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Relationships between cognitive processes and language abilities among hearing-impaired readers 1982

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PARTICIPATION IN ADULT LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL STRESS AND HEALTH by ADRIAN BLUNT B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D i v i s i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher Education, Faculty, of Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standards: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 Q) Adrian B l u n t , 19 81 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f favour <£-£>Oc-.ATt®d The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c ouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date M A Y 19G( ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and h e a l t h t o t e s t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t a c t i v e l e a r n e r s m a i n t a i n t h e i r h e a l t h i n s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s w h i l e n o n - a c t i v e l e a r n e r s i n s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s e x p e r i e n c e decrements i n h e a l t h . A randomly, s e l e c t e d sample o f a d u l t s between e i g h t e e n and s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age was s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n o f p a t i e n t s who had s o u g h t • h e a l t h c a r e from a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n . The s t u d y used a p a n e l d e s i g n w i t h two d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e months a p a r t . A t o t a l o f 26 3 p a t i e n t s c o m p l e t e d t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w and 226 c o m p l e t e d t h e f i n a l i n t e r v i e w . Ten t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s d e r i v e d from a r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a model w i t h p r o p o s e d c a u s a l p a t h s and was t e s t e d u s i n g p a t h a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s p o s i t e d t h a t : (1) h i g h s o c i a l s t r e s s w ould be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and w i t h decrements i n h e a l t h o v e r t i m e ; (2) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g w o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l s t r e s s ; (3) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g w o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s - o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and w i t h improvements i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h o v e r t i m e ; (4) s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s w o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s and t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; (5) p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s would i n f l u e n c e l e v e l s of health functioning and the decision to engage i n learning a c t i v i t i e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning a c t i v i t i e s would be affected by: (6) generalized expectancy f o r control over the s o c i a l environment; (7) personality; (8) attitudes toward adult education; (9) age, sex, income and years of schooling and (10) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l organizations would be associated with l e v e l s of health functioning. Health status was q u a n t i f i e d by a scale which assessed health from the perspective of a person's a b i l i t y to function s o c i a l l y and i n his or her regular employment. Ad d i t i o n a l health data gathered included severity of i l l n e s s , health change, number of v i s i t s to the physician's o f f i c e and number of days spent i n h o s p i t a l . Five measures of stress were used i n the'study with s o c i a l stress being q u a n t i f i e d by the S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale, a scale consisting of 43 l i f e events which demand s o c i a l readjustments on the part of an i n d i v i d u a l when experienced. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning a c t i v i t i e s and attitude towards adult education were quantif i e d by scales developed for use i n t h i s study. Factor analyses were conducted to t e s t the construct v a l i d i t y of the health and stress variables and the r e s u l t s obtained provided strong support f o r the v a l i d i t y of each of the variables as i n d i v i d u a l measures of the constructs of health and s t r e s s . To t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the learning a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e towards adult education scales the scale scores were correlated with f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . C o l l e c t i v e l y , the observed i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s supported'."the v a l i d i t y of the two scales. Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated for each of the seven psycho-metric scales i v u sed i n t h e s t u d y and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d r a n g i n g from .69 t o .87 i n d i c a t e d a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h o s e s t u d y i n s t r u m e n t s . The r e s u l t s o f a s e r i e s o f p a t h a n a l y s e s were examined t o d e t e r m i n e w h e ther o r n o t each o f t h e t e n t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be s u p p o r t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d . O v e r a l l , t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s t r e s s and h e a l t h v a r i a b l e s , and t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were c o n f i r m e d . The a n a l y s e s p r o v i d e d no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s was i n f l u e n c e d by l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s , p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . One u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g was t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h a l t h o u g h i t was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . Modest s u p p o r t was o b t a i n e d from t h e a n a l y s e s f o r t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s promotes l e v e l s o f f u t u r e h e a l t h a l t h o u g h no e f f e c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y upon h e a l t h change was o b s e r v a b l e . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Problem 2 Purpose of the Study 9 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 9 Plan of the Report 11 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13 St r e s s 14 S o c i a l S t r e s s and Health 20 Per c e i v e d S t r e s s and Health 23 S o c i a l Learning Theory 2 6 P e r s o n a l i t y 32 A t t i t u d e to Ad u l t Education 39 Socio Demographic V a r i a b l e s Related to P a r t i c i p a t i o n 40 I I I . METHODOLOGY 46 The Study Design 47 Sampling Procedure 48 Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods 50 Health and S t r e s s Measures 53 v i C h a p t e r Page V a l i d i t y o f t h e H e a l t h and S t r e s s Measures 59 L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y Measurement 61 A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Measurement 73 V a l i d i t y o f t h e L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y and A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Measures... 7 8 P e r s o n a l i t y Measures 80 Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s 83 R e l i a b i l i t y o f I n s t r u m e n t s 83 SUMMARY 84 IV. THE STUDY SAMPLE 88 S o c i o Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 89 H e a l t h and S t r e s s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 9 5 P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 9 8 L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y and A t t i t u d e Toward A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 100 SUMMARY 102 V; DATA ANALYSIS 10 6 P a t h A n a l y s i s 106 Data P r e p a r a t i o n 10 8 P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t A n a l y s i s 108 1. H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e P a t h s . . . 114 2. S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e P a t h s 116 3. S o c i o Demographic and L e a r n i n g V a r i a b l e P a t h s 116 4. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n , L e a r n i n g and H e a l t h P a t h s . . .• 118 5. S t r e s s and t h e D e c i s i o n t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n L e a r n i n g 118 v i i C h a p t e r Page 6. The Model 'at Work 1 ... 119 SUMMARY 12 3 V I . CONCLUSIONS • 126 D e s i g n o f t h e Study 127 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 130 Data A n a l y s i s 131 D i s c u s s i o n 135 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study 140 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 141 BIBLIOGRAPHY r 145 APPENDICES 154 1. M a i l e d Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . 155 2. H e a l t h S t a t u s Index 156 3. F i r s t I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 17 8 4. Second I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 193 5. A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S c a l e 2 00 6. App e n d i x T a b l e s 203 v i i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1 P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e s 62 2 H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e F a c t o r L o a d i n g s A f t e r Two F a c t o r S o l u t i o n w i t h O r t h o g o n a l R o t a t i o n 63 3 H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e F a c t o r L o a d i n g s A f t e r No C o n s t r a i n t F o u r F a c t o r S o l u t i o n w i t h O r t h o g o n a l R o t a t i o n 64 4 S t udy V a r i a b l e s 65 5 A r i t h m e t i c Means, G e o m e t r i c Means, and G e o m e t r i c Mean Ranks by I n s t i t u t i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n o f Respondents o f S c a l e Items 72 6 ' U n i t s o f L e a r n i n g ' A s s i g n e d t o L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e 75 7 P e a r s o n Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t M a t r i x o f C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s and L e a r n i n g and A t t i t u d e S c a l e S c o r e s 81 8 Hoyt E s t i m a t e o f R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Seven P s y c h o m e t r i c S c a l e s 85 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by Age and Sex 89 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s and Sex 9 0 11 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s and Sex 91 12 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by B i r t h P l a c e , Age and Sex 92 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by Y e a r s o f S c h o o l and Sex 9 3 14 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by Age and Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g 94 i x Table Page 15 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects by S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score and Sex 9 5 16 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects by Years of Schooling and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score... 96 17 Method of Calcul a t i o n of the E f f e c t C o e f f i c i e n t s C 112 i i 18 Path Model Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s 113 19 Path C o e f f i c i e n t s (P..), E f f e c t ID C o e f f i c i e n t s ( Cj_j) a n < ^ Residual Path C o e f f i c i e n t s (E..) for Path Analyses... 115 X LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 B a s i c Elements of the T h e o r e t i c a l Model 22 2 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Per c e i v e d S t r e s s and the Elements of the B a s i c Model 25 3 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Among Locus of C o n t r o l , P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and the Elements of the B a s i c Model. 33 4 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among P e r s o n a l i t y , Locus of C o n t r o l , P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and the Elements of the B a s i c Model 38 5 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among P e r s o n a l i t y , Locus of C o n t r o l , Perceived S t r e s s , A t t i t u d e Toward A d u l t Education, and the Elements of the B a s i c Model- 40 6 The T h e o r e t i c a l Model 45 7 D i r e c t Contamination 48 8 Avoidance of D i r e c t Contamination by the Panel Design 48 9 Timetable of Data C o l l e c t i o n Periods and Duration of Observations 52 10 The Path Model 110 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s s t u d y w o u l d n o t have been c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a g r e a t number o f p e o p l e . A l e x C h e r k e z o f f a l l o w e d me generous a c c e s s t o h i s f a m i l y p r a c t i c e and d e v o t e d many hours o f h i s t i m e t o t h e r e c o r d i n g o f d a t a f o r t h e s t u d y . I doubt t h a t any o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r g a t h e r i n g d a t a i n t h e f a m i l y p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g c o u l d have e n j o y e d more c o o p e r a t i o n , g u i d a n c e and encouragement from a p h y s i c i a n t h a n I r e c e i v e d from A l e x C h e r k e z o f f . I n a d d i t i o n I was f o r t u n a t e enough t o have t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h r e e p e o p l e who ' c a r e d ' , t o a s s i s t i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a . B r i s h k a i Lund, Joan B r i t t and Sandy Ley d a i l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e a r t o f b a l a n c i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e p a t i e n t w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s c i e n c e f o r t h e a c c u r a c y and comp l e t e n e s s o f d a t a . F u n d i n g f o r t h e s t u d y was p r o v i d e d by t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e s e a r c h B r a n c h o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f F i s h e r i e s where t h e h i r s u t e manager P h i l Myer p r e s s e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y f o r r e s u l t s and Dr. Lawrence Evans p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e development o f t h e s t u d y and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e d a t a f o r a n a l y s i s . A d i s t a n t b u t r e l i a b l e and i n v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e was Dr. James Bush who a l l o w e d me t o use h i s h e a l t h s t a t u s i n d e x and g e n e r o u s l y p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f Los A n g e l e s , L a J o l l a , a complete s e r v i c e f o r t h e i n i t i a l s c o r i n g o f t h e h e a l t h s t a t u s d a t a , an i n t e r n a l x i i c o n s i s t e n c y check and the generation of h e a l t h index scores. Many f a c u l t y members gave me e n t h u s i a s t i c support and guidance. In p a r t i c u l a r I would l i k e to acknowledge my indebtedness t o Dr. John C o l l i n s whose departure from the U n i v e r s i t y prevented him from c o n t i n u i n g to serve on my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee t o the 'end', and whose c r e a t i v e computer a p p l i c a t i o n s I g r e a t l y missed. Another great l o s s was t h a t of my graduate study mentor Dr. C o o l i e Verner who d i d not l i v e to see the study completed. Dr. Gary D i c k i n s o n , Dr. Gordon Page and Dr. Bob Conry j o i n e d my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee l a t e i n the development of the study. T h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o advise has earned my g r a t i t u d e and re s p e c t . F i n a l l y , my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed t o Pat McGechaen whose accurate and speedy t y p o g r a p h i c a l work f o l l o w s . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION So c i e t y today i s i n an unprecedented s t a t e of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. The fundamental s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y i s i n a s t a t e of f l u x w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y every i n d i v i d u a l being a f f e c t e d by seemingly u n c o n t r o l l a b l e a l t e r a t i o n s i n h i s d a i l y l i f e . E v o l v i n g from these changes i s a s o c i a l s t a t e of in c r e a s e d complexity and impermanence. Observers such as Drucker (196 8) and McLuhan (1964, 19 67) have de s c r i b e d the pervasiveness of these changes and have.sought to i d e n t i f y the demands made upon man t o cope w i t h s o c i a l change. In 1965 the term " f u t u r e shock", was introduced by; T o f f l e r to de s c r i b e "the s h a t t e r i n g s t r e s s and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t we induce i n i n d i v i d u a l s by s u b j e c t i n g them to too much change i n too short- a time" ( T o f f l e r , 1970 , p. 2). For many years researchers have been accumulating evidence through l a b o r a t o r y and e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s to 2 show t h a t s t r e s s and change are p r e c u r s o r s of i l l n e s s (McQuade and Aikman, 1974 ; Lazarus, 1966 ; W o l f f , 1953 ; L e v i , 1967 and 1 9 7 1 ; Engle, 1 9 6 2 ) . During the l a s t twenty years there has been an a c c e l e r a t i o n i n the r a t e of accumulation of evidence l i n k i n g s o c i a l s t r e s s to the onset of i l l n e s s . I t i s now apparent t h a t there are many s t r e s s - i n d u c e d diseases throughout the western world. In a working paper prepared to s t i m u l a t e debate on f u t u r e h e a l t h concerns, the M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare drew a t t e n t i o n t o the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l change and h e a l t h : One of the most important but l e a s t understood environmental problems i s the e f f e c t of r a p i d s o c i a l change on the mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h of Canadians. Some of the s o c i a l change i s due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n , such as the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n , but s i g n i f i c a n t d i s o r i e n t a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n a r i s e as w e l l from the crumbling of previous s o c i a l values and t h e i r replacement by others whose long term e f f e c t i s s t i l l unknown. When a s o c i e t y i n c r e a s i n g l y pursues p r i v a t e pleasure by s a c r i f i c i n g i t s o b l i g a t i o n s to the common good, i t i n v i t e s s t r e s s e s whose e f f e c t s on h e a l t h can be d i s a s t r o u s (Lalonde, 1974 , p. 1 8 ) . Background to the Problem Although the evidence has been d e r i v e d from w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t p o p u l a t i o n s , a wide range of medical i n s t i t u t i o n s , and both e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l and experimental s t u d i e s , the s t r e n g t h and c a u s a l nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s and i l l n e s s has not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d . Recognition of the f a c t t h a t some but not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s exposed to s t r e s s f u l environments become i l l has i n i t i a t e d a search to i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c behaviours, s k i l l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which might enable people to maintain t h e i r h e a l t h or to develop immunity to s t r e s s - i n d u c e d i l l n e s s . I f such coping s t r a t e g i e s 3 can be i d e n t i f i e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y can be a n a l y s e d , t a u g h t , and l e a r n e d . T h i s s t u d y i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f one p o s i t e d s t r a t e g y f o r c o p i n g w i t h s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . R e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a l u e o f l e a r n i n g i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f p r e v e n t i v e m e d i c i n e can be seen i n t h e r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e on c r i s i s t h e o r y and f a m i l y m e d i c i n e . I n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e management o f c r i s e s by h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( C a p l a n , 1963; T a p l i n , 1971) and i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n t o c r i s e s a r e l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e as t h e p r a c t i c e o f . p r e v e n t i v e and f a m i l y m e d i c i n e i n c r e a s e s ( V i n c e n t , 1973). The t r e a t m e n t c u r r e n t l y b e i n g a d v o c a t e d i n t h i s f i e l d i s t h e a d o p t i o n o f a l e a r n i n g a pproach t o human p r o b l e m s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g how t o cope w i t h l i f e changes ( V i n c e n t , 1973). However, l i t t l e i s known a t p r e s e n t about t h e ways i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n • t o adapt t o change i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e o n s e t o f i l l n e s s o r t o m i n i m i z e i t s s e v e r i t y i f i t o c c u r s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r t h a n t h e outcomes o f l e a r n i n g , may i t s e l f be a c o p i n g s t r a t e g y . I f s o , a c t i v e l e a r n e r s w i l l be h e a l t h i e r t h a n n o n - l e a r n e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e knowledge and s k i l l s t h e y l e a r n . C e r t a i n l y , t h e b e t t e r e d u c a t e d i n our s o c i e t y s u f f e r fewer i l l n e s s e s and have g r e a t e r l i f e e x p e c t a n c i e s than t h e u n d e r - e d u c a t e d , a l t h o u g h t h e a c c e p t e d r e a s o n s a r e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c ( r e l a t e d t o n u t r i t i o n and housing) r a t h e r t h a n p s y c h o - s o c i a l ( r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ) . Moss (1973) has p r e s e n t e d a r a d i c a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i l l n e s s stems from communication network i n c o n g r u i t i e s because t h e y produce s t r e s s w h i c h , i f p r o l o n g e d , l o w e r s r e s i s t a n c e t o 4 d i s e a s e . A communication network i s d e f i n e d / b y Moss as "a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i n g p e o p l e t r a n s m i t t i n g and m o d i f y i n g a body of i n f o r m a t i o n " (1973, p. 2 4 2 ) . W h i l e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s conveyed w i t h i n a communication network i s seen t o be e f f e c t i v e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h and a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e network members w i l l r e m a i n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e network and t h e r e w i l l be i n f o r m a t i o n c o n g r u i t y . However, s h o u l d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n v a l i d a t e p a r t o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n f o r m a t i o n bank, a mis-match o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o c u r r e n t p e r c e p t i o n o c c u r s and t h i s i s termed i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n g r u i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o Moss t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g a l t e r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a wide a r r a y o f d i s e a s e . S o c i e t y can reduce i l l n e s s by e i t h e r p r e v e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n g r u i t i e s from a r i s i n g , o r by r e s p o n d i n g t o t h o s e w h i c h do a r i s e by i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f communication n e t w o r k s . Two c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d by Moss i n t h e development o f h i s t h e o r e t i c a l model a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r p e r t i n e n c e t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e c o n c e p t s o f immunity from i l l n e s s t h r o u g h c o n g r u i t y w i t h an i n f o r m a t i o n network and immunity g a i n e d by d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e m i l i e u . Immunity by c o n g r u i t y has two n o n - e x c l u s i v e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s . One i s t h e degree o f c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n t a u g h t t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e t w o r k ' s p a r t i c i p a n t s about t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The second p a r t i s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d by t h e network p a r t i c i p a n t s , t o p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e s k i l l s and knowledge r e q u i r e d t o a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . Immunity by d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e r e f e r s t o t h e development o f knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o a c t i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h r o u g h t r i a l and e r r o r e x p e r i e n c e s . 5 The two c a t e g o r i e s , immunity by c o n g r u i t y and immunity by d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , have p a r a l l e l s i n the two t y p e s o f s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h l e a r n i n g o c c u r s , t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g and t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g ( V e r n e r , 1964). I n t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g l e a r n i n g i s n o t l e f t t o chance as an e d u c a t i o n a l agent s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e s i g n s and manages t h e i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s would appear t o be t h e s e t t i n g i n w h i c h Moss e n v i s a g e s h i s examples o f d e s i r a b l e knowledge and s k i l l s f o r immunity by c o n g r u i t y b e i n g l e a r n e d : The v a l u e o f a l i b e r a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n must be r e a s s e s s e d and s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o do t h i n g s such as i n v e s t i n g ; b u y i n g i n s u r a n c e ; u s i n g t h e l a w , c o u r t s , and l a w y e r s ; u t i l i z i n g h e a l t h r e s o u r c e s ; knowledge o f government a g e n c i e s ' s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d ; p r a c t i c i n g f i r s t a i d ; p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f t h e f l o r a and f a u n a o f t h e a r e a ; awareness o f how f a c t o r i e s work and t h e problems o f t e c h n o l o g y ; t h e n a t u r e o f v a r i o u s s u b s t a n c e s , i n c l u d i n g s y n t h e t i c s ; r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , what t o e x p e c t i n m a r r i a g e ; and so forth...We s u s p e c t t h a t more complete and c o r r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o l i v e i n a modern s o c i e t y would s h a r p l y reduce t h e amount o f i l l n e s s o f a l l k i n d s and p r o v e a p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h measure as e f f e c t i v e as i n n o c u l a t i o n (Moss, 1973, p. 219). L e a r n i n g i n t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g o c c u r s l a r g e l y by chance o r a c c i d e n t r a t h e r t h a n by d e s i g n . I n t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g , as Moss (19 7 3) s u g g e s t s , a d u l t s would l e a r n t o h a n d l e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t as a r e s u l t o f t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r e x p e r i e n c e . The l i t e r a t u r e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s r e p l e t e w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e r o l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n m e e t i n g t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f s o c i a l change. D u r i n g t h e s i x t i e s , V e r n e r (1964, p. 4) i d e n t i f i e d t h e dominant theme o f contemporary a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o be t h a t o f a d j u s t m e n t , " t o h e l p a d u l t s accommodate 6 the r a p i d t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l changes so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of our time." The knowledge e x p l o s i o n , the growth of new t e c h n o l o g i e s , the r a p i d pace of s o c i a l change and the f e e l i n g of l o s s of i d e n t i t y have a l l been r e f e r r e d to as major f a c t o r s determining the need f o r a d u l t education (Knowles, 1962 ; London, 1963, 1964; Verner, 1964; M i l l e r , 1970). Bryson, Hallenbeck and Verner have each i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l fundamental f u n c t i o n s t h a t a d u l t education performs i n our s o c i e t y . Bryson (19 36) l i s t e d f i v e f u n c t i o n s of a d u l t education: r e m e d i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , r e l a t i o n a l , l i b e r a l and p o l i t i c a l . The r e l a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s as conceived by Bryson i n c l u d e d , " s t u d i e s of emotions, a t t i t u d e s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a b i t s which are designed to help us b e t t e r to understand ourselves and our r e l a t i o n s w i t h other persons." (Bryson, 1936, p. 30) Hallenbeck (1960) a l s o i d e n t i f i e d f i v e f u n c t i o n s of a d u l t education: t o expand communication s k i l l s , t o develop f l e x i b i l i t y , t o improve human r e l a t i o n s , to f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and to expedite p e r s o n a l growth. Hallenbeck's developing f l e x i b i l i t y f u n c t i o n was based upon the b e l i e f t h a t , "the a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s to change i n a changing world i s e s s e n t i a l , " and t h a t a d u l t s must l e a r n to become and to remain f l e x i b l e (Hallenbeck, 1960, p. 36). According to Verner (1964) the s o c i a l f o r c e s and f a c t o r s t h a t c r e a t e the need f o r continuous l e a r n i n g through adulthood can be seen as c r e a t i n g f o u r f u n c t i o n s of a d u l t education - e x p a n s i o n a l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l , i n t e g r a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l . The expansional f u n c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a s s i s t a d u l t s expand t h e i r competencies to 7 meet c u r r e n t l i f e s t a g e needs such as from v o c a t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l t o p a r e n t a l o r c i t i z e n s h i p needs. A c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p knowledge and s k i l l s i n government and c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Through a d u l t e d u c a t i o n V e r n e r d e s c r i b e s a d u l t s as s y n t h e s i z i n g knowledge',, t r a n s f e r r i n g , knowledge from one a r e a t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f problems i n o t h e r a r e a s and i n t e g r a t i n g knowledge w i t h e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n V e r n e r c a l l e d i n t e g r a t i o n a l . F i n a l l y t h e p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e purpose o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n a s s i s t i n g a d u l t s t o a c h i e v e m a t u r i t y , a s s i s t w i t h s o c i a l change and e n a b l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o be p e r s o n a l l y c o n g r u e n t w i t h h i s s o c i a l m i l i e u . The f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as d e s c r i b e d above, have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e need t o promote l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l e n a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n s i n s o c i e t y , t o improve t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s , t o s o l v e t h e i r own problems and g e n e r a l l y t o g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n from l i f e i n a c h a n g i n g w o r l d . These v i e w s l i m i t t h e f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c s o c i a l symptoms o f change. They do n o t r e c o g n i z e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s i n e x t r i c a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s such as a t t i t u d e s and emotions w h i c h a r e a l s o t h o u g h t t o be r e l a t e d t o r e c e p t i v i t y t o d i s e a s e and i l l n e s s . I f l e a r n i n g i s i d e n t i f i e d as a s t r a t e g y f o r c o p i n g w i t h change, t h a t i s , i f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a c t i v e l e a r n e r s do n o t s u f f e r s t r e s s - i n d u c e d i l l n e s s e s when o t h e r s s i m i l a r l y a t r i s k do s u f f e r such i l l n e s s e s , a new f u n c t i o n f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n m ight be i d e n t i f i e d - t h e f u n c t i o n o f p r o m o t i n g h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l and 8 p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h . The r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e has n o t p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f h e a l t h as a r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e about m o t i v a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e t i m e t h i s s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d , s a i d l i t t l e about th e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l change on i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h i s a r e a have g e n e r a l l y been p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g r e s p o n d e n t s ' s e l f - r e p o r t e d r e s p o n s e s t o i t e m s on i n s t r u m e n t s p r e p a r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , f o r example B o s h i e r (1971) , B u r g e s s (1971) , and M o r s t a i n (1974) . The f a c t o r a n a l y t i c models used t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a from t h e s e s t u d i e s impose l i m i t a t i o n s f o r d i s c o v e r y as t h e y produce e x p l a n a t o r y f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e p r o d u c t s o f t h e i n p u t s t o t h e a n a l y t i c model. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s u s i n g t h e s e models can o n l y e x t r a c t what i s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e a n a l y s i s , and what i s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e a n a l y s i s i s o n l y what t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r chooses t o e n t e r ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t m o t i v a t i o n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e o p e r a t e a t t h e s u b - c o n s c i o u s l e v e l and r e s p o n d e n t s ' s t a t e d r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l a r e s o c i e t a l and n o r m a t i v e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s f o r an o t h e r w i s e u n e x p l a i n a b l e d r i v e . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and h e a l t h i s needed t o t e s t such a p r o p o s i t i o n . I t i s known t h a t s o c i a l change c o n t r i b u t e s t o i l l n e s s o n s e t , (Holmes and Masuda,.19 73; and Dohrenwend, 1974) and i t i s a f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o a s s i s t p e o p l e t o l e a r n how t o s o l v e problems g e n e r a t e d by s o c i a l change. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h o s e who a r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l s u f f e r fewer s t r e s s - i n d u c e d i l l n e s s e s t h a n t h o s e who a r e n o t a c t i v e l e a r n e r s . A t p r e s e n t t h e i d e n t i t y , magnitude and sequence o f l i n k a g e s between c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s h y p o t h e s i z e d c h a i n a r e r e l a t i v e l y unknown. Purpose o f t h e S t u dy G i v e n th e p r o p o r t i o n s o f s t r e s s - i n d u c e d i l l n e s s e s p r e v a l e n t i n Western s o c i e t i e s t o d a y , t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g need t o i d e n t i f y c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . I n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n p r o m o t i n g h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h be c o n d u c t e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g and h e a l t h t o t e s t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t a c t i v e l e a r n e r s m a i n t a i n t h e i r h e a l t h i n s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s w h i l e n o n - a c t i v e l e a r n e r s i n s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s e x p e r i e n c e decrements i n h e a l t h . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e a r e no u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n s o f s t r e s s , h e a l t h , o r l e a r n i n g and t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h o s e c o n s t r u c t s a r e b ased t o a major e x t e n t on t h e i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d and d e v e l o p e d f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , hence t h e y a r e p r i m a r i l y o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . S t r e s s - The c o n s t r u c t ' s t r e s s ' was d e f i n e d as t h e p s y c h o - p h y s i o l o g i c a l outcomes o f r e a d j u s t m e n t s and a d a p t i v e e f f o r t s r e q u i r e d o f t h e a d u l t when e x p e r i e n c i n g l i f e c r i s e s o r l i f e change e v e n t s . The e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r f o r t h i s c o n s t r u c t was t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (Holmes and Rahe 1967). 10 S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s - ' S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s ' was d e f i n e d as s e l f - r e p o r t e d c u m u l a t i v e f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y , t e n s i o n , t h r e a t , p r e s s u r e and nervous s t r a i n b r o u g h t about by s o c i a l f o r c e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n d a i l y l i v i n g . T h i s c o n s t r u c t was q u a n t i f i e d by t h e S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e (Chapman e t a l 1966) and by r e s p o n s e s on a magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l e d e s i g n e d t o q u a n t i f y l e v e l s o f s e l f - d e f i n e d s t r e s s t h r o u g h a n o n - n u m e r i c a l t e c h n i q u e . P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s - A l t h o u g h n o t o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d as a measure o f s t r e s s , t h e N e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e o f t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y was s e l e c t e d as a measure o f ' p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s ' . N e u r o t i c i s m , as d e f i n e d by E y s e n c k , i s t h e g e n e r a l e m o t i o n a l o v e r - r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t y p i f i e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who appear a n x i o u s , a g g r e s s i v e and moody as compared t o s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e c a l m , even tempered and e a s y g o i n g (Eysenck and Eysenck 1966). H e a l t h - The c o n s t r u c t ' h e a l t h ' was d e f i n e d as t h e a b i l i t y t o c a r r y on t h o s e d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e u s u a l f o r a p e r s o n ' s age and s o c i a l r o l e . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t a p e r s o n cannot c a r r y o u t n o r m al l i v i n g a c t i v i t i e s he o r she i s i n a s t a t e o f d y s f u n c t i o n , o r d e v i a t i o n from w e l l b e i n g q u a n t i f i a b l e by t h e Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index (Bush e t a l 1972). L e a r n i n g - Gagne's (1977) d e f i n i t i o n o f ' l e a r n i n g ' as a more o r l e s s permanent change o f b e h a v i o u r o r d i s p o s i t i o n b r o u g h t about by c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system p r o c e s s e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e i n d u c e d by m a t u r a t i o n , i s 11 used i n t h i s s t u d y . A c t i v e L e a r n e r - W h i l e ' l e a r n i n g ' as d e f i n e d above d e f i e s p r e c i s e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n , an a d u l t who i n t e n t i o n a l l y seeks t o l e a r n i n t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g and/or t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s i d e n t i f i e d by s c o r e s above t h e median s c o r e on t h e S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e ( B l u n t , 1977). C o n v e r s e l y an a d u l t who does n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y seek t o l e a r n i n e i t h e r t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g o r t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s i d e n t i f i e d by s c o r e s below t h e median s c o r e on t h e s c a l e . P l a n o f t h e R e p o r t The s t u d y i s r e p o r t e d i n s i x c h a p t e r s , w i t h t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r b e i n g an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s t u d y p r o b l e m , a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p urpose o f t h e s t u d y , a d e f i n i t i o n o f terms and a p l a n o f t h e r e p o r t . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o m p r i s e s t h e second c h a p t e r w h i c h has major s e c t i o n s on s t r e s s , l i f e e v e n t s and h e a l t h , s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y and i n t r a p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . On t h e b a s i s o f t h a t r e v i e w a t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s d e v e l o p e d w i t h axioms and p r o p o s i t i o n s w h i c h form t h e b a s i s f o r t h e a n a l y t i c model. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y methodology forms t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y d e s i g n , s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods, t h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t s used t o g a t h e r t h e d a t a and d e t a i l s t h e s t e p s t a k e n t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e m a jor measures. Two s c a l e s d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use 12 i n t h e s t u d y , a magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a T h u r s t o n e s c a l e t o q u a n t i f y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a r e a l s o r e p o r t e d . C h a p t e r f o u r c o n s i s t s o f a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y sample i n terms o f s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h e a l t h and s t r e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e f i f t h c h a p t e r . The s i x t h and f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f a summary o f t h e s t u d y , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from i t and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . A l l o f t h e s t u d y i n s t r u m e n t s and i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e development o f measures f o r use i n t h e s t u d y a r e i n c l u d e d as a p p e n d i c e s . 13 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This study i s t y p i c a l of many e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n a d u l t education where: ( i ) there i s l i t t l e r esearch to guide the s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the study, ( i i ) given the complexity of the system t o be modelled many p o t e n t i a l explanatory v a r i a b l e s must be omitted to ensure t h a t the model i s s u f f i c i e n t l y simple t o be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d , and i n a d d i t i o n , ( i i i ) there are few data c o l l e c t i o n instruments r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h recognized v a l i d i t y to q u a n t i f y e i t h e r those v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n or those which might be proposed as a l t e r n a t i v e s . A l i t e r a t u r e search was conducted to i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s l i k e l y to be of a s s i s t a n c e i n the development of a model t o assess the e f f e c t s of engagement i n l e a r n i n g i n mediating the decremental e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s on h e a l t h . Four major c o n s t r u c t s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the model i n a d d i t i o n to the c o n s t r u c t s of s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g and h e a l t h . The f o u r a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t s a r e : ( i ) s u b j e c t i v e o r p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , ( i i ) i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , ( i i i ) p e r s o n a l i t y , and ( i v ) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n s e v e r a l s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e major v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e model were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n as exogenous v a r i a b l e s . T h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s o r g a n i z e d i n seven p a r t s : ( i ) a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n on t h e c o n c e p t o f s t r e s s , ( i i ) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s ( l i f e change e v e n t s ) and h e a l t h , ( i i i ) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , s o c i a l s t r e s s and h e a l t h , ( i v ) t h e e f f e c t s o f g e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t on engagement i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , (v) t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y on p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g and h e a l t h , ( v i ) t h e e f f e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and ( v i i ) t h e e f f e c t s o f c e r t a i n s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s on t h e model's major v a r i a b l e s . S t r e s s The t e rm ' s t r e s s ' has been used t o d e s c r i b e a l a r g e number of p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o - s o c i a l , and p s y c h o - s o m a t i c c o n s t r u c t s . There i s no consensus i n t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g a u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f s t r e s s , and many t h e o r e t i c a l models o f s t r e s s have been d e v e l o p e d ( S e l y e 1956; L a z a r u s 1966; A p p l e y and T u r n b u l l 1967; L e v i n e and S c o t c h 1970; H i n k l e * 1957; Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend 19 7 4 ) . Moss (1973) has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f s t r e s s r e s e a r c h models; s t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e t o p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l and o r g a n i c a g e n t s ; s t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l 15 response to s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i ; and s t r e s s as a b e h a v i o u r a l response to s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i . S t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to p h y s i c a l , chemical and organic agents. Hans Selye's work (1956, 1975) i s the most wi d e l y known i n the area of s t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to p h y s i c a l , chemical and organic agents. Through h i s l a b o r a t o r y experiments i n d u c i n g disease i n r a t s , Selye i d e n t i f i e d the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), observed the corresponding c l i n i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n man, and d e r i v e d h i s theory of diseases of a d a p t a t i o n . The theory s t a t e s t h a t many common diseases are the r e s u l t of i n a p p r o p r i a t e b i o l o g i c a l responses to s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than to the d i r e c t e f f e c t of germs, poi s o n , or other e x t e r n a l agents. S t r e s s a c c o r d i n g to Selye (1956) i s the n o n - s p e c i f i c response of the body to any demand upon i t . A s t r e s s o r can be almost any k i n d of stimulus i n c l u d i n g e x e r c i s e , d i s e a s e , heat, c o l d , hunger or p s y c h o l o g i c a l shock. The GAS has three stages, an alarm r e a c t i o n , r e s i s t a n c e and exhaustion. During the alarm r e a c t i o n the s t r e s s o r i s recognized by the body and the p i t u i t a r y - a d r e n a l c o r t i c a l system responds by producing a r o u s a l hormones. The he a r t r a t e i n c r e a s e s , blood sugar l e v e l s r i s e , b r e a t h i n g quickens, p u p i l s d i l a t e , p e r s p i r a t i o n commences and the d i g e s t i v e process slows down. In the adaptive or r e s i s t a n c e stage the body mo d i f i e s the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s and r e p a i r s any damage w h i l e the p h y s i c a l symptoms of s t r e s s d e c l i n e . I f the s t r e s s continues the adaptive process may be i n t e r r u p t e d and the body w i l l work to maintain i t s bio-defence systems. Should the s t r e s s be prolonged the c a p a b i l i t y of the body to respond e f f e c t i v e l y 16 d e c l i n e s , l e a d i n g to exhaustion. During t h i s t h i r d stage (exhaustion) diseases of adaptation can occur such as emotional d i s t u r b a n c e s , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , migraine headaches, asthma, c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e s , r e n a l diseases and many ot h e r s . Recent challenges to Selye's theory have been based upon experimental evidence t h a t s t r e s s i s s p e c i f i c r a t h e r than n o n - s p e c i f i c , and t h a t p h y s i c a l l y dangerous or damaging s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s are more o f t e n the d i r e c t r e s u l t of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than p h y s i c a l s t r e s s o r s . (Moss 1973; T r o t t e r 1975) One apparent paradox i n Selye's theory i s t h a t , "Stress i s p a r t of l i f e . I t i s a n a t u r a l by-product of a l l our a c t i v i t i e s " (Selye 1956, p. 299), y e t there are no s p e c i f i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses t o s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l events t h a t are comparable to the s p e c i f i c events accompanying b o d i l y contact w i t h v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l , chemical or organic events (Moss 1973). One question t h a t Selye does not address i s : why, i f every l i f e event i s s t r e s s f u l , do some l i f e events a f f e c t some i n d i v i d u a l s and not others? V a r i a b i l i t y among populations regarding p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s f u l n e s s and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of coping mechanisms have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d by Selye. (Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend, 19 74) St r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i . The model of s t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i i s best t y p i f i e d by the research of Wolff (1953, 1968). S t r e s s according to W o l f f , i s the " i n t e r n a l or r e s i s t i n g f o r c e brought i n t o a c t i o n by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s or loads." (1953) The c a p a b i l i t y of the body to withstand e x t e r n a l f o r c e s determines whether i l l n e s s w i l l r e s u l t . 17 However, n o t a l l r e s p o n s e s t o e x t e r n a l f o r c e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e . P h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f e n c e s n o r m a l l y used t o r e s i s t p h y s i c a l f o r c e s may be used as d e f e n c e s a g a i n s t s y m b o l i c o r s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s and may a c t u a l l y cause b o d i l y harm by i n d u c i n g i l l n e s s . As W o l f f n o t e d : I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t man, c o n f r o n t e d by t h r e a t s , e s p e c i a l l y as t h e y i n v o l v e v a l u e s and g o a l s , i n i t i a t e s r e s p o n s e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n k i n d as w e l l as i n magnitude. Such r e a c t i o n s i n t e g r a t e d f o r one p r o t e c t i v e p urpose and i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y used f o r a n o t h e r can damage o r d e s t r o y him. When a c u l t u r e changes r a p i d l y o r d e t e r i o r a t e s , t h e a n x i e t y - r e s o l v i n g systems b r e a k down b e f o r e the c u l t u r a l l y engendered a n x i e t i e s become a t t e n u a t e d . I t i s n o t t h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f t h e f o r c e s , p r e s s u r e s and p r e f e r e n c e s t h a t engender a t h r e a t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y , b u t how t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d and t h e amount o f c o n f l i c t d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y engendered. ( W o l f f 1953, p. 12) I n a p p l y i n g h i s t h e o r y o f s t r e s s , W o l f f i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c body organ s y s t e m s , such as t h e l u n g s and t h e stomach, t h a t c o u l d be d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d s u s c e p t a b i l i t y t o d i s e a s e and i r r e v e r s i b l e damage t h r o u g h h y p e r - a c t i v i t y o r o t h e r changes i n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f o r gan systems. S t r e s s as a b e h a v i o u r a l r e s p o n s e t o s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i . There a r e many examples o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s w h i c h can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e t h i r d o f Moss' c a t e g o r i e s o f s t r e s s models. The element t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s have i n common i s t h a t t h e s t r e s s o r s a r e p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l i n n a t u r e : "major s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s . . . a r e o b j e c t i v e e v e n t s t h a t d i s r u p t o r t h r e a t e n t o d i s r u p t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s u s u a l a c t i v i t i e s " (Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend, 1970, p. 120). The s t r e s s o r s need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be n a t i v e , and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s t r e s s o r i n d u c e s c r i s i s 18 i s dependent upon the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviours of the i n d i v i d u a l . The q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s concept of s t r e s s began w i t h the advocacy of the l i f e c h a rt as an instrument f o r medical d i a g n o s i s by A d o l f Meyer i n the 1930s. The concept i s i n popular usage today i n the l i f e - c h a n g e research of Holmes (1967) , Rahe (1964) , Mechanic (197 4) and Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend (197 4). However, there are wide v a r i a t i o n s i n the extent t o which i n d i v i d u a l researchers share concepts of measurement, methodology or the s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i n k a g e s (Moss 197 3). C e r t a i n researchers place emphasis on the c o g n i t i v e process as the determinant of whether or not an event i s a s t r e s s o r (Lazarus, 1966); others emphasize the importance of knowledge, s k i l l s and previous experience (Moss 1973). There i s evidence from some s t u d i e s t h a t c l u s t e r s of l i f e events have s i g n i f i c a n c e as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the cause and time of i l l n e s s onset (Holmes and Masuda, 1973). Other s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e - d i s p o s i n g f a c t o r s are primary, and t h a t l i f e events p l a y a secondary r o l e w i t h respect to the onset of c e r t a i n i l l n e s s e s . For example, H i n k l e noted t h a t "systematic o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l changes i n the American pop u l a t i o n s have not produced major episodes'of i l l n e s s , except among those who were e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e " ( H i n k l e , 1964, p. 15). S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s support the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p e r c e p t i o n of s t r e s s o r s does not i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s upon h e a l t h (Holmes and Masuda, 1973). Studies using the S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale of L i f e events (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) have shown t h a t l i f e 19 changes thought to be p o s i t i v e - such as a vacat ion or an improvement i n one's r e l a t i on s with a spouse - are quan t i t a t i ve l y re l a ted to the causat ion, time of onset and sever i ty of i l l n e s s . Negative l i f e changes such as get t ing a t r a f f i c t i c k e t or experiencing a worsening in re l a t i on s with one's spouse are s i m i l a r l y re l a ted to i l l n e s s (Mendels and Weinstein, 1973; Holmes and Holmes, 1970). There i s widespread lack of agreement in the l i t e r a t u r e concerning models of s t res s . While no s ing le model has been genera l ly accepted, one broadly s tated model has become dominant i n recent research - s t ress as a behavioural response to s oc i a l - p sycho log i ca l s t i m u l i . For the purposes of th i s study, s tress i s opera t iona l l y def ined i n terms of what may we l l be the s ing le most widely used instrument wi th in th i s category of s tress models, the Soc i a l Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS; Holmes and Rahe, 1967). The sca le cons i s t s of f o r t y - th ree items which can be categor ized as: . . . i n d i c a t i v e of the l i f e s t y l e of the i n d i v i d u a l and. . .of occurrences that involve the i n d i v i d u a l . Evolv ing usua l ly from ord inary, but sometimes from extraordinary s o c i a l and in terpersona l t ransact ions , these events per ta in to major areas of dynamic s i gn i f i c ance i n the s o c i a l s t ructure of the /American way of l i f e . These inc lude family c o n s t e l l a t i o n , marriage, occupat ion, economics, res idence, group and peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s , educat ion, r e l i g i o n , recreat ion and hea l th . (Holmes and Masuda, 1973, p. 162) Respondents are asked to ind i ca te whether they have experienced each of the f o r t y - th ree l i f e - e v e n t s during the previous s ix months. For each p o s i t i v e response a sca le value i nd i ca t i n g the magnitude of that p a r t i c u l a r l i f e change event i s assigned to the respondent, and the values assigned are summed over a l l f o r t y - t h r e e l i f e events to produce a s i n g l e s c a l e score f o r each respondent. S o c i a l S t r e s s and Health A great d e a l of evidence has been accumulated to show t h a t a temporal and presumed c a u s a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the e x p e r i e n c i n g of i n c r e a s e s i n l i f e change events and the onset of i l l n e s s . F u r t h e r , the magnitude of the l i f e change events experienced has been observed to be s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the p r o b a b i l i t y of disease onset and to the seriousness of the i l l n e s s experienced (Holmes and Masuda, 1973). Even when changes of l e s s magnitude than those i n c l u d e d on the SRRS are observed d a i l y , subsequent h e a l t h changes are observable although they are of l e s s consequence and do not normally r e q u i r e medical a t t e n t i o n (Holmes and Holmes, 1970) . R e t r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s conducted i n Sweden have shown a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c r e a s i n g l i f e change and sudden c a r d i a c death (Rahe and L i n d , 1971), and the- time of onset of myo-cardial i n f a r c t i o n (Rahe and P a a s i k i v i , 1971; T h e o r e l l and Rahe, 19 71). A study u s i n g an instrument other than the SRRS produced s i m i l a r r e s u l t s c o nfirming a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e x p e r i e n c i n g of l i f e change events and myo-cardial i n f a r c t i o n (Edwards, 1971). The occurrence of f r a c t u r e s and i n c r e a s i n g amounts of l i f e change were found to be r e l a t e d by T o l l e f s o n (1972). Even minor h e a l t h changes i n c l u d i n g c u t s , b r u i s e s , headaches, stomachaches, backaches and colds which do not cause time l o s t from work or medical i n t e r v e n t i o n have a l s o been shown to be r e l a t e d to the c l u s t e r i n g of l i f e change events (Holmes and Holmes, 1970). P r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s have been used to p r e d i c t i l l n e s s among groups such as p h y s i c i a n s (Holmes and Masuda, 1973) and na v a l personnel (Rahe, 1968) , and t o p r e d i c t i n j u r y among c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s (Holmes, 1970) . A l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mean i l l n e s s r a t e of naval personnel and the magnitude of l i f e change has been demonstrated (Rahe, e t a l , 19 70) , and through the use of a s c a l e developed i n a s i m i l a r way t o the SRRS, Wyler, Masuda and Holmes (1970) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (Spearman rho = 0.6 48) between l i f e change magnitude f o r the two years p r i o r to the onset of i l l n e s s and the seriousness of the c h r o n i c d i s e a s e . Holmes and Masuda conclude a summary of t h e i r research on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e change events and h e a l t h as f o l l o w s : I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t l i f e - c h a n g e events, by evoking adaptive e f f o r t s by the human organism t h a t are f a u l t y i n k i n d and d u r a t i o n , lower ' b o d i l y r e s i s t a n c e ' and enhance the p r o b a b i l i t y of disease occurrence. (Holmes and Masuda, 19 73, p. 182) I t i s taken as a b a s i c a p r i o r i , assumption i n t h i s study t h a t a hi g h magnitude of s o c i a l s t r e s s l i f e change events among a sample w i l l cause the onset of i l l n e s s f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the sample place d at such r i s k . F u r t h e r , i t i s hypothesized t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g w i l l be a f a c t o r which w i l l reduce the r i s k and hence the occurrence of i l l n e s s among those who experienced a high magnitude of l i f e change. (See F i g . 1) 22 Fi g u r e 1. BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE THEORETICAL MODEL P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Learning (+) / •v ( + ) S o c i a l S t r e s s Health (-) Three axioms or p r o p o s i t i o n a l statements were d e r i v e d from the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s which comprised the b a s i c model. These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are mediated by a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. P r o p o s i t i o n 1 High s o c i a l s t r e s s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and w i t h decrements i n h e a l t h over time. P r o p o s i t i o n 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l s t r e s s , w i t h h i g h l y s t r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s to a g r e a t e r extent than i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g l i t t l e s o c i a l s t r e s s . P r o p o s i t i o n 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g , and improvements i n l e v e l s of h e a l t h over time. 23 P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and H e a l t h I n t h e l a t e 1950's H i n k l e and W o l f f (1957, 1958) c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e a c t i o n t o s t r e s s t h a t was p e r c e i v e d b u t n o t d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c e d t e n d e d t o h e i g h t e n s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o i l l n e s s because o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes evoked d u r i n g a t t e m p t s t o adapt t o t h e t h r e a t s p e r c e i v e d . From a r e v i e w o f t h i r t y m a j o r r e s e a r c h p a p e r s and books i n t h e f i e l d , Graham and S t e v e n s o n (1963) c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y t h o s e s t r e s s f u l e v e n t s towards w h i c h t h e p a t i e n t d e v e l o p s c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s a r e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s t i m u l a t i n g a d i s e a s e p r o c e s s . A l m o s t t h i r t e e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e H i n k l e and W o l f f s t u d i e s , T hurlow (1971) o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h w h i c h a p e r s o n r a t e s t h e p e r c e p t i o n , o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e number o f subsequent i l l n e s s e s e x p e r i e n c e d . Thurlow's s t u d y c o n t r o l l e d f o r p r e v i o u s i l l n e s s and s i c k r o l e t e n d e n c y . The c o n c l u s i o n drawn was t h a t a p e r s o n ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f change may be o f g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e t o h i s o r h e r h e a l t h t h a n a r e t h e changes t h e m s e l v e s . Holmes (1973) and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have found t h a t b o t h d e s i r a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e l i f e change e v e n t s c o n t r i b u t e towards the o n s e t o f i l l n e s s and t h e y do n o t s u b s c r i b e t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e n vironment i n f l u e n c e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h l i f e change e v e n t s a r e s t r e s s f u l . However, t h e r e a r e a number o f s t u d i e s w h i c h have been c o n d u c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t e s t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t some b u t n o t a l l l i f e change e v e n t s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t h e a l t h . Myers e t a l (1971, 1972) have shown t h a t b o t h d e s i r a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e e v e n t s a r e r e l a t e d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h w i t h u n d e s i r a b l e e v e n t s b e i n g more s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d 24 w i t h p s y c h i a t r i c i m pairment t h a n d e s i r a b l e e v e n t s . I n a s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e e v e n t s and d e p r e s s i o n , P a y k e l e t a l (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t e v e n t s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t t o be u n d e s i r a b l e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h o s e i n v o l v i n g l o s s e s o r d e p a r t u r e s from t h e s o c i a l g r o u p , d i s t i n g u i s h e d d e p r e s s e d p a t i e n t s from t h e c o n t r o l s . The c o n c l u s i o n was drawn t h a t t h e l i f e change model by i t s e l f was n o t adequate t o e x p l a i n t h e o n s e t o f d e p r e s s i o n and t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s y m b o l i c f a c t o r s , were i m p o r t a n t . S p i l k e n and J a c o b s (1971) found t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f i l l n e s s among c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g a one y e a r p e r i o d was n o t r e l a t e d i n any s y s t e m a t i c way w i t h changes i n l i f e - c r i s e s s c o r e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t i f t h e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s had been p l e a s u r a b l e t h e s t u d e n t s m i g h t have i g n o r e d t h e symptoms o r t r e a t e d t h e m s e l v e s . The c o n c l u s i o n drawn from t h e s t u d y was t h a t l i f e s t r e s s does n o t l e a d t o i l l n e s s b u t t o t r e a t m e n t - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o u r s , and t h e symptoms w h i c h d e v e l o p a r e used as ' c a l l i n g c a r d s ' by t h e s t u d e n t s . I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t r e s s may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r h e a l t h , i t i s t a k e n as an a p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t such a r e l a t i o n s h i p may i n d e e d e x i s t and must be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e model. Two c o n c e p t s o f p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s can be i d e n t i f i e d . One i s a s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h one f e e l s o r i s aware o f t h e e f f e c t s o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s t u d y as s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s , and t h e second i s t h e less s u b j e c t i v e l y d i s c e r n i b l e pattern of behaviours adopted in response to a threatening environment that are c o l l e c t i v e l y referred to by Eysenck as neuroticism. Each form of perceived stress was thought to have implications i n the model. Subjective stress was qu a n t i f i e d by the Subjective Stress Scale developed by Chapman et a l (1966) and perceived stress was qua n t i f i e d by the n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y scale i n the Eysenck Personality Inventory (1966). (See F i g . 2) Figure 2. THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERCEIVED STRESS AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE BASIC MODEL Proposition 4 Levels of subjective stress w i l l be d i r e c t l y related to l e v e l s of s o c i a l stress and w i l l influence the decisions to engage i n learning a c t i v i t i e s . 26 Proposition 5 Perceived stress as measured by the personality dimension of n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y w i l l d i r e c t l y influence l e v e l s of health functioning and decisions to engage i n learning a c t i v i t i e s . S o c i a l Learning Theory S o c i a l learning theory i s based upon the proposition that "the unit of i n v e s t i g a t i o n for the study of personality i s the i n t e r a c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l and his meaningful environment" (Rotter, 195.4). Rotter, one of the ori g i n a t o r s and a leading proponent of t h i s theory, argues that "the occurrence of a behaviour of a person i s determined not only by the nature of importance of goals or reinforcements but also by the person's a n t i c i p a t i o n or expectancy that these goals w i l l occur" (Rotter, 19 5.4). When applied to a learning s i t u a t i o n , the theory predicts that a person acquires new behaviours when rewarded or when a reward i s expected, and f a i l s to acquire new behaviours when rewards are not received or expected. One important development from research into s o c i a l learning theory has been the refinement of the notion of the control of reinforcement as being e i t h e r i n t e r n a l or external to the i n d i v i d u a l . That i s , i f the in d i v i d u a l ' s perceptions of the l i k e l i h o o d of rewards are that they are within his control or dependent upon his personal s k i l l s he i s judged to be i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . If the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perceptions of the l i k e l i h o o d of rewards are that they are within the control of others or dependent upon chance he i s judged to be externally 27 c o n t r o l l e d . The i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d p e r s o n i s one who b e l i e v e s what he o r she has e x p e r i e n c e d , i s e x p e r i e n c i n g and i s l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l m i l i e u i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o what he has done, i s d o i n g and i s l i k e l y t o do. When 'good t h i n g s ' happen i t i s because o f t h e a c t i o n s , s k i l l s , c a p a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n t h a t e n s u r e t h e outcomes a r e good. When 'bad t h i n g s ' happen i t i s because t h e p e r s o n d i d n o t t r y h a r d enough, d i d n o t a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y o r was i n c a p a b l e o f making t h e outcome a good one. I n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e good and bad outcomes o f s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y were i n v o l v e d . The e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s t h a t what he o r she has e x p e r i e n c e d , i s e x p e r i e n c i n g o r i s l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s o c i a l m i l i e u i s u n r e l a t e d t o h i s a c t i o n s , s k i l l s , c a p a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e . 'Good t h i n g s ' happen when one i s l u c k y and 'bad t h i n g s ' happen when one i s u n l u c k y . F a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e a g o a l i s a s c r i b e d t o a n y t h i n g b u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i v i t i e s . E x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e i t h e r t h e good o r bad i outcomes o f s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e i n v o l v e d . The c o n s t r u c t o f i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l has been o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o r e s e a r c h e r s s i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n by R o t t e r . I n 1966 L e f c o u r t (1966) r e v i e w e d f i f t y - s e v e n r e s e a r c h p a p e r s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t . The s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d s i t u a t i o n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o r i n v o l v e d d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e d i c t i o n s t o g i v e n s i t u a t i o n s b a sed on measures o f t h e i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l 28 c o n t r o l d i m e n s i o n . L e f c o u r t r e p o r t e d t h a t i n b o t h t y p e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l was f o u n d t o be p r e d i c t i v e o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r s , l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s , and l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . I n 1971 Throop and MacDonald (19 71) p u b l i s h e d a b i b l i o g r a p h y o f 339 a r t i c l e s i n t h e a r e a , w i t h 206 o f t h e a r t i c l e s h a v i n g been p u b l i s h e d s i n c e 1966 . I n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d l e a r n e r s have been found t o be i n n e r - d i r e c t e d and autonomous, c h o o s i n g t o s t u d y s u b j e c t s t h e y p e r s o n a l l y c o n s i d e r t o be i n t e r e s t i n g and i m p o r t a n t w h i l e e x t e r n a l s t e n d t o be o t h e r - d i r e c t e d and s t u d y s u b j e c t s o t h e r s c o n s i d e r t o be i m p o r t a n t - ( B u t t e r f i e l d , . .1964),... A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s o c i a l a c t i o n group i n v e s t i g a t e d by S t r i c k l a n d (19 65) were f o u n d t o be more i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and had a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e v e n t s a f f e c t i n g them t h a n a c o n t r o l group n o t i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n . Some s t u d i e s have s u p p o r t e d t h e u t i l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l as a measure p r e d i c t i n g t h e t y p e and degree o f commitment b e h a v i o u r m a n i f e s t e d t o i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l change (Gore and R o t t e r , 196 3 ) . P h a r e s found i n t e r n a l s t o be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n e x t e r n a l s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o change t h e a t t i t u d e s o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s (19 6 5 ) ; i n t e r n a l s were more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n (1968) and i n t e r n a l s t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n e x t e r n a l s a c t i v e l y seek i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l be u s e f u l i n t h e f u t u r e ( D a v i s and P h a r e s , 1967). Seeman has c o n d u c t e d a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s o v e r two decades i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l i e n a t i o n and s o c i a l l e a r n i n g s The v e r s i o n o f a l i e n a t i o n i n w h i c h Seeman has been most i n t e r e s t e d i s p o w e r l e s s n e s s , w h i c h he q u a n t i f i e s by use o f a m o d i f i e d R o t t e r i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c a l e (Seeman, 1959). One q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f a l i e n a t i o n made by Seeman i s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t be l i m i t e d t o e x p e c t a n c i e s t h a t have t o do w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense o f c o n t r o l o v e r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s r a t h e r t h a n more p e r s o n a l and i n t i m a t e needs such as f o r a f f e c t i o n o r s t a t u s . The e f f e c t s o f a l i e n a t i o n on p e r s o n a l needs, Seeman a r g u e s , r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e f o r e b e i n g a c c e p t e d (Seeman, 1959) . Seeman (1962) , u s i n g a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n i n a s t u d y o f t u b e r c u l o s i s p a t i e n t s , found t h a t among p a t i e n t s matched on s e v e r a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h o s p i t a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h o s e who s c o r e d h i g h on a p o w e r l e s s n e s s s c a l e ( e x t e r n a l s ) had l e s s o b j e c t i v e knowledge about t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , and t h a t t h e low p o w e r l e s s n e s s group ( i n t e r n a l s ) e x p r e s s e d t h e most s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n t h e h o s p i t a l ward. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t " . . . t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l i s a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t and t h e degree o f knowledge he w i l l p o s s e s s c o n c e r n i n g h i s a f f a i r s " (1962, p. 782). S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d i n a s t u d y o f p r i s o n e r s i n a r e f o r m a t o r y where t h e l e a r n i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o p a r o l e was f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r i s o n e r ' s e x p e c t a n c i e s f o r c o n t r o l (Seeman, 1963). The s t u d y d e s i g n e n a b l e d t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s t o i n t e l l i g e n c e o r c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y t o be d i s c o u n t e d . The inmates d i d n o t d i f f e r on a l l k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g . They d i f f e r e d on knowledge o f p a r o l e w h i c h i m p l i e d c o n t r o l o f t h e p r i s o n e r ' s l i f e outcomes, b u t where n o n - p a r o l e r e f o r m a t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n was i n v o l v e d no 30 d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g between l o c u s o f c o n t r o l groups was f o u n d . P e t e r s (1969) s t u d i e d a sample o f p e n i t e n t i a r y inmates and c o n f i r m e d t h a t i n t e r n a l s r e t a i n e d more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n d i d e x t e r n a l s . Data from t h i s s t u d y , however, f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t Seeman's f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e was dependent upon t h e p e r c e i v e d r e l e v a n c y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n - t o c o n t r o l . I n t e r n a l c o n t r o l was a l s o j udged t o e f f e c t i n m a t e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n o r engage i n a c t i v i t i e s t o i n c r e a s e chances o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t such as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e employment. P o l i t i c a l knowledge has a l s o been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n f o r c o n t r o l o v e r e v e n t s (Seeman, 19 6 6 ) . B o t h manual and non-manual w o r k e r s who s c o r e d h i g h on a p o w e r l e s s n e s s . measure ( e x t e r n a l s ) s c o r e d low on an o b j e c t i v e t e s t o f p o l i t i c a l knowledge. E d u c a t i o n , income and s o c i a l c l a s s were c o n t r o l l e d i n t h e s t u d y . A s i m i l a r s t u d y c o n d u c t e d i n Sweden p r o d u c e d f i n d i n g s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t l e v e l s o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y w i t h c o n t r o l - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n s c o r e s , b u t n o t w i t h a l l i n f o r m a t i o n s c o r e s . I n t h i s c a s e th e low p o w e r l e s s n e s s s u b j e c t s ( i n t e r n a l s ) s c o r e d h i g h on t h e c o n t r o l - r e l e v a n t n u c l e a r war and p o l i t i c a l knowledge t e s t , and t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups i n t h e i r s c o r e s on a c u l t u r a l knowledge t e s t (Seeman, 196 7 b ) . Seeman's l a s t s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a was a c o n t r o l l e d o c c a s i o n f o r s e e k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about improved work o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Two forms o f a l i e n a t i o n , t h e sense o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s ( i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l ) and work a l i e n a t i o n were h y p o t h e s i z e d as o p e r a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a knowledge s e a r c h b e h a v i o u r . "The p r e d i c t i o n was t h a t t h e s e a l i e n a t i o n s o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y - h i g h work a l i e n a t i o n b e i n g an i n d e x o f 'need' f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and p o w e r l e s s n e s s as an i n d e x o f low ' e x p e c t a n c y ' c o n c e r n i n g i t s l i k e l y u t i l i t y " (Seeman, 1972, p. 1 6 ) . The more a l i e n a t e d w o r k e r s were found t o be t h e most a c t i v e i n s e e k i n g w o r k - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s . Manual w o r k e r s w i t h n o n a l i e n a t i n g j o b s and w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r s i n a l i e n a t e d work who s c o r e d low on p o w e r l e s s n e s s sought work i n f o r m a t i o n as e x p e c t e d . However, w i t h manual w o r k e r s h i g h i n a l i e n a t e d work, t h o s e h i g h e s t i n p o w e r l e s s n e s s sought t h e work i n f o r m a t i o n most h e a v i l y . E d u c a t i o n was t h o u g h t by Seeman t o be i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h i s u n e x p e c t e d and o t h e r w i s e u n e x p l a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . S u i c i d e i s perhaps th e most extreme r e s p o n s e t o u n r e s o l v e d l i f e c r i s e s and e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d s u b j e c t s have been found t o s c o r e h i g h e r on a measure o f s u i c i d e p o t e n t i a l i t y t h a n i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d s u b j e c t s ( W i l l i a m s and N i c k e l s , 1969). I n t h e same s t u d y , a c c i d e n t p r o n e n e s s s c a l e s c o r e s were found t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h e x t e r n a l i t y . That e x t e r n a l s t e n d t o be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n a n x i e t y and n e u r o t i c i s m ( F e a t h e r , 19 67) i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e p t i o n o f s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a r e p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e complex i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u r r o u n d i n g h e a l t h s t a t u s and l i f e change. R e s e a r c h i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s u p p o r t s t h e t h e s i s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o f h i s outcome ( i . e . h i s s ense o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s ) governs h i s a t t e n t i o n t o and a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I f i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r t h e g e n e r a l i z e d changes o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i r l i v e s t o be p a r t i a l l y w i t h i n t h e i r c o n t r o l ( i n t e r n a l s ) , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y may a c t i v e l y seek i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t o d e a l w i t h t h o s e changes and may c o n s e q u e n t l y be l e s s l i k e l y t o s u f f e r d e t r i m e n t a l changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h o s e who v i e w t h e changes o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i r l i v e s as u n c o n t r o l l a b l e ( e x t e r n a l s ) may n o t a c t i v e l y d e v e l o p c o p i n g mechanisms based upon i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d from l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and may s u f f e r i l l h e a l t h as a r e s u l t . T h i s s t u d y has been d e s i g n e d i n p a r t on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e g e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g . t h e d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . (See F i g . 3) P r o p o s i t i o n 6 G e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . P e r s o n a l i t y An i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d e c i s i o n s he o r she makes. Those d e c i s i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o Eysenck, a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y (Eysenck and Eysenck 1966). D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g r e s p o n s e s t o s p e c i f i c l i f e change e v e n t s w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by p e r s o n a l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n s , as w i l l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s o v e r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r t r a i t s e n a b l e s a s e l e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r e f f o r t s on t h e d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o be made. I n a d d i t i o n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l 33 e f f e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g as a c o p i n g s t r a t e g y can a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d . F i g u r e 3. THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG LOCUS OF CONTROL, PERCEIVED STRESS AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE BASIC MODEL Locus o f C o n t r o l ( + ) Eysenck (196 8) has i d e n t i f i e d two i n d e p e n d e n t p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h appear w o r t h y o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l i f e change e v e n t s , l e a r n i n g and h e a l t h s t a t u s . The two d i m e n s i o n s a r e e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n (E) and n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y (N). I n a r e v i e w o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y l i t e r a t u r e W i g g i n s (1968) i d e n t i f i e d e x t r a v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m as h o l d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f c e n t r a l s t a t u s i n c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . One i n d i c a t o r o f the w i d e s p r e a d r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n E y s e n c k ' s p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h can be f o u n d i n t h e Sev e n t h M e n t a l Measurements Y e a r Book ( B u r o s , 1972), w h i c h c o n t a i n s 174 r e f e r e n c e s t o s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (EPI) d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1966 t o 1970. E x t r a v e r s i o n i s t y p i f i e d by o u t g o i n g , u n i n h i b i t e d , i m p u l s i v e and s o c i a b l e b e h a v i o u r s , and i n t r o v e r s i o n by r e s e r v e d , i n h i b i t e d , c a r e f u l and c o n s i d e r e d b e h a v i o u r s . N e u r o t i c i s m i s t h e g e n e r a l e m o t i o n a l o v e r - r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t y p i f i e d by p e o p l e who appear a n x i o u s , a g g r e s s i v e and moody as opposed t o s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e c a l m , even tempered, c o n s i d e r a t e and easy g o i n g (Eysenck and Ey s e n c k , 1966). The E . P . I , has been f o u n d t o have u t i l i t y i n many a r e a s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n where i n f l u e n c e s such as group a c t i v i t i e s , s u g g e s t i o n , p e r s u a s i o n , r i s k s i t u a t i o n s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , t i m e and o t h e r s a c t d i f f e r e n t l y on e x t r a v e r t s and i n t r o v e r t s , and upon n e u r o t i c and s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s t o m o d i f y s u b j e c t s ' r e a c t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s (Eysenck, 1971). W r i t i n g o f l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e i n p a r t i c u l a r , Eysenck c l a i m s a major r o l e f o r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s : F o r d e c a d e s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n v e s t i g a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l problems and making p r e d i c t i o n s o f academic s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e have c o n c e n t r a t e d on c o g n i t i v e measures; y e t p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x t r a v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m a r e o b v i o u s l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a good p a r t o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e . (Eysenck, 1971, p.. 3) The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w o f some o f t h e E . P . I , u t i l i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be b r i e f and h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e as no l i t e r a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d on t h e use o f t h e E . P . I , e x c l u s i v e l y i n a d u l t s t u d i e s o f l i f e change o r s t r e s s . The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d s e r v e o n l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y measure f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . E d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t has been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o E . P . I , s c o r e s w i t h e x t r a v e r s i o n h a v i n g d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t b o t h p r e v i o u s t o u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e (Lynn, 1959) and a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l (Savage, 1962; K l i n e , 1966). F i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g th e i n f l u e n c e o f n e u r o t i c i s m on e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t a r e ambiguous w i t h two e f f e c t s b e i n g p o s t u l a t e d . N e u r o t i c i s m may c r e a t e a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g and p e r f o r m a n c e i n s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , n e u r o t i c i s m may produce a f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t as i t m o t i v a t e s s u s t a i n e d work e f f o r t s w i t h th e l a t t e r e f f e c t f r e q u e n t l y c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r t h e f o r m e r e f f e c t (Lynn, 19 5 9 ) . I n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and t e s t s i t u a t i o n s e x t r a v e r t s work s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r i n i t i a l l y , s c o r e l e s s t h a n i n t r o v e r t s t o w a r d t h e end o f t e s t s , and t a k e l o n g e r t o c o mplete q u e s t i o n s a t t h e end o f t e s t s (Eysenck, 1959; F a r l e y , 1966). P o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t r o v e r s i o n and p e r s i s t e n c e a t a m e n t a l t a s k have been r e p o r t e d (Lynn and Gordon, 1961). F a r l e y (1966) n o t e d a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e u r o t i c i s m and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t i m e w i t h m i d - l e v e l n e u r o t i c s p e r f o r m i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r t h a n low and h i g h - l e v e l n e u r o t i c s who d i d n o t d i f f e r by t h e t i m e t a k e n t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s . These r e s u l t s were no t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n age, v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e o r sex. I n a s t u d y o f p e r s o n a l i t y and group d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g r i s k , s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s tended t o i s o l a t e t h e m s e l v e s from group p r o c e s s e s (Lim, 1964). H i g h e x t r a v e r s i o n s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y i n group p r o c e s s e s and appeared t o be more s e n s i t i v e t o s o c i a l c u e s . P r e s t i g e a l s o appears t o 36 be more i n f l u e n t i a l i n c h a n g i n g t h e judgments o f e x t r a v e r t s t h a n i n t r o v e r t s ( S i n h a and O j h a , 1963). Eysenck (19 71) c i t e s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g w h i c h r e v e a l an i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t a s k d i f f i c u l t y and n e u r o t i c i s m as s u p p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f e a r l i e r s t u d i e s t h a t a n x i e t y f a c i l i t a t e s t h e l e a r n i n g o f easy t a s k s and d i s r u p t s t h e l e a r n i n g o f more complex t a s k s . D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f e x t r a v e r t s and i n t r o v e r t s have a l s o been found. F i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t i n t r o v e r t s e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and t e a c h i n g v o c a t i o n s w h i l e e x t r a v e r t s were o r i e n t e d towards s o c i a l s e r v i c e and s a l e s c a r e e r s ( B e n d i g , 1963). A s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g s c a l e s c o r e s and e x t r a v e r s i o n was found i n a s t u d y o f 150 navy men (Eysenck, 1971). The s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g s c a l e was d e s i g n e d t o measure t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l o f s t i m u l u s need i n terms o f p r e f e r e n c e s f o r extremes o f s e n s a t i o n ( h e a t , c o l d , n o i s e , t a s t e , c o l o u r , e t c . ) ; f o r t h e new and u n f a m i l i a r , as opposed t o t h e o l d and f a m i l i a r ; f o r i r r e g u l a r i t y as opposed t o r e g u l a r i t y and r o u t i n e ; and f o r t h e enjoyment o f danger and t h r i l l s . O v e r a l l t h e e x t r a v e r t t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n t h e i n t r o v e r t , t a k e s a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r p e o p l e and t h e i r p r o b l e m s , and p r e f e r s o c c u p a t i o n s where more s o c i a l s k i l l s and academic knowledge and a b i l i t y a r e r e q u i r e d . To a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e e x t r a v e r t , t h e i n t r o v e r t i s a b l e t o r e s i s t boredom, t o s t a y i n a j o b f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e , and c o n t i n u e t o work on a t a s k f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e . E x t r a v e r t s - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w i t h h i g h n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s - a r e more l i k e l y t h a n i n t r o v e r t s t o commit a n t i - s o c i a l and 37 c r i m i n a l a c t s ( Eysenck, 1971). The E . P . I , manual (Eysenck and Ey s e n c k , 196 8) c i t e s s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s w h i c h used t h e i n v e n t o r y i n c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s t i c s i t u a t i o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between e x t r a v e r s i o n , n e u r o t i c i s m and many h e a l t h problems a r e r e p o r t e d i n c l u d i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f acne v u l g a r i e s , o f pregnancy among un-wed m o t h e r s , t h e i n c i d e n c e o f t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s , and o f l u n g c a n c e r among male p a t i e n t s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n e x t r a v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s between smokers and non-smokers, a l c o h o l i c s , and n o n - a l c o h o l i c s , and t h o s e w i t h and w i t h o u t p s y c h o s o m a t i c d i s e a s e s a r e a l s o r e p o r t e d . Many o f t h e r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f r e s p o n s e s t o s t r e s s f u l s o c i e t a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s . The o c c u r r e n c e o f acne, p r e g n a n c y , a c c i d e n t s and p s y c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e use o f t o b a c c o and a l c o h o l have a l l been found t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s t r e s s f u l l i f e changes and c r i s e s . P e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s appear t o i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g . I f t h e a d o p t i o n o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h a r e based on engagements i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s dependent i n some degree upon p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , i n d i v i d u a l s i n h i g h s t r e s s e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h s i m i l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c backgrounds ( i n c l u d i n g f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e ) who d i f f e r i n p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l d i f f e r i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h e x p e r i e n c e d . S t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n can be found i n t h e r e s e a r c h on h e a r t d i s e a s e by Freidman and Rosenman (197 4) who c l a s s i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o two b e h a v i o u r a l t y p e s - Type 'A' and Type *B' - t o i d e n t i f y 3 8 p o t e n t i a l victims of heart disease. The two personality dimensions of Extraversion- Introversion and Neuroticism-Stability are included for inv e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study because extraversion may influence behaviours which d i r e c t l y influence decisions to engage i n learning a c t i v i t i e s ; and neuroticism may influence the perception of s o c i a l stress experienced and thus a f f e c t ^subsequent l e v e l s of health. (See F i g . 4) Figure 4. THE "RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEIVED STRESS AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE BASIC MODEL Proposition 7 The personality dimension of extraversion-introversion w i l l d i r e c t l y influence p a r t i c i p a t i o n in" learning a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t r o v e r t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n e x t r a v e r t s . A t t i t u d e Toward A d u l t E d u c a t i o n The i m p o r t a n c e o f a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o by B r u n n e r (1959) o v e r twenty y e a r s ago. S i n c e t h e n t h e growth i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d u l t l e a r n i n g have i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . However t h e r e have been few s t u d i e s w h i c h have a t t e m p t e d t o q u a n t i f y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and t h e s t u d y r e s u l t s have been r e l a t i v e l y u n r e w a r d i n g . Seaman and S c h r o e d e r (1976) i n one o f t h e few p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t always r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e x t e n t o f e d u c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . A t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model as an exogenous v a r i a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t openess o r r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o f o r m a l a d u l t l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s was n o t measured by any o t h e r v a r i a b l e and l i t t l e i s known about t h e e f f e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s upon d e c i s i o n s t o engage i n l e a r n i n g . Seaman and S c h r o e d e r (1976) c o n c l u d e d t h a t o t h e r more p o w e r f u l v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t a t t i t u d e s have on t h e e x t e n t o f e d u c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . T h e i r model was d e s i g n e d t o i n d i c a t e whether l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , p e r s o n a l i t y , s t r e s s o r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s were more p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a n a b e l i e f i n t h e v a l u e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . (See F i g . 5.) 40 Fi g u r e 5. THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEIVED STRESS, ATTITUDE TOWARD ADULT EDUCATION, AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE BASIC MODEL P r o p o s i t i o n 8 A t t i t u d e towards a d u l t education w i l l be a f a c t o r p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s Related t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n No model of the e f f e c t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g would be v a l i d without paying r e c o g n i t i o n to the socio-demographic f a c t o r s known t o be r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Research i n ad u l t education has reve a l e d t h a t many f a c t o r s - i n c l u d i n g sex, previous e d u c a t i o n a l experience, occupation, income and age - c o n t r i b u t e t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a d u l t education 41 p a r t i c i p a n t s ( B r u n n e r , 1959; V e r n e r and Newberry, 1958). A c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r and Newberry (19 5 8 ) , r e s e a r c h c o n f i r m s t h a t sex i s a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o age, s o c i a l s t a t u s , and l o c a t i o n . Women o f h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s l i v i n g i n urban a r e a s p a r t i c i p a t e t o a f a r g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n women o f low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s l i v i n g i n r u r a l a r e a s . S e v e r a l e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t f r e q u e n t l y t h e r a t i o o f t h e sexes e n r o l l e d i n p u b l i c s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s i s about 65 p e r c e n t males t o 35 p e r c e n t f e m a l e s ( J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a , 1956;. M i z r u c h i and V a n a r i a , 1960) . M a r i t a l s t a t u s has a l s o been r e p o r t e d t o be r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w i t h m a r r i e d a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n s i n g l e a d u l t s . S t a g e i n t h e f a m i l y c y c l e a l s o a f f e c t s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l a r e a s ( V e r n e r and Newberry, 19 5 8 ) . The most r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears t o be t h e e x t e n t o f p r i o r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as measured i n terms o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d . A g r e a t many s t u d i e s have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f an a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs (Brunner e t a l , 196 3; V e r n e r and Newberry, 19 5 8 ) . I t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s i s n o t a s i m p l e cause - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , r a t h e r i t i s a c o m p l i c a t e d complementary e v o l v i n g p r o c e s s w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e d e v e l o p i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s awareness o f t h e v a l u e o f knowledge, an awareness w h i c h i n t u r n becomes an i n c e n t i v e t o seek a d d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s has been found t o be r e l a t e d t o t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and programs ( V e r n e r and Newberry, 19 5 8 ) . Those p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n o r l e s s t e n d t o e n r o l l i n p u b l i c s c h o o l programs, w h i l e t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s a t t r a c t t h o s e w i t h p o s t h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n s . Goard and D i c k i n s o n (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e d u c a t i o n and age on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s h e l d d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d change. T h e i r f i n d i n g s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n complemented London's (1968) a n a l y s i s t h a t t h o s e w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n have e x p e r i e n c e d s u c c e s s w i t h change, hence t h e y w i l l have more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards change. Faced w i t h s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s ( l i f e change e v e n t s ) demanding v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , a d u l t s w i t h p r e v i o u s l y h i g h i n v o l v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t t h e r e f o r e be more l i k e l y t o u t i l i z e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as a s t r a t e g y f o r c o p i n g w i t h change tha n a d u l t s w i t h l i t t l e p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and income have b o t h been i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s (Brunner e t a l , 19 59; London e t a l , 19 63; V e r n e r and Newberry, 19 5 8 ) . P u b l i c s c h o o l programs a t t r a c t p a r t i c i p a n t s f r om a wide range o f o c c u p a t i o n s ; however, w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s and housewives p a r t i c i p a t e t o a f a r g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n community p o p u l a t i o n s ( V e r n e r and Newberry, 19 58 ) . Age i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e i n g h i g h from t h e l a t e t w e n t i e s t o t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s , when a d e c l i n e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r s . P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more younger a d u l t s and fewer o l d e r a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l programs t h a n t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e community ( V e r n e r and Newberry, 1958). Community s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l s o known t o be a s i g n f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r and Newberry (1958), a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . I n f o r m a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s more p r e v a l e n t i n r u r a l a r e a s w h i l e f o r m a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n urban a r e a s (Brunner e t a l , 19 5 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Booth (19 61) n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s most l i k e l y t o o c c u r among t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h i s 45 y e a r s o f age and o v e r , has l e s s t h a n a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , and w h i c h i s i n t h e l o w e s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , B o o t h (1961) a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e appeared t o be t e n d e n c i e s f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be f e m a l e s r a t h e r than males r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t , t o be t h o s e who d i d n o t c o m p l e t e h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e who d i d , t o be r u r a l r a t h e r t h a n u r b a n , and t o be n o n - w h i t e r a t h e r t h a n w h i t e . I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f o u r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e model as f a c t o r s l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d were s e x , age, y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d , and income. W h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s have been known t o be a s s o c i a t e d f o r many ye a r s , there i s no d i s c u s s i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e as t o which might be the antecedent of the other or i f they are i n f a c t c a u s a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t was thought p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s could be an a l t e r n a t e coping s t r a t e g y t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the i l l n e s s i n d u c i n g e f f e c t s of s o c i a l change. Therefore, w i t h the e x t r a v e r s i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d as exogenous antecedents, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was i n c l u d e d i n the model w i t h a d i r e c t e f f e c t being p o s t u l a t e d on h e a l t h . P r o p o s i t i o n 9 The socio-demographic f a c t o r s of age, sex, income and years of s c h o o l i n g completed w i l l d i r e c t l y e f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . P r o p o s i t i o n 10 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h high l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g at the end of the study p e r i o d , and improvements i n l e v e l s of h e a l t h over the study p e r i o d . A t h e o r e t i c a l framework was developed based upon ten p r o p o s i t i o n s d e r i v e d from a review of the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . The c o n s t r u c t s s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the model were those thought t o have explanatory p o t e n t i a l i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of engagement i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n mediating the decremental e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s upon h e a l t h . In a d d i t i o n to the c o n s t r u c t s of s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g F i g u r e 6. THE THEORETICAL MODEL A t t i t u d e Toward A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Locus o f C o n t r o l (+) S o c i o Demographic F a c t o r s : Sex, Age, Income, Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g J P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n L e a r n i n g S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s • (+) S o c i a l S t r e s s ( + ) P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s - N e u r o t i c i s m - E x t r a v e r s i o n (+) S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n (+ ) H e a l t h a c t i v i t i e s and h e a l t h , t h e model i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s ; i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ; p e r s o n a l i t y ; p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . 46 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s : 1) t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t o q u a n t i f y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n " l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a t t i t u d e t oward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , 2) t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d t o q u a n t i f y a l l o f t h e o t h e r m a jor c o n s t r u c t s i n t h e s t u d y , 3) t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d t o g a t h e r t h e d a t a , 4) t h e v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u t i l i z e d w i t h t h e h e a l t h , s t r e s s and l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s , and 5) t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c s c a l e s used i n t h e s t u d y . The c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o t e n s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d y d e s i g n , t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e and t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods. S e c t i o n s f o u r and f i v e d e a l w i t h t h e measures o f h e a l t h and s t r e s s s e l e c t e d , and t h e i r v a l i d i t y . S i m i l a r l y , s e c t i o n s s i x and seven a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e development o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e ' t o a d u l t 'education measures, and t h e i r v a l i d i t y . The f i n a l t h r e e 47 s e c t i o n s are concerned w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t y measures s e l e c t e d , the socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s and f i n a l l y the r e l i a b i l i t y of the psychometric instruments. The Study Design The study used a sample which had been randomly s e l e c t e d , i n a panel design w i t h two major data c o l l e c t i o n periods e i g h t months a p a r t , and w i t h monitoring of h e a l t h s t a t u s over an eleven month p e r i o d . The advantages of the design are 1) randomization reduces the l i k e l i h o o d of b i a s e d and non-normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s being i n c l u d e d i n the sample, 2) the design enables changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s to be measured, and 3) i t e l i m i n a t e s d i r e c t contamination by data c o l l e c t i o n methods as a p o t e n t i a l "source of e r r o r . To study the e f f e c t of l i f e events (X) on subsequent h e a l t h (Y), p r o s p e c t i v e r a t h e r than r e t r o s p e c t i v e research procedures are r e q u i r e d . Events t h a t have already occurred - such as the l o s s of a job or a spouse •?- can be e s t a b l i s h e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y once a person has become i l l . However, such data may be s u b j e c t t o d i r e c t contamination, t h a t i s through the measurement procedure the two v a r i a b l e s are found to i n f l u e n c e each other. Measurement of 'X' at Time 1 i s i n f l u e n c e d by knowledge of 1Y 1 at Time 2 as a r e s u l t of the i n v e s t i g a t o r 'Z' at Time 3. (See F i g . 7) 48 F i g u r e 7. DIRECT CONTAMINATION X Y Time 1 Time 2 Z Such contamination means t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s between 'X' and 1Y' cannot be used t o i n d i c a t e c a u s a l i t y . To combat d i r e c t contamination, l i f e events (X) i n t h i s study were measured p r i o r to changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s (Y) o c c u r r i n g . Consequently, the implementation of a c a u s a l model f o r a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i a b l e s was made p o s s i b l e . (See F i g . 8) Fi g u r e 8. AVOIDANCE OF DIRECT CONTAMINATION BY THE PANEL DESIGN X Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Z Z Z Measurement 1 Measurement 2 Measurement 3 St r e s s Health Health Sampling Procedure The p o p u l a t i o n from which the sample was s e l e c t e d 49 c o n s i s t e d o f a l l p a t i e n t s o v e r t h e age o f e i g h t e e n and below the age o f s i x t y - f i v e , who had sought h e a l t h c a r e d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g t w e l v e months from a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n ' s p r a c t i c e i n E a s t V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Each p a t i e n t was m a i l e d a copy o f t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (SRRS) w i t h a l e t t e r , s i g n e d by t h e p h y s i c i a n , d e s c r i b i n g t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e form and r e t u r n i n g i t i n a stamped a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e p r o v i d e d . Of 867 forms m a i l e d , 506 (58.4%) were r e t u r n e d f u l l y c o m p l e t e d , 28 (3.2%) were r e t u r n e d p a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d , and 109 (12.6%) were r e t u r n e d t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e due t o p a t i e n t s h a v i n g moved w i t h o u t l e a v i n g f o r w a r d i n g a d d r e s s e s . The n o n - r e t u r n s t o t a l l e d 224 ( 2 5 . 8 % ) . Of t h e 758 forms w h i c h were r e c e i v e d by p a t i e n t s t h e r a t e o f r e s p o n s e was 72 p e r c e n t , w i t h 66.8 p e r c e n t a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o m p l e t e d . From t h e 506 f u l l y c o m p l e t e d SRRS forms a sample o f 300 p a t i e n t s was s e l e c t e d u s i n g a c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d l i s t o f random numbers. Each p a t i e n t i n t h i s sample was c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e and asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . An appointment was t h e n made f o r t h e p a t i e n t t o v i s i t t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s m e d i c a l o f f i c e . D u r i n g t h i s v i s i t a c o n s e n t form t o r e l e a s e m e d i c a l r e c o r d s t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was s i g n e d , and t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w was u n d e r t a k e n . S e v e r a l p a t i e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y i n communicating i n E n g l i s h and were e x c l u d e d f rom t h e s t u d y . Some i n d i v i d u a l s were u n a b l e t o keep t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t s , and some chose t o w i t h d r a w from t h e s t u d y c i t i n g r e a s o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e , i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y , and an i n t e n t i o n t o 50 leave the area before the end of the study. A t o t a l of 263 p a t i e n t s completed the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . E i g h t months l a t e r 226 completed the f i n a l study i n t e r v i e w . Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods The data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s and the d u r a t i o n of observations are shown i n F i g u r e 9. Responses on the S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment Ra t i n g Scale (SRRS) were obtained by a mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l of the remaining study data was c o l l e c t e d by the use of s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedules or r e t r i e v e d from the p a t i e n t ' s medical records by the p h y s i c i a n . During the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s (which commenced durin g the f i r s t week of February and concluded during the l a s t week of A p r i l , 1976) the f o l l o w i n g ' d a t a was c o l l e c t e d from the p a r t i c i p a n t s : (i) Bush Health Status Pre-Test Scores (BHS) ( i i ) P e r c e i v e d s t r e s s s c o r e s , using the n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y s c a l e of the EPI, the S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale (SSS) and the s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n of s t r e s s magnitude e s t i m a t i o n procedures, ( i i i ) L earning e s t i m a t e s , u s i n g the S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n of A d u l t Learning Scale (SEALS) and a t t i t u d e s towards a d u l t education using a Thurstone s c a l e developed f o r t h i s study, (iv) Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (EPI) scores, (v) Socio-demographic data. The second s e t of i n t e r v i e w s began duri n g the f i r s t week of October and ended during mid-December 19 76. During these i n t e r v a l s the f o l l o w i n g data were c o l l e c t e d : 51 ( i ) Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s (BHSS) P o s t - T e s t S c o r e s , ( i i ) S u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s o f s t r e s s , u s i n g t h e magnitude e s t i m a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , ( i i i ) Locus o f C o n t r o l ( R o t t e r ) s c o r e s , ( i v ) Income and number o f y e a r s r e s i d e n c y i n Vancouver. F o l l o w i n g each o f t h e two i n t e r v i e w s t h e s u b j e c t was examined by t h e p h y s i c i a n . Knowledge o f t h e p a t i e n t s ' s c o r e s and r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e g e n e r a l l y was w i t h h e l d from t h e p h y s i c i a n . However, p a t i e n t s f r e q u e n t l y chose t o d i s c u s s t h e i r s o c i a l , f a m i l i a l and economic c o n c e r n s w i t h t h e p h y s i c i a n t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n n o r mal d u r i n g t h e i r c o n s u l t a t i o n . On t h o s e o c c a s i o n s when p a t i e n t s i n t h e s t u d y sample sought m e d i c a l c a r e between t h e p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s t h e y were i n t e r v i e w e d and a s s i g n e d a Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s S c a l e (BHS) s c o r e p r i o r t o b e i n g examined by t h e p h y s i c i a n . B e g i n n i n g i n March 1977, t h e r e c o r d s o f each s u b j e c t were r e v i e w e d by t h e p h y s i c i a n t o i d e n t i f y , 1) t h e number o f v i s i t s made t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e between F e b r u a r y and December, and 2) t h e number o f days each p a t i e n t had s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l d u r i n g t h a t t i m e p e r i o d . I n a d d i t i o n , H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s R a t i n g S c a l e S c o r e s a s s i g n e d by t h e p h y s i c i a n t o p a t i e n t s on each v i s i t t o t h e p r a c t i c e o r on each s t a y i n h o s p i t a l were r e v i e w e d . T h i s r e v i e w o f p a t i e n t s ' r e c o r d s ended i n e a r l y May 1977. The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d by a n u r s e - p r a c t i t i o n e r (50% o f i n t e r v i e w s ) who had p r e v i o u s l y been employed i n t h e p r a c t i c e , a g r a d u a t e n u r s e (30%) e n r o l l e d as a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , an e x - m e d i c a l s t u d e n t (10%) and t h e w r i t e r ( 1 0 % ) . The 263 i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d a minimum o f Figure 9 TIMETABLE OF DATA COLLECTION PERIODS AND DURATION OF OBSERVATIONS S.R.R.S. Mailed Questionnaire J L I L F i r s t Interviews Began i . Bush Pre- Test i i . Hinkle Ratings i i i . Subjective Stress Survey i v . Learning Estimates v. E.P.I. v i . A ttitude to A.E. v i i . Socio- Demographic Data ( F i r s t Interviews Ended Second Interviews Began Second Interviews Ended Bush Post Test Hinkle Ratings Subjective Stress Locus of Control i _ L _ _ L _ J _ <_n Review of Patients Records Began Review of Patients Records Ended Jul y 75 ( Jan. 76 Feb. —> <— May Oct. Jan. 77 March May Period of Reca l l for SRRS Period of Observation f o r : i . No. of V i s i t s to Physician i i . No. of Days i n Hospital i i i . Bush Health Status i v . Hinkle Severity of I l l n e s s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour and a maximum o f one hour and f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s . F o r t h e second d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r v i e w e r w i t h some e x p e r i e n c e i n h e a l t h c a r e d e l i v e r y i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s (60% o f i n t e r v i e w s ) and t h e w r i t e r (40%) c o n d u c t e d 226 i n t e r v i e w s w i t h d u r a t i o n s r a n g i n g from twenty t o f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s . P r i o r t o c o n d u c t i n g i n t e r v i e w s , each i n t e r v i e w e r c o n d u c t e d p r a c t i c e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and w i t h p a t i e n t s n o t i n t h e s t u d y sample, w h i l e b e i n g o b s e r v e d by one o t h e r s t u d y i n t e r v i e w e r . Two weeks were d e v o t e d t o i n t e r v i e w e r t r a i n i n g p r i o r t o t h e f i r s t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d and one week was a s s i g n e d t o i n t e r v i e w e r , t r a i n i n g p r i o r t o t h e se c o n d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . R e g u l a r m e etings o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s were convened t o d i s c u s s d i f f i c u l t i e s , p r o c e d u r e s and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e p a t i e n t s w i t h language d i f f i c u l t i e s from t h e s t u d y . A l l i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n rooms a t t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e . H e a l t h and S t r e s s Measures The c o n c e p t s o f h e a l t h and i l l n e s s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been v i e w e d from a v a r i e t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s , and t h e development o f s c a l e s t o q u a n t i f y h e a l t h and i l l n e s s have met w i t h v a r y i n g d egrees o f s u c c e s s ( S u l l i v a n , 1966; Moriyama, 1968). I n v i e w o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f h e a l t h , a d e c i s i o n was made when p l a n n i n g t h e s t u d y t o use a l t e r n a t e measures o f t h e c o n s t r u c t o f h e a l t h . The two i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d were 1) a s c a l e d e v e l o p e d by J.W. Bush and a s s o c i a t e s (Bush and F a n s h e l , 1970; P a t r i c k , Bush and Chen, 1973) t o a s s e s s l e v e l s o f h e a l t h from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n , and 2) a r a t i n g s c a l e d e v e l o p e d by H i n k l e ( H i n k l e , 1960) t o r e c o r d p h y s i c i a n ' s assessments o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s i n terms of t h e d i s a b i l i t y p r o d u c e d by an e p i s o d e o f i l l n e s s . Bush d e f i n e s h e a l t h i n terms o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n i n n o r m al d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . A h e a l t h y p e r s o n i s one who shows l i t t l e o r no decrement i n a b i l i t y t o c a r r y o u t d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s n ormal f o r a g i v e n age, sex and s o c i a l r o l e . C o n v e r s e l y , an i n d i v i d u a l who r e p o r t s b e i n g u n a b l e o r u n w i l l i n g t o c a r r y out h i s n o r m al a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e e x p e r i e n c i n g c e r t a i n symptoms o f h e a l t h problems i s l e s s t h a n h e a l t h y . The s c a l e i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a s c o r e between 1.00 ( p e r f e c t h e a l t h ) , and 0.00 ( d e a t h ) , f o r each o f e i g h t days i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y a s i n g l e s c o r e was d e r i v e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e average o f t h e e i g h t d a i l y s c o r e s f o r each o f t h e assessment p e r i o d s . The s c o r e s were g e n e r a t e d by a computer-based s c o r i n g program a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a by Dr. Bush and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o g e n e r a t i n g h e a l t h s c o r e s , t h e program checked t h e d a t a f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , f o r l o g i c a l e r r o r s due t o keypunch o r c o d i n g e r r o r s , and f o r m i s s i n g d a t a . The H i n k l e r a t i n g s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f a f i v e - c a t e g o r y range o f s e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s , d e f i n e d as "the degree o f d i s a b i l i t y w h i c h an e p i s o d e o f i l l n e s s p r o d u c e s . " D i s a b i l i t y as d e f i n e d by H i n k l e i s "the e x t e n t t o w h i c h a p e r s o n i s u n a b l e t o c a r r y o u t h i s f u l l s o c i a l r o l e and m a i n t a i n h i s normal b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s because o f d i s e a s e . " The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f s e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s o r i g i n a l l y used by H i n k l e were expanded t o t e n c a t e g o r i e s f o r the purpose of t h i s study, where v a r i a b l i t y of measurement was thought t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y important. A r a t i n g was assigned to each p a t i e n t on each v i s i t t o the p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e , and f o r those p a t i e n t s who were h o s p i t a l i z e d a r a t i n g was assigned f o r each p e r i o d h o s p i t a l i z e d . In a d d i t i o n to the scores d e r i v e d from the Bush and H i n k l e measures a re c o r d of the number of v i s i t s made by each p a t i e n t to the p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e to seek c a r e , and the t o t a l number of days each p a t i e n t spent i n h o s p i t a l d u r i n g the study p e r i o d , were recorded. The f o l l o w i n g h e a l t h s t a t u s scores were d e r i v e d f o r each p a t i e n t : 1. Bush Health S t a t u s , Pre-Test; mean score f o r e i g h t day p e r i o d preceding f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . 2. Bush Health S t a t u s , Post-Test; mean score f o r e i g h t day p e r i o d preceding f i n a l i n t e r v i e w . 3. Bush Health S t a t u s , Low Score; the s i n g l e lowest mean score f o r an e i g h t day p e r i o d d u r i n g the study p e r i o d . 4. Bush Health S t a t u s , Pre-Post R e s i d u a l s ; the normalized r e s i d u a l s obtained from a r e g r e s s i o n of p o s t - t e s t a g a i n s t p r e - t e s t scores. 5. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s Mean Score; the mean of a l l H i n k l e r a t i n g s c a l e scores obtained d u r i n g the study p e r i o d . 6. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s High Score; the s i n g l e h i g h e s t r a t i n g s c a l e score f o r an episode of i l l n e s s d u r i n g the study p e r i o d . 7. The t o t a l number of days spent i n h o s p i t a l d u r i n g the study p e r i o d . 8. The t o t a l number of v i s i t s made to the p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e t o seek care. The p r i n c i p a l measure of s t r e s s used i n t h i s study was the S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) developed by Holmes and Rahe (1967). This s c a l e c o n s i s t s of 43 items, or l i f e events, each of which, when experienced, demands a degree of s o c i a l readjustment on the p a r t of the s u b j e c t . The SRRS was developed by Holmes and Rahe using the psycho-physical technique of magnitude e s t i m a t i o n as proposed by Stevens (19 57; 1966). S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been conducted t o determine whether the SRRS s c a l e values are c u l t u r e f r e e . Although c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l item values are i n f l u e n c e d by the s o c i a l b e l i e f s and values h e l d by members of c u l t u r a l groups, o v e r a l l there i s support f o r the use of the s c a l e w i t h such d i v e r s e populations as white Americans and Japanese (Masuda and Holmes, 1967); Negro, Mexican and white Americans (Komaroff, Masuda and Holmes, 1968); Western Europeans (Harmon., Masuda and Holmes, 1970); Spaniards (Celdran, 1970); and Swedes (Rahe et a l , 1971). The consistency of r e c a l l of the s c a l e items, a f a c t o r which may n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the s c a l e , was t e s t e d using a group of r e s i d e n t p h y s i c i a n s . The r e s u l t s obtained s u b s t a n t i a t e d the s a l i e n c y of the l i f e events and the con s i s t e n c y of r e c a l l over a nine month p e r i o d (Casey, Masuda and Holmes, 1967). The r e l i a b i l i t y of the SRRS has been examined using the t e s t - r e t e s t procedure. Spearman's 'p' reached the value of 0.988, and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on item t e s t - r e t e s t scores were evident f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s u s i n g a Mann Whitney "U" t e s t . (Wyler, Masuda and Holmes, 19 7 0.) One study aimed at d u p l i c a t i n g the SRRS s c a l e values produced item values which c o r r e l a t e d at 0.9 3 w i t h the o r i g i n a l SRRS item values (Mendels and W e i n s t e i n , 1972). To assess the v a l i d i t y of the SRRS i n t h i s study, and to p r o v i d e t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l measures o f s t r e s s , s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f each p a t i e n t ' s l e v e l s o f s t r e s s were o b t a i n e d . Responses were sought on t h e S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e d e v e l o p e d by Chapman e t a l (1966) f o r t h e Los A n g e l e s H e a r t S t u d y . The s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f f o u r i t e m s w i t h a f o u r c a t e g o r y L i k e r t s c a l e w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t uses t o i d e n t i f y whether t h e i t e m s d e s c r i b e him v e r y w e l l , f a i r l y w e l l , n o t v e r y w e l l , o r n o t a t a l l : 1. I n g e n e r a l , I am u n u s u a l l y t e n s e o r n e r v o u s . 2. I e x p e r i e n c e a g r e a t amount o f nervous s t r a i n c o n n e c t e d w i t h my d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . 3. A t t h e end o f t h e day, I am c o m p l e t e l y e x h a u s t e d , m e n t a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y . 4. My d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s a r e e x t r e m e l y t r y i n g and s t r e s s f u l . S t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by Reeder e t a l (1973) and S chaar e t a l (197 3) have shown s c o r e s on t h e S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o measures o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l s t r e s s , n e u r o t i c i s m , t e n s i o n s i n f a m i l y l i f e and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t . The second method o f q u a n t i f y i n g s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s o f s t r e s s was t h r o u g h t h e use o f a magnitude e s t i m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . K Magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s were p i o n e e r e d by S t e v e n s (1957) and b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t o f a s k i n g a s u b j e c t t o e v a l u a t e a s t i m u l u s , c o n d i t i o n o r s t a t e on t h e b a s i s o f a p r o v i d e d r e f e r e n c e . T h i s t e c h n i q u e was used by Holmes and Rahe (1967) t o d e v e l o p t h e SRRS and by t h e w r i t e r t o d e v e l o p a s c a l e t o q u a n t i f y a d u l t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s (SEALS) f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y ( B l u n t , 1977). On t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w each p a t i e n t was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a l i n e f i v e c e n t i m e t r e s l o n g r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s o r h e r average 58 l e v e l s of s t r e s s over the l a s t f i v e years. The p a t i e n t was then i n s t r u c t e d to draw a l i n e below the r e f e r e n t l i n e i n d i c a t i n g h i s or her present l e v e l of s t r e s s i n comparison w i t h the average l e v e l s of s t r e s s p r e v i o u s l y experienced. Thus a l i n e drawn ten centimetres would i n d i c a t e the p a t i e n t assessed h i s c u r r e n t personal l e v e l of s t r e s s to be twice h i s or her own average l e v e l over the l a s t f i v e years. During the f i n a l study i n t e r v i e w the r e f e r e n t l i n e was presented as the average l e v e l of s t r e s s experienced by those persons w i t h whom the respondent was i n c l o s e d a i l y c o n t a c t . The comparison l i n e to be drawn by the p a t i e n t was to represent h i s or her l e v e l of s t r e s s i n comparison to t h a t of c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s . Although not designed as a measure of response to s t r e s s per se, the N e u r o t i c i s m Scale of the Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (EPI) has f r e q u e n t l y been found to have many r e l e v a n t c o r r e l a t e s i n c l i n i c a l s t u d i e s . N e u r o t i c i s m as de f i n e d by Eysenck i s the general emotional over-responsiveness t y p i f i e d by people who appear anxious, aggressive and moody as compared to s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s who are calm, even-tempered, and easy-going (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1966). The EPI has been w i d e l y used and data supporting the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the s c a l e i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e (Buros, 1972). T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from 0.84 t o 0.94 f o r the complete t e s t and 0.80 to 0.9 7 f o r the separate forms are reported i n the EPI manual (Eysenck and Eysenck, 19 66). As a n t i c i p a t e d , the N e u r o t i c i s m Scale scores i n t h i s study c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the s t r e s s measure and w i t h the major h e a l t h measures, and were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the study to a s s i s t i n the v a l i d a t i o n of the h e a l t h and s t r e s s 59 measures. A c c o r d i n g l y , f i v e measures o f s t r e s s were computed f o r each p a t i e n t : 1. S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e S c o r e s , m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r s i x month p e r i o d p r i o r t o s e l e c t i o n o f sample. 2. S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e , f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . 3. S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f S t r e s s , f i r s t i n t e r v i e w ( p r e s e n t vs p a s t s t r e s s ) . 4. S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f S t r e s s , f i n a l i n t e r v i e w ( p e r s o n a l vs d a i l y a s s o c i a t e s s t r e s s ) . ' 5. E . P . I . , N e u r o t i c i s m S c a l e S c o r e , f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . The V a l i d i t y o f t h e H e a l t h and S t r e s s Measures A l l o f t h e h e a l t h measures were found t o be c o r r e l a t e d a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s , as were t h e s t r e s s measures (T a b l e 1 ) . T h i s s h a r e d v a r i a n c e between t h e measures o f each o f t h e two c o n s t r u c t s p r o v i d e s i n i t i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e measure. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e major measures o f h e a l t h and s t r e s s were c o r r e l a t e d , s u p p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t h a t h e a l t h and s t r e s s a r e r e l a t e d . To t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e h e a l t h and s t r e s s measures, f a c t o r a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h each v a r i a b l e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p u r p o r t e d t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . T a b l e 2 r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f a t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n w i t h o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n , u s i n g o n l y t h e v a r i a b l e s on w h i c h d a t a was c o l l e c t e d by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s i n a c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g . The two f a c t o r s l a b e l l e d H e a l t h and S t r e s s t o g e t h e r c o n t r i b u t e 46.1 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . The f a c t o r l o a d i n g s o f t h e h e a l t h 60 v a r i a b l e s on t h e s t r e s s f a c t o r and t h e r e l a t i v e l y low p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by t h i s s o l u t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e two f a c t o r c o n s t r a i n t , a l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , does n o t p r e s e n t t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n . A second s o l u t i o n was o b t a i n e d by i n c l u d i n g t h e S.R.R.S. s c o r e s w i t h t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s , e x c l u d i n g t h e Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P r e - T e s t s c o r e s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e p r o b l e m o f m u l t i - c o l l i n e a r i t y and w i t h a new v a r i a b l e ' h e a l t h change' as q u a n t i f i e d by t h e n o r m a l i z e d r e s i d u a l s o b t a i n e d from a r e g r e s s i o n o f Bush P o s t - T e s t on Bush P r e - T e s t s c o r e s . The a n a l y s i s was co n d u c t e d w i t h o u t f a c t o r c o n s t r a i n t s and w i t h o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n t o y i e l d f o u r f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d 61.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e ( T a b l e 3 ) . The f o u r f a c t o r s were l a b e l l e d S t r e s s , S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s , H e a l t h F u n c t i o n and H e a l t h Change. The f i r s t f a c t o r , S t r e s s , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d 17.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e , c o n s i s t e d o f a l l f i v e o f t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s . S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s , t h e second f a c t o r , c o n t r i b u t e d 16.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e and c o n s i s t e d o f t h e two H i n k l e S c a l e S c o r e s , a mean s c o r e o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s r a t i n g s o v e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y and t h e h i g h e s t s i n g l e s e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s s c o r e o b t a i n e d . H e a l t h F u n c t i o n , t h e t h i r d f a c t o r , was c o m p r i s e d o f t h e Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P o s t - T e s t s c o r e and t h e l o w e s t Bush Index s c o r e o b s e r v e d o v e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f the s t u d y . I t e x p l a i n e d 14.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h i s f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e f o u r t h f a c t o r , w i t h 13.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e was H e a l t h Change, w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , t h e Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P r e - P o s t R e s i d u a l s , t h e number o f v i s i t s t o t h e p h y s i c i a n , and t h e number o f days s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l . Each f a c t o r p r e s e n t e d a c l e a r , unambiguous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t s represented by the data- With 61.8 per cent of the v a r i a n c e accounted f o r , there i s strong support f o r acceptance of the v a l i d i t y of the h e a l t h and s t r e s s measures used i n the study. I t should a l s o be noted t h a t the standard e r r o r s of measurement obtained f o r a l l of the h e a l t h and s t r e s s v a r i a b l e scores i n d i c a t e d e s i r a b l y low l e v e l s of measurement e r r o r w i t h i n each s c a l e (Table 4). Learning A c t i v i t y Measurement Although a l a r g e number of s t u d i e s of a d u l t education have i n v e s t i g a t e d the phenomena of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , these s t u d i e s have t y p i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s as p a r t i c i p a n t s or n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n one or more types of a d u l t education a c t i v i t y . The p h y s i c a l act of p a r t i c i p a t i o n has not been r e l a t e d i n those s t u d i e s to the s i n g l e most important concern of a d u l t educators, t o l e a r n i n g . To q u a n t i f y the extent to which a d u l t s have engaged i n l e a r n i n g , the psychometric technique of magnitude e s t i m a t i o n was used t o develop a r a t i o s c a l e of s u b j e c t i v e estimates of a d u l t l e a r n i n g t h a t occurs i n a v a r i e t y of a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( B l u n t , 1977). O r i g i n a l l y developed by p s y c h o - p h y s i c i s t s to measure per c e i v e d i n c r e a s e s i n the magnitudes of such v a r i a b l e s as loudness, b r i g h t n e s s , and heaviness, magnitude e s t i m a t i o n has been found to have u t i l i t y i n the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l norms, opinions and a t t i t u d e s . Examples of the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of magnitude e s t i m a t i o n can be found i n the d i v e r s e areas of a e s t h e t i c value of handwriting (Ekman and Kunnapas, 1962), seriousness of the offences of j u v e n i l e delinquents Table 1 PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF HEALTH AND STRESS VARIABLES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. No. of V i s i t s to P h y s i c i a n 1.0 2. No. of Days i n H o s p i t a l .38* 1.0 3. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s H i Score .52* .26* 1.0 4. Hi n k l e S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s Mean Score . 30* .21* .80* 1.0 5. Bush Health Status Index Pre Test -.37* -.22* -.30* -.25* 1.0 6. Bush Health Status Index Post Test -.31* -.19* -.31* -.30* . 38* 1.0 7. Bush Health Status Index Lo Score -.39* -.21* -.41* -.36* .67* . 81* 1.0 8. S u b j e c t i v e Read- » justment Rating Scale .09 .10 .14 .19* -.21* -.19* -.23* 1.0 9. S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale -.09 -.04 -.19* -.18* .22* .13 .20 -.28* 1.0 10. Ne u r o t i c i s m Scale Score .13 .05 .10 .09 -.29* -.15* -.28* .29* -.36* 1.0 11. S t r e s s E s t i m a t i o n Pre Test .03 -.01 .02 .00 -.13* -.05 -.09 .21* -.27* -.23* 1.0 12. S t r e s s E s t i m a t i o n Post Test .03 .09 .09 .05 -.17* -.17* -.23* .28* -.33* . 19* .29* 1.0 *p < .01 63 Table 2 HEALTH AND STRESS VARIABLE FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER TWO FACTOR SOLUTION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATION V a r i a b l e s I I I H (Harmonic Mean of Sample S i z e 250) Health S t r e s s Communality 1. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s High Score .80* -.01 .6401 2. Bush Health Status Index Low' Score -.74* _ .'36 .6772 3. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s Mean Score .72* .00 .5184 4. No. of V i s i t s t o P h y s i c i a n .69* -.25 . 4761 5. Bush Health Status Index Post Test -.65* _ . 38 . 4850 6. Bush Health Status Index Pre Test -.58* — . 38 .4808 7. No. of Days i n H o s p i t a l .49* -.03 .2410 8. S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale Score -.11 .66* .4427 9. St r e s s E s t i m a t i o n Post- Test .03 .64* .4105 10. S t r e s s E s t i m a t i o n Pre- Test -.09 .63* . 4050 11. N e u r o t i c i s m Scale Score .12 .63* .4113 Eigen Values 3.23 2 .30 5.53 V a r i a b l e s 31.0 15 .1 46.1 * A l l f a c t o r loadings s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . 64 Table 3 HEALTH AND STRESS VARIABLE FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER NO CONSTRAINT FOUR FACTOR SOLUTION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATIONS Variables I II III IV H 2 (Harmonic Mean of Stress Severity Health Health Communalities Sample Size 2 47 ) of I l l n e s s Function Change 1 . Subjective Stress Scale Score . 7 1 * - . 2 1 * - . 0 3 . 0 3 . 5 5 2 . Neuroticism Scale Score . 6 2 * - . 0 7 - . 1 3 - . 2 5 . 4 7 3 . Stress Estimation Post Test . 6 2 * . 0 1 - . 1 1 - . 0 1 . 4 0 4 . Subjective Read- justment Rating Scale Score . 5 9 * . 19 - . 1 3 . 0 2 . 4 0 5 . Stress Estimation Pre Test . 5 7 * - . 1 2 . 1 2 - . 2 0 . 4 3 6 . HinJcle S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s Mean Score . 0 9 . 9 1 * - . 1 3 - . 1 0 . 8 6 7 . Hinkle S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s Mean Score . 0 7 . 8 9 * - . 1 5 - . 2 6 . 8 9 8 . Bush Health Status Index Post-Test - . 1 1 - . 1 7 . 9 4 * . 0 3 93 9 . Bush Health Status Index Low Score - . 2 2 - . 1 6 . 8 3 * . 34 • 88 1 0 . Bush Health Status Index Pre-Post Residuals . 2 5 . 0 3 - . 0 4 . 7 9 * 69 1 1 . No. of V i s i t s to Physician _ . 0 2 . 3 5 - . 2 9 . 6 1 * 58 1 2 . No. of Days i n H o s p i t a l - . 0 8 . 2 4 - . 1 4 . 5 5 * • 39 Eigen Values 2 . 0 9 1 . 9 6 1 . 7 8 1 . 6 0 7 . 47 Variance 17 . 4 1 6 . 3 1 4 . 8 1 3 . 3 6 1 . 8 * Factor loadings s i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 1 l e v e l . Normalized Residuals obtained from a regression of Bush Health Status Index Pre-Test Scores against Post-Test Score. 6 5 Table 4 STUDY VARIABLES N MEDIAN MEAN S.D. > S.E. 1. Bush-Pre-Test 261 0.748 0.751 0.109 0.007 2. Bush Post-Test 234 0.747 0.747 0.130 0.009 3. Bush Pre-Post Residuals 234 -0.03 0.0 0.93 0.06 4. Bush Lo Score 263 0.70 0.70 0.115 0.007 5. Hinkle Mean 261 4.1 3.9 1.34 0.11 6. Hinkle Hi Score 261 5.7 5.1 2.36 0.15 7. V i s i t s to Physician 259 4.0 5.2 4.49 0.28 8. Days i n H o s p i t a l 259 0.076 0. 749 2. 44 0.15 9. S.R.R.S. 262 123.5 162.2 148.31 9.16 10. Subjective Stress 263 12.3 11.3 3.24 0.20 11. Stress PI 263 1.0 1.2 0.67 0.04 12. Stress P2 230 1.0 1.2 0.61 0.04 13. Extraversion 263 14.1 13.0 3.73 0.23 14. Neuroticism 263 11.1 10.9. 5.04 0.31 15. Inte r n a l - E x t e r n a l Control 231 8.1 8.3 3.69 0.24 16. Learning 263 1620. 4 1806.2 '1158.31 71.42 17. A t t i t u d e to Adult Education 263 112.2 103.9 26.39 1.63 18. Blishen (Socio-Economic Status) 204 37.6 38.0 11.2 0.78 19. Personal Income 246 9500.2 10285.4 9286.0 592.1 20. Household Income 229 16988.0 18169.0 10432.7 689 .4 21. Years at Job 211 5.2 8.9 9.18 0.63 22. Age 256 41.1 40.3 12.03 0.75 23. Years of Schooling 255 10. 7 10.4 3.51 0.22 24. Number of Children 257 1.6 1.7 1.75 0.11 25. Number of Adults 257 2.1 2.2 0.93 0.06 26. Chapin (So c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n ) 228 5.2 7.4 7.60 0.50 27. Years i n Neighbourhood 229 6.3 9.4 8.98 0.59 28. Years i n Vancouver 228 18.6 20 . 3 13.69 0.91 ( S e l l i n and W o l f g a n g , 1964), t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f Swedish monarchs (Ekman and Kunnapas, 1963), o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e ( P e r l o e , 1 9 6 3), and t h e magnitude o f s o c i a l r e a d j u s t m e n t s o r l i f e changes (Holmes and Rahe, 1967). The b a s i s o f t h e method r e s t s on t h e human c a p a b i l i t y t o match numbers o f s t i m u l i and s t i m u l i t o numbers i n such a way as t o e s t i m a t e a c c u r a t e l y r a t i o s between s t i m u l i and a l s o t o a d j u s t s t i m u l i t o match p r e s c r i b e d r a t i o s . The u s u a l p r o c e d u r e i n magnitude e s t i m a t i o n i n v o l v e s h a v i n g t h e s u b j e c t compare two s t i m u l i p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . One o f t h e s t i m u l i s e r v e s as a s t a n d a r d o r r e f e r e n t and t h e s u b j e c t e s t i m a t e s t h e magnitude o f t h e two, o r t h e r a t i o between t h e two s t i m u l i . S u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s can be o b t a i n e d by t h e a s s i g n i n g o f numbers, d r a w i n g l i n e s o f . l e n g t h s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s t i m u l i , s q u e e z i n g hand g r i p s , d r a w i n g c i r c l e s o r s q u a r e s , i n c r e a s i n g t h e magnitude o f a n o t h e r s t i m u l u s , o r by some o t h e r s i m i l a r means. St e v e n s (1966) r e f e r s t o t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s as d i r e c t methods o f s c a l i n g , and t o t h e T h u r s t o n i a n p r o c e d u r e s as i n d i r e c t . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t w i t h i n d i r e c t methods r e s p o n d e n t s p e r f o r m a minimum o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . U s u a l l y t h e y a r e asked w h i c h o f a p a i r o f s t i m u l i i s t h e g r e a t e r i n terms o f an o b s e r v a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h i s d a t a p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t o rank o r d e r t h e s t i m u l i , and l a t e r v a r i a b l i t y o f judgments i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e r a n k s i n o r d e r t o d i s t r i b u t e s u b j e c t s a l o n g t h e s c a l e continuum. W i t h t h e d i r e c t method o f magnitude e s t i m a t i o n no p s y c h o m e t r i c a s s u m p t i o n s a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e d a t a a t a l a t e r d a t e . The r e s p o n d e n t s p e r f o r m t h e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n u s u a l l y by a s s i g n i n g t h e i r own n u m e r i c a l v a l u e t o t h e r e s p o n s e . On many a t t i t u d e c o n t i n u a , T h u r s t o n i a n s c a l e s g e n e r a t e d by 67 i n d i r e c t methods have been f o u n d t o have an i n v a r i a n t r e l a t i o n t o t h e s c a l e o f magnitude d e v e l o p e d by t h e d i r e c t methods o f magnitude e s t i m a t i o n ( S t e v e n s , 1 9 6 6 ) . I n many e x p e r i m e n t s o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s i t has been shown from t h e s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s o f o b s e r v e r s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e magnitudes o f t h e s t i m u l i o b s e r v e d , t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f agreement between i n d i v i d u a l s 1 p e r c e p t i o n s o f magnitude. I n f a c t , man may have an i n n a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y f o r making q u a n t i t a t i v e judgments about p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l phenomena. I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e n o n - v o l u n t a r y a t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l , and i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e as S h i n n (1969) has s p e c u l a t e d , t h e s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o s o c i a l s t i m u l i may a l s o be n o n - v o l u n t a r y and t h a t " the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n a sense a p r i s o n e r o f h i s c o n d i t i o n e d v a l u e s " . ( S h i n n , 19 6 9 , p. 16 . ) I f su c h i s t h e case t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on l e a r n i n g by an a d u l t may be d e t e r m i n e d by h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s as a l e a r n e r . As many a d u l t s have s h a r e d s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g and t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g i t was t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e t h a t a s o c i a l consensus e x i s t e d ^ r e g a r d i n g t h e magnitude o f l e a r n i n g t h a t o c c u r s i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . The S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e (SEALS) was d e v e l o p e d o v e r a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d . An i t e m p o o l o f 110 l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s d e r i v e d from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n b r o c h u r e s , c a l e n d a r s and c i r c u l a r s was used i n s e v e r a l t r i a l v e r s i o n s o f th e s c a l e w h i c h were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n a wide range o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Item a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d and t h o s e i t e m s w i t h l a r g e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g d i s a g r e e m e n t among r a t e r s were r e j e c t e d . D u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s i t e m s were 68 e d i t e d t o e n s u r e c l a r i t y , t h e d u r a t i o n o f each o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s was added t o t h e form, d i r e c t i o n s t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were m o d i f i e d and t h e v a l u e o f t h e " s t a n d a r d " i t e m was v a r i e d . The 26 i t e m s i n c l u d e c r e d i t , n o n - c r e d i t , v o c a t i o n a l , g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (see A p p e n d i x 5 ) . S c a l e r e l i a b i l i t y w a s . e s t i m a t e d u s i n g t e s t - r e t e s t and a c r o s s - m o d a l r e s p o n s e m a t c h i n g t e c h n i q u e . T w e n t y - f o u r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o m p l e t e d t h e SEALS t w i c e , w i t h a one month i n t e r v a l between t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d between t e s t and r e t e s t r e s p o n s e s f o r each i t e m ranged from .51 t o .68 (p <.01). A c o e f f i c i e n t o f .79 was o b t a i n e d between t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean s c o r e s o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x i t e m s on t h e group's t e s t - r e t e s t r e s p o n s e s . Seventeen d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y members of t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department responded t o t h e SEALS i n t h e form i n w h i c h i t was used i n t h i s s t u d y , w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d i t e m b e i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n o n - c r e d i t , e v e n i n g , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e such as wood c a r v i n g , p o t t e r y o r l e a r n i n g a new language. T h i s s t a n d a r d i t e m was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t as h a v i n g a v a l u e o f 100 u n i t s o f l e a r n i n g . One week l a t e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t e d a second form w h i c h r e q u i r e d l i n e s t o be drawn t o i n d i c a t e u n i t s o f l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f numbers. The s t a n d a r d i t e m was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a l i n e t e n c e n t i m e t e r s l o n g . The o r d e r o f t h e i t e m s remained t h e same, and space was l e f t on t h e form f o r l i n e s t o be drawn be n e a t h each i t e m . Respondents were asked t o draw t h e l i n e s f r e e h a n d . I f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r p r o p o s e d l i n e s exceeded t h e w i d t h o f t h e form, p r o v i s i o n was made f o r a d d i t i o n a l l i n e s t o be drawn. Measurements were r e c o r d e d i n m i l l i m e t r e s t o a maximum o f 3.5 t i m e s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s t a n d a r d . T e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each i t e m ranged from .49 t o .60 (p <.05) and a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .66 (p <.01) was o b t a i n e d between t h e t e s t - r e t e s t a r i t h m e t i c means of t h e i t e m s . The SEALS was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a group o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c r e d i t c o u r s e s a t t h e Vanc ouver Community C o l l e g e , s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y i n t h e Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l b o a r d p a r t i c i p a n t s gave r e s p o n s e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e form. The i n c o m p l e t e and i n v a l i d r e s p o n s e s were r e j e c t e d l e a v i n g 191 c o l l e g e r e s p o n d e n t s , 147 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y members, and 165 s c h o o l b o a r d r e s p o n d e n t s f o r a t o t a l o f 503 c o m p l e t e d forms. A t each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e form t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h and s e v e r a l examples o f t h e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e were p r e s e n t e d p r i o r t o t h e form b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d . The i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e form were r e a d a l o u d and i n d i v i d u a l s were encouraged t o ask q u e s t i o n s and seek g u i d a n c e t o t h e p r o c e d u r e . There was no d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a c t u a l s c a l e i t e m s o r t h e v a l u e t o be p l a c e d on t h e i t e m s , and t h e r e was no d i s c u s s i o n once t h e group began t o complete t h e forms. A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d i n g had c o m p l e t e d one o r two o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l forms o f t h e SEALS and were t h e r e f o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s c a l i n g 70 technique. The mean item scores produced by the 503 respondents are presented i n Table 5. As recommended by Stevens (1966), geometric means (G) were c a l c u l a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h the mean item values to be assigned to p a t i e n t s i n the study sample. A r i t h m e t i c means (A) were presented only f o r purposes of comparison. As the v a r i a b i l i t y of the estimates i n c r e a s e s i n p r o p o r t i o n to the magnitude of the s c o r e s , geometric means are the most a p p r o p r i a t e measure f o r averaging over s u b j e c t s . Log + Log ... Log X n G = N There was c o n s i d e r a b l e agreement among the three groups concerning the ranking of the items by t h e i r geometric means. Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed t o t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the rank orders between the groups. The c o e f f i c i e n t s o btained, a l l s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l , were: c o l l e g e vs school board r = .99;. c o l l e g e vs a d u l t education r = .99; and school board vs a d u l t education r = .98. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the rank order of items as they appeared on the form and the t o t a l group item ranks was not s i g n i f i c a n t (r = .047) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there was no response b i a s due to the o r d e r i n g of the items. K e n d a l l ' s C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance W was used t o t e s t the extent of agreement among respondents' rankings of the s c a l e items w i t h i n each of the three respondent groups. The computer program f o r K e n d a l l ' s W was not capable of d e a l i n g w i t h the t o t a l number of respondents simultaneously. The value of W obtained f o r each group i n d i c a t e d t h a t when each respondent's assigned scores were used to rank the s c a l e items there was a 71 consensus i n each -group r e g a r d i n g t h e rank o r d e r o f t h e i t e m . A h i g h degree o f s i m i l a r i t y about t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h e i t e m s g e n e r a t e d W c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e '.001 l e v e l f o r each group (Community C o l l e g e , W = .59; A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department, W = .64; S c h o o l B o a r d , W = .661'. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r a t i o s o f t h e g e o m e t r i c and a r i t h m e t i c mean s c o r e s f o r each i t e m when p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean i t e m s c o r e s were found t o be s i m i l a r i n shape t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n r e p o r t e d by Masuda and Holmes (1967) i n t h e development o f a r a t i o s c a l e o f l i f e change e v e n t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t as j u d g m e n t a l v a r i a n c e i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e magnitude o f t h e e s t i m a t e s , i t i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y and l i n e a r l y t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n e s t i m a t e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Masuda and Holmes (1 9 6 7 ) , such a r e l a t i o n s h i p s u p p o r t s t h e g e n e r a l s c i e n t i f i c law o f r e l a t i v e v a r i a b l i t y and c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f s u b j e c t i v e magnitude e s t i m a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s b e i n g used i n p s y c h o - s o c i a l measurement. The two h i g h e s t r a n k i n g i t e m s , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , have mean r a t i o s w h i c h d e v i a t e from t h e r a t i o s o f o t h e r h i g h r a n k i n g i t e m s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e two i t e m s i n terms o f t h e i r r a t i o s c a l e p r o p e r t i e s may be open t o doubt. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r s o f t h e g e o m e t r i c means and t h e g e o m e t r i c mean i t e m s c o r e s i s a s t r o n g l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r = .9 8) i n d i c a t i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e o f measurement t h a t v a r i a b l i t y i n s c o r e s i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e magnitude o f t h e s c o r e s , and as such i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e s c a l a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a . To o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l Table 5 ARITHMETIC MEANS* GEOMETRIC MEANS2 AND GEOMETRIC MEAN RANKS BY INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATION OF RESPONDENTS AND SCALE ITEMS Original Item Community College Adult Education Department School Board Totals Number Item N - 191 N - 147 N - 165 N - 503 A 5 Rank A 5 Rank A G Rank A 5 Rank 11 Apprenticeship 1025 495 1 929 439 1 1831 1119 1 1261 625 1 20 Vocational School Course 484 263 2 371 267 2 596 390 2 488 301 2 16 University Credit Course 294 219 3 265 226 3 338 282 3 300 240 3 9 University Credit Correspondence 251 182 4 230 187 4- 261 209 4 248 192 4 22 Community College Credit 201 162 5 215 187 4- 211 181 5 208 176 5 24 High School Credit 142 125 7 164 142 7 170 144 6 158 136 6 27 Short Vocational Credit Course 143 123 8 180 152 6 151 130 8 156 133 7 3 High School Credit Correspondence 165 126 6 178 141 8 166 133 7 169 132 8 13 Non-credit College 121 100 9- 104 96 12 115 106 9 114 101 9 1 Standard Item 100 100 9- 100 100 11 100 100 10 100 100 10 5 Non-credit Correspondence 131 97 11 144 114 9 123 90 11- 132 99 11 21 Recreation Centre Lessons 116 93 12 119 102 10 110 90 11- 115 95 12 10 Programmed Text 79 62 13 111 80 13 73 58 13 87 65 13 17 One Day Workshop 63 50 14 78 61 14 52 41 16 64 50 14- 4 Individual Lessons 83 55 15 76 44 17 81 49 14 80 50 14- 15 Read Non-fiction Book 66 51 16 71 49 15 59 44 15 65 48 16 23 Labour Union Short Course • 65 44 17 60 45 16 49 35 17 58 41 17 14 Attended a One Day Convention 58 42 18 55 34 19 50 31 18 54 36 18 12 Read a News Magazine 51 35 19 60 42 18 48 30 19- 53 35 19 7 Guided Tour 52 34 20 49 32 21 48 30 19- 50 32 20 18 Educational TV Program 48 35 21 46 33 20 35 23 21 43 30 21 8 Taped Lecture 50 31 22 39 25 23- 36 22 22 42 26 22 26 Attended a Public Show 38 26 23- 39 26 22 30 19 24 35 24 23- 25 Attended a Public Lecture 36 26 23- 34 25 23- 32 20 23 34 24 23- 19 Read a Daily Newspaper 39 26 23- 37 25 23- 29 16 27 35 22 25 6 Attended a Union or Professional Meeting 30 20 27 31 21 26 29 17 25= 30 19 26 2 Listened to Educational Radio 35 23 26 23 15 27 26 17 25= 28 18 27 1. A = Arithmetic Mean 2. G « Geometric Mean p a t i e n t s i n t h e s t u d y sample had engaged i n l e a r n i n g t h e y were asked t o i n d i c a t e whether o r n o t d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s s i x months t h e y had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n each o f t h e SEALS a c t i v i t i e s . F o r t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s where m u l t i p l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were p o s s i b l e , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d and used as a w e i g h t t o m u l t i p l y a g a i n s t t h e i t e m v a l u e . I f a s u b j e c t had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y he o r she was a s s i g n e d a s c o r e w h i c h was t h e g e o m e t r i c mean e s t i m a t e o f l e a r n i n g d e r i v e d from t h e o r i g i n a l SEALS s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . (See T a b l e 6) T h i s p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w s e x a c t l y t h a t o f Holmes and Rahe i n t h e development o f t h e SRRS (Holmes, 1972). A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Measurement A l t h o u g h a s c a l e t o measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n had been d e v e l o p e d by A d o l p h and Whaley (1967), t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n t h e development o f t h e s c a l e r a i s e d s e r i o u s doubts about t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The s i z e o f t h e sample on w h i c h t h e s c a l e was t e s t e d was i n a d e q u a t e ; t h e sample was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s ; t h e judgments w h i c h were t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s c a l e i t e m s were made by n o n - e x p e r t s , and t h e e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e was weak. F o r t h e above r e a s o n s i t was d e c i d e d t o d e v e l o p an a l t e r n a t i v e measure t o t h e Adolph-Whaley s c a l e , u s i n g e x p e r t judges t o s e l e c t t h e s c a l e i t e m s and T h u r s t o n e ' s p r o c e d u r e t o c a l c u l a t e i t e m s c a l e v a l u e s and reduce measurement e r r o r . A l l 2 4 i t e m s from t h e Adolph-Whaley s c a l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h 92 a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s i d e n t i f i e d from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e and b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n s i n an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d o c t o r a l s e m i n a r , were combined t o form a p o o l o f 116 i t e m s . The i t e m s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e judges w i t h a n i n e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e , w i t h accompanying d i r e c t i o n s as o u t l i n e d by Edwards (19 5 7 ) . F i f t y - f o u r judges were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r employment i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , o r t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t i n a f u l l t i m e program o f g r a d u a t e s t u d y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Of t h e 36 employed j u d g e s , s e v e n t e e n had c o m p l e t e d m a s t e r s degrees i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , t e n o t h e r s had c o m p l e t e d d o c t o r a t e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e m a i n i n g n i n e had been e n r o l l e d i n b u t had n o t c o m p l e t e d d o c t o r a t e s . E i g h t e e n j u d g e s were f u l l t i m e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ; seven were e n r o l l e d i n m a s t e r s programs and e l e v e n were e n r o l l e d i n d o c t o r a l s t u d i e s . Q v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d from t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s as pr o p o s e d by Edwards (19 5 7 ) . A s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was a l s o computed f o r each s c a l e i t e m . Items were r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e magnitude o f t h e Q v a l u e s . When h i g h l y s i m i l a r i t e m s were r e t a i n e d f o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e , t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e t a i n o n l y one o f t h e i t e m s was made a f t e r comparing b o t h t h e Q v a l u e s and the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e i t e m s . Those i t e m s w i t h t h e l o w e s t Q v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g h i g h agreement among t h e j u d g e s , were r e t a i n e d . F o r t y i t e m s met t h e above c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s c a l e , and s c a l e v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each i t e m . Only one o f t h e o r i g i n a l Adolph-Whaley s c a l e i t e m s was r e t a i n e d , however, s e v e r a l i t e m s v e r y s i m i l a r t o Adolph-Whaley i t e m s were i n c l u d e d . (See App e n d i x 5) 75 Table 6 1 UNITS OF LEARNING1 ASSIGNED TO LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF ADULT LEARNING SCALE SCALE ITEM 'UNITS OF LEARNING' Ap p r e n t i c e s h i p 625 V o c a t i o n a l School Course 301 U n i v e r s i t y C r e d i t Course 240 U n i v e r s i t y C r e d i t Correspondence 192 Community Co l l e g e C r e d i t 176 High School C r e d i t 136 Short V o c a t i o n a l C r e d i t Course 133 High School C r e d i t Correspondence 132 Non-Credit C o l l e g e 101 Standard Item 100 Non-Credit Correspondence 99 Recreat i o n Centre Lessons 95 Programmed Text 65 One Day Workshop 50 I n d i v i d u a l Lessons 50 Read N o n - f i c t i o n Book 48 Labour Union Short Course 41 Attended a One Day Convention 36 Read a News Magazine 35 Guided Tour 32 Ed u c a t i o n a l TV Program 30 Taped Lecture 26 Attended a P u b l i c Show 24 Attended a P u b l i c Lecture 24 Read a D a i l y Newspaper 22 Attended a Union or P r o f e s s i o n a l Meeting 19 L i s t e n e d to E d u c a t i o n a l Radio 18 76 The method o f s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s was used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e s c a l e i t e m v a l u e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e method o f e q u a l - a p p e a r i n g i n t e r v a l s used by A d o l p h and Whaley. The f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g s c a l i n g by means o f t h e e q u a l - a p p e a r i n g i n t e r v a l s p r o c e d u r e i s t h a t t h e i n t e r v a l s i n t o w h i c h t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e s c o r e d a r e i n f a c t e q u a l (Edwards, 1957). W i t h i n t h e e q u a l - a p p e a r i n g i n t e r v a l s p r o c e d u r e t h e r e i s no p r o v i s i o n t o e s t i m a t e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . Judgments made a t t h e two extremes o f t h e s c a l e may become b i a s e d , and ' t r u e ' r a t i n g s skewed to w a r d t h e mean. A d o l p h and Whaley (19 57) r e p o r t e d t h r e e s c a l e i t e m s w i t h v a l u e s i n t h e range o f 1.3 t o 1.8 and t h r e e i t e m s i n t h e range o f 8.0 t o 8.6. These s i x i t e m s r e p r e s e n t e d 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number o f s c a l e i t e m s . S h o u l d t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f e q u a l i n t e r v a l s have been i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e i r s t u d y - as i t may have been g i v e n t h e judges used ( u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ) - t h e s c a l e v a l u e s f o r t h e s e i t e m s may be b i a s e d . T h a t would r e s u l t i n i n a c c u r a t e s c a l e r a t i n g s b e i n g a s s i g n e d , t h u s r e d u c i n g reponse v a r i a b i l i t y and l i m i t i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e a t t h e extremes o f t h e s c a l e . The method o f s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s f o l l o w s e x a c t l y t h e same p r o c e d u r e as t h e method o f e q u a l - a p p e a r i n g i n t e r v a l s i n o b t a i n i n g i t e m judgments. I n t h e s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s method, t h e s c a l i n g p r o b l e m i s t o e s t i m a t e t h e w i d t h s o f t h e s c a l e i n t e r v a l s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e s c a l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum r a t h e r t h a n t o assume t h e i r e q u a l i t y . A f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e number o f i t e m s t h a t a s t a t e m e n t had been p l a c e d i n each o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s was d e v e l o p e d . The c u m u l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s were c o n v e r t e d t o c u m u l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s , w h i c h i n t u r n were i n s p e c t e d f o r n o r m a l i t y b e f o r e b e i n g c o n v e r t e d t o Z s c o r e s . From a t a b l e o f n o r m al d i s t r i b u t i o n s t h e Z s c o r e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s f o r each s t a t e m e n t were i d e n t i f i e d . Once t h e s c a l e v a l u e s o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c ontinuum had been i d e n t i f i e d , s c a l e v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each o f t h e s c a l e i t e m s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d by Edwards (19 5 7 ) . The v a l u e s o f t h e s c a l e i n t e r v a l s on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c ontinuum a r e r e p o r t e d a t t h e end o f A p p e n d i x 5. The w i d t h s o f t h e two extreme i n t e r v a l s are i n d e t e r m i n a t e by t h e s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s p r o c e d u r e . However, s i n c e t h e number o f i n t e r v a l s u sed i n o b t a i n i n g t h e judgments was r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s c a l e v a l u e s f a l l i n g i n t o t h e extreme c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum was m i n i m i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A t e s t o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e s c a l e was c o n d u c t e d by e s t i m a t i n g t h e magnitude o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e o b s e r v e d and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s o f judgments as recommended by Edwards (19 5 7 ) . The a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s o v e r a l l i t e m s was 108.8 and when d i v i d e d by 320, t h e t o t a l number o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s , t h e mean d e v i a t i o n was 0.31. A l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t as low as t h e t y p i c a l v a l u e (.24) r e p o r t e d by Edwards, t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o r t y i t e m s do c o m p r i s e an a c c e p t a b l e s e t o f i t e m s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . G i v e n t h e need t o l i m i t t h e d u r a t i o n o f p a t i e n t i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e s t u d y , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e d u c e th e number of s c a l e 78 i t e m s t o a minimum. Such an e v e n t u a l i t y had been r e c o g n i z e d by Edwards (1957) who acknowledged t h a t a T h u r s t o n e s c a l e w i t h a l a r g e number o f i t e m s can be t r e a t e d as an i t e m p o o l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t w e n t y - e i g h t i t e m s were randomly s e l e c t e d from t h e f o r t y s c a l e i t e m s t o e s t a b l i s h a s h o r t form o f t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e . The s c a l e as used i n t h i s s t u d y i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i n Appendix 3. V a l i d i t y o f t h e L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y and A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Measures S c o r e s on t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e s c a l e were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1) y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d , 2) s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 3) s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , 4) i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and 5) p e r s o n a l income. Many s t u d i e s have r e v e a l e d t h a t p r e v i o u s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e a l l r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ( V e r n e r and Newberry, 1958). S i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s n o r m a l l y v o l u n t a r y , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t oward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n m i g h t l o g i c a l l y be e x p e c t e d t o be e v i d e n t among t h o s e a d u l t s who p o s s e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h a t i s among t h e r e l a t i v e l y w e l l e d u c a t e d , t h e s o c i a l l y a c t i v e and t h e m i d d l e and h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s c o r e s on t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c a l e s would c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h o s e f o u r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . I t was a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s t h a t s c o r e s on t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e would c o r r e l a t e w i t h l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c a l e s c o r e s . 79 R e s e a r c h on l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s u p p o r t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o v e r l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e s a t t e n t i o n t o , and a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ( R o t t e r , 1961). I f i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r t h e g e n e r a l i z e d changes o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i r l i v e s t o be p a r t i a l l y w i t h i n t h e i r c o n t r o l ( i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d ) , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d l o o k f a v o u r a b l y upon a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , and would p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as one means o f a c h i e v i n g p e r s o n a l g o a l s . I t was p r e d i c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s c o r e s on t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e i n d i c a t i n g i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l w ould c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s c o r e s . o n t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c a l e i n d i c a t i n g i n v o l v e m e n t i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and s c o r e s on t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The C h a p i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( C h a p i n , 1938) was used t o measure s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h e B l i s h e n S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index ( B l i s h e n , 19 76) was used t o a s s i g n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a t i n g s , and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d from th e R o t t e r Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e ( R o t t e r , 1961). P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d between each o f t h e f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s and t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e t oward e d u c a t i o n s c a l e s c o r e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 7. S c o r e s on t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d as p r e d i c t e d w i t h two o f t h e f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s , y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The c o r r e l a t i o n between l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( r = .10, p < .0 6) approached s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , as d i d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and p e r s o n a l income 80 ( r = .08, p < .10). However, t h e e x p e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y ( r =.02) was n o t o b s e r v e d . W i t h one e x c e p t i o n , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s on t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c a l e and t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were i n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d d i r e c t i o n s and were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e .01 l e v e l . The e x c e p t i o n was t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and p e r s o n a l income ( r = .10, p < .06). As a n t i c i p a t e d , s c o r e s on t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s c o r e s on t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e i n d i c a t i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ( r = .15, p < . 0 1 ) . O v e r a l l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s c o r e s and t h e f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s , a l t h o u g h s m a l l i n magnitude, were i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n and t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u p p o r t e d the c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e two s c a l e s i n t h i s s t u d y . P e r s o n a l i t y Measures Two i n s t r u m e n t s were used t o a s s e s s d i m e n s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (Eysenck and E y s e n c k , 1966) and t h e R o t t e r Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e ( R o t t e r , 1966) . The Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (EPI) c o n s i s t s o f two s c a l e s w h i c h measure N e u r o t i c i s m - S t a b i l i t y (N.) and E x t r a v e r s i o n - I n t r o v e r s i o n ( E ) . The N e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e was o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y f o r i t s j o i n t u t i l i t y as a measure o f r e s p o n s e t o p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , and as 81 Table 7 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT MATRIX OF CRITERION VARIABLES AND LEARNING AND ATTITUDE SCALE SCORES 1. SEALS (learning) 1.0 2. A t t i t u d e t o Ad u l t Education .15+ 1.0 3. Locus of C o n t r o l .02 -.22* 1.0 4. Pers o n a l Income .08 .10 -.09 1.0 5. Years of Scho o l i n g .30* .25* -.24* .24* 1.0 6. B l i s h e n (Socio-Economic Status) .25* .27* -.19* .38* -.59* 1.0 7. Chapin ( S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n ) .10 .13+ -.07 .14+ .30* .42* 1.0 N = 263 * = p < .001 82 a broad measure of emotional response as a personality type as depicted by Eysenck. Extraversion i s t y p i f i e d by outgoing, uninhibited, impulsive and sociable behaviours and introversion by i n h i b i t e d , c a r e f u l and reserved behaviours. Each scale consists of 24 statements with which respondents were asked to agree or disagree (see Appendix 5). In order to save time during the interviews the nine ' l i e 1 scale items d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the EPI were omitted. As reported e a r l i e r the EPI has been widely used (Buros, 1972) and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from 0.84 to 0.9 4 for the complete inventory have been obtained. The Internal-External Locus of Control Scale developed by Rotter (19 66) was used i n a s l i g h t l y amended form to measure the patients' expectancies for control over factors i n f l u e n c i n g the changes that are occurring i n t h e i r l i v e s . Items seven and seventeen i n the twenty-item scale were written to replace o r i g i n a l scale items judged to be inappropriate for use i n t h i s study (see Appendix 4). Respondents were asked to indicate which one of two contrasting statements they believed to be true. The Locus of Control Scale has been demonstrated to have s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r n a l consistency, t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and construct v a l i d i t y . Kuder-Richardson s p l i t h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y estimates ranging from 0.65 to 0.7 5 and Spearman Brown r e l i a b i l i t y estimates of 0.79 are reported by Rotter (1966). Ample evidence of the v a l i d i t y of the scale has been demonstrated i n a series of studies conducted by Seeman (1959, 1962, 1963, 1966, 1967a, 1967b, 1972). 83 Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s A range o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s was i n c l u d e d .in t h e s t u d y i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d y sample f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s m i g h t i n f l u e n c e any r e l a t i o n s h i p f o u n d t o e x i s t between s t r e s s , h e a l t h and engagement i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Data was o b t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : ( i ) P e r s o n a l Data - Age, s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , i m m i g r a n t s t a t u s , number o f c h i l d r e n , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and number o f a d u l t s i n h o u s e h o l d , ( i i ) L abour F o r c e A c t i v i t y - Labour f o r c e s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n , number o f y e a r s a t p r e s e n t j o b and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( B l i s h e n s c a l e s c o r e s d e r i v e d from o c c u p a t i o n and income data) . ( i i i ) Income - P e r s o n a l income and h o u s e h o l d income, ( i v ) Community I n v o l v e m e n t - Number o f y e a r s i n p r e s e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d , y e a r s i n Vancouver and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s (Chapin s c a l e ) . From t h e o c c u p a t i o n and income d a t a B l i s h e n S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index S c o r e s ( B l i s h e n , 1976) were d e r i v e d , and t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was q u a n t i f i e d by use o f t h e C h a p i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( C h a p i n , 19 3 8 ) . (See A p p e n d i x 3.) R e l i a b i l i t y o f I n s t r u m e n t s Seven i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t r e s p o n s e s t o p s y c h o m e t r i c s c a l e i t e m s were a n a l y z e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y . The 84 seven i n s t r u m e n t s were: t h e S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (SRRS) ; t h e S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e (SSS) ; t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (EPI) i n c l u d i n g t h e n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y and i n t r a v e r s i o n - e x t r a v e r s i o n s c a l e s ; t h e S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e (SEALS); t h e A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S c a l e ; and t h e Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e . Each i n s t r u m e n t was a n a l y z e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e zero-one r e s p o n s e s and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e 8. The l o w e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ' o b t a i n e d were f o r t h e 26 i t e m S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e w h i c h had a ' c o e f f i c i e n t o f .69 and t h e 42 i t e m S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .70. These two s c a l e s c o n t a i n i t e m s w h i c h a r e u n l i k e l y t o be s e l e c t e d by t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s , c o n s e q u e n t l y r e d u c i n g t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s b e i n g o b t a i n e d . F o r example, t h e SRRS c o n t a i n s i t e m s such a s , "I have l o s t my husband o r w i f e by d e a t h d u r i n g t h e l a s t s i x months', and ' I have r e t i r e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t s i x months', w h i l e t h e SEALS c o n t a i n s i t e m s such as ' I have been r e g i s t e r e d i n an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g program', o r ' I have t a k e n a u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t c o u r s e by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ' . The f i v e r e m a i n i n g s c a l e s had r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g f rom .73 ( N e u r o t i c i s m - S t a b i l i t y ) t o .87 A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S c a l e ) . SUMMARY The s t u d y used a sample o f a d u l t s aged between e i g h t e e n and s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s who were t h e p a t i e n t s o f one f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n . From a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 506 p a t i e n t s who had c o m p l e t e d a m a i l e d copy o f t h e S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment R a t i n g 85 Table 8 HOYT ESTIMATE OF RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR SEVEN PSYCHOMETRIC SCALES Scales No. of Items No. of Respondents Hoyt Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y 1. S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment Rating Scale 42 263 .70 2. S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale 4 263 . 80 3. Ne u r o t i c i s m - S t a b i l i t y (EPI) 24 263 .73 4. I n t r a v e r s i o n - E x t r a v e r s i o n (EPI) 24 263 . 81 5. S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n of Ad u l t Learning Scale 26 263 .69 6. A t t i t u d e to A d u l t Education S c a l e 28 263 .87 7. Locus of C o n t r o l 20 231 .76 86 S c a l e a random sample o f 300 p a t i e n t s was s e l e c t e d . The s t u d y used a p a n e l d e s i g n w i t h two d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s n i n e months a p a r t . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w was c o m p l e t e d w i t h 263 p a t i e n t s and e i g h t months l a t e r 226 p a t i e n t s c o m p l e t e d the f i n a l s t u d y i n t e r v i e w . A t o t a l o f e i g h t d i f f e r e n t h e a l t h v a r i a b l e s were q u a n t i f i e d : l e v e l o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n ; p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t (Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s I n d e x ) ; l o w e s t l e v e l o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n d u r i n g t h e s t u d y p e r i o d (Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index Low S c o r e ) ; h e a l t h change o v e r t h e s t u d y p e r i o d (Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P r e - P o s t T e s t R e s i d u a l s ) ; s e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s ( H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s S c a l e Mean S c o r e ) ; t h e most s e v e r e l e v e l o f i l l n e s s ( H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s S c a l e H i g h S c o r e ) ; t h e number o f days s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l ; and t h e t o t a l number o f v i s i t s made t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e t o seek c a r e . F i v e - d i s t i n c t measures o f s t r e s s were o b t a i n e d f o r each p a t i e n t i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l s t r e s s ( S u b j e c t i v e R e adjustment R a t i n g S c a l e ) ; s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s ( S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e ) ; p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s ( N e u r o t i c i s m - S t a b i l i t y , E . P . I . ) ; and two s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s o f s t r e s s . F a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f t h e h e a l t h and s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s were c o n d u c t e d y i e l d i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t d i s t i n c t c o n s t r u c t s o f h e a l t h and s t r e s s were b e i n g q u a n t i f i e d by t h e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s . I n s t r u m e n t s t o measure p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were d e v e l o p e d f o r use i n t h e s t u d y . The S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e (SEALS) was d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h p s y c h o m e t r i c magnitude e s t i m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t o p r o v i d e e s t i m a t e s o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g t h a t o c c u r s i n a v a r i e t y o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The T h u r s t o n e s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e was used t o d e v e l o p a 87 s c a l e t o q u a n t i f y a t t i t u d e t oward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . S c o r e s on t h e SEALS and t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1) y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d , 2) s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 3) s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , 4) i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and 5) p e r s o n a l income. C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e s c o r e s and each o f t h e f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s s u p p o r t e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e two s c a l e s . Three measures o f p e r s o n a l i t y were used: N e u r o t i c i s m - S t a b i l i t y and E x t r a v e r s i o n - I n t r a v e r s i o n were q u a n t i f i e d by t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y , and t h e Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e was used t o q u a n t i f y g e n e r a l i z e d f e e l i n g s o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . F o u r b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a were i n c l u d e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d y sample and t o d e t e r m i n e , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a were: 1) p e r s o n a l d a t a , 2) l a b o u r f o r c e a c t i v i t y , 3) income and 4) community i n v o l v e m e n t . Seven p s y c h o m e t r i c s c a l e s used i n t h e s t u d y were a n a l y z e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y . The l o w e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d were from t h e SEALS w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .69 and t h e SRRS w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .70. The h i g h e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was f o r t h e a t t i t u d e t oward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c a l e w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .87. 88 CHAPTER IV THE STUDY SAMPLE The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e sample. C o m b i n a t i o n s o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e h e a l t h , s t r e s s , p e r s o n a l i t y , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y , and a t t i t u d e t oward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . The s i x s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a r e age, s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , c o u n t r y o f b i r t h and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The h e a l t h , s t r e s s , p e r s o n a l i t y , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s were a l l d i c h o t o m i z e d a t th e median s c o r e t o e n a b l e b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e d a t a t o be used f o r d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s and t o t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e l e v e l s o f each o f t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v a r i a b l e i n q u e s t i o n . When s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e d a t a o r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s have approached 89 s i g n i f i c a n c e (<.10), the l i k e l i h o o d of these observations being a t t r i b u t a b l e t o chance has been s t a t e d . The t a b u l a r b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s data are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix 6. Socio-Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The mean age of the sample was 40.3 years w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 12.03 years. Males (48.4%) and females (51.6%) were almost evenly represented i n the sample. There was a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of younger females than males, and of o l d e r males than females and the d i f f e r e n c e between the age d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the sexes approached the .05 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (Table 9 ) . Table 9 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY AGE AND SEX Age Males Females T o t a l s No. % No. % No. <20 1 0.8 6 4.5 . 7 2.7 20 - 29 20 16.1 33 24.8 53 20.6 30 - 39 27 21.8 33 24.8 60 23.3 40 - 49 38 30.6 31 23.3 69 26 . 8 50 - 59 30 24.2 27 20.3 57 22.2 >59 8 6.5 3 2.3 11 4.3 TOTALS 12 4 100.0 133 100.0 257 100.0 Age : X =40. 3 y r s . , s . d. = 12 .03 X 2 = 10. 198, d . f . = 5, P < .07. M i s s i n g Cases = 6. The m a j o r i t y of the su b j e c t s were married (70.5%) w h i l e the remainder were s i n g l e (14.7%) and widowed, separated or di v o r c e d (14.8%),(Table 10). The sample contained s l i g h t l y 90 more s i n g l e males than females, and more'females than males who were widowed, separated or d i v o r c e d . Table 10 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND SEX M a r i t a l Males Females T o t a l s Status No. % No. % No. 0, •6 S i n g l e 22 17. 6 16 12.0 38 14. 7 Married 91 72. 8 91 68.4 182 70. 5 Widowed 0 0. 0 3 • 2 .3 3 1. 2 Separated 3 2. 4 6 4.5 9 3. 5 Divorced 7 5. 6 13 9.8 20 7. 8 Common-law 2 1. 6 4 3.0 6 2. 3 TOTALS 125 100. 0 133 100.0 258 100. 0 X 2 = 5.86, d.f. = 2 , P <.05 ( S i n g l e , M a r r i e d and Other). One- t h i r d of the sample (33.9%) reported having no c h i l d r e n w h i l e 13.2 per cent re p o r t e d having one c h i l d , 29.6 per cent re p o r t e d two c h i l d r e n and 14.4 per cent re p o r t e d three c h i l d r e n . The l a r g e s t number of c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d was te n , and the mean number of c h i l d r e n reported was 1.7. Two-thirds of the s u b j e c t s (62.4%) reporte d l i v i n g i n a two-adult household, 13.7 per cent l i v e d alone w i t h the remaining 22.2 per cent l i v i n g i n households of between three and nine a d u l t s . The mean number of a d u l t s per household was 2.2. In terms of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s 81.7 per cent of the su b j e c t s were members of the labour f o r c e w i t h the m a j o r i t y (61.9%) employed f u l l time. Fourteen per cent were employed p a r t time and 6.2 per cent were c u r r e n t l y unemployed. Those s u b j e c t s who were not members of the labour f o r c e were 91 homemakers (14.8%), d i s a b l e d (1.0%), or r e t i r e d (1.6%). Almost twice as many males as females were employed on a f u l l time b a s i s (Table 11). Table 11 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND SEX Occupational Status Males Females T o t a l s No. % No. % No. Employed F u l l Time 1Q2 81.6 56. 42.4 158 61.9 Employed P a r t Time 8 6.4 28 21.2 36 14.0 Homemaker 0 0.0 38 28.8 38 14.8 Unemployed 8 6.4 7 5.9 15 5.8 Di s a b l e d 3 2.4 2 1.7 5 1.9 R e t i r e d 4 3.2 0 0.0 4 1.6 TOTALS 125 100.0 131 100.0 256 100.0 X 2 = 65.24, d.f. = 4, p < .001 (Disabled and r e t i r e d combined) Those s u b j e c t s who were employed report e d being i n t h e i r present job a mean of 8.9 years; however, f i f t y per cent of the sub j e c t s r e p o r t e d l e s s than 5.2 years work experience i n t h e i r present job. The mean p e r s o n a l annual income f o r the t o t a l sample was $10,285 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of $9,286 and the mean household income was $18,169 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of $10,433. Of those s u b j e c t s employed f u l l time, 51 per cent earned more than $13,000 per year, and 45.7 per cent of those employed p a r t time earned more than $6,000 per year. Subject's scores on the B l i s h e n Socio-Economic Index ( B l i s h e n , 1976) ranged from a low of 21.72 (e.g. t e x t i l e and weaving occupations) t o a maximum of 75.28 (e.g. a d m i n i s t r a t o r , t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d f i e l d s ) . The median f o r the sample was 37.62 (e.g. p i p e f i t t i n g , plumbing and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i n terms of socio-economic s t a t u s the sample represented an upper working c l a s s and lower middle c l a s s stratum. A Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.38, s i g n i f i c a n t at p < .01, was observed between p e r s o n a l income and B l i s h e n Socio-Economic Index r a t i n g s . Almost h a l f of the sample (45.0%) was not Canadian born. As the p h y s i c i a n ' s p r a c t i c e was l o c a t e d i n a low-rent, urban r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t w i t h a c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e immigrant c h a r a c t e r , a l a r g e number of fo r e i g n - b o r n a d u l t s had been expected i n the study sample. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were noted between the Canadian born and non-Canadian born by sex and by age (Table 12). Table 12 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY BIRTH PLACE, AGE AND SEX Age Canadian Born Non-Canadian Born Males Females T o t a l Males Females T o t a l No. *o No. Q. "5 No. Q. *o No. % No. Q, "O No. % <20 1 •1.7 3 3.8 4 2.9 0 0.0 3 5.7 3 2.6 20-29 10 16.9 19 24.1 29 21.0 10 15.6 14 26.4 24 20.5 30-39 17 28.8 22 27.9 39 28.3 10 15.6 10 18.0 20 17.1 40-49 11 18.6 19 2 4.1 30 21.7 27 42.2 12 22.6 39 33.3 50-59 15 25.4 15 19 .0 30 21.7 14 21.0 12 22.6 26 22 .2 >59 5 8.5 1 1.3 6 4.3 3 4.3 2 3.8 5 4.3 TOTALS 59 100.0 79 100.0 138 100 .0 64 100.0 53 100.0 117 100.0 Canadian Born, Sex v Age, X 2 = 6.471, d.f. = 5, N.S. Non-Canadian Born, Sex v Age, X 2 = 8.834, d.f. = 5, N.S. B i r t h P l ace v Sex, X 2 = 2.94, d.f. = 1, p < .09. M i s s i n g Cases = 7 The mean number of years of school completed by the sample was 10.41 years w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 3.51 years. Almost one i n f i v e of the s u b j e c t s (19.4%) had completed more than twelve years of s c h o o l . While a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of males than females had completed l e s s than e i g h t years of s c h o o l , and more than twelve years of s c h o o l , the d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two sexes was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 13). As might be expected, o l d e r s u b j e c t s tended to r e p o r t fewer years of school completed than d i d the middle aged and younger s u b j e c t s (Table 14). The d i f f e r e n c e i n the b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s between age and years of school completed was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .001 l e v e l (X 2 = 29.3, d.f. = 12, p < .001.) and a Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of r = -0.29, s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l , was observed i n d i c a t i n g a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s . Table 13 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOL AND SEX Age Males Females T o t a l s No. % No. % No. < 8 27 22.3 21 16.0 48 19.0 8 - 10 33 27.3 40 30.5 73 29.0 11 - 12 34 •28.1 48 36.6 82 32.5 13 - 14 15 12. 4 10 7.6 25 9.9 >14 12 9.9 12 9.2 24 9.5 TOTALS 121 100.0 131 100.0 252 100.0 Years of School: X = 10.41, SD = 3.51 X 2 = 4.422, d.f. = 4, N.S. M i s s i n g Cases = 11 Table 1.4 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY AGE AND YEARS OF SCHOOL Age < No. 8 % 8 No. -10 Years 11 % No. of School -12 13 % No. -14 % > No. 14 % T o t a l s No. % <30 4 8.3 10 13 .7 31 38. 3 7 28.0 6 25 .0 58 23 .1 30-39 11 22.9 13 17 .8 17 21.0 8 32.0 9 37 .5 58 23 .1 40-49 16 33.3 20 27 .4 18 22.2 8 32.0 6 25 .0 68 27 .1 50-59 11 22.9 27 37 .0 13 16.0 2 8.0 3 12 .5 56 22 .3 >59 6 12.5 3 4 . 1 2 2.5 0 0.0 0 0 .0 11 4 . 4 TOTALS 48 100.0 73 100 .0 81 100.0 25 100.0 25 100 .0 251 100 .0 Years of School: X = 10 .41 yrs , s. d. = 3 .51 Age: X = 40.3 y r s , s .d. = 12.03 X 2 = 29.3, d.f. = 12 , P < .001 M i s s i n g Cases = 12 r = -. 029 , P < • 01 Almost one q u a r t e r of the sample reporte d minimal l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g the s i x month p e r i o d preceding the i n t e r v i e w (Table 15). O v e r a l l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n was low w i t h a mean score of 7.4, and a median of 5.2 i n d i c a t i n g fee-paying membership i n two or three a s s o c i a t i o n s and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n at l e a s t one a s s o c i a t i o n . A s m a l l number of respondents r e p o r t e d high scores w i t h the maximum score being 42. This p a r t i c u l a r respondent was a c t i v e i n s i x a s s o c i a t i o n s and was an executive member of three. As a n t i c i p a t e d , males tended to r e p o r t h i g h e r l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n than females. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of women (21.6%) d i d r e p o r t high l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n (X 2 = 14.92, d.f. = 3, p < .002). As observed i n previous s t u d i e s , years of s c h o o l i n g was s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (r = .30, p < .001). Of those p a t i e n t s w i t h l e s s than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g , 73.8 per cent had p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores below the median of 5.2 w h i l e 68.2 per cent of those p a t i e n t s w i t h g r e a t e r than fourteen years of s c h o o l i n g had p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores above the median (Table 16). Only one q u a r t e r of the most a c t i v e s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s had completed fewer than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g (X 2 = 28.2, d.f. = 12, p < .005). Table 15 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE AND SEX. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Males Females T o t a l s Score No. Q. "O No. Q. "5 No. Q. "O <3 16 14. 8 41 35. 3 57 25.4 3 - 5 36 33.3 31 26.7 67 29.9 6 - 1 0 33 30.6 19 16.4 52 23.2 >10 23 21.3 25 21.6 48 21.4 TOTALS 108 100.0 116 100.0 224 100.0 X 2 = 14.92, d.f. = 3, p < .002 Health and S t r e s s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The median score f o r the sample on the S o c i a l Readjustment Rat i n g Scale (SRRS) was 12 3.2, the mean score was 16 2.2 and the standard d e v i a t i o n was 148.3 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the sample had not experienced a great many l i f e change events d u r i n g the s i x months preceding the s t a r t of the study. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of SRRS scores by age c a t e g o r i e s , sex, years of "'"See Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 i n Appendix .6. . . . s c h o o l i n g , p l a c e o f b i r t h o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . However, t h e p a t i e n t s d i d d i f f e r i n terms o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s and SRRS s c o r e d i s t r i b u t i o n ( T a b l e 1', A p p e n d i x 6) . •, M a r r i e d - p a t i e n t s tende t o r e p o r t SRRS s c o r e s below t h e median w h i l e t h e s i n g l e and t h e widowed, s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d t e n d e d t o r e p o r t SRRS s c o r e s w e l l above t h e median ( X 2 = 13.87, d . f . = 2, p < .001). T a b l e 16 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE Yea r s o f S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e S c h o o l i n g <3 3-5 6-10 >10 T o t a l No. Q, "O No. % No. q . "6 No. Q, ~Q No. % <8 Y r s 11 20.0 20 30 .8 6 11.5 5 10.4 42 19.1 8-10 Y r s 13 23.6 20 30 .8 19 36.5 7 14.6 59 26.8 11-12 Y r s 21 38.2 19 29 .2 13 25.0 19 39.6 72 32.7 13-14 Y r s 6 10.0 3 4 .6 9 17.3 7 14.6 25 11.4 >14 Y r s 4 7.3 3 4 .6 5 9.6 10 20.8 22 10.0 TOTALS 55 100.0 65 100 .0 52 100.0 48 100.0 220 100.0 X 2 = 28.20, d . f . = 12, p < .005. r = .30, p < .001 S c o r e s on t h e S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e (SSS) a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a t i e n t s were n o t e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s , w i t h h a l f o f t h e sample r e p o r t i n g s c o r e s r a n g i n from 12 t o 16 (low s t r e s s ) on t h e 16 p o i n t s c a l e . The mean s c a l e s c o r e f o r t h e t o t a l sample was 11.74 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.24. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f SSS s c o r e s by any o f t h e s i x s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 2, Ap p e n d i x 6 ) . W i t h a median s c o r e o f .748 on t h e Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index ( p o s t - t e s t ) and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .11 t h e study- sample e x h i b i t e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h . As might be e x p e c t e d o l d e r p a t i e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d l o w e r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f p a t i e n t s w i t h h e a l t h i n d e x s c o r e s below t h e median was o b s e r v e d i n each o f t h e age c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h 50.9 p e r c e n t o f 30 t o 39 y e a r o l d s w i t h below median s c o r e s as compared t o 66.7 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e o v e r 59 y e a r s ( T a b l e 3, Appendix 6 ) . However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d between d i s t r i b u t i o n s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . W h i l e s i n g l e p a t i e n t s as a group were p r e d o m i n a n t l y h e a l t h y w i t h 59 p e r c e n t above t h e sample median as compared t o t h e s e p a r a t e d , widowed and d i v o r c e d who were l e s s h e a l t h y w i t h 69.2 p e r c e n t below t h e sample median, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e a m a j o r i t y o f p a t i e n t s w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c ' s t a t u s were below t h e median o f h e a l t h s t a t u s i n d e x , and a m a j o r i t y of p a t i e n t s w i t h ' h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s were above t h e median t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was o b s e r v e d between y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and h e a l t h s t a t u s i n d e x s c o r e s ( X 2 = 16.86, d . f . = 4, p <.01). H i g h e r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n ; a l m o s t t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f p a t i e n t s w i t h o v e r 14 y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g had h e a l t h s t a t u s i n d e x s c o r e s above t h e sample median, as compared t o o n l y 29.5 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e p a t i e n t s w i t h between e i g h t and t e n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were o b s e r v e d between h e a l t h s t a t u s and e i t h e r sex o r p l a c e o f b i r t h . 98 The v a r i a b l e h e a l t h change was o b t a i n e d by s a v i n g t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e s i d u a l s from a r e g r e s s i o n o f p o s t - t e s t h e a l t h i n d e x s c o r e s on p r e - t e s t h e a l t h i n d e x s c o r e s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h e a l t h / change s c o r e s by any o f t h e s i x s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 4, Appendix 6 ) . P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ^ - The mean e x t r a v e r s i o n s c a l e s c o r e f o r t h e t o t a l sample was 13.87 w i t h a s t a n d a r d . d e v i a t i o n o f 3.7, a range o f 22, and a median s c o r e o f 14.1. W h i l e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s by m a r i t a l s t a t u s and e x t r a v e r s i o n s c a l e s c o r e approached s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ( X 2 = 4.85, d . f . = 2, p < .09) none o f t h e s i x s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o e x t r a v e r s i o n s c a l e s c o r e s ( T a b l e 5, Appendix 6 ) . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d , however, i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e s c o r e s (X = 10.0, s.d. = 5.0) and t h e s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 6, Appendix 6 ) . An i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and n e u r o t i c i s m was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e .01 l e v e l ( r = -.17, p < .004). The m a j o r i t y o f a d u l t s below t h e age o f 40 had n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s above the median (11.1) w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f a d u l t s o v e r t h e age o f 40 had s c o r e s below t h e median (X 2 = 18.67, d . f . = 4, p < .001). Sex was a l s o n o t e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n e u r o t i c i s m w i t h males t e n d i n g t o have low s c o r e s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o f e m a l e s ( X 2 = 6.36, d . f . = 1, p < .02). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a r i t a l s t a t u s and n e u r o t i c i s m ''"See T a b l e s 5, 6 and 7 i n Appendix 6. 99 approached s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (X 2 = 3.73, d.f. = 2, p < .10) with singles and the widowed, separated and divorced groups recording scores above the median scale score while the majority of married patients reported scores below the median. Although the differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between years of schooling and neuroticism was found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (X 2 = 15.62, d.f. = 4, p < .01) the Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t obtained indicated that the r e l a t i o n s h i p was not l i n e a r (r = 0.03, p < .3). Adults with less than eight years of schooling reported low neuroticism scale scores, patients with between eight and twelve years of schooling reported high l e v e l s of neuroticism and those with greater than twelve years of schooling reported r e l a t i v e l y lower l e v e l s of neuroticism. I t i s possible that an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between years of schooling and neuroticism, and that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s confounded by the e f f e c t s of age with older adults with few years of schooling completed reporting lower neuroticism scores than younger adults with less than high school completion. No differences were observed between the neuroticism scores of patients by country of b i r t h or by socio-economic status. The mean locus of control scale score for the t o t a l sample was 8.3 with a standard deviation of 3.7 and a range of 17. Although there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of locus of control scores and age, sex and marital status, differences i n d i s t r i b u t i o n s were noted in terms of years of schooling, country of b i r t h and socio-economic status (Table 7, Appendix 6). 100 External locus of control scores were associated with low l e v e l s of schooling and i n t e r n a l locus of control scores as predicted were observed to be associated with high l e v e l s of schooling (r = -.24, p < .001). S i m i l a r l y , low socio-economic status was associated with external locus of control scores and higher l e v e l s of socio-economic status were associated with i n t e r n a l locus of control scores (r = -.19, p < .005). Those patients born i n Canada tended to be i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d while the non-Canadian born tended to be externally controlled (X 2 = 4.65, d.f. = 1, p < .05) . Learning A c t i v i t y and Attitude Toward Adult Education Characteristics^- The mean learning a c t i v i t y scale scores (SEALS) was 1806.2, with a standard deviation of 1158.3. F i f t y per cent 9 of the sample had scores below 1620.4 and while males tended to report higher scores than females, and singles reported lower scores than the widowed, separated and divorced, these differences were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 8, Appendix 6). As was expected from findings of previous research, the learning a c t i v i t y scores f o r patients between 30 and 49 years of age tended to be greater than those of adults below the age of 30 and above the age of 50. The differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of learning a c t i v i t y scores by age group were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .1 l e v e l (X 2 = 7.42, d.f. = 4, p < .1). As was anticipated, years of schooling was found to be strongly correlated with learning a c t i v i t y (r = 0.30, p < .001). While three-quarters of .those patients with more than 14 years of schooling had scores above the median, almost three-quarters ''"See Tables 8 and 9 i n Appendix 6. 101 of those w i t h l e s s than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g had scores below the median f o r the t o t a l sample (X 2 = 17.36, d.f. = 4, p < .01). S i m i l a r l y , a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic s t a t u s and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y was observed (r = 0.25, p < .001). While only 31.6 per cent of those w i t h B l i s h e n Index scores below 30.1 had SEALS scores above the median, 53.1 per cent of those w i t h B l i s h e n scores of 30.1 t o 40.0 had scores above the median, 63.6 per cent w i t h B l i s h e n scores of 40.1 to 50.0 had scores above the median SEALS score and 65.7 per cent of those w i t h more than 50.0 a t the B l i s h e n s c a l e had scores above the SEALS median score (X 2 = 17.21, d.f. = 3, p < .001). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed between the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y scores of the Canadian born and the non-Canadian born i n the study sample. A mean score of 10 3.9 w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 26.4 was obtained'on the a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education s c a l e . Although the d i f f e r e n c e s were s l i g h t there was a tendency f o r the 30 t o 59 year o l d respondents to r e p o r t more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards a d u l t education than the 20 t o 29, and over 59 year o l d age groups. N e i t h e r sex nor m a r i t a l s t a t u s was found to be r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t education (Table 9, Appendix 6). P r e d i c t a b l y , years of s c h o o l i n g was found to be p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t education (r = 0.25, p < .001). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t i t u d e scores by years of school r e v e a l s a strong l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o n e - t h i r d of those respondents w i t h l e s s than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g r e c o r d i n g scores below the median a t t i t u d e s c a l e 102 score w h i l e over t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of those w i t h more than 14 years of s c h o o l i n g recorded higher than median a t t i t u d e s c a l e scores (X 2 = 14.58, d.f. = 4, p < .01). S i m i l a r l y , w i t h socio-economic s t a t u s and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education (r = 0.27, p < .001), the lowest socio-economic grouping of respondents recorded 65.8 per cent of i t s members w i t h below median scores w h i l e 65.7 per cent of the h i g h e s t socio-economic s t a t u s group recorded a t t i t u d e scores above the median. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o observed between the recorded a t t i t u d e s of the Canadian and non-Canadian born w i t h the Canadian born expressing more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards a d u l t education (X 2 = 6.14, d.f. - 1, p < .02). SUMMARY This chapter has d e s c r i b e d the study sample i n terms of socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s and i n terms of b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s r e l a t i n g socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s t o measures of h e a l t h , s t r e s s , p e r s o n a l i t y , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education. The mean age of the sample was 40.3 y e a r s , and there was no s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes, which were almost e q u a l l y represented i n the sample. The m a j o r i t y of the sample were married (70.5%) w h i l e the remainder were s i n g l e (14.7%) and widowed), separated or d i v o r c e d (14.8%). The mean number of c h i l d r e n reported was 1.7, and o n e - t h i r d of the sample reported having no c h i l d r e n . Four of every f i v e s u b j e c t s i n the sample were i n the labour f o r c e , w i t h 61.9 per cent of the sample employed f u l l time; h a l f of the s u b j e c t s had been employed i n t h e i r present 103 job for longer than 5.2 years. The mean personal annual income reported was $10,285 and the mean household income was $18,169. In terms of socio-economic status the sample represented upper working class and lower middle class s t r a t a with occupations ranging from t e x t i l e and weaving occupations to administrators i n public education and r e l a t e d occupations. Almost h a l f (45.9%) of the sample was foreign born. However, no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences were noted between the Canadian and non-Canadian born by sex and by age. The mean number of years of school completed by the sample was 10.41 years with nearly one i n f i v e of the subjects reporting more than twelve years of school. Older subjects had completed fewer years of schooling than the younger subjects i n the sample. The reported l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l organizations was generally low, with only a small minority of subjects reporting high p a r t i c i p a t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were observed between the extraversion scale and s i x selected socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s . However, socio-demographic differences were observed i n the case of the neuroticism scale and s i x selected socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s . However, socio-demographic differences were observed i n the case of the neuroticism scale. Younger adults tended to have higher neuroticism scale scores than older adults. Females tended to have higher neuroticism scores than males. A non-linear r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed between years of schooling and neuroticism. Those subjects with eight to twelve years 1 of schooling reported higher l e v e l s of neuroticism than both subjects with fewer than eight years and those with greater than twelve years of schooling. 104 Although no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences between the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of locus of cont ro l scores and age, sex, and mar i t a l status were observed, d i f fe rences were noted in terms of years of schoo l ing , country of b i r t h and socio-economic s tatus. Subjects c l a s s i f i e d as i n te rna l s had completed more years of school ing than subjects c l a s s i f i e d as externa l s . Low socio-economic status scores were associated with externa l subjects while high socio-economic status subjects tended to have high i n t e r n a l locus of cont ro l scores. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the fore ign born tended to be c l a s s i f i e d as externals while the Canadian born tended to be c l a s s i f i e d as i n t e r n a l l y con t ro l l ed . The number of years of school completed and socio-economic status were observed to be re l a ted with learn ing a c t i v i t y scores with high learn ing a c t i v i t y scores being associated with high leve l s of education and high socio-economic status. S i m i l a r l y p o s i t i v e a t t i tudes to adult education were associated with high leve l s of education and high socio-economic status. Although country of b i r t h was not re l a ted to learn ing a c t i v i t y scores, Canadian born subjects were observed to express more p o s i t i v e a t t i tudes toward adult education than d id non-Canadian born subjects . The sample had experienced genera l ly low leve l s of s o c i a l s t re s s , and they reported low l eve l s of subject ive s t re s s . Only the re l a t i on sh ip between SRRS scores and mar i t a l status proved to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t with the widowed, separated and divorced report ing scores above the median. S i m i l a r l y , the sample reported r e l a t i v e l y high l eve l s of health funct ion ing . On only one of the s ix se lected socio-demographic 105 v a r i a b l e s , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , was t h e r e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a t i e n t s h e a l t h s t a t u s s c o r e s . H i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h e a l t h change s c o r e s and t h e s i x s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . 106 CHAPTER V DATA ANALYSIS T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e o r i g i n s and pur p o s e s o f p a t h a n a l y s i s ; t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d t o p r e p a r e t h e d a t a ; t h e e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e p a t h and e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ; and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s f o r each o f f i v e s u b - s e t s o f p a t h s w i t h i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t o t a l s ystem w i t h a l l o f t h e exogenous v a r i a b l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a f f e c t i n g t h e endogenous v a r i a b l e s o f h e a l t h and h e a l t h change i s a l s o r e p o r t e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a s y n o p s i s o f a l l o f the major p r o c e d u r e s and t h e outcomes o f t h e a n a l y s i s f o r each o f t h e t e n p r o p o s i t i o n s d e r i v e d from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework d e s c r i b e d , i n C h a p t e r I I . P a t h A n a l y s i s G e n e t i c i s t S e w e l l W r i g h t (1921, 19 34) d e v e l o p e d p a t h a n a l y s i s n o t t o d i s c o v e r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a s e t o f v a r i a b l e s b u t t o c o n f i r m o r d i s c o n f i r m a p o s i t e d c a u s a l model 107 w h i c h had been e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s o f p r i o r e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h and a p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n s b a s e d upon p r i o r r e s e a r c h . P a t h a n a l y s i s i t s e l f does n o t e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l i t y ; r a t h e r i t e n a b l e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o i n t e r p r e t from c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s whether a t h e o r e t i c a l framework b e a r s any r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e m p i r i c a l , r e a l i t y . P a t h a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s w hether o r n o t r e l a t i o n s among a d a t a s e t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e d i c t e d t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( K e r l i n g e r and P e d h a z u r , 1973) . F o u r a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p a t h a n a l y s i s have been d e s c r i b e d by K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur (1973). F i r s t l y , r e l a t i o n s among t h e v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n a model s u b j e c t e d t o p a t h a n a l y s i s must be l i n e a r , a d d i t i v e and c a u s a l . S e c o n d l y , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e s i d u a l s a r e n o t c o r r e l a t e d among t h e m s e l v e s , n o r a r e t h e y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e model. I n o r d e r f o r t h i s a s s u m p t i o n t o be met, s t e p s must be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t h o u g h t t o be r e l e v a n t a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e model. W h i l e t h e exogenous v a r i a b l e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t a n a l y s e d , a l l endogenous v a r i a b l e s a r e t r e a t e d as l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e exogenous and o t h e r endogenous v a r i a b l e s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t e d r e s i d u a l term. A t h i r d a s s u m p t i o n f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p a t h a n a l y s i s i s t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r i c t one way c a u s a l f l o w i n t h e model and t h a t no r e c i p r o c a l c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s e x i s t . The f i n a l a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f measurement o f t h e v a r i a b l e be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p a r a m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e s and t h a t each v a r i a b l e be measured on an i n t e r v a l o r r a t i o s c a l e . No b a s i s appears t o e x i s t f o r t h e r e j e c t i o n o f any p a r t o f e i t h e r the model o r t h e s t u d y d a t a 108 on t h e b a s i s o f g r o s s v i o l a t i o n s o f one o r more o f t h e f o u r a s s u m p t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d . Data P r e p a r a t i o n The d a t a were i n i t i a l l y s c r e e n e d f o r extreme o u t l i e r v a l u e s and n o n - l i n e a r i t y by means o f v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f s c a t t e r g r a m p l o t s . Extreme v a l u e s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d as v a l i d c a s e s were o b s e r v e d on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s and t h e d e c i s i o n was made t o e x c l u d e v a l u e s w h i c h f e l l o u t s i d e t h e range o f p l u s o r minus two s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s from t h e mean. W h i l e i t was c l e a r from t h e s c a t t e r g r a m p l o t s t h a t s t r o n g l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s d i d n o t e x i s t , no h i g h e r o r d e r d e v i a t i o n s from s i m p l e l i n e a r i t y were o b s e r v a b l e , and no a t t e m p t was made t o "improve" t h e l i n e a r i t y o f t h e d a t a t h r o u g h l o g o r p o l y n o m i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t A n a l y s i s A p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t and i n d i c a t e s t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o r e f f e c t t h a t one v a r i a b l e has upon a n o t h e r . . The a n a l y s i s o f p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s e n a b l e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o p a r t i t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t o d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c a u s a l network i s r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 10, where s i n g l e - a r r o w e d l i n e s r e p r e s e n t t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f one v a r i a b l e o r more upon a n o t h e r . P a t h C o e f f i c i e n t s a r e n o t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y as P i j w i t h t h e s u b s c r i p t i i n d i c a t i n g t h e dependent v a r i a b l e and s u b s c r i p t j t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e whose i n f l u e n c e i s under s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g t h i r t e e n v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n each 109 path c o e f f i c i e n t a n a l y s i s : 1) S o c i a l S t r e s s (SRRS) 2) S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s (SSS) 3) N e u r o t i c i s m (EPI) 4) Locus of C o n t r o l (Rotter) 5) E x t r a v e r s i o n (EPI) 6) Learning (SEALS) 7) S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Chapin) 8) Health (Bush p o s t - t e s t or pre-post r e s i d u a l s ) 9) Age 10) P e r s o n a l Income 11) A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t Education 12) Years of School Completed 13) Sex Using the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (SPSS), (Nie et a l , 1975), path c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each a n a l y s i s were obtained by e s t i m a t i n g the f o l l o w i n g system of l i n e a r equations through a s e r i e s of r e g r e s s i o n analyses: XI = E l X2 = E 2 + P 2 , l X l X3 = E3 + P 3 ^ X ? X4 = E4 X5 = E5 X6 = E6 + P_ . X n + 6,1 1 P 6 ,2 X2 + P 6 ,3 + P6,9 X 9 + P 6 ,10 X10 + P 6 , 11 + P6,13 X13 X7 = E7 + P ^ 5 X 5 + P7 ,6 X6 X8 = E8 4- P 8 ; 1 X x 4- P8 ,3 X 3 + P 8 ,6 X9 = E9 X10 = E10 X l l = E l l X12 = E12 X13= E13 X 3 + P6,4 X4 + P6,5 X 5 X, + P6,12 X12 X6 + P8,7 X7 Figure 10 THE PATH MODEL 11 A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t Education P 6 , l l 10 Income 12 Years of Schooling S o c i a l S t r e s s 13 Sex P6,10 Locus of C o n t r o l % P a r t i c i p a t i o n - i n Learning P6 ,2 l e c t i v e ! t r e s s E2 P7,6 P6 ,3 P 3 , l Perceived >| S t r e s s - N e u r o t i c i s m E x t r a v e r s i o n P7,5 E7 4 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n P8,7 P8 ,3 8 Health 110a Leaves 111-13 are missing from this thesis. The same leaves are missing from the Library's 2d copy and also from the copy in the Adult Education Division, Faculty of Education. The author, Dr. Adrian Blunt, has been approached but ̂ i s unable to supply the missing leaves. 114 The path model as t e s t e d (Figure 10) i s depi c t e d w i t h the proposed c a u s a l paths r e f l e c t i n g e x a c t l y the t h e o r e t i c a l framework d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter. I I . Table 19 and F i g u r e 11 present the r e l e v a n t path c o e f f i c i e n t s i e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s (C..) and r e s i d u a l path c o e f f i c i e n t s (E.) f o r two analyses w i t h l e v e l of h e a l t h at the end of the study p e r i o d (Bush Health Index Post Test) and h e a l t h change (the Bush Health Index Pre-post t e s t r e s i d u a l s ) as the dependent v a r i a b l e s . 1) Health and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e Paths When the Bush p o s t - t e s t measure of h e a l t h was taken as the dependent v a r i a b l e , i t was observed t h a t the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s (SRRS) on h e a l t h were i n the d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d (P Q ,=-.22). That i s an in c r e a s e of one standard d e v i a t i o n i n s o c i a l s t r e s s was found t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a decrement i n h e a l t h of .22 standard d e v i a t i o n when a l l other v a r i a b l e s were h e l d constant. The paths between s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s scores (?2 -̂ =.-28) and per c e i v e d s t r e s s as measured by the EPI n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e (P., , = .29) were, as a n t i c i p a t e d , s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to s o c i a l s t r e s s . A l s o as p r e d i c t e d , n e u r o t i c i s m was observed t o be i n v e r s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e a l t h (P_ =-.16). 0,0 When the a n a l y s i s was repeated w i t h h e a l t h change (as measured by the Bush pre-port r e s i d u a l s ) i n c l u d e d as the dependent v a r i a b l e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between n e u r o t i c i s m and h e a l t h (Pg ^=-.01) and between s o c i a l s t r e s s (SRRS) and h e a l t h (P„ ,=-.15) were again observed, though they were s m a l l e r . The data supported the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t : 1) hig h l e v e l s of s o c i a l s t r e s s (SRRS) are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g . a n d decrements i n h e a l t h over time. 115 Table 19 PATH COEFFICIENTS (P. .) , EFFECT COEFFICIENTS (C. ..) AND RESIDUAL PATH COEFFICIENTS (E..) ID FOR PATH ANALYSES 2,1 3,1 6,1 '6,2 '6,3 '6,4 '6,5 '6,9 '6,10 '6,11 '6 ,12 '6,13 7,5 '7,6 28 9590 29 9573 06 03 01 01 05 09 10 06 28 06 9330 03 10 9945 =C 2,1 =C =C =C =C =C =C =C =C =C =C =C =C =C 3,1 6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4 6,5 6,9 6,10 6 ,11 6 ,12 6 ,13 6,7,5 7,6 a)Health (Bush P o s t - t e s t ) b)Health Change (Bush Pre-Post Residual) P 8 , l -.22 C 8 , i -.18 P 8 , l -.15 C 8 , l -.17 P 8,3 -.16 C8,3 -.16 P 8,3 -.07 C8,3 -.07 P8,6 .08 C8 ,6 .07 P8,6 .02 C8,6 .01 P8,7 -.10 C8,7 . P 8,7 -.13 C8,7 E 8 .9561 E8 .9708 116 2) L e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l s t r e s s (SRRS) e x p e r i e n c e d and 3) p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , as measured by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n o f n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y , i s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l s t r e s s (SRRS) e x p e r i e n c e d and d e t r i m e n t a l l y i n f l u e n c e s l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n . 2) S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e P a t h s A l l t h r e e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h o u g h t t o i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (SEALS), f a i l e d t o become e s t a b l i s h e d as p r e d i c t o r s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . W h i l e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g (SEALS) ( r = - . l l , p < .05) t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d (Pg ^=-.01) i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e o r no u n i q u e component o f l e a r n i n g was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g d i d n o t appear t o be dependent upon n e u r o t i c i s m (Pg ^=.0 5 ) . A l l t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u r p o r t e d e f f e c t s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s o f e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r a v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d . 3) Socio-Demographic and L e a r n i n g V a r i a b l e P a t h s F o u r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , s e x , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , income and age were i n c l u d e d i n t h e model as v a r i a b l e s exogenous t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . The s i n g l e most p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e (SEALS) was t h e number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d ( P , , =.28) w i t h income (P, =.10), 117 age (Pg ^=.09) and sex (Pg ^^=-.06) d e m o n s t r a t i n g weaker e f f e c t s upon l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . As was p r e d i c t e d , h i g h numbers o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d , h i g h e r incomes, b e i n g o l d e r and b e i n g male were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g was a c c e p t e d . A l t h o u g h a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g ( r = .15., p < .01) t h e magnitude o f t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d (Pg ^=.06) was much l o w e r t h a n had been a n t i c i p a t e d . A l t h o u g h t h e e f f e c t s o f a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were overshadowed by t h e s i n g l e dominant p r e d i c t o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g , number o f y e a r s o f p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g ; , t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was a c c e p t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e t oward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n does i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . W i t h t h e Bush p o s t - t e s t measure o f h e a l t h as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , l e a r n i n g was found t o e x e r t a p o s i t i v e , though s m a l l , e f f e c t upon h e a l t h ( P Q c = . 0 8 ) . An i n c r e a s e o f one s t a n d a r d o , b d e v i a t i o n i n t h e v a r i a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g , w i t h a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s h e l d c o n s t a n t , p r o d u c e d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e o f .08 i n h e a l t h l e v e l . W i t h h e a l t h change as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e (measured by t h e Bush p r e - p o s t r e s i d u a l s ) , t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t between l e a r n i n g and h e a l t h ( P g g=.02) was found t o be so low i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t . However, t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was a c c e p t e d t h a t e n g aging i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d (P =-.10). 118 4) S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n , L e a r n i n g and H e a l t h P a t h s One u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g among the p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s was t h a t o f an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and h e a l t h , w i t h h i g h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h and decrements i n h e a l t h . L e a r n i n g and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (P^ g=.10) as a n t i c i p a t e d were f o u n d t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d . However, t h e as s u m p t i o n s t h a t s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good h e a l t h and w i t h improvements i n h e a l t h were shown t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e by t h e o b t a i n e d p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s (P_ _) a, I o f -.10 and -.13 between s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and h e a l t h and h e a l t h change r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and improvements i n h e a l t h o v e r t i m e was r e j e c t e d . 5) S t r e s s and t h e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n L e a r n i n g From t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f t h e s t u d y i t had been p r o p o s e d t h a t . a s l e v e l s o f s o c i a l change (SRRS), a n x i e t y and o v e r - r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o l i f e c r i s e s ( n e u r o t i c i s m ) , and f e e l i n g s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s (SSS) i n c r e a s e d , t h e y would i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as a means o f c o p i n g w i t h p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s . The p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , and o n l y m i n i m a l e f f e c t s o f n e u r o t i c i s m (Pg^3=.01) and s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s (Pg 2 =-03) were o b s e r v e d . S o c i a l change was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g ( r = .10, p < .05) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e most s o c i a l change were t h e most a c t i v e l e a r n e r s . However, t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t 119 o b t a i n e d between t h e two v a r i a b l e s was more modest ( P , ,=.06), b , l i n d i c a t i n g t h a t e x p o s u r e t o s o c i a l change was n o t a major f a c t o r i n i t i a t i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f a d u l t s . 6) The Model The model i s c o m p r i s e d o f two s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s ; s t o c k o r f i x e d v a r i a b l e s and f l o w o r m a n i p u l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . Among t h e s t o c k v a r i a b l e s a r e age, s e x , number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d and o t h e r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have been f i x e d by a s i n g l e o b s e r v a t i o n a t one p o i n t i n t i m e and w h i c h t h e o r e t i c a l l y cannot be i n f l u e n c e d by change i n o t h e r system v a r i a b l e s . Examples o f t h e f l o w v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y , s o c i a l s t r e s s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as i n f l u e n c i n g o t h e r f l o w v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n . t h e v a r i a b l e system o r model. S o c i a l s t r e s s i s d e p i c t e d as ' d r i v i n g 1 t h e sy s t e m , d e t e r m i n i n g t h e range o f v a r i a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r f l o w v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e model some o f w h i c h a r e b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d o r l i m i t e d by s t o c k v a r i a b l e s (see F i g u r e 1 1 ) . A v i e w o f t h e model a t work b e g i n s w i t h s o c i a l s t r e s s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c i n g l e v e l s o f f u t u r e h e a l t h (Bush p o s t - t e s t Pg y=-.22), s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s (I>2 .^=-.28) and p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s (P^ ̂ =.29) w i t h a s m a l l b u t d i s c e r n i b l e e f f e c t f l o w i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . As t h e i n c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s r a i s e t h e p e r c e i v e d and s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s l e v e l s , v a r i a b l e s n o t i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e model, b u t whose p r e s e n c e i s known t o be i n f l u e n c i n g t h e system a l s o work t o d i v e r t t h e e f f e c t s o f v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e syste m , c o n f o u n d i n g t h e magnitude o f f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e system and Figure 11 THE PATH MODEL AND PATH COEFFICIENTS 11 A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P 6 , l l = . 0 6 10 Income 12 Years of Schooling P 6 , 1 0 = . 1 0 Locus of C o n t r o l 6,4=-.01 P6 ,9=.0 E x t r a v e r s i o n P6,5=.05 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Learning P6,2=.03 959 P7,6=.10 ^P7,5=.0! E7=.9945 ^ S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n T E6=.9 33 P6,3=.01 ' E l E3=.9573 L P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s - N e u r o t i c i s m P8 P8 ,6 Health Post Test=.08 Health Change=.02 Health ,3 Post Test=-.16 P8,7 Health Post Test=-.10 Health Change=-.13 NJ O H e a l t h P 8 , l Health Post Test=-.22 Health Change=-.15 8 Health E8 Health Post Test=.956 Health Change=.9708 121 c ompeting f o r c o n t r o l o v e r system v a r i a b l e s . Each o f t h e s y stem v a r i a b l e e f f e c t s appears weak as a r e s u l t o f measurement e r r o r , i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t s m o n i t o r i n g the s ystem and p oor e x p l a n a t o r y s u p p o r t c i r c u i t r y i n t h e system due t o t h e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n h a v i n g been c o n c e i v e d i n i s o l a t i o n from a p r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s y s t e m p a r t s . I n s p i t e o f t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e s y s t e m , t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s upon h e a l t h a r e d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e (Pg ^=-.22). When th e f u l l s y s tem e f f e c t s a r e a l l o w e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e dependent v a r i a b l e t h e d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s a r e r e d u c e d (Cg -^.=-.18). W h i l e the i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a t t r i b u t a b l e t o s o c i a l s t r e s s (Pg 2.=='0 6') i s m i n i m a l , o t h e r p r e - d i s p o s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s ystem a r e r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l s o f t h i s m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e . The s t r o n g e s t e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g o r i g i n a t e s w i t h t h e number o f y e a r s of p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g (Pg -j_2='28) • O t h e r e f f e c t s r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a r e p e r s o n a l income (P- .. =.10), age (P, =.09), a t t i t u d e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o , U J b , y (P, , ,=.06) and sex (P, ,.,=-.06). 6 ,11 6 ,1J W h i l e e x t r a v e r s i o n (P.. =.05) e f f e c t s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e 6/5 magnitude o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g , a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f l o w v a r i a b l e , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , (Pg ^=-.01) i s s e e m i n g l y weakened o r d r a i n e d o f e f f e c t by t h e s t o c k v a r i a b l e s o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d and a t t i t u d e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w h e r e i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l may i n p a r t have i t s o r i g i n s . E f f e c t s from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f l o w d i r e c t l y t o s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (P =.10) and t o h e a l t h s t a t u s (Pg ^=.08) s l i g h t l y r a i s i n g t h e o b s e r v e d l e v e l s o f each. W h i l e e x t r a v e r s i o n (P_ 0 3) e f f e c t s a r e o b s e r v a b l e upon s o c i a l 7 /.=> 122 p a r t i c i p a t i o n (P_ =.03) they are so sm a l l as to be not meaningful. However, the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n upon f u t u r e h e a l t h s t a t u s are observable and un d e s i r a b l e (P Q =-.10). S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p r e v i o u s l y thought to be capable of p r o v i d i n g incremental e f f e c t s upon f u t u r e h e a l t h i n a s i m i l a r way t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , a c t u a l l y f o r c e s f u t u r e h e a l t h l e v e l s lower, and the power of t h i s d i r e c t negative e f f e c t ( P Q =-.10) appears to be gr e a t e r o, / than the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g (P =.08). 8,6 With a l l of the system v a r i a b l e s i n e f f e c t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s are observed to be reduced (Pg ̂ =-.22; Cg -̂ =-.18) , as the incremental e f f e c t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g are s l i g h t l y reduced (P =.08; 8,6 C =.07). Using the model to p r e d i c t changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s 8,6 t h a t are u n r e l a t e d to previous l e v e l s of h e a l t h shows t h a t the d i r e c t e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s continue to a f f e c t h e a l t h a d v e r s e l y , making improvement i n h e a l t h d i f f i c u l t (P =-.15). 8,1 S i m i l a r e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h o r i g i n a t e from i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s (Pg 3=-. 07) a n c j s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (P_ =-.13). The p o s i t i v e incremental e f f e c t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n 8,7 i n l e a r n i n g thought to be capable of promoting improvements i n p r i o r l e v e l s of h e a l t h were i n s u b s t a n t i a l (P =.02). With 8,6 a l l of the system v a r i a b l e s i n e f f e c t simultaneously the negative e f f e c t s observable upon f u t u r e h e a l t h changes by l e v e l s of s o c i a l s t r e s s i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y (C 0 ,=-.17). o, x SUMMARY Path a n a l y s i s was s e l e c t e d as the most app r o p r i a t e procedure f o r a s s e s s i n g whether or not the proposed t h e o r e t i c a l 12 3 model could be supported by the r e l a t i o n s h i p s found to e x i s t among the e m p i r i c a l observations gathered i n the study. A f t e r screening out extreme data v a l u e s , the d e c i s i o n was made to exclude a l l observations which f e l l o u t s i d e the range of plus or minus two standard d e v i a t i o n s from the mean. The path model as represented d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 11 shows the hypothesized c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s among the t h i r t e e n v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the model. Path c o e f f i c i e n t s or stan d a r d i z e d p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each path shown i n the model as P ^ ( i i n d i c a t i n g the dependent and j i n d i c a t i n g the independent v a r i a b l e ) were obtained from a s e r i e s of r e g r e s s i o n analyses. E f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C - ) which represent the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t c o v a r i a t i o n between a l l of the unconstrained system v a r i a b l e s were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r s e l e c t e d paths. Rather than us i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as the c r i t e r i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g the importance of path c o e f f i c i e n t s , the simple c r i t e r i o n of .05 as the minimal s i z e f o r a meaningful path or e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t was adopted. The e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s on Bush Health Index p o s t - t e s t scores (Pg |=-.22) and h e a l t h change scores (Pg ^=-.15) was observed as p r e d i c t e d w i t h low l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g at the end of the study p e r i o d , and decrements i n h e a l t h over the study p e r i o d was adopted ( P r o p o s i t i o n 1). There was evidence of support f o r the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s o c i a l s t r e s s i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (Pg ^=.06), however the e f f e c t s observed were q u i t e modest ( P r o p o s i t i o n 2). While l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s were observed to be r e l a t e d to l e v e l s of s o c i a l s t r e s s (P2 ̂ =-.28) as p r e d i c t e d , s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s e f f e c t s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g 12 4 a c t i v i t i e s were below t h e s t a n d a r d o f e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s (Pg 2 =-0 3) i a n < 3 t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was n o t a c c e p t e d ( P r o p o s i t i o n 4) . S i m i l a r l y , p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s as measured by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n o f n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y was o b s e r v e d t o i n f l u e n c e l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n as p r e d i c t e d ( P Q =-.16) ( P r o p o s i t i o n o , 3 5 ) . However, t h e e f f e c t s o f p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g were m i n i s c u l e (P =.01), and t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n b , J was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d . G e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t was fo u n d n o t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (Pg 4=-.01) ( P r o p o s i t i o n 6 ) . The e f f e c t s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n o f e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g were a t t h e m i n i m a l l e v e l o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r m e a n i n g f u l n e s s (P' =.05) e n a b l i n g p r o p o s i t i o n b , j seven t o be a c c e p t e d ( P r o p o s i t i o n 7 ) . A l t h o u g h a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was fo u n d t o i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c o r e s ( P r o p o s i t i o n 8) t h e magnitude o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t as g r e a t as a n t i c i p a t e d (P =.06). 6,11 A l l f o u r o f t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( P r o p o s i t i o n 9) were o b s e r v e d t o have m e a n i n g f u l e f f e c t s . Number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g (P.. =.28) was t h e most p o w e r f u l b , 12 e f f e c t upon l e a r n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r t h r e e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s income (P =.10), age (P =.09) 6,10 6,9 and sex (P, .. =-.06) had more modest e f f e c t s . . 6,13 The t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n (10) t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and w i t h improvements i n h e a l t h was r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s on h e a l t h s t a t u s 125 ( P Q =-.10) and h e a l t h change ( P Q =-.13) b e i n g o b s e r v e d . F i n a l l y , on t h e b a s i s o f an o b s e r v e d e f f e c t o f .08 ( p o c ) o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g on l e v e l s o f h e a l t h o, o f u n c t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y p e r i o d i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s do promote h i g h e r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g . However, no b a s i s f o r p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w ould be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h improvements i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h o v e r t h e s t u d y p e r i o d was o b t a i n e d (Pg g=.02). W i t h a l l o f t h e model's v a r i a b l e s f r e e t o v a r y i n r e l a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t an i n c r e a s e o f one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i n s o c i a l s t r e s s s c o r e s was c a p a b l e o f l o w e r i n g p o s t - t e s t l e v e l s o f h e a l t h by .18 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u n i t s ( C D ,=0.18) and d e t r i m e n t a l l y e f f e c t i n g h e a l t h change by .17 o , i s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u n i t s (C =-.17). S i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h e 8,1 i n c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f an i n c r e a s e o f one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on p o s t - s t u d y l e v e l s o f h e a l t h was .07 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u n i t s o f h e a l t h , w h i l e t h e e f f e c t s on h e a l t h change were b a r e l y o b s e r v a b l e and judged t o be n o t m e a n i n g f u l ( C Q =.01). 126 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS S o c i a l , economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i s o c c u r r i n g at an unprecedented r a t e so t h a t people experience seemingly u n c o n t r o l l a b l e changes i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . The e f f e c t s of these changes have been r e f e r r e d t o i n popular l i t e r a t u r e as f u t u r e shock and i n the h e a l t h care and epidemiology research l i t e r a t u r e as s o c i a l s t r e s s . Many s t u d i e s have i d e n t i f i e d a l i n k between the e x p e r i e n c i n g of s o c i a l s t r e s s and subsequent decrements i n l e v e l s of h e a l t h . However, i t has been recognized t h a t not a l l who experience s o c i a l s t r e s s become i l l . Some i n d i v i d u a l s appear t o have immunity to s t r e s s - i n d u c e d i l l n e s s or use coping s t r a t e g i e s to r e s i s t the harmful e f f e c t s of s t r e s s f u l experiences. The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether or not p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s e f f e c t i v e as a coping s t r a t e g y . Do those a d u l t s who are a c t i v e l e a r n e r s maintain t h e i r h e a l t h a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g s t r e s s ; 127 and do a d u l t s who are not a c t i v e l e a r n e r s experience decrements i n t h e i r l e v e l s of h e a l t h when exposed to s t r e s s ? Design of the Study Three major problems i n f l u e n c e d d e c i s i o n s made i n the development of the model f o r t h i s study. There was l i t t l e r esearch t o guide the s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the model. The number of v a r i a b l e s w i t h p o t e n t i a l explanatory powers was l a r g e and t h e r e f o r e many v a r i a b l e s - had t o be omitted f o r the model to be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , there were r e l a t i v e l y few data c o l l e c t i o n instruments w i t h acceptable l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y a v a i l a b l e to q u a n t i f y the v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d . No consensus was found t o e x i s t i n the l i t e r a t u r e on a u n i v e r s a l l y acceptable d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e s s , and many t h e o r e t i c a l models were i d e n t i f i e d (Selye, 1956, Levine and Scotch, 1970, Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend, 1974). While no s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e s s i s accepted, one broad category of s t r e s s models - t h a t of s t r e s s as a b e h a v i o u r a l response t o s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i - has emerged during the l a s t f i f t e e n years to become dominant i n s o c i a l s t r e s s research. The s i n g l e most wid e l y used instrument i n t h i s area i s the S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), developed by Holmes and Rahe (1967). For purposes of t h i s study s o c i a l s t r e s s was o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n terms of scores on the SRRS. The study used a randomly s e l e c t e d sample i n a panel design, w i t h two data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s approximately nine months apart. The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a l l the p a t i e n t s over eighteen and under s i x t y - f i v e , years of age who had sought 12 8 h e a l t h care from a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n i n East Vancouver duri n g the year preceding the study. Each of the 86 7 p a t i e n t s was mailed a copy of the S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). A t o t a l of 506 (58.4%) forms were returned f u l l y completed, 109 (12.6%) were returned to the p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e as u n d e l i v e r a b l e and 224 (25.8%) were not returned. Of the 758 forms r e c e i v e d by p a t i e n t s the r a t e of response was 72 per cent w i t h 66.8 per cent f u l l y completed. A random sample of 300 p a t i e n t s was s e l e c t e d from the 506 f u l l y completed SRRS r e t u r n s . A t o t a l of 263 p a t i e n t s completed the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w and 226 completed the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w . During the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w data were c o l l e c t e d on h e a l t h s t a t u s , p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t education, p e r s o n a l i t y and b a s i c socio-demographic data. The second s e t of i n t e r v i e w s was conducted nine months l a t e r to gather the f o l l o w i n g data: h e a l t h s t a t u s , s u b j e c t i v e estimates of s t r e s s and locus of c o n t r o l s c o r e s . S e v e r i t y of i l l n e s s s c a l e scores were assigned by the p h y s i c i a n f o r each occasion the p a t i e n t sought h e a l t h care, and the number of v i s i t s to the p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e together w i t h the number of days spent i n h o s p i t a l were a l s o recorded. Health s t a t u s was q u a n t i f i e d using a s c a l e developed by Bush and a s s o c i a t e s (Bush and Fanshel, 19 70; Bush and Chen, 1973) which assesses h e a l t h from the p e r s p e c t i v e of a person's a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n s o c i a l l y and i n h i s or her r e g u l a r employment. S e v e r i t y of i l l n e s s was assessed using a s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d s c a l e developed by H i n k l e (1960) to record p h y s i c i a n ' s assessments of the s e v e r i t y of i l l n e s s i n terms of the d i s a b i l i t y t h a t an episode of i l l n e s s generates. The v a r i a b l e h e a l t h 129 change was generated by using the r e s i d u a l s of a r e g r e s s i o n of Bush h e a l t h s t a t u s p o s t - t e s t scores on Bush h e a l t h s t a t u s present scores. F i v e measures of s t r e s s were used i n the study. S o c i a l s t r e s s was q u a n t i f i e d by the S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) , a s c a l e c o n s i s t i n g of 43 items or l i f e events which demand s o c i a l readjustments on the p a r t of an i n d i v i d u a l when experienced. S u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s was measured by the S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale (SSS; Chapman, 1966). The n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y s c a l e from the Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (EPI) was used as a measure of per c e i v e d s t r e s s (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1966). P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s was q u a n t i f i e d by a s c a l e developed f o r use i n the study c a l l e d the S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n of A d u l t Learning Scale (SEALS; B l u n t , 1977). This magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l e c o n s i s t s of 26 items i n c l u d i n g c r e d i t , n o n - c r e d i t , v o c a t i o n a l , general i n t e r e s t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s e l f d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A t t i t u d e towards a d u l t education was measured by a Thurstone su c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s s c a l e a l s o developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use i n the study. R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l Scale (1966) was used to assess the extent t o which p a t i e n t s ' expectancies f o r c o n t r o l over t h e i r environment i n f l u e n c e d the d e c i s i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The p e r s o n a l i t y dimension of e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n was measured by the Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (1966) which d e s c r i b e s e x t r a v e r s i o n as outgoing, u n i n h i b i t e d , i m p u l s i v e and h i g h l y s o c i a b l e behaviours as compared to the i n h i b i t e d , c a r e f u l and reserved behaviours which t y p i f y i n t r o v e r s i o n . 130 Se v e r a l socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n the study i n order to d e s c r i b e the study sample and to assess the extent to which s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s and h e a l t h through t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Among the v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d were the pe r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , immigrant s t a t u s , number of c h i l d r e n , years of s c h o o l i n g and the number of a d u l t s i n the household. Under the category of labour f o r c e a c t i v i t y , i n f o r m a t i o n was -.collected on labour f o r c e s t a t u s , occupation, number of years at present job and B l i s h e n socio-economic s t a t u s i n d i c e s ( B l i s h e n , 1976). F i n a l l y , the p a t i e n t s ' l e v e l s of income and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as measured by the Chapin S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (Chapin, 19 38) were a l s o i n c l u d e d . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y A l l of the h e a l t h and s t r e s s measures were found to be c o r r e l a t e d a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s . To t e s t the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the two sets of v a r i a b l e s , f a c t o r analyses were conducted to determine the extent t o which the v a r i a b l e s would c l u s t e r together i n t o d i s c r e t e groups of h e a l t h and s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s . One a n a l y s i s employing orthogonal r o t a t i o n and imposing no f a c t o r c o n s t r a i n t s on the number of f a c t o r s t o be e x t r a c t e d y i e l d e d f o u r f a c t o r s accounting f o r 61.8 per cent of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e . The four f a c t o r s were l a b e l l e d S t r e s s , S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s , Health Function and Health Change. Each of the four f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d presented a c l e a r , unambiguous grouping of the v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d i n g s t r o n g support f o r t h e i r v a l i d i t y as i n d i v i d u a l measures of the c o n s t r u c t s of h e a l t h and s t r e s s . Scores on the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s 1) years of school completed, 2) s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 3) socio-economic s t a t u s , 4) i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus of> c o n t r o l , and 5) p e r s o n a l income. Previous research had suggested t h a t each of the f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s would be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h both a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education. Although t h e i r magnitude was s m a l l e r than had been a n t i c i p a t e d i n most cases, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the f i v e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y as w e l l as a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t education were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l w i t h only one e x c e p t i o n . C o l l e c t i v e l y , the observed i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s supported the v a l i d i t y of the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education s c a l e s . Seven psycho-metric s c a l e s used i n the study ( S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment Ra t i n g S c a l e , S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e , N e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y , I n t r o v e r s i o n - E x t r a v e r s i o n , S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n of A d u l t Learning S c a l e , A t t i t u d e to A d u l t Education Scale and the R o t t e r Locus of C o n t r o l Scale) were analysed on the b a s i s of the zero-one item responses and Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The lowest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t obtained was f o r the SEALS w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t of .69 f o l l o w e d by the SRRS w i t h .70. The remaining f i v e s c a l e s had r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from .73 f o r n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y (EPI) t o .87 f o r the A t t i t u d e to A d u l t Education S c a l e . Data A n a l y s i s The r e s u l t s of a s e r i e s of path analyses were examined 132 t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t each o f t e n t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be s u p p o r t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 1: H i g h s o c i a l s t r e s s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g a n d . w i t h decrements i n h e a l t h o v e r t i m e . W i t h a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the model h e l d c o n s t a n t , an i n c r e a s e o f one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i n t h e magnitude o f s o c i a l s t r e s s s c o r e s was o b s e r v e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y p e r i o d by .22 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u n i t s ( P Q ,=-.22) and t o l o w e r h e a l t h change s c o r e s a , i by .15 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u n i t s (P .=-.15). On t h e b a s i s o f 8,1 t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s and t h e magnitude o f t h e e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s -.18 and -.17 on h e a l t h s t a t u s and h e a l t h change r e s p e c t i v e l y , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s w i t h a l l o t h e r s ystem v a r i a b l e s u n c o n s t r a i n e d , t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 2: P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l s t r e s s , w i t h h i g h l y s t r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g l i t t l e s o c i a l s t r e s s . The o b s e r v e d e f f e c t o f s o c i a l s t r e s s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s was a t t h e l o w e s t a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s .0 6 (Pi •) e n a b l i n g t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t o be 6 ,1 t e n t a t i v e l y a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 3: P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g , and improvements i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h o v e r t i m e . A l t h o u g h t h e e f f e c t i s n o t p o w e r f u l t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s upon p o s t - s t u d y l e v e l o f h e a l t h s c o r e s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a n i n g f u l (P ' =.0 8; o, b C n =.07). However, t h e e f f e c t upon h e a l t h change was a t t h e 8,6 133 m i n i m a l o b s e r v a b l e l e v e l and below t h a t o f a c c e p t a b l e e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s (Pg g=.02; Cg g=.01). T h e r e f o r e , o n l y t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h was a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 4: L e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s w i l l be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s and w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . W h i l e t h e e f f e c t o f s o c i a l s t r e s s upon l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s was one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b s e r v e d i n t h e s t u d y ( P 2 ^=-.28) t h e r e was no m e a n i n g f u l e f f e c t o b s e r v e d o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g (Pg 2 = . 0 3 ) . T h a t p a r t o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s was i n f l u e n c e d by l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s was r e j e c t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 5: P e r c e i v e d s t r e s s as measured by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n o f n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y w i l l d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . As a n t i c i p a t e d , n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g (P„ .,=-.16) and h e a l t h change ( P Q ,=-.07). However, t h e p r e d i c t e d e f f e c t o f n e u r o t i c i s m upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s was below t h a t o f e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s (P,_ =.01). T h e r e f o r e , t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t p r e d i c t i n g t h a t p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s as measured by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n o f n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y would i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s was n o t a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 6; G e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t 134 i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . No s u p p o r t f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n was o b s e r v a b l e from t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d (P =.01). 6,4 P r o p o s i t i o n 7: The p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n o f e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n w i l l d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t r o v e r t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n e x t r a v e r t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was an o b s e r v e d e f f e c t o f e x t r a v e r s i o n upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s , t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s a c c e p t a b l e (Pg ,- = .05). The p r o p o s i t i o n was t e n t a t i v e l y a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 3: A t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be a f a c t o r p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A l t h o u g h a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s ( r = .15, p < . 0 1 ) , t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d (P,.-,,=.06) was l o w e r 6 ,11 t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d , p o s s i b l y due t o t h e s t r o n g p r e d i c t o r e f f e c t s o f t h e v a r i a b l e number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d . However, th e o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p was c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a n i n g f u l and the p r o p o s i t i o n was a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 9: The s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s o f age, s e x , income and y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d w i l l d i r e c t l y e f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A l l f o u r o f t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s as p r e d i c t e d w i t h number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g (P -.28) b e i n g t h e s i n g l e most p o w e r f u l 6,12 i n f l u e n c e f o l l o w e d by income ( P . ., =..10) , age (P. =.09) and 6,10 6,9 sex (P __=-.06). The p r o p o s i t i o n was t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d . 6 ,13 P r o p o s i t i o n 10: P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y p e r i o d , and improvements i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h o v e r t h e s t u d y p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h th e e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was o b s e r v e d as a n t i c i p a t e d (P =.10), t h e 7,6 o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and h e a l t h s t a t u s p r o v e d t o be t h e i n v e r s e o f t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . H i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s appears t o be d e t r i m e n t a l t o h e a l t h (P =-.10) and t o promote o, / u n d e s i r e a b l e changes i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h (P =-.13). The d a t a o, 7 p r o v i d e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . O v e r a l l t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g were a l l d i s c o n f i r m e d . No e v i d e n c e was o b t a i n e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s i n f l u e n c e d by l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e o r p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s , o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was f o u n d t o have d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h a l t h o u g h p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g . F i n a l l y , modest s u p p o r t was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s promotes f u t u r e l e v e l s o f h e a l t h a l t h o u g h no e f f e c t upon h e a l t h change i t s e l f was o b s e r v a b l e . D i s c u s s i o n The s i n g l e most d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y c e n t r e around t h e o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f t h e major c o n s t r u c t s i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model, none o f w h i c h have u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n s o r i n s t r u m e n t s t o q u a n t i f y them. C l e a r l y the r e s u l t s obtained must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of the exact phenomena t h a t were q u a n t i f i e d . While evidence of instrument v a l i d i t y f o r the major v a r i a b l e s has been presented, the l i m i t a t i o n s of the instruments t o measure t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t s ought not to pass unquestioned. For example, s o c i a l s t r e s s i s q u a n t i f i e d s o l e l y i n terms of the 42 l i f e events on the S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967), not a l l of which are e q u a l l y l i k e l y to be experienced by each respondent such as d i v o r c e , death of spouse or pregnancy. The s c a l e items l i m i t the range of responses p o s s i b l e f o r each s u b j e c t and t h e r e f o r e may not be an a p p r o p r i a t e sample of s t r e s s o r s from the universe of s t r e s s o r s l i k e l y to be experienced by each subject i n the study. The Bush Health Status Index (Bush and Fanshel, 1970) measures the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l p a t i e n t to f u n c t i o n i n h i s normal o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s e t t i n g s . R e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between p a t i e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o f u n c t i o n are ignored. I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n , personal need, f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e , p a i n or d i s c o m f o r t t h r e s h o l d s and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the v s o c i a l and n a t u r a l environment are among f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the p a t i e n t s d e c i s i o n to d i s c o n t i n u e normal a c t i v i t i e s when e x p e r i e n c i n g a h e a l t h problem. The d e c i s i o n to c l a i m i l l n e s s as the cause of h e a l t h d y s f u n c t i o n i n some cases may not be a p p r o p r i a t e , and the d i f f e r e n c e between tru e and observed l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e magnified. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as measured by the S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n of A d u l t Learning Scale i s r e s t r i c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n twenty-seven l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . While the s c a l e has been demonstrated to have v a l i d i t y i n terms of i t s a b i l i t y to generate 137 s c o r e s w h i c h c o r r e l a t e s i g n f i c a n t l y and i n p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , i t i s n o t known whether the sample o f i t e m s w h i c h c o m p r i s e th e s c a l e a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e u n i v e r s e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e r e f o r e t h a t a l t e r n a t e i t e m s m i g h t have y i e l d e d h i g h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s f o r some s u b j e c t s . These problems o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n a r e n o t u n i q u e t o t h i s s t u d y . However, r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s must be made when the magnitude o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h i s s t u d y ' s v a r i a b l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o w e r t h a n d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . F u r t h e r , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o remember t h a t t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e s t u d y ' s c o n s t r u c t s t h a t r e q u i r e terms such as h e a l t h , l e a r n i n g and s t r e s s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d s o l e l y w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d i n t e n t o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s t o q u a n t i f y t h o s e c o n s t r u c t s . A l l o f t h e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on s o c i a l s t r e s s r e v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y was b ased on s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s s uch as c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , n a v a l p e r s o n n e l , h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s and s p e c i f i c p a t i e n t groups such as c o r o n a r y o r t u b e r c u l o s i s p a t i e n t s . T h i s s t u d y i s d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t i t uses a random sample o f a d u l t s w i t h i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n . F u r t h e r , w h i l e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d w i t h r e t r o s p e c t i v e d e s i g n s , t h i s s t u d y used a p r o s p e c t i v e p a n e l d e s i g n t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f measurement c o n t a m i n a t i o n . The s t u d y f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s and h e a l t h i s o b s e r v a b l e among a random sample of a d u l t s 13 8 r e g i s t e r e d as p a t i e n t s o f a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n and n o t j u s t s p e c i a l p a t i e n t groups has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e o f p r e v e n t i v e m e d i c i n e i n t h e f a m i l y p r a c t i c e s e t t i n g . G i v e n t h e g r e a t number o f f a c t o r s known t o i n f l u e n c e h e a l t h , t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as an a d d i t i o n a l , though modest i n f l u e n c e - can be o b s e r v e d among a random sample o f f a m i l y p r a c t i c e p a t i e n t s i s a p r o m i s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h e r s a t t e m p t i n g t o i d e n t i f y s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o p i n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n t h i s i n i t i a l e x p l a n a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t o r y o f h e a l t h were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e model; t h e r e f o r e t h e p o s i t e d c a u s a t i v e e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g appear t o go u n c h a l l e n g e d . I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o b s e r v e d were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n a b s o l u t e t e r ms. Two u n a n t i c i p a t e d c o n c l u s i o n s appear w a r r a n t e d by t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g s . F i r s t l y , p e r s o n a l i t y as measured by t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (Eysenck and E y s e n c k , 1968) and t h e Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e ( R o t t e r , 1966) d i d not i n f l u e n c e - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . S e c o n d l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s appeared t o have d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h . N o t h i n g new has been added by t h i s s t u d y t o knowledge about f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Those s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were a l s o c o n f i r m e d as b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s s t u d y . However, t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d e f f e c t s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , s o c i a l s t r e s s and a t t i t u d e 139 t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were shown t o be n o n - e x i s t e n t o r weak. W i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f any d i r e c t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t o p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e , i t was assumed t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n . G i v e n t h a t s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has f r e q u e n t l y been c i t e d as a m o t i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ( B o s h i e r , 1971) i t was r e a s o n a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be s i m i l a r l y r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h as t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y - h e a l t h r e l a t i o n s h i p . That t h i s appears n o t t o be t h e c a s e r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f what d i f f e r e n c e s m i g h t e x i s t between s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t m i g h t r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s b e i n g o b s e r v e d by t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s upon h e a l t h s t a t u s . Whether o r not' t h e r e a r e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s unknown. W i t h t h e p o s s i b l e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f measurement e r r o r , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s used t o q u a n t i f y t h e c o n s t r u c t s t h e m s e l v e s , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y sample ( r e l a t i v e l y h e a l t h y as opposed t o i l l ) i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a r e as l i k e l y t o u n d e r - e s t i m a t e as t o o v e r - e s t i m a t e t h e magnitude o f t h e ' r e a l 1 e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g upon h e a l t h s t a t u s . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o c l a i m t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and h e a l t h i s so n e g l i g i b l e as t o be unworthy o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Nor i s i t p o s s i b l e t o c l a i m t h a t t h e r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e e v i d e n c e t h a t a s u b s t a n t i v e e f f e c t o f l e a r n i n g upon h e a l t h m ight e x i s t 140 , which would r a i s e the importance of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h i s area above the importance of the e f f e c t s of other s o c i a l or environmental f a c t o r s which might mediate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s and h e a l t h . The r e s u l t s stand p r e s e n t l y as an i s o l a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n supporting the t h e s i s advanced by Moss (1973) t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n f o r m a t i o n networks enables one t o a c q u i r e immunity from i l l n e s s . As such, the study advances the challenge to researchers i n a d u l t education to f u r t h e r c o n f i r m or d i s c o n f i r m the hypothesis t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s promotes good h e a l t h . In r e t r o s p e c t t h i s study may have been conducted too e a r l y and the methodology may have been too ambitious an attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s , h e a l t h and l e a r n i n g . The study may have been conducted too e a r l y because the instruments needed to q u a n t i f y the major study v a r i a b l e s had not been p r e v i o u s l y developed, or were not u n i v e r s a l l y recognized and v a l i d a t e d , and because no p r i o r s t u d i e s of s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s or groups had been conducted t o guide the design of the study. The study may a l s o have been too ambitious because i t used a community-care sample as compared to a sample from a high s o c i a l s t r e s s or high i l l n e s s group, and the study design was developed to assess changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s over time as compared to l e v e l s of h e a l t h s t a t u s at only one p o i n t i n time. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The study sample contained a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of non-Canadian born (45%) and represented a predominantly upper working c l a s s s o c i a l stratum. F u r t h e r , each of the 141 r e s p o n d e n t s r e p r e s e n t o n l y u s e r s o f t h e s e r v i c e s o f a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g s ought t h e r e f o r e t o be l i m i t e d t o groups w i t h s i m i l a r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c and h e a l t h c a r e u t i l i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D a t a f o r each o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s t u d y has v a l i d i t y s o l e l y i n terms o f t h e e x t e n t to. w h i c h each s c a l e , i n d e x o r o t h e r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t a c c u r a t e l y measures t h e c o n s t r u c t i n q u e s t i o n . Each o f t h e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d s o l e l y i n terms o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t used t o g a t h e r t h e d a t a . S o c i a l s t r e s s i n t h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e i s n o t a l l s o c i a l s t r e s s b u t s o l e l y t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f each o f t h e 42 l i f e - c h a n g e e v e n t s i d e n t i f i e d on t h e S o c i a l R e a djustment R a t i n g S c a l e (Holmes and Rahe, 1967). S i m i l a r l y , h e a l t h s t a t u s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have p a r a m e t e r s p l a c e d upon t h e i r l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by t h e s t u d y i n s t r u m e n t s . A l l o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y can be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. A l t e r n a t e forms o f q u a n t i f y i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s m ight g e n e r a t e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h e r e f o r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y ' s t h e o r e t i c a l model ought not t o be i n t e r p r e t e d beyond t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e s c a l e s , i n d e x e s and o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s t o q u a n t i f y them. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s modest s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s a s t r a t e g y f o r c o p i n g w i t h s o c i a l s t r e s s by m e d i a t i n g t h e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s upon h e a l t h . I f w i t h i n a random sample o f t h e p a t i e n t s of a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n ' s p r a c t i c e i t can be demonstrated, t h a t a c t i v e l e a r n e r s do not experience decrements i n h e a l t h subsequent to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i t ought to be p o s s i b l e to demonstrate th a t a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p holds tr u e among high s o c i a l s t r e s s samples, extremes of a c t i v e and non-active l e a r n e r s , and both good and poor h e a l t h groups. P r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s are r e q u i r e d t o i d e n t i f y whether the l e a r n i n g process, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process dur i n g formal l e a r n i n g experiences or the content of the m a t e r i a l t o be learned a f f e c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s and h e a l t h . U n t i l the nature of the hypothesized l i n k a g e s i n the model have been explored more s p e c i f i c a l l y and through d i f f e r e n t research techniques and methodologies, there can be no c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s f o r a d u l t educators to take regarding the u t i l i z a t i o n of knowledge about the e f f e c t s of l e a r n i n g upon the outcomes of s o c i a l s t r e s s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are c l e a r l y n o n - s p e c i f i c i n terms of the development of a d u l t education s t r a t e g i e s t o combat the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s . Given such broad p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the conduct of research i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a s e r i e s of s m a l l e r s t u d i e s of s p e c i f i c groups such as s i n g l e parents, immigrants, o f f e n d e r s , graduate students, firemen, p h y s i c i a n s , d e n t i s t s and other such high s t r e s s occupations or s o c i a l groups may be r e q u i r e d r a t h e r than broadly based heterogeneous community samples such as was used i n t h i s study. One c o n c l u s i o n to be drawn from t h i s study i s t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y dimensions of e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y do not appear to e f f e c t d e c i s i o n s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n learning, a c t i v i t i e s . Although p e r s o n a l i t y may 143 a f f e c t a c t u a l l e a r n i n g p erformance and u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t h e a l t h t h r o u g h t h a t means t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e from t h i s s t u d y t o s u p p o r t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f Eysenck's p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s i n s i m i l a r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . The same c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn from t h e e f f e c t s o f R o t t e r ' s Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e S c o r e s w h i c h d i d n o t appear t o i n f l u e n c e engagement i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as was p r e d i c t e d . I f p e r s o n a l i t y and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and n o t o t h e r s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e e f f e c t s a r e confounded. To d e t e r m i n e whether t h i s was t h e case a n a l y s i s o f t h e S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e i n d i v i d u a l i t e m r e s p o n s e s t h r o u g h p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o r some s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e w o u l d be r e q u i r e d . The q u e s t i o n o f why p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be i n v e r s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h e a l t h s t a t u s , w h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , i s a q u e s t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e t o be answered by f u t u r e s t u d i e s . G i v e n t h e f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d r e a s o n o f ' o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' s t a t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n f o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs i t i s - u n e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e outcomes o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e two a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be d i s - s i m i l a r l y r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h s t a t u s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f s o c i a l a p p e a l and e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l y c e r t a i n forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h w h i c h ar e p o s i t i v e and t h e s e e f f e c t s a r e confounded by o t h e r s w h i c h a r e d e t r i m e n t a l t o h e a l t h m a i n t e n a n c e . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y was begun one i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the 144 r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s has been r e p o r t e d . A s l a n i a n and B r i c k e l l (1980) have r e p o r t e d t h a t 49 p e r c e n t o f a U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t i o n a l sample p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t 83 p e r c e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r s c i t e d l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s as t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r l e a r n i n g . The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s a r e r e a s o n s f o r l e a r n i n g and as C r o s s (19 81) has p o i n t e d o u t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s and o b t a i n e d d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h e i r h y p o t h e s i s . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e needed t o c o n f i r m o r r e f u t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l i f e changes as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The p u r pose o f t h i s s t u d y has been t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and h e a l t h and t o d e t e r m i n e whether a new f u n c t i o n f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n m i g h t be i d e n t i f i e d - t h e f u n c t i o n o f p r o m o t i n g h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h . I n c o n c l u s i o n i t appears t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e t h r e e major c o n s t r u c t s r e m a i n i n need o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n and t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r n o t l e a r n i n g i s a s t r a t e g y f o r c o p i n g w i t h change remains l a r g e l y unanswered. W h i l e t h i s s t u d y has p r o d u c e d modest e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may h e l p t o m a i n t a i n h e a l t h , w h e t her i t i s t h e b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g t h a t promote h e a l t h , t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y o r even o t h e r s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h may be p r e s e n t d u r i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s n o t known. Whether o r n o t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o s e r v e a new f u n c t i o n , t h e p r o m o t i o n o f h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h s y c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h must remain a q u e s t i o n f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . 145 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adolph, T. and R.F. Whalley, " A t t i t u d e s Toward Ad u l t Education," A d u l t Education, S p r i n g (1967(, 152-156. 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Holmes, "Magnitude of L i f e Events and Seriousness of I l l n e s s , " J o u r n a l of Psychosomatic Medicine, 33 (1971) , 115-121. 154 APPENDICES 156 A P P E N D I X 2 PATIENT NO.: INTERVIEWER'S NAME DATE: FAMILY PRACTICE PATIENT CARE RESEARCH STUDY HEALTH INDEX UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION INTERVIEWER' S COMMENTS 158 PAGE 1 (MARK AND SHOW CALENDAR; RECORD DATES ON TOP OF PAr.E IA: CROSS OUT REMAINING COLUMNS)— i s . For most of the questions I ' l l be asking about the past 8 days, that from a week ago yesterday, or last (day/date) through yesterday (day/date). SPC1. (CARD 1) F i r s t I would l i k e to ask about any symptoms or problems you might have had. Please look at this l i s t one at a time and t e l l me the number of a l l of the items that you had at any time during the past 8 days. Don't worry about how important or serious the problem was; i f i t was present at a l l last wefek, please give me the number. (PUT NUMBERS IN LEFT HAND COLUMN) SPC2. Were there any other symptoms or problems not on the l i s t that you had a-t any time during the past 8 days? What were they? (PROBE TO CHECK IF;COVERED ON SPC LIST: IF NOT, FILL OUT X, Y, OR Z. ) (IF NO SPC's AT ALL, RECORD AND TURN TO MOB1 p. 2. IF ANY SPC's ASK) SPC3. On which days, from a week ago yesterday (day/date) through yesterday (day/date), did you have ( f i r s t number given)? (CIRCLE ALL DAYS; REPEAT QUESTION FOR ALL s SPC's, INCLUDING X, Y, AND Z.) SPC4. (FOR ALL DAYS WITH MORE THAN ONE NUMBER RECORDED, ASK) You've told me that on (day/date)'you had numbers (repeat a l l numbers given for that day). Which did you consider the most undesirable on that day? ("PUT AN "X" THROUGH THE APPROPRIATE CIRCLE; REPEAT UNTIL ALL DAYS ARE RATED.) CARD 1 1. Troub le see ing ( i n c l u d e s wear ing g l a s s e s or c o n t a c t s ) . 2. Pa in o r d i s c o m f o r t i n one o r both ^ y e s . such as burning or i t c h i n g . 3. T r o u b l e hear ing ( i n c l u d e s wearing h e a r i n g a i d ) . 4. E a r a c h e , too thache , or pa in i n jaw. 5 . Sore t h r o a t , l i p s , tongue, gums or s t u f f y , runny nose. 6. S e v e r a l or a l l permanent t ee th m i s s i n g or c rooked . 7. P a i n , b l e e d i n g , i t c h i n g , or d i s c h a r g e (dra inage) fsom sexual organs , (exc ludes normal menstruat i o n ) . 8. I t c h i n g , b l e e d i n g , or p a i n i n rectum. 9. Pa in i n c h e s t , stomach, s i d e , back or h i p s . 10. Cough and f e v e r or c h i l l s . 11. Cough, wheezing, or shor tnes s of b r e a t h . 1?. S i c k or upset s tomach, v o m i t i n g , o r d i a r r h e a (watery bowel movements). 13. Fever or c h i l l s w i t h ach ing a l l over and vomiting or diarrhea (watery bowel movements). 14. H e r n i a or rupture of abdomen (stomach). 15. Painful, burning, or frequent urination (passing water). 16. Headache, d i z z i n e s s or ringing In ears. 17. Spells of f e e l i n g hot, nervous or shaky. 18. Weak or deformed ( c rooked) back. 19. Pain, s t i f f n e s s , numbness, or discomfort of neck, hands, f e e t , arms, l e g s , or s e v e r a l j o i n t s 20. One arm and one leg deformed (crooked), paralyzed (unable t o move), or broken ( i n c l u d e s wearing a r t i f i c i a l l imbs or b r a c e s ) . 21. One hand or ana m i s s i n g , deformed (crooked), paralyzed 'unable to move), or broken (includes wearing a r t i f i c i a l l imbs or braces). 22. One foot or leg mlaaing, deformed (crooked), paralyzed (unable to move), or broken ( i n c l u d e s wearing a r t i f i c i a l limbs or bracea). 23. Two legs deformed (crooked), paralyzed (unable to move), or broken (Includes wearing a r t i f i c i a l llmba or braces). 24. Two legs mlaaing (Includes wearing a r t i f i c i a l llmba or braces). 25. Skin defect of face, body, a n a or legs, such aa acera, pimples, warts, bruises or changes in color. 26. Burning or itching rash on large areaa of face, body, area, or legs. 27. Burn over large areaa of face, body, arms or lega. 28. Overweight for age and height. 29. General tiredness, weakness, or weight losa. 30. Trouble talking, auch aa l i sp , stuttering, hoaraenaaa, or being unable to speak. 31. Trouble learning, remembering, or thinking c lear ly. 32. Loss of conaclousneaa auch aa aelzurea ( f l t a ) , fa int ing, or coma (out cold or knocked out). 33. Taking medication or staying oa preacrlbed diet for health reaaona. 34. Breathing amog or unpleaaant a i r . 36. Spella of feel ing upaet, depressed', or crying. 159 PACE IA SYMPTOM/PROBLEM COMPLEX ANSWER SHEET Month(s) SPC No NONE A. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 8. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat C. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat D. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat E. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat F. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat G. Sun Mon Tue Wed. Thu Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat H. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat I. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat J. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat K. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat L. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat M. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat N. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat 0. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat P. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Q. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat R. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat S. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat T. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat X. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Y. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu' Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Z. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat X Y Z NONE 160 PAGE 2 (MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 2A) During the next few questions I w i l l be asking you about a l l of the past 8 days, that l s , from (day/date) through (day/date), including weekends, holidays, days off, and so on. Although this may involve some repetition, once you hear the pattern of each question for one day, you w i l l see that wa can run through additional days very quickly. M0B1 . On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you spend any part of a day or night as a bed patient in a hospital, nursing home, mental institution, home for the retarded, or similar place? NONE (CIRCLE D»YS SPENT IN HOSPITAL AND, FOR ALL DAYS TOGETHER, ASK) IA. What was the reason that you were in the (hospital, etc.)? (RECORD "ESPONSE) DR.SCR. (Driving Screener) Do you have a valid driver's license? YES NO i. A. Is the reason you do not have a license in any way related to your health? YES i CODE H FOR ALL DAYS ON MOB 2 ANSWER SHEET AND SKIP TO P.T.SCR. PAGE 3 MOB 2 On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you drive a car? NO SKIP TO P.T. SCR. PAGE 3 . drove ALL days (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE DAYS WHEN DROVE, X REMAINING DAYS: FOR FIRST X DAY ASK) i 2A. And what was the reason that you did not drive- on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON) 'IF H CODE) (IF NOT H ASK) 2B . In addition to that (reason) were there any reasons related to your health that you did not drive on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O) (REPEAT 2A UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O) (TURN TO PACE 3 P.T. SCR.) (TURN TO PAGE 3 P.T. SCR.) \ 161 PAGE 2A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) " Da te M0B1• Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat IA. M0B2. - Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (day/date) y/date) (day/date) 162 PAGE 3 (MARK D«TES AT TOP OF PAGE 3A) P.T.SCR. (Public Transportation Screener) Do you ever use public transportation, such as a bus, train, plane, or subway? YES 2 . NO I A. Is the reason you do not use public transportation in any way related to your health? YES CODE H FOR ALL DAYS ON MOB3 ANS. SHT. AND SKIP TO PAC1 PAGE 4 NO SKIP TO PAC1 PAGE 4 MOB3. On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you use public transportation? Used ALL days CIRCLE ALL DAYS FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE DAYS USED; X REMAINING DAYS. FOR FIRST X DAY ASK) 34. And what was the reason that you did not use public transportation on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD RESPONSE) (IF NOT H ASK) MOB 3B. In addition to that (reason), were there any reasons related to your health that you did not use public transportation on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD) (IF NOT H CODE 0 AND ASK) REPEAT 3A UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS) SKIP TO PAC 1 p. 4, FOR FIRST) CIRCLED DAY ASK 3C. On (day/date) did you use help from someone else in order to take public transportation? 3C. If you had taken public transportation on (day/date) would you have used help to do so? A PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE U/NU; IF X DAYS REMAIN REPEAT 3A; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT 3C; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR SKIP TO PAC 1 PAGE 4{ 163 PAGE 3A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) .ate • M0B3. Sun Mon Tue wed Thu Fr i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat H. RELATED H a H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 USED U U U U U U U U U U U U U U NOT USED NU NU NU NU NU NU NU NU NU NU NU NU NU NU (day/date) ( d a y / d a t e ) ( d a y / d a t e ) 164 PAGE 4 (MARK DATES ST TOP OF PAGE 4A) PAC1. On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you spend most or a l l of the day in bed? NONE <CIRCLE DAYS IN BED, AND FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK) No days in bed IA. And what was the reason that you stayed in bed on (day/date)?(RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK) I In addition to that (reason), were there any other reasons that (day)? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK) I Anything else? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE; IF NOT H, REPEAT PROBE UNTIL H OR NO OTHER REASONS) (REPEAT IA UNTIL ALL CIRCLED DAYS CODED H/O) (P«C2, p. 5) (PAC2, p. 5) 165 PAGE 4A (ENTER DATES) QAC1. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (day /da te ) (day /da te ) 166 PAGE 5 (MARK D»TES AT TOP OF PAGE 5A) , PAC2. On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you s i t for most or a l l of the day in any type of chair, couch, or wheelchair? NONE No days spent in cha i r, etc. PAC3. 3A (CIRCLE DAYS SPENT IN CHAIR, ETC.; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK) 2A. ^nd what was the reason that you spent most or a l l of the day (day/date) in a (chair/wheelchair/etc.)? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK) 4 In addition to that (reason), were there any other reasons that (day)? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK) Anything else? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE; IF NOT H, REPEAT UNTIL H OR NO OTHER REASONS) (REPEAT 2A UNTIL ALL CIRCLED DAYS CODED H/O) On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you have trouble - or not try to - l i f t , stoop, bend over, or use stairs or inclines? NONE (CIRCLE DAYS AND FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY ASK) Al. What was the reason (that you...) on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY) 3B. On which of the past 3 days, i f any, did you limp, or use a cane, crutches, or walker? NONE (CIRCLE DAYS AND FOR EACH CIRCLED D«Y ASK) Bl. What was the reason (that you...) on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY) V 3C. On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you have any (other) physical limitations or not try to walk as far or as fast as most persons your age are able? NONE (CIRCLE DAYS AND FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY ASK) Cl. What was the trouble or limitation on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY) (TURN TO ROL1 p. 6 ) (TURN TO ROL1 p. 6) 167 PAGE 5A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) n i t e PAC2. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat H. RELATED ' H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 O O 0 O 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 (day'date) (day/date) PAC3A. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat H. RELATED H . H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PAC3B. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thn Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0- 0 0 0 0 0 0 PAC3C. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) 168 PACE 6 ROU. Are you primarily working;, retired, disabled, unemployed, a student, (housewife), or what? (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY) WRKG I DSBL UNEM STUDENT I RTRD i I SKIP TO SAC1. BELOW SKIP TO SAC1. BELOW SKIP TO SAC1. BELOW SKIP TO SAC1 PAGE 7 SKIP TO SAC1 PAGE 8 HSWF I SKIP TO SAC1 PAGE 9 (MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 6A) I WORKING, DISABLED, UNEMPLOYED, ON STRIKE, SICK LEAVE SAC1. During the past 8 days, including weekends, holidays and so on, days, i f any, did you work on a job at al l ? on which Worked ALL days (CIRCLE ALL DAYS) (FOR 1ST CIRCLED DAY ASK) (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE YES DAYS; X DAY ASK) X REMAINING DAYS, FOR FIRST SAC IA And what was the reason that you did not work on a job on (day/date)? (IF H, CODE AND RECORD RESPONSE) (IF NOT H, ASK) SAC IB In addition to that (reason), were there any reasons related to (your?) health that you did not work on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD) 1 REPEAT SAC IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS I CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS| SKIP TO SAC2, P.10, FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK (IF NOT H, CODE 0 AND ASK) IC On (day/date), were you limited in any way in the amount or kind of work in job, such as, WORKING DISABLED UNEMPLOYED! IC If you had worked on a job on (day/date), would you have been limited in any way, such as, not doing certain tasks or or working using special working aids strenuous work, taking; special rest periods only part of the day? X I PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR, TURN TO SAC2. PAGE 10 169 /PACE 6A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) Date SAC1. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H - H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LIMITED L L L L L L L L L L L L L L NOT LIMITED NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) 170 PAGE 7 STUDENT MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 7A- SAC1. During the past S days, including weekends, holidays, and so on, on which days, i f any, did you attend classes or school a c t i v i t i e s at a l l ? ..ALL school a c t i v i t i e s a l l days CIRCLE ALL DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED D4Y ASK (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE YES. DAYS: X REMAINING DA'.'S, FOR FIRST X DAY ASK) IA. And what was the reason that you did not (attend classes/ do school a c t i v i t i e s ) on (day/date)? (IF H CODE) (IF NOT H ASK) IB. In addition to that (reason) were there any reasons you did not act i v i t i e s ) (IF H CODE) i REPEAT IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS, SKIP TO SAC2, P.10. FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK related to your health that (attend classes/do school on (day/date)? (IF NOT H CODE 0 AND 1SK) IC. On (day/date), were you limited in any way in the amount or,kind of school a c t i v i t i e s such as being excused from certain courses, including gym or recess a c t i v i t i e s , attending a special school or classes, having special teaching or courses at home, or not carrying a f u l l schedule? _ V PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR TORN TO SAC2. PAGE 10 IC. If you had (attended clasi done school a c t i v i t i e s ) on (day/date) would you have been limited in any way such as 171 PAGE 7A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) Date SAC1. Sun Mon Tue W°d Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sal H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LIMITED L L L L L L L L L L L L L L NOT LIMITED NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) 172 PAGE 8 RETIRED MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 8A SAC1. During the past 8 days including weekends, holidays, and so on, on which days, i f any, did you do any work a c t i v i t i e s at a l l such as shopping, cooking, or working in or around the house, yard, or garden? ALL did work a c t i v i t i e s a l l days CIRCLE ALL DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK IA. (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE YES X DAY ASK) DAYS, X REMAINING DAYS, FOR FIRST And what was the reason that you (day/date)? (IF H, CODE AND RECORD) did not do work ac t i v i t i e s on IC. (IF NOT H ASK) I IB. In addition to that (reason) were there any reasons related to your health that you did not do work ac t i v i t i e s on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD) (IF NOT H CODE 0 AND ASK) REPEAT SAC IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS SKIP TO SAC2 P. 10. FOR FIRST CIRCLED LDAY ASK , On (day/date) were you limited in any way in the amount or kind of work ac t i v i t i e s such as V IC. If you had done work ac t i v i t i e s on (day/date) would you have been limited in any way such as using special working aids, not doing certain tasks or strenuous work, taking special rest periods, or working only part of the day? PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR TURN TO SAC2, PAGE 10 173 PACE 8A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) Date SAC1. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sai H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LIMITED L L L L L L L L L L L L L L NOT LIMITED NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) 174 PAGE 9 MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 9A HOUSEWIFE SAC1. During the past 8 days, including weekends, holidays, and so on, on which days, i f any, did you do any housework at al l ? housework ALL days ' CIRCLE ALL DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK (IF MOT ALL, DAY ASK) CIRCLE YES DAYS; X REMAINING DAYS, FOR FIRST v IC. IA. And what was the reason that you did no housework on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD RESPONSE) (IF NOT H ASK) IB. In addition to that (reason) were there any reasons related to your health that you did no housework on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD) (IF NOT H, CODE 0 AND ASK) REPEAT IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O; 'IF NO CIRCLED DAYS SKIP TO SAC2. PAGE 10 FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK On (day/date) were you limited in any way in the amount or kind of housework such as IC. If you had done housework on (day/date), would you have been limited in any way, such as not l i f t i n g small children, not cooking, washing, or ironing, or not doing heavy cleaning, or taking special rest periods. PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR TURN TO SAC2, PAGE 10 175 PAGE 9A (ENTER DATES) onth(s) Data SAC1. Sun Mon Tua Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LIMITED. L L L L L L L L L L L L L L NOT LIMITED NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) (day/date) 176 PACE 10 (MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 10 : — — : SAC2. (CARD X (OTHER ACTIVITIES) On which of the past 8 days, i f any, were you limited in any way in the amount or kind of any a c t i v i t i e s other than (work/ housework/work activities/school), such as the examples shown on this card, as usual for your age? NONE (CIRCLE DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY, ASK) not limited ^ on any days 2A. In what way were you limited on (day/date)? (RECORD RESPONSE AND CODE H/O; REPEAT 2A FOR NEXT CIRCLED DAY UNTIL ALL ACCOUNTED FOR) if SFCR (CARD XI (SELF-CARE) On which days, i f any, from a week ago yesterday through yesterday, did you have more than the usual help for most persons your age with any items on this card? (CIRCLE ALL DAYS WHEN ANY ONE APPLIED: FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK) IA. Please give me the numbers that applied on (day/date)? (RECORD RESPONSES AND CIRCLE NUMBERS FOR EACH DAY; REPEAT IA FOR NEXT CIRCLED DAY UNTIL ALL ACCOUNTED FOR) END EXAMPLES ONLY CARD X (as usual for age) OACT Going shopping, handling personal business, and so on. Taking part in hobbies, games, play, recreational a c t i v i t i e s and so on. Taking part in individual or group sports, athletic a c t i v i t i e s , etc. Visiti n g or meeting with friends, relatives, and so on. Taking part in church, Sunday School, synagogue, or other religious a c t i v i t i e s . Taking part in community work, c i v i c projects, etc. Going to club, lodge, other meetings, and so on. Attending movies, ballgames, plays, concerts, other entertainment, and so on. Taking part in extracurricular a c t i v i t i e s such as chorus, drama, sports, etc. NONE END 177 PAGE 10A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) Date SAC2. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu F r i Sat H. RELATED H H H H H H H H H H H H H H NOT H. REL. O O O O O O O O O O O O O O (day/date) (day/date) SFCR1. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Frt Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sat DRESS 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 FEED SELF 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 TAKE BATH 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 USE TOILET 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 (day/date) (day/date) | HAD MORE HELP| THAN OTHERS THE SAME AGE CARD XI SFCR 1. Had help to DRESS (tying shoes, buttoning shirt, blouse, coat, etc.), or did not DRESS for health reasons. 2. Had help to FEED SELF (being fed, having meat cut, bread buttered, etc.), or did not FEED SELF (e.g., received fluids by vein). 3. Had help to use TOILET (getting on or off the seat, cleaning with tissues, etc.), or did not use TOILET for health reasons (e.g., bedpan). 4. Had help to-TAKE BATH (getting in or out of tub or shower, washing a l l parts of the body, etc.) or did not TAKE BATH for health reasons. 178 A P P E N D I X 3 PATIENT NO.: INTERVIEWER'S NAME DATE: FAMILY PRACTICE PATIENT CARE RESEARCH STUDY FIRST INTERVIEW SCHEDULE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION 179 INTERVIEWER' S COMMENTS PERSONAL HEALTH IIEPORT We ere now going to ask you to make a comparison between your past average health and your health as you see It today. We w i l l ask you to make this comparison by drawing a line. We w i l l say that your average health for the past five years ls represented by a line this long: past health Now, In the space above, we would like you to draw a line Indicating how your present health compares to your average health over the last five years. For example, l f your present health l s about half as good as your average health In the past, then draw a line about half as long as the line above. i f you view your present health as — say 2\ times better than your average health for the last five years, then draw a Hue 2j times longer than the line above. 00 O PERSONAL STRESS REPORT We are now go ing to compare how s t r e s s e d you f e e l you are at t h i s time with your average l e v e l of s t r e s s for the past f i v e yea r s . Again we w i l l ask you to make t h i s comparison by drawing a l i n e . We w i l l say that your average s t r e s s l e v e l f o r the past f i v e years l s represented by a l i n e t h i s l o n g : past s t r e s s Now, in the space above, draw present s t r e s s l e v e l compares the l a s t f i v e yea r s . a l i n e I n d i c a t i n g how your to your average s t r e s s over 182 Page Directions: 1. If you can answer YES to the question asked, put a c i r c l e around the YES. 2. If you have to answer NO to the question asked, put a c i r c l e around the NO. 3. Please answer a l l the questions. If you are not sure, guess the answer. For Office Use Only Dup 1-4 During the last six months have you: 5 3 1. - Taken a high school credit course by correspondence? YES NO 6 2. - Taken a non-credit course of study by correspondence? YES NO 7 3. - Taken a university credit course by correspondence? YES NO 8 <>. - Been registered in an apprenticeship training program? YES NO 9 5. - Attended a community college non-credit course to learn a new language, to improve your English or to learn a hobby or handicraft, etc.? YES NO 10 6. - Attended a School d i s t r i c t adult education non- credit course to learn a new language, to improve your English or to learn a s k i l l such as wood carving or pottery, etc.? YES NO 11. 7. - Taken a university credit course? (other than by correspondence.) YES NO 12. 8. - Attended a full-time vocational course at a provincial vocational school? YES NO 13. 9. - Attended a part-time vocational course for credit towards a trade cer t i f i c a t e such as Typing, Welding, or E l e c t r i c a l Code Courses? YES NO 14. 10. - Attended a one day convention or professional association meeting? YES NO 15. 11. - Attended a one day workshop or educational course on any topic? YES NO 16. 12. - Taken a course at a recreation centre to learn a recreational or hobby s k i l l such as tennis, skating, golf, bridge, pottery, or painting, etc.? YES NO 17. 183 Page 13. - Taken a college-level credit course at a community college? (other than by correspon- dence). "ES N O 18. 14. - Taken a high school level credit course given by a school d i s t r i c t adult education depart- ment? (other than by correspondence). '/ES N O 19. 15. - Spent a day at a boat, house, car or agri- cultural show? YES MO 20. 16. - Have you worked through a programmed text book such as a "how to do i t " or "teach yourself" book on car mechanics, book-keeping, or nacrame, etc.? YES N O 21. 17. - Attended a short training or educational course ( given by a labour union or a professional association? : ES N O 22. Please note: In the following questions i f the answer is YES indicate the number of times that you have engaged in each activity. Example: 1. 1 3 4 5 more than 5 Never ?. 1 2 3 4 5 (more than 5) Never How often during the last six months have you: 18. - 19. - ?0. ?1. 22. Listened to a teaching tape or record on subjects such as learning a foreign language or improving one's job performance, etc.? 5 more than 5 Never Taken tours or educational v i s i t s to art galleries, museums, historic buildings, industrial sites or armed forces bases, etc? 1 5 more than 5 Never attended a public lecture? (Not an election meeting). more than 5 Never Attended a labour union, professional association or conrrauni rv jroup meetings' more than 5 Never Taken individual lessons or tutoring to develop a recreational or hobby s k i l l such as piano, guitar, tennis or swimming, etc. ? 23. 24. 26. more than 5 Never 27. 184 Page For Office Use Only 23. - Read a serious non-fiction book of your own, borrowed from a library, a friend or from any other source? 1 2 3 4 5 more than 5 Never 28. 24. - Thoroughly read a news, or cultural magazine such as Time, Newsweek, Reader's Digest or Macleans, etc.? 1 2 3 4 5 more than 5 Never 29. 25. 29. Do you usually read a news or cultural magazine as often as you did last month? (CHECK ONE ITEM, X) Yes, I always read as much as I did last month I usually read a l i t t l e less • I usually read only half as much I usually read less than half as much I usually read less than a quarter as much No, I rarely read as much as I did last month 30. 26. - Watched a serious or educationally valuable feature television program such as the National fTeographic Series, World at War, W5, Ombudsman, Maclean or Newsweek for between half an hour and an hour? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 more than 9 Never 31. 27. - Do you usually watch educationally valuable television programs as often as you did last month? (CHECK ONE ITEM, X) Yes, I always watch as much educational television as I did l s s t month I usually watch a l i t t l e less I usually watch only half as much 32. I usually watch less than half as much I usually watch less than a quarter as much No, I rarely watch as much as I did last month 28. - Listened to a serious or educationally valuable radio program such as "Cross-Country Check Up" or "As It Happens", etc. for between half an hour and an hour? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 more than 9 Never 33. - Do you usually l i s t e n to as much educationally valuable radio as you did last month? (CHECK ONE ITEM, X) Yes, I always l i s t e n to as much educational radio as I did last month I usually l i s t e n to a l i t t l e less I usually l i s t e n only half as much 34. I usually li s t e n less than half as much I usually li s t e n less than a quarter as much ^ ^ ^ ^ No, I rarely l i s t e n as much as I did last month 185 Page Directions: 1. If you can answer YES to the question asked, put a c i r c l e around the YES. 2. If you have to answer NO to the question asked, put a ci r c l e around the NO. 3. Please answer a l l the questions. If you are not sure, guess the-answer • For Use Dup 5 1. Do you like plenty of excitement and bustle around you? Yes No S 2. Have you often got a restless feeling that you want something but do not know what? Yes No 7 3. Do you nearly always have a "ready answer" when people talk to you? Yes No 8 4. Do you sometimes feel happy, sometimes sad without any real reason? Y es No 9 5. Do you usually stay in the background at parties or "get-togethers"? Yes No 10 6. Do you sometimes sulk? Yes No 11 7. When you are drawn into a quarrel, do you prefer to"have i t out" to being silent hoping things w i l l get better? Yes No 12 8. Are you moody? Yes No 13 9. Do you like mixing with people? Yes No 14 10. Have you often lost sleep over your worries? Yes No 15 11. Would you c a l l yourself happy-go-lucky? Yes No 16 12. Do you often make your mind up too late? Yes No 17 13. Do you like working alone? Yes No 18 14. Have you often f e l t l i s t l e s s and tired for no good reason? Yes No 19 15. Are you rather lively? Yes No 20 ie . Do you often feel "fed-up". Yes No 21 17. Do you feel uncomfortable in anything but everyday clothes? Yes No 22 18. Does your mind often wander when you are trying to attend closely to something? Yes No 23 19. Can you put your thoughts into words quickly? Yes No 24 20. Are you often "lost in thought"? Yes No 25 21. Do you like practical jokes? Yes No 26 22. Do you often think of your past? Yes No 27 23. Do you very much like good food? Yes No 28 186 Page ?4. When you get annoyed do you need someone friendly to talk to about it? Ves No 29 75. Do you mind selling things or asking people for money for some good cause? Yes No 30 26. Are you touchy or sensitive about some things? Ves No 31 27. Would you rather be at hone on your own than go to a boring party? Yes No 32 28. Do you sometimes get so restless that you cannot s i t long in a chair? Yes No 33 29. Do you like planning things carefully, well ahead of time? Yes No 34 30. Do you have dizzy spells? Yes No 35 31. Do you usually do things better by figuring them out alone than by talking to others about it? Yes No 36 32. Do you ever get short of breath without having done heavy work? Yes No 37 33. Are you an easy-going person, not generally bothered about having everything "Just-so"? Yes No 38 34. Do you suffer from "nerves"? Yes No 39 35. Would you rather plan things than do things? Yes No 40 36. Do you get nervous in places like elevators, trains or tunnels? Yes No 41 37. When you make new friends, is i t usually you who makes the f i r s t move, or does the inviting? Yes No 42 38. Do you get very bad headaches? ves No 43 39. Do you generally feel that things w i l l turn out right in the end somehow? Yes No 44 40. Do you find i t hard to f a l l asleep at bedtime? Yes No 45 41. • Do you sometimes say the f i r s t thing that comes into your head? Yes No 46 42. Do you worry too long after an embarrassing experience? Yes No 47 43. Are you a private person? Yes No 48 44. Do you often get into trouble because you do things without thinking? Yes No 49 45. Do you like t e l l i n g Jokes and funny stories to your friends? Yes - No 50 46. Do you often feel self-conscious when you are with superiors? Yes No 51 187 48. Do you often feel nervous in your stomach before an im- portant occasion? Page 47. In a risky situation, do you s t i l l usually think i t worth taking a chance? Y e a N o 3 2 Yes No 53 Below are 4 statements relating to everyday stress and strains which may describe how you feel at this time. Please check the extent to which each statement describes you. For example, i f statement number one describes you " f a i r l y well" then you should c i r c l e the number '2' opposite that statement. Continue u n t i l you have responded to a l l 4 statements. This describes me: 1 2 3 4 very well f a i r l y well not very well not at a l l 1. In general, I am unusually tense or nervous. 1 2 3 4 54. 2. I experience a great amount of nervous strain connected with my daily a c t i v i t i e s . 1 2 3 4 55. 3. At the end of the day I am completely exhausted, mentally and physically. 1 2 3 4 56. 4. My daily a c t i v i t i e s are extremely trying and stressful. 1 2 3 4 57. 188 Page DI rections: 1. If you agree with each of the items listed below put a c i r c l e around the AGREE. 2. If you disagree with each of the items listed below put a c i r c l e around the DISAGREE. 3. Please answer a l l of the items. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Adult education helps you to recognize opportunities in l i f e . Adult education helps a person to adjust to change. Adult education can help me to attain my goals in l i f e . Adult education .will not help a person to become a better worker. Most people involved in adult education have nothing better to do. Adult education is not important in the fight against poverty. I really cannot see any benefits in adult education. The more an adult learns the better equipped he is to deal with the important problems in l i f e . People are exaggerating the need for adult education. I do not have the time to take an interest in adult education. Adult education helps a person to reach their f u l l potential. adult education ls a good way of learning more about cultural a c t i v i t i e s . Government agencies should promote adult education. Adult education has value to the community. Adult education does not develop a person's self confidence. Adult education w i l l not help a person become a better citizen. Adult education is a poor way to use one's leisure time. Most of the people attending adult education classes are not the type of person I would choose to be friends with. adult education ts like investing in one's self. adult education ls Just as important as the education of children. Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree agree Disagree Agree Disagree agree Disagree •igree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree Agree Disagree For Office Use Only Dup 1-4 5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Agree Disagree 25 189 Page For Office Use Only 21. Adult education is a waste of time. 22. Adult education can help a person become sel,f reliant and independent. 23. Business and industry should do more to encourage people to take part in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . 24. As people get more time for leisure a c t i v i t i e s adult education w i l l be in greater demand. 25. I resent spending money on adult education. 26. The way society is changing adults in the future w i l l have to keep on learning a l l through their lives. 27. Adult education does not help you to get ahead. 28. An adult who is an active learner is respected by others. Agree Disagree 26 Agree Disagree 27 Agree Disagree 28 Agree Disagree 29 Agree Disagree 30 Agree Disagree 31 Agree Disagree 32 Agree Disagree 33 190 PATIENT CODE NO. DATE TIME Age on l a s t birthday years. 15 - 19 years 1 20 - 29 years 2 30 - 39 years 3 40 - 49 years 4 50 - 59 years 5 60 + years 6 FOR OFFICE USE ONLY 1-4 5 6-7 Sex. Male Female 1 2 3. M a r i t a l Status. Single 1 Married 2 Widowed 3 Separated 4 Divorced 5 Common-law marriage or cohabiting 6 10 Occupational Status. Employed F u l l Time 1 Employed Par Time 2 Homemaker 3 Unemployed 4 Retired 5 Disabled - not i n labour force 6 11 191 FOR OFFICE USE ONLY 5 . P e r s o n a l income be fore taxes from employment 12-16 and/or p r i v a t e income s o u r c e s , to neare s t $500.00 d u r i n g 1975 $ l e s s than L $5,000 1 $5,000 - $5,999 2 $6,000 - $6,999 3 $7,000 - $7,999 4 $8,000 - $8,999 5 $9,000 - $9,999 6 $10,000 - $10,999 7 $11,000 - $11,999 8 $12,000 - $12,999 9 $13,000 + A 6. T o t a l househod income be fore t a x e s , i n c l u d i n g spouse, sons , daughters and r e l a t i v e s to neares t $5000.00 d u r i n g 1975 $ 18-22 l e s s than $7,000 1 $7,000 - $7,999 2 $8,000 - $8,999 3 $9,000 - $9,999 4 $10,000 - $10,999 5 $11,000 - $11,999 6 $12,000 - $12,999 7 $13,000 - $13,999 8 $14,000 - $14,999 . 9 $15,000 + A 7. Occupat ion - F u l l t i t l e of job and b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 24-25 26-27 192 8. Number of years a t pre sent job 9. Born i n Canada. Yes 1 No 2 FOR OFFICE USE ONLY y e a r s . 28-29 30 31 10. I f " N o " , how many years r e s i d e n c y i n Canada? y e a r s . 32-33 11. E t h n i c o r i g i n . 34-35 12. Number of years o f s c h o o l i n g completed. Grade 1 to U n i v e r s i t y l e s s than 8 year s 8 - 1 0 year s 11 - 12 years 13 - 14 year s 15 year s + yea r s . 1 2 3 4 5 36-37 38 13. Number o f c h i l d r e n . 39-40 14. Number of a d u l t s p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g i n your household 41-42 193 A P P E N D I X 4 P A T I E N T N O : I N T E R V I E W E R ' S N A M E : D A T E : F A M I L Y P R A C T I C E P A T I E N T C A R E R E S E A R C H S T U D Y S E C O N D I N T E R V I E W S C H E D U L E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A D E P A R T M E N T OF A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P E R S O N A L H E A L T H R E P O R T As with the f i r s t interview you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l a s t Spring, we would l i k e you to make some comparisons using the length of a l i n e as a reference. Please think of the health of the people you are i n contact with i n your d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . We w i l l say that the average health of these people i s a l^ne t h i s long: Now i n the space above draw a l i n e i n d i c a t i n g how your average health over the past year compares to the health of others around you. For example, i f you view your health over the past year as about twice as good as people around you then you would draw a l i n e which i s two times as long as the l i n e above. I f , on the other hand, your health i s about 1/3 as good as others, you would c o r r e c t l y respond by drawing a l i n e 1/3 as long as the r e f e r - ence l i n e . P E R S O N A L S T R E S S R E P O R T Now think of the people with whom you are i n d a i l y contact and v i s u a l i z e the amount of stress which you see they experience. We w i l l say that t h i s average stress i s represented by a l i n e t h i s long: In the space above, draw a l i n e i n d i c a t i n g how your own personal s t r e s s over the past year compares to the stress of others around you. 196 The following questions are designed to f i n d out the way i n which c e r t a i n important events i n our soci e t y a f f e c t d i f f e r e n t people. Each item consists of a p a i r of a l t e r n a t i v e s narked a. or b. Please s e l e c t the one statement of each p a i r - and only one - which you more ntrunqly believe to be true as fa r as you are concerned. This i s a measure of your personal b e l i e f . There are no r i g h t or wrong answers WHICH DO YOU BELIEVE TO BE TRUE? CIRCLE THE NUMBER YOU SELECT. l . a . Many of the unhappy things or l . b . People's misfortunes r e s u l t i n peoples l i v e s are p a r t l y from the mistakes thev make, due to bad luck. 2.a. One of the major reasons or why we have wars i s be- cause people don't take enough i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s 2.b. There w i l l always be wars, no matter how hard people t r y to prevent them. 3.a. In the long run people get or 3.b. Unfortunately an i n d i v i d u a l ' s the respect they deserve i n worth often passes unrecognised t h i s world. no matter how hard he t r i e s . 4.a. Without the r i g h t breaks one or 4.b. Capable people who f a i l to cannot be an e f f e c t i v e leader. become leaders have not taken advantage of t h e i r opportunities 5.a. Mo matter how hard you t r y some or 5,b. People who can't get others people ju s t don't l i k e you. to l i k e them don't understand how to get along with others. .a. I have often found that what or 6.b. Tr u s t i n g to fate has never is- going to happen w i l l turned out as well for me as happen. making a de c i s i o n to take a d e f i n i t e course of act i o n . 197 7.a. If people exercised and had or 7.b. Health i s a matter of luck a good d i e t they wouldn't no matter what you do, i f become' i l l . you are unlucky you become i l l . 8.a. Becoming a success i s a matter or 8.b. Getting a good job depends of hard work, luck has l i t t l e mainly on being i n the r i g h t or nothing to do with i t . place at the r i g h t time. 9.a. The average c i t i z e n can have or 9.b. This world i s run by the few an influence i n government people i n power, and there i s d e c i s i o n s . not much the l i t t l e guy can do about i t . 10.a. When I make plans, I am almost or 10.b. I t i s not always wise to plan c e r t a i n that I can make them too far ahead because many work. things turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune anyhow. 11.a.In my case g e t t i n g what I want or 11.b. Many times we might ju s t as has l i t t l e or nothing to do well decide what to do by with luck. f l i p p i n g a c o i n . 12.a.Who gets to be the boss often or 12.b. Getting people to do the depends on who was lucky enough r i g h t things depends upon to be i n the r i g h t place f i r s t . a b i l i t y , luck has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . 13.a. As f a r as world a f f a i r s are or concerned, most of us are the victims of forces we can neither understand, nor c o n t r o l 13.b. By taking an active part i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s the people can c o n t r o l world events. 198 14.a.Most people don't r e a l i z e the or 14.b. There r e a l l y i s no such extent to which t h e i r l i v e s thing as "luck", are c o n t r o l l e d by ac c i d e n t a l happenings. 15.a.It i s hard to know whether or or 15.b. How many f-riends you have not a person r e a l l y l i k e s you. depends upon how nice a person you are. 16.a.In the long run the bad things or 16.b. Most misfortunes are the that happen to us are balanced r e s u l t of lack of a b i l i t y , by the good ones. ignorance, l a z i n e s s , or a l l three. 17.a.With enough e f f o r t we can put a or 17.b I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r people stop to environmental p o l l u - to have much c o n t r o l over t i o n . things such as the p o l l u t i o n of our environment. 18.a.Many times I f e e l that I have or 18.b. I t i s impossible f or me to l i t t l e influence over the bel i e v e that chance or luck things that happen to me. plays an important r o l e i n my l i f e . 19.a.People are lonely because or 19.b. There's not much use i n they don't t r y to be f r i e n d l y . t r y i n g too hard to please people, i f they l i k e you they l i k e you. 20.a.What happens to me i s my own or 20.b. Sometimes I f e e l that I doing. don't have enough c o n t r o l over the d i r e c t i o n my l i f e i s taking. 199 THE HINKLE ET AL (1960) SEVERITY OF ILLNESS RATING SCALE Original Amended Ratings Ratings Characteristics 1. Low Illnesses associated with a definite abnormality of c e l l s or metabolic systems but not seriously impairing the function of any organ system. 1 2. High Examples: Orthostatic albuminuria; late latent lues, manifested only by seropostivity; small benign naevus. 3. Low Illnesses associated with a definite impairment of one or more organ systems, but having l i t t l e or no effect upon the capacity of the individual 2 to carry out his usual a c t i v i t i e s . 4. High Examples: Functional constipation; moderate grades of obesity; early stages of hypertensive vascular disease. 5. Low Illnesses which seriously impair the function of one or more organ systems, but which have l i t t l e effect on the highest integrative functions, so that the individual may carry out his usual a c t i - ' j v i t i e s , but in a somewhat restricted manner. 6. High Examples: Many episodes of active peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus; hypertensive cardiovascular discease; the common cold; vascular headache. 7. Low Illnesses which prevent an individual from carrying out his usual activities, but do not 4 prevent a l l other activ i t i e s . 8. High Examples: Measles; fracture of anTcle; moderately severe anxiety state; many episodes of the common cold or dysmenorrhea; any disease which 9. Low Illnesses which severely impair the highest integrative functions, and make i t impossible for the individual to carry out any activities other than those directly associated with c survival. 3 10. High Examples: Menigococcus meningitis; hepatic coma typhoid; catatonic schizophrenia. 200 A P P E N D I X 5 Item 2 TABLE 1 ATTITUDE SCALE ITEMS AND VALUES A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h e l p s ^ a p e r s o n r e a c h t h e i r p o t e n t i a l S c a l e V a l u e A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s m a i n l y f o r t h o s e who d i d n o t c o m p l e t e h i g h s c h o o l 7.7 A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a•waste o f t i m e 7.0 3 A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a good way o f l e a r n i n g more about c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t e s 6.8 4 A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s n o t i m p o r t a n t i n t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t p o v e r t y 6.7 5 A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h e l p s you t o r e c o g n i s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n l i f e 6.6 6 Government a g e n c i e s s h o u l d promote a d u l t e d u c a t i o n 6.4 6.3 8 Most p e o p l e have j o b s t h a t r e q u i r e them t o l e a r n how t o keep a b r e a s t o f change 6.1 9 A d u l t e d u c a t i o n has v a l u e t o t h e community 6.1 10 A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h e l p s t o overcome the f r u s t r a t i o n s o f e v e r y day l i f e 6.0 11 I r e s e n t s p e n d i n g money on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n 5.9 12 A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s j u s t as i m p o r t a n t as t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n 5.7 13 The more an a d u l t l e a r n s t h e b e t t e r e q u i p p e d he i s t o d e a l w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n t problems i n l i f e 5,4 14 B u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y s h o u l d do more t o encourage p e o p l e t o t a k e p a r t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s 5.2 201 I r e a l l y c a n not see any b e n e f i t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n P e o p l e a r e e x a g g e r a t i n g t h e need f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n A d u l t e d u c a t i o n can h e l p a p e r s o n become s e l f - r e l i a n t and i n d e p e n d a n t As p e o p l e g e t more ti m e f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be i n g r e a t e r demand Most o f t h e p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a r e n o t t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n I would choose t o ke f r i e n d l y w i t h A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a poor way t o use one's l e i s u r e t i m e A d u l t e d u c a t i o n does n o t h e l p you t o g e t ahead A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s l i k e i n v e s t i n g i n one's s e l f Money s h o u l d be s p e n t on i m p r o v i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n A d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i l l n o t h e l p a p e r s o n become a b e t t e r c i t i z e n I do not have t h e ti m e t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n A d u l t e d u c a t i o n does not d e v e l o p a p e r s o n ' s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e I would be w i l l i n g t o pay more f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n A d u l t e d u c a t i o n can h e l p me a t t a i n my g o a l s i n l i f e A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h e l p s you i n d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e 202 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Continuum 0.65 1.91 2.87 3.78 4.69 6.03 7.52 203 A P P E N D I X 6 Table l DISTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL CHANGE SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Va r i a b l e S o c i a l Readjustment Rating Scale Score T o t a l s * % * % # % Age <20 Yrs 3 42.9 4 57.1 7 100.0 20 - 29 Yrs 22 41.5 31 58.5 53 100.0 30 - 39 Yrs 26 43.3 34 56.7 60 100.0 40 - 49 Yrs 42 60.9 27 39.1 60 100.0 50 - 59 Yrs 29 51.8 27 48.2 56 100 .0 >59 Yrs 7 63.6 4 36. 4 11 100.0 Totals 129 50.4' 127 49.6 256 100.0 X 1 = 6.87, d.f. = 4, N.S. Sex Male 63 50.8 61 49.2 124 100.0 Female 66 49.6 67 50.4 133 100.0 Totals 129 50.2 128 49. 3 257 100 .0 X 2 = .04, d.f. = 1, N .S. M a r i t a l Status Single 19 44.2 24 55. 8 43 100 .0 Married 103 56.6 79 43. 4 182 100 .0 Other ' 7 21.9 25 78. 1 32 100 .0 Totals 129 50.2 • 128 49. 8 257 100 .0 X 2 = 13.87, d.f. . = 2 , P < • 001 Yrs School < 8 Yrs 28 58.3 20 41. 7 48 100 .0 8 - 1 0 Yrs 36 50.0 36 50. 0 72 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 36 43.9 46 56. 1 82 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 12 48.0 13 52. 0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 13 54.2 11 45. 3 24 100 .0 Totals 125 49.8 126 50. 2 251 100 .0 1 X 2 = 2.76, d.f. = 4, N.S. Canadian Born Born i n Canada 62 44.9 76 55. 1 138 100 .0 Not Born i n Canada 66 56.4 51 43. 6 117 100 .0 Totals 128 50.2 127 49 . 8 255 100 .0 X 2 = 3.34, d.f., = 1, N.S. Socio-Economic Status Less than. 30.1 40 52.6 36 47. 4 76 100 .0 30.1 - 40.0 27 55.1 22 44. 9 49 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 22 50.0 22 50. 0 44 100 .0 More than 50.0 16 45.7 19 54. 3 35 100 .0 Totals 105 51.5 99 48. 5 204 100 .0 X 2 = 0.30, d.f. = 3, N.S. 204 Table 2 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTIVE STRESS SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Varia b l e Subjective Stress Scale Scores Less than 13 13 and Greater Totals Age 1 % # % IT % <20 Yrs 3 42.9 4 57.1 7 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 34 64.2 19 35.8 53 100 .0 30 - 39 Yrs 32 53.3 28 46.7 60 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 30 43.5 39 56.5 69 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 34 59.6 23 40.4 57 100 .0 >59 Yrs 3 27.3 8 72.7 11 100 .0 Totals 136 52.9 121 47.1 257 100 .0 X 2 = 9.38, d. f. = 5, N .S. Sex Male 66 52.8 59 47.2 125 100 .0 Female 71 53.4 62 46.6 133 100 .0 Totals 137 53.1 121 46.9 258 100 .0 X 2 = 0.01, d. f. = 1, N .S. M a r i t a l Status Single 28 63.6 16 36.4 44 100 .0 Married 91 50.0 91 SO.O 182 100 .0 Other 18 56.3 14 43.8 32 100 .0 Totals- 137 53.1 121 46.9 258 100 .0 X 2 = 2.79, d. f. = 2, N .S. Yrs School < 8 Yrs 20 41.7 28 58.3 48 100 .0 8 - 1 0 Yrs 34 46.6 39 53.4 73 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 54 65.9 28 34.1 82 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 12 48.0 13 52.0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 12 50 .0 12 50.0 24 100 .0 Totals 132 52. 4 120 47.6 252 100 .0 X 2 = 9.41, d. f. = 4, N .S. Canadian 3orn Born i n Canada 77 55.4 62 44.6 139 100 .0 Not Born i n Canada 58 49.6 59 50.4 117 100 .0 Totals 135 52.7 121 47.3 256 100 .0 X 2 = 0.86, d. f. = 1, N .S . Socio-Economic Status Less than 30 .1 43 56.6 33 43. 4 76 100 . 0 30.1 - 40.0 26 53.1 23 46.9 49 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 24 54.5 20 45.5 44 100. .0 More than 50 .0 21 60.0 14 40.0 35 100 .0 Totals 114 55.9 90 44.1 - 204 100. .0 X 2 = 0.45, d. f. = 3, N .S. 205 Table 3 DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH INDEX SCORES (POST-TEST) AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Va r i a b l e Bush Health Status Index (Post-Test) Less than 0.747 Greater than 0.747 Totals Acre * % % # % i? <20 Yrs 3 50.0 3 50. 0 6 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 15 31.3 33 68. 7 48 100 .0 30 - 39 Yrs 27 50.9 26 49 . 1 53 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 34 54.0 29 46. 0 63 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 30 60.0 20 40. 0 50 100 .0 >59 Yrs 6 66.7 3 33. 3 9 100 .0 Totals 114 50.2 114 49 . 8 229 100 .0 X 2 = 10.16, d.f . = 5, N.S. Sex Male 54 49.1 56 50. 0 110 100 .0 Female 62 51.7 58 48. 3 120 100 .0 Totals 116 50.4 114 49 . 6 230 100 .0 X 2 = 0.15, d.f. = 1, N.S. M a r i t a l Status Single 16 41.0 23 59. 0 39 100 .0 Married 82 49.7 83 50. 3 165 100 .0 Other 18. 69.2 8 30 . 8 26 100 .0 Totals 116 50.4 114 49. 6 230 100 .0 X 2 = 5.09, d.f. = 2, N.S. Yrs School < 8 Yrs 22 51.2 21 48. 8 43 100 .0 8 - 1 0 Yrs 43 70.5 18 29. 5 61 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 32 43.2 42 56. S 74 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 12 48.0 13 52. 0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 6 26.1 17 73. 9 23 100 .0 Totals 115 50.9 111 49. 1 226 100 .0 X 2 = 16.86, d.f • = .4, P < .01 Canadian Born Born i n Canada 61 50.4 60 49. 6 121 100 .0 Not Born i n Canada 54 50.5 53 49. 5 107 100 .0 Totals 115 50.4 113 49. 6 228 100 .0 X 2 = .0066, d.f . = 1, N.S. Socio-Economic Status Less than 30.1 34 52.3 31 47. 7 65 100 .0 30.1 - 49.0 22 51.2 21 48. 3 43 100 .0 50.1 - 50.0 19 48.7 20 51. 3 39 100 .0 More than 50.0 15 44.1 19 55. 9 34 100 .0 Totals 90 49.7 91 50. 3 181 100 .0 X 2 = 0.65,. d.f. = 3, N.S. 2 0 6 Table 4 DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH CHANGE SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Va r i a b l e Health Change Scores (Bush Pre-Test, Post-Test Residuals) .007 and less Totals. NO. % No. % No. % Age » <20 Yrs 3 50.0 3 50. 0 6 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 20 42.6 27 57. 4 47 100 .0 30 - 39 Yrs 25 48.1 27 51. 9 52 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 34 54.0 29 46. 0 63 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 27 54.0 23 46. 0 50 100 .0 >59 Yrs 5 55.6 4 44. 4 9 100 .0 Totals 114 50.2 113 49. 8 227 100 .0 X 2 = 1 .94, d. f. = 5, N • S. Sex Male 55 50.0 55 50. 0 110 100 .0 Female 60 50.8 58 49 . 2 118 100 .0 Totals 115 50.4 113 49 . 6 228 100 .0 X 2 = 0 .02, d. f.. = 1, N .S. M a r i t a l Status Single 19 58.7 20 51. 3 39 100 .0 Married 80 49.1 83 50. 9 163 100 .0 Other 16 61.5 10 38. 5 26 100 .0 Totals 115 50.4 113 49. 6 228 100 .0 X 2 = 1 .45, d. f. = 2, N .S. Yrs School < 8 Yrs 18 41.9 25 • 58. 1 43 100 .0 8 - 1 0 Yrs ' 37 60.7 24 39. 3 61 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 35 48.6 37 51. 4 72 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 12 48.0 13 52. 0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 12 52.2 11 47. 8 23 100 .0 Totals 114 50.9 110 49. 1 224 100 .0 X 2 = 3 .98, d. f. = 4, N .S. Canadian Born Born i n Canada 65 54.6 54 45. 4 119 100 .0 Not Born i n i Canada 49 45.8 58 54. 2 107 100 .0 Totals 114 50.4 112 49. 6 226 100 .0 X 2 - 1 .76, d. f. = 1, N .S . Socio-Economic Status Less than 30 .1 33 50.8 32 49. 2 65 100 .0 30.1 - 40.0 22 51.2 21 48. 8 43 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 14 35.9 25 64. 1 39 100 .0 More than 50 .0 21 61.8 13 38. 2 34 100 .0 Totals 90 49.7 91 50. 3 181 100 .0 X 2 = 5 .02, d. f. = 3, N .S. 207 Table 5 DISTRIBUTION OF EXTRAVERSION-INTROVERSION SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Varia b l e EPI Extraversion Scale Score Less than 15 15 and Greater Totals # % # % # % Age <20 Yrs 4 57.1 3 42. 9 7 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 27 50.9 26 49. 1 53 100 .0 30 - 39 Yrs 35 58.3 25 41. 7 60 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 39 56.5 30 43. 5 69 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 28 49.1 29 50. 9 57 100 .0 >59 Yrs 8 72.7 3 27. 3 11 • 100 .0 Totals 141 54.9 116 45. 1 257 100 .0 X 2 = 2 •79, d. f. = 4, N. S. Sex Male 68 54.4 57 45. 6 125 100 .0 Female 73 54.9 60 45. 1 133 100 .0 Totals 141 54.7 117 45. 3 258 100 .0 X 2 = 0 .01, d. f. = 1, N. S. M a r i t a l Status Single 23 52.3 21 47. 7 44 100 .0 Married 106 58.2 76 41. 8 182 100 .0 Other 12 37.5 20 62. 5 32 100 .0 Totals 141 54.7 117 45. 3 258 100 .0 X 2 = 4 .85, d. f. = 2, P < . 09 Yrs School < 8 Yrs 28 58.3 20 41. 7 48 • 100 .0 3 - 1 0 Yrs 33 45.2 40 54. 8 73 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 45 54.9 37 45. 1 82 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 18 72.0 7 28. 0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 12 50.0 12 50. 0 24 100 .0 Totals 136 54.0 116 46. 0 252 100 .0 X 2 = 6 .08, d. f. = 4, N. S. Canadian Born Born i n Canada 71 51.1 68 48. 9 139 100 .0 Not Born i n Canada 68 58.1 49 41. 9 117 100 .0 Totals 139 54.3 117 45. 7 256 100 .0 X 2 = 1 .27, d. f. = 1, N. S. Socio-Economic Status Less than 30.1 37 48.7 39 51. 3 76 100 .0 30.1 - 40.0 28 57.1 21 42. 9 49 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 28 63.6 16 36. 4 44 100 .0 More than 50.0 15 42.9 20 57. 1 35 100 .0 Totals 108 52.9 96 47. 1 204 100 .0 X 2 = 4 .35, d. f. = 3, N. S. 208 Table 6 DISTRIBUTION OF NEUROTICISM-STABILITY SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Va r i a b l e EPI Neuroticism Scale Score Less than 12 12 and Greater Totals # % # % # % Age <20 Yrs 1 14.3 6 85. 7 7 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 20 37.7 33 62. 3 53 100 .0 30 - 30 Yrs 27 45.0 33 55. 0 60 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 48 69.6 21 30. 4 69 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 31 54.4 26 45. 6 57 100 .0 >59 Yrs 3 72. 7 3 27. 3 11 100 .0 Totals 135 52.5 122 47 . 5 257 100 .0 X 2 = 18.67, d.f • = 4, P < .001 Sex Male 76 60.8 49 39. 2 125 100 .0 Female 60 45.1 73 54. 9 133 100 .0 Totals 136 52.7 122 47. 3 258 100 .0 X 2 = 6.36, d.f. = 1, P < . 02 M a r i t a l Status Single 19 43.2 25 56. 8 44 100 .0 Married 103 56.6 79 43. 4 182 100 .0 Other 14 43.8 18 56. 3 32 100 .0 Totals 136 52.7 122 47. 3 258 100 .0 X 2 = 3.73, d.f. = 2, P < . 1 Yrs School < 3 Yrs 34 70.8 14 29. 2 48 100 .0 8 - 1 0 Yrs 34 46.6 39 53. 4 73 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 34 41.5 43 58. 5 82 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 18 72.0 7 28 . 0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 14 58.3 10 41. 7 24 100 . 0 Totals 134 53.2 118 46 . 3 252 100 .0 X 2 = 15.62, d.f . = 4, P < .01 Canadian Born Born i n Canada 76 54.7 63 45. 3 139 100 .0 Not Born.in Canada 60 51.3 57 48. 7 117 100 .0 Totals 136 53.1 120 46. 9 256 100 .0 X 2 = 0.29, d.f. = 1, N -S. Socio-Economic Status Less than 30.1 42 55.3 34 44. 7 76 100 .0 30.1 - 40.0 28 57.1 21 42. 9 49 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 24 54.5 20 45. 5 44 100 .0 More than 50.0 19 54.3 16 45. 7 35 100 .0 Totals 113 55.4 91 44. 6 204 100 .0 X 2 = 0.09, d.f. = 3, N .S. 209 Table 7 DISTRIBUTION OF LOCUS OF CONTROL SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Va r i a b l e Locus of Control Scale Score Less than. .9 9 and greater T o t a l s # % # % # % Age <20 Yrs 4 66.7 2 33. 3 6 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 27 57.4 20 42. 6 47 100 .0 30 - 39 Yrs 29 55.8 23 44. 2 52 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 31 50 .0 31 50. 0 62 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 25 50.0 25 50. 0 50 100 .0 >59 Yrs 3 33.3 6 66. 7 9 100 .0 Totals 119 52.7 107 47. 3 226 100 .0 X 2 = 2.59, d.f. = 4, N.S. Sex Male 61 56 .0 48 44. 0 109 100 .0 Female 59 50.0 59 50. 0 118 100 .0 Totals 120 52.9 107 47. 1 227 100 .0 X 2 = 0.81, d.f. = 1, N.S . M a r i t a l Status Single 25 64.1 14 35. 9 39 100 .0 Married 84 51.9 78 48. 1 162 100 .0 Other 11 42.3 15 57. 7 26 100 .0 Totals 120 52.9 107 47. 1. 227 100 .0 X 2 = 3.21, d.f. = 2, N.S. Yrs School < 8 Yrs 16 38.1 26 61. 9 42 100 .0 8 - 10 Yrs 31 50.8 30 49 . 2 61 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 38 52.8 34 47. 2 72 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 19 76.0 6 24. 0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 15 65.2 8 34. 8 23 100 .0 Totals 119 53.4 104 46. 6 223 100 .0 X 2 = 10.55, d.f . = 4 , P < .05 Canadian Born Born i n Canada 71 59.7 48 40. 3 119 100 .0 Not Born i n Canada 48 45.3 58 54. 7 106 100 .0 Totals 119 52.9. 106 47. 1 225 100 .0 X 2 = 4.65, d.f. = 1, P < • 05 Socio-Economic Status Less than 30.1 24 37.5 40 62. 5 64 100 .0 30.1 - 40.1 30 69.8 13 30. 2 43 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 23 57.5 17 42. 5 40 100 .0 More than 50.0 22 64. 7 12 35. 3 34 100 .0 Totals 99 54.7 82 45. 3 181 100 .0 X 2 = 13.08, d.f . = 3 / P < .01 210 Table 8 DISTRIBUTION OF LEARNING ACTIVITY SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Va r i a b l e Subjective Estimation of Adult Learning Scale Scores Less than 1621 1621 and Greater . Totals # % 1 % # % A 2 £ <20 Yrs 7 100.0 0 0.0 7 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 29 54.7 24 45.3 53 100 .0 30 - 39 Yrs 26 43.3 34 56.7 60 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 28 40 .6 41 59.4 69 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 33 57.9 24 42.1 57 100 .0 >59 Yrs 6 54.5 5 45.5 11 100 .0 Totals 129 50.2 12 8 49.8 253 100 .0 X 2 = 7.42, d.f. = 4, p < .1 Sex Male 57 45.6 68 54.4 125 100 .0 Female 72 54.1 61 45.9 133 100 .0 Totals 129 50.0 129 50.0 258 100 .0 X 2 = 1.88, d.f. = 1, N.S. M a r i t a l Status Single 25 56.3 19 43.2 44 100 .0 Married 91 50.0 91 50.0 182 100 .0 Other 13 40.6 19 59. 4 32 100 .0 Totals 129 50 .0 129 50 .0 258 100 .0 X 2 = 1.94, d.f. = 2, N.S . Yrs School < 8 Yrs 35 72.9 13 27.1 48 100 .0 8 - 1 0 Yrs 37 50.7 36 49.3 73 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 36 43.9 46 56.1 82 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 12 48.0 13 52.0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 6 25.0 18 75.0 24 100 .0 Totals 126 50.0 126 50 .0 252 100 .0 X 2 = 17.36, d.f . = 4 , p < .01 Canadian Born Born i n Canada 68 48.9 71 51.1 139 100 .0 Not Born i n Canada 61 52.1 56 47.9 117 . 100 .0 Totals 129 50.4 127 49.6 256 100 .0 ,X2 = 0.26, d.f. = 1, N.S. Socio-Economic Status Less than 30.1 52 68.4 24 31.6 76 100 .0 30.1 - 40.0 23 46.9 26 53.1 49 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 16 36.4 28 63.6 44 100 .0 More than 50.0 12 34.3 23 65.7 35 100 .0 Totals 103 50.5 101 , 49.5 204 100 .0 X 2 = 17.21, d.f. = 3, p < .001 211 Table 9 DISTRIBUTION OF ATTITUDE TO ADULT EDUCATION SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Varia b l e A t t i t u d e to Adult Education Scale Scores Less than 112.1 112.1 and Greater Totals # % # % # % Age <20 Yrs 3 42.9 4 57.1 7 100 .0 20 - 29 Yrs 29 54.7 24 45.3 53 100 .0 30 - 39 Yrs 29 48.3 31 51.7 60 100 .0 40 - 49 Yrs 32 46.4 37 53.6 69 100 .0 50 - 59 Yrs 25 43.9 32 56.1 57 100 .0 >59 Yrs 3 72.7 3 27.3 11 100 .0 Totals 126 49 .0 131 51.0 257 100 .0 X 2 = 3.73, d.f. = 4, N.S Sex Male 64 51.2 61 48. 8 125 100 .0 Female 62 ' 46.6 71 53. 4 133 100 .0 Totals 126 48.4 132 51.6 258 100 .0 X 2 = 0.54, d.f. = 1, N.S M a r i t a l Status Single 22 50.0 22 50.0 44 100 .0 Married 89 48.9 93 51.1 182 100 .0 Other 15 46.9 17 53.1 32 100 .0 Totals 126 48.8 132 51.2 258 100 .0 X 2 = 0.07, d.f. = 2 , N.S Yrs School < 8 Yrs 32 66.7 16 33.3 48 100 .0 8 - 1 0 Yrs 36 49.3 37 50.7 73 100 .0 11 - 12 Yrs 38 46.3 44 53.7 82 100 .0 13 - 14 Yrs 10 40.0 15 60.0 25 100 .0 >14 Yrs 5 20.8 19 79 .2 24 100 .0 Totals 121 48.0 131 52.0 252 100 .0 X 2 = 14.58, d.f. = 4, p < .01 Canadian Born Born i n Canada 58 41.7 81 58.3 139 100 .0 Not Born i n Canada 67 57.3 50 42.7 117 100 .0 Totals 125 48.8 131 51.2 256 100 .0 X 2 = 6.14, d.f. = 1, P < .02 Socio-Economic Status Less than 30.1 50 65.8 26 34.2 76 100 .0 30.1 - 40.0 23. 46 .9 26 53.1 49 100 .0 40.1 - 50.0 14 31.8 30 68.2 44 100 .0 More than 50.0 12 34.3 23 65.7 35 100 .0 Totals 99 48.5 105 51.5 204 100 .0 X 2 = 16.88, d.f. = 3, p < .001

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