Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of physical setting in narrative discourse, and its influence on the reading comprehension… Craddock, Sonia 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A2 C72.pdf [ 7.55MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0078340.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0078340-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0078340-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0078340-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0078340-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0078340-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0078340-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0078340-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0078340.ris

Full Text

/ AN INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICAL SETTING IN NARRATIVE DISCOURSE, AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE READING COMPREHENSION AND READING INTEREST OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS by SONIA MAY CRADDOCK B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1981 ( ' c V o n i a May Craddock, 1981 DOCTOR OF EDUCATION m In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 M a i n Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o det e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the v a r i a b l e , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , i n n a r r a t i v e p r o s e i n f l u e n c e d the s i l e n t r e a d -i n g comprehension and e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade s t u d e n t s when they r e a d such n a r r a t i v e p r o s e . S i x s t o r i e s , each w i t h t h r e e t r e a t m e n t l e v e l s , were w r i t t e n . The t r e a t m e n t l e v e l s were: l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , and n o n - s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g . Each s t o r y was d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r o l r e l e v a n t q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s and d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l . C l o z e t e s t s were c o n s t r u c t e d over a l l the s t o r y v e r s i o n s t o measure s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension. Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o measure e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r i e s . Three hundred and f o r t y - f o u r grade s i x s t u d e n t s i n Vancouver, B.C., from d i v e r s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a r e a s , r e a d a randomized s e l e c t i o n of the s t o r -i e s and co m p l e t e d the m a t c h i n g C l o z e t e s t s and a Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r each s t o r y r e a d . The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Comprehension t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the s t u d e n t s and the s c o r e s were used t o d i v i d e the s u b j e c t s i n t o t h r e e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y g r o u p s . Data were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a f i x e d e f f e c t s 2x3x3 f u l l y c r o s s e d f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d measures over the s i x s t o r i e s . S c h e f f e t e s t s f o r m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n s were used t o de t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n c e s among groups. P e a r s o n Products-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d t o det e r m i n e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between t h e two dependent v a r i a b l e s . i i Reading comprehension was found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a s t o r y . The C l o z e s c o r e s on the l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n the C l o z e s c o r e s on b o t h t h e f o r e i g n s e t s t o r i e s , and on the n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t s t o r i e s . C l o z e s c o r e s on the n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y h i g h e r t h a n on t h e f o r e i g n s e t s t o r i e s . There was however, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the comprehension s c o r e s between s p e c i f i c s e t and n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t s t o r -i e s . I n t e r e s t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e t t i n g of the s t o r i e s , but was i n f l u e n c e d by s t o r y d i f f i c u l t y - , easy s t o r i e s b e i n g s i g -n i f i c a n t l y p r e f e r r e d over the h a r d e r s t o r i e s f o r a l l r e a d i n g g r o u p s . A l -though t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e t t i n g of t h e s t o r y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i Chapter I THE PROBLEM 1 Need for the Study 4 Problem 5 Research Questions 6 Procedures 7 M a t e r i a l s 1 Subjects 8 C o l l e c t i o n ;' of Data • 8 Design 9 Treatment of Data 9 L i m i t a t i o n s 9 D e f i n i t i o n s 10 Organization of the Report 10 Summary 10 I I REVIEW OF RESEARCH 11 P r e - E x i s t i n g Schema, Content V a r i a b l e s , and Comprehension 11 V a l i d i t y of the Schema Theory Construct 12 S p e c i f i c Content V a r i a b l e s and Comprehension 20 Content V a r i a b l e s and Reading I n t e r e s t 22 Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension 29 The E f f e c t of Reading A b i l i t y on Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension 33 The E f f e c t of Passage D i f f i c u l t y on Reading InterestLand Reading Comprehension 34 The Measurement of Comprehension and I n t e r e s t 36 Cloze Procedure 36 The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension Test 40 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales 41 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales and Reading I n t e r e s t 43 i v I l l METHODOLOGY 45 Subjects 45 Instruments 45 Pra c t i c e Cloze Paragraph 45 The Stories 46 Cloze Tests 47 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales 51 Gates-MacGinitie Standardized Test 52 F i e l d Testing of Instruments 52 Procedures 53 Scoring and Tabulation of the Data 57 The Cloze Procedure 57 The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scale 57 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test 58 Design 59 S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 59 Summary 59 IV ANALYSIS OF DATA 62 F i n a l Selection of Subjects 62 R e l i a b i l i t y 63 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales 63 Research Questions and Associated Hypotheses 63 Research Question 1.0 63 Research Question 2.0 66 Research Question 3.0 68 Research Question 4.0 71 Research Question 5.0 71 Research Question 6.0 71 Research Question 7.0 73 Research Question 8.0 73 Research Question 9.0 75 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 77 Summary 77 Materials 77 Subjects 78 C o l l e c t i o n of . the Data 78 Data Analysis 79 Findings 79 Discussion and Conclusions 81 Implications f o r Pedagogy and Research 85 Pedagogical Implications 85 Research Implications 87 REFERENCES 90 APPENDICES 95 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 S i x Story T i t l e s with Three Treatment Levels 48 2 R e a d a b i l i t y of S t o r i e s by Grade Level 49 3 T o t a l Number of Words i n the Three Treatment Levels of the S i x S t o r i e s 50 4 P r e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Study Means f o r Cloze Scores and an In t e r e s t Inventory 54 5 D e s c r i p t i o n of How the Six S t o r i e s w i t h the Three S e t t i n g Versions and the Two D i f f i c u l t y Levels Are Divided i n t o Three Groups 55 6 Range of Comprehension Test Scores 58 7 A Diagram of a 2x3x3 Fixed E f f e c t s Model Ful l y - C r o s s e d F a c t o r i a l Design . . 60 8 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y of I n t e r e s t Scores 64 9 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Responses to Items One and Two of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales 64 10 A n a l y s i s of Variance of Cloze Scores on P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y 65 11 Scheffe's S Test f o r Comparison of Cloze Test Means 67 12 A n a l y s i s of Variance of Cloze Scores of Story D i f f i c u l t y , and Story D i f f i c u l t y by Reading A b i l i t y ... 69 13 A n a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores of P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y 69 14 Scheffe's S Tests f o r Comparisons of Means on I n t e r e s t Scores- 70 15 A n a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores of D i f f i c u l t y of S t o r i e s , and D i f f i c u l t y and Reading A b i l i t y 72 16 A n a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores on Reading A b i l i t y 72 17 Scheffe's Tests f o r Comparison of Means on Reading A b i l i t y 74 18 A n a l y s i s of Variance of Cloze Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Content D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Reading A b i l i t y 74 19 A n a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g ; and D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g and Reading A b i l i t y 76 20 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of Scores on a Cloze Measure and Scores on an I n t e r e s t Measure 76 21 A n a l y s i s of Variance Summary Table f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e s : I n t e r e s t .' 97 22 A n a l y s i s of Variance Summary Table f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e s : Cloze Procedure 98 23 C e l l Means and Standard Deviations f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e : Cloze Procedure 99 24 C e l l ' Means and Standard Deviations f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e : I n t e r e s t 100 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e to thank the members of my committee f or t h e i r help i n the preparation of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r Fwould l i k e to thank my research supervisor, Tony Westermark, f or h i s guidance throughout the study; Jane Catterson f o r her help i n improving the review of the l i t e r a t u r e ; Wendy Sutton for her suggestions i n the area of children's l i t e r a t u r e ; and Steve Foster for h i s help with the design and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . v i i CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM The a b i l i t y to comprehend m a t e r i a l read, and to enjoy reading are two b a s i c goals of a school i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme. The forces that i n f l u e n c e each of the two f a c t o r s , reading comprehension and reading i n t e r -e s t , are, however, not easy to i d e n t i f y and so not easy to provide f o r i n a school programme, e i t h e r separately or i n concert. Moreover, the two f a c t o r s , comprehension and i n t e r e s t , i n t e r a c t i n such a complex r e l a t i o n s ship that i t has so f a r appeared almost impossible to state whether having an i n t e r e s t i n what i s to be read leads to improved comprehension or whether comprehension i t s e l f leads to increased i n t e r e s t — o r f u r t h e r — i f both statements are v a l i d under d i f f e r i n g reading c o n d i t i o n s . Some studies have ignored the i n t e r e s t f a c t o r and focussed on reading comprehension alone. At one time most research was of a p r a c t i c a l nature and was developed around a product or " s k i l l s " model of comprehension. Some research was done using a t r a d i t i o n a l processing model but t h i s empha-si z e d mainly the p e r c e p t u a l , storage, and r e t r i e v a l processes. Recently, c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s have proposed an a l t e r n a t i v e processing model c a l l e d a "schema" model, which concentrates on the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s a reader;" brings to the processing of t e x t . The term schema was introduced i n t o the l i t e r a t u r e by B a r t l e t t (1932) and has g e n e r a l l y been defined as a pre-e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e t h a t can be brought to a text to enable a reader to comprehend. 1 2 A schema i s considered to be composed of a hierarchy of schemata embedded within other schemata. A person's schema for something l i k e "tooth" for example, i s thought to be part of the larger schema f o r "mouth" which i n turn i s part of the s t i l l l a r g er schema for "face" and so on. The fundamental assumption of schema theory i s that printed text does not i n i t s e l f carry meaning, but c a r r i e s i n s t r u c t i o n s f or the con-s t r u c t i o n of meaning. Simply stated, schema theory assumes that every reader brings to any given text a v a r i e t y of schema, knowledge structures, which have been developed through experience. These schema are a v a i l a b l e to the reader to serve as cognitive templates against which incoming data can be matched and comprehended. According to schema theory, i n t e r p r e t i n g a text message would be a matter of matching the information i n any message to a v a i l a b l e cognitive templates. Information that does not match pre-existing schemata i s either not understood or considered unimportant or i r r e l e v a n t . Schema theory proposes then, that readers comprehend best when incoming data from the text match t h e i r e x i s t i n g schemata w e l l , and that discourse structure schemata (phonology, syntax, and rhetoric) are probably needed as much as discourse content schemata (concepts) i n the comprehension process. Some research has been done on such content schemata as point-of-view (Pichert & Anderson, 1976) and topic content (Gordon et a l . , 1978; Brown et a l . , 1977) with the schema theory confirmed. That i s , i t was found that p r e - e x i s t i n g schema were used to organize and i n t e r p r e t the textual message. Other research, although not done under the general r u b r i c of schema theory research, has examined the e f f e c t s of protagonist (Klein, 1968) and f i g u r a -t i v e language (Cunningham, 1976). Both have found that the content v a r i -ables examined had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on comprehension. One content 3 v a r i a b l e , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , has not been examined, although schema theory would i n d i c a t e that p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g might be of great importance i n a reader's understanding of a t e x t . I f , f o r instance, the reader were able to match the s e t t i n g i n a n a r r a t i v e to a p r e - e x i s t i n g schema f o r s e t t i n g then understanding of the n a r r a t i v e might be enhanced. There appears to be a need f o r such research to add to the knowledge already a v a i l a b l e on the content schemas that have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r reading comprehension. Such research might al s o have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the f a c t o r c i t e d above as the second goal of a reading programme, namely i n t e r e s t i n reading. Although schema t h e o r i s t s have not attempted any studies on the s i g -n i f i c a n c e of s p e c i f i c schema f o r i n t e r e s t , i t would seem to assume that readers' p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e s might a f f e c t i n t e r e s t i n reading as much as they might a f f e c t reading comprehension. Guthrie (1981) has suggested that i n t e r e s t i s l i k e l y to a f f e c t the a c q u i s i t i o n of background knowledge, which may then f a c i l i t a t e comprehension. I t seems l o g i c a l that the r e c i p r o c a l c l a i m might be made, that knowledge in f l u e n c e s reading comprehension which i n turn a f f e c t s reading i n t e r e s t . Research studies that have examined both reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension have a l l attempted to determine whether comprehension i s influenced by reading i n t e r e s t . A consensus would suggest that t o p i c i n t e r e s t does s i g n i f i -c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e comprehension. However, no research has attempted to determine why c h i l d r e n comprehend more of high i n t e r e s t m a t e r i a l than they do of low i n t e r e s t m a t e r i a l . The information already a v a i l a b l e on the e f f e c t s of content v a r i a b l e s and reading i n t e r e s t suggest that c h i l d r e n p r e f e r s t o r i e s i n which there i s much a c t i o n , dialogue, a suspenseful p l o t , and characters with which they can i d e n t i f y (Simpson & Soares, 1965). 4 A few s t u d i e s have i n c l u d e d some e x a m i n a t i o n of the e f f e c t of p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t and a l l have c o n c l u d e d t h a t " d e f i n i t e n e s s " of s e t t i n g i s u n i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . However, a l l of t h e s e s t u d i e s examined the f a c t o r of s e t t i n g as a minor f o c u s i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h . The one s t u d y ( J o h n s , 1970.) w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t " d e f i n i t e n e s s " of s e t t i n g has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o b e c f l a w e d by m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . I n any case", no s t u d y has been done t h a t was d e s i g n e d t o examine i n depth the e f f e c t of the v a r i a b l e , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y the concept of f a m i l i a r i t y of s e t t i n g . There appears t o be l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t of f a m i l i a r i t y of p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g on e i t h e r r e a d i n g comprehension or r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . A c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d r e s e a r c h s t u d y s h o u l d attempt t o examine the c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , i n n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e i n terms of i t s p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on b o t h c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g comprehension and r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . Need f o r the Study The s t u d y a s - d e s i g n e d s h o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c -t i c e and e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y . I f t e a c h e r s a r e t o p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t produces r e a d e r s who b o t h u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r r e a d i n g and e n j o y i t , t h ey need more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a -t i o n about the f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e such u n d e r s t a n d i n g and enjoyment. T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e s one of t h e s e f a c t o r s , namely, p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , and i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the r e s u l t s w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f u t u r e d e s i g n of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as t o the development of e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m . I f i t can be shown t h a t by r e a d i n g s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t -t i n g s , e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d r e n can improve t h e i r r e a d i n g comprehension and 5 increase t h e i r reading i n t e r e s t , then t h i s information would provide a reason f o r s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the p r o v i s i o n of reading m a t e r i a l s f o r c h i l d r e n . A great many curr i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s are made on non^empirical evidence. H i s t o r i c a l l y , Canadian reading educators have been i n a dilemma about whether or not to broaden reading curriculum by ordering from i n t e r n a t i o n a l sources or to use n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l y developed m a t e r i a l s . Results from t h i s .study w i l l provide e m p i r i c a l data on the e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n ' s reading comprehension and reading i n t e r e s t s when reading l o c a l l y - s e t m a t e r i a l and for e i g n - s e t m a t e r i a l . On a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , the information gained i n t h i s study w i l l add to the body of e x i s t i n g e m p i r i c a l knowledge i n the f i e l d of schema theory and reading comprehension; i n p a r t i c u l a r t h i s study w i l l y i e l d i nformation concerning the strength of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and reading comprehension, as w e l l as expanding the area of schema research (which has so f a r been confined to reading comprehension) i n t o the f i e l d of reading i n t e r e s t . Problem The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which the v a r i a b l e , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , i n n a r r a t i v e prose i n f l u e n c e d the s i l e n t read-ing comprehension and expressed i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade students when they read such n a r r a t i v e prose. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the researcher sought to measure s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t reading comprehension of and expressed i n t e r e s t i n matched s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , s t o r i e s with f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and s t o r i e s w i t h n o n - s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s . 6 The study also sought to determine whether or not there was a r e l a -tionship between grade six children's s i l e n t reading comprehension of the sto r i e s and t h e i r expressed interest i n the s t o r i e s , and the extent to which an i n t e r a c t i o n between content d i f f i c u l t y of the st o r i e s and the physical setting variable influenced grade six children's s i l e n t reading comprehension and expressed reading i n t e r e s t . Research Questions Two questions of the study were related s p e c i f i c a l l y to reading comprehension. 1. Is reading comprehension of s i x t h grade children influenced by the physical setting i n a story? 2. To what extent i s the reading comprehension of sixth grade children influenced by the d i f f i c u l t y of the story? Three questions were concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with reading i n t e r e s t . 1. To what extent i s the i n t e r e s t of sixth grade children influenced by the physical setting in a story? 2. To what extent i s the interest of sixth grade children influenced by the d i f f i c u l t y of a story? 3. To what extent i s interest of sixth grade children influenced by t h e i r reading a b i l i t y ? Three questions were concerned with the interactions of reading, a b i l i t y , content d i f f i c u l t y , and physical s e t t i n g . 1. Is the reading comprehension of sixth grade chi l d r e n influenced by the i n t e r a c t i o n of content d i f f i c u l t y , and the physical setting i n the story? 2. Is the reading interest of sixth grade chi l d r e n influenced by the i n t e r -action of t h e i r reading a b i l i t y and the physical setting i n a story? 7 3. Is the reading i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r -a c t i o n of the content d i f f i c u l t y and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story? One question was concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading comprehension and reading i n t e r e s t . 1. What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and i n t e r e s t of s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and n o n - s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s ? Procedures For the study, the f o l l o w i n g procedures were developed and c a r r i e d out. M a t e r i a l s Reading and t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s designed f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of a short p r a c t i c e - C l o z e paragraph, s i x short s t o r i e s w i t h three a l t e r n a t e versions ( l o c a l s e t t i n g , f o r e i g n s e t t i n g s , and n o n - s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g ) ^ Cloze t e s t s constructed from each a l t e r n a t e story v e r s i o n to measure comprehen-s i o n , two Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales to measure expressed i n t e r e s t , and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension Test. S t o r i e s . The s i x s t o r i e s were designed to c o n t r o l f o r relevant q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y varying the indepen-dent v a r i a b l e s , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , and d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l . S i x s t o r i e s each with three treatment l e v e l s were w r i t t e n . Three s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n at grade 'four':readability and three were w r i t t e n at grade eight r e a d a b i l i t y . The s t o r i e s were a l l w r i t t e n to approximate the f i r s t chapter of a mystery novel. Cloze t e s t s . Seventh word d e l e t i o n Cloze t e s t s were constructed over a l l the story versions to measure s i l e n t reading comprehension. S e m a n t i c ' D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s . Two e v a l u a t i v e scales were constructed to measure expressed reading i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r i e s . Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension Test. The comprehension t e s t was administered to a l l subjects. I n d i v i d u a l scores obtained were ranked and grouped to d i v i d e the sample i n t o three reading a b i l i t y groups. Subjects The subjects f o r the study were s e l e c t e d from the Vancouver P u b l i c School D i s t r i c t . Thirteen s i x t h grade c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d from seven schools that agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. There was a mix of low, middle, and high socio-economic subjects. Of the 344 students s e l e c t e d f o r the study, 83 subjects were el i m i n a t e d from the data a n a l y s i s due to incomplete data and f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. Complete data were a v a i l -able and analyzed f o r 261 subjects. C o l l e c t i o n of Data A l l t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out during October and November, 1979. P r i o r to the c o l l e c t i o n of the data, the 18 versions of the s t o r i e s and the 18 Cloze t e s t s constructed from these versions were d i v i d e d i n t o three separate packages and colour coded f o r ease of d i s t r i b u t i o n . There were s i x s t o r i e s i n each group (three easy s t o r i e s and three d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s ) ' ; moreover, each of the three s e t t i n g treatments was represented twice (once i n the easy set of three, and once i n the d i f f i c u l t set of t h r e e ) . Each c l a s s received a randomized s e l e c t i o n of the three packages. The c h i l d r e n read one story at a time and then completed the Semantic D i f -f e r e n t i a l Scales and the Cloze t e s t . The Gates M a c G i n i t i e Comprehension Test was administered by the classroom teachers, e i t h e r before or a f t e r the r e s t of the data c o l l e c t i o n . Design The research design was a 2x3x3 f u l l y crossed f a c t o r i a l design f o r repeated measures ':over story. Treatment of Data The scores f o r the Cloze t e s t s , the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales, and the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test were analyzed.using f a c t o r i a l A n a l -y s i s of Variance procedures. Scheffe t e s t s f o r m u l t i p l e comparisons'-were used to determine d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d to determine ^ r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two dependent v a r i a b l e s . L i m i t a t i o n s There were considered to be four l i m i t a t i o n s to the study. 1. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was l i m i t e d to 13 Vancouver grade s i x c l a s s e s . Thus g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s may be l i m i t e d ; however":., the methodology could be used with other groups to check the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of f i n d -ings. 2. Data were discarded both when students f a i l e d to complete the e x p e r i -mental m a t e r i a l s , and randomly to equalize c e l l s f o r the a n a l y s i s of data. 3. The i n t e r e s t measure used to c o l l e c t "expressed i n t e r e s t " data was a forced choice instrument and thus r e s u l t s may be a p p l i c a b l e only to the s t o r i e s read. 4. The comprehension measure, the Cloze procedure, i s considered by some a u t h o r i t i e s to be an a r t i f i c i a l process and may have produced reading behaviour that was d i f f e r e n t from independent reading behaviour. (This l i m i t a t i o n of the comprehension measure would, however, probably be l e s s of a l i m i t a t i o n than those caused by other current comprehen-sion measures [Rankin, 1978]). D e f i n i t ions For the study f i v e d e f i n i t i o n s were developed. 1. Comprehension was defined as the number of words c o r r e c t l y replaced i n Cloze t e s t s of the s t o r i e s read s i l e n t l y . 2. Expressed i n t e r e s t was defined as order preference f o r , or l i k i n g f o r , s t o r i e s s i l e n t l y read as measured by a Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l w i t h two e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s . 3. P h y s i c a l s e t t i n g was defined as geographical d e s c r i p t i o n , place, and time f o r a s t o r y . 4. Schema was defined as a p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e that a reader brings to a text and uses to i n t e r p r e t and comprehend that t e x t . 5. Reading a b i l i t y was defined as low, average, or high a b i l i t y ; p l a c e -ment depending on a student's scores on the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehen-sio n Test. Organization of the Report The report i s organized as f o l l o w s : Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Introduct ion Review of Related L i t e r a t u r e Plan and Design of the Study A n a l y s i s of Data Summary and Conclusions Summary This chapter has introduced the study, given the r a t i o n a l e , and defined i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RESEARCH The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to discuss reading research as i t p e r t a i n s to the problem of the study. The review i s organized i n t o four s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n one deals w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and comprehension. Section two reviews relevant research dealing w i t h content v a r i a b l e s and reading i n t e r e s t . Section three summarizes the studies that examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. These three sections present the research with s p e c i f i c reference to the content-of the report. The f i n a l s e c t i o n , s e c t i o n four, reviews research on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the three dependent measures.used i n the data c o l l e c t i o n f o r the study. P r e - E x i s t i n g Schema, Content V a r i a b l e s , and Comprehension A current theory of comprehension that seeks to provide a coherent processing model i s schema theory. Schema theory, u n l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l processing t h e o r i e s that emphasize perception, storage, and r e t r i e v a l , concentrates on knowledge of p a r t i c u l a r domains (Iran-Nejad, 1980) and claims that the knowledge a person brings to text has an i n f l u e n c e on what i s learned and understood from exposure to text (Anderson, 1977). This knowledge i s assumed to form part of abstract c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s c a l l e d schemas. A schema represents generic knowledge: that which i s common to a number of things or s i t u a t i o n s . 11 Two fundamental tenets of the schema^-theoretic approach to (language) comprehension are 1) that text does not i n i t s e l f c a r r y meaning, but pro-vides d i r e c t i o n s f o r l i s t e n e r s or readers about how they should r e t r i e v e or construct the intended meaning from t h e i r own p r e v i o u s l y acquired knowl-edge, and 2) that text i s never f u l l y e x p l i c i t , but r e l i e s on inference. Readers must "go beyond the information given" and draw the implied r e l a -t i o n s h i p s i n the absence of s p e c i f i c information (Anderson et a l . , 1977). A number of studies have provided evidence to support the schema-theory contention that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and the comprehension of t e x t , and have al s o examined the strength of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Some of these same s t u d i e s , w i t h others, provide information about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s p e c i f i c content v a r i a b l e s i n comprehension. V a l i d i t y of the Schema Theory Construct A study that examined the e f f e c t of p r e - e x i s t i n g schema f o r t o p i c content on the s i l e n t reading comprehension of elementary school c h i l d r e n was c a r r i e d out by Gordon et a l . (1978). Twenty-five grade two c h i l d r e n were given a t e s t to determine t h e i r p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge about s p i d e r s . Ten c h i l d r e n w i t h the lowest scores and ten c h i l d r e n w i t h the highest scores on the t e s t were i d e n t i f i e d . The two groups, who were s t a t i s t i c -a l l y equal i n reading a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e , then read s i l e n t l y a s e l e c -t i o n about spiders and answered 12 comprehension questions. The group with the highest scores on the p r e - t e s t performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on the comprehension measure. The authors concluded that the p r e - e x i s t i n g schema of the ten c h i l d r e n had a f f e c t e d t h e i r reading comprehension. I t has been suggested that the reader must r e l y on p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge to f i l l t e x t u a l gaps, to c l a r i f y vague or ambiguous t e x t u a l statements, and to incorporate u n f a m i l i a r information from the text w i t h 13 f a m i l i a r p r e - e x i s t i n g schema. The f o l l o w i n g three studies i l l u s t r a t e how p r e - e x i s t i n g schema can f a c i l i t a t e comprehension by c l a r i f y i n g t e x t u a l inferences and " f i l l i n g i n the gaps." A study by B a r t l e t t (1932) i s considered to be the seminal study f o r the schema-theoretic model of comprehension, although he d i d not himself use the term "schema theory." In B a r t l e t t ' s study, subjects i n England were asked to read a Northwest Coast Indian f o l k t a l e , "The War of the Ghosts" and r e - t e l l i t . D i s t o r t i o n s i n the r e c a l l s c o n s i s t e d of more than omissions and condensations. B a r t l e t t reported that themes were elabor-ated and new information i n t r o d u c e d — i n f o r m a t i o n that appeared to r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t biases and knowledge systems of the readers. According to B a r t l e t t the subjects added to the m a t e r i a l to make i t more co n s i s t e n t with t h e i r own knowledge s t r u c t u r e s . B a r t l e t t concluded that a lack of pre-e x i s t i n g schema f o r Indian t a l e s gave r i s e to i n c o r r e c t inferences and r e s u l t e d i n i n t r u s i o n s , being made. Su l i n g and Dooling (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d the hypothesis that students reading about a famous person already possessed a schema about the person and would i n t e g r a t e new text information i n t o that p r e - e x i s t i n g schema. Conversely they hypothesized that a c o n t r o l group would have to b u i l d new schema f o r f i c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e r s . In the study, using c o l l e g e students as s u b j e c t s , the experimental group read a b i o g r a p h i c a l passage about H i t l e r or Helen K e l l e r . A c o n t r o l group read the same passage but were t o l d the passage was about f i c t i t i o u s persons (Gerald M a r t i n and Carol H a r r i s ) . The r e s u l t s supported the hypotheses. On a -test of r e c o g n i t i o n e r r o r s the "famous person" group made more f a l s e p o s i t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n e r r o r s than the " f i c t i t i o u s person" group. The famous person group apparently a s s i m i l a t e d any new information i n t o t h e i r p r e - e x i s t i n g 14 schema and could.-not • d i s t i n g u i s h the new information from the o l d . Brown et a l . (1977) studied the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e n ' s l i s t e n i n g comprehension and t h e i r background knowledge s t r u c t u r e s (pre-e x i s t i n g schemata). T h i r t y students i n each of grades two, four, and s i x , were randomly d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. Each of the groups was i n d i v i d u a l l y shown a book about a f i c t i t i o u s t r i b e c a l l e d "Targa." The book had photographs and gave information about the t r i b e ' s way of l i f e and environment. Two of the groups had d i f f e r e n t "Targa" books. There was an Eskimo "Targa" and an Indian "Targa" to provide o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r the task. The t h i r d group, which was the c o n t r o l group, was shown a book about Spain. A target passage c a l l e d "Tor of the Targas" was w r i t t e n and d i v i d e d i n t o 48 pausal u n i t s . From these u n i t s 12 were rated as most important by 60 c o l l e g e students. One week a f t e r the c h i l d r e n had been shown " t h e i r " book, they l i s t e n e d to the target'passage and then performed two tasks: they r e -c a l l e d the target passage o r a l l y and then answered ten questions about i t . S i x questions were l i t e r a l , and four were c r i t i c a l l e v e l questions that probed ambiguous sections of the passage. A f t e r each of the "probe" questions the c h i l d r e n were asked whether the information was i n the pass-age or j u s t something they knew. Results of a n a l y s i s showed a main e f f e c t f o r age, the older c h i l d r e n (grade s i x ) r e c a l l i n g more u n i t s than the younger c h i l d r e n (grades two and f o u r ) ; a main e f f e c t f o r o r i e n t a t i o n , the subjects r e c e i v i n g a relevant o r i e n t a t i o n r e c a l l i n g more u n i t s than those r e c e i v i n g the i r r e l e v a n t Spanish o r i e n t a t i o n ; and a main e f f e c t f o r importance of u n i t s r e c a l l e d w i t h students' r e c a l l i n c r e a s i n g as a f u n c t i o n of the importance of the 12 most h i g h l y rated idea u n i t s . 15 Analysis of the probe questions showed that the majority of the c h i l d r e n believed that a l l the information they gave i n the answers to the ques-tions was mentioned i n the passage although they had not r e c a l l e d i t as part of t h e i r o r a l r e c a l l . The researchers concluded that there i s a tendency for older c h i l d r e n to make more use of background knowledge than younger c h i l d r e n . They did give s i g n i f i c a n t l y more relevant i n t r u s i v e comments; they included i n f o r -mation from the book that was not mentioned i n the target passage; and they r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more idea units than the younger c h i l d r e n . The "extra" information reported by a l l the children was assumed to show how background schema can add to the sense and cohesion of what i s read. The researchers also concluded that schemata provide the i n t e r p r e t i v e frame-work for comprehending the discourse, that the ambiguous or incomplete sec-tions for the n a r r a t i v e are " f i l l e d i n , " and that discourse i t s e l f does not carry meaning, but c a r r i e s i n s t r u c t i o n s for the construction of meaning. A s e r i e s of i n t e r e s t i n g studies have shown that pre-existing knowledge schemata may function not only to influence what i s r e c a l l e d a f t e r reading but may function to orient readers to i n t e r p r e t a textual message i n cer-t a i n ways. Readers with d i f f e r e n t schemata may give d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e -tations to the same textual passage. In a study c a r r i e d out by Pichert and Anderson (1976), point-of-view was examined. The perspective from which a story i s read, and how t h i s perspective a f f e c t s comprehension, was studied i n some depth. Two passages were constructed that could be read from more than one perspective. The f i r s t passage was ostensibly about boys playing hooky, but also contained a number of features of i n t e r e s t to a burglar and a num-ber of features of i n t e r e s t to a homebuyer. The second passage about 16 an i s l a n d was s i m i l a r l y constructed to be read from more than one perspec-t i v e . Four r a t e r s parsed the f i r s t passage i n t o 72 idea u n i t s and the second passage i n t o 56 u n i t s . Subjects were 63 undergraduates who were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. Each group read the passage from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . For the f i r s t passage, one group was t o l d the passage was about a p o t e n t i a l homebuyer, the second group was t o l d i t was about a b u r g l a r , and the t h i r d group was a c o n t r o l group. A f t e r reading, subjects rated each idea u n i t on a f i v e point scale f o r i t s importance to the s t o r y . A n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.91 to .95) between perspective of the reader and the rated importance of idea u n i t s . For the second phase of the experiment, 113 undergraduate students were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups and randomly assigned to one of the three c o n d i t i o n s . Each group read and r e c a l l e d one passage. Results were analyzed to see i f the more important idea u n i t s (as chosen by the subjects i n phase one) were b e t t e r r e c a l l e d than the l e s s important idea u n i t s , and whether t h i s depended upon the perspective of the reader. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t f o r the importance of idea u n i t . The greater the importance, the b e t t e r the r e c a l l . S i m i l a r l y , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t f o r f i v e out of s i x p e r s p e c t i v e s . The importance of an idea u n i t depended upon the perspective used i n the reading. I t was an idea's s i g -n i f i c a n c e i n terms of a given perspective that i n f l u e n c e d whether or not i t was r e c a l l e d . An experiment with hypotheses s i m i l a r to those of the preceding study but w i t h d i f f e r e n t procedures was designed by Anderson et a l . (1977). Rather than manipulating context to b r i n g d i f f e r e n t schemata i n t o play when reading t e x t , the researchers used as subjects students with d i f f e r e n t 17 educational backgrounds and presumably d i f f e r e n t knowledge schemata. They hypothesized that the students' pre-existing schemata would orient them to i n t e r p r e t the same ambiguous passages i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Subjects were ph y s i c a l education students and music education students. They read two passages that could be interpreted i n two d i s t i n c t ways. The f i r s t passage could be viewed as a convict planning h i s escape from prison or a wrestler t r y i n g to break the hold of h i s opponent. The second passage could be interpreted as being about a group of people playing cards or a l t e r n a t e l y as a rehearsal of a woodwind ensemble. Answers to multiple choice questions (with d i s t r a c t o r s consistent with one or the other expected interpretation) showed that while ph y s i c a l education students interpreted the prison/wrestling passage as a wrestling match 64% of the time, music students gave t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n only 28% of the time. The card game/music passage was seen as a woodwind rehearsal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 71% of the time by the music students, but only 29% of the time by the phy s i c a l education students. The researchers f e l t that the r e s u l t s were consistent with a schema-base processing explanation of comprehension and concluded that pre-existing schema were used to organize and i n t e r -pret the textual message. A t h i r d dimension was added to the v a l i d a t i o n of schema theory i n a ser i e s of studies by Bransford and Johnson (1973) who attempted to demon-st r a t e that for comprehension i t i s not enough merely to have pre-existing schemata. They hypothesized that comprehension of a text may be impos-s i b l e unless readers' schemata can be activated. In a f i r s t experiment, 50 high school students were asked to l i s t e n to a short passage of prose, rate i t on a seven point scale f o r ease of comprehension and to r e c a l l i t i n w r i t i n g . 18 The 50 subjects were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e groups: a pre-context group whose subjects were given a p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t i n g the content of the passage before reading the passage; a non-context group; a p a r t i a l - c o n t e x t group whose subjects were given a p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t i n g the content of the passage i n which the objects had been rearranged; a c o n t e x t - a f t e r group whose subjects were given the p i c t u r e a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to the passage; and a context (2) group whose subjects heard the passage twice. R e c a l l s were scored according to idea u n i t s , which had been d e s i g -nated by the researchers a p r i o r i . (The idea u n i t s corresponded to e i t h e r sentences, semantic p r o p o s i t i o n s , or phrases.) Two judges scored the r e c a l l sheets against the l i s t of idea u n i t s . Cases of disagreement were resolved by a t h i r d judge. The pre-context group r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of the passage than the other four groups, and a l s o found the passage s i g n i f i c a n t l y e a s i e r to" understand. Since t h i s passage was d e l i b e r a t e l y designed to be d i f f i c u l t to under-stand, the researchers repeated the experiment three times w i t h other pass-ages that they thought would be f a m i l i a r to a l l the subjects. In the second experiment, 35 c o l l e g e students l i s t e n e d t o , and r e -c a l l e d , a passage on washing c l o t h e s . Seventeen students were not given the t i t l e before l i s t e n i n g and 18 were given the t i t l e . The group given the t i t l e r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the group without the t i t l e . Since a l l the students presumably had p r e - e x i s t i n g schema f o r "washing c l o t h e s , " the researchers suggest that t h i s schemata had to be a c t i v a t e d i f comprehension was to take place and that the l i s t e n e r s with the con-text t i t l e were able to a c t i v a t e t h i s p r e - e x i s t i n g schema,: , while the students without the context.were not. 19 Two f u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s d e s i g n e d a l o n g the same l i n e s as the p r e v i o u s s t u d y o b t a i n e d the same r e s u l t s as the second e x p e r i m e n t . P a r i s and Brooks (1976) r e p l i c a t e d t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h 16 second grade and 15 f i f t h grade c h i l d r e n t o a s c e r t a i n whether B r a n s f o r d and Johnson's r e s u l t s might not be s i m p l y the p r o d u c t of normal c h i l d d e v e l o p -ment. T h e i r r e s u l t s , however, were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of B r a n s f o r d and Johnson, and t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were no d e v e l o p m e n t a l e f f e c t s . I t appeared t h a t whatever the age, the r e a d e r must be a b l e t o g a i n a c c e s s t o h i s / h e r p r e - e x i s t i n g schema i f comprehension i s t o t a k e p l a c e . The i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and comprehension t h a t has been o b t a i n e d from s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d c o n f i r m s the schema t h e o r y h y p o t h e s e s . These s t u d i e s demonstrate not o n l y t h a t the comprehension of t e x t i s f a c i l i t a t e d by p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e s , but a l s o t h a t t h e s e schemata must be a c t i v a t e d i n the r e a d e r i f t h e y a r e t o be used i n the comprehension p r o c e s s . I t a l s o appears t h a t the use made of schema . i n c r e a s e s w i t h age, a f i n d i n g t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t more numerous l i f e e x p e r i -ences p r o v i d e i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r o n g e r and t h e r e f o r e more u s a b l e schemata. F u r t h e r , i t appears t h a t p r e - e x i s t i n g schema a f f e c t s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n a t e x t u a l message, and the p o i n t - o f - v i e w from w h i c h i t i s r e a d . I n sum, the r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d s u p p o r t s the fundamental t e n e t s of schema t h e o r y — t h a t meaning i s not i n t h e t e x t , t h a t t e x t does not i n i t s e l f c a r r y meaning, but c a r r i e s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning, i f a r e a d e r ' s schema i s f u l l and c o m p l e t e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s elements not e x p l i c i t l y c o n t a i n e d i n the t e x t t h a t e m b e l l i s h and c l a r i f y — o r m a y — i f the schema i s f a u l t y , c o n f u s e . The f a c t t h a t no i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o date has c o n t r a d i c t e d schema t h e o r y 20 suggests that schema theory provides a coherent construct w i t h i n which to study comprehension, and that f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are warranted. S p e c i f i c Content V a r i a b l e s and Comprehension The studies already reviewed support the general tenets of schema theory. Three of these same s t u d i e s , w i t h others, provide evidence i n d i c a t -ing that s p e c i f i c content v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e prose have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on comprehension. Both Gordon et a l . (1978), and Brown et a l . (1977) c i t e d above i n the review on schema theory, examined t o p i c content and comprehension. Gordon used knowledge about s p i d e r s , and Brown used s o c i a l studies knowl-edge about Indian and Eskimos f o r t h e i r content. Both studies found that f a m i l i a r i t y and knowledge of the t o p i c content . s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e d t e x t comprehension. P i c h e r t and Anderson (1976) also c i t e d above i n the review on schema theory, manipulated the content v a r i a b l e - point-of-view. Their r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that comprehension i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the perspective from which a text i s read. Two f u r t h e r studies examined content v a r i a b l e s and reading comprehen-si o n . Although not done under the general r u b r i c of schema theory r e -search, the studies done by K l e i n (1968). and Cunningham (1976) nevertheless confirm the schema theory hypotheses. K l e i n focussed on the occupation and gender of the protagonist i n n a r r a t i v e prose and how t h i s a f f e c t e d reading comprehension. K l e i n wrote s i x basic s t o r i e s around three occupations: two s t o r i e s about s o c i a l workers, two about b a l l e t dancers, and two about p i l o t s . Each of the s i x s t o r i e s was w r i t t e n i n two v e r s i o n s , one with a female main character and one w i t h a male. The only d i f f e r e n c e s were i n names and pronoun reference. A l l s t o r i e s were c o n t r o l l e d f o r r e a d a b i l i t y . The subjects 21 were 312 grade f i v e students who were d i v i d e d i n t o four equal groups—two of each sex. One group of each sex read s i x basic s t o r i e s ; three male versions and three female v e r s i o n s . The other two groups read the same s t o r i e s but i n the opposite sex v e r s i o n . Comprehension was measured using Cloze t e s t s f o r each s t o r y . Changing the sex of the main character w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r story content d i d not a f f e c t the scores of e i t h e r sex. How^ ever, g i r l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher Cloze scores when reading b a l l e t dancer content than they d i d f o r p i l o t content, while there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r boys i n contents. Cunningham (1976) examined the content v a r i a b l e , f i g u r a t i v e language. In t h i s study the i n f l u e n c e of the amount of metaphor i n w r i t t e n text upon reading comprehension was analyzed. Subjects were 190 s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n who read two passages r e l a t i n g the same events but d i f f e r i n g i n the amount of metaphorical language used. Comprehension was measured by means of a Cloze t e s t . Although the passages were equated f o r r e a d a b i l i t y , Cloze comprehension of the metaphorical passage was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the comprehension of the non-metaphorical v e r s i o n . The conclusion was drawn that c h i l d r e n f i n d metaphorical language harder to understand than d i r e c t l i t e r a l language. The content v a r i a b l e s examined i n the studies reviewed here appear to have a f f e c t e d the understanding of t e x t , e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t i n g or hinder-ing the comprehension process. The e f f e c t of the content v a r i a b l e , phys-i c a l s e t t i n g , on comprehension has, so f a r , not been examined e m p i r i c a l l y , although a schema-theory model of comprehension (borne out by the informa-t i o n gained i n the reported research) would suggest that p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g might be a f a c t o r of some importance i n a reader's understanding of t e x t . I f readers were able to match the s e t t i n g i n a n a r r a t i v e to a p r e - e x i s t i n g 22 schema then understanding of the n a r r a t i v e might be enhanced; and conversely, that i f the s e t t i n g could not be matched to a p r e - e x i s t i n g schema, then understanding might be hampered. Content V a r i a b l e s and Reading I n t e r e s t This s e c t i o n of the chapter reports research that examines content v a r i a b l e s and reading i n t e r e s t . Schema t h e o r i s t s have not as yet attempted any studies on the i n f l u e n c e of s p e c i f i c schema f o r reading i n t e r e s t . However, a considerable amount of work has been done over the years on the content v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e prose that a f f e c t c h i l d r e n ' s reading i n t e r e s t . These studies are reviewed below and a conclusion drawn about t h e i r value i n expanding the schema theory model to include i n t e r e s t f a c t o r s . According to the survey of research studies on reading i n t e r e s t s com-p i l e d by Purves and Beach (1972), most reading i n t e r e s t surveys are based on a s i n g l e dimensional f a c t o r , that of the subject matter of the book. They suggest that most studies i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading i n t e r e s t on a h o l i s t i c b a s i s and present a g l o b a l view of reading i n t e r e s t s . Few s t u d i e s , they conclude, have probed beyond these h o l i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s to d i s c e r n how p a r t i c u l a r aspects of form a f f e c t i n t e r e s t ; ' however these r e -searchers have p a r t i c u l a r i z e d d i s c r e t e f a c t o r s w i t h i n n a r r a t i v e (such as s t y l e , p l o t , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and s e t t i n g ) that appeal to students. B e r n s t e i n (1955) examined student preference i n s t y l e . She had 100 n i n t h grade students read two passages. One passage had a c t i o n , suspense, c l e a r - s t y l e , and a teen-age hero; the other passage was taken from Nathanial Hawthorne's The House of Seven Gables which represented a l i t e r -ary s t y l e . Both passages were read and rated on a f i v e point i n t e r e s t 23 scale by the subjects. The subjects were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i o n passage than i n the l i t e r a r y one. Simpson and Soares (1965) c a r r i e d out a study i n which the content v a r i a b l e s , p l o t , s t y l e , c h aracter, v o i c e , mode, per s p e c t i v e , and s e t t i n g were examined. A sample of 4250 seventh, ei g h t h , and n i n t h grade students read a minimum of 20 " s t o r i e s " (the term " s t o r i e s " a l s o included essays and d e s c r i p -t i o n s ) from a pool of 862- s t o r i e s and rated each story on a 27-item i n t e r e s t s c a l e . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r a l l the content v a r i a b l e s w i t h the exception of the " s e t t i n g " v a r i a b l e . I t was found that s t o r i e s w i t h high rated i n t e r e s t (as compared to s t o r i e s w i t h low rated i n t e r e s t ) coiir t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more concrete language (as opposed to a b s t r a c t ) , more p h y s i c a l a c t i o n , c o n f l i c t and suspense, more dialogue, greater c l a r i t y of language, and more n a r r a t i v e s (as opposed to essays and d e s c r i p t i o n s ) . S t o r i e s w i t h high i n t e r e s t a l s o had more d e s c r i p t i o n s of persons and more main characters as w e l l as more omniscient n a r r a t o r s (as compared to f i r s t person n a r r a t o r ) . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r s e t t i n g (des-c r i p t i o n s of p l a c e ) . Soares and Simpson (1968) undertook a f u r t h e r study to determine whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i k i n g f o r short s t o r i e s and n a r r a t i v e elements i n short s t o r i e s e x i s t e d f o r j u n i o r high school students when they were grouped according to i n t e l l i g e n c e (high, average, low), grade (seventh, e i g h t h , n i n t h ) , and sex. Students were requested to r a t e , on the basis of l i k i n g , 60 short s t o r i e s . Elements chosen f o r a n a l y s i s were: type of c o n f l i c t , type of s t o r y , content of s t o r y , theme, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the main charac-t e r s , and f a c t o r s of suspense and r e a l i s m . The r e s u l t of a n a l y s i s showed that the average group preferred a greater number of the s t o r i e s than did the low group. A l l the groups showed a preference for realism and suspense. The high and average group l i k e d external c o n f l i c t rather than i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , but the low group preferred a combina-t i o n of the two. A l l groups selected the narr a t i v e mode over the essay and d e s c r i p t i v e and preferred an a t t r a c t i v e male teenager as the main character. The e f f e c t s of the story elements for a l l three grades were the same, and there were no differences i n response a t t r i b u t a b l e to gender. A study that examined children's i n t e r e s t and comprehension towards the gender and occupation of the protagonist i n narr a t i v e prose was ca r r i e d out by K l e i n (1968). The comprehension section of t h i s study has already been described i n a previous section. K l e i n (1968) wrote six basic s t o r i e s around three occupations: two s t o r i e s were about b a l l e t dancers, two about s o c i a l workers, and two about p i l o t s . Each of the si x s t o r i e s was written i n two ver-sions, one with a male main character and one with a female. Interest was measured with Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales and a t r a d i t i o n a l six point scale. Boys rated s t o r i e s with male protagonists higher than s t o r i e s with female protagonists only i n the p i l o t occupation s t o r i e s , while f e -males rated s t o r i e s with female protagonists s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than s t o r i e s with males for each occupation. I t would seem that the female students were more concerned with gender differences i n narr a t i v e than 25 were the males. A study of the content v a r i a b l e , s e t t i n g , and i t s e f f e c t s on the reading i n t e r e s t of i n n e r - c i t y c h i l d r e n was c a r r i e d out by Emans (1968). A random sample of 11 i n n e r - c i t y g i r l s and boys (non-readers i n grade one) l i s t e n e d to s i x p a i r s of s t o r i e s from m u l t i - e t h n i c readers. Each p a i r of s t o r i e s had one story about the c i t y environment and one story from a f r i e n d - p e t - f a m i l y theme. Each c h i l d was asked, a f t e r each p a i r of s t o r -i e s had been read, which story he/she would l i k e to hear again. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n favour of the p e t s - f a m i l y - f r i e n d s over the c i t y environment. The study was r e p l i c a t e d and the r e s u l t s were the same. Emans concluded that i n n e r - c i t y c h i l d r e n are more i n t e r e s t e d i n l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s that show a suburban way of l i f e rather than a c i t y way of l i f e . This study used p a i r s of s t o r i e s that were not c o n t r o l l e d f o r tone and mood. The c i t y s t o r i e s were t o t a l l y concerned with the c i t y s e t t i n g environment, but the f r i e n d - f a m i l y - p e t s t o r i e s were concerned with r e l a t i o n -ships and f e e l i n g s . R e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , may be completely i n v a l i d . The purpose of Johns' (1970) study was to explore the hypothesis that i n n e r - c i t y c h i l d r e n i n the intermediate grades a c t u a l l y p r e f e r to read s t o r i e s or books which contain i l l u s t r a t i o n s , s e t t i n g s , and characters based on experiences to which they can r e l a t e . His sample was 597 f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n four large midwestern American c i t i e s . There were 199 c h i l d r e n i n each grade of the sample, and the b o y / g i r l r a t i o was even. There were 515 black students and 52 white s t u -dents i n the sample. In the f i r s t phase of the study, f i v e p a i r s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s were sel e c t e d from modern r e a l i s t i c f i c t i o n books f o r c h i l d r e n . These p a i r s depicted the stark crowded c o n d i t i o n s of i n n e r - c i t y l i f e , and pleasant middle-26 cTa ss suburban-'settings• Passages from trade books were then chosen which / — • . - . described the s e t t i n g s depicted by the s l i d e s . C h i l d r e n viewed each p a i r of s l i d e s and l i s t e n e d to the d e s c r i p t i o n s from a tape. They then responded to three questions: 1. Which p i c t u r e and d e s c r i p t i o n i s most l i k e the place where you l i v e ? 2. In which neighbourhood would you rather l i v e ? 3. I f a story or book was w r i t t e n about one of these areas or neighbour-hoods which would you p r e f e r to read? There was a s i g n i f i c a n t preference f o r s t o r i e s or books which depicted middle c l a s s s e t t i n g s . In the second phase of the study a s i m i l a r procedure was employed. Five d e s c r i p t i o n s depicted characters w i t h p o s i t i v e self-concepts and f i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s depicted characters with negative s e l f - c o n c e p t s . The p o s i -t i v e self-concept character d e s c r i p t i o n s were pa i r e d w i t h the negative ones. A f t e r l i s t e n i n g to each taped p a i r of d e s c r i p t i o n s each student responded to three questions. 1. Which person sounds most l i k e you? 2. Which person would you rather be? 3. I f a book or story was to be w r i t t e n about one of these people, which would you p r e f e r to read? There was a s i g n i f i c a n t preference f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s which depicted charac-t e r s w i t h p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . A t h i r d phase of the experiment examined characters i n p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n s compared with characters i n negative group i n t e r a c t i o n s . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t preference f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s w i t h characters i n p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s research Johns concluded that c i t y c h i l d r e n 27 pref e r not to read about i n n e r - c i t y s e t t i n g s , and pre f e r characters w i t h p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t s , and characters i n p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n s . Johns' conclusions may a l l be v a l i d j however, an i n s p e c t i o n of the p a i r s of s l i d e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s used f o r the " s e t t i n g " e x p l o r a t i o n s show that a very gloomy dark side of i n n e r - c i t y l i f e was compared to a b r i g h t cheer-/ f u l suburbia. The passages were not c o n t r o l l e d f o r e i t h e r tone or mood. I f the i n n e r - c i t y s e t t i n g s had been more p o s i t i v e and c h e e r f u l there might have been d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . / Yoder (1978) examined male and female high school students' reading i n t e r e s t i n four n a r r a t i v e f a c t o r s : sex of the pr o t a g o n i s t , n a r r a t i o n , p l o t p o r t r a y a l , and s e t t i n g . Each of the four v a r i a b l e s was b i p o l a r i z e d by a set of pai r e d d e s c r i p -t o r s . The four f a c t o r s were incorporated s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n t o 32 synopses of imaginary novels. The synopses were read aloud to 485 high school students who rated them on a f i v e point s c a l e . Results i n d i c a t e d that the sex of the protag-o n i s t i n f l u e n c e d reading c h o i c e — b o y s p r e f e r r e d male characters and g i r l s p r e f e r r e d females, a f i n d i n g that agrees i n general with K l e i n ' s . Male students a l s o p r e f e r r e d a c t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n s of e x t e r n a l actions rather than i n t r o s p e c t i v e n a r r a t i o n , whereas f o r females there were „no" s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . There were no sex d i f f e r e n c e s f o r p o r t r a y a l of events, but " d i r e c t " event p o r t r a y a l (as opposed to flash-back and complicated chains of events) was p r e f e r r e d by both sexes. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t f o r s e t t i n g . S e t t i n g , defined as the p h y s i c a l and temporal boundaries of the i n c i d e n t s of a p l o t , was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r male students who p r e f e r r e d o p e n - l i m i t l e s s , outdoor s e t t i n g s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r females on the s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e . 28 Yoder concluded that there was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the reading i n t e r e s t s of male and female high school students i n the areas of sex of the protag-o n i s t , type of n a r r a t i o n , and s e t t i n g . A summary of the f i n d i n g s of the studies reviewed above leads to the conclusions 1) that some u s e f u l evidence has been gathered on the e f f e c t of s p e c i f i c content v a r i a b l e s on the reading i n t e r e s t s of p a r t i c u l a r groups of c h i l d r e n and 2) that the schema theory model might add a u s e f u l dimension to future i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f - s p e c i f i c content v a r i a b l e s and reading i n t e r e s t s . Without questioning the v a l i d i t y of e x i s t i n g f i n d i n g s i t must be pointed out that on the whole the research on reading i n t e r e s t s has~-been mainly of the "status study" type. Thus f a r , that i s , the researcher has obtained the r e a c t i o n of readers to n a r r a t i v e prose that contains "more" or " l e s s " of the content v a r i a b l e being i n v e s t i g a t e d and drawn conclusions about the e f f e c t on the readers' i n t e r e s t of the presence or absence of that content v a r i a b l e . Most 'researchers have not assessed the readers' pre-e x i s t i n g knowledge of each content v a r i a b l e studied and so there has been l i t t l e attempt to discover to what extent i n t e r e s t i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h pre-e x i s t i n g knowledge. The f i n d i n g s on p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g provide a case i n p o i n t . Simpson and Soares suggest that p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g was a l e s s s i g -n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e than others i n t h e i r study, and Yoder concluded that boys responded to outdoor p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s while g i r l s had no preference. In n e i t h e r study, however, was any evidence a v a i l a b l e about p r e - e x i s t i n g schema f o r the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s used i n the reading passages. I t i s t r u e , of course, that i n both the Johns and Emans' studies of inner c i t y c h i l d r e n ' s responses to inner c i t y s e t t i n g s , that p r e - e x i s t i n g schema might be assumed and the conclusion drawn that f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g s have negative e f f e c t s on i n t e r e s t . However, there i s reason to suppose that the r e s u l t s 29-of both studies were influenced by f a c t o r s not adequately c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i r designs. The e x i s t i n g evidence does not, i n f a c t , allow us to draw conclusions about the e f f e c t of a c h i l d ' s p r e - e x i s t i n g schema on his/her reading i n t e r -e s t . Indeed i t seems l o g i c a l to assume that the readers' p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e s may a f f e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n reading as much as they a f f e c t t h e i r reading comprehension. The time seems appropriate f o r the expansion of the schema theory model to include an i n t e r e s t f a c t o r and for studies that focus on the i n f l u e n c e of such v a r i a b l e s as p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge of s e t t i n g on i n t e r e s t . Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading Comprehension This s e c t i o n of the chapter summarizes the studies that deal with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. Guthrie (1981) has suggested that i n t e r e s t i s l i k e l y to a f f e c t the a c q u i s i t i o n of background knowledge, which may then f a c i l i t a t e comprehen-s i o n . I t seems very l o g i c a l that the converse might hold t r u e , that knowledge infl u e n c e s reading comprehension which i n turn a f f e c t s reading i n t e r e s t . However, research studies that have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension have a l l asked whether reading comprehension i s i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r e s t rather than the r e c i p r o c a l question—whether reading i n t e r e s t i s inf l u e n c e d by reading comprehension. One of the f i r s t studies that examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension was conducted by Ber n s t e i n (1955). Reference has already been made to t h i s study i n the review on reading i n t e r e s t a n d content v a r i a b l e s . B e r n s t e i n (1955) studied t h e ' r e l a t i o n s h i p between-interest i n s t y l e and comprehension. She had 100 ninth, graders read two passages. One passage had action, c l e a r - s t y l e , and a teen-age hero. The other passage was taken from Nathaniel Hawthorne's The House of Seven Gables and represented a l i t e r a r y s t y l e . Both passages (which were r e -written to be equated i n d i f f i c u l t y ) were read and rated on a f i v e point i n t e r e s t scale by the subjects who then completed comprehension t e s t s based on the passages. The subjects were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more interested i n the action passage than i n the d e s c r i p t i v e ( l i t e r a r y ) one. Comprehension scores were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f or the action story. Results also showed that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p held true f or a l l degrees of reading a b i l i t y . Schnayer (1969) investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between topic i n t e r -est and comprehension. His 578 grade six students were divided into seven a b i l i t y groups determined by t h e i r scores on the Gates Reading  Survey. Each group read 15 s t o r i e s (of which the r e a d a b i l i t y was two grades higher than the mean reading a b i l i t y f o r each of the seven groups). The subjects rated the s t o r i e s on a four point i n t e r e s t scale and answered questions of f a c t , sequence, and inference. Student comprehension scores on the s t o r i e s they rated as being of high i n t e r e s t were compared to t h e i r scores on the s t o r i e s they rated low i n i n t e r e s t . Comprehension scores on the s t o r i e s they rated high i n i n t e r e s t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than t h e i r scores on the s t o r i e s they rated low i n i n t e r e s t , i r r e s p e c t i v e of a b i l i t y group. However, comprehension scores f or the below-average reading group were rai s e d (on preferred content) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the scores for the other a b i l i t y groups Estes and Vaughan (1973) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between topic 31 i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension w i t h 46 f o u r t h graders, a l l average or above average readers, who were asked to choose t h e i r most l i k e d and l e a s t l i k e d t o p i c from among a choice of s i x t o p i c s . S i x passages were constructed about the s i x t o p i c areas and were c o n t r o l l e d at a 5.5 l e v e l of r e a d a b i l i t y . They were c o n t r o l l e d at a higher l e v e l than the c h i l -dren's average grade placement to allow the f a c t of i n t e r e s t a maximum chance of a f f e c t i n g comprehension. The c h i l d r e n read t h e i r two choices and completed a m u l t i p l e choice comprehension te s t on the passages read. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence between reading scores f o r the p r e f e r r e d t o p i c s and the non-preferred t o p i c , i n favour of the p r e f e r r e d t o p i c . A study s i m i l a r to Estes and Vaughan was conducted by B e l l o n i and Jongsma (1978). They sele c t e d three s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to g i r l s , three s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to boys, three s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to both boys and g i r l s , and three s t o r i e s of i n t e r e s t to n e i t h e r g i r l s nor boys. These s e l e c t i o n s were based on the research of reading i n t e r e s t c a r r i e d out by N o r v e l l (1973). An abstract was prepared f o r each of the 12 s t o r i e s and the subjects were asked to choose the abstract they l i k e d most and the one they l i k e d l e a s t . One week a f t e r making t h i s choice the subjects read the two complete s t o r i e s and f i l l e d i n Cloze t e s t s prepared on the s t o r i e s . R e s ults showed that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the scores of boys and g i r l s . However, a l l students' scores were s i g n i f -i c a n t l y higher on the h i g h " i n t e r e s t passages than on the low i n t e r e s t passages. Asher, Hymer, and W i g f i e l d (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n t e r a c t i o n between t o p i c i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension w i t h 75 grade f i v e c h i l -dren who were reading at grade l e v e l . The c h i l d r e n looked at 25 colour s l i d e s and rated the s l i d e s f o r i n t e r e s t on a seven point scale. One week l a t e r the c h i l d r e n were divided into two groups (a high i n t e r e s t condition and a low i n t e r e s t condition). Subjects i n the high i n t e r e s t condition completed f i v e Cloze t e s t s that cor-responded to t h e i r f i v e highest rated s l i d e s . Those i n the low i n t e r e s t condition completed Cloze t e s t s that corresponded to t h e i r f i v e lowest rated s l i d e s . The groups and order of presen-t a t i o n was randomly selected. Analysis of variance indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f or i n t e r e s t . The researchers i n t h i s experiment suggested that t h e i r r e s u l t s support the findings of previous experiments of t h i s nature; that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. Furthermore, they state that since i n t h e i r experiment c h i l d r e n were d e l i b e r a t e l y given ei t h e r high i n t e r e s t passages or low i n t e r e s t passages to read, but not both, the r e s u l t s could not be due to a contrast between two opposites that might p o l a r i z e i n t e r e s t s as -they may have done i n previous studies. A study that did not examine topic i n t e r e s t but focussed on the occupation and gender of the protagonist i n a story, and how t h i s affected both reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension, was c a r r i e d out by K l e i n (1968) i n a study already described. Three pa i r s of s t o r i e s (each p a i r involving a d i f f e r e n t occupation) were designed by K l e i n (1968). The three p a i r s of s t o r i e s were written i n two separate versions, one with a female protagonist and one with a male. 33 Boys rated s t o r i e s with male protagonists higher than s t o r i e s with female protagonists only i n the p i l o t occupation s t o r i e s , while females rated s t o r i e s with female protagonists s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than s t o r i e s with male protagonists, f o r each occupation. Boys' i n t e r e s t ratings did not a f f e c t t h e i r comprehension, but g i r l s ' com-prehension was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r preferred content. The comprehension of average readers was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected by t h e i r i n t e r e s t r a t i n g s , but the comprehension of below average readers was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r s t o r i e s with preferred sex type content. On the whole the studies reviewed above i n d i c a t e that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between expressed reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. The E f f e c t of Reading A b i l i t y on Reading Interest and  Reading Comprehension Results from studies on reading i n t e r e s t and reading compre-hension reviewed above show no consensus as to whether i n t e r e s t a f f e c t s a l l reading l e v e l s equally. Bernstein (1955) found that when two passages were read, one a straightforward action passage and the other representing a l i t e r a r y s t y l e , subjects were not only more interested i n the action passage but that they also com-prehended i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than they did the l i t e r a r y passage. This r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r e s t and comprehension held true f o r a l l degrees of reading a b i l i t y . B e l l o n i and Jongsma (1978) found that when subjects read t h e i r "best l i k e d " and " l e a s t l i k e d " story from among a choice of 12, and completed Cloze t e s t s constructed from these s t o r i e s , t h e i r comprehension scores 34-were higher on the "best l i k e d " s t o r i e s than on the " l e a s t l i k e d " s t o r i e s , and that these f i n d i n g s held true f o r a l l students'. Schnayer (1969), however, found that when students were d i v i d e d i n t o seven reading a b i l i t y groups and read 15 short s t o r i e s , that although t h e i r reading comprehension scores on s t o r i e s that they rated as being high i n i n t e r e s t were higher than t h e i r scores on s t o r i e s they rate low i n i n t e r e s t , these r e s u l t s were not spread e q u a l l y over a l l a b i l i t y groups. The scores of the below-average reading groups (on p r e f e r r e d content) were r a i s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the scores f o r the other a b i l i t y groups. A s i m i l a r f i n d i n g was reported by K l e i n (1968) who al s o found that gains were s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher f o r the below-average reading group than they were f o r the other groups. There i s some evidence then, that below-average readers are p a r t i c u -l a r l y helped by the reading i n t e r e s t f a c t o r . The E f f e c t of Passage D i f f i c u l t y on Reading I n t e r e s t and Reading  Comprehension Although a l l but one (Asher, Hymel, & W i g f i e l d , 1978) of the studies c i t e d above that examined reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension con-t r o l l e d t h e i r s t o r i e s f o r r e a d a b i l i t y , none examined the e f f e c t of both easy and d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s on i n t e r e s t and comprehension. This would seem to be a u s e f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p to study. ./ Berns t e i n (1955) c o n t r o l l e d the two passages used i n her study at the grade six-seven reading l e v e l , approximately three l e v e l s below the grade placement l e v e l of the subjects"; however . no reason f o r the l e v e l of c o n t r o l was reported. Estes and Vaughan (1973) asked subjects to read t h e i r "best" and " l e a s t " l i k e d passage from among a choice of s i x passages. A l l passages ,35 were constructed to have a r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l two grades higher than the mean reading l e v e l of the subjects i n order to allow the f a c t o r of i n t e r e s t a stronger chance of a f f e c t i n g i n t e r e s t . S i m i l a r l y , both Schnayer and B e l l o n i and Jongsma c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r reading passages at two-four grade l e v e l s above the mean reading l e v e l s of t h e i r s ubjects. K l e i n reported that the r e a d a b i l i t y of t h e s t o r i e s i n h i s study was grade f i v e (the grade placement l e v e l of the s u b j e c t s ) . Asher, Hymel and W i g f i e l d used 25 passages from a j u n i o r encyclopedia to form Cloze t e s t s , but the passages were not c o n t r o l l e d f o r r e a d a b i l i t y . No studies have c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r s t o r i e s at both an above grade p l a c e -ment l e v e l and a below grade placement l e v e l . Some evidence i s needed that examines the e f f e c t of passage d i f f i c u l t y on reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. Information gained from the r e s u l t s of the research studies that have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading compre-hension i n d i c a t e that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s . Apparently i n t e r e s t i n t o p i c content of a s t o r y , i n t e r e s t i n the sex of the pr o t a g o n i s t , and i n t e r e s t i n the protagonist's occupation i n a story can have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on reading comprehension. In f a c t i t can be s a i d g e n e r a l l y that the higher a c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i n text m a t e r i a l the be t t e r w i l l be his/her comprehension. This notion would seem to be a p r o f i t a b l e one to pursue i n future studies that examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. In summary, the evidence presented i n the preceding three sections of t h i s chapter demonstrate that the schema theory i s a v i a b l e theory, 36 an o r g a n i z i n g construct that can be used as a basis f o r studying the com-prehension process. The e x i s t i n g research i n d i c a t e s that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e - e x i s t i n g schema and comprehension, and that pre-e x i s t i n g schema can f a c i l i t a t e or r e t a r d comprehension. Since i t seems evident that c e r t a i n content v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e prose may f a c i l i t a t e or r e t a r d reading comprehension, the conclusion was drawn that f u r t h e r research should be done focussing on the i n f l u e n c e on comprehension of schema f o r such f a c t o r s as p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g . The f a c t that s p e c i f i c content v a r i a b l e s a l s o have an impact on read-ing i n t e r e s t , and that i n t e r e s t and comprehension have often been shown to i n t e r a c t , leads to a second con c l u s i o n being drawn, that f u r t h e r research should be done on the i n f l u e n c e of p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g on i n t e r e s t . A study that focussed on schemas f o r p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and used mea-sures of both i n t e r e s t and comprehension should y i e l d u s e f u l new i n s i g h t s i n t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s p e c i f i c schemas f o r p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g as a f a c t o r i n both i n t e r e s t and comprehension. I t would al s o add to the l i t e r a t u r e on the schema theory construct and an expansion of the model to add a new dimension. The Measurement of Comprehension and I n t e r e s t The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter reviews the l i t e r a t u r e on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the two instruments chosen to measure reading comprehension and the instrument chosen to measure reading i n t e r e s t . Cloze Procedure The Cloze procedure was developed by Taylor i n 1953. He described i t as a technique f o r measuring the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of communication. Taylor a p p l i e d the p r i n c i p l e of the G e s t a l t psychology concept of " c l o s u r e " 37 to language. He deleted every TI~^ word from passages of prose and replaced the words with blanks of uniform length. The reader then, using the p r i n c i p l e of c l o z u r e , replaced the word. Taylor concluded that the Cloze procedure depended on f a c t o r s that a f f e c t comprehension, i . e . , general language f a c i l i t y , s p e c i f i c knowledge, and vocabulary relevant to the passage read. Since 1953, Cloze t e s t s have been widely used both as a research t o o l and i n the classroom. Rankin (1978) examined over 600 research studies that used the Cloze procedure as a measurement t o o l and gave f i v e reasons why he f e e l s Cloze t e s t s are a superior measure of language comprehension and measure compre-hension more d i r e c t l y than conventional measures. 1. Cloze t e s t s are i n t r i n s i c measures of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of communication by sampling the degree of correspondence between a message source and a r e c e i v e r . 2. Cloze measures comprehension i n process not as an a f t e r product. 3. A l l Cloze i s based on the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c process of inference which i s i n t r i n s i c to a l l communication. 4. Cloze t e s t s sample the choice points f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the passage i n a random fash i o n . 5. Cloze t e s t s can be p r e c i s e l y r e p l i c a t e d . (p. 151) R i p l e y (1973) also d i d a major survey of hundreds of Cloze research studies and reported that Cloze i s a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measure of comprehension a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Cloze procedure have been c o n s i s t e n t l y s u b s t a n t i a l . [ Gal l a n t (196~4^ ) i n her d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a -t i o n using Cloze as the comprehension measure f o r primary c h i l d r e n found 38 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .90 to .97, e s t a b l i s h e d by s p l i t - h a l f c o e f f i -c i e n t s and the use of the Spearman-Brown formula. Bormuth (1965) found r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging between .76 and .94 f o r s i x Cloze t e s t s . A methodological study on Cloze r e l i a b i l i t y was conducted by Vaughan and Meredith (1978). They used 298 eighth grade students who read two science r e l a t e d s e l e c t i o n s c o n t r o l l e d at the eighth grade l e v e l of read-a b i l i t y . Tests were based on a 50-item, seventh word d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n . Students were randomly assigned to two groups. Each group read both pass-ages a l t e r n a t e l y and responded to the Cloze t e s t s f o r the passages. I n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y was determined by using Cronbach's alpha. C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r exact replacements and exact-replacements plus synonyms ranged from .86 to .92. P a r a l l e l form r e l i a b i l i t y was determined w i t h Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s and these ranged from .79 to .81. The d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r n a l consistency c o e f f i c i e n t s and p a r a l l e l form c o e f f i c i e n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t (p<v01) as determined by F i s h e r ' s Z t e s t . This s i g n i f i c a n c e , the authors s t a t e , suggests that the Cloze scores may be somewhat passage dependent. However, since the p a r a l l e l form c o e f f i -c i e n t s are so high t h i s i s l i k e l y of minimum concern as long as there i s no attempt to g e n e r a l i z e on the basis of a s i n g l e Cloze passage. There would appear to be no change i n r e l i a b i l i t y depending on the d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n as long as four or more words are l e f t between blanks ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1961; Bormuth, 1975). Meredith and Vaughan (1978) looked at the r e l i a b i l i t y of word d e l e t i o n Cloze t e s t s over the r e l i a b i l i t y of random word d e l e t i o n Cloze t e s t s . They found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -th ence. Cronbach's alpha f o r the n word d e l e t i o n s averaged at .858 and f o r the random d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n the average was .874. I t would appear from the example of the studies on Cloze research 39-that the Cloze procedure has high r e l i a b i l i t y . V a l i d i t y . E a r l y research on the Cloze procedure examined c r i t e r i o n -r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y between scores on Cloze t e s t s and scores on standardized t e s t s of reading comprehension. At the primary l e v e l , G a l l a n t (196"4^ ) found c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging from .65 to .81 between-Cloze passages and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test. Again, at the elementary l e v e l , Ruddell (1963) found a range of c o r r e l a -t i o n s from .61 to .74 between Cloze and the Standard Achievement Test Para-graph Meaning. Jenkinson (1957) used high school students and found cor-r e l a t i o n s of .78 and .73 on the Cooperative Reading C2. Bormuth (1969) compared Cloze t e s t scores to v a l i d a t e d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t s . Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was .946. I t has been asserted that the c o r r e l a t i o n s between Cloze and other comprehension t e s t s are due to t h e i r both measuring v e r b a l competency. Rankin (1978), however, suggests that a l l comprehension t e s t s c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h v e r b a l aptitude t e s t s and that the c o r r e l a t i o n s between both c l o z e t e s t r e s u l t s and conventional comprehension r e s u l t s on the one hand and v e r b a l aptitude t e s t s on the other, do not account f o r a large amount of the variance i n common to both d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Therefore, cloze t e s t s measure something more than v e r b a l a p t i t u d e . (p. 150) C a r r o l l (1972) makes the c r i t i c i s m that Cloze scores are influenced by l i n g u i s t i c clues i n the surrounding context of a word and do not measure general reading comprehension. M a c G i n i t i e (1961) also c r i t i c i z e s the v a l i d i t y of Cloze on s i m i l a r grounds. His research f i n d i n g s were that the context of more than f i v e words around a blank does not help i n making the' c o r r e c t completion. However, studies by D a r n e l l (1963) and Ramanaus-kas (1971) show that Cloze responses are s e n s i t i v e to more than the f i f t h word c o n s t r a i n t s found by M a c G i n i t i e and do i n f a c t tap major ideas i n 40-a passage. M a c G i n i t i e himself a l s o suggested that background knowledge may be l i k e l y to extend c o n s t r a i n t s . Bormuth (196^) analyzed the p r i n c i p a l components of the c o r r e l a t i o n s among nine Cloze t e s t s and seven m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t s . The m u l t i p l e -choice t e s t s were judged by reading experts to measure comprehension of seven s k i l l s : vocabulary, e x p l i c i t l y stated f a c t s , sequence of events,, main ideas, stated causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n f e r e n c e s , and author's purpose. A l l i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were high and Bormuth concluded t h a t , "the data were i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o v i d i n g l i t t l e grounds f o r c l a i m i n g that Cloze t e s t s measure anything other than what has commonly been l a b e l l e d reading com-prehension s k i l l s " (p. 358). Since there i s no g e n e r a l l y accepted theory of reading comprehension, the Cloze procedure lacks construct v a l i d i t y — a s do a l l reading comprehen-si o n t e s t s . However, based on an e v a l u a t i o n of over 600 research studies that use the Cloze procedure, Rankin (1978) stated that the Cloze procedure has p o t e n t i a l l y b e t t e r construct v a l i d i t y than conventional comprehension measures since i t i s based on a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c theory of comprehension which makes extensive use of Smith's (1975) model of information pro-cessing and context redundancy. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension Test The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test was standardized i n 1964-65. Thetestwas normed on 40,000 students from 37 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e communities i n the United States (Gates-MacGinitie, 1972). The Comprehension Test measures the student's a b i l i t y to read complete prose passages with understanding. I t contains 21 passages i n which a t o t a l of 52 blank spaces have been l e f t . For each blank a choice of f i v e completions i s o f f e r e d . This t e s t i s a modified form of the Cloze 41 procedure. R e l i a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Comprehension Test (Survey D, the Intermediate l e v e l ) are reported f o r both Alternate-forms and S p l i t - h a l f . The Alternate-form c o e f f i c i e n t i s .83, and the S p l i t -h a l f , .94. V a l i d i t y . Concurrent v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are reported. The scores of grade f i v e students on the Gates-MacGinitie t e s t were c o r r e -l a t e d w i t h t h e i r scores on f i v e standardized reading t e s t s . The median c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the Comprehension Test was .80. Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i s a method f o r measuring the meaning of concepts. In p r a c t i c e i t has two a p p l i c a t i o n s . (1) to measure o b j e c t i v e l y the semantic p r o p e r t i e s of words and concepts i n a t r i -dimentional space; and more commonly and simply, (2) as an a t t i t u d e s c a l e r e s t r i c t i n g i t s focus to the e v a l u a t i v e dimension. (Isaac & Michael, 1976, p. 102) The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scale was developed i n 1952 by Charles Osgood. He conducted a study where he took 76 p a i r s of b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s from Roget's Thesaurus, and asked subjects to rate a s e r i e s of concepts using these p a i r s . His a n a l y s i s of the data showed that a l l but a small p r o p o r t i o n of the variance could be accounted f o r by three components of meaning: e v a l u a t i o n , a c t i v i t y , and potency. He also found that some a d j e c t i v e p a i r s were stronger i n one or other of these three components. Sets of these p a i r s were made up to form the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales. The SD scales have three components. They have the concept to be e v a l u -ated i n terms of a t t i t u d e , the b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r anchoring the s c a l e , and a s e r i e s of i n t e r v a l p o s i t i o n s as shown below: GOOD : : : : : : BAD INTERESTING : : : : : :BORING 42 The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i s r e a l l y a method f o r constructing an i n s t r u -ment rather than a f i x e d instrument i t s e l f , and the scale being f l u i d , d i f f e r e n t a d j e c t i v e - p a i r s are used for d i f f e r e n t studies (Coyne & Holzman, 1966). Since the major dimension of meaning found by Osgood i s the evalua-t i v e dimension, adj e c t i v e p a i r s measuring the evaluative meaning of a con-cept can be used to estimate i n t e r e s t i n that concept. Factor analysis done on various Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales show high and r e s t r i c t e d load-ings on the evaluative scale (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1970). And i t i s the evaluative scales on which r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y data are given (and the evaluative scale with which the research reported i n t h i s study i s concerned). R e l i a b i l i t y . Tannenbaum (1953) had 135 subjects, on two occasions, separated by f i v e weeks, judge s i x concepts against s i x evaluative scales. Test-retest c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .87 to .93. Divesta and Dick (1966) examined the r e l i a b i l i t y of S.D. scales under delayed and immediate t e s t -r e t e s t conditions. Children i n grade two to seven twice rated d i f f e r e n t concepts on a s e r i e s of scales, a month apart from each/rating. Correlations for d i f f e r e n t scales ranged from .27 to .56. R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were higher for the higher grades and the evaluative scales were the most r e l i -able for a l l grades. When Divesta and Dick calculated group means rather than using i n d i v i d u a l subjects, t h e i r t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .73 to .94. A review of the research on Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l r e l i a b i l i t y c a r r i e d but by Heise (1970) concludes that "group means are highly r e l i a b l e and stable even when the samples of subjects are as small as 30" (p. 246). V a l i d i t y . Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum (1970) c a r r i e d out v a l i d i t y studies comparing Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scale measurement with measurement '43 . on t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . Each of three concepts were rated against f i v e e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s . F i f t y subjects were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. One group was given the S.D. form followed an hour l a t e r by the Thurstone A t t i t u d e Scales, and the other group did the r a t i n g i n reverse order. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the S.D. scores and the Thurstone scores was s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.01). The same researchers also compared S.D. evalua-t i v e scales against a Guttman type s c a l e . The 14 item Guttman type scale r e l a t e d h i g h l y to scores on the S.D. e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s . The rank order c o r r e l a t i o n between the two scales was again s i g n i f i c a n t (p,<.Ol). The researchers s t a t e , "the f i n d i n g s of both these studies support the n o t i o n that the e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i s an index of a t t i t u d e " (p. 231). In h i s review of S.D. s t u d i e s , David Heise (1970) concludes that the r e s u l t s of numerous s t u d i e s , "support the v a l i d i t y of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l as a technique f o r a t t i t u d e measurement" (p. 236). Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales and Reading I n t e r e s t A review of research produced a few studies where Semantic D i f f e r e n -t i a l scales have been used to assess c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e towards reading. Klemper (1970) examined grade seven students' a t t i t u d e towards reading using 15 concepts and 14 S.D. s c a l e s . Concepts represented m a t e r i a l s (workbooks), a c t i v i t i e s (reading out loud), and persons (reading teachers). K l e i n (1.968,)^ used 13 S.D. scales to examine c h i l d r e n ' s reading i n t e r e s t towards occupations and sex of a main character i n s t o r i e s . K l e i n found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.81) between a t r a d i t i o n a l r a t i n g scale and an e v a l u a t i v e S.D. scale ( i n t e r e s t i n g - b o r i n g ) and he concluded t h a t , "S.D. scales appear to be a u s e f u l research t o o l to i d e n t i f y patterns of i n t e r e s t 44 d i f f e r e n c e s between and w i t h i n sexes f o r various types of reading content" (p. 116). Research examined i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the chapter i n d i c a t e s that the two comprehension instruments (the Cloze procedure and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension Test) and the reading i n t e r e s t instrument (the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales) chosen to c o l l e c t and q u a n t i f y the data f o r t h i s study, have s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y f o r the task. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY This study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e the v a r i a b l e s p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and story d i f f i c u l t y and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on reading comprehension and ex-pressed i n t e r e s t . The s e l e c t i o n of subjects i s discussed, measuring i n s t r u -ments are described, and the c o l l e c t i o n and treatment of data i s presented. The design and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures are als o described. Subjects The subjects f o r the study were sel e c t e d from the Vancouver P u b l i c School D i s t r i c t . T h i rteen c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d from seven schools that agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Two schools were located i n upper socio-economic d i s t r i c t s . Two schools were located i n s t a b l e , but lower socio-economic d i s t r i c t s : Three schools were located i n t r a n s i e n t new-immigrant areas. Three hundred and f o r t y - f o u r s i x t h grade students were se l e c t e d f o r the study; of t h i s number 83 were e l i m i n a t e d from the data a n a l y s i s due to incomplete data and f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. Complete data were a v a i l a b l e and analyzed f o r 261 subj e c t s . There were 140 boys and 121 g i r l s . Instruments Reading and t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s designed or chosen f o r t h i s study con-s i s t e d of: P r a c t i c e Cloze Paragraph A 123 word paragraph e n t i t l e d "The Wind," was w r i t t e n at the grade 45 46 three l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y as ascertained by the Dale-Chall r e a d a b i l i t y formula. A short Cloze t e s t w i t h every seventh word deleted was constructed to be used as a p r a c t i c e exercise to f a m i l i a r i z e the subjects with the -Cloze procedure. The S t o r i e s As t h i s study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e how p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g a f f e c t s reading comprehension and reading i n t e r e s t , s t o r i e s with s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g content were needed. The s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y vary the independent v a r i a b l e s , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and d i f f i c u l t y . Six s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n f o r the study. Each story was w r i t t e n i n three v e r s i o n s . In one v e r s i o n the story took place i n a f a m i l i a r l o c a l s e t t i n g . In the second v e r s i o n the story took place i n a w e l l known but f o r e i g n s e t t i n g that matched the Vancouver s e t t i n g . In the t h i r d v e r s i o n of the s t o r i e s the s e t t i n g was minimized and n o n - s p e c i f i c . Since the sample f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of Vancouver students and since t h i s study hypothesized that l o c a l m a t e r i a l i s part of the students' e x i s t i n g schemata, one treatment l e v e l of the s t o r i e s was set i n the Van-couver area. S e t t i n g s considered to be f a m i l i a r to the m a j o r i t y of grade s i x c h i l d r e n were used. (The Vancouver School Board authorizes set f i e l d t r i p s f o r students i n the intermediate grades, and the s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n to match these f i e l d t r i p s . A l l s i x l o c a l s e t t i n g s , w i t h the exception of story four, would have been v i s i t e d or passed by on o f f i c i a l t r i p s , and the s e t t i n g of story four, the P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n , i s an extremely popular f a i r , f o r which a l l elementary c h i l d r e n receive a free pass at the end of the school year.) Since i t was hypothesized that f o r e i g n set m a t e r i a l i s not part of the students' p r e - e x i s t i n g schemata, one treatment l e v e l of the s t o r i e s 47 was set i n f o r e i g n l o c a t i o n s . S ettings were chosen to match the l o c a l v e r s i o n s e t t i n g s , i n places that i t was considered most grade s i x students would be aware of (such as P a r i s , London, New York, the Caribbean). To f u r t h e r examine the s p e c i f i c i t y of s e t t i n g and the r o l e of pre-e x i s t i n g schemata, the t h i r d v e r s i o n of the s t o r i e s had a l l the s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g statements removed and the s e t t i n g s thus became ge n e r a l i z e d and appropriate to any l o c a l e (such as beach, zoo, f a i r ) . The s i x story t i t l e s w i t h t h e i r three treatment l e v e l s are presented i n Table 1. The s i x s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n at two d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s . Three s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n at a grade four l e v e l and three s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n at a grade eight l e v e l . The r e a d a b i l i t y of these s t o r i e s was c a l c u l a t e d using the Dale-Chall R e a d a b i l i t y Formula. The D a l e - C h a l l score was converted to a grade l e v e l score. The data on the r e a d a b i l i t y f o r the three versions of each of the s i x s t o r i e s are presented i n Table 2. The s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n to appeal to s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n . They were w r i t t e n to maintain the i n t e r e s t and motivation of the subjects throughout the study. A l l s t o r i e s are mystery-adventure. Mystery was chosen as i t i s the most popular genre f o r both sexes i n grade s i x (Purves & Beach, 1974; Ashley, 1971). A l l s t o r i e s have e i t h e r both male and female p r o t a g o n i s t s or a s i n g l e protagonist with an e i t h e r - s e x name such as Pat or Terry. The s t o r i e s , designed to approximate the f i r s t chapter of a mystery novel, are open ended, and comparable i n length. The data are presented i n Table 3. Cloze Tests Cloze t e s t s were made f o r each of the story versions using the guide-l i n e s set down by Bormuth (1976). These included the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : the f i r s t sentence of every story was l e f t i n t a c t . F i f t y d e l e t i o n s were 48 Table 1 S i x Story T i t l e s w i t h Three Treatment Levels B l B2 B3 Story Foreign S e t t i n g Local S e t t i n g Non-Specific Setting 1 Art G a l l e r y Mystery at the Mystery at the Mystery at the Art London Art Vancouver Art G a l l e r y G a l l e r y G a l l e r y 2 Beach Cable Beach Mystery Spanish Banks Beach Mystery Mystery 3 S a i l i n g Ship Mystery on the Mystery on the Mystery on the B a l c l u t h a St. Roche S a i l i n g Ship 4 Amusement Park T i v o l i Garden P.N.E. Adventure Amusement Park Adventure Adventure 5 C i t y Adventure over Adventure over Adventure over the P a r i s Vancouver C i t y 6 Zoo Adventure i n the Adventure i n the Adventure i n the Cen t r a l Park Zoo Stanley Park Zoo Zoo Note. S t o r i e s 1, 2, and 3 are Easy S t o r i e s S t o r i e s 4, 5, and 6 are D i f f i c u l t S t o r i e s 49 Table 2 R e a d a b i l i t y of S t o r i e s by Grade Level Story Level V B2 1. Art G a l l e r y easy 5(5.00) 5(5.19) 5(4.74) 2. Beach easy 5(5.31) 5(5.12) 4(4.96) 3. S a i l i n g Ship easy 5(5.00) 5(5.00) 4(4.94) 4. Amusement Park d i f f i c u l t 7-8(6.65) 7-8(6.45) 7-8(6.14) 5. C i t y d i f f i c u l t 8-9(7.00) 8-9(7.00) 8-9(7.00) 6. Zoo d i f f i c u l t 8-9(7.00) 8-9(7.00) 7-8(6.75) Note. Numbers i n parentheses i n d i c a t e D a l e - C h a l l r e a d a b i l i t y scores. Scores are converted i n t o grade l e v e l s according to the Dale-C h a l l formula. = Local p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g = Foreign p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g = Non - s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g Table 3 Tot a l Number of Words i n the Three Treatment Levels of the Six S t o r i e s Story B l 1. Art G a l l e r y 456 458 358 2. Beach 450 435 355 3. S a i l i n g Ship 472 472 430 4. Amusement Park 481 458 351 5. C i t y 433 425 372 6. Zoo 447 419 388 = Local p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g = Foreign p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g = Non-specific p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g 51 made f o r every t e s t . Every word was deleted ( i n t h i s study every seventh word was d e l e t e d ) . The 50 deleted words were replaced by a l i n e of standardized length. The length chosen for t h i s study was 15 spaces. This length was s u f f i c i e n t f o r the students to w r i t e t h e i r answers d i r e c t l y onto the t e s t paper. Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales An o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n f o r t h i s study was to use a 12 scale Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l , u t i l i z i n g potent and a c t i v e f a c t o r s as described by Osgood (1966). However, i t became apparent i n f i e l d t e s t i n g that a f t e r reading each story and responding to the 50 blank Cloze t e s t that students' moti-v a t i o n began to dwindle. They did not want to read another page of w r i t -ing and began to respond i n a c a r e l e s s fashion seeming not to care whether t h e i r answers were t h o u g h t f u l . In the i n t e r e s t of motivation and accurate response, t h e r e f o r e , i t was decided to reduce the i n t e r e s t instrument as much as p r a c t i c a l . Since the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales was c a r r i e d out on e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s , and since the major dimension of meaning found by Osgood was the e v a l u a t i v e dimension, a d j e c t i v e p a i r s measuring the e v a l u a t i v e meaning of a concept can be used to estimate i n t e r e s t i n that concept. I t was decided, on the basis of f i e l d t e s t i n g , to reduce the length of the instrument to two e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s . These scales representing e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r s are shown below: LIKE: : : : : : DISLIKE BORING: : : : : : INTERESTING The scales were p o l a r i z e d ( i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s ) to c o n t r o l f o r same set response bia s on the part of the student. Each sca l e was repre-sented by l i n e s of equal length marked o f f i n t o f i v e equal segments. 52 Gates M a c G i n i t i e Standardized Test The Comprehension Test (form D) was chosen as the measure of reading comprehension that was to be used to form the three reading a b i l i t y groups. Since the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Standardized Reading Test i s the t e s t admin-i s t e r e d by Vancouver elementary teachers, i t was decided to use the t e s t r e s u l t s c o l l e c t e d by the classroom teachers. F i e l d Testing of Instruments The purpose of t h i s p i l o t study was to t r y out a l l s i x s t o r i e s w i t h t h e i r three versions and two d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s , and to a s c e r t a i n i f they were matched as to i n t e r e s t and d i f f i c u l t y . R e a d a b i l i t y measures do not always p r e d i c t reading d i f f i c u l t y . Previous research has shown that s t o r i e s c o n t r o l l e d by a r e a d a b i l i t y formula can be found to be d i s p a r a t e when comprehension measures on these s t o r i e s are examined ( K l e i n , 1968). Subjects were two grade s i x c l a s s e s from D e l t a , a school d i s t r i c t bordering on Vancouver. Complete data were a v a i l a b l e f o r 56 c h i l d r e n . The 18 versions of s i x s t o r i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. Of the s i x s t o r i e s i n each group, three were easy s t o r i e s and three were d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s . Moreover, each of the three s e t t i n g versions was pre-sented twice, once i n the easy set of three and once i n the d i f f i c u l t set of three. Each of the three groups was colour coded e i t h e r red, blue, or yellow on a l l i t s forms. Students were given one of the colour coded group of s t o r i e s . They read each story s i l e n t l y . A f t e r each story was read they completed Cloze t e s t s that matched the story v e r s i o n read. They then f i l l e d i n a s i x point reading i n t e r e s t s c a l e . The three treatment l e v e l s were c o l l a p s e d and the Cloze scores 53 examined. The s i x story means were c l o s e l y equated. The three easy s t o r i e s and the three hard s t o r i e s had c l o s e l y a l i g n e d means (Table 4). The i n t e r e s t means were more di s p a r a t e . One s t o r y , S a i l i n g Ship, had a s l i g h t l y lower mean than the other two easy s t o r i e s . However, since i t was not the d i f f i c u l t y of the story at f a u l t (comprehension was not aff e c t e d ) and the s t o r i e s were not being compared one against the other, i t was not considered necessary to change the content. Procedures A l l t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out by the researcher between October 9th and November 7th, 1979. The researcher set up interviews with each of the seven school p r i n -c i p a l s and 13 teachers to discuss the experiment and make arrangements to do the t e s t i n g . At t h i s time a l s o , the s i x teachers who had not already t e s t e d t h e i r c l a s s e s w i t h the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Survey, Form D, agreed to do so. The remainder had p r e v i o u s l y tested t h e i r c l a s s e s w i t h i n the past s i x weeks. P r i o r to meeting with the c l a s s e s , a l l t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l was organ-i z e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . The 18 story versions were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. Of the s i x s t o r i e s i n each group, three were easy s t o r i e s and three were d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s . Moreover, each of the three s e t t i n g ver-sions was represented twice, once i n the easy set of three and once i n the d i f f i c u l t set of three s t o r i e s (Table 5). The groups were colour coded (red group, blue group, and yellow group). The i n v e s t i g a t o r met each c l a s s on three consecutive days f o r periods of 40 to 50 minutes. ( A l l t e s t i n g procedures were i d e n t i c a l f o r the 13 c l a s s e s . ) Table 4 Pr e l i m i n a r y F i e l d Study Means f o r Cloze Scores and an I n t e r e s t Inventory (n=56) S t o r i e s Cloze Scores I n t e r e s t Scores Easy S t o r i e s 1. Art 27.8 4.54 2. Beach 27.8 4.87 3. F i e l d 27.4 4.34 D i f f i c u l t S t o r i e s 4. Amusement 22.5 4.11 5. Balloon 22.7 3.94 6. Zoo 21.1 3.89 Note. The maximum score f o r the Cloze t e s t i s 50. The maximum score f o r the I n t e r e s t Inventory i s 5. Table 5 D e s c r i p t i o n of How the Six S e t t i n g Versions and the Are Divided i n t o S t o r i e s with The Three Two D i f f i c u l t y Levels Three Groups S t o r i e s Red Group Blue Group Yellow Group Easy S t o r i e s 1. Art B l B 3 B 2 2. Beach Y>2 B^ B 3 3. F i e l d B 3 B 2 B ] D i f f i c u l t S t o r i e s 4. Amusement B^  B^ 5. Balloon B^ B^ B 2 6. Zoo B 3 B 2 B Note. B^, B 2, and B 3 r e f e r to the three s e t t i n g l e v e l s . B^ = Local s e t t i n g ; B 2 = Foreign s e t t i n g ; and B 3 = Non-specific s e t t i n g . 56 On the f i r s t day the researcher was introduced to the c l a s s by the home room teacher. A f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n the Cloze procedure was demon-s t r a t e d w i t h the use of the p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e "The Wind," to f a m i l i a r i z e the c h i l d r e n w i t h the process. The researcher read the f i r s t sentence of the p r a c t i c e exercise and then asked f o r suggestions as to what word might make sense f o r the f i r s t d e l e t i o n . The Cloze procedure was r e f e r r e d to as a "guessing q u i z . " The c l a s s responded o r a l l y to each of the dele-t i o n s and there was d i s c u s s i o n as to the "best" answer. The c l a s s was a l s o t o l d that s p e l l i n g d i d not count and that only one word was allowed i n each blank. The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l was then demonstrated. A sample Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scale was handed out and discussed. Students f i l l e d i n a response to "The Wind." They were encouraged to be honest and assured that t h i s was a personal choice i n t e r e s t form. The m a t e r i a l s were then d i s t r i b u t e d . Each c l a s s had a random s e l e c -t i o n of the three story groups. The s i x s t o r i e s to be read were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d because there was no t h e o r e t i c a l or p r a c t i c a l reason to study order e f f e c t s . Also i t was desired that any spurious e f f e c t due to story order should be non-systematic across groups. The exception to t h i s was the f i r s t story to be read which i t was decided should be an easy s t o r y . This d e c i s i o n was due to information gained i n the f i e l d t e s t i n g of the instruments where i t was apparent from classroom observation that c h i l d r e n who read a d i f f i c u l t story f i r s t were less w e l l motivated and became e a s i l y discouraged about the whole p r o j e c t , whereas those who s t a r t e d with an easy story managed to s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t throughout. The story versions f o r each group plus t h e i r corresponding Cloze t e s t s and the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales were d i s t r i b u t e d to the c l a s s . 57 C h i l d r e n were given large manila envelopes i n which to keep a l l t h e i r m a t e r i a l s . The students read one story at a time. A f t e r they had f i n i s h e d reading they turned the story face-down on t h e i r desks f o r the researcher to c o l l e c t . A f t e r each story was read the students completed a Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l and the matching Cloze t e s t f o r that s t o r y . I t was necessary f o r the researcher to c o l l e c t the s t o r i e s before the students attempted the i n t e r e s t and comprehension measures otherwise students might have used the s t o r i e s as templates to f i l l i n the Cloze t e s t s . On the second and t h i r d days of t e s t i n g the students continued to read and respond to the s t o r i e s that were i n t h e i r envelopes. Scoring and Tabulation of the Data The Cloze Procedure A l l t e s t s were marked by hand by the researcher and volunteer a s s i s -t a n t s . Tests were marked f o r exact replacements of the o r i g i n a l text (Bormuth, 1975). The s i n g u l a r form of the word was not accepted i f the p l u r a l was c o r r e c t , and no synonyms were accepted. However, m i s - s p e l l i n g was not p e n a lized i f the word was recognizable. Numerals were accepted and there was no penalty f o r lack of c a p i t a l s or words e n t i r e l y c a p i t a l -i z e d . No c r e d i t was given i f more than one word was w r i t t e n even i f one of the words was c o r r e c t . (Two c h i l d r e n obviously at f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l , had r e s o r t e d to f i l l i n g i n nonsense words or o b s c e n i t i e s , and one per-severated throughout the e n t i r e story w i t h one word.) The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scale A l l t e s t s were marked by hand by the researcher and volunteer a s s i s -t a n t s . The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l had two scales w i t h f i v e response choices 58 to-each. Osgood, S u c i , and Tannenbaum (1970) suggest as s i g n i n g weights to each c e l l . Less Favourable Most Favourable A d j e c t i v e : 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 : A d j e c t i v e Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test The Comprehension Test (Form D) was administered and marked by the classroom teachers during September and October, 1979). The raw scores were then ranked and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o T scores (Glass & Stanley, 1970, p. 86). To obtain the three reading groups (low, average, and high) scores were separated one h a l f a standard d e v i a t i o n around the mean (Table 6). Although t h i s was a rather gross a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n , a n a t u r a l grouping appeared at t h i s p o i n t . i Table 6 Range of Comprehension Test Scores Groups Raw Scores Standard T Scores Low 15-30 29-44 Average 31-40 45-55 High 41-52 56-67 Des ign In order to t e s t the e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and reading d i f f i -c u l t y l e v e l s on reading comprehension and reading i n t e r e s t , a f i x e d e f f e c t s model 2x3x3 f u l l y crossed f a c t o r i a l design with repeated measures over s i x s t o r i e s was employed. The f a c t o r s were as f o l l o w s : Factor A: a w i t h i n subjects v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t i n g of two l e v e l s of d i f f -c u l t y : easy and hard. Factor B: a w i t h i n subjects v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t i n g of three l e v e l s of s e t t i n g : f o r e i g n , l o c a l , and n o n - s p e c i f i c . Factor C: a between subjects v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t i n g of three l e v e l s of reading a b i l i t y : low, average, and high. The design of the study i s presented i n Table 7. In order to t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading comprehension and reading i n t e r e s t , c o r r e l a t i o n a l measures were employed. S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures The data were processed at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Com-puting Centre. The Biomedical Computer Program BMDP-09 was used to com-pute a n a l y s i s of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures over s i x s t o r i e s . Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were performed using the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia v e r s i o n of the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (SPSS) program. Summary Chapter three begins w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the subjects and a d i s -cussion of the development of instruments used i n the study. I t includes a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p i l o t study followed by the procedures used i n 60 Table 7 A Diagram of a 2x3x3 Fixed E f f e c t s Model Fully - C r o s s e d F a c t o r i a l Design D i f f i c u l t y A i A 2 Easy S t o r i e s D i f f i c u l t S t o r i e s S e t t i n g S e t t i n g B i B 2 B 3 B , B 2 B 3 Local Foreign Non-Specific Local Foreign Non-Specific Reading A b i l i t y C i Low C 2 Average C 3 High Note. L e t t e r s A, B, and C r e f e r to the three f a c t o r s . A = D i f f i c u l t y , B = P h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , C = Reading A b i l i t y . N. ., = 87. c a r r y i n g out the experimental treatment. The c o l l e c t i o n and treatment of data i s discussed. The design of the study and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures concludes the chapter. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present the analyses of data c o l -l e c t e d using the Cloze Procedure, Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales, and a standardized reading t e s t . F i n a l S e l e c t i o n of Subjects The subjects f o r the study were 344 s i x t h grade students from Van-couver p u b l i c schools. Data from 83 students were discarded. The reasons f o r the loss of data were due to incomplete data f o r 37 students, and lack of homogeneity of variance. Tests of homogeneity of variance run, p r i o r to s t a t i s t i c a l " p r o c e d u r e s being c a r r i e d out, found there was a s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t . Cochran's C. and B a r t l e t t ' s Box t e s t s both found lack of homogeneity of variance (p .001). Since t h i s v i o l a t e d one of the assumptions necessary f o r a n a l y s i s of variance procedure, 46 students were randomly discarded to create equal subjects i n each c e l l . K i r k (1968) states t h a t : The F d i s t r i b u t i o n i s robust with respect to v i o l a t i o n of the assumption of homogeneity of p o p u l a t i o n - e r r o r variances provided that the number of observations i n the samples i s equal. (p.'61) A procedure was adopted whereby numbers were assigned to each subject. A random numbers., t a b l e was entered and subjects were discarded u n t i l the c e l l s a l l equalled 87 (n=261). 62 63 R e l i a b i l i t y Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales I n t e r e s t scores f o r each of the s i x s t o r i e s were analyzed separately f o r r e l i a b i l i t y . The treatment l e v e l s were c o l l a p s e d and a Hoyt estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y obtained taki n g the two scales together as the i n t e r e s t measure. R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .88 to .93 across the s i x s t o r i e s (Table 8). Pearson Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a l s o were computed be-tween the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s . C o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .792 to .847 across the s i x s t o r i e s (Table 9). Research Questions and Associated Hypotheses The research questions were addressed by t e s t i n g the f o l l o w i n g n u l l hypotheses. Research Question 1.0 Is reading comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story? Hypothesis 1.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Cloze scores on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s and Cloze scores on for e i g n - s e t s t o r i e s . A n a l y s i s of variance was c a r r i e d out on the Cloze scores (Table 10). The complete ANOVA summary s t a t i s t i c s f o r Tables^21 and 2 2 j l s found i n Appendix A. Results i n d i c a t e d that the main e f f e c t f o r s e t t i n g was s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .001 l e v e l . F(2,516) = 57.51, p < .001. The means were inspected using the Scheffe t e s t f o r m u l t i p l e compari-sons (Kirk, 1968, p. 91). Results showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .001), whereby the l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s were comprehended 64 Table 8 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y of I n t e r e s t Scores (n=261) Hoyt: R e l i a b i l i t y Story mean S.D. C o e f f i c i e n t 1 7.67 2.35 .91 2 7.94 2.23 .89 3 7.74 2.36 .91 4 7.38 2.43 .88 5 7.61 2.49 .93 6 7.31 2.55 .92 Table 9 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Responses to Items One and Two of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales (n=261) Story C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 1 .831 2 .801 3 .847 4 .792 5 .828 6 .830 O v e r a l l .816 Table 10 A n a l y s i s of Variance of Cloze Scores on P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y Source s_s df MS F Between 3317.62 2 1658.81 57.51*** I n t e r a c t i o n 159.84 4 39.96 1.39 N.S. Within 14883.86 516 28.84 66 s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the foreign s t o r i e s . Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected (Table 11). Hypothesis 1.2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Cloze scores on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s and Cloze s t o r i e s on n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y set s t o r i e s . Results from the Scheffe test for multiple comparisons showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (_p < .05), whereby the l o c a l - s e t s t o r i e s were understood s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the non-specific s t o r -i e s . Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected (Table 11). Hypothesis 1.3 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Cloze scores on foreign-set s t o r i e s and Cloze scores on non-specific set s t o r i e s . The Scheffe test for multiple comparisons indicated that the non-s p e c i f i c set Cloze scores were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the foreign-set Cloze scores (p_ < .05). Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected (Table 11). Hypothesis 1.4 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Cloze scores on s p e c i f i c - s e t s t o r i e s ( l o c a l and fo r e i g n settings combined) and Cloze scores on non-specific set s t o r i e s . Results from the Scheffe test for multiple comparisons showed that the means were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (_p_ > .05). There-fore the n u l l hypothesis was not rejected (Table 11). Research Question 2.0 To what extent i s the reading comprehension of s i x t h grade ch i l d r e n affected by the d i f f i c u l t y of a story? Hypothesis 2.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Cloze scores Table 11 Scheffe's S Test f o r Comparison of Cloze Test Means V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 4 Local s e t t i n g 1 4.37*** 2.64* -Foreign s e t t i n g 2 - - -N o n - s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g 3 2.72* - .02 N. S p e c i f i c s e t t i n g (1&2) - -df(2,258) *P < ^05 ***p < .001 68 on easy s t o r i e s and Cloze scores on d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s . A n a l y s i s of Variance procedure y i e l d e d an F(l,258) = 366.12, p < .001. Comprehension was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the easy s t o r i e s than on the d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s (Table 12). Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . Research Question 3.0 To what extent i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story? Hypothesis 3.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r e s t scores on a l o c a l l y - s e t story and a f o r e i g n - s e t s t o r y . A n a l y s i s of Variance was c a r r i e d out on the t e s t scores (Table 13). Results i n d i c a t e d that the o v e r a l l main e f f e c t f o r s e t t i n g was s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . F(2,516) = 2.91, p < .05. The means were inspected pairwise using the Scheffe t e s t f o r mul-t i p l e comparisons (Table 14). Results showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p > .05). Although there was an o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t due to s e t t i n g there was no s i g n i f i c a n t pairwise comparison. Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d . Hypothesis 3.2 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r e s t scores on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t scores on n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y set s t o r i e s . Scheffe r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p > .05). The n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d (Table 14). Hypothesis 3.3 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r e s t Table 12 A n a l y s i s of Variance of Cloze Scores of Story D i f f i c u l t y , and Story D i f f i c u l t y by Reading A b i l i t y Source ss df MS F Between 8442.20 1 8442.20 366.12*** I n t e r a c t i o n 80.94 2 40.47 1.76 N.S. Within 5949.18 258 23.05 ***p < .001 Table 13 An a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores of P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g by Reading A b i l i t y Source s_s df MS F Between 23.97 2 11.98 2.91* I n t e r a c t i o n 6.27 4 1.56 .38 N.S. Within 2125.41 516 4.11 *p < .05 Table 14 Scheffe's S Tests f o r Comparisons of Means on I n t e r e s t Scores V a r i a b l e Local S e t t i n g 1 Foreign S e t t i n g 2 Non-Specific S e t t i n g 3 S p e c i f i c vs. Non-S p e c i f i c 4 ,262 N.S. ,00 N.S. ,262 N.S. .131 N.S, df(2,258) 71 scores on f o r e i g n - s e t s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t scores on n o n - s p e c i f i c set s t o r i e s . Scheffe r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p > .05). Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d (Table 14). Hypothesis 3.4 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r e s t scores on s p e c i f i c set s t o r i e s and n o n - s p e c i f i c set s t o r i e s . Scheffe r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p > .05). There-f o r e , the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d (Table 14). Research Question 4.0 To what extent i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the d i f f i c u l t y of a story? Hypothesis 4.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r e s t scores on easy s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t scores on d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s . A n a l y s i s of Variance procedure y i e l d e d an F(l,258) = 13.33, p < .001. Easy s t o r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y rated as being more i n t e r e s t i n g than d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s (Table 15). Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . Research Question 5.0 To what extent i s i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r reading a b i l i t y ? Hypothesis 5.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r e s t scores f o r low reading a b i l i t y students and i n t e r e s t scores f o r high read-ing a b i l i t y students. A n a l y s i s of Variance procedure y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r reading a b i l i t y on i n t e r e s t , F(2,258) = 2.96, p < .05 (Table 16). However, when these means were examined by the Scheffe procedure f o r Table 15 A n a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores of D i f f i c u l t y of S t o r i e s , and D i f f i c u l t y and Reading A b i l i t y Source ss df MS F Between 45.18 1 45.18 13.33*** I n t e r a c t i o n 1.62 2 .81 .24 N.S. Within 874.19 258 3.38 ***P < .001 Table 16 An a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores on Reading A b i l i t y Source ss df MS F Between 85.74 2 43.77 2.96* Within 3821.82 258 14.81 *p < .05 73 m u l t i p l e comparisons they d i d not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (p > .05). Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d (Table 17). Research Question 6.0 Is the reading comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n of content d i f f i c u l t y and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story? Hypothesis 6.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between story d i f -f i c u l t y (easy and d i f f i c u l t ) and l o c a l and f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g as shown by scores on Cloze t e s t s . A n a l y s i s of Variance procedure y i e l d e d an F(2,516) - 1.39, p > .05. Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d (Table 18). Research Question 7.0 To what extent i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e i r reading a b i l i t y and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story? Hypothesis 7.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between reading a b i l i t y and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story as measured by a reading i n t e r -est s c a l e . A n a l y s i s of Variance procedure y i e l d e d an F(4,816) = .38, p > .05. Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d (Table 13). Research Question 8.0 To what extent i s the i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n of the content d i f f i c u l t y and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story? Hypothesis 8.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between story 7.4 Table 17 Scheffe's Tests f o r Comparison of Means on Reading A b i l i t y V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 Low Reading A b i l i t y 1 - .049 N.S. .88 N.S. Average Reading A b i l i t y 2 .82 N.S. Above Average Reading A b i l i t y 3 -df(2,258) Table 18 An a l y s i s of Variance of Cloze Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Content D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , and Reading A b i l i t y Source ss df MS D i f f i c u l t y x S e t t i n g I n t e r a c t i o n 77.65 2 38.82 1.39 N.S, D i f f i c u l t y x S e t t i n g x Reading A b i l i t y 124.45 4 31.11 1.11 N.S. Within 14450.55 516 28.00 75 d i f f i c u l t y and s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e s as shown by scores on an i n t e r e s t s c a l e . A n a l y s i s of Variance procedure produced an F(2,516) = .19, p > .05. Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was not r e j e c t e d . S e t t i n g v a r i a b l e d i d not i n t e r a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the story d i f f i c u l t y (Table 19). Research Question 9.0 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and i n t e r e s t of s t o r -i e s with l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , f o r e i g n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and non-s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s ? Hypothesis 9.1 There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between scores on a Cloze comprehension measure and scores on an i n t e r e s t measure. Pearson Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed between the Cloze scores and the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i n t e r e s t scores. There was a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t from 0, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the -001 l e v e l , (r(260) = .234). The n u l l hypothe s i s was r e j e c t e d (Table 20). Hypothesis 9.2 There i s no ' s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between cloze scores on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s and i n t e r e s t scores on l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s . Pearson Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed among the Cloze scores and the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i n t e r e s t scores. There was a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t from 0, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , r(260) = .215, p < .01.; The n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . 76 Table 19 A n a l y s i s of Variance of I n t e r e s t Scores of Content D i f f i c u l t y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g ; and D i f f i c u l t y , P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g and Reading A b i l i t y Source ss df MS F D i f f i c u l t y x S e t t i n g I n t e r a c t i o n 1.44 2 .72 .19 N.S. D i f f i c u l t y A b i l i t y x S e t t i n g x Reading 27.43 4 6.85 1.76 N.S. Within 2008.10 516 3.89 Table 20 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of Scores on a Cloze Measure and Scores on an I n t e r e s t Measure O v e r a l l Local S e t t i n g Cloze I n t e r e s t I n t e r e s t Over a l l .234*** Local S e t t i n g - .215*** ***p < .001 df = 260 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the study, draws conclusions based on the findings, and suggests educational recommendations that can be drawn from the conclusions. Summary The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which the va r i a b l e , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , i n narrative prose affected the s i l e n t reading comprehension and expressed i n t e r e s t of s i x t h grade students when they read such na r r a t i v e prose. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the study sought to measure s i x t h grade children's s i l e n t reading comprehension and expressed i n t e r e s t i n matched s t o r i e s with l o c a l p h y s i c a l settings, s t o r i e s with foreign p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s , and s t o r i e s with non-specific p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s . The study also sought to determine whether or not there was a r e l a -tionship between grade s i x children's s i l e n t reading comprehension of the s t o r i e s and t h e i r expressed i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r i e s , and the extent to which an i n t e r a c t i o n between content d i f f i c u l t y of the s t o r i e s and the physic a l s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e affected grade s i x children's s i l e n t reading comprehension and expressed reading i n t e r e s t . Materials Six s t o r i e s (each with three s e t t i n g treatment l e v e l s ) were written for t h i s study. The treatment l e v e l s were: l o c a l p h y s i c a l - s e t t i n g , foreign p h y s i c a l - s e t t i n g , and a no s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g , i n which the set t i n g 78 statements had been removed. Each story was designed to con t r o l relevant q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative v a r i a b l e s , and d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l . Three s t o r i e s were written with grade four l e v e l r e a d a b i l i t y and three s t o r i e s were written at a grade eight r e a d a b i l i t y . The s t o r i e s were a l l written to approximate the f i r s t chapter i n a novel. Seventh word de l e t i o n Cloze t e s t s were constructed over a l l the story versions to measure s i l e n t reading comprehension and two evaluative scales were constructed to measure expressed reading i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r -i e s . Scores from the Gates-MacGinitie reading comprehension te s t were obtained f o r the subjects and were used to divide the sample into three reading a b i l i t y groups. Subjects Subjects were 344 grade s i x students from Vancouver school d i s t r i c t . Thirteen classes were selected from seven schools and there was a mix of socio-economic l e v e l s . Eighty-three subjects were eliminated from the data analysis due to incomplete data and for s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. Com-plete data were a v a i l a b l e and analyzed f o r 261 subjects. C o l l e c t i o n of the Data The 18 versions of the s t o r i e s and the 18 Cloze t e s t s constructed from these versions were divided into three separate groups. Each group consisted of s i x s t o r i e s (three easy s t o r i e s and three d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s ) ; each of the s e t t i n g treatments being represented twice (once i n the easy story set of three and once i n the d i f f i c u l t set of three). Each c l a s s received a randomized s e l e c t i o n of the three groups. Children read one story at a time before completing the Semantic D i f f e r -e n t i a l and the relevant Cloze t e s t . The Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Test was administered by the classroom teachers, either before or a f t e r 79 the r e s t of the data c o l l e c t i o n . Data Analysis Data were analyzed using a fixed e f f e c t s 2x3x3 f u l l y crossed f a c t o r -i a l design. The three independent v a r i a b l e s were d i f f i c u l t y , p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , and reading a b i l i t y . The two dependent measures were s i l e n t reading comprehension and reading i n t e r e s t . Scheffe t e s t s f o r multiple comparisons were used to determine differences between groups. Pearson Product Moment co r r e l a t i o n s were calculated to determine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two dependent v a r i a b l e s . Findings The questions raised at the beginning of the study are answered here according to the r e s u l t s of data analyses described i n Chapter IV. Two findings were d i r e c t l y concerned with reading comprehension. 1. Reading comprehension of s i x t h grade ch i l d r e n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by the ph y s i c a l s e t t i n g of the s t o r i e s read. Cloze scores on the l o c a l l y set s t o r i e s were.reliably higher than Cloze scores on the foreign set s t o r i e s . Cloze scores on the l o c a l l y - s e t s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y higher than Cloze scores on the non-specific set s t o r i e s . Cloze scores on the non-specific set s t o r i e s ( s t o r i e s w i t h l o c a l and foreign settings combined) were r e l i a b l y higher than Cloze scores on the foreign-set s t o r i e s . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Cloze scores on s p e c i f i c a l l y set and Cloze scores on n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y set s t o r -i e s . 2.. Reading comprehension of s i x t h grade ch i l d r e n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by the d i f f i c u l t y of the story. 80 Cloze scores on the easy s t o r i e s were r e l i a b l y higher than Cloze scores on the d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s . Three sets of findings were concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with reading i n t e r e s t . 1. Interest scores of s i x t h grade ch i l d r e n were found o v e r a l l to be affected by the phys i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story to a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -icant extent. Ph y s i c a l s e t t i n g as a general v a r i a b l e i n n a r r a t i v e did have a s i g -n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on reading i n t e r e s t ; however the e f f e c t was not strong enough to state that any one of the three s e t t i n g l e v e l s was responsible for the s i g n i f i c a n c e . 2. The reading i n t e r e s t of grade s i x chi l d r e n was found to be s i g -n i f i c a n t l y influenced by the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of the story read. Inter-est scores on the easy s t o r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than i n t e r e s t scores on the d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s . 3. Interest scores of s i x t h grade ch i l d r e n were found to be i n f l u -enced by t h e i r reading a b i l i t y to a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t extent. Reading a b i l i t y as a general v a r i a b l e did have an o v e r a l l e f f e c t on read-ing i n t e r e s t . However, the e f f e c t was not strong enough to state which of the pai r s of reading a b i l i t y groups was responsible for the s i g n i f i -cance. Three sets of findings were concerned with the i n t e r a c t i o n s of read-ing a b i l i t y , content d i f f i c u l t y , and phys i c a l s e t t i n g . 1. Reading comprehension of s i x t h grade ch i l d r e n was not s i g n i f i -cantly influenced by the i n t e r a c t i o n of content d i f f i c u l t y and the phys-i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story. 2. The reading i n t e r e s t of grade six c h i l d r e n was not found to be 81 s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by the i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e i r reading a b i l i t y and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story. 3. The reading i n t e r e s t of grade s i x c h i l d r e n was not found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by the i n t e r a c t i o n of the content d i f f i c u l t y and ph y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n a story. One set of findings was concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading comprehension and reading i n t e r e s t . 1. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n when reading s i x s t o r i e s with the physi c a l s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e s combined. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension of s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n when reading s t o r i e s with l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g but the r e l a t i o n s h i p was no stronger than i t was for the settings collapsed. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension appears to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s not affected by the ph y s i c a l s e t t i n g of the s t o r i e s . Discussion and Conclusions The following conclusions are drawn based on the find i n g s . It would appear that grade s i x ch i l d r e n are i m p l i c i t l y u t i l i z i n g t h e i r pre-existing l o c a l environment schema to gain stronger access to the l o c a l l y set s t o r i e s and to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r reading comprehension. Although the fore i g n set s t o r i e s were set i n exotic places such as Pa r i s and the Caribbean, they were the l e a s t w e l l comprehended. The conclusion was drawn that Vancouver children's schema for such places i s weak and that the foreign s e t t i n g impeded comprehension. Stories with l o c a l p h y s i c a l settings were also comprehended better 82 than s t o r i e s with non-specific s e t t i n g s . Although the non-specific set-t i n g versions were s l i g h t l y shorter i n length, and s l i g h t l y easier i n s t y l e (see Tables 2 and 3) they were l e s s well comprehended. Tt would appear that f a m i l i a r i t y with the l o c a l s e t t i n g schema f a c i l i t a t e s com-prehension more than a generalized non-specific s e t t i n g does. An explan-ati o n that may help to explain t h i s r e s u l t i s that the reader of the non-s p e c i f i c a l l y set story i s free to imagine a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g as s/he reads. The word "beach" may summon up a pre-existing beach schema that i s s p e c i f i c rather than generalized. The word "amusement park" may, to the l o c a l Vancouver c h i l d , summon up the P.N.E. Therefore, when reading the n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y set s t o r i e s , the subjects may also have been using pre-existing s e t t i n g schemata. In t h i s case, however, the extra work has to be done by them, the schema i s not so well organized, and thus reading comprehension i s weaker. The c h i l d r e n reading the l o c a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s t o r i e s had only to match the l o c a l s e t t i n g i n the story with t h e i r own pre-existing schema. Since the two matched, comprehension was f a c i l i t a t e d . The s t o r i e s with non-specific settings were read with more under-standing than the foreign set s t o r i e s . I t becomes clear that the foreign p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g acted to the detriment of comprehension. Rather than " h i g h l i g h t i n g " or " f l e s h i n g " out the story, the foreign physical s e t t i n g i n f a c t i n h i b i t e d comprehension. This r e s u l t gives more credence to the explanation mentioned i n the previous conclusion. If the reader of the non-specific s e t t i n g story i s u t i l i z i n g p r e-existing s e t t i n g schema (although t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n may be poorly organized and a weaker match than the match made by the reader reading l o c a l l y set s t o r i e s ) , nevertheless, the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on reading comprehension would be 83 stronger than that of the reader reading foreign set s t o r i e s for which pre-existing schema i s v i r t u a l l y nonexistent. This explanation may also account for the appeal of s e r i e s books such as The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, etc., which a l l have non-specific s e t t i n g s . If the reader i s u t i l i z i n g a f a m i l i a r l o c a l s e t t i n g when reading such books then comprehension w i l l l i k e l y be f a c i l i t a t e d . Stories with s p e c i f i c settings were comprehended as well as s t o r i e s with non-specific s e t t i n g s . I t was not the general v a r i a b l e of s p e c i f -i c i t y that caused the differences i n reading comprehension. The important ingredient was "where" the story was set. If the reader has a schema for the s e t t i n g , then comprehension i s f a c i l i t a t e d ; i f the reader has no schema, or i f the schema i s weak, then comprehension i s retarded. Not a l l aspects of text are u t i l i z e d i n reading. The reader reads s e l e c t i v e l y for important na r r a t i v e elements (Brown e t . a l . , 1977; Pichert & Anderson, 1977). Children reading for important elements such as p l o t may " s k i p " s e t t i n g as having a minor importance. Setting the story i n an area for which a c h i l d has a strong pre-existing schema may r e s u l t i n the s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e r i s i n g i n importance and i n i t s u t i l i z a t i o n for a more thorough reading. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , because of strong schema, although set-t i n g may s t i l l be skimmed or p a r t i a l l y "skipped," the reading need not be as thorough, since inferences, connections, and associations w i l l be c l a r i -f i e d and "gaps f i l l e d i n " because of the strength of the p r e - e x i s t i n g schema. The p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g of the s t o r i e s made a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n reading scores, up to four grade l e v e l s . An examination of the group means showed that the average readers scored as well when reading d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s with l o c a l settings as they did when reading easy s t o r i e s with for e i g n settings (Table 23, Appendix A). S i m i l a r l y , the same r e s u l t was 84 noted with the above average readers (Table 23, Appendix A). Even the below average readers were helped considerably when they read d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s with l o c a l settings as compared to easy s t o r i e s with foreign s e t t i n g s ; the diff e r e n c e being approximately two grade l e v e l s of reading d i f f i c u l t y (Table 23, Appendix A). A l l reading groups expressed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r e s t i n the easy s t o r i e s than they did i n the d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s , although for the above average group the d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s should have posed no reading problem. The differences between the easy s t o r i e s and the hard s t o r i e s were not i n story content, but rather i n s t y l e of writing and l i t e r a r y devices. The d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s had longer sentences, more involved syntax, and contained more modifiers, metaphor, and imaginative d e t a i l ; ingredients that would l a b e l them as being more l i t e r a r y . The i n t e r e s t choice of the above average readers, therefore, would seem to suggest that they are not interested i n " l i t e r a r y " prose, but prefer the more acti o n centred, simple s t y l e of the easy s t o r i e s . (This conclusion would support researchers who claim that " l i t e r a r y " material i s not t y p i c -a l l y chosen by c h i l d r e n [Ashley, 1971].) Although the c h i l d r e n comprehended the l o c a l s t o r i e s better than the others, they did not express an i n t e r e s t i n any p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g (over the others). Neither the foreign, local', nor. non-specific settings were preferred. The children's expressed response would seem to be one of mild i n t e r e s t (as shown by the o v e r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t F for-i n t e r e s t ) but without clear pairwise d i r e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . This r e s u l t would be i n agreement with the conclusions of Simpson and Soares (1965) who found the s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e to be not s i g n i f i c a n t compared to other content v a r i a b l e s i n n a r r a t i v e . 85 In the introduction to t h i s study i t was suggested that pre-existing schema may not only have an e f f e c t on reading comprehension, but may also a f f e c t reading i n t e r e s t . However, the suggestion does not seem to have been borne out by the r e s u l t s . I t would not appear that pre-existing schema for l o c a l s e tting i s influ e n c i n g the expressed i n t e r e s t of the grade s i x ch i l d r e n to any s i g n i f i c a n t extent. Correlations between i n t e r e s t and comprehension of l o c a l l y set s t o r i e s , while s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than zero, were low and no higher than the o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n f o r i n t e r e s t and comprehension. Although there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and i n t e r e s t i t does not appear that the c h i l d r e n are expressing an i n t e r e s t i n the s e t t i n g v a r i -able. This again agrees with the r e s u l t s found by Simpson and Soares (1967) who found the se t t i n g v a r i a b l e to be not s i g n i f i c a n t when compared to other content v a r i a b l e s such as plo t and .characterization. Physical s e t t i n g does not ( i n t h i s study) appear to have been a conscious factor i n the children's expressed i n t e r e s t (unlike story d i f f i c u l t y ) . Implications f o r Pedagogy and Research  Pedagogical Implications In t h i s study, grade s i x Vancouver c h i l d r e n have been found to com-prehend s t o r i e s with l o c a l p h y s i c a l settings with greater success than they have comprehended s t o r i e s with foreign p h y s i c a l settings and s t o r i e s with non-specific s e t t i n g s . Setting i s only one nar r a t i v e element. A complete novel set l o c a l l y presumably would have a f a r stronger e f f e c t on reading comprehension as i t would u t i l i z e l o c a l children's pre-existing schemata for language patterns, c u l t u r a l customs, and character type and motivation. 86 The use of high-interest low-vocabulary material i s generally recommended for remedial readers. Results from t h i s study would suggest that these students would benefit from reading materials i n which the s t o r i e s were set l o c a l l y . If the se t t i n g v a r i a b l e can make a di f f e r e n c e of the equivalent of four grade l e v e l s i n reading comprehension then t h i s should be taken into account when reading t e s t s are used that contain material with foreign settings, as many current standardized t e s t s do. Standardized t e s t s should be developed that use non-specific settings i n order that c h i l d r e n are not penalized f o r lack of p r e - e x i s t i n g schemata f o r other places. Tests developed for l o c a l usage, however, could u t i l i z e a balance of l o c a l , f o r e ign, and non-specific s e t t i n g s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study would seem to confirm Anderson's (1977) conclusions that meaning does not reside i n the text, but that the text i s a recipe that can guide the reader into constructing a representation through relevant schema., This has implications f o r curriculum and read-ing pedagogy. Teachers and educators need to recognize that reading com-prehension i s best f a c i l i t a t e d by matching reading materials to the c h i l d ' s p re-existing schema—as t h i s study has demonstrated. The t r a d i -t i o n a l directed reading lesson.has always required the teaching of vocab-ulary and necessary background information to students before t h e i r under-taking the reading of a s e l e c t i o n . Results of t h i s study not only give support to t h i s teaching method, but also i n d i c a t e that a few minutes of pre-teaching may not be s u f f i c i e n t for a l l c h i l d r e n to develop the neces-sary background. More attention must be given to t h i s development through d i r e c t and v i c a r i o u s experience before reading takes place. This would seem to be e s p e c i a l l y important for materials outside the c h i l d ' s 87 knowledge base. Although t h i s study deals with n a r r a t i v e , the r e s u l t s suggest that the other content areas of reading i n the elementary school could be affected s i m i l a r l y . I t would then appear to be c r u c i a l that the pre-teaching be extensive and thorough. Films, s t o r i e s , p i c t u r e s , f i e l d - t r i p s , and excursions should precede reading rather than be used merely as enrichment at the end of a unit.. Since the average and above average readers scored as well when reading the d i f f i c u l t s t o r i e s with l o c a l settings as they did on the easy s t o r i e s with foreign s e t t i n g s , the whole concept of d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l needs re-evaluating i n the l i g h t of schema theory. D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s for the s t o r i e s were calculated on the Dale-Chall r e a d a b i l i t y formula (which uses syntax and a common core vocabulary l i s t as i t s d i f f i c u l t y i n d i c e s ) . Pre-existing schema, as shown by t h i s study, can override these factors by as much as four grade l e v e l s . I t becomes apparent that some comment on the semantic content i s necessary when reporting r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s . Research Implications The s t o r i e s written f o r t h i s study were con t r o l l e d for q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative v a r i a b l e s . However, the non-specific versions were s l i g h t l y shorter i n length, due to the removal of the se t t i n g statements. It may be that t h i s d i f f e r e n c e had an e f f e c t on the subjects' reading behaviour and subsequently i n f l a t e d the scores on the non-specific ver-sion Cloze t e s t s . This study should be repeated with a l l story versions being rewritten to i d e n t i c a l lengths i n order to further tighten the design and ensure that the non-specific s e t t i n g r e s u l t s have not been skewed. The dependent measure of comprehension i n t h i s study, the Cloze 88 procedure, was chosen because of i t s superior r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , which allows f o r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s . However, due to i t s mea-surement s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , use of the Cloze procedure requires multiple passages and large samples and i s not able to examine a f f e c t i v e components or a c h i l d ' s s p e c i f i c response to a passage. Using a small sample i t would be possible to repeat t h i s study with o r a l r e c a l l as the dependent measure of comprehension. This would enable the independent v a r i a b l e , ph y s i c a l s e t t i n g , to be examined i n closer d e t a i l . This study only examined grade s i x students. The study could be r e p l i c a t e d with adjusted material at the primary and high school l e v e l s , to a s c e r t a i n whether the r e s u l t s are i n some way "developmental" or generalizable to a l l l e v e l s . This study should be r e p l i c a t e d with a d i f f e r e n t population. The s t o r i e s should be rewritten i n order that the l o c a l settings r e f l e c t the environment of the new population. Results would give v a l i d i t y to the present study and add to i t s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . The s t o r i e s i n t h i s study were not i l l u s t r a t e d . However, most s t o r i e s f o r elementary c h i l d r e n do have i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n order to motivate and create i n t e r e s t i n the reading content. This study should be r e p l i -cated using accompanying pictures f o r each story. The presenceof a p i c -ture may give a p a r t i a l schema to ch i l d r e n that could a l t e r the r e s u l t s of the present study i n a measurable manner, as a p a r t i a l schema f or foreign settings would increase the comprehension scores on the foreign s e t t i n g story versions. The non-specific s e t t i n g version could be further investigated using i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Using only the non-specific versions of the six s t o r i e s , pictures could i l l u s t r a t e e i t h e r a foreign or a l o c a l s e t t i n g . 89 Scores on the Cloze tests would then indicate to what extent schema i s strengthened and comprehension affected by illustrations alone. In this study setting was found to be significant as a main effect. There were no significant interactions with either reading a b i l i t y or content d i f f i c u l t y . However, there may be other interactions that are significant. For instance, there was no hypothesis in this study for story differences (stories were a l l mystery-adventure), yet the genres of historical f i c t i o n , fantasy, or animal realism may affect the setting variable. Further research should examine possible interactions between story genre and physical setting. Using the same method for controlling content other narrative ele-ments could be examined-—such as figurative language, mood, and point of view, to ascertain what role they play in a child's reading comprehension and reading interest. This study dealt only with narrative. The study should be r e p l i -cated with expository material to ascertain whether the difference in style and organization of text would affect the results found in this study. Work on text comprehension is not far advanced. This study has added to the knowledge being collated in this area. It i s hoped that further research exploring the relationship between schema and text w i l l , besides increasing our understanding of the reading process, enable teachers and educators to develop materials and curriculum for children in order that their reading comprehension be facil i t a t e d , and so that they can read with enjoyment. 90 REFERENCES Anderson, R. C. Schema-directed processes i n language comprehension. In A. Lesgold, J . Pel l e g r i n o et a l . (Eds.), Cognitive Psychology and  Instruction. New York: Plenum Press, 1977. Anderson, R. C , Spiro, R. J . , and Anderson, M. C. Schemata as s c a f f o l d - ing f o r the representation of information i n connected discourse. (Technical Report 24) Urbana 111.: Un i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Center f o r the Study of Reading, March 1977. Anderson, R. C., Spiro, R. J . , and Montague, W. E. (Eds.). Schooling and  the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge. New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1977. Ashley, L. F. Children's reading i n the 70's. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971. Asher, S., Hymel, S., and Wigfield, A. Influence of topic i n t e r e s t on children's reading comprehension. Journal of Reading Behaviour, 1978, 10, 35-47. Ausubel, D. P. Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1968. Barnes, B. R., and Clawson, E. V. Do advanced organizers f a c i l i t a t e learning? Review of Educational Research, 1975, ^ 5_, 637-659. B a r t l e t t , F. C. Remembering. Cambridge, England: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1932. B e l l o n i , L., and Jongsma, E. The e f f e c t s of i n t e r e s t on reading compre-hension of low-achieving students. Journal of Reading, 1978, 22, 106-109. Bernstein, M. Relationship between i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Research, 1955, 4j?, 283-288. Bormuth, J . R. Comparisons among cloze test scoring methods. In J . A. F i g u r e l (Ed.) Reading and inquiry. Proceedings of the International Reading Association, 1965, 10, 283-86. Bormuth, J. R. Factor v a l i d i t y of cloze t e s t s as measures of reading com-prehension a b i l i t y . Reading Research Quarterly, 1969, h_, 358-365. Bormuth, J . R. L i t e r a c y i n the classroom. In W. D. Page (Ed.) Help f o r the reading teacher: New d i r e c t i o n s i n research. Urbana, 111.: National Council of Teachers of English, 1975. Bransford, J . D., and Johnson, M. K. Considerations of some problems of comprehension. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), V i s u a l information processing. New York: Academic Press, 1973. 91 Brown, A., Smiley, S., Day, J . , Townsend, M., and Lawton, S. C. I n t r u s i o n of a thematic idea i n c h i l d r e n ' s comprehension and r e t e n t i o n of s t o r - - s :  i e s , 1977. (Technical Report 13) Urbana, 111.: U. of I l l i n o i s , Center f o r the Study of Reading, 1977. C a r r o l l , J . B. D e f i n i n g language comprehension: Some spec u l a t i o n s . In J. B. C a r r o l l and R. 0. Freedle (Eds.), Language ccomprehension and  the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge. Washington, D.C: Winston, 1972. Coyne, L., and Hoi zman, P. S. Three equivalent forms of a semantic d i f f e r -e n t i a l inventory. Educational and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 1966, 26, 665-674. Cunningham, J . W. Metaphor and reading comprehension. Journal of Reading Behaviour, 1976, 8(4), 363-368. ~ D a r n e l l , D. K. The r e l a t i o n between sentence order and comprehension. Speech Monographs, 1963, 30, 97-100. Dive s t a , F., and Dick, W. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n ' s r a t i n g s on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . Educational and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measure-ment, 1966, 26,.605-616. Emans, R. What do c h i l d r e n i n the i n n e r - c i t y l i k e to read? Elementary School J o u r n a l , 1968, 1_2, 119-122. Estes, T. , and Vaughan, J.,, J r . Reading i n t e r e s t and comprehension: I m p l i -c a t i o n s . Reading Teacher, 1973, 2_7, 149-153. F a r r , R. Measuring reading comprehension: An h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In F. Green (Ed.), Reading the r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e . The 20th yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, N a t i o n a l Reading Conference Inc., Wisconsin, 1971. Frederiksen, C. H. E f f e c t s of content induced processing operations on semantic information acquired from discourse. Cognitive Psychology, 1975, 5, 139-166. : : G a l l a n t , R. Use of c l o z e t e s t s as a measure of r e a d a b i l i t y i n the primary grades. In J . A. F i g u r e l (Ed.), Improvement of reading through c l a s s -room p r a c t i c e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n Conference Proceed-ings, 1964, 9, 303-306. Gates, A. I . , and M a c G i n i t i e , W. H. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. New York: Teachers' College Press, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1972. G e t z e l s , J . W. The nature of reading i n t e r e s t s : P s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects. In H. M. Robinson (Ed.), Developing permanent i n t e r e s t i n reading. (Supplementary Educational Monographs, No. 84.) U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1956. Glass, G. V,,,and Stanley, J . S t a t i s t i c a l methods i n education and psychology. New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1970. 92 Gordon, C , Hansen, J . , and Pearson, D. P. E f f e c t of background knowledge  on s i l e n t reading comprehension, 1978. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 158 255) Guthrie, J . T. Reading i n t e r e s t s . The Reading Teacher, 1981, 34, 984-986. Heise, D. R. The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l and a t t i t u d e research. In Gene F. Summers (Ed.), A t t i t u d e measurement, Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1970,. 23 5-253. Iran-Nejad, J . The schema: A s t r u c t u r a l or a f u n c t i o n a l p a t t e r n , 1980. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e , No. ED 181 449) Isaac, S., and Michael, W. B. Handbook i n research and e v a l u a t i o n . San Diego: E d i t s P u b l i s h e r s , 1976. Johns, J . L. Expressed reading preferences of intermediate-grade students i n urban s e t t i n g s . (Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan State, 1970). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 31, 3780A. ( U n i v e r s i t y Micro-f i l m s No. 71-02091) Jenkinson, M. D. Selected processes and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n reading comprehen-si o n . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1957. Klemper, R. E. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of seventh grade students a t t i t u d e s towards i reading as measured by the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l (Doctoral D i s s e r t a -t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , 1970). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1971, 3JL, 2256A ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 170-20337). K i r k , R. E. Experimental design: Procedures f o r the behavioural sciences. Belmont: Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968. K l e i n , H. I n t e r e s t and comprehension i n sex-typed m a t e r i a l s (Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Syracuse, 1968). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1968, 29, 3875A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 69-08632) M a c G i n i t i e , W. H. Contextual c o n s t r a i n t s i n E n g l i s h prose paragraphs. Journal of Psychology, 1961, 51, 121-130. N o r v e l l , G. The reading i n t e r e s t s of young people. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1950; 1972. Osgood, C. E., S u c i , G. J . , and Tannenbaum, P. H. •. The measurement of  meaning. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1957. Osgood, C. E., S u c i , G. J . , and ' Tannenbaum, P.-H..". A t t i t u d e measurement. In G. F. Summers (Ed.), A t t i t u d e measurement. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1970, 227-234. P a r i s , S., and Brooks, P. Cognitive f a c t o r s i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i s t e n i n g and reading comprehension: Assessment and f a c i l i t a t i o n . ( F i n a l Report. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 140 226, 1976) 93 Piaget, J . The language and thought of the c h i l d . New York: Harcourt & Brace, 1926. Pichert, J. W., and Anderson, R. C. Taking d i f f e r e n t perspectives on a story. (Technical Report 14) Urbana, 111.: Un i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Center for the Study of Reading, 1976. Purves, A. C , and Beach, R. L i t e r a t u r e and the reader: Research i n  response to l i t e r a t u r e , reading i n t e r e s t s and the teaching of  l i t e r a t u r e . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s at Urbana-Champaign. National Council of Teachers of En g l i s h , 1974. Ramanauskas, S. The e f f e c t of contextual constraint beyond a sentence on  cloze responses of c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l classes f or the educable  mentally retarded. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Connecticut, 1971. Quoted i n E. A. Rankin, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the cloze procedure as a research t o o l i n the study of language. In P. D. Pearson and J. Hansen (Eds.), Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d inquiry  i n process and p r a c t i c e . The 27th yearbook of the National Reading Conference, Clemson: National Reading Conference, 1978. Rankin, E. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the cloze procedure as a research t o o l i n the study of language. In P. D. Pearson and J. Hansen (Eds.), Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y i n process and p r a c t i c e . The 27th yearbook of National Reading Conference, 1978. Robinson, H. Research re l a t e d to children's i n t e r e s t and.to developmental values of reading. L i b r a r y Trends, 1973, 22_, 81-108. Ruddell, R. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of the s i m i l a r i t y of o r a l and written patterns of language structure on reading comprehension (Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Indiana, 1963). D i s s e r t a t i o n  Abstracts, 1964, 24, 5207. (University Microfilms No. 64-03826). Ripley, W. H. The cloze procedure. Journal of Reading, 1973, L6, 496-502. Schnayer, S. Some r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reading i n t e r e s t and reading comprehension. In J . A. F i g u r e l (Ed.), Reading and realism (Vol. 13). Proceedings of the 13th Annual Convention of the International Reading Association, Newark, 1969. Soares, A. T., and Simpson, R. H. Interest i n recreation reading of j u n i o r high students. Journal of Reading, 1968, 11_, 14-21. Simpson, R. H., and Soares, A. Best l i k e d and l e a s t l i k e d short s t o r i e s i n j u n i o r high school. English Journal, 1965, 54_, 108-111. Smith, F. Understanding reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1975. Su l i n , R. A., and Dooling, D. J . Intrusions of a thematic idea i n reten-t i o n of prose. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974, 103, 255-262. 94 Taylor, W. L. Cloze procedure. A new t o o l for measuring r e a d a b i l i t y . Journalism Quarterly, 1953, 415-433. Tannenbaum, P. H. At t i t u d e towards source and concept as factors i n  a t t i t u d e change through communications. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1953. Vaughan, J. L., J r . , and Meredith, K. E. R e l i a b i l i t y of the cloze pro-cedure as assessments of various language elements. In P. D. Pearson and J. Hansen (Eds.), Reading: D i s c i p l i n e d inquiry i n process and  p r a c t i c e . The 27th yearbook of the National Reading Conference, Clemson: National Reading Conference, 1978. Yoder, J. M. The r e l a t i v e importance of four n a r r a t i v e factors i n the reading i n t e r e s t s of male and female high school students (Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1978). D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts  International, 1978, _39, 217A. (University Microfilms, No. 78-10400) 95 APPENDICES 96 APPENDIX A Summary Tables of A n a l y s i s of Variance •97 Table 21 A n a l y s i s of Variance Summary Table f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e s : I n t e r e s t (n = 261) Source ss df MS Mean A b i l i t y E r r o r 90792.96 87.54 3821.82 1 2 258 90792.96 43.77 14.81 6129.16 2.96* D i f f i c u l t y DA Er r o r 45.18 1.62 874.19 1 2 258 45.18 0.81 3.38 13.33*** .024 N.S. S e t t i n g SA E r r o r 23.97 6.27 2125.41 2 4 516 11.98 1.56 4.11 2.91* .38 N.S. DS DSA E r r o r 1.45 27.43 2008.10 2 4 516 0.72 6.85 3.89 0.19 N.S. 1.76 N.S. * * * P J ,< .oor • **p < .01 *p < .05 9.8 Table 22 An a l y s i s of Variance Summary Table f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e : Cloze Procedure (n = 261) Source ss df MS Mean A b i l i t y E r r o r D i f f i c u l t y DA Er r o r S e t t i n g SA Erro r 673161.57 52113.80 45454.28 8442.20 80.94 5949.18 3317.62 159.84 14883.86 1 2 258 1 2 258 2 4 516 673161.57 26056.94 8442.20 40.47 23.05 1658.81 39.96 28.84 3820.89 147.90*** 366.12*** 1.76 N.S. 57.51*** 1.39 N.S. DS DSA Er r o r 77.65 124.45 14450.55 2 4 516 38.82 31.11 28.00 1.39 N.S. 1.11 N.S. •**p < .001 **p < .01 *p < .05 99 Table 23 C e l l Means and Standard Deviations f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e : Cloze Procedure (n=261) Low Average Above Average Reading A b i l i t y M SD M SD M SD Local S e t t i n g Easy story 17.2 9.2 24.2 6.6 32.2 6.6 D i f f i c u l t s t ory 12.6 7.5 21.3 6.4 27. 1 6".3 . Foreign S e t t i n g Easy story 14.3 8.7 21.2 6.6 27.1 6.6 D i f f i c u l t s t ory 10.0 7.2 17.0 6.4 16:3 6.3 Non-Specific S e t t i n g Easy story 15.1 9.2 24.5 7.6 30.3 6.5 D i f f i c u l t story 11.2 8.7 18.7 6.4 24.2 6.4 100 Table 24 C e l l Means and Standard Deviations f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e : I n t e r e s t (n=261) Reading A b i l i t y Low M SD Average M SD Above Average M SD Local S e t t i n g Easy story 7.7 2.5 7.8 2.3 8.3 1.7 Di f f i c u l t ' s t - o r y y 7.5 2.4 7.4 2.6 8.0 2.1 Foreign S e t t i n g Easy s t o r y 7.5 2.4 7.2 2.4 8.2 1.9 D i f f i c u l t story 7.0 2.6 7.5 2.5 7.6 2.0 Non-Specific S e t t i n g Easy story 7.8 2.4 7.7 2.4 7.7 2.1 D i f f i c u l t s t ory 7.0 2.7 7.1 2.4 7.7 2.4 APPENDIX B P r a c t i c e C l o z e 10-2 Name D i v i s i o n The Wind Have you ever had your hat blown o f f by an autumn wind? Has \ w i n t e r wind ever made face red and cold? i s moving a i r . The _ works hard. Sometimes i t as s o f t as a - Sometimes i t i s str o n g t q l i f t houses o f f ground. The wind can f l y a l e a f , but can a l s o blow down t r e e s . The wind c a r r i e s snow over the mountains ' we can s k i and snowball f i g h t s . The wind the r a i n to make grow. When we see k i t e f l y i n g high i n sky on a s p r i n g , we know the wind strong. When we see s a i l b o a t s a i l i n g out at we know the wind \ pushing i t along 31 APPENDIX Stories Form A .104 Mystery in the London Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one took any notice of that. They never do in schools. The class was going to the Art Gallery and that was that! "The whole class!" Mr. Renaudshouted at me. "That means you too, Pat!" The bus was late of course, and then we had to squash three in a seat. It was enough to make you sick! Naturally half-way across the Tower Bridge we got stuck in a terrible traffic-jam. Some guy had run out of gas. It wasn't f a i r . Life was outside, a l l warm and smelling of new leaves and flowers. From the bus I could see crowds of yellow daffodils under the trees in Hyde Park. Many coloured kites soared high up against the bright blue sky looking like giant birds about to attack. The fountains in Trafalgar Square glinted and sparkled, and the pigeons were going crazy, pushing and flapping and free! People on the streets had their coats off. They were almost skipping along in the sunshine. I f e l t l i k e a prisoner shut-up for l i f e . We'd come to the Gallery to see the Turner paintings. I guess they were O.K., i f you li k e storm clouded oceans and thousands of sunsets. I stayed near the back where I couldn't hear the guide. There was a black couch sort of hidden in an alcove. I sat myself down on i t out of sight of everyone... and that's how I saw i t happen'. An old grey-haired lady was standing at the side of the room. She was staring at a tiny gold-framed painting of a bunch of flowers. I noticed her because of her moulting fur coat. It looked like buffalo or something. Anyway, I was thinking she must be boiling with such a heavy coat on a warm sunny day. When suddenly, she darted a crafty look around the room and then, quick as a cat, she sidled up to the painting, whipped i t off i t s hook and under her fur coat. Two seconds i t took, and off she went for the Exit. I was stunned. I just sat there with my mouth open. Of course what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF". I f I'd screamed loudly then, I might have saved myself a whole lot of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same, you can't go round l i f t i n g Britain's art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an old lady...! FORM B •105 Mystery in the Vancouver Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one took any notice of that. They never do in schools. The class was going to the Art Gallery and that was that! "The whole class!" Mr. Renaud shouted at me. "That means you too, Pat." The bus was late, of course, and then we had to squash three in a seat. It was enough to make you sick! Naturally, half-way across Lion's Gate Bridge we got stuck in a terrible traffic-jam. Some guy had run out of gas. It wasn't f a i r . Life was outside, a l l warm and smelling of new leaves and flowers and sea-air. Down below I could see sail-boats gliding and darting in the bay. High above, sea-gulls were screaming and wheeling against the bright blue sky. There were crowds of yellow daffodils a l l along the banks of Stanley Park and the ducks in Lost Lagoon were going crazy, diving and quacking and free! People on the streets had their coats off. They were almost skipping along in the sunshine. I f e l t l i k e a prisoner shut-up for l i f e . We'd come to the Gallery to see the Emily Carr paintings. I guess they were O.K. i f you li k e dark green forests and rotting totem poles. I stayed near the back where I couldn't hear the guide. There was a black couch sort of hidden i n an alcove. I sat myself down on i t out of sight of everyone and that's how I saw i t happen'. An old grey-haired lady was standing at the side of the room. She was staring at a tiny gold-framed painting of a bunch of flowers. I noticed her because of her moulting fur coat. It looked like a buffalo or something. Anyway, I was thinking she must be boiled with such a heavy coat on a warm sunny day. When, suddenly, she darted a crafty look around the room, and. then, quick as a cat, she sidled up to the painting, whipped i t off i t s hook and under her fur coat. Two seconds i t took, and off she went for the Exit. I was stunned. I just sat there with my mouth open. Of course what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF!" If I'd screamed loudly then I might have saved myself a whole lot of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same you can't go round l i f t i n g B.C.'s art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an old lady...! Form C Mystery in the Art Gallery 106 I didn't want to go. But of course no one took any notice of that. They never do in schools. The class was going to the Art Gallery, and that was that! "The whole class!" the teacher shouted at me. "That means you too, Pat." The bus was late of course, and then we had to squash three in a seat. It was enough to make you sick! Naturally, just half-way across the town we got stuck in a terrible t r a f f i c -jam. Some guy had run out of gas. It wasn't f a i r . Life was outside waiting for me, but I was trapped just l i k e some poor old prisoner....shut-up for l i f e . We'd come to the Gallery to see a lot of paintings. I guess they were O.K. i f you're a person who likes that sort of thing. I stayed near the back where I couldn't hear the guide. There was a black couch sort of hidden in an alcove. I sat myself down on i t out of sight of everyone....and that's how I saw i t happen! An old grey-haired lady was standing at the side of the room. She was staring at a tiny gold-framed painting of a bunch of flowers. I noticed her because of her old fur coat. Anyway, I was thinking she must be boiled with such a heavy coat on a warm day. When, suddenly, she darted a crafty look around the room, and then, quick as a cat, she sidled up to the painting, whipped i t off i t s hook and under the fur coat'. Two seconds i t took, and off she went for the Exit. I was stunned. I just sat there with my mouth open. Of course what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF!" If I'd screamed loudly then I might have saved myself a whole lot of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same you can't go round l i f t i n g the country's art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an old lady '. Form A Cable Beach Mystery 107 Joe raced up Cable beach. He grabbed his towel from the coral sand where he'd l e f t i t under the shade of a drooping palm. It was f i n a l l y getting cooler. The sun was going fast. They'd stayed in the sea for too long. "Hurry up, Linda," he yelled to his sister. "It's getting dark and we haven't lights on our bikes." "I'm coming. You don't have to shout." Linda let the tide float her gently to the shore l i k e a piece of flotsam. She got slowly to her feet and peeled off her mask and snorkel. It was late. The beach was deserted. The sun was sinking behind the palms and the low white clouds on the horizon were a l l streaked through with a lazy pink flush. Far out past the breakwater on the Cay the lighthouse was winking. The lights had begun to gleam from the tour-liner moored at Prince George's Wharf and Cable beach was becoming covered with cold black shadows. "Hurry up," Joe grumbled. "You're always so slow." Linda made a face at him,", but didn't bother to argue. "Just smell the Oleander scent, Joe," she sniffed. "Things always smell so much better at night." "Hmm!" said Joe. "I'd rather have the smell of Fish and Chips myself. It's too bad the shop i s closed now." Suddenly, a cooling breeze rippled eerily past the breakwater stir r i n g the long green fronds of the palm trees and mixing the perfumes of the tropical flowers. Linda f e l t a prickle at the back of her neck and she shivered. "We're the only ones l e f t on the beach," she said. "And we're going to catch i t when we get home."; Joe frowned and stared up at the sky turning black before his eyes. "Do get a move on, Lin. I wanted to watch the cricket match on T.V. tonight." "I'm ready." Linda l i f t e d her pack over her shoulder. "Let's " She stopped suddenly as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! Cut i t out! What's the " "Shhh!" Joe hissed in her ear. "Look! Look up there that l i g h t ! " Linda stared. High up, where the velvet blue of the sky was turning navy, a silver light pulsed slowly. "What is i t ? " Linda whispered. "It's not a plane It's not moving." "Helicopter?" "With a silver light?" "Whatever i t i s , " Joe said, " i t ' s getting nearer. It's much bigger." Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . It's as big as a f u l l moon now." Form A 2 108 They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the silver light grew ever larger, brighter, and nearer. "It's going to crash at Paradise Island'." Joe's voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the silver pulse. "No. No, i t ' s not!" Linda rubbed her.;, eyes hard. She could hardly see. "It's nearer than the island. It's It's coming here. It's coming towards Form B 109 English Bay Mystery Joe raced up K i t s i l a n o beach. He grabbed his towel from the giant log where he'd l e f t i t . " B r r r l " he began to shiver. I t was sta r t i n g to get very c h i l l y . The sun was going down fa s t . They'd stayed i n the sea too long. "Hurry up, Linda," he y e l l e d to h i s -sisterv- J"It's getting dark and we haven't l i g h t s on our bikes." "I'm coming. You don't have to shout!" Linda l e t the tide f l o a t her gently to shore l i k e a piece of driftwood. She got slowly to her feet and peeled o f f her mask and f l i p p e r s . I t was l a t e . The beach was deserted. The sun was sinking behind the mountains, a red b a l l of flame that l i t up the snow capped t i p s i n a lazy pink f l u s h . Lights had begun to glow from the North Shore. The Grouse Mountain c h a i r - l i f t sparkled l i k e a necklace of diamonds. Out i n English Bay the l i g h t s from the waiting grain freighters winked back from the shadowy water. "Hurry up!" Joe grumbled. "You're always so slow." Linda made a face at him, but didn't bother,to argue. "Just smell those pine trees, Joe," she s n i f f e d . "Things always smell so much better at night." "Hmm," said Joe. "I'd rather have the smell of f i s h and chips myself. It ' s too bad the concession stand i s shut." Suddenly, a c h i l l i n g breeze rippled e e r i l y through the trees, s t i r r i n g the needles on the pines, and making a shower of golden Arbutus leaves. Linda f e l t goose-flesh r i s i n g on her arms and legs. "We're the only ones l e f t on the beach," she said. "And we're going to catch i t when we get home," Joe frowned and stared up at the sky turning black before his eyes. "Do get a move on, Lin. I wanted to watch the White-Caps game on T.V. tonight." "I'm ready." Linda l i f t e d her pack over her shoulder. "Let's " She stopped suddenly as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! Cut i t out! What's the " "Shhh'." Joe hissed i n her ear. "Look'. Look up there... that l i g h t ! " Linda stared. High up, where the velvet blue of the sky was turning navy, a s i l v e r l i g h t pulsed slowly. "What i s i t ? " Linda whispered. " I t ' s not a plane. It's not moving." "Helicopter?" "With a s i l v e r l i g h t ? " "Whatever i t i s , " Joe said, " i t ' s getting nearer. I t ' s much bigger." Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . I t ' s as big as a f u l l moon now." B 2 They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the silver light grew larger, brighter and nearer. "It's going to crash in Stanley Park!" Joe's voice wobbled a bit. His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the silver pulse. "No. No, i t ' s not!" Linda rubbed her eyes hard. She could hardly see "It's nearer than the park. It's It's coming here. It's coming towards Form C 111 Beach Mystery Joe raced up the beach. He grabbed his towel from the sand where he'd le f t i t earlier. It was f i n a l l y getting colder. The sun was going down fast. They's stayed in the sea for too long. "Hurry up, Linda," he yelled to his sister. "It's getting dark and we haven't lights on our bikes." "I'm coining. You don't have to shout." Linda let the tide float her gently to the shore. She stood up and peeled off her mask and snorkel. It was late. The beach was deserted. Everyone had gone home. "Hurry up," Joe grumbled. "You're always so slow." Linda made a face at him, but didn't bother to argue. "Just smell the fresh a i r , Joe," she sniffed. "Things always smell so much better at night." "Hmm," said Joe. "I'd rather be home and have the smell of supper cooking myself." Suddenly a breeze rippled eerily through the trees. Linda f e l t a prickle at the back of her neck. "We're the last ones on the beach," she said. "And we're going to catch i t when we get home," Joe frowned and stared up at the sky turning black before his eyes. "Do get a move on, Lin. I wanted to watch a game on T.V. tonight." "I'm ready," Linda swung her day-pack over her shoulder. "Let's..." She stopped suddenly as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! Cut i t out! What's the... "Shhh'." Joe hissed i n her ear. "Look! Look up there that l i g h t ! " Linda stared. High up, where the velvet blue of the sky was turning navy, a silver light pulsed slowly. "What is i t ? " Linda whispered. "It's not a plane... It's not moving." "Helicopter?" "With a silver light?" "Whatever i t i s , " Joe said, " i t ' s getting nearer. It's much bigger." Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . It's as big as a f u l l moon now." They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the silver light grew ever larger, brighter, and nearer. "It's going to crash right over there!" Joe pointed into the distance. His voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the silver pulse, "No. No, i t ' s not!" Linda rubbed her eyes hard. She could hardly see. "It's much nearer than that. It's... It's coming here! It's coming towards FORM A 112 Mystery on the Balclutha "And the Balclutha was the last of the Cape Horn sailing ships, a 'Windjammer!." The guide led the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy, who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the sails up?" Sandy shrugged. "Beats me." "A captain, four officers and twelve crew sailed the ship. The cabin boy was the youngest on board," the guide went on. "The boy would have been just.your age." "I wonder what happened to him?" asked Terri. The guide looked up. "Nobody knows. There's a bit of a mystery about him. Some people say that sometimes when i t goes a l l quiet on board that he " The guide stopped suddenly. "Never mind. We'd better get on. Mind your heads please. We're going inside." It was musty and dark inside. The captain's cabin was comfortable and had a real bed, but the officers' cabins were very tiny. Terri didn't see how anyone could live in one. There was a square sky-light, a narrow bunk bed with rough blankets and a few books on a shelf. "I don't think those bunks are even long enough for me to sleep in." Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by. "Do you think they're fakes?" "Let's have a try." Sandy watched the rest of the class disappear down into the hold and then jumped quickly over the rope barrier. "They're as hard as iron. But I guess they're long enough." Terri looked at the books on the shelves. Suddenly i t was very quiet and s t i l l . A clock ticked gently on a wooden chest. They could hear their own heart-beats. And then slowly, with a l i t t l e creak of its hinges, the door of the cabin began to close. Terri and Sandy stared at each other for one long second. Then both at once the rushed for the door. They flung i t open and stared out. There, running lightly up the ladder to the deck, was a dark-haired boy dressed in leggings and a yellow waist-coat. "A ghost!" hissed Sandy. "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick! Let's follow him!" Sandy raced up the ladder and onto the deck. But there was nothing there. The deck was empty. They stared around. The A 2 113-sun was breaking through the fog. They could see the Golden Gate bridge in the distance, the fishing boats in the bay, and the grim island of Alcatraz. Nothing moved. On shore, even the red-painted tram car was waiting. The boy was gone. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crow's nest at the top of the main mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him'." Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there " FORM B 114 Mystery on the St. Roche "And the St. Roche was the f i r s t boat to s a i l both ways through the N.W. Passage," the guide said proudly, leading the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the s a i l up?" Sandy shrugged. "Beats me." "And this tent on the deck was the home of an Inuit man, his wife and four children," the guide went on. "One of the boys was just your age." "I wonder what happened to him?" asked Terri. The guide looked up. "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of a mystery about him. But people do say that sometimes, when i t goes a l l quiet on board, that he " The guide stopped suddenly. "Never mind. We'd better get on. Mind your heads please, we're going inside." The cabins were so tiny, Terri didn't see how anyone could live in one. There was a round brass port-hole, a wash stand, a narrow bunk bed with rough blankets and a few books on a shelf. "I don't think those bunks are even long enough for me to sleep i n , " Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by. "Do you think they're fakes?" "Let's have a look." Sandy watched the rest of the class disappear down into the hold and then jumped quickly over the rope barrier. "They're as hard as iron. But I guess they're long enough." Terri looked at the books on the shelves. Suddenly i t was very quiet and s t u l l . A clock on the wall ticked. They could even hear their own heart-beats. And then slowly, with a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges, the door of the cabin began to close. Terri and Sandy stared at each other for one long second. Then both at once they rushed for the door. They flung i t open and stared out. There, running l i g h t l y up the ladder to the deck, was a dark-haired boy dressed i n a seal-skin parka, leggings and mukluks. "A ghost'." Sandy hissed. "No'." gasped Terri. "Qhick'. Let's follow him!" Sandy raced up the ladder and onto the deck. But there was nothing there. The deck was empty. They stared around.,Outside the sun was breaking through the fog. They could see the sea-gulls on the rocks, the freighters anchored in the bay, the mountains poking through the mist, and the round white dome of the Planetarium. Nothing moved. The totem pole with 2 115 i t s dark green and red carvings stood silent. The boy was gone'. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crow's nest at the top of the mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!" Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there !" FORM C Mystery on the Sailing Ship 116 "And this is the last of the sailing ships," the guide said, leading the grade seven class across the wooden deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the sails up?" Sandy shrugged. "Beats me." "The cabin boy was the youngest on board," the guide went on. "The boy would have been just your age." "I wonder what happened to him?" asked Terri. The guide looked up. "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of a mystery about him. Some people say that sometimes when i t goes a l l quiet on board that he " The guide stopped suddenly. "Never mind. We'd better get on. Mind your heads, please. We're going inside." It was musty and dark inside. The captain's cabin was comfortable and had a real bed, but the officers' cabins were very tiny. Terri didn't see how anyone could l i v e in one. There was a round; brass port-hole, a narrow bunk bed with rough blankets, and a few books on a shelf. "I don't think those bunks are even long enough for me to sleep i n , " Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by. "Do you think they're fakes?" "Let's have a try." Sandy watched the rest of the class disappear down into the hold and then jumped quickly over the rope barrier. "They're as hard as iron. But I guess they're long enough." Terri looked at the books on the shelves. Suddenly i t was very quiet and s t i l l . A clock ticked gently on a wooden chest. They could hear their own hearts beat. And then, slowly, with a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges, the door of the cabin began to close. Terri and Sandy stared at each other for one long second. Then both at once they rushed for the door. They flung i t open and stared out. There running l i g h t l y up the ladder to the deck was a dark-haired boy dressed in leggings and a yellow waist-coat. "A ghost!" hissed Sandy. "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick! Let's follow him!" Sandy raced up the ladder and onto the deck. But there was nothing there. The deck was empty. They stared around. The boy was gone. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crows-nest at the top of the mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!" Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there...!" FORM A The T i v o l i Gardens Adventure 117 The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n s t i l e c l i c k e d furiously as the early-birds poured into the T i v o l i Gardens; and as i f to show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy cloud-bank and the crowd began happily shedding t h e i r raincoats, and f u r l i n g dripping umbrellas. Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n the mob, fought t h e i r way to the fringes. "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c , as a t a l l scrawny man i n a checked raincoat and cap pushed roughly past him, sending him staggering to the ground. "Hey! Are you a l l r i g h t ? " Cathy helped him to his feet. "What an animal, shoving l i k e that." "Quick!" E r i c shouted at her. " I t ' s my wallet...that man...he's taken my wa l l e t ! " "A pick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply around, her eyes searching the crowd. "Look! ... That's him ... past the playground!" "After him," E r i c began hobbling i n pursuit. "We have to catch him ... that's a l l our money'." Past the marching T i v o l i boy-guards with t h e i r bushy bearskins and bandoliers; past the lake with the shining sparkling fountains, and the red, yellow and blues of the gay flower beds; past the laughing children being drawn around i n the t i n y goat carts; past the Peacock Theatre with i t s twin red and gold towering pagodas and excited crowd cheering a troupe of juggling acrobats, past an open-air restaurant with i t s white-painted tables, s t r i p e d umbrellas and d e l i c i i o u s smell of fresh Danish Pastry; r i g h t into the heart of the sleepy lunch-time f u n - f a i r , they ran. "Lost him," puffed Cathy, holding onto the r a i l i n g of the Ghost-Train. "He could be anywhere." E r i c rubbed his knee, which was aching. "Have you any money at a l l ? " he demanded. Cathy pulled out a sixteen Kroner note. "Only t h i s . . . . I gave you the rest to keep safe... b i g deal!" "There's no time to argue," E r i c started running once more. "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel.... maybe we can spot him from there." Sighing and thinking w i s t f u l l y of the fresh pastries and cold orange drinks i n the open-air restaurant, Cathy followed. FORM A Z 1 1 8 As the giant wheel turned upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r necks. They ce r t a i n l y had a good view of the T i v o l i grounds. " I t shouldn't be d i f f i c u l t to spot him," E r i c muttered. "There's not many people i n the f u n - f a i r . " " I f he's s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on grimly as they rocked w i l d l y backwards and forwards. Around and around went the wheel, faster and faster, u n t i l the fu n - f a i r became one blur of coloured l i g h t s and shapes, and t h e i r eyes grew strained with staring. Then, just as they had given up hope and the wheel was dying to a close, E r i c saw a f l i c k of checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House...he's going into the Fun-House." The chair rocked c r a z i l y as he t r i e d to stand up.' "We've got him now. ..come on " FORM B P.N.E. Adventure 119 The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n - s t i l e c l i c k e d furiously as the early-birds poured into the P.N.E. grounds, and as i f to show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy grey cloud bank and the crowd began happily shedding t h e i r raincoats and f u r l i n g dripping umbrellas. Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n the mob, fought t h e i r way to the fringes. "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c , as a t a l l scrawny man i n a checked raincoat and cap pushed roughly past him, sending him staggering to the ground. "Hey! Are you a l l r i g h t ? " Cathy helped him to h i s feet. "What an animal, shoving you l i k e that." "Quick!" E r i c shouted at her. " I t ' s my wallet...he's taken my wallet!" "A pick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply, her eyes searching the crowd. "Look! .V..That's him... past the Food F a i r . " "After him," E r i c began hobbling i n pursuit. "We have to catch him... that's a l l our money!" Past the Salvation Army band playing marches; past the s t a l l s smelling of f r y i n g onions, corn and cotton-candy; past the shouting hucksters waving greaseless f r y i n g pans and f i v e coloured pens; under the sky-ride, with i t s sparkling red, blue and yellow chairs; up the h i l l to the logging show, where already an excited crowd was cheering two men i n flannel s h i r t s and knee boots who were racing up and down the towering tree-trunks as though gravity didn't e x i s t ; past the Bingo tents, r i g h t into the depths of the sleepy lunch-time Playland, they ran. "Lost him," puffed Cathy, holding onto the r a i l i n g of the Giant-Slide. •"He could be anywhere." E r i c rubbed his knee which was aching. "Have you any money at a l l ? " he demanded. Cathy p u l l e d out a two d o l l a r b i l l . "Only t h i s . . . I gave you the rest to keep safe...big deal!" "There's no time to argue," E r i c started running once more. "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel...maybe we can spot him from there." Sighing and thinking w i s t f u l l y of the fresh pizzas and cold orange drinks i n the Food-Fair, Cathy followed. As the giant wheel turned upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r necks. Form B 2 120 They certainly had a good view of the P.N.E. grounds. "It shouldn't be difficult to spot him," Eric muttered. "There's not very many people in Playland." "If he's s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on grimly as they rocked wildly backwards and forwards. Around and around went the wheel, faster and faster, until Playland became one blur of coloured lights and shapes, and their eyes grew strained with staring. Then just as they had given up hope and the wheel was dying to a close, Eric saw a flick of checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House he's going into the Fun-House!" The chair rocked crazily as he tried to stand up. "We've got hum now... come on!" FORM C Amusement Park Adventure 121 The crowd surged eagerly forward and the turnstile clicked furiously as the early-birds poured into the Amusement Park. Cathy and Eric, swept along in the mob, fought their way to the fringes. "Ouch!" yelled Eric as a t a l l scrawny man in a checked raincoat and cap pushed roughly past him, sending him staggering to the ground. "Hey! Are you a l l right?" Cathy helped him to his feet. "What an animal, shoving l i k e that." "Quick!" Eric shouted at her. "It's my wallet...that man...he's taken my wallet!" "A pick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply round, her eyes searching the crowd. "Look...there he goes...over there!" "After him," Eric began hobbling in pursuit. "We have to catch him... that's a l l our money!" Past the crowds; past the tents; and past the rides; right into the depths of the sleepy lunch-time Amusement-Park, they ran. "Lost him," puffed Cathy, holding onto the ra i l i n g of a carousel. "He could be anywhere." Eric rubbed his knee which was aching. "Have you any money at a l l ? " he demanded. Cathy pulled out a two dollar b i l l . "Only this....I gave you the rest to keep safe...big deal!" "There's no time to argue," Eric started running once more. "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel...maybe we can spot him from there." Sighing and thinking wistfully of lunch, Cathy followed him slowly. At least she wouldn't be sick this time, she thought, as the attendant pulled the bar across the seat. She had nothing inside her to be sick with. As the giant wheel turned upwards Cathy and Eric craned their necks. They certainly had a good view of the Amusement Park. "I t shouldn't be d i f f i c u l t to spot him," Eric muttered. "There's not many people i n the park." " I f he's s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on grimly as they rocked wildly backwards and forwards. Around and around went the wheel, faster and faster, u n t i l the Amusement Park became a blur of colours and shapes, and their eyes grew strained with staring. Then, just as they had given up hope and the wheel was dying to a close, Eric saw aIiflick of checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House...he's going into the Fun-House," the chair rocked crazily as he tried to stand up. "We've got him now...come on'." Form A Adventure over Paris 123 The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers i n the centre of the parade-ground i n the Champ-de-Mars. A golden painted wicker basket hung underneath, and the holiday crowd gathered to watch; a l l cheered as the winners of the competition came forward to claim their balloon ride. Jules and Marie were the fortunate winners, the two twelve year olds who had designed the winning poster for Balloon Day. A portly gentleman carrying a megaphone hastily motioned them to climb into the golden-painted wicker basket. "Safe as houses, Ladies and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the milling crowd. "The winners w i l l have a half-hour balloon ride...but of course they w i l l s t i l l be attached to the ground by the anchor cable." He gave a signal to the four workmen who were standing at the four corner cables, and with a flourish they released the ropes, and the balloon, freed from a l l restraint except the anchor cable, began to rise regally into the a i r . The crowd cheered and waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother cried out, "Oh, do hang on tightly, Marie": the band broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and Jules and Marie grinned cheerfully and waved back. "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out with delight as the balloon sailed steadily upwards, scattering some sparrows as i t went. "No motor," Jules got out his camera. " I ' l l get some fantastic photos of the c i t y . " "They a l l look li k e miniature dolls down there, dolls and toy cars," Marie craned her neck. "It's a gigantic map. And look...we're almost as high as the E i f f e l Tower see the tourists in the top platforms waving at us!" "There's the Isle de Cite and Notre Dame." Jules adjusted his camera. "Count the bridges.. .eleven.. .twelve!. I ' l l get a good picture." Marie pointed her finger. "There's the Arc de Triomphe...and the Bois de Boulogne... only i t ' s a b i t hazy." She moved cautiously around to the other side of the wicker basket. "We could see forever i f there was no pollution...look...even Orly Airport! I think...," she stopped abruptly as a jerk shuddered through the wicker basket. "What was that?" Jules frowned. "Probably the anchor cable tightening. We must be as high as i t w i l l l e t us go." But they weren't. Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c pull and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards l i k e a cork released from a champagne bottle. What had been a half-hour view of the city had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the hazy mass of Orly Airport with i t s constant jet t r a f f i c grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second FORM B Adventure over Vancouver 125 The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers in the centre of Robson Square. A golden painted wicker basket hung underneath, and the holiday crowd gathered to watch; a l l cheered as the winners of the competition came forward to claim their balloon ride. Jules and Marie were the fortunate winners; the two grade seven students who had designed the winning posters for Balloon Day. A portly gentleman carrying a megaphone hastily motioned them to climb into the golden-painted basket. "Safe as houses, Ladies and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the milling crowd. "The winners w i l l have a half-hour balloon ride...but of course they w i l l s t i l l be attached to the ground by the anchor cable." He gave a signal to the four workmen who were standing at the four corner cables and with a flourish they released the ropes, and the balloon, freed from a l l restraint, except the anchor cable, began to rise regally into the a i r . The crowd cheered and waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother cried out, "Oh, do hang on, Marie;" the band broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and Jules and Marie grinned cheerfully and waved back. "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out with delight as the balloon sailed steadily upwards, scattering some sea-gulls as i t went. "No motor," Jules got out his camera. " I ' l l get some fantastic photos of the c i t y . " They a l l look li k e miniature dolls down there; dolls and toy cars," Marie craned her neck. "It's a gigantic map. There's the Hotel Vancouver, and the B.C.Hydro building, and Stanley Park...look, you can see the s a i l -boats in English Bay." "And the Planetarium," Jules adjusted his camera, "and the North Shore mountains across the bay...with that fresh snow on the tips...I'11 get a good picture." "I can even see Vancouver Island...all misty grey h i l l s , " Marie moved cautiously around to the other side of the wicker basket. "We can see for-ever. . .look. . .even Mount Baker. I think..." She stopped abruptly as a jerk shuddered through the wicker basket. "What was that?" Jules frowned, "Probably the anchor cable tightening. We must be as high as i t w i l l l e t us go." B z But they weren't'. Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards li k e a cork released from a champagne bottle. What had been a half-hour view of the c i t y had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the misty grey h i l l s of Vancouver Island and beyond that the wide Pacific Ocean grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second.... FORM C Adventure over the City L / 1 The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers in the centre of the town. A golden painted wicker basket hung underneath, and the holiday crowd gathered to watch, a l l cheered as the winners of the competition came forward to claim their balloon ride. Jules and Marie were the fortunate winners; the two grade seven students who had designed the winning posters for Balloon Day. A portly gentleman carrying a megaphone hastily motioned them to climb into the golden-painted wicker basket. "Safe as houses, Ladies and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the milling crowd. "The winners w i l l have a half-hour balloon ride...but of course they w i l l s t i l l be attached to the ground by the anchor cable." He gave a signal to the four workmen who were standing at the four corner cables and with a flourish they released the ropes and the balloon, freed from a l l restraint,_except the anchor cable, began to rise regally into the a i r . The crowd cheered and waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother cried out, "Oh, do hang on tightly, Marie;" the band broke into a st i r r i n g march; and Jules and Marie grinned cheerfully and waved back. "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out with delight as the balloon sailed steadily upwards, scattering some birds as i t went. "No motor," Jules got out his camera. " I ' l l get some fantastic photos of the town." "They a l l look like miniature dolls down there, dolls and toy cars," Marie craned her neck. "It's a gigantic map." Jules adjusted his camera. "I'm going to get some very good pictures." Marie moved cautiously around to the other side of the wicker basket. "We can see for miles.. .we can see forever. Look right over there...I think...." She stopped abruptly as a jerk shuddered through the wicker basket. "What was that?" Jules frowned. "Probably the anchor cable tightening. We must be as high as i t w i l l let us go." But they weren't! Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards li k e a cork released from a champagne bottle. What had been a half-hour view of the town had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the distant country suddenly grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second. FORM A 128 Adventure i n the Central Park Zoo It's true i t was a biting gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer in a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera and so that's how I just happened to be at the Central Park Zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The seals and I were about the only animate objects around. Oh, there were a few hardy tourists a l l bundled together and tightly huddled up in heavy overcoats and woolly scarves, and looking distinctly bluish and pinched around the nose. I decided to get some action photos of the seals catching their f i s h . The colours were dramatic....the brown and yellowy shiny-wet skins of the seals stood out against the stark black iron railings and the grey surround-ings and I crouched right down behind the looped railings that circled the pool, so as to be eyeball to eyeball with the streamlined swimmers. And this i s when a really weird thing happened. I was sort of fiddling round with the view-finder when this guy in a dark brown coat with a fur-collar appeared on the opposite side of the seal pool, leant casually against the r a i l i n g and lowered one arm down the inside. There was something so furtive and creepy about him that I was sort of para-lyzed to the spot. I guess he couldn't see me because of the iron r a i l i n g , but I could sure see him. As I said, i t was really weird. He thrust his arm down nearly to the water and oulled out a stone from the wall, then he slipped what looked l i k e a tiny plastic bag into the hole and pushed back the stone again. I had to crane my neck to see a l l this and at that precise moment he glanced up and saw me. For an indescribable moment we stared straight at each other, and then, in a moment of pure nervous panic, I clicked the shutter of ray camera... my camera that was pointing straight at him. He uttered a sort of throttled roar and swinging round, started round the pool toward me. I didn't stop to think....I ran...how I ran! I raced past the balloon sellers and the nickleodeon players, setting up their stands for the day, right down the path to the pony rides and on out of Central Park into the Grand Army Plaza. Past the patiently-waiting horse-drawn carriages I ran, and around the fountain. My heart was throbbing unbearably, the wind whipped the icy spray against my face, the last yellow leaves of the elms blew in swirling gusts across my pounding feet, and every time I turned to look he was coming behind me!s; Where could I hide...what should I do...? FORM B Adventure in the Stanley Park Zoo 129 It's true i t was a biting gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer in a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I happened to be at the Stanley Park Zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The penguins and I were about the only animate objects, Oh, there were a few hardy tourists a l l bundled together and tightly huddled up in heavy over-coats and woolly scarves, and looking distinctly bluish and pinched around the nose. I decided to get some action photos of the penguins catching their fish. The colours were dramatic.... the black and white dress-suits of the tiny penguins and the bright yellow bibs of the Emperors, standing out against the grey surroundings... and I crouched down behind the stone wall that circled the pool so as to get eyeball to eyeball with these glossy swimmers. And this i s when a really weird thing happened. I was sort of fiddling round with the view-finder when this guy in a dark brown coat with a fur-collar appeared on the opposite side of the penguin pool, leant casually against the wall and lowered one arm down the inside. There was something so furtive and creepy about him that I was sort of para-lyzed on the spot. I guess he couldn't see me because of the iron r a i l i n g , but I sure could see him. As I said, i t was really weird. He thrust his arm down nearly to the water and pulled out a stone from the wall, then he slipped what looked like a tiny plastic bag into the hole and pushed back the stone again. I had to crane my neck to see a l l this, and at that precise moment he looked up and saw me. For an indescribable moment we stared straight at each other, and then i n a moment of pure nervous panic I clicked the shutter of my camera...my camera that was pointing straight at him. He uttered a sort of throttled roar and swinging round, started round the pool towards me. I didn't stop to think I ran..how I ran. I raced past the pop-corn stands, down the h i l l , around the seal-pond, past the cage of raucous monkeys, past the duck-pond and the Aquarium, right down the path to Lumberman's Arch and the sea-wall. Past the empty swimming-pool I ran and under the huge girders of the bridge. My heart was throbbing unbearably, the sea a i r whipped my face and the last red and yellow leaves of the maples blew in swirling gusts across my pounding feet, and every time I turned to look, he was coming behind me. Where could I hide.. .what should I do ? Form C Adventure In the Zoo 130 It's true i t was a biting gusty autmn day, and I'd have been warmer in a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The seals and I were just about the only animate objects around. Oh, there were a few hardy souls a l l bundled together and tightly huddled up in heavy overcoats and woolly scarves, and looking distinctly bluish and pinched around the nose. I decided to get some action photos of the seals catching their fish . The colours were dramatic--the brown and yellowy shiny-wet skins of the seals stood out against the stark black iron railings and the grey sur-roundings --and I crouched right down behind the iron railings that circled the pool so as to be eyeball to eyeball with the streamlined swimmers. And this is when a really weird thing happened. I was sort of fiddling round with the view-finder when this guy in a dark brown coat with a fur-collar appeared on the opposite side of the seal pool, leant casually against the r a i l i n g and lowered one arm down the inside. There was something so furtive and creepy about him that I was sort of paralyzed to the spot. I guess he couldn't see me because of the iron railing,, but I could sure see. him. As I said, i t was really weird. He thrust his arm down nearly to the water and pulled out a stone from the wall, then he slipped what looked l i k e a tiny plastic bag into the hole and pushed back the stone again. I had to crane my neck to see a l l this and at that precise moment he glanced up and saw me. For an indescribable moment we stared straight at each other, and then in a moment of pure nervous panic I clicked the shutter of my camera--my camera that was pointing straight at him. He uttered a sort of throttled roar and swinging around, started round the pool towards me. I didn't stop to, think I ran how I ran. I raced past the animal" cages and the bird-house, right down the path and out of the zoo. Everytime I turned to look he was coming behind me'. Where could I hide.... what should I do ? APPENDIX D Cloze Tests A Mystery in the London Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one^ They never_ in schools. The class was going_ 132* _any notice of that. the Art Gallery and that was that! " whole class!" Mr. Renaud shouted at_ _ "That means you too, Pat!" The was late of course, and then had to squash 6 three in a It was enough to make you_ 8 Naturally, half-way across the Tower Bridge_ got stuck in a terrible traffic-jam. 11 10 guy had run out of gas. 12 wasn't f a i r . Life outside was a l l and 1 3 From the bus I could see _and smelling of new leaves of yellow daffodils 14 under the trees 15 Hyde Park. Many coloured kites soared_ 175 up against the bright blue sky looking l i k e giant birds_ 18 fountains i n Trafalgar Square glinted and_ 17 . to attack. , and the 19 pigeons were going crazy,_ 21 streets had their coats off. They 20 and flapping and free! People on almost skipping 22 along in the sunshine. 23 f e l t like a prisoner shut-up for_ 2T We'd come to the Gallery to 27 of sunsets. 26 were O.K., i f you like storm_ near the back where I couldn't 25 the Turner paintings. I guess oceans and thousands the 28 29 guide. There was a black_ sat myself down on i t out_ 30 sort of hidden in an alcove. "31 32 sight of everyone and that's how 33 saw i t happen! 3T An old grey-haired was standing at the side of_ 35 room. She was staring at a 36 gold-framed painting of a bunch_ 37 flowers. I noticed her because of 39 ¥0 with such a _or something. Anyway, I was thinking coat on a warm sunny day. —VI 38 moulting fur coat. It looked like must be boiling suddenly, she 133., darted a crafty look_ the room and then, quick as_ 44 cat, she sidled up to the_ 46 her fur coat. Two seconds i t 45 , whipped i t off i t s hook and_ and off she went for the 47 48 I was stunned. I just sat 49 with my mouth open. Of course 50 what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF". I f I'd screamed loudly then, I might have saved myself a whole lot of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same you can't go round l i f t i n g Britain's art treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. Funny thing, too, she moved awfully fast for an old lady...! B Mystery in the Vancouver Art Gallery I didn't want to go. But of course no one_ They never in schools. The class was going_ .134 any notice of that. the Art Gallery and that was that! " whole class!" Mr. Renaud shouted at "That means you too, Pat." The was late of course, and then_ had to squash three in a It was enough to make you_ Naturally, half-way across Lion's Gate Bridge_ got stuck in a terrible traffic-jam. 10 guy had run out of gas, 11 "IT wasn't f a i r . Life was outside, a l l and 13 and sea a i r . Down below I could 14 gliding and darting in the_ and smelling of new leaves sail-boats 15 High above, sea-gulls were screaming 16 and 17 yellow daffodils a l l along_ against the bright blue sky. There_ crowds of 18 banks of Stanley Park and the_ in Lost Lagoon were going crazy, People on 19 21 skipping along in the sunshine for . 2T~. streets had their coats off. They 27J 20 and quacking and free! almost 23 f e l t l i k e a prisoner shut-up We'd come to the Gallery to_ —W were O.K. i f you lik e dark_ 27 poles. I near the back where I couldn't the Emily Carr paintings. I guess forests and rotting totem the guide. 28 ^ 9 ^ There was a black 30 sort of hidden in an alcove. 31 sat myself down on i t out_ 32 sight of everyone and that's how 33 saw i t happen! 34 An old grey-haired was standing at the side of_ 35 room. She was staring at a 35 gold-framed painting of a bunch 37 flowers. I noticed her because of 38 39 40 or something. Anyway, I was thinking moulting fur coat. It looked like must be boiled ~4T 135 with such a coat on a warm sunny day. ' ' ' \' , suddenly, 41 S3 she darted a cra f t y look the room, and then, quick as_ "44 45 cat, she s i d l e d up to the , whipped i t o f f i t s hook and_ "46 47 her fur coat. Two seconds i t , and o f f she went for the 48 ' 49 ( I was stunned. I just sat with my mouth open. Of course 50 what I should have done was scream "STOP THIEF!" I f I'd screamed loudly then, I might have saved myself a whole l o t of danger and trouble. But I f e l t sorry for her. Poor old woman. Maybe she was broke. A l l the same, you can't go round l i f t i n g B.C.'s a r t treasures, even I knew that. I don't know what got into me, but before I knew what I was doing I was out of the room and running a f t e r her towards the E x i t . Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast f o r an old lady...'. Mystery in the Art Gallery 136 I didn't want to go. But of course no one_ any notice of that. 1 They never in schools. The class was going the Art 2 3 Gallery, and that was that! " whole class!" the teacher shouted at 4 b "That means you too, Pat." The was late of course, and then had to squash 6 7 three in a . It was enough to make you_ __ 9 Naturally, just half-way across the town got stuck in a 10 terrible traffic-jam. guy had run out of gas, TI 12 wasn't f a i r . Life was outs ide .waiting me, but I was trapped just 13 some poor old prisoner....shut-up for . H 15 We'd come to the Gallery to :. a lot of paintings. I guess 175 were O.K. i f you're a person likes that sort of thing. 17 18 I near the back where I couldn't the guide. There was 19 20 a black sort of hidden i n an alcove. sat myself 21 22 down on i t out sight of everyone and that's how 23 24 saw i t happen! An old grey-haired - - was standing at the side of_ 25 26 room. She was staring at a gold-framed painting of a bunch 27 flowers. I noticed her because of fur coat. 28 29 Anyway, I was thinking must be boiled with such a 30 31 coat on a warm day. , suddenly, she darted a crafty look 32 33 the room, and then, quick as a , she sidled up to the_ 3 3 35 whipped i t off i t s hook and the fur coat! Two seconds i t 16 37 and off she went for the 38" I was stunned. I just sat with my mouth open. Of course 39 ' I should have done was scream"_ THIEF!" If I'd 4"U 41 C 2 137 screamed loudly then, might have saved myself a whole 42 43 of danger and trouble. But I sorry for her. Poor old woman. 44 she was broke. A l l the same can't go round l i f t i n g 45 46 the country's treasures, even I knew that. 47 I know what got into me, but I knew what I was 48 49 doing was out of the room and running after her towards the Exit. 50 Funny thing too, she moved awfully fast for an old lady....! A 138 Cable Beach Mystery Joe raced up Cable beach. He grabbed his towel from the sand — - j ; where he'd l e f t i t under shade of a drooping palm. I t 2 3 f i n a l l y getting cooler. The sun was down fast. They'd stayed i n 4 the for too long. 5 "Hurry up, Linda," . y e l l e d to his s i s t e r . " I t ' s getting 6 and we haven't l i g h t s on our ." 7 8 "I'm coming. You don't have to ' ." Linda l e t the tide, f l o a t 9 her to the shore l i k e a piece y flotsam. She got 10 . 11 ,to her feet .' peeled o f f her mask and snorkel. 12 ..... ];13 was la t e . The beach was deserted. sun was sinking behihid the palms 14 J-'.. ' _the low white clouds on the were streaked right through 15 I F with a ; pink flush. Far out past the • ••• on the Cay the - . 17 18 lighthouse was . The l i g h t s had begun to gleam the 19 20 i; t o u r - l i n e r moored at Prince George's - ' and Cable Beach was becoming . 21 covered - cold black shadows. ~ •-* 22 "Hurry up," Joe_ "You're always so slow." Linda made face at him, but didn't bother 271 25 argue. "Just smell the Oleander scent, ", she sni f f e d . "Things always smell so better at night?^ —w '•Hmm!" said Joe. " rather have the smell of f i s h ZB" . .^2-9 chips myself. I t ' s too bad the i s closed now." 30 Suddenly, a cooling rippled e e r i l y past the breakwater s t i r r i n g n long green fronds of the palm and mixing the perfumes 32 O 33 o of the flowers. m. Linda f e l t a p r i c k l e at back of her neck and she_ 35 36 "We're the only ones l e f t on beach," she said. ; r 3 7 — • ° "And weVre going catch i t when we get home." Joe frowned and ^ 33 stared up at the turning black before his eyes. " "35 40" A 2 139 get a move on, L i n . I to watch the cric k e t match on  41- 42 tonight." "I'm ready." Linda l i f t e d her over her shoulder. "Let's Al She stopped as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! i t out! 445 45' What's the " "Shhh!" Joe i n her ear. "Look! Look up 4fr 47 ....that l i g h t ! " Linda stared. High up, the velvet blue of the sky_ 48 49 turning navy, a s i l v e r l i g h t pulsed . "-SO "What i s i t ? " Linda whispered. " I t ' s not a plane. It's not moving." "Helicopter?" "With a s i l v e r l i g h t ? " "Whatever i t i s , " Joe said, " i t ' s getting nearer. It's much bigger." Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . I t ' s as big as a f u l l moon now." They stared upwards, t h e i r eyes s t r a i n i n g as the s i l v e r l i g h t grew ever larger, brighter, and nearer. " I t ' s going to crash at Paradise Island." Joe's voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the s i l v e r pulse. "No. No, i t ' s not!" Linda rubbed her eyes hard. She could hardly see. "I t ' s nearer than the island. I t ' s It ' s coming here. It's coming towards us !" Form B 140 English Bay Mystery Joe raced up K i t s i l a n o beach. He grabbed his towel from the 1 log where he'd l e f t i t . " B r r r ! " began to shiver. I t was s t a r t i n g 2 get very c h i l l y . The sun was down fast. They'd 3 4 stayed i n the for too long. 5 "Hurry up, Linda,"/' y e l l e d ' to his s i s t e r . " I t ' s getting and we haven't l i g h t s on our_ 8 \ "I'm coming. You don't have to !" Linda l e t the tide f l o a t ftfef to the shore l i k e a piece driftwood. She got. 10 * 11 ' to her f e e t _ peeled o f f her mask and f l i p p e r s . was late The 12 ~ J3 beach ^ was deserted. sun was sinking behind the mountains, 14" red b a l l of flame that l i t the snow capped t i p s i n a 113 16 pink f l u s h . Lights had begun to from the North Shore. 18 The Grouse c h a i r - l i f t sparkled l i k e a necklace of 1^9 f 20 Out i n English Bay the l i g h t s the waiting grain freighters winked 21 back the shadowy water. 22" "Hurry up!" Joe "You're always so slow." Linda made face at him, but didn't bother argue. 23 25 "Just smell those pine trees, ," she s n i f f e d . "Things always smell 26 so better at night." Tl "Hmm," said Joe. '"_ rather have the smell of f i s h _ 28 29 chips myself. I t ' s too bad the stand i s shut." 30 Suddenly, a c h i l l i n g r i p p l e d e e r i l y through the trees, s t i r r i n g 31 needles on the pines, and making shower of golden 37 33 Arbutus leaves. Linda goose-flesh r i s i n g on her arms and_ ~3?F 35 "We're the only ones l e f t oh beach," she said. m> "And we're going catch i t when we get home," 3.8 Form B 2 141 frowned and stared up at the turning black before his eyes. ' .39 " get a move on, Lin. T to watch the White-Caps 40; 41' game on tonight." 42' "I'm ready," Linda l i f t e d her over her shoulder. "Let's 43> She stopped as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! ' ' ' i t out! 44} 4-54 What's the " "Shhh!" Joe in her ear. "Look! Look up '46 fffl that ligh t ! " Linda stared. High up, the velvet blue of the sky_ T8 497 turning navy, a sil v e r light pulsed 50 "What is i t ? " Linda whispered. "It's not a plane. - It's not moving." "Helicopter?" "With a silver light?" "Whatever i t i s , " said Joe, " i t ' s getting nearer. It's much bigger." Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . It's as big as a f u l l moon now." They stared upwards, their eyes straining as the silver light grew ever larger, brighter and nearer. "It's going to crash in Stanley Park!" Joe's voice wobbled a b i t . His throat hurt and his eyes were dazzled by the silve r pulse. "No. No, i t ' s not!" Linda rubbed her eyes hard. She could hardly see. "It's nearer than the park. It's It's coming here. It's coming towards us '." Form C 142 Beach Mystery Joe. raced up the beach. He grabbed his towel from the where 1 he'd l e f t i t e a r l i e r . I t f i n a l l y getting . The 2 3 sun was down f a s t . They'd stayed i n the for too long. 3 5 "Hurry up, Linda," y e l l e d to his s i s t e r . " I t ' s getting 6" and we haven't l i g h t s on our ." 7 8 "I'm coming. You don't have to ." Linda l e t the t i d e ^ f l o a t 9 her to the shore. She stood up peeled o f f her mask 10 11 and snorkel. was l a t e . The beach was deserted. "12 13 had gone home. "Hurry up," Joe . "You're always so slow." Linda made 14 face at him, but didn't bother _argue. "Just smell _ - - ^ the fresh a i r , " she s n i f f e d . "Things always smell so much _ 17 . • - •• better at night." "Hmmm," said Joe. " rather be at home and,have_ 18 . 19 smell of supper cooking myself." Suddenly a rippled e e r i l y through the trees. Linda_ 20 21 a p r i c k l e at the back of neck. "We're the only ones on_ 12 23 beach," she said. "And we're going c a t c n i t when we get home," 24 ~ 25 frowned and stared up at the turning black before his eyes. 26 " get a move on, L i n . I_ to watch a game on 27 TS ' tonight.'' 29 "I'm ready," Linda swung h e r _ over her shoulder. "Let's " 30 She stopped as Joe gripped her arm. "Hey! i t out! 31 3? What's the " 143 "ShhhI" Joe in her ear. "Look! Look up 33 34 that l i g h t ! " Linda stared. High up, the velvet blue of the sky_ 35 36 turning navy, a silver light pulsed_ . 37 "What is i t ? " Linda whispered. "It's a plane It's not ~38" moving." "Helicopter?" " a silver light?" 39 "Whatever i t i s , " said, " i t ' s getting nearer. It's much 40 41 Linda swallowed. " I ' l l say i t i s . as big as a f u l l moon 42 43 They stared upwards, their eyes straining the silver light grew ever larger, , and nearer. 41 "It's going to crash_ over there!" Joe pointed into the . His voice wobbled a b i t . His hurt and his 47 48 eyes were dazzled the silver pulse. 49 "No. No, i t ' s !" Linda rubbed her eyes hard. She 57J could hardly see. "It's much nearer than that. It's It's coming here. It's coming towards us !" Form A 144 Mystery on the Balclutha "And the Balclutha was the last of the Cape Horn sailing ships, a 'Windjammer'." The guide led the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the sails up?" Sandy shrugged. "Beats me." "A captain, four officers and twelve , sailed the ship. 1 The cabin boy the youngest on board," the guide 2 3 on. "The boy would have been your age." "I wonder what happened him?" asked Terri. 5 The guide looked . "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of 6 mystery about him. Some people say _ sometimes when 7 8 i t goes a l l quiet board that " The guide stopped_ "9 " 10 "Never mind. We'd better get on. your heads please. We're 11 going inside." ' was musty and dark inside. The__ cabin was 12 13 comfortable and had a bed, but the officers' cabins were n IS tiny. Terri didn't see how anyone li v e in one. There was a 15 sky-light, a narrow bunk bed with blankets and a 17 18 few books on shelf. 33 "I don't think those bunks even long enough for me to 20 i n . " Terri held Sandy back as the class trooped by. 21 21 "Do you think fakes?" 23 "Let's have a try." Sandy__ the rest of the class disappear "24 25 into the hold and then jumped over the rope barrier. "They're as 26 as iron. But I guess they're enough." 27 2 145 Terri looked at the books ' the shelves. 29 Suddenly i t was very and s t i l l . A clock ticked gently 30 a wooden chest. They could hear own heart-beats. 31 32 And then, slowly, a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges, 33 34" door of the cabin began to . 35 Terri and Sandy stared at each for one long second. Then 36 both once they rushed for the door. flung i t open 37 38 and stared out. , running li g h t l y up the ladder to was a 39 40 dark-haired boy dressed and a yellow waist-coat. 41 "A !" hissed Sandy. wi "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick! follow him!" Sandy raced up the and 43 44 onto the deck. But there nothing there. The deck was empty. 45 stared around. The sun was breaking the fog. They 4"6" 47 could see the Gate bridge in the distance, the boats 48 49 in the bay, and the island of Alcatraz. Nothing .moved'. ' On shore, - " ' 57J— even the red-painted tram car was waiting. The boy was gone. Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crow's nest at the top of the main mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!" Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there " FORM B 146 Mystery on the St. Roche "And the St. Roche was the first boat to sail both ways through the N.W. Passage," the guide said proudly, leading the grade seven class across the red painted deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," Terri whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the sail up?" Sandy shrugged. "Beats me." "And this tent on the deck •• the home of an Inuit man, I wife and four children," the guide on. "One 2 3 of the boys was your age." 4" "I wonder what happened him?" asked Terri. The guide looked . "Nobody knows. There's a bit of 5 mystery about him. But people do say sometimes, T g when i t goes a l l quiet board, that he " The guide stopped 9 . "Never mind. We'd better get on. ' your ID XI heads please. We're going inside." _cabins were so tiny, Terri didn't_ how 12" 13 anyone could live in one. ^ _ was a round brass porthole, a n stand, a narrow bunk bed with blankets, and a TS 16 few books oh shelf. 17 "I don't think those bunks even long enough for me to 18 in," Terri held Sandy back as class trooped 19 TO by. "Do you think fakes?" 21 "Let's have a look." Sandy the rest of the class dis-22 appear into the hold and then jumped over the 23 TA rope barrier. "They're as as iron. But I guess they're 23 enough." very Terri looked at the books the shelves. Suddenly i t was 27 and s t i l l . A clock on the ticked. They 18 2W 147 could even hear own heart-beats. And then slowly, a l i t t l e creak of its°hinges, door of the cabin began to" 5 1 32 33 Terri and Sandy stared at each for one long second. 35 Then both once they rushed for the door. flung 35 35 i t open and stared out. , running li g h t l y up the ladder to deck, 37 38 was a dark-haired boy dressed a seal-skin parka, leggings, 33 " and mukluks. "A *." Sandy hissed. "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick! follow him!" Sandy raced up the 41 WI and onto the deck. But there nothing there. The deck was 43 empty. stared around. Outside the sun was 2T2T 4~5 through the fog. They could see sea-gulls on the rocks, the freighters in the bay, the mountains poking the 4T~ . *8 mist, and the round white of the Planetarium. Nothing moved. The pole with i t s dark green and red carvings stood silent. 5TJ The boy was gone! Or was he? Just then a flash of movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at the crows-nest at the top of the main-mast, a figure was waving down at them. "After him!" Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. "We'll have to climb up there !" Form C l 4 g Mystery on the S a i l i n g Ship "And t h i s i s the l a s t of the s a i l i n g ships," the guide said, leading the grade seven class across the wooden deck. "Look at those huge masts and a l l that rigging," T e r r i whispered to Sandy who was standing nearby. "How'd they ever get the s a i l s up?" shrugged. "Beats me." The cabin boy the youngest on board," the guide __2 z on. "The boy would have been your age." 4~ " I wonder what happened him?" asked Terri,. 5 The guide looked . "Nobody knows. There's a b i t of 5 — : — r mystery about him. Some people say sometimes when i t goes a l l 8 quiet board that he " The guide stopped_ ^ - -- w  "Never mind. We'd better get on. your heads, please. We're IT going in s i d e . " was musty and dark inside. The cabin was Yl 13 comfortable and had a bed, but the o f f i c e r s ' cabins were very n . T e r r i didn't see how anyone could i n one. There B 15 « was a round port-hole, a narrow bunk bed with 17 18 blankets and a few books on shelf. 19 "I don't think those bunks even long enough for me to_ "20 21 i n . " T e r r i held Sandy back as class trooped by. "Do you think Z2 ~" fakes?" 23 "Let's have a t r y . " Sandy the rest of the class disappear into the hold and then jumped over the rope b a r r i e r . 73 16 "They're as as i r o n . But I guess they're enough." Z 7 T & T e r r i looked at the books the shelves. T5 Suddenly i t was very and s t i l l . A clock ticked gently 3D a wooden chest. They could hear own hearts beat. _ ^ 149 And then, slowly, a l i t t l e creak of i t s hinges, 33 34 door of the cabin began to 35 Terri and Sandy stared at each other one long second. Then 36 both once they rushed for the door. flung i t 38 open and stared out. running l i g h t l y up the ladder to deck was 33 4Tj a dark-haired boy dressed leggings and a yellow waist-coat. 41 "A !" hissed Sandy. 32 "No!" gasped Terri. "Quick! follow him!" Sandy raced up the 43 U and onto the deck. But there nothing there. The deck was 4~5~ empty. stared around. The boy was gone. 415 was he? Just then a flash movement caught Sandy's eye. Right at crows-nest at the top of the 49 50 a figure was waving down at them. it "After him." Sandy grabbed Terri's arm. We'll have to climb up there Form A The Tivoli Gardens Adventure 150 The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the turnstile clicked furiously as the early-birds poured into the Tiv o l i Gardens; and as i f to show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy cloud-bank and the crowd began happily shedding their raincoats and furling dripping umbrellas. Cathy and Eric, swept along in mob. fought their way 1 to the . 2 "Ouch!" yelled Eric, as a t a l l man in a checked rain-J" coat and pushed roughly past him, sending him 5 5 to the ground. "Hey! Are you right?" Cathy helped him to his 6 "What an animal, shoving li k e that." " !" Eric shouted at her. "It's my that man...he's taken my wallet!" jpick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply around, her 10 " 11 searching the crowd. "Look!....that's him... the playground!" 12 "After him," Eric began in pursuit. "We have to catch 13 ...that's a l l our money!" I2f Past the Tivoli boy-guards with their bushy bearskins 15 bandoliers; past the lake with the sparkling 16 17 fountains, and the red, yellow blues of the gay flower beds; 18 the laughing children being drawn around the 19 20 tiny goat carts: past the Theatre with i t s twin red and 21 towering pagodas, and excited crowd cheering_ 22 23 troupe of juggling acrobats, past an restaurant with i t s white-24 painted tables, striped and delicious smell of fresh Danish 25 FORM A 2 151 ; right into the heart of the lunch-time fun-26 27 fair, they ran. "Lost him," Cathy, holding onto the railing of_ 28 29 Ghost-Train. "He could be anywhere." Eric _his knee, which was aching. "Have any 30 31 money at all?" he demanded. _pulled out a sixteen Kroner note. " this — 32 33 ...I gave you the rest keep safe...big deal!" 34 "There's no to argue," Eric started running once 35 . "Let's go up on the Ferris Wheel... we can 36 37 spot him from there." and thinking wistfully of the fresh and 38 31 cold orange-drinks in the open-air , Cathy followed. 40 As the giant wheel upwards Cathy and Eric craned their 41 . They certainly had a good view the Tivoli 42 41 grounds. "It shouldn't be to spot him," Eric muttered. u — "There's many people in the fun-fair." 45 "If s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on 46 ' 47 as they rocked wildly backwards and . 4~S Around and around went the wheel, and faster, until the 2fg fun-fair became blur of coloured lights and shapes, and 50 their eyes grew strained with staring. Then, just as they had given up hope and the wheel was dying to a close, Eric saw a flick of checked coat and cap. "The Fun-House...he's going into the Fun-House," the chair rocked crazily as he tried to stand up. "We've got him now... come one " FORM B P.N.E. Adventure 152 The sodden crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n s t i l e c l i c k e d f u r i -ously as the early-birds poured into the P.N.E. grounds; and as i f to show i t s approval, the sun s l i d suddenly from behind a gloomy grey cloud bank and the crowd began happily shedding t h e i r raincoats and f u r l i n g dripping umbrellas. Cathy and E r i c , swept along i n mob, fought t h e i r way to the 2 "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c , as a t a l l man i n a checked raincoat 3 and pushed roughly past him, sending him to the 4 5 ground. "Hey! Are you f : r i g h t ? " Cathy helped Mm to his_ 1, 7 "What an animal, shoving l i k e that." " " E r i c shouted at her. " I t ' s my that man... he's'taken my walle t ! " pick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply, her_ 10 11 searching the crowd. "Look!...that's him... the Food-Fair." 12 "After him," E r i c began i n pursuit. "We have to catch 1 3 ... that's a l l our money!" 14 Past the Army band playing marches; past the n 175 smelling of f r y i n g onions, corn and ' ; past the shouting huck-sters waving greaseless pans and f i v e coloured pens; under sky-ride, with i t s sparkling red, blue yellow 19 20 chairs; up the h i l l to logging show, where already an excited 21 v; was cheering two men i n flannel and knee boots 22 23 who were racing and down the towering tree-trunks as "24 25 Form B L 153 gravity didn't e x i s t ; past the Bingo r i g h t into the depths of W the lunch-time Playland, they ran. 2 7 — : — "Lost him," Cathy, holding onto the r a i l i n g of  ZZ 79 Giant-Slide. "He could be anywhere." E r i c h i s knee, which was aching. "Have any 30" 31 money at a l l ? " he demanded. pulled out a two d o l l a r b i l l . " t h i s . . . I 32 33 ~ gave you the rest keep safe...big deal!" 34 "There's no to argue," E r i c started running once_ 35" 36 "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel... we can spot him from there." 37 and thinking w i s t f u l l y of the fresh and cold 33 39 orange drinks i n the , Cathy followed. w _ As the giant wheel upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r 41 They c e r t a i n l y had a good view the P.N.E. grounds, 42 43 " I t shouldn't be to spot him," E r i c muttered. "There's very many people i n Playland." 43 " I f s t i l l around," Cathy said holding on as 45 47 they rocked w i l d l y backwards and . 48 Around and around went the wheel, and faster, u n t i l Playland became blu r of coloured l i g h t s and shapes, and th e i r eyes grew 5U strained with staring. Then just as they had given up hope and the wheel was dying to a close, E r i c saw a f l i c k of checked coat and cap. "The Fun House...he's going into the Fun House!" The chair rocked c r a z i l y as he t r i e d to stand up. "We've got him now...come on!" FORM C Amusement Park Adventure The crowd surged eagerly forward and the t u r n s t i l e c l i c k e d furiously as the early-birds poured into the Amusement Park. Cathy and E r i c swept along i n mob, fought t h e i r way to 1 the 2 "Ouch!" y e l l e d E r i c as a t a l l man i n a checked raincoat 3 and pushed roughly past him sending him to 4 5 the ground. "Hey! Are you r i g h t ? " Cathy helped him to his _ ' _-6 " 6 "What an animal, shoving l i k e that." 154 !" E r i c shouted at her. " I t ' s my 8 that man., he's taken my wallet.' pick-pocket!" Cathy wheeled sharply around, her ID searching the crowd. "Look... there he I i 12 over there!" "After him," E r i c began i n pursuit. "We have to catch 13 that's a l l our money!" 14 Past the ; past the tents; and past the_ 15 16 ri g h t into the depths of the lunch-time Amusement-Park, they 17 ran. "Lost him," Cathy, holding onto the r a i l i n g of_ 18 19 Carousel. "He could be anywhere." E r i c his knee , which was aching. "Have 20 21 any money at all?'' he demanded. pulled out a two d o l l a r b i l l . t h i s . . . I 22 ' 23 gave you the rest keep safe...big deal!" 24 "There's no to argue," E r i c started running once_ 15 26 FORM C 2 i 5 5 "Let's go up on the Ferris-Wheel..... we can spot him from 27 there." and thinking w i s t f u l l y of lunch, Cathy him 28" 23 slowly. At least she wouldn't sick this time, she thought, 3Tj as attendant pulled the bar across the . She 31 32 had nothing inside her to sick with. 3 1 As the giant wheel "• upwards, Cathy and E r i c craned t h e i r — 3 4 — : They ce r t a i n l y had a good view the Amuse-35 36" ment Oark. " I t shouldn't be to spot him," E r i c muttered. "There's 37 not many people i n the park." 38 " I f s t i l l around," Cathy said, holding on 39 40 as they rocked w i l d l y backwards and 41 Around and around went the wheel, and faster, u n t i l the ?2 Amusement Park became blu r of colours and shapes, and 43 eyes grew strained with staring. Then as they 2R " 41 had given up hope the wheel was dying to a , 35 2T7 E r i c saw a f l i c k of checked and cap. ZTg "The Fun-House...he's going the Fun-House," the chair 59 rocked c r a z i l y he t r i e d to stand up. "We've got him now 5u Form A Adventure over Paris The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers in the centre of the parade-ground i n the Champ-de-Mars. A golden painted wicker basket hung and the holiday crowd gathered to 1 , a l l cheered as the winners of competition 2 3 came forward to claim their ride. 4 Jules and Marie were the winners, the two twelve year 5 olds had designed the winning posters for Day. 6 7 A portly gentleman carrying a hastily motioned them to 8 climb into golden-painted wicker basket. 9 "Safe as houses, and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the 10 crowd. "The winners w i l l have a balloon ride 11 12 ....but of course they s t i l l attached to the ground_ 13 14 the anchor cable." He gave a to the four workmen who were at 15 16 the four corner cables and a flourish they released the ropes, 17 the balloon freed from a l l restraint, the anchor 18 19 cable, began to rise into the a i r . 20 The crowd cheered waved enthusiastically; Marie's 21 mother cried out, " do hang on tightly, Marie"; the _________ 22 23 broke into a st i r r i n g march; and and Marie grinned cheerfully 24 and waved 25 "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out delight as the balloon 26 sailed steadily scattering some sparrows as i t went. 27 " motor", Jules got out his camera. " get 28 29 some fantastic photos of the ." 30 "They a l l look li k e miniature dolls there, dolls and toy 31 157 cars," Marie her neck. "It's a gigantic map. 32 33 look...we're almost as high as E i f f e l Tower...see the tourists "37f in top platform waving at us'." 33 "There's Isle de Cite and Notre Dame." 35 37 adjusted his camera. "Count the bridges ...twelve 3S I ' l l get a good picture." pointed her finger. "There's the Arc 39 m Triomphe... and the Bois de Boulogne... i t ' s a b i t hazy." She 41 moved around to the other side of wicker basket. 47 43 "We could see forever * there was no pollution...look,..even — 47f Airport! I think " she stopped abruptly a ZT5 45 jerk shuddered through the wicker . "What was that?" 47 Jules frowned. "Probably anchor cable tightening. We 48 must be high as i t w i l l let us ." m~ ~5TJ But they weren't. Another violent jerk shook the basket, throwing them both helplessly to the floor, and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, he anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards like a cork released from a champagne bottle. What had been a half-hour view of the city had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the hazy mass of Orly Air-port with i t s constant jet t r a f f i c grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second B Adventure over Vancouver 158 The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers in the centre of Robson Square. A golden painted wicker basket hung , and the holiday crowd gathered to ; a l l 1 2 cheered as the winners of competition came forward to claim 3 their ride. 4 Jules and Marie were the winners; the two grade seven 5 students had designed the winning posters for Day. 6 7 A portly gentleman carrying a , hastily motioned them to 8 climb into golden-painted wicker basket. 9 "Safe as houses, and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the 10 crowd. "The winners w i l l have a balloon ride 11 12 .but of course they s t i l l be attached to the ground 13 the anchor cable." 14 He gave a to the four workmen who were at 15 16 the four corner cables and' a flourish they released the ropes 17 the balloon, freed from a l l restraint, the 18 19 anchor cable, began to rise into the a i r . 20 The crowd cheered waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother 21 cried out, " do hang on tightly, Marie;" the 22 23 broke into a st i r r i n g march; and and Marie grinned cheerfully 24 and waved 25 "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out delight as the balloon 26 sailed steadily scattering some sea-gulls as i t went. 27 " motor," Jules got out his camera. "__ 28 29 get some fantastic photos of the ." 30 "They a l l look li k e miniature dolls there; dolls and 31 159 toy cars," Marie her neck. " I t ' s a gigantic map. Wl 31 the Hotel Vancouver, and the B.C. building, and Stanley Park 34 ...look, you see the sail-boats i n Englisg Bay." 35 the Planetarium," Jules adjusted his camera, "_ 36 u 37 the North Shore mountains across bay...with that fresh snow on 38 tips...I'11 get a good picture." 39 " can even see Vancouver I s l a n d . . . a l l grey 40 41 h i l l s , " Marie moved cautiously around the other side of the 42 wicker . "We can see forever.. .look.. .even 43 44 Baker. I think..." she stopped abruptly a jerk shuddered 45 through the wicker_ . "What was that?" 46 Jules frowned. "Probably anchor cable tightening. We 47 must be high as i t w i l l l e t us ." 48 49 But they weren't! Another vi o l e n t jerk the basket, 50 throwing them both hel p l e s s l y to the f l o o r , and then with one t e r r i f i c p u l l and a wrench, the anchor cable snapped clean and the balloon jumped upwards l i k e a cork released from a champagne b o t t l e . What had been a half-hour view of the c i t y had turned into a dangerous adventure, and the misty grey h i l l s of Vancouver Island and beyond that the wide P a c i f i c Ocean grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second.... FORM C 160 Adventure over the City The gigantic red and gold striped balloon swayed gently on i t s mooring tethers in the centre of the town. A golden painted wicker basket hung , and the holiday crowd gathered to > a l l I 2 ' cheered as the winners of competition came forward to claim 3 their ride. 4 Jules and Marie were the winners; the two grade seven 5 students had designed the winning posters for Day. 6 7 A portly gentleman carrying a hastily motioned them to 8 climb into golden-painted wicker basket. 9 "Safe as houses, and Gentlemen," he bellowed at the 10 crowd. "The winners w i l l have a_ balloon ride II 12 ...but of course they s t i l l be attached to the ground 13 the anchor cable." 14 He gave a to the four workmen who were 15 16 at the four corner cables and a flourish they released the 17 ropes the balloon, freed from a l l restraint, T8 ' 19 the anchor cable, began to rise into the a i r . 20 The crowd cheered waved enthusiastically; Marie's mother 21 cried out, " , do hang on tightly, Marie;" the 22 23 broke into a s t i r r i n g march; and and Marie grinned cheerfully 24 and waved 25 "It's so quiet," Marie gazed out delight as the balloon 26 sailed steadily , scattering some birds as i t went. 27 " motor," Jules got out his camera. " 28 29 get some fantastic photos of the ." 30 "They a l l look l i k e miniature dolls there, dolls and toy 31 C 2 cars," Marie her neck. "It's a gigantic map." 5 2  adjusted his camera. "I'm going to some 53 34" very good pictures." Marie moved around to the other side of_ 161 35 36 wicker basket. "We can see for ...can see forever. Look 37 ... right there.... I think...." She stopped abruptly 38 a jerk shuddered through the wicker . "What 35 40 was that?" Jules frowned. "Probably anchor cable tightening. 41 We must be high as i t w i l l l e t us ." 41 43 But they weren't! Another violent jerk the basket, 44" throwing them helplessly the floor, and then with one 43 p u l l and a wrench, the anchor snapped clean 7175 47 and the balloon jumped like a cork released from a "48 49 bottle. What had been a half-hour of the town had turned 5TJ into a dangerous adventure and the distant country suddenly grew steadily closer and closer with every passing second. FORM A 162 Adventure i n the Central Park Zoo It's true i t was a biting gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer in a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the Central Park Zoo at 9 o'clock on a Sunday morning. The seals and I were about only animate objects around. 1 Oh, there . a few hardy tourists a l l bundled and 2 3 tightly huddled up in heavy and woolly scarves, and looking 4 distinctly and pinched around the nose. 5 I to get some action photos of seals 6 7 catching their f i s h . The colours dramatic... .the brown and 8 yellowy shiny-wet of the seals stood out against "9 10 stark black iron railings and the surroundings and I crouched 11 down the looped railings that circled the , so as 12 13 to be eyeball to " with the streamlined swimmers. And this n when a really weird thing happened. 15 ' was sort of fiddling round with yiew-16 17 finder when this guy in a brown coat with a fur-collar 18 appeared the opposite side of the seal__ leant 19 20 casually against the r a i l i n g and one arm down the inside. There 21 something so furtive and creepy about that I was 22 23 sort of paralyzed the spot. I guess he couldn't 24 25 me because of the iron r a i l i n g , I could sure see him. 26 As said, i t was really weird. He his arm 27 28 down nearly to the and pulled out a stone from_ "25 30 wall, then he slipped what looked :. a tiny plastic bag into 31 the and pushed back the stone again. 32 FORM A i •163 had to crane my neck to a l l this and at that 33 33 precise he glanced up and saw me. an indescri-35 31 bable moment we stared straight each other, and then, in a 37 of pure nervous panic, I clicked shutter of my 38 39 camera my camera was pointing straight at him. 40 He a sort of throttled roar and around, 51 52 started round the pool towards . 41 I didn't stop to think I how I ran! I raced past 55: balloon sellers and the nickleodeon players up 45 41 their stands for the day, down the path to the pony 2f7 w -and on out of Central Park the Grand Army Plaza. Past the 4"9" waiting horse-drawn carriages I ran, and around the fountain. 50 My heart was throbbing unbearably, the wind whipped the icy spray against my face, the last yellow leaves of the elms blew in swirling gusts across my pounding feet, and every time I turned to look he was coming behind me! Where could I hide....what could I do ? FORM B Adventure in the Stanley Park Zoo 164 It's true i t was a biting gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer in a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the Stanley Park Zoo at 9 O'clock on a Sunday morning. The penguins and I were about only animate objects 1 around. Oh, there a few hardy tourists a l l bundled _ 1 3 and tightly huddled up in heavy and woolly scarves, and looking 4" distinctly and pinched around the nose. 5 I to get some action photos of penguins 5 7 catching their f i s h . The colours dramatic... the black and g white dress-suits of tiny penguins and the bright yellow g _ o f the Emperors, standing out against_ grey TO 11 surroundings and I crouched down the stone wall that I T circled the so as to get eyeball to ___________ with these 13 14 glossy swimmers. And this when a really weird thing happened. 13 was sort of fiddling round with view-16 17 finder when this guy in a brown coat with a fur-collar 18 appeared the opposite side of the penguin , leant 19 20 casually against the wall arid one arm down the inside. There 21 something so furtive and creepy about that I was : T2 21 sort of paralyzed the spot. I guess he couldn't 24" 25 me because of the iron r a i l i n g , I could sure see him. 21 As said, i t was really weird. He his arm down nearly to the and pulled out a stone from 21 31 wall, then he slipped what looked a tiny plastic bag into 31 the and pushed back the stone again. 32 had to crane my neck to __ a l l t h i s , and at that 33 34" precise he looked up and saw me. an indescri-33 35 bable moment we stared straight each other, and then i n a 37 of pure nervous panic I c l i c k e d shutter of my 38 33 camera...my camera • was pointing straight at him. 40 He a sort of th r o t t l e d roar and around, 41 42 started round the pool towards . 43 I didn't stop to think I ... how I ran. I raced 44 past pop-corn stands, down the h i l l , around 45 46 seal-pond, past the cage of raucous , past the duck-pond and 47 the Aquarium, down the path to Lumberman's Arch_ 48 * 49 the sea-wall. Past the ' ' ' ' swimming-pool I ran, and under the 50 huge girders of the bridge. My heart was throbbing unbearably, the sea a i r whipped my face, and the l a s t red and yellow leaves of the maples blew i n s w i r l i n g gusts across my pounding feet, and every time I turned to look, he was coming behind me. Where could I hide,... what should I do ? c Adventure in the Zoo 166 It's true i t was a biting gusty autumn day, and I'd have been warmer in a freezing cold shower; but I had my brand-new birthday camera, and so that's how I just happened to be at the zoo at 9 O'clock on a Sunday morning. seals and I were just about only animate i 2 : objects around. Oh, there ^ a few hardy souls a l l bundled and tightly huddled up in heavy and woolly scarves, and looking distinctly and pinched aroundithe nose. 5 I to get some action photos of seals 7 8 catching their f i s h . The colours dramatic--the brown and 9 yellowy shiny-wet of the seals stood out against 10 11 stark black iron railings and the surroundings--and I crouched 12 right down the iron railings that circled the 13 14 so as to be eyeball to with the streamlined swimmers. And 15 this when a really weird thing happened. 16 was sort of fiddling round with the when 17 18 this guy in a brown coat with a fur-collar appeared 19 20 the opposite side of the seal , leant casually against the 21 r a i l i n g and one arm down the inside. There some-22 23 thing so furtive and creepy about that I was sort of para-lyzed the spot. I guess he couldn't me because 25 75 of the iron' r a i l i n g , _ could sure see him. 27 As said, i t was really weird. He his arm 28 29 down nearly to the and pulled out a stone from_ 30 31 wall, then he slipped what looked a tiny plastic bag into the 32 and pushed back the stone again. 33 _had to crane my neck to a l l this, and at 34 35 that precise he glanced up and saw me. an 36 37 Form C 2 1 6 7 ; indescribable moment we stared straight each other, and then SB i n a of pure nervous panic I clicked shutter 39 40 of my camera--my camera was pointing straight at him. 4 1 He a sort of throttled roar and around, 42 43 started round the pool towards__ . 44 I didn't stop to think--I how I ran. I raced past 45 animal cages and the bird-house, right the path 46 47 and out of the . Everytime I turned to look he 48 49 coming behind me'. Where could I ... what should I do ? 50 APPENDIX E Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 169 Name School . . D i v i s i o n : . Put a X on each l i n e to show how you f e e l about the story you have j u s t read. L i k e : : D i s l i k e . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0078340/manifest

Comment

Related Items