter-Designed Total The e x p e r i m e n t a l  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f (Table  samples,  III).  Comprehension Test  of  1.11, while  A c c o r d i n g to  (p< . 2 2 ) ,  the  control  11.8, group  11.5, with a standard deviation a t-test  t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  two g r o u p s  Scores  g r o u p a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  with a standard deviation  1.06  Standard Devi a t i on  Mean  Group  t(76>  =  for  independent  differences  1.54.  of  between  the  35 Table  III  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  Groups on T o t a l  M e a s u r e d by t h e  11.8  1.11  Control  11.5  1.06  A further  test  and I n f e r e n t i a l  a n a l y s i s of  determine  answered of  the  the  the  with a standard a t-test  for  differences  the  experimenter-designed  number o f  inferential  experimenter-designed .questions.•-;  control  and  test literal  independent the  comprehension  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  5.5, with a standard group  deviation  between  the  correctly.  s c o r e s on l i t e r a l  while  Q u e s t i o n s on  Test  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 1.02,  Pretest.  Standard D e v i a t i on  Mean  Experimenter-Designed  Results  C o m p r e h e n s i o n as  Experimental  A n a l y s i s of L i t e r a l  questions  Experimental  Experimenter-Designed  Group  was done t o  for  of  deviation  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f .85  (Table  samples there two  group  groups  IV).  According  were no  (p< . 1 2 ) ,  of 5.1, to  significant  t (76)  =  2.44.  36 Table  IV  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  Groups f o r  M e a s u r e d by t h e  scores  to  cant  Standard D e v i a t i on 1 .02  Control  5.1  .85  of  the  experimenter-designed questiohs.  control  with a standard for  differences  Table V  Pretest.  5.5  the  a t-test  as  E x p e r i mental  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  6.4,  Questions  Mean  on i n f e r e n t i a l  .90, while  Literal  Experimental  Experimenter-Designed  Group  Results  for  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  6 . 3 , with a standard  group  independent  deviation  V).  of  According  s a m p l e s , t h e r e were no two  of  signifi-  groups  (p<  . 8 9 ) , t (76) = . 01 7 .  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s  for  Experimental  and C o n t r o l  the  o f .,81 ( T a b l e  test  group  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e  deviation  between  comprehension  Groups f o r  M e a s u r e d by t h e  Group  Inferential  Questions  Experimenter-Designed  Mean  as  Pretest.  Standard Devi a t i on  Experimental  6.3  .90  Control  6.4  .81  37 SUMMARY Examination of (Level  A , Form 1 ) ,  results  indicated  the  and t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d there  between e x p e r i m e n t a l experimental  material;  and  ability  3)  2)  to  were no s i g n i f i c a n t  and c o n t r o l  treatment  rative  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test  in:  ability  differences  groups p r i o r  1)  ability  to  answer l i t e r a l  answer i n f e r e n t i a l  to  pretest  to  the  comprehend  nar-  questions;  questions.  POSTTEST RESULTS The and  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test  the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t  posttests ment. the  to  all  Total  literal  2.7, for  following  t i o n of  experimental  control .89  treat-  answered  test.  Comprehension Test  Scores  g r o u p a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f of  as  .73, while  grade  t h e mean s c o r e  g r o u p was g r a d e 2 . 2 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a -  (Table  According to samples,  experimental  questions  on t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d  with a standard deviation the  the  and i n f e r e n t i a l  Gates-MacGinitie Total The  were a d m i n i s t e r e d as  c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d as w e l l  number o f  correctly  subjects  ( L e v e l A , Form 2)  VI). the  results  the experimental  with a standard deviation  of  a t-test  for  independent  g r o u p made a mean g a i n o f  6.9,  of  group's  6.14 w h i l e  the  control  38 mean g a i n was 3 . 6 , which  T (df=76)  T a b l e VI  with a standard  = 2 . 4 2 , which  is  Form 2)  in  significant  at  alpha  .05.  Experimental  C o m p r e h e n s i o n as A,  Post-Reading Test.  Mean  Standard Devi a t i on  Experimental  2.7  .73  Control  2.2  .89  Experimenter-Designed Total The e x p e r i m e n t a l with a standard  Comprehension Test  group  deviation  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f (Table  for  Gates-MacGinitie (Level  Group  Scores  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  of  2.6,  while  the  control  11.7, with a standard  13.2, group  deviation  of  VII)..  A c c o r d i n g to samples the  the  results  experimental deviation  of  group 2.88,  g a i n was . 2 0 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d T (df=76)  6.10,  Groups on T o t a l  M e a s u r e d by t h e  a standard  of  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  1.1  deviation  = 2.14,  which  is  of  a t-test  for  independent  made a mean g a i n while  the  deviation  significant  control of at  1.41, alpha  of  1.3,  with  group's  mean  in .05.  which  39 Table VII  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  Groups  M e a s u r e d by t h e  on' T o t a l  of  Control  11.7  1.1  Literal  of  a n a l y s i s of the  the  experimenter-designed  number o f  inferential  experimenter-designed  questions.  A c c o r d i n g to  literal  comprehension  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  group  of the  .75  (Table  results  the e x p e r i m e n t a l deviation  of  which T (df=76) = 1 . 1 3 ,  of  5.7,  achieved  .70,  which  a t-test  1.15,  is  while  with a  for  independent  g r o u p made a mean g a i n o f of  test  VIII).  while  the  mean g a i n was . 5 6 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  .05.  test  and  6 . 3 , with a standard deviation  group  with a standard  experi-  correctly.  the  standard deviation  samples,  Q u e s t i o n s on t h e  Test.  on l i t e r a l  control  and I n f e r e n t i a l  determine  a mean s c o r e o f the  Standard Deviation 2.6  answered  Results scores  Mean  Posttest.  13.2  A further  questions  C o m p r e h e n s i o n as  E x p e r i mental  menter-Designed  was done t o  Experimental  Experimenter-Designed  Group  Analysis  for  not  .84,  control of  significant  group's  1.04, at  in  alpha  40 Table VIII  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  Groups f o r  M e a s u r e d by t h e  .70  Control  5.7  . 75  the  with a standard  IX  Standard Deviation  6.3  of  the  experimenter-designed questions.  control  deviation  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  of  1.0  (Table  Groups f o r  M e a s u r e d by t h e  Group  test  group  deviation  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  comprehension  6.4, with a standard  group  as  Posttest.  Experimental  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  Table  Questions  Mean  s c o r e s on i n f e r e n t i a l  .64, while  Literal  Experimental  Experiroenter-Des igned  Group  Results  for  of 6.0,  IX).  for  Inferential  Experimental Questions  Experimenter-Designed  as  Posttest.  Mean  Standard Deviation  Experimental  6.4  .64  Control  6.0  1.0  41 A c c o r d i n g to samples,  the r e s u l t s  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  a standard deviation  of  of  a t-test  for  g r o u p made a mean g a i n o f  1.08,  while  the  control  mean g a i n w a s - . 4 1 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n which T (df=76)  = 1.82,  independent  which  is  not  .07,  with  group's  of  1.2,  in  at  alpha  significant  .05. SUMMARY The r e s u l t s differences 1) to  of  a t-test  for  independent  between p r e and p o s t t e s t  the e x p e r i m e n t a l the c o n t r o l  total  (Level  no s i g n i f i c a n t  ability  to  A , Form 1 and L e v e l reading  g a i n s were made by e i t h e r  answer l i t e r a l  g a i n s were made by e i t h e r  group  A , Form 2) tests;,  group  in  No  to  the  significant  answer : i n f e r -  experimenter-designed  posttests.  The d i f f e r e n c e g r o u p on t h e an o v e r a l l in gain  3)  in a b i l i t y  q u e s t i o n s as m e a s u r e d by t h e  p r e and  that:  compared  q u e s t i o n s as m e a s u r e d by  e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t t e s t s ;  ential  gains  the  c o m p r e h e n s i o n as m e a s u r e d by  and e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t 2)  indicated  g r o u p made s i g n i f i c a n t  group i n  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  scores  s a m p l e s on  gain for  for  questions  total  the  between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  experimenter-designed tests the  control  and n e g a t i v e  experimental  group.  g r o u p was p o s i t i v e for  inferential  indicates  The for  control  difference  literal  questions.  42  RECALLING NARRATIVE MATERIAL A free-recall all  subjects  recall  of  story  in  the  Ability  following  protocols  student's  measure was a d m i n i s t e r e d experimental  events  correct to  r e c a l l e d and 2 )  the  Recall  Story  mean number o f  to  the  a t-test  between t h e  Each  1) t h e  e v e n t s were  number  recalled  Events story  events  g r o u p was 4 . 9 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d story  was 2 . 8 , w i t h a s t a n d a r d ing  if  Students'  transcribed.  determine:  for  events  r e c a l l e d by t h e deviation  r e c a l l e d by t h e  deviation  independent  of  1.3  (Table  samples the  two g r o u p s were s i g n i f i c a n t  of  experi-  3.0,  control X).  Material  Groups f o r  Designed F r e e - R e c a l l Group  for  Recalling  as M e a s u r e d by t h e  differences  Experimental Narrative  Experimenter-  Measure. Mean  group  ( p « . 0 0 0 2 ) j (t(i76) =  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  while  Accord-  15.80.  Table X  to  sequence.  The mean number o f mental  treatment.  were t a p e d and l a t e r  v e r s i o n was a n a l y z e d t o  individually  Standard ueviation  Experimental  4.9  3.0  Control  2.8  1.3  43  Ability  to R e c a l l  Story Events in  the  C o r r e c t Sequence  T a l b e XI shows t h e mean s e q u e n c e s c o r e s f o r mental  and c o n t r o l  groups.  events  r e c a l l e d in the c o r r e c t  the  A number 1_ was a s s i g n e d  events r e c a l l e d in  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  g r o u p ' s mean s e q u e n c e s c o r e was 1 . 4 ,  for  the  .48. to the  control  This  recall  .49, while  g r o u p was 1 . 6 ,  indicates story  control  samples,  of  that  events  group.  in  significant  (p«:04),  incorrect  with  t h e mean s e q u e n c e s c o r e  correct  of  g r o u p was a b l e  sequence b e t t e r  a t-test  between t h e  t(76)  sequence.  with a standard deviation  A c c o r d i n g to  the d i f f e r e n c e s  the  the e x p e r i m e n t a l the  for  s e q u e n c e , and a number 2_  was a s s i g n e d f o r  a standard deviation  experi-  for  than  independent  two g r o u p s were  not  = 4.28.  SUMMARY Examination of were s i g n i f i c a n t control group in:  free-recall  differences  groups f o l l o w i n g  in: 2)  the  1) t h e  the  to  there  between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  treatment  number o f  ability  scores indicated  story  recall  favoring events  story  the  experimental  r e c a l l e d , but  events  in  and  the  not  correct  sequence. T a b l e XI  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Control the  Groups f o r  Experimental  Recalling Narrative  Material  C o r r e c t S e q u e n c e as M e a s u r e d by t h e  Experi-  menter-Designed F r e e - R e c a l l Measure. Mean  Standard Devi a t i on  Experimental  1.4  .49  Control  1.6  .48  Group  and in  POSTTEST RESULTS CANADIAN TESTS OF BASIC S K I L L S The C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f Level ing  7,  Basic S k i l l s  Form 3 M) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  the  experimental  were  recorded  ential  questions  treatment.  as w e l l  as t h e  answered  Canadian Tests of  to  (Primary all  Total  Battery,  subjects  follow-  comprehension  number o f  literal  scores  and  infer-  correctly.  Basic S k i l l s  Total  Comprehension  Test  Scores The r e s u l t s (Primary  Battery,  experimental a standard control .68  the  Level  group  deviation  samples,  the  (p<  T a b ! e XII  XII).  Canadian Tests of 7,  Form 3>M)  Basic S k i l l s  indicated  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f of  g r o u p was g r a d e  (Table  ficant  of  .76, while  differences  .0002),  t(76)  a t-test  between  the  (Primary  for  Total  for  the  deviation  of  independent signi-  Level  7,  Experimental  C o m p r e h e n s i o n as  Canadian Tests of  Battery,  Basic  Form 3 M)  Skills  Posttest.  Mean  Standard Devi a t i on  Experimental  2.8  .76  Control  2.2  .68  Group  with  = 15.80.  Groups f o r  M e a s u r e d by t h e  2.8,  two g r o u p s were  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  grade  the  t h e mean s c o r e f o r  2 . 2 , with a standard  A c c o r d i n g to  that  45 Results on- l i t e r a l  of  questions.  mean s c o r e o f the  Canadian t e s t s  control  group  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  test  independent  two g r o u p s were  of  7.4  deviation  (Table  XIII).  s a m p l e s , the  significant  (p<  M e a s u r e d by t h e (Primary  .001),  = 11.61.  for  Experimental  Questions Basic  Form 3 M)  as Skills  Posttest.  30  6. 2  Control  24  7. 4  of  Canadian t e s t s questions.  control  of  basic s k i l l s  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  18.3, with a standard group  deviation  of  t-test  independent  test  group  deviation  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f 4.7  (Table  s a m p l e s , the  were s i g n i f i c a n t  (p<  XIV).  scores  achieved  of  4.2,  14.6,  with  A c c o r d i n g to a  differences  ,0005),  tthe  Experimental  a standard  two g r o u p s  between  t(76)  7,  a  Standard Deviation  a mean s c o r e o f  for  while  Mean  on i n f e r e n t i a l  the  6.2,  24, with a  Literal  Level  Group  Results  of  Canadian Tests of  Battery,  scores  achieved a  differences  Groups f o r  test  A c c o r d i n g to  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  while  group  a c h i e v e d a mean s c o r e o f  deviation  Table XIII  basic s k i l l s  30, with a standard  standard for  of  t(76)  between  = 13.28.  the  46 T a b l e XIV  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and C o n t r o l  Groups f o r  M e a s u r e d by t h e (Primary  for  Experimental  Inferential  Canadian Tests of  Battery,  L e v e l 7,  i Group  Questions Basic  Form 3 M)  as  Skills  Posttest.  Standard Deviation  Mean  Experimental  18.3  4.2  Control  14.6  4.7  SUMMARY The C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f Level  7,  Form 3 M) r e s u l t s  group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y rative  material;  inferential lowing  2)  experimental  Skills  indicated  better  answer  questions  Basic  able  literal  as compared t o  treatment.  (Primary  t h a t the to:  1)  experimental  comprehend  questions; the  Battery,  nar-  and 3) a n s w e r  control  group,  fol-  47 SUMMARY The p r e s e n t  chapter  data c o l l e c t e d . statistical struction  P r e and p o s t t e s t  a n a l y s i s to  in  story  3) a n s w e r i n f e r e n t i a l recall  1.  determine:  material;  2)  material  findings  in  recall  correct  g r o u p made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n  for  independent  material  the  ability  control  samples,  experimental  results  of  a t-test  for  and i n f e r e n t i a l  g r o u p as m e a s u r e d by t h e  d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t  reading t e s t s .  ences in g a i n between t h e  as  independent  g r o u p showed g r e a t e r  to answer l i t e r a l  control  reading t e s t s ,  and  group.  the  the  to  Gates-  ( L e v e l A , Form 1 , and L e v e l A , Form 2)  A c c o r d i n g to  than the  samples,  as m e a s u r e d by t h e  e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t  in a b i l i t y  material;  sequence.  experimental  the  to:  questions;  narrative  a t-test  compared t o  in-  abilities  A c c o r d i n g to  MacGinitie  to  are summarized b e l o w :  comprehend n a r r a t i v e  2.  to which  answer l i t e r a l  the  the  were s u b j e c t e d  The e x t e n t  q u e s t i o n s ; 4)  narrative  The m a j o r  results  grammar i m p r o v e d c h i l d r e n ' s  1) comprehend n a r r a t i v e  and 5)  has p r e s e n t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d  gain  questions  experimenter-  However,the differ-  two g r o u p s were n o t  signifi-  cant. 3.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l material following  g r o u p was a b l e t o  significantly experimental  better  than  comprehend the  narrative  control  t r e a t m e n t as m e a s u r e d by  group the  48  comprehension s e c t i o n of  the  Skills  Line 7,  as a  (Primary  Battery,  inferential control  g r o u p was a b l e t o  questions  administered  of  Basic  Skills  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  experimental  experimental  (Primary  in the c o r r e c t  than  Form  story  group  events  following  free-recall  posttest.  sequence b e t t e r  than  recall the  story  control  t r e a t m e n t as m e a s u r e d by  m e a s u r e a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t .  the di f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the  significant.  Level 7,  recall  the c o n t r o l  g r o u p was a b l e t o  experimental  free-recall  the Canadian  t r e a t m e n t as m e a s u r e d by t h e  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  the  t r e a t m e n t as  Battery,  g r o u p was a b l e t o  better  than  and  posttest.  measure a d m i n i s t e r e d as a  following  better  comprehension s e c t i o n of  3 M) a d m i n i s t e r e d as a  significantly  answer l i t e r a l  significantly  group f o l l o w i n g  m e a s u r e d by t h e  ever,  Form 3 M ) ,  Basic  posttest.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  Tests  Canadian T e s t s of  two g r o u p s were  events group the Hownot  49  Chapter V  SUMMARY, F I N D I N G S , CONCLUSIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL Several in t h i s is  instructional  and r e c a l l  technique for of  narrative  few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  improving  to  classroom  to  situation,  comprehend and r e c a l l  the  present  in which  particularly  improving  narrative  instruction  study,  instruc-  grammar have been a p p l i e d  The p r e s e n t s t u d y s u p p o r t s as an a i d i n  grammar  P r i o r to  story  incorporated  c h i l d r e n ' s comprehension  had been c a r r i e d o u t  techniques related  instruction  have been  story  material.  tional  level.  strategies  study to determine whether  a useful  the  IMPLICATIONS  at  t h e g r a d e one  t h e use o f  story  grammar  children's  abilities  to  material.  SUMMARY The p u r p o s e o f to which i n s t r u c t i o n abilities  to  this in  s t u d y was t o story  grammar i m p r o v e s  comprehend and r e c a l l  Specifically,  the  determine the  study sought to  extent  children's  narrative  material.  answer t h e  following  questions: 1.  What i s  the e f f e c t  children's rative 2.  What i s  abilities  material the  of  in  effect  story to  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  comprehend and r e c a l l  the c o r r e c t of  story  on  nar-  sequence?  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  on  50 children's  abilities  to  answer l i t e r a l  and  inferential  questions? Administration The (Level  of  Instruments  comprehension s e c t i o n of  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2)  and t h e  designed reading t e s t s  were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o  as  A free-recall  p r e and p o s t t e s t s .  stered i n d i v i d u a l l y following t i o n of Level  to  experimental  the  7,  all  subjects  treatment.  Canadian T e s t s of  measure f o l l o w i n g  Treatment  of  all  subjects  m e a s u r e was a d m i n i as a p o s t t e s t  Basic  Skills all  experimental  (Primary  Battery,  subjects  as a  treatment.  p r e and p o s t t e s t  s c o r e s on e a c h o f  m e a s u r e s were r e c o r d e d and c o d e d and a c o m p u t e r e a c h c h i l d was k e y - p u n c h e d .  through  an SPSS  performed routines  prehension, of  story  SPSS. literal  the q u e s t i o n of significant  cant at  the  c a r d , one  Package f o r u s i n g the  the  applicable  questions, inferential  reporting  5 percent  level  independent  of  confidence.  sub-  total  of  p r o c e d u r e employed i n  for  Sciences),  questions,  t r e a t m e n t on g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s differences  run  Social  Mean s c o r e s were computed f o r  The s t a t i s t i c a l  the  The d a t a were t h e n  e v e n t s r e c a l l e d , and c o r r e c t  sequence.  of  (Statistical  on an IBM c o m p u t e r , of  sec-  Data  Each c h i l d ' s  for  measure,  The c o m p r e h e n s i o n  Form 3 M) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o  posttest  experimenter-  comnumber  story  examining  was a  samples,  t-test signifi-  51  FINDINGS Briefly, investigation on t h e  the  q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d at  were a n s w e r e d i n  the  Children  Narrative  in  MacGinitie  ,  material  gains  in  grammar  in  the  control  g r o u p who d i d n o t  Gates-  as compared  receive  to  story  instruction. s c o r e s are a v a i l a b l e from  comprehension s e c t i o n of  the  for  in  comparison, children  received story  grammar  Battery,  a posttest  only,  g r o u p who d i d n o t to  Level  in  achieved  Canadian Tests of  as compared t o  children  receive story  grammar  the  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n answer l i t e r a l  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  Basic  Skills,  g r o u p who significantly Basic  Skills  in the  as  control  instruction.  Questions  experimental  group who r e c e i v e d  showed a g r e a t e r  questions  the  7, Form 3 M) when a d m i n i s t e r e d  Answer L i t e r a l  Children  Canadian Tests of  instruction  h i g h e r mean s c o r e s on t h e  Ability  to  ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2 ) and e x p e r i -  A l t h o u g h no p r e t e s t  (Primary  story  ability  as m e a s u r e d by t h e  m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t r e a d i n g t e s t s , children  manner b a s e d  g r o u p who r e c e i v e d  made s i g n i f i c a n t  comprehend n a r r a t i v e  this  Material  tb& e x p e r i m e n t a l  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  b e g i n n i n g of  following  data p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV.  Comprehension of  the  gain  in  as m e a s u r e d by t h e  d e s i g n e d p r e and posttests than c o n t r o l  ability  story to  experimenter-  g r o u p c h i l d r e n who  did  52 not  receive story  ferences  grammar  instruction.  i n g a i n between t h e  However, the  two g r o u p s were n o t  dif-  signifi-  cant. Although  no p r e t e s t  s c o r e s are a v a i l a b l e from  comprehension s e c t i o n of  the  for  in  comparison, children  received story more l i t e r a l  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  questions correctly  Canadian Tests of  Basic  Skills  Form 3 M) when a d m i n i s t e r e d to  children  Canadian Tests of  in  the  control  Ability  t o Answer I n f e r e n t i a l  Children  in  the  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n answer  inferential  receive story  differences  in  7,  as compared  receive  story  g r o u p who r e c e i v e d  story  showed a g r e a t e r  d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t t e s t s d i d not  only,  Level  Questions  experimental  questions  the  Battery,  g r o u p who d i d n o t  instruction.  Skills,  significantly  as m e a s u r e d by  as a p o s t t e s t  grammar  Basic  g r o u p who  answered  (Primary  the  gain  in  ability  as m e a s u r e d by t h e  than  control  experimenter-  group c h i l d r e n  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n .  g a i n between t h e  to  However,  two g r o u p s were n o t  who  the signi-  ficant. A l t h o u g h no p r e t e s t prehension s e c t i o n of for  the Canadian Tests of  comparison, children  received story  s c o r e s are a v a i l a b l e from the  in the experimental  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  more i n f e r e n t i a l  answered  questions correctly  Basic  com-  Skills,  g r o u p who significantly  as m e a s u r e d by  the  Canadian Tests of  Basic  Skills  (Primary  Battery,  Form 3 M) when a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t to c o n t r o l  g r o u p c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t  only,  Level  7,  as compared  receive story  grammar  instruction. Ability  to  Recall  Children  in  Story  Events  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  recalled a significantly  number o f  story  orally  t h e m , as compared t o  to  e v e n t s when a s k e d t o  g r o u p who d i d n o t Ability  to  receive story  R e c a l l Story  Children  in  the  orally not  correct to  receive story  ferences  the  children  in  h i g h e r mean a story  the  read  control  instruction.  C o r r e c t Sequence  able to  the  recall  recall  control  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n .  between t h e  story  g r o u p who r e c e i v e d  s e q u e n c e when a s k e d t o  them t h a n  in  grammar  Events in  were b e t t e r  recall  children  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n in  g r o u p who r e c e i v e d  story  a story g r o u p who  However, the  two g r o u p s were n o t  story events read did dif-  significant.  CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s warrant 1.  the  of  the  following  present  improving  p r e h e n s i o n of  seem t o  conclusions:  S t o r y grammar i n s t r u c t i o n means o f  investigation  appears to  be an  Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s  narrative  material.  effective  overall  com-  54 The e x p e r i m e n t a l  g r o u p made g r e a t e r  answer b o t h l i t e r a l to  the  control  and i n f e r e n t i a l  to  the  of  was n o t t e s t e d  the for  the e x p e r i m e n t .  It  is  Battery, than  the  that  control  posttest  H o w e v e r , on t h e  c a n n o t be p o s i t i v e l y is  better  than  as m e a s u r e d by a f r e e - r e c a l l a posttest.  of  story  improving  answer l i t e r a l  concluded that  and  means o f  narrative  positively is  Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s  material.  children  information  c a n n o t be  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  improving  group  story  m e a s u r e , a d m i n i s t e r e d as  comparison, i t  story  recall  control  H o w e v e r , s i n c e no p r e t e s t  available for  recall  to  means o f  g r o u p c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o  events s i g n i f i c a n t l y  to  concluded that  an e f f e c t i v e  abilities  basis  questions.  Experimental  tive  comprehension  Form 3 M) a d m i n i s t e r e d as a  Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s  is  answer  (Primary  grammer i n s t r u c t i o n  inferential  to  Skills  group c h i l d r e n .  thi s study, it  prior  a b l e to  q u e s t i o n s on t h e Basic  which  experimental  better  Canadian T e s t s of  Level 7,  may be due  or v a l i d i t y  interesting  and i n f e r e n t i a l  s e c t i o n of  differences  significant  g r o u p c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y literal  compared  experimenter-designed t e s t , reliability  to  experimenter-  The r e a s o n t h e  two g r o u p s were n o t  fault  in a b i l i t y  questions  g r o u p as m e a s u r e d by t h e  d e s i g n e d p r e and p o s t t e s t s . between t h e  gains  an  effec-  abilities  55 Experimental events  in  g r o u p c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o  the c o r r e c t  group c h i l d r e n  sequence b e t t e r  as m e a s u r e d by t h e  a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t . between t h e fore,  b a s i s of  concluded that means o f recall  story  improving  narrative  than  this  it  Grade One c h i 1 d r e n ' s in  differences There-  c a n n o t be  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  material  measure  significant.  study  story  control  free-recall  However, the  two g r o u p s were n o t  on t h e  recall  is  positively  an  effective  abi1ities  to  the c o r r e c t sequence.  RECOMMENDATIONS This  s t u d y recommends t h a t  considered a useful children's  technique  comprehension of  A l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t groups  in a b i l i t y  experimenter  to  to  receive  improving  narrative  questions,  the  did observe that experimental  questions  following  literal  experimental not  on b o t h t h e Basic  experi-  Skills Based  s t u d y recommends t h a t  be c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l  Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s  questions.  better  L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M ) , p o s t t e s t s .  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n improving  chil-  were  g r o u p c h i l d r e n who d i d  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n ,  Battery,  group  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h i s  for  material.  answer l i t e r a l  m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d and C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f (Primary  Grade One  between  than c o n t r o l  story  for  be  were f o u n d  answer l i t e r a l  treatment  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  differences  d r e n who r e c e i v e d s t o r y able  story  abilities  story  technique to  answer  56  A l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t groups  in a b i l i t y  experimenter  to  mental  did observe that  not  that  receive story  experimental  questions  control  group  following  Battery,  Level 7,  study  on b o t h  Grade One c h i l d r e n ' s  ferential  questions.  study  recommends t h a t  introduced  i n the  postponing  this  upper  early  abilities  story  primary  sent  study  diction  i n and o f  itself  incorporated  the  is  not  for  be  than  the m i d d l e  or  related  to  may a l s o be why t h e  e x p e r i m e n t were f a v o r a b l e , story  story  grammar The p r e -  use o f m a c r o - c l o z e , p r e -  study,  ledge s t r u c t u r e s  story  answer in-r  enough.  As S i n g e r and D o n l a n n o t e d  in  Based  technique  to  until  structure.  instruction  Skills  grades.  t a s k s and q u e s t i o n s  this  Basic  grades r a t h e r  C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be aware t h a t information  the  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  type of i n s t r u c t i o n  intermediate  did  recommends t h a t  be c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l  improving  This  experi-  Form 3 M) p o s t t e s t s .  on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h i s grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  better  g r o u p c h i l d r e n who  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n ,  the  chil-  were  e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d and C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f (Primary  between  questions,  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n  answer i n f e r e n t i a l treatment  were f o u n d  to answer i n f e r e n t i a l  d r e n who r e c e i v e d s t o r y able  differences  in  story in  results  contrast  and t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d  their  of with  grammar w h i c h o n l y  grammar  the  (1982) present  previous  taught  know-  categorization  57  under these  structures.  SUGGESTIONS FOR 1„  A r e p l i c a t i o n of the p r e s e n t study using children add  in other geographical  to the  to a wider  grade  to the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  population.  I t i s recommended t h a t a r e p l i c a t i o n of the study could  be c a r r i e d o u t  one  a r e a s o f Canada would  p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s , and  of the f i n d i n g s 2.  FURTHER RESEARCH  present  l o n g i t u d i n a l l y so as  to  d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar i s e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and of s t o r i e s in subsequent 3.  s t u d y be  ducted in order to examine c h i l r e n r e c e i v i n g  sion  those receiving  basal  reader.  f i r s t year in school  constory  comprehen-  i n s t r u c t i o n s o l e l y through techniques  in the  recall  grades.  I t i s recommended t h a t a l o n g i t u d i n a l  grammar i n s t r u c t i o n and  an  suggested  T h i s w o u l d be d o n e d u r i n g  their  in o r d e r to note d e v e l o p m e n t a l  trends. 4.  I t i s recommended t h a t a r e p l i c a t i o n of the study could  be c a r r i e d o u t  present  l o n g i t u d i n a l l y so as  to  d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t o r y grammar i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f i m p r o v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s in subsequent 5.  Further  research  writing  grades.  i s needed i n which  additional  standardized tests test  measures to  grammar  further  instruction  hend and r e c a l l  can be a d m i n i s t e r e d validate  on c h i l d r e n ' s  narrative  as p r e and  the e f f e c t abilities  material.  of to  post-  story compre-  59 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, R.C. , Reynolds, R . E . , S c h a l l e r t , D.L. & G o e t z , E . T . Frameworks f o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n d i s c o u r s e . A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l , 1 977 , 1_4, 367-381. A p p l e b e e , A . N . C h i l d ' s c o n c e p t o f s t o r y : ages 2 - 1 7 . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1978. Ausbel , D.P. The p s y c h o l o g y o f m e a n i n g f u l v e r b a l l e a r n i n g : an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s c h o o l l e a r n i n g . New Y o r k : Grune & S t r a t t o n , 1963. B a k e r , L. P r o c e s s i n g temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s in simple s t o r i e s ; e f f e c t of i n p u t sequences. J o u r n a l of V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 8 , 1 7 , 559-572. B a k e r , L. & S t e i n , N. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o s e c o m p r e h e n sion. In C. S a n t a & B. Hayes ( E d s . ) , C h i 1 d r e n ' s prose comprehension: r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i s e . Newark Delaware: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981. Barr,  R. I n f l u e n c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n on e a r l y I n t e r c h a n g e , 1 975 , 5 , 1 3 - 2 2 .  reading.  B a r t l e t t , F.C. Remembering: a s t u d y i n e x p e r i m e n t a l and social psychology. New Y o r k : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932. Borg,  R. & G a l l , M. Experimental Designs: P a r t 1. t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , Longman I n c . , New Y o r k , 1 9 7 9 .  Educa-  B o w e r , G. E x p e r i m e n t s on s t o r y and r e c a l l . Quarterly Journal of Experimental P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, _ 8 , 571-75, 577. Bransford, J.D. Human c o g n i t i o n : l e a r n i n g , understanding and r e m e m b e r i n g . Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a , 1979. B r a n s f o r d , J . D . & M c C a r r e l l , N.S. A sketch of a c o g n i t i v e approach to comprehension. In W. Weimer & D . S . P a l e r m o ( E d s . ) , C o g n i t i o n and t h e s y m b o l i c p r o c e s s e s . Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 1974. Brown, G.H. D e v e l o p m e n t o f s t o r y i n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g and writing. T h e o r y I n t o P r a c t i s e , 1 977 , 1_6, 3 5 7 - 3 6 2 .  60 C a n n e y , G. & W i n o g r a d , P . Schema f o r r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g comprehension. ( T e c h . Rep. No. 1 2 0 ) . B o l t , Beranek & Newman I n c . , C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , Urbana. Center f o r the study of R e a d i n g , A p r i l , 1979. ( E r i c Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 169 5 2 0 ) . Carroll, J.B. D e v e l o p m e n t a l P a r a m e t e r s o f R e a d i n g Comprehension. In J...T. G u t h r i e ( E d . ) , C o g n i t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m and C o m p r e h e n s i o n . N e w a r k , D e l a w a r e : International Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977. 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The r e l a t i o n s h i p between d e m o n s t r a t e d story grammar usage by t h i r d g r a d e r s and t h e i r s c o r e s on s e l e c t e d reading comprehension t e s t s (Doctoral diss e r t a t i o n , B o s t o n Uni v e r s i t y ; S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1980). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I r i t e r n a t i onal , 1 980, 41_, 2 0 3 9 - A ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 8 0 - 2 4 1 6 2 ) . T a y l o r , B. C h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y t e x t reading. Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 1980, 411.  after 1_5, 3 9 9 -  Thorndike, E.L. R e a d i n g as r e a s o n i n g , a s t u d y o f m i s t a k e s in paragraph r e a d i n g . The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1917, 8, 323-332. T h o r n d y k e , P. narrative  Cognitive discouse.  structures Cognitive  in comprehension of P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 7 , 9_,  T i e r n e y , - R . J . , • B r i d g e , C. & C e r a , M . J . The d i s c o u r s e p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n . Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 1978-1979, 4, 537-539. T u i n m a n n , J . J . The s c h e m a - s c h e m e r s . 1980, 2 3 , 414-419.  Journal  of  Reading,  V i s p o n d , D. M i c r o and m a c r o p r o c e s s e s i n t e x t c o m p r e h e n sion. J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 8 0 , 19, 2 7 6 - 2 9 8 . Whaley, J . F . S t o r y grammars and r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 3 4 , 1981 a , 7 6 2 - 7 7 1 .  The  Whaley, J . F . Reader's expectations for story structures. R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1981 b , _17_, 9 0 - 1 1 4 . Instructional'  Materials  References  It' s Storytime. The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , V a n c o u v e r , 1962. May I Come I n . G i n n & C o . , A D i v i s i o n Canada L t d . , 1 9 7 7 .  of  Co.  Xerox  Ltd., of  Test  References Canadian Tests of B a s i c S k i l l s . (Primary B a t t e r y , L e v e l 7 , Form 3 M) Thomas N e l s o n & Sons (Canada) L t d . , 1974-1976. G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s ( L e v e l A , Form 1 and L e v e l A , Form 2) W a l t e r H. M a c G i n i t i e , C o l u m b i a University; Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1978.  APPENDICES  INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND TEACHING PROCEDURES  67 Appendix A  P r e t e s t M e a s u r e s (To be c o n d u c t e d A p r i l An e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p r e t e s t during prior  the  second to  to the  listen  aloud,  t o one s t o r y  read o r a l l y  Following t h i s ,  7 literal  mark t h e  day o f  t h e week  follow  by t h e  groups  regular  14 c o m p r e h e n s i o n will  be r e a d  two p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s .  along with t h e i r  appropriate  and c o n t r o l  and 7 i n f e r e n t i a l  along w i t h a c h o i c e of  Pupils will  be a d m i n i s t e r e d  last  from both e x p e r i m e n t a l  classroom teacher. questions,  or the  will  1982.)  experiment.  Each s t u d e n t will  last,  22 o r 2 3 ,  answers. (Story  own t y p e d c o p i e s and read w i l l  be:  P o t T h a t Would Not S t o p B o i l i n g " , p p . . 1 8 1 - 1 8 5 , f r o m reader  It's  S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k , l e v e l  four.)  PRETEST "The P o t T h a t Would Not S t o p B o i l i n g " 1.  2.  Who d i d t h e l i t t l e a)  her  mother  b)  her  grandmother  Who d i d t h e  little  a)  an o l d woman  b)  her  mother  girl  live  with?  girl  meet i n t h e woods?  The the  68  Where d i d t h e o l d woman g e t t h e p o t f r o m ? a)  under her coat  b)  behind a tree.  What d i d t h e mother boiling?  say t o t r y t o get the pot t o stop  (Choose 3 )  a)  d o n ' t , don 1  b)  now, now  c)  stop,  d)  please,  e)  no , no  1  stop please  Where was t h e l i t t l e stop  girl  s t a y i n g when t h e p o t w o u l d n ' t  boiling?  a)  i n another v i l l a g e  b)  down t h e s t r e e t  What d i d t h e m o t h e r  at a friend's  house.  s a y t o t h e p o t when s h e w a n t e d  porridge? a)  c o o k , cook  b)  cook, l i t t l e  p o t , cook.  How d i d t h e p e o p l e g e t a r o a d made t h r o u g h t h e p o r r i d g e a)  t h e y a t e t h e i r way t h r o u g h  b)  t h e y p l o u g h e d t h e i r way t h r o u g h  Why was t h e l i t t l e  girl  looking  f o r berries?  a)  b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t have enough t o e a t a t home.  b)  b e c a u s e she w a n t e d  t o make a p i e .  Why d i d t h e o l d woman g i v e t h e a)  because i t  was t o o  b)  because the wanted t o  heavy t o  little  help  little  girl  was v e r y p o o r and she  girl  thank  t h e o l d woman?  because her mother t o l d  her  to.  b)  b e c a u s e she was g l a d t o g e t  the  pot  stop b o i l i n g  for  pot. the  little  girl's  mother? a)  because i t  b)  b e c a u s e she d i d n ' t  didn't  like  her  say t h e r i g h t  words  Why d i d t h e m o t h e r want p o r r i d g e when t h e girl  little  was away?  a)  b e c a u s e she was  b)  b e c a u s e she w a n t e d t o for  hungry. see i f  the  pot would  work  her.  Why d i d t h e porridge  little  girl  c o m i n g down t h e  a)  she h e a r d h e r m o t h e r  b)  she w a n t e d t o  Why w o u l d t h e  run home when she saw t h e street? c a l l i n g for  help her  help  mother  v i l l a g e p e o p l e be unhappy w i t h a l l  p o r r i dge? a)  it  b)  they d i d n ' t  pot?  carry  a)  the  an i r o n  her.  Why d i d t h e l i t t l e  Why w o u l d n ' t  girl  made e v e r y t h i n g messy like  porridge.  the  70 Appendix B  Experimental Instruction will over  fifteen  Thursday), of  five  of  approximately  teacher  a three-step  strategy  days a week  (Tuesday,  thirty  Tuesday of will  read a s t o r y ,  Grasshopper", o r a l l y along with t h e i r will  ask p u p i l s  five  by t h e  will  be f o l l o w e d  w i t h each of  from U n i t Step 1 (a)  V of  to  the  each f o r  a total  over  Who d i d  the  2.  Where d i d  the  3.  What k i n d  of  this,  the  procedure  four  remaining  stories  the  following  four  g r a s s h o p p e r want t o  play  g r a s s h o p p e r want t o he want t o  will  The same  Grasshopper"  game d i d  Students  (Questions  Setting:  1.  Ant  orally.  Week One  "The A n t and t h e  "The  Following  experimenter.) the  example  students.  questions,  May I Come I n ,  Tuesday  for  own r e a d e r s .  be p r e p a r e d  I  Wednesday,  each week  will  Story:  minutes  spread  weeks.  The t e a c h e r  follow  be i n  l e s s o n s , three  Step 1(a)  and t h e  Group P r o c e d u r e s  with?  play? play?  weeks.  71  II  Initiating  1.  Did the  III  Reaction:  1..  Did the ant of  to  Event:  a n t want t o  grasshopper spend a l l  the  1.  Did the  grasshopper  2.  Did the  ant  3.  What d i d  V.  Consequence:  1.  What d i d  2.  How d i d  the  he h e l p  him?  How w i l l  the  the  talk  the  ant  do?  talk  ant  feel  the  ant  grasshopper What d i d  grasshopper  the  beginning  into playing into  the  the  with  do?  snow came?  g r a s s h o p p e r now?  happen t o  the  him?  working?  grasshopper  do when t h e  about  he spend t h e  the  Did  grasshopper?  winter?  Country"  I„  Setting:  I.  Where does t h e  country  p l a c e where  II.  Initiating  1.  Why d i d mouse?  at  the  T u e s d a y - - - - W e e k Two  "In  the  was a good i d e a f o r  time working  What do you t h i n k w i l l  Story:  it  story?  Action:  Step 1 (a)  Why n o t ?  think  his  IV  3.  play?  the  mouse l i v e ?  he l i v e s  looks  What do you  think  like?  Event: city  mouse d e c i d e t o  surprise  the  country  I  72 III  Reaction:  1.  Was t h e  country  What d i d Action:  1.  What was t h e  2.  he  first  find  V  Consequence:  1.  What d i d  the  the  city  1.  the  way?  mouse a s k e d  country  about  mouse t o o k t h e  mouse s u g g e s t t h e y  the  city  s h o u l d do a t  the  country  mouse d e c i d e d t o  go  him?  Tuesday  "In  mouse?  story?  along with  Story:  city  this  city  food?  Why do you t h i n k  S t e p 1 (a)  see t h e  arrived?  mouse t o  I  t h i n g the  Where do you t h i n k  end o f  to  he say t h a t makes you f e e l  IV  after  mouse s u r p r i s e d  the  Week T h r e e  City"  Setting: Where does c i t y where  city  II  Initiating'  1.  Where d i d  III.  Reaction:  1.  How d i d house?  mouse l i v e ?  mouse l i v e s  What do you t h i n k  looks  the  place  like?  Event: the  the  city  country  mouse t a k e  mouse f e e l  the  country  about  going  mouse?  into  the  city  73 2.  Why d i d n ' t  3.  How d i d  the  the  he f i r s t  country  country  started  IV  Action:  1.  What f r i g h t e n e d mind a b o u t What d i d  V.  Consequences:  1.  the  Where d i d 1 i ve?  S t e p 1 (a) Story:  the  country in  country  about  the  city  the  mouse and changed  after  his  city?  mouse do a f t e r  the country  mouse d e c i d e  he saw t h e  it  cat?  was b e s t  to  (e.g.  Little  Why? Tuesday  Week F o u r  "The T h r e e B i l l  I  Setting:  1.  Where d i d  2.  What a r e t h e Billy  mouse f e e l  people?  eating?  staying  2.  mouse l i k e  the  Goat a  g o a t s want three  Gruff"  to  goats'  go?  full  names?  Gruff)  3.  What i s  II  Initiating  Event:  1.  How d i d t h e  Troll  2.  How d i d  troll?  he f e e l  Why d i d n ' t  Goats  know someone was w a l k i n g  about  goats walking  he want them t o  c r o s s the  on h i s  on t h e bridge?  bridge?  bridge?  74 III  Reaction :  1.  Was L i t t l e  2.  What d i d eat  3.  Billy  Little  afraid Billy  of  do t o  the  Troll?  convince  How do you the  troll  know?  not  to  him?  Why d i d  the  Troll  decide to w a i t  for  B i g , Big  Billy  Goat? IV  Action:  1.  What happened t o  V.  Consequence:  1.  Will  the  goats  the  Troll?  be a f r a i d  to  cross  the  bridge  now?  Why n o t ? S t e p 1 (a) Story: I  Tuesday  -Week  Five  "Henny P e n n y " Setting:  1.  Who i s  Henny Penny?  2.  Where do you t h i n k beginning  of  the  II  Initiating  1.  What happened t o  III  Reaction:  1.  What d i d  she was when she was e a t i n g  story?  Event: upset  she t h i n k was  Henny Penny?  happening?  at  the  75 IV  A c t i on:  1.  What d i d Henny Penny d e c i d e t o  2.  Who went w i t h  3.  Did they  V  Consequence:  1.  D i d Henny Penny e v e r t e l l  S t e p 1 (b)  all  her? try  Tuesday of  classroom  to  help  (Introduction  The f o l l o w i n g  oral  do a b o u t what h a p p e n e d ?  of  her?  the  King?  story  Why n o t ?  categories)  each week.  instructions  will  be p r o v i d e d by  the  teacher:  When we r e a d a s t o r y we a r e s o m e t i m e s a b l e t o  remember  it  parts  the  better story  Today,  if  we can t h i n k  about the  different  and what happened i n e a c h o f  I read you the  story  a s k e d y o u some q u e s t i o n s . from a d i f f e r e n t  part  of  parts.  , afterwards Each o f  the  story.  Some were  from  Now, I'm  going  show y o u a c h a r t w i t h some new q u e s t i o n s and see  y o u can remember t h e  story  a n s w e r them and c o m p l e t e t h i s chart  on o v e r h e a d  projector.)  I  t h e q u e s t i o n s were  t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e m i d d l e and t h e e n d . to  those  in  chart.  , well  enough  (Story  grammar  if to  76  Story Structure I  Chart  Setting:  II  a)  Where does the  story  b)  Who i s / a r e t h e main  take place? character(s)?  Beginning a)  What d o / d o e s "the main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) the b e g i n n i n g  b)  of  Why do you t h i n k  the  want  to  do  at  story?  t h e main c h a r a c t e r ( s )  want  to  do  this? c)  How d o / d o e s t h e main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) he/they  III  try  to  get  what  want?  Middle a)  S o m e t h i n g happens t o  change t h e main c h a r a c t e r ( s ) ;  plans. b)  What d o / d o e s t h e main c h a r a c t e r ( s )  d e c i d e to  do  now? IV  Ending How d i d  the s t o r y  g e t what h e / t h e y  end?  D i d t h e main  wanted?  Step 2  Wednesday o f  a)  be d i v i d e d  Pupils will  e a c h week  into  and g i v e n t y p e d c o p i e s o f to the  the  story  groups of  be c u t  three  s p e c i f i c phrases  r e a d on day one o f  phrases w i l l  character(s)  apart  each week.  and t h e  or  four  related Each  pupils will  of be  77  instructed dividual b)  paste  charts  t h e s e where  prepared  Pupils will  discuss their  charts  in  this of  done  a story  aid  in  first  it  as o u t l i n e d what i s  and t h e  The g r a s s h o p p e r  part  of  the  happening  this  chart in  in-  experimenter.  reasons for  in  completing step.  the  Throughout the  parts  can be used t o  a story  as w e l l  help  as an  it.  Grasshopper  grasshopper. kept  asking  the  ant  to  ant  for  help.  The g r a s s h o p p e r went t o  the  The g r a s s h o p p e r  saw t h e  snow.  Because the  didn't  ant  The a n t w o u l d w i t h no the  by t h e  b e l o n g on  grass.  The a n t  In  they  s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t  remembering  The Ant and t h e the  the  instruction  understand  In  to  not  help  know he w o u l d and t h e  play with  need f o o d  him.  for  g r a s s h o p p e r was l e f t  winter. alone  food. Country  The C i t y M o u s e . In  the  country.  The C i t y Mouse wanted  to  The C i t y  like  Mouse d i d n ' t  The C i t y Mouse d e c i d e d t o f o o d was b e t t e r . " , .-i • ,i The C i t y Mouse and t h e  see t h e  Country  country  Mouse.  food.  go back t o  the  city  because  the  :  :  C o u n t r y Mouse l e a v e f o r  the  city.  No, the  C i t y Mouse d i d  He r a n and r a n u n t i l B e c a u s e he h a d n ' t In  the  not  at  g e t what he w a n t e d .  last  seen t h e  he came t o  Country  the  country.  Mouse f o r  a long  time.  Ci ty  C i t y Mouse and C o u n t r y M o u s e . In  the  city.  They w a n t e d  to  find  some  food.  The C i t y Mouse saw s o m e t h i n g  big.  The C o u n t r y Mouse d e c i d e d t o  run  The C o u n t r y  Mouse r a n  home t o  home and l e f t  the  the  country.  City  Mouse i n  the  c i ty. The C i t y  Mouse g o t what he w a n t e d ,  b u t the  Country  Mouse  didn't. The C i t y Mouse and t h e find  Country  to  food.  Because C i t y  Mouse d i d n ' t  like  The T h r e e B i l l y  Goats  Gruff  The t h r e e  Goats  Gruff.  On a  Mouse went i n t o a house  Billy  country  food.  hill.  They w a n t e d  to  eat  green  grass.  The T r o l l  d i d n ' t want them on h i s  The g o a t s  t o l d the  Troll  bridge.  to w a i t f o r  B i g , Big B i l l y  Goat  Gruff. The g o a t s  got  to  eat  grass  The t h r e e  g o a t s went up t o  like eat  they wanted  to.  g r a s s and t h e r e  is  no  Troll.  They t r i e d  to walk  Because they  a c r o s s the  needed t o  bridge.  f i n d more g r a s s t o  eat.  Henny Penny She k e p t  running  and r u n n i n g  to  f i n d the  king.  Henny P e n n y . In  a  farmyard.  Because something  fell  Henny Penny w a n t e d The Fox t o o k t h e  to  on h e r tell  animals  tail.  the  into  king his  Henny Penny r a n away f r o m t h e All king  the the  animals s k y was  Step 3  panying  Just  will  fox.  are  told  the  e a c h week  for  step  three  accom-  attached.  Setting,  complete similar.  each week.  each week w i t h t h e  which  ("A is  Sly Fox")  Week one  underlined.  After  have d i s c u s s e d what c o u l d come n e x t ,  read the  stories  den.  be u s e d f o r  Task I n s t r u c t i o n s  read the  children  will  of  are o u t l i n e d  activities  Prediction  falling.  falling.  activity  These a c t i v i t i e s  s k y was  r a n away and Henny Penny n e v e r  Thursday  A different  the  story  to  the  (a) the  teacher  them and d i s c u s s how  their  80 The S l y Fox A s l y fox fox  s e a r c h e d the  thing  different  usually to  lived  a den i n  forest  for  to e a t .  dined on.  j u s t what  the  climb the  flew  to  the  fox  He o f t e n  He t h o u g h t  to  the  have t o  The f o x ' s  cheese.  climbing  have t h a t  cheese!"  giving  up t h e  fox  d e c i d e d to  cheese.  love to  the  tree"!  try  to  lifted  opened h e r mouth the The f o x  p i e c e of  So t h e  it  the  but  cheese f e l l the  had been so e a s y to  the  ate the c h e e s e , w h i l e  bird  as he  eat a r a t ,  "But  robin fox,  forest,:  when  fly  into "I  I  have would  myself."  The  t h e moment she to  the  ground.  surprised bird.  fool  began  the  He  robin.  the  r o b i n went  hungry.  Then t h e  f o x went on h i s w a y , l o o k i n g f o r  a dessert.  He was  proud of  himself  (Story  fox  to  songs f o r  sing,  l a u g h e d as he l o o k e d up a t  was g l a d t h a t  The f o x  close,  s a i d the  best in the  h e r head t o  eating  he t h o u g h t .  trick  had  on;  "That b i r d w i l l  h e a r one o f y o u r b e a u t i f u l  proud r o b i n  there  mouth was w a t e r i n g  "Mrs. Robin,"  heard t h a t your v o i c e i s  forest  cheese!  the  some-  and bugs he  up i n a t r e e  He d i d n o t want  the  wished f o r  this  feast  E v e r y day  rats  J u s t as he was g e t t i n g  I try  Then t h e  the  spotted a robin  he c o u l d have a d e l i c i o u s c h e e s e .  I  of  f o x wanted - a p i e c e o f  another t r e e .  away a g a i n i f  forest.  S u r e l y somewhere i n  tree.  s t a r e d up a t  the  food.  be s o m e t h i n g more i n t e r e s t i n g Suddenly,  to  in  for  outsmarting  the  robin.  U s e d : A S l y F o x , c i t e d i n D r e h e r and S i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 6 6 ) .  81 P r e d i c t i o n Task I n s t r u c t i o n s ' Read t h e the  Setting  children  will  and B e g i n n i n g e v e n t ,  have d i s c u s s e d what  read the  stories  are  complete  story  in  coat  Little  "I to  her hand.  herself.  "I  never  cupboard.  But t h e r e  "What  their  B l a c k Hen f  had s u c h a d a y .  road w i t h  ready,"  her  she  I am so h u n g r y  is  on t h e  this?"  ready.  home and l o o k e d a r o u n d . fire.  said I  get  for  Just  keep t h e  that,  (This  I will  story  Guidebook f o r  the  Red Hen s n o r i n g  scolded L i t t l e  You d i d n ' t  reader:  Red H e n .  any worms.  y o u and a l l  was t a k e n  coat  in  in  the  bed.  " Y o u have I worked  all  you d i d was s l e e p .  for  from p.180 It's  There  T h e r e were no worms  was L i t t l e  day m a k i n g a new c o a t  series.)  teacher  She and M r s . Duck had made a new  B l a c k Hen g o t boiling  did!  them and d i s c u s s how  Red Hen has o u r d i n n e r  was no p o t  for  the  a horse."  Little  no d i n n e r  c o u l d come n e x t ,  After  Red H e n .  hope L i t t l e  couid eat  as u n d e r l i n e d .  B l a c k Hen was c o m i n g a l o n g t h e  scissors for  to  (b)  similar. little :  Little  Week One  myself." of  Storytime,  the  And she  Teacher's  Copp C l a r k  T h u r s d a y Week Two a)  (Scrambled  The same s t o r y Country) and  be s e p a r a t e d i n t o  story  this  week  grammar  (In  the  categories  jumbled.  Various of  will  as used on day one o f  Stories)  story  parts  transparency  Students w i l l  and r e o r d e r  along w i t h the  projector. different  be w r i t t e n on s e p a r a t e  material.  scrambled story by r e a d i n g  will  t o make a good  teacher  Discussion will orders  it  and on t h e  then  centre  pieces  read  the  story  from the overhead 1 on r a t i o n a l e s  functions  of  various  for story  parts. b)  The same p r o c e d u r e w i l l different  story  p.  In  the  The C i t y Mouse wanted t o  "I'm  going to  185 o f  Copp C l a r k  He r a n away u n t i l  p l a c e u s i n g a new and  s u p p l i e d by t h e  Gingerbread G i r l , Storytime,  take  Teacher's Guidebook:  Country  he came t o  the  I will  Activity  Country Mouse. country. surprise  Country Mouse,"  "Can I have some f o o d ? " a s k e d C i t y M o u s e . like  It's  (a)  s a i d C i t y Mouse.  C i t y Mouse d i d n o t  (The  reader.)  see t h e  the c o u n t r y .  experimenter.  Country Mouse's food.  C i t y Mouse and C o u n t r y Mouse went  away t o  the  city.  83  The G i n g e r b r e a d G i r l Once upon a t i m e ,  a little  house deep i n  woods.  the  Activity  o l d woman l i v e d  in  (b)  a  gingerbread  The woman was l o n e s o m e , so she d e c i d e d t o make a girl  to  After  live  with  her.  she had w o r k e d and w o r k e d t o make t h e  bread g i r l  she c o u l d , she p u t  Soon she h e a r d s o m e t h i n g L e t me o u t , The l i t t l e little  please."  for  her  woman and t h e y  the  happily  ever  is  story  category  tion. the to  deleted.  omitted.  as u s e d on day one o f  encouraging pupils  to  Following t h i s ,  same s t o r y complete  or f i v e ,  the  ready  now.  provide pupils  story.  each group w i l l  week  the will  with a different  little  (In  correct  use t h e  the  be g i v e n t y p e d  be done i n  have d i f f e r e n t  show  same  City),  missing  category omitted  This w i l l  old  L i n e s a r e drawn t o  The t e a c h e r w i l l this  jumped a  after.  A whole  is  oven, "I'm  She s t a y e d w i t h t h e  (Macro-Cloze)  where m a t e r i a l  ginger-  oven.  oven d o o r and o u t  T h u r s d a y Week T h r e e : story  the  best  Someone s a i d .  girl.  lived  in  inside  o l d woman opened t h e  gingerbread  gingerbread  informacopies  of  and a s k e d  groups  information  of  four  deleted.  84  In  the  City 4  City At  last  Mouse and C o u n t r y  t h e y were  some f o o d , " Country will  Mouse.  go i n t o  "At  this  people."  They c a n ' t house. City  City  said City said,  You w i l l  go b a c k .  When t h e y were He s a i d ,  danger  now.  Mouse d i d where  like  eating,  is  stop.  "Come b a c k ,  He c a l l e d ,  danger.  I'm  are  house t o o .  in  don't bed. the  He l o o k e d  for  you?"  "Eat  food."  City  here w i t h  And d o n ' t  Country  Mouse  me."  home."  big.  stop."  house."  "No, I don't  me."  away."  Mouse, There  i n t o the  going  "I  Mouse saw s o m e t h i n g  Mouse.  "We  bed."  "Jump up h e r e w i t h  this  City  Mouse.  Mouse.  he saw some f o o d .  The c a t went back  not  there  Mouse.  said  And he went i n t o  "Where a r e  You can l i v e  " R u n , Run, Country  Mouse c a l l e d ,  the  hill.  get  will,"  be i n  "The p e o p l e  Come w i t h m e . "  Mouse j u m p e d ,  "I  said City  h e r e ? " asked Country  I am," s a i d C i t y  "Don't  here,"  Mouse s a i d ,  and down  know where we can  " F o l l o w me."  Mouse went i n t o  Mouse.  up h i l l  The p e o p l e w i l l  M o u s e , and he c a l l e d ,  When C o u n t r y  "I  we a r e  house.  live  Country  city.  Mouse.  last  see y o u .  "Here  City  the  said City  "Do p e o p l e like  in  Mouse r a n  like  But to  is  no  Country live  85 Country When he g o t go back t o country  Mouse r a n  up a h i l l  home, he s a i d , the  food,  city.  At  last  and C i t y  food,"  said City  Mouse.  "At  go i n t o  this  live  here?" City  last  in  the  Mouse. we a r e  house.  the  country.  cat  is.  in  I will  I will  not  eat  danger."  City Mouse r a n  city.  "I  here,"  up h i l l  "I  said City  The p e o p l e w i l l Mouse.  and down  hill.  know where we can g e t  " F o l l o w me."  asked Country  Mouse  Country City  the  the  I can s t o p .  Mouse can l i v e  Mouse and C o u n t r y  t h e y were  last  Not where  In City  "At  and i n t o  "I  will," Mouse.  be i n don't  bed." like  said  some  Country  "We w i l l "Do  people  people."  said,  Mouse went i n t o t h e  M o u s e , and he c a l l e d ,  house t o o .  "Where a r e y o u ? "  He l o o k e d "Here  I am,  for said  86 In  the  C i t y Mouse and C o u n t r y At  last  they  some f o o d , "  were  people  can't  live  city.  last  this  "I  up h i l l  " F o l l o w me."  we a r e h e r e , "  house.  C i t y Mouse s a i d ,  "The p e o p l e  Mouse went i n t o t h e  Mouse.  are  Mouse j u m p e d ,  s a i d C i t y Mouse.  City  "I  do l i k e  Mouse s a i d ,  "You w i l l it.  I may n o t  "Don't  " R u n , Run, Country  went C i t y M o u s e . out  of  the  City  But C o u n t r y to  live  Country When he got  said  bed."  don't in  "Do  like  bed.  They  the  house.  He l o o k e d f o r "Here  City  I am,"  said  this  food."  go back t o  "Eat  Country  Mouse  the  country."  You can l i v e  here w i t h  Mouse saw s o m e t h i n g  Mouse.  And d o n ' t  And away went C o u n t r y  Mouse.  away."  stop."  Away  They  now.  The c a t went back i n t o  Mouse d i d where  Country Mouse.  not  there  Mouse r a n home, he  stop. is  ran  said,  I'm  and i n t o  There  house."  He c a l l e d , " N o , I  danger.  up a h i l l  the  me."  big.  house.  no d a n g e r  like  in  he saw some f o o d ,  C i t y Mouse c a l l e d , "Come b a c k , is  get  me."  go b a c k .  When t h e y were e a t i n g , He s a i d ,  like  will,  And he went i n t o  house t o o .  "Jump up h e r e w i t h  When C o u n t r y  said,  are "I  M o u s e , and he c a l l e d , "Where a r e y o u ? " City  "I  hill.  s a i d C i t y Mouse.  The p e o p l e  Come w i t h m e . "  and down  know where we can  h e r e ? " asked Country Mouse.  see y o u .  Country  "At  go i n t o  people."  the  Mouse r a n  s a i d C i t y Mouse.  Country Mouse. "We w i l l  in  City  don't  going  home."  the  country.  87  In  City At  last  food  the  Mouse and C o u n t r y  t h e y were  said City  in  the  Mouse.  City  Mouse r a n  city.  up h i l l  and down  hill.  "I know where we can g e t  " F o l l o w me."  "I  will,"  said  some  Country  Mouse. "At  last  into this live  we a r e h e r e , "  house.  The p e o p l e w i l l  h e r e ? " asked the  Country  City  "The p e o p l e  Mouse s a i d ,  see y o u . Country  Come i n w i t h m e . " Mouse went i n t o  M o u s e , and he c a l l e d , "Here  said City "I  the  Mouse j u m p e d ,  Mouse. do l i k e  "You w i l l it.  Mouse.  be i n  Mouse. are  "We w i l l  bed."  "Do  house t o o .  don't  like  people."  in  bed.  They  can't  He l o o k e d  house. for  City  "Jump up h e r e w i t h  he saw some f o o d ,  I may n o t  people  you?"  Mouse.  like  go  "I  And he went i n t o t h e  "Where a r e  I am," s a i d C i t y  When C o u n t r y  said,  said City  this  food."  go back t o  "Eat  away,"  Country  the  me."  Mouse  country."  88 City  Mouse s a i d ,  "Don't  go b a c k .  When t h e y were e a t i n g , He s a i d ,  out  of  Mouse.  the  City  now.  like  to  Country When he g o t not  Mouse d i d  live  where  not  stop.  there  is  Mouse r a n up a h i l l home, he s a i d ,  food,  the  city.  and C i t y  "At  The t e a c h e r  read d u r i n g p o i n t out the  the  last  the  b) three will used:  Mouse.  ran  I'm  experiment  one o f  the  by t h e  for  children  home."  country.  I will  cat  is.  the will  previously  children  to  be made by  teacher.  for  eat  Stories)  stories  allow  the  will  danger."  Alterations  and s u p p l i e d  going  the in  is  I  I  the  and w i l l  "No,  I can s t o p .  Mouse can l i v e  retell  There  house."  (Retelling  will  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d ing  Away  They  He c a l l e d ,  and i n t o  Not where  any i n a c c u r a c i e s .  experimenter  the  danger.  T h u r s d a y Week F o u r : a)  big.  stop."  Mouse.  "Come b a c k , C o u n t r y  The c a t went back i n t o  go b a c k t o  country  And d o n ' t  me."  house.  But C o u n t r y don't  Mouse.  And away went C o u n t r y  Mouse c a l l e d ,  no d a n g e r  here w i t h  C i t y Mouse saw s o m e t h i n g  " R u n , Run, Country  went C i t y  You can l i v e  Reasons  accepting  or  reject-  alterations.  The t e a c h e r w i l l  r e a d a new and d i f f e r e n t  versions  (supplied  choose the  correct  The T i g e r ' s  by t h e version  Whisker,  i  experimenter). and p r o v i d e  cited  in  Whaley  story  using  Students  reasons. (1981  a , p.  (Story 765).  T h u r s d a y Week F o u r Story  (a.)  "Hello,  (Retelling  The A n t and t h e  Little  Ant,"  me  said,  you t h e r e . "Don't  Little "I'm  s a i d the  "I  don't  looking  for  food.  now."  the  "Will  one)  y o u come  g r a s s , and you can  have f o o d  do?"he s a i d .  "I  look  saw t h e  there?"  you.  look  the  "When do you  play,"  s a i d the  put  food  to  the  have f o o d  grasshopper. grass.  I will  work,"  when t h e  play  I can't  do."  going  saw t h e  can't  But  to  eat."  "I'm  going  play,  ant.  away.  to  play  The a n t went on w o r k the  ant  said.  "And  snow c o m e s . "  snow. now.  "What am I g o i n g I want some f o o d ,  to but  eat?"  The a n t  thing?"  but  to eat  The g r a s s h o p p e r  gass.  grasshopper.  I'm  s a i d the  " Y o u can p l a y ,  what can I  the  have t i m e t o  And away he went i n  I will  in  snow c o m e s , I w i l l  "Work a w a y ! "  for  in  I have work t o  work,"  And when t h e  doing  grasshopper.  hide  "You hide  Ant?"  ing.  (version  there."  The a n t for  89  Grasshopper".  s a i d the  and p l a y w i t h me? I w i l l for  stories)  the  ant  grasshopper asked.  the  snow.  "What a r e  " A r e you l o o k i n g  " Y e s , I am," s a i d the H e l p me, L i t t l e  in  Ant.  grasshopper.  for  "I'm  you  somelooking  L e t me have s o m e t h i n g  to  eat." The a n t was f o o l i s h  said:  "O.K.,  t o work a l l  s h a r e my f o o d w i t h  you."  I should  the  have p l a y e d w i t h y o u .  time w h i l e  you p l a y e d ,  I  will  I  90 T h u r s d a y Week F o u r Story  1 (a) "I  ;  "The Ant  will  "Hello,  the  for  in  said,  'food.  "You can h i d e  "Work now."  I have w o r k t o  going  away!"  to  have f o o d  s a i d the  but  I  eat?"  The a n t  a r e you d o i n g something?" ing for to  you.  the  I will  do."  two)  for  me  there."  there?"  s a i d the  I  can't  work,"  said  Ant?" ant.  "I'm  looking  And when  the  eat."  grass.  work,"  the  I'm  going  to  play  The a n t went on ant  said.  working.  "And I  will  snow c o m e s . " snow.  now.  saw t h e  But  "Don't  Little  grasshopper.  saw t h e  play  grass.  f o o d away.  to  the  t o e a t when t h e  I can't  the  have f o o d  ! The g r a s s h o p p e r he s i a i d .  play,"  put  And away he went i n  "You can p l a y ,  in  "When do you p l a y ,  snow c o m e s , I w i l l  (version  g r a s s , and you can l o o k  have t i m e t o  I'm  Grasshopper"  said a grasshopper.  you t h e r e .  don't  stories)  and t h e the  Ant,"  grasshopper. "I  for  hide  Little  The a n t look  (Retelling  "What am I g o i n g  I want some f o o d , but  grasshopper  the  ant  asked.  "Yes I am," s a i d the H e l p me, L i t t l e  in  the  can  "What  " A r e you l o o k i n g "I'm  L e t me have  do?"  what  snow.  grasshopper.  Ant.  to  for look-  something  eat." But t h e  didn't  ant  said  "No.  You p l a y e d when I w o r k e d .  work, Grasshopper."  "StopP"  called  the  And away went t h e  grasshopper.  c a l l e d and c a l l e d , but  the  the  away.  grasshopper walked  ant  still  "Don't d i d not  You  ant. go a w a y . " stop.  On and on he went i n  He  And the  snow.  91 T h u r s d a y Week F o u r Story  1 (a)  (Retelling  "The Ant and t h e  "Hello,  Little  Ant,"  come and p l a y w i t h me? can l o o k  for  me  The a n t look  for  "I for  said,  food.  I  going  snow c o m e s , I w i l l "Work a w a y , " now."  to  put t h e  s a i d the  have f o o d  "I  can I e a t ? " are you doing something?" ing for  you.  can't  there?"  three)  "Will  you  g r a s s , and you  grass.  do."  the  ant  grass.  the  Little  Ant?"  ant.  "I'm  And when  "I'm  looking the  going  to  the  ant  said.  snow c o m e s . "  "What am I g o i n g  I want some f o o d , grasshopper asked.  in  the  but  to  snow.  "I'm  come and p l a y w i t h  do?"  what "What  " A r e you l o o k i n g  grasshopper.  snow."  play  The a n t went on  work,"  snow.  want you t o  come and p l a y w i t h me i n  can't  work,"  away.  e a t when t h e  saw t h e  I  eat."  I will  saw t h e  the  food  But  "Don't  s a i d the  "Yes I am," s a i d the I still  the  grasshopper.  but  to  to  p l a y now.  The a n t  in  play,"  have f o o d  The g r a s s h o p p e r he s a i d .  the  "When do you p l a y ,  "You can p l a y ,  "And I w i l l  in  have work t o  And away he went i n  working,  hide  "You can h i d e  have t i m e t o  I'm  (version  said a grasshopper.  I will  grasshopper. don't  Grasshopper"  there."  you t h e r e .  s a i d the  stories)  for look-  me,  92 T h u r s d a y Week F o u r Story  1 (a.)  (Retelling  "The A n t and t h e  Hello,  Little  Ant,"  and p l a y w i t h me? for  me t h e r e . "  But  I can't  work," ant,  look  s a i d the  "I'm  away he went i n  food  to  for  but  I will  can I  you doing  the  grass.  do."  "Don't  going  to  have f o o d  "I'm  going  put to to  the  food  eat." play  the  the  ant  said.  away.  "Work  now."  And "You  "And I w i l l  have  snow c o m e s . " saw t h e  snow.  p l a y now.  for  saw t h e  there?"  something?"  to  in  look  "What am I g o i n g  I want some f o o d ,  but  do d o ? " what  eat?" The a n t  ing  can't  g r a s s , and you can  I have work t o  I'm  (original))  you come  The a n t went on w o r k i n g - .  work,"  The g r a s s h o p p e r "I  food.  grass.  "Will  When do you p l a y ? " S a i d  grasshopper. the  the  "You can h i d e  you t h e r e .  e a t when t h e  he s a i d .  said,  Grasshopper.  in  snow c o m e s , I w i l l  s a i d the  can p l a y ,  hide  grasshopper.  looking  And when t h e away!"  for  G r a s s h o p p e r " (version four  s a i d the  I will  The a n t  Stories)  grasshopper  the  ant  in  asked.  H e l p me, L i t t l e  snow.  "What  " A r e you l o o k i n g  "Yes I am," s a i d the  you.  the  Ant.  grasshopper.  I'm  L e t me have  are  for look-  something  eat." But t h e  didn't  said,  "No.  work, Grasshopper."  c a l l e d the called,  ant  grasshopper.  but  w a l k e d away.  the  ant  still  You p l a y e d when I w o r k e d . And away went t h e  "Don't did  go a w a y . "  not  On and on he went i n  stop. the  ant.  "Stop!"  He c a l l e d And t h e  snow.  You  and  grasshopper  Story  (b)  "The T i g e r ' s  Once t h e r e the woods.  Whiskers"  (version  was a woman who l i v e d w i t h h e r husband  One d a y , h e r h u s b a n d g o t  was d e l i g h t e d  one)  very  by h e r h u s b a n d ' s i l l n e s s  sick.  in  The woman  and hoped he w o u l d  die. She t r i e d worked. tiger's out  to  and p u t  everything  At l a s t  a tiger's  some f o o d  sang s o f t  music.  in  help  him g e t w e l l .  whisker. front  of  The t i g e r  She went the  but  nothing  t h e woman f o r  the  quickly  c u t o f f one o f  his whiskers  So t h e woman to  ate  f o o d and m u s i c .  was l o n e l y  a tiger's  o p e n i n g to  came o u t ,  thanked  The t i g e r  of  she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f r o m a  w h i s k e r would get  she c o u l d t h i n k  and r a n  and s a d , but  the  set  cave  t h e c a v e and food,  and  The woman home.  t h e woman's  husband  g o t wel 1. "The T i g e r ' s Once t h e r e the woods.  Whiskers"  (version  two)  was a woman who l i v e d w i t h h e r husband  One d a y , h e r  husband g o t  very  sick.  in  The woman  was v e r y u p s e t by h e r h u s b a n d ' s i l l n e s s and w a n t e d him  to  get w e l 1 . She t r i e d worked. tiger's out  to  everything  At l a s t  of  but  nothing  she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f r o m a  w h i s k e r would get  she c o u l d t h i n k  a tiger's  help  him g e t  whisker.  w e l l . So t h e woman  She went  to  a tiger's  set cave  94  and p u t  some f o o d  sang s o f t  music.  in  front  The T i g e r  thanked  t h e woman f o r  quickly  cut  off  The c h i l d r e n  of  the  one o f  the  opening  came o u t ,  to  ate  the  f o o d and m u s i c .  his whiskers  s h o u l d be a b l e t o  the  food,  and  The woman  ..(Stop  determine  c a v e and  reading  that  the  here.  story  is  i ncomplete.) "The T i g e r ' s  Whiskers"  (version  three  (original))  Once t h e r e was a woman who l i v e d w i t h h e r h u s b a n d the woods. was v e r y get  One d a y ,  u p s e t by h e r h u s b a n d ' s  very  illness  sick.  The woman  and w a n t e d him  to  wel1. She t r i e d  worked. tiger's out  h e r husband g o t  in  to  and p u t  At  everything  last  get  a tiger's  some f o o d music.  whisker.  in  front  lonely  the  but  nothing  She went  So t h e woman to  a tiger's  the opening to  came o u t ,  ate  and r a n home.  Whiskers"  h e r husband g o t  (version  very  sick.  c a v e and  food,  and  The t i g e r  Once t h e r e  very  and wanted him t o  husband's i l l n e s s  was  four)  the woods.  by h e r  quickly  well.  woman who l i v e d w i t h h e r h u s b a n d i n upset  set  cave  The woman  t h e woman's husband g o t  "The T i g e r ' s  the  the  f o o d and m u s i c .  his whiskers  and s a d , b u t  One d a y ,  of  The t i g e r  t h a n k e d t h e woman f o r one o f  of  she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f r o m a  w h i s k e r w o u l d h e l p him g e t w e l l .  sang s o f t  cut-off  she c o u l d t h i n k  was a  The woman was get  well  She t r i e d worked.  At  tiger's out  everything  last  and p u t  a tiger's  some f o o d  sang s o f t  in  music.  cut  off  She went  front  the opening to  Week  Each c h i l d w i l l related  to  new s t o r y  in  a big  Albert juicy  structure  the  the  set  cave  c a v e and  food,  and  The woman The  t h e woman's husband g o t  complete f i v e chart  after  and f o l l o w i n g  used:  well.  Albert  questions  listening  to a  along with t h e i r  the  Fish,  cited  own  in  p.764). the  Fish"  was a b i g g r a y f i s h  i c y pond n e a r t h e  edge o f  was swimming a r o u n d t h e of  the w a t e r .  worms t a s t e d  and wanted t o  He swam v e r y  c l o s e to  felt  ate  a tiger's  h i s w h i s k e r s and r a n home.  independently  worm on t o p  Albert  to  f o o d and m u s i c .  "Albert Once t h e r e  nothing  Five:  read o r a l l y  a,  came o u t ,  and s a d , but  a story  (1981  the  one o f  typed c o p i e s (Story Whaley  of  The t i g e r  was l o n e l y  Thursday  but  So t h e woman  wisker.  t h a n k e d t h e woman f o r quickly  of  she remembered t h a t m e d i c i n e made f r o m a  w i s k e r w o u l d h e l p him g e t w e l l .  to get  tiger  she c o u l d t h i n k  was p u l l e d  eat  named A l b e r t a forest.  Albert  a big  knew how d e l i c i o u s  t h a t one f o r  the water  lived  One d a y ,  pond when he s p o t t e d  t h e worm and b i t  through  who  into  into  v e r y s a d and w i s h e d he had been more  his  dinner.  him.  a boat. careful.  Suddenly, Albert  96  "Albert the Fish" 1.  2.  3.  Who i s A l b e r t ? a)  a l i t t l e brown  b)  a b i g green  c)  a b i g gray  5.  6.  fish fish  Where d o e s A l b e r t l i v e ? a)  i n a b i g blue lake  b)  i n a small f i s h  c)  i n a b i g i c y pond  pond  What d i d A l b e r t s e e o n e d a y w h i l e he was s w i m m i n g around  4.  fish  i n h i s pond?  a)  some d e l i c i o u s f i s h  food  b)  a b i g j u i c y worm  c)  a f i s h hook w i t h b a i t on i t  Why d i d A l b e r t w a n t t o e a t t h e worm? a)  he knew how d e l i c i o u s t h e y t a s t e d  b)  he was v e r y  c)  he w a n t e d t o k i l l  hungry t h e worm  How d i d he t r y t o g e t t h e worm? a)  he g r a b b e d  at i t  b)  he b i t i n t o i t  c)  he swam o v e r i t  What h a p p e n e d t o A l b e r t a f t e r he t r i e d t o g e t t h e worm? a)  he a t e t h e worm  b)  he g o t c a u g h t  c)  he swam away v e r y h a p p i l y  by a f i s h e r m a n  How d i d A l b e r t  feel  a b o u t what he had done?  a)  he w i s h e d he had been more  b)  he was g l a d he g o t  c)  he was a n g r y w i t h t h e  the  careful  worm fisherman for  catching  him.  Follow-up Procedures Posttest The f i n a l  day o f week f i v e  will  be used t o  the e x p e r i m e n t e r - d e s i g n e d p o s t t e s t . a b a s a l r e a d e r not will  used i n t h e  be r e a d o r a l l y  to  the  used:  from the  students  "The Boy and t h e  reader,  Free-Recall  It's  schools  f o l l o w e d by 14 and 7 i r i f e r e n t i a l .  Goats",  pp.  161-166  be a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g  the e x p e r i m e n t .  by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w i l l each s t u d e n t . will  P r i o r to  this,  the  the  chosen  selection  following  in-  be p r o v i d e d : listen  I  read to y o u .  am g o i n g t o  A volunteer,  read a n a r r a t i v e  I want you t o  will  from  S t o r y t i m e , Copp C l a r k s e r i e s ) .  measure w i l l  week f o l l o w i n g  structions  taken  Measure  A free-recall  to  A story  participating  comprehension q u e s t i o n s , 7 l i t e r a l (Story  administer  ask y o u t o  tell  remember a b o u t t h e  very c a r e f u l l y  Student's  recall  and l a t e r  transcribed.  When I f i n i s h ,  me e v e r y t h i n g  story.  protocols  to a s t o r y I  t h a t you can  P l e a s e do y o u r v e r y of  the  story w i l l  best.  be t a p e d  98  Appendix  C  Posttest "The 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  Boy and t h e G o a t s "  Where d i d t h e boy t a k e t h e g o a t s e v e r y a)  up t o t h e g r e e n  b)  down t o t h e r i v e r .  morning?  g r a s s on t h e h i l l .  Who jumped o v e r t h e f e n c e  first?  a)  one b i g g o a t  b)  a l l t h r e e g o a t s jumped o v e r t o g e t h e r  Who's g a r d e n  d i d t h e y jump  a)  the farmer's  b)  the l i t t l e  boy's  Who was t h e s e c o n d a)  a fox  b)  a rabbit  Who g o t t h e g o a t s a)  t h e boy  b)  the l i t t l e  into?  a n i m a l - t h a t came a l o n g ?  out?  bee  What d i d t h e bee do when he s a t on t h e b i g g o a t ' s a)  he s a i d  "buzz,  buzz".  b)  he s t u n g t h e g o a t ' s  nose  What d i d t h e boy do t o t r y and g e t t h e g o a t s a)  he c o a x e d  b)  he c r i e d  and s c o l d e d and c r i e d  back?  nose?  99 8.  9.  10.  Why w o u l d n ' t  the  farmer  want  a)  b e c a u s e he d i d n ' t  b)  because they would eat  Why d i d  t h e boy s i t  1 i ke  the  all  goats w o u l d n ' t  b)  because the  goats  the  1ittle  a)  because they  his  the  h i s garden?  grass.  down and s t a r t  because the  the b o y ,  in  goats.  a)  Why d i d  goats  kicked rabbit  to  come  cry?  out  him. and t h e  fox  laugh  at  bee? didn't  think  he c o u l d g e t  the goats  out. b) 11 .  12.  13.  14.  b e c a u s e he s a i d s o m e t h i n g  Why d i d  t h e two o t h e r  g o a t s jump o v e r t h e  a)  because they  b)  because they wanted  Why d i d  saw t h e  big to  t h e boy go r u n n i n g  a)  b e c a u s e he w a n t e d  to  b)  b e c a u s e he had t o  take  Why d i d  t h e bee o n l y  a)  because t h a t ' s  b)  because the  Why d i d every  funny  after  scold the  the  goats?  them goats  say:  home  "Buzz,  f o r the  night  buzz"  bees can say  g o a t s were a f r a i d  t h e boy t a k e  jump o v e r  run and jump  have t o  all  goat  fence?  the  goats  of  up t o  being the  morning?  a)  so  t h e y c o u l d have g r e e n g r a s s t o  b)  so  t h e y c o u l d run and  play.  eat  stung.  green grass  100 Free-Recal1 Instructions  prior  to  Measure  r e a d i n g the  I want y o u t o  listen  I  read to y o u .  am g o i n g t o  will  ask y o u t o  remember a b o u t  tell the  very  story:  carefully  to  When I  Please  story  finish,  me e v e r y t h i n g  story.  a  I  t h a t y o u can do y o u r  very  best.  Instructions Is  after  that  all  anything you f o r  h e a r i n g what  e l s e you w o u l d l i k e coming to  the  "He i s  old  shook w i t h  a beast,"  lion  of  rid  get  One day a t r o o p a big crate  of  me?  Thank-  trust  lived  in  He was t h e of  him.  If  the  woods.  king he  of  frowned  fear.  s a i d a monkey.  I don't  a way t o  tell  Lion"  a gruff  beat e v e r y o n e .  zoo.  to  mane and a l o n g t a i l .  all  said:  Can you remember  a n i m a l s and t h e y were a f r a i d  or growled they  has  see me t o d a y .  Once upon a t i m e , He had a t h i c k  child  y o u can remember?  "The G r u f f  all  the  him."  "He b o a s t s t h a t But no one c o u l d  he can tell  him.  o f men came i n t o  and were l o o k i n g  for  the woods.  animals to  take  They had back t o  the  101  "I  know now how t o  a little  g r a y mouse t o  deep h o l e .  The l i t t l e  lion  tracks.  rid  himself  He soon saw some f r e s h lion's  get  of  as he w a t c h e d  down t h e  paw m a r k s .  Here a r e t h a t  Now, t o  get  "Ah!  him t o  to  As soon as t h e  little up t o  after legs  the  and n o t hole.  him.  Away went t h e  could carry  trap.  him.  where  What a f u s s  the  old  lion  the  saw t h e m o u s e , he  mouse as f a s t  The l i o n  he was g o i n g .  for  as  his  lion  right  was g o i n g  He f e l l  right  fast  into  the  he made!  up w i t h c h a i n s . to  and w a i t e d  The mouse l e d t h e  The men h e a r d him g r o w l i n g  him o f f  path  The mouse s t o p p e d .  watching  trail.  chase me."  up b e s i d e t h e  come a l o n g .  said  t h e men d i g a  mouse r u s h e d o f f  The mouse s t o o d  started  ning  t h a t mean o l d l i o n , "  They put  zoo w h i l e  all  and s n a r l i n g him i n  the  other  the  and came  crate  animals  and  run-  took  laughed  and  laughed. "We a r e have a p a r t y (p.192  It's  series.)  free! for  We a r e f r e e ! "  smart  Storytime,  Little  they  all  called.  "Let's  Gray M o u s e ! "  T e a c h e r ' s G u i d e b o o k , Copp C l a r k  

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