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Adult composition instruction in a northern native community : a case study of cultural and ideological.. Millard, Eleanor Rae 1991-12-31

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ADULT COMPOSITION INSTRUCTION IN A NORTHERN NATIVE COMMUNITY A CASE STUDY OF CULTURAL AND IDEOLOGICAL RESISTANCE by ELEANOR RAE MILLARD B. A., U n i v e r s i t y of B. C., 1965 M.,Ad. Ed., S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r , 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language E d u c a t i o n  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  January 1991  (c) E l e a n o r Rae M i l l a r d 1991  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia,  freely available for reference and study. copying  of  department  this or  thesis by  for scholarly  his  publication of this thesis  or  her  the  requirements  for  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  advanced  I agree that the Library shall make it  I further agree that permission  purposes  an  may  representatives.  It  be is  granted  for extensive  by the head of  understood  that  for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  DE-6 (2/88)  of  copying  my or  my written  ii  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s r e p o r t s an i n t e r p r e t i v e case study of a d u l t composition Canada.  i n s t r u c t i o n i n a n a t i v e community i n n o r t h e r n  Although t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s much  t h e o r y about l i t e r a c y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s ,  little  r e s e a r c h has examined p a r t i c u l a r contexts of w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y f o r native populations.  The  present r e s e a r c h focused on students' responses t o s p e c i f i c approaches t o composition, u s i n g p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n by the author and an emergent r e s e a r c h design which c o n s i d e r e d classroom events history.  i n r e l a t i o n t o the l o c a l community and i t s  The study found much behaviour by t h e students  which was d e s c r i b e d as r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n , behaviours which were consonant w i t h d e t a i l s of t h e community context.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these student behaviours were  f i r s t made i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r i e s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , which proved t o be l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o account f o r them than t h e o r i e s which would c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e behaviours as i d e o l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d .  The t h e s i s suggests t h a t  p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n ' s l a c k of success and n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n would be too narrowly d e f i n e d as c r o s s - c u l t u r a l Understanding  differences.  both the c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l  foundations  of r e s i s t a n c e behaviour may h e l p t o guide l i t e r a c y pedagogy i n northern native adult i n s t r u c t i o n .  iii FOREWORD  I t should be noted t h a t t h i s t h e s i s uses the terms n o r t h " and  "the  "northern" t o mean the areas of Canada n o r t h of  the 60th p a r a l l e l , which a l s o comprise the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  Much of the d e t a i l of the  t h e s i s can, however, be a p p l i e d t o s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s i n the n o r t h of the p r o v i n c e s and t o Indian r e s e r v e s f u r t h e r south. The a c t u a l r e s e a r c h l o c a t i o n i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y has been d i s g u i s e d by a pseudonym as have the people  The c h o i c e of composition r a t h e r than a broader r e a d i n g was  involved.  i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the  research  approach to l i t e r a c y which i n c l u d e d  deliberate.  more a c t i v e involvement  I t was  f e l t that w r i t i n g required  by students,  a l l o w i n g f o r more c h o i c e  on the student's p a r t which would r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y than r e a d i n g the response t o i n n o v a t i v e techniques. w r i t t e n products  i n composition  The  a l s o g i v e more r e a d i l y  a c c e s s i b l e data whereas r e a d i n g s k i l l s  are measured  indirectly.  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the terms " c u l t u r e " and " i d e o l o g y " was  not a simple task, s i n c e elements of  i n c l u d e those of the other, depending on how they are.  I t was  one  b r o a d l y used  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s a modern c u l t u r e  which i s as p e r v a s i v e as any t r a d i t i o n a l one  i n Bear R i v e r .  iv  To h e l p separate these terms, strict  anthropological  defined  " c u l t u r e " was  sense and  as behaviour d e s c r i b e d  anthropological  and  used i n i t s  c u l t u r a l behaviour  as Athapaskan i n  s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c t e x t s only.  was  various The  thesis  analyses focus on behaviour t a k i n g an emergent i n t e r p r e t i v e approach r a t h e r than one on any  one  of s c i e n t i f i c measurement or based  t h e o r y of behaviour.  d e l i n e a t i o n between " c u l t u r e " and keeping the data and  The  research  and  Because of t h i s , "ideology"  a n a l y s e s as c l e a r as  was  a  strict  useful in  possible.  w r i t i n g f o r t h i s t h e s i s has  been a  p e r s o n a l journey of p r o f e s s i o n a l development f o r me.  I  have experienced a p o s i t i v e change of a t t i t u d e toward  the  teaching  of composition to n a t i v e  students.  framework o f f e r e d by the process of a n a l y s i s has  made sense of the r e s i s t a n c e t h a t  only as an unsurmountable o b s t r u c t i o n  I had to  The  intellectual  i n the  thesis  previously  learning.  seen  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract.  i i  Foreword  i i i  Figures  ix  Chapter I: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Research Problem  1  1.2. R e s i s t a n c e ,  2  C u l t u r e and Ideology Defined  1.3. O u t l i n e of t h e T h e s i s  3  Chapter I I : LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  6  2.2. The Autonomous Model of L i t e r a c y 2.2.1. B a s i c Thought i n the Autonomous Model 8 2.2.2. C u l t u r e and S c h o o l i n g 9 2.2.3. C u l t u r e and Language Education...12 2.2.4. C u l t u r e and S o c i a l i z a t i o n 15 2.2.5. Community I n c l u s i o n i n Schooling 15 2.2.6. Reform i n Northern Native L i t e r a c y and Education 17 2.3. The I d e o l o g i c a l Model of L i t e r a c y 2.3.1. S t r e e t ' s I d e o l o g i c a l Model 2.3.2. The Context of L i t e r a c y 2.3.3. Reproduction Theory 2.3.4. L i t e r a c y and Power R e l a t i o n s 2.3.5. R e s i s t a n c e Theory 2.3.6. Pedagogy and the I d e o l o g i c a l Model 2.3.7. C r i t i q u i n g C r i t i c a l Pedagogy  18 19 21 22 24 27 29  2.4. L i t e r a c y and Power i n Northern Canada  30  2.5. Summary  32  vi Chapter I I I : METHODOLOGY 3.1. Research Approach 3.1.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.1.2. Research Design 3.1.3. Data C o l l e c t i o n 3.1.4. Data A n a l y s i s 3.1.5. L i m i t a t i o n s of I n t e r p r e t i v e Analyses 3.1.6. Summary 3.2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Approach 3.2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.2.2. R a t i o n a l e and Design of t h e Composition I n s t r u c t i o n 3.2.3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Content 3.2.4. I n s t r u c t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s 3.2.5. Summary  35 35 41 44 52 58 59 59 62 63 65  Chapter IV: THE COMMUNITY AND CULTURAL CONTEXT 4.1. Bear R i v e r 4.1.1. 4.1.2. 4.1.3. 4.1.4.  Introduction H i s t o r y of Bear R i v e r Present Day Bear R i v e r Summary  4.2. The E d u c a t i o n a l Context 4.2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.2.2. E d u c a t i o n a l Background 4.2.3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n 4.2.4. E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s 4.2.5. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Personnel and Curricula 4.2.6. L i t e r a c y i n Bear R i v e r 4.2.7. Summary 4.3. The C u l t u r a l Context 4.3.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.3.2. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Background 4.3.3. S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Background 4.3.4. Summary  66 67 70 74 74 75 78 81 82 85 86 87 87 92 97  Chapter V: FINDINGS 5.1. The Classroom Context f o r R e s i s t a n c e 5.1.1. General F i n d i n g s 98 5.1.2. I n d i v i d u a l R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: Communication 101  vii 5.1.3. Group R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: Pressures and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ... 107 5.1.4. L i t e r a t e and S c h o l a r l y R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: L e a r n i n g Through Literacy I l l 5.1.5 Summary 116  Chapter VI: INTERPRETATIONS 6.1. Why R e s i s t a n c e ?  117  6.2. C u l t u r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 6.2.1. I n d i v i d u a l R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: C u l t u r a l Communication 118 6.2.2. Group R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: C u l t u r a l Pressures and Responsibilities 122 6.2.3. L i t e r a t e and S c h o l a r l y R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: L e a r n i n g C u l t u r e Through L i t e r a c y 124 6.2.4. Summary 126 6.2.5. L i m i t a t i o n s t o the C u l t u r a l Interpretation 127 6.3. I d e o l o g i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 6.3.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 128 6.3.2. Framework f o r an I d e o l o g i c a l Interpretation 129 6.3.3. I n d i v i d u a l R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: I d e o l o g i c a l Communication 131 6.3.4. Group R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: I d e o l o g i c a l Pressures and Responsibilities 133 6.3.5. L i t e r a t e and S c h o l a r l y R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: L e a r n i n g Ideology Through L i t e r a c y 134 6.3.6. Advantages and L i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e Ideological Interpretation 135 6.4. Summary  138  Chapter V I I : SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS 7.1. Summary of F i n d i n g s and I m p l i c a t i o n s  139  7.2. P e r s o n a l R e f l e c t i o n s  141  viii 7.3. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Pedagogy  144  7.4. F u r t h e r Research  147  REFERENCES  151  APPENDICES  158  ix  FIGURES F i g u r e 1: L e a r n i n g P o t e n t i a l I n d i c a t o r s as A c t i v e and P a s s i v e Accommodation and R e s i s t a n c e  48  F i g u r e 2: Student Behaviours as A c t i v e and P a s s i v e Accommodation and R e s i s t a n c e  49  F i g u r e 3: I n s t r u c t o r Responses t o R e s i s t a n c e Behaviours  51  F i g u r e 4: L a t h e r ' s (1986) Research G u i d e l i n e s to the Present A n a l y s i s  Applied 56  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1.  Research  Problem  T h i s f i r s t chapter i n t r o d u c e s the r e s e a r c h problem, d e f i n e s b a s i c terminology used i n the t h e s i s , and  outlines  the t h e s i s c h a p t e r s .  Across n o r t h e r n Canada a f r e e , compulsory s c h o o l system has e x i s t e d f o r two  or t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s .  Despite t h i s ,  r a t e s of l i t e r a c y p r e v a i l f o r the Indian and l i v i n g there.  Composition  Inuit  low  peoples  (planned w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e ) i s  p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r most n o r t h e r n n a t i v e students  (Stairs,  1990).  With these i s s u e s i n mind,  the present r e s e a r c h e r s e t out t o o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n p i l o t c l a s s e s t o n a t i v e a d u l t ESL  through  l i t e r a c y students u s i n g a  t r a d i t i o n a l t e x t - o r i e n t e d approach t o composition pedagogy and a more i n n o v a t i v e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d approach. approaches were o f f e r e d t o a l l students.  Both  To d e s c r i b e  students i n the one p a r t i c u l a r community responded  how  t o these  i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches t h e i r classroom behaviours were documented and an emergent r e s e a r c h design was  developed  i n t e r p r e t the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n as a case study. q u e s t i o n researched was:  how  do n a t i v e a d u l t ESL  to  The b a s i c literacy  students i n the p a r t i c u l a r context of the r e s e a r c h respond i n n o v a t i v e composition pedagogy?  Explanations f o r t h e i r  responses were sought t o i n t e r p r e t the data  gathered.  to  2  1.2.  Resistance,  I t was  C u l t u r e and  Ideology  Defined  found t h a t the students who  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  c l a s s e s d i s p l a y e d a v a r i e t y of unco-operative,  oppositional  behaviours t o both composition approaches, b r o a d l y l a b e l l e d as  " r e s i s t a n c e behaviour".  A major purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s  t o e x p l a i n the r e s i s t a n c e behaviours documented i n response to the  i n s t r u c t i o n . As d e s c r i b e d  F r e i r e and  Shor (1987), and  ( r a t h e r than d e f i n e d ) by  F r e i r e and Macedo (1987)  r e s i s t a n c e i s : antagonism, c o n f l i c t , r e j e c t i o n , c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and by students.  g e n e r a l l y c o v e r t unco-operative behaviour  Quigley  (1990) d e f i n e s r e s i s t a n c e as:  "a  s t r u g g l e t o become f r e e i n the eyes, mind and h e a r t of r e s i s t e r on the b a s i s of a s p e c i f i c l i b e r t y which had a t t a i n e d and h e l d at any  cost"  (p.113).  c l o s e s t to t h a t adopted i n the present  The  general  and  be  study i s McLaren's both  ' l i v e d ' meaning and which  the l e g i t i m a c y , power and  to  definition  (1986): " o p p o s i t i o n a l student behaviour t h a t has symbolic, h i s t o r i c a l and  the  contests  s i g n i f i c a n c e of s c h o o l c u l t u r e i n  i n s t r u c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r " (p.143).  Giroux  and  Aronowitz (1985) c r i t i q u e the l a c k of c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n i n r e s i s t a n c e theory  i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s of r e s i s t a n c e behaviour,  o f f e r i n g a more e x a c t i n g one. education  are d i s c u s s e d  T h e i r t h e o r i e s of i d e o l o g y  and  i n Chapter 5.  In c o n t r a s t t o these concepts are n o t i o n s  of " c u l t u r e "  3  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l sense, which i s the d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y favoured by n a t i v e peoples. The present study c o n s i d e r s behaviours t o be of c u l t u r a l o r i g i n when they f i t i n t o known v a l u e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l e v a n t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Behaviours  texts.  t h a t d i d not d i s p l a y t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s  and which f i t i n t o a more g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of response t o s o c i a l , economic, h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s and v a l u e s were presumed t o d e r i v e from i d e o l o g i c a l  influences.  1.3. O u t l i n e of the T h e s i s  Chapter  2 reviews the t h e o r e t i c a l and r e s e a r c h  l i t e r a t u r e on l i t e r a c y and pedagogy t o i d e n t i f y c u r r e n t ideas of the r e l a t i o n between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n t h i s  field.  The chapter r e l a t e s ideas of t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e t o student r e s i s t a n c e and the n o r t h e r n n a t i v e context of the study.  The  review uses the framework of S t r e e t ' s (1984) d e s c r i p t i o n of two conceptual models of l i t e r a c y : the "autonomous" and the "ideological".  Examination  of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t  some l i t e r a c y theory and p r a c t i c e appears r e i n f o r c e domination  t o reproduce  and  of m i n o r i t y students and t h a t t h a t may  be expected t o produce r e s i s t a n c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . The l i t e r a t u r e review a l s o shows t h a t although t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h on the phenomenon of r e s i s t a n c e i n education, l i t t l e work has been done t o date t o document  l o c a l community  and classroom c o n t e x t s o r processes  4  of  r e s i s t a n c e behaviour,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of i s s u e s  unique t o n o r t h e r n Canadian a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s .  The  f i r s t p a r t of Chapter 3 e x p l a i n s the  research  approach used f o r t h i s case study and d e s c r i b e s the methodologies used f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and  analyses.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s of a c c o u n t i n g f o r the r e s e a r c h e r ' s values i n the present case study are assessed u s i n g L a t h e r ' s c r i t e r i a f o r i d e o l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d research. of  The  (1986)  second p a r t  Chapter 3 o u t l i n e s the i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach used i n the  p i l o t c l a s s e s , p r e s e n t i n g the design, content and c o n d i t i o n s of the i n s t r u c t i o n on which the r e s e a r c h was  based.  Chapter 4 d e s c r i b e s the community and c u l t u r a l of the r e s e a r c h . their local,  context  In order t o s i t u a t e students' behaviours  s o c i a l context, t h i s chapter f i r s t  h i s t o r y and present day  d e s c r i b e s the  s e t t i n g , then the e d u c a t i o n a l  c u l t u r a l background of the community i n which the  and  research  took p l a c e .  Chapter 5 r e p o r t s the f i n d i n g s from the context of the case study, c a t e g o r i e s of behaviour: literate  classroom  p r e s e n t i n g these as t h r e e  (1) i n d i v i d u a l ,  (2) group and  and s c h o l a r l y .  Chapter 6 i n t e r p r e t s the f i n d i n g s of r e s i s t a n c e behaviours  in  f i r s t by c o n s i d e r i n g c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  (3)  5  However, t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of r e s i s t a n t behaviour because of c u l t u r a l f o r c e s f a i l s t o e x p l a i n f u l l y the phenomena documented.  A second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e c o n s i d e r s the data on  r e s i s t a n c e behaviour as i d e o l o g i c a l a c t i o n r e j e c t i n g domination, f o l l o w i n g Giroux and Aronowitz  social  (1985).  Chapter 7 summarizes the t h e s i s f i n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , b r i e f l y p r e s e n t s a p e r s o n a l response t o the t o the r e s i s t a n c e behaviour found from the v i e w p o i n t of the i n s t r u c t o r , then d i s c u s s e s i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h f o r n o r t h e r n n a t i v e l i t e r a c y pedagogy and f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  6  CHAPTER I I  LITERATURE REVIEW  2.1.  Introduction  T h i s review examines t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between theory and p r a c t i c e i n m i n o r i t y l i t e r a c y education,  looking  critically  at r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s on t h i s t o p i c from the p e r s p e c t i v e of c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l domination and r e s i s t a n c e .  The  a n a l y s i s i s framed by the d i s t i n c t i o n between l i t e r a c y models proposed by S t r e e t (1984), who p o s i t s t h a t e i t h e r "autonomous" o r " i d e o l o g i c a l " concepts inform c u r r e n t of theory The  and p r a c t i c e i n l i t e r a c y education  autonomous model i s e v i d e n t  theory  of pedagogical  ideas  and r e s e a r c h .  i n much c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  p r a c t i c e , whereas the i d e o l o g i c a l model  p o i n t s toward assessment of power r e l a t i o n s i n l i t e r a c y classrooms.  Examination of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t some  l i t e r a c y theory  and p r a c t i c e s appear t o r e i n f o r c e domination  which may l e a d t o student  and group r e s i s t a n c e .  The review  concludes t h a t although r e l a t i o n s between l i t e r a c y and r e s i s t a n c e have been s t u d i e d from a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e i s need f o r r e s e a r c h which i s based i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s  of classroom  situations, particularly f o r  n a t i v e Canadians.  B r i a n S t r e e t (1984) d e f i n e s l i t e r a c y as the s o c i a l  7  practices  and conceptions of r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g .  He  d e s c r i b e s two models of l i t e r a c y theory and p r a c t i c e : the "autonomous" and t h e " i d e o l o g i c a l " .  The autonomous model,  a f t e r which many l i t e r a c y campaigns have been designed, views l i t e r a c y as a v a l u e - f r e e n e u t r a l its  s o c i a l context.  technology, detached from  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e presumes t h e r e i s a  c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a c y and economic development and  between l i t e r a c y and change i n human processes of thought  and  s o c i a l organization.  for  individuals  logical,  L e a r n i n g t o read and w r i t e ,  both  and s o c i e t i e s , r e s u l t s i n t h e expansion of  abstract  thinking.  l i t e r a t e and n o n - l i t e r a t e  A "great d i v i d e " between  s o c i e t i e s i s assumed from t h i s  perspective.  In c o n t r a s t ,  t h e i d e o l o g i c a l model c o n s i d e r s t h e  importance of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e process of making i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t i e s l i t e r a t e .  Literacy's  f u n c t i o n s and consequences a r e seen as embedded i n t h e i r s o c i a l contexts.  L i t e r a c y may be used as a t o o l of those who  c o n t r o l t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l society.  ( i d e o l o g i c a l ) l i f e of a  Rather than a r t i f i c i a l l y  non-literate  s e p a r a t i n g l i t e r a t e and  uses of language, t h e i d e o l o g i c a l view  emphasizes i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r a l and w r i t t e n language.  The d i f f e r i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l  positions  between the  autonomous and i d e o l o g i c a l views of l i t e r a c y a f f e c t t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e  of l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n profoundly.  8  2.2.  The  Autonomous Model of  2.2.1. B a s i c  The  Literacy  Thought i n the Autonomous Model  arguments of Jack Goody (1968, 1977)  form one  of  foundations of the autonomous model of l i t e r a c y .  By  c o n t r a s t i n g uses of p r i n t t e c h n o l o g i e s  in certain  literate  n o n - l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s , Goody argues t h a t the  thinking  and  processes of p r e - l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s are c o n c r e t e and  their  language e x p r e s s i o n r e f l e c t s b a s i c , p e r s o n a l needs. i n t r o d u c t i o n of l i t e r a c y changes s o c i e t a l needs by f o r permanency of e x p r e s s i o n which gives p o s s i b i l i t y of c r i t i c i s m and  logic.  r i s e to  The allowing  the  C i t i n g recent  the f i e l d s of s o c i a l anthropology, l i n g u i s t i c s  the  work i n  and  philosophy, S t r e e t takes Goody t o t a s k by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t Goody o v e r s t a t e s o r a l and  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between  literate societies.  Street claims that l i t e r a c y i s  a s o c i a l l y - c o n s t r u c t e d medium whose i n f l u e n c e depends on p o l i t i c a l and  i d e o l o g i c a l formations.  f u r t h e r argues t h a t p r i n t and n e u t r a l , but  in a  society Street  a l l technology i t s e l f  a r i s e s from p o l i t i c a l and  i s not  i d e o l o g i c a l processes  and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Not  mentioned by S t r e e t , but  autonomous view i s Walter Ong written  equally  s u p p o r t i v e of  (1982), who  proposes t h a t  communication i n c o n t r a s t  the  t o o r a l language i s not  9  dependent on t h e s i t u a t i o n i n which i t i s used and i s therefore objective  and a b s t r a c t .  q u a l i t i e s form t h e b a s i s history, itself.  Ong argues t h a t  these  f o r t h e development of s c i e n c e ,  philosophy, and f o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of language F o r both Goody and Ong, l i t e r a c y i s not o n l y equated  w i t h but t h e cause of t h e "domestication of t h e savage mind" and  t h e consequent progress of c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h i t s economic  and  social  benefits.  2.2.2. C u l t u r e and S c h o o l i n g  The  causes of f a i l u r e t o l e a r n l i t e r a c y through  s c h o o l i n g has been a concern of many l i t e r a c y t h e o r i s t s who have developed t h e autonomous model of l i t e r a c y . approach i s t o p o i n t  A common  t o t h e l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r  schooling  i n c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s and t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n culturally-based  learning  patterns.  A direct  relationship  between c u l t u r a l behaviour and l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n i s assumed.  T h i s p o s i t i o n may appear t o p l a c e these  in Street's culture  i d e o l o g i c a l model, s i n c e  s o c i a l i z a t i o n through  i s argued as t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r f o r  However, these t h e o r i s t s propose a p o s i t i v e between a c c u l t u r a t i o n recognition  theorists  illiteracy. relationship  and l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n , w i t h no  of p o l i t i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l or s o c i a l  influences.  Moreover, because t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n s between l i t e r a t e and non-literate  groups a r e based s o l e l y on a c c u l t u r a t i o n ,  do not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n  cross-cultural  they  relationships  10  of domination and s u b j u g a t i o n .  These p o s i t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t  they f i t i n t o S t r e e t ' s autonomous model.  Exemplifying  t h i s p o s i t i o n a r e s o c i o l i n g u i s t s such as  Jenny Cook-Gumperz and John Gumperz (1986) who focus on t h e school and home i n e x p l a i n i n g l i t e r a c y d i f f i c u l t i e s .  They  show t h a t s c h o o l demands a d i f f e r e n t communicative approach from t h e c o n c r e t e and s i t u a t i o n - b a s e d d i s c o u r s e used i n many homes.  C h i l d r e n a t school must have t h e a b i l i t y t o  "decontextualize"  i n f o r m a t i o n t o use i t .  If i n s u f f i c i e n t  l i t e r a t e p r e p a r a t i o n i s done a t home (e.g. by i n t r o d u c t i o n of ideas through books and other l i t e r a t e a c t i v i t i e s ) t h e c h i l d s u f f e r s i n the school s e t t i n g . Sarah Michaels  Likewise,  (1986) observe t h a t p r i o r knowledge p o w e r f u l l y  i n f l u e n c e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d i s c o u r s e . knowledge of c u l t u r a l conventions provides  James C o l l i n s and  an important  They p o i n t out t h a t  in literate  expression  framework f o r readers' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  s i n c e the n a t u r a l feedback resources  of f a c e - t o - f a c e  communication are not a v a i l a b l e i n w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e  Ron  (p.209).  S c o l l o n and Suzanne B. K. S c o l l o n (1981, 1984)  f o l l o w t h i s l i n e of thought i n r e s e a r c h done with  northern  Athapaskans i n Canada and Alaska, t h e group which i s the" s u b j e c t of t h e present they c a l l  study.  D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between what  "bush" and "modern consciousness",  they e x p l o r e the  i n h e r e n t o p p o s i t i o n t h a t modern l i f e holds f o r Athapaskans. World views, d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s , and e d u c a t i o n a l approaches  11  are  r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t between Athapaskan and  cultures.  Contrasting  "white"  t h e i r own c h i l d t o a n A t h a p a s k a n  i n v i e w o f each one's l i t e r a t e a c t i v i t i e s ,  child  S c o l l o n and  S c o l l o n a r g u e t h a t t h e i r own c h i l d ' s t h o r o u g h p r e p a r a t i o n i n the  d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of ideas  self"  i n their parenting  and t h e " f i c t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f  made f o r a p r e p a r a t i o n  for literacy  t h a t was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e A t h a p a s k a n c h i l d f r o m an o r a l culture.  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  between "white"  a n d A t h a p a s k a n a r e so g r e a t  precipitate a crisis  i n ethnic  that  literacy  may  i d e n t i t y f o r Athapaskans, a  reason to r e s i s t i t .  J o h n Ogbu ( 1 9 8 2 , 1987) h a s a l s o u s e d a c o m p a r a t i v e cultural perspective minority  t o address the question  o f why some  c u l t u r e s do w e l l i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n  s y s t e m s a n d some do n o t .  educational  Ogbu c l a s s i f i e s m i n o r i t i e s i n t o  i m m i g r a n t s and i n v o l u n t a r y m i n o r i t i e s w i t h t h e l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g American blacks  and n a t i v e  Indians.  In contrasting  t h e t w o , Ogbu s a y s t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f i n v o l u n t a r y m i n o r i t i e s c a n be b a s e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e m a j o r i t y culture,  or i n "cultural  inversion".  involuntary m i n o r i t i e s developing reference  and c r i t e r i a  t o be a p p r o p r i a t e appropriate  only  f o r success,  f o r the majority i fliteracy  often results i n  d i f f e r e n t frames of conceiving  f o r themselves while  implication i s that culture,  This  other  culture.  i s valued  some b e h a v i o u r  behaviour i s A possible  by t h e dominant  i t may n o t b e by i n v o l u n t a r y m i n o r i t i e s b e c a u s e o f  12  this oppositional social  identity.  O p p o s i t i o n a l i d e n t i t y may behaviour.  g i v e r i s e t*b r e s i s t a n c e  For i n s t a n c e , i n v o l u n t a r y m i n o r i t i e s may  t r u s t m a j o r i t y i n s t i t u t i o n s such as schools i f they t h e i r experience l a s t i n g and  not perceive  of o p p r e s s i o n by the dominant group t o be  i f they view the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h as  d e s t r u c t i o n of an o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l frame of r e f e r e n c e .  Ogbu  claims t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s encountered i n s c h o o l may seen as i n d i c a t o r s of i d e n t i t y to be maintained, b a r r i e r s t o be overcome i f accommodating the  not  be  as  school's  a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s t h r e a t e n such markers of e t h n i c i t y as t h e i r language, c u l t u r e , and  identity  (1987, p.330).  Pressures m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t " a c t i n g white".  These "boundary-  m a i n t a i n i n g mechanisms" (1987, p.327) work counter academic success.  Ogbu concludes  to  that involuntary minorities  have p e r s i s t e n t l y h i g h r a t e s of s c h o o l f a i l u r e because they have d i f f i c u l t y c r o s s i n g these self-imposed  cultural  boundaries.  2.2.3. C u l t u r e and Language E d u c a t i o n  Language education's  response to the dilemma of c u l t u r a l  d i f f e r e n c e s has been the p r o d u c t i o n of a wide range of i n n o v a t i o n s i n m a t e r i a l s and methods which mainly the autonomous model.  conform t o  A l o n g - s t a n d i n g approach focuses  on  c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s of languages t o r e c o n c i l e l i n g u i s t i c  13  differences  (e.g. F i s i a k ,  1981).  For North American  Indians,  c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has been done i n the Southwest United S t a t e s with the Navajo and o t h e r t r i b e s .  Attempts have been  made t o g e n e r a l i z e these f i n d i n g s t o a l l American languages ( F l e t c h e r , 1983;  Indian  Leap, 1974).  Many approaches have attempted t o i n c o r p o r a t e n a t i v e language and c u l t u r e i n t o s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n order t o minimize the p e r c e i v e d gap between s c h o o l d i s c o u r s e and t h a t of the home and n a t i v e community.  Bernard  Spolsky  (1982)  d e s c r i b e d the e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n at Rock P o i n t where the spoken language has been Navajo, and the w r i t t e n , E n g l i s h . Changes i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m allowed f o r Navajo as a w r i t t e n medium i n the lower grades w i t h p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n general l i t e r a c y .  Spolsky c i t e d another  example on  P a c i f i c Northwest of the U n i t e d S t a t e s which b r i n g s  the specific  Indian content t o an E n g l i s h r e a d i n g program, i n c r e a s i n g m o t i v a t i o n towards r e a d i n g .  Teresa McCarty (1980) d e t a i l e d  s i m i l a r c u r r i c u l u m changes f o r the Yavapai-Apache, the use of legends  and e l d e r s i n the s c h o o l .  advocating  Karen  Ann  Watson-Gegeo (1988) r e p o r t e d on a program i n the Solomon Islands where classroom  s t r a t e g i e s were developed  t o be  c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o the l o c a l n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s . The Kamehameha E a r l y E d u c a t i o n Program has been s u c c e s s f u l i n r a i s i n g r e a d i n g scores on normed t e s t s by i n t r o d u c i n g r e a d i n g l e s s o n s which are based on a " t a l k - s t o r y " format of n a r r a t i o n which was  adapted from n a t i v e Hawaiian c u l t u r e .  14  Courtney Cazden and Vera John (1971) and John (1972) exemplify the enthusiasm f o r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t y l e s .  They  claimed t h a t Indian c h i l d r e n l e a r n more v i s u a l l y than v e r b a l l y and l e a r n best through o b s e r v a t i o n and  imitation.  They p o i n t out t h a t t h i s i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the u s u a l classroom techniques r e q u i r i n g v e r b a l and l i t e r a t e skills.  language  They s t r e s s t h a t Indian l e a r n i n g s t y l e s can be used  as a f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l t e r i n g language t e a c h i n g techniques t o be more d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i v e t o n a t i v e s t u d e n t s .  Nancy Modiano (1974) advocated a d i r e c t  bilingual  approach t o language i n s t r u c t i o n from her work w i t h Indians i n the Chiapas Highlands of Mexico.  She argued t h a t the most  e f f e c t i v e language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i s the  mother tongue.  J e f f r e y K o b r i c k (1974) l i k e w i s e argued  t h a t the most fundamental need i n Indian e d u c a t i o n i s a change i n p o i n t of view t o s e e i n g b i l i n g u a l students as advantaged, and t o b u i l d on t h a t advantage. M e r r i l l Swain  Jim Cummins and  (1986) have d i s c u s s e d the r e s u l t s of Canadian  s t u d i e s on immigrant s t u d e n t s ' second language a c q u i s i t i o n and s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g b i l i n g u a l language use i n the home t o academic achievement. first  They p o s i t t h a t a m i n o r i t y student's  language c o g n i t i v e / a c a d e m i c s k i l l s are as important as  second language exposure f o r the development and academic s k i l l s  i n the second language.  of p r o f i c i e n c y  15  2.2.4. C u l t u r e and S o c i a l i z a t i o n  The autonomous model supports t h e i d e a of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g through education, o r " l i f e s k i l l s " l i t e r a c y education.  components t o  These s k i l l s a r e assumed t o be  t e c h n i c a l l y - b a s e d and not bound t o s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l influences.  Some educators advocate  a conscious e f f o r t t o  t e a c h the expected modes of o r a l and l i t e r a t e i n t e r a c t i o n and l i f e s t y l e s so t h a t t h e Indian c h i l d i n p a r t i c u l a r w i l l know what i s expected by t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and w i l l have a c h o i c e of access t o a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n .  Judith Kleinfeld  (1979) i n A l a s k a has claimed t h a t r e s i s t a n c e responses i n education by another c u l t u r e can b e s t be d e a l t w i t h by an approach which promotes " c u l t u r a l f u s i o n a t l e a s t i n such areas as v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s "  (p.135).  She advocated a  system where students would analyse v a l u e c o n f l i c t s and l e a r n how t o apply t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e v a l u e s i n contemporary l i f e . Anything s h o r t of t h a t , says Susan P h i l i p s  (1972),  would  r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y amongst n a t i v e students.  2.2.5. Community I n c l u s i o n i n S c h o o l i n g  T h e o r i s t s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s have proposed  reform not o n l y  to  t h e content and methodology of m i n o r i t y e d u c a t i o n but a l s o  to  broader e d u c a t i o n a l  and community s t r u c t u r e s .  Jim  16  Cummins (1986) documents the p e r s i s t e n c e of m i n o r i t y students'  s c h o o l f a i l u r e and  contends t h a t most attempts at  c u r r i c u l u m change have f a i l e d to a l t e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teachers community.  and  students  and the school and  the  He proposes " i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e d e f i n i t i o n s "  (p.19)  t o r e v e r s e t h i s p a t t e r n , and d i r e c t i o n s f o r change f o r policymakers  "at a l l l e v e l s of the e d u c a t i o n a l  hierarchy"  ( i b i d . ) . These i n c l u d e the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of m i n o r i t y students'  c u l t u r e and  language i n the c u r r i c u l u m ,  changing of pedagogical  assumptions and p r a c t i c e s e s p e c i a l l y  i n assessment, and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of m i n o r i t y i n t o the education  communities  of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Cummins' proposals education  the  draw on numerous accounts of m i n o r i t y  internationally.  Ralph F o l d s  (1989) argues t h a t  b i l i n g u a l programs f o r a b o r i g i n a l A u s t r a l i a n s have had r e s u l t s because too l i t t l e  mixed  a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s surrounding  the programs.  Folds  claims t h a t s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n has been ignored the A b o r i g i n a l communities have been subjugated i n v o l v e d i n the programs.  and  r a t h e r than  L u i s M o l l and Stephen Diaz  (1987)  and H. Trueba (1984) r e p o r t e d case s t u d i e s which appear to counter these tendencies  among H i s p a n i c students,  teachers  and communities i n the United S t a t e s by implementing  reading  and w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n courses  relevant  t o the l o c a l s o c i a l context.  which are c u l t u r a l l y  They d e s c r i b e the community  s e t t i n g through microethnographic  techniques,  then i n t e g r a t e  17  t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n t o classroom methods and have e s t a b l i s h e d what they c a l l where r e s e a r c h full  curricula.  "educational  on s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l  They  laboratories"  i s s u e s i s done through  involvement of the community members, students,  and  teachers.  Kleinfeld  (1979) would s i m i l a r l y enhance s o c i a l i z a t i o n  i n n a t i v e schools  i n A l a s k a by promoting community esteem on  the s i d e s of m i n o r i t y  and m a j o r i t y  c u l t u r e s a l i k e and  c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f u s i n g elements of both c u l t u r e s than s e p a r a t i n g them. "cultural p o l i t i c s " help  rather  Seeing an i n c r e a s i n g problem w i t h  she noted t h a t such an approach might  "prevent s c h o o l  subjects  or ways of behaviour t h a t b r i n g  access to modern l i f e from becoming p o l i t i c i z e d " However, the proposals  (p.135).  advanced by t h i s i n f l u e n t i a l  i n A l a s k a have not emerged i n the decade s i n c e she d e s p i t e the enormous impact of a land claims Indeed, the n a t i v e emphasis has the decade has  by  educator wrote,  settlement.  been s t r o n g l y p o l i t i c a l ,  seen i n s t e a d f i r m r e s i s t a n c e t o e s t a b l i s h e d  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  promotion of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  Rather  than a " f u s i o n " , a f u r t h e r s e p a r a t i o n between m a j o r i t y minority fronts,  and  and  s o c i e t y appears t o have been r e i n f o r c e d on a l l including  education.  2.2.6. Reform i n Northern Native  L i t e r a c y and  C u l t u r a l reforms t o s y l l a b u s content and  Education  methodology  18  have been advocated f o r many years i n Indian have not been implemented t o any great  pedagogy but  degree.  In a few  cases a b o r i g i n a l languages a r e b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d  into  school  s y l l a b i t o a minimal degree (Shearwood 1987) and courses i n a d u l t a b o r i g i n a l language i n s t r u c t i o n have begun t o emerge. Where such supplementary c u r r i c u l a have been used, they confront  a general  from schools high.  s i t u a t i o n where dropout of n a t i v e  still  students  and a d u l t i l l i t e r a c y r a t e s a r e e x c e p t i o n a l l y  The 1986 Census Canada r e p o r t s t h e percentage of  r e g i s t e r e d Indians w i t h l e s s than grade nine i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s as 60.4 w h i l e t h e percentage of t h e same category f o r the g e n e r a l  population  i s 28.8.  The same s t a t i s t i c s f o r  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y a r e 35.6% r e g i s t e r e d Indians w i t h l e s s than grade nine and 7.5% f o r the general  population.  Non-  r e c o g n i t i o n or o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l language, v a l u e s and l e a r n i n g systems by the dominant c u l t u r e have been met  by r e s i s t a n c e i n n a t i v e communities (Haig-Brown, 1988).  Today t h i s i s o f t e n expressed through independent and  educational  2.3.  political  structures.  The I d e o l o g i c a l Model of L i t e r a c y  2.3.1. S t r e e t ' s  I d e o l o g i c a l Model  S t r e e t r e f u t e s the autonomous model of l i t e r a c y by first and  r e v i e w i n g the f i n d i n g s of r e s e a r c h  by S y l v i a  Scribner  Michael Cole (1978, 1979, 1981), who assessed the  19  c o g n i t i v e consequences Liberia. Vai  of l i t e r a c y amongst the V a i people of  S c r i b n e r and Cole found l i t e r a t e and  performed  non-literate  c o g n i t i v e t a s k s a t s i m i l a r l e v e l s of  p r o f i c i e n c y and t h a t s c h o o l i n g appeared t o improve c o g n i t i v e t a s k s , but not o t h e r s .  some  They concluded t h a t  social  and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s other than l i t e r a c y have a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on t h i n k i n g than does the technology of l i t e r a c y :  I t i s apparent t h a t V a i people have developed h i g h l y d i v e r s i f i e d uses f o r w r i t i n g , and t h a t a host of pragmatic,  ideological,  s u s t a i n popular l i t e r a c y  and i n t e l l e c t u a l (1981,  factors  p.86).  S t r e e t concludes from t h i s t h a t w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e i s as l i k e l y t o be changeable of  as o r a l d i s c o u r s e , and t h a t the uses  l i t e r a c y are based on s o c i a l conventions r a t h e r than b e i n g  u n i v e r s a l t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s which t r a n s f o r m t h i n k i n g as proposed by the autonomous model.  2.3.2. The Context of L i t e r a c y  S t r e e t proposes t h a t the p e r p e t u a t i o n of l i t e r a c y  (and  i l l i t e r a c y ) i s through i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t r e i n f o r c e the domination of c e r t a i n groups.  He d e f i n e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of what he terms the i d e o l o g i c a l model of l i t e r a c y f o l l o w s (condensed  from p.8):  as  20  1. the meaning of l i t e r a c y depends upon the institutions  social  i n which i t i s embedded;  2. l i t e r a c y can only be known i n p o l i t i c a l l y ideologically-significant  forms and  and  cannot be  treated  as i f i t were "autonomous";  3. the p r a c t i c e s of r e a d i n g  and  w r i t i n g taught i n  any  context depend upon aspects of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e such as s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and  the r o l e of  educational  institutions.  S t r e e t f i n d s f u r t h e r support f o r h i s i d e o l g i c a l model i n the work of S h i r l e y B r i c e Heath (1984) on  literacy  a c q u i s i t i o n among neighbouring American b l a c k communities.  B r i c e Heath r e j e c t s the  technical s k i l l  and  seen as a way  For her,  behaviour, but  reading  In one  article,  Heath observes t h a t  and  " t a k i n g meaning" from  i s a p a r t of  to ideology not  and  write;  (1984, p.15), and  Gumperz (1986) and  socialization  reviewed by S t r e e t ,  Brice same t h i n g  i t i s learning to t a l k concludes:  the  learned  "becoming l i t e r a t e i s not the  as l e a r n i n g t o read and writing"  of  as a  argues t h a t l i t e r a c y v a r i e s across  within cultures according  and  idea of r e a d i n g  i n c o n t r a s t t o Cook-Gumperz and  Ogbu (1987), she  - patterns.  white  (which i s the autonomous p o s i t i o n )  p r e f e r s i t t o be environment.  and  1  reading  21  L i t e r a t e understanding  r e q u i r e s f a r more than b a s i c  l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and t h e c u r r e n t emphasis on b a s i c s k i l l s t o e l i m i n a t e the " l i t e r a c y c r i s i s " w i l l not g i v e us l i t e r a t e students  (p.27).  S t r e e t s t a t e s t h a t the meaning of l i t e r a c y i s t h e r e f o r e context-dependent, t h a t we should r e f e r not t o one l i t e r a c y , but t o " l i t e r a c i e s " and t h a t the uses and consequences of l i t e r a c y are profoundly  a f f e c t e d by t h e b e l i e f s and  fundamental concepts through which a s o c i e t y c r e a t e s order of i t s world.  F u r t h e r , these  systems are not " n a t u r a l " , but are  s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and a r e s u l t of p r e v a i l i n g i d e o l o g i e s .  2.3.3. Reproduction  A simple  Theory  i d e o l o g i c a l view of s c h o o l i n g i s t h a t i t i s  bound t o reproduce the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the domination of one group by another, because of the c a p i t a l i s t economic system. Marxist  Carnoy (1974) i s t y p i c a l of t h i s Neo-  ideological position:  schools are p r i m a r i l y p l a c e s t o develop v o c a t i o n a l (cognitive) s k i l l s that f i t i n with a s o c i e t a l o b j e c t i v e of maximising economic growth...Schools t r a n s f e r c u l t u r e and v a l u e s and they channel c h i l d r e n into various roles. The  They h e l p maintain  social  order.  common school i s the i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t developed  22  w i t h i n c a p i t a l i s t economic and  social  structures  prepare i n d i v i d u a l s f o r assuming v a r i o u s those s t r u c t u r e s  to  roles in  (p.330).  This argument says t h a t reform i n the e d u c a t i o n system i s not  l i k e l y to l e a d t o change because the  and  cultural  problems are not  d e a l t with.  one  p a r t of the whole system needing  l a r g e r economic Schools are  only  transformation.  However, more complex i s s u e s need t o be accounted f o r to determine the r e l a t i o n s between l i t e r a c y , s o c i e t y (Mallea,  1989;  2.3.4. L i t e r a c y and  and  1984).  Power R e l a t i o n s  Street discusses research  Street,  education,  Harvey G r a f f ' s  on l i t e r a c y i n 19th  t h a t l i t e r a c y d i d not  (1979) h i s t o r i c a l  century Canada.  G r a f f shows  overcome s o c i a l disadvantages and  that  employment depended not on l i t e r a c y , but on e t h n i c i t y .  Those  who  by  were amongst the advantaged were f u r t h e r advantaged  being s o c i a l l y appropriate  so t h a t E n g l i s h i l l i t e r a t e s  more rewards than immigrant i l l i t e r a t e s . greater  gained  G r a f f argues t h a t  l i t e r a c y i s not consonant w i t h i n c r e a s e d  equality  democracy but w i t h f u r t h e r s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and  i s used  for social control.  According to Street, States  and  the United  l i t e r a c y campaigns i n the  Kingdom blame the  and  United  individual for  23  i l l i t e r a c y and unemployment, i g n o r i n g the f a c t t h a t poverty and c l a s s s t r u c t u r e are more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r low l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y than the r e v e r s e .  Street claims that i l l i t e r a c y i s  simply one f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i n g amongst many others such  as  c l a s s , race, sex, w e l f a r e dependency, unemployment, poor housing,  and a general sense of powerlessness.  Rather  than  working to change i n d i v i d u a l s , S t r e e t proposes t h a t the only long-term  way  of d e a l i n g w i t h l i t e r a c y l e v e l s i s t o change  institutions.  The  i n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y are the p e r p e t u a t i n g  mechanisms f o r l i t e r a c y or n o n - l i t e r a c y (and hence power and powerlessness)  f o r S t r e e t , but other t h e o r i s t s look beyond  i n s t i t u t i o n s t o more p e r v a s i v e s t r u c t u r e s and mechanisms. James Ryan (1989) d i s c u s s e s the h i g h drop-out  r a t e of the  Innut of Labrador  from the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of  Foucault  The modern Western system of  (1979).  o r g a n i z a t i o n which F o u c a u l t c a l l s  social  " d i s c i p l i n e " i s i n Ryan's  view the c o n t r o l l i n g mechanism which "normalizes" from the a c c e p t a b l e standards Ryan observed  deviants  imposed by the dominant group.  i n c i d e n t s of d i s c i p l i n e i n an Innu community  and s c h o o l which he concluded  l e d t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and  s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the students as n e g a t i v e .  This  p i c t u r e i s perpetuated by both those dominating  the  dominated.  and  I t i s compounded by l e a r n i n g impediments such  as  language and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a c u l t u r a l l y - i n a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r i c u l u m , s o c i a l promotion, r e j e c t i o n of the process of  24  s c h o o l i n g as b e i n g does not  i r r e l e v a n t and p e r c e p t i o n s  l e a d t o employment.  that  schooling  Ryan i s p e s s i m i s t i c t h a t  changes brought about w i t h i n the s c h o o l  system w i l l  change  the s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e the problem l i e s i n the broader s o c i e t y .  On  a more o p t i m i s t i c note, McLaughlin's (1989) a n a l y s i s  of Navajo l i t e r a c y shows t h a t i t i s used by  individuals in  the community he s t u d i e d f o r a v a r i e t y of purposes u s e f u l f o r maintaining  t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and  understanding.  we  He  f o r promoting s e l f -  states that:  need t o examine the  i n t e r a c t i o n a l minutiae of  l i t e r a c y events... t o understand the p r a c t i c e s  and  i d e o l o g i e s of l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t c o n s t r a i n  and  enable i n t e r a c t i o n , t h a t render readers and w r i t e r s o b j e c t s and  subjects  as  (p.286).  McLaughlin concludes t h a t the i d e o l o g i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s can both l i m i t and  p r a c t i c e s of  allow a c t i o n and  that  student  understanding of the i d e o l o g i e s of l i t e r a c y i n s t i t u t i o n s  will  a s s i s t i n a c t i o n f o r change.  2.3.5. R e s i s t a n c e  Theory  McLaughlin's b e l i e f t h a t student involvement w i l l  bring  change i s r e f l e c t e d by r e s i s t a n c e t h e o r i s t s such as A l l e n Quigley  (1990).  Quigley  discusses nonparticipation i n  25  l i t e r a c y programs as r e s i s t a n c e t o the dominant s o c i e t y which i s reproduced i n s c h o o l i n g .  Using a phenomenological  r e s e a r c h method he analyses .the phenomenon of r e s i s t a n c e through a n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d works of  fiction.  Quigley d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l what he found t o be stages of r e s i s t a n c e , n o t i n g t h a t t h i s process p l a c e with the same degree of v i s i b i l i t y resister.  d i d not  He emphasizes t h a t r e s i s t a n c e was  i n the s c h o o l .  "deficit  take  or speed w i t h each not  l e a r n i n g nor o b j e c t i v e knowledge but a g a i n s t the felt  the  against subjugation  He claims t h e r e i s a need t o change the  p e r s p e c t i v e " of a d u l t b a s i c education  and  to  recognize t h a t n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a d e l i b e r a t e c h o i c e . Models must be designed  w i t h the r e s i s t e r s and be grounded i n  r e l e v a n t v a l u e s and c u l t u r a l systems with r e c o g n i t i o n of the "courageous i n d i v i d u a l s " who  Henry Giroux  (1981, 1983)  resist.  and Giroux  and  Stanley  Aronowitz (1985) have expanded on the s t r i c t l y economic r e p r o d u c t i o n theory of Neo-Marxists educators. s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n theory of education s c h o o l i n g and  as  They d e s c r i b e  "a view of  domination t h a t appears t o have been  out of an O r w e l l i a n f a n t a s y "  (1985, p.71)  pressed  and r e j e c t i t  because:  human s u b j e c t s g e n e r a l l y "disappear" t h a t leaves no room f o r moments of  amidst a theory  self-creation,  26  mediation,  Giroux  and  resistance (ibid.)  (1983) argues t h a t :  i n no sense do teachers  and  students  uniformly  f u n c t i o n i n schools as simply the p a s s i v e r e f l e x of the l o g i c of c a p i t a l . . . they a l s o serve other i n t e r e s t s as w e l l , some of which are i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the economic order and the needs of the dominant s o c i e t y . . . teachers  and  students  do not simply  receive  i n f o r m a t i o n ; they a l s o produce and mediate i t (p.58).  By i g n o r i n g r e s i s t a n c e , r e p r o d u c t i o n t h e o r i e s o f f e r l i t t l e hope f o r changing the r e p r e s s i v e f e a t u r e s of s c h o o l i n g (1985, p.71).  The  student  should be viewed as  an  a c t o r i n the s t r u g g l e f o r human l i b e r a t i o n and the school a s i t e where a c t i o n can be both c o n s t r a i n e d and S o c i a l domination i s not seen by Giroux  the r o l e t h a t students the most o p p r e s s i v e compliance.  p l a y i s not only one  that i s  Moreover  of c h a l l e n g e  elements of s c h o o l i n g but a l s o one  of  a dominating r a t h e r than a l i b e r a t i n g  For i n s t a n c e , sexual behaviour of students may  taken as c h a l l e n g i n g t o the domination around them but  be can  have w i t h i n i t s e l f elements of sexism which l e a d t o more oppression.  to  O p p o s i t i o n a l behaviour can be emancipatory or  can c o n t a i n i n i t s e l f logic.  mobilized.  as a process  s t a t i c or complete, but one t h a t i s d i a l e c t i c a l .  as  27  McLaughlin and Q u i g l e y d i s c u s s l i t e r a c y as b e i n g a t o o l of s o c i a l domination and r e s i s t e d because of i t .  In t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a p u b l i c a t i o n by F r e i r e and Macedo (1987), Giroux supports t h i s i d e a and says t h a t the r e f u s a l t o become l i t e r a t e should t h e r e f o r e :  be seen as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t warrant such r e s i s t a n c e . . . [ i t ] provides the pedagogical basis f o r engaging i n a c r i t i c a l d i a l o g u e w i t h those groups whose t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r e s are o f t e n t h e o b j e c t of a massive a s s a u l t and attempt by the dominant c u l t u r e t o d e l e g i t i m a t e and d i s o r g a n i z e the knowledge and t r a d i t i o n s such groups use t o d e f i n e themselves and t h e i r view of the world (p.13).  In McLaughlin, Q u i g l e y and Giroux's terms, r e s i s t a n c e t o becoming l i t e r a t e can be based on more than o p p o s i t i o n t o c u l t u r a l domination.  I t can be the product of i d e o l o g i c a l  v a l u e s and t h i s can be an opening f o r f u r t h e r  learning.  Seeing r e s i s t a n c e as i d e o l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d exposes and enables e d u c a t i o n a l and l i b e r a t o r y p o s s i b i l i t i e s which can be used t o reform e d u c a t i o n through c r i t i c a l  action.  28  2.3.6. Pedagogy and the I d e o l o g i c a l Model  Much recent  l i t e r a c y p r a c t i c e i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l model  i s based on Paulo F r e i r e ' s (1972, 1976, 1978, 1985) approach to t e a c h i n g action.  i l l i t e r a t e B r a z i l i a n peasants based on p o l i t i c a l  F r e i r e and h i s f o l l o w e r s b e l i e v e t h a t through  problem-posing d i a l o g u e  i n l i t e r a c y education,  through a c r i t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  stage  l e a r n e r s pass  ("conscientization")  where an a n a l y s i s of c u l t u r e takes p l a c e which r e v e a l s t h e underlying  i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t y .  Being aware of  these s t r u c t u r e s leads t o a c o n v i c t i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e l e a r n e r s t h a t becoming a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r own change and e v e n t u a l l y  in political  a c t i o n t o a l t e r dominating  systems i s i n e v i t a b l e .  In c r i t i c i z i n g t h e autonomous model of l i t e r a c y ,  Street  argues t h a t t h e idea of " f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y " as endorsed by UNESCO d i s g u i s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i t e r a c y programs t o t h e underlying p o l i t i c a l sponsors.  and i d e o l o g i c a l framework of t h e  He c o n t r a s t s the e a r l y UNESCO l i t e r a c y programs  which were assessed i n terms of economic r e t u r n t o the work of F r e i r e .  Nina W a l l e r s t e i n attempting t o apply  (1983) i s one of t h e few educators  F r e i r i a n techniques i n North America,  working w i t h immigrants i n t h e United inductive questioning  strategy,  States.  Using an  she has students d e f i n e a  29  s o c i a l problem they are e x p e r i e n c i n g through use of v i s u a l a i d s and d i a l o g u e , f a c i l i t a t i n g  them t o analyse  their  f e e l i n g s and t o e x p l o r e s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s they have encountered.  They are asked t o d i s c u s s why  they t h i n k  c e r t a i n problems e x i s t , and what they can do about the situation.  The  s y l l a b u s i s generated  from the  resulting  d i a l o g u e which p r o v i d e s m a t e r i a l f o r r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g about change.  2.3.7. C r i t i q u i n g C r i t i c a l  Pedagogy  In the i d e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e reviewed  there i s l i t t l e  mention made of the r e s u l t s of a p p l y i n g theory t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n any it  systematic way.  Shor (1987) comes c l o s e s t t o  i n d e s c r i b i n g some of h i s own  m i d d l e - c l a s s c o l l e g e students. liberatory c r i t i c a l amongst students. work i n c r i t i c a l Jackson  a c t i o n has  experiments w i t h white Nor has  i t been shown t h a t  l e d t o e f f e c t i v e change  In d i s c u s s i n g W a l l e r s t e i n ' s and  others'  pedagogy i n a d u l t language education,  (1987) notes t h a t t h e r e i s no mention of the a c t i o n  t h a t r e s u l t e d from students'  "critical  consciousness".  Thus  these educators beg the q u e s t i o n :  to  what extent does problem-posing  real action?  It i s v i t a l  i n problem-posing  education l e a d t o  t h a t accounts  of experiments  account .for the concrete r e s u l t s of  the process as w e l l as the theory behind  i t (p.136).  30  2.4.  L i t e r a c y and Power i n Northern Canada  The l a c k of r e s e a r c h on a c t u a l experiences of  literacy  pedagogy i s very apparent i n the context of n o r t h e r n Canada. P e r r y Shearwood (1987) agrees t h a t l i t e r a c i e s are d e r i v e d from s o c i a l c o n t e x t s and proposes a taxonomy of l i t e r a c i e s f o r the I n u i t and Athapaskan Territories  peoples of the  Northwest  which expresses the r e l a t i o n s h i p of k i n d s of  l i t e r a c y to t h e i r  social functions.  Shearwood  acknowledges t h a t although he proposes  indirectly  s i x types of  literacy  f o r these peoples, i n many i n s t a n c e s competency i n l i t e r a c y i s not widespread  amongst the a b o r i g i n a l peoples of the  N.W.T. and suggests t h a t  "schooled v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a c y "  "pragmatic E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y " may  be t r a n s i t i o n  s c h o o l t o the expected a b i l i t y i n " e s s a y i s t (p.639).  and  r o u t e s i n the  literacy"  I t remains t o be seen i f Shearwood's ideas are  t e s t e d or implemented i n the s c h o o l system of the  Northwest  Territories.  Arlene S t a i r s  (1990) r e p o r t s her study of I n u k t i t u t  E n g l i s h w r i t i n g w i t h elementary  and  students i n n o r t h e r n Quebec  as a "journey of r e d i r e c t i o n i n n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l and language  r e s e a r c h " (p.103).  She reviews the r e s e a r c h she d i d  from the p o i n t of view of the I n u i t community who  expressed  31  concerns about c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n and assimilation.  She  s t a t e s t h a t these questions  e x p l i c i t l y precede and  must  inform t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h ;  implicit  assumptions such as the value of l i t e r a c y on the p a r t of the r e s e a r c h e r s must be acknowledged.  S t a i r s says t h a t while some I n u i t agree with c u l t u r a l assumptions of the non-Inuit,  there i s overt  c o n f l i c t and o p p o s i t i o n to e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l The  the  institutions.  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the r o l e of c h i l d r e n i n s o c i e t y , the  " d r i f t i n g i n t o anomie and drugs" (p.118) and the  overloading  of c h i l d r e n w i t h d e c o n t e x t u a l i s e d t e a c h i n g pushes them o u t s i d e the e c o l o g i c a l harmony of t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e .  This  c r e a t e d f e a r amongst e l d e r s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l ways are trivialized, cohesion  the r o l e of the community destroyed  abandoned.  t h a t " c u l t u r a l b r i d g e s " may  " c u l t u r a l brokers"  being social  Loss of language i s paramount i n t h i s  f e a r and the s c h o o l i s seen as the instrument S t a i r s concludes  and  has  of d e s t r u c t i o n . be b u i l t  through  such as I n u i t t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s (p.119)  and t h a t we must ask what we  can l e a r n from t r a d i t i o n a l  n a t i v e ways of knowing, t e a c h i n g and u s i n g language.  N e i t h e r S t a i r s nor Shearwood s e r i o u s l y address the complex problem of the c o n f l i c t of c u l t u r e s and between a b o r i g i n a l peoples and the s c h o o l .  ideologies  Both assume t h a t  s o l u t i o n s to a b o r i g i n a l language d i f f i c u l t i e s can found w i t h i n and by the s c h o o l .  The  be  l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n  32  t h i s chapter p o i n t s to schools  as one  of numerous  i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i d e o l o g i e s which r e i n f o r c e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l and  s o c i a l structures causing minority  with l i t e r a c y . John M a l l e a  The  extent  difficulties  of t h i s problem i s summarized by  (1989):  rarely,  indeed, have c o n f l i c t s over s c h o o l i n g i n a  p l u r a l Canada been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examined i n s o c i o economic, p o l i t i c a l , terms.  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l  P r e v a i l i n g t h e o r i e s have s t r e s s e d i n s t e a d  school's notions  r o l e i n c u l t u r a l transmission of n e u t r a l i t y , s t a b i l i t y and  P r i o r i t y i s given t o t h i s r o l e and i n s t i t u t i o n s and  and  the  emphasized  consensus. educational  s t r u c t u r e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d  whose primary f u n c t i o n i s the maintenance of e x i s t i n g systems (p.115).  Mallea  concludes t h a t more r e s e a r c h  understand the school's  i s needed t o  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the  differential  power r e l a t i o n s which r e s u l t i n "the dominant r a c i a l , c u l t u r a l and  l i n g u i s t i c groups i n Canada e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l  over the governance, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , of p u b l i c l y funded s c h o o l  c u r r i c u l a and  systems" (p.119).  study i s a response t o t h a t need.  The  practices present  33  2.5.  Summary  This l i t e r a t u r e review has  i n d i c a t e d t h a t adherence t o  the autonomous l i t e r a c y model as d e s c r i b e d by S t r e e t (1984) may  r e i n f o r c e the p r a c t i c e of c u l t u r a l domination  t o r e s i s t a n c e i n education.  Lack of success and  which leads cultural  r e s i s t a n c e can be a n t i c i p a t e d e s p e c i a l l y i n programs which do not i n t e g r a t e the language and c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the students b e i n g taught.  S e v e r a l sources have shown t h a t  s u p e r f i c i a l reforms have been attempted i n c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s .  These models are u n l i k e l y to  l e a d t o a l l e v i a t i n g r e s i s t a n c e behaviour by dominated students who  culturally  see themselves i n an o p p r e s s i v e system  not of t h e i r c h o i c e or r e f l e c t i v e of t h e i r c u l t u r a l needs. R e s i s t a n c e t o c u l t u r a l change ( K l e i n f e l d ,  1979)  i s focussed  on i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the s c h o o l (Ogbu, 1987).  Resistance,  however, i s not only a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l phenomenon (Shor, but may 1985)  be based on i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s  (Giroux and  h e l d by dominated groups and communities.  t h e s i s attempts t o document the c u l t u r a l and contexts of one  1987)  Aronowitz,  The  present  ideological  such community, i n t e r p r e t i n g evidence  of  r e s i s t a n c e i n a few e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i n the community from both a c u l t u r a l and an i d e o l o g i c a l view.  The  case  d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters takes up M a l l e a ' s call  study  (1989)  "to ground s t u d i e s of Canadian s c h o o l i n g f i r m l y w i t h i n  t h e i r context" i n order to develop knowledge about e t h n i c and power r e l a t i o n s i n education among d i f f e r e n t  racial,  34  e t h n o c u l t u r a l and  l i n g u i s t i c groups  (p.122).  The e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e does not p r o v i d e accounts  sytematic  of i d e o l o g i c a l t h e o r y a p p l i e d t o a d u l t n a t i v e  e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e i n Canada a t t h i s time. r e s e a r c h suggests  the importance  The  l a c k of  of b a s i n g r e s e a r c h not  the t h e o r y but i n the context of r e s i s t a n c e and f o r documenting examples of the n o r t h e r n n a t i v e s i t u a t i o n .  35  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY  3.1.  Research  Approach  3.1.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  The f i r s t  s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s t h e emergent  d e s i g n of t h e case study r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out i n the t h e s i s . Data were gathered i n t h e c o n t e x t of a d u l t l i t e r a c y  classes  i n a s m a l l community i n n o r t h e r n Canada, then c a t e g o r i z e d t o form a d e s c r i p t i v e paradigm  which a s s i s t e d i n t h e  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e concept of r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e context of the r e s e a r c h and i n t h e subsequent findings.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e  The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s type of q u a l i t a t i v e  r e s e a r c h a r e assessed i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  The f i n a l s e c t i o n of  t h i s chapter documents the approach used f o r composition i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s e s taught f o r t h e case study.  3.1.2. Research  Design  The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s study was based i n f o u r s h o r t composition courses over a s i x week p e r i o d from m i d - A p r i l t o the end of May 1989 given t o young and o l d e r a d u l t s i n a s m a l l n a t i v e community i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  The r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n was t o determine how t h e n a t i v e a d u l t ESL l i t e r a c y  36  students i n the s p e c i f i c context of the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g responded  t o an i n n o v a t i v e composition pedagogy.  A q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h paradigm was  chosen  i n order t o  gather d i v e r s e c o n t e x t u a l data of the k i n d which c o u l d not have been p r e d i c t e d i n advance by an experimental or preordained type of r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . of r e s e a r c h approach  appears  Much support f o r t h i s k i n d  i n related studies.  For  example, i n her study of I n u k t i t u t and E n g l i s h w r i t i n g proficiencies,  Stairs  (1990) began w i t h a q u a n t i t a t i v e  paradigm which assessed I n u k t i t u t and E n g l i s h w r i t i n g samples gathered over two years from elementary  school students,  r a t i n g these q u a l i t a t i v e l y and a n a l y z i n g them u s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e l i n g u i s t i c i n d i c e s of p r o f i c i e n c y . p r o j e c t c o n t i n u e d S t a i r s r e a l i z e d , by her own  As her  admission,  that  these kinds of data d i d not respond t o the b a s i c questions of v a l u e s which arose i n such an i n t e r c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l context, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regards such i s s u e s as a s s i m i l a t i o n and s c h o o l dropout  cultural  rates.  S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s have been reached i n o t h e r s t u d i e s where c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s p l a y an important p a r t i n the approach t o t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . S t u d i e s i n the s i m i l a r t o the present one which used d e s c r i p t i v e ,  literature action-  o r i e n t e d techniques i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s were McLaren's (1986) study of Portuguese  immigrants  i n a Toronto h i g h  s c h o o l , M o l l and Diaz's (1987) and Trueba's  (1984) study of  37  H i s p a n i c ESL composition students i n C a l i f o r n i a , McLaughlin's  and  (1989) r e s e a r c h w i t h Navajo l i t e r a c y i n the  American Southwest.  Because the present r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n l i m i t e d i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o the p a r t i c u l a r context i n which the r e s e a r c h took p l a c e , i t r e q u i r e d a d e s c r i p t i v e and  interpretive  response which would g i v e a broad view of the s u b j e c t s ' l i v e s and v a l u e s .  A q u a n t i t a t i v e approach u s i n g survey  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would have r e s t r i c t e d the data a v a i l a b l e n a t i v e ESL composition  l i t e r a c y students' responses instruction.  to innovative  I t would not have allowed f o r a l l  p o s s i b l e student responses than those b u i l t  on  and r e s e a r c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s other  i n t o the survey or t e s t i n g  instrument.  I t i s important t o note, however, t h a t the present r e s e a r c h i s not a f u l l - s c a l e ethnography, but r a t h e r a case study which used ethnographic techniques such as p a r t i c i p a n t observation.and analyses of l o c a l h i s t o r y .  Watson-Gegeo  (1988) d e f i n e s ethnography as "the study of people's i n n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g , ongoing  behavior  s e t t i n g s , w i t h a focus on the  c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of b e h a v i o r "  (1988, p.576).  In  o u t l i n i n g p r i n c i p l e s of ethnographic r e s e a r c h , Watson-Gegeo warns t h a t ethnography should not become a synonym f o r q u a l i t a t i v e or any and a l l d e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n nonlaboratory s e t t i n g s .  Watson-Gegeo c a u t i o n s about  s u p e r f i c i a l s t u d i e s where the r e s e a r c h e r "'dive bombs' i n t o a  38  s e t t i n g , makes a few f i x e d - c a t e g o r y o r e n t i r e l y i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s , then takes o f f again t o w r i t e up the r e s u l t s "  (p.576).  One of the hallmarks of ethnography  i s o b s e r v a t i o n of a s e t t i n g over a l o n g p e r i o d of time. An ethnographic approach was not f e a s i b l e f o r the present r e s e a r c h because t h e students i n t h e study were a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r a l i m i t e d l e n g t h of time, and the r e s e a r c h i t s e l f c r e a t e d an i n n o v a t i v e approach t o composition which was not p a r t of the l o c a l s o c i a l  instruction  structure.  The present r e s e a r c h was, r a t h e r , a case study of the k i n d d e f i n e d by Merriam (1980) as c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a s i n g l e phenomenon (the "case"), aiming t o uncover the i n t e r a c t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the phenomenon. Merriam observes,  As  a case study can be f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by  c e r t a i n special features: i t i s p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c i n that i t focuses on a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , event, program, o r phenomenon; i t i s d e s c r i p t i v e of the phenomenon under study, f r e q u e n t l y u s i n g prose and l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s r a t h e r than numerical data i n documenting the phenomenon; i t i s heuristic,  i n t h a t i t i l l u m i n a t e s understanding and g i v e s new  i n s i g h t s of the phenomenon under study; g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s o r hypotheses  i t i s inductive,  with  emerging from an examination of  the data which i s grounded i n the context.  T h i s type of r e s e a r c h was c o n s i d e r e d most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the context of the study, the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n  39  formulated and the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e .  The  research  would r e c o r d a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon, the response t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology i n one  setting;  d e s c r i p t i v e , d e s c r i b i n g behaviours,  one  i t would be  s o c i a l p a t t e r n s and  s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s ; i t would be h e u r i s t i c i n t h a t i t would assess how  new  approaches t o composition  instruction  were r e c e i v e d by the s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n ; data would be analysed i n d u c t i v e l y as i t was i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would be the  c o l l e c t e d , and an emergent  result.  The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e d d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of student response instruction.  .I was  classroom  t o i n n o v a t i v e composition  the one person who  was  a b l e by  training,  experience and a v a i l a b i l i t y t o design and present the s p e c i f i c composition i n s t r u c t i o n . I decided t o t e a c h the courses, g a t h e r i n g data as a p a r t i c i p a n t observer. approach was  taken by McLaughlin  (1989) who  A similar  acted as a  p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r i n the Navajo community where he E n g l i s h i n the h i g h s c h o o l .  taught  This teaching p o s i t i o n  f a c i l i t a t e d h i s access t o r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s which he developed s e v e r a l years.  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s about l i t e r a c y  Although Merriam (1988) c a l l s  from  over  participant  o b s e r v a t i o n a "marginal p o s i t i o n " and a " s c h i z o p h r e n i c activity"  (p.94), she a l s o advocates  t h a t because what i s  b e i n g recorded are s i t u a t i o n s , motives,  attitudes,  beliefs  and v a l u e s , the most c a r e f u l data c o l l e c t i o n instrument be a person who  can observe,  l i s t e n , probe,  analyse  and  can  40  o r g a n i z e (p.103).  Since I had  instructed native adult  students over a p e r i o d of many years and was  acquainted  p e r s o n a l l y w i t h some of the students, I concluded t h a t  my  p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n would not be i n t r u s i v e and t h a t the most d i f f i c u l t problem i n the s i t u a t i o n would be how monitor  the e f f e c t s of my  to  a l t e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches  to s u i t my p e r c e p t i o n s of the needs of the c l a s s e s .  I was  c e r t a i n t h a t I would o b t a i n an  insightful  understanding of the classroom experience as a p a r t i c i p a n t observer, a t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r . student r e s i s t a n c e and my  The o b s e r v a t i o n s I made of  response  t o the students'  r e s i s t a n c e would not have been as c l e a r and immediate as a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t who  had no d i r e c t involvement  over the events of the  i n or c o n t r o l  classroom.  Ryan (1989) supports t h i s d e c i s i o n i n r e p o r t i n g h i s r e s e a r c h on the Innu of Labrador and r e c o r d i n g h i s experience of b e i n g back i n the classroom where he had done h i s ethnographic r e s e a r c h , t h i s time t o teach:  I went i n t o the classroom i n i t i a l l y b e l i e v i n g I c o u l d f i n d a l t e r n a t e ways t o t e a c h t h a t would a l l e v i a t e p o t e n t i a l student s t r e s s . case.  I found myself  T h i s was  not t o be  the  shackled t o those t e a c h i n g  p r a c t i c e s t h a t I as a former student and t e a c h e r had been immersed i n f o r years...my e x p e c t a t i o n s of what  41  i t meant t o be a good t e a c h e r d i c t a t e d t h a t I adhere t o such r o u t i n e s as e s t a b l i s h i n g classroom  standards,  keeping the students reasonably q u i e t , d i r e c t i n g what t r a n s p i r e d , and s a n c t i o n i n g d e v i a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . . . I was  powerless  t o a c t i n a way  r e i n f o r c e these e f f e c t s  t h a t would not  (p.399).  3.1.3. Data C o l l e c t i o n  Since I was  the one person d e s i g n i n g and  implementing  both the i n s t r u c t i o n and r e s e a r c h , the r e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h may 1.5  have p o s s i b l e b i a s e s (to be d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n  of t h i s c h a p t e r ) .  To c o u n t e r a c t t h i s ,  I used s e v e r a l  methods and data sources, t r i a n g u l a t i n g them t o produce data from a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s on the d a i l y  classroom  experiences. Moreover, t o supplement these data,  additional  sources of data were gathered through a s e a r c h of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c , demographic and  historical  documents on the l o c a l context surrounding the r e s e a r c h .  As a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r I taught a l l f o u r c l a s s e s . I was  able t o use the s y l l a b u s t o e l i c i t  data on students'  p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d or p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d approaches t o i n s t r u c t i o n and i n o t h e r p e d a g o g i c a l areas  such  as methods of c o r r e c t i o n ( d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) . Information was  gathered weekly i n a l l the c l a s s e s by  r e q u e s t i n g w r i t t e n responses  from students' j o u r n a l s . These  42  j o u r n a l s were kept i n separate notebooks f o r each student, were r e t a i n e d by me between times of use each week, and were d i s t r i b u t e d and c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n the l a s t f i f t e e n o r twenty minutes of the c l a s s i n which they were used.  The responses  j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e d documentation f o r students' to the i n s t r u c t i o n .  In many cases, i t was evident  the j o u r n a l s were used as a d i r e c t t o o l by t h e students f o r manipulation.  Because I s t r e s s e d the importance  of students'  o p i n i o n s of t h e i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e j o u r n a l s were a l l the more e a s i l y a source of c o n f l i c t .  The use of b a s i c a c t i o n -  r e s e a r c h methods--considering  t h e students an i n t e g r a l p a r t  of the s y l l a b u s d e s i g n - - t h e r e f o r e l e f t openings f o r r e s i s t a n c e behaviour t h a t f e d i n t o t h e data c o l l e c t i o n f o r the emerging d e s i g n of the r e s e a r c h .  As w e l l as c o l l e c t i n g data through the j o u r n a l s , I d i s t r i b u t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a s k i n g c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d questions about students' responses  i n t h e f i n a l weeks of t h e c l a s s e s .  Short t e s t s and w r i t t e n t e x t s from the students p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r d i r e c t evidence of t h e i r responses instruction.  t o the  Assignments f o r compositions were o f t e n a  source of c o n f l i c t ,  ranging from o p p o s i t i o n by r e f u s i n g t o do  the work a t a l l t o producing work w e l l below known l e v e l s of competence.  No compositions were requested as homework although  43  students were encouraged t o work a t home on t h e i r assignments.  Throughout t h e r e s e a r c h I kept two j o u r n a l s .  One  d e t a i l e d i n d i v i d u a l and c l a s s progress i n t h e designed lessons.  The other was a p e r s o n a l , i n t e r p r e t i v e  journal  which I used as a means of s o r t i n g out c o n f u s i n g events, c o n f l i c t i n g ideas and the emerging p a t t e r n s i n the data. In c l a s s o r immediately  a f t e r w a r d I recorded i n t h i s p e r s o n a l  j o u r n a l my o b s e r v a t i o n s of s t u d e n t s ' behaviour, thoughts  recollected  and spoken communications, and e x p l o r e d my f e e l i n g s  about t h e behaviour  I was e x p e r i e n c i n g .  Above a l l ,  this  p e r s o n a l j o u r n a l kept the experience t o some k i n d of e x a c t i t u d e and c o n s i s t e n c y .  In i t I began t o d e s i g n a  paradigm which presented the c o n f u s i n g amount of data i n c o n s i s t e n t order t o form t h e b a s i s f o r l a t e r analyses.  Students were f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e i r preferences f o r a process-oriented or product-oriented approach t o composition i n s t r u c t i o n when o t h e r means d i d not produce r e p l i e s .  Students were a l s o i n f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d  both i n c l a s s and p r i v a t e l y about c e r t a i n observed.  T h i s was done o n l y d i r e c t l y .  behaviours In o t h e r words,  the behaviours of one student were not d i s c u s s e d w i t h  another  f o r reasons of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y but a l s o because i t was f e l t t h i r d - p a r t y d i s c u s s i o n would o n l y confuse the data by producing surrounding data which c o u l d not be s y n t h e s i z e d  44  i n a r o u t i n e way. take p l a c e .  In one case, a t h i r d p a r t y d i s c u s s i o n d i d  A student was  asked t o g i v e her o p i n i o n on  others d i d not a t t e n d the c l a s s . doing t h i s , her own  uncomfortable  gave vague responses, and ended up t a l k i n g  situation.  parameters  She f e l t  I t was  why  about  apparent from t h i s t h a t the  I s e t up f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g students were s u p p o r t i v e  of data p r o d u c t i o n which r e f l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the classroom and  experiences  community.  In a d d i t i o n , formal and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s and community members i n the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g and two other s i m i l a r communities i n the Yukon about the behaviours b e i n g observed.  These comments  and o b s e r v a t i o n s were recorded and proved h e l p f u l i n the concurrent d e f i n i n g , a n a l y s i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g of the data produced.  3.1.4. Data A n a l y s i s  Two  kinds of analyses were undertaken.  search of r e l e v a n t documentation  The f i r s t was  on the h i s t o r y ,  e d u c a t i o n a l circumstances of the l o c a l community. documentation  was  society,  a and  Relevant  gathered through Yukon C o l l e g e , the Yukon  T e r r i t o r i a l Government Department of E d u c a t i o n and Department of S t a t i s t i c s ,  and the Government A r c h i v e s , i n Whitehorse.  R e s u l t s were compiled i n t o the case study p o r t r a i t of the town and i t s c u l t u r a l background r e p o r t e d i n Chapter  IV of  45  this thesis.  T h i s a n a l y s i s aimed t o p r o v i d e a s p e c i f i c  background f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the  research  q u e s t i o n of how  the  students responded t o the composition i n s t r u c t i o n provided.  The  second a n a l y s i s b u i l t up  a d e s c r i p t i v e paradigm of  classroom behaviours based on the o b s e r v a t i o n s , and  interviews  journals,  t o i n t e r p r e t the  phenomena i n the w r i t i n g c l a s s e s . t o answer the  research  questionnaires,  This  q u e s t i o n of how  ongoing  second a n a l y s i s aimed the p a r t i c u l a r  students responded t o the composition i n s t r u c t i o n i n terms which d i r e c t l y s y n t h e s i z e d  classroom events through  p e r c e p t i o n s as p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r . a n a l y s i s are r e p o r t e d  The  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s  i n Chapter V of t h i s t h e s i s .  second a n a l y s i s began w i t h the premise t h a t  operative  Working i n i t i a l l y from o b s e r v a t i o n s i n  interpretive journal,  I f i r s t delineated  " l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r s " : the mental a t t e n t i o n ; contributions skills.  o r a l and  t o the  written  lesson;  I assumed t h a t ,  and  l e a r n i n g was  possible ( o r a l and  ( c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the new  concepts and  my  four categories  students' p h y s i c a l  of and  communication;  a p p l i c a t i o n of new  concepts  i d e a l l y , i f a l l f o u r of these  i n d i c a t o r s were s t r o n g l y present, involvement, and  transacted  co-  classroom behaviour i n d i c a t e d p o t e n t i a l f o r  learning.  and  my  hence  ( p h y s i c a l and mental a t t e n t i o n ) ; w r i t t e n communication); engaged lesson);  skills).  and  utilized  ( a p p l i c a t i o n of  When the o p p o s i t e s i t u a t i o n  46  occurred, w i t h l i t t l e  or no  a c t i o n b e i n g shown i n these  behaviours, I assumed t h a t l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g possible,  transacted,  engaged or  was  utilised.  For h e u r i s t i c purposes, I l a b e l l e d behaviours which displayed  the  greatest  amount of a t t e n t i o n ,  communication,  c o n t r i b u t i o n and  a p p l i c a t i o n "accommodation", and  which showed the  l e a s t amount of these i n d i c a t o r s ,  "resistance".  P h y s i c a l and  mental a t t e n t i o n ranged from  b e i n g a l e r t f o r accommodation behaviour t o aversion  and  behaviours  withdrawal f o r r e s i s t a n c e .  displaying  O r a l and  written  communication ranged from above average f o r the c l a s s to abusive or none i n d i s p l a y i n g on the one on the o t h e r hand, r e s i s t a n c e . ranged from s u p p o r t i v e ,  hand, accommodation,  Contributions  t o the  lesson  unrequested i n t e r a c t i o n f o r  accommodation behaviours t o c l e a r r e f u s a l s upon request, f o r r e s i s t a n c e behaviours.  A p p l i c a t i o n of new  s k i l l s appeared as accommodation i f i t was p r a c t i c e and resistance and  was  i f i t were not  not t r a n s f e r r e d t o new  The  as r e s i s t a n c e  in  not  applied  fall  between.  and  obvious i n present  situations,  and  i n the present s i t u a t i o n  situations.  data recorded i n my  extremes of the  did  t r a n s f e r r e d t o new  concepts  j o u r n a l presented not  only  l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r s which I  and  accommodation, but  i n e i t h e r of these two  the  defined  a l s o behaviours which categories,  but  somewhere  For t h i s reason, I f u r t h e r d i v i d e d the  data i n t o  47  two  l o g i c a l extremes based on a c t i v e or p a s s i v e  of these behaviours.  demonstration  F i g u r e 1 shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  behaviours t h a t I p e r c e i v e d t o i n d i c a t e a c t i v e and p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e and  accommodation.  A f u r t h e r p a t t e r n i n the j o u r n a l data r e l a t e d t o students' responses t o the composition  instruction  d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r and  concerned  behaviours:  i n d i v i d u a l behaviours;  group behaviours;  literate  s c h o l a r l y behaviours.  I n d i v i d u a l behaviour appeared  and as an  a c t i o n u n a s s i s t e d or not promoted by the group as a whole. Group behaviour was  a c t i o n t h a t was  by more than one student. was  shared w i t h or a s s i s t e d  L i t e r a t e and s c h o l a r l y  behaviour  a c t i o n t h a t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g or  other a n a l y t i c a c t i v i t i e s such as c l a s s i f i c a t o r y e v a l u a t i v e t h i n k i n g and e x p r e s s i o n .  or  Examples of student  a c t i v e and p a s s i v e accommodation and r e s i s t a n c e behaviour w i t h i n the t h r e e behaviour c a t e g o r i e s are shown i n F i g u r e 2.  A t h i r d p a t t e r n i n the j o u r n a l data concerned r e a c t i o n s t o the behaviour e l i c i t i n g through my  I was  teaching.  my  observing, engaged i n , and In much the same way  d e s c r i p t i o n of the behaviour of the students was a c t i v e accommodation t o a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e my  that  r a n g i n g from  responses  t h e i r behaviour were a l s o designated w i t h i n t h a t range.  to As  Chapter V d e s c r i b e s , many of the behaviours d i s p l a y e d were i n f a c t r e s i s t a n t t o the i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r e d .  Therefore, the  48  F i g u r e 1: L e a r n i n g P o t e n t i a l I n d i c a t o r s as A c t i v e and P a s s i v e Accommodation and R e s i s t a n c e  A C T I V E INDICATORS  ACCOMMODATION  RESISTANCE  1. P h y s i c a l and mental a t t e n t i o n  alert  aversion, withdrawal  2. O r a l and w r i t t e n communication  above average f o r class  abusive o r none  3. C o n t r i b u t i o n t o lesson  s u p p o r t i v e and unrequested  r e f u s a l on request  4. A p p l i c a t i o n of new concepts and skills  obvious i n p r a c t i c e and new situations  none i n p r a c t i c e and new situations  P A S S I V E 1. P h y s i c a l and mental a t t e n t i o n  present, a t t e n t i o n when requested  not present, inattention a f t e r requested  2. O r a l and w r i t t e n communication  average f o r c l a s s  sporadic, unclear  3. C o n t r i b u t i o n t o lesson  some on request  none on request  4. A p p l i c a t i o n of new concepts and skills  some i n p r a c t i c e and new s i t u a t i o n  minimal i n p r a c t i c e and new situations  F i g u r e 2: S t u d e n t B e h a v i o u r s a s A c t i v e A c c o m m o d a t i o n and R e s i s t a n c e  and  Passive  A C T I V E Accommodation Type  Resistance  of Behaviour  Individual  Yvonne comments i n j o u r n a l about s e p a r a t i n g f i r s t d r a f t from l a t e r d r a f t s  Dora keeps head i n arms, s w e a r i n g , no r e s p o n s e t o questions, pushing papers  Group  p a i r i n g o f M o l l y and Donna for peer t u t o r i n g i n w r i t i n g paragraph  g r a d e 8 t o 10 d i s r u p t i v e joking loudly, pushing desks around, arguing  Literate & Scholarly  p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e by a l l to worksheet a c t i v i t i e s  verbal refusal writing  to  revise  P A S S I V E Individual  L i s a responds m i n i m a l l y i n journal to written question  N i c k a l w a y s 30-45 late to class  mins.  Group  g r a d e 8 t o 10 w r i t i n g i n c l a s s t o a v o i d homework a s s i g n m e n t  t o l e r a n c e of others' disruptive behaviour  Literate & Scholarly  learning centre class s e t t i n g own l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s : f o c u s on p r o b l e m s b u t no p r i o r i z a t i o n  no o r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a c t i v i t y s u c h as p e e r response  50  responses  I recorded were p r i m a r i l y about my responses t o  such behaviour.  F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e range of my  r e a c t i o n s t o student behaviours.  These ranged from my a c t i v e  accommodation (changing my behaviour) t o a c t i v e ( c o n f r o n t i n g students' r e s i s t a n c e ) . appeared  resistance  P a s s i v e accommodation  i n my i g n o r i n g r e s i s t a n c e , whereas my p a s s i v e  r e s i s t a n c e appeared  through my i n d i r e c t m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h e  resistance.  A l l of these a t t r i b u t i o n s of student o r i n s t r u c t o r behaviour t o c a t e g o r i e s were h i g h l y i n t u i t i v e and impressionistic,  s e r v i n g as a h e u r i s t i c t o o r g a n i s e my  t h i n k i n g i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the data. A f t e r t h e experience of t e a c h i n g , t h e t e n t a t i v e c o n s t r u c t s developed  i n t h i s manner i n my j o u r n a l s were checked  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y a g a i n s t t h e whole s e t of data gathered, c a t e g o r i e s were r e f i n e d and e l a b o r a t e d , and c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e on r e s i s t a n c e behaviour and theory was c o n s u l t e d t o make sense of t h i s predominant response t o t h e composition i n s t r u c t i o n i n view of broader conceptions. W i t h i n t h i s a n a l y t i c framework, the accommodation behaviours documented served as c o n t r a s t s a g a i n s t t h e p r e v a l e n t r e s i s t a n c e behaviours o r they supported arguments t o be made i n the f i n a l  interpretations.  The f i n a l stage of a n a l y s i s  i n v o l v e d i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s of t h e data w i t h i n t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks capable of e x p l a i n i n g t h e c a t e g o r i z e d responses t o t h e composition i n s t r u c t i o n .  The  51  F i g u r e 3: I n s t r u c t o r Responses t o R e s i s t a n c e  Behaviours  A C T I V E Accommodation  Resistance  Changing own behaviour:  Confronting resistance:  e.g.: p o s i t i v e reinforcement m o d i f i e d t o respond more r e a l i s t i c a l l y t o student work a t student's request  e.g.: a s k i n g Marsha t o leave equivalency c l a s s  P A S S I V E Ignoring r e s i s t a n c e :  I n d i r e c t l y manipulating resistance:  e.g.: acknowledging Dora's a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e only at end of c l a s s & p r o v i d i n g j o u r n a l w r i t i n g as o u t l e t f o r anger  e.g.: calm v e r b a l r e j e c t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e & reinforcement of courtesy  52  l i t e r a t u r e search y i e l d e d two r e l e v a n t t h e o r i e s :  (1) a  c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and (2) an i d e o l o g i c a l interpretation.  Both t h e o r i e s were assessed  (see Chapter VI)  i n view of t h e data i n an e f f o r t t o understand p a r t i c u l a r classroom responses  why t h e  t o t h e composition  instruction  may have occurred.  3.1.5. L i m i t a t i o n s of I n t e r p r e t i v e  Analyses  The h e a v i l y i n t e r p r e t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s and analyses  used  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e open t o many questions of v a l i d i t y .  The  b a s i c d e s i g n and purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h e v o l v e d as t h e classroom events emerged.  The p o s i t i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h e r as  a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r and t e a c h e r l e f t t h e implementation, a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e i n q u i r y open t o b i a s s i n c e p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of o t h e r s ' and my own behaviour formed t h e bases of t h e data.  F l u i d and  i n e x a c t d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s , shaped by p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l experiences and p e r c e p t i o n s permeated t h e data.  Nonetheless, adhered  c e r t a i n m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s were  t o i n order t o ensure t h e p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e  r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a , verification, analyses made.  or a l t e r n a t i v e evidence t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e These p r i n c i p l e s can be l i k e n e d t o t h e kinds  of r e s e a r c h approaches which L a t h e r (1986) reviews as i n q u i r y which i s "openly i d e o l o g i c a l "  (p.63) i n t h e neo-Marxist  sense  53  of " t r a n s f o r m a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of p o i n t s of view" J u s t as Lather c o n s i d e r s f e m i n i s t or neo-Marxist  (p.78).  research to  need g u i d e l i n e s which "guard a g a i n s t r e s e a r c h e r b i a s e s d i s t o r t i n g the l o g i c of evidence w i t h i n openly research"  ideological  (p.67), the present r e s e a r c h draws on S t r e e t ' s  (1984) d e f i n i t i o n s of l i t e r a c y education as  fundamentally  i d e o l o g i c a l and t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d i n g b e l i e f s or v a l u e s t r a n s m i t t e d through the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l medium of education and  i n t e r p e r s o n a l classroom  Lather proposes  interactions.  that ideologically-based research c a l l s  f o r data c r e d i b i l i t y checks which are r i g o r o u s , and r e l e v a n t but may  self-reflexive,  nonetheless c h a l l e n g e  standards e s t a b l i s h e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l human s c i e n c e s i f i t " i s t o be accepted as data r a t h e r than as metaphor by who  do not share i t s value premises"  To attempt  those  (p.77).  t o meet t h i s g o a l , the present r e s e a r c h t r i e d  to f o l l o w Lather's c r i t e r i a  (p.78):  1. emergent, r a t h e r than pre-ordained, r e s e a r c h design;  2. t r i a n g u l a t i o n of methods, data sources  and  theories;  3. r e f l e x i v e s u b j e c t i v i t y  (documentation  of how  the  54  r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumptions have been a f f e c t e d by  the  l o g i c of the data);  4. f a c e v a l i d i t y  (by r e c y c l i n g c a t e g o r i e s , emerging  a n a l y s i s , and c o n c l u s i o n s back through a t l e a s t a subsample of  respondents);  5. c a t a l y t i c v a l i d i t y  (documentation  t h a t the r e s e a r c h  process has l e d t o i n s i g h t and i d e a l l y , the p a r t of the  a c t i v i s m on  respondents).  The design of the present r e s e a r c h was  emergent,  d e v e l o p i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the l o c a l context and interactions,  r a t h e r than d e f i n i n g what these may  i n advance through f i x e d c a t e g o r i e s f o r data such as t e s t s , t h i s way,  social have been  elicitation,  surveys or o t h e r preordained measures.  students' responses  were r e v e a l e d i n t h e i r own  In  t o the i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e d  terms and c u l t u r a l or i d e o l o g i c a l  parameters.  To t r i a n g u l a t e methods and sources, the data f o r t h i s case study were gathered by v a r i o u s methods: my r e c o r d i n g the students' and my j o u r n a l s , compositions,  own  behaviour;  o b s e r v i n g and  the student  t e s t s and d i s c u s s i o n s ; q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  designed t o o b t a i n data; and recorded formal and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h students, p r o f e s s i o n a l s and o t h e r community members i n the s i t e of the r e s e a r c h .  55  M u l t i p l e methods of a n a l y s i s were a l s o used.  Using the  d e s c r i p t i v e paradigm o u t l i n e d above the data were compiled i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s which were used f o r Moreover, two  cross-comparison.  t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the data,  c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l , a l s o allowed f o r t r i a n g u l a t i o n of analysis. T h i s was  L a t h e r mentions t r i a n g u l a t i o n of t h e o r i e s as w e l l . approached through the s e a r c h of a wide range of  l i t e r a t u r e i n v a r i o u s r e l a t e d f i e l d s such as sociolinguistics,  anthropology,  h i s t o r y and p o l i t i c s ,  then  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the dual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the data w i t h i n c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l frameworks.  Figure 4 i l l u s t r a t e s  the t r i a n g u l a t i o n of data and a n a l y s i s which was case  done i n the  study.  Lather's t h i r d g u i d e l i n e , r e f l e x i v e s u b j e c t i v i t y , f o r documentation on how  calls  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumptions have  been a f f e c t e d by the l o g i c of the data.  This i s inherent i n  the emergent d e s i g n of the r e s e a r c h r e f l e c t i n g the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n b e i n g encountered.  The way  t h a t my  assumptions  and  a c t i o n s were a f f e c t e d by the data recorded forms a p a r t of the a n a l y s i s of the case study. d e p i c t e d me  Data recorded i n my  journal  attempting t o approach students' behaviour  range of responses  from accommodation t o r e s i s t a n c e ,  in a  as  i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3.  In s i m i l a r manner, some degree of f a c e v a l i d i t y  was  Figure  4: L a t h e r ' s  TRIANGULATION  OF  (1986) Research G u i d e l i n e s  Applied  to the Present  Analysis  DATA:  1. M e t h o d s : n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n participant observation literature search r e c o r d i n g i n own j o u r n a l s gathering data: student j o u r n a l s student materials questionnaires interviews manipulation of events  2. S o u r c e s :  t h r o u g h above methods academic l i t e r a t u r e demographic s t a t i s t i c s historical materials own & o t h e r s ' r e l a t e d experience  3. T h e o r i e s :  T R I A N G U L A T I O N OF  anthropological sociolinguistic educational political  ANALYSIS: Active  Resistance  Passive  1 •  L  Accommodation  "1 I I  I-  cultural  individual roup literate & scholarly  J — > ideological  57  e s t a b l i s h e d by the r e c y c l i n g of c a t e g o r i e s , emerging a n a l y s i s , and ideas back through a sample of However, t h i s process was  respondents.  r e s t r i c t e d t o the t e a c h i n g  s i t u a t i o n s and i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h community members. The present analyses and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have not been  presented t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c l a s s e s i n any way  for their verification.  systematic  Nor has L a t h e r ' s g u i d e l i n e of  c a t a l y t i c v a l i d i t y been undertaken  t o document whether the  r e s e a r c h process l e d t o i n s i g h t or a c t i v i s m on the p a r t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Such an e f f o r t was  c o n s t r a i n e d by the  emergent d e s i g n of the r e s e a r c h which d i d not p r e d i c t s p e c i f i c outcomes, nor p l a n f o r a time l i n e t o assess results.  such  The time f a c t o r i n t h i s r e s e a r c h n e g a t i v e l y  a f f e c t e d a l l the v a l i d i t y t e s t s l i s t e d by Lather, u n d e r s c o r i n g by ethnographers  t h a t s o c i a l r e s e a r c h of t h i s  type can o n l y be done s y s t e m a t i c a l l y through a lengthy investment  of time.  Although  Lather's d e f i n i t i o n of c a t a l y t i c v a l i d i t y  calls  f o r i n s i g h t or a c t i v i s m on the p a r t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r e s e a r c h , her d e f i n i t i o n might be broadened t o i n c l u d e informants i n the present r e s e a r c h such as o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s and community members w i t h whom the emerging a n a l y s i s and i m p l i c a t i o n s were shared.  The r e s u l t s of the  r e s e a r c h have l e d t o i n s i g h t and changed p e d a g o g i c a l approaches not o n l y on my others who  own  p a r t but a l s o on the p a r t of  were kept advised of i t and who  contributed to i t  58  by  interviews.  Subsequent approaches t o t e a c h i n g and  a n a l y s i s of l o c a l events have been a l t e r e d by a change i n a t t i t u d e toward t h e r o l e of r e s i s t a n c e i n i n s t r u c t i o n f o r n a t i v e people.  One i n s t r u c t o r , who was d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n  the case study s i t e i n s t r u c t i n g t h e o r a l course,  communications  has now begun a Master's program f o c u s i n g on  resistance  theory.  3.1.6. Summary  This s e c t i o n has o u t l i n e d t h e r e s e a r c h approach used i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t i v e case study.  A major d i f f i c u l t y i n the  r e s e a r c h was s e p a r a t i n g my f u n c t i o n s as t h e t e a c h e r r o l e as r e s e a r c h e r , the  "teacher"  "researcher".  from my  p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e n a t u r a l response of  meant i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e of t h e However, I found t h a t the case study approach  produced c o n s i d e r a b l e  experientially-grounded  " t h i c k " data  which was u s e f u l i n understanding t h e phenomena and t h e context.  3.2.  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Approach  3.2.1.  Introduction  The  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter  describes the  i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach used i n the case study, documenting the r a t i o n a l e and content  of t h e composition  instruction  59  and the c o n d i t i o n s i n which i t took p l a c e .  3.2.2. R a t i o n a l e and Design  W r i t t e n composition one  of the Composition  Instruction  has c o n v e n t i o n a l l y been p e r c e i v e d as  of the l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l areas f o r n a t i v e Indian  students  (see S t a i r s ,  1990).  literacy  I f e l t t h a t a f r e s h look a t the  methodology of t e a c h i n g composition  f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n was  warranted i n l i g h t of changes which have taken p l a c e i n composition  pedagogy i n t h e past t e n years: a movement away  from the t r a d i t i o n a l pedagogy f o c u s i n g on usage, s t r u c t u r e and c o r r e c t form t o a more r e c e n t emphasis on s t r a t e g i e s f o r g e n e r a t i n g ideas, on r e c u r s i v e t h i n k i n g , on audience o r i e n t a t i o n s and other c o g n i t i v e processes  of composing.  Whereas t r a d i t i o n a l pedagogy was p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d , emphasising completed d i s c o u r s e , more i n n o v a t i v e approaches are p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d , emphasizing the a c t s of composing (Zamel, 1982, 1983; Raimes, 1985).  T h i s movement has  g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n mother-tongue (Hillocks,  1986) and E n g l i s h as a second language s e t t i n g s .  (Zamel, 1982, 1983; Raimes, 1985).  I n s p i r e d by these i n n o v a t i o n s and the sense t h a t n a t i v e students' past problems with w r i t i n g may have a r i s e n from unfavoured t e a c h i n g techniques, t e a c h i n g composition  I designed  an approach t o  which would use both the p r o c e s s -  o r i e n t e d and p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d methodologies t o c a p i t a l i z e on  60  the l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l promised i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s (Raimes, 1983;  Zamel, 1982).  The  d e c i s i o n t o focus  on  w r i t i n g meant e x c l u d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading, which has been the major focus of most a d u l t l i t e r a c y i n s t r u c t i o n r e s e a r c h t o date.  T h i s had  the advantage, however, of  narrowing the scope of the i n s t r u c t i o n t o a s e t of and t e a c h i n g behaviours w i t h i n one pedagogical  The  composition  the process  which c o u l d be c l e a r l y  identified  organised t o d i s t i n g u i s h  o r i e n t a t i o n s and t o make them r e a d i l y  apparent t o the students.  The process  o r i e n t a t i o n was  assumed to be a t e a c h i n g approach which emphasized and  student  paradigm.  i n s t r u c t i o n was  and product  and  i n t e r a c t i v e elements.  conceptual  F o l l o w i n g Raimes (1985) and  Zamel  (1987) these were d e f i n e d as: audience awareness; t h i n k i n g and w r i t i n g s t r u c t u r e s ; and peer i n p u t and response. product  o r i e n t a t i o n was  assumed t o be a more  The  text-based  approach w i t h an emphasis on the grammar and mechanics of writing.  The  process-oriented  i n s t r u c t i o n was  presented  in  the f i r s t p a r t of each l e s s o n , f o l l o w e d by a break, then the p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d  i n s t r u c t i o n was  introduced.  Students  soon r e f e r r e d t o the p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d i n s t r u c t i o n as and to the p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d presumed t h a t t o d i s c e r n how  "ideas"  i n s t r u c t i o n as "grammar".  It  the students  would respond t o  innovative, process-oriented i n s t r u c t i o n ,  i t would a l s o be  necessary  t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r responses t o more  o r i e n t e d l e s s o n s w i t h i n the same c l a s s e s .  product-  was  61  A d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach were the use of c u l t u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d m a t e r i a l s , as suggested  by  much of the l i t e r a t u r e on i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h n a t i v e Indian students.  Sawyer's (1984) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t contemporary  and  t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c u l t u r e should be a t the c e n t r e of a l l s u b j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s was  f o l l o w e d i n a l i m i t e d way,  for  example, by u s i n g l o c a l and t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s and m a t e r i a l s f o r w r i t i n g assignments.  Co-operative l e a r n i n g  techniques were a l s o implemented i n both kinds of  instruction  u s i n g a v a r i e t y of group, s m a l l group and dyad arrangements. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e and each approach.  i n s t r u c t i o n were a l s o used i n  Examples of course o u t l i n e s f o r t h r e e of the  c l a s s e s are shown i n Appendices A and B, and a t y p i c a l l e s s o n p l a n f o r the t h i r d and f o u r t h weeks f o r the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c l a s s appears i n Appendix C.  The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t was  t o t e a c h only i n the community  campus classroom of the T e r r i t o r i a l c o l l e g e w i t h students were r e g u l a r l y e n r o l l e d i n the upgrading a week.  who  program t h e r e , twice  T h i s soon expanded t o an evening course requested  the Indian Band and t o two  by  c l a s s e s given i n the l o c a l s c h o o l .  In a l l cases, i n s t r u c t i o n took p l a c e twice weekly f o r a minimum of one  and a h a l f hours each s e s s i o n .  The course a t  the T e r r i t o r i a l c o l l e g e campus l e a r n i n g c e n t r e was  designed  t o l a s t s i x weeks, the evening course f o r f o u r weeks, and two  school c l a s s e s f o r t h r e e weeks.  the  62  3.2.3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Content  In the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c l a s s , expected  students were  initially  t o produce p e r s o n a l and business l e t t e r s and  two  paragraphs by the second week and i n the l a t e r weeks t o compose v a r i o u s types of paragraphs, w i t h an essay.  eventually f i n i s h i n g  Product-oriented i n s t r u c t i o n included  e x e r c i s e s i n p a r t s of speech, p u n c t u a t i o n and sentence  capitalization,  s t r u c t u r e , s p e l l i n g , and use of the d i c t i o n a r y  thesaurus.  These i n i t i a l  c o n s i d e r a b l y i n response where paragraph  plans were, however,  reduced  t o student achievement--to the p o i n t  w r i t i n g was  The evening course was  attempted only i n the l a s t week.  o r g a n i s e d i n response  request by the Band s t a f f f o r business E n g l i s h . o u t l i n e was  and  f o l l o w e d l a r g e l y as planned,  to a A course  using personal  b u s i n e s s l e t t e r s at the b e g i n n i n g of the course,  and  then  d e s c r i p t i v e and n a r r a t i v e paragraphs f o l l o w e d by a p e r s o n a l writing project.  P r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of l e s s o n s  on the more complex aspects of sentence s t r u c t u r e , punctuation, c a p i t a l i s a t i o n ,  One o t h e r was  school-based an  s p e l l i n g , and verb agreement.  c l a s s was  grade e i g h t t o t e n , and  "equivalency" c l a s s .  ranged i n age from 14 t o 19.  The  students  the  i n each c l a s s  These c l a s s e s were t o produce  an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l l e t t e r f o c u s i n g on s e v e r a l elements of  63  writing. lessons,  The graded c l a s s completed t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n two and t h e remaining c l a s s e s were supplemented by  paragraph w r i t i n g .  The equivalency  c l a s s was  still  s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e l e t t e r a t the end of the course. Both c l a s s e s were given p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d conventional  e x e r c i s e s based on  sentence s t r u c t u r e s and punctuation  as w e l l as  e r r o r s such as sentence fragments and run-ons.  3.2.4. I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Conditions  The r e s e a r c h was undertaken w i t h the understanding t h a t education  i s seldom a small community o r i n d i v i d u a l p r i o r i t y  i n northern scheduling  Canada.  For instance,  i t was expected t h a t the  of the c l a s s e s and the r e s e a r c h  i n the l a t e  spring  r i s k e d poor attendance, s i n c e the coming of b r i g h t warm days would b r i n g w i t h i t the d e s i r e t o be outdoors i n the b r i e f Yukon summer.  The students "leave w i t h the i c e i n the r i v e r  i n May", as one l o c a l educator noted.  Previously,  local  Yukon c o l l e g e campuses were c l o s e d a t the end of A p r i l because of t h i s .  Other f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g attendance  were the f a c t t h a t other  s h o r t a d u l t education  courses were  o f f e r e d a t t h e same time, t h a t land claims n e g o t i a t i o n s  were  b e g i n n i n g t o reach a peak i n the community a t t h i s time, and t h a t day care f a c i l i t i e s were l a c k i n g i n the community, making attendance by women d i f f i c u l t .  Conditions  promoting attendance a t the c l a s s e s , however,  64  included e l i g i b i l i t y  f o r a t r a i n i n g allowance at the  college  campus, g r o u p p r e s s u r e f r o m p e e r s and t h e campus c o - o r d i n a t o r to  a t t e n d , and  instructors  students' p r i o r experience with  i n other subject areas.  t h e s c h o o l c l a s s e s was  visiting  Moreover, attendance  o b l i g a t o r y and t h e r e s e a r c h  s u p p o r t e d by t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l a s a means o f  in  was  supplementing  the usual curriculum.  Lesson p l a n s f o r t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e were approved t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c o - o r d i n a t o r and principal. potential  by  f o r t h e s c h o o l by  the  I o u t l i n e d the evening course i n a meeting s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e Band s t a f f and  i t met  with  with their  approval.  In a l l courses  I expected t h a t i n i t i a l  shyness  and  lack  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d d i s a p p e a r i n t i m e as s t u d e n t s became more a t e a s e w i t h me  as an i n s t r u c t o r  and  presumed t h a t I would not have d i f f i c u l t y events  of t h e classroom.  mostly concerned  in controlling  p o s i t i v e l y to  possible.  my  experienced success  t h e r e f o r e p l a n n e d t o make t h e c o u r s e s as e n g a g i n g  the  was  I accepted that composition  n o t an a r e a w h e r e many o f them h a d  r e w a r d i n g as  I  In a d u l t educator f a s h i o n I  t h a t I c o u l d respond  s t u d e n t s ' e x p r e s s e d needs.  a person.  and  was and  65  3.2.5. Summary  The  i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach was  experiences  based on my  previous  t e a c h i n g small n a t i v e groups i n the Yukon, recent  arguments f o r the v a l u e of p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d t e a c h i n g methods i n w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , and my  b e l i e f that adult  education  should be s t u d e n t - o r i e n t e d and  community-based.  Constraints  on the t e a c h i n g i n c l u d e d the c h o i c e of students, the amount of time i n v o l v e d i n the courses, designed  t o d i s t i n g u i s h product  i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches. a c t u a l experience gave me  and  l o c a t i o n and  and a s y l l a b u s  process-oriented  With Ryan (1989), I found t h a t  as a t e a c h i n g p a r t i c i p a n t i n the  i n s i g h t s t h a t c o u l d not be s u b s t i t u t e d by  methods of i n q u i r y .  classroom other  66  CHAPTER IV:  THE COMMUNITY AND CULTURAL CONTEXT  4.1.  Bear R i v e r  4.1.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  This chapter  d e s c r i b e s t h e l o c a l community where the  i n s t r u c t i o n and r e s e a r c h was s i t u a t e d .  The f i r s t s e c t i o n  explores t h e h i s t o r y , s e t t i n g , and the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community t h a t I c a l l the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  The e d u c a t i o n a l context  e s p e c i a l l y a d u l t education generation, chapter.  "Bear R i v e r " i n of Bear R i v e r ,  i n the community f o r the present  i s examined i n t h e second s e c t i o n of t h i s  The t h i r d s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and  s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c accounts of t h e Athapaskan c u l t u r e , of which n a t i v e students  i n the present  r e s e a r c h were members.  The  purpose of these d e s c r i p t i o n s i s t o account f o r the circumstances to  i n t o which the i n s t r u c t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d so as  understand more f u l l y  students'  responses t o t h e  instruction.  Bear R i v e r i s t y p i c a l of many small n a t i v e Yukon communities demographically  and p h y s i c a l l y .  I t i s nestled at  the j u n c t i o n of two r i v e r s i n a t r e n c h between two ranges of mountains which r i s e on both s i d e s of the town and overpower it.  Bear R i v e r i s d i m i n u i t i v e i n t h e v a s t landscape of  67  b o r e a l f o r e s t w i t h barren patches and tundra valley.  One senses t h e smallness  covering the  of human settlement  in this  h ar sh environment where temperatures can reach as low as minus 60 degrees C e l s i u s .  According  t o one r e p o r t e r from t h e Whitehorse Star, Bear  R i v e r i s an "enigma" which "deserves a b e t t e r r e p u t a t i o n " ( J u l y 14, 1989). strange  The r e s i d e n t s , t h e r e p o r t e r c l a i m s , get  looks and uneasy f e e l i n g s from others when they say  they are from Bear R i v e r , a town w i t h  "up t o 90 per cent  unemployment and s e r i o u s problems with a l c o h o l abuse."  She  c i t e s deaths by a l c o h o l abuse which i n c l u d e t h e popular deputy c h i e f who d i e d of hypothermia i n an abandoned b u i l d i n g the p r e v i o u s winter, are  "balanced  but concludes  t h a t Bear R i v e r ' s problems  by warmth and s p i r i t " .  4.1.2. H i s t o r y of Bear R i v e r  The  impact of o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e s  on Bear R i v e r has been  overwhelming, from t h e f i r s t c o n t a c t with European e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s t o today's c o r p o r a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n of r i c h n a t u r a l resources which a r e p a r t of n a t i v e land c l a i m s .  Nonetheless, t h e Canada Census (1986) s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t Bear R i v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n of 355 i s about n a t i v e Indians.  two-thirds  F i f t y - f i v e people l i s t t h e i r mother tongue  as t h e l o c a l Athapaskan d i a l e c t o r as i t and other  languages.  68  T h i s shows some r e t e n t i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l language ( s i n c e Yukon Indian languages are l a r g e l y becoming e x t i n c t ) , but r e t e n t i o n r a t e probably  r e f l e c t s Bear R i v e r ' s  r e c e n t and s p o r a d i c c o n t a c t w i t h non-native  the  relatively  society.  Bostock (1972) w r i t e s t h a t the e x p l o r e r Robert Campbell t r a v e l l e d the area i n 1840  f o r the Hudson's Bay  the f o l l o w i n g s i x years two  Company.  t r a d i n g posts were e s t a b l i s h e d .  Both were abandoned w i t h i n t e n years, and f o r almost years  Indian/white  t r a d e was  In  terminated  fifty  i n the area.  The  impact, however, of b r i n g i n g the f u r t r a d e t o a hunting  and  g a t h e r i n g n a t i v e economy had begun.  McDonnell (1975) r e p o r t s t h a t t r a d e began again i n when Indians from the east moved i n t o the area.  1899  According  to  McDonnell the s h i f t from a h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g economy t o a hunting and t r a p p i n g economy brought new  d e f i n i t i o n s of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o the land and a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of activities tools.  i n c l u d i n g trade.  Needs developed  social  t o use  different  Manufactured items were only a c q u i r e d by the exchange  f o r f u r s and a system of debt at the t r a d i n g post.  Animals  were k i l l e d which were not used p r e v i o u s l y ; equipment needed was  h e a v i e r and  l e s s easy t o t r a n s p o r t , n e c e s s i t a t i n g the  of dogs f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  T r a v e l f o r t r a p p i n g purposes  use was  thus more r e s t r i c t i v e than f o r hunting.  By  1905  the Hudson's Bay post had been bought by  Taylor  69  and Drury,  and the post was  given i t s c u r r e n t name.  R i v e r became the main supply depot  s i n c e i t was  Bear  the f u r t h e s t  p o i n t on the r i v e r which c o u l d be n a v i g a t e d by steamboat.  It  became a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n f o r a mixture of Indian peoples from the surrounding areas.  There are few recorded sources f o r the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the area but the l e t t e r s of Poole F i e l d 1913), a Hudson's Bay  f a c t o r , are i n f o r m a t i v e .  n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t was  5 t o 15 i n d i v i d u a l s who  (e.g.  F i e l d found a  c o n s t a n t l y nomadic i n the search  f o r food, w i t h s m a l l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t extended of  Indian  f a m i l y groups  d i s p l a y e d a h i g h l y complex  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the animal  world.  The o l d Bear R i v e r townsite s u r v i v e s as a f l a t c l e a r e d area on the n o r t h shore of the l a r g e r r i v e r , w h i l e the present s i t e occupies the south shore. people who  To serve the  few  l i v e on the n o r t h shore t h e r e i s a f o o t b r i d g e over  the r i v e r which i s a f o c a l p o i n t f o r the town year-round. summer, a c a b l e f e r r y takes v e h i c l e s across the r i v e r , w i n t e r an i c e - b r i d g e connects the two  Bear R i v e r was  In  and i n  r i v e r banks.  one of the few settlements of i t s time t o  s u r v i v e the d e c l i n e of the f u r t r a d e i n the Yukon which began about 1945,  a c c o r d i n g t o McDonnell (1975).  a second phase of non-native w i t h the f i r s t v i s i t  impact  McDonnell records  i n the area b e g i n n i n g  of a Department of Indian A f f a i r s  70  official  i n 1949.  By 1952 a C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n  with a resident  p r i e s t was e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e c h i l d r e n of t h e area were being  schooled  Carcross.  i n r e s i d e n t i a l schools  i n Whitehorse and  The e a r l y s i x t i e s saw most Indians l i v i n g i n the  bush i n t h e w i n t e r supplementing summer wage earnings and government s u b s i d i e s by hunting.  4.1.3. Present Day Bear R i v e r  In 1986, of t h e 269 people of employable age r e p o r t e d by Census Canada i n Bear R i v e r ,  37 ( n e a r l y 14%) were r e c e i v i n g  Unemployment Insurance b e n e f i t s as of March 1988. f i g u r e r e f l e c t s t h e l a c k of s t a b l e employment The  seasonal  hunting,  trapping,  This  possibilities.  g u i d i n g and mining  e x p l o r a t i o n economy does not employ many people f o r any l e n g t h of time.  According  t o l o c a l informants,  approximately  o n e - t h i r d of t h e Unemployment Insurance r e c i p i e n t s r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g allowances t o attend t h e campus of t h e l o c a l college.  The Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government p u b l i c a t i o n Yukon Data Book (1987) s t a t e s t h a t apart  from renewable resources, the  economy of Bear R i v e r i s based on mining e x p l o r a t i o n and a small but growing t o u r i s t  industry.  As w i t h most small Yukon  communities many people a r e employed t o serve t h e others l i v e there. cafes.  who  The one h o t e l houses t h e one b a r and one of two  The other  c a f e , when i t i s open, i s run by t h e Bear  71  R i v e r Indian Band who a l s o have one of t h e two g e n e r a l stores.  Government s e r v i c e s , as i n a l l p a r t of t h e Yukon,  are generous,  w i t h t h r e e RCMP o f f i c e r s , a w i l d l i f e o f f i c e r , a  h e a l t h c e n t r e w i t h two r e s i d e n t nurses, a s o c i a l worker, a community a d d i c t i o n s worker, and a group home f o r c h i l d r e n . Much of t h e l o c a l housing i s suppled and s e r v i c e d by t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government Housing C o r p o r a t i o n w i t h r e n t s geared t o income.  Other housing has been b u i l t by t h e l o c a l  Indian Band f o r Band members.  There i s a d i s t i n c t east-west  d i v i s i o n between t h e  n a t i v e and non-native s e c t i o n s of town, w i t h a through road the d i v i d i n g l i n e .  A l l of t h e s e r v i c e s except those run by  the Indian Band a r e i n t h e non-native s e c t i o n of town on the west, i n c l u d i n g t h e Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n and t h e other churches.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e Yukon  Government's Data Book map of Bear R i v e r excludes e v e r y t h i n g east of t h e road boundary, although t h e Indian b u s i n e s s e s , the Band's e x t e n s i v e o f f i c e s ,  an o l d Band h a l l used f o r  p e r i o d i c p a r t - t i m e c l a s s e s o r r e c r e a t i o n , t h e c o l l e g e campus, as w e l l as dozens of s i n g l e - f a m i l y l o g houses are l o c a t e d there.  On t h e government map, t h e area known as t h e "Indian  v i l l a g e " which comprises h a l f t h e town, does not appear t o exist.  During t h e e a r l y 1940's a road was b u i l t t o accommodate an o i l p i p e l i n e from the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s t o Whitehorse  72  to  serve American Army troops b u i l d i n g the A l a s k a Highway  d u r i n g t h e Second World War. The road passed through Bear River.  The p i p e l i n e was o n l y b r i e f l y i n use and the road i s  passable now only i n the summer, p r o v i d i n g access t o some of the Yukon's most s p e c t a c u l a r scenery. i n Bear R i v e r r e c a l l t h e i r f i r s t people  Some e l d e r s now  encounter with  a t the time of the b u i l d i n g of t h i s  living  non-native  road.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , they say t h e i r f i r s t view of non-natives of  t h e American b l a c k s i n t h e U.S. Army, r e c a l l i n g  shock a t t h e " d i r t y " faces they  was  their  encountered.  In the 1960's a mining town was b u i l t w i t h i n 50 k i l o m e t r e s of Bear R i v e r b r i n g i n g t o completion  a  year-round  highway c o n n e c t i n g the town t o t h e south and west. expected  t h a t mining would have a great impact on Bear R i v e r  w i t h an exodus of workers t o t h e new mine. occurred.  I t was  As r e p o r t e d by M i l l e r  T h i s never  (1970) t h i s was because t h e  mine never made e f f o r t s t o i n c l u d e n a t i v e people employ d e s p i t e w r i t t e n agreements t o do so.  inits  The l a c k of  impact of t h e mine on Bear R i v e r can be seen i n the mining of a c o a l d e p o s i t 3 k i l o m e t r e s from town which s u p p l i e s the mine w i t h energy.  I t i s mined by a Whitehorse c o n t r a c t o r and  employs o n l y one l o c a l person. s i l v e r and tungsten  Mining e x p l o r a t i o n f o r gold,  e x i s t s i n the area, but any development  a c t i v i t y i s done a t t h e s i t e with v e r y l i t t l e r e l i a n c e on Bear R i v e r as a supply c e n t r e e i t h e r f o r goods o r labour. The  recent c l o s u r e of a near-by g o l d mine i n the area i s  73  r e p o r t e d by Bear R i v e r r e s i d e n t s as having very  l i t t l e effect  on t h e i r economy.  Bear R i v e r i s d e f i n e d  i n the T e r r i t o r i a l Government Data  Book as an unorganized community, meaning i t i s  administered  by the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government f o r l o c a l s e r v i c e s . 1966  a c h i e f and  In  c o u n c i l were c r e a t e d by the Department of  Indian A f f a i r s t o d i r e c t l y a d m i n i s t e r  l o c a l Indian  concerns.  According  to McDonnell (1975), by the e a r l y 1970's the  c h i e f and  c o u n c i l , which c o n s i s t e d of o l d e r men  who  first  could  n e i t h e r read nor w r i t e , were r e p l a c e d by a more educated l e a d e r s h i p w i t h an average age women.  T h i s new  of 25.  They were mostly  c o u n c i l i n v o l v e d the Band i n economic  development a c t i v i t i e s such as e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t o r e and  a sawmill.  Now  the C o u n c i l and  co-operative  s e v e r a l committees  i n f l u e n c e l o c a l d e c i s i o n s even when problems a r i s e t h a t not t h e i r d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . At the time of r e s e a r c h the major c o n t r o v e r s y  being  are  this  d e a l t w i t h was  the  b u i l d i n g by the T e r r i t o r i a l Government of a l a r g e covered hockey r i n k which had community.  not been requested by the  Located behind the  school  local  i n the l a r g e s t  b r i g h t e s t - c o l o u r e d b u i l d i n g i n town t h i s unexpected g i f t been argued over f o r s e v e r a l months. attempting t o have other u r g e n t l y needed p l a c e d C o u n c i l was  The  community  had  was  s e r v i c e s which they f e l t were more  i n t o the b u i l d i n g s h e l l and  p l a y i n g a very a c t i v e p a r t i n the  the Band  fight.  74  4.1.4. Summary  The h i s t o r y of t h e Athapaskan people of Bear R i v e r r e v e a l s a r e l i a n c e on white economic c o n t r o l through the t r a d i n g post  i n t h e e a r l y years which today has been  transposed t o non-native c o n t r o l through government a s s i s t a n c e and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The e a r l y years of contact  which r e s u l t e d i n many c u l t u r a l ,  economic and p h y s i c a l  changes f o r l o c a l Athapaskans have been r e p l a c e d by times which o f f e r a sedentary l i f e s t y l e i n exchange f o r few d i s r u p t i o n s t o t h e non-native a s p i r a t i o n s i n t h e area.  However, t h e r e a r e recent  i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e people of  Bear R i v e r n e i t h e r d e s i r e nor a n t i c i p a t e t h i s l a c k of involvement i n t h e i r own present of a b a r r i c a d e  and f u t u r e .  The s e t t i n g up  on t h e road t o a l o c a l t o u r i s t lodge more than  once by t h e Bear R i v e r Indian Band C o u n c i l , the land i s claimed  i n d i c a t i n g that  by them, i s a p h y s i c a l metaphor f o r t h e  p o l i t i c a l r e s i s t a n c e t h a t can be expected as land negotiations  4.2.  come c l o s e r t o a r e a l i t y i n t h e area.  The E d u c a t i o n a l  4.2.1.  Context  Introduction  T r a d i t i o n a l Athapaskan v a l u e beliefs,  claims  systems a r e expressed i n  the s t r u c t u r e of human r e l a t i o n s , and ways of  75  communicating. education.  These a l l come t o g e t h e r  i n the a c t of  I f t h e r e i s Athapaskan r e s i s t a n c e t o c u l t u r a l  s y n t h e s i s or change, then i t i s no doubt r e v e a l e d i n modern Canada's e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which i n s t r u c t u r e , i n t e n t and philosophy  so d i r e c t l y c o n t r a s t with  Athapaskan ways. education present  traditional  T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the h i s t o r y of  f o r the n a t i v e people of Bear R i v e r and  day  education  their  systems.  4.2.2. E d u c a t i o n a l Background  Haig-Brown (1988) examines r e s i s t a n c e t o the  oppression  of n a t i v e language and c u l t u r e i n her work based on a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n Kamloops, B. C.  She  details  the  o p p o s i t i o n t o r u l e s which produced c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e s which still  l i v e i n the memories of the former students  interviewed.  Haig-Brown says t h a t not one  i n t e r v i e w e d ever i n d i c a t e d any  she  of the n a t i v e s  sense of r e g r e t f o r t h e i r  a c t i o n s , and t h a t they can be viewed as " a c t i o n s of people a g a i n s t a system which degraded and (p.103).  according to l o c a l ,  Personal  dehumanised" be  r e s i d e n t i a l school i n the Yukon,  native  sources.  communication from o f f i c i a l s  Department of E d u c a t i o n students  strong  Much of the d e t a i l i n Haig-Brown's work c o u l d  e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o any  she  and  i n the Yukon  from former r e s i d e n t i a l  school  i n Bear R i v e r r e v e a l s t h a t p r i o r t o the b u i l d i n g of  76  the school i n 1967  a l l Bear R i v e r n a t i v e students were sent  t o r e s i d e n t i a l schools or h o s t e l s i n communities i n  Northern  B. C. and southern Yukon t h r e e t o f i v e hundred k i l o m e t r e s away.  T h i s was  the case w i t h a l l communities which d i d not  have l o c a l s c h o o l s . In some cases, c h i l d r e n were sent away t o s c h o o l even when t h e r e were l o c a l schools, s i n c e the Department of Indian A f f a i r s  judged some parents  as  incompetent t o keep t h e i r c h i l d r e n over long p e r i o d s of time or the parents were known t o t r a p away from town over w i n t e r months.  The  r e s i d e n t i a l schools and h o s t e l s  which n a t i v e c h i l d r e n attended  r e g u l a r non-native  the  (from  schools i n  the l a r g e r community) were run by the A n g l i c a n and C a t h o l i c Churches, but they were f i n a n c e d by the Department of Affairs.  Indian  C h i l d r e n were away from home f o r the t e n months of  s c h o o l with o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s home at Christmas. n a t i v e students were p l a c e d i n l a r g e impersonal where, P a t t e r s o n  These dormitories,  (1972) w r i t e s :  e f f o r t s were made t o erase the e f f e c t s of t h e i r i n f a n c y and c h i l d h o o d experiences.  They were  sometimes under c o n s i d e r a b l e pressure, i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l punishment, t o g i v e up t h e i r customs and r e l i g i o n , and to stop speaking  t h e i r mother  tongue...The q u a l i t y of the i n s t r u c t i o n was and the l e v e l of t h e i r s c h o o l i n g was  not  high  "well below" what  i t would have been a f t e r the same number of years of s c h o o l i n g i n a school f o r white c h i l d r e n  (p.134).  77  The  r e s i d e n t i a l schools and h o s t e l s were not w e l l  s t a f f e d or s u p p l i e d .  But today, a c c o r d i n g t o a Yukon  Government's Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s r e s e a r c h paper, Yukon Student P r o f i l e  (1988) . the Bear R i v e r school has an e n v i a b l e  r a t i o of seven t e a c h e r s to 87 p u p i l s . k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade ten.  I t o f f e r s c l a s s e s from  In the past the s c h o o l had  had  many problems with i t s p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e , a r i s i n g from experimentation  w i t h p i l i n g s i n the permafrost  which the b u i l d i n g s i t s .  But  i t i s now  a sound  a t t r a c t i v e b u i l d i n g with a large l i b r a r y , and wood workshop.  The  ground on and  gymnasium, s c i e n c e  s c h o o l ' s b r i g h t , rounded  hallway  p l e a s a n t l y d i s p l a y s student work and p i c t u r e s of the  few  l o c a l graduates,  twelve  i n other  who  had t o a t t e n d grades e l e v e n and  communities.  This s c h o o l makes some attempt t o r e c o g n i z e the Indian c u l t u r e .  A n a t i v e woman i s employed by the  Band as the Community E d u c a t i o n  Indian  L i a i s o n Co-Ordinator  a k i n d of n a t i v e c o u n s e l l o r working i n the s c h o o l and Band o f f i c e .  Although  local  (CELC), the  not o r i g i n a l l y from the community,  CELC has been a c t i v e i n n a t i v e education f o r many years t h e r e , and  she i s known f o r her emotional  being " r a d i c a l " .  Most Yukon schools have t h i s  which does not r e q u i r e t r a i n i n g , s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l and sources  s t r e n g t h and f o r position,  and i s dependent on  Indian Band f o r d e f i n i t i o n .  the  Local  complained t h a t the p o s i t i o n ' s f u n c t i o n o f t e n  the  78  d e t e r i o r a t e s i n t o s e r v i n g o n l y as a t r u a n t o f f i c e r r a t h e r than d e a l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h l a r g e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r educational  issues.  The Yukon N a t i v e Language Centre i n Whitehorse under t h e d i r e c t i o n of one l i n g u i s t has worked f o r many years t o r e c o r d and salvage t h e seven d i s t i n c t Athapaskan d i a l e c t s i n t h e Yukon, but has o n l y r e c e n t l y been a b l e t o work i n t h e l o c a l language.  Now a r e s i d e n t l i n g u i s t i s on c o n t r a c t t o continue  work i n Bear R i v e r , and he i s t r a i n i n g a n a t i v e woman t o t e a c h t h e language i n t h e s c h o o l . a minimal  Native language i s taught  amount each day, i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h French,  lowest grades.  i n the  The n a t i v e language t e a c h e r s have been  t r a i n e d over s e v e r a l years i n the Yukon and a r e now c e r t i f i e d by a program through Yukon C o l l e g e , t h e only c e r t i f i c a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r a b o r i g i n a l  language  t e a c h e r s i n A l a s k a or n o r t h e r n Canada.  4.2.3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n  The  Indian Band, i n c o n c e r t w i t h a l l other Indian Bands  and the C o u n c i l f o r Yukon Indians, has complained years t h a t t h e n a t i v e Indian dropout completely unacceptable.  f o r many  r a t e from school i s  No e t h n i c i t y s t a t i s t i c s have been  a v a i l a b l e from t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , and these have t o be read c a r e f u l l y t o r e v e a l the true  situation.  79  The  r e s e a r c h paper Yukon Student P r o f i l e  s t a t e s t h a t the number of n a t i v e students i t s percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n . the Yukon i s 21.3%  The  (1988)  i s i n proportion to  Indian p o p u l a t i o n of  of the whole p o p u l a t i o n .  n a t i v e students e n r o l l e d i n Yukon schools i n  A t o t a l of 1988.  S t a t i s t i c s of numbers of c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y by are not a v a i l a b l e .  ethnicity  Since n a t i v e f a m i l i e s appear t o have more  c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y than non-natives,  a h i g h e r percentage of  n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n school would a l s o be expected, t h i s s t a t i s t i c may rates i n school. i n 1988,  so t h a t  not a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t the n a t i v e r e t e n t i o n In Bear R i v e r , out of an enrollment  58 were n a t i v e , e x a c t l y t w o - t h i r d s of the  population  (Yukon Government, 1988).  of  87  school  Unfortunately,  e t h n i c i t y i s not r e p o r t e d by grade, nor has a p e r i o d of years,  23.6%  i t been done over  so t h a t a n a t i v e dropout r a t e cannot be  calculated.  However, of r e l e v a n c e t o the i s s u e of n a t i v e r e t e n t i o n i n s c h o o l are the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the whole of the Yukon f o r student enrollment by grade and e t h n i c i t y f o r 1988.  Assuming  a f a i r l y steady p r o p o r t i o n of n a t i v e students over a p e r i o d of years, comparing the s t a t i s t i c s f o r grades one f o r the Yukon i s i n t e r e s t i n g . 1988,  twelve  For the whole of the Yukon i n  n a t i v e students were 34.3%  Grade twelve  and  of the grade one  of the same year shows 21.3%  population.  native population.  A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n of these s t a t i s t i c s a r i s e s i n the  80  d e f i n i t i o n of grades.  There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of how many of  the s e n i o r grade p o p u l a t i o n i s i n what i s c a l l e d a "modified program" o r a non-academic stream, are e n r o l l e d . percentage  where many n a t i v e students  As r e p o r t e d by the Canada Census 1986, t h e  of Yukon r e g i s t e r e d Indians w i t h a t l e a s t h i g h  s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i s 26.5, which compares t o a g e n e r a l Yukon p o p u l a t i o n percentage  f o r t h e same category of 66.5, t h e  h i g h e s t i n Canada.  A c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of t h e n a t i v e student enrollment can be seen i n t h e s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e "equivalency program". T h i s i s a s p e c i a l l y - d e s i g n e d s c h o o l program f o r students a t r i s k , designed along t h e l i n e s of a d u l t b a s i c education, but w i t h a work component.  Upon completion of t h e e q u i v a l e n c y  program students a r e expected t o move back i n t o the r e g u l a r system.  Not many do.  Across t h e Yukon, of 51 e q u i v a l e n c y  students, 36, o r 70.5% were n a t i v e i n 1988, over double p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  their In  the " s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n " category, numbers a r e s m a l l , but 60% were n a t i v e students.  In Bear R i v e r i n 1988, t h e r e were 27 students i n t h e j u n i o r grades  (grades 8 t o 10).  Assuming t h a t t w o - t h i r d s of  these a r e n a t i v e , 13 of them should be n a t i v e , s i n c e an a d d i t i o n a l 5 students, a l l n a t i v e , were i n t h e e q u i v a l e n c y program c o v e r i n g grades  8 t o 10.  However, i n June of 1989,  o n l y two n a t i v e students from Bear R i v e r graduated  from h i g h  81  school.  4.2.4. E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s  The e q u i v a l e n c y program i n Bear R i v e r i s s i t u a t e d apart from the s c h o o l , i n one  room of the " w i l d l i f e b u i l d i n g " , a  l o g warehouse t h a t has been converted by the  Territorial  Government t o accommodate the w i l d l i f e o f f i c e r , the  social  worker, the a d d i c t i o n s worker and the e q u i v a l e n c y program. The  one  l a r g e room i s well-equipped  washroom down the  Students  and b r i g h t , with a  shared  hall.  ( n a t i v e and non-native)  i n Bear R i v e r who  out of the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system, i n c l u d i n g those who  drop  drop  out of the e q u i v a l e n c y program, have an a d u l t b a s i c education upgrading campus.  system to t u r n t o , o f f e r e d by the l o c a l c o l l e g e T r a i n i n g allowances  are p a i d f o r f u l l - t i m e  attendance at the a d u l t l e a r n i n g c e n t r e .  Opinions  differ  on  whether t h i s draws students away from the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system or not, o f f e r i n g a k i n d of a l t e r n a t i v e h i g h school with  pay.  The  l e a r n i n g c e n t r e has been i n o p e r a t i o n i n Bear R i v e r  s i n c e the l a t e 1970's and has been l o c a t e d i n a mobile u n i t without  running water i n the area e a s t of the main road i n  Bear R i v e r known as the Indian v i l l a g e .  The narrow, l o n g  u n i t has t h r e e small rooms a p a r t from the washroom which has  82  now  been converted t o a c u r r i c u l u m storeroom.  One  room a t  one end i s the i n s t r u c t o r ' s o f f i c e ,  crammed w i t h a d d i t i o n a l  c u r r i c u l u m , a desk and a computer.  The  a classroom, surrounded  l a r g e r middle room i s  w i t h s m a l l t a b l e s bunched i n t o the c e n t r e ,  by a dozen c h a i r s , v i d e o equipment, a photocopier,  and a chalkboard.  I t i s extremely uncomfortable  t o move  around i n s i n c e the t a b l e s are l o c a t e d i n the c e n t r e of a narrow space.  Windows extend a l o n g one  such  l e n g t h of t h i s  room, and the door opens t o the o u t s i d e d i r e c t l y , making f o r very c o l d i n s i d e temperatures door i n the c o l d weather. of  every time someone opens the  The t h i r d room at t h e o p p o s i t e end  the u n i t from the o f f i c e houses the c l a s s computer and  counselling information.  The classroom i s kept i n a general  s t a t e of d i s a r r a y ; the w a l l s are covered w i t h notices, l i s t s ,  accumulated  p o s t e r s and c a l e n d a r s from the months gone  by-  4.2.5. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Personnel and  The  Curricula  l e a r n i n g c e n t r e i n s t r u c t o r or "Community Campus Co-  o r d i n a t o r " i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n s t r u c t i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g a l l students from b a s i c l i t e r a c y t o c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n (grade twelve e q u i v a l e n c y ) .  She i s a l s o c a l l e d upon f o r o r g a n i z i n g  (and sometimes f o r t e a c h i n g ) evening courses i n v a r i o u s c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o f f e r i n g s from accounting, computer l i t e r a c y and t y p i n g t o b a s i c home r e p a i r and f i r s t s m a l l campus had  13 f u l l time upgrading  aid.  students over the  The  83  w i n t e r of 1988-89, h a l f of whom had l e f t by t h e time of t h i s research.  As w e l l , s e v e r a l evening courses were o f f e r e d  over  the w i n t e r months, i n c l u d i n g a c c o u n t i n g and computer literacy.  The campus c o - o r d i n a t o r i s a Metis woman from t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t of another r e g i o n o f Canada who taught f o r s e v e r a l years i n h e r home p r o v i n c e and who has a degree i n education. the c e n t r e .  One of h e r daughters was a f u l l - t i m e student a t D o l l y ' s p e r p e t u a l energy and commitment t o  n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n i s e x c e p t i o n a l , and d e s p i t e a somewhat c o o l r e c e p t i o n a t f i r s t i n Bear R i v e r because she i s not l o c a l , she r e t a i n s a h e a l t h y optimism was  t i n g e d w i t h pragmatism.  She  a c o n t i n u i n g support f o r a l l t h e d e t a i l s of o r g a n i z i n g  and s u s t a i n i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h .  The l o c a l c o l l e g e o f f e r s band management t r a i n i n g i n s e v e r a l modules, d e l i v e r e d i n t h e s m a l l communities.  One of  these modules, o r a l communications, was taught over t h e p e r i o d of t h i s r e s e a r c h .  A man c o n t r a c t e d by the c o l l e g e  t r a v e l l e d t o Bear R i v e r from Whitehorse present 3-day workshops each v i s i t .  t h r e e times t o  Although designed t o  a s s i s t Band s t a f f i n t h e i r r e g u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, the t r a i n i n g was open t o t h e community, and students from t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e attended some of these workshops, l e a v i n g t h e w r i t i n g course a t those times.  At t h e same time, a b a s i c  home r e p a i r course was a l s o b e i n g o f f e r e d , housed i n a mobile  84  u n i t t h a t t r a v e l s t o s e v e r a l communities throughout the Yukon over the w i n t e r months, remaining  i n each spot f o r a  few  weeks.  One  of s e v e r a l l o c a l committees a c t i v e i n Bear R i v e r i s  the Yukon Campus A d v i s o r y Committee, which i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l and b u s i n e s s Indian Band.  i n t e r e s t s and  the  T h i s committee has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  a d m i n i s t e r i n g a s m a l l c o n t i n u i n g education budget f o r s h o r t term courses,  and  a d u l t education  i t a c t s i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y f o r a l l  i n the community.  r e s e a r c h , a p r o p o s a l was  At the time of the  b e i n g made t o the Indian band and  the A d v i s o r y committee f o r a program t o t r a i n a p a i d  to  literacy  worker through the c o l l e g e s i n c e the upgrading a v a i l a b l e i n the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e d i d not accommodate l o w - l e v e l l i t e r a c y students.  There i s no w r i t t e n source  of i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y  of l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s i n the Yukon. Department of E d u c a t i o n the establishment  O f f i c i a l s of  the  i n Whitehorse r e p o r t e d t h a t  before  of the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e i n Bear R i v e r ,  only a d u l t education  a v a i l a b l e was  c a l l e d BLADE, adopted without Newstart program, f o r two a c r o s s the T e r r i t o r y .  the  an a d u l t upgrading system  change from the Saskatchewan  or t h r e e years  The program was  i n the e a r l y 1970's  d i s c o n t i n u e d i n the  mid-1970's a f t e r an e v a l u a t i o n conducted by the Department of Education  which had been c l e a r on i t s d i s a p p r o v a l of  the  85  program. for  Before and a f t e r t h e BLADE system, i t was necessary  a d u l t students t o move t o Whitehorse t o a t t e n d t h e Yukon  V o c a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g Centre f o r upgrading  and s k i l l  t r a i n i n g u n t i l Yukon C o l l e g e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e community l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s i n t h e e a r l y 1980's.  I t was a p p a r e n t l y unusual for  t o use t h e s c h o o l  facilities  n i g h t courses, although t h e r e appeared t o be a general  l a c k of space f o r such o f f e r i n g s .  When approached about t h e  present r e s e a r c h , t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l was e n t h u s i a s t i c and v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of a c l a s s b e i n g put on i n t h e s c h o o l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c o - o r d i n a t o r , h a b i t and l a c k of  f e e l i n g comfortable  i n s c h o o l surroundings  had tended t o  d i c t a t e where c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n took p l a c e .  D e s p i t e t h e many examples of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n now o f f e r e d i n Bear R i v e r , attendance  has been very low.  I t was r e p o r t e d  by t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c o - o r d i n a t o r t h a t t h e r e was enthusiasm  initial  and i n s i s t e n c e on having courses, but some courses  simply ended e a r l y due t o l a c k of attendance, a l o n g with one o r two students.  or struggled  Cost p e r student  completion  can be assumed t o be very h i g h .  4.2.6. L i t e r a c y i n Bear R i v e r  Census Canada d e f i n e s i l l i t e r a c y as those people over 15 years of age, not i n an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , having  less  86  than 9 years of s c h o o l i n g .  In Bear R i v e r , t h e 1986 Census  r e p o r t s t h a t out of 245 a d u l t s , 85 s t a t e d they have l e s s than 9 years of s c h o o l i n g .  This i s a f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a c y  rate  of 34.6%, seemingly about average f o r Yukon r e g i s t e r e d Indians.  Of t h i s number, 58.8% a r e female.  A f u r t h e r 80  a d u l t s i d e n t i f i e d themselves i n t h e census as h a v i n g grade 913 w i t h no c e r t i f i c a t e , population  t o t a l l i n g 67.3% of t h e a d u l t  without h i g h s c h o o l graduation.  not r e l a t e d t o e t h n i c i t y .  These numbers a r e  I t i s safe t o assume t h a t  since  many of t h e a d u l t non-natives i n Bear R i v e r h o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l or b u s i n e s s p o s i t i o n s , the percentage of n a t i v e i l l i t e r a c y i s considerably  higher  than f o r non-natives.  I t i s also safe t o  assume t h a t many respondents would exaggerate t h e i r a c t u a l schooling,  saying,  f o r example, t h a t they had a c q u i r e d a  grade when they had dropped out of school functional i l l i t e r a c y  i n t h a t year.  The  r a t e amongst n a t i v e people i n Bear  R i v e r , then, may be above 50%, a number which we a r e accustomed t o a s s o c i a t e more w i t h T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s  than  Canada.  4.2.7. Summary  L o c a l n a t i v e informants i n Bear R i v e r expressed a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n a l l aspects of education, b e l i e f t h a t education  coupled w i t h a f i r m  would b r i n g economic b e n e f i t s t o  i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e Indian Band as a whole. motivation  However, t h i s  d i d not appear t o support n a t i v e people  87  s u f f i c i e n t l y t o c r e a t e f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the education a v a i l a b l e t o them i n Bear R i v e r .  4.3.  The C u l t u r a l  Context  4.3.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  Although the amount of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on Athapaskans i n the Yukon i s not great, a constant focus of concern has been the impact  of the extremely  different  non-  n a t i v e s o c i e t y on Athapaskan m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e as w e l l as on t h e i r v a l u e systems.  The  impact  continues today,  suggesting  t h a t i n t e r e t h n i c experiences, e s p e c i a l l y those i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , may  l o g i c a l l y lead to resistance to c u l t u r a l  change by the people of Bear R i v e r .  4.3.2. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Background  Honigmann (1949, 1954), McDonnell (1975), Nelson  (1973), Brody (1987),  Cruikshank  Crowe  (1988) and  r e v e a l t h a t p r i o r t o the b e g i n n i n g of v i l l a g e l i f e  (1974),  others through  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t r a d i n g posts and other non-Athapaskan i n s t i t u t i o n s , the a b o r i g i n a l people of the Canadian n o r t h had developed  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s which were h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e t o  t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e , s u r v i v a l economy. extended  Small, nomadic,  f a m i l y groups e f f i c i e n t l y hunted and gathered  throughout  the seasons,  a d a p t i n g t o the s u b a r c t i c  food  88  environment.  E l d e r s p r o f f e r e d knowledge necessary t o  s u r v i v a l which c o u l d o n l y be a c q u i r e d over long years of experience  i n the w i l d , while young and middle-aged a d u l t s  a c t i v e l y p r o v i d e d food and care f o r t h e young and o l d . C h i l d r e n were taught t o become a working p a r t of t h i s mobile unit.  Honigmann, McDonnell, Brody and Cruikshank d i s c u s s Athapaskan v i s i o n quests.  They show t h a t a s s i s t a n c e t o  s u r v i v e was given t o Athapaskans from c o n t a c t with a nonm a t e r i a l realm which, through mediation animals  and i n t e r v e n t i o n by  and other n a t u r a l phenomena, allowed  individuals to  a c q u i r e power which gave them s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s . understood  I t was  t h a t everyone had the p o t e n t i a l t o t r a n s c e n d the  s t r i c t u r e s of circumstances  and t h a t a b i l i t y was simply a  matter of t h e degree of power a c q u i r e d .  F o r men,  abilities  were g i v e n by i n t e r v e n t i o n , w h i l e f o r women, they were s l o w l y accumulated over  time.  This world-view c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s t r o n g sense of p e r s o n a l autonomy among t r a d i t i o n a l Athapaskans; success  was  i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u n c t i o n of p e r s o n a l power g i v e n from o u t s i d e the person,  not of one's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s .  Dependence on others who may have more power i n c e r t a i n was n a t u r a l .  areas  S h a r i n g of the rewards of power, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  the s h a r i n g of meat from a s u c c e s s f u l hunt, was expected no s p e c i a l s t a t u s f o r the g i v e r o r r e c e i v e r r e s u l t e d  and  89  (McDonnell,  1975; Nelson,  Cruikshank  1973).  (1988) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of  s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e d knowledge f o r men came through t h e a s s i s t a n c e of s p e c i f i c o t h e r - w o r l d beings  (animal-people)  accompanied sometimes by extreme, unorthodox i n normal times would not be accepted.  behaviour which  The person was  understood not t o be aware of h i s unacceptable behaviour, so no shame o r g u i l t was a t t a c h e d t o h i s a c t i o n s , f o r which he was  not r e s p o n s i b l e .  I t was a s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e animal-  people, and i f t h e person d i d not succeed i n t h e s t r u g g l e , he would simply d i e .  Men  and women l i v e d complementary l i v e s , w i t h women  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e more sedentary camp l i f e of g a t h e r i n g , cooking, t h e c a r e of c h i l d r e n and sewing c l o t h i n g , and t h e men  f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n of t h e raw m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e i r  Both were a b l e t o perform t h e o t h e r ' s d u t i e s .  lives.  D i v i s i o n of  labour by gender was not s t r i c t l y r e i n f o r c e d , but a pragmatic view of l a b o u r p r e v a i l e d .  Descent  i n t h e two m o i e t i e s ,  e i t h e r Wolf o r Crow, was m a t r i l i n e a l . Cruikshank  (1988) and McDonnell  As r e p o r t e d by  (1975), men r e l i e d on o u t s i d e  i n t e r v e n t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h power t o e x p l o i t t h e land, w h i l e women used e m p i r i c a l l y - b a s e d knowledge t o c o n t r o l day-to-day  lives.  The power of males was dominating and  p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous, and h e l p f u l .  their  w h i l e t h a t of females was p r o t e c t i v e  The a t t i t u d e t o males was one of deference, t o  90  females, t r u s t and f a m i l i a r i t y . operate i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ,  Women were i n c l i n e d t o co-  w h i l e men were more c o m p e t i t i v e .  From a once s t r o n g p o s i t i o n of autonomy and b a l a n c e i n s o c i e t y , Athapaskans have been s u b j e c t e d t o major f o r c e s r e d u c i n g c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i v e s i n a b r i e f space of c u l t u r a l time.  Europeans encountered what amounted t o a Stone Age  c u l t u r e i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century Yukon, and i n a few g e n e r a t i o n s the impact of i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y can r e a d i l y be seen i n a l l Athapaskan communities.  Most s c h o l a r s suggest t h a t the n a t u r a l pragmatism and a d a p t a b i l i t y of the Athapaskans have been both an a s s e t and a detriment t o t h e i r s u r v i v a l i n our modern world.  Embracing  t r a p p i n g as a way of economic l i f e brought access t o the t o o l s which made l i f e e a s i e r , but which a l s o demanded t h a t a lone t r a p p e r l i v e f o r weeks without f a m i l y support s i n c e the extended f a m i l y group was no l o n g e r necessary, and even somewhat of a handicap t o m o b i l i t y . dependence  L a t e r , even p a r t i a l  on a wage economy and u n i v e r s a l  government  supports such as Family Allowances and Old Age Pensions brought a more sedentary l i f e  i n established  communities  which f u r t h e r reduced i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l over day-to-day (McDonnell, 1975; M i l l e r ,  1970).  life  Attendance a t s c h o o l s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , completely separated the young from u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way of (Patterson,  1972; Haig-Brown,  1989).  life  91  In life,  d i s c u s s i n g a b o r i g i n a l c o n t a c t w i t h non-Athapaskan  McDonnell (1975) s t a t e s t h a t present-day  developments  are: unprecedented  and cannot  e n t i r e l y be viewed as  d e r i v a t i v e of a p r e v i o u s way  of t h i n k i n g about and  interpreting social relations. ignored.  It s t i l l  Nor can the p a s t be  i n t r u d e s i n the understanding  o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u r r e n t a f f a i r s  and  (p.14).  T r a d i t i o n a l Athapaskan l i f e and b e l i e f s were so extremely  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the impacting European  c u l t u r e t h a t new  ways of s u r v i v a l and t h i n k i n g were demanded.  However, the p a s t i s not e n t i r e l y gone because of t h i s and understanding of how way  of l i f e  an  i t i n t r u d e s on the present Athapaskan  i s important.  P a t t e r s o n (1972) s t a t e s t h a t :  The twin p o l e s of t o t a l a s s i m i l a t i o n and  total  maintenance of indigenous c u l t u r e i n a c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t t h e o r e t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s which are never r e a l i z e d .  Between them l i e s the range of what  a c t u a l l y occurs and what i s r e a l l y a t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e : c u l t u r a l adjustment This can v a r y i n many degrees  and/or s y n t h e s i s .  along the  spectrum  between the imaginary poles...from the c o n t a c t of the  92  two  c u l t u r e s the Indians  developed something which was  new and unique and was n e i t h e r Western nor t r a d i t i o n a l but c o n t a i n e d  i n a new form elements of each...This  s y n t h e s i s becomes p a r t of t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e c u l t u r e and thus continues  along w i t h whatever changes  are o c c u r r i n g i n the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e (p.169-170).  Athapaskan c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s today a r e i n v a r i o u s of adjustment or s y n t h e s i s individual.  stages  'epending on the community and t h e  In McDonnell's words, they a r e " b i f a r i o u s "  (1975, p.22), o r f o l l o w i n g both t h e path of t r a d i t i o n and of a new v i s i o n .  He f i n d s the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l threads  also  somewhat obscure because of c u l t u r a l s y n t h e s i s o c c u r r i n g a t different  rates.  4.3.3. S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c  According  Background  t o S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1981), much i n f l u e n c e  from the o l d e r c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s language use among Athapaskans. analyses  of d i s c o u r s e s t y l e s  appears i n modern  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n ' s  of Northern Athapaskans f i n d  c o n t r a s t s w i t h E n g l i s h i n t h e areas of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s e l f and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a l k , In the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s e l f ,  amongst other d i f f e r e n c e s .  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n argue t h a t  the h i g h degree o f ' r e s p e c t . f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of others and  a careful  guarding of one's own i n d i v i d u a l i t y leads t o  c o n v e r s a t i o n b e i n g t h r e a t e n i n g because of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of  93  a negotiated  change of p o i n t of view.  The Athapaskan w i l l  wait u n t i l views are known b e f o r e open d i s c u s s i o n takes ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n ,  1981, p.15).  For instance,  place  McDonnell  (1975) observes t h a t :  a person who proposed something t h a t was generallythought t o be q u e s t i o n a b l e , not  apparently  negation--if silence  unwise o r u n s u i t a b l e  was  r e c e i v e d w i t h a s t r a i g h t out v e r b a l  anything h i s proposal  was r e c e i v e d  with  (p.310).  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n a l s o d i s c u s s  the power r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between people as b e i n g a source of c o n f l i c t between Athapaskans and E n g l i s h speakers. 17)  In one example (1981, p.  they show t h a t t h e dominating r e l a t i o n s h i p between  t e a c h e r and c h i l d i n Athapaskan c u l t u r e r e q u i r e s the Athapaskan c h i l d t o l i s t e n w h i l e the E n g l i s h t e a c h e r speaks. Yet t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  t e a c h e r demands response from the  c h i l d t o d i s p l a y knowledge which i n the Athapaskan view has not y e t been f u l l y acquired. conflict  A f u r t h e r example of language  i s found i n the d i s p l a y of a b i l i t y .  speaker b e l i e v e s  The Athapaskan  i t i s bad l u c k t o show o f f a b i l i t i e s  the E n g l i s h speaker l i k e s t o "put h i s best  while  f o o t forward".  In d i s c u s s i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a l k , S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n say t h a t Athapaskan speakers pause j u s t s l i g h t l y between t u r n s  i n conversation  longer  w h i l e E n g l i s h speakers continue  94  r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y (1981, p.31) w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t most of the c o n v e r s a t i o n  i s dominated  by the E n g l i s h speaker.  Departure formulas a l s o d i f f e r , w i t h the Athapaskan  being  c a r e f u l of c o u r t i n g bad luck, and not r e f e r r i n g t o a f u t u r e meeting.  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n say t h a t t a l k i s d i s t r i b u t e d between E n g l i s h speakers and Athapaskans  so t h a t :  the E n g l i s h speaker i s favored  as f i r s t  speaker, as  c o n t r o l l e r of t o p i c , as p r i n c i p a l speaker, and y e t i n the end he may not have any c o n c l u s i v e i d e a of what went on.  F o r the Athapaskan  speaker i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o get t h e f l o o r , t o b r i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n  around t o  h i s own t o p i c , and i n t h e end t o f e e l he has had much e f f e c t on t h e outcome (1981,  p.27-28).  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n f u r t h e r observe t h a t the Athapaskan s t r u c t u r e of i n f o r m a t i o n  and o r g a n i z a t i o n of content d i f f e r  from t h a t of E n g l i s h and t h a t a d o p t i o n of the d i s c o u r s e patterns  of t h e e s s a y i s t s t y l e of w r i t i n g , p e r c e i v e d  t o be  those of the E n g l i s h speaker, a r e seen by the Athapaskan change i n e t h n i c i t y .  it  as a  They suggest t h a t :  i s t h i s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t t h a t e x p l a i n s much of t h e  problem of n a t i v e l i t e r a c y programs as w e l l as problems w i t h E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y i n the p u b l i c  school  95  systems of A l a s k a and Canada (1981,  p.53).  In the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y of Athapaskans the primary ways t o a c q u i r e knowledge, apart from the s p e c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n of animal-people,  were by o b s e r v a t i o n as a c h i l d ,  experience, and  personal  s t o r i e s of the experiences of o t h e r s .  The work of Yukon a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Cruikshank of the l i n k between p e r s o n a l experience, s t o r i e s , knowledge, and of p a s s i n g t h a t knowledge along. informants, Mrs.  Ned,  (1988) t e l l s and One  of her  says:  "...We o n l y want t o t a l k about important t h i n g s . "  By  "important t h i n g s " she i s r e f e r r i n g t o the songs, the s t o r i e s , the genealogies and the p l a c e names t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r her l i f e ,  the  knowledge she wants t o pass on t o i n s t r u c t young people. me  "We  have t o get the words r i g h t , " she  over and over again.  school."  assures  "Old time words are j u s t  like  (1988, p.207)  Past experience, sometimes handed down f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s , r e c a l l e d through o r a l n a r r a t i v e , was  (and i s )  the means by which the Athapaskan n a r r a t o r uses a c q u i r e d knowledge t o i n s t r u c t o t h e r people about how problems i n the present.  to deal with  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n expand on  this,  s t a t i n g t h a t the Athapaskan view of the s t r o n g l y autonomous  96  individual:  tends t o r e j e c t e x p e r t i s e t h a t other have unless  one  can  see a way  knowledge i n t o h i s own  individuals  to i n c o r p o r a t e  knowledge s t r u c t u r e s  may  that (1981, p.  101).  The  shared experience of n a r r a t i o n r e q u i r e s  knowledge must be c o n t e x t u a l ! z e d l i s t e n e r , and  i n the experience of  passed on i n such a way  t h r e a t t o i n d i v i d u a l autonomy and  the  t h a t i t minimizes  flexibility.  n a r r a t i v e changes t o s u i t the circumstance and and  that  the  Oral the  listener,  Cruikshank (1988) warns t h a t :  w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d but u n c r i t i c a l use from one  of o r a l t r a d i t i o n s  c u l t u r e as though they are e q u i v a l e n t  to  h i s t o r i c a l evidence as d e f i n e d by another c u l t u r e , lead to misrepresentation narrative. called value  may  of more complex messages i n  Attempts t o s i f t o r a l accounts f o r so-  " f a c t s " may,  ironically,  of spoken t e s t i m o n i e s  underestimate  the  by s e t t i n g p o s i t i v i s t i c  c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g t r u t h value or d i s t o r t i o n s (P-198).  The the  i n d i r e c t , opaque l e s s o n s  of o r a l t r a d i t i o n  l i v e s of t r a d i t i o n a l Athapaskans.  According  (1987), t h e r e are no r i t e s of passage among the  reflect  t o Brody hunting  97  peoples of the Canadian north, own  and  i n d i v i d u a l s grow at t h e i r  pace:  S o c i a l and  personal  improvisational; The  c u l t u r e and  within,  l i f e i s informal  i n d i v i d u a l s f o l l o w t h e i r own  e s t a b l i s h i n g both consciousness and  f o r c e and  Any says,  limits  experienced as laws.  i n e v i t a b i l i t y of these do not seem to  r e q u i r e codes, i n s t i t u t i o n s or organised (P.  trails.  land impose t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e s from  t h a t are shared as knowledge and The  and  ceremonies  143).  r i t e s of passage found amongst these peoples, Brody  are a f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s found i n more or  l e s s permanent communities which r e q u i r e organised a f f i r m i n g and  enforcing  ways of  law.  4.3.4. Summary  The  relevant anthropological  l i t e r a t u r e suggest t h a t i t was Athapaskan c u l t u r e t h a t was  and  sociolinguistic  not o n l y the  material  altered drastically  and  i r r e v e r s i b l y by c o n t a c t w i t h non-Athapaskan s o c i e t y . v a l u e s were a l s o d r a m a t i c a l l y confronted.  However,  r e s i s t a n c e t o t h i s c u l t u r a l change, a c c o r d i n g  to  (1972), i s the b a s i s of the s u r v i v a l and present Indian ways across  Canada.  Ancient  Patterson r e - b i r t h of  98  CHAPTER V  FINDINGS  5.1. The Classroom Context  f o r Resistance  This chapter r e p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s of t h e r e s e a r c h . begins w i t h g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s from the composition implemented i n t h e case study.  It  instruction  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by s e l e c t e d  f i n d i n g s f o r each of the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of student behaviours mentioned: i n d i v i d u a l , s c h o l a r l y behaviours.  group, and l i t e r a t e and  S e l e c t i o n of these data was made  to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of each category of behaviour.  The q u e s t i o n researched i n the case study was: how d i d n a t i v e ESL l i t e r a c y students i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r context respond t o i n n o v a t i v e composition pedagogy?  The major  response t o both types of i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e d was r e s i s t a n c e behaviours as d e f i n e d i n the d e s c r i p t i v e paradigm presented previously.  Most of the r e s i s t a n c e r e p o r t e d here occurred  c o n s i s t e n t l y enough t o be p r e d i c t a b l e i n p a r t i c u l a r circumstances.  5.1.1. General F i n d i n g s  L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was forthcoming i n t h e students' j o u r n a l s about t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r composition  99  i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches. responses  However, l a t e r a n a l y s i s of the  t h a t were g i v e n and o b s e r v a t i o n s from my  own  j o u r n a l r e v e a l e d t h a t the students much p r e f e r r e d the p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d approach over the p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d one. g e n e r a l consensus by students' own approach was  admission was  favoured because i t was  that this  less challenging.  The major, g e n e r a l f i n d i n g of t h i s r e s e a r c h was my  The  that  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the students d i d not grow p o s i t i v e l y .  Rather,  the students v i s i b l y r e s i s t e d most of my  t e a c h composition.  Although one student t o l d me  " i t ' s a good t h i n g we  l i k e you",  e f f o r t s to privately  most d i s p l a y e d a n t i p a t h y t o  the classroom events i f not t o me p e r s o n a l l y a t some time d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h .  I began t o experience  c o n t r o l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and a t times planned  difficulty instruction  c o u l d not be implemented due t o l a c k of student c o - o p e r a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l needs were seldom expressed or apparent,  and most  students d i d not show an i n t e r e s t i n i n t e g r a t i n g w r i t i n g t h e i r l i v e s beyond what was  into  m i n i m a l l y r e q u i r e d of them i n the  classroom.  The s y l l a b u s used i n the case study depended h e a v i l y on c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r success.  I based my  t e a c h i n g on the  premise  the accommodation by both students and t e a c h e r allows f o r learning potential. believed l i t t l e  The o p p o s i t e s i t u a t i o n was  l e a r n i n g was  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  possible.  one where I  In t h i s framework,  t o present l e s s o n s which were as  my  100  r e s p o n s i v e as p o s s i b l e through changes i n methods and m a t e r i a l s t o meet what I saw as student p r e f e r e n c e s and needs.  The "treatment"  t o a l l e v i a t e the l e a r n i n g  deficit  c o u l d not be f o r c e d ; i t had t o be accepted t o be l e a r n e d . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the u l t i m a t e c h o i c e t o accomplish the o b j e c t i v e of l e a r n i n g was w i t h the student and was  determined  by the student's a b i l i t y o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o co-operate  with  the events of the l e s s o n .  The s t u d e n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e l e a r n i n g a p p a r e n t l y d i f f e r e d from t h i s .  situation  They no doubt saw t h a t the  t e a c h i n g events were planned and presented w i t h minimal  room  f o r a l t e r a t i o n and o n l y as I chose t o change the l e s s o n i n responding t o circumstances t h a t I saw as important or when I requested student o p i n i o n .  D e s p i t e c o n s u l t a t i o n with  students, t h e e x p e c t a t i o n was t h a t students would be e s s e n t i a l l y p a s s i v e beings w i t h i n s t r i c t parameters, w i t h c h o i c e s of a c t i o n t h a t ranged  left  only from c o - o p e r a t i o n t o  o p p o s i t i o n t o events o u t s i d e o f t h e i r  control.  Each p a r t n e r i n t h e process of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  student and  teacher, had power t h a t was l i m i t e d by the c o - o p e r a t i o n o r l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n of t h e other p a r t y .  There seemed t o be  an unspoken commitment t o t h i s power arrangement which was g e n e r a l l y accepted.  When c o n t r o l d i d not appear t o be a  concern, the r e s u l t was c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n on both s i d e s which I b e l i e v e d l e d t o p o s s i b l e l e a r n i n g .  But when t h i s  101  balance of power was abandoned (by e i t h e r s i d e ) , a s t r u g g l e r e s u l t e d which meant l i t t l e p o s s i b l e l e a r n i n g .  5.1.2. I n d i v i d u a l R e s i s t a n c e  Behaviour: Communication  I n d i v i d u a l s ' a c t s of communication, whether v e r b a l or w r i t t e n , were o f t e n t h e focus behaviour.  of what I termed r e s i s t a n c e  Both w r i t t e n and v e r b a l communication were a t  times w i t h h e l d  a l t o g e t h e r f o r no apparent reason, o r were  used a g g r e s s i v e l y  i n a l l the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n Bear  River.  One example of withdrawal of communication appeared w i t h L i s a , a student i n the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e . withdrawn and p e t u l a n t . her f i r s t  L i s a was  often  She was e i g h t months' pregnant w i t h  c h i l d and I was t o l d by t h e other  students s e v e r a l  times t h a t she was temperamental due t o her pregnancy and they showed no i n t o l e r a n c e o f h e r . l a c k of communication which was i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h b u r s t s of anger.  On most  occasions  L i s a s a t through the l e s s o n w i t h h e r head on her arms on the t a b l e , emerging b r i e f l y only when t h e r e was no other alternative. questions  I recorded  one of L i s a ' s r e a c t i o n s t o my  w h i l e i n c l a s s as f o l l o w s :  E: L i s a , who i s doing t h e a c t i o n i n t h i s sentence? L:  E:  Is Hal t h e one who wore t h e s h i r t ?  102  L: E: Hal i s t h e s u b j e c t , r i g h t ? L: Dunno.  Dora, another student a t t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , d i s p l a y e d a g g r e s s i v e communication i n every c l a s s she attended.  She  was a c o u s i n t o t h e young man who had d i e d of hypothermia e a r l i e r i n t h e year and she had r e c e i v e d medical a t t e n t i o n f o r problems such as s l e e p l e s s n e s s r e s u l t i n g from h e r g r i e f . She  showed obvious s i g n s of abuse of a l c o h o l and was having a  tumultuous  a f f a i r w i t h a l o c a l young man which was a l s o  a f f e c t i n g her emotionally. event w i t h t h i s  My j o u r n a l r e c o r d s a t y p i c a l  student:  When I a r r i v e d , Dora was a t t h e computer, p l a y i n g a game.  She j u s t i g n o r e d me when I asked h e r i f she was  t h e r e f o r t h e w r i t i n g c l a s s , but f i n a l l y s a i d no. asked h e r i f she intended t o q u i t .  No answer.  I  I kept  prodding her, a s k i n g h e r i f D o l l y had made h e r come t o the w r i t i n g c l a s s when she d i d n ' t want t o . but grunts and swearing i n r e p l y .  Nothing  - F i n a l l y , somehow,  I t a l k e d h e r i n t o t r y i n g t h e c l a s s f o r today t o see i f i t was any good, s a y i n g she c o u l d q u i t a f t e r t h a t i f she wanted t o .  L i s a a r r i v e d , and appeared  good mood u n t i l she read Dora's mood.  in a fairly  She withdrew  completely again, head i n h e r arms, no r e p l i e s t o my questions, w h i l e Dora continued swearing and pushing  103  papers around on the t a b l e .  I t was  a l l so extreme and  s i l l y t h a t i t seemed r e l a t i v e l y easy t o ignore a c t i o n s and  their  simply continue b l i n d l y on t e a c h i n g .  While i n t h i s c l a s s ,  I t r i e d to r e c o r d what  was  communicated by Dora:  E: Dora, can you g i v e me D:  -- —  E: How D:  an example of a noun?  about a verb?  (muffled)-run-  E: R i g h t ! D:  Shit!  ( s h u f f l i n g of books on tne t a b l e )  At the end of t h i s c l a s s , ,1 suggested  t o Dora t h a t  she  might want t o get her problems o f f her chest by w r i t i n g i n her j o u r n a l about them. r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e was class,  S i n c e I had not shown t h a t I a problem p r i o r t o t h i s i n the  she seemed s u r p r i s e d , and  i n a move which was  meant  not t o communicate, but d i d , she s a i d i n her j o u r n a l :  I'm  not i n the mood t o t a l k about my  with anyone.  I t ' s between me  i s g e t t i n g b o r i n g f o r me.  p e r s o n a l problem  and someone e l s e .  This  I guess I get t i r e d of i t  because I've been doing t h i s l a s t year I'm t i r e d of doing these s t u f f over and  over.  getting  104  The communication problems w i t h both L i s a and Dora i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a seemingly  u n c r o s s a b l e l i n e which  d e f i n e d the extent o f t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e , s e t t i n g a k i n d of "bottom l i n e " .  N e i t h e r appeared t o want t o c a r r y t h e i r  a c t i o n t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n by l e a v i n g the c l a s s no matter how t r y i n g t h e i r presence  was t o both of us.  Lack o f o t h e r students' communication e i t h e r by i n t e r f e r e n c e o r a s s i s t a n c e was o f t e n noted when a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e was b e i n g d i s p l a y e d by one student alone. degree of t o l e r a n c e by other students of even d i s r u p t i v e behaviour  A high  extremely  seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a more i n v o l v e d  approach by them would not be a c c e p t a b l e .  The other  students  would g e n e r a l l y look away o r work d i l i g e n t l y a t something. Some small i n d i c a t i o n s of annoyance would appear such as t h e e s c a l a t i o n of the number of p r o t e s t s t o me from the others about work, but communication was minimal from the group i f an i n d i v i d u a l student were r e s i s t i n g .  The focus of a t t e n t i o n  of t h e group was never on t h e d i s r u p t i n g student.  On t h r e e o c c a s i o n s I had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e a c h one student alone, twice a t the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e and once i n the e q u i v a l e n c y c l a s s when o n l y one student appeared f o r c l a s s . In a l l cases t h e students were communicative, a t t e n t i v e and contributing.  In the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e when I taught her  alone, L i s a responded i n t e l l i g e n t l y and c l e a r l y t o my questions, was a l e r t ,  and seemed t o be " f i n a l l y l e a r n i n g " as  105  I s a i d i n my  journal.  In the e q u i v a l e n c y c l a s s , Nick  once the only student t o come and he was me how  much he c o u l d do.  He showed me  anxious t o prove t o  t h a t he knew much more  than he had d i s p l a y e d i n p r e v i o u s work i n the c l a s s . j o u r n a l r e c o r d s t h a t he  My  "has a good sense of humour which I  hadn't r e a l i z e d , and we both had a good time." continue i n the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s where Nick was unobtrusive  was  T h i s d i d not h i s usual  (and unworking) s e l f .  The Athapaskan-dominated c l a s s e s were a d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the grade e i g h t t o t e n c l a s s i n communication p a t t e r n s both of which I saw the l a t t e r was  as d i s p l a y i n g r e s i s t a n c e .  a cacophony of c h a t t e r meeting  u n d e s i r a b l e request or event,  Resistance i n any  whereas i n the c l a s s e s with a  m a j o r i t y of Athapaskans r e s i s t a n c e i n communication p a t t e r n s was  u n u s u a l l y lengthy s i l e n c e s .  The  learning centre  and  e q u i v a l e n c y c l a s s e s very seldom responded or c o n t r i b u t e d an i d e a when requested,  such as:  "Who  can answer t h i s ? " or "Does  anyone have a n y t h i n g t o add t o t h a t ? " The u s u a l response  was  silence.  any  response  A great d e a l of p r e s s u r e was and the p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e was  even when the answer was  known.  comment d i r e c t e d from one do w i t h the l e s s o n , except which was  needed t o produce  not t o take p a r t a t a l l  At no time d i d I witness  student t o another when i t was  to  i n the grade e i g h t t o ten c l a s s  mainly non-Athapaskan.  N e i t h e r was  I aware of  "cheating" by, h e l p i n g each o t h e r with answers i n the Athapaskan c l a s s e s .  a  any  106  The  l a c k of communication and i n some cases,  complete  s i l e n c e of some students e f f e c t i v e l y masked t h e i r academic abilities, view.  p e r s o n a l i t i e s and f e e l i n g s , g i v i n g me a d i s t o r t e d  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e q u i v a l e n c y c l a s s , i t was  necessary f o r me t o review my assessment of students I thought  of as shy o r withdrawn because of s i l e n t r e a c t i o n s .  F u r t h e r experience w i t h them, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t were p e r s o n a l and alone, i n d i c a t e d more c o n f i d e n c e and a b i l i t y than I had initially  suspected.  I based give-and-take  initial  assessment and f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n on t h e  of communication i n the classroom.  l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y were not easy t o determine  Individual  because of t h e  l a c k of o r a l and w r i t t e n communication and r e s i s t a n c e t o producing work.  F o r i n s t a n c e i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , Dora,  (who s a i d i n h e r j o u r n a l t h a t she was bored w i t h what we were doing because she had done t h e work b e f o r e and she was " g e t t i n g t i r e d of doing these s t u f f over and over") showed i n the other w r i t i n g t h a t she produced responses  never  or i n her o r a l  t h a t her a b i l i t i e s were beyond the work assigned.  In t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , I once requested a s s i s t a n c e from the c o - o r d i n a t o r t o communicate t o the students what she and I f e l t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g . responded  t o v e r y w e l l a t t h e next l e s s o n .  l e v e l of p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g i n d i c a t o r s ,  I t was  Along w i t h a h i g h  I recorded i n my  107  journal:  D o l l y must have done a g r e a t job on these s t u d e n t s ! . . . t h e y a c t u a l l y responded,  co-operated,  smiled, and l e a r n e d today.  The e x e r c i s e i n c l u d e d group peer response, became apparent me.  but i t soon  t h a t they were d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r work o n l y t o  They would not c r i t i c i z e  each o t h e r ' s work when asked  c o n t r i b u t e t o the w r i t i n g on the board. r e s u l t i n g from the work was student at the board,  The  o n l y between me  although attempts  o t h e r students d i s c u s s the composition.  exchange and the  one  were made t o have the Communication  seemed d i f f i c u l t even under these p o s i t i v e  5.1.3. Group R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour:  or  circumstances.  Pressures  and  Responsibilities  Yvonne was  a former r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l student who  r e c e i v e d a l l her formal s c h o o l i n g away from home.  had  As the  evening c l a s s student, she s a i d i n her j o u r n a l t h a t she  one  was:  not a v e r y good person t o work w i t h i n a group, because I've always got t h i s f e e l i n g of not wanting t o r i d i c u l e my work, from c h i l d h o o d days, t a k i n g a c h a i r i n the back  row.  I guess--always  108  Yvonne expressed a common f e a r of exposing h e r s e l f t o r i d i c u l e and embarrassment by b e i n g c a l l e d upon t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e group as a whole.  Group development and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s t r e s s e d i n most a d u l t education; peer group i n p u t and group response a r e important  aspects of t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d approach t o w r i t i n g  instruction.  Although group d i s c u s s i o n s were  attempted  r e g u l a r l y , they were g e n e r a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l i n r a i s i n g involvement  i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n except w i t h t h e grade e i g h t t o  ten class.  I expected t h e l a t t e r would have t h e most  experience working as a group, and t h e non-Athapaskans would be f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t h e i r responses  t o group  techniques such as b r a i n s t o r m i n g and peer response, the group a c t i o n .  The two n a t i v e boys i n t h i s  enjoying  class,  however, c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e o r nothing, even when c a l l e d upon directly.  One of these boys would sometimes j o i n i n t h e  crowd when rampant j o k i n g was t a k i n g p l a c e , but he was g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e d by t h e others when he d i d t h i s .  Tony, t h e  other, was not shy, appearing s e l f - c o n f i d e n t and simply choosing not t o take p a r t i n t h e g e n e r a l j o k i n g .  P a i r i n g seemed l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g than group work, whether i t was w i t h a t e a c h e r / s t u d e n t o r student/student  combination.  I t was t h e one r e l i a b l e method which c l e a r l y r e s u l t e d i n accommodation behaviour and a h i g h l e v e l of p o t e n t i a l learning  indicators.  109  Students  " v o t i n g with t h e i r f e e t " by b e i n g unpunctual  not a t t e n d i n g was  or  one of the g r e a t e s t problems experienced  w i t h the t e a c h i n g i n Bear R i v e r .  Most absences  probably  arose by i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e , but the problem was t h a t I chose t o c a l l  so u n i v e r s a l  i t a group response s i n c e p a r t i c u l a r  i n c i d e n t s were sometimes shared by a l l students i n the c l a s s , and absenteeism  was  c a r r i e d out by n e a r l y everyone  a t one  time or another.  i  The l e a s t expected example of absenteeism was evening c l a s s which was  w i t h the  o r g a n i s e d i n response t o the  shown i n i t by the Indian Band o f f i c e s t a f f . been a d v e r t i s e d p r i o r t o my  interest  The course had  a r r i v a l i n the community and  d i s c u s s i o n had taken p l a c e p e r s o n a l l y w i t h many of the  staff.  A meeting had been h e l d i n which s i x s t a f f members signed up to  the course.  F i v e o t h e r p o s s i b l e students were gathered  from the s c h o o l , the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e , and o t h e r o f f i c e s . f e l t t h a t t o be r e a l i s t i c , e i g h t but I was two  I c o u l d expect a c l a s s of s i x or  prepared f o r twelve.  students appeared.  I  The f i r s t n i g h t o n l y  That number q u i c k l y reduced down t o  the r e g u l a r attendance of o n l y one. I a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t attendance a t the two  school classes  would be more r e g u l a r , but l a t e a r r i v a l s were always the order of the day, becoming more f r e q u e n t as time passed they r e a l i z e d I was  not going t o p o l i c e them.  and  Attendance  at  110  the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e was  a l s o unexpectedly poor.  Attendance  dropped d r a m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g the week t h a t D o l l y went t o Whitehorse f o r t r a i n i n g .  The day she r e t u r n e d , a l l s i x  students re-appeared a t the c e n t r e .  The i n c e n t i v e of group  p r e s s u r e should have r e s u l t e d i n a f a i r r a t e of attendance, but had the o p p o s i t e a f f e c t .  S i n c e attendance was s p o r a d i c  by a l l but one of the students, any peer p r e s s u r e a c t u a l l y worked a g a i n s t r e g u l a r attendance.  Apart from simply not wanting t o come, t h e r e were many p o s s i b l e reasons f o r l a c k of attendance as p o i n t e d out t o me by s e v e r a l people from the Band o f f i c e and i n the community. These ranged from the time of year ( s p r i n g i s n o t o r i o u s l y a time f o r absences because of the warmer weather), t o o t h e r more important commitments such as meetings Whitehorse,  t o b a b y s i t t i n g problems.  or t r i p s t o  The f a c t  that  b a b y - s i t t e r s were scarce, expensive, and u n r e l i a b l e almost every woman a t the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e .  affected  However, a f i r m  long-term e f f o r t t o o r g a n i z e a group s o l u t i o n t o c h i l d c a r e problems was  not e v i d e n t .  The i n c i d e n t of absenteeism t h a t was study i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  chosen f o r case  an i n c i d e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d t h r e e  times at the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e i n the weeks of the r e s e a r c h . Behind absenteeism a t c e r t a i n r e g u l a r times was  an unspoken  t r a d i t i o n t h a t the day a f t e r a r r i v a l of t r a i n i n g allowance cheques was  a holiday.  D o l l y had, by her own  admission,  Ill  g i v e n up on t r y i n g t o c o n t r o l attendance  at t h i s time.  had begun by w i t h h o l d i n g a day's allowance  f o r the day  but t h i s , even when c a r e f u l l y e x p l a i n e d and did  not change the "cheque h o l i d a y " .  missed  j u s t i f i e d by her,  She used s i g n i n g i n and  out as a means of d i s p l a y i n g attendance but t h i s was ignored and became what she saw  She  quickly  as harassment by h e r s e l f of  students w i t h whom she wished t o be f r i e n d l y and  helpful.  Having t r i e d her best, D o l l y simply accepted the undeclared h o l i d a y the day a f t e r the cheques a r r i v e d and o r g a n i z e d her t e a c h i n g around i t .  5.1.4. L i t e r a t e and S c h o l a r l y R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour:  Learning  Through L i t e r a c y  For the p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n approach I used worksheets for  grammar and mechanics; these were u s u a l l y met  v i s i b l e r e l i e f from n e a r l y a l l students.  with  They seemed t o be a  comfortable, f a m i l i a r a c t i v i t y which r e q u i r e d l i t t l e a p p l i c a t i o n of thought. worksheets was little  Often the work done on the  of good standard but i t was  of t h i s l e a r n i n g was  the same grammatical  a p p l i e d t o new  concept was  apparent  that  situations.  encountered  w r i t i n g , the knowledge " l e a r n e d " was composition a t hand.  active  When  i n actual  not t r a n s f e r r e d t o the  For example, the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e  students a l l d i d w e l l on worksheets f o r sentence  fragments  and run-ons but the g r e a t e s t number of e r r o r s were made i n t h e i r w r i t i n g i n t h i s area, sometimes on the same day as the  112  worksheet e x e r c i s e . punctuation  Reminders had t o be made o f t e n about  and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r u l e s although these were  c o n s i s t e n t l y done w e l l on t h e worksheets. was  Little  improvement  observed i n l a t e r w r i t i n g .  As p a r t of t h e i n s t r u c t i o n I t r i e d t o s t i m u l a t e and w r i t i n g beyond simple d e s c r i p t i o n . classification,  thinking  In u s i n g  simple e x e r c i s e s were responded t o a c t i v e l y  i n t h e l e s s o n , but when i t was necessary t o apply t h e concept t o w r i t i n g i t was not o f t e n done. the  F o r example, students a t  l e a r n i n g c e n t r e were asked t o make l i s t s of items f o r  s a l e and c l a s s i f y them under a heading (e.g. beds and c h a i r s might be c l a s s i f i e d under t h e heading f u r n i t u r e ) i n a s i g n t o be posted l o c a l l y .  Most of t h e students d i d not l i s t  items t o c a t e g o r i z e ,  such as:  FOR SALE: T.V. $120 and s t e r o $50. conditions.  enough  In good working  See owner.  Some used c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were t o o broad:  FOR SALE: f u r n i t u r e s , c l o t h i n g , k i t t c h i n  stuff.  E v a l u a t i v e t h i n k i n g was r e q u i r e d of a l l t h e students s i n c e I requested t h a t they c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p l a n n i n g l e s s o n s by t e l l i n g me t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s product approach.  of t h e  f o r a process or  The responses were o f t e n d i s a p p o i n t i n g and  113  inadequate.  Most of the students p a s s i v e l y co-operated  with  the request by responding w i t h something, but they d i d not t h i n k v e r y deeply about t h e i r responses,  nor e l a b o r a t e on  them t o any g r e a t extent:  The d i f f e r e n c e between the ideas and grammar of w r i t i n g i s t h a t on wednsdays we get t o choose our ideas on what we  own  are w r i t i n g .  The d i c t a t i o n I don't mind i t I guess but i t s s o r t of a pain.  I p e r f e r e the marking.  I l i k e bother grammar of w r i t i n g because i t s c o o l .  Gramar, why? had more fun today than yesterday.  The use of j o u r n a l s as t h i n k i n g and w r i t i n g t o o l s t o d i s c u s s p r e f e r e n c e was  approached by a l l students so  c a u t i o u s l y as t o c o n s t i t u t e f u r t h e r evidence of r e s i s t a n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , L i s a avoided making a d e t e r m i n a t i o n on which k i n d of marking she p r e f e r r e d , w r i t t e n comments or a number grade, to her,  f o r two weeks of j o u r n a l e n t r i e s and my  q u e s t i o n s back  ( d u r i n g which she wrote w i t h complete n e u t r a l i t y t h a t  she p r e f e r r e d "the marking"). "I p e r f e r e the number  grade."  I was  finally  rewarded with:  114  C l a s s w r i t i n g assignments of r e s i s t a n c e .  also displayed direct  evidence  Twice i n the grade e i g h t t o t e n c l a s s I t r i e d  to make grammar l e s s o n s p l a y f u l by h a v i n g students p l a y a sentence completion game.  P a i r s would f i r s t  compose t h e  s u b j e c t of a sentence, then pass the paper a l o n g t o the next p a i r , who would compose the verb and then t h e t h i r d would compose the completion of the sentence.  pair  The game  became a s e n s a t i o n a l h i t , provoking l o n g and l o u d g i g g l e s . The r e s u l t s of the game both times were c o n s i s t e n t l y v i o l e n t and v u l g a r .  F o r example ( a c t u a l names were used i n the  o r i g i n a l , but have been changed h e r e ) :  Old Lindstrum t h e b a l d headed f a i r y queen jumps around p u l l i n g h i s wang.  John had t h e s m a l l e s t penis i n the world which smelled l i k e diahrea.  G l o r i a and her crack are o u t r a g e o u s l y b i g w h i l e she use a d i l d o e and p o l e t o get the f e e l i n g .  N e i t h e r of the two Athapaskan  boys seemed comfortable  w i t h the r e s u l t s of these sentences.  The second time the  e x e r c i s e was used, the more a c t i v e students had asked t o do it  as a reward f o r working  s i n c e i t was the l a s t day of  115  class.  Tony, u s u a l l y t h e q u i e t e s t student, suddenly became  angry although he had remained s i l e n t u n t i l then.  I t was a  shock t o hear him say v e r y l o u d l y t h r e e times: "I don't want to do t h i s ! "  I wanted t o p o i n t out t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r  responses t o t h e group, so p e r s i s t e d i n c a r r y i n g on w i t h t h e exercise.  F i n a l l y I t o l d Tony t h a t he c o u l d  s i t i n the h a l l  i f he d i d n ' t want t o take p a r t , and he d i d so e a g e r l y .  I  went t o see him once t o l e t him know he c o u l d come back i n t o the c l a s s i f he wanted t o , but he refused, didn't  l i k e what t h e c l a s s was w r i t i n g .  adding t h a t he  As I was l e a v i n g  a f t e r t h e c l a s s one of t h e t e a c h e r s expressed s u r p r i s e t o me t h a t Tony had been out i n t h e h a l l .  I s a i d t o him t h a t i t  was not so much me sending him out as Tony doing i t f o r h i s own s u r v i v a l and suddenly r e a l i z e d t h e t r u t h i n what I had said.  I q u i c k l y r a n a f t e r Tony and t o l d him t h a t I thought  he was q u i t e r i g h t i n h i s d e c i s i o n t o leave t h e c l a s s , t h a t I was impressed w i t h what he d i d and t h a t I a l s o hated t h e r e s u l t s of t h e e x e r c i s e .  He was p l e a s a n t l y astonished  that a  t e a c h e r would speak t o him as f r a n k l y as I d i d , and he went away s m i l i n g  broadly.  R e s i s t a n c e t o l i t e r a t e and s c h o l a r l y behaviour was observed i n o t h e r i n d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g as w e l l . For  instance,  t h e r e was l i t t l e n o t e - t a k i n g  and t h i s was done  o n l y when students were s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o do so. Students c o n s u l t e d refused  d i c t i o n a r i e s only as a l a s t r e s o r t when I  t o answer q u e s t i o n s about word meanings or s p e l l i n g .  116  Although a thesaurus was i n t r o d u c e d and was f a m i l i a r t o most of t h e students, they never v o l u n t a r i l y used i t .  New  v o c a b u l a r y o r s p e l l i n g was not i n t e g r a t e d i n t o students' writing.  5.1.5. Summary  Data gathered f o r t h i s study showed t h a t students' predominant response t o t h e composition resistance.  T h i s r e s i s t a n c e appeared  i n s t r u c t i o n was  i n most i n d i v i d u a l ,  group, and s c h o l a r l y / a c a d e m i c behaviours, as evidenced by the i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e d above.  In a l l t h e s e t t i n g s of t h e  i n s t r u c t i o n and i n a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of behaviour  recorded  t h e r e were few i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t students were i n v o l v e d i n a l e a r n i n g process.  Requesting o r producing work t h a t was not  i n t h e l e s s o n was unheard o f .  With one e x c e p t i o n , no one  d i s p l a y e d enough a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t a t hand t o ask f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s or request e l a b o r a t i o n .  There was  l i t t l e evidence t h a t w r i t i n g had changed i t s i n c i d e n t a l i n t h e students' l i v e s o u t s i d e t h e classroom.  role  117  CHAPTER VI  INTERPRETATIONS  6.1. Why R e s i s t a n c e ?  The  findings reported  i n t h e p r e c e d i n g chapter i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the main response of a small number of n a t i v e ESL l i t e r a c y students t o i n n o v a t i v e The  present chapter c o n s i d e r s  t h i s response of r e s i s t a n c e , ideological  composition was r e s i s t a n c e .  two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r (1) c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and (2)  action.  This chapter f i r s t  i n t e r p r e t s the f i n d i n g s i n regard t o  Athapaskan c u l t u r a l t r a i t s as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o determine i f the r e s i s t a n c e may l o g i c a l l y have r e s u l t e d from cultural influences.  The second p a r t of t h i s chapter  i n t e r p r e t s t h e f i n d i n g s from Giroux and Aronowitz's ideological perspective. analyzing  Giroux and Aronowits propose t h a t  r e s i s t a n c e behaviour makes i t p o s s i b l e t o  how dominated students through a c t s of r e s i s t a n c e the  (1985)  recognize  "draw on  l i m i t e d resources a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l i n order t o r e a f f i r m  the p o s i t i v e dimensions of t h e i r own c u l t u r e s and h i s t o r i e s " (p. 107).  This p e r s p e c t i v e  p r o v i d e s understanding of  r e s i s t a n c e behaviours as r e f l e c t i v e of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n the community The two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are presented f o r each of the three  categories  of student r e s i s t a n c e behaviour  118  documented: i n d i v i d u a l , group, and  l i t e r a t e and  scholarly-  behaviours .  6.2.  Cultural  Interpretation  6.2.1. I n d i v i d u a l R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour: C u l t u r a l Communication  S c o l l o n and  Scollon  (1981) note t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n  t r a d i t i o n a l Athapaskan l i f e  i s not based i n an  i s o l a t e d from the o l d e r generation heart  of the f a m i l y ,  but  institution  i s s i t u a t e d i n the  i n a n a r r a t i v e communication  w i t h the l e a r n e r observing  and  structure  l i s t e n i n g to elders.  For  Athapaskans, knowledge must be passed on i n such a way it  i s contextualized  skill  of the n a r r a t o r  i n the experience of the i s challenged  l i s t e n e r i n order t o be heard and which i s given  (p.29).  viewed as t r u e and subjected  t o the  The  to meet the needs of  the  understood, s i n c e knowledge (p.101).  (1987) i t " i s a s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s  j o i n t l y produced by everyone who interaction"  listener.  can be taken or r e j e c t e d at w i l l  According to Scollon  that  i s a party to  the  In the Western approach, knowledge i s  complete i n i t s e l f ,  and  i s seldom  r e c i p i e n t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or response.  c o n t r a s t between the two  e d u c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s c o u l d not  The be  greater.  The  students i n the case study r e a d i l y understood  the  119  concept of audience,  r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r n a r r a t i v e experiences  where the person l i s t e n i n g has a d i r e c t stake i n the process of  story t e l l i n g .  T h i s understanding may a l s o p o i n t t o a  reason f o r t h e f a i l u r e of communication through j o u r n a l s . was  I  t h e audience of t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , but i t was an  impersonal involvement,  and d i s t a n t i n time.  I requested  t h a t t h e students d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e t h e j o u r n a l audience t o a n o n - s p e c i f i c reader o r t o themselves,  which may have been  d i f f i c u l t f o r them because of Athapaskan e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of audience.  McDonnell (1975) s t a t e s t h a t t o f u l l y sense Athapaskan s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n an understanding of the importance of p e r s o n a l autonomy i s " c r i t i c a l "  (p.122).  McDonnell r e l a t e s  t h i s t o the Athapaskan process of a c q u i r i n g s p e c i a l knowledge and power (which i s t h e o b j e c t of l i f e ) . c r e d i t e d w i t h wisdom due t o a b i l i t y ; means which a r e beyond c o n t r o l .  The person i s not  i t i s a c q u i r e d through  F o r men, knowledge and power  are communicated alone i n a s t r u g g l e w i t h animal-people whom a mere human has l i t t l e  say.  F o r a woman, wisdom and  c o n t r o l of h o s t i l e f o r c e s come s l o w l y w i t h experience, due t o no a b i l i t y on h e r p a r t .  over  also  I n t e r f e r e n c e o r a s s i s t a n c e by  another person would not a l t e r and may even harm t h e r e s u l t . A consequence of t h e b e l i e f i n i n d i r e c t a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge, a c c o r d i n g t o McDonnell,  i s deep r e s p e c t f o r t h e  i n d i v i d u a l i t y of others and p r o t e c t i o n of one's own autonomy.  120  Because of the n e c e s s i t y of autonomy, the students at Bear R i v e r may  not have b e l i e v e d t h a t help from  other  students would be worthwhile, r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g of someone who r i g h t or s p e c i a l knowledge.  they d i d not They may  another student out of r e s p e c t action.  They may  the t e a c h i n g  see as h a v i n g  not have wanted t o  of i n t e r f e r e n c e i n other  design  of  The  lack  f o r the same reasons.  students'  d i s p l a y of r e s i s t a n c e ,  the success of one-to-one i n s t r u c t i o n noted i n the may  help  f o r t h a t person's autonomy of  have seen t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n my  as i n a p p r o p r i a t e  any  and  findings  be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the importance of i n d i v i d u a l  autonomy i n Athapaskan c u l t u r e .  Western classroom techniques r e l y on v e r b a l d i s p l a y of knowledge by the  student.  Students are r e q u i r e d  to  progressively t e s t t h e i r absorption  of the incremental  of knowledge i n the b e l i e f t h a t one  l e a r n s by making  mistakes. it  In c o n t r a s t , Athapaskans attempt a s k i l l  i s f e l t t h a t i t has  1981, wrong.  p.18). First  been l e a r n e d  only when  Scollon  Athapaskans f i n d a d i s p l a y of e r r o r doubly i t i s wrong because one  l e a r n i n g i s complete b e f o r e  uncertain things  must wait u n t i l  t e s t i n g i t out and  i s wrong i n h e r e n t l y , b r i n g i n g bad  Knowledge and  ( S c o l l o n and  steps  the  secondly, i t  luck by speaking about  ( s i n c e speaking i s a powerful a c t ) .  power l i e w i t h i n the  i n d i v i d u a l and  w i l l know when i t i s time t o use them.  the  person  121  In f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t , S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n  (1981) observe  t h a t the person i n the subordinate p o s i t i o n of the Athapaskan s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s expected t o be the s p e c t a t o r and  the  person i n the s u p e r o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n i s expected t o d i s p l a y (1981, p.161).  Techniques  I attempted  t o implement such as  p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h and s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g i n v e r t a top-down power s t r u c t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r and student by having the d i r e c t i o n come from the student.  The Athapaskan power s t r u c t u r e i s broken,  making students u n c e r t a i n whose r o l e i t i s t o l i s t e n ,  and  whose t o d i s p l a y .  S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n  (1981) observe t h a t Athapaskan  speakers pause j u s t s l i g h t l y l o n g e r than E n g l i s h  speakers  between t u r n s , showing deep r e s p e c t f o r the speaker's t o continue speaking.  right  Pausing l o n g enough f o r students t o  a s s i m i l a t e q u e s t i o n s and formulate requested r e p l i e s i s noted i n p e d a g o g i c a l r e s e a r c h as a problem w i t h i n t e a c h i n g generally.  With Athapaskan d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s , i t i s even  more a hindrance t o classroom communication. Athapaskan, t a c i t u r n i t y and s i l e n c e can be withdrawal,  shyness,  or even s t u p i d i t y .  To a  hostile  Often when I was  greeted w i t h s i l e n c e I c l a s s e d i t as r e s i s t a n c e . had  l e s s severe i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r my  non-  Perhaps i t  students, b e i n g the  r e s u l t of Athapaskan d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s .  In my  j o u r n a l I commented i n the e q u i v a l e n c y c l a s s t h a t  122  they seemed t o be  " s t r u g g l i n g t o l e a r n " , which t o me  showing accommodation. without  was  The b e l i e f t h a t l e a r n i n g i s not done  some amount of e f f o r t c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the  g e n t l e Athapaskan t r a d i t i o n a l education process, based  on a  profound r e g a r d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e of the learner.  L e a r n i n g i s seen t o be accomplished  when the  i n d i v i d u a l knows the r i g h t time has come, and w i l l then done almost  6.2.2.  be  effortlessly.  Group R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour:  C u l t u r a l Pressures  and  Responsibilities  In Athapaskan c u l t u r e the r i g h t of each person t o autonomy a l l o w s f r e e w i l l on the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l t o choose a path, and t o l e t others choose t h e i r s .  A direct  r e s u l t of the r e s p e c t f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s s t r e s s i n group situations.  T h i s i s f i r s t mentioned by Honigmann (1949) i n  h i s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study of the Kaska, and by B a l i k c i  (1968)  i n s i m i l a r work w i t h the K u t c h i n of the n o r t h e r n Yukon, a l s o Athapaskan.  Nelson  (1973) confirms the Athapaskan  "inability  t o develop a r e a l sense of community" due t o b e i n g " p e r v a s i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " and records a "high l e v e l of i n t e r p e r s o n a l h o s t i l i t y " from b e i n g f o r c e d t o l i v e in villages  (p.281).  S o c i a l competence i s based  together  on one's  a b i l i t y t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t and t o s u r v i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y , not the a b i l i t y t o merge w i t h o t h e r s . one person i s not independent  on  In non-Athapaskan s o c i e t y ,  of another,  nor i s s u r v i v a l  123  assured independently,  as i t can be f o r the  Athapaskans i f necessary.  traditional  Indeed, one means of c o p i n g with  s t r e s s i n Athapaskan s o c i e t y i s t o i s o l a t e o n e s e l f from company by l e a v i n g the community, sometimes f o r weeks at a time  (Balikci  1968).  Athapaskan autonomy and the s t r e s s f e l t from group c o n t a c t c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h b u r e a u c r a t i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s which are found i n present-day a d u l t e d u c a t i o n group f o r m a t i o n i s sought.  education.  In  Western  C h r i s t i a n i t y v a l u e s i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the group and towards the a c t i o n s of o t h e r s .  The concerns  of the  i n d i v i d u a l are p l a c e d a t a lower p r i o r i t y than those of the group; c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i s viewed as more potent than the a c t i o n of each i n d i v i d u a l . V show t h a t my  attempts  The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n Chapter  t o u t i l i z e group p r e s s u r e s  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the c l a s s e s i n Bear R i v e r f a i l e d produced  o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l responses.  The  s u c c e s s f u l use of  p a i r i n g and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t u t o r i n g i n the classroom understood  when the p a i r was  or  was  looked upon not as a small  group, but as a one-on-one t e a c h i n g technique emphasizing  the  i n d i v i d u a l autonomy of each student.  In t r a d i t i o n a l Athapaskan s o c i e t y , w h i l e t a k i n g p a r t i n a s t r u g g l e w i t h animal-people  f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of s p e c i a l  knowledge, a c t i o n s no matter how  b i z a r r e were not the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the person i n v o l v e d (Cruikshank  1988).  124  H o s t i l i t y by L i s a or Dora i n the l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c l a s s t o l e r a t e d or ignored by the group and no excuse necessary,  or i t was  A c t i o n s while  was  was  e x p l i c a b l e because they were unhappy.  i n f l u e n c e d by o u t s i d e powers were p o s s i b l y not  p e r c e i v e d to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  nor  of the group.  6.2.3. L i t e r a t e and S c h o l a r l y R e s i s t a n c e  Behaviour:  Learning  C u l t u r e Through L i t e r a c y  Learning t o be  l i t e r a t e and  s c h o l a r l y e n t a i l s more than  a c q u i r i n g the s k i l l s of r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g (see B r i c e Heath, 1984).  I t a l s o c a l l s f o r l e a r n i n g the forms of thought of a  s o c i e t y , of how  t h a t s o c i e t y manipulates d i s c o u r s e , and  of  a l l the s o c i a l t r a p p i n g s of the s c h o o l i n g through which l i t e r a c y i s taught.  Ong  (1982) s t a t e s t h a t :  i n f u n c t i o n a l l y o r a l c u l t u r e s the past i s not f e l t an i t e m i z e d t e r r a i n , peppered with v e r i f i a b l e disputed  " f a c t s " or b i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n .  domain of the a n c e s t o r s ,  a resonant  renewing awareness of present  source  l i s t s or c h a r t s of f i g u r e s , (p.98)  and  I t i s the for  e x i s t e n c e , which  i s not an i t e m i z e d t e r r a i n e i t h e r .  as  itself  O r a l i t y knows no  125  The  i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t I attempted i n Bear R i v e r was  designed as a t o t a l l y c o n t r a s t i n g t e r r a i n t o t h a t of Athapaskan o r a l c u l t u r e , whose s t r u c t u r e s of i n f o r m a t i o n and o r g a n i s a t i o n of content d i f f e r g r e a t l y from l i t e r a t e E n g l i s h structures—and  are i n S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n ' s view,  e x c l u s i v e of the d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s p.53).  "mutually  of e s s a y i s t prose"  Where i n t e r e t h n i c o r a l communication p a t t e r n s  s o c i a l c o n f l i c t between speakers, these same p a t t e r n s produce i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t i n Athapaskan w r i t e r s , t h e i r very  (1981, produce may  challenging  sense of c u l t u r e .  My attempts t o have students c o n t r i b u t e o p i n i o n s and discuss points i n e v i t a b l y resulted i n resistance. t o Ong (1982), the d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d the Western world which has c o l o u r e d  According  r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of l o g i c and education f o r  c e n t u r i e s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e Greek tendency t o "maximise oppositions (p.111).  i n the mental as i n the extramental world"  In t h e Athapaskan e f f o r t t o minimise  argument i s avoided as r e s p e c t  opposition,  f o r another's r i g h t t o  autonomy but a l s o as p r o t e c t i o n from t h e h o s t i l i t y of others and  p r o t e c t i o n of one's own i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h .  McDonnell  (1975) says Athapaskans would r a t h e r say nothing  than t o say  "no"  Negotiation  t o a proposal  and t o separate than argue.  i s avoided and d i s c u s s i o n of a proposed a c t i o n i s not i n i t i a t e d u n t i l consensus i s gathered through o b l i q u e methods (p.310).  126  6.2.4. Summary  A cultural interpretation offers a possible  explanation  f o r r e s i s t a n c e behaviours by Athapaskan students i n response t o composition i n s t r u c t i o n i n Bear R i v e r .  Individualism  b a s i c t o Athapaskan c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s may not o n l y the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n personal  underlie  communication i n the classroom  but may a l s o present a reason f o r t h e l a c k o f success i n group a c t i v i t i e s .  The r e l i a n c e on l i t e r a c y as a means t o  educate the o r a l l y - b a s e d Athapaskan c u l t u r e may a f f e c t i t p r o f o u n d l y and may be a reason f o r r e s i s t a n c e . Brody (1987) says t h a t i n n o r t h e r n h u n t i n g s o c i e t i e s , " e g a l i t a r i a n i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s at the heart i n t e g r i t y and w e l l b e i n g "  of s o c i a l  (p.133) and t h a t :  the i n d i v i d u a l i s m of t h e c u l t u r e i s a b a r r i e r any  form of organised  barricade  against  against  domination; t h e e g a l i t a r i a n i s m a  competitive  individualism,  (p.123)  Athapaskan c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l may be supported by r e s i s t a n c e which d i s p l a y s r e j e c t i o n of a completely d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g context.  R e c o g n i s i n g e d u c a t i o n as a  f o r e i g n c u l t u r a l message-bearer, students i n Bear R i v e r may have l o g i c a l l y r e s i s t e d t h i s i n t r u s i o n .  127  6.2.5. L i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e C u l t u r a l  As  Interpretation  i n t r i g u i n g as a c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e  may be, i t does not o f f e r a f u l l and s u f f i c i e n t  explanation.  Students' responses t o the i n s t r u c t i o n should, from t h i s view, have been f a r more c o n s i s t e n t  and p r e d i c t a b l e given t h e  shared c u l t u r e i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . gathered f o r t h e r e s e a r c h  However, t h e data  showed t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s chose  r e s i s t a n c e w h i l e others d i d not i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f a c t o r s o t h e r than c u l t u r e may have been i n play.  For instance,  learning centre  L i s a ' s l a c k of communication i n t h e  was not shared by any of t h e others i n t h e  c l a s s a t t h e time.  Some of these same students were a t a  d i f f e r e n t time i n f l u e n c e d by r e s i s t a n c e behaviour by another student and c o n t r i b u t e d  t o i t , choosing t o be i n f l u e n c e d by  group p r e s s u r e s r a t h e r than f o l l o w i n g the c u l t u r a l  imperative  of non-involvement.  There was o f t e n more o v e r t  r e s i s t a n c e recorded from t h e  non-Athapaskan students, who shared t h e school's c u l t u r a l background and o b j e c t i v e s , than t h e Athapaskans i n t h e same class. one  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may be only  basis f o r resistance.  An  important i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s may not  be t h e only f a c t o r i n r e s i s t a n c e was t h e e x i s t e n c e of accommodation behaviour.  When r e s i s t a n c e was observed,  there  128 /  was sometimes i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n accommodation behaviour by o t h e r Athapaskan students. personal  Molly,  f o r instance,  embarrassment t o do so, i n t r o d u c e d  my request t h e f i r s t f u l l e r explanation  despite  h e r s e l f t o me on  day of c l a s s w h i l e no one e l s e d i d .  A  of r e s i s t a n c e behaviours i n the f i n d i n g s  may be p o s s i b l e through l o o k i n g a t i t as r e j e c t i o n of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l native  population.  6.3. I d e o l o g i c a l  6.3.1.  ( i d e o l o g i c a l ) domination by t h e non-  Interpretation  Introduction  This s e c t i o n i n t e r p r e t s s e l e c t e d f i n d i n g s i n t h e t h r e e categories  of r e s i s t a n c e behaviours u s i n g Giroux and  Aronowitz's (1985) proposed d e f i n i t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e as ideologically-based.  Numerous sources suggest t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s t r o n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e f o r Athapaskans. Indian people i n Bear R i v e r ,  is a  S o c i a l dilemmas of  such as drug and a l c o h o l abuse,  s u i c i d e , f a m i l y breakdown, v i o l e n t death and general  anomie,  can be looked upon as a turning-inwards of t h e s t r e s s r e s u l t i n g from l a c k of c h o i c e decisions a f f e c t i n g d a i l y l i f e  and l o s s of c o n t r o l over (Yates 1987).  Freedom t o  choose the d i r e c t i o n and q u a l i t y of one's own l i f e  within  reasonable l i m i t a t i o n s and t o p r a c t i c e the v a l u e s t h a t shape  129  those c h o i c e s  i s a c o n d i t i o n b a s i c t o human development.  When freedom t o express v a l u e s  through c h o i c e of a c t i o n i s  withdrawn, as i n the case of a dominated c u l t u r e , the i s extreme s t r e s s , but a l s o r e s i s t a n c e t o the force.  Resistance  i f the human s p i r i t  result  dominating  t o unreasonable domination i s i n e v i t a b l e i s to s u r v i v e under domination, yet i t i s  a l s o a demonstration of hope t h a t g i v e s dominated people cause t o b e l i e v e t h a t change i s p o s s i b l e .  6.3.2. Framework f o r an I d e o l o g i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  In attempting t o e s t a b l i s h a d e f i n i t i o n and for  a rationale  the n o t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e , Giroux and Aronowitz (1985)  c r i t i q u e reproduction  and  r e s i s t a n c e education  theories for  f o c u s i n g on o v e r t a c t s of r e b e l l i o u s student behaviour. c l a i m t h a t r e s i s t a n c e has learned helplessness,  " l i t t l e t o do w i t h deviance  They say t h a t  must not become a term f o r every e x p r e s s i o n behaviour and  and  but a great deal t o do w i t h moral  p o l i t i c a l i n d i g n a t i o n " (p.104).  They  and  resistance  of o p p o s i t i o n a l  propose t h a t i t i s important t o determine what  c o n s t i t u t e s r e s i s t a n c e behaviour.  Oppositional  behaviour  must be d e f i n e d  i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n t e r e s t i t serves  and  analyzed  i f i t represents  by  t o see  a form of r e s i s t a n c e  d e t e r m i n i n g the degree of emancipation i n i t :  The  c e n t r a l element of a n a l y z i n g any  a c t of  resistance  must be a concern w i t h uncovering the degree to which  130  i t h i g h l i g h t s , i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y , struggle against  domination and  the need to  submission...the  concept of r e s i s t a n c e must have a r e v e a l i n g that contains  a c r i t i q u e of domination and  theoretical opportunities  They add  provides  for self-reflection  s t r u g g l e i n the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i a l and emancipation  function  and  self-  (p.105).  f u r t h e r what r e s i s t a n c e i s not:  To the degree t h a t o p p o s i t i o n a l behaviour suppresses s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y merging with, r a t h e r than c h a l l e n g i n g the domination, i t does not r e s i s t a n c e , but  l o g i c of i d e o l o g i c a l  f a l l under the category of  under i t s opposite—accommodation  and  conformism. ( i b i d . )  C e r t a i n f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h can be  i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n Giroux and  reported  Aronowitz's i d e o l o g i c a l  d e f i n i t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e or accommodation and that confusion  can be avoided i n the  i n Chapter V  conformism.  terminology,  "conformism" i s used r a t h e r than "accommodation" t o what Giroux and  Aronowitz c a l l a c t s t h a t are not  describe  resistance,  s i n c e I use the term "accommodation" i n a l e s s complex way r e p o r t i n g the f i n d i n g s of t h i s research. here have been chosen through t h r e e a choice  So  The  criteria:  in  f i n d i n g s noted (1) they r e v e a l  of a c t i o n t o conform to or t o r e s i s t domination;  (2)  131  the c h o i c e has been made t o r e s i s t and t h a t c h o i c e has been c l e a r l y communicated; critical  action.  behaviour b e i n g  (3) t h e c h o i c e r e v e a l s a p o s s i b i l i t y of  In order t o exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d , data have been chosen which  are c l e a r l y not grounded i n Athapaskan v a l u e s .  Giroux and  Aronowitz emphasize t h e d i a l e c t i c a l o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of r e s i s t a n c e behaviour--that  the same a c t can c o n t a i n  elements of both r e s i s t a n c e and conformism. As w e l l as c r i t i c i z i n g resistance theories f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e to understand the c o n t r a d i c t o r y o r d i a l e c t i c a l  nature  of r e s i s t a n c e and t h e i r focus on o v e r t a c t s of r e b e l l i o u s behaviour, Giroux and Aronowitz c r i t i q u e r e s i s t a n c e t h e o r i e s i n two other areas:  t h e i r l a c k of t a k i n g i n t o account  issues  of gender and race and t h e i r l a c k of a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e f f e c t of domination on p e r s o n a l i t y . 6.3.3. I n d i v i d u a l R e s i s t a n c e  Behaviour: I d e o l o g i c a l  Communication  Dora's a g g r e s s i v e  communicative a c t i o n s f i r s t  i n the  computer room and then i n t h e classroom i n t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e c l e a r l y f i t i n t o t h e common d e f i n i t i o n of o p p o s i t i o n a l action.  T h i s event d i s p l a y s the d i a l e c t i c a l nature of  r e s i s t a n c e , as an example of Giroux and Aronowitz's conformism r a t h e r than r e s i s t a n c e .  Dora had a c h o i c e of  continuing to exercise opposition t o j o i n i n g the c l a s s or conforming t o my pressure chose t h e l a t t e r ,  w h i l e she was a t the computer.  and came i n t o t h e c l a s s .  She  Because of t h i s  132  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y conforming a c t i o n she found i t necessary t o make i t c l e a r t h a t she r e j e c t e d my domination of h e r c h o i c e t o be i n v o l v e d o r not and d i s p l a y e d a g g r e s s i v e I d i d not conform t o t h e oppressive by c o n f r o n t a t i o n ,  The  action.  When  p o s s i b i l i t i e s and respond  t h e episode d i d not e s c a l a t e .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t Dora's i n i t i a l a g g r e s s i v e  action  was not r e s i s t a n c e but conformism as d e f i n e d by Giroux and Aronowitz i s strengthened when one c o n s i d e r s  t h e n e c e s s i t y of  r e s i s t a n c e t o c o n s i s t of c r i t i c a l a c t i o n toward emancipatory possibilities "opportunities  l e a d i n g t o what Giroux and Aronowitz term f o r s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and s t r u g g l e i n the  i n t e r e s t s of s o c i a l and s e l f - e m a n c i p a t i o n " . not communicating l e f t no o p p o r t u n i t y the  Her a c t i o n of  f o r r e f l e c t i o n about  situation.  Dora made h e r r e j e c t i o n of my involvement i n her personal  d e c i s i o n s much c l e a r e r i n t h e w r i t i n g i n h e r  j o u r n a l , coming c l o s e r t h e r e t o an a c t of r e s i s t a n c e .  Taking  the chance of d i s c u s s i n g h e r problem through h e r j o u r n a l may have l e d t o an o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and s e l f -  emancipation. She wrote d e c i s i v e l y t h a t she wanted t o s o l v e her problem h e r s e l f , but softened bored. critical  i t w i t h t h e reason of b e i n g  T h i s a c t i o n d i s p l a y e d an opening f o r p o s s i b l e action.  133  6.3.4. Group R e s i s t a n c e Behaviour:  I d e o l o g i c a l Pressures and  Responsibilities  Was t h e a c t i o n by t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e group of t a k i n g a day o f f on r e c e i p t of t r a i n i n g allowance cheques r e s i s t a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o Giroux and Aronowitz?  The cheque h o l i d a y  showed a c h o i c e by t h e group t o r e s i s t d i r e c t p r e s s u r e by Dolly t o attend.  The group used h e r need t o d i s p l a y support  towards them, and simply i g n o r e d h e r good a d v i c e o r t h r e a t s u n t i l D o l l y c a p i t u l a t e d and l e t them have a h o l i d a y without f e a r of r e p r i s a l s , d i s p l a y i n g r e j e c t i o n of domination by t h e college.  In t h i s , they f i t i n t o Giroux and Aronowitz's  d e f i n i t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e , by r e v e a l i n g a c r i t i q u e of domination.  Critical  a c t i o n i n t h e s i t u a t i o n was n o t o n l y p o s s i b l e ,  but was taken by the students.  They a c t e d i n a way t h a t  produced t h e r e s u l t wanted, g i v i n g them t h e break they  felt  they deserved a t t h e symbolic time o f reward f o r attendance, cheque day.  Some of them had p r e v i o u s l y been employed and  had not taken u n o f f i c i a l h o l i d a y s on t h e job a f t e r  receiving  paycheques, a c c o r d i n g t o g e n e r a l community o p i n i o n .  When t h e  r e s u l t would p r o b a b l y be l o s i n g a job, i t seems t h a t  similar  a c t i o n was not taken, but when they c o u l d r e l y on t h e good f e e l i n g s of D o l l y , they chose t o take advantage "emancipatory  possibilities."  of the  134  6.3.5. L i t e r a t e and  Scholarly Resistance  Behaviour:  Learning  Ideology Through L i t e r a c y  In the d i s p l a y of v i o l e n t sexual w r i t i n g which r e s i s t e d by one  Athapaskan student, t h e r e are two  instances  of r e s i s t a n c e t o be examined: the c l a s s response t o e x e r c i s e and  Tony's r e a c t i o n t o i t .  separately.  The  c l a s s w r i t i n g and  enthusiasm f o r i t clearly  communicated i n the product of the e x e r c i s e and Superficially,  i n the  i t reveals  c r i t i q u e of the domination of the o p p r e s s i v e  school  s i n c e many of the w r i t t e n comments were about However when looked  the  I examine each of these  d i s p l a y e d a c h o i c e of a c t i o n t o r e s i s t which was  h i l a r i t y surrounding i t .  was  a structure  teachers.  a t more c l o s e l y , by Giroux  and  Aronowitz's d e f i n i t i o n , t h i s i n c i d e n t r e v e a l s l e s s of a c r i t i q u e of domination than conformism t o sexual which feeds i n t o gender domination.  My  violence  attempts t o have the  students assess the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r statements r e s u l t e d i n some s l i g h t embarrassment but o n l y took the edge o f f the fun r a t h e r than h e l p i n g them t o r e j e c t the a c t i o n . t h i s might i n d i c a t e t h a t c r i t i c a l a c t i o n was same t h i n g was recorded  Although  p o s s i b l e i f the  attempted i n f u t u r e , the event at the  ended i n t r u e conformism, "suppressing  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i l e simultaneously  time  social  merging with,  r a t h e r than  c h a l l e n g i n g the l o g i c of i d e o l o g i c a l domination", as Giroux and Aronowitz d e s c r i b e  i t (1985, p.105).  135  Tony's a c t i o n was Giroux and  more c l e a r l y r e s i s t a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o  Aronowitz's d e f i n i t i o n s .  hallway showed my  conformism t o the norm of the  school  system, i n which he was  told.  Paradoxically  dominating  expected t o do what he  f o r both of us, he was  something I u l t i m a t e l y agreed with. a c t i o n i n the  P u t t i n g Tony i n the  punished f o r  Tony took  critical  s i t u a t i o n by a g r e e i n g t o leave and  t o come back i n t o the  c l a s s when i n v i t e d .  was  by  He was  refusing  w i l l i n g to  s u f f e r the embarrassment of b e i n g seen i n the hallway, which was  unusual f o r him,  r a t h e r than b e i n g p r e s s u r e d i n t o  p a r t i n something he d i d not  see as v a l u a b l e .  a c t i o n was  students' and  and  a c r i t i q u e of the  domination.  The  my  His own  taking  courageous conformism  a c t i o n showed more than simply  " p o s s i b i l i t i e s of emancipatory a c t i o n " , but was emancipatory a c t i o n  an  itself.  6.3.6. Advantages and  Limitations  to an  Ideological  Interpretation  This  i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n assumes t h a t t h e r e i s a  common human need t o h o l d b e l i e f s and basis day  f o r c h o i c e of a c t i o n , and  t o day  v a l u e s which form a  a need t o p r a c t i c e these i n  l i v i n g w i t h some amount of freedom from b e i n g  dominated by o t h e r s '  b e l i e f s and  humanist approach g i v e s than a c u l t u r a l one  values.  This  general  a more i n c l u s i v e b a s i s of  analysis  f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s  t h i s case study, i l l u s t r a t e d here by the  reference  to  in  136  s e l e c t e d f i n d i n g s which are c l e a r l y not  culturally-based  phenomena.  An  i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n opens up a  supportive  p o s i t i o n f o r a c t s of r e s i s t a n c e , viewing them not unthinking  as  d e s t r u c t i v e a c t s of r e b e l l i o n , or as unchanging  entrenched c u l t u r a l phenomena, but  as a courageous defence of  v a l u e s p o s s i b l y l e a d i n g t o c o n s t r u c t i v e dialogue  and  I t assumes an a c t i v e p o s i t i o n by those persons who dominated i n s o c i e t y and to  institutions,  allowing  change.  are  for  challenge  subjugation.  Giroux and Aronowitz's i n c l u s i v e humanist b a s i s  of  a n a l y s i s i s framed by a d e f i n i t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e rooted the purpose of a c t s of r e s i s t a n c e . from the  R e s i s t a n c e must be  in seen  "degree to which i t h i g h l i g h t s the need t o  struggle",  and  must have a " r e v e a l i n g f u n c t i o n " ,  domination" and r e f l e c t i o n and  allowing s o c i a l and  f o r "opportunities self-emancipation"  The  existence  not  acknowledged as h o l d i n g  these e x a c t i n g  "critiquing  for self(1985, p.105).  of a c t s of what I have termed accommodation liberating possibilities.  r e s t r i c t i o n s g i v e c l e a r d i r e c t i o n , they  are  While limit  the a n a l y s i s t o the p o i n t where a c t i o n which might be c a l l e d r e s i s t a n c e was  r a r e , making the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  t h e o r e t i c a l base p r o b l e m a t i c .  Classroom f i n d i n g s of r e s i s t a n c e i n t h i s case study  can  137  be  productively  interpreted through i d e o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , but  e v e n more i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s  study i s the basis f o r  r e s i s t a n c e f o u n d i n t h e community c o n t e x t research  took place.  conditions  The h i s t o r y a n d p r e s e n t day s o c i a l  o f Bear R i v e r as i l l u s t r a t e d  r e s i s t a n c e a n i n e v i t a b l e outcome. institutions  i n which the  i n C h a p t e r I V make  The e d u c a t i o n a l  i n Bear R i v e r not only ensure t h e  and  other  reproduction  of a n o n - A t h a p a s k a n c u l t u r e , b u t a l s o r e i n f o r c e s o c i a l and political Opportunity  d o m i n a t i o n by non-Athapaskans  (see Mallea,  1989).  seemingly e x i s t s f o r n a t i v e people i n Bear  t o a l t e r economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , b u t an  River  oppressive  s t r u c t u r e of b u i l t - i n  f a i l u r e and c o n t r o l t h r o u g h t h e non-  Athapaskan m i n o r i t y ' s  i n s t i t u t i o n s from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y  e n s u r e t h a t change i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  However, i d e o l o g i c a l r e s i s t a n c e b y n a t i v e s h a s r e s u l t e d i n the establishment  o f power s t r u c t u r e s i n v e n u e s s u c h a s  l o c a l n a t i v e economic development, I n d i a n Band  political  structures reflecting  media  programs, and i n l o c a l social  issues  programs.  local traditions,  native  systems w i t h d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  such as c h i l d c a r e  These n a t i v e - r u n  and s u b s t a n c e abuse  institutions,  the r e s u l t of  i d e o l o g i c a l r e s i s t a n c e , may p r o v e t o b e more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e long term than r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e schools non-Athapaskans i s n o t as p e r v a s i v e education.  s i n c e c o n t r o l by  i n t h e s e a r e a s as i n  138  6.4.  Summary  This chapter has shown t h a t a c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s i s t a n c e behaviour r e p o r t e d stand alone.  A more complete  i n t h e f i n d i n g s should not  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s  appears i n a d e f i n i t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e which r e v e a l s the r o o t s of r e s i s t a n c e behaviour t o be i n t h e r e j e c t i o n of domination as p o s i t e d by Giroux and Aronowitz  (1985).  Nonetheless  c e r t a i n f i n d i n g s f i t w i t h Giroux and A r o n o w i t z s 5  definition  of r e s i s t a n c e , demonstrating t h e d i a l e c t i c a l nature of r e s i s t a n c e wherein t h e same a c t c o n t a i n s elements of r e s i s t a n c e as w e l l as conformism.  only  139  CHAPTER VII  SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS 7.1.  Summary o f F i n d i n g s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  In answering t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n how n a t i v e a d u l t ESL l i t e r a c y students  i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r context o f Bear R i v e r  respond t o i n n o v a t i v e composition  instruction, this  case  study has shown t h a t they responded t o n e a r l y a l l i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h r e s i s t a n c e , as evidenced classrooms  by data gathered  and t h e community context.  from t h e  Although  these  f i n d i n g s a r e e x p l o r a t o r y , d e s c r i p t i v e and t e n t a t i v e , t h e r e i s much evidence  t h a t Bear R i v e r i s ah extreme example o f  c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s u b j u g a t i o n . of and  The t o t a l  experience  t h e Athapaskan community o f Bear R i v e r was not i n t h e past i s not now a s u p p o r t i v e , p r o d u c t i v e one.  The Bear R i v e r  h i s t o r y of c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l domination by non-Athapaskans is  still  e v i d e n t i n t h e modem demographic and e d u c a t i o n a l  s t a t i s t i c s and d e s c r i p t i o n s .  T h i s nomadic s o c i e t y has l o s t  f o r e v e r a v i a b l e way of l i f e t h a t assured s u r v i v a l p h y s i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y . sedentary  both  I t has been r e p l a c e d by a  community t h a t i s c o n t r o l l e d by non-Athapaskans,  s p l i t between races, substance-dependent, w i t h few chances for  employment l e a d i n g e i t h e r t o f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y o r  personal f u l f i l l m e n t .  The r e s u l t s o f a l l these s o c i a l  ills  140  are r e a d i l y apparent, l i t e r a c y r a t e s being o n l y one measurement.  C u l t u r a l impact has been met w i t h dramatic change i n Athapaskan s o c i e t y but a l s o w i t h hidden and (more r e c e n t l y ) overt opposition. can be rooted  This t h e s i s i l l u s t r a t e s that  i n c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t but t h a t  d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not t h e s o l e e x p l a n a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e i n Bear R i v e r .  resistance  cultural  f o r native  The n a t u r a l , i n e v i t a b l e human  response t o domination i s r e s i s t a n c e and t h i s can be due not o n l y t o c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s but i d e o l o g i c a l ones as w e l l .  The  assumption t h a t c u l t u r a l impact and change i s the  o n l y cause of r e s i s t a n c e behaviour would imply t h a t by extension,  r e s i s t a n c e should  not be a problem w i t h n a t i v e  students once c u l t u r a l domination i s complete and we need only t o show r e s p e c t  f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and wait out  the time of c u l t u r a l s y n t h e s i s .  Apart from thus i g n o r i n g the  f a c t of r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e non-native students,  t h e main  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e would be t o continue t o feed i n t o the domination a l r e a d y  i n place.  I n s t r u c t o r response  which i s informed by an i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e behaviour may l e a d t o understanding not only the c u l t u r a l but t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s through which students see themselves and may l e a d u l t i m a t e l y t o a more democratic l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .  141  Giroux and McLaren (1986) s t a t e t h a t :  s c h o o l s should prepare students f o r making c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g forms of l i f e t h a t have m o r a l l y d i f f e r e n t consequences.  T h i s means t h a t educators must r e p l a c e  p e d a g o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s which emphasize d i s c i p l i n a r y c o n t r o l and one-sided c h a r a c t e r f o r m a t i o n w i t h p r a c t i c e s t h a t a r e based  on an emancipatory a u t h o r i t y ,  ones which enable students t o engage i n c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and t o make c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g what i n t e r e s t s and knowledge claims a r e most d e s i r a b l e and m o r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l i v i n g i n a j u s t and democratic  state  (p.225).  From t h i s d i a l o g u e and mutual understanding h o p e f u l l y may develop t h e need f o r students and educators t o j o i n t l y take p a r t i n a c t i o n t o erode t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ; domination  t h a t permeates t h e present r e l a t i o n s h i p of n a t i v e  people t o e d u c a t i o n .  7.2.  Personal R e f l e c t i o n s  Understanding  t h e b a s i s of t h e r e s i s t a n c e recorded i n  Bear R i v e r as i d e o l o g i c a l as w e l l as c u l t u r a l brought i n s t r u c t i o n a new dimension. would have remained unexplored  t o my  S u p p o r t i v e a c t i o n s on my p a r t i f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e  r e s i s t a n c e data had not been a p p l i e d .  In an e f f o r t t o  142  i n c r e a s e the l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l of students I used i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of data t h a t I was d i r e c t i o n s f o r teaching.  As  the  b e g i n n i n g t o make t o p o i n t  I began t o base immediate  responses i n the classroom on what I saw  as the reasons f o r  r e s i s t a n c e behaviour, I began t o r e a c t l e s s e m o t i o n a l l y  and  w i t h a more p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e .  If I saw as b e i n g  the r e s i s t a n c e I was  c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d , I would view the s i t u a t i o n more  c l e a r l y from the students' to i t .  e n c o u n t e r i n g i n Bear R i v e r  If I considered  perspective  and was  able t o  adjust  i t t o be based i n i d e o l o g i c a l  concerns, I began t o see r e s i s t a n c e as something impersonal and  i n e v i t a b l e i n the s i t u a t i o n , not t o be confronted  be used as a focus  but  to  f o r l e a r n i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s on both s i d e s .  I began to r e i n f o r c e what I d e f i n e d as accommodation behaviour whenever p o s s i b l e by p o i n t i n g out how b e n e f i t t i n g l e a r n i n g and  i t was  t o d i s c u s s more o f t e n when I found  something o f f e n s i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t f i t w i t h Giroux  and  Aronowitz's d e f i n i t i o n of conformism.  For i n s t a n c e ,  i n the second attempt at the  sentence  completion e x e r c i s e f o r the grade e i g h t t o tens t h a t ended i n v i o l e n t sexual  images, I made d e l i b e r a t e attempts t o have the  students look at t h e i r a c t i o n s and be c r i t i c a l of what I  saw  as s e x i s t behaviour r a t h e r than d i s m i s s i n g the products of t h e i r w r i t i n g or ending the e x e r c i s e .  I l e t them know t h a t  as a woman I found the v i o l e n c e repugnant, and  asked the boys  143  how  they f e l t about t h e i r b e i n g made fun of.  short a l e s s o n t o have any  I t was  d i r e c t r e s u l t s , but  j o u r n a l t h a t the second time I used the l e s s o n t o question  t h e i r sentences) the a g g r e s s i v e  more subdued than the f i r s t  Mallea theory  too  I noted i n  my  (when I began  behaviour  was  time.  (1989) i n d i s c u s s i n g Giroux's work on  resistance  observes t h a t :  Resistance  i s an a c t i v e process i n v o l v i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s  between l i v e d experiences and  the i n s t i t u t i o n s  s t r u c t u r e s t h a t attempt t o shape them.  It i s a  p o l i t i c a l act t h a t i n v o l v e s a c t o r s , processes s t r u c t u r e s i n t e r n a l and system  e x t e r n a l t o the  and  educational  (p.47).  Nowhere i n modern Athapaskan s o c i e t y i s the of r e s i s t a n c e to c u l t u r a l and p o s s i b l e and  and  possibility  i d e o l o g i c a l domination more  apparent than i n e d u c a t i o n a l  institutions.  These i n s t i t u t i o n s c a r r y w i t h them not the s o l u t i o n s t o Athapaskan dilemma but the p e r p e t u a t i o n Through education  of t h e i r  Athapaskans have s u f f e r e d the  the  subjugation. determined  e f f o r t s of non-Athapaskans t o a s s i m i l a t e them t o a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e and t o a p a s s i v e  existence.  Education i s c o r r e c t l y  seen as the implement of the dominant m a j o r i t y continuance of the s t a t u s quo. t h e s i s t h a t educators should  f o r the  I t i s suggested i n t h i s  take an a c t i v e p a r t i n  144  dismantling  7.3.  t h i s s t r u c t u r e i n concert  Implications  w i t h t h e i r students.  f o r Pedagogy  This t h e s i s presents only one  t e a c h e r ' s view as  p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r / i n s t r u c t o r of her own  and  others'  behaviour i n a sometimes q u i t e emotional s e t t i n g . the  i n t e r p r e t i v e case study presented i s a  i n l i t e r a c y and  n a t i v e education.  The  resistance research  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n the  t e n t a t i v e , as f i n d i n g s i n  generally  c r i t i q u e d by Giroux and  Indian  reasons f o r r e s i s t a n c e i n  f i n d i n g s and  study are d e s c r i p t i v e and  Clearly  preliminary  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the broad scope of n a t i v e nonparticipation  a  are,  Aronowitz  That b e i n g s a i d , i t i s s t i l l  and  i n need of c l a r i t y  as  (1985).  p o s s i b l e and  important to  i n f e r i m p l i c a t i o n s from the f i n d i n g s i n t h i s t h e s i s which should be v a l u a b l e  t o the f i e l d of a d u l t n a t i v e  pedagogy p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the North. pointed  out the  The  literacy  case study  has  inadequacy of the c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  events found i n the research.  This  implies that  current  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l analyses of e d u c a t i o n such as t h a t done by S c o l l o n and  Scollon  (1981), Watson-Gegeo (1988), and  (1972) which c o n t r a s t  one  John  c u l t u r e w i t h another i n the hopes  of d i s c o v e r i n g what "they" do and  what "we"  do  circumstances i s of l i m i t e d v a l u e t o pedagogy.  in certain It i s  apparent t h a t attempts at a l t e r i n g approaches i n methodology  145  and be  curriculum  t o s u i t another c u l t u r e ' s l e a r n i n g process can  done only t o a r e s t r i c t e d degree s i n c e t h e education  system which i s used i s i t s e l f  a c u l t u r a l e n t i t y t h a t has i t s  own parameters and c o n s t r a i n t s on change.  The t h e s i s  out t h a t a t l e a s t f o r the c o n s t a n t l y - c h a n g i n g environment of the North, any in-depth  points  cultural  research  of c u l t u r a l  d e t a i l s w i l l o n l y be p a r t i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e a t any one time f o r any  one group i n any one p l a c e .  The r e s e a r c h  done here  suggests t h a t a c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s of n a t i v e education moreover support d e m o c r a t i c a l l y  may  d i s t a s t e f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n of  students through attempts a t reforming  the dominant system  without r e a l changes being made i n t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c u l t u r e s .  I t a l s o suggests t h a t  much i s y e t t o be l e a r n e d from r e s i s t a n c e behaviour of students from the same c u l t u r e as the education  system which  may be a p p l i e d t o a l l c u l t u r e s .  Process-oriented  research  and pedagogy t o t h i s  point  have not been concerned w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s of composition i n s t r u c t i o n , h a v i n g been conducted mainly w i t h motivated p r e - u n i v e r s i t y students (see Raimes, 1985 and Zamel, 1983).  The c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  of r e s i s t a n c e behaviour i n t h i s t h e s i s suggest t h a t w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n needs t o c o n f r o n t i s s u e s causing  adult  more d i r e c t l y the  resistance to l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n i n the  community contexts. s o c i a l interchange  Culture  i s only one p a r t of the complex  which c o n s t i t u t e s a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  146  classroom.  There are i m p l i c a t i o n s here f o r the  composition teacher and f o r t e a c h e r education.  individual Understanding  i s needed by i n s t r u c t o r s of the f o r c e s t h a t shape e d u c a t i o n as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by F o l d s (1989), (1989) and McLaughlin  (1989).  Ryan  T r a i n i n g i s needed i n a p p l y i n g  i d e o l o g i c a l analysis to a l o c a l s i t u a t i o n .  Teacher  education  pedagogy should be examined i n the l i g h t of p r o p o s a l s o u t l i n e d by Giroux and McLaren (1986) f o r a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y based  education.  This research also implies that s k i l l s  not  u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t e a c h i n g process as i t i s now p r a c t i c e d may  need t o be taught i n t e a c h e r education such as  group dynamics, c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s , psychological  and methods of s o c i a l  and  analysis.  This t h e s i s does not imply t h a t merely  interpreting  r e s i s t a n c e behaviour from one or another p e r s p e c t i v e means t h a t the behaviour productive.  i s then c o n t r o l l e d or made t o be more  Giroux and Aronowitz  (1990) support the view reached  (1985) and  Quigley  i n t h i s thesis i n concluding  t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the causes  of r e s i s t a n c e  t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e s i s t i n g students should l e a d t o a g r e a t e r understanding emancipatory  of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and e v e n t u a l l y t o a c t i o n t o change c o n d i t i o n s from a j o i n t  student/educator p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h and knowledge.  But  r e s i s t a n c e i s not a phenomenon r e s t r i c t e d t o education, as i n d i c a t e d by the e x p l o r a t i o n of the community context i n the case study and as suggested by w r i t e r s such as Carnoy and  147  L e v i n (1976).  I t would be presumptuous t o propose t h a t  e d u c a t i o n can change r e s i s t a n c e i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l However, the c r i t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l process  of  context.  dialogue  should i n and of i t s e l f be a c a t a l y s t f o r change i f only at a l o c a l l e v e l s i n c e i t i s capable of g e n e r a t i n g a p r o d u c t i v e t e a c h i n g methodology as i n d i c a t e d by the work of W a l l e r s t e i n (1983) and Shor (1987).  L i t e r a c y education, because of i t s  i n t r i c a t e a s s o c i a t i o n with the c u l t u r e and those most dominated i n our s o c i e t y may  s o c i a l s t r a t a of  be seen as b e i n g  o b l i g a t e d t o pursue i d e o l o g i c a l analyses with i t s students.  7.4.  F u r t h e r Research  These broad  i m p l i c a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a number of  d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n Northern l i t e r a c y pedagogy.  The  specific  native adult  framework of Giroux and  Aronowits's  c h a l l e n g e to r e s i s t a n c e r e s e a r c h leads t o the c o n c l u s i o n , u n d e r l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h a t much more work must be done i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h to document the d i a l e c t i c a l nature  of  r e s i s t a n c e , expanding analyses t o i n c l u d e a c t s of accommodation.  More examination  a l s o needs t o be devoted t o  the i s s u e s of gender and race and t o explore the e f f e c t of domination on p e r s o n a l i t y .  Northern  native l i t e r a c y  provides  a r i c h ground of data f o r t h i s k i n d of i n q u i r y .  N e i t h e r a d u l t l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n nor n a t i v e have been p r i o r i t i e s f o r p o l i c y makers who  education  look f i r s t  to  148  reform i n t h e s c h o o l f o r answers t o l i t e r a c y q u e s t i o n s . Research  on t h e reasons f o r t h i s n e g l e c t , t h e s t a t u s of a d u l t  l i t e r a c y education as a p r o f e s s i o n , and how educators can take up t h e c h a l l e n g e of l i f e l o n g education f o r n a t i v e peoples w i t h i n a context of n a t i v e languages, and c o n t r o l a r e some of the important need e x p l o r i n g i n n o r t h e r n Canada. i s needed of t h e impact  culture  r e s e a r c h areas t h a t  A g r e a t e r understanding  on n o r t h e r n n a t i v e peoples of  r e s i d e n t i a l school l e a r n i n g , of moving from an o r a l t o a l i t e r a t e l e a r n i n g and communicative process, of t h e l o s s of f a m i l y involvement  i n education, of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n p o s s i b l e through a b o r i g i n a l b i l i n g u a l i s m and e l d e r s ' i n f l u e n c e on v a l u e s . C u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s of t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s t h e s i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e Athapaskan c u l t u r a l imperative of autonomy f o r the i n d i v i d u a l exaggerates  t h e u n i v e r s a l human need f o r freedom  of c h o i c e of a c t i o n i n s o c i e t y .  T h i s needs t o be accounted  f o r more f u l l y i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h w i t h Athapaskans.  Northern  A p a r t i c u l a r focus c o u l d assess how c u r r e n t  composition pedagogy r e s t r i c t s or confounds t h i s need when group methods a r e used i n a d u l t education.  V i r t u a l l y a l l composition i n s t r u c t i o n f o r Northern Athapaskans i s now done by i n s t r u c t o r s who a r e not Athapaskan, nor n a t i v e from other p a r t s of Canada.  These  i n s t r u c t o r s a r e seldom from a lower s o c i a l s t r a t a and are u s u a l l y t r a n s i e n t i n t h e community w i t h l i t t l e  local  149  commitment.  The c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e of the non-native  middle-  c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r on composition i n s t r u c t i o n f o r n o r t h e r n Athapaskans i s another area f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  T h i s t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t d e s p i t e the  restrictions  of s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , i l l u m i n a t i v e s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e can be produced  by a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n approach  c a r e f u l l y documents and assesses classroom and contexts.  One  data which  community  of the most important and d i r e c t  implications  of the present e x p l o r a t o r y case study, and a l o g i c a l step f o l l o w i n g the study, i s t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  next  cross-  c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g would be more e f f e c t i v e and comprehensive i f done over a longer p e r i o d of time w i t h a f u l l e r approach.  ethnographic  T h i s study a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t s e r i o u s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be taken of Lather's (1986) recommendation f o r c a t a l y t i c v a l i d i t y and Jackson's c r i t i c i s m of problem-posing  pedagogy.  (1987)  The present type of  r e s e a r c h on i n n o v a t i v e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e needs t o be accountable by demonstrating t h a t students and  socially  community  members can apply i n s i g h t s a c q u i r e d through such r e s e a r c h .  The a p p l i c a t i o n t o n o r t h e r n Athapaskan composition pedagogy of what i s a l r e a d y known about the  social  underpinnings of l i t e r a c y and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m design i s e s s e n t i a l .  Systematic r e s e a r c h i s e s p e c i a l l y  l a c k i n g i n n a t i v e a d u l t l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n on d i f f e r e n c e s between what S t r e e t  (1984) has c a l l e d the autonomous and the  150  i d e o l o g i c a l models of l i t e r a c y .  As i n d i c a t e d by S t a i r s  (1990), p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d p r i o r t o implementing any r e s e a r c h i n the Canadian n o r t h t o t h e ideological  assumptions behind the i n s t r u c t i o n ,  i n the community  the u t i l i t y  of the i n s t r u c t i o n and the r e s e a r c h , and the  r o l e of dominance i n p e d a g o g i c a l  practice.  151  REFERENCES Aronowitz, S. (1981). 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TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 17(2): 165-187. Zamel, V. (1987). Recent r e s e a r c h on w r i t i n g pedagogy. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 21(4): 697-715.  158  APPENDICES  Appendix A: Course O u t l i n e , Evening C l a s s Appendix B: School Courses Appendix C: L e a r n i n g Centre W r i t i n g  Course  159 Appendix Course  A:  Outline,  Evening  Class  W R I T I N G IMPROVEMENT  COURSE  Tuesday  WORKSHOP  OUTLINE  a n d W e d n e s d a y , May 2 t o May 31  WEEK: 1  Writing  f o rYour  -personal 2  Writing  notes &  with  -business 3  Content  Content  5  Personal  letters  of Writing:  1  paragraphs  of Writing:  -narrative  2  paragraphs  Writing  sentence  structure  letters  Purpose  memoes,  -descriptive 4  a  Reader  Project  punctuation capitalization  spelling  verb  agreement  expanding  sentences  160 Appendix  School  B:  Courses  Equivalency Grades  class:  1 0 : 3 5 - 1 2 : 0 0 Wed. a n d F r i .  8 - 1 0 : 1 2 : 5 5 - 2 : 3 5 Wed. a n d T h u r .  Wednesday  (Instr.  1)  Thursday/Friday  (Instr.  Week O n e : autobiographical  letter  sentence  structure:  -who t o ?  -subj ects  -why?  -verbs  -what?  -completions  personal  letter  format  Week Two: draft  sentence  one/two  punctuation  -paragraph  Week  Three:  final  draft  fragments  paragraph  -chronological  order  verb  agreement  2)  Appendix  161  C:  L E A R N I N G CENTRE W R I T I N G  COURSE  WEEK: 3 INSTRUCTION: 1.  1  INSTRUCTION: 2  topic sentences, concluding sentences  2. c o m p a r i s o n  and  sentence sentence  structure types  (SVO),  contrast  3. d i s c u s s i o n o f a b o v e p a r a g r a p h s , r e v i s i o n o f week 2's d e s c r i p t i v e and n a r r a t i v e p a r a g r a p h s , w i t h a focus on t o p i c and c o n c l u d i n g sentences PRODUCTS: r e v i s e d d r a f t s o f week 2's p a r a g r a p h s , one comparison and c o n t r a s t p a r a g r a p h  sentence exercises, e d i t i n g o f week 2's paragraphs f o r v e r b usage  WEEK: 4 1.  topic sentences, concluding sentences  2. c a u s e  punctuation, capitalization  and e f f e c t  3. d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t e n t o f c a u s e and e f f e c t p a r a g r a p h s , r e v i s i o n o f week 3's p a r a g r a p h s PRODUCTS: t o p i c and c o n c l u d i n g sentences, cause & e f f e c t p a r a g r a p h , r e v i s e d week 3's paragraph  punctuation, capitalization e x e r c i s e s , e d i t i n g o f week 3's p a r a g r a p h s f o r s e n t e n c e structure  

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