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An investigation of physical setting in narrative discourse, and its influence on the reading comprehension… Craddock, Sonia 1981

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/  AN INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICAL SETTING IN NARRATIVE DISCOURSE, AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE READING COMPREHENSION AND READING INTEREST OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS by SONIA MAY CRADDOCK B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION  m  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language E d u c a t i o n  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1981 ( ' c V o n i a May Craddock, 1981  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head of representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 M a i n Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  written  ABSTRACT The  p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e  variable,  physical  setting, i n narrative  i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and e x p r e s s e d read  such  narrative  Six  relevant Cloze  local physical  physical  setting.  t e s t s were c o n s t r u c t e d over  reading comprehension.  setting, foreign  variables  to the students reading a b i l i t y  level. silent  areas,  read  a randomized  i n Vancouver,  B.C.,  s e l e c t i o n of the s t o r -  t e s t s and a S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r  The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e C o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t was and t h e s c o r e s were used t o d i v i d e  administered  the subjects into  three  groups.  design with repeated  Pearson  to control  i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r i e s .  Data were a n a l y z e d  multiple  setting,  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o  socio-economic  read.  they  The  a l l t h e s t o r y v e r s i o n s t o measure  i e s and c o m p l e t e d t h e m a t c h i n g C l o z e each s t o r y  physical  and d i f f i c u l t y  Three h u n d r e d and f o r t y - f o u r grade s i x s t u d e n t s from d i v e r s e  read-  l e v e l s , were w r i t t e n .  E a c h s t o r y was d e s i g n e d  q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e  measure e x p r e s s e d  the s i l e n t  prose.  l e v e l s were:  non-specific  influenced  t o which the  i n t e r e s t o f s i x t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s when  s t o r i e s , each w i t h three treatment  treatment and  prose  the extent  u s i n g a f i x e d e f f e c t s 2x3x3 f u l l y  measures over  the s i x s t o r i e s .  c o m p a r i s o n s were used t o d e t e r m i n e  s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e two d e p e n d e n t  variables. ii  factorial  Scheffe tests f o r  differences  Products-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d  crossed  among  groups.  t o determine  relation-  R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n was the p h y s i c a l  setting  found  i n a story.  s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y h i g h e r than set  s t o r i e s , and Cloze  on  the  on  scores  foreign  t o be  The  Cloze  the Cloze  the n o n - s p e c i f i c  set  on t h e n o n - s p e c i f i c  set s t o r i e s .  Interest  stories,  b u t was  nificantly  the  not  influenced  h o w e v e r , no  of the  s e t and  the harder  difficulty-, stories  a significant relationship  interest,  setting  story  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  locally-set the  foreign  s e t s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y h i g h e r  T h e r e was  by  the  s c o r e s on b o t h  s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced  p r e f e r r e d over  t h o u g h t h e r e was expressed  was  s c o r e s on  by  stories.  on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s b e t w e e n s p e c i f i c ies.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced  was  story.  iii  not  by  significant  difference  non-specific the  setting  easy s t o r i e s  than  set of  the  being  f o r a l l reading groups. between comprehension  stor-  sigAl-  and  s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced  by  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v i i  Chapter I THE PROBLEM  1  Need f o r the Study Problem Research Q u e s t i o n s Procedures Materials Subjects C o l l e c t i o n ' of Data Design Treatment of Data Limitations Definitions O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Report Summary  4 5 6 7 1 8 • 8 9 9 9 10 10 10  ;  II  REVIEW OF RESEARCH  11  P r e - E x i s t i n g Schema, Content V a r i a b l e s , and Comprehension V a l i d i t y of the Schema Theory C o n s t r u c t S p e c i f i c Content V a r i a b l e s and Comprehension Content V a r i a b l e s and Reading I n t e r e s t Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension The E f f e c t of Reading A b i l i t y on Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension The E f f e c t of Passage D i f f i c u l t y on Reading I n t e r e s t L a n d Reading Comprehension The Measurement of Comprehension and I n t e r e s t C l o z e Procedure The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension Test Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s and Reading I n t e r e s t  iv  11 12 20 22 29 33 34 36 36 40 41 43  Ill  METHODOLOGY  45  Subjects Instruments P r a c t i c e C l o z e Paragraph The S t o r i e s Cloze Tests Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s Gates-MacGinitie Standardized Test F i e l d T e s t i n g o f Instruments Procedures S c o r i n g and T a b u l a t i o n o f t h e Data The C l o z e Procedure The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t Design S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures Summary IV  ANALYSIS OF DATA  62  F i n a l Selection of Subjects Reliability Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s Research Q u e s t i o n s and A s s o c i a t e d Hypotheses Research Q u e s t i o n 1.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 2.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 3.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 4.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 5.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 6.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 7.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 8.0 Research Q u e s t i o n 9.0 V  45 45 45 46 47 51 52 52 53 57 57 57 58 59 59 59  62 63 63 63 63 66 68 71 71 71 73 73 75  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  77  Summary Materials Subjects C o l l e c t i o n of . the Data Data A n a l y s i s Findings D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Pedagogy and Research Pedagogical Implications Research I m p l i c a t i o n s  77 77 78 78 79 79 81 85 85 87  REFERENCES  90  APPENDICES  95 v  LIST OF TABLES Table 1 S i x S t o r y T i t l e s w i t h Three Treatment L e v e l s 48 2 R e a d a b i l i t y of S t o r i e s by Grade L e v e l 49 3 T o t a l Number of Words i n the Three Treatment L e v e l s of t h e S i x S t o r i e s 50 4 P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Study Means f o r C l o z e Scores and an Interest Inventory 54 5 D e s c r i p t i o n of How t h e S i x S t o r i e s w i t h the Three S e t t i n g V e r s i o n s and the Two D i f f i c u l t y L e v e l s Are D i v i d e d i n t o Three Groups 55 6 Range of Comprehension Test Scores 58 7 A Diagram of a 2x3x3 F i x e d E f f e c t s Model F u l l y - C r o s s e d F a c t o r i a l Design .. 60 8 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y o f I n t e r e s t Scores 64 9 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Responses t o Items One and Two of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s 64 10 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of C l o z e Scores on P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y 65 11 S c h e f f e ' s S Test f o r Comparison of C l o z e Test Means 67 12 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of C l o z e Scores of S t o r y D i f f i c u l t y , and S t o r y D i f f i c u l t y by Reading A b i l i t y ... 69 13 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores of P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y 69 14 S c h e f f e ' s S T e s t s f o r Comparisons of Means on I n t e r e s t Scores70 15 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores of D i f f i c u l t y of S t o r i e s , and D i f f i c u l t y and Reading A b i l i t y 72 16 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores on Reading Ability 72 17 S c h e f f e ' s T e s t s f o r Comparison of Means on Reading Ability 74 18 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of C l o z e Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Content D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Reading A b i l i t y 74 19 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g ; and D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g and Reading A b i l i t y 76 20 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of Scores on a C l o z e Measure and Scores on an I n t e r e s t Measure 76 21 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary T a b l e f o r Dependent Variables: Interest .' 97 22 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary Table f o r Dependent Variables: C l o z e Procedure 98 23 C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Dependent Variable: C l o z e Procedure 99 24 C e l l ' Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Dependent Variable: Interest 100 vi  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I would l i k e t o thank t h e members o f my committee f o r t h e i r h e l p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .  I n p a r t i c u l a r Fwould l i k e t o  thank my r e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r , Tony Westermark, f o r h i s guidance throughout t h e study; review  Jane C a t t e r s o n f o r h e r h e l p i n improving t h e  of the l i t e r a t u r e ;  Wendy Sutton f o r her s u g g e s t i o n s  area of c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e ; the d e s i g n and s t a t i s t i c a l  i n the  and Steve F o s t e r f o r h i s h e l p  analysis.  vii  with  CHAPTER I THE The  PROBLEM  a b i l i t y to comprehend m a t e r i a l r e a d , and t o enjoy r e a d i n g  two b a s i c g o a l s of a s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme. i n f l u e n c e each of the two  The  Moreover, the  so f a r appeared almost i m p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e whether  having  improved comprehension or  whether comprehension i t s e l f leads t o i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t — o r  further—if  are v a l i d under d i f f e r i n g r e a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  Some s t u d i e s have i g n o r e d the i n t e r e s t f a c t o r and f o c u s s e d on comprehension a l o n e . and was  two  i n t e r e s t , i n t e r a c t i n such a complex r e l a t i o n s  an i n t e r e s t i n what i s to be read leads to  both statements  inter-  so not easy to p r o v i d e f o r i n  a s c h o o l programme, e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y or i n c o n c e r t .  s h i p t h a t i t has  forces that  f a c t o r s , r e a d i n g comprehension and r e a d i n g  e s t , a r e , however, not easy to i d e n t i f y and  f a c t o r s , comprehension and  are  developed  Some r e s e a r c h was  At one time most r e s e a r c h was  around a product  reading  of a p r a c t i c a l  nature  or " s k i l l s " model of comprehension.  done u s i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g model but t h i s empha-  s i z e d m a i n l y the p e r c e p t u a l , s t o r a g e , and r e t r i e v a l p r o c e s s e s .  Recently,  c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s have proposed an a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g model c a l l e d a "schema" model, which c o n c e n t r a t e s on the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s a reader;" b r i n g s t o the p r o c e s s i n g of t e x t . the l i t e r a t u r e by B a r t l e t t  The  term schema was  introduced  into  (1932) and has g e n e r a l l y been d e f i n e d as a p r e -  e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e t h a t can be brought to a t e x t to enable reader t o comprehend.  1  a  2  A schema i s c o n s i d e r e d to be composed of a h i e r a r c h y of schemata embedded w i t h i n o t h e r schemata.  A person's  " t o o t h " f o r example, i s thought  fundamental assumption  does not i n i t s e l f  like  to be p a r t of the l a r g e r schema f o r "mouth"  which i n t u r n i s p a r t of the s t i l l The  schema f o r something  l a r g e r schema f o r " f a c e " and  so  of schema t h e o r y i s t h a t p r i n t e d  on. text  c a r r y meaning, but c a r r i e s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the  s t r u c t i o n of meaning.  Simply  con-  s t a t e d , schema t h e o r y assumes t h a t every  r e a d e r b r i n g s to any g i v e n t e x t a v a r i e t y of schema, knowledge s t r u c t u r e s , which have been developed  through e x p e r i e n c e .  These schema are a v a i l a b l e  to the r e a d e r to serve as c o g n i t i v e templates a g a i n s t which incoming can be matched and  data  comprehended.  A c c o r d i n g to schema t h e o r y , i n t e r p r e t i n g a t e x t message would be a matter  of matching the i n f o r m a t i o n i n any message to a v a i l a b l e c o g n i t i v e  templates.  I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t does not match p r e - e x i s t i n g schemata i s  e i t h e r not understood t h e o r y proposes  or c o n s i d e r e d unimportant  or i r r e l e v a n t .  then, t h a t r e a d e r s comprehend b e s t when incoming  the t e x t match t h e i r e x i s t i n g schemata w e l l , and schemata (phonology,  syntax, and  Schema data  from  that discourse s t r u c t u r e  r h e t o r i c ) a r e p r o b a b l y needed as much as  d i s c o u r s e content schemata (concepts) i n the comprehension p r o c e s s . Some r e s e a r c h has been done on such content schemata as p o i n t - o f - v i e w ( P i c h e r t & Anderson, 1976) et a l . , 1977)  and  (Gordon e t a l . , 1978;  w i t h the schema t h e o r y confirmed.  p r e - e x i s t i n g schema were used Other  t o p i c content  t o o r g a n i z e and  That i s , i t was  Brown  found t h a t  i n t e r p r e t the t e x t u a l message.  r e s e a r c h , a l t h o u g h not done under the g e n e r a l r u b r i c of schema t h e o r y  r e s e a r c h , has examined the e f f e c t s of p r o t a g o n i s t ( K l e i n , 1968) t i v e language (Cunningham, 1976).  Both have found  and  t h a t the content  a b l e s examined had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on comprehension.  One  figuravari-  content  3 variable, physical  s e t t i n g , has not been examined, a l t h o u g h schema t h e o r y  would i n d i c a t e t h a t p h y s i c a l  s e t t i n g might be of g r e a t importance i n a  r e a d e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a t e x t .  I f , f o r instance,  the reader were a b l e  to match the s e t t i n g i n a n a r r a t i v e  to a p r e - e x i s t i n g  schema f o r s e t t i n g  then u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the n a r r a t i v e might be enhanced.  There appears  to be a need f o r such r e s e a r c h t o add t o the knowledge a l r e a d y on the c o n t e n t schemas t h a t have s i g n i f i c a n c e Such r e s e a r c h might a l s o have s i g n i f i c a n c e the  f o r r e a d i n g comprehension.  f o r the f a c t o r c i t e d above as  second g o a l of a r e a d i n g programme, namely i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g . A l t h o u g h schema t h e o r i s t s have not attempted any s t u d i e s  nificance  on the s i g -  of s p e c i f i c schema f o r i n t e r e s t , i t would seem t o assume t h a t  readers' p r e - e x i s t i n g  knowledge s t r u c t u r e s  might a f f e c t i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g  as much as they might a f f e c t r e a d i n g comprehension. suggested t h a t  G u t h r i e (1981) has  i n t e r e s t i s l i k e l y t o a f f e c t the a c q u i s i t i o n of background  knowledge, which may that  available  then f a c i l i t a t e comprehension.  I t seems l o g i c a l  the r e c i p r o c a l c l a i m might be made, t h a t knowledge  comprehension which i n t u r n a f f e c t s r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t .  influences Research  reading studies  t h a t have examined both r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension have a l l attempted t o determine whether comprehension i s i n f l u e n c e d  by r e a d i n g  interest.  signifi-  cantly  A consensus would suggest t h a t  f a c i l i t a t e comprehension.  determine why c h i l d r e n comprehend do of low i n t e r e s t  t o p i c i n t e r e s t does  However, no r e s e a r c h has attempted t o more of h i g h i n t e r e s t m a t e r i a l  than they  material.  The i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e on the e f f e c t s of content and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t suggest t h a t c h i l d r e n p r e f e r  variables  s t o r i e s i n which t h e r e  i s much a c t i o n , d i a l o g u e , a s u s p e n s e f u l p l o t , and c h a r a c t e r s w i t h which they can i d e n t i f y (Simpson & S o a r e s , 1965).  4 A few setting  on  reading  of s e t t i n g of these  s t u d i e s h a v e i n c l u d e d some e x a m i n a t i o n interest  i s unimportant  The  of s e t t i n g has to becflawed  study  designed  setting,  effect  especially  o f p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g on designed  either  on b o t h  should attempt  tice  and If  both  educational teachers  t i o n about the This it  setting.  of  familiarity interest. content  reading  interest.  Study  s h o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l  prac-  theory.  are to provide  their  i n s t r u c t i o n that produces readers  r e a d i n g and e n j o y i t ,  factors  s t u d y e x p l o r e s one  is anticipated  of  been  variable,  to examine the  c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and  study as-designed  understand  effect  considered  i n n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e i n terms of i t s p o s s i b l e  Need f o r t h e The  their  s t u d y has  r e a d i n g comprehension or r e a d i n g  research study  variable, physical setting,  c o u l d be  of the  of f a m i l i a r i t y the  in  that " d e f i n i t e n e s s "  case", no  the e f f e c t  r e s e a r c h on  However, a l l  as a m i n o r f o c u s  I n any  the concept  limited  interest.  on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t  problems.  of p h y s i c a l  that " d e f i n i t e n e s s "  1970.) w h i c h s u g g e s t s  t o examine i n depth  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be  A carefully  (Johns,  a significant  reading  f a c t o r of s e t t i n g  by m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  done t h a t was physical  one  a l l have c o n c l u d e d  i n determining  s t u d i e s examined the  research.  effects  and  of the e f f e c t  t h a t may  t h e y n e e d more s p e c i f i c  i n f l u e n c e such  of these  understanding  and  make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e  d e s i g n of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r c h i l d r e n ,  as w e l l  as t o t h e  informa-  enjoyment.  f a c t o r s , namely, p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g ,  t h a t the r e s u l t s w i l l  who  and future  development  of e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m . If tings,  i t can  be  elementary  shown t h a t by c h i l d r e n can  reading  stories with local physical set-  improve t h e i r  reading comprehension  and  5 i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , then t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e a reason f o r s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the p r o v i s i o n o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r children. A g r e a t many c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s a r e made on n o n ^ e m p i r i c a l  evidence.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , Canadian r e a d i n g educators have been i n a dilemma about whether or not t o broaden r e a d i n g c u r r i c u l u m by o r d e r i n g from i n t e r n a t i o n a l sources o r t o use n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l y developed  materials.  R e s u l t s from  t h i s .study w i l l p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l data on the e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g comprehension and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s when r e a d i n g l o c a l l y - s e t m a t e r i a l and foreign-set material. On a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n gained i n t h i s study  will  add t o the body of e x i s t i n g e m p i r i c a l knowledge i n the f i e l d of schema t h e o r y and r e a d i n g comprehension;  i n p a r t i c u l a r t h i s study w i l l  yield  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and r e a d i n g comprehension, as w e l l as expanding the area of schema r e s e a r c h (which has so f a r been c o n f i n e d t o r e a d i n g comprehension) i n t o the f i e l d of r e a d i n g  interest. Problem  The purpose of the study was t o determine  the e x t e n t t o which the  v a r i a b l e , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , i n n a r r a t i v e prose i n f l u e n c e d the s i l e n t ing  comprehension and expressed  read-  i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade s t u d e n t s when they  read such n a r r a t i v e p r o s e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r e s e a r c h e r sought t o measure s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension of and expressed  i n t e r e s t i n matched s t o r i e s  w i t h l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , s t o r i e s w i t h f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and stories with non-specific physical settings.  6 The tionship  study a l s o  sought to determine whether or not there was a r e l a -  between grade s i x c h i l d r e n ' s  s t o r i e s and t h e i r expressed i n t e r e s t which an i n t e r a c t i o n physical  setting  silent  r e a d i n g comprehension of the  i n the s t o r i e s , and the extent to  between content d i f f i c u l t y of the s t o r i e s and the  variable  influenced  comprehension and expressed r e a d i n g  grade s i x c h i l d r e n ' s  silent  reading  interest.  Research Questions Two q u e s t i o n s of the study were r e l a t e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y to r e a d i n g  comprehension. 1.  Is r e a d i n g comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n physical  2.  setting  influenced  i n a story?  To what extent i s the r e a d i n g comprehension of s i x t h grade influenced  by the d i f f i c u l t y  To what extent the  2.  3.  physical  i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  setting  i s the i n t e r e s t  the  difficulty  of a s t o r y ?  To what extent  i s interest  influenced  of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  1.  2.  by  by t h e i r  ability?  content d i f f i c u l t y ,  and p h y s i c a l  the  interaction  the  story?  of content d i f f i c u l t y ,  Is the r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t  of r e a d i n g ,  setting.  Is the r e a d i n g comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  action  by  influenced  influenced  Three q u e s t i o n s were concerned w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n s ability,  interest.  i n a story?  To what extent  reading  children  of the s t o r y ?  Three q u e s t i o n s were concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e a d i n g 1.  by the  influenced  and the p h y s i c a l  of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  of t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and the p h y s i c a l  setting i n  influenced setting  by  by the i n t e r i n a story?  7  3.  I s the r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n of the c o n t e n t d i f f i c u l t y and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a s t o r y ? One q u e s t i o n was concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g  comprehension and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . 1.  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and i n t e r e s t of s t o r i e s with  l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and  physical  non-specific  settings? Procedures  For the study, the f o l l o w i n g procedures were developed and c a r r i e d out. Materials Reading and t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s short p r a c t i c e - C l o z e versions  designed f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d  paragraph, s i x short  s t o r i e s with three  ( l o c a l s e t t i n g , f o r e i g n s e t t i n g s , and n o n - s p e c i f i c  tests constructed  of a  alternate s e t t i n g ) ^ Cloze  from each a l t e r n a t e s t o r y v e r s i o n t o measure comprehen-  s i o n , two Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s t o measure expressed i n t e r e s t , and the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension T e s t . Stories.  The s i x s t o r i e s were designed t o c o n t r o l f o r r e l e v a n t  q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v a r y i n g dent v a r i a b l e s , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , and d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l . w i t h t h r e e treatment l e v e l s were w r i t t e n .  the indepen-  S i x s t o r i e s each  Three s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n at  grade ' f o u r ' : r e a d a b i l i t y and t h r e e were w r i t t e n at grade e i g h t r e a d a b i l i t y . The s t o r i e s were a l l w r i t t e n t o approximate the f i r s t c h a p t e r of a mystery novel. Cloze t e s t s .  Seventh word d e l e t i o n Cloze t e s t s were  over a l l the s t o r y v e r s i o n s  constructed  t o measure s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension.  Semantic'Differential scales. to measure expressed  Two  e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d  r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t i n the  stories.  Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension T e s t . t e s t was ranked  a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l s u b j e c t s .  The  comprehension  I n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d were  and grouped t o d i v i d e the sample i n t o t h r e e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y  groups.  Subjects The  s u b j e c t s f o r the study were s e l e c t e d from the Vancouver P u b l i c  School D i s t r i c t .  T h i r t e e n s i x t h grade c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d from seven  s c h o o l s t h a t agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. m i d d l e , and h i g h socio-economic  subjects.  There was  Of the 344  a mix of  low,  students s e l e c t e d  f o r the s t u d y , 83 s u b j e c t s were e l i m i n a t e d from the data a n a l y s i s due incomplete  data and f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes.  to  Complete data were a v a i l -  a b l e and a n a l y z e d f o r 261 s u b j e c t s . C o l l e c t i o n of Data A l l t e s t i n g was  c a r r i e d out d u r i n g October and November,  1979.  P r i o r t o the c o l l e c t i o n of the d a t a , the 18 v e r s i o n s of the  stories  and the 18 C l o z e t e s t s c o n s t r u c t e d from these v e r s i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e separate packages and c o l o u r coded f o r ease of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  There  were s i x s t o r i e s i n each group ( t h r e e easy s t o r i e s and t h r e e  difficult  s t o r i e s ) ' ; moreover, each of the three s e t t i n g treatments was  represented  t w i c e (once i n the easy set of t h r e e , and once i n the d i f f i c u l t  set of  three). Each c l a s s r e c e i v e d a randomized s e l e c t i o n of the t h r e e packages. The  c h i l d r e n read one  s t o r y at a time and then completed the Semantic D i f -  f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s and the C l o z e The classroom  test.  Gates M a c G i n i t i e Comprehension Test was  a d m i n i s t e r e d by  t e a c h e r s , e i t h e r b e f o r e or a f t e r the r e s t of the data  the  collection.  Design The  r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was a 2x3x3 f u l l y c r o s s e d f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n f o r  repeated measures ':over s t o r y . Treatment of Data The  s c o r e s f o r the C l o z e t e s t s , the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s ,  and the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test were a n a l y z e d . u s i n g f a c t o r i a l A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s . were used t o determine  Scheffe t e s t s f o r m u l t i p l e  d i f f e r e n c e s between groups.  comparisons'-  Pearson  Product-Moment  c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d t o determine ^ r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two dependent v a r i a b l e s .  Limitations There were c o n s i d e r e d t o be f o u r l i m i t a t i o n s t o the study. 1.  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was l i m i t e d t o 13 Vancouver grade s i x c l a s s e s .  Thus  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s may be l i m i t e d ; however":., the methodology c o u l d be used w i t h o t h e r groups t o check the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of f i n d ings. 2.  Data were d i s c a r d e d both when s t u d e n t s f a i l e d t o complete the e x p e r i mental m a t e r i a l s , and randomly t o e q u a l i z e c e l l s f o r the a n a l y s i s of data.  3.  The i n t e r e s t measure used t o c o l l e c t "expressed  i n t e r e s t " data was a  f o r c e d c h o i c e instrument and thus r e s u l t s may be a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o the s t o r i e s r e a d . 4.  The comprehension measure, the C l o z e procedure,  i s c o n s i d e r e d by some  a u t h o r i t i e s t o be an a r t i f i c i a l p r o c e s s and may have produced r e a d i n g behaviour  t h a t was d i f f e r e n t from independent r e a d i n g  behaviour.  ( T h i s l i m i t a t i o n of the comprehension measure would, however, p r o b a b l y  be l e s s of a l i m i t a t i o n than those caused by o t h e r c u r r e n t comprehens i o n measures [ R a n k i n ,  1978]).  D e f i n i t ions For the study f i v e d e f i n i t i o n s were 1.  Comprehension was  d e f i n e d as the number of words c o r r e c t l y r e p l a c e d  i n C l o z e t e s t s of the s t o r i e s read 2.  Expressed  developed.  i n t e r e s t was  silently.  d e f i n e d as o r d e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r , or l i k i n g f o r ,  s t o r i e s s i l e n t l y read as measured by a Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l w i t h  two  evaluative scales. 3.  P h y s i c a l s e t t i n g was  d e f i n e d as g e o g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , p l a c e , and  time f o r a s t o r y . 4.  Schema was  d e f i n e d as a p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e t h a t a reader  b r i n g s to a t e x t and uses t o i n t e r p r e t and comprehend t h a t t e x t . 5.  Reading a b i l i t y was  d e f i n e d as low, average,  or h i g h a b i l i t y ;  place-  ment depending on a s t u d e n t ' s s c o r e s on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Comprehension Test.  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the The  r e p o r t i s o r g a n i z e d as  Report  follows:  Chapter  1  Introduct ion  Chapter  2  Review of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e  Chapter  3  P l a n and Design of the Study  Chapter  4  A n a l y s i s of Data  Chapter  5  Summary and  Conclusions Summary  T h i s c h a p t e r has i n t r o d u c e d the s t u d y , g i v e n the r a t i o n a l e , d e f i n e d i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s .  and  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RESEARCH The  purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r  i s to d i s c u s s r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h as i t  p e r t a i n s t o the problem of the study. sections.  The  review i s organized i n t o four  S e c t i o n one d e a l s w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g  schema and comprehension.  S e c t i o n two reviews r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g  w i t h content v a r i a b l e s and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t .  S e c t i o n t h r e e summarizes  the s t u d i e s t h a t examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t r e a d i n g comprehension.  and  These t h r e e s e c t i o n s p r e s e n t the r e s e a r c h w i t h  s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o the c o n t e n t - o f the r e p o r t .  The  f i n a l section,  s e c t i o n f o u r , r e v i e w s r e s e a r c h on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the t h r e e dependent measures.used i n the data c o l l e c t i o n f o r the  P r e - E x i s t i n g Schema, Content V a r i a b l e s , and  study.  Comprehension  A c u r r e n t t h e o r y of comprehension t h a t seeks to p r o v i d e a p r o c e s s i n g model i s schema t h e o r y .  coherent  Schema t h e o r y , u n l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l  p r o c e s s i n g t h e o r i e s t h a t emphasize p e r c e p t i o n , s t o r a g e , and  retrieval,  c o n c e n t r a t e s on knowledge of p a r t i c u l a r domains ( I r a n - N e j a d , 1980)  and  c l a i m s t h a t the knowledge a person b r i n g s to t e x t has an i n f l u e n c e on what i s l e a r n e d and understood  from exposure to t e x t (Anderson, 1977).  This  knowledge i s assumed to form p a r t of a b s t r a c t c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s c a l l e d schemas. to  A schema r e p r e s e n t s g e n e r i c knowledge:  a number of t h i n g s or  situations. 11  t h a t which i s common  Two  fundamental t e n e t s of the schema^-theoretic  approach to (language)  comprehension are 1) t h a t t e x t does not i n i t s e l f c a r r y meaning, but v i d e s d i r e c t i o n s f o r l i s t e n e r s or readers about how or c o n s t r u c t the i n t e n d e d meaning from t h e i r own edge, and  pro-  they should r e t r i e v e  p r e v i o u s l y acquired knowl-  2) t h a t t e x t i s never f u l l y e x p l i c i t , but r e l i e s on i n f e r e n c e .  Readers must "go  beyond the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n " and draw the i m p l i e d r e l a -  t i o n s h i p s i n the absence of s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n (Anderson et a l . , 1977). A number of s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d evidence t o support  the schema-  t h e o r y c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and the comprehension of t e x t , and have a l s o examined the s t r e n g t h of t h i s relationship.  Some of these  same s t u d i e s , w i t h o t h e r s , p r o v i d e  about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s p e c i f i c content V a l i d i t y of the Schema Theory  information  v a r i a b l e s i n comprehension.  Construct  A study t h a t examined the e f f e c t of p r e - e x i s t i n g schema f o r t o p i c content was  on the s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension of elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  c a r r i e d out by Gordon et a l . (1978).  Twenty-five  grade two c h i l d r e n  were g i v e n a t e s t to determine t h e i r p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge about s p i d e r s . Ten c h i l d r e n w i t h the lowest  scores and t e n c h i l d r e n w i t h the  scores on the t e s t were i d e n t i f i e d . a l l y equal i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and  The  two groups, who  highest  were s t a t i s t i c -  i n t e l l i g e n c e , then read s i l e n t l y a s e l e c -  t i o n about s p i d e r s and answered 12 comprehension q u e s t i o n s .  The  group  w i t h the h i g h e s t scores on the p r e - t e s t performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on the comprehension measure.  The  authors  concluded  t h a t the p r e - e x i s t i n g  schema of the t e n c h i l d r e n had a f f e c t e d t h e i r r e a d i n g comprehension. I t has been suggested t h a t the reader must r e l y on p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge to f i l l statements,  t e x t u a l gaps, t o c l a r i f y vague or ambiguous t e x t u a l  and to i n c o r p o r a t e u n f a m i l i a r i n f o r m a t i o n from the t e x t w i t h  13 f a m i l i a r p r e - e x i s t i n g schema.  The  f o l l o w i n g three studies i l l u s t r a t e  how  p r e - e x i s t i n g schema can f a c i l i t a t e comprehension by c l a r i f y i n g t e x t u a l i n f e r e n c e s and  " f i l l i n g i n the gaps."  A study by B a r t l e t t (1932) i s c o n s i d e r e d  to be the seminal  the s c h e m a - t h e o r e t i c model of comprehension, a l t h o u g h use the term "schema t h e o r y . "  I n B a r t l e t t ' s study,  he d i d not  omissions  re-tell i t .  himself  War  of  the  D i s t o r t i o n s i n the r e c a l l s c o n s i s t e d of more than  and c o n d e n s a t i o n s .  ated and new  for  s u b j e c t s i n England  were asked t o read a Northwest Coast I n d i a n f o l k t a l e , "The G h o s t s " and  study  B a r t l e t t r e p o r t e d t h a t themes were e l a b o r -  information introduced—information  t h a t appeared to r e f l e c t  the i n t e r e s t b i a s e s and knowledge systems of the r e a d e r s .  According  to  B a r t l e t t the s u b j e c t s added t o the m a t e r i a l t o make i t more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r own  knowledge s t r u c t u r e s .  B a r t l e t t concluded t h a t a l a c k of  e x i s t i n g schema f o r I n d i a n t a l e s gave r i s e to i n c o r r e c t i n f e r e n c e s  preand  r e s u l t e d i n i n t r u s i o n s , being made. S u l i n g and D o o l i n g  (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d the h y p o t h e s i s  that  students  r e a d i n g about a famous person a l r e a d y possessed a schema about the person and would i n t e g r a t e new Conversely  t e x t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o t h a t p r e - e x i s t i n g schema.  they h y p o t h e s i z e d  schema f o r f i c t i t i o u s  t h a t a c o n t r o l group would have to b u i l d  new  characters.  In the study, u s i n g c o l l e g e students  as s u b j e c t s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l  read a b i o g r a p h i c a l passage about H i t l e r or Helen K e l l e r . read the same passage but were t o l d the passage was ( G e r a l d M a r t i n and C a r o l H a r r i s ) .  The  group  A c o n t r o l group  about f i c t i t i o u s persons  r e s u l t s supported the hypotheses.  On a -test of r e c o g n i t i o n e r r o r s the "famous p e r s o n " group made more f a l s e p o s i t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n e r r o r s than the " f i c t i t i o u s p e r s o n " group. person group a p p a r e n t l y  a s s i m i l a t e d any new  The  famous  information into their pre-existing  14 schema and could.-not • d i s t i n g u i s h the new Brown et a l . (1977) s t u d i e d  i n f o r m a t i o n from the o l d .  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  l i s t e n i n g comprehension and t h e i r background knowledge e x i s t i n g schemata). six,  Thirty  were randomly d i v i d e d  children's  structures  (pre-  s t u d e n t s i n each of grades two, f o u r ,  i n t o t h r e e groups.  and  Each of the groups  was  i n d i v i d u a l l y shown a book about a f i c t i t i o u s t r i b e c a l l e d "Targa." book had photographs and gave i n f o r m a t i o n about the t r i b e ' s way and environment.  Two  The  of l i f e  of the groups had d i f f e r e n t "Targa" books.  There  was an Eskimo "Targa" and an I n d i a n "Targa" t o p r o v i d e o r i e n t a t i o n s the t a s k .  The t h i r d group, which was the c o n t r o l group, was  for  shown a book  about S p a i n . A target  passage c a l l e d "Tor of the Targas" was w r i t t e n  i n t o 48 p a u s a l u n i t s .  From these u n i t s  12 were r a t e d  and  divided  as most i m p o r t a n t  by 60 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . One week a f t e r the c h i l d r e n had been shown " t h e i r " book, they l i s t e n e d t o the t a r g e t ' p a s s a g e and then performed two t a s k s : c a l l e d the t a r g e t it.  passage o r a l l y and then answered t e n q u e s t i o n s about  S i x q u e s t i o n s were l i t e r a l ,  t h a t probed ambiguous s e c t i o n s  and f o u r were c r i t i c a l  of the passage.  l e v e l questions  A f t e r each of the "probe"  q u e s t i o n s the c h i l d r e n were asked whether the i n f o r m a t i o n was age or j u s t something they knew. f o r age, the o l d e r younger c h i l d r e n the  children  R e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s  i n the p a s s -  showed a main e f f e c t  (grade s i x ) r e c a l l i n g more u n i t s than the  (grades two and f o u r ) ;  subjects receiving  those r e c e i v i n g  they r e -  a relevant  a main e f f e c t f o r o r i e n t a t i o n ,  o r i e n t a t i o n r e c a l l i n g more u n i t s  the i r r e l e v a n t S p a n i s h o r i e n t a t i o n ;  and a main e f f e c t  f o r importance of u n i t s r e c a l l e d w i t h s t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l i n c r e a s i n g function  of the importance of the 12 most h i g h l y  than  rated  idea u n i t s .  as a  15 A n a l y s i s of the probe q u e s t i o n s believed  showed t h a t the m a j o r i t y  t h a t a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n  t i o n s was  of the c h i l d r e n  they gave i n the answers to the  mentioned i n the passage a l t h o u g h they had  ques-  not r e c a l l e d i t as  p a r t of t h e i r o r a l r e c a l l . The  researchers  to make more use  concluded t h a t t h e r e  i s a tendency f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n  of background knowledge than younger c h i l d r e n .  g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e l e v a n t i n t r u s i v e mation from the book t h a t was  comments;  They d i d  they i n c l u d e d  not mentioned i n the t a r g e t passage;  inforand  they r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i d e a u n i t s than the younger c h i l d r e n . The  "extra" information  reported  how  background schema can add  The  researchers  by a l l the c h i l d r e n was  to the sense and  assumed to show  c o h e s i o n of what i s r e a d .  a l s o concluded t h a t schemata p r o v i d e  the i n t e r p r e t i v e frame-  work f o r comprehending the d i s c o u r s e , t h a t the ambiguous or incomplete t i o n s f o r the n a r r a t i v e are " f i l l e d c a r r y meaning, but  i n , " and  that discourse  sec-  i t s e l f does not  c a r r i e s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning.  A s e r i e s of i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s have shown t h a t p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge schemata may but may  f u n c t i o n not  o n l y to i n f l u e n c e what i s r e c a l l e d a f t e r  f u n c t i o n to o r i e n t r e a d e r s to i n t e r p r e t a t e x t u a l message i n c e r -  t a i n ways.  Readers w i t h d i f f e r e n t schemata may  give d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e -  t a t i o n s to the same t e x t u a l passage.  In a study c a r r i e d out by  and  examined.  Anderson (1976), p o i n t - o f - v i e w  which a s t o r y i s read, studied  reading  and  how  was  this perspective  The  Pichert  perspective  from  a f f e c t s comprehension,  was  i n some depth.  Two  passages were c o n s t r u c t e d  perspective.  The  first  passage was  t h a t c o u l d be read  from more than  one  o s t e n s i b l y about boys p l a y i n g hooky,  but  a l s o contained  a number of f e a t u r e s of i n t e r e s t to a b u r g l a r  ber  of f e a t u r e s of i n t e r e s t to a homebuyer.  The  and  a num-  second passage about  16 an i s l a n d was s i m i l a r l y c o n s t r u c t e d t o be read from more than one tive.  Four r a t e r s parsed  perspec-  the f i r s t passage i n t o 72 i d e a u n i t s and the  second passage i n t o 56 u n i t s . S u b j e c t s were 63 undergraduates who were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups. Each group read the passage from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e .  F o r the f i r s t  passage, one group was t o l d the passage was about a p o t e n t i a l homebuyer, the second group was t o l d i t was about a b u r g l a r , and the t h i r d group was a c o n t r o l group.  A f t e r r e a d i n g , s u b j e c t s r a t e d each i d e a u n i t on a f i v e  p o i n t s c a l e f o r i t s importance t o the s t o r y .  A n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.91 t o .95) between p e r s p e c t i v e of the reader and the r a t e d importance of i d e a u n i t s . For t h e second phase of t h e experiment, 113 undergraduate  students  were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups and randomly a s s i g n e d t o one of the t h r e e conditions. analyzed  Each group read and r e c a l l e d one passage.  t o see i f t h e more important  i d e a u n i t s (as chosen by the s u b j e c t s  i n phase one) were b e t t e r r e c a l l e d than the l e s s important whether t h i s depended upon the p e r s p e c t i v e of the r e a d e r . s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t f o r the importance of i d e a u n i t . importance, the b e t t e r the r e c a l l .  R e s u l t s were  i d e a u n i t s , and There was a  The g r e a t e r the  S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  r e s u l t f o r f i v e out of s i x p e r s p e c t i v e s .  The importance of an i d e a u n i t  depended upon the p e r s p e c t i v e used i n the r e a d i n g .  I t was an i d e a ' s  sig-  n i f i c a n c e i n terms of a g i v e n p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i n f l u e n c e d whether or not i t was r e c a l l e d . An experiment w i t h hypotheses s i m i l a r t o those of the p r e c e d i n g but w i t h d i f f e r e n t procedures was designed Rather than m a n i p u l a t i n g  study  by Anderson et a l . (1977).  c o n t e x t t o b r i n g d i f f e r e n t schemata i n t o p l a y  when r e a d i n g t e x t , the r e s e a r c h e r s used as s u b j e c t s s t u d e n t s w i t h  different  17 e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds and presumably d i f f e r e n t knowledge hypothesized to  schemata.  They  t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' p r e - e x i s t i n g schemata would o r i e n t them  i n t e r p r e t t h e same ambiguous passages i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  were p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s and music e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . two passages t h a t c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i n two d i s t i n c t ways.  Subjects They read The f i r s t  passage c o u l d be viewed as a c o n v i c t p l a n n i n g h i s escape from p r i s o n or a w r e s t l e r t r y i n g t o break the h o l d o f h i s opponent.  The second passage  c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as being about a group o f people p l a y i n g c a r d s o r a l t e r n a t e l y as a r e h e a r s a l o f a woodwind ensemble. choice questions expected  Answers t o m u l t i p l e  (with d i s t r a c t o r s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h one or t h e o t h e r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) showed t h a t w h i l e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  students  i n t e r p r e t e d t h e p r i s o n / w r e s t l i n g passage as a w r e s t l i n g match 64% o f t h e time, music s t u d e n t s gave t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n l y 28% of t h e time.  The  c a r d game/music passage was seen as a woodwind r e h e a r s a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 71% o f the time by t h e music s t u d e n t s , but o n l y 29% o f t h e time by the p h y s i c a l education students.  The r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t  t h a t t h e r e s u l t s were  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a schema-base p r o c e s s i n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f comprehension and concluded  t h a t p r e - e x i s t i n g schema were used t o o r g a n i z e and i n t e r -  p r e t the t e x t u a l message. A t h i r d dimension was added t o t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f schema t h e o r y i n a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s by B r a n s f o r d and Johnson  (1973) who attempted t o demon-  s t r a t e t h a t f o r comprehension i t i s not enough merely t o have schemata.  They h y p o t h e s i z e d  pre-existing  t h a t comprehension o f a t e x t may be impos-  s i b l e u n l e s s r e a d e r s ' schemata can be a c t i v a t e d . In to  a first  experiment, 50 h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were asked t o l i s t e n  a s h o r t passage of p r o s e , r a t e i t on a seven p o i n t s c a l e f o r ease o f  comprehension and t o r e c a l l i t i n w r i t i n g .  18 The  50 s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e groups:  a p r e - c o n t e x t group  whose s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t i n g the content of the passage b e f o r e r e a d i n g the passage;  a non-context  group;  a p a r t i a l - c o n t e x t group  whose s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t i n g the content of the passage i n which the o b j e c t s had been r e a r r a n g e d ;  a c o n t e x t - a f t e r group whose  s u b j e c t s were g i v e n the p i c t u r e a f t e r l i s t e n i n g  to the passage;  and a  c o n t e x t (2) group whose s u b j e c t s heard the passage t w i c e . R e c a l l s were s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g to i d e a u n i t s , which had been d e s i g nated by the r e s e a r c h e r s a p r i o r i .  (The  i d e a u n i t s corresponded  s e n t e n c e s , semantic p r o p o s i t i o n s , or p h r a s e s . ) r e c a l l sheets a g a i n s t the l i s t of i d e a u n i t s . r e s o l v e d by a t h i r d  Two  to e i t h e r  judges s c o r e d the  Cases of disagreement were  judge.  The p r e - c o n t e x t group r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of the passage than the o t h e r f o u r groups,  and a l s o found the passage  significantly  e a s i e r to" understand. S i n c e t h i s passage was  d e l i b e r a t e l y designed  s t a n d , the r e s e a r c h e r s r e p e a t e d the experiment  to be d i f f i c u l t to under-  t h r e e times w i t h o t h e r  pass-  ages t h a t they thought would be f a m i l i a r to a l l the s u b j e c t s . In  the second experiment,  35 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d t o , and r e -  c a l l e d , a passage on washing c l o t h e s . the t i t l e b e f o r e l i s t e n i n g and the t i t l e  Seventeen s t u d e n t s were not g i v e n  18 were g i v e n the t i t l e .  The group g i v e n  r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the group w i t h o u t the  S i n c e a l l the s t u d e n t s presumably had p r e - e x i s t i n g schema c l o t h e s , " the r e s e a r c h e r s suggest i f comprehension was  title.  f o r "washing  t h a t t h i s schemata had to be a c t i v a t e d  t o take p l a c e and t h a t the l i s t e n e r s w i t h the  con-  t e x t t i t l e were a b l e to a c t i v a t e t h i s p r e - e x i s t i n g schema,: , w h i l e the s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t the context.were  not.  19 Two study  f u r t h e r experiments designed along  obtained  the  P a r i s and 15  g r a d e and  same r e s u l t s as  Brooks  fifth  (1976)  Their  J o h n s o n , and It  second  same l i n e s as  be  simply  they concluded that  t h e r e w e r e no  age,  the  information concerning been o b t a i n e d  hypotheses.  reader  developmental must be  able  of  text i s f a c i l i t a t e d  t h e s e s c h e m a t a m u s t be the  from s t u d i e s reviewed confirms  by  increases with ences provide  given  age,  a c t i v a t e d i n the  i n c r e a s i n g l y stronger  a t e x t u a l m e s s a g e , and  the  research  schema t h e o r y — t h a t  meaning, i f a reader's constructed  reader  that  the  and  effects.  to gain  access  place.  comprehension  the  schema  the  comprehension  i f they are  theory  use  t o be  also used  made o f  and  t h e r e f o r e more u s a b l e  that in  schema .  s u g g e s t s t h a t more n u m e r o u s l i f e  and  point-of-view  reviewed  experi-  schemata.  i n the  schema i s f u l l  and  elements not  clarify—or  f a c t t h a t no  supports  from which i t i s  the  may—if  the  read.  fundamental tenets  t e x t , t h a t t e x t does not  c a r r i e s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the  usually includes  that embellish  the  meaning i s not  c a r r y meaning, but  The  only  I t a l s o appears that  a f i n d i n g that  develop-  i t a p p e a r s t h a t p r e - e x i s t i n g schema a f f e c t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  I n sum,  itself  and  p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e s , but  comprehension process.  Further,  p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and  These s t u d i e s d e m o n s t r a t e not  second  to those of B r a n s f o r d  t o h i s / h e r p r e - e x i s t i n g schema i f c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s t o t a k e  t h a t has  16  the product of normal c h i l d  r e s u l t s , however, were s i m i l a r  previous  experiment.  r e p l i c a t e d these experiments w i t h  appeared that whatever the  The  the  grade c h i l d r e n to a s c e r t a i n whether B r a n s f o r d  Johnson's r e s u l t s might not ment.  the  the  complete. explicitly  in  construction The  of  representation  contained  schema i s f a u l t y ,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d a t e has  of  contradicted  i n the  text  confuse. schema  theory  20 suggests t h a t schema t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a coherent c o n s t r u c t w i t h i n which to study comprehension, and t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are w a r r a n t e d . S p e c i f i c Content V a r i a b l e s and The theory.  Comprehension  s t u d i e s a l r e a d y reviewed  support  the g e n e r a l t e n e t s of schema  Three of these same s t u d i e s , w i t h o t h e r s , p r o v i d e evidence  i n g t h a t s p e c i f i c content  indicat-  v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e prose have a s i g n i f i c a n t  e f f e c t on comprehension. Both Gordon et a l . (1978), and Brown et a l . (1977) c i t e d above i n the r e v i e w on schema t h e o r y , examined t o p i c content  and  comprehension.  Gordon used knowledge about s p i d e r s , and Brown used s o c i a l s t u d i e s k n o w l edge about I n d i a n and Eskimos f o r t h e i r c o n t e n t . f a m i l i a r i t y and knowledge of the t o p i c content t e x t comprehension.  Both s t u d i e s found t h a t  .significantly  facilitated  P i c h e r t and Anderson (1976) a l s o c i t e d above i n the  r e v i e w on schema t h e o r y , manipulated  the content  v a r i a b l e - point-of-view.  T h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t comprehension i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the p e r s p e c t i v e from which a t e x t i s read. Two sion.  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s examined content  Although  v a r i a b l e s and r e a d i n g comprehen-  not done under the g e n e r a l r u b r i c of schema t h e o r y r e -  s e a r c h , the s t u d i e s done by K l e i n (1968). and Cunningham (1976) n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n f i r m the schema t h e o r y hypotheses. K l e i n f o c u s s e d on the o c c u p a t i o n n a r r a t i v e prose and how  and gender of the p r o t a g o n i s t i n  t h i s a f f e c t e d r e a d i n g comprehension.  s i x b a s i c s t o r i e s around t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s : w o r k e r s , two  about b a l l e t dancers,  s i x s t o r i e s was  s t o r i e s about  about p i l o t s .  social  Each of the  w r i t t e n i n two v e r s i o n s , one w i t h a female main c h a r a c t e r  and one w i t h a male. reference.  and two  two  K l e i n wrote  The  o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s were i n names and  A l l s t o r i e s were c o n t r o l l e d f o r r e a d a b i l i t y .  pronoun  The  subjects  21 were 312 grade f i v e s t u d e n t s who were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r equal  groups—two  of each sex.  t h r e e male  One group of each sex read s i x b a s i c s t o r i e s ;  v e r s i o n s and t h r e e female v e r s i o n s .  The o t h e r two groups read the same  s t o r i e s but i n t h e o p p o s i t e sex v e r s i o n . C l o z e t e s t s f o r each s t o r y .  Comprehension was measured  using  Changing the sex o f the main c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n  a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y content d i d not a f f e c t the scores o f e i t h e r sex.  How^  e v e r , g i r l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r C l o z e scores when r e a d i n g b a l l e t dancer content than they d i d f o r p i l o t c o n t e n t , w h i l e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r boys i n c o n t e n t s . Cunningham (1976) examined the content v a r i a b l e , f i g u r a t i v e language. In t h i s study the i n f l u e n c e o f the amount o f metaphor r e a d i n g comprehension was a n a l y z e d .  i n w r i t t e n t e x t upon  S u b j e c t s were 190 s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  who read two passages r e l a t i n g the same events but d i f f e r i n g i n t h e amount of m e t a p h o r i c a l language used. Cloze t e s t .  Comprehension was measured by means of a  A l t h o u g h the passages were equated f o r r e a d a b i l i t y , C l o z e  comprehension o f the m e t a p h o r i c a l passage was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the comprehension of the n o n - m e t a p h o r i c a l  version.  The c o n c l u s i o n was drawn  t h a t c h i l d r e n f i n d m e t a p h o r i c a l language harder t o understand literal  than  direct  language.  The content v a r i a b l e s examined i n t h e s t u d i e s reviewed here appear t o have a f f e c t e d the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t e x t , e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t i n g or h i n d e r i n g the comprehension p r o c e s s .  The e f f e c t of the content v a r i a b l e , phys-  i c a l s e t t i n g , on comprehension has, so f a r , not been examined  empirically,  a l t h o u g h a schema-theory model of comprehension (borne out by the i n f o r m a t i o n gained i n the r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h ) would suggest t h a t p h y s i c a l  setting  might be a f a c t o r o f some importance i n a r e a d e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t e x t . I f r e a d e r s were a b l e t o match the s e t t i n g i n a n a r r a t i v e t o a p r e - e x i s t i n g  22 schema then u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the n a r r a t i v e might be enhanced;  and  conversely,  t h a t i f the s e t t i n g c o u l d not be matched to a p r e - e x i s t i n g schema, then u n d e r s t a n d i n g might be hampered.  Content V a r i a b l e s and Reading I n t e r e s t T h i s s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r r e p o r t s r e s e a r c h t h a t examines content v a r i a b l e s and r e a d i n g  interest.  Schema t h e o r i s t s have not as y e t attempted of s p e c i f i c schema f o r r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t .  any s t u d i e s on the i n f l u e n c e  However, a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of  work has been done over the y e a r s on the content v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e prose that a f f e c t c h i l d r e n ' s reading i n t e r e s t .  These s t u d i e s are reviewed  below  and a c o n c l u s i o n drawn about t h e i r v a l u e i n expanding the schema t h e o r y model t o i n c l u d e i n t e r e s t  factors.  A c c o r d i n g to the survey of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s comp i l e d by Purves and Beach (1972), most r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t surveys are based on a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n a l f a c t o r , t h a t of the s u b j e c t matter of the book. They suggest  t h a t most s t u d i e s i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g  interest  on a h o l i s t i c b a s i s and p r e s e n t a g l o b a l view of r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s .  Few  s t u d i e s , they c o n c l u d e , have probed beyond these h o l i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s t o d i s c e r n how  p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of form a f f e c t i n t e r e s t ; ' however these r e -  s e a r c h e r s have p a r t i c u l a r i z e d d i s c r e t e f a c t o r s w i t h i n n a r r a t i v e (such as s t y l e , p l o t , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and s e t t i n g ) t h a t appeal t o s t u d e n t s . B e r n s t e i n (1955) examined student p r e f e r e n c e i n s t y l e . n i n t h grade s t u d e n t s read two passages. c l e a r - s t y l e , and a teen-age hero;  One  She had  passage had a c t i o n , suspense,  the o t h e r passage was t a k e n from  N a t h a n i a l Hawthorne's The House of Seven Gables which r e p r e s e n t e d a ary s t y l e .  100  liter-  Both passages were read and r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t i n t e r e s t  23 s c a l e by the s u b j e c t s .  The s u b j e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r e s t e d  i n the a c t i o n passage than i n the l i t e r a r y one. Simpson and Soares (1965) c a r r i e d out a study i n which the c o n t e n t variables, p l o t , s t y l e , character,  v o i c e , mode, p e r s p e c t i v e ,  and s e t t i n g  were examined. A sample of 4250 seventh, e i g h t h , and n i n t h grade s t u d e n t s read a minimum of 20 " s t o r i e s " ( t h e term " s t o r i e s " a l s o i n c l u d e d essays and d e s c r i p t i o n s ) from a p o o l of 862- s t o r i e s and r a t e d each s t o r y on a 27-item i n t e r e s t scale. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r a l l the content v a r i a b l e s the e x c e p t i o n  of the " s e t t i n g " v a r i a b l e .  with  I t was found t h a t s t o r i e s w i t h  h i g h r a t e d i n t e r e s t (as compared t o s t o r i e s w i t h low r a t e d i n t e r e s t ) coiir t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n c r e t e language (as opposed t o a b s t r a c t ) , more p h y s i c a l a c t i o n , c o n f l i c t and suspense, more d i a l o g u e ,  g r e a t e r c l a r i t y of  language, and more n a r r a t i v e s (as opposed t o essays and d e s c r i p t i o n s ) . S t o r i e s with high main c h a r a c t e r s  i n t e r e s t a l s o had more d e s c r i p t i o n s of persons and more  as w e l l as more o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r s  person n a r r a t o r ) .  (as compared t o f i r s t  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r s e t t i n g (des-  c r i p t i o n s of p l a c e ) . Soares and Simpson (1968) undertook a f u r t h e r study t o determine whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i k i n g f o r s h o r t short s t o r i e s e x i s t e d f o r j u n i o r high according  school  s t u d e n t s when they were grouped  t o i n t e l l i g e n c e ( h i g h , average, l o w ) , grade ( s e v e n t h ,  n i n t h ) , and sex. 60 short  s t o r i e s and n a r r a t i v e elements i n  stories.  eighth,  Students were r e q u e s t e d t o r a t e , on the b a s i s of l i k i n g , Elements chosen f o r a n a l y s i s were:  type of c o n f l i c t ,  type of s t o r y , content of s t o r y , theme, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the main c h a r a c t e r s , and f a c t o r s of suspense and r e a l i s m .  The r e s u l t of a n a l y s i s showed  t h a t t h e average  group p r e f e r r e d a g r e a t e r number o f t h e s t o r i e s  d i d t h e low group. and  suspense.  than  A l l t h e groups showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e a l i s m  The h i g h and average  group l i k e d e x t e r n a l c o n f l i c t  r a t h e r than i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , b u t t h e low group p r e f e r r e d a combinat i o n o f t h e two.  A l l groups s e l e c t e d t h e n a r r a t i v e mode over t h e  essay and d e s c r i p t i v e and p r e f e r r e d an a t t r a c t i v e male teenager as the main c h a r a c t e r . The  e f f e c t s o f t h e s t o r y elements f o r a l l t h r e e grades were t h e  same, and t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n response  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o gender.  A study t h a t examined c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t and comprehension towards t h e gender and o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n n a r r a t i v e prose was c a r r i e d out by K l e i n  (1968).  The comprehension  section  o f t h i s study has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d i n a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . Klein  (1968) wrote s i x b a s i c s t o r i e s around t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s :  two  s t o r i e s were about b a l l e t d a n c e r s , two about s o c i a l workers, and  two  about p i l o t s .  Each o f t h e s i x s t o r i e s was w r i t t e n i n two v e r -  s i o n s , one w i t h a male main c h a r a c t e r and one w i t h a female. was  Interest  measured w i t h Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s and a t r a d i t i o n a l s i x p o i n t  scale.  Boys r a t e d s t o r i e s w i t h male p r o t a g o n i s t s h i g h e r than  stories  w i t h female p r o t a g o n i s t s o n l y i n t h e p i l o t o c c u p a t i o n s t o r i e s , w h i l e f e males r a t e d s t o r i e s w i t h female p r o t a g o n i s t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s t o r i e s w i t h males f o r each o c c u p a t i o n . s t u d e n t s were more concerned  than  I t would seem t h a t t h e female  w i t h gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n n a r r a t i v e  than  25 were the males. A study of the c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e ,  s e t t i n g , and i t s e f f e c t s on the  r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t of i n n e r - c i t y c h i l d r e n was c a r r i e d out by Emans (1968). A random sample of 11 i n n e r - c i t y g i r l s and boys ( n o n - r e a d e r s i n grade l i s t e n e d t o s i x p a i r s of s t o r i e s from m u l t i - e t h n i c  readers.  Each p a i r  of s t o r i e s had one s t o r y about the c i t y environment and one s t o r y a friend-pet-family  theme.  was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n f a v o u r of the p e t s - f a m i l y - f r i e n d s  over the  i n n e r - c i t y c h i l d r e n are more i n t e r e s t e d  show a suburban way of l i f e  rather  in listening  than a c i t y way of  T h i s study used p a i r s of s t o r i e s t h a t were not c o n t r o l l e d and mood.  There  The study was r e p l i c a t e d and the r e s u l t s were the same.  Emans c o n c l u d e d t h a t to s t o r i e s t h a t  from  Each c h i l d was asked, a f t e r each p a i r of s t o r -  i e s had been r e a d , which s t o r y he/she would l i k e t o hear a g a i n .  c i t y environment.  one)  f o r tone  The c i t y s t o r i e s were t o t a l l y concerned w i t h the c i t y  environment, but the f r i e n d - f a m i l y - p e t s h i p s and f e e l i n g s .  Results,  life.  setting  s t o r i e s were concerned w i t h r e l a t i o n -  therefore,  may be c o m p l e t e l y i n v a l i d .  The purpose of Johns' (1970) study was t o e x p l o r e the h y p o t h e s i s that  inner-city children  i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades a c t u a l l y p r e f e r  to  read s t o r i e s or books which c o n t a i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s , s e t t i n g s , and c h a r a c t e r s based on e x p e r i e n c e s t o which they can r e l a t e . fifth,  and s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  cities.  fourth,  l i v i n g i n f o u r l a r g e midwestern American  There were 199 c h i l d r e n  b o y / g i r l r a t i o was even.  H i s sample was 597  i n each grade of the sample, and the  There were 515 b l a c k s t u d e n t s and 52 w h i t e s t u -  dents i n the sample. In the f i r s t selected  phase of the s t u d y , f i v e p a i r s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s were  from modern r e a l i s t i c f i c t i o n books f o r c h i l d r e n .  d e p i c t e d the s t a r k crowded c o n d i t i o n s  These  pairs  of i n n e r - c i t y l i f e , and p l e a s a n t m i d d l e -  26 cTa ss suburban-'settings•  Passages from t r a d e books were then chosen which  •.-.  / —  d e s c r i b e d the s e t t i n g s d e p i c t e d by the s l i d e s . of s l i d e s and  C h i l d r e n viewed each p a i r  l i s t e n e d to the d e s c r i p t i o n s from a tape.  responded to t h r e e  They then  questions:  1.  Which p i c t u r e and d e s c r i p t i o n i s most l i k e the p l a c e where you  2.  In which neighbourhood would you r a t h e r  3.  I f a s t o r y or book was  live?  live?  w r i t t e n about one of these areas or n e i g h b o u r -  hoods which would you p r e f e r to read? There was  a s i g n i f i c a n t preference  f o r s t o r i e s or books which d e p i c t e d  middle c l a s s s e t t i n g s . I n the second phase of the study a s i m i l a r procedure was  employed.  F i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s d e p i c t e d c h a r a c t e r s w i t h p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t s and d e s c r i p t i o n s depicted characters with negative  self-concepts.  t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t c h a r a c t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s were p a i r e d w i t h the ones.  The  posi-  negative  A f t e r l i s t e n i n g to each taped p a i r of d e s c r i p t i o n s each  responded t o t h r e e  five  student  questions.  1.  Which p e r s o n sounds most l i k e you?  2.  Which p e r s o n would you r a t h e r  3.  I f a book or s t o r y was  be?  to be w r i t t e n about one  of these p e o p l e ,  which  would you p r e f e r to read? There was  a s i g n i f i c a n t preference  f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s which depicted  charac-  ters with p o s i t i v e self-concept. A t h i r d phase of the experiment examined c h a r a c t e r s i n p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n s compared w i t h c h a r a c t e r s i n n e g a t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n s . There was  a s i g n i f i c a n t preference  for descriptions with characters i n  p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s r e s e a r c h Johns concluded  that c i t y c h i l d r e n  27 p r e f e r not t o read about i n n e r - c i t y s e t t i n g s , and p r e f e r c h a r a c t e r s positive self-concepts, Johns' c o n c l u s i o n s  and c h a r a c t e r s  with  i n p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n s .  may a l l be v a l i d j however, an i n s p e c t i o n of the p a i r s  of s l i d e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s used f o r the " s e t t i n g " e x p l o r a t i o n s  show t h a t  a v e r y gloomy dark s i d e of i n n e r - c i t y l i f e was compared t o a b r i g h t /  f u l suburbia.  cheer-  The passages were not c o n t r o l l e d f o r e i t h e r tone or mood.  I f the i n n e r - c i t y s e t t i n g s had been more p o s i t i v e and c h e e r f u l t h e r e might have been d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s .  /  Yoder (1978) examined male and female h i g h s c h o o l i n t e r e s t i n four n a r r a t i v e f a c t o r s :  students'  sex of the p r o t a g o n i s t ,  reading  narration,  p l o t p o r t r a y a l , and s e t t i n g . Each of the f o u r v a r i a b l e s was b i p o l a r i z e d by a s e t of p a i r e d tors.  The f o u r f a c t o r s were i n c o r p o r a t e d  of imaginary The  i n t o 32 synopses  novels.  synopses were read a l o u d t o 485 h i g h s c h o o l  them on a f i v e p o i n t onist influenced preferred  systematically  descrip-  scale.  Results  s t u d e n t s who  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the sex of the p r o t a g -  r e a d i n g c h o i c e — b o y s p r e f e r r e d male c h a r a c t e r s  and g i r l s  females, a f i n d i n g t h a t agrees i n g e n e r a l w i t h K l e i n ' s .  students also preferred  rated  a c t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n s of e x t e r n a l a c t i o n s  Male rather  than i n t r o s p e c t i v e n a r r a t i o n , whereas f o r females t h e r e were „no" s i g n i f i c a n t differences.  There were no sex d i f f e r e n c e s  f o r p o r t r a y a l of e v e n t s , but  " d i r e c t " event p o r t r a y a l (as opposed t o f l a s h - b a c k of e v e n t s ) was p r e f e r r e d for setting.  by both sexes.  S e t t i n g , defined  and c o m p l i c a t e d c h a i n s  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t  as the p h y s i c a l and temporal boundaries  of t h e i n c i d e n t s of a p l o t , was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r male s t u d e n t s who o p e n - l i m i t l e s s , outdoor s e t t i n g s . females on the s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e .  preferred  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r  28 Yoder concluded  t h a t t h e r e was  a d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s  of male and female h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n the areas of sex of the p r o t a g o n i s t , type of n a r r a t i o n , and  setting.  A summary of the f i n d i n g s of the s t u d i e s reviewed above l e a d s to the c o n c l u s i o n s 1) t h a t some u s e f u l evidence has been gathered on the e f f e c t of s p e c i f i c content v a r i a b l e s on the r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s of p a r t i c u l a r groups of c h i l d r e n and 2) t h a t the schema t h e o r y model might add a u s e f u l  dimension  to f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f - s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e s and r e a d i n g  interests.  Without q u e s t i o n i n g the v a l i d i t y of e x i s t i n g f i n d i n g s i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t on the whole the r e s e a r c h on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s has~-been m a i n l y of the " s t a t u s s t u d y " t y p e .  Thus f a r , t h a t i s , the r e s e a r c h e r has  obtained  the r e a c t i o n of r e a d e r s to n a r r a t i v e prose t h a t c o n t a i n s "more" or " l e s s " of the content v a r i a b l e being i n v e s t i g a t e d and drawn c o n c l u s i o n s about the e f f e c t on the r e a d e r s ' i n t e r e s t of the presence content v a r i a b l e .  or absence of t h a t  Most 'researchers have not assessed the r e a d e r s ' p r e -  e x i s t i n g knowledge of each content v a r i a b l e s t u d i e d and so t h e r e has been l i t t l e attempt  to d i s c o v e r t o what e x t e n t i n t e r e s t i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r e -  e x i s t i n g knowledge. point.  The  f i n d i n g s on p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g p r o v i d e a case i n  Simpson and Soares suggest  t h a t p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g was  a less  n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e than o t h e r s i n t h e i r study, and Yoder concluded  sig-  that  boys responded t o outdoor p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s w h i l e g i r l s had no p r e f e r e n c e . In n e i t h e r study, however, was  any evidence a v a i l a b l e about p r e - e x i s t i n g  schema f o r the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s used i n the r e a d i n g passages.  It is  t r u e , of c o u r s e , t h a t i n both the Johns and Emans' s t u d i e s of i n n e r c i t y c h i l d r e n ' s responses  t o i n n e r c i t y s e t t i n g s , t h a t p r e - e x i s t i n g schema might  be assumed and the c o n c l u s i o n drawn t h a t f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g s have n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on i n t e r e s t .  However, t h e r e i s reason to suppose t h a t the  results  29of both s t u d i e s were i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s not a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by their  designs. The  e x i s t i n g evidence does n o t , i n f a c t , a l l o w us t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s  about t h e e f f e c t of a c h i l d ' s p r e - e x i s t i n g schema on h i s / h e r r e a d i n g est.  inter-  Indeed i t seems l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t t h e r e a d e r s ' p r e - e x i s t i n g  knowledge s t r u c t u r e s may a f f e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g as much as they a f f e c t t h e i r r e a d i n g comprehension.  The time seems a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r the  e x p a n s i o n of t h e schema theory model t o i n c l u d e an i n t e r e s t f a c t o r and f o r s t u d i e s t h a t focus on the i n f l u e n c e of such v a r i a b l e s as p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge of s e t t i n g on i n t e r e s t .  Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension T h i s s e c t i o n of t h e chapter the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g Guthrie  summarizes t h e s t u d i e s t h a t d e a l w i t h  i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g  comprehension.  (1981) has suggested t h a t i n t e r e s t i s l i k e l y t o a f f e c t the  a c q u i s i t i o n of background knowledge, which may then f a c i l i t a t e comprehension.  I t seems v e r y l o g i c a l t h a t t h e converse might h o l d t r u e , t h a t  knowledge i n f l u e n c e s r e a d i n g comprehension which i n t u r n a f f e c t s r e a d i n g interest.  However, r e s e a r c h  between r e a d i n g  s t u d i e s t h a t have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension have a l l asked whether  r e a d i n g comprehension i s i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than the r e c i p r o c a l question—whether reading One  of t h e f i r s t  i n t e r e s t i s i n f l u e n c e d by r e a d i n g  comprehension.  s t u d i e s t h a t examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension was conducted by B e r n s t e i n Reference has a l r e a d y been made t o t h i s study  (1955).  i n the review on r e a d i n g  i n t e r e s t a n d content v a r i a b l e s . B e r n s t e i n (1955) s t u d i e d t h e ' r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n - i n t e r e s t  i n style  and comprehension.  She had 100 ninth, g r a d e r s read two passages.  One passage had a c t i o n , c l e a r - s t y l e , and a teen-age hero. passage was  The o t h e r  taken from N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne's The House of Seven Gables  and r e p r e s e n t e d a l i t e r a r y  style.  Both passages (which were r e -  w r i t t e n t o be equated i n d i f f i c u l t y ) were read and r a t e d on a f i v e point interest  s c a l e by the s u b j e c t s who  t e s t s based on the passages.  then completed  comprehension  The s u b j e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i o n passage than i n the d e s c r i p t i v e Comprehension story.  (literary)  one.  s c o r e s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r the a c t i o n  R e s u l t s a l s o showed t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p h e l d t r u e f o r a l l  degrees o f r e a d i n g Schnayer  ability.  (1969) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o p i c  e s t and comprehension.  H i s 578 grade s i x s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d  interinto  seven a b i l i t y groups determined by t h e i r s c o r e s on the Gates Reading Survey.  Each group read 15 s t o r i e s  (of which the r e a d a b i l i t y was  two  grades h i g h e r than the mean r e a d i n g a b i l i t y f o r each of the seven groups).  The s u b j e c t s r a t e d the s t o r i e s on a f o u r p o i n t  s c a l e and answered  interest  q u e s t i o n s of f a c t , sequence, and i n f e r e n c e .  comprehension s c o r e s on the s t o r i e s they r a t e d as b e i n g o f h i g h  Student interest  were compared t o t h e i r s c o r e s on the s t o r i e s they r a t e d low i n i n t e r e s t . Comprehension  s c o r e s on the s t o r i e s they r a t e d h i g h i n i n t e r e s t were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h e i r s c o r e s on the s t o r i e s they r a t e d i n i n t e r e s t , i r r e s p e c t i v e of a b i l i t y group.  low  However, comprehension  s c o r e s f o r the below-average r e a d i n g group were r a i s e d  (on p r e f e r r e d  c o n t e n t ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the s c o r e s f o r the other a b i l i t y  groups  E s t e s and Vaughan (1973) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o p i c  31 i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension w i t h 46 f o u r t h g r a d e r s , a l l average or above average r e a d e r s , who  were asked to choose t h e i r most l i k e d and  l e a s t l i k e d t o p i c from among a c h o i c e of s i x t o p i c s .  S i x passages were  c o n s t r u c t e d about the s i x t o p i c areas and were c o n t r o l l e d of r e a d a b i l i t y .  They were c o n t r o l l e d  at a 5.5  level  at a h i g h e r l e v e l than the  chil-  dren's average grade placement to a l l o w the f a c t of i n t e r e s t a maximum chance of a f f e c t i n g The  children  comprehension. read t h e i r two c h o i c e s and completed a m u l t i p l e  comprehension t e s t on the passages read.  There was  ence between r e a d i n g s c o r e s f o r the p r e f e r r e d t o p i c s  choice  a significant and the  differ-  non-preferred  t o p i c , i n f a v o u r of the p r e f e r r e d t o p i c . A study s i m i l a r to E s t e s and Vaughan was Jongsma (1978).  They s e l e c t e d  conducted  by B e l l o n i  and  t h r e e s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to g i r l s ,  three  s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to boys, t h r e e s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to both boys and g i r l s , and t h r e e s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to n e i t h e r  girls  nor boys.  These  s e l e c t i o n s were based on the r e s e a r c h of r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t c a r r i e d out Norvell  (1973).  An a b s t r a c t was  prepared  f o r each of the 12 s t o r i e s  the s u b j e c t s were asked to choose the a b s t r a c t they l i k e d most and one  they l i k e d l e a s t .  One  by and  the  week a f t e r making t h i s c h o i c e the s u b j e c t s  read the two complete s t o r i e s and f i l l e d i n C l o z e t e s t s prepared on the stories.  R e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e was  the s c o r e s of boys and g i r l s .  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between  However, a l l s t u d e n t s ' scores were s i g n i f -  i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the h i g h " i n t e r e s t  passages than on the low  interest  passages. Asher, Hymer, and W i g f i e l d  (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d  the  interaction  between t o p i c i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension w i t h 75 grade f i v e c h i l dren who  were r e a d i n g at grade l e v e l .  The c h i l d r e n  looked at 25 c o l o u r  s l i d e s and r a t e d the s l i d e s f o r i n t e r e s t on a seven p o i n t s c a l e . One  week l a t e r the c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o two  groups (a h i g h  i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n and a low i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n ) .  Subjects i n  the h i g h i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n completed f i v e C l o z e t e s t s t h a t c o r responded to t h e i r f i v e h i g h e s t r a t e d s l i d e s .  Those i n the  i n t e r e s t c o n d i t i o n completed C l o z e t e s t s t h a t corresponded t h e i r f i v e lowest r a t e d s l i d e s . t a t i o n was  randomly s e l e c t e d .  The groups and o r d e r of  low  to presen-  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d a  significant effect for interest. The  r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s experiment suggested  r e s u l t s support nature;  that  the f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s experiments of  their this  t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g  i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension.  Furthermore, they s t a t e  t h a t s i n c e i n t h e i r experiment c h i l d r e n were d e l i b e r a t e l y  given  e i t h e r h i g h i n t e r e s t passages or low i n t e r e s t passages to r e a d , but not both, two  the r e s u l t s c o u l d not be due  to a c o n t r a s t between  o p p o s i t e s t h a t might p o l a r i z e i n t e r e s t s as -they may  have done  i n previous studies. A study t h a t d i d not examine t o p i c i n t e r e s t but f o c u s s e d the o c c u p a t i o n and  gender of the p r o t a g o n i s t i n a s t o r y , and  t h i s a f f e c t e d b o t h r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g was  c a r r i e d out by K l e i n  how  comprehension,  (1968) i n a study a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d .  Three p a i r s of s t o r i e s  (each p a i r i n v o l v i n g a d i f f e r e n t  o c c u p a t i o n ) were designed by K l e i n s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n i n two p r o t a g o n i s t and  on  (1968).  The  t h r e e p a i r s of  s e p a r a t e v e r s i o n s , one w i t h a female  one w i t h a male.  33 Boys r a t e d s t o r i e s w i t h male p r o t a g o n i s t s h i g h e r than  stories  w i t h female p r o t a g o n i s t s o n l y i n the p i l o t o c c u p a t i o n s t o r i e s , females  r a t e d s t o r i e s w i t h female p r o t a g o n i s t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  than s t o r i e s w i t h male p r o t a g o n i s t s , f o r each o c c u p a t i o n .  while  higher Boys'  i n t e r e s t r a t i n g s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e i r comprehension, but g i r l s ' comp r e h e n s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r p r e f e r r e d c o n t e n t .  The  comprehension o f average r e a d e r s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e i r i n t e r e s t r a t i n g s , but the comprehension o f below average r e a d e r s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r s t o r i e s w i t h p r e f e r r e d sex type  content. On t h e whole t h e s t u d i e s reviewed  above i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e  i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between expressed and r e a d i n g  reading  interest  comprehension.  The E f f e c t o f Reading A b i l i t y on Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension R e s u l t s from s t u d i e s on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g compreh e n s i o n reviewed  above show no consensus as to whether i n t e r e s t  a f f e c t s a l l reading l e v e l s equally.  B e r n s t e i n (1955) found  that  when two passages were read, one a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a c t i o n passage and  t h e o t h e r r e p r e s e n t i n g a l i t e r a r y s t y l e , s u b j e c t s were n o t  o n l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a c t i o n passage but t h a t they a l s o comprehended i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than they d i d t h e l i t e r a r y passage.  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r e s t and comprehension  h e l d t r u e f o r a l l degrees o f r e a d i n g  ability.  B e l l o n i and Jongsma (1978) found  t h a t when s u b j e c t s read t h e i r  "best  l i k e d " and " l e a s t l i k e d " s t o r y from among a c h o i c e o f 12, and completed C l o z e t e s t s c o n s t r u c t e d from these s t o r i e s , t h e i r comprehension s c o r e s  34were h i g h e r on the "best l i k e d " s t o r i e s than on the " l e a s t l i k e d " s t o r i e s , and t h a t these f i n d i n g s h e l d t r u e f o r a l l students'. Schnayer (1969), however, found t h a t when s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o seven r e a d i n g a b i l i t y groups and read 15 s h o r t s t o r i e s , t h a t a l t h o u g h  their  r e a d i n g comprehension scores on s t o r i e s t h a t they r a t e d as being h i g h i n i n t e r e s t were h i g h e r than t h e i r s c o r e s on s t o r i e s they r a t e low i n i n t e r e s t , these r e s u l t s were not spread e q u a l l y over a l l a b i l i t y groups.  The s c o r e s  of the below-average r e a d i n g groups (on p r e f e r r e d c o n t e n t ) were r a i s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the s c o r e s f o r the o t h e r a b i l i t y  groups.  A s i m i l a r f i n d i n g was r e p o r t e d by K l e i n (1968) who a l s o found t h a t g a i n s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r f o r the below-average r e a d i n g group than they were f o r the o t h e r  groups.  There i s some evidence  then, t h a t below-average r e a d e r s a r e p a r t i c u -  l a r l y h e l p e d by the r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t  factor.  The E f f e c t of Passage D i f f i c u l t y on Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension A l t h o u g h a l l but one (Asher, Hymel, & W i g f i e l d ,  1978) o f the s t u d i e s  c i t e d above t h a t examined r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension cont r o l l e d t h e i r s t o r i e s f o r r e a d a b i l i t y , none examined the e f f e c t of both easy and d i f f i c u l t  s t o r i e s on i n t e r e s t and comprehension.  T h i s would  seem t o be a u s e f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o study. ./ B e r n s t e i n (1955) c o n t r o l l e d  the two passages used i n her study at  the grade s i x - s e v e n r e a d i n g l e v e l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t h r e e l e v e l s below the  grade placement l e v e l of the subjects"; however . no reason f o r the l e v e l of c o n t r o l was r e p o r t e d . E s t e s and Vaughan (1973) asked  s u b j e c t s t o read t h e i r " b e s t " and  " l e a s t " l i k e d passage from among a c h o i c e of s i x passages.  A l l passages  ,35 were c o n s t r u c t e d t o have a r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l two grades h i g h e r than the mean r e a d i n g l e v e l o f the s u b j e c t s i n o r d e r t o a l l o w the f a c t o r o f i n t e r e s t a s t r o n g e r chance of a f f e c t i n g  interest.  S i m i l a r l y , both Schnayer and B e l l o n i and Jongsma c o n t r o l l e d r e a d i n g passages at two-four  grade l e v e l s above the mean r e a d i n g  their levels  of t h e i r s u b j e c t s . K l e i n r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e a d a b i l i t y o f t h e s t o r i e s i n h i s study was grade f i v e ( t h e grade placement l e v e l of the s u b j e c t s ) . Asher, Hymel and W i g f i e l d used 25 passages from a j u n i o r to form C l o z e t e s t s , but the passages were not c o n t r o l l e d No s t u d i e s have c o n t r o l l e d  encyclopedia  for readability.  t h e i r s t o r i e s a t both an above grade p l a c e -  ment l e v e l and a below grade placement l e v e l .  Some evidence  i s needed  t h a t examines the e f f e c t of passage d i f f i c u l t y on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and reading  comprehension.  I n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d from the r e s u l t s o f the r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t have examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p hension  indicate  variables.  between r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g compre-  that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p  Apparently  interest  between the two  i n t o p i c content o f a s t o r y , i n t e r e s t  i n the sex of the p r o t a g o n i s t , and i n t e r e s t  i n the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  occupation  i n a s t o r y can have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on r e a d i n g comprehension. f a c t i t can be s a i d g e n e r a l l y t h a t the h i g h e r a c h i l d ' s  interest  In  i n text  m a t e r i a l the b e t t e r w i l l be h i s / h e r comprehension. T h i s n o t i o n would seem t o be a p r o f i t a b l e one t o pursue i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s t h a t examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g  comprehension. In summary, the evidence p r e s e n t e d  i n the p r e c e d i n g t h r e e s e c t i o n s  of t h i s c h a p t e r demonstrate t h a t the schema t h e o r y i s a v i a b l e  theory,  36 an o r g a n i z i n g  construct  prehension process.  t h a t can be used as a b a s i s f o r s t u d y i n g  The  e x i s t i n g research  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and e x i s t i n g schema can  i n d i c a t e s t h a t there  is a  comprehension, and  that pre-  f a c i l i t a t e or r e t a r d comprehension.  S i n c e i t seems e v i d e n t prose may  the com-  t h a t c e r t a i n content v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e  f a c i l i t a t e or r e t a r d r e a d i n g  drawn t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  comprehension, the c o n c l u s i o n  was  s h o u l d be done f o c u s s i n g on the i n f l u e n c e  on  comprehension of schema f o r such f a c t o r s as p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g . The  f a c t t h a t s p e c i f i c content v a r i a b l e s a l s o have an impact on  i n g i n t e r e s t , and  t h a t i n t e r e s t and  read-  comprehension have o f t e n been shown  t o i n t e r a c t , leads to a second c o n c l u s i o n  b e i n g drawn, t h a t f u r t h e r  research  s h o u l d be done on the i n f l u e n c e of p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g on i n t e r e s t . A study t h a t f o c u s s e d on schemas f o r p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and sures of both i n t e r e s t and  used mea-  comprehension s h o u l d y i e l d u s e f u l new  insights  i n t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s p e c i f i c schemas f o r p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g as a f a c t o r i n both i n t e r e s t and  comprehension.  on the schema t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t  and  I t would a l s o add  to the  literature  an e x p a n s i o n of the model t o add  a  new  dimension. The The  Measurement of Comprehension and  Interest  f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r reviews the l i t e r a t u r e on  r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the two comprehension and  the  i n s t r u m e n t s chosen to measure  reading  the instrument chosen t o measure r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t .  C l o z e Procedure The  C l o z e procedure was  developed by T a y l o r  i n 1953.  He  described  i t as a t e c h n i q u e f o r measuring the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of communication. Taylor  a p p l i e d the p r i n c i p l e of the G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y concept of  "closure"  37 He d e l e t e d every TI~^ word from passages of prose  to language.  r e p l a c e d the words w i t h b l a n k s of u n i f o r m l e n g t h . the p r i n c i p l e of c l o z u r e , r e p l a c e d the word. C l o z e procedure  The  and  reader t h e n , u s i n g  T a y l o r concluded  t h a t the  depended on f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t comprehension, i . e . , g e n e r a l  language f a c i l i t y ,  s p e c i f i c knowledge, and v o c a b u l a r y r e l e v a n t t o the  passage r e a d . S i n c e 1953, t o o l and i n the Rankin procedure  C l o z e t e s t s have been w i d e l y used both as a r e s e a r c h classroom.  (1978) examined over 600 r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t used the C l o z e  as a measurement t o o l and gave f i v e reasons why  he f e e l s  Cloze  t e s t s are a s u p e r i o r measure of language comprehension and measure compreh e n s i o n more d i r e c t l y than c o n v e n t i o n a l measures. 1.  C l o z e t e s t s are i n t r i n s i c measures of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of communication by sampling  the degree of correspondence  between a message source  and  a receiver. 2.  C l o z e measures comprehension i n p r o c e s s not as an a f t e r  product.  3.  A l l C l o z e i s based on the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s of i n f e r e n c e which i s i n t r i n s i c t o a l l communication.  4.  C l o z e t e s t s sample the c h o i c e p o i n t s f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the passage i n a random f a s h i o n .  5.  C l o z e t e s t s can be p r e c i s e l y r e p l i c a t e d .  (p.  151)  R i p l e y (1973) a l s o d i d a major survey of hundreds of C l o z e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and r e p o r t e d t h a t C l o z e i s a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measure of comprehension ability. Reliability.  R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the C l o z e procedure  have  been c o n s i s t e n t l y s u b s t a n t i a l . [ G a l l a n t (196~4^) i n her d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n u s i n g C l o z e as the comprehension measure f o r p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n  found  38 reliability  c o e f f i c i e n t s of .90 to .97, e s t a b l i s h e d by s p l i t - h a l f  c i e n t s and the use of the Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a . reliability  Bormuth (1965) found  c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g between .76 and  .94 f o r s i x C l o z e  A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l study on C l o z e r e l i a b i l i t y was and M e r e d i t h (1978).  coeffi-  conducted  They used 298 e i g h t h grade s t u d e n t s who  tests.  by Vaughan read  two  s c i e n c e r e l a t e d s e l e c t i o n s c o n t r o l l e d at the e i g h t h grade l e v e l of r e a d ability.  T e s t s were based on a 50-item,  seventh word d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n .  Students were randomly a s s i g n e d to two groups.  Each group read both  ages a l t e r n a t e l y and responded to the C l o z e t e s t s f o r the I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y was C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r exact replacements ranged  from  .86 to .92.  passages.  determined by u s i n g Cronbach's a l p h a . and e x a c t - r e p l a c e m e n t s  P a r a l l e l form r e l i a b i l i t y was  Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s and these ranged The  pass-  p l u s synonyms  determined  from .79 to  with .81.  d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s and p a r a l l e l  c o e f f i c i e n t s was  significant  (p<v01) as determined  by F i s h e r ' s Z t e s t .  T h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e , the authors s t a t e , suggests t h a t the be somewhat passage dependent.  form  Cloze scores  However, s i n c e the p a r a l l e l form  may  coeffi-  c i e n t s are so h i g h t h i s i s l i k e l y of minimum concern as l o n g as t h e r e i s no attempt  to g e n e r a l i z e on the b a s i s of a s i n g l e C l o z e  There would appear to be no change i n  reliability  passage. depending on the  d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n as long as f o u r or more words are l e f t between b l a n k s ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1961;  Bormuth, 1975).  at  the r e l i a b i l i t y  of  of  random word d e l e t i o n C l o z e t e s t s .  M e r e d i t h and Vaughan (1978) looked  word d e l e t i o n C l o z e t e s t s over the  reliability  They found no s i g n i f i c a n t  differ-  th ence. for  Cronbach's a l p h a f o r the n  word d e l e t i o n s averaged  at .858  and  the random d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n the average was .874. I t would appear from the example of the s t u d i e s on C l o z e r e s e a r c h  39t h a t the C l o z e procedure Validity.  has h i g h  reliability.  E a r l y r e s e a r c h on the C l o z e procedure  examined c r i t e r i o n -  r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y between s c o r e s on C l o z e t e s t s and s c o r e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s of r e a d i n g comprehension. At the p r i m a r y l e v e l , G a l l a n t (196"4^) found c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g from .65 t o .81 between-Cloze passages and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t . A g a i n , at the elementary  l e v e l , R u d d e l l (1963) found a range of c o r r e l a -  t i o n s from .61 to .74 between C l o z e and the Standard Achievement Test graph Meaning.  Para-  J e n k i n s o n (1957) used h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and found c o r -  r e l a t i o n s of .78 and  .73 on the C o o p e r a t i v e Reading C2.  Bormuth (1969)  compared C l o z e t e s t s c o r e s t o v a l i d a t e d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t s . product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was  Pearson  .946.  I t has been a s s e r t e d t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between C l o z e and  other  comprehension t e s t s are due to t h e i r both measuring v e r b a l competency. Rankin  (1978), however, suggests t h a t a l l comprehension t e s t s c o r r e l a t e  h i g h l y w i t h v e r b a l a p t i t u d e t e s t s and t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between both c l o z e t e s t r e s u l t s and c o n v e n t i o n a l comprehension r e s u l t s on the one hand and v e r b a l a p t i t u d e t e s t s on the o t h e r , do not account f o r a l a r g e amount of the v a r i a n c e i n common to both d i s t r i b u t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , c l o z e t e s t s measure something more than v e r b a l a p t i t u d e . (p. 150) C a r r o l l (1972) makes the c r i t i c i s m t h a t C l o z e s c o r e s are i n f l u e n c e d by l i n g u i s t i c c l u e s i n the s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t of a word and do not measure g e n e r a l r e a d i n g comprehension.  M a c G i n i t i e (1961) a l s o c r i t i c i z e s  v a l i d i t y of C l o z e on s i m i l a r grounds.  the  H i s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s were t h a t  the c o n t e x t of more than f i v e words around a b l a n k does not h e l p i n making the' c o r r e c t c o m p l e t i o n .  However, s t u d i e s by D a r n e l l (1963) and Ramanaus-  kas (1971) show t h a t C l o z e responses  are s e n s i t i v e to more than the  fifth  word c o n s t r a i n t s found by M a c G i n i t i e and do i n f a c t tap major i d e a s i n  40a passage. may  M a c G i n i t i e h i m s e l f a l s o suggested  be l i k e l y t o extend  t h a t background knowledge  constraints.  Bormuth (196^) a n a l y z e d the p r i n c i p a l components of the c o r r e l a t i o n s among n i n e C l o z e t e s t s and seven m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t s .  The  multiple-  c h o i c e t e s t s were judged by r e a d i n g e x p e r t s to measure comprehension of seven s k i l l s :  vocabulary, e x p l i c i t l y  s t a t e d f a c t s , sequence of events,, main  i d e a s , s t a t e d c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n f e r e n c e s , and a u t h o r ' s All  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were h i g h and Bormuth concluded  purpose.  t h a t , "the data were  i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o v i d i n g l i t t l e grounds f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t C l o z e  tests  measure a n y t h i n g o t h e r than what has commonly been l a b e l l e d r e a d i n g comprehension  skills"  (p. 358).  Since t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l l y accepted t h e o r y of r e a d i n g comprehension, the C l o z e procedure sion tests.  l a c k s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y — a s do a l l r e a d i n g comprehen-  However, based on an e v a l u a t i o n of over 600 r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s  t h a t use the C l o z e procedure,  Rankin  (1978) s t a t e d t h a t the C l o z e  has p o t e n t i a l l y b e t t e r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y  procedure  than c o n v e n t i o n a l comprehension  measures s i n c e i t i s based on a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y of comprehension which makes e x t e n s i v e use of Smith's (1975) model  of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o -  c e s s i n g and c o n t e x t redundancy. The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension Test The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test was  s t a n d a r d i z e d i n 1964-65.  T h e t e s t w a s normed on 40,000 s t u d e n t s from 37 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e communities i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e , 1972). The  Comprehension Test measures the s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y to read complete  prose passages w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g . total  I t c o n t a i n s 21 passages i n which a  of 52 blank spaces have been l e f t .  completions  i s offered.  For each b l a n k a c h o i c e of f i v e  T h i s t e s t i s a m o d i f i e d form of the C l o z e  41 procedure. Reliability.  R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Comprehension Test  (Survey D, the I n t e r m e d i a t e and S p l i t - h a l f . half,  The  l e v e l ) are r e p o r t e d f o r both  Alternate-forms  A l t e r n a t e - f o r m c o e f f i c i e n t i s .83, and the  Split-  .94. Validity.  Concurrent  v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are r e p o r t e d .  The  s c o r e s of grade f i v e s t u d e n t s on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e s t were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r s c o r e s on f i v e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s . c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the Comprehension Test was Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  The  median  .80.  Scales  The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i s a method f o r measuring the meaning of concepts. In p r a c t i c e i t has two a p p l i c a t i o n s . (1) to measure o b j e c t i v e l y the semantic p r o p e r t i e s of words and concepts i n a t r i d i m e n t i o n a l space; and more commonly and s i m p l y , (2) as an a t t i t u d e s c a l e r e s t r i c t i n g i t s f o c u s to the e v a l u a t i v e dimension. (Isaac & M i c h a e l , 1976, p. 102) The Osgood.  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e was  developed  i n 1952  by  Charles  He conducted a study where he took 76 p a i r s of b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s  from Roget's Thesaurus, and asked s u b j e c t s t o r a t e a s e r i e s of u s i n g these p a i r s .  concepts  H i s a n a l y s i s of the data showed t h a t a l l but a s m a l l  p r o p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e c o u l d be accounted f o r by t h r e e components of meaning:  e v a l u a t i o n , a c t i v i t y , and potency.  He a l s o found t h a t some  a d j e c t i v e p a i r s were s t r o n g e r i n one or o t h e r of these t h r e e components. Sets of these p a i r s were made up to form the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s . The  SD s c a l e s have t h r e e components.  They have the concept to be e v a l u -  a t e d i n terms of a t t i t u d e , the b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r a n c h o r i n g and a s e r i e s of i n t e r v a l p o s i t i o n s as shown below: GOOD  :  :  :  :  :  : BAD  INTERESTING  :  :  :  :  :  :BORING  the s c a l e ,  42 The  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i s r e a l l y a method f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g an  ment r a t h e r than a f i x e d instrument i t s e l f , and  instru-  the s c a l e being  d i f f e r e n t a d j e c t i v e - p a i r s a r e used f o r d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s  fluid,  (Coyne & Holzman,  1966). Since  the major dimension of meaning found by Osgood i s the  evalua-  t i v e dimension, a d j e c t i v e p a i r s measuring the e v a l u a t i v e meaning of a c o n cept  can be used to e s t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n t h a t concept.  done on v a r i o u s  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s  i n g s on the e v a l u a t i v e  show h i g h and  is  analysis  restricted  s c a l e (Osgood, S u c i , & Tannenbaum, 1970).  i s the e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s on which r e l i a b i l i t y and (and  Factor  And i t  v a l i d i t y data are  the e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e w i t h which the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d  load-  in this  given study  concerned). Reliability.  separated  Tannenbaum (1953) had  135  s u b j e c t s , on  by f i v e weeks, judge s i x c o n c e p t s a g a i n s t  T e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .87 examined the r e l i a b i l i t y of S.D. retest conditions.  to  .93.  occasions,  six evaluative D i v e s t a and  s c a l e s under d e l a y e d and  C h i l d r e n i n grade two  two  scales.  D i c k (1966)  immediate t e s t -  to seven t w i c e r a t e d d i f f e r e n t  concepts on a s e r i e s of s c a l e s , a month a p a r t  from e a c h / r a t i n g .  for  R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were  d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s ranged from .27  higher  f o r the h i g h e r  a b l e f o r a l l grades. than u s i n g .73  to  .94.  grades and  to .56.  the e v a l u a t i v e  When D i v e s t a and  Correlations  s c a l e s were the most  D i c k c a l c u l a t e d group means r a t h e r  i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s , t h e i r t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from A r e v i e w of the r e s e a r c h  on Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  reliability  c a r r i e d but by H e i s e (1970) concludes t h a t "group means are h i g h l y and  reli-  s t a b l e even when the samples of s u b j e c t s are as s m a l l as 30" Validity.  Osgood, S u c i , and  Tannenbaum (1970) c a r r i e d out  reliable  (p.  246).  validity  s t u d i e s comparing Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e measurement w i t h measurement  '43 . on t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e s .  Each of t h r e e concepts were r a t e d  against  F i f t y s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o  groups.  five evaluative scales. One  group was  g i v e n the S.D.  Thurstone A t t i t u d e S c a l e s , and order. was  The  form f o l l o w e d an hour l a t e r by  the o t h e r group d i d the r a t i n g i n  c o r r e l a t i o n between the S.D.  s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.01).  The  on the S.D.  c o r r e l a t i o n between the two researchers  scores  same r e s e a r c h e r s  t i v e s c a l e s a g a i n s t a Guttman type s c a l e . r e l a t e d h i g h l y to scores  two  The  and  reverse  the Thurstone  scores  a l s o compared S.D.  evalua-  14 item Guttman type s c a l e  evaluative scales.  s c a l e s was  the  again s i g n i f i c a n t  The  rank  order  (p,<.Ol).  The  s t a t e , "the f i n d i n g s of both these s t u d i e s support the  notion  t h a t the e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i s an index of a t t i t u d e " (p.  231).  In h i s r e v i e w of S.D.  s t u d i e s , David H e i s e (1970) c o n c l u d e s t h a t  the r e s u l t s of numerous s t u d i e s , "support the v a l i d i t y of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l as a t e c h n i q u e f o r a t t i t u d e measurement" (p.  236).  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s and Reading I n t e r e s t A r e v i e w of r e s e a r c h tial  produced a few  s t u d i e s where Semantic D i f f e r e n -  s c a l e s have been used to a s s e s s c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e towards  Klemper (1970) examined grade seven s t u d e n t s ' u s i n g 15 c o n c e p t s and  14 S.D.  scales.  (workbooks), a c t i v i t i e s ( r e a d i n g out K l e i n (1.968,)^ used 13 S.D. towards o c c u p a t i o n s and  a t t i t u d e towards  Concepts r e p r e s e n t e d  reading  materials  l o u d ) , and persons ( r e a d i n g  s c a l e s to examine c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g sex of a main c h a r a c t e r  in stories.  reading.  teachers).  interest K l e i n found  a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.81) between a t r a d i t i o n a l r a t i n g s c a l e an e v a l u a t i v e S.D.  s c a l e ( i n t e r e s t i n g - b o r i n g ) and he c o n c l u d e d t h a t ,  s c a l e s appear to be a u s e f u l r e s e a r c h  and "S.D.  t o o l t o i d e n t i f y p a t t e r n s of i n t e r e s t  44 d i f f e r e n c e s between and w i t h i n sexes f o r v a r i o u s types of r e a d i n g c o n t e n t " (p.  116).  Research  examined i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  two comprehension i n s t r u m e n t s ( t h e C l o z e procedure Reading  and the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Comprehension T e s t ) and the r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t i n s t r u m e n t  (the  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s ) chosen t o c o l l e c t and q u a n t i f y the d a t a f o r t h i s study, have s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b i l i t y  and v a l i d i t y f o r the t a s k .  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY T h i s study was designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e v a r i a b l e s p h y s i c a l and s t o r y d i f f i c u l t y pressed i n t e r e s t .  setting  and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on r e a d i n g comprehension and exThe s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i s d i s c u s s e d , measuring  instru-  ments a r e d e s c r i b e d , and t h e c o l l e c t i o n and treatment o f data i s p r e s e n t e d . The d e s i g n and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures  are a l s o described.  Subjects The s u b j e c t s f o r the study were s e l e c t e d from the Vancouver P u b l i c School D i s t r i c t .  T h i r t e e n c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d from seven s c h o o l s t h a t  agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e study. socio-economic  districts.  socio-economic  districts:  immigrant  areas.  Two s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n upper  Two s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n s t a b l e , but lower Three s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n t r a n s i e n t new-  Three hundred and f o r t y - f o u r s i x t h grade s t u d e n t s were  s e l e c t e d f o r t h e study;  o f t h i s number 83 were e l i m i n a t e d from the data  a n a l y s i s due t o i n c o m p l e t e data and f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. data were a v a i l a b l e and a n a l y z e d f o r 261 s u b j e c t s .  Complete  There were 140 boys  and 121 g i r l s .  Instruments Reading  and t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s designed or chosen f o r t h i s study  con-  sisted of: P r a c t i c e Cloze  Paragraph  A 123 word paragraph  e n t i t l e d "The Wind," was w r i t t e n a t t h e grade 45  46 three  l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y as a s c e r t a i n e d by the D a l e - C h a l l r e a d a b i l i t y  formula.  A s h o r t Cloze  t e s t w i t h every seventh word d e l e t e d was  constructed  t o be used as a p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e to f a m i l i a r i z e the s u b j e c t s w i t h the Cloze The  procedure.  Stories As t h i s study was  d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e how  r e a d i n g comprehension and content were needed.  reading  The  i n t e r e s t , s t o r i e s with s p e c i f i c setting  s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y vary  independent v a r i a b l e s , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and w r i t t e n f o r the s t u d y .  physical setting affects  Each s t o r y was  difficulty.  v e r s i o n the s t o r y took p l a c e the Vancouver s e t t i n g . m i n i m i z e d and Since  S i x s t o r i e s were  w r i t t e n i n three v e r s i o n s .  v e r s i o n the s t o r y took p l a c e i n a f a m i l i a r l o c a l s e t t i n g . i n a w e l l known but  the  In the  In  one  second  f o r e i g n s e t t i n g t h a t matched  In the t h i r d v e r s i o n of the s t o r i e s the s e t t i n g  non-specific.  the sample f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of Vancouver s t u d e n t s  s i n c e t h i s study h y p o t h e s i z e d e x i s t i n g schemata, one couver area.  t h a t l o c a l m a t e r i a l i s p a r t of the  treatment l e v e l of the s t o r i e s was  Settings considered  s i x c h i l d r e n were used.  (The  t o match these f i e l d t r i p s .  and  students'  set i n the Van-  to be f a m i l i a r to the m a j o r i t y of grade  Vancouver School Board a u t h o r i z e s  t r i p s f o r s t u d e n t s i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e  g r a d e s , and  set  field  the s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n  A l l s i x l o c a l s e t t i n g s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  s t o r y f o u r , would have been v i s i t e d or passed by on o f f i c i a l t r i p s , and s e t t i n g of s t o r y f o u r , the P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n , i s an e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r f a i r , f o r which a l l elementary c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e a f r e e pass at the end of the s c h o o l Since  i t was  the s t u d e n t s '  was  year.)  hypothesized  t h a t f o r e i g n set m a t e r i a l i s not p a r t  p r e - e x i s t i n g schemata, one  of  treatment l e v e l of the s t o r i e s  of the  47 was  set i n f o r e i g n l o c a t i o n s .  S e t t i n g s were chosen t o match the  v e r s i o n s e t t i n g s , i n p l a c e s t h a t i t was  local  c o n s i d e r e d most grade s i x s t u d e n t s  would be aware of (such as P a r i s , London, New  York, the C a r i b b e a n ) .  To f u r t h e r examine the s p e c i f i c i t y of s e t t i n g and the r o l e of p r e e x i s t i n g schemata, the t h i r d v e r s i o n of the s t o r i e s had a l l the s e t t i n g statements  removed and the s e t t i n g s thus became g e n e r a l i z e d and  a p p r o p r i a t e t o any l o c a l e (such as beach, zoo, The i n Table  specific  fair).  s i x s t o r y t i t l e s w i t h t h e i r t h r e e treatment  l e v e l s are p r e s e n t e d  1.  The  s i x s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n at two d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s .  Three s t o r i e s  were w r i t t e n at a grade f o u r l e v e l and t h r e e s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n at a grade eight l e v e l .  The  r e a d a b i l i t y of these s t o r i e s was  D a l e - C h a l l R e a d a b i l i t y Formula. grade l e v e l s c o r e . of  The D a l e - C h a l l score was  c o n v e r t e d to a  The data on the r e a d a b i l i t y f o r the t h r e e v e r s i o n s  each of the s i x s t o r i e s are p r e s e n t e d i n Table The  c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the  2.  s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n to appeal t o s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n .  They were  w r i t t e n to m a i n t a i n the i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n of the s u b j e c t s throughout the study.  A l l s t o r i e s are mystery-adventure.  Mystery was  chosen as i t i s  the most p o p u l a r genre f o r both sexes i n grade s i x (Purves & Beach, A s h l e y , 1971). or  1974;  A l l s t o r i e s have e i t h e r both male and female p r o t a g o n i s t s  a s i n g l e p r o t a g o n i s t w i t h an e i t h e r - s e x name such as Pat or T e r r y .  s t o r i e s , designed to approximate  The  the f i r s t c h a p t e r of a mystery n o v e l , are  open ended, and comparable i n l e n g t h .  The data are p r e s e n t e d i n Table  3.  Cloze Tests C l o z e t e s t s were made f o r each of the s t o r y v e r s i o n s u s i n g the g u i d e l i n e s set down by Bormuth (1976). the f i r s t  These i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s :  sentence of every s t o r y was  left  intact.  F i f t y d e l e t i o n s were  48 Table 1 S i x S t o r y T i t l e s w i t h Three Treatment Bl Foreign Setting  Story  B2 Local Setting  Levels B3 Non-Specific Setting  1 Art Gallery  2 Beach 3 S a i l i n g Ship  4 Amusement Park 5 City 6 Zoo  Note.  Mystery at the London A r t Gallery  Mystery at the Vancouver A r t Gallery  Mystery at the A r t Gallery  Cable Beach Mystery  Spanish Banks Mystery  Beach M y s t e r y  M y s t e r y on the Balclutha  Mystery on the S t . Roche  Mystery on the S a i l i n g Ship  T i v o l i Garden Adventure  P.N.E. Adventure  Amusement Park Adventure  Adventure over Paris  Adventure over Vancouver  Adventure over the City  Adventure i n the C e n t r a l Park Zoo  Adventure i n the Adventure i n the S t a n l e y Park Zoo Zoo  S t o r i e s 1, 2, and 3 are Easy S t o r i e s S t o r i e s 4, 5, and 6 a r e D i f f i c u l t S t o r i e s  49 Table 2 Readability Story  of S t o r i e s by Grade L e v e l  Level  V  B  2  1. A r t G a l l e r y  easy  5(5.00)  5(5.19)  5(4.74)  2. Beach  easy  5(5.31)  5(5.12)  4(4.96)  3. S a i l i n g Ship  easy  5(5.00)  5(5.00)  4(4.94)  4. Amusement Park  difficult  7-8(6.65)  7-8(6.45)  7-8(6.14)  5. C i t y  difficult  8-9(7.00)  8-9(7.00)  8-9(7.00)  6. Zoo  difficult  8-9(7.00)  8-9(7.00)  7-8(6.75)  Note.  Numbers i n parentheses i n d i c a t e D a l e - C h a l l r e a d a b i l i t y s c o r e s . Scores a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o grade l e v e l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D a l e C h a l l formula.  = Local physical = Foreign physical  setting setting  = Non-specific physical  setting  Table 3 T o t a l Number o f Words i n the Three Treatment L e v e l s of the S i x S t o r i e s Story  B  1. A r t G a l l e r y  456  458  358  2. Beach  450  435  355  3. S a i l i n g Ship  472  472  430  4. Amusement Park  481  458  351  5. C i t y  433  425  372  6. Zoo  447  419  388  = Local physical setting = Foreign physical = Non-specific  setting  physical  setting  l  51 made f o r every t e s t . seventh word was  Every  word was  deleted).  The The  d e l e t e d ( i n t h i s study every  50 d e l e t e d words were r e p l a c e d by a l i n e  of s t a n d a r d i z e d  length.  l e n g t h chosen f o r t h i s study was  15 spaces.  T h i s l e n g t h was  s u f f i c i e n t f o r the s t u d e n t s to w r i t e t h e i r answers  d i r e c t l y onto the t e s t paper. Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  Scales  An o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n f o r t h i s study was Differential, utilizing (1966).  potent and a c t i v e f a c t o r s as d e s c r i b e d by Osgood  However, i t became apparent i n f i e l d t e s t i n g t h a t a f t e r  each s t o r y and  reading  responding to the 50 blank Cloze t e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s '  v a t i o n began t o d w i n d l e . ing  to use a 12 s c a l e Semantic  moti-  They d i d not want t o read another page of w r i t -  and began to respond i n a c a r e l e s s f a s h i o n seeming not to care whether  t h e i r answers were t h o u g h t f u l . response, t h e r e f o r e , i t was much as  I n the i n t e r e s t of m o t i v a t i o n  and  accurate  d e c i d e d to reduce the i n t e r e s t i n s t r u m e n t as  practical.  Since S c a l e s was  the v a l i d i t y and  r e l i a b i l i t y of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  c a r r i e d out on e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s , and  of meaning found by Osgood was  s i n c e the major dimension  the e v a l u a t i v e dimension, a d j e c t i v e p a i r s  measuring the e v a l u a t i v e meaning of a concept can be used to i n t e r e s t i n t h a t concept.  I t was  decided,  on the b a s i s of f i e l d t e s t i n g ,  to reduce the l e n g t h of the instrument to two scales representing  estimate  evaluative scales.  These  e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r s are shown below:  LIKE:  :  :  :  :  : DISLIKE  BORING:  :  :  :  :  : INTERESTING  The  s c a l e s were p o l a r i z e d ( i n o p p o s i t e  d i r e c t i o n s ) to c o n t r o l f o r  same set response b i a s on the p a r t of the s t u d e n t .  Each s c a l e was  sented by l i n e s of e q u a l l e n g t h marked o f f i n t o f i v e equal segments.  repre-  52  Gates M a c G i n i t i e S t a n d a r d i z e d The  Test  Comprehension Test (form D) was  comprehension t h a t was  chosen as the measure of r e a d i n g  to be used to form the t h r e e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y  groups.  Since the Gates M a c G i n i t i e S t a n d a r d i z e d Reading Test i s the t e s t admini s t e r e d by Vancouver elementary  t e a c h e r s , i t was  r e s u l t s c o l l e c t e d by the c l a s s r o o m  teachers.  F i e l d T e s t i n g of The purpose of t h i s p i l o t study was t h e i r t h r e e v e r s i o n s and two d i f f i c u l t y  Instruments to t r y out a l l s i x s t o r i e s w i t h  l e v e l s , and to a s c e r t a i n i f they  were matched as to i n t e r e s t and d i f f i c u l t y . always p r e d i c t r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y .  d e c i d e d t o use the t e s t  R e a d a b i l i t y measures do not  P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t  s t o r i e s c o n t r o l l e d by a r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a can be found t o be d i s p a r a t e when comprehension measures on these s t o r i e s are examined ( K l e i n , S u b j e c t s were two grade s i x c l a s s e s from D e l t a , a s c h o o l b o r d e r i n g on Vancouver. The  1968).  district  Complete data were a v a i l a b l e f o r 56 c h i l d r e n .  18 v e r s i o n s of s i x s t o r i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  groups.  Of the s i x s t o r i e s i n each group, t h r e e were easy s t o r i e s and t h r e e were difficult  stories.  Moreover, each of the t h r e e s e t t i n g v e r s i o n s was  pre-  sented t w i c e , once i n the easy set of t h r e e and once i n the d i f f i c u l t set of t h r e e .  Each of the t h r e e groups was  c o l o u r coded e i t h e r r e d , b l u e ,  or y e l l o w on a l l i t s forms. Students were g i v e n one read each s t o r y s i l e n t l y .  of the c o l o u r coded group of s t o r i e s .  A f t e r each s t o r y was  t e s t s t h a t matched the s t o r y v e r s i o n r e a d . point reading i n t e r e s t The  read they completed C l o z e  They then f i l l e d  in a six  scale.  t h r e e treatment  They  l e v e l s were c o l l a p s e d and the C l o z e  scores  53 examined.  The s i x s t o r y means were c l o s e l y equated.  The t h r e e easy  s t o r i e s and the t h r e e hard s t o r i e s had c l o s e l y a l i g n e d means (Table 4 ) . The i n t e r e s t means were more d i s p a r a t e . had a s l i g h t l y  One s t o r y , S a i l i n g  lower mean than the o t h e r two easy s t o r i e s .  i t was not the d i f f i c u l t y  of the s t o r y at f a u l t  Ship,  However, s i n c e  (comprehension was not  a f f e c t e d ) and the s t o r i e s were not b e i n g compared one a g a i n s t the o t h e r , i t was not c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y  t o change the c o n t e n t .  Procedures A l l t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out by the r e s e a r c h e r between October 9 t h and November 7 t h , 1979. The r e s e a r c h e r s e t up i n t e r v i e w s w i t h each of the seven s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and 13 t e a c h e r s t o d i s c u s s the experiment to  do the t e s t i n g .  and make arrangements  At t h i s time a l s o , the s i x t e a c h e r s who had not  a l r e a d y t e s t e d t h e i r c l a s s e s w i t h t h e Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Form D, agreed  t o do so.  Survey,  The remainder had p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d t h e i r  c l a s s e s w i t h i n the past s i x weeks. P r i o r t o meeting w i t h the c l a s s e s , a l l t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l was organized f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . groups.  The 18 s t o r y v e r s i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  Of the s i x s t o r i e s i n each group, t h r e e were easy s t o r i e s and  t h r e e were d i f f i c u l t  stories.  Moreover, each of the t h r e e s e t t i n g v e r -  s i o n s was r e p r e s e n t e d t w i c e , once i n the easy s e t of t h r e e and once i n the d i f f i c u l t  s e t o f t h r e e s t o r i e s (Table 5 ) .  The groups were c o l o u r  coded ( r e d group, b l u e group, and y e l l o w g r o u p ) . The i n v e s t i g a t o r met each c l a s s on t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e days f o r p e r i o d s of 40 t o 50 minutes. classes.)  ( A l l t e s t i n g procedures  were i d e n t i c a l f o r the 13  Table 4 P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Study Means f o r C l o z e Scores and an I n t e r e s t I n v e n t o r y (n=56) Stories  C l o z e Scores  Interest  Scores  Easy S t o r i e s 1. A r t  27.8  4.54  2. Beach  27.8  4.87  3. F i e l d  27.4  4.34  4. Amusement  22.5  4.11  5. B a l l o o n  22.7  3.94  6. Zoo  21.1  3.89  Difficult  Note.  Stories  The maximum score f o r the C l o z e t e s t i s 50. The maximum score f o r the I n t e r e s t I n v e n t o r y i s 5.  Table 5 D e s c r i p t i o n of How the S i x S t o r i e s w i t h The Three S e t t i n g V e r s i o n s and the Two D i f f i c u l t y L e v e l s Are D i v i d e d i n t o Three Groups Stories  Red Group  Blue Group  Y e l l o w Group  Easy S t o r i e s 1. A r t  B  2. Beach  Y>  3. F i e l d  B  Difficult  B  l  2  3  B  2  B^  B  3  B  B  ]  3  2  Stories  4. Amusement  B^  B^  5. B a l l o o n  B^  B^  B  6. Zoo  B  B  B  Note.  3  B^, B , and B 2  3  2  2  r e f e r t o the t h r e e s e t t i n g  levels. B^ = L o c a l s e t t i n g ; and B  3  B  2  = Foreign s e t t i n g ;  = Non-specific setting.  56  On the f i r s t  day the r e s e a r c h e r was  home room t e a c h e r .  i n t r o d u c e d to the c l a s s by the  A f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n the C l o z e procedure was  s t r a t e d w i t h the use of the p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e "The the c h i l d r e n w i t h the p r o c e s s . of  The  Wind," to f a m i l i a r i z e  r e s e a r c h e r read the f i r s t  sentence  the p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e and then asked f o r s u g g e s t i o n s as to what word  might make sense f o r the f i r s t d e l e t i o n . to  demon-  as a " g u e s s i n g q u i z . "  t i o n s and t h e r e was  The C l o z e procedure was  referred  The c l a s s responded o r a l l y to each of the d e l e -  d i s c u s s i o n as t o the " b e s t " answer.  The c l a s s  a l s o t o l d t h a t s p e l l i n g d i d not count and t h a t o n l y one word was  was  allowed  i n each b l a n k . The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l was D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e was response  to "The  t h a t t h i s was  then demonstrated.  handed out and d i s c u s s e d .  Wind."  t i o n of the t h r e e s t o r y groups. d i s t r i b u t e d because t h e r e was A l s o i t was  Each c l a s s had a random s e l e c -  s i x s t o r i e s to be read were randomly  d e s i r e d t h a t any s p u r i o u s e f f e c t due to s t o r y a c r o s s groups.  s t o r y to be read which i t was  T h i s d e c i s i o n was  The  e x c e p t i o n to t h i s  decided should be an easy  was  story.  due t o i n f o r m a t i o n gained i n the f i e l d t e s t i n g of the  i n s t r u m e n t s where i t was read a d i f f i c u l t  apparent  from c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n  s t o r y f i r s t were l e s s w e l l m o t i v a t e d and became e a s i l y  d i s c o u r a g e d about the whole p r o j e c t , whereas those who easy s t o r y managed t o s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t The  assured  no t h e o r e t i c a l or p r a c t i c a l reason t o study  o r d e r s h o u l d be n o n - s y s t e m a t i c  who  The  and  form.  The m a t e r i a l s were then d i s t r i b u t e d .  the f i r s t  Students f i l l e d i n a  They were encouraged to be honest  a personal choice i n t e r e s t  order e f f e c t s .  A sample Semantic  s t a r t e d w i t h an  throughout.  s t o r y v e r s i o n s f o r each group p l u s t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g C l o z e  t e s t s and the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s were d i s t r i b u t e d to the c l a s s .  57 C h i l d r e n were g i v e n l a r g e m a n i l a envelopes  i n which to keep a l l t h e i r  materials. The  s t u d e n t s read one s t o r y at a time.  A f t e r they had  finished  r e a d i n g they t u r n e d the s t o r y face-down on t h e i r desks f o r the r e s e a r c h e r to c o l l e c t .  A f t e r each s t o r y was  D i f f e r e n t i a l and the matching  read the s t u d e n t s completed  Cloze t e s t f o r that s t o r y .  a Semantic  I t was  f o r the r e s e a r c h e r t o c o l l e c t the s t o r i e s b e f o r e the s t u d e n t s  necessary  attempted  the i n t e r e s t and comprehension measures o t h e r w i s e s t u d e n t s might have used the s t o r i e s as templates to f i l l  i n the C l o z e t e s t s .  On the second and t h i r d days of t e s t i n g the s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o read and respond  to the s t o r i e s t h a t were i n t h e i r  envelopes.  S c o r i n g and T a b u l a t i o n of the Data The C l o z e  Procedure  A l l t e s t s were marked by hand by the r e s e a r c h e r and v o l u n t e e r a s s i s tants.  T e s t s were marked f o r exact replacements  (Bormuth, 1975). p l u r a l was was  The  s i n g u l a r form of the word was  c o r r e c t , and no synonyms were a c c e p t e d .  not p e n a l i z e d i f the word was  and t h e r e was ized.  of the o r i g i n a l  recognizable.  not accepted i f the However, m i s - s p e l l i n g  Numerals were accepted  no p e n a l t y f o r l a c k of c a p i t a l s or words e n t i r e l y  No c r e d i t was  of the words was  capital-  g i v e n i f more than one word was w r i t t e n even i f one  correct.  (Two  c h i l d r e n o b v i o u s l y at f r u s t r a t i o n  had r e s o r t e d to f i l l i n g i n nonsense words or o b s c e n i t i e s , and one s e v e r a t e d throughout The  text  level, per-  the e n t i r e s t o r y w i t h one word.)  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e A l l t e s t s were marked by hand by the r e s e a r c h e r and v o l u n t e e r a s s i s -  tants.  The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l had two  s c a l e s w i t h f i v e response  choices  58 to-each. to each  Osgood, S u c i , and Tannenbaum (1970) suggest a s s i g n i n g w e i g h t s cell.  Less F a v o u r a b l e Adjective  :  1  :  2  :  3  :  4  :  5  :  Most F a v o u r a b l e Adjective  Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test The Comprehension Test (Form D) was  a d m i n i s t e r e d and marked by the  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s d u r i n g September and October, 1979).  The raw s c o r e s  were then ranked and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o T s c o r e s ( G l a s s & S t a n l e y , 1970, 86).  To o b t a i n the t h r e e r e a d i n g groups  p.  (low, average, and h i g h ) s c o r e s  were s e p a r a t e d one h a l f a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n around the mean ( T a b l e 6 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s was appeared  a rather gross a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n , a n a t u r a l grouping  at t h i s p o i n t . i  Table 6 Range of Comprehension Test Scores Groups  Raw  Scores  Standard T Scores  Low  15-30  29-44  Average  31-40  45-55  High  41-52  56-67  Des i g n I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and r e a d i n g  diffi-  c u l t y l e v e l s on r e a d i n g comprehension and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , a f i x e d e f f e c t s model 2x3x3 f u l l y c r o s s e d f a c t o r i a l s t o r i e s was employed. F a c t o r A:  easy and hard.  a w i t h i n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e l e v e l s of setting:  F a c t o r C:  The f a c t o r s were as f o l l o w s :  a w i t h i n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t i n g o f two l e v e l s of d i f f culty:  F a c t o r B:  f o r e i g n , l o c a l , and n o n - s p e c i f i c .  a between s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e l e v e l s o f reading a b i l i t y :  The  d e s i g n w i t h repeated measures over s i x  low, average,  d e s i g n of t h e study i s p r e s e n t e d  and h i g h . i n Table 7.  I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g comprehension and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , c o r r e l a t i o n a l measures were employed. Statistical The  Procedures  data were p r o c e s s e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Com-  puting Centre.  The B i o m e d i c a l Computer Program BMDP-09 was used t o com-  pute a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) w i t h r e p e a t e d measures over s i x s t o r i e s . Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were performed u s i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia v e r s i o n o f the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l  S c i e n c e s (SPSS) program. Summary Chapter  t h r e e begins w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s and a d i s -  c u s s i o n of t h e development o f i n s t r u m e n t s used i n t h e study. a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p i l o t  study f o l l o w e d by t h e procedures  I t includes used i n  60  Table 7 A Diagram of a 2x3x3 F i x e d E f f e c t s Model F u l l y - C r o s s e d F a c t o r i a l Design Difficulty  A Difficult  Ai  2  Easy S t o r i e s Setting  Bi  Local  B  2  Foreign  Stories  Setting  B  3  Non-Specific  B ,  Local  B  B  2  Foreign  Reading Ability Ci  Low  C  2  Average  C  3  High Note.  3  Non-Specific  L e t t e r s A, B, and C r e f e r t o the t h r e e f a c t o r s . A = D i f f i c u l t y , B = P h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , C = Reading A b i l i t y . N. ., = 87.  c a r r y i n g out the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t . of  data i s d i s c u s s e d .  c o n c l u d e s the c h a p t e r .  The c o l l e c t i o n and  The d e s i g n of the study and s t a t i s t i c a l  treatment procedures  CHAPTER IV  ANALYSIS OF DATA The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s to present the a n a l y s e s of data  col-  l e c t e d u s i n g the C l o z e Procedure, Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s , and a standardized reading t e s t .  F i n a l S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s The  s u b j e c t s f o r the study were 344 s i x t h grade s t u d e n t s from Van-  couver p u b l i c s c h o o l s .  Data from 83 s t u d e n t s were d i s c a r d e d .  The  reasons  f o r the l o s s of data were due to incomplete data f o r 37 s t u d e n t s , and of homogeneity of v a r i a n c e .  T e s t s of homogeneity of v a r i a n c e r u n , p r i o r  to s t a t i s t i c a l " p r o c e d u r e s b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t , found t h e r e was ally significant result.  a statistic-  Cochran's C. and B a r t l e t t ' s Box t e s t s both  l a c k of homogeneity of v a r i a n c e (p .001). the assumptions  lack  S i n c e t h i s v i o l a t e d one  n e c e s s a r y f o r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e , 46  were randomly d i s c a r d e d to c r e a t e equal s u b j e c t s i n each c e l l .  found  of  students Kirk  (1968)  states that: The F d i s t r i b u t i o n i s robust w i t h r e s p e c t to v i o l a t i o n of the assumption of homogeneity of p o p u l a t i o n - e r r o r v a r i a n c e s p r o v i d e d t h a t the number of o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the samples i s e q u a l . (p.'61) A procedure was  adopted whereby numbers were a s s i g n e d to each s u b j e c t .  A random numbers., t a b l e was  e n t e r e d and s u b j e c t s were d i s c a r d e d u n t i l  c e l l s a l l e q u a l l e d 87 (n=261). 62  the  63 Reliability Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s Interest  scores f o r each of the s i x s t o r i e s were a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y  for r e l i a b i l i t y .  The treatment  of r e l i a b i l i t y o b t a i n e d t a k i n g measure.  l e v e l s were c o l l a p s e d  and a Hoyt e s t i m a t e  the two s c a l e s t o g e t h e r as the i n t e r e s t  R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .88 t o .93 a c r o s s the s i x  s t o r i e s (Table 8 ) . Pearson Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a l s o were computed between the semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l scales.  Coefficients  ranged from .792  to .847 a c r o s s the s i x s t o r i e s (Table 9 ) .  Research The  Questions  and A s s o c i a t e d Hypotheses  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were addressed  by t e s t i n g the f o l l o w i n g  null  hypotheses. Research  Question  1.0  Is r e a d i n g comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n physical  influenced  by the  setting i n a story?  Hypothesis  1.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s and C l o z e s c o r e s on f o r e i g n - s e t  between C l o z e  scores  stories.  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d out on the Cloze scores (Table 10). The complete ANOVA summary s t a t i s t i c s f o r Tables^21 and 2 2 j Appendix A.  Results indicated  l s  found i n  t h a t the main e f f e c t f o r s e t t i n g was s t a t i s -  t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .001 l e v e l .  F(2,516) = 57.51, p < .001.  The means were i n s p e c t e d u s i n g the S c h e f f e t e s t f o r m u l t i p l e sons ( K i r k , 1968, p. 9 1 ) . difference  R e s u l t s showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  compari-  significant  (p < .001), whereby the l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s were comprehended  64 Table 8 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y  of I n t e r e s t Scores (n=261)  Hoyt: Reliability Coefficient  Story  mean  S.D.  1  7.67  2.35  .91  2  7.94  2.23  .89  3  7.74  2.36  .91  4  7.38  2.43  .88  5  7.61  2.49  .93  6  7.31  2.55  .92  Table 9 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Responses t o Items and Two of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales (n=261) Story  Correlation Coefficients  1  .831  2  .801  3  .847  4  .792  5  .828  6  .830  Overall  .816  One  Table 10 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of C l o z e Scores on P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y Source Between Interaction Within  s_s  df  MS  3317.62  2  1658.81  159.84  4  39.96  14883.86  516  28.84  F 57.51*** 1.39 N.S.  66 s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the f o r e i g n s t o r i e s .  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d (Table 11). Hypothesis  1.2  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y on l o c a l l y - s e t  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between C l o z e  scores  s t o r i e s and C l o z e s t o r i e s on n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y s e t s t o r i e s .  R e s u l t s from the S c h e f f e t e s t f o r m u l t i p l e comparisons showed a statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (_p < .05), whereby the l o c a l - s e t  s t o r i e s were understood ies.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the n o n - s p e c i f i c s t o r -  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d (Table 1 1 ) .  Hypothesis  1.3  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between C l o z e  scores  on f o r e i g n - s e t s t o r i e s and C l o z e s c o r e s on n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t s t o r i e s . The S c h e f f e t e s t f o r m u l t i p l e comparisons i n d i c a t e d t h a t the nons p e c i f i c s e t C l o z e s c o r e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y f o r e i g n - s e t C l o z e s c o r e s (p_ < .05). rejected  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  was  (Table 11).  Hypothesis  1.4  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y on s p e c i f i c - s e t  stories  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between C l o z e  scores  ( l o c a l and f o r e i g n s e t t i n g s combined) and C l o z e  s c o r e s on n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t s t o r i e s . R e s u l t s from the S c h e f f e t e s t f o r m u l t i p l e comparisons showed t h a t the means were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significantly different  (_p_ > .05).  There-  f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was not r e j e c t e d (Table 11). Research Q u e s t i o n  2.0  To what e x t e n t i s the r e a d i n g comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n a f f e c t e d by the d i f f i c u l t y Hypothesis  of a story?  2.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between C l o z e  scores  Table 11 S c h e f f e ' s S Test f o r Comparison of C l o z e Test Means Variable  1  Local setting  1  Foreign setting  2  4.37***  -  Non-specific setting 3 Specific  s e t t i n g (1&2)  df(2,258) *P <  ^05  ***p < .001  2  2.72*  -  4  3 2.64*  -  -  -  -  .02 N.  68 on easy s t o r i e s and C l o z e s c o r e s on d i f f i c u l t A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e procedure y i e l d e d p < .001.  Comprehension was  an F ( l , 2 5 8 ) = 366.12,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the easy  than on the d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s (Table 12). was  stories.  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l  stories hypothesis  rejected.  Research Q u e s t i o n  3.0  To what e x t e n t i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d the p h y s i c a l Hypothesis  setting i n a story? 3.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l  difference  l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r y and a f o r e i g n - s e t A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e was Results indicated ally  by  between i n t e r e s t  s c o r e s on a  story.  c a r r i e d out on the t e s t scores (Table 13).  t h a t the o v e r a l l main e f f e c t  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l .  f o r s e t t i n g was  F(2,516) = 2.91,  p <  statistic-  .05.  The means were i n s p e c t e d p a i r w i s e u s i n g the S c h e f f e t e s t f o r mult i p l e comparisons (Table 14).  R e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  (p > .05).  an o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t  Although  to s e t t i n g t h e r e was null  h y p o t h e s i s was  Hypothesis  t h e r e was  no s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r w i s e comparison. not  differences due  Therefore,  the  rejected.  3.2  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant difference  s c o r e s on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t  between i n t e r e s t  s c o r e s on n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y  set  stories. Scheffe r e s u l t s null  h y p o t h e s i s was  Hypothesis  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  not r e j e c t e d  (p > .05).  The  (Table 14).  3.3  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t difference  between i n t e r e s t  Table Analysis  12  of V a r i a n c e of C l o z e Scores of S t o r y D i f f i c u l t y , and S t o r y D i f f i c u l t y by Reading A b i l i t y  Source  ss  Between Interaction Within  df  MS  8442.20  1  8442.20  80.94  2  40.47  5949.18  258  23.05  F  366.12*** 1.76 N.S.  ***p < .001  Table 13 Analysis  of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores of P h y s i c a l and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y  Source Between Interaction Within *p < .05  s_s  Setting,  df  MS  F  23.97  2  11.98  2.91*  6.27  4  1.56  2125.41  516  4.11  .38 N.S.  Table  14  S c h e f f e ' s S T e s t s f o r Comparisons of Means on I n t e r e s t Scores  Variable Local Setting  1  Foreign Setting  2  Non-Specific Setting 3 S p e c i f i c v s . NonSpecific  df(2,258)  4  ,262  N.S.  ,00  N.S.  ,262  N.S. .131  N.S,  71 s c o r e s on f o r e i g n - s e t stories.  s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t s c o r e s on n o n - s p e c i f i c  S c h e f f e r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was not r e j e c t e d Hypothesis  set  (p > . 0 5 ) .  (Table 1 4 ) .  3.4  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e scores on s p e c i f i c s e t s t o r i e s and n o n - s p e c i f i c  set s t o r i e s .  S c h e f f e r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was not r e j e c t e d Research Q u e s t i o n  between i n t e r e s t  (p > .05).  There-  (Table 1 4 ) .  4.0  To what e x t e n t i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d  by  the d i f f i c u l t y o f a s t o r y ? Hypothesis  4.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s on easy s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t of V a r i a n c e procedure y i e l d e d  between i n t e r e s t  scores on d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s .  an F ( l , 2 5 8 ) = 13.33, p < .001.  Easy  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r a t e d as b e i n g more i n t e r e s t i n g than d i f f i c u l t (Table 15).  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  Research Q u e s t i o n  stories  stories  rejected.  5.0  To what e x t e n t i s i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d reading  Analysis  by t h e i r  ability?  Hypothesis  5.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between i n t e r e s t  s c o r e s f o r low r e a d i n g a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s and i n t e r e s t s c o r e s f o r h i g h r e a d ing a b i l i t y  students.  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e procedure y i e l d e d  a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t  f o r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y on i n t e r e s t , F(2,258) = 2.96, p < .05 (Table 1 6 ) . However, when these means were examined by the S c h e f f e procedure f o r  Table 15 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores of D i f f i c u l t y of S t o r i e s , and D i f f i c u l t y and Reading A b i l i t y Source  Between Interaction Within  ss  df  MS  45.18  1  45.18  1.62  2  .81  874.19  258  3.38  F  13.33*** .24 N.S.  ***P < .001  Table 16 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores on Reading Source Between Within *p < .05  ss  df  MS  85.74  2  43.77  3821.82  258  14.81  Ability F 2.96*  73 multiple  comparisons they d i d not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was Research Q u e s t i o n  not r e j e c t e d  (Table  (p > .05).  17).  6.0  I s the r e a d i n g comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d the i n t e r a c t i o n of content d i f f i c u l t y and the p h y s i c a l Hypothesis  setting in a  by story?  6.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s t o r y ficulty  (easy and d i f f i c u l t ) and l o c a l and f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l  dif-  s e t t i n g as shown  by s c o r e s on C l o z e t e s t s . Analysis  of V a r i a n c e procedure y i e l d e d  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was Research Q u e s t i o n  an F(2,516) - 1.39,  not r e j e c t e d  p >  .05.  (Table 18).  7.0  To what e x t e n t i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n  influenced  by the i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and the p h y s i c a l  setting i n  a  story? Hypothesis  7.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and the p h y s i c a l est  s e t t i n g i n a s t o r y as measured by a r e a d i n g i n t e r -  scale. Analysis  of V a r i a n c e procedure y i e l d e d  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was Research Q u e s t i o n  an F(4,816) = .38, p >  not r e j e c t e d  (Table 13).  8.0  To what e x t e n t i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n by the i n t e r a c t i o n of the content d i f f i c u l t y and the p h y s i c a l a  .05.  influenced setting in  story? Hypothesis  8.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s t o r y  7.4 Table 17 S c h e f f e ' s T e s t s f o r Comparison of Means on Reading Variable  1  Low Reading A b i l i t y  1  Average Reading A b i l i t y  2  Above Average Reading Ability  3  2  -  Ability 3  .049 N.S.  .88 N.S.  .82 N.S.  -  df(2,258)  Table 18 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of C l o z e Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Content D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Reading A b i l i t y Source Difficulty  ss  df  MS  77.65  2  38.82  1.39 N.S,  124.45 14450.55  4 516  31.11 28.00  1.11 N.S.  x Setting  Interaction D i f f i c u l t y x Setting x Reading A b i l i t y Within  75 d i f f i c u l t y and s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e s  as shown by s c o r e s on an i n t e r e s t  scale. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e procedure  produced an F(2,516) = .19, p > .05.  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was not r e j e c t e d .  Setting variable did  not i n t e r a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the s t o r y d i f f i c u l t y Research  Question  (Table 1 9 ) .  9.0  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and i n t e r e s t o f s t o r ies with l o c a l physical specific  settings, foreign physical  s e t t i n g s , and non-  settings?  Hypothesis  9.1  There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on a C l o z e comprehension measure and s c o r e s on an i n t e r e s t measure. Pearson  Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed between  the C l o z e scores and the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i n t e r e s t s c o r e s .  There  was a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t from 0, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the -001 l e v e l ,  ( r ( 2 6 0 ) = .234).  The n u l l hypothe s i s was  rejected  (Table 2 0 ) . Hypothesis  9.2  There i s no ' s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between  cloze  s c o r e s on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t scores on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s . Pearson Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s  c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed among  the C l o z e s c o r e s and the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i n t e r e s t s c o r e s .  There  was a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t from 0, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , r(260) = .215, p < .01.;  h y p o t h e s i s was  rejected.  The n u l l  76 Table 19 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n t e r e s t Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g ; and D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g and Reading A b i l i t y Source  ss  Difficulty  x Setting  Difficulty Ability  x S e t t i n g x Reading  Interaction  Within  df  MS  1.44  2  .72  27.43  4  6.85  2008.10  516  3.89  F  .19 N.S. 1.76  Table 20 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Scores on a C l o z e Measure and Scores on an I n t e r e s t Measure  Cloze Over a l l Local Setting ***p < .001 df = 260  Overall Interest  Local Setting Interest  .234*** -  .215***  and  N.S.  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s c h a p t e r summarizes t h e study, draws c o n c l u s i o n s based  on t h e  f i n d i n g s , and suggests e d u c a t i o n a l recommendations t h a t can be drawn from the  conclusions. Summary The purpose  o f t h e study was t o determine  variable, physical  setting, i n narrative  comprehension and expressed read such n a r r a t i v e  t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e  prose a f f e c t e d  the s i l e n t reading  i n t e r e s t o f s i x t h grade s t u d e n t s when they  prose.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e study sought t o measure s i x t h grade s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension and expressed with l o c a l physical  The  study a l s o  i n t e r e s t i n matched  settings, s t o r i e s with foreign physical  stories with non-specific  physical  sought  stories  s e t t i n g s , and  settings.  t o determine whether or n o t t h e r e was a r e l a -  t i o n s h i p between grade s i x c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s and t h e i r expressed  children's  s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension o f t h e  i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t o r i e s , and t h e e x t e n t t o  which an i n t e r a c t i o n between content d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e s t o r i e s and t h e physical  setting variable affected  grade s i x c h i l d r e n ' s  s i l e n t reading  comprehension and expressed r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . Materials Six s t o r i e s f o r t h i s study.  (each w i t h t h r e e s e t t i n g treatment The treatment  foreign physical-setting,  l e v e l s were:  l e v e l s ) were  written  local physical-setting,  and a no s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g , i n which t h e s e t t i n g  78 statements  had been removed.  Each s t o r y was designed  to c o n t r o l r e l e v a n t  q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s , and d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l .  Three  s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n w i t h grade f o u r l e v e l r e a d a b i l i t y and t h r e e were w r i t t e n a t a grade e i g h t r e a d a b i l i t y . to approximate the f i r s t  stories  The s t o r i e s were a l l w r i t t e n  chapter i n a n o v e l .  Seventh word d e l e t i o n C l o z e t e s t s were c o n s t r u c t e d over a l l the s t o r y v e r s i o n s to measure s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension and two e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d to measure expressed ies.  r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r -  Scores from the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t were  o b t a i n e d f o r the s u b j e c t s and were used to d i v i d e the sample i n t o reading a b i l i t y  three  groups.  Subjects S u b j e c t s were 344 grade s i x s t u d e n t s from Vancouver s c h o o l  district.  T h i r t e e n c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d from seven s c h o o l s and t h e r e was a mix of socio-economic  levels.  E i g h t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s were e l i m i n a t e d from the  d a t a a n a l y s i s due t o incomplete  data and f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes.  Com-  p l e t e data were a v a i l a b l e and a n a l y z e d f o r 261 s u b j e c t s . C o l l e c t i o n of the Data The  18 v e r s i o n s of the s t o r i e s and the 18 C l o z e t e s t s c o n s t r u c t e d  from these v e r s i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e groups. c o n s i s t e d of s i x s t o r i e s  ( t h r e e easy  each of the s e t t i n g treatments  Each group  s t o r i e s and t h r e e d i f f i c u l t  being represented  s t o r y s e t o f t h r e e and once i n the d i f f i c u l t  twice  stories);  (once i n the easy  s e t of t h r e e ) .  Each c l a s s r e c e i v e d a randomized s e l e c t i o n of the t h r e e groups. C h i l d r e n read one s t o r y a t a time b e f o r e completing e n t i a l and the r e l e v a n t C l o z e t e s t . T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the classroom  the Semantic D i f f e r -  The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Comprehension  t e a c h e r s , e i t h e r b e f o r e or a f t e r  79 the r e s t of the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . Data  Analysis Data were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a f i x e d e f f e c t s 2x3x3 f u l l y c r o s s e d  i a l design.  The t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s were d i f f i c u l t y ,  s e t t i n g , and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y .  The two dependent measures were  r e a d i n g comprehension and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t .  factor-  physical silent  Scheffe tests f o r multiple  comparisons were used to determine d i f f e r e n c e s between groups.  Pearson  Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d t o determine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two dependent v a r i a b l e s . Findings The  q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d a t the b e g i n n i n g  of the  study  a r e answered  h e r e a c c o r d i n g to t h e r e s u l t s of d a t a a n a l y s e s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Two f i n d i n g s were d i r e c t l y concerned 1. influenced  with reading  IV.  comprehension.  Reading comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g o f the s t o r i e s read.  C l o z e s c o r e s on the l o c a l l y s e t s t o r i e s w e r e . r e l i a b l y  higher  than  C l o z e s c o r e s on the l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y h i g h e r  than  C l o z e s c o r e s on the f o r e i g n s e t s t o r i e s .  C l o z e s c o r e s on the n o n - s p e c i f i c  set s t o r i e s .  C l o z e s c o r e s on the n o n - s p e c i f i c and  set stories (stories with l o c a l  f o r e i g n s e t t i n g s combined) were r e l i a b l y h i g h e r than C l o z e s c o r e s on  the f o r e i g n - s e t  stories.  There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between C l o z e s c o r e s on s p e c i f i c a l l y s e t and C l o z e s c o r e s on n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y s e t s t o r ies. 2.. Reading comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced  by the d i f f i c u l t y of the s t o r y .  80 C l o z e s c o r e s on the easy s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y h i g h e r than C l o z e s c o r e s on the d i f f i c u l t  stories.  Three s e t s o f f i n d i n g s were concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e a d i n g interest. 1.  Interest  s c o r e s of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n were found o v e r a l l to  be a f f e c t e d by the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a s t o r y to a s t a t i s t i c a l l y icant  signif-  extent. Physical  s e t t i n g as a g e n e r a l v a r i a b l e i n n a r r a t i v e d i d have a s i g -  n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t ;  however the e f f e c t was not  enough to s t a t e that any one of the t h r e e s e t t i n g l e v e l s was  strong  responsible  f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e . 2.  The r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t o f grade s i x c h i l d r e n was found to be s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y influenced  by the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o f the s t o r y r e a d .  Inter-  e s t s c o r e s on the easy s t o r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than i n t e r e s t s c o r e s on the d i f f i c u l t 3.  Interest  stories.  s c o r e s o f s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n were found to be i n f l u -  enced by t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y to a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t extent.  Reading a b i l i t y as a g e n e r a l v a r i a b l e d i d have an o v e r a l l e f f e c t on r e a d ing i n t e r e s t .  However, t h e e f f e c t was n o t s t r o n g  enough t o s t a t e which  of the p a i r s o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y groups was r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the s i g n i f i -  cance. Three s e t s o f f i n d i n g s were concerned w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n s of r e a d ing a b i l i t y , 1.  content d i f f i c u l t y ,  setting.  Reading comprehension o f s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n was not s i g n i f i -  cantly influenced ical  and p h y s i c a l  by the i n t e r a c t i o n of content d i f f i c u l t y and the phys-  setting i n a story. 2.  The r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t o f grade s i x c h i l d r e n was n o t found to be  81 s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced  by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and  the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a s t o r y . 3.  The r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t o f grade s i x c h i l d r e n was n o t found t o be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced  by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f the content d i f f i c u l t y and  physical setting i n a story. One s e t o f f i n d i n g s was concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g comprehension and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . 1.  There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension o f s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n when r e a d i n g s i x s t o r i e s w i t h the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e s There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  combined.  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g  i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension o f s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n when r e a d i n g s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g but t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was no s t r o n g e r than i t was f o r t h e s e t t i n g s The  collapsed.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g  appears t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t  comprehension  i s n o t a f f e c t e d by the p h y s i c a l  setting  of t h e s t o r i e s .  Discussion The  following  conclusions  and C o n c l u s i o n s  a r e drawn based on t h e f i n d i n g s .  I t would appear t h a t grade s i x c h i l d r e n a r e i m p l i c i t l y their pre-existing  l o c a l environment schema t o g a i n  l o c a l l y s e t s t o r i e s and t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r r e a d i n g  stronger access to the comprehension.  A l t h o u g h the f o r e i g n s e t s t o r i e s were s e t i n e x o t i c p l a c e s and  t h e C a r i b b e a n , they were t h e l e a s t w e l l comprehended.  was drawn t h a t Vancouver c h i l d r e n ' s that  t h e f o r e i g n s e t t i n g impeded  utilizing  schema f o r such p l a c e s  such as P a r i s The  conclusion  i s weak and  comprehension.  S t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s were a l s o comprehended  better  82 than s t o r i e s w i t h n o n - s p e c i f i c ting versions style  settings.  were s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r  (see T a b l e s 2 and  A l t h o u g h the n o n - s p e c i f i c  i n length,  and  set-  s l i g h t l y easier i n  3) they were l e s s w e l l comprehended.  Tt would  appear t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the l o c a l s e t t i n g schema f a c i l i t a t e s comp r e h e n s i o n more than a g e n e r a l i z e d a t i o n t h a t may  help  non-specific  s e t t i n g does.  The  word "beach" may  i s s p e c i f i c rather  summon up  than g e n e r a l i z e d .  the l o c a l Vancouver c h i l d ,  summon up  p r e - e x i s t i n g s e t t i n g schemata. to be done by  reading  them, the  t h e i r own was  only  word "amusement p a r k " may,  the P.N.E.  Therefore,  s u b j e c t s may  schema i s not  when  to  reading  a l s o have been  The  so w e l l o r g a n i z e d , and  c h i l d r e n reading  using  S i n c e the two  thus  the l o c a l  to match the l o c a l s e t t i n g i n the  p r e - e x i s t i n g schema.  s/he  In t h i s c a s e , however, the e x t r a work  comprehension i s weaker.  s e t t i n g s t o r i e s had  s e t t i n g as  non-  a p r e - e x i s t i n g beach schema t h a t The  the n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y s e t s t o r i e s , the  has  explan-  to e x p l a i n t h i s r e s u l t i s t h a t the r e a d e r of the  s p e c i f i c a l l y set s t o r y i s f r e e to imagine a s p e c i f i c reads.  An  physical  story with  matched, comprehension  facilitated. The  standing  stories with non-specific than the  s e t t i n g s were read w i t h more under-  f o r e i g n set s t o r i e s .  f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g acted  I t becomes c l e a r t h a t  to the d e t r i m e n t of comprehension.  than " h i g h l i g h t i n g " or " f l e s h i n g " out  the  s e t t i n g i n f a c t i n h i b i t e d comprehension. to the e x p l a n a t i o n of the n o n - s p e c i f i c  s t o r y , the f o r e i g n  Rather  physical  T h i s r e s u l t g i v e s more credence  mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n .  I f the  reader  setting story i s u t i l i z i n g pre-existing setting  schema ( a l t h o u g h t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n may  be p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d and  match than the match made by the reader r e a d i n g nevertheless,  the  the f a c i l i t a t i n g  e f f e c t on r e a d i n g  l o c a l l y set  a weaker  stories),  comprehension would  be  83 s t r o n g e r than t h a t of the reader r e a d i n g f o r e i g n set s t o r i e s f o r which pre-existing  schema i s v i r t u a l l y  This explanation  may  nonexistent.  a l s o account f o r the a p p e a l of s e r i e s books  such as The  Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, e t c . , which a l l have  settings.  I f the reader i s u t i l i z i n g  non-specific  a f a m i l i a r l o c a l s e t t i n g when  r e a d i n g such books then comprehension w i l l l i k e l y be  facilitated.  S t o r i e s w i t h s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s were comprehended as w e l l as with non-specific  settings.  I t was  i c i t y t h a t caused the d i f f e r e n c e s important i n g r e d i e n t schema f o r the has  no  was  not  the g e n e r a l v a r i a b l e of  i n r e a d i n g comprehension.  "where" the  s t o r y was  set.  I f the r e a d e r has  s e t t i n g , then comprehension i s f a c i l i t a t e d ;  a l l a s p e c t s of t e x t are u t i l i z e d  i f the  i n reading.  The  s e l e c t i v e l y f o r important n a r r a t i v e elements (Brown e t . a l . , & Anderson, 1977). may  Children  the  setting variable rising  thorough reading. t i n g may as  still  The  r e a d e r reads 1977;  Pichert  the  schema may  plot  story i n result in  schema, a l t h o u g h  set-  skimmed or p a r t i a l l y " s k i p p e d , " the r e a d i n g need not  "gaps f i l l e d  c o n n e c t i o n s , and  i n " because of the  p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g of the up  means showed t h a t  retarded.  i n i t s u t i l i z a t i o n f o r a more  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , because of s t r o n g  be  reading scores,  pre-existing  i n importance and  thorough, s i n c e i n f e r e n c e s ,  f i e d and  a strong  Setting  a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l be  strength  be  clari-  of the p r e - e x i s t i n g  schema.  s t o r i e s made a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e  to f o u r grade l e v e l s .  An  a  reader  r e a d i n g f o r important elements such as  " s k i p " s e t t i n g as having a minor importance.  an a r e a f o r which a c h i l d has  specif-  The  schema, or i f the schema i s weak, then comprehension i s Not  stories  examination of the  the average r e a d e r s scored as w e l l when r e a d i n g  in  group difficult  s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l s e t t i n g s as they d i d when r e a d i n g easy s t o r i e s w i t h foreign settings  (Table  23,  Appendix A ) .  S i m i l a r l y , the  same r e s u l t  was  84 noted w i t h the above average r e a d e r s ( T a b l e 23, Appendix A ) . below average  Even the  r e a d e r s were helped c o n s i d e r a b l y when they read  difficult  s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l s e t t i n g s as compared to easy s t o r i e s w i t h f o r e i g n settings;  the d i f f e r e n c e being a p p r o x i m a t e l y two  difficulty  ( T a b l e 23, Appendix A ) .  All  r e a d i n g groups expressed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r e s t i n the  easy s t o r i e s than they d i d i n the d i f f i c u l t above average group the d i f f i c u l t problem.  grade l e v e l s of r e a d i n g  s t o r i e s , a l t h o u g h f o r the  s t o r i e s should have posed no r e a d i n g  The d i f f e r e n c e s between the easy s t o r i e s and the hard  were not i n s t o r y c o n t e n t , but r a t h e r i n s t y l e o f w r i t i n g and devices.  The d i f f i c u l t  stories  literary  s t o r i e s had l o n g e r sentences, more i n v o l v e d  syntax, and c o n t a i n e d more m o d i f i e r s , metaphor, and i m a g i n a t i v e d e t a i l ; i n g r e d i e n t s t h a t would l a b e l them as b e i n g more l i t e r a r y .  The  c h o i c e of the above average r e a d e r s , t h e r e f o r e , would seem to  interest  suggest  t h a t they a r e not i n t e r e s t e d i n " l i t e r a r y " p r o s e , but p r e f e r the more a c t i o n c e n t r e d , simple s t y l e of the easy s t o r i e s .  (This conclusion  would support r e s e a r c h e r s who c l a i m t h a t " l i t e r a r y " m a t e r i a l i s not a l l y chosen by c h i l d r e n  typic-  [ A s h l e y , 1971].)  A l t h o u g h the c h i l d r e n comprehended the l o c a l s t o r i e s b e t t e r than the o t h e r s , they d i d not express an i n t e r e s t i n any p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g the o t h e r s ) . preferred. mild  N e i t h e r the f o r e i g n , local', nor. n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s were The c h i l d r e n ' s expressed response would seem to be one of  interest  (as shown by the o v e r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t F for-  i n t e r e s t ) but without c l e a r p a i r w i s e d i r e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . would be i n agreement w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n s of Simpson and Soares who  found  (over  This result (1965)  the s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e to be not s i g n i f i c a n t compared t o o t h e r  content v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e .  85 In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s study i t was suggested t h a t  pre-existing  schema may n o t o n l y have an e f f e c t on r e a d i n g comprehension, but may a l s o a f f e c t reading i n t e r e s t .  However, t h e s u g g e s t i o n does n o t seem t o have  been borne out by t h e r e s u l t s .  I t would n o t appear t h a t  pre-existing  schema f o r l o c a l s e t t i n g i s i n f l u e n c i n g the expressed i n t e r e s t o f t h e grade s i x c h i l d r e n t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . Correlations  between i n t e r e s t and comprehension o f l o c a l l y s e t  s t o r i e s , w h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than zero, were low and no h i g h e r than t h e o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n f o r i n t e r e s t and comprehension.  Although  t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and i n t e r e s t i t does n o t appear t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e e x p r e s s i n g an i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e t t i n g v a r i able.  T h i s a g a i n agrees w i t h t h e r e s u l t s found by Simpson and Soares  (1967) who found the s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e to be n o t s i g n i f i c a n t when compared to o t h e r content v a r i a b l e s  such as p l o t and . c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  Physical  s e t t i n g does n o t ( i n t h i s study) appear t o have been a c o n s c i o u s f a c t o r i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s expressed i n t e r e s t ( u n l i k e s t o r y  Implications Pedagogical  difficulty).  f o r Pedagogy and Research  Implications  I n t h i s study, grade s i x Vancouver c h i l d r e n have been found t o comprehend s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s w i t h g r e a t e r  success than  they have comprehended s t o r i e s w i t h f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s and s t o r i e s with non-specific  settings.  Setting  i s o n l y one n a r r a t i v e element.  A  complete n o v e l s e t l o c a l l y presumably would have a f a r s t r o n g e r e f f e c t on r e a d i n g comprehension as i t would u t i l i z e schemata f o r language p a t t e r n s , motivation.  l o c a l children's  pre-existing  c u l t u r a l customs, and c h a r a c t e r  type and  86 The  use o f h i g h - i n t e r e s t l o w - v o c a b u l a r y m a t e r i a l i s g e n e r a l l y  recommended f o r r e m e d i a l t h a t these  readers.  R e s u l t s from t h i s study would suggest  s t u d e n t s would b e n e f i t from r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n which the  s t o r i e s were s e t l o c a l l y . I f t h e s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e can make a d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e e q u i v a l e n t of f o u r grade l e v e l s i n r e a d i n g account when r e a d i n g  comprehension then t h i s should be taken i n t o  t e s t s a r e used t h a t c o n t a i n m a t e r i a l w i t h f o r e i g n  s e t t i n g s , as many c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d i z e d  t e s t s do.  Standardized  should be developed t h a t use n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s i n o r d e r  tests  that c h i l d r e n  a r e n o t p e n a l i z e d f o r l a c k o f p r e - e x i s t i n g schemata f o r o t h e r  places.  T e s t s developed f o r l o c a l usage, however, c o u l d u t i l i z e a b a l a n c e o f l o c a l , f o r e i g n , and n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s . The  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study would seem t o c o n f i r m Anderson's (1977)  c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t meaning does n o t r e s i d e i n t h e t e x t , but t h a t t h e t e x t i s a r e c i p e t h a t can guide the r e a d e r through r e l e v a n t schema., i n g pedagogy. prehension  into constructing a representation  T h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m and r e a d -  T e a c h e r s and e d u c a t o r s  need t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t r e a d i n g com-  i s b e s t f a c i l i t a t e d by matching r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s t o t h e  c h i l d ' s p r e - e x i s t i n g s c h e m a — a s t h i s study has demonstrated. t i o n a l d i r e c t e d reading lesson.has u l a r y and n e c e s s a r y  always r e q u i r e d the t e a c h i n g o f vocab-  background i n f o r m a t i o n t o students  t a k i n g the r e a d i n g o f a s e l e c t i o n . support  The t r a d i -  before  t h e i r under-  R e s u l t s o f t h i s study n o t o n l y  give  t o t h i s t e a c h i n g method, but a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t a few minutes o f  p r e - t e a c h i n g may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t f o r a l l c h i l d r e n t o develop t h e n e c e s s a r y background.  More a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n t o t h i s development  through d i r e c t and v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e would seem t o be e s p e c i a l l y important  b e f o r e r e a d i n g takes p l a c e .  This  f o r materials outside the c h i l d ' s  87 knowledge base. suggest  Although  t h i s study d e a l s w i t h n a r r a t i v e , the r e s u l t s  t h a t t h e o t h e r content areas of r e a d i n g i n t h e elementary  c o u l d be a f f e c t e d s i m i l a r l y .  I t would then appear t o be c r u c i a l t h a t  t h e p r e - t e a c h i n g be e x t e n s i v e and thorough. field-trips,  school  Films, stories,  pictures,  and e x c u r s i o n s should precede r e a d i n g r a t h e r than be used  merely as enrichment a t the end o f a u n i t . . S i n c e t h e average and above average r e a d e r s scored as w e l l when r e a d i n g the d i f f i c u l t  s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l s e t t i n g s as they d i d on the easy  s t o r i e s w i t h f o r e i g n s e t t i n g s , the whole concept  of d i f f i c u l t y  needs r e - e v a l u a t i n g i n the l i g h t o f schema t h e o r y .  Difficulty  f o r the s t o r i e s were c a l c u l a t e d on the D a l e - C h a l l r e a d a b i l i t y (which uses syntax and a common c o r e v o c a b u l a r y l i s t indices).  level levels  formula  as i t s d i f f i c u l t y  P r e - e x i s t i n g schema, as shown by t h i s study, can o v e r r i d e  these f a c t o r s by as much as f o u r grade l e v e l s . t h a t some comment on the semantic readability  content  I t becomes  apparent  i s n e c e s s a r y when r e p o r t i n g  levels.  Research I m p l i c a t i o n s The and  s t o r i e s w r i t t e n f o r t h i s study were c o n t r o l l e d f o r q u a l i t a t i v e  quantitative variables.  However, the n o n - s p e c i f i c v e r s i o n s were  s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r i n l e n g t h , due t o the removal o f the s e t t i n g  statements.  I t may be t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e had an e f f e c t on t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e a d i n g behaviour  and subsequently  sion Cloze t e s t s .  inflated  t h e s c o r e s on the n o n - s p e c i f i c v e r -  T h i s study s h o u l d be r e p e a t e d w i t h a l l s t o r y v e r s i o n s  b e i n g r e w r i t t e n t o i d e n t i c a l l e n g t h s i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r t i g h t e n the d e s i g n and ensure t h a t the n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g r e s u l t s have n o t been skewed. The dependent measure o f comprehension i n t h i s study, the C l o z e  88 p r o c e d u r e , was chosen because o f i t s s u p e r i o r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , which a l l o w s f o r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s .  However, due t o i t s mea-  surement s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , use o f t h e C l o z e procedure r e q u i r e s m u l t i p l e passages and l a r g e samples and i s n o t a b l e t o examine a f f e c t i v e components or a c h i l d ' s s p e c i f i c response t o a passage.  Using  a s m a l l sample i t  would be p o s s i b l e t o repeat  t h i s study w i t h o r a l r e c a l l as the dependent  measure o f comprehension.  T h i s would enable the independent v a r i a b l e ,  p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , t o be examined i n c l o s e r d e t a i l . T h i s study o n l y examined grade s i x s t u d e n t s .  The study c o u l d be  r e p l i c a t e d w i t h a d j u s t e d m a t e r i a l a t the primary and h i g h s c h o o l  levels,  to a s c e r t a i n whether the r e s u l t s a r e i n some way "developmental" o r g e n e r a l i z a b l e to a l l l e v e l s . T h i s study  should be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n .  The  s t o r i e s should be r e w r i t t e n i n order  t h a t the l o c a l s e t t i n g s r e f l e c t t h e  environment o f the new p o p u l a t i o n .  R e s u l t s would g i v e v a l i d i t y t o the  present  study and add t o i t s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y .  The  s t o r i e s i n t h i s study were not i l l u s t r a t e d .  However, most  s t o r i e s f o r elementary c h i l d r e n do have i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o m o t i v a t e and  c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n the r e a d i n g c o n t e n t .  T h i s study  cated u s i n g accompanying p i c t u r e s f o r each s t o r y .  should be r e p l i -  The p r e s e n c e o f a p i c -  t u r e may g i v e a p a r t i a l schema t o c h i l d r e n t h a t c o u l d a l t e r t h e r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t  study  i n a measurable manner, as a p a r t i a l schema f o r f o r e i g n  s e t t i n g s would i n c r e a s e the comprehension s c o r e s on the f o r e i g n s e t t i n g story versions. The  n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g v e r s i o n c o u l d be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d  using i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  Using  o n l y the n o n - s p e c i f i c v e r s i o n s o f the s i x  s t o r i e s , p i c t u r e s c o u l d i l l u s t r a t e e i t h e r a f o r e i g n or a l o c a l  setting.  89 Scores on the Cloze tests would then indicate to what extent schema i s strengthened and comprehension affected by i l l u s t r a t i o n s alone. In this study setting was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t as a main e f f e c t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t interactions with either reading a b i l i t y or content d i f f i c u l t y . significant.  However, there may be other interactions that are  For instance, there was no hypothesis i n t h i s study f o r  story differences (stories were a l l mystery-adventure),  yet the genres  of h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n , fantasy, or animal realism may a f f e c t the setting variable.  Further research should examine possible interactions between  story genre and physical setting. Using the same method for c o n t r o l l i n g content other narrative e l e ments could be examined-—such as f i g u r a t i v e language, mood, and point of view, to ascertain what role they play i n a child's reading comprehension and reading interest. This study dealt only with narrative.  The study should be r e p l i -  cated with expository material to ascertain whether the difference i n style and organization of text would affect the r e s u l t s found i n t h i s study. Work on text comprehension i s not far advanced. added to the knowledge being collated i n t h i s area.  This study has I t i s hoped that  further research exploring the relationship between schema and text w i l l , besides increasing our understanding of the reading process, enable teachers and educators to develop materials and curriculum for children i n order that their reading comprehension be f a c i l i t a t e d , and so that they can read with enjoyment.  90 REFERENCES Anderson, R. C. Schema-directed p r o c e s s e s i n language comprehension. I n A. L e s g o l d , J . P e l l e g r i n o e t a l . ( E d s . ) , C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y and Instruction. New York: Plenum P r e s s , 1977. Anderson, R. C , S p i r o , R. J . , and Anderson, M. C. 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ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 140 226, 1976)  93 P i a g e t , J . The language and thought of the c h i l d . & Brace, 1926.  New  York:  Harcourt  P i c h e r t , J . W., and Anderson, R. C. T a k i n g d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s on a story. ( T e c h n i c a l Report 14) Urbana, 111.: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Center f o r the Study of Reading, 1976. P u r v e s , A. C , and Beach, R. L i t e r a t u r e and the r e a d e r : R e s e a r c h i n response to l i t e r a t u r e , r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s and the t e a c h i n g of literature. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s a t Urbana-Champaign. National C o u n c i l o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h , 1974. Ramanauskas, S. The e f f e c t of c o n t e x t u a l c o n s t r a i n t beyond a sentence on c l o z e r e s p o n s e s of c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r t h e educable m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t , 1971. Quoted i n E. A. Rankin, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as a r e s e a r c h t o o l i n the study o f language. In P. D. Pearson and J . Hansen ( E d s . ) , Reading: Disciplined inquiry i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . The 27th yearbook o f the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, Clemson: N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1978. Rankin, E. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l o z e procedure as a r e s e a r c h t o o l i n the s t u d y of language. In P. D. Pearson and J . Hansen ( E d s . ) , Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and p r a c t i c e . The 27th yearbook of N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1978. Robinson, H. Research r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t and.to v a l u e s of r e a d i n g . L i b r a r y Trends, 1973, 22_, 81-108.  developmental  R u d d e l l , R. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of the s i m i l a r i t y o f o r a l and w r i t t e n p a t t e r n s o f language s t r u c t u r e on r e a d i n g comprehension ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I n d i a n a , 1963). Dissertation A b s t r a c t s , 1964, 24, 5207. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 64-03826). R i p l e y , W. H. 502.  The c l o z e procedure.  J o u r n a l of Reading, 1973,  L6,  496-  Schnayer, S. Some r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and r e a d i n g comprehension. In J . A. F i g u r e l ( E d . ) , Reading and r e a l i s m ( V o l . 13). P r o c e e d i n g s of the 13th Annual Convention of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , Newark, 1969. Soares, A. T., and Simpson, R. H. I n t e r e s t i n r e c r e a t i o n reading of j u n i o r h i g h s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f Reading, 1968, 11_, 14-21. Simpson, R. H., and Soares, A. Best l i k e d and l e a s t l i k e d s h o r t s t o r i e s i n junior high school. E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , 1965, 54_, 108-111. Smith, F. Understanding r e a d i n g . 1975.  New  York:  H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston,  S u l i n , R. A., and D o o l i n g , D. J . I n t r u s i o n s o f a thematic i d e a i n r e t e n t i o n of p r o s e . J o u r n a l of E x p e r i m e n t a l Psychology, 1974, 103, 255-262.  94 T a y l o r , W. L. C l o z e p r o c e d u r e . A new t o o l f o r measuring r e a d a b i l i t y . J o u r n a l i s m Q u a r t e r l y , 1953, 415-433. Tannenbaum, P. H. A t t i t u d e towards source and concept as f a c t o r s i n a t t i t u d e change through communications. Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1953. Vaughan, J . L., J r . , and M e r e d i t h , K. E. R e l i a b i l i t y of the c l o z e p r o cedure as assessments of v a r i o u s language elements. In P. D. Pearson and J . Hansen ( E d s . ) , Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n p r o c e s s and practice. The 27th yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, Clemson: N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1978. Yoder, J . M. The r e l a t i v e importance o f f o u r n a r r a t i v e f a c t o r s i n the r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s of male and female h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1978). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1978, _39, 217A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , No. 78-10400)  95  APPENDICES  96  APPENDIX A Summary Tables of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e  •97 Table 21 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary Table f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e s : (n = 261)  Interest  Source  ss  df  MS  Mean Ability Error  90792.96 87.54 3821.82  1 2 258  90792.96 43.77 14.81  45.18 1.62 874.19  1 2 258  45.18 0.81 3.38  13.33*** .024 N.S.  Setting SA Error  23.97 6.27 2125.41  2 4 516  11.98 1.56 4.11  2.91* .38 N.S.  DS DSA Error  1.45 27.43 2008.10  2 4 516  0.72 6.85 3.89  0.19 N.S. 1.76 N.S.  Difficulty DA Error  * * * P J ,<  .oor  **p < .01 *p < .05  •  6129.16 2.96*  9.8 Table 22 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary Table f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e : C l o z e Procedure (n = 261) Source  ss  df  MS  673161.57 52113.80 45454.28  1 2 258  673161.57 26056.94  8442.20 80.94 5949.18  1 2 258  8442.20 40.47 23.05  366.12*** 1.76 N.S.  Setting SA Error  3317.62 159.84 14883.86  2 4 516  1658.81 39.96 28.84  57.51*** 1.39 N.S.  DS DSA Error  77.65 124.45 14450.55  2 4 516  38.82 31.11 28.00  1.39 N.S. 1.11 N.S.  Mean Ability Error Difficulty DA Error  •**p < .001 **p < .01 *p < .05  3820.89 147.90***  99 Table 23 C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e : C l o z e Procedure (n=261) Low Reading A b i l i t y Local Setting Easy s t o r y D i f f i c u l t story Setting Easy s t o r y D i f f i c u l t story  M  SD  Average M SD  Above Average M SD  17.2 12.6  9.2 7.5  24.2 21.3  6.6 6.4  32.2 27. 1  6.6 6".3 .  14.3 10.0  8.7 7.2  21.2 17.0  6.6 6.4  27.1 16:3  6.6 6.3  15.1 11.2  9.2 8.7  24.5 18.7  7.6 6.4  30.3 24.2  6.5 6.4  Foreign  Non-Specific Setting Easy s t o r y D i f f i c u l t story  100  Table 24 C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Dependent Variable: I n t e r e s t (n=261) Low Reading  Ability  M  SD  M  Average SD  Above Average M SD  Local Setting Easy s t o r y Dif f icult'st-oryy  7.7 7.5  2.5 2.4  7.8 7.4  2.3 2.6  8.3 8.0  1.7 2.1  Foreign Setting Easy s t o r y D i f f i c u l t story  7.5 7.0  2.4 2.6  7.2 7.5  2.4 2.5  8.2 7.6  1.9 2.0  Non-Specific Setting Easy s t o r y D i f f i c u l t story  7.8 7.0  2.4 2.7  7.7 7.1  2.4 2.4  7.7 7.7  2.1 2.4  APPENDIX B Practice  Cloze  10-2  Name Division  The Wind  Have you e v e r had y o u r hat blown o f f by an autumn w i n d ? Has  \  w i n t e r wind e v e r made  and c o l d ?  i s moving a i r .  The  _  as s o f t as a tq l i f t  face red  works h a r d . -  Sometimes i t  Sometimes i t i s s t r o n g  houses o f f  ground.  The wind can  f l y a l e a f , but trees. t h e mountains fights. grow.  '  The wind c a r r i e s  snow o v e r  we can s k i and  The wind  snowball  t h e r a i n t o make  When we see  sky on a s p r i n g strong.  can a l s o blow down  k i t e f l y i n g high i n , we know t h e wind  When we see we know t h e wind  s a i l b o a t s a i l i n g out a t \  pushing i t along  31  APPENDIX Stories  Form A .104  Mystery i n the London Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one took any notice of that. They never do i n schools. The class was going to the Art Gallery and that was that! "The whole class!" Mr. Renaudshouted at me.  "That means you too, Pat!"  The bus was late of course, and then we had to squash three i n a seat. It was enough to make you sick! Naturally half-way across the Tower Bridge we got stuck i n a t e r r i b l e traffic-jam. Some guy had run out of gas. I t wasn't f a i r . Life was outside, a l l warm and smelling of new leaves and flowers. From the bus I could see crowds of yellow daffodils under the trees i n Hyde Park. Many coloured kites soared high up against the bright blue sky looking l i k e giant birds about to attack. The fountains i n Trafalgar Square glinted and sparkled, and the pigeons were going crazy, pushing and flapping and free! People on the streets had their coats o f f . They were almost skipping along i n the sunshine. I f e l t l i k e a prisoner shut-up for l i f e . We'd come to the Gallery to see the Turner paintings. I guess they were O.K., i f you l i k e storm clouded oceans and thousands of sunsets. I stayed near the back where I couldn't hear the guide. There was a black couch sort of hidden i n an alcove. I sat myself down on i t out of sight of everyone... and that's how I saw i t happen'. An old grey-haired lady was standing at the side of the room. She was staring at a tiny gold-framed painting of a bunch of flowers. I noticed her because of her moulting fur coat. I t looked l i k e buffalo or something. Anyway, I was thinking she must be b o i l i n g with such a heavy coat on a warm sunny day. When suddenly, she darted a crafty look around the room and then, quick as a cat, she sidled up to the painting, whipped i t o f f i t s hook and under her fur coat. Two seconds i t took, and o f f she went for the Exit. I was stunned. I just sat there with my mouth open. Of course what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF". I f I'd screamed loudly then, I might have saved myself a whole l o t of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same, you can't go round l i f t i n g Britain's art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an old lady...!  FORM B •105  Mystery i n the Vancouver Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one took any notice of that. They never do i n schools. The class was going to the Art Gallery and that was that! "The whole class!" Mr. Renaud shouted at me. "That means you too, Pat." The bus was late, of course, and then we had to squash three i n a seat. I t was enough to make you sick! Naturally, half-way across Lion's Gate Bridge we got stuck i n a terrible traffic-jam. Some guy had run out of gas. I t wasn't f a i r . Life was outside, a l l warm and smelling of new leaves and flowers and sea-air. Down below I could see sail-boats gliding and darting i n the bay. High above, sea-gulls were screaming and wheeling against the bright blue sky. There were crowds of yellow daffodils a l l along the banks of Stanley Park and the ducks i n Lost Lagoon were going crazy, diving and quacking and  free!  People on the  streets had their coats o f f . They were almost skipping along i n the sunshine. I f e l t l i k e a prisoner shut-up for l i f e . We'd come to the Gallery to see the Emily Carr paintings. I guess they were O.K. i f you l i k e dark green forests and rotting totem poles. I stayed near the back where I couldn't hear the guide. There was a black couch sort of hidden i n an alcove. I sat myself down on i t out of sight of everyone and that's how I saw i t happen'. An old grey-haired lady was standing at the side of the room. She was staring at a tiny gold-framed painting of a bunch of flowers. I noticed her because of her moulting fur coat. I t looked l i k e a buffalo or something. Anyway, I was thinking she must be boiled with such a heavy coat on a warm sunny day. When, suddenly, she darted a crafty look around the room, and. then, quick as a cat, she sidled up to the painting, whipped i t o f f i t s hook and under her fur coat. Two seconds i t took, and o f f she went for the Exit. I was stunned. I just sat there with my mouth open. Of course what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF!" I f I'd screamed loudly then I might have saved myself a whole l o t of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same you can't go round l i f t i n g B.C.'s art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an old lady...!  Form C 106  Mystery i n the Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one took any notice of that. They never do i n schools. The class was going to the Art Gallery, and that was that! "The whole class!" the teacher shouted at me.  "That means you too, Pat."  The bus was late of course, and then we had to squash three i n a seat. I t was enough to make you sick! Naturally, just half-way across the town we got stuck i n a terrible t r a f f i c jam. Some guy had run out of gas. I t wasn't f a i r . Life was outside waiting for me, but I was trapped just l i k e some poor old prisoner....shut-up for l i f e . We'd come to the Gallery to see a l o t of paintings. I guess they were O.K. i f you're a person who likes that sort of thing. I stayed near the back where I couldn't hear the guide. There was a black couch sort of hidden i n an alcove. I sat myself down on i t out of sight of everyone....and that's how I saw i t happen! An o l d grey-haired lady was standing at the side of the room. She was staring at a tiny gold-framed painting of a bunch of flowers. I noticed her because of her old fur coat. Anyway, I was thinking she must be boiled with such a heavy coat on a warm day. When, suddenly, she darted a crafty look around the room, and then, quick as a cat, she sidled up to the painting, whipped i t o f f i t s hook and under the fur coat'. Two seconds i t took, and o f f she went for the Exit. I was stunned. I just sat there with my mouth open. Of course what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF!" I f I'd screamed loudly then I might have saved myself a whole l o t of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same you can't go round l i f t i n g the country's art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an o l d lady '.  Form A 107  Cable Beach Mystery  Joe raced up Cable beach. He grabbed his towel from the coral sand where he'd l e f t i t under the shade of a drooping palm. I t was f i n a l l y getting cooler. The sun was going fast. They'd stayed i n the sea for too long. "Hurry up, Linda," he yelled to his s i s t e r . "It's getting dark and we haven't lights on our bikes." "I'm coming. You don't have to shout." Linda l e t the tide float her gently to the shore l i k e a piece of flotsam. She got slowly to her feet and peeled off her mask and snorkel. I t was late. The beach was deserted. The sun was sinking behind the palms and the low white clouds on the horizon were a l l streaked through with a lazy pink flush. Far out past the breakwater on the Cay the lighthouse was winking. The lights had begun to gleam from the tourl i n e r moored at Prince George's Wharf and Cable beach was becoming covered with cold black shadows. "Hurry up," Joe grumbled. "You're always so slow." Linda made a face at him,", but didn't bother to argue. "Just smell the Oleander scent, Joe," she sniffed. "Things always smell so much better at night." "Hmm!" said Joe. "I'd rather have the smell of Fish and Chips myself. It's too bad the shop i s closed now." Suddenly, a cooling breeze rippled eerily past the breakwater s t i r r i n g the long green fronds of the palm trees and mixing the perfumes of the tropical flowers. Linda f e l t a prickle at the back of her neck and she shivered. "We're the only ones l e f t on the beach," she said. "And we're going to catch i t when we get home." Joe frowned and stared up at the sky turning black before his eyes. "Do get a move on, Lin. I wanted to watch the cricket match on T.V. tonight." "I'm ready." Linda l i f t e d her pack over her shoulder. "Let's " She stopped suddenly as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! Cut i t out! What's the " "Shhh!" Joe hissed i n her ear. "Look! Look up there that l i g h t ! " ;  Linda stared. High up, where the velvet blue of the sky was turning navy, a s i l v e r l i g h t pulsed slowly. "What i s i t ? " Linda whispered. " I t ' s not a plane It's not moving." "Helicopter?" "With a s i l v e r l i g h t ? " "Whatever i t i s , " Joe said, " i t ' s getting nearer. It's much bigger." Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . It's as big as a f u l l moon now."  Form A  2  108  They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the s i l v e r l i g h t grew ever larger, brighter, and nearer. "It's going to crash at Paradise Island'." Joe's voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the s i l v e r pulse. "No. No, i t ' s not!" Linda rubbed her.;, eyes hard. She could hardly see. "It's nearer than the island. It's It's coming here. It's coming towards  Form B 109  E n g l i s h Bay Mystery Joe raced up K i t s i l a n o beach. where he'd l e f t i t . chilly.  He grabbed h i s towel from the giant l o g  " B r r r l " he began t o s h i v e r .  The sun was going down f a s t .  I t was s t a r t i n g to get very  They'd stayed i n the sea too long.  "Hurry up, Linda," he y e l l e d t o h i s -sisterv- "It's g e t t i n g dark and we J  haven't l i g h t s on our b i k e s . " "I'm coming.  You don't have to shout!"  gently t o shore l i k e a piece o f driftwood. peeled o f f her mask and f l i p p e r s .  Linda l e t the t i d e f l o a t her She got slowly t o her f e e t and  I t was l a t e .  The beach was deserted.  The  sun was s i n k i n g behind the mountains, a red b a l l o f flame that l i t up the snow capped t i p s i n a l a z y pink f l u s h . Shore.  L i g h t s had begun to glow from the North  The Grouse Mountain c h a i r - l i f t sparkled l i k e a necklace o f diamonds.  Out i n E n g l i s h Bay the l i g h t s from the w a i t i n g g r a i n f r e i g h t e r s winked back from the shadowy water. "Hurry up!" Joe grumbled.  "You're always so slow."  Linda made a face a t him, but didn't bother,to argue. pine t r e e s , Joe," she s n i f f e d . "Hmm," s a i d Joe.  " J u s t smell those  "Things always smell so much b e t t e r at n i g h t . "  " I ' d r a t h e r have the smell o f f i s h and chips myself.  I t ' s too bad the concession stand i s shut." Suddenly, a c h i l l i n g breeze r i p p l e d e e r i l y through the t r e e s , s t i r r i n g the needles on the p i n e s , and making a shower o f golden Arbutus leaves. Linda f e l t goose-flesh r i s i n g on her arms and l e g s .  "We're the only ones  l e f t on the beach," she s a i d . "And we're going to catch i t when we get home," Joe frowned and s t a r e d up at the sky turning black before h i s eyes.  "Do get a move on, L i n .  I wanted t o  watch the White-Caps game on T.V. t o n i g h t . " "I'm ready."  Linda l i f t e d her pack over her shoulder.  "Let's  She stopped suddenly as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! Cut i t out! "Shhh'." Joe h i s s e d i n her ear. Linda stared.  "Look'.  "  What's the  Look up there... that l i g h t ! "  High up, where the v e l v e t blue o f the sky was turning navy,  a s i l v e r l i g h t pulsed slowly. "What i s i t ? "  Linda whispered.  " I t ' s not a plane.  I t ' s not moving."  "Helicopter?" "With a s i l v e r l i g h t ? " "Whatever i t i s , " Joe s a i d , " i t ' s g e t t i n g nearer. Linda swallowed.  I t ' s much bigger."  " I ' l l say i t i s . I t ' s as b i g as a f u l l moon now."  "  2  B  They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the silver light grew larger, brighter and nearer. "It's  going to crash in Stanley Park!"  Joe's voice wobbled a bit.  His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the silver pulse. "No. "It's  No, i t ' s not!"  nearer than the park.  Linda rubbed her eyes hard. It's  It's  coming here.  She could hardly see It's  coming towards  Form C 111  Beach Mystery Joe raced up the beach. He grabbed his towel from the sand where he'd l e f t i t e a r l i e r . I t was f i n a l l y getting colder. The sun was going down fast. They's stayed i n the sea for too long. "Hurry up, Linda," he yelled to his s i s t e r . haven't lights on our bikes."  " I t ' s getting dark and we  "I'm coining. You don't have to shout." Linda l e t the tide float her gently to the shore. She stood up and peeled o f f her mask and snorkel. I t was late. The beach was deserted. Everyone had gone home. "Hurry up," Joe grumbled. "You're always so slow." Linda made a face at him, but didn't bother to argue. "Just smell the fresh a i r , Joe," she sniffed. "Things always smell so much better at night." "Hmm," said Joe. "I'd rather be home and have the smell of supper cooking myself." Suddenly a breeze rippled e e r i l y through the trees. Linda f e l t a prickle at the back of her neck. "We're the l a s t ones on the beach," she said. "And we're going to catch i t when we get home," Joe frowned and stared up at the sky turning black before his eyes. "Do get a move on, L i n . I wanted to watch a game on T.V. tonight." "I'm ready," Linda swung her day-pack over her shoulder. "Let's..." She stopped suddenly as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! Cut i t out! What's the... "Shhh'." Joe hissed i n her ear. "Look! Look up there that l i g h t ! " Linda stared. High up, where the velvet blue of the sky was turning navy, a s i l v e r l i g h t pulsed slowly. "What i s i t ? " Linda whispered. " I t ' s not a plane... It's not moving." "Helicopter?" "With a s i l v e r l i g h t ? " "Whatever i t i s , " Joe said, " i t ' s getting nearer. It's much bigger." Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . It's as big as a f u l l moon now." They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the s i l v e r light grew ever larger, brighter, and nearer. "It's going to crash right over there!" Joe pointed into the distance. His voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the s i l v e r pulse, "No. No, i t ' s not!" Linda rubbed her eyes hard. She could hardly see. "It's much nearer than that. I t ' s . . . It's coming here! It's coming towards  FORM A 112  Mystery on the Balclutha "And the Balclutha was the last of the Cape Horn sailing ships, a 'Windjammer!." The guide led the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy, who was standing nearby. Sandy shrugged.  "Beats  "How'd they ever get the sails up?"  me."  "A captain, four officers and twelve crew sailed the ship. boy was the youngest on board," the guide went on.  The cabin  "The boy would have been  just.your age." "I wonder what happened to him?" asked Terri. The guide looked up. him.  "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of a mystery about  Some people say that sometimes when i t goes a l l quiet on board that he " The guide stopped suddenly.  "Never mind. We'd better get on.  Mind  your heads please. We're going inside." It was musty and dark inside.  The captain's cabin was comfortable and  had a real bed, but the officers' cabins were very tiny. how anyone could live in one.  Terri didn't see  There was a square sky-light, a narrow bunk  bed with rough blankets and a few books on a shelf. "I don't think those bunks are even long enough for me to sleep i n . " Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by.  "Do you think they're fakes?"  "Let's have a try." Sandy watched the rest of the class disappear down into the hold and then jumped quickly over the rope barrier. hard as iron.  "They're as  But I guess they're long enough."  Terri looked at the books on the shelves. Suddenly i t was very quiet and s t i l l . chest.  A clock ticked gently on a wooden  They could hear their own heart-beats.  And then slowly, with a l i t t l e  creak of i t s hinges, the door of the cabin began to close. Terri and Sandy stared at each other for one long second. once the rushed for the door.  Then both at  They flung i t open and stared out.  There, running lightly up the ladder to the deck, was a dark-haired boy dressed in leggings and a yellow waist-coat. "A ghost!" hissed Sandy. "No!"  gasped Terri.  "Quick!  Let's follow him!"  But there was nothing there.  Sandy raced up the ladder and onto the deck.  The deck was empty. They stared around.  The  A  2  113-  sun was breaking through the fog.  They could see the Golden Gate bridge i n  the distance, the fishing boats i n the bay, and the grim island of Alcatraz. Nothing moved. On shore, even the red-painted tram car was waiting. The boy was gone. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crow's nest at the top of the main mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him'." Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there  "  FORM B 114  Mystery on the St. Roche "And the St. Roche was the f i r s t boat to s a i l both ways through the N.W. Passage," the guide said proudly, leading the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the s a i l up?" Sandy shrugged. "Beats me." "And this tent on the deck was the home of an Inuit man, his wife and four children," the guide went on. "One of the boys was just your age." "I wonder what happened to him?" asked Terri. The guide looked up. "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of a mystery about him. But people do say that sometimes, when i t goes a l l quiet on board, that he " The guide stopped suddenly. "Never mind. We'd better get on. Mind your heads please, we're going inside." The cabins were so tiny, Terri didn't see how anyone could l i v e i n one. There was a round brass port-hole, a wash stand, a narrow bunk bed with rough blankets and a few books on a shelf. "I don't think those bunks are even long enough for me to sleep i n , " Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by. "Do you think they're fakes?" "Let's have a look." Sandy watched the rest of the class disappear down into the hold and then jumped quickly over the rope barrier. "They're as hard as iron. But I guess they're long enough." Terri looked at the books on the shelves. Suddenly i t was very quiet and s t u l l . A clock on the wall ticked. They could even hear their own heart-beats. And then slowly, with a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges, the door of the cabin began to close. Terri and Sandy stared at each other for one long second. Then both at once they rushed for the door. They flung i t open and stared out. There, running l i g h t l y up the ladder to the deck, was a dark-haired boy dressed i n a seal-skin parka, leggings and mukluks. "A ghost'." Sandy hissed. "No'." gasped Terri. "Qhick'. Let's follow him!" Sandy raced up the ladder and onto the deck. But there was nothing there. The deck was empty. They stared around.,Outside the sun was breaking through the fog. They could see the sea-gulls on the rocks, the freighters anchored i n the bay, the mountains poking through the mist, and the round white dome of the Planetarium. Nothing moved. The totem pole with  2  115  i t s dark green and red carvings stood s i l e n t . The boy was gone'. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crow's nest at the top of the mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!" Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there !"  FORM C 116  Mystery on the Sailing Ship "And this i s the last of the s a i l i n g ships," the guide said, leading the grade seven class across the wooden deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the s a i l s up?" Sandy shrugged.  "Beats  me."  "The cabin boy was the youngest on board," the guide went on.  "The boy  would have been just your age." "I wonder what happened to him?" asked Terri. The guide looked up. "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of a mystery about him. Some people say that sometimes when i t goes a l l quiet on board that he "  The guide stopped suddenly.  "Never mind. We'd better get on.  Mind  your heads, please. We're going inside." I t was musty and dark inside. The captain's cabin was comfortable and had a real bed, but the officers' cabins were very tiny. Terri didn't see how anyone could l i v e i n one. There was a round; brass port-hole, a narrow bunk bed with rough blankets, and a few books on a shelf. "I don't think those bunks are even long enough for me to sleep i n , " Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by. "Do you think they're fakes?" "Let's have a t r y . " Sandy watched the rest of the class disappear down into the hold and then jumped quickly over the rope barrier. "They're as hard as iron. But I guess they're long enough." Terri looked at the books on the shelves. Suddenly i t was very quiet and s t i l l . A clock ticked gently on a wooden chest. They could hear their own hearts beat. And then, slowly, with a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges, the door of the cabin began to close. Terri and Sandy stared at each other for one long second. Then both at once they rushed for the door. They flung i t open and stared out. There running l i g h t l y up the ladder to the deck was a dark-haired boy dressed i n leggings and a yellow waist-coat. "A ghost!" hissed Sandy. "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick! Let's follow him!" Sandy raced up the ladder and onto the deck. But there was nothing there. The deck was empty. They stared around. The boy was gone. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crows-nest at the top of the mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!"  Sandy grabbed Terri's arm.  "We'll have to climb up there...!"  FORM A 117  The T i v o l i Gardens Adventure The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n s t i l e c l i c k e d f u r i o u s l y as the e a r l y - b i r d s poured i n t o the T i v o l i Gardens; and as i f t o show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy cloud-bank and the crowd began h a p p i l y shedding t h e i r r a i n c o a t s , and f u r l i n g d r i p p i n g umbrellas. Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n the mob, fought t h e i r way t o the fringes. "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c , as a t a l l scrawny man i n a checked r a i n c o a t and cap pushed roughly past him, sending him staggering to the ground. "Hey! Are you a l l r i g h t ? " Cathy helped him to h i s f e e t .  "What an  animal, shoving l i k e t h a t . " "Quick!"  E r i c shouted a t her.  " I t ' s my w a l l e t . . . t h a t man...he's  taken my w a l l e t ! " "A pick-pocket!" the crowd.  Cathy wheeled sharply around, her eyes searching  "Look! ... That's him ... past the playground!"  " A f t e r him," E r i c began hobbling i n p u r s u i t . "We have t o catch him ... that's a l l our money'." Past the marching T i v o l i boy-guards w i t h t h e i r bushy bearskins and b a n d o l i e r s ; past the lake w i t h the s h i n i n g s p a r k l i n g fountains, and the red, yellow and blues o f the gay flower beds; past the laughing c h i l d r e n being drawn around i n the t i n y goat c a r t s ; past the Peacock Theatre w i t h i t s twin red and gold towering pagodas and e x c i t e d crowd cheering a troupe o f j u g g l i n g acrobats, past an open-air restaurant w i t h i t s white-painted t a b l e s , s t r i p e d umbrellas and d e l i c i i o u s smell o f f r e s h Danish Pastry; r i g h t i n t o the heart o f the sleepy lunch-time f u n - f a i r , they ran. "Lost him," p u f f e d Cathy, holding onto the r a i l i n g o f the Ghost-Train. "He could be anywhere." E r i c rubbed h i s knee, which was aching.  "Have you any money a t a l l ? "  he demanded. Cathy p u l l e d out a s i x t e e n Kroner note.  "Only t h i s . . . . I gave you  the r e s t to keep s a f e . . . b i g d e a l ! " "There's no time t o argue," E r i c s t a r t e d running once more.  "Let's go  up on the Ferris-Wheel.... maybe we can spot him from there." Sighing and t h i n k i n g w i s t f u l l y o f the f r e s h p a s t r i e s and c o l d orange drinks i n the open-air restaurant, Cathy followed.  FORM A  Z  118  As the g i a n t wheel turned upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r necks. They c e r t a i n l y had a good view o f the T i v o l i grounds. " I t shouldn't be d i f f i c u l t to spot him," E r i c muttered.  "There's  not many people i n the f u n - f a i r . " " I f he's s t i l l around," Cathy s a i d , holding on grimly as they rocked w i l d l y backwards and forwards. Around and around went the wheel, f a s t e r and f a s t e r , u n t i l the f u n - f a i r became one b l u r o f coloured l i g h t s and shapes, and t h e i r eyes grew s t r a i n e d with staring.  Then, j u s t as they had given up hope and the wheel was  dying to a c l o s e , E r i c saw a f l i c k o f checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House...he's going i n t o the Fun-House."  The c h a i r rocked  c r a z i l y as he t r i e d to stand up.' "We've got him now. ..come on  "  FORM B 119  P.N.E. Adventure The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n - s t i l e c l i c k e d  f u r i o u s l y as the e a r l y - b i r d s poured i n t o the P.N.E. grounds, and as i f to show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy grey cloud bank and the crowd began h a p p i l y shedding t h e i r r a i n c o a t s and f u r l i n g d r i p p i n g umbrellas. Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n the mob,  fought t h e i r way to the  fringes. "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c , as a t a l l scrawny man i n a checked r a i n c o a t and cap pushed roughly past him, sending him staggering to the ground. "Hey!  Are you a l l r i g h t ? "  Cathy helped him to h i s f e e t .  "What an  animal, shoving you l i k e t h a t . " "Quick!"  E r i c shouted at her.  "A pick-pocket!"  " I t ' s my wallet...he's taken my w a l l e t ! "  Cathy wheeled sharply, her eyes searching the crowd.  "Look! .V..That's him... past the Food F a i r . " " A f t e r him," E r i c began hobbling i n p u r s u i t .  "We have to catch him...  that's a l l our money!" Past the S a l v a t i o n Army band p l a y i n g marches; past the s t a l l s s m e l l i n g o f f r y i n g onions, corn and cotton-candy; past the shouting hucksters waving greaseless f r y i n g pans and f i v e coloured pens; under the s k y - r i d e , w i t h i t s s p a r k l i n g red, blue and yellow c h a i r s ; up the h i l l to the logging show, where already an e x c i t e d crowd was cheering two men  i n f l a n n e l s h i r t s and knee boots  who were r a c i n g up and down the towering tree-trunks as though g r a v i t y didn't e x i s t ; past the Bingo t e n t s , r i g h t i n t o the depths o f the sleepy lunch-time P l a y l a n d , they ran. "Lost him," p u f f e d Cathy, h o l d i n g onto the r a i l i n g o f the G i a n t - S l i d e . •"He could be anywhere." E r i c rubbed h i s knee which was aching. "Have you any money at a l l ? " he demanded. Cathy p u l l e d out a two d o l l a r b i l l .  "Only t h i s . . . I gave you the r e s t  to keep s a f e . . . b i g d e a l ! " "There's no time to argue," E r i c s t a r t e d running once more.  "Let's  go up on the Ferris-Wheel...maybe we can spot him from there." Sighing and t h i n k i n g w i s t f u l l y of the f r e s h p i z z a s and c o l d orange drinks i n the Food-Fair, Cathy followed. As the g i a n t wheel turned upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r necks.  Form B  2 120  They certainly had a good view of the P.N.E. grounds. "It shouldn't be d i f f i c u l t to spot him," Eric muttered. very many people i n Playland."  "There's not  "If he's s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on grimly as they rocked wildly backwards and forwards. Around and around went the wheel, faster and faster, until Playland became one blur of coloured lights and shapes, and their eyes grew strained with staring.  Then just as they had given up hope and the wheel was dying  to a close, Eric saw a f l i c k of checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House  he's going into the Fun-House!" The chair rocked  crazily as he tried to stand up.  "We've got hum now... come on!"  FORM C  121  Amusement Park Adventure  the  The crowd surged eagerly forward and the turnstile clicked furiously as early-birds poured into the Amusement Park.  Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n the mob, fought their way to the fringes. "Ouch!" yelled Eric as a t a l l scrawny man i n a checked raincoat and cap pushed roughly past him, sending him staggering to the ground. "Hey! Are you a l l right?" Cathy helped him to his feet. "What an animal, shoving l i k e that." "Quick!" Eric shouted at her. "It's my wallet...that man...he's taken my wallet!" "A pick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply round, her eyes searching the crowd. "Look...there he goes...over there!" "After him," E r i c began hobbling i n pursuit. that's a l l our money!"  "We have to catch him...  Past the crowds; past the tents; and past the rides; right into the depths of the sleepy lunch-time Amusement-Park, they ran. "Lost him," puffed Cathy, holding onto the r a i l i n g of a carousel. "He could be anywhere." E r i c rubbed his knee which was aching. "Have you any money at a l l ? " he demanded. Cathy pulled out a two dollar b i l l . "Only this....I gave you the rest to keep safe...big deal!" "There's no time to argue," Eric started running once more. "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel...maybe we can spot him from there." Sighing and thinking w i s t f u l l y of lunch, Cathy followed him slowly. At least she wouldn't be sick this time, she thought, as the attendant pulled the bar across the seat. She had nothing inside her to be sick with. As the giant wheel turned upwards Cathy and E r i c craned their necks. They certainly had a good view of the Amusement Park. " I t shouldn't be d i f f i c u l t to spot him," E r i c muttered. "There's not many people i n the park." " I f he's s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on grimly as they rocked wildly backwards and forwards. Around and around went the wheel, faster and faster, u n t i l the Amusement Park became a blur of colours and shapes, and their eyes grew strained with  staring.  Then, just as they had given up hope and the wheel was dying to  a close, Eric saw aIiflick of checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House...he's going into the Fun-House," the chair rocked c r a z i l y as he t r i e d to stand up. "We've got him now...come on'."  Form A Adventure over P a r i s  The gigantic red tethers i n the centre painted wicker basket watch; a l l cheered as their balloon ride.  123  and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring of the parade-ground i n the Champ-de-Mars. A golden hung underneath, and the holiday crowd gathered to the winners of the competition came forward to claim  Jules and Marie were the fortunate winners, the two twelve year olds who had designed the winning poster for Balloon Day. A portly gentleman carrying a megaphone h a s t i l y motioned them to climb into the golden-painted wicker basket. "Safe as houses, Ladies and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the m i l l i n g crowd. "The winners w i l l have a half-hour balloon ride...but of course they w i l l s t i l l be attached to the ground by the anchor cable." He gave a signal to the four workmen who were standing at the four corner cables, and with a flourish they released the ropes, and the balloon, freed from a l l restraint except the anchor cable, began to r i s e regally into the a i r . The crowd cheered and waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother cried out, "Oh, do hang on t i g h t l y , Marie": the band broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and Jules and Marie grinned cheerfully and waved back. "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out with delight as the balloon sailed steadily upwards, scattering some sparrows as i t went. "No motor," Jules got out his camera. " I ' l l get some fantastic photos of the c i t y . " "They a l l look l i k e miniature dolls down there, dolls and toy cars," Marie craned her neck. "It's a gigantic map. And look...we're almost as high as the E i f f e l Tower see the tourists i n the top platforms waving at us!" "There's the Isle de Cite and Notre Dame." Jules adjusted his camera. "Count the bridges.. .eleven.. .twelve!. I ' l l get a good picture." Marie pointed her finger. "There's the Arc de Triomphe...and the Bois de Boulogne... only i t ' s a b i t hazy." She moved cautiously around to the other side of the wicker basket. "We could see forever i f there was no pollution...look...even Orly Airport! I think...," she stopped abruptly as a jerk shuddered through the wicker basket. "What was that?"  Jules frowned.  "Probably the anchor cable tightening.  We must be as  high as i t w i l l l e t us go." But they weren't. Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards l i k e a cork released from a champagne bottle. What had been a half-hour view of the c i t y had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the hazy mass of Orly Airport with i t s constant j e t t r a f f i c grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second  FORM B 125  Adventure over Vancouver  The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers i n the centre of Robson Square. A golden painted wicker basket hung underneath, and the holiday crowd gathered to watch; a l l cheered as the winners of the competition came forward to claim their balloon ride. Jules and Marie were the fortunate winners; the two grade seven students who had designed the winning posters for Balloon Day. A portly gentleman carrying a megaphone h a s t i l y motioned them to climb into the golden-painted basket. "Safe as houses, Ladies and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the m i l l i n g crowd. "The winners w i l l have a half-hour balloon ride...but of course they w i l l s t i l l be attached to the ground by the anchor cable." He gave a signal to the four workmen who were standing at the four corner cables and with a flourish they released the ropes, and the balloon, freed from a l l restraint, except the anchor cable, began to r i s e regally into the a i r . The crowd cheered and waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother cried out, "Oh, do hang on, Marie;" the band broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and Jules and Marie grinned cheerfully and waved back. "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out with delight as the balloon sailed steadily upwards, scattering some sea-gulls as i t went. "No motor," Jules got out his camera. " I ' l l get some fantastic photos of the c i t y . " They a l l look l i k e miniature dolls down there; dolls and toy cars," Marie craned her neck.  " I t ' s a gigantic map.  There's the Hotel Vancouver,  and the B.C.Hydro building, and Stanley Park...look, you can see the s a i l boats i n English Bay." "And the Planetarium," Jules adjusted his camera, "and the North Shore mountains across the bay...with that fresh snow on the tips...I'11 get a good picture." "I can even see Vancouver Island...all misty grey h i l l s , " Marie moved cautiously around to the other side of the wicker basket. ever. . .look. . .even Mount Baker.  I think..." She stopped abruptly as a jerk  shuddered through the wicker basket.  "What was that?"  Jules frowned, "Probably the anchor cable tightening. as high as i t w i l l l e t us go."  "We can see for-  We must be  B  z  But they weren't'. Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards l i k e a cork released from a champagne bottle.  What had been a half-hour  view of the c i t y had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the misty grey h i l l s of Vancouver Island and beyond that the wide Pacific Ocean grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second....  FORM C Adventure over the City  L / 1  The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers i n the centre of the town. A golden painted wicker basket hung underneath, and the holiday crowd gathered to watch, a l l cheered as the winners of the competition came forward to claim their balloon ride. Jules and Marie were the fortunate winners; the two grade seven students who had designed the winning posters for Balloon Day. A portly gentleman carrying a megaphone h a s t i l y motioned them to climb into the golden-painted wicker basket. "Safe as houses, Ladies and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the m i l l i n g crowd. "The winners w i l l have a half-hour balloon ride...but of course they w i l l s t i l l be attached to the ground by the anchor cable." He gave a signal to the four workmen who were standing at the four corner cables and with a flourish they released the ropes and the balloon, freed from a l l restraint,_except the anchor cable, began to r i s e regally into the a i r . The crowd cheered and waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother cried out, "Oh, do hang on t i g h t l y , Marie;" the band broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and Jules and Marie grinned cheerfully and waved back. "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out with delight as the balloon sailed steadily upwards, scattering some birds as i t went. "No motor," Jules got out his camera. " I ' l l get some fantastic photos of the town." "They a l l look l i k e miniature dolls down there, dolls and toy cars," Marie craned her neck. "It's a gigantic map." Jules adjusted his camera. "I'm going to get some very good pictures." Marie moved cautiously around to the other side of the wicker basket. "We can see f o r miles.. .we can see forever. Look right over there...I think...." She stopped abruptly as a jerk shuddered through the wicker basket. "What was that?" Jules frowned. "Probably the anchor cable tightening. We must be as high as i t w i l l l e t us go." But they weren't! Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards l i k e a cork released from a champagne bottle. What had been a half-hour view of the town had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the distant country suddenly grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second.  FORM A  128  Adventure i n the Central Park Zoo It's true i t was a b i t i n g gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer i n a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera and so that's how I just happened to be at the Central Park Zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The seals and I were about the only animate objects around. Oh, there were a few hardy tourists a l l bundled together and t i g h t l y huddled up i n heavy overcoats and woolly scarves, and looking d i s t i n c t l y bluish and pinched around the nose. I decided to get some action photos of the seals catching their f i s h . The colours were dramatic....the brown and yellowy shiny-wet skins of the seals stood out against the stark black iron railings and the grey surroundings and I crouched right down behind the looped railings that c i r c l e d the pool, so as to be eyeball to eyeball with the streamlined swimmers. And this i s when a r e a l l y weird thing happened. I was sort of fiddling round with the view-finder when this guy i n a dark brown coat with a fur-collar appeared on the opposite side of the seal pool, leant casually against the r a i l i n g and lowered one arm down the inside. There was something so furtive and creepy about him that I was sort of paralyzed to the spot. I guess he couldn't see me because of the iron r a i l i n g , but I could sure see him. As I said, i t was really weird. He thrust his arm down nearly to the water and oulled out a stone from the w a l l , then he slipped what looked l i k e a tiny p l a s t i c bag into the hole and pushed back the stone again. I had to crane my neck to see a l l this and at that precise moment he glanced up and saw me. For an indescribable moment we stared straight at each other, and then, i n a moment of pure nervous panic, I clicked the shutter ofraycamera... my camera that was pointing straight at him. He uttered a sort of throttled roar and swinging round, started round the pool toward me. I didn't stop to think....I ran...how I ran! I raced past the balloon sellers and the nickleodeon players, setting up their stands for the day, right down the path to the pony rides and on out of Central Park into the Grand Army Plaza. Past the patiently-waiting horse-drawn carriages I ran, and around the fountain. My heart was throbbing unbearably, the wind whipped the i c y spray against my face, the l a s t yellow leaves of the elms blew i n swirling gusts across my pounding feet, and every time I turned to look he was coming behind me! Where could I hide...what should I do...? s;  FORM B 129  Adventure i n the Stanley Park Zoo It's true i t was a b i t i n g gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer i n a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I happened to be at the Stanley Park Zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The penguins and I were about the only animate objects, Oh, there were a few hardy tourists a l l bundled together and t i g h t l y huddled up i n heavy overcoats and woolly scarves, and looking d i s t i n c t l y bluish and pinched around the nose. I decided to get some action photos of the penguins catching their f i s h . The colours were dramatic.... the black and white dress-suits of the tiny penguins and the bright yellow bibs of the Emperors, standing out against the grey surroundings... and I crouched down behind the stone wall that c i r c l e d the pool so as to get eyeball to eyeball with these glossy swimmers. And this i s when a r e a l l y weird thing happened. I was sort of fiddling round with the view-finder when this guy i n a dark brown coat with a fur-collar appeared on the opposite side of the penguin pool, leant casually against the wall and lowered one arm down the inside. There was something so furtive and creepy about him that I was sort of paralyzed on the spot. I guess he couldn't see me because of the iron r a i l i n g , but I sure could see him. As I said, i t was r e a l l y weird. He thrust his arm down nearly to the water and pulled out a stone from the w a l l , then he slipped what looked l i k e a tiny p l a s t i c bag into the hole and pushed back the stone again. I had to crane my neck to see a l l t h i s , and at that precise moment he looked up and saw me. For an indescribable moment we stared straight at each other, and then i n a moment of pure nervous panic I clicked the shutter of my camera...my camera that was pointing straight at him. He uttered a sort of throttled roar and swinging round, started round the pool towards me. I didn't stop to think I ran..how I ran. I raced past the pop-corn stands, down the h i l l , around the seal-pond, past the cage of raucous monkeys, past the duck-pond and the Aquarium, right down the path to Lumberman's Arch and the sea-wall. Past the empty swimming-pool I ran and under the huge girders of the bridge. My heart was throbbing unbearably, the sea a i r whipped my face and the last red and yellow leaves of the maples blew i n swirling gusts across my pounding feet, and every time I turned to look, he was coming behind me. Where could I hide.. .what should I do  ?  Form C 130  Adventure In the Zoo It's true i t was a b i t i n g gusty autmn day, and I'd have been warmer i n a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The seals and I were just about the only animate objects around. Oh, there were a few hardy souls a l l bundled together and t i g h t l y huddled up in heavy overcoats and woolly scarves, and looking d i s t i n c t l y bluish and pinched around the nose. I decided to get some action photos of the seals catching their f i s h . The colours were dramatic--the brown and yellowy shiny-wet skins of the seals stood out against the stark black iron railings and the grey surroundings --and I crouched right down behind the iron railings that c i r c l e d the pool so as to be eyeball to eyeball with the streamlined swimmers. And this i s when a r e a l l y weird thing happened. I was sort of fiddling round with the view-finder when this guy i n a dark brown coat with a fur-collar appeared on the opposite side of the seal pool, leant casually against the r a i l i n g and lowered one arm down the inside. There was something so furtive and creepy about him that I was sort of paralyzed to the spot. I guess he couldn't see me because of the i r o n railing,, but I could sure see. him. As I said, i t was really weird. He thrust his arm down nearly to the water and pulled out a stone from the w a l l , then he slipped what looked l i k e a tiny p l a s t i c bag into the hole and pushed back the stone again. I had to crane my neck to see a l l this and at that precise moment he glanced up and saw me. For an indescribable moment we stared straight at each other, and then i n a moment of pure nervous panic I clicked the shutter of my camera--my camera that was pointing straight at him. He uttered a sort of throttled roar and swinging around, started round the pool towards me. I didn't stop t o , think I ran how I ran. I raced past the animal" cages and the bird-house, right down the path and out of the zoo. Everytime I turned to look he was coming behind me'. Where could I hide.... what should I do ?  APPENDIX D Cloze T e s t s  A 132*  Mystery i n the London Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one^ i n schools.  They never_  _any notice of that. the Art  The class was going_  Gallery and that was that! "  whole class!" Mr. Renaud shouted at_  _  "That means you too, Pat!" The  had to squash  was late of course, and then 6  three i n a  It was enough to make you_  8 Naturally, half-way across the Tower Bridge_  t e r r i b l e traffic-jam. wasn't f a i r .  11 Life outside was a l l  got stuck i n a  10 guy had run out of gas.  12 _and smelling of new leaves  13  From the bus I could see  and  14 under the trees  of yellow daffodils  15 Hyde Park. Many coloured kites soared_  175  up against the bright blue sky looking l i k e giant birds_ fountains i n Trafalgar Square glinted and_ 19 pigeons were going crazy,_  18  17 . to attack.  , and the 20 free! People on  and flapping and 21 almost skipping streets had their coats o f f . They 23 22 f e l t l i k e a prisoner shut-up for_ along i n the sunshine. 25 2T We'd come to the Gallery to the Turner paintings. I guess 26 were O.K., i f you l i k e storm_ oceans and thousands 28 27 near the back where I couldn't of sunsets. the 30 29 sort of hidden i n an alcove. "31 32 guide. There was a black_ sight of everyone and that's how sat myself down on i t out_ 33 saw i t happen! 3T  was standing at the side of_  An old grey-haired  35  room. She was staring at a flowers.  36 gold-framed painting of a bunch_  37 I noticed her because of  ¥0 with such a  moulting fur coat. 39 _or something. Anyway, I was thinking  —VI  coat on a warm sunny day.  38  I t looked l i k e must be boiling suddenly, she  133.,  darted  a crafty look_  the room and then, quick as_ 44  cat, she sidled up to the_ her fur coat.  , whipped i t o f f i t s hook and_  46  Two seconds i t  I was stunned. I just sat  45  48  47  and o f f she went for the 49 with my mouth open. Of course  50  what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF".  I f I'd screamed loudly then,  I might have saved myself a whole l o t of danger and trouble.  But I f e l t  sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same you can't go round l i f t i n g Britain's art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. she moved awfully fast for an o l d lady...!  Funny thing, too,  B .134  Mystery i n the Vancouver Art Gallery any notice of that.  I didn't want to go. But of course no one_ i n schools.  They never  the Art  The class was going_  Gallery and that was that! "  whole class!" Mr. Renaud shouted at  "That means you too, Pat." The  It was enough to make you_  three i n a  Naturally, half-way across Lion's Gate Bridge_ terrible traffic-jam. wasn't f a i r . and  Life was outside, a l l and sea a i r .  14  and  19 21  27J  2T~.  18  and quacking and  20  free! almost  23  f e l t l i k e a prisoner shut-up  the Emily Carr paintings.  —W  were O.K. i f you l i k e dark_ 28 near the back where I couldn't  ^ 9 ^  There was a black  the guide.  room. She was staring at a  30  sight of everyone  32  and that's how  33  saw i t happen!  An old grey-haired  I guess  forests and rotting totem  sort of hidden i n an alcove. 31  sat myself down on i t out_  40  crowds of  .  We'd come to the Gallery to_  flowers.  There_  banks of Stanley Park and the_  skipping along i n the sunshine  34  15  streets had their coats o f f . They  People on  I  sail-boats  High above, sea-gulls were screaming  16  i n Lost Lagoon were going crazy,  27  13  Down below I could  yellow daffodils a l l along_  for  "IT  and smelling of new leaves  against the bright blue sky.  17  got stuck i n a 10  guy had run out of gas,  11  gliding and darting i n the_  poles.  had to squash  was late of course, and then_  was standing at the side of_ 35  gold-framed painting of a bunch  37  I noticed her because of  35  moulting fur coat. 39  or something. Anyway, I was thinking  ~4T  38  I t looked l i k e must be boiled  135  w i t h such a  coat on a warm sunny day.  ' ' ' \'  41  S3  she darted a c r a f t y look  (  , whipped i t o f f i t s hook and_  "46  Two seconds i t  I was stunned.  the room, and then, quick as_  "44  c a t , she s i d l e d up to the her f u r coat.  , suddenly, 45 47  , and o f f she went f o r the ' 49 w i t h my mouth open. Of course  48  I j u s t sat 50  what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF!"  I f I'd screamed l o u d l y then,  I might have saved myself a whole l o t o f danger and trouble. f o r her.  Poor o l d woman. Maybe she was broke.  But I f e l t s o r r y  A l l the same, you can't go round  l i f t i n g B.C.'s a r t t r e a s u r e s , even I knew that. I don't know what got i n t o me, but before I knew what I was doing I was of the room and running a f t e r her towards the E x i t . a w f u l l y f a s t f o r an o l d lady...'.  out  Funny t h i n g too, she moved  136  Mystery i n the Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one_  any notice of that.  1 i n schools. The class was going  They never  2 Gallery, and that was that! "  the Art  3  whole class!" the teacher shouted at  4 "That means you too, Pat." The three i n a  b  was late of course, and then  6  had to squash  7  . I t was enough to make you_ __ Naturally, just half-way across the town got stuck i n a 10 t e r r i b l e traffic-jam. guy had run out of gas, TI 12 wasn't f a i r . Life was outs ide .waiting me, but I was trapped just 13 some poor old prisoner....shut-up for . H 15 We'd come to the Gallery to :. a l o t of paintings. I guess 9  175  17  I  a black  were O.K. i f you're a person  19  near the back where I couldn't  sort of hidden i n an alcove.  21 down on i t out  sight of everyone  23  saw i t happen!  An old grey-haired room. She was staring at a  -25  likes that sort of thing.  18 20  the guide.  22 and that's how  There was  sat myself  was standing at the side of_  24  26  gold-framed painting of a bunch 27  flowers.  28 Anyway, I was thinking  I noticed her because of 30  coat on a warm day. 32 the room, and then, quick as a whipped i t o f f i t s hook and and o f f she went for the I was stunned. '  4"U  29 must be boiled with such a  fur coat.  31 , suddenly, she darted a crafty look 33 33  16  , she sidled up to the_ the fur coat!  38" I just sat  Two seconds i t  35 37  with my mouth open. Of course 39 I should have done was scream"_ THIEF!" I f I'd 41  C  2 137  screamed loudly then,  might have saved myself a whole 42  of danger and trouble.  the country's  doing  43  44  sorry for her. Poor old woman.  she was broke. A l l the same  45  I  But I  48 50  47  can't go round l i f t i n g  46  treasures, even I knew that.  know what got into me, but  49  I knew what I was  was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit.  Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an o l d lady....!  A  138  Cable Beach Mystery Joe raced up Cable beach. where he'd l e f t i t under f i n a l l y getting cooler. the  He grabbed h i s towel from the shade o f a drooping palm. I t  2 The sun was  down f a s t .  3 They'd stayed i n  4  f o r too long.  5 "Hurry up, Linda,"  sand  — - j ;  .  y e l l e d to h i s s i s t e r . " I t ' s g e t t i n g 6 and we haven't l i g h t s on our ." 7 8 "I'm coming. You don't have to ' ." Linda l e t the tide, f l o a t 9 her t o the shore l i k e a piece y flotsam. She got 10 . 11 ,to her f e e t .' peeled o f f her mask and snorkel. 12 ..... 13 was l a t e . The beach was deserted. sun was s i n k i n g behihid the palms 14 -'.. ' _the low white clouds on the were streaked r i g h t through 15 IF with a ; pink f l u s h . Far out past the • ••• on the Cay the - . 17 18 lighthouse was . The l i g h t s had begun to gleam the 19 20 t o u r - l i n e r moored a t Prince George's -' and Cable Beach was becoming . 21 covered c o l d black shadows. ~ •-* 22 "Hurry up," Joe_ "You're always so slow." ];  J  i;  Linda made argue.  face a t him, but didn't bother 271 25 "Just smell the Oleander scent, ", she s n i f f e d .  always smell so  —w  '•Hmm!" s a i d Joe. chips myself.  "Things  better at night?^ "  rather have the smell o f f i s h . ^.2-9 i s closed now." 30 r i p p l e d e e r i l y past the breakwater s t i r r i n g  ZB" I t ' s too bad the  Suddenly, a c o o l i n g n  o f the  32  long green fronds o f the palm O flowers.  Linda fm. e l t a prickle at  "We're the only ones l e f t on ; "And weVre going ^ 33 stared up a t the "35  33  and mixing the perfumes o  back o f her neck and she_ 35  r  beach," she s a i d . 37 • ° catch i t when we get home."  36  —  turning black before h i s eyes.  Joe frowned and  " 40"  2  A  139  get a move on, L i n .  I  t o watch the c r i c k e t match on 41-  42  tonight." "I'm ready."  Linda l i f t e d her  She stopped What's the "Shhh!"  over her shoulder. Al as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey!  445  "Let's  45'  " Joe  i n her ear.  "Look!  i t out!  Look up  47  4fr  ....that l i g h t ! " Linda stared.  High up,  the v e l v e t blue o f the sky_ 48  49  turning navy, a s i l v e r l i g h t pulsed  . "-SO  "What i s i t ? " Linda whispered.  " I t ' s not a plane.  I t ' s not  moving." "Helicopter?" "With a s i l v e r l i g h t ? " "Whatever i t i s , " Joe s a i d , " i t ' s g e t t i n g nearer. Linda swallowed.  " I ' l l say i t i s .  I t ' s much bigger."  I t ' s as b i g as a f u l l moon now."  They s t a r e d upwards, t h e i r eyes s t r a i n i n g as the s i l v e r l i g h t grew ever l a r g e r , b r i g h t e r , and nearer. " I t ' s going to crash a t Paradise I s l a n d . " Joe's voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and h i s eyes were dazzled by the s i l v e r pulse. "No. No, i t ' s not!"  Linda rubbed her eyes hard.  " I t ' s nearer than the i s l a n d . towards us  !"  It's  She could hardly see.  I t ' s coming here.  I t ' s coming  Form B 140  E n g l i s h Bay Mystery Joe raced up K i t s i l a n o beach. l o g where he'd l e f t i t . 3  "Brrr!"  get very c h i l l y .  stayed i n the  He grabbed h i s towel from the began to s h i v e r .  2 The sun was  down f a s t .  4  f o r too long.  I t was  1 starting  They'd  5  "Hurry up, Linda,"/'  y e l l e d ' to h i s s i s t e r .  " I t ' s getting  and we haven't l i g h t s on our_ \  8  "I'm coming.  You don't have to  !"  Linda l e t the t i d e f l o a t ftfef  to the shore l i k e a piece driftwood. She got. * 11 ' peeled o f f her mask and f l i p p e r s . was l a t e 12 ~ J3 beach ^was deserted. sun was s i n k i n g behind the mountains, 10 to her f e e t _  14"  113  red b a l l o f flame that l i t pink f l u s h .  Lights had begun to  16  The  the snow capped t i p s i n a  from the North Shore. 18 The Grouse c h a i r - l i f t sparkled l i k e a necklace o f ^19 20 Out i n E n g l i s h Bay the l i g h t s the w a i t i n g g r a i n f r e i g h t e r s winked 21 back the shadowy water. 22" "Hurry up!" Joe "You're always so slow." f  Linda made  face a t him, but didn't bother  23 "Just smell those pine t r e e s ,  ,"  she s n i f f e d .  argue. 25 "Things always smell  26 so  b e t t e r at n i g h t . " Tl "Hmm," s a i d Joe. '"_ 28 chips myself. I t ' s too bad the Suddenly, a c h i l l i n g  rather have the smell o f f i s h _ 30  stand i s shut."  29  r i p p l e d e e r i l y through the t r e e s , s t i r r i n g 31 needles on the p i n e s , and making shower o f golden 37 33 Arbutus leaves. Linda  goose-flesh r i s i n g on her arms and_ ~3?F "We're the only ones l e f t oh beach," she s a i d . "And we're going  m>  catch i t when we get home,"  35  3.8  Form B  2 141  frowned and stared up at the "  turning black before his eyes.  ' .39  get a move on, Lin. T  40; game on  42' "I'm ready,"  She stopped  Linda l i f t e d her  "Shhh!" Joe that l i g h t ! "  over her shoulder.  43>  as Joe gripped her arm.  44} "  What's the  41'  tonight."  to watch the White-Caps  i n her ear.  "Hey! ' ' ' 4-54  f  ffl  the velvet blue of the sky_  T8 turning navy, a s i l v e r l i g h t pulsed "What i s i t ? " Linda whispered.  i t out!  "Look! Look up  '46  Linda stared. High up,  "Let's  497  50  " I t ' s not a plane. - It's not  moving." "Helicopter?" "With a s i l v e r l i g h t ? " "Whatever i t i s , " said Joe, " i t ' s getting nearer. Linda swallowed.  " I ' l l say i t i s .  It's much bigger."  It's as big as a f u l l moon now."  They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the s i l v e r light grew ever larger, brighter and nearer. "It's going to crash i n Stanley Park!" Joe's voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the s i l v e r pulse. "No.  No, i t ' s not!"  "It's nearer than the park. us  '."  Linda rubbed her eyes hard. It's  It's coming here.  She could hardly see. It's coming towards  Form C 142  Beach Mystery Joe. raced up the beach.  He grabbed h i s towel from the  where 1  he'd l e f t i t e a r l i e r . sun was  It  f i n a l l y getting 2 down f a s t . They'd stayed i n the  3  . The  3  f o r too long.  5  "Hurry up, Linda,"  y e l l e d to h i s s i s t e r . " I t ' s g e t t i n g 6" and we haven't l i g h t s on our ." 7 8 "I'm coming. You don't have t o ." Linda l e t the t i d e ^ f l o a t 9 her to the shore. She stood up peeled o f f her mask 10 11 and s n o r k e l . was l a t e . The beach was deserted. "12 13 had gone home. "Hurry up," Joe  _  . "You're always so slow." Linda made 14 face a t him, but didn't bother _argue. " J u s t smell  -  the f r e s h a i r ,  " she s n i f f e d . 17  -  ^  "Things always smell so much _ . • - ••  better at night." "Hmmm," s a i d Joe.  "  r a t h e r be a t home and,have_  18 smell o f supper cooking myself." Suddenly a  r i p p l e d e e r i l y through the t r e e s .  20 a p r i c k l e a t the back o f  neck.  12  .  19  Linda_  21  "We're the only ones on_ 23  beach," she s a i d . "And we're going  c a t c n  24 frowned and stared up at the " '  27  26 get a move on, L i n .  tonight.'' 29 "I'm ready," Linda swung h e r _  She stopped What's the  31 "  i t when we get home,"  ~ 25 turning black before h i s eyes.  I_  30  TS  t o watch a game on  over her shoulder.  as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey!  3?  "Let's  "  i t out!  143  "ShhhI"  Joe  i n her ear.  33  that l i g h t ! "  Linda stared. High up,  35 turning navy, a s i l v e r light pulsed_ "What i s i t ? " Linda whispered.  "Look! Look up  34  the velvet blue of the sky_  36  .  37 "It's  ~38"  moving."  a plane  I t ' s not  "Helicopter?" "  a silver light?" 39 "Whatever i t i s , " said, " i t ' s getting nearer. 40 41 Linda swallowed.  " I ' l l say i t i s .  42  43 They stared upwards, their eyes straining grew ever larger,  It's much  as big as a f u l l moon  the s i l v e r light  , and nearer.  41  "It's going to crash_  over there!" Joe pointed into the  . His voice wobbled a b i t . His hurt and h i s 47 48 eyes were dazzled the s i l v e r pulse. 49 "No. No, i t ' s !" Linda rubbed her eyes hard. She 57J could hardly see. " I t ' s much nearer than that. I t ' s It's coming here. It's coming towards us  !"  Form A 144  Mystery on the Balclutha "And the Balclutha was the l a s t of the Cape Horn s a i l i n g ships, a 'Windjammer'." The guide l e d the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. Sandy shrugged.  "How'd they ever get the s a i l s up?"  "Beats me."  "A captain, four officers and twelve The cabin boy 2  , sailed the ship. 1 the youngest on board," the guide 3  on. "The boy would have been "I wonder what happened  your age." 5  The guide looked  him?" asked Terri. . "Nobody knows.  6  7  There's a b i t of  mystery about him. Some people say  board that "9 "Never mind. We'd better get on.  _ sometimes when 8 " The guide stopped_ " 10 your heads please. We're  i t goes a l l quiet  11  going inside." '  was musty and dark inside. The__ cabin was 12 13 comfortable and had a bed, but the officers' cabins were tiny.  n  IS  Terri didn't see how anyone  15 sky-light, a narrow bunk bed with  17  few books on  shelf.  33  l i v e i n one. There was a blankets and a  18  "I don't think those bunks 21  in."  even long enough for me to 20 Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by.  "Do you think  23 "Let's have a t r y . " Sandy__ into the hold and then jumped 27  21  fakes?"  as iron.  "24 26  the rest of the class disappear 25 over the rope barrier. "They're as  But I guess they're  enough."  2 145  Terri looked at the books Suddenly i t was very a wooden chest. 31 And then, slowly, 33 door of the cabin began to  ' 29 30  the shelves. and s t i l l .  They could hear  32 a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges,  36 once they rushed for the door.  37 and stared out.  own heart-beats. 34"  .  35 Terri and Sandy stared at each  both  A clock ticked gently  for one long second. Then 38  flung i t open  , running l i g h t l y up the ladder to 39 40 dark-haired boy dressed and a yellow waist-coat. 41 "A !" hissed Sandy.  was a  wi  "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick!  follow him!"  43 onto the deck. But there 4"6" could see the  44 nothing there. The deck was empty.  stared around. 48  i n the bay, and the -" '  Sandy raced up the  45 The sun was breaking  47 Gate bridge i n the distance, the  57J—  island o f Alcatraz.  and  the fog. They  boats 49 Nothing .moved'. ' On shore,  even the red-painted tram car was waiting. The boy was gone. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye.  Right at the  crow's nest at the top of the main mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!"  Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there  "  FORM B 146  Mystery on the St. Roche "And the St. Roche was the f i r s t boat to s a i l both ways through the N.W. Passage," the guide said proudly, leading the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. Sandy shrugged.  "How'd they ever get the s a i l up?"  "Beats me."  "And this tent on the deck  ••  the home of an Inuit man,  I  wife and four children," the guide  on. "One  2  3  of the boys was  your age." 4"  "I wonder what happened  him?" asked Terri.  The guide looked  . "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of 5  mystery about him.  But people do say  sometimes, g  T  when i t goes a l l quiet .  board, that he  9 "Never mind. We'd better get on.  " The guide stopped '  ID  your XI  heads please. We're going inside." _cabins were so tiny, Terri didn't_ how 12" 13 anyone could live i n one. ^ _ was a round brass porthole, a n  stand, a narrow bunk bed with TS few books oh  blankets, and a 16  shelf.  17  "I don't think those bunks  even long enough for me to  18 in," Terri held Sandy back as  by.  19 "Do you think  21  class trooped  TO  fakes?"  "Let's have a look." Sandy  the rest of the class dis22  appear  into the hold and then jumped  23  rope barrier.  over the  TA "They're as enough."  as iron.  But I guess they're  23  Terri looked at the books  the shelves. Suddenly i t was 27  and s t i l l .  very 18  A clock on the  ticked. 2W  They  147 could even hear  own heart-beats.  a l i t t l e creak of its°hinges,  And then slowly,  door of the cabin began to"  51  32 33 Terri and Sandy stared at each Then both  for one long second.  35  once they rushed for the door.  35  i t open and stared out. , running l i g h t l y up the ladder to 37  was a dark-haired boy dressed  flung  35  deck,  38  a seal-skin parka, leggings,  33  "  and mukluks. "A  *." Sandy hissed.  "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick! 41  Sandy raced up the WI  and onto the deck. But there empty.  follow him!" 43  nothing there.  The deck was  stared around. Outside the sun was  2T2T 4~5 through the fog. They could see sea-gulls on the rocks, the freighters i n the bay, the mountains poking the 4T~  mist, and the round white The  5TJ  .  of the Planetarium.  *8  Nothing moved.  pole with i t s dark green and red carvings stood s i l e n t .  The boy was gone! Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye.  Right  at the crows-nest at the top of the main-mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!" there  !"  Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up  Form C  l 4 g  Mystery on the S a i l i n g Ship "And t h i s i s the l a s t o f the s a i l i n g ships," the guide s a i d , leading the grade seven c l a s s across the wooden deck. "Look a t those huge masts and a l l that r i g g i n g , " T e r r i whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby.  "How'd they ever get the s a i l s up?"  shrugged. The cabin boy on.  "Beats  me."  the youngest on board," the guide  __  2  "The boy would have been 4~  " I wonder what happened  . "Nobody knows.  5 — : —  mystery about him.  Some people say  quiet  board that he  "Never mind.  him?" asked Terri,.  5  The guide looked  ^  z  your age."  There's a b i t o f  sometimes when i t goes a l l "  r  8  The guide stopped_  -  --  We'd b e t t e r get on.  w  your heads, please. We're IT  going i n s i d e . " was musty and dark i n s i d e .  Yl  The  cabin was 13  comfortable and had a  «  .  B  bed, but the o f f i c e r s ' cabins were very n T e r r i didn't see how anyone could i n one. There 15  was a round  p o r t - h o l e , a narrow bunk bed w i t h  17 blankets and a few books on 19  " I don't think those bunks in."  18  shelf.  even long enough f o r me to_  "20  T e r r i h e l d Sandy back as  Z2  c l a s s trooped by. ~"  21  "Do you think  fakes?" 23 "Let's have a t r y . "  Sandy  the r e s t of the c l a s s disappear  i n t o the h o l d and then jumped 73  "They're as  Z 7  as i r o n .  over the rope b a r r i e r .  16  But I guess they're  T e r r i looked a t the books  T &  enough."  the shelves. T5  Suddenly i t was very _  a wooden chest.  and s t i l l .  3D They could hear  A clock t i c k e d gently ^  own hearts beat.  149  And then, slowly,  a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges,  33 door of the cabin began to  35 Terri and Sandy stared at each other  36 once they rushed for the door.  both  34  one long second. Then flung i t  38  open and stared out. running l i g h t l y up the ladder to  33  a dark-haired boy dressed "A  deck was  4Tj  leggings and a yellow waist-coat.  41  !" hissed Sandy.  32  "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick!  follow him!"  Sandy raced up the  43  U  and onto the deck. But there empty.  Sandy's eye.  415  stared around.  4~5~ The boy was gone.  was he? Just then a flash  Right at  49 a figure was waving down at them. it "After him."  nothing there.  The deck was  movement caught  crows-nest at the top of the 50  Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. We'll have to climb up there  Form A 150  The T i v o l i Gardens Adventure The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the turnstile clicked  furiously as the early-birds poured into the T i v o l i Gardens; and as i f to show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy cloud-bank and the crowd began happily shedding their raincoats and f u r l i n g dripping umbrellas. Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n to the  mob. fought their way 1  .  2 "Ouch!" yelled E r i c , as a t a l l  man i n a checked rainJ" pushed roughly past him, sending him  coat and  5  5  to the ground. "Hey!  Are you  right?" 6 "What an animal, shoving l i k e that." "  Cathy helped him to his  !" Eric shouted at her.  "It's my  that man...he's taken my wallet!" jpick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply around, her 10 " 11 searching the crowd. "Look!....that's him... the playground!" "After him," E r i c began I2f Past the  13 ...that's a l l our money!"  12  i n pursuit.  "We have to catch  T i v o l i boy-guards with their bushy bearskins 15 bandoliers; past the lake with the sparkling 16 17 fountains, and the red, yellow blues of the gay flower beds; 18 the laughing children being drawn around the 19 20 tiny goat carts: past the Theatre with i t s twin red and 21 towering pagodas, and excited crowd cheering_ 22 23 troupe of juggling acrobats, past an restaurant with i t s white24 painted tables, striped and delicious smell of fresh Danish 25  FORM A  2 151  ; right into the heart of the 26 fair, they ran.  lunch-time fun27  "Lost him," Ghost-Train.  Cathy, holding onto the railing of_ 28 "He could be anywhere."  Eric  _his knee, which was aching. 30 money at a l l ? " he demanded.  29  "Have  any 31  _pulled out a sixteen Kroner note. " this — 32 33 ...I gave you the rest keep safe...big deal!" 34 "There's no to argue," Eric started running once 35 . "Let's go up on the Ferris Wheel... we can 36 37 spot him from there." and thinking wistfully of the fresh 38 cold orange-drinks in the open-air As the giant wheel .  and  31 , Cathy followed.  40 upwards Cathy and Eric craned their  41 They certainly had a good view  42 grounds.  the Tivoli 41  "It shouldn't be  to spot him," Eric muttered. u —  "There's  many people in the fun-fair." 45  "If  s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on 46 ' as they rocked wildly backwards and . Around and around went the wheel,  4~S  47  and faster, until the  2fg blur of coloured lights and shapes, and  fun-fair became 50  their eyes grew strained with staring.  Then, just as they had given up hope  and the wheel was dying to a close, Eric saw a f l i c k of checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House...he's going into the Fun-House," the chair rocked crazily as he tried to stand up.  "We've got him now... come one  "  FORM B 152  P.N.E. Adventure The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n s t i l e c l i c k e d f u r i ously as the e a r l y - b i r d s poured i n t o the P.N.E. grounds; and as i f to show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy grey cloud bank and the crowd began h a p p i l y shedding t h e i r r a i n c o a t s and f u r l i n g d r i p p i n g umbrellas. Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n  mob,  2 "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c , as a t a l l  fought t h e i r way to the  man i n a checked r a i n c o a t 3  and  pushed roughly past him, sending him  to the  4  5  ground. "Hey!  Are you  f  :  1,  right?"  Cathy helped Mm  to his_  7  "What an animal, shoving l i k e t h a t . " "  "  E r i c shouted at her.  " I t ' s my  that  man... he's'taken my w a l l e t ! " 10 searching the crowd.  pick-pocket!"  Cathy wheeled s h a r p l y , her_  "Look!...that's him...  " A f t e r him," E r i c began  12 i n pursuit.  11 the Food-Fair."  "We have to catch  13  14 Past the  ... that's a l l our money!" Army band p l a y i n g marches;  past the 175  n  smelling of f r y i n g onions, corn and sters waving greaseless  '  ; past the shouting huck-  pans and f i v e coloured pens;  under  s k y - r i d e , w i t h i t s s p a r k l i n g red, blue yellow 19 20 c h a i r s ; up the h i l l to logging show, where already an e x c i t e d 21 v; was cheering two men i n f l a n n e l and knee boots 22 23 who were r a c i n g and down the towering tree-trunks as "24 25  L  Form B  153  g r a v i t y didn't e x i s t ; past the Bingo  r i g h t i n t o the depths o f  W the  lunch-time Playland, they ran. 2 7 — : —  "Lost him," Giant-Slide.  Cathy, holding onto the r a i l i n g o f  ZZ "He could be anywhere."  Eric  h i s knee, which was aching. 30" money a t a l l ? " he demanded. p u l l e d out a two d o l l a r b i l l .  "Have  any 31  "  this...I  32  33  gave you the r e s t  ~  keep s a f e . . . b i g d e a l ! "  34  "There's no  79  to argue," E r i c s t a r t e d running once_ 35" 36 "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel... we can spot him from there."  37  and t h i n k i n g w i s t f u l l y o f the f r e s h  33  orange drinks i n the  _  w  As the giant wheel  41  39  , Cathy followed.  and c o l d  upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r  They c e r t a i n l y had a good view the P.N.E. grounds, 42 43 " I t shouldn't be t o spot him," E r i c muttered. "There's very many people i n P l a y l a n d . " 43 "If s t i l l around," Cathy s a i d holding on as 45 47 they rocked w i l d l y backwards and . 48 Around and around went the wheel, and f a s t e r , u n t i l Playland became  5U  b l u r o f coloured l i g h t s and shapes, and t h e i r eyes grew  strained with staring.  Then j u s t as they had given up hope and the wheel was  dying to a c l o s e , E r i c saw a f l i c k o f checked coat and cap. "The Fun House...he's going i n t o the Fun House!" c r a z i l y as he t r i e d to stand up.  The c h a i r rocked  "We've got him now...come on!"  FORM C 154  Amusement Park Adventure The crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n s t i l e c l i c k e d f u r i o u s l y as the e a r l y - b i r d s poured i n t o the Amusement Park. Cathy and E r i c swept along i n  mob, fought t h e i r way to 1  the 2 "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c as a t a l l  man i n a checked r a i n c o a t 3 pushed roughly past him sending him to 5  and 4 the ground. "Hey!  Are you  right?" 6 "What an animal, shoving l i k e t h a t . " !" E r i c shouted a t her.  Cathy helped him to h i s _ ' _" 6  " I t ' s my  8 that man., he's taken my wallet.' pick-pocket!" ID Ii over there!"  Cathy wheeled sharply around, her  searching the crowd. "Look... there he  " A f t e r him," E r i c began  12  i n p u r s u i t . "We have to catch  13 that's a l l our money!" 14 Past the  ; past the t e n t s ; and past the_ 15 16 r i g h t i n t o the depths o f the lunch-time Amusement-Park, they 17 ran. "Lost him," Carousel.  Cathy, h o l d i n g onto the r a i l i n g of_ 18 "He could be anywhere."  Eric  h i s knee , which was aching. 20 any money a t a l l ? ' ' he demanded.  "Have 21  p u l l e d out a two d o l l a r b i l l . 22 gave you the r e s t "There's no  ' keep s a f e . . . b i g d e a l ! " 24 15  19  this... I 23  to argue," E r i c s t a r t e d running once_  26  FORM C  2  i 5 5  "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel.....  we can spot him from  27 there." and t h i n k i n g w i s t f u l l y o f lunch, Cathy him 28" 23 slowly. At l e a s t she wouldn't s i c k t h i s time, she thought, 3Tj as attendant p u l l e d the bar across the . She 31 32 had nothing i n s i d e her to sick with. 31  As the giant wheel "• upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r —34—: They c e r t a i n l y had a good view the Amuse35 36" ment Oark. " I t shouldn't be  to spot him," E r i c muttered.  "There's  37 many people i n the park."  not "If  38  s t i l l around," Cathy s a i d , holding on 39 40 as they rocked w i l d l y backwards and 41 Around and around went the wheel, and f a s t e r , u n t i l the  ?2  Amusement Park became  b l u r o f colours and shapes, and  43 eyes grew s t r a i n e d w i t h s t a r i n g . Then 2R " had given up hope the wheel was dying to a 35 E r i c saw a f l i c k o f checked  and cap.  as they  41  ,  2T7  ZTg "The Fun-House...he's going  the Fun-House," the c h a i r 59  rocked c r a z i l y  he t r i e d to stand up. 5u  "We've got him now  Form A Adventure over Paris The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers i n the centre of the parade-ground i n the Champ-de-Mars. A golden painted wicker basket hung  and the holiday crowd gathered to 1 , a l l cheered as the winners of competition 2 3 came forward to claim their ride. 4 Jules and Marie were the winners, the two twelve year 5 olds had designed the winning posters for Day. 6 7 A portly gentleman carrying a hastily motioned them to 8 climb into golden-painted wicker basket. 9 "Safe as houses, and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the 10 crowd. "The winners w i l l have a balloon ride 11 12 ....but of course they s t i l l attached to the ground_ 13 14 the anchor cable." He gave a  to the four workmen who were  at 16 a flourish they released the ropes,  15 the four corner cables and  17 the balloon freed from a l l restraint,  18 cable, began to rise  The crowd cheered  into the a i r .  20  mother cried out, "  waved enthusiastically; Marie's  21  22 broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and and waved  the anchor  19  do hang on t i g h t l y , Marie"; the _________ 23 and Marie grinned cheerfully 24  25 "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out  sailed steadily "  delight as the balloon 26 scattering some sparrows as i t went.  27 motor", Jules got out his camera. "  28 some fantastic photos of the  30 "They a l l look l i k e miniature dolls  ." 31  29  get  there, dolls and toy  157  cars," Marie  her neck.  32 look...we're almost as high as in  " I t ' s a gigantic map. 33 E i f f e l Tower...see the tourists  "37f  top platform waving at us'."  33 "There's  Isle de Cite and Notre Dame." 35 37 adjusted his camera. "Count the bridges ...twelve 3S I ' l l get a good picture." pointed her finger. "There's the Arc 39 m Triomphe... and the Bois de Boulogne... i t ' s a b i t hazy." She 41 moved around to the other side of wicker basket. 47 43 "We could see forever * there was no pollution...look,..even — 47f Airport! I think " she stopped abruptly a ZT5 45 jerk shuddered through the wicker . "What was that?" 47  Jules frowned. "Probably must be  m~  48  high as i t w i l l l e t us  anchor cable tightening. ~5TJ  We  ."  But they weren't. Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, he anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards l i k e a cork released from a champagne bottle.  What had been a half-hour view of the  c i t y had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the hazy mass of Orly Airport with i t s constant j e t t r a f f i c grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second  B 158  Adventure over Vancouver The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers i n the centre of Robson Square.  A golden painted wicker basket hung  , and the holiday crowd gathered to 1 cheered as the winners of  ; all  2 competition came forward to claim 3  their  ride. 4 Jules and Marie were the  winners; the two grade seven 5 students had designed the winning posters for Day. 6 7 A portly gentleman carrying a , h a s t i l y motioned them to 8 climb into golden-painted wicker basket. 9 "Safe as houses, and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the 10 11 crowd. "The winners w i l l have a 12 balloon ride .but of course they s t i l l be attached to the ground 13 the anchor cable." 14 He gave a to the four workmen who were at 15 16 the four corner cables and' a flourish they released the ropes 17 the balloon, freed from a l l restraint, the 18 19 anchor cable, began to r i s e into the a i r . 20 The crowd cheered waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother 21 cried out, " do hang on t i g h t l y , Marie;" the 22 23 broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and and Marie grinned cheerfully 24 and waved 25 "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out delight as the balloon 26 sailed steadily scattering some sea-gulls as i t went. 27 " motor," Jules got out his camera. "__ 28 29 get some fantastic photos of the ." 30 31 "They a l l look l i k e miniature dolls there; dolls and  159  toy c a r s , " Marie  her neck.  " I t ' s a g i g a n t i c map.  31  Wl  the Hotel Vancouver, and the B.C. ...look, you  36  35  b u i l d i n g , and Stanley Park  34 see the s a i l - b o a t s i n E n g l i s g Bay."  the Planetarium," Jules adjusted h i s camera, "_ u  37  the North Shore mountains across 39  bay...with that fresh snow on 38 t i p s . . . I ' 1 1 get a good p i c t u r e . "  "  can even see Vancouver I s l a n d . . . a l l grey 40 41 h i l l s , " Marie moved c a u t i o u s l y around the other s i d e o f the 42 wicker . "We can see forever.. .look.. .even 43 44 Baker. I t h i n k . . . " she stopped abruptly a j e r k shuddered 45 through the wicker_ . "What was t h a t ? " 46 J u l e s frowned. "Probably anchor cable t i g h t e n i n g . We 47 must be high as i t w i l l l e t us ." 48 49 But they weren't! Another v i o l e n t j e r k the basket, 50 throwing them both h e l p l e s s l y to the f l o o r , and then w i t h one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the b a l l o o n jumped upwards l i k e a cork r e l e a s e d from a champagne b o t t l e .  What had been a half-hour  view of the c i t y had turned i n t o a dangerous adventure, and the misty grey h i l l s of Vancouver Island and beyond that the wide P a c i f i c Ocean grew s t e a d i l y c l o s e r and c l o s e r w i t h every passing second....  FORM C 160  Adventure over the City The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers  i n the centre of the town. A golden painted wicker basket hung , and the holiday crowd gathered to  I cheered as the winners of their  ride.  4 Jules and Marie were the  students  > all 2 ' competition came forward to claim  3  5  winners; the two grade seven  had designed the winning posters for Day. 6 7 A portly gentleman carrying a hastily motioned them to 8 climb into golden-painted wicker basket. 9 "Safe as houses, and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the 10 crowd. "The winners w i l l have a_ balloon ride II 12 ...but of course they s t i l l be attached to the ground 13 the anchor cable." 14 He gave a to the four workmen who were 15 16 at the four corner cables and a flourish they released the 17 ropes the balloon,' freed from a l l restraint, T8 19 the anchor cable, began to r i s e into the a i r . 20 The crowd cheered waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother 21 cried out, " , do hang on t i g h t l y , Marie;" the 22 23 broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and and Marie grinned cheerfully 24 and waved 25 "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out delight as the balloon 26 sailed steadily , scattering some birds as i t went. 27 " motor," Jules got out his camera. " 28 29 get some fantastic photos of the ." 30 "They a l l look l i k e miniature dolls there, dolls and toy 31  2  C  161  cars," Marie  her neck.  5 2  " I t ' s a gigantic map."  adjusted his camera. "I'm going to  some  34"  53  very good pictures." Marie moved wicker basket. ... right 35  around to the other side of_  35  "We can see for  ...can see forever. Look  37  there.... I think...."  38  36  She stopped abruptly  a jerk shuddered through the wicker  . "What  40  was that?" Jules frowned. We must be  "Probably 41  anchor cable tightening.  41  high as i t w i l l l e t us  43  But they weren't! Another violent jerk throwing them helplessly  7175  43  the basket,  the floor, and then with one  p u l l and a wrench, the anchor  and the balloon jumped "48 bottle. What had been a half-hour  44"  ."  47  snapped clean  l i k e a cork released from a 49 of the town had turned 5TJ  into a dangerous adventure and the distant country suddenly grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second.  FORM A 162  Adventure i n the Central Park Zoo It's true i t was a b i t i n g gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer i n a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the Central Park Zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The seals and I were about  only animate objects around. 1 Oh, there . a few hardy tourists a l l bundled and 2 3 t i g h t l y huddled up i n heavy and woolly scarves, and looking 4 distinctly and pinched around the nose. 5 I to get some action photos of seals 6 7 catching their f i s h . The colours dramatic... .the brown and 8 yellowy shiny-wet of the seals stood out against "9 10 stark black iron r a i l i n g s and the surroundings and I crouched 11 down the looped railings that c i r c l e d the , so as 12 13 to be eyeball to " with the streamlined swimmers. And this  n  15 '  when a r e a l l y weird thing happened. was sort of fiddling round with  16  yiew17 brown coat with a fur-collar  finder when this guy i n a  18 the opposite side of the seal__  appeared  leant 20 one arm down the inside. There  19 casually against the r a i l i n g and  21 something so furtive and creepy about  22 sort of paralyzed  24 me because of the iron r a i l i n g , As  27  down nearly to the  the spot.  26 said, i t was r e a l l y weird.  "25  32  that I was  I could sure see him. He  28 and pulled out a stone from_  w a l l , then he slipped what looked :. the  23 I guess he couldn't  25  his arm  30 a tiny p l a s t i c bag into  31 and pushed back the stone again.  FORM A  i •163  had to crane my neck to 33  precise  33  35  he glanced up and saw me.  bable moment we stared straight  camera  38  a l l this and at that  each other, and then, i n a  37  of pure nervous panic, I clicked my camera  He  an indescri-  31  shutter of my  39  was pointing straight at him.  40  a sort of throttled roar and 51 started round the pool towards .  52  around,  41  I didn't stop to think 45  I  how I ran!  55: balloon sellers and the nickleodeon players  I raced past up 41  their stands for the day,  down the path to the pony 2f7  and on out of Central Park 50  4"9"  w  the Grand Army Plaza. Past the  -  waiting horse-drawn carriages I ran, and around the fountain. My heart was throbbing unbearably, the wind whipped the i c y spray against my face, the l a s t yellow leaves of the elms blew i n swirling gusts across my pounding feet, and every time I turned to look he was coming behind me! Where could I hide....what could I do  ?  FORM B 164  Adventure i n the Stanley Park Zoo It's true i t was a b i t i n g gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer i n a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the Stanley Park Zoo at 9 O'clock on a Sunday morning. The penguins and I were about around. Oh, there  _  only animate objects 1 a few hardy tourists a l l bundled  1  and t i g h t l y huddled up i n heavy  3  and woolly scarves, and looking  4" and pinched around the nose.  distinctly 5  I  5 catching their f i s h .  to get some action photos of  penguins 7 dramatic... the black and  The colours g  white dress-suits of  tiny penguins and the bright yellow  g  _ o f the Emperors, standing out against_ TO surroundings  and I crouched down  grey 11 the stone wall that  IT  c i r c l e d the  so as to get eyeball to ___________ with these 13 14 glossy swimmers. And this when a really weird thing happened. 13 was sort of fiddling round with view16 17 finder when this guy i n a brown coat with a fur-collar 18 appeared the opposite side of the penguin , leant 19 20 casually against the wall arid one arm down the inside. There 21  something so furtive and creepy about  : T2 sort of paralyzed  24" me because of the iron r a As  the spot. i  l  i  n  g  21  ,  I  25 could sure see him. He  21  32  his arm  and pulled out a stone from  w a l l , then he slipped what looked the  that I was  I guess he couldn't  said, i t was r e a l l y weird.  down nearly to the  21  31 31  a tiny p l a s t i c bag into  and pushed back the stone again.  had to crane my neck to precise  __ 34" he looked up and saw me.  33  33 bable moment we s t a r e d s t r a i g h t  37 of pure nervous panic I c l i c k e d  38 camera...my camera  a l l t h i s , and a t that  an i n d e s c r i 35 each other, and then i n a  shutter o f my 33 was p o i n t i n g s t r a i g h t a t him.  •  40 a s o r t o f t h r o t t l e d roar and  He  41 s t a r t e d round the pool towards I didn't stop t o think  42  around,  . I  past  43  ... how I ran.  44  I raced  pop-corn stands, down the h i l l , around 45 46 seal-pond, past the cage o f raucous , past the duck-pond and 47 the Aquarium, down the path to Lumberman's Arch_  48  the sea-wall. Past the ' ' ' ' 50 huge g i r d e r s o f the bridge.  *  49  swimming-pool I ran, and under the  My heart was throbbing unbearably, the sea a i r whipped my face, and the l a s t red and y e l l o w leaves o f the maples blew i n s w i r l i n g gusts across my pounding f e e t , and every time I turned to look, he was coming behind me. Where c o u l d I hide,... what should I do  ?  c  Adventure i n the Zoo  166  It's true i t was a b i t i n g gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer i n a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the zoo at 9 O'clock on a Sunday morning. seals and I were just about i  only animate 2  objects around. Oh, there  ^  a few hardy souls a l l bundled  and t i g h t l y huddled up i n heavy scarves, and looking d i s t i n c t l y I 7 catching their f i s h .  :  and woolly  and pinched aroundithe nose.  5 to get some action photos of  seals  8 The colours dramatic--the brown and 9 10 11 yellowy shiny-wet out against stark black iron r a i l i n g s and theof the seals stood surroundings--and I crouched 12 right down the iron railings that c i r c l e d the 13 14 so as to be eyeball to with the streamlined swimmers. And 15 this when a r e a l l y weird thing happened. 16 was sort of fiddling round with the when 17 18 this guy i n a brown coat with a fur-collar appeared 19 20 the opposite side of the seal , leant casually against the 21 r a i l i n g and one arm down the inside. There some22 23 thing so furtive and creepy about that I was sort of paralyzed the spot. I guess he couldn't me because 25 75 of the iron' r a i l i n g , _ could sure see him. 27 As said, i t was r e a l l y weird. He h i s arm 28 29 down nearly to the and pulled out a stone from_ 30 31 w a l l , then he slipped what looked a tiny p l a s t i c bag into the 32 and pushed back the stone again. 33 _had to crane my neck to a l l t h i s , and at 34 35 that precise he glanced up and saw me. an 36 37  Form C  2 167;  indescribable moment we stared straight  each other, and then SB  in a  of pure nervous panic I clicked  39  of my camera--my camera He  started round the pool towards__ I didn't stop to think--I 46  and out of the  was pointing straight at him.  41  a sort of throttled roar and  42  .  44  50  I raced past the path  47  . Everytime I turned to look he  coming behind me'. Where could I  around,  43  how I ran.  45  animal cages and the bird-house, right 48  shutter  40  49  ... what should I do  ?  APPENDIX E Semantic  Differential  169  Name School  .  Division  :  . .  Put a X on each l i n e to show how you f e e l about the s t o r y you have j u s t Like:  read. :Dislike.  

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