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Relationships between cognitive processes and language abilities among hearing-impaired readers Booth, Janice Ann 1982

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PARTICIPATION IN ADULT LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL STRESS AND  HEALTH  by  ADRIAN BLUNT B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 M.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Division of Adult EducationDepartment  of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , F a c u l t y , o f E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d standards:  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 Q)  A d r i a n B l u n t , 19 81  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the Library s h a l l  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  for  financial  shall  of  favour  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date  M A Y  19G(  Itis thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that  I  make  <£-£>Oc-.ATt®d Columbia  written  ABSTRACT The  purpose of t h i s  s t u d y was  to explore  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s to t e s t the health  and  proposition that active learners maintain  i n s t r e s s f u l environments while  non-active  health  their  learners  s t r e s s f u l environments experience decrements i n h e a l t h . randomly, s e l e c t e d sample o f  a d u l t s between e i g h t e e n  s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age  selected  p a t i e n t s who The  had  was  sought•health  study used a p a n e l design  approximately nine completed the  care with  months a p a r t .  two  and of  physician.  data c o l l e c t i o n  A t o t a l of  f i r s t i n t e r v i e w and  A  from a p o p u l a t i o n from a f a m i l y  226  26 3  in  periods  patients  completed the  final  interview. Ten related  theoretical propositions  l i t e r a t u r e were i n c o r p o r a t e d  c a u s a l p a t h s and The  was  theoretical propositions  w o u l d be with  associated  f u n c t i o n i n g and (4)  low  with  path analysis  activities;  (1)  l e v e l s of health  over time;  associated  (2)  social  (5) p e r c e i v e d  proposed  procedures. high  social  functioning  stress and  participation in  levels- of  health  improvements i n l e v e l s of h e a l t h  the  of  s t r e s s ; (3) p a r t i c i p a t i o n  with high  s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s w o u l d be  o f s o c i a l s t r e s s and  from a review  i n t o a model w i t h  posited that:  i n f l u e n c e d by  l e a r n i n g w o u l d be  time;  with  decrements i n h e a l t h  l e a r n i n g w o u l d be in  tested using  derived  associated with  over levels  d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g s t r e s s would i n f l u e n c e  l e v e l s of  health  functioning  activities.  and  the d e c i s i o n to engage i n l e a r n i n g  Additionally p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning  would be  a f f e c t e d by:  (6) g e n e r a l i z e d  over the  s o c i a l environment;  toward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ; schooling would be  and  (10)  associated  attitudes  income and y e a r s  w i t h l e v e l s of h e a l t h q u a n t i f i e d by  from the p e r s p e c t i v e  s o c i a l l y and  sex,  (8)  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l  H e a l t h s t a t u s was health  expectancy f o r c o n t r o l  (7) p e r s o n a l i t y ;  (9) age,  i n h i s or her  functioning.  a s c a l e which assessed  r e g u l a r employment.  health  o f f i c e and  Scale,  number  F i v e measures of s t r e s s were used  i n the'study w i t h s o c i a l s t r e s s being q u a n t i f i e d by Readjustment Rating  function  Additional  s e v e r i t y of i l l n e s s ,  to the p h y s i c i a n ' s  of days spent i n h o s p i t a l .  of  organizations  of a person's a b i l i t y to  health data gathered included change, number of v i s i t s  activities  the  Social  a s c a l e c o n s i s t i n g of 43 l i f e  events  which demand s o c i a l readjustments on the p a r t of an i n d i v i d u a l when e x p e r i e n c e d .  Participation i n learning a c t i v i t i e s  a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were q u a n t i f i e d by developed f o r use Factor  v a l i d i t y of the h e a l t h  and  strong  s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s and  and  stress.  a c t i v i t y and scores  construct  the  results  support f o r the v a l i d i t y o f each of  the v a r i a b l e s as i n d i v i d u a l measures o f the health  scales  i n t h i s study.  a n a l y s e s were conducted to t e s t the  obtained provided  and  constructs  To t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the  of  learning  a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c a l e s the  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f i v e c r i t e r i o n  C o l l e c t i v e l y , the  scale  variables.  observed i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s supported'."the  v a l i d i t y of the two  scales.  Hoyt  were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of the  reliability coefficients  seven p s y c h o - m e t r i c  scales  iv used i n t h e s t u d y and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d .69 t o .87 i n d i c a t e d a c c e p t a b l e those study  ranging  from  levels of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r  instruments.  The r e s u l t s o f a s e r i e s o f p a t h a n a l y s e s  were examined  t o determine whether or n o t each of the t e n t h e o r e t i c a l propositions  c o u l d b e s u p p o r t e d on t h e b a s i s  coefficients  obtained.  of the path  O v e r a l l , the hypothesized  relationships  between t h e s t r e s s and h e a l t h v a r i a b l e s , and t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were c o n f i r m e d .  The a n a l y s e s  to support the propositions  that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning  a c t i v i t i e s was perceived  of c o n t r o l .  was t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h associated with  health  social  stress,  organizations  a l t h o u g h i t was  Modest support that  promotes l e v e l s of  a l t h o u g h no e f f e c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g  upon h e a l t h  c h a n g e was  observable.  had  positively  f o r the proposition  i n learning activities  evidence  One u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g  participation i n learning.  from the analyses  participation  no  i n f l u e n c e d by l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e  s t r e s s , or locus  was o b t a i n e d  provided  future activity  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i  i  LIST OF TABLES  viii X  LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xi  Chapter I.  II.  INTRODUCTION  1  Background t o t h e Problem  2  Purpose o f t h e Study  9  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  9  Plan o f t h e Report  11  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Stress  14  S o c i a l S t r e s s and H e a l t h  20  P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and H e a l t h  23  S o c i a l Learning  26  Theory  Personality  32  A t t i t u d e t o Adult Education  39  S o c i o Demographic V a r i a b l e s to P a r t i c i p a t i o n III.  13  METHODOLOGY  Related 40 46  The Study D e s i g n  47  Sampling P r o c e d u r e  48  Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods  50  Health  53  and S t r e s s Measures  vi Chapter  Page Validity  o f t h e H e a l t h and S t r e s s  Measures  59  Learning A c t i v i t y  Measurement  61  Attitude t o Adult Education Measurement V a l i d i t y o f t h e L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y and Attitude t o Adult Education  IV.  78  P e r s o n a l i t y Measures  80  Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s  83  Reliability  83  o f Instruments  SUMMARY  84  THE STUDY SAMPLE  88  S o c i o Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  89  H e a l t h and S t r e s s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  95  Personality Characteristics  98  Learning A c t i v i t y  and A t t i t u d e Toward  Adult Education  V;  Measures...  73  Characteristics  100  SUMMARY  102  DATA A N A L Y S I S  10 6  Path A n a l y s i s  106  Data P r e p a r a t i o n  10 8  Path C o e f f i c i e n t A n a l y s i s 1. H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e Paths... 2. S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e Paths  108 114 116  3.  S o c i o Demographic and L e a r n i n g V a r i a b l e Paths  116  4.  Social Participation, a n d H e a l t h P a t h s . . .•  118  5.  Learning  S t r e s s and t h e D e c i s i o n t o Participate i nLearning  118  vii Chapter  Page 6.  The M o d e l  'at Work  ...  1  SUMMARY VI.  119 12 3  CONCLUSIONS  •  126  Design of the Study  127  Reliability  130  and V a l i d i t y  Data A n a l y s i s  131  Discussion  135  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  140  Implications  141  f o r Further Research  BIBLIOGRAPHY  r  145  APPENDICES  154  1.  Mailed Questionnaire....  155  2.  Health Status  156  3.  First  4.  Second I n t e r v i e w Schedule  5.  Attitude t o Adult Education  6.  Appendix Tables  Index  Interview Schedule  17 8 193 Scale  2 00 203  viii  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table 1 2  3  Page P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e s  62  H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e F a c t o r A f t e r Two F a c t o r S o l u t i o n w i t h Orthogonal Rotation  63  Loadings  H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e F a c t o r L o a d i n g s A f t e r No C o n s t r a i n t F o u r F a c t o r S o l u t i o n with Orthogonal Rotation  64  4  Study V a r i a b l e s  65  5  A r i t h m e t i c M e a n s , G e o m e t r i c M e a n s , and G e o m e t r i c Mean R a n k s by I n s t i t u t i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n of Respondents of S c a l e Items  72  6  7  8  'Units of Learning' Assigned to Learning A c t i v i t i e s i n the S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n of Adult Learning Scale  75  Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t M a t r i x o f C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s and L e a r n i n g and A t t i t u d e S c a l e S c o r e s  81  Hoyt Estimate  of R e l i a b i l i t y  Seven P s y c h o m e t r i c 9 10 11 12 13 14  Coefficients  for  Scales  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by Age  85 and  Sex  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s and S e x D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by B i r t h Age and Sex  Place,  Distribution and Sex  of  o f S u b j e c t s by Y e a r s  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by Age of S c h o o l i n g  89 90 91 92  School 93  and  Years 94  ix Table 15 16 17  Page D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score and Sex  95  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by Years of S c h o o l i n g and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e . . .  96  18  Method o f C a l c u l a t i o n of the E f f e c t Coefficients C ii Path Model C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s  19  Path C o e f f i c i e n t s  (P..), E f f e c t ID C o e f f i c i e n t s ( j_j) ^ R e s i d u a l Path C o e f f i c i e n t s (E..) f o r Path A n a l y s e s . . . C  112 113  a n <  115  X  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1  B a s i c Elements o f t h e T h e o r e t i c a l Model  22  2  The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and t h e Elements o f t h e B a s i c Model  25  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Among Locus o f C o n t r o l , P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and t h e Elements o f the B a s i c Model.  33  The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among P e r s o n a l i t y , Locus of C o n t r o l , P e r c e i v e d S t r e s s and t h e Elements o f t h e B a s i c Model  38  The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among P e r s o n a l i t y , Locus of C o n t r o l , Perceived S t r e s s , A t t i t u d e Toward A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , and t h e Elements o f t h e B a s i c Model-  40  6  The T h e o r e t i c a l Model  45  7  D i r e c t Contamination  48  8  A v o i d a n c e o f D i r e c t C o n t a m i n a t i o n by the P a n e l D e s i g n  48  T i m e t a b l e o f Data C o l l e c t i o n P e r i o d s and Duration of Observations  52  The P a t h Model  110  3  4  5  9 10  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s s t u d y would n o t have been completed  without the  a s s i s t a n c e o f a g r e a t number o f p e o p l e . Alex Cherkezoff family practice  a l l o w e d me g e n e r o u s a c c e s s  and devoted  many h o u r s  recording of data f o r the study.  to his  o f h i s time  to the  I d o u b t t h a t any o t h e r  researcher gathering data i n the family p r a c t i c e  setting  c o u l d h a v e e n j o y e d more c o o p e r a t i o n , g u i d a n c e a n d encouragement from Alex Cherkezoff.  a p h y s i c i a n than In addition  I received  from  I was f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h t o h a v e  t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h r e e p e o p l e who ' c a r e d ' , t o a s s i s t collection daily  of the data.  demonstrated  t h e a r t o f b a l a n c i n g concern  with the requirements completeness  for thepatient  o f s c i e n c e f o r t h e a c c u r a c y and  Branch  f o r t h e s t u d y was p r o v i d e d b y t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f F i s h e r i e s where t h e  h i r s u t e manager P h i l Myer p r e s s e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y and  and Sandy L e y  of data.  Funding Research  B r i s h k a i Lund, Joan B r i t t  i n the  for results  Dr. Lawrence Evans p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e  development o f t h e s t u d y and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e d a t a f o r analysis.  A distant but reliable  and i n v a l u a b l e source o f  a s s i s t a n c e was D r . James B u s h who a l l o w e d me t o u s e h i s h e a l t h s t a t u s i n d e x and g e n e r o u s l y o f The U n i v e r s i t y for the i n i t i a l  provided through  of Los Angeles,  La J o l l a ,  t h e department a complete  service  s c o r i n g o f t h e h e a l t h s t a t u s d a t a , an i n t e r n a l  xii c o n s i s t e n c y check and t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f h e a l t h i n d e x s c o r e s . Many f a c u l t y members gave me e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t and guidance.  I n p a r t i c u l a r I w o u l d l i k e t o acknowledge  my  i n d e b t e d n e s s t o Dr. John C o l l i n s whose d e p a r t u r e from t h e U n i v e r s i t y p r e v e n t e d him from c o n t i n u i n g t o s e r v e on my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee t o t h e 'end', and whose c r e a t i v e computer a p p l i c a t i o n s I g r e a t l y m i s s e d .  Another great l o s s  was t h a t o f my g r a d u a t e s t u d y mentor Dr. C o o l i e V e r n e r who did  n o t l i v e t o see t h e s t u d y c o m p l e t e d . Dr. Gary D i c k i n s o n , Dr. Gordon Page and Dr. Bob Conry  j o i n e d my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee l a t e i n t h e development o f the  study.  T h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a d v i s e has e a r n e d my  g r a t i t u d e and r e s p e c t . F i n a l l y , my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d t o Pat  McGechaen whose a c c u r a t e and speedy t y p o g r a p h i c a l work  follows.  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  S o c i e t y today i s i n an u n p r e c e d e n t e d s t a t e o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. structure of society i s i n a state of f l u x with every i n d i v i d u a l being  The f u n d a m e n t a l practically  a f f e c t e d by s e e m i n g l y u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  alterations i n his daily l i f e . i s a s o c i a l state of increased  E v o l v i n g from t h e s e changes complexity  and impermanence.  O b s e r v e r s such as D r u c k e r (196 8) and McLuhan (1964, 19 67) described  the pervasiveness  o f t h e s e changes and have.sought  t o i d e n t i f y t h e demands made upon man t o cope w i t h change.  have  social  I n 1965 t h e term " f u t u r e s h o c k " , was i n t r o d u c e d by;  T o f f l e r to describe  " t h e s h a t t e r i n g s t r e s s and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n  t h a t we i n d u c e i n i n d i v i d u a l s by s u b j e c t i n g them t o t o o much change i n t o o short- a t i m e "  ( T o f f l e r , 1970 , p. 2 ) .  F o r many y e a r s r e s e a r c h e r s  have been a c c u m u l a t i n g  e v i d e n c e t h r o u g h l a b o r a t o r y and e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s t o  2 show t h a t s t r e s s and and Aikman, 1974; 1971;  change a r e p r e c u r s o r s  Lazarus,  Engle, 1962).  1966;  of i l l n e s s  1953;  Wolff,  (McQuade  L e v i , 1967  and  D u r i n g t h e l a s t twenty y e a r s t h e r e  has  been an a c c e l e r a t i o n i n t h e r a t e o f a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e v i d e n c e l i n k i n g s o c i a l s t r e s s to the onset of i l l n e s s . a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e many s t r e s s - i n d u c e d the western world.  It is  diseases  I n a w o r k i n g paper p r e p a r e d t o  debate on f u t u r e h e a l t h c o n c e r n s , t h e M i n i s t e r o f Health  now throughout  stimulate National  and W e l f a r e drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l change and  the  health:  One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t but l e a s t u n d e r s t o o d e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems i s the e f f e c t o f r a p i d s o c i a l change on t h e m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f C a n a d i a n s . Some o f the s o c i a l change i s due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n , such as the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n , but s i g n i f i c a n t d i s o r i e n t a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n a r i s e as w e l l from the c r u m b l i n g o f p r e v i o u s s o c i a l v a l u e s and t h e i r r e p l a c e m e n t by o t h e r s whose l o n g term e f f e c t i s s t i l l unknown. When a s o c i e t y i n c r e a s i n g l y p u r s u e s p r i v a t e p l e a s u r e by s a c r i f i c i n g i t s o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h e common good, i t i n v i t e s s t r e s s e s whose e f f e c t s on h e a l t h can be d i s a s t r o u s ( L a l o n d e , 1974, p. 18). Background t o the  Problem  A l t h o u g h the e v i d e n c e has divergent  populations,  been d e r i v e d from w i d e l y  a wide range o f m e d i c a l  and b o t h e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l and  experimental  institutions,  s t u d i e s , the  strength  and  c a u s a l n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s  and  i l l n e s s has  not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d .  Recognition  o f t h e f a c t t h a t some but not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s exposed t o s t r e s s f u l e n v i r o n m e n t s become i l l  has  i n i t i a t e d a search  to  i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s , s k i l l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h might e n a b l e p e o p l e t o m a i n t a i n immunity t o s t r e s s - i n d u c e d  illness.  t h e i r h e a l t h or t o d e v e l o p I f such c o p i n g  strategies  3 can  be i d e n t i f i e d ,  i ti s possible  t a u g h t , and l e a r n e d . posited  strategy  learning  that  t h e y can be  T h i s s t u d y i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f one  f o r coping with  stress, participation i n  activities.  Recognition of the value of learning of p r e v e n t i v e crisis  t h e o r y and f a m i l y m e d i c i n e .  is  b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e management  professionals  and  to increase  medicine increases  a learning  interventions  as t h e p r a c t i c e  field  1973).  of  The  .preventive  treatment  i s the adoption of  a p p r o a c h t o human p r o b l e m s , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r  how t o c o p e w i t h is  attention  health  1971) a n d  (Vincent,  c u r r e n t l y being advocated i n t h i s  literature  Increasing  o f c r i s e s by  ( C a p l a n , 1963; T a p l i n ,  crises are l i k e l y family  i n the practice  m e d i c i n e c a n be s e e n i n t h e r e c e n t  on  into  analysed,  life  changes  (Vincent,  1973).  However,  learning little  known a t p r e s e n t a b o u t t h e ways i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n  t o adapt t o change i n o r d e r t o a v o i d to minimize i t s s e v e r i t y It rather  the onset of i l l n e s s or  i f i t occurs.  i s also possible  that the actual process of  t h a n t h e o u t c o m e s o f l e a r n i n g , may  strategy.  I f so, active  non-learners regardless Certainly, the better illnesses  •  learners  learning,  i t s e l f be a c o p i n g  w i l l be h e a l t h i e r  than  o f t h e knowledge and s k i l l s  they  educated i n our s o c i e t y  and have g r e a t e r  life  suffer  learn.  fewer  expectancies than the  under-educated, although the accepted reasons are socio-economic (related  t o n u t r i t i o n and h o u s i n g )  rather  (related to participation i n learning Moss illness  than  or social  psycho-social activities).  (1973) h a s p r e s e n t e d a r a d i c a l h y p o t h e s i s  stems from communication network i n c o n g r u i t i e s  that because  they produce s t r e s s which, i f prolonged, lowers r e s i s t a n c e  to  4 disease.  A communication network i s defined/by  Moss as  c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i n g p e o p l e t r a n s m i t t i n g and a body of i n f o r m a t i o n "  ( 1 9 7 3 , p.  242).  While the  "a  modifying  information  t h a t i s conveyed w i t h i n a communication network i s seen  to  be  the  e f f e c t i v e for dealing with  e n v i r o n m e n t , i n d i v i d u a l s who identified with congruity.  t h e n e t w o r k and  there w i l l  the  information  incongruity.  to a wide array  of disease.  either preventing  occurs  According  processes involved i n information  received invalidate  and  processing  S o c i e t y can  information  this  of  i s termed  alter  susceptibility  reduce i l l n e s s  a r i s e by  increasing Two  I m m u n i t y by One  information about the of the  the  i s the  by  congruity  environment.  skills  environment.  an  concepts  has  two  and  concepts of  information  presented of  immunity  network  w i t h the m i l i e u .  non-exclusive  degree of c o r r e c t n e s s  taught to the  the  the  d i r e c t experience  of the  constituent  actual  information network's p a r t i c i p a n t s  The  t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d by  them w i t h  study,  through congruity with  immunity gained  parts.  to t h i s  or  the  Moss i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l a r e  from i l l n e s s  by  i n c o n g r u i t i e s from a r i s i n g ,  r e s p o n d i n g t o t h o s e w h i c h do  p a r t i c u l a r pertinence  in  information  t o Moss t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of communication networks.  and  remain  i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n f o r m a t i o n bank, a mis-match to current perception  by  be  information  information  by  accurately describing  a r e n e t w o r k members w i l l  However, s h o u l d  p a r t o f an  and  second p a r t i s the  effectiveness  the network p a r t i c i p a n t s , to  knowledge r e q u i r e d t o act  I m m u n i t y by  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f k n o w l e d g e and environment, through t r i a l  and  d i r e c t experience skills  error  provide  appropriately refers  required to act i n  experiences.  to the  5 The by  two  c a t e g o r i e s , i m m u n i t y by  d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , have p a r a l l e l s  i n t h e two  s e t t i n g s i n which l e a r n i n g occurs, the setting  and  the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l  the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l  setting  c o n g r u i t y and  formal  setting  types  (Verner, 1964).  l e a r n i n g i s not  T h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  w h i c h Moss e n v i s a g e s skills  of  instructional  as an e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e s i g n s the i n s t r u c t i o n .  immunity  left  and  to  congruity being  chance  manages  the s e t t i n g  in  h i s examples of d e s i r a b l e knowledge  f o r i m m u n i t y by  In  and  learned:  The v a l u e o f a l i b e r a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n m u s t be r e a s s e s s e d and s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o do t h i n g s s u c h as i n v e s t i n g ; b u y i n g i n s u r a n c e ; u s i n g t h e l a w , c o u r t s , and l a w y e r s ; u t i l i z i n g h e a l t h r e s o u r c e s ; knowledge o f government agencies' s e r v i c e s rendered; p r a c t i c i n g f i r s t a i d ; p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the f l o r a and f a u n a o f t h e a r e a ; a w a r e n e s s o f how f a c t o r i e s w o r k and t h e p r o b l e m s o f t e c h n o l o g y ; the nature of v a r i o u s substances, i n c l u d i n g s y n t h e t i c s ; r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , what t o e x p e c t i n m a r r i a g e ; and s o f o r t h . . . W e s u s p e c t t h a t more c o m p l e t e and c o r r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o l i v e i n a m o d e r n s o c i e t y w o u l d s h a r p l y r e d u c e t h e amount o f i l l n e s s o f a l l k i n d s and p r o v e a p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h m e a s u r e as e f f e c t i v e as i n n o c u l a t i o n ( M o s s , 1 9 7 3 , p. 2 1 9 ) . L e a r n i n g i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l by  c h a n c e o r a c c i d e n t r a t h e r t h a n by  societal to  setting,  handle  as Moss  (19 7 3)  s e t t i n g occurs  design.  suggests,  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t as a r e s u l t o f  largely  In the n a t u r a l  a d u l t s would l e a r n  trial-and-error  experience. The  l i t e r a t u r e of a d u l t education  references to the r o l e of a d u l t education c h a l l e n g e s of s o c i a l change. p.  4)  identified  education  t o be  During  i s replete with i n meeting  the  the s i x t i e s , Verner  (1964,  t h e d o m i n a n t theme o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a d u l t t h a t of adjustment,  " t o h e l p a d u l t s accommodate  6 the r a p i d t e c h n i c a l and our t i m e . "  The  technologies,  s o c i a l changes so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  knowledge e x p l o s i o n , t h e growth o f  t h e r a p i d pace of s o c i a l change and  new the f e e l i n g  o f l o s s of i d e n t i t y have a l l been r e f e r r e d t o as major f a c t o r s determining  the need f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  London, 1963,  1964;  V e r n e r , 1964;  (Knowles, 1962 ;  Miller,  1970).  B r y s o n , H a l l e n b e c k and V e r n e r have each i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l fundamental f u n c t i o n s t h a t a d u l t education i n our s o c i e t y . education:  B r y s o n (19 36)  remedial,  political.  The  performs  l i s t e d f i v e f u n c t i o n s of  occupational,  relational, liberal  r e l a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s as c o n c e i v e d by  i n c l u d e d , " s t u d i e s of e m o t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and  adult and  Bryson  psychological  h a b i t s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o h e l p us b e t t e r t o u n d e r s t a n d ourselves  and our r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n s . "  1936,  30)  p.  Hallenbeck adult education:  (1960) a l s o i d e n t i f i e d f i v e f u n c t i o n s  of  t o expand communication s k i l l s , t o d e v e l o p  f l e x i b i l i t y , t o improve human r e l a t i o n s , t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and developing  (Bryson,  to expedite  personal  f l e x i b i l i t y f u n c t i o n was  facilitate  growth.  Hallenbeck's  based upon the b e l i e f  that,  "the a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o change i n a c h a n g i n g w o r l d e s s e n t i a l , " and flexible  t h a t a d u l t s must l e a r n t o become and  (Hallenbeck,  According  1960,  p.  is  t o remain  36).  t o V e r n e r (1964) t h e s o c i a l f o r c e s and  factors  t h a t c r e a t e the need f o r c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h a d u l t h o o d can be seen as c r e a t i n g f o u r f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n expansional, expansional  -  p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l , i n t e g r a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l . function describes  the p r o v i s i o n o f l e a r n i n g  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a s s i s t a d u l t s expand t h e i r competencies t o  The  7 meet c u r r e n t  life  s t a g e needs such as from v o c a t i o n a l o r  professional to parental  o r c i t i z e n s h i p needs.  Verner learning opportunities in  According  t o d e v e l o p knowledge and  to  skills  government and c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l  function of adult education. describes  adults  Through a d u l t education  Verner  a s s y n t h e s i z i n g knowledge',, t r a n s f e r r i n g ,  k n o w l e d g e f r o m one a r e a t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s i n o t h e r a r e a s and i n t e g r a t i n g knowledge w i t h of a d u l t education personal  and  Verner c a l l e d i n t e g r a t i o n a l .  function describes  assisting adults  experience.  This  function  F i n a l l y the  the purpose of a d u l t education  t o achieve maturity,  a s s i s t with  e n a b l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o be p e r s o n a l l y  social  in change  congruent with h i s  social milieu. The f u n c t i o n s  of adult education,  have been concerned w i t h opportunities  that w i l l  as d e s c r i b e d  t h e need t o promote  learning  enable i n d i v i d u a l s t o maintain  socio-economic p o s i t i o n s i n s o c i e t y , t o improve relationships with generally  to gain  These views l i m i t  others,  t o solve  satisfaction  their  their  t h e i r own p r o b l e m s a n d  from l i f e  i n a changing  the function of adult education  social  above,  with  specific  symptoms o f c h a n g e .  that  learning i s inextricably associated  world.  to dealing  T h e y do n o t with other  recognize  internal  p r o c e s s e s such as a t t i t u d e s and e m o t i o n s w h i c h a r e a l s o t o be r e l a t e d t o r e c e p t i v i t y t o d i s e a s e is  identified  as a s t r a t e g y  f o r coping  i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a c t i v e l e a r n e r s i l l n e s s e s when o t h e r s  with  I f learning  change, t h a t i s , i f  do n o t s u f f e r  similarly at risk  a new f u n c t i o n f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  and i l l n e s s .  thought  stress-induced  do s u f f e r s u c h  m i g h t be i d e n t i f i e d  f u n c t i o n o f p r o m o t i n g h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l and  illnesses, - the  8 psychological The  health.  research  l i t e r a t u r e has  the promotion of h e a l t h education. the  The  time t h i s  literature  s t u d y was  o f s o c i a l c h a n g e on  on  utilizing  The  about the  effects  psychological  (1971) , and  i n t o the  Morstain  (1974) .  The  data from  as t h e y  these  produce  inputs  to  the  t h e s e models can  a n a l y s i s , and  a n a l y s i s i s o n l y what the  what i s  entered  i n v e s t i g a t o r chooses  i s possible that motivations  sub-conscious  level  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the  to  and  to p a r t i c i p a t e operate  respondents' stated  conscious  l e v e l are  reasons  societal  and  n o r m a t i v e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s f o r an o t h e r w i s e u n e x p l a i n a b l e  and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of health It  onset, is  only  ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964). It  An  items  i n v e s t i g a t o r , f o r example  investigators using  e x t r a c t what i s e n t e r e d  at the  the  f a c t o r s which are products of the  a n a l y t i c model.  i n t o the  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at  respondents' s e l f - r e p o r t e d responses to  impose l i m i t a t i o n s f o r d i s c o v e r y  explanatory  adult  to p a r t i c i p a t e .  a n a l y t i c models used t o a n a l y s e the  studies  enter  about m o t i v a t i o n  a r e a have g e n e r a l l y been  (1971) , B u r g e s s  factor  identified  a reason f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  developed, s a i d l i t t l e  i n s t r u m e n t s p r e p a r e d by  Boshier  previously  individual decisions  Investigations i n this studies  as  not  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g  drive.  activities  i s needed t o t e s t such a p r o p o s i t i o n . i s known t h a t s o c i a l  (Holmes and  a f u n c t i o n of  Masuda,.19 73;  adult education  t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s g e n e r a t e d by it  m i g h t be  in  adult  change c o n t r i b u t e s and  D o h r e n w e n d , 1974)  illness and  to a s s i s t people to l e a r n  social  e x p e c t e d t h a t t h o s e who  learning activities w i l l  to  change.  are  i t how  Consequently,  active participants  s u f f e r fewer  stress-induced  illnesses the  t h a n t h o s e who  are  i d e n t i t y , m a g n i t u d e and  not  active learners.  sequence of  linkages  contributing v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s hypothesized  At  present  between  chain  are  relatively  unknown. Purpose of the  Study  Given the prevalent  proportions  of s t r e s s - i n d u c e d  i n Western s o c i e t i e s today, there  to i d e n t i f y  coping  important that  strategies.  illnesses  i s a growing  In a d u l t education  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the  f u n c t i o n of  i n p r o m o t i n g h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h y s i c a l and  h e a l t h be  conducted.  to explore in  the  health  learners maintain  to t e s t the  health.  Definition  Terms  the present time there  definitions  - The  construct  psycho-physiological adaptive  no  life  while  u n i v e r s a l l y accepted  l e a r n i n g and  the d e f i n i t i o n s on  the hence  definitions. ' s t r e s s ' was  as  the  outcomes of r e a d j u s t m e n t s  and  efforts required  experiencing The  are  developed f o r data c o l l e c t i o n ,  primarily operational  Stress  active  experience  are based to a major extent  i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d and they are  environments  of s t r e s s , h e a l t h , or  of those constructs  proposition that  i n s t r e s s f u l environments  in stressful  decrements i n  At  purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s  their health  learners  of  psychological  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n  l e a r n i n g and  non-active  i t is adult  education  The  need  of the  c r i s e s or  life  empirical indicator for this  S o c i a l Readjustment Rating  Scale  defined  a d u l t when change  events.  c o n s t r u c t was (Holmes and  the Rahe 1 9 6 7 ) .  10 Subjective as  Stress  -  'Subjective  s e l f - r e p o r t e d cumulative  tension, threat, pressure b r o u g h t a b o u t by daily  living.  social  This  f e e l i n g s of  and  c o n s t r u c t was  Subjective Stress Scale  and  by  r e s p o n s e s on  designed to quantify  as  anxiety,  strain in  q u a n t i f i e d by  (Chapman e t a l  1966)  a magnitude e s t i m a t i o n  scale  l e v e l s of s e l f - d e f i n e d s t r e s s  through a non-numerical Stress  nervous  defined  forces experienced  the  Perceived  S t r e s s ' was  technique.  - Although not  originally  a measure of s t r e s s , the N e u r o t i c i s m  described  scale  of  the Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory  was  selected  as  a measure of  Neuroticism,  as  d e f i n e d by  'perceived  stress'.  Eysenck, i s the  general  over-responsiveness  t y p i f i e d by  anxious,  and  aggressive  i n d i v i d u a l s who  are  Eysenck  Health  construct  ability usual extent  t o c a r r y on  compared t o  ' h e a l t h ' was  those d a i l y  deviation  and  Learning a more o r  Index  - Gagne's  as  a c t i v i t i e s which  social role.  To  normal  q u a n t i f i a b l e by  the  are  the living or  Bush  (Bush e t a l 1 9 7 2 ) . (1977) d e f i n i t i o n  of  'learning'  l e s s permanent change o f b e h a v i o u r  d i s p o s i t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t by processes other  the  i s i n a s t a t e of d y s f u n c t i o n ,  from w e l l being  Status  stable easygoing  defined  t h a t a person cannot c a r r y out o r she  appear  1966).  f o r a p e r s o n ' s age  a c t i v i t i e s he  Health  i n d i v i d u a l s who  c a l m , e v e n t e m p e r e d and  ( E y s e n c k and - The  moody as  emotional  c e n t r a l nervous  t h a n t h o s e i n d u c e d by  as  or system  maturation,  is  11 used i n t h i s  study.  Active Learner  - While  'learning'  defies precise quantification, intentionally  seeks  as d e f i n e d a b o v e  an a d u l t  who  to l e a r n i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l  s e t t i n g and/or the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l is  i d e n t i f i e d by  setting  s c o r e s above the median  score  on t h e S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n o f A d u l t L e a r n i n g Scale  ( B l u n t , 1977).  Conversely  does n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y natural societal  Plan of the The  the  who  seek t o l e a r n i n e i t h e r  s e t t i n g or the formal  s e t t i n g i s i d e n t i f i e d by s c o r e on  an a d u l t  the  instructional  s c o r e s below the median  scale.  Report study i s reported i n s i x chapters, w i t h t h i s  c h a p t e r b e i n g an o v e r v i e w  of the study problem,  a statement  t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , a d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s and of the r e p o r t . chapter which  A review of the l i t e r a t u r e has  health, social  m a j o r s e c t i o n s on  l e a r n i n g t h e o r y and  influencing participation review a t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s which  stress,  the  events  i n learning.  On  framework i s developed  design, sampling  In a d d i t i o n  procedures  and  w i t h axioms  Two  forms  to a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  study  data c o l l e c t i o n methods,  d e t a i l s the steps taken to t e s t the v a l i d i t y  major measures.  and  model.  chapter d e s c r i b e s the instruments used t o gather the and  and  the b a s i s of t h a t  form the b a s i s f o r the a n a l y t i c  chapter.  second  intrapersonal factors  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the study methodology the t h i r d  of  a plan  comprises life  first  s c a l e s developed  of  specifically  this  data the  f o r use  12 in  the  study, a magnitude e s t i m a t i o n  in adult  learning activities  and  a Thurstone scale to  a t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t education, Chapter four sample i n terms of health and  and  c o n s i s t s of selected  are  quantify  reported. the  study  socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  stress characteristics, personality characteristics,  participation in learning activity  the  also  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  adult education c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . and  scale of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  r e s u l t s of  the  The  a n a l y s i s are  and  attitude  data analysis  reported  i n the  toward procedures fifth  chapter. The  sixth  summary o f  the  discussion  of  research.  A l l of  and  final  study, the the  chapter of conclusions  i m p l i c a t i o n s and the  study c o n s i s t s of  d r a w n f r o m i t and  possibilities  s t u d y i n s t r u m e n t s and  d e v e l o p m e n t o f measures f o r use appendices.  the  i n the  for  a  further  information  study are  a  on  included  the as  13  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  T h i s s t u d y i s t y p i c a l o f many e x p l o r a t o r y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n where:  investigations  (i) there i s l i t t l e research to  guide the s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the study, ( i i ) g i v e n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e system t o be m o d e l l e d many p o t e n t i a l e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s must be o m i t t e d t o ensure  that  the model i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m p l e t o be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d , and in addition,  (iii)  t h e r e a r e few d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e with recognized v a l i d i t y to quantify those v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d  either  f o r i n c l u s i o n o r those which might  be p r o p o s e d as a l t e r n a t i v e s .  A l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h was conducted  t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s l i k e l y t o be o f a s s i s t a n c e  i n the  development o f a model t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f engagement i n l e a r n i n g i n mediating the decremental e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t r e s s on h e a l t h .  Four major c o n s t r u c t s  were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n  i n t h e model i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n s t r u c t s  of s t r e s s ,  participation constructs  i n learning  are:  the  control,  additional  stress, (ii)  ( i i i ) personality,  i n c l u s i o n as  a short  exogenous the  discussion  on  ( i i i )the  s t r e s s and  (v)  participation attitudes  the  concept of  on  (life  stress,  selected  change events)  and  health,  stress, social  e f f e c t s of  the model's major  on  (vi) the  expectancy learning  perceived effects  participation in certain  parts:  and  engagement i n  of p e r s o n a l i t y  e d u c a t i o n on  ( v i i ) the  the  ( i i ) the  e f f e c t s of generalized  influence  in learning  and  model were  s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t on  toward adult  activities, variables  the  addition  l i t e r a t u r e i s o r g a n i z e d i n seven  (iv) the  c o n t r o l over the  In  to i n f l u e n c e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d  health,  activities,  the  and  variables.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s health,  likely  major v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n  This review of  for  four  or perceived  socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s  e f f e c t s of  (i)  of  The  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l organizations.  several  for  health.  (i) subjective  i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus (iv)  and  stress,  of  learning  socio-demographic  variables.  Stress The  term  ' s t r e s s ' has  been used to d e s c r i b e  of p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o - s o c i a l ,  and  T h e r e i s no  consensus i n the  universally  a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n of  models of  Turnbull  D o h r e n w e n d and Moss stress  1967;  psycho-somatic  number  constructs.  research l i t e r a t u r e regarding  s t r e s s have been d e v e l o p e d  A p p l e y and  a large  L e v i n e and  s t r e s s , and (Selye  a  many t h e o r e t i c a l  1956;  Lazarus  S c o t c h 1970;  1966;  Hinkle*  1957;  D o h r e n w e n d 19 7 4 ) .  (1973) has  i d e n t i f i e d three broad categories  r e s e a r c h models; s t r e s s  p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l and  as  of  a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response  organic agents; stress  as  a  to  physiological  15 response  t o s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i ; and s t r e s s as a  b e h a v i o u r a l response  to social-psychological  S t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response and o r g a n i c a g e n t s .  stimuli.  to p h y s i c a l ,  Hans S e l y e ' s work (1956, 1975) i s t h e most  w i d e l y known i n t h e a r e a o f s t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l to p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l and o r g a n i c a g e n t s . experiments  chemical  response  Through h i s l a b o r a t o r y  inducing disease i n r a t s , Selye i d e n t i f i e d the  G e n e r a l A d a p t a t i o n Syndrome  (GAS), o b s e r v e d  the corresponding  c l i n i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n man, and d e r i v e d h i s t h e o r y o f d i s e a s e s of adaptation.  The t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t many common d i s e a s e s  are the r e s u l t of i n a p p r o p r i a t e b i o l o g i c a l responses  to  s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than t o t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t o f germs, p o i s o n , o r other e x t e r n a l agents. Stress according to Selye response  (1956) i s t h e n o n - s p e c i f i c  o f t h e body t o any demand upon i t .  A s t r e s s o r can be  a l m o s t any k i n d o f s t i m u l u s i n c l u d i n g e x e r c i s e , d i s e a s e , h e a t , c o l d , hunger o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l shock.  The GAS has t h r e e s t a g e s ,  an a l a r m r e a c t i o n , r e s i s t a n c e and e x h a u s t i o n .  During the alarm  r e a c t i o n t h e s t r e s s o r i s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e body and t h e p i t u i t a r y - a d r e n a l c o r t i c a l system responds by p r o d u c i n g  arousal  hormones.  rise,  The h e a r t r a t e i n c r e a s e s , b l o o d sugar l e v e l s  b r e a t h i n g q u i c k e n s , p u p i l s d i l a t e , p e r s p i r a t i o n commences and the d i g e s t i v e p r o c e s s slows down. In  t h e a d a p t i v e o r r e s i s t a n c e s t a g e t h e body m o d i f i e s  t h e i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s and r e p a i r s any damage w h i l e t h e p h y s i c a l symptoms o f s t r e s s d e c l i n e .  I f the s t r e s s continues the  a d a p t i v e p r o c e s s may be i n t e r r u p t e d and t h e body w i l l work to m a i n t a i n i t s b i o - d e f e n c e  systems.  S h o u l d t h e s t r e s s be  p r o l o n g e d t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e body t o respond  effectively  16 d e c l i n e s , leading to exhaustion.  During t h i s t h i r d  stage  ( e x h a u s t i o n ) d i s e a s e s o f a d a p t a t i o n can o c c u r such as e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , m i g r a i n e headaches, asthma, c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e s , r e n a l d i s e a s e s and many o t h e r s . Recent c h a l l e n g e s t o S e l y e ' s t h e o r y have been based upon e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e  t h a t s t r e s s i s s p e c i f i c r a t h e r than  n o n - s p e c i f i c , and t h a t p h y s i c a l l y dangerous o r damaging s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s a r e more o f t e n t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than p h y s i c a l s t r e s s o r s . One apparent  paradox i n S e l y e ' s t h e o r y i s t h a t , " S t r e s s i s  part of l i f e . activities"  (Moss 1973; T r o t t e r 1975)  I t i s a n a t u r a l by-product  of a l l our  ( S e l y e 1956, p. 299), y e t t h e r e a r e no s p e c i f i c  p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses  t o s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l events  that  are comparable t o t h e s p e c i f i c e v e n t s accompanying b o d i l y c o n t a c t w i t h v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l , chemical o r organic events One q u e s t i o n t h a t S e l y e does n o t address  (Moss 1973).  i s : why, i f  e v e r y l i f e event i s s t r e s s f u l , do some l i f e e v e n t s a f f e c t some i n d i v i d u a l s and n o t o t h e r s ?  V a r i a b i l i t y among p o p u l a t i o n s  r e g a r d i n g p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s f u l n e s s and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o p i n g mechanisms have n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d by S e l y e . (Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend, 19 74) S t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response stimuli.  to social-psychological  The model o f s t r e s s as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response t o  s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i i s b e s t t y p i f i e d by t h e r e s e a r c h of W o l f f  (1953, 1968).  Stress according t o Wolff, i s the  " i n t e r n a l o r r e s i s t i n g f o r c e b r o u g h t i n t o a c t i o n by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s o r l o a d s . " (1953) e x t e r n a l f o r c e s determines  The c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e body t o w i t h s t a n d whether i l l n e s s w i l l  result.  17 However, not  a l l responses to e x t e r n a l  forces  are  appropriate.  P h y s i o l o g i c a l defences n o r m a l l y used to r e s i s t p h y s i c a l may  be  forces As  u s e d as  defences against  and  a c t u a l l y c a u s e b o d i l y h a r m by  Wolff  may  symbolic or  forces  social-psychological inducing  illness.  noted:  I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t man, confronted by t h r e a t s , e s p e c i a l l y as t h e y i n v o l v e v a l u e s and g o a l s , i n i t i a t e s r e s p o n s e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n k i n d as w e l l as i n m a g n i t u d e . Such r e a c t i o n s i n t e g r a t e d f o r one p r o t e c t i v e p u r p o s e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y u s e d f o r a n o t h e r c a n damage o r d e s t r o y h i m . When a c u l t u r e changes r a p i d l y or d e t e r i o r a t e s , the a n x i e t y - r e s o l v i n g s y s t e m s b r e a k down b e f o r e t h e c u l t u r a l l y e n g e n d e r e d a n x i e t i e s become attenuated. I t i s not the p a r t i c u l a r nature o f t h e f o r c e s , p r e s s u r e s and p r e f e r e n c e s t h a t e n g e n d e r a t h r e a t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y , b u t how t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d and t h e amount o f c o n f l i c t d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y engendered. ( W o l f f 1953, p. 12) In a p p l y i n g  h i s theory of  stress, Wolff i d e n t i f i e d  b o d y o r g a n s y s t e m s , s u c h as could  be  directly  resulting  the  influenced  i n increased  l u n g s and  by  the  specific  stomach,  social-psychological  s u s c e p t a b i l i t y to disease  and  that  factors irreversible  damage t h r o u g h h y p e r - a c t i v i t y o r o t h e r c h a n g e s i n t h e of organ  systems.  Stress stimuli. can  be  as  a behavioural  There are  classified  i n t o the  The  t h a t the  s t r e s s o r s are  to d i s r u p t the  and  primarily social objective  the  p.  120).  studies  The  which of  i n nature:  activities"  "major threaten  (Dohrenwend  s t r e s s o r s need not  extent to which the  stress  h a v e i n common i s  events that d i s r u p t or  i n d i v i d u a l ' s usual  D o h r e n w e n d , 1970,  social-psychological  t h i r d o f Moss' c a t e g o r i e s  element t h a t these s t u d i e s  s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s . . . are  native,  response to  many e x a m p l e s o f r e s e a r c h  models.  be  functioning  and  necessarily  s t r e s s o r induces  crisis  18 i s dependent upon t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e h a v i o u r s  of the  individual. The  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e p t o f s t r e s s began w i t h  the advocacy o f t h e l i f e c h a r t as an i n s t r u m e n t d i a g n o s i s by A d o l f Meyer i n t h e 1930s. popular  f o r medical  The c o n c e p t i s i n  usage today i n t h e l i f e - c h a n g e r e s e a r c h o f  Holmes (1967) , Rahe (1964) , Mechanic (197 4) and Dohrenwend (197 4).  and Dohrenwend  However, t h e r e a r e wide v a r i a t i o n s i n  the e x t e n t t o w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s  share concepts of  measurement, methodology o r t h e s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i n k a g e s (Moss 197 3 ) . C e r t a i n r e s e a r c h e r s p l a c e emphasis on t h e c o g n i t i v e process stressor  as t h e d e t e r m i n a n t o f whether o r n o t an e v e n t i s a ( L a z a r u s , 1966); o t h e r s emphasize t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  knowledge, s k i l l s and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e  (Moss 1973).  There  i s e v i d e n c e from some s t u d i e s t h a t c l u s t e r s o f l i f e e v e n t s have s i g n i f i c a n c e as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e cause and time o f i l l n e s s o n s e t (Holmes and Masuda, 1973). pre-disposing f a c t o r s are primary,  Other s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t and t h a t l i f e e v e n t s p l a y a  secondary r o l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o n s e t o f c e r t a i n i l l n e s s e s . For example, H i n k l e n o t e d t h a t " s y s t e m a t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l changes i n t h e American p o p u l a t i o n s have n o t produced major e p i s o d e s ' o f susceptible " support  i l l n e s s , e x c e p t among those who were e s p e c i a l l y  ( H i n k l e , 1964, p. 1 5 ) . S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s  t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p e r c e p t i o n o f s t r e s s o r s does n o t  i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f e c t s o f s t r e s s upon h e a l t h (Holmes and Masuda, 1973).  S t u d i e s u s i n g t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g  Scale  o f L i f e e v e n t s (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) have shown t h a t  life  19 changes  thought  to be p o s i t i v e  improvement i n o n e ' s  - such as a v a c a t i o n or an  r e l a t i o n s w i t h a spouse - are  quantitatively  r e l a t e d to the c a u s a t i o n , time of onset and s e v e r i t y of Negative  life  changes  such as g e t t i n g  e x p e r i e n c i n g a worsening similarly  Holmes and Holmes,  a t r a f f i c t i c k e t or  i n r e l a t i o n s with one's  r e l a t e d to i l l n e s s  illness.  spouse  are  (Mendels and W e i n s t e i n , 1 9 7 3 ;  1970).  There i s widespread l a c k of agreement i n the l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g models o f s t r e s s .  While no s i n g l e model has been  g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d , one b r o a d l y s t a t e d model has become dominant i n r e c e n t r e s e a r c h - s t r e s s as a b e h a v i o u r a l  response  to s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  this  study,  stress is  stimuli.  F o r the purposes of  o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n terms of what may  w e l l be the s i n g l e most w i d e l y used instrument w i t h i n category of s t r e s s models, the S o c i a l Readjustment Scale  this  Rating  (SRRS; Holmes and Rahe, 1 9 6 7 ) . The  categorized  scale consists  of f o r t y - t h r e e items which can be  as:  . . . i n d i c a t i v e o f the l i f e s t y l e of the i n d i v i d u a l and...of occurrences that involve the i n d i v i d u a l . E v o l v i n g u s u a l l y from o r d i n a r y , but sometimes from e x t r a o r d i n a r y s o c i a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , these events p e r t a i n to major areas of dynamic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the /American way of l i f e . These i n c l u d e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n , m a r r i a g e , o c c u p a t i o n , economics, r e s i d e n c e , group and peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e d u c a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , r e c r e a t i o n and h e a l t h . (Holmes and Masuda, 1 9 7 3 , p. 162) Respondents  are asked to i n d i c a t e whether they have e x p e r i e n c e d  each of the f o r t y - t h r e e l i f e - e v e n t s d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s months. the  For each p o s i t i v e response a s c a l e v a l u e  magnitude of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l i f e  six  indicating  change event i s  assigned  to  t h e r e s p o n d e n t , and t h e v a l u e s a s s i g n e d a r e summed over  a l l f o r t y - t h r e e l i f e e v e n t s t o produce a s i n g l e s c a l e s c o r e for  each  respondent.  S o c i a l S t r e s s and H e a l t h A g r e a t d e a l o f e v i d e n c e has been accumulated t h a t a t e m p o r a l and presumed c a u s a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  t o show exists  between t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g o f i n c r e a s e s i n l i f e change e v e n t s and t h e o n s e t o f i l l n e s s .  F u r t h e r , t h e magnitude o f t h e l i f e  change e v e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d has been o b s e r v e d t o be s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f d i s e a s e o n s e t and t o t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e i l l n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d (Holmes and Masuda, 1973).  Even when changes o f l e s s magnitude t h a n t h o s e i n c l u d e d  on t h e SRRS a r e o b s e r v e d d a i l y , subsequent h e a l t h changes are  o b s e r v a b l e a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e o f l e s s consequence and do  not normally r e q u i r e medical a t t e n t i o n  (Holmes and Holmes,  1970) . R e t r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s conducted i n Sweden have shown a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c r e a s i n g l i f e sudden c a r d i a c d e a t h  change and  (Rahe and L i n d , 1971), and the- time o f  onset o f myo-cardial i n f a r c t i o n T h e o r e l l and Rahe, 19 71). t h a n t h e SRRS produced  (Rahe and P a a s i k i v i , 1971;  A s t u d y u s i n g an i n s t r u m e n t o t h e r  similar results confirming a relationship  between t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g o f l i f e change e v e n t s and m y o - c a r d i a l infarction  (Edwards,  1971).  i n c r e a s i n g amounts o f l i f e Tollefson  (1972).  b r u i s e s , headaches,  The o c c u r r e n c e o f f r a c t u r e s and change were found t o be r e l a t e d by  Even minor h e a l t h changes i n c l u d i n g stomachaches,  backaches  cuts,  and c o l d s which  do n o t cause time l o s t from work o r m e d i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n have  a l s o been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e c l u s t e r i n g o f l i f e e v e n t s (Holmes and Holmes, 1970).  change  P r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s have  been used t o p r e d i c t i l l n e s s among groups such as p h y s i c i a n s (Holmes and Masuda, 1973) and n a v a l p e r s o n n e l (Rahe, 1968) , and  t o p r e d i c t i n j u r y among c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s (Holmes,  1970) . A l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e mean i l l n e s s r a t e o f n a v a l p e r s o n n e l and t h e magnitude o f l i f e change has been demonstrated  (Rahe, e t a l , 19 70) , and t h r o u g h t h e use o f a  s c a l e d e v e l o p e d i n a s i m i l a r way t o t h e SRRS, W y l e r , Masuda and  Holmes (1970) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p  rho  = 0.6 48)  (Spearman  between l i f e change magnitude f o r t h e two y e a r s  p r i o r t o t h e o n s e t o f i l l n e s s and t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e chronic disease. Holmes and Masuda c o n c l u d e a summary o f t h e i r  research  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e change e v e n t s and h e a l t h as follows: I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t l i f e - c h a n g e e v e n t s , by e v o k i n g a d a p t i v e e f f o r t s by t h e human o r g a n i s m t h a t a r e f a u l t y i n k i n d and d u r a t i o n , l o w e r ' b o d i l y r e s i s t a n c e ' and enhance t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of d i s e a s e o c c u r r e n c e . (Holmes and Masuda, 19 73, p. 182) I t i s t a k e n as a b a s i c a p r i o r i , a s s u m p t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t a h i g h magnitude o f s o c i a l s t r e s s l i f e change e v e n t s among a sample w i l l cause t h e o n s e t o f i l l n e s s f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of  t h e sample p l a c e d a t such r i s k .  Further, i t i s hypothesized  t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g w i l l be a f a c t o r w h i c h w i l l reduce t h e r i s k and hence t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f i l l n e s s among those who e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h magnitude o f l i f e  change.  (See F i g .  1)  22 F i g u r e 1. BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE THEORETICAL MODEL Participation in Learning  /  (+)  Social  •v ( + )  Stress  Health (-)  Three axioms o r p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s were  derived  from t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h c o m p r i s e d t h e b a s i c model.  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e m e d i a t e d by a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s  described  l a t e r i n t h i s chapter.  Proposition 1 H i g h s o c i a l s t r e s s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and w i t h decrements i n h e a l t h o v e r t i m e . Proposition 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l stress, with highly stressed individuals p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n learning a c t i v i t i e s to a greater experiencing  little  e x t e n t than i n d i v i d u a l s  social stress.  Proposition 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be with high  associated  l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g , and improvements i n  l e v e l s of h e a l t h over time.  23 Perceived  S t r e s s and  In the concluded directly  Health  l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s H i n k l e and  Wolff  t h a t r e a c t i o n t o s t r e s s t h a t was experienced  tended to heighten  (1957,  1958)  perceived  susceptibility  because o f the p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes evoked d u r i n g to  adapt to the t h r e a t s p e r c e i v e d .  m a j o r r e s e a r c h p a p e r s and Stevenson  From a r e v i e w  books i n the  (1963) c o n c l u d e d  but  field,  t h a t only those  not  to  attempts of  thirty  Graham  and  stressful  events  towards which the p a t i e n t develops c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s are significance years  i n stimulating a disease  a f t e r the H i n k l e  and W o l f f  process.  illness  of  Almost t h i r t e e n  s t u d i e s , Thurlow  (1971)  observed  t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h which a person r a t e s the  perception,  of h i s environment i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  number o f  subsequent i l l n e s s e s  experienced.  for  and  previous  d r a w n was  illness  r e l a t e d to the  Thurlow's study c o n t r o l l e d  s i c k r o l e tendency.  that a person's perception  greater relevance  The  conclusion  o f c h a n g e may  be  to h i s or her h e a l t h than are the  of  changes  themselves. Holmes d e s i r a b l e and  (1973) a n d undesirable  the onset of i l l n e s s perception life  his colleagues  and  life they  have found t h a t  change e v e n t s c o n t r i b u t e do  not  subscribe  stressful.  However, t h e r e  o f s t u d i e s w h i c h have been c o n d u c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t some b u t affect health. d e s i r a b l e and  not  a l llife  M y e r s e t a l ( 1 9 7 1 , 1972) undesirable  health with undesirable  events are  events being  towards  to the b e l i e f  of the environment i n f l u e n c e s the extent  change e v e n t s a r e  both  to which  are  a number  to test  change e v e n t s  the  adversely  h a v e shown t h a t  both  related to psychological more s t r o n g l y  that  associated  24 with  p s y c h i a t r i c impairment than d e s i r a b l e events.  of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e  Paykel  e t a l (1969) r e p o r t e d  t o be  undesirable,  and  departures from the patients life  from the  Spilken  and  not  life-crises life  the The  does not and by  the the  and  Jacobs  r e l a t e d i n any The  or  the  the  factors, including important. presence  way  a one  with  investigators speculated  been p l e a s u r a b l e  conclusion  the  or  year  changes i n t h a t i f the  s t u d e n t s might have  themselves.  drawn f r o m t h e  s t u d y was  that  to treatment-seeking  symptoms w h i c h d e v e l o p a r e  u s e d as  life  stress  behaviours,  'calling  cards'  students.  of  a priori  s t r e s s may  the  model. Two  possibility  m u s t be  i s a s u b j e c t i v e assessment of  to i n this  s t u d y as  study t h a t such a r e l a t i o n s h i p  r e f l e c t e d i n the  concepts of perceived  i s aware o f the  that individuals'  influence t h e i r health, i t i s taken  assumption i n t h i s  i n d e e d e x i s t and  or  drawn t h a t  adequate to e x p l a i n  systematic  symptoms o r t r e a t e d  may  One  was  among c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g  scores.  thought  depressed  (1971) f o u n d t h a t t h e  l e a d to i l l n e s s but  perceptions an  not  that other  In r e c o g n i t i o n of the  as  conclusion  s y m b o l i c f a c t o r s , were  e x p e r i e n c e s had  ignored  The  i t s e l f was and  absence of i l l n e s s p e r i o d was  that events generally  i n p a r t i c u l a r those i n v o l v i n g losses  controls.  onset of depression  study  depression,  s o c i a l group, d i s t i n g u i s h e d  c h a n g e m o d e l by  psychological  e v e n t s and  In a  s t r e s s can the  be  extent  e f f e c t s of p s y c h o - s o c i a l s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s , and  structure  identified.  t o w h i c h one stressors  the  of  feels  referred  second i s  the  less subjectively discernible pattern  o f b e h a v i o u r s adopted  i n response t o a t h r e a t e n i n g environment referred  t o by Eysenck as n e u r o t i c i s m .  t h a t are c o l l e c t i v e l y Each form o f p e r c e i v e d  s t r e s s was thought t o have i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n the model.  s t r e s s was q u a n t i f i e d by the S u b j e c t i v e  Stress  S c a l e developed  by Chapman e t a l (1966) and p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s was by the n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y Inventory  (1966).  Subjective  s c a l e i n the Eysenck  quantified Personality  (See F i g . 2) F i g u r e 2.  THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERCEIVED STRESS AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE BASIC MODEL  Proposition  4  Levels of s u b j e c t i v e to l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s engage i n l e a r n i n g  s t r e s s w i l l be d i r e c t l y and w i l l  activities.  influence  related  the d e c i s i o n s  to  26 Proposition  5  Perceived  s t r e s s as measured by the p e r s o n a l i t y  of n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y w i l l d i r e c t l y health  functioning  and d e c i s i o n s  influence  dimension  l e v e l s of  t o engage i n l e a r n i n g  activities. S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory Social learning that  theory i s based upon the p r o p o s i t i o n  "the u n i t o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r t h e study o f p e r s o n a l i t y  i s the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s meaningful environment" and  (Rotter,  195.4).  Rotter,  one o f the o r i g i n a t o r s  a l e a d i n g proponent o f t h i s t h e o r y , argues t h a t "the  o c c u r r e n c e o f a b e h a v i o u r o f a person i s determined n o t only by t h e n a t u r e o f importance o f g o a l s o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t s but a l s o by  the person's a n t i c i p a t i o n o r expectancy t h a t these g o a l s  will  occur"  (Rotter,  19 5.4).  s i t u a t i o n , the theory p r e d i c t s  When a p p l i e d  to a learning  t h a t a person a c q u i r e s  new  b e h a v i o u r s when rewarded o r when a reward i s expected, and fails or  to acquire  new b e h a v i o u r s when rewards a r e n o t r e c e i v e d  expected. One important development from r e s e a r c h  learning  into  social  theory has been the r e f i n e m e n t o f the n o t i o n  o f the  c o n t r o l o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t as b e i n g e i t h e r i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l to the i n d i v i d u a l .  That i s , i f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  of the l i k e l i h o o d o f rewards a r e t h a t they a r e w i t h i n  h i s control  or dependent upon h i s p e r s o n a l s k i l l s he i s judged t o be internally controlled.  I f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the  l i k e l i h o o d o f rewards a r e t h a t they a r e w i t h i n  the c o n t r o l o f  o t h e r s or dependent upon chance he i s judged t o be e x t e r n a l l y  27 controlled. The i n t e r n a l l y  c o n t r o l l e d p e r s o n i s o n e who b e l i e v e s  what he o r she h a s e x p e r i e n c e d , i s e x p e r i e n c i n g  and i s l i k e l y  to experience within the s o c i a l m i l i e u i s d i r e c t l y what he h a s done, i s d o i n g and i s l i k e l y  t o do.  related to  When  t h i n g s ' happen i t i s because o f t h e a c t i o n s , s k i l l s , and  'good capabilities  e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n t h a t e n s u r e t h e outcomes a r e good.  When 'bad t h i n g s ' h a p p e n i t i s b e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n d i d n o t t r y h a r d enough, d i d n o t a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y making t h e outcome feel equally situations  a good one.  responsible  o r was i n c a p a b l e o f  Internally controlled individuals  f o r t h e good and b a d outcomes o f  i n w h i c h t h e y were  involved.  The e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s  that  what he o r she h a s e x p e r i e n c e d , i s e x p e r i e n c i n g  or i s likely  to experience i n t h e s o c i a l m i l i e u i s unrelated  to h i s actions,  skills,  capabilities  one i s l u c k y  and e x p e r i e n c e .  'Good t h i n g s ' h a p p e n when  a n d 'bad t h i n g s ' h a p p e n when o n e i s u n l u c k y .  F a i l u r e t o achieve a goal  i s ascribed t o anything  individual's  Externally controlled individuals  activities.  f e e l t h a t they a r e n o t r e s p o n s i b l e  but the  f o r e i t h e r t h e good o r b a d i  outcomes o f s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e i n v o l v e d . The c o n s t r u c t great In  i n t e r e s t t o researchers  1966 L e f c o u r t  dealing with  locus  given  since  i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n by R o t t e r .  (1966) r e v i e w e d f i f t y - s e v e n r e s e a r c h  the construct  of r e i n f o r c e m e n t . of  o f i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l has been o f  o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  The s t u d i e s  utilized  situational  papers  control manipulations  of control or involved d i f f e r e n t i a l predictions to  s i t u a t i o n s b a s e d on m e a s u r e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l  28 c o n t r o l dimension.  Lefcourt  investigation  o f c o n t r o l was f o u n d t o b e p r e d i c t i v e o f  locus  reported  that i n both types of  d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r s , l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s , and l e v e l s of achievement-related MacDonald  (19 71)  the  with  area,  activities.  published  I n 1971 T h r o o p and  a bibliography  o f 339 a r t i c l e s i n  206 o f t h e a r t i c l e s h a v i n g b e e n p u b l i s h e d  since  1966 . Internally  c o n t r o l l e d l e a r n e r s have been f o u n d t o be  i n n e r - d i r e c t e d and autonomous, c h o o s i n g t o s t u d y s u b j e c t s personally externals consider  consider  t e n d t o be o t h e r - d i r e c t e d  i n a social  others  Active  a c t i o n group i n v e s t i g a t e d by S t r i c k l a n d  w e r e f o u n d t o be more i n t e r n a l l y  greater  while  and s t u d y s u b j e c t s  t o be i m p o r t a n t - ( B u t t e r f i e l d , . .1964),...  participants (19 65)  t o be i n t e r e s t i n g a n d i m p o r t a n t  they  c o n t r o l l e d and had a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e v e n t s a f f e c t i n g them t h a n a c o n t r o l  group n o t i n v o l v e d  i n social  action.  Some s t u d i e s h a v e s u p p o r t e d t h e u t i l i t y  of locus of  c o n t r o l as a measure p r e d i c t i n g t h e t y p e and d e g r e e o f commitment b e h a v i o u r m a n i f e s t e d t o i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l change Rotter,  196 3 ) .  than externals subjects  P h a r e s f o u n d i n t e r n a l s t o b e more e f f e c t i v e i n attempting  (19 6 5 ) ;  utilization  (Gore and  t o change t h e a t t i t u d e s o f  other  i n t e r n a l s w e r e more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e  of information  degree than e x t e r n a l s useful i n the future  (1968) a n d i n t e r n a l s t o a  a c t i v e l y seek i n f o r m a t i o n (Davis  and P h a r e s ,  greater  that w i l l  be  1967).  Seeman h a s c o n d u c t e d a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s  o v e r two d e c a d e s  i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l i e n a t i o n and s o c i a l learnings  The v e r s i o n o f a l i e n a t i o n i n w h i c h Seeman h a s b e e n  m o s t i n t e r e s t e d i s p o w e r l e s s n e s s , w h i c h he q u a n t i f i e s b y u s e  of a m o d i f i e d R o t t e r i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o f reinforcement scale  (Seeman, 1 9 5 9 ) .  One q u a l i f i c a t i o n  Seeman i s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y  o f a l i e n a t i o n made b y  of the concept  be l i m i t e d t o  expectancies  t h a t h a v e t o do w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  c o n t r o l over  socio-political  and  i n t i m a t e needs such  events  sense o f  r a t h e r t h a n more p e r s o n a l  as f o r a f f e c t i o n o r s t a t u s .  The  e f f e c t s o f a l i e n a t i o n on p e r s o n a l n e e d s , Seeman a r g u e s , further e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n before being  accepted  require (Seeman,  1959) . Seeman study  (1962) , u s i n g a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l  o f t u b e r c u l o s i s p a t i e n t s , found  m a t c h e d on s e v e r a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  design i n a  t h a t among p a t i e n t s  characteristics  and h o s p i t a l  e x p e r i e n c e , t h o s e who s c o r e d h i g h on a p o w e r l e s s n e s s  scale  ( e x t e r n a l s ) had l e s s o b j e c t i v e knowledge about t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , and  t h a t t h e low powerlessness  group  (internals)  most s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s ward.  These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t "...the  of personal c o n t r o l  i s a factor  his  affairs"  i n the hospital  individual's  i n determining  i n t e r e s t a n d t h e d e g r e e o f k n o w l e d g e he w i l l  expressed the  sense  the l e v e l of  possess  concerning  ( 1 9 6 2 , p. 7 8 2 ) .  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d  i n a study  of prisoners  i n a r e f o r m a t o r y where t h e l e a r n i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o p a r o l e was f o u n d expectancies enabled  f o rcontrol  (Seeman, 1 9 6 3 ) .  The s t u d y  design  the a t t r i b u t i o n of the findings to i n t e l l i g e n c e or  criminal history on  t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r i s o n e r ' s  t o be d i s c o u n t e d .  a l l kinds of learning.  The i n m a t e s d i d n o t d i f f e r  T h e y d i f f e r e d on k n o w l e d g e o f p a r o l e  which implied c o n t r o l of the prisoner's l i f e where n o n - p a r o l e  reformatory  outcomes, b u t  i n f o r m a t i o n was i n v o l v e d n o  30 differences  i n l e a r n i n g between l o c u s  of c o n t r o l groups  was  found. Peters  (1969) s t u d i e d  and  confirmed that  did  externals.  a sample o f p e n i t e n t i a r y  i n t e r n a l s r e t a i n e d more i n f o r m a t i o n  the  d i f f e r e n c e was  perceived  the  information- to c o n t r o l .  relevancy also  of  e n v i r o n m e n t s u c h as  Political to the  preparation  k n o w l e d g e has  B o t h m a n u a l and  a p o w e r l e s s n e s s . measure t e s t of p o l i t i c a l  knowledge.  chances of for future  Sweden p r o d u c e d f i n d i n g s  scores,  this  case the  high  on  the  low  not  and  there  A  their  s c o r e s on  no  i n support of  the  with  powerlessness  war  Two  study i n t h i s  forms of  social conducted that  control-relevant scores.  two  In  scored  political  knowledge  groups i n  (Seeman, 196 7 b ) . a controlled  about i m p r o v e d work  a l i e n a t i o n , the  operating  on  objective  (internals)  a r e a was  (internal-external control)  w e r e h y p o t h e s i z e d as  an  with  and  (Seeman,  hypothesis  d i f f e r e n c e between the  for seeking information  opportunities.  on  a l l information  a c u l t u r a l knowledge t e s t  Seeman's l a s t  related  s i m i l a r study  powerlessness subjects  was  employment.  E d u c a t i o n , i n c o m e and  control-relevant nuclear  test,  occasion  but  control  scored high  s c o r e d low  l e v e l s of powerlessness c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y information  to  f o r c o n t r o l over events  study.  the  Internal  a l s o b e e n shown t o be  (externals)  support  d e p e n d e n t upon  n o n - m a n u a l w o r k e r s who  c l a s s were c o n t r o l l e d i n the in  to increase  individual's expectation  19 6 6 ) .  to  judged to e f f e c t inmates' w i l l i n g n e s s  l e a r n o r engage i n a c t i v i t i e s over the  than  Data from t h i s s t u d y , however, f a i l e d  Seeman's f i n d i n g s t h a t  c o n t r o l was  inmates  and  sense  work a l i e n a t i o n  i n d e p e n d e n t l y as  i n f l u e n c i n g a knowledge s e a r c h b e h a v i o u r .  of  "The  factors prediction  was  t h a t these  a l i e n a t i o n s operate  a l i e n a t i o n being  an  index  of  p o w e r l e s s n e s s as an  index  o f low  likely  utility" The  (Seeman, 1972,  low  differences.  white  p.  information after  Manual workers w i t h  the  most  nonalienating scored  expected.  i n a l i e n a t e d work,  those  i n p o w e r l e s s n e s s s o u g h t t h e work i n f o r m a t i o n most  heavily.  Education  was  t h i s u n e x p e c t e d and  t h o u g h t by otherwise  Seeman t o be  unexplained  influential  relationship.  S u i c i d e i s perhaps the most extreme r e s p o n s e t o life to  crises  and  score higher  e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d s u b j e c t s have been on  a measure of s u i c i d e p o t e n t i a l i t y  internally oriented subjects In the to  same s t u d y ,  ( W i l l i a m s and  i n a n x i e t y and  variables  than  were  That e x t e r n a l s tend neuroticism  (Feather,  to  found be  19 67)  locus of c o n t r o l are p o t e n t i a l l y  i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the complex  surrounding  h e a l t h s t a t u s and  life  of  valuable  inter-relationships  change.  Research i n locus of c o n t r o l supports  his  found  f u r t h e r evidence t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e p t i o n  s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t and  an  unresolved  N i c k e l s , 1969).  accident proneness s c a l e scores  correlate with externality.  r e l a t i v e l y high is  its  controlling  c o l l a r w o r k e r s i n a l i e n a t e d w o r k who  However, w i t h manual w o r k e r s h i g h  in  and  16).  on p o w e r l e s s n e s s s o u g h t w o r k i n f o r m a t i o n as  highest  work  'expectancy' concerning  more a l i e n a t e d w o r k e r s w e r e f o u n d t o be  education  j o b s and  - high  'need' f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  active i n seeking work-related for  independently  the  thesis that  i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a n c y f o r c o n t r o l o f h i s outcome ( i . e . sense of powerlessness)  governs h i s a t t e n t i o n to  and  a c q u i s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the environment.  If  individuals consider lives  the generalized  t o be p a r t i a l l y w i t h i n t h e y may  their control  possible  that  learning  experiences to deal with  a c t i v e l y seek  c o n s e q u e n t l y be l e s s l i k e l y health  status.  occurring  a c t i v e l y develop  to suffer detrimental  as u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  e x p e r i e n c e s and may  the generalized  expectancy  based  may  upon i n f o r m a t i o n health on t h e  not gained  as a r e s u l t . assumption  f o r c o n t r o l over the s o c i a l  i s a factor influencing.the  in  activities.  Proposition  changes i n  (externals)  suffer i l l  environment learning  may  v i e w the changes  T h i s s t u d y has been d e s i g n e d i n p a r t that  through  t h o s e changes and  c o p i n g mechanisms  in their  (internals), i ti s  information  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h o s e who  i n their lives  from l e a r n i n g  changes o c c u r r i n g  decision  to participate  (See F i g . 3)  6  Generalized  expectancy  f o r c o n t r o l over the s o c i a l  environment  i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the d e c i s i o n  in  activities.  learning  to  engage  Personality An i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r s a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e he o r s h e makes. functionally  Those d e c i s i o n s ,  life  Decisions  change e v e n t s w i l l  as w i l l  decisions  over extended personality  a c c o r d i n g t o Eysenck,  r e l a t e d t o the dimensions  and E y s e n c k 1 9 6 6 ) .  of personality  regarding  be i n f l u e n c e d  regarding  responses  The  (Eysenck  by p e r s o n a l i t y  orientations, strategies  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or t r a i t s  enables a s e l e c t i v e  analysis  o f t h e i r e f f o r t s on t h e d e c i s i o n  learning  activities  t o be made.  are  to s p e c i f i c  the s e l e c t i o n of coping  periods of time.  decisions  to participate i n  In addition  the d i f f e r e n t i a l  33 effects of personality coping strategy  i n the application of learning  as a  can a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d . F i g u r e 3.  THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG LOCUS OF CONTROL, PERCEIVED STRESS AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE B A S I C MODEL  Locus o f Control (+ )  Eysenck  (196 8)  has i d e n t i f i e d  two i n d e p e n d e n t  personality  dimensions which appear worthy  of investigation i n relation  to t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with  change e v e n t s , l e a r n i n g and  health  status.  introversion  life  T h e two d i m e n s i o n s a r e e x t r a v e r s i o n  (E) a n d n e u r o t i c i s m  - s t a b i l i t y (N).  In a review o f the p e r s o n a l i t y identified of  extraversion  central status  structure.  and n e u r o t i c i s m  i n current  -  l i t e r a t u r e Wiggins as h o l d i n g  investigations  (1968)  the position  of personality  One i n d i c a t o r o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d r e s e a r c h  interest  in  E y s e n c k ' s p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h c a n be f o u n d i n t h e S e v e n t h  Mental 174  Measurements Y e a r Book  references  Inventory  (Buros,  1972), which  contains  t o s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y  ( E P I ) d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1966 t o 1 9 7 0 .  E x t r a v e r s i o n i s t y p i f i e d by o u t g o i n g , u n i n h i b i t e d , i m p u l s i v e and s o c i a b l e b e h a v i o u r s , i n h i b i t e d , c a r e f u l and c o n s i d e r e d the general emotional who a p p e a r a n x i o u s ,  and i n t r o v e r s i o n by r e s e r v e d , behaviours.  over-responsiveness  aggressive  Neuroticism i s  t y p i f i e d by  people  a n d moody a s o p p o s e d t o s t a b l e  i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e c a l m , e v e n t e m p e r e d , c o n s i d e r a t e a n d e a s y going  (Eysenck and Eysenck, The  E.P.I,  has been found t o have u t i l i t y  of s o c i a l psychology group a c t i v i t i e s ,  1966).  and e d u c a t i o n  areas  where i n f l u e n c e s such as  suggestion, persuasion,  i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , time  i n many  and o t h e r s  risk  situations,  act differently  on  e x t r a v e r t s and i n t r o v e r t s , and upon n e u r o t i c and s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s t o m o d i f y s u b j e c t s ' r e a c t i o n s and (Eysenck,  1971).  behaviours  W r i t i n g o f l e a r n i n g performance i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  Eysenck claims a major r o l e  f o r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as e x p l a n a t o r y  variables: For decades, p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n v e s t i g a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l problems and making p r e d i c t i o n s of academic success o r f a i l u r e have c o n c e n t r a t e d on c o g n i t i v e m e a s u r e s ; y e t p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x t r a v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m a r e o b v i o u s l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a good p a r t o f the t o t a l variance. ( E y s e n c k , 1 9 7 1 , p.. 3) The will  f o l l o w i n g review be b r i e f  identified of l i f e identify  o f some o f t h e E . P . I ,  utilization  literature  a n d h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e a s n o l i t e r a t u r e was  on t h e u s e o f t h e E . P . I ,  change o r s t r e s s .  exclusively  i n adult studies  The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d s e r v e o n l y t o  the potential u t i l i t y  of this particular personality  measure f o r the  present  study.  E d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t has E.P.I, scores with extraversion  b e e n shown t o be  related  to  having detrimental effects  on  e d u c a t i o n a l attainment both previous to u n i v e r s i t y  entrance  ( L y n n , 1959)  1962;  Kline, on  and  1966).  at the  university  level  F i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the  e d u c a t i o n a l attainment are  (Savage,  influence  of  a m b i g u o u s w i t h two  effects  postulated.  N e u r o t i c i s m may  learning  performance i n s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s .  and  n e u r o t i c i s m may  compensating f o r the  significantly toward the  end  at  of  and  the  end  faster of  the  and  tests  p e r s i s t e n c e at Gordon, 1961).  score less  problem s o l v i n g  neurotics  who  d i d not  d i f f e r by  These r e s u l t s were not  Positive and  (Lynn  i n t e l l i g e n c e or  time w i t h  faster  questions  1966).  time taken to  attributable  to d i f f e r e n c e s  mid-level and  high-level  solve  problems.  in  and  group d e c i s i o n s  involving  s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h n e u r o t i c i s m scores tended to  more s e n s i t i v e  age,  sex.  a study of p e r s o n a l i t y  subjects participated  and  relationship  t h a n low  the  themselves from group processes  t o be  Farley,  work  introverts  between i n t r o v e r s i o n  performing s i g n i f i c a n t l y  risk,  than  take longer to complete  neurotics  In  extraverts  (1966) n o t e d a c u r v i l i n e a r  b e t w e e n n e u r o t i c i s m and  verbal  frequently  a mental t a s k have been r e p o r t e d Farley  i t motivates  ( L y n n , 19 5 9 ) .  ( E y s e n c k , 1959;  significant relationships  on  Alternatively,  as  effect  test situations  initially,  t e s t s , and  effect  latter  former e f f e c t  In problem s o l v i n g  being  create a detrimental effect  produce a f a c i l i t a t i n g  s u s t a i n e d work e f f o r t s w i t h  neuroticism  (Lim,  1964).  High  extraversion  a c t i v e l y i n g r o u p p r o c e s s e s and to  s o c i a l cues.  Prestige  also  isolate  appeared  appears  to  36 be more i n f l u e n t i a l than  introverts  i n changing the  ( S i n h a and  Eysenck  (19 71)  Ojha,  cites  judgments of e x t r a v e r t s  1963).  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o  d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g w h i c h r e v e a l an between t a s k d i f f i c u l t y findings of e a r l i e r o f e a s y t a s k s and  and  individual  interactive  n e u r o t i c i s m as  relationship  supporting  the  studies that anxiety f a c i l i t a t e s  d i s r u p t s the  the l e a r n i n g  l e a r n i n g o f more c o m p l e x t a s k s .  D i f f e r e n c e s between the v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of e x t r a v e r t s and  i n t r o v e r t s have a l s o been found.  student  introverts  scientific,  and  towards s o c i a l  expressed  F i r s t year  preferences  for professional,  t e a c h i n g v o c a t i o n s w h i l e e x t r a v e r t s were o r i e n t e d s e r v i c e and  sales careers  (Bendig,  s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g e x t r a v e r s i o n was 1971). the  The  found i n a study  sensation-seeking  individual's  f o r t h e new  familiar; and  o f 150  s c a l e was  1963).  and  n a v y men designed  t o measure preferences colour,  u n f a m i l i a r , as o p p o s e d t o t h e o l d as o p p o s e d t o r e g u l a r i t y  f o r t h e e n j o y m e n t o f d a n g e r and  and  p r o b l e m s , and  a c a d e m i c k n o w l e d g e and extent than  i n t e r e s t i n other people  prefers occupations ability  the e x t r a v e r t , the  t o w o r k on  a task  Extraverts - particularly a r e more l i k e l y  than  routine;  w h e r e more s o c i a l  are required.  To  a  the and  resist and  time.  those w i t h high n e u r o t i c i s m scores  introverts  and  greater  i n t r o v e r t i s able to  f o r long periods of  their  skills  boredom, t o s t a y i n a j o b f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e , continue  and  thrills.  O v e r a l l the e x t r a v e r t to a g r e a t e r degree than a personal  and  (Eysenck,  (heat, c o l d , n o i s e , t a s t e ,  for irregularity  i n t r o v e r t , takes  A  scale scores  l e v e l of s t i m u l u s need i n terms of  f o r extremes of s e n s a t i o n etc.);  university  t o commit a n t i - s o c i a l  and  -  37 c r i m i n a l acts The several  1971).  E . P . I , manual  research studies  diagnostic neuroticism the  (Eysenck,  situations.  ( E y s e n c k a n d E y s e n c k , 196 8) which used t h e i n v e n t o r y Relationships  a n d many h e a l t h  in clinical  extraversion,  problems a r e reported  including  p r e s e n c e o f a c n e v u l g a r i e s , o f p r e g n a n c y among un-wed  mothers, the incidence  of t r a f f i c  c a n c e r among m a l e p a t i e n t s . neuroticism and  non-alcoholics,  are  accidents,  Differences  and o f l u n g  i n extraversion  and t h o s e w i t h reported.  and w i t h o u t  psychosomatic  Many o f t h e r e p o r t e d  findings  i n d i c a t i v e o f responses t o s t r e s s f u l s o c i e t a l  interacting with  personality  acne, pregnancy, accidents with  and  s c o r e s between smokers and non-smokers, a l c o h o l i c s ,  diseases are also  be  between  cites  dimensions.  conditions  The o c c u r r e n c e o f  and p s y c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s  t h e use o f t o b a c c o and a l c o h o l  together  have a l l been found t o  related t o the occurrence of s t r e s s f u l l i f e  changes and  crises. Personality  factors  appear t o i n f l u e n c e  p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e d e c i s i o n  learning  t o engage i n l e a r n i n g .  I fthe  a d o p t i o n o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h a r e b a s e d on engagements in  learning  personality with  activities  i s d e p e n d e n t i n some d e g r e e u p o n  factors, individuals i n high stress  s i m i l a r socio-economic backgrounds  e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e ) who d i f f e r in  levels of health  proposition  experienced.  (including  i n personality  formal  will  differ  Strong support f o r t h i s  c a n be f o u n d i n t h e r e s e a r c h on h e a r t d i s e a s e by  F r e i d m a n a n d Rosenman (197 4) who c l a s s i f i e d two  environments  behavioural  t y p e s - Type  'A' a n d T y p e  individuals  into  *B' - t o i d e n t i f y  38  p o t e n t i a l victims of heart The  disease.  two p e r s o n a l i t y dimensions o f E x t r a v e r s i o n -  I n t r o v e r s i o n and N e u r o t i c i s m - S t a b i l i t y a r e i n c l u d e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study because e x t r a v e r s i o n may  influence  b e h a v i o u r s which d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s t o engage i n learning a c t i v i t i e s ;  and n e u r o t i c i s m  may i n f l u e n c e the p e r c e p t i o n  of s o c i a l s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d and thus a f f e c t ^subsequent l e v e l s of h e a l t h .  (See F i g . 4) Figure  4.  THE "RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEIVED STRESS AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE BASIC MODEL  Proposition 7 The  p e r s o n a l i t y dimension o f e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n  w i l l d i r e c t l y influence participation  in" l e a r n i n g  activities  with  introverts p a r t i c i p a t i n g to a greater  A t t i t u d e Toward A d u l t The  extraverts.  Education  importance o f a t t i t u d e research  was r e f e r r e d t o b y B r u n n e r Since  degree than  i n adult  education  (1959) o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s a g o .  then the growth i n a d u l t education  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  opportunities  f o r adult  However t h e r e  have been few s t u d i e s w h i c h have a t t e m p t e d t o  quantify the  a t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t o r continuing  study r e s u l t s have been r e l a t i v e l y  Schroeder the  l e a r n i n g have i n c r e a s e d  dramatically.  education  unrewarding.  (1976) i n o n e o f t h e f e w p u b l i s h e d  and  Seaman a n d  studies investigating  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t education  and  participation  s t a t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t always r e f l e c t e d  in the extent  of educative  behaviour.  A t t i t u d e towards a d u l t education  was s e l e c t e d  forinclusion  i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l a s an e x o g e n o u s v a r i a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  learning activities  or receptiveness  i n recognition of the fact that  t o formal  measured by any o t h e r  adult  l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s was n o t  v a r i a b l e and l i t t l e  e f f e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s upon d e c i s i o n s Seaman a n d S c h r o e d e r  openess  i s known a b o u t t h e  t o engage i n l e a r n i n g .  (1976) c o n c l u d e d t h a t o t h e r  more p o w e r f u l  v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t a t t i t u d e s h a v e on t h e extent  of educative  behaviour.  i n d i c a t e whether locus  T h e i r m o d e l was d e s i g n e d t o  of control, personality, stress or  s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s w e r e more p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f the in  d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s the value  of adult education.  (See F i g .  than a b e l i e f  5.)  40 F i g u r e 5. THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PERSONALITY, LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEIVED STRESS, ATTITUDE TOWARD ADULT EDUCATION, AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE BASIC MODEL  Proposition 8 A t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  w i l l be a f a c t o r  positively influencing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult learning Socio-Demographic  Variables Related  activities.  to Participation  No model o f t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g would be v a l i d w i t h o u t p a y i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s known t o be r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . adult education sex, previous  has r e v e a l e d  Research i n  t h a t many f a c t o r s - i n c l u d i n g  educational experience,  occupation,  age - c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a d u l t  income and education  41 participants  (Brunner, 1959; V e r n e r and Newberry,  According  t o Verner and Newberry  that sex i s a determining to age, s o c i a l  far  greater  living  extent  i n rural  school 35 and  living  i n urban areas p a r t i c i p a t e t o a  Several  extensive  p e r cent females  s t u d i e s have d e t e r m i n e d  classes  i s a b o u t 65 p e r c e n t m a l e s t o  ( J o h n s t o n e a n d R i v e r a , 1956;. M i z r u c h i  1960) .  Marital  s t a t u s has a l s o been r e p o r t e d  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , with married adults extent  than s i n g l e a d u l t s .  t o be r e l a t e d t o  participating to a  Stage i n the family c y c l e  a f f e c t s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women, p a r t i c u l a r l y areas  greater also  i n rural  ( V e r n e r a n d N e w b e r r y , 19 5 8 ) . The  most r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears t o  be  the extent  in  terms o f years o f s c h o o l i n g  o f p r i o r formal  educational completed.  have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r completed, t h e greater in adult education N e w b e r r y , 19 5 8 ) . a simple  developing  e x p e r i e n c e as measured A great  many  studies  t h e number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g  t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f an a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i n g  programs  ( B r u n n e r e t a l , 196 3; V e r n e r a n d  I t i s generally  recognized  cause - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , r a t h e r  complementary e v o l v i n g process w i t h  an  status  t h e r a t i o o f t h e sexes e n r o l l e d i n p u b l i c  adult education  Vanaria,  confirms  Women o f h i g h  t h a n women o f l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  areas.  that frequently  research  factor i n participation i n relation  s t a t u s , and l o c a t i o n .  socio-economic status  (19 5 8 ) ,  1958).  that this i t isa  educational  i s not complicated  experience  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s awareness o f t h e v a l u e  o f knowledge,  a w a r e n e s s w h i c h i n t u r n becomes an i n c e n t i v e t o s e e k  additional educational adult education  activities.  The e d u c a t i o n a l  levels of  p a r t i c i p a n t s has been found t o be r e l a t e d t o  types  of educational institutions  N e w b e r r y , 19 5 8 ) .  school  institutions  a t t r a c t those w i t h post  high  educations.  of education  (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e  a n d a g e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n  reported that participants  different attitudes to  education  i n p u b l i c school programs, w h i l e the  Goard and D i c k i n s o n  and  (Verner and  Those p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l  or less tend t o e n r o l l higher education  and programs  education  Their findings with  education  (1968) a n a l y s i s t h a t t h o s e w i t h h i g h e r experienced  adult  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s h e l d  toward change.  the influence of previous  i n rural  complemented  regard  London's  levels of education  success w i t h change, hence they w i l l  h a v e more  favourable attitudes  towards change.  (life  demanding v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f p e r s o n a l  change events)  have  Faced w i t h s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s  adjustment, adults w i t h p r e v i o u s l y high involvement i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t t h e r e f o r e be more l i k e l y adult education than  activities  adults with l i t t l e Occupational  as i m p o r t a n t  factors  experience. been  identified  (Brunner  e t a l , 19 59;  Public  L o n d o n e t a l , 19 6 3 ;  s c h o o l programs  attract white  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and h o u s e w i v e s p a r t i c i p a t e t o a t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n community  ( V e r n e r a n d N e w b e r r y , 19 5 8 ) .  Age i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n education  change  contributing to a description of adult  g r e a t e r e x t e n t than  populations  educational  from a wide range o f o c c u p a t i o n s ; however,  c o l l a r workers, far  previous  a n d N e w b e r r y , 19 5 8 ) .  participants  as a s t r a t e g y f o r c o p i n g w i t h  s t a t u s and income have b o t h  education participants Verner  to utilize  i n adult  a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n being high from the  late twenties to the early  fifties,  when a d e c l i n e i n  p a r t i c i p a t i o n occurs. and  P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more y o u n g e r  fewer o l d e r a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l  than t h e i r representation 1958).  i n the  community  Community s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  activities.  According  approximately  40  i n the  organizations  formal  participation  per  t o V e r n e r and  cent of the  i n urban areas  formal  i n adult  Newberry  i n the  over, lowest  has  (19 61)  l e s s than a high  a c h i e v e m e n t , t o be  a p p e a r e d t o be  t h o s e who  tendencies  d i d not  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  frequently  education,  of the  for  force.  also  educational school  or urban,  white.  f i n d i n g s of previous  research  in  four socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s factors likely  in learning activities.  s e l e c t e d were sex,  years of s c h o o l i n g  While p a r t i c i p a t i o n  which  non-participants  of t h e i r  influence participation age,  years  and  labour  (1961)  likely  r u r a l r a t h e r than  w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e m o d e l as  participation  in  w h i c h i s 45  complete high  d i d , t o be  non-white r a t h e r than  In r e c o g n i t i o n of the area  more  above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , B o o t h  c o l l e g e r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e who  the  school  females r a t h e r than males r e g a r d l e s s  t o be  Informal  n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s most  socio-economic categories  stated that there  and  (1958),  i s more p r e v a l e n t  p a r t i c i p a t i o n occurs  to Booth  In a d d i t i o n to the  t o be  be  education  of t h e i r communities.  t o o c c u r among t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and  Newberry,  ( B r u n n e r e t a l , 19 5 9 ) .  According  o f age  and  adult population p a r t i c i p a t e  i n social organizations  r u r a l areas while  (Verner  programs  i s a l s o known t o  a s i g n f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  is  adults  i n formal  i n adult education  The  variables  c o m p l e t e d , and  social organizations  activities  to  income. and  h a v e b e e n known t o  be a s s o c i a t e d  f o r many y e a r s , t h e r e i s no d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e  l i t e r a t u r e as t o w h i c h m i g h t be t h e a n t e c e d e n t o f t h e o t h e r or i f they are i n f a c t c a u s a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . p o s s i b l e that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal c o u l d be an a l t e r n a t e c o p i n g  social  I t was t h o u g h t organizations  strategy to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  learning a c t i v i t i e s f o r dealing with the i l l n e s s e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l change.  Therefore,  inducing  w i t h the e x t r a v e r s i o n  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d as exogenous antecedents, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal  social organizations  i n c l u d e d i n t h e model w i t h a d i r e c t e f f e c t b e i n g  was  postulated  on h e a l t h . Proposition 9 The s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s o f age, s e x , income and years of s c h o o l i n g completed w i l l d i r e c t l y e f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  learning  activities.  P r o p o s i t i o n 10 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal  social organizations w i l l  be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y p e r i o d , and improvements i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h o v e r the study p e r i o d . A t h e o r e t i c a l framework was d e v e l o p e d based upon t e n p r o p o s i t i o n s d e r i v e d from a r e v i e w o f t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . The c o n s t r u c t s  s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e model were t h o s e  t h o u g h t t o have e x p l a n a t o r y  p o t e n t i a l i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  of t h e e f f e c t s o f engagement i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n m e d i a t i n g the d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s upon h e a l t h . a d d i t i o n t o the constructs  In  of s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g  Figure  6.  THE THEORETICAL MODEL  A t t i t u d e Toward Adult Education  Locus of Control  Extraversion  (+)  S o c i o Demographic Factors: Sex, Age, Income, Years of Schooling  J  (+)  Participation in Learning  Social Participation  (+)  Subjective Stress •  Social Stress  activities  (+)  (+)  Perceived Stress-Neuroticism-  Health  and h e a l t h , t h e model i n c o r p o r a t e d  the constructs  of s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s ; i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s personality; p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal attitude  towards a d u l t education  variables.  social  of control;  organizations;  and s e l e c t e d  socio-demographic  46  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY  This  chapter describes:  develop data c o l l e c t i o n  1) t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d t o  instruments t o quantify p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n "learning a c t i v i t i e s  and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t  2)  instruments selected t o quantify a l l  the data c o l l e c t i o n  of t h e other followed  major constructs  t o gather the data,  u t i l i z e d with 5)  three  i n t h e s t u d y , 3) t h e p r o c e d u r e s 4) t h e v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s  t h e h e a l t h , s t r e s s and l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s , and  the r e l i a b i l i t y  study.  o f t h e psychometric s c a l e s used i n t h e  The c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d sections  describe  into tensections.  the study design,  p r o c e d u r e and t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods. five deal with their validity. with  education,  t h e measures o f h e a l t h Similarly,  sections  the sampling Sections  f o u r and  and s t r e s s s e l e c t e d , and s i x and seven a r e concerned  t h e development o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y  a d u l t 'education  The f i r s t  measures, and t h e i r v a l i d i t y .  and a t t i t u d e ' t o The f i n a l  three  47  s e c t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t y measures s e l e c t e d , the s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and of the psychometric The  finally  the  reliability  instruments.  Study D e s i g n The  s t u d y used a sample w h i c h had been randomly s e l e c t e d ,  i n a p a n e l d e s i g n w i t h two major d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s months a p a r t , and w i t h m o n i t o r i n g e l e v e n month p e r i o d . 1)  The  of h e a l t h s t a t u s over  advantages o f t h e d e s i g n  i n c l u d e d i n the sample, 2)  changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s t o be measured, and  an  are  r a n d o m i z a t i o n r e d u c e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d of b i a s e d and  d i s t r i b u t i o n s being  eight  non-normal  the d e s i g n  3)  enables  i t eliminates  d i r e c t c o n t a m i n a t i o n by d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods as a p o t e n t i a l "source o f e r r o r . To s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f l i f e e v e n t s (X) on health  (Y), prospective  subsequent  r a t h e r than r e t r o s p e c t i v e  procedures are r e q u i r e d .  E v e n t s t h a t have a l r e a d y  research occurred  such as t h e l o s s o f a job o r a spouse •?- can be  established  r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y once a p e r s o n has become i l l .  However, such  d a t a may  be s u b j e c t t o d i r e c t c o n t a m i n a t i o n ,  -  t h a t i s through  the measurement p r o c e d u r e the two v a r i a b l e s a r e found t o i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r . by knowledge o f a t Time 3.  1  Y  1  Measurement o f  'X'  a t Time 1 i s i n f l u e n c e d  a t Time 2 as a r e s u l t o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r  (See F i g . 7)  'Z'  48 F i g u r e 7. DIRECT CONTAMINATION  X Time 1  Y Time 2  Z Such c o n t a m i n a t i o n means t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s between 'X' and Y' 1  cannot be used t o i n d i c a t e c a u s a l i t y . contamination,  To combat d i r e c t  l i f e e v e n t s (X) i n t h i s s t u d y were measured  p r i o r t o changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s  (Y) o c c u r r i n g .  Consequently,  t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c a u s a l model f o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e v a r i a b l e s was made p o s s i b l e . (See F i g . 8) F i g u r e 8. AVOIDANCE OF DIRECT CONTAMINATION BY THE PANEL DESIGN X Time 1  Time 2  Time 3  Z  Z  Z  Measurement 1  Measurement 2  Measurement 3  Stress  Health  Health  Sampling Procedure The p o p u l a t i o n  from w h i c h t h e sample was s e l e c t e d  49 c o n s i s t e d of a l l p a t i e n t s over  t h e age o f e i g h t e e n  and below  t h e a g e o f s i x t y - f i v e , who h a d s o u g h t h e a l t h c a r e d u r i n g t h e preceding  t w e l v e months from a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n ' s p r a c t i c e  i n East Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  E a c h p a t i e n t was m a i l e d  a copy o f t h e S o c i a l R e a d j u s t m e n t R a t i n g S c a l e letter,  signed by t h e p h y s i c i a n , d e s c r i b i n g the general  o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r completing envelope Of  867 f o r m s m a i l e d ,  506 (58.4%) w e r e r e t u r n e d  fully  28 (3.2%) w e r e r e t u r n e d p a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d ,  and  (12.6%) were r e t u r n e d t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e due t o  non-returns  totalled  leaving forwarding  224 ( 2 5 . 8 % ) .  w i t h 66.8 p e r c e n t a p p r o p r i a t e l y F r o m t h e 506 f u l l y  addresses.  Of t h e 758 f o r m s w h i c h  were r e c e i v e d by p a t i e n t s t h e r a t e o f response  300  addressed  provided.  p a t i e n t s h a v i n g moved w i t h o u t The  nature  cooperation i n  t h e form and r e t u r n i n g i t i n a stamped  completed, 109  (SRRS) w i t h a  was 72 p e r c e n t ,  completed.  c o m p l e t e d SRRS f o r m s a s a m p l e o f  p a t i e n t s was s e l e c t e d u s i n g a c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d l i s t o f  random numbers. telephone  Each p a t i e n t i n t h i s  and asked  to participate  s a m p l e was c o n t a c t e d b y  i n the study.  was t h e n made f o r t h e p a t i e n t t o v i s i t office.  During  this visit  a consent  An a p p o i n t m e n t  the physician's  form t o r e l e a s e  medical  medical  r e c o r d s t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was s i g n e d , a n d t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w was  undertaken. S e v e r a l p a t i e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y i n communicating i n  E n g l i s h and were e x c l u d e d  from t h e study.  were unable  appointments,  t o keep t h e i r  withdraw from t h e study insufficient  c i t i n g reasons  Some  individuals  a n d some c h o s e t o which included  t i m e , i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y , and an i n t e n t i o n t o  50 l e a v e the a r e a b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e s t u d y . p a t i e n t s completed the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . 226  A t o t a l of  263  E i g h t months l a t e r  completed the f i n a l study i n t e r v i e w .  Data C o l l e c t i o n Methods The  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s and the d u r a t i o n o f  o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 9. Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e questionnaire.  Responses on t h e S u b j e c t i v e  (SRRS) were o b t a i n e d by a m a i l e d  A l l of the remaining  s t u d y d a t a was  by t h e use o f s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s  collected  or r e t r i e v e d  from t h e p a t i e n t ' s m e d i c a l r e c o r d s by t h e p h y s i c i a n . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s (which commenced d u r i n g the f i r s t week o f F e b r u a r y o f A p r i l , 1976)  and c o n c l u d e d  the f o l l o w i n g ' d a t a was  d u r i n g the l a s t week  c o l l e c t e d from the  participants: (i) (ii)  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s P r e - T e s t S c o r e s Perceived stress scores, using  (BHS)  the  n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y s c a l e o f the E P I , Subjective Stress Scale  (SSS)  the  and t h e s u b j e c t i v e  e s t i m a t i o n o f s t r e s s magnitude e s t i m a t i o n (iii)  procedures,  L e a r n i n g e s t i m a t e s , u s i n g the S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n of A d u l t L e a r n i n g Scale  (SEALS) and a t t i t u d e s  towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u s i n g a T h u r s t o n e s c a l e developed (iv) (v) The  for this  study,  Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y  (EPI)  scores,  Socio-demographic data.  second s e t o f i n t e r v i e w s began d u r i n g the f i r s t week o f  O c t o b e r and ended d u r i n g mid-December 19 76. i n t e r v a l s t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a were c o l l e c t e d :  During  these  51 (i)  Bush H e a l t h  (ii)  Status  (BHSS) P o s t - T e s t  Subjective estimations magnitude e s t i m a t i o n  (iii)  Locus of C o n t r o l  (iv) Following by  Income and each of the  the p h y s i c i a n .  to the  of s t r e s s , using  (Rotter)  scores,  number o f y e a r s r e s i d e n c y two  social,  i n t e r v i e w s the  s u b j e c t was  withheld  and  economic concerns w i t h  when p a t i e n t s i n t h e  study  a Bush H e a l t h  prior  and  assigned  to being  Beginning  e x a m i n e d by  i n M a r c h 1977,  were r e v i e w e d by  D e c e m b e r , and  2)  hospital during of I l l n e s s  the  Scale  each v i s i t  student and  records  of each  they (BHS)  1)  the  subject number o f  o f f i c e between F e b r u a r y  by  and  spent i n  In a d d i t i o n , H i n k l e  Severity  the p h y s i c i a n  t o t h e p r a c t i c e o r on review  medical  physician.  Scores assigned  This  to  Scale  number o f d a y s e a c h p a t i e n t had  h o s p i t a l were r e v i e w e d . e a r l y May  the  that time period.  Rating  p a t i e n t s on  the  their  On  collections Status  the p h y s i c i a n t o i d e n t i f y ,  v i s i t s made t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s  each s t a y  to  in  of p a t i e n t s ' records  ended  1977. first  i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d by  interviews)  practice,  the  sample sought  were i n t e r v i e w e d  (50% o f  from  responses  their consultation.  post-test data  The  and  the p h y s i c i a n  c a r e b e t w e e n t h e p r e - t e s t and  in  examined  Knowledge of the p a t i e n t s ' s c o r e s  degree than normal d u r i n g  those occasions  score  i n Vancouver.  However, p a t i e n t s f r e q u e n t l y chose t o d i s c u s s  familial  a greater  the  procedure,  i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e g e n e r a l l y was  physician.  Scores,  who  had  a graduate nurse  i n adult education,  the w r i t e r (10%).  The  a nurse-practitioner  p r e v i o u s l y been employed i n (30%) an 263  e n r o l l e d as  a  graduate  ex-medical student interviews  the  (10%)  l a s t e d a minimum  of  Figure 9 TIMETABLE OF DATA COLLECTION PERIODS AND DURATION OF OBSERVATIONS  First Interviews Began  S.R.R.S. Mailed Questionnaire  First Interviews Ended  Second Interviews Began Bush P o s t Test Hinkle Ratings Subjective Stress Locus o f Control  Bush P r e Test i i . Hinkle Ratings i i i . Subjective Stress Survey i v . Learning Estimates v. E.P.I. v i . Attitude to A.E. v i i . SocioDemographic Data ( i.  J  L  J u l y 75 (  I  L Jan.  —> P e r i o d o f R e c a l l f o r SRRS  76  Feb. <—  Second Interviews Ended  <_n  Review of Patients Records Began  i _ L _ _ L _ J _ May  Oct.  Period of Observation f o r : i. ii. iii. iv.  No. o f V i s i t s t o P h y s i c i a n No. o f Days i n H o s p i t a l Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Hinkle S e v e r i t y of I l l n e s s  Jan.  77  March  Review of Patients Records Ended  May  a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e h o u r a n d a maximum o f o n e h o u r a n d f o r t y - f i v e minutes. For  t h e second data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d  interviewer with  some e x p e r i e n c e i n h e a l t h  underdeveloped countries (40%)  care  (60% o f i n t e r v i e w s )  c o n d u c t e d 226 i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  twenty t o f o r t y - f i v e  a professional delivery i n  and t h e w r i t e r  durations  ranging  from  minutes.  P r i o r t o conducting i n t e r v i e w s , each i n t e r v i e w e r practice interviews with of Adult while  graduate s t u d e n t s i n t h e Department  E d u c a t i o n and w i t h  being  patients not i n the study  o b s e r v e d by one o t h e r  were devoted t o i n t e r v i e w e r collection period  conducted  sample,  study i n t e r v i e w e r .  training prior  Two w e e k s  to the f i r s t  a n d o n e week was a s s i g n e d  data  to interviewer, t r a i n i n g  p r i o r t o t h e second data c o l l e c t i o n period.  Regular meetings  of the i n t e r v i e w e r s  difficulties,  were convened t o d i s c u s s  procedures and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f those p a t i e n t s w i t h difficulties the  from t h e study.  A l l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n  e x a m i n a t i o n rooms a t t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s  Health  and S t r e s s The  office.  Measures  concepts o f health  been viewed from a v a r i e t y  and i l l n e s s have  of perspectives,  of scales t o q u a n t i f y h e a l t h  traditionally  and t h e development  a n d i l l n e s s h a v e met w i t h  degrees of success  (Sullivan,  of the t h e o r e t i c a l  and e m p i r i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s  1966; Moriyama, 1968).  s t u d y t o use a l t e r n a t e measures o f t h e c o n s t r u c t The  by  J.W.  two i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d w e r e 1) a s c a l e  Bush and a s s o c i a t e s  (Bush and F a n s h e l ,  varying In view  inherent  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f h e a l t h , a d e c i s i o n was made when the  language  i nthe  planning of health. developed  1970; P a t r i c k ,  B u s h and  C h e n , 1973)  to assess  p e r s p e c t i v e of s o c i a l by H i n k l e of the by  f u n c t i o n , and  ( H i n k l e , 1960)  of  2)  a rating  to record physician's  s e v e r i t y of i l l n e s s  an e p i s o d e  l e v e l s of h e a l t h from  the  scale developed assessments  i n terms of the d i s a b i l i t y  produced  illness.  Bush d e f i n e s h e a l t h i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n i n normal d a i l y one  who  daily  shows l i t t l e  activities  Conversely,  an  o r no  activities.  A healthy  decrement i n a b i l i t y  normal f o r a given  i n d i v i d u a l who  age,  sex  reports being  person i s  to carry  out  social  role.  and  unable or u n w i l l i n g  t o c a r r y out h i s normal a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e e x p e r i e n c i n g c e r t a i n symptoms o f h e a l t h p r o b l e m s i s l e s s t h a n h e a l t h y . is  designed  to provide  and  0.00  the  interview.  was  d e r i v e d by  a s c o r e b e t w e e n 1.00  For  The  the purposes of t h i s  calculating  the  assessment  scores  study  w e r e g e n e r a t e d by  a computer-based  The  e r r o r s , and  episode  by H i n k l e i s " t h e out h i s f u l l  of i l l n e s s extent  Dr.  scoring  Bush and  his  for logical  for missing  program  errors  data.  The  d e f i n e d as  produces."  "the  degree of  Disability  as  maintain  five  disability  defined  to which a person i s unable to  s o c i a l r o l e and  because of d i s e a s e . " originally  scores  Hinkle r a t i n g s c a l e c o n s i s t s of a f i v e - c a t e g o r y  range of s e v e r i t y of i l l n e s s , w h i c h an  score  h e a l t h scores, the  for internal consistency,  to keypunch or coding  a single  periods.  In a d d i t i o n to generating  checked the data  preceding  average of the e i g h t d a i l y  p r o g r a m a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a by associates.  scale  (perfect health),  ( d e a t h ) , f o r each o f e i g h t days immediately  f o r each of the  due  The  h i s normal b o d i l y  carry functions  c a t e g o r i e s of s e v e r i t y of  u s e d by H i n k l e were expanded t o t e n c a t e g o r i e s  illness for  the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y , where v a r i a b l i t y o f measurement was t h o u g h t t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t .  A r a t i n g was  assigned  t o each p a t i e n t on e a c h v i s i t t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e , and for  t h o s e p a t i e n t s who were h o s p i t a l i z e d a r a t i n g was  for  each p e r i o d h o s p i t a l i z e d .  assigned  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s c o r e s d e r i v e d from t h e Bush and H i n k l e measures a r e c o r d o f t h e number o f v i s i t s made by each p a t i e n t t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e t o seek c a r e , and t h e t o t a l number o f days each p a t i e n t s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l d u r i n g t h e study p e r i o d , were The  recorded.  f o l l o w i n g h e a l t h s t a t u s s c o r e s were d e r i v e d f o r  each p a t i e n t : 1.  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s , P r e - T e s t ; mean s c o r e f o r e i g h t day p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g f i r s t i n t e r v i e w .  2.  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s , P o s t - T e s t ; mean s c o r e f o r e i g h t day p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g f i n a l i n t e r v i e w .  3.  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s , Low S c o r e ; t h e s i n g l e l o w e s t mean s c o r e f o r an e i g h t day p e r i o d d u r i n g the study p e r i o d .  4.  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s , P r e - P o s t R e s i d u a l s ; t h e n o r m a l i z e d r e s i d u a l s o b t a i n e d from a regression of post-test against pre-test scores.  5.  H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s Mean S c o r e ; t h e mean o f a l l H i n k l e r a t i n g s c a l e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d d u r i n g the study p e r i o d .  6.  H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s High Score; the s i n g l e h i g h e s t r a t i n g s c a l e s c o r e f o r an e p i s o d e o f i l l n e s s d u r i n g t h e study p e r i o d .  7.  The t o t a l number o f days s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l d u r i n g t h e study p e r i o d .  8.  The t o t a l number o f v i s i t s made t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e t o seek c a r e .  The  p r i n c i p a l measure o f s t r e s s used i n t h i s study was  t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e  (SRRS) d e v e l o p e d by Holmes  and Rahe (1967).  T h i s s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 43 i t e m s , o r l i f e  e v e n t s , each o f w h i c h , when e x p e r i e n c e d , demands a degree o f s o c i a l readjustment developed  on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t .  The SRRS was  by Holmes and Rahe u s i n g t h e p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l  o f magnitude e s t i m a t i o n as p r o p o s e d by Stevens (19 57; S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been conducted the SRRS s c a l e v a l u e s a r e c u l t u r e f r e e .  t o determine  Although  1966). whether  certain  i n d i v i d u a l i t e m v a l u e s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s o c i a l and v a l u e s h e l d by members o f c u l t u r a l g r o u p s ,  technique  beliefs  o v e r a l l there i s  s u p p o r t f o r t h e use o f t h e s c a l e w i t h such d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n s as w h i t e A m e r i c a n s and Japanese (Masuda and Holmes, 1967); Negro, Mexican and w h i t e Americans (Komaroff,  Masuda and Holmes,  1968); Western Europeans (Harmon., Masuda and Holmes, 1970); Spaniards  ( C e l d r a n , 1970); and Swedes (Rahe e t a l , 1971).  The  c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e c a l l o f t h e s c a l e i t e m s , a f a c t o r w h i c h may n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e , was t e s t e d u s i n g a group o f r e s i d e n t p h y s i c i a n s .  The r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e s a l i e n c y o f t h e l i f e e v e n t s and t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e c a l l over a n i n e month p e r i o d (Casey, Masuda and Holmes, 1967). The  reliability  t e s t - r e t e s t procedure.  o f t h e SRRS has been examined u s i n g t h e Spearman's 'p' reached t h e v a l u e o f  0.988, and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on i t e m t e s t - r e t e s t s c o r e s were e v i d e n t f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s u s i n g a Mann Whitney "U" at  test.  (Wyler, Masuda and Holmes, 19 7 0.)  One s t u d y aimed  d u p l i c a t i n g t h e SRRS s c a l e v a l u e s produced i t e m v a l u e s w h i c h  c o r r e l a t e d a t 0.9 3 w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l SRRS i t e m v a l u e s  (Mendels  and W e i n s t e i n , 1972). To a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e SRRS i n t h i s s t u d y , and t o  provide  three  a d d i t i o n a l measures of s t r e s s , s u b j e c t i v e  of each p a t i e n t ' s l e v e l s o f s t r e s s were o b t a i n e d . w e r e s o u g h t on  s c a l e c o n s i s t s of four items which the him  very w e l l ,  I n g e n e r a l , I am nervous.  2.  I e x p e r i e n c e a g r e a t amount o f s t r a i n c o n n e c t e d w i t h my d a i l y  3.  A t t h e end o f t h e d a y , I am completely e x h a u s t e d , m e n t a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y .  4.  My d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and s t r e s s f u l .  c o n d u c t e d by  on  items at  describe  all:  nervous activities.  extremely  trying Schaar et a l  the S u b j e c t i v e Stress Scale  i n family l i f e  and  t h r o u g h the use  to  dissatisfaction  be  with  (1957) and  basically  were p i o n e e r e d  c o n s i s t of asking  evaluate  a s t i m u l u s , c o n d i t i o n o r s t a t e on  provided  reference.  This  technique  (1967) t o d e v e l o p t h e SRRS and  was by  On  the  first  study  a subject  u s e d by Holmes the w r i t e r to  to a  and  develop  (SEALS) f o r  ( B l u n t , 1977).  i n t e r v i e w e a c h p a t i e n t was  f i v e centimetres  technique. by  the b a s i s of  a scale to quantify adult l e a r n i n g experiences the purpose of t h i s  estimations  of a magnitude e s t i m a t i o n  Magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l i n g techniques  a line  scale  or  s e c o n d method o f q u a n t i f y i n g s u b j e c t i v e  o f s t r e s s was  Rahe  Likert  environment.  The  Stevens  The  r e l a t e d to measures of p s y c h o - s o c i a l s t r e s s ,  neuroticism, tensions the work  are  tense  R e e d e r e t a l (1973) and  (197 3) h a v e shown s c o r e s positively  unusually  or not  1.  Studies  K  with a four category  f a i r l y w e l l , not  by  Angeles Heart Study.  respondent uses t o i d e n t i f y whether the  very w e l l ,  Responses  the S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale developed  Chapman e t a l (1966) f o r t h e L o s  estimates  presented  long r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s or her  with  average  58 l e v e l s of s t r e s s over the l a s t f i v e y e a r s .  The p a t i e n t was  t h e n i n s t r u c t e d t o draw a l i n e below t h e r e f e r e n t l i n e i n d i c a t i n g h i s o r her present l e v e l of s t r e s s i n comparison w i t h t h e average l e v e l s o f s t r e s s p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e d .  Thus  a l i n e drawn t e n c e n t i m e t r e s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e p a t i e n t a s s e s s e d his  c u r r e n t p e r s o n a l l e v e l o f s t r e s s t o be t w i c e h i s o r h e r  own average l e v e l o v e r t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s .  During the f i n a l  s t u d y i n t e r v i e w t h e r e f e r e n t l i n e was p r e s e n t e d as t h e average l e v e l o f s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h o s e persons w i t h whom t h e r e s p o n d e n t was i n c l o s e d a i l y c o n t a c t .  The c o m p a r i s o n  line  t o be drawn by t h e p a t i e n t was t o r e p r e s e n t h i s o r h e r l e v e l o f s t r e s s i n comparison t o t h a t o f c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s . A l t h o u g h n o t d e s i g n e d as a measure o f response  to stress  p e r s e , t h e N e u r o t i c i s m S c a l e o f t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory  (EPI) has f r e q u e n t l y been found t o have many r e l e v a n t  correlates i n c l i n i c a l  studies.  N e u r o t i c i s m as d e f i n e d by  Eysenck i s t h e g e n e r a l e m o t i o n a l o v e r - r e s p o n s i v e n e s s  typified  by p e o p l e who appear a n x i o u s , a g g r e s s i v e and moody as compared to  s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e c a l m , even-tempered, and e a s y - g o i n g  (Eysenck  and E y s e n c k , 1966).  The E P I has been w i d e l y used and d a t a s u p p o r t i n g t h e reliability 1972).  and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e  Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y  (Buros,  c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g from  0.84 t o 0.94 f o r t h e complete t e s t and 0.80 t o 0.9 7 f o r t h e s e p a r a t e forms a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e EPI manual (Eysenck and E y s e n c k , 19 66).  As a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e N e u r o t i c i s m S c a l e s c o r e s  i n t h i s s t u d y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s t r e s s measure and w i t h t h e major h e a l t h measures, and were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y t o a s s i s t i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e h e a l t h and s t r e s s  59 measures. Accordingly,  f i v e measures o f s t r e s s were computed f o r  each p a t i e n t :  The  1.  S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment Rating Scale Scores, m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r s i x month p e r i o d p r i o r to s e l e c t i o n of sample.  2.  Subjective Stress Scale,  3.  Subjective Estimation of S t r e s s , f i r s t i n t e r v i e w ( p r e s e n t vs p a s t s t r e s s ) .  4.  S u b j e c t i v e Estimation of S t r e s s , f i n a l i n t e r v i e w ( p e r s o n a l vs d a i l y a s s o c i a t e s stress). '  5.  E.P.I. , Neuroticism interview.  Validity All  of the Health  of  (Table  This the  two  Scale  significant  shared variance  of the measure.  Stress  provides  The 46.1  two per  stress  between the measures of each i n i t i a l support f o r the  the  f i n d i n g s of  o f t h e h e a l t h and  were conducted t o assess  each v a r i a b l e c o n t r i b u t e d  the  r o t a t i o n , using  c o l l e c t e d by  the  of  validity and  previous  s t r e s s measures, extent  variance.  to which  theoretical  r e s u l t s of a two-factor only  t h e v a r i a b l e s on  interviewers in a c l i n i c a l  factors labelled Health cent of the  the  to the purported  Table 2 reports  with orthogonal  correlated  s t r e s s are r e l a t e d .  t e s t the v a l i d i t y  factor analyses  d a t a was  Measures  In a d d i t i o n , the major measures of h e a l t h  t h a t h e a l t h and  constructs.  first  l e v e l s , as w e r e t h e  s t r e s s were c o r r e l a t e d , s u p p o r t i n g  To  Score,  1).  constructs  research  interview.  t h e h e a l t h m e a s u r e s w e r e f o u n d t o be  at s t a t i s t i c a l l y measures  and  first  solution  which setting.  and  Stress together  contribute  The  f a c t o r l o a d i n g s of the  health  60 v a r i a b l e s on t h e s t r e s s f a c t o r a n d t h e r e l a t i v e l y of t h e v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by t h i s two  factor c o n s t r a i n t , although  not present  the best  solution  low  indicates that the  statistically  acceptable,  scores with the s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s ,  multi-collinearity  t h e S.R.R.S.  e x c l u d i n g t h e Bush  Health  scores i n order t o avoid the problem of  a n d w i t h a new v a r i a b l e  q u a n t i f i e d by t h e n o r m a l i z e d  ' h e a l t h change' as  residuals obtained  on Bush P r e - T e s t  conducted  f a c t o r c o n s t r a i n t s and w i t h o r t h o g o n a l  to y i e l d  scores.  from a r e g r e s s i o n  of Bush P o s t - T e s t without  does  solution.  A s e c o n d s o l u t i o n was o b t a i n e d b y i n c l u d i n g  Status Index Pre-Test  percentage  The a n a l y s i s was rotation  f o u r f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d 61.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e  total variance  ( T a b l e 3 ) . The f o u r f a c t o r s w e r e  labelled  S t r e s s , S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s , H e a l t h F u n c t i o n and H e a l t h The f i r s t  Change.  f a c t o r , S t r e s s , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d 17.4 p e r c e n t  of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e , c o n s i s t e d of a l l f i v e of the s t r e s s variables. 16.3  Severity of Illness,  p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e and c o n s i s t e d o f t h e two H i n k l e  Scale Scores, over  a mean s c o r e o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s r a t i n g s  t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y and t h e h i g h e s t s i n g l e  of i l l n e s s  score obtained.  was c o m p r i s e d and  t h e second f a c t o r , c o n t r i b u t e d  Health Function, the t h i r d  o f t h e Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P o s t - T e s t  t h e l o w e s t Bush Index s c o r e observed  I t e x p l a i n e d 14.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e  for i n this  factor  solution.  Finally,  factor, score  over t h e duration o f  the study.  13.3  severity  accounted  the fourth factor,  with  p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e was H e a l t h C h a n g e , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d  o f t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , t h e Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s R e s i d u a l s , t h e number o f v i s i t s number o f d a y s s p e n t  Index  Pre-Post  t o t h e p h y s i c i a n , and t h e  i n hospital.  Each f a c t o r p r e s e n t e d  a clear,  unambiguous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g represented  by t h e data-  constructs  W i t h 61.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e  accounted f o r , there i s strong support f o r acceptance of the v a l i d i t y o f t h e h e a l t h and s t r e s s measures used i n t h e s t u d y . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d obtained  e r r o r s o f measurement  f o r a l l o f t h e h e a l t h and s t r e s s v a r i a b l e  scores  i n d i c a t e d e s i r a b l y low l e v e l s o f measurement e r r o r w i t h i n each scale  (Table 4 ) .  Learning  Activity  Measurement  A l t h o u g h a l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s o f a d u l t  education  have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e phenomena o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e s e s t u d i e s have t y p i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s as p a r t i c i p a n t s o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n one o r more t y p e s o f a d u l t activity.  education  The p h y s i c a l a c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n has n o t been  r e l a t e d i n t h o s e s t u d i e s t o t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t of a d u l t educators,  to learning.  concern  To q u a n t i f y t h e e x t e n t t o  w h i c h a d u l t s have engaged i n l e a r n i n g , t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c  technique  o f magnitude e s t i m a t i o n was used t o d e v e l o p a r a t i o s c a l e o f s u b j e c t i v e estimates  of a d u l t l e a r n i n g that occurs  of a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s  i n a variety  ( B l u n t , 1977).  O r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d by p s y c h o - p h y s i c i s t s  t o measure  perceived  i n c r e a s e s i n t h e magnitudes o f such v a r i a b l e s as  loudness,  b r i g h t n e s s , and h e a v i n e s s ,  magnitude e s t i m a t i o n has  been found t o have u t i l i t y i n t h e q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l norms, o p i n i o n s  and a t t i t u d e s .  Examples o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l  a p p l i c a t i o n o f magnitude e s t i m a t i o n can be found i n t h e d i v e r s e areas of a e s t h e t i c value of handwriting 1962), s e r i o u s n e s s  o f the offences  (Ekman and Kunnapas,  of j u v e n i l e delinquents  Table 1 PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF HEALTH AND STRESS VARIABLES  1 1. No. o f V i s i t s to P h y s i c i a n 2. No. o f Days in Hospital 3. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s H i Score 4. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s Mean Score  2  3  4  5  6  .52*  10  11  12  .26* 1.0  . 30* .21*  .80* 1.0  6. Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P o s t T e s t  -.31* -.19* -.31*  -.30*  . 38* 1.0  7. Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index Lo S c o r e  -.39* -.21*  -.36*  .67*  *p < .01  9  .38* 1.0  -.37* -.22*  11. S t r e s s E s t i m a t i o n Pre T e s t 12. S t r e s s E s t i m a t i o n Post Test  8  1.0  5. Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P r e T e s t  8. S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment Rating Scale 9. S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale 10. N e u r o t i c i s m S c a l e Score  7  -.30* -.25*  -.41*  1.0  . 81* 1.0 »  .14  .19* -.21*  -.19* -.23*  .09  .10  -.09  -.04  .13  .05  .10  .09  -.29* -.15*  .03  -.01  .02  .00  -.13*  .03  .09  .09  .05  -.17* -.17* -.23*  -.19* -.18*  .22*  .13  -.05  .20  1.0 -.28* 1.0  -.28*  .29* -.36* 1.0  -.09  .21* -.27* -.23* .28* -.33*  1.0  . 19* .29* 1.0  63  Table 2 HEALTH AND STRESS VARIABLE FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER TWO FACTOR SOLUTION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATION  Variables (Harmonic Mean o f Sample S i z e 250) 1. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s H i g h Score 2. Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index Low' S c o r e 3. H i n k l e S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s Mean S c o r e 4. No. o f V i s i t s t o P h y s i c i a n 5. Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index Post Test 6. Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index Pre Test 7. No. o f Days i n H o s p i t a l 8. S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e Score 9. S t r e s s E s t i m a t i o n P o s t Test 10. S t r e s s E s t i m a t i o n P r e Test 11. N e u r o t i c i s m S c a l e Eigen  Values  Variables  Score  I Health .80* -.74*  II Stress  H Communality  - .01  .6401  .'36  .6772  .72*  .00  .5184  .69*  - .25  _  . 4761  -.65*  _  . 38  . 4850  -.58* .49*  —  . 38  .4808  - .03  .2410  -.11  .66*  .4427  .03  .64*  .4105  -.09  .63*  . 4050  .12  .63*  .4113  3.23 31.0  2 .30 15 .1  * A l l f a c t o r l o a d i n g s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l .  5.53 46.1  64  Table NO  3  HEALTH AND STRESS VARIABLE FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER CONSTRAINT FOUR FACTOR SOLUTION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATIONS  Variables (Harmonic Mean o f Sample S i z e 2 4 7 )  I Stress  II Severity of I l l n e s s  III Health Function  IV Health Change  H Communalities 2  1.  Subjective Stress S c a l e Score  .71*  -.21*  -.03  .03  .55  2.  Neuroticism Score  .62*  -.07  -.13  -.25  .47  Scale  3.  Stress Estimation Post Test  .62*  .01  -.11  -.01  .40  4.  S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e Score  .59*  .19  -.13  .02  .40  5.  Stress Estimation Pre T e s t  .57*  -.12  .12  -.20  .43  6.  HinJcle S e v e r i t y o f I l l n e s s Mean Score  .09  .91*  -.13  -.10  .86  7.  Hinkle Severity of I l l n e s s Mean Score  .07  .89*  -.15  -.26  .89  93  8.  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P o s t - T e s t  - .11  -.17  .94*  .03  .83*  . 34  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index Low Score  - .22  -.16  10.  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P r e - P o s t Residuals  .25  .03  -.04  .79*  69  11.  No. o f V i s i t s to Physician  _ .02  .35  -.29  .61*  58  12.  No. o f Days i n Hospital  - .08  .24  -.14  .55*  Eigen  2 .09  1.96  1.78  9.  Values  Variance  17 . 4  16.3  * F a c t o r loadings s i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 1  14.8  •  •  1.60 13.3  88  39  7. 47 61. 8  level.  N o r m a l i z e d R e s i d u a l s o b t a i n e d from a r e g r e s s i o n o f Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index P r e - T e s t S c o r e s a g a i n s t P o s t - T e s t S c o r e .  65  Table  4  STUDY VARIABLES  N  MEDIAN  MEAN  S.D.  > S.E.  1. B u s h - P r e - T e s t  261  0.748  0.751  0.109  0.007  2. Bush  234  0.747  0.747  0.130  0.009  Post-Test  3. Bush P r e - P o s t  Residuals  234  -0.03  0.0  0.93  0.06  4. Bush Lo Score  263  0.70  0.70  0.115  0.007  5. H i n k l e  261  4.1  3.9  1.34  0.11  6. H i n k l e H i S c o r e  261  5.7  5.1  2.36  0.15  7. V i s i t s  259  4.0  5.2  4.49  0.28  Mean to Physician  8. Days i n H o s p i t a l  259  2. 44  0.15  9. S.R.R.S.  262  123.5  162.2  148.31  9.16  263  12.3  11.3  3.24  0.20  11. S t r e s s PI  263  1.0  1.2  0.67  0.04  12. S t r e s s P2  230  1.0  1.2  0.61  0.04  13. E x t r a v e r s i o n  263  14.1  13.0  3.73  0.23  14. N e u r o t i c i s m  263  11.1  10.9.  5.04  0.31  231  8.1  8.3  3.69  0.24  263  1620. 4  1806.2  '1158.31  71.42  263  112.2  103.9  26.39  1.63  204  37.6  38.0  11.2  0.78  10. S u b j e c t i v e  Stress  15. I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l  Control  16. L e a r n i n g 17. A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t 18. B l i s h e n (Socio-Economic 19. P e r s o n a l  Education  Status)  Income  0.076  0. 749  246  9500.2  10285.4  9286.0  592.1  20. Household Income  229  16988.0  18169.0  10432.7  689 .4  21. Years a t Job  211  5.2  8.9  9.18  0.63  22. Age  256  41.1  40.3  12.03  0.75  23. Years o f S c h o o l i n g  255  10. 7  10.4  3.51  0.22  24. Number o f C h i l d r e n  257  1.6  1.7  1.75  0.11  25. Number o f A d u l t s  257  2.1  2.2  0.93  0.06  26. Chapin (Social Participation)  228  5.2  7.4  7.60  0.50  27. Years i n Neighbourhood  229  6.3  9.4  8.98  0.59  28. Years i n Vancouver  228  18.6  13.69  0.91  20 . 3  (Sellin  and W o l f g a n g ,  1964), the importance of Swedish  (Ekman a n d K u n n a p a s , 1 9 6 3 ) , o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e 1 9 6 3 ) , and changes  the magnitude  The  1967).  and s t i m u l i  as t o e s t i m a t e a c c u r a t e l y r a t i o s adjust stimuli i n magnitude  t o numbers i n s u c h a  between s t i m u l i  t o match p r e s c r i b e d r a t i o s .  s t i m u l i presented simultaneously.  t h e two,  responses  The  and a l s o  to  way to  usual procedure  e s t i m a t i o n i n v o l v e s h a v i n g t h e s u b j e c t compare  as a s t a n d a r d o r r e f e r e n t a n d of  life  b a s i s o f t h e m e t h o d r e s t s on t h e human c a p a b i l i t y  match numbers o f s t i m u l i  two  (Perloe,  of s o c i a l readjustments or  (Holmes a n d R a h e ,  monarchs  One  the subject estimates the  o r t h e r a t i o b e t w e e n t h e two  c a n be o b t a i n e d b y  of the s t i m u l i  stimuli.  serves magnitude  Subjects'  t h e a s s i g n i n g o f numbers,  drawing  l i n e s o f . l e n g t h s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s t i m u l i , s q u e e z i n g hand grips,  drawing c i r c l e s or s q u a r e s , i n c r e a s i n g the magnitude  a n o t h e r s t i m u l u s , o r by some o t h e r s i m i l a r Stevens  (1966)  methods o f s c a l i n g , indirect.  The  means.  r e f e r s t o t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s as  and  distinction i s that with indirect  asked which of a p a i r  of s t i m u l i  of  an o b s e r v a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  to  r a n k o r d e r t h e s t i m u l i , and  is  superimposed  along the s c a l e continuum.  they  This data provides information  l a t e r v a r i a b l i t y of  With the d i r e c t  judgments subjects  method o f  magnitude  are superimposed  respondents perform the  u s u a l l y b y a s s i g n i n g t h e i r own On many a t t i t u d e  Usually  i s the g r e a t e r i n terms  e s t i m a t i o n no p s y c h o m e t r i c a s s u m p t i o n s The  as  methods  on t h e r a n k s i n o r d e r t o d i s t r i b u t e  data at a l a t e r date.  direct  to the Thurstonian procedures  r e s p o n d e n t s p e r f o r m a minimum o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . are  of  on  the  quantification  numerical value to the  response.  continua, Thurstonian scales generated  by  67 i n d i r e c t methods have been f o u n d t o have an i n v a r i a n t r e l a t i o n t o t h e s c a l e o f magnitude d e v e l o p e d by t h e d i r e c t methods o f magnitude e s t i m a t i o n  1966).  (Stevens,  I n many e x p e r i m e n t s o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s i t h a s b e e n shown f r o m t h e s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s  of observers  plotted  against  t h e magnitudes o f t h e s t i m u l i observed, t h a t there i s  a great  d e a l o f agreement between i n d i v i d u a l s  magnitude. capacity  I n f a c t , man may h a v e a n i n n a t e  is  (1969)  and i t i s a l s o  "the i n d i v i d u a l  values".  (Shinn,  placed  on l e a r n i n g  I f such i s t h e case t h e value  a n a d u l t may b e d e t e r m i n e d b y h i s p r e v i o u s  formal  e x p e r i e n c e s as  A s many a d u l t s h a v e s h a r e d s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s i n instructional  setting  and t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l  i t was t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e t h a t a s o c i a l c o n s e n s u s  was  Subjective  developed over a three  learning activities calendars the  Estimation  of Adult  year period.  derived  activities.  Learning  Scale  An i t e m p o o l  from a d u l t education  (SEALS)  o f 110  brochures,  a n d c i r c u l a r s was u s e d i n s e v e r a l t r i a l  s c a l e which were a d m i n i s t e r e d  setting  existed^regarding  the magnitude o f l e a r n i n g t h a t occurs i n v a r i o u s The  possible  t h e s u b j e c t i v e responses t o  i n a sense a p r i s o n e r o f h i s c o n d i t i o n e d  a learner. the  has speculated,  level,  s t i m u l i may a l s o b e n o n - v o l u n t a r y a n d t h a t  19 6 9 , p . 1 6 . ) by  psycho-physical  I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e  non-voluntary a t the psychological as S h i n n  of  psychological  f o r making q u a n t i t a t i v e judgments about  phenomena.  social  perceptions  1  versions of  t o adult education  graduate  s t u d e n t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n a wide range o f a d u l t education items with among  activities.  Item analyses  large standard  deviations  r a t e r s were r e j e c t e d .  were conducted and t h o s e indicating  disagreement  D u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s i t e m s were  68 e d i t e d to ensure c l a r i t y , was  the d u r a t i o n of each of the  added t o t h e f o r m , d i r e c t i o n s  activities  t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were  m o d i f i e d and t h e v a l u e o f t h e " s t a n d a r d " i t e m was  varied.  The  26 i t e m s i n c l u d e c r e d i t , n o n - c r e d i t , v o c a t i o n a l , g e n e r a l interest,  institutional  (see Appendix  and  self-directed  learning  activities  5).  Scale r e l i a b i l i t y  was.estimated using t e s t - r e t e s t  a cross-modal response matching technique.  Twenty-four  students i n t h e Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n at the of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a c o m p l e t e d t h e SEALS t w i c e , w i t h  i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . moment c o r r e l a t i o n  A c o e f f i c i e n t of  .79 was  graduate  University a one  month  Pearson product  c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d between t e s t  r e t e s t responses f o r each i t e m ranged from  and  and  .51 t o .68  (p <.01).  o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean  s c o r e s o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x i t e m s on t h e g r o u p ' s  test-retest  responses. Seventeen  d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y members o f t h e  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department responded i n w h i c h i t was  used i n t h i s  being p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t o t h e SEALS i n t h e  study, with the standard item  i n a non-credit, evening, school  district  g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s u c h as wood c a r v i n g , p o t t e r y o r a new  language.  T h i s s t a n d a r d i t e m was  r e s p o n d e n t as h a v i n g a v a l u e o f 100  learning  presented to the  u n i t s of l e a r n i n g .  One  week l a t e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t e d a s e c o n d f o r m w h i c h lines  form  required  t o be d r a w n t o i n d i c a t e u n i t s o f l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h e  a s s i g n m e n t o f numbers.  The  l i n e ten centimeters long. same, and  s p a c e was  beneath each i t e m .  s t a n d a r d i t e m was The  presented with  o r d e r of the items remained  l e f t on t h e f o r m f o r l i n e s  t o be  drawn  Respondents were a s k e d t o draw t h e  lines  a the  freehand.  I f the l e n g t h of t h e i r proposed l i n e s exceeded  w i d t h o f t h e f o r m , p r o v i s i o n was be d r a w n .  lines  to  Measurements were r e c o r d e d i n m i l l i m e t r e s t o a  maximum o f 3.5 correlation .60  made f o r a d d i t i o n a l  the  times the length of the standard.  coefficients  (p <.05)  Test-retest  f o r each i t e m ranged from  and a c o r r e l a t i o n o f  .66  (p <.01)  .49  was  to  obtained  b e t w e e n t h e t e s t - r e t e s t a r i t h m e t i c means o f t h e i t e m s . The in credit  SEALS was  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a group of  courses at the Vancouver  and f a c u l t y University  i n t h e Department  participants  Community C o l l e g e , s t u d e n t s  of A d u l t Education at the  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e  S c h o o l Board a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 p e r c e n t  o f t h e s c h o o l b o a r d p a r t i c i p a n t s gave r e s p o n s e s w h i c h t h a t t h e y d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e The  i n c o m p l e t e and i n v a l i d  r e s p o n s e s were r e j e c t e d  191 c o l l e g e r e s p o n d e n t s , 147 f a c u l t y members, and o f 503  completed  165  Vancouver  indicated form.  leaving  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s and  school board respondents f o r a  total  forms.  A t each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e form t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h and examples  o f t h e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e were p r e s e n t e d p r i o r  being distributed.  The  several to the  form  i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e f o r m w e r e r e a d  a l o u d and i n d i v i d u a l s were e n c o u r a g e d seek g u i d a n c e t o t h e p r o c e d u r e .  t o a s k q u e s t i o n s and  T h e r e was  no d i s c u s s i o n  of  t h e a c t u a l s c a l e i t e m s o r t h e v a l u e t o be p l a c e d on t h e i t e m s , and  t h e r e was  the forms.  no d i s c u s s i o n o n c e t h e g r o u p b e g a n t o  complete  Approximately h a l f of the adult e d u c a t i o n students  r e s p o n d i n g h a d c o m p l e t e d one  o r two  of the developmental  o f t h e SEALS a n d w e r e t h e r e f o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e  scaling  forms  70 technique. The mean i t e m s c o r e s produced by t h e 503 are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5.  respondents  As recommended by Stevens  (1966),  g e o m e t r i c means (G) were c a l c u l a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e mean i t e m v a l u e s t o be a s s i g n e d t o p a t i e n t s i n t h e study  sample.  A r i t h m e t i c means (A) were p r e s e n t e d o n l y f o r purposes o f comparison.  As t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e e s t i m a t e s i n c r e a s e s i n  p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e magnitude o f t h e s c o r e s , g e o m e t r i c means a r e the most a p p r o p r i a t e measure f o r a v e r a g i n g o v e r s u b j e c t s . Log  + Log  ... Log X  n  G = N  There was c o n s i d e r a b l e agreement among t h e t h r e e groups c o n c e r n i n g t h e r a n k i n g o f t h e i t e m s by t h e i r g e o m e t r i c means. Spearman rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e rank o r d e r s between t h e groups. The  c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d , a l l s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e .01  l e v e l , were: c o l l e g e vs s c h o o l b o a r d r = .99;. c o l l e g e vs a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r = .99; and s c h o o l b o a r d vs a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r = .98. The  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e rank o r d e r o f items as they appeared  on t h e form and t h e t o t a l group i t e m r a n k s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (r = .047) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e was no response  b i a s due t o  the o r d e r i n g o f the items. K e n d a l l ' s C o e f f i c i e n t o f Concordance W was used t o t e s t the e x t e n t o f agreement among r e s p o n d e n t s '  rankings of the  s c a l e i t e m s w i t h i n each o f t h e t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t groups.  The  computer program f o r K e n d a l l ' s W was n o t c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s  simultaneously.  o f W o b t a i n e d f o r each group i n d i c a t e d t h a t when each  The v a l u e respondent's  a s s i g n e d s c o r e s were used t o rank t h e s c a l e items t h e r e was a  71 c o n s e n s u s i n e a c h -group r e g a r d i n g t h e r a n k o r d e r o f t h e i t e m . A h i g h degree o f s i m i l a r i t y generated  W coefficients  each group  about t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h e items  s i g n i f i c a n t b e y o n d t h e '.001 l e v e l f o r  (Community C o l l e g e , W = .59; A d u l t  D e p a r t m e n t , W = .64; S c h o o l The  Education  B o a r d , W = .661'.  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r a t i o s o f the geometric  a r i t h m e t i c mean s c o r e s  f o r e a c h i t e m when p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e  a r i t h m e t i c mean i t e m s c o r e s w e r e f o u n d t o b e s i m i l a r to  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n r e p o r t e d by Masuda and Holmes  development o f a r a t i o s c a l e o f l i f e distributions  and  i n shape  (1967) i n t h e  change e v e n t s .  The  i n d i c a t e t h a t as j u d g m e n t a l v a r i a n c e  increases  w i t h t h e magnitude o f t h e e s t i m a t e s , i t i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y and  linearly  t o the increase i n estimates.  According supports and  t o Masuda and Holmes  the general s c i e n t i f i c  contributes to the v a l i d i t y  estimation procedures being The  (1967),  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p  law o f r e l a t i v e  variablity  o f s u b j e c t i v e magnitude  used i n p s y c h o - s o c i a l measurement.  two h i g h e s t r a n k i n g i t e m s , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and v o c a t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g , h a v e mean r a t i o s w h i c h d e v i a t e f r o m t h e r a t i o s o f other high ranking reliability  items.  This observation suggests  o f t h e two i t e m s  i n terms o f t h e i r r a t i o  that the scale  p r o p e r t i e s may b e o p e n t o d o u b t . The geometric linear  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t a n d a r d means a n d t h e g e o m e t r i c  relationship  ( r = .9 8)  errors of the  mean i t e m s c o r e s  i n d i c a t i n g support  p r i n c i p l e o f measurement t h a t v a r i a b l i t y  i s a strong  f o r the  i n scores  i s a function  o f t h e magnitude o f t h e s c o r e s , and as such i s e v i d e n c e scalable nature To  of the  of the data.  obtain estimates  of the extent t o which  individual  Table 5 ARITHMETIC MEANS* GEOMETRIC MEANS AND GEOMETRIC MEAN RANKS BY INSTITUTIONAL 2  AFFILIATION OF RESPONDENTS AND SCALE ITEMS Original Item Number  Community College Item  Adult Education Department  N - 191  School Board  N - 147  N - 165  N - 503  5  Rank  A  5  Rank  A  G  Rank  1025  495  1  929  439  1  1831  1119  1  A  Totals  5  Rank  1261  625  1  A  11  Apprenticeship  20  Vocational School Course  484  263  2  371  267  2  596  390  2  488  301  2  16  University Credit Course  294  219  3  265  226  3  338  282  3  300  240  3  University Credit Correspondence  251  182  4  230  187  4-  261  209  4  248  192  4  22  Community College Credit  201  162  5  215  187  4-  211  181  5  208  176  5  24  High School Credit  142  125  7  164  142  7  170  144  6  158  136  6  27  Short Vocational Credit Course  143  123  8  180  152  6  151  130  8  156  133  7  3  High School Credit Correspondence  165  126  6  178  141  8  166  133  7  169  132  8  13  Non-credit College  121  100  9-  104  96  12  115  106  9  114  101  9  9-  9  1  Standard Item  100  100  100  100  11  100  100  10  100  100  10  5  Non-credit Correspondence  131  97  11  144  114  9  123  90  11-  132  99  11  21  Recreation Centre Lessons  116  93  12  119  102  10  110  90  11-  115  95  12  10  Programmed Text  79  62  13  111  80  13  73  58  13  87  65  13  17  One Day Workshop  63  50  14  78  61  14  52  41  16  64  50  14-  Individual Lessons  83  55  15  76  44  17  81  49  14  80  50  14-  15  Read Non-fiction Book  66  51  16  71  49  15  59  44  15  65  48  16  23  Labour Union Short Course  • 65  44  17  60  45  16  49  35  17  58  41  17  14  Attended a One Day Convention  58  42  18  55  34  19  50  31  18  54  36  18  12  Read a News Magazine  51  35  19  60  42  18  48  30  19-  53  35  19  Guided Tour  52  34  20  49  32  21  48  30  19-  50  32  20  Educational TV Program  48  35  21  46  33  20  35  23  21  43  30  21  22  39  25  23-  36  22  22  42  26  22  22  30  23-  4  7 18  Taped Lecture  50  31  26  8  Attended a Public Show  38  26  23-  39  26  19  24  35  24  25  Attended a Public Lecture  36  26  23-  34  25  23-  32  20  23  34  24  23-  19  Read a Daily Newspaper  39  26  23-  37  25  23-  29  16  27  35  22  25  Attended a Union or Professional Meeting  30  20  27  31  21  26  29  17  25=  30  19  26  Listened to Educational Radio  35  23  26  23  15  27  26  17  25=  28  18  27  6 2  1. A = A r i t h m e t i c Mean 2. G « Geometric Mean  patients asked  i n t h e s t u d y sample had engaged i n l e a r n i n g they were  t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s s i x months  they had p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n each  o f t h e SEALS a c t i v i t i e s .  For those  a c t i v i t i e s where m u l t i p l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w e r e p o s s i b l e , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n was and  used  as a w e i g h t  to multiply  determined  against the item value.  If  a s u b j e c t had p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y he o r she  was  was t h e g e o m e t r i c mean e s t i m a t e o f  assigned a score which  l e a r n i n g d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l SEALS s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . (See T a b l e  6)  This procedure  f o l l o w s e x a c t l y t h a t o f Holmes  a n d Rahe i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e SRRS ( H o l m e s ,  1972).  A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Measurement Although  a s c a l e t o measure a t t i t u d e s toward  e d u c a t i o n had been developed procedures  by Adolph  and Whaley  adult  (1967), t h e  f o l l o w e d i n t h e development o f t h e s c a l e  s e r i o u s doubts  about t h e v a l i d i t y  o f t h e sample on w h i c h  raised  of the instrument.  t h e s c a l e was t e s t e d was  The s i z e  inadequate;  t h e s a m p l e was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n participants;  t h e judgments which were t h e b a s i s f o r t h e  s e l e c t i o n o f s c a l e i t e m s w e r e made b y n o n - e x p e r t s , empirical  support f o rthe v a l i d i t y  t h e above r e a s o n s  and t h e  o f t h e s c a l e was weak.  i t was d e c i d e d t o d e v e l o p  For  an a l t e r n a t i v e  measure t o t h e Adolph-Whaley s c a l e , u s i n g e x p e r t judges t o s e l e c t t h e s c a l e items and Thurstone's i t e m s c a l e v a l u e s and reduce All  2 4 items  procedure  measurement  to calculate  error.  from t h e Adolph-Whaley s c a l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h  92 a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s i d e n t i f i e d  from  adult education  and b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n s i n a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  literature  doctoral  seminar,  w e r e c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a p o o l o f 116 i t e m s .  were randomly a s s i g n e d to  t h e judges  directions  to a questionnaire for presentation  with a nine-point Likert  as o u t l i n e d by Edwards  Fifty-four  judges  scale, with  accompanying  (19 5 7 ) .  w e r e s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  employment i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , o r t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t time program o f graduate University of British seventeen  The i t e m s  study  Columbia.  i n adult education  ina a tthe  Of t h e 36 e m p l o y e d  had completed masters degrees i n a d u l t  judges,  education,  ten others had completed doctorates i n a d u l t education remaining  Eighteen  adult education;  and  judges  were f u l l  e l e v e n were e n r o l l e d  p r o p o s e d by Edwards  time graduate  seven were e n r o l l e d i n masters  (19 5 7 ) .  from t h e judges'  A standard  computed f o r each s c a l e i t e m .  programs  r a t i n g s as  d e v i a t i o n was a l s o  Items were r e j e c t e d on t h e  b a s i s o f t h e magnitude o f the Q v a l u e s . were r e t a i n e d f o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e ,  When h i g h l y s i m i l a r  values and the standard d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e items. and s t a n d a r d  v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d  for inclusion  the Q  Those  items  deviations indicating  h i g h a g r e e m e n t among t h e j u d g e s , w e r e r e t a i n e d . t h e above c r i t e r i a  Forty  items  i n t h e s c a l e , and s c a l e  f o r each i t e m .  O n l y one o f t h e o r i g i n a l  A d o l p h - W h a l e y s c a l e i t e m s was r e t a i n e d , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l very  similar  A p p e n d i x 5)  items  the decision to retain  o n l y o n e o f t h e i t e m s was made a f t e r c o m p a r i n g b o t h  with the lowest Q values  students  i n doctoral studies.  Q v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d  met  and t h e  n i n e had been e n r o l l e d i n b u t had n o t completed  doctorates. in  full  t o Adolph-Whaley items were i n c l u d e d .  (See  items  75  Table 6 1  UNITS OF LEARNING ASSIGNED TO LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF ADULT LEARNING SCALE 1  SCALE ITEM  'UNITS OF LEARNING'  Apprenticeship  625  Vocational  301  S c h o o l Course  University Credit University Credit  Course Correspondence  240 192  Community C o l l e g e  Credit  176  High School C r e d i t Short Vocational  136  Credit  High School C r e d i t  Course  Correspondence  Non-Credit College S t a n d a r d Item  133 132 101  N o n - C r e d i t Correspondence R e c r e a t i o n C e n t r e Lessons Programmed T e x t  100 99 95 65 50  One Day Workshop I n d i v i d u a l Lessons Read N o n - f i c t i o n Book  50  Labour Union S h o r t Course A t t e n d e d a One Day C o n v e n t i o n  48 41 36  Read a News Magazine Guided Tour  35 32  Educational  TV Program  30  Taped L e c t u r e A t t e n d e d a P u b l i c Show  26 24  Attended a P u b l i c Lecture  24  Read a D a i l y Newspaper  22  A t t e n d e d a Union o r P r o f e s s i o n a l M e e t i n g  19  Listened  18  to Educational  Radio  76 The m e t h o d o f s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s was the s c a l e i t e m values r a t h e r than i n t e r v a l s used by Adolph underlying procedure  used t o c a l c u l a t e  t h e method o f  equal-appearing  a n d W h a l e y . The f u n d a m e n t a l  s c a l i n g b y means o f t h e e q u a l - a p p e a r i n g i s that the i n t e r v a l s  scored are i n fact equal equal-appearing  i n t o which  (Edwards, 1957).  i n t e r v a l s procedure  intervals  the statements  are  Within the  t h e r e i s no p r o v i s i o n t o  estimate the appropriateness of this  assumption.  made a t t h e two e x t r e m e s o f t h e s c a l e may ' t r u e ' r a t i n g s skewed t o w a r d  assumption  t h e mean.  Judgments  become b i a s e d , a n d  Adolph  and Whaley  (19 57)  r e p o r t e d t h r e e s c a l e i t e m s w i t h v a l u e s i n t h e r a n g e o f 1.3 1.8  and t h r e e i t e m s  items Should in  t o 8.6.  These s i x  r e p r e s e n t e d 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number o f s c a l e i t e m s . the assumption  their  o f e q u a l i n t e r v a l s have been i n a p p r o p r i a t e  s t u d y - a s i t may  (undergraduate may  i n t h e r a n g e o f 8.0  be b i a s e d .  students)  have been g i v e n t h e judges  used  - the s c a l e values f o r these  That would r e s u l t  and  the c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e s c a l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between negative attitudes, especially  items  i n inaccurate scale ratings  being assigned, thus reducing reponse v a r i a b i l i t y  and  to  those  limiting positive  a t the extremes o f the  scale. The m e t h o d o f s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s same p r o c e d u r e  as t h e method o f e q u a l - a p p e a r i n g  o b t a i n i n g i t e m judgments. the s c a l i n g problem i n t e r v a l s which  follows exactly the  In the successive intervals  i s to estimate the widths  comprise  intervals i n method,  of the scale  the s c a l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum  r a t h e r t h a n t o assume t h e i r e q u a l i t y . o f t h e number o f i t e m s t h a t a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s was  A frequency  distribution  had been p l a c e d i n each  developed.  The  cumulative  f r e q u e n c i e s were c o n v e r t e d i n t u r n were i n s p e c t e d  to cumulative  proportions, which  for normality before  being  converted  to Z scores.  From a t a b l e o f n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s  corresponding  to the boundaries of the successive  f o r each s t a t e m e n t were i d e n t i f i e d . t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u u m had  Once t h e  t h e p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d by Edwards scale intervals at the  by  the  on  of Appendix  The  widths  the  o f t h e two  i n accordance The  extreme i n t e r v a l s  i n t e r v a l s procedure.  l a r g e , the  values  values  in this  reported  likelihood  are  indeterminate  However, s i n c e judgments  of s c a l e values  internal consistency  the  was  falling  of the  e s t i m a t i n g the magnitude of the  b e t w e e n t h e o b s e r v e d and  the  j u d g m e n t s as recommended by  was  Edwards  (19 5 7 ) .  108.8  and  and  when d i v i d e d by  as  low  as t h e  t y p i c a l value  Edwards, the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d c o m p r i s e an empirical  i n the  acceptable  (.24)  The  of  absolute  empirical 320,  the  total  0.31.  forty  value  proportions  Although  reported  i n d i c a t e t h a t the  s e t of items  was  discrepancies  number o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s , t h e mean d e v i a t i o n was i s not  into  was  scale  theoretical proportions  of d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the t h e o r e t i c a l over a l l items  the  study.  A t e s t of the c o n d u c t e d by  with  of  extreme c a t e g o r i e s of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum  minimized  this  scale  of  5.  number o f i n t e r v a l s u s e d i n o b t a i n i n g t h e relatively  scores  intervals  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l continuum are  end  successive  (19 5 7 ) .  Z  scale values  been i d e n t i f i e d ,  were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of the s c a l e items  the  by items  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the  do  original  observations.  G i v e n the need t o l i m i t  the d u r a t i o n of p a t i e n t i n t e r v i e w s  study,  t o r e d u c e t h e number o f  i t was  necessary  scale  78 i t e m s t o a minimum. by  Edwards  Such an e v e n t u a l i t y had been  recognized  (1957) who a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a T h u r s t o n e s c a l e  a l a r g e number o f i t e m s c a n be t r e a t e d a s an i t e m  pool.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t w e n t y - e i g h t i t e m s were randomly s e l e c t e d the  f o r t y scale items t o e s t a b l i s h a short  scale.  The s c a l e a s u s e d i n t h i s  with  from  form o f t h e a t t i t u d e  study i s included  i n the  i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i n A p p e n d i x 3. V a l i d i t y o f t h e L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y and A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Measures S c o r e s on t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y correlated with  five criterion  and a t t i t u d e s c a l e  v a r i a b l e s : 1) y e a r s o f  were  school  c o m p l e t e d , 2) s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 3) s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  status,  4)  income.  i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus  o f c o n t r o l a n d 5) p e r s o n a l  Many s t u d i e s h a v e r e v e a l e d educational activities  experience,  i n adult education  ( V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , i s normally  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward a d u l t education  characteristics  social  are a l l related to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education  e x p e c t e d t o be e v i d e n t  formal  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s  participation Since  that previous  1958).  voluntary,  might l o g i c a l l y  among t h o s e a d u l t s who  possess  s i m i l a r t o those of adult education  participants,  t h a t i s among t h e r e l a t i v e l y w e l l e d u c a t e d , t h e s o c i a l l y and  t h e m i d d l e and h i g h e r  socio-economic groups.  a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , that scores and  a t t i t u d e t o adult education  and  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with  on t h e l e a r n i n g  scale  scores.  positively  analysis  on t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e w o u l d c o r r e l a t e w i t h  activity  activity  socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s .  I t was a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f l o g i c a l scores  active  I t was  s c a l e s would c o r r e l a t e  those four  be  that  learning  79 R e s e a r c h on that  an  locus  of  control  supports the  hypothesis  i n d i v i d u a l ' s expectancy f o r c o n t r o l over l i f e  influences  attention  a v a i l a b l e i n the consider  the  t o , and  a c q u i s i t i o n of  environment  generalized  be  partially within  it  is likely  that  (Rotter,  their control  they would look  education i n general, one  and  information  1961).  changes o c c u r r i n g  If individuals  in their lives  favourably  upon  adult  learning  activities  as  predicted,  therefore,  indicating  i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l would c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with indicating on  the  adult  achieving  personal goals.  s c o r e s on  the  scores.on the  involvement i n adult  attitude scale  learning learning  locus  of  It  was  control  activity  and  scale  activities  and  indicating a positive attitude  Chapin S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale  scores  toward  (Chapin,  used t o measure s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; the  Socio-Economic Index  (Blishen,  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a t i n g s , and o b t a i n e d from the  Rotter  19 76)  locus  was  of  1938)  Blishen  used to  assign  c o n t r o l s c o r e s were  Locus of C o n t r o l  Scale  (Rotter,  1961).  Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d each of and  the  five criterion variables  a t t i t u d e toward education s c a l e S c o r e s on  predicted school  with  the  two  of  c o m p l e t e d and  between l e a r n i n g p  scale  education. The  was  that  to  (internally controlled),  would p a r t i c i p a t e i n  means o f  situations  < .0 6)  learning the  and  the  scores are  activity  scale  activity  shown i n T a b l e  correlated  as  f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s , years  socio-economic status.  activity  learning  between  and  correlation  s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (r =  approached s t a t i s t i c a l  c o r r e l a t i o n between l e a r n i n g  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e , as  activity  and  of  did  personal  the  income  .10,  7.  80 (r =  .08,  p <  .10).  However, the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus ( r =.02)  was  not  W i t h one the  exception,  v a r i a b l e s were i n the  was  the  the  education scale  anticipated  and  the  learning  (r =  .10,  activity  p <  d i r e c t i o n s and  scale  .06).  .01  positive attitudes  toward adult  O v e r a l l , the attitude scale  s c o r e s and  The  great majority  the  .01  level.  education  (r =  the  concurrent v a l i d i t y  of  the  scores  scales  .15,  p <  learning  predicted  .01).  activity  variables, direction  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  in this  supported  study.  Measures i n s t r u m e n t s were used t o a s s e s s d i m e n s i o n s  personality, E y s e n c k , 1966)  the  Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y  and  the  Rotter  Inventory  Locus of C o n t r o l  of  (Eysenck Scale  and  (Rotter,  1966) . The two  scales  Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y  Inventory  (EPI)  consists  w h i c h measure N e u r o t i c i s m - S t a b i l i t y  Extraversion  - Introversion  originally  selected  utility  a measure of  as  on  and  observed r e l a t i o n s h i p s  two  and  indicating  five criterion  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  C o l l e c t i v e l y the  education  positively  attitude scale  the  exception  anticipated,  i n magnitude, were i n the  the  Two  the  on  were  level.  c o r r e l a t i o n s between the  and  Personality  As  correlated  s c o r e s on  although small  activity  criterion  c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t  significantly with  and  learning  c o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the  p e r s o n a l income the  c o n t r o l and  observed.  a t t i t u d e toward adult  statistically  of  expected s i g n i f i c a n t  (E).  The  (N.)  and  Neuroticism scale  f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the  of  was  study f o r i t s j o i n t  response to perceived  s t r e s s , and  as  81  Table 7 PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT MATRIX OF CRITERION VARIABLES AND LEARNING AND ATTITUDE SCALE SCORES  1. SEALS ( l e a r n i n g )  1.0  2. A t t i t u d e t o Adult Education  .15+  1.0  3. Locus o f C o n t r o l  .02  -.22* 1.0  4. P e r s o n a l Income  .08  .10  -.09  1.0  5. Y e a r s o f Schooling 6. B l i s h e n (Socio-Economic Status)  .30*  .25* -.24*  .24* 1.0  .25*  .27* -.19*  .38* -.59* 1.0  7. C h a p i n (Social Participation)  .10  .13+  .14+  N = 263 * = p < .001  -.07  .30*  .42* 1.0  82  a broad measure of emotional response as a p e r s o n a l i t y as d e p i c t e d by Eysenck.  type  E x t r a v e r s i o n i s t y p i f i e d by o u t g o i n g ,  u n i n h i b i t e d , i m p u l s i v e and s o c i a b l e b e h a v i o u r s and by i n h i b i t e d , c a r e f u l and r e s e r v e d b e h a v i o u r s .  introversion  Each  scale  c o n s i s t s o f 24 statements w i t h which respondents were asked to  agree o r d i s a g r e e (see Appendix  d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s the n i n e  'lie  5). 1  In o r d e r t o save time  s c a l e items d i s t r i b u t e d  throughout the EPI were o m i t t e d . As r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r the EPI has been w i d e l y used (Buros, 1972) from 0.84  and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y  t o 0.9 4 f o r the complete  c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging  i n v e n t o r y have been o b t a i n e d .  The I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e developed by R o t t e r (19 66) was  used i n a s l i g h t l y amended form to measure  the  p a t i e n t s ' e x p e c t a n c i e s f o r c o n t r o l over f a c t o r s  the  changes t h a t are o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i r l i v e s .  influencing  Items seven  and seventeen i n the twenty-item s c a l e were w r i t t e n to r e p l a c e o r i g i n a l s c a l e items judged t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n t h i s study  (see Appendix  4).  Respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e  one o f two c o n t r a s t i n g statements they b e l i e v e d t o be  true.  The Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e has been demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, test-retest and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y .  Kuder-Richardson  e s t i m a t e s r a n g i n g from 0.65 e s t i m a t e s of 0.79  t o have  reliability  split half  reliability  t o 0.7 5 and Spearman Brown  are r e p o r t e d by R o t t e r (1966).  of  the v a l i d i t y o f the s c a l e has been demonstrated  of  s t u d i e s conducted by Seeman (1959, 1962,  1967b, 1972).  which  1963,  reliability  Ample evidence i n a series 1966,  1967a,  83 Socio-Demographic  Variables  A r a n g e o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s was the  i n c l u d e d .in  s t u d y i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d y sample f o r c o m p a r a t i v e  p u r p o s e s , and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s might  selected  i n f l u e n c e any  relationship  f o u n d t o e x i s t between s t r e s s , h e a l t h and engagement i n a d u l t learning activities.  D a t a was  obtained i n the f o l l o w i n g  broad  categories: (i)  P e r s o n a l Data - Age, immigrant of  (ii)  sex, m a r i t a l  status,  s t a t u s , number o f c h i l d r e n ,  years  s c h o o l i n g a n d number o f a d u l t s i n h o u s e h o l d ,  Labour  Force A c t i v i t y  - Labour  force  status,  o c c u p a t i o n , number o f y e a r s a t p r e s e n t j o b and  socio-economic status  scores derived  (Blishen  from o c c u p a t i o n and  scale income  data) . (iii) (iv)  Income -  P e r s o n a l i n c o m e and h o u s e h o l d  Community I n v o l v e m e n t  - Number o f y e a r s i n  present neighbourhood,  years i n Vancouver  participation  in social activities  From t h e o c c u p a t i o n and income d a t a B l i s h e n Index Scores  ( B l i s h e n , 1976)  participation of  and  (Chapin  scale).  Socio-Economic  w e r e d e r i v e d , and t h e e x t e n t o f  i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was  q u a n t i f i e d by  use  t h e C h a p i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( C h a p i n , 19 3 8 ) .  (See A p p e n d i x Reliability  of  3.) Instruments  Seven i n s t r u m e n t s which r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t to  income,  psychometric scale  responses  items were a n a l y z e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y .  The  84 seven instruments  were: the S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment R a t i n g  (SRRS) ; t h e S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e Personality and  Inventory  (EPI)  (SSS) ; t h e  i n c l u d i n g the  Eysenck  neuroticism-stability  i n t r a v e r s i o n - e x t r a v e r s i o ns c a l e s ; the S u b j e c t i v e E s t i m a t i o n  of Adult Learning S c a l e ; and analyzed  Scale  (SEALS); the A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t  the Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e .  on  the b a s i s of the  The  lowest  reliability  .69  and  the  42  c o n t a i n items which are u n l i k e l y  of high r e l i a b i l i t y  w i f e by  death  w i t h i n the s u c h as  last  .70.  t o be  consequently  such as,  during the l a s t  T h e s e two s e l e c t e d by  reducing  the  obtained.  " I h a v e l o s t my  s i x m o n t h s ' , and  correspondence'. coefficients  The  ranging  a university  f i v e remaining from  .73  A t t i t u d e to Adult Education  had  scales the  great  likelihood For  example,  husband 'I have  s i x m o n t h s ' , w h i l e t h e SEALS c o n t a i n s  'I have taken  the  Readjustment  ' I h a v e b e e n r e g i s t e r e d i n an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p  program', or  results  Scale which  item Subjective  c o e f f i c i e n t s being  t h e SRRS c o n t a i n s i t e m s  the  c o e f f i c i e n t s ' o b t a i n e d were f o r  Rating Scale w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t of  m a j o r i t y of respondents,  was  8.  item S u b j e c t i v e Estimation of Adult Learning  a ' c o e f f i c i e n t of  Education  Each instrument  z e r o - o n e r e s p o n s e s and  o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e  26  Scale  retired items  training  c r e d i t course  s c a l e s had  or  by  reliability  (Neuroticism-Stability)to  .87  Scale).  SUMMARY The and  study  used a sample o f a d u l t s aged between  s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s who  physician.  w e r e t h e p a t i e n t s o f one  F r o m a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 506  completed a mailed  eighteen  family  p a t i e n t s who  copy o f the S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment  had Rating  85  Table 8 HOYT ESTIMATE OF RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR SEVEN PSYCHOMETRIC SCALES Scales  No. o f Items  No. o f Respondents  Hoyt E s t i m a t e of Reliability  1. S u b j e c t i v e Readjustment Rating Scale  42  263  .70  2. S u b j e c t i v e Stress Scale  4  263  . 80  3. N e u r o t i c i s m S t a b i l i t y (EPI)  24  263  .73  4. I n t r a v e r s i o n E x t r a v e r s i o n (EPI)  24  263  . 81  5. S u b j e c t i v e Estimation of Adult Learning Scale  26  263  .69  6. A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t Education Scale  28  263  .87  7. Locus o f C o n t r o l  20  231  .76  86 Scale  a r a n d o m s a m p l e o f 300 p a t i e n t s was s e l e c t e d .  study used a p a n e l design nine  months a p a r t .  263 p a t i e n t s the  final  with  The f i r s t  two d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  periods  i n t e r v i e w was c o m p l e t e d  and e i g h t months l a t e r  study  The  226 p a t i e n t s  with  completed  interview.  A t o t a l o f e i g h t d i f f e r e n t h e a l t h v a r i a b l e s were quantified:  level of health  (Bush H e a l t h  Status  Index);  f u n c t i o n ; p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t lowest l e v e l of health  during  the study period  (Bush H e a l t h  health  change o v e r t h e s t u d y p e r i o d  Pre-Post Test Residuals); of I l l n e s s  (Hinkle Severity of I l l n e s s  to the physician's of  Stability, Factor  Scale  (Hinkle  High Score);  t o seek c a r e .  of the health  s t r e s s were b e i n g  Scale); subjective stress  stress  stress  (Neuroticismof stress.  and s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s were c o n d u c t e d  that d i s t i n c t constructs  of health  q u a n t i f i e d by t h e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s .  and  a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education  the  study.  The S u b j e c t i v e  i n learning  activity  were d e v e l o p e d f o r use i n  Estimation  of Adult  Learning  (SEALS) was d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h p s y c h o m e t r i c m a g n i t u d e techniques t o provide  estimates  in a variety of adult  learning activities.  intervals  made  F i v e - d i s t i n c t measures  I n s t r u m e n t s t o measure p a r t i c i p a t i o n  successive  Severity  t h e number o f  a n d two s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s  the conclusion  Index  f o r each p a t i e n t i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l  Scale); perceived  E.P.I.);  analyses  yielding and  Stress  Status  t h e most s e v e r e l e v e l o f i l l n e s s  (Subjective Readjustment Rating (Subjective  (Bush H e a l t h  Score);  a n d t h e t o t a l number o f v i s i t s  office  s t r e s s were o b t a i n e d  I n d e x Low  severity of i l l n e s s  S c a l e Mean S c o r e ) ;  days spent i n h o s p i t a l ;  Status  function  of adult  estimation  learning that The  Scale  occurs  Thurstone  s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e was u s e d t o d e v e l o p a  87 scale on  the  to q u a n t i f y SEALS a n d  a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t the  locus  3)  years of school  5)  personal  s c a l e s c o r e s and  supported the v a l i d i t y  the  two  and  five criterion  Extraversion-Intraversion  used to q u a n t i f y  generalized  Four broad categories  were i n c l u d e d  to describe  the  extent to which selected  influence  2)  labour  of  reliability.  were from the  activity,  was  The  3)  .70.  f o r the  a c o e f f i c i e n t of  .87.  4)  The  highest  The  reliability  a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t  data, involvement.  study were  .69  ,  four  personal  coefficients  a c o e f f i c i e n t of  data  variables  community  used i n the  the  to determine  socio-demographic  i n c o m e and  the  Scale  of socio-demographic  lowest r e l i a b i l i t y  SEALS w i t h  a c o e f f i c i e n t of obtained  Locus of C o n t r o l  s t u d y s a m p l e and  Seven p s y c h o m e t r i c s c a l e s for  the  w e r e q u a n t i f i e d by  s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a w e r e : 1)  force  variables  Neuroticism-  participation in learning activities.  categories  the  f e e l i n g s of c o n t r o l over  environment.  the  and  scales.  E y s e n c k P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y , and was  social  C o l l e c t i v e l y the  Three measures o f p e r s o n a l i t y were used: Stability  five  internal-external  learning activity  each of the  of  4)  income.  observed r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the attitude  c o m p l e t e d , 2)  socio-economic status,  o f c o n t r o l and  Scores  a t t i t u d e s c a l e were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : 1) participation,  education.  and  the  analyzed obtained  SRRS  with  coefficient  education scale  with  88  CHAPTER I V  THE STUDY SAMPLE  The  purpose  Combinations distributions  o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e sample.  o f socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s  of socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s with the h e a l t h ,  stress, personality, adult  learning  education variables  schooling, The  and a t t i t u d e  toward  The s i x s e l e c t e d  a r e age, s e x , m a r i t a l  status,  c o u n t r y o f b i r t h and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  status.  health,  attitude to adult the  activity,  are presented.  socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s of  and b i v a r i a t e  stress, personality,  learning  years  a c t i v i t y and  e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s were a l l d i c h o t o m i z e d a t  median s c o r e t o enable b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e d a t a  t o be used  f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes  and t o t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s  between t h e l e v e l s o f each o f t h e socio-demographic with respect to the variable significant differences  i n question.  When  variables  statistically  between b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e  d a t a o r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s  have  approached  89 significance  (<.10), t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s  b e i n g a t t r i b u t a b l e t o chance has been s t a t e d .  The t a b u l a r  b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s d a t a a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x 6. Socio-Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The mean age o f t h e sample was 40.3 y e a r s w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 12.03 y e a r s .  Males (48.4%) and f e m a l e s (51.6%)  were a l m o s t e v e n l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e sample. l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f younger f e m a l e s t h a n  There was a  m a l e s , and o f o l d e r  males t h a n f e m a l e s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e sexes approached t h e .05 l e v e l o f statistical significance  (Table 9 ) . Table 9  DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY AGE AND SEX Age  Males No. %  <20  Females No. %  0.8  1 20 27  16.1 21.8  6 33 33  50 - 59  38 30  30.6 24.2  31 27  >59  8  6.5  12 4  100.0  20 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49  TOTALS Age : X X  2  = 4 0 .3 y r s . , s . d.  4.5 . 24.8  7  2.7 20.6 23.3 26 . 8  57  3  20.3 2.3  11  22.2 4.3  133  100.0  257  100.0  24.8 23.3  = 12 .03 M i s s i n g Cases = 6.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s were m a r r i e d  divorced  Totals  53 60 69  = 10. 198, d . f . = 5, P < .07.  r e m a i n d e r were s i n g l e  No.  (70.5%) w h i l e t h e  (14.7%) and widowed, s e p a r a t e d o r  (14.8%),(Table 10).  The sample c o n t a i n e d  slightly  90 more s i n g l e males t h a n f e m a l e s , and more'females than males who were widowed, s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d . Table  10  DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND Marital Status  No.  Males %  Females % No.  SEX  No.  Totals  0,  •6  Single Married  22  17. 6  16  12.0  38  14. 7  91  72. 8  91  68.4  182  70. 5  Widowed  0  0. 0  3  3  Separated  3  2. 4  6  • 2.3 4.5  9  1. 2 3. 5  Divorced  7  5. 6  13  9.8  20  7. 8  Common-law  2  1. 6  4  3.0  6  2. 3  125  100. 0  133  100.0  258  100. 0  TOTALS X  2  =  5.86, d . f . = 2 , P <.05  ( S i n g l e , M a r r i e d and O t h e r ) .  One- t h i r d o f the sample (33.9%) r e p o r t e d h a v i n g no c h i l d r e n w h i l e 13.2 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d h a v i n g one  child,  29.6 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d two c h i l d r e n and 14.4 p e r c e n t three c h i l d r e n . ten,  reported  The l a r g e s t number o f c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d was  and t h e mean number o f c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d was  1.7.  Two-thirds  o f t h e s u b j e c t s (62.4%) r e p o r t e d l i v i n g i n a  household,  13.7 p e r c e n t l i v e d a l o n e w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g  two-adult  22.2 p e r c e n t l i v i n g i n h o u s e h o l d s o f between t h r e e and n i n e adults.  The mean number o f a d u l t s p e r h o u s e h o l d was  2.2.  In terms o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s 81.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s were members o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y (61.9%) employed f u l l t i m e .  F o u r t e e n p e r c e n t were employed  p a r t time and 6.2 p e r c e n t were c u r r e n t l y unemployed. s u b j e c t s who were n o t members o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e were  Those  91 homemakers ( 1 4 . 8 % ) , d i s a b l e d ( 1 . 0 % ) , o r r e t i r e d  (1.6%).  t w i c e as many males as females were employed on a f u l l basis  Almost time  (Table 1 1 ) . T a b l e 11  DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND SEX Occupational Status  Males No. %  Employed F u l l Time  1Q2  81.6  Employed P a r t Time  8  Homemaker  Females No. %  Totals No.  56.  42.4  158  61.9  6.4  28  21.2  36  14.0  0  0.0  38  28.8  38  14.8  Unemployed  8  6.4  7  5.9  15  5.8  Disabled Retired  3 4  2.4  2  1.7  1.9  3.2  0  0.0  5 4  TOTALS X  2  125  100.0  131  100.0  = 65.24, d . f . = 4, p < .001 ( D i s a b l e d and r e t i r e d  256  1.6 100.0  combined)  Those s u b j e c t s who were employed r e p o r t e d b e i n g i n t h e i r p r e s e n t j o b a mean o f 8.9 y e a r s ; however, f i f t y  per cent of the  s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d l e s s than 5.2 y e a r s work e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r present job. The mean p e r s o n a l a n n u a l income f o r t h e t o t a l sample was $10,285 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f $9,286 and t h e mean household  income was $18,169 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f  $10,433.  Of t h o s e s u b j e c t s employed f u l l t i m e , 51 p e r c e n t  earned more than $13,000 p e r y e a r , and 45.7 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e employed p a r t t i m e earned more than $6,000 p e r y e a r . S u b j e c t ' s s c o r e s on t h e B l i s h e n Socio-Economic ( B l i s h e n , 1976) ranged  Index  from a low o f 21.72 (e.g. t e x t i l e and  weaving o c c u p a t i o n s ) t o a maximum o f 75.28 (e.g. a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  t e a c h i n g and r e l a t e d f i e l d s ) .  The median  f o r t h e sample  was  37.62 (e.g. p i p e f i t t i n g , p l u m b i n g and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i n terms o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s t h e sample represented stratum.  an upper w o r k i n g c l a s s and l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s  A P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  o f 0.38, s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < .01, was o b s e r v e d between  personal  income and B l i s h e n S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index r a t i n g s . A l m o s t h a l f o f t h e sample As t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s p r a c t i c e was  (45.0%) was n o t Canadian b o r n . located i n a low-rent,  urban  r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t w i t h a c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e immigrant c h a r a c t e r , a l a r g e number o f f o r e i g n - b o r n  a d u l t s had been  e x p e c t e d i n t h e s t u d y sample.  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d between  t h e C a n a d i a n b o r n and  non-Canadian b o r n by sex and by age  significant  (Table 1 2 ) .  T a b l e 12 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY BIRTH PLACE, AGE AND Age  Canadian Born Males *o No.  Females Q. No. "5  20-29 30-39  1 10 17  •1.7 16.9 28.8  3 19 22  40-49 50-59 >59  11 15 5  18.6 25.4 8.5  19 15 1  <20  TOTALS 59 100.0  Non-Canadian  Females Q, "O No.  Total % No.  29 39  2.9 21.0 28.3  0 10 10  3 14  5.7 26.4  3 24  18.0  30 30 6  21.7 21.7 4.3  27 14  10 12 12  20 39 26 5  138 100 .0  C a n a d i a n B o r n , Sex v Age, X  2  2  3  0.0 15.6 15.6 42.2 21.0 4.3  64 100.0  = 6.471, d . f . = 5,  B o r n , Sex v Age, X  B i r t h P l a c e v Sex, X  Born  Males % No.  4  27.9 2 4.1 19 .0 1.3  79 100.0  Non-Canadian  Total Q. No. *o  3.8 24.1  SEX  2  2  53 100.0  20.5 17.1 33.3 22 .2 4.3  117 100.0  N.S.  = 8.834, d . f . = 5,  = 2.94, d . f . = 1, p < .09.  22.6 22.6 3.8  2.6  N.S.  M i s s i n g Cases = 7  The mean number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l completed by the sample was 10.41 y e a r s w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3.51 y e a r s .  Almost  one i n f i v e o f t h e s u b j e c t s (19.4%) had completed more than twelve years of school.  While a l a r g e r  p r o p o r t i o n o f males  t h a n f e m a l e s had c o m p l e t e d l e s s t h a n e i g h t y e a r s o f s c h o o l , and more t h a n t w e l v e y e a r s o f s c h o o l , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two sexes was n o t significant  (Table 13).  statistically  As m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , o l d e r s u b j e c t s  tended t o r e p o r t fewer y e a r s o f s c h o o l completed than d i d t h e m i d d l e aged and younger s u b j e c t s ( T a b l e 14). i n the b i v a r i a t e completed was (X  2  distributions  statistically  The  difference  between age and y e a r s o f s c h o o l  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e .001  level  = 29.3, d . f . = 12, p < .001.) and a P e a r s o n product-moment  correlation  coefficient  .01 l e v e l , was the two  o f r = -0.29, s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the  observed i n d i c a t i n g  a linear relationship  between  variables. T a b l e 13  DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOL AND Age < 8 8 - 10 11 - 12 13 - 14 >14 TOTALS  No.  Males  %  Females No. %  SEX  Totals No.  27  22.3  21  16.0  48  19.0  33 34 15  27.3 •28.1 12. 4  40 48 10  30.5 36.6 7.6  73 82 25  29.0 32.5 9.9  12  9.9  12  9.2  24  9.5  121  100.0  131  100.0  252  100.0  Years of S c h o o l :  X X  = 10.41, SD = 2  3.51  = 4.422, d . f . = 4, N.S.  M i s s i n g Cases = 11  T a b l e 1.4 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY AGE AND YEARS OF SCHOOL Age  < 8  8-10 % No.  Years o f S c h o o l 11 -12 13 -14 % No. % No.  > 14 No. %  Totals  No.  %  <30  4  8.3  10  13 .7  31  38. 3  7  28.0  6  25 .0  58  23 .1  30-39  11  22.9  13  17 .8  17  21.0  8  32.0  9  37 .5  58  40-49  16  33.3  20  27 .4  18  22.2  8  6  25 .0  68  50-59  11  22.9  27  16.0  2  3  >59  6  12.5  3  37 .0 13 4. 1 2  32.0 8.0  23 .1 27 .1  2.5  0  0.0  0  12 .5 0 .0  56 11  22 .3 4. 4  TOTALS 48 100.0  73 100 .0  81 100.0  25 100.0  No.  %  25 100 .0 251 100 .0  Years o f S c h o o l : X = 10 .41 y r s , s. d. = 3 .51 Age: X = 40.3 y r s , s .d. = 12.03 = 29.3, d . f . = 12 , P < .001 r = -.029 , P < • 01 X  2  M i s s i n g Cases = 12  A l m o s t one q u a r t e r o f t h e sample r e p o r t e d m i n i m a l  levels  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l organizations during the s i x month p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w (Table 1 5 ) .  Overall,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was low w i t h a mean s c o r e o f 7.4, and a median o f 5.2 i n d i c a t i n g f e e - p a y i n g membership i n two o r t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t l e a s t one a s s o c i a t i o n . A s m a l l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s maximum s c o r e b e i n g 42.  reported high scores with the  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n d e n t was a c t i v e  i n s i x a s s o c i a t i o n s and was an e x e c u t i v e member o f t h r e e . a n t i c i p a t e d , males tended  As  to report higher levels of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n than f e m a l e s .  However, a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n  o f women (21.6%) d i d r e p o r t h i g h l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  (X = 2  14.92, d . f . = 3, p < .002). As o b s e r v e d  i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g was  strongly associated with social participation p < .001).  ( r = .30,  Of t h o s e p a t i e n t s w i t h l e s s than e i g h t y e a r s o f  s c h o o l i n g , 73.8 p e r c e n t had p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s below t h e median o f 5.2 w h i l e 68.2 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e p a t i e n t s w i t h g r e a t e r than f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g had p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s above t h e median (Table 1 6 ) .  Only one q u a r t e r o f t h e most a c t i v e  s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s had completed schooling  fewer than e i g h t y e a r s o f  ( X = 28.2, d . f . = 12, p < .005). 2  T a b l e 15 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE AND SEX. Social Participation Score <3 3 - 5 6-10 >10 TOTALS X  2  No.  Males  Q. "O  Females Q. No. "5  No.  Totals  Q. "O  16 36 33  14. 8  41  35. 3  57  25.4  33.3 30.6  31 19  26.7 16.4  67 52  23  21.3  25  21.6  48  29.9 23.2 21.4  108  100.0  116  100.0  224  100.0  = 14.92, d . f . = 3, p < .002  H e a l t h and S t r e s s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The median s c o r e f o r t h e sample on t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (SRRS) was 12 3.2, t h e mean s c o r e was 16 2.2 and t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was 148.3 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e sample had n o t e x p e r i e n c e d a g r e a t many l i f e change e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e s i x months p r e c e d i n g t h e s t a r t o f t h e study.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f SRRS s c o r e s by age c a t e g o r i e s , s e x , y e a r s o f "'"See T a b l e s 1, 2, 3 and 4 i n Appendix .6.  . . .  s c h o o l i n g , place o f b i r t h o r socio-economic  status.  the p a t i e n t s d i d d i f f e r  s t a t u s a n d SRRS  i n terms o f m a r i t a l  However,  ( T a b l e 1', A p p e n d i x 6) . •, M a r r i e d - p a t i e n t s t e n d e  score d i s t r i b u t i o n  t o r e p o r t SRRS s c o r e s b e l o w t h e m e d i a n w h i l e t h e s i n g l e a n d t h e widowed, s e p a r a t e d  o r d i v o r c e d tended  w e l l above t h e median  (X  2  t o r e p o r t SRRS  = 1 3 . 8 7 , d . f . = 2, p <  Table  scores  .001).  16  DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING AND SOCIAL P A R T I C I P A T I O N SCORE Years o f Schooling  No.  <3  Q, "O  S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score 3-5 6-10 >10 q. Q, % No. "6 No. No.  Total % No.  ~Q  <8 Y r s  11  20.0  20  30 .8  6  11.5  5  10.4  42  19.1  8-10 Y r s  13  23.6  20  30 .8  19  36.5  7  14.6  59  26.8  11-12 Y r s  21  38.2  19  29 .2  13  25.0  19  39.6  72  32.7  13-14 Y r s  6  10.0  3  4 .6  9  17.3  7  14.6  25  11.4  >14 Y r s  4  7.3  3  4 .6  5  9.6  10  20.8  22  10.0  TOTALS X  2  55 100.0  65 100 .0  = 28.20, d . f . = 12, p < .005. Scores  52 100.0  48 100.0  220 100.0  r = . 3 0 , p < .001  on t h e S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e  (SSS) a l s o  t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a t i e n t s were n o t e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h  indicated levels  o f s o c i a l s t r e s s , w i t h h a l f o f t h e sample r e p o r t i n g s c o r e s f r o m 12 t o 16 ( l o w s t r e s s ) on t h e 16 p o i n t s c a l e . scale score  f o rthe t o t a l  d e v i a t i o n o f 3.24.  s a m p l e was 11.74 w i t h a  rangin  The mean standard  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e  observed  b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f SSS s c o r e s b y a n y o f t h e s i x s e l e c t e d socio-demographic With  v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 2, A p p e n d i x 6 ) .  a m e d i a n s c o r e o f .748 on t h e B u s h H e a l t h  Status  Index  (post-test)  and a s t a n d a r d  sample e x h i b i t e d r e l a t i v e l y be e x p e c t e d o l d e r p a t i e n t s An i n c r e a s e scores  categories, with median scores 59 y e a r s  high  levels of health.  As m i g h t  experienced lower l e v e l s of h e a l t h .  i n the proportions  b e l o w t h e m e d i a n was  d e v i a t i o n o f .11 t h e study-  of patients with health  o b s e r v e d i n e a c h o f t h e age  50.9 p e r c e n t o f 30 t o 39 y e a r o l d s w i t h  as c o m p a r e d t o 66.7 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e  (Table  3, A p p e n d i x 6 ) .  While s i n g l e patients  below  over  However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  o b s e r v e d between d i s t r i b u t i o n s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  with  index  significant.  as a g r o u p w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  healthy  59 p e r c e n t a b o v e t h e s a m p l e m e d i a n as c o m p a r e d t o t h e  separated,  widowed  and d i v o r c e d  who w e r e l e s s h e a l t h y  with  69.2 p e r c e n t b e l o w t h e s a m p l e m e d i a n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y while  a majority  of patients with  significant.  lower l e v e l s  s t a t u s were b e l o w t h e median o f h e a l t h majority  of p a t i e n t s with'higher  status  Similarly,  of socio-economic ' index,  and a  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s were  t h e m e d i a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s was statistically  significant  between y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g 2  had  health  status  compared t o o n l y  and  index  scores  levels  of  education;  o v e r 14 y e a r s o f  29.5 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e p a t i e n t s w i t h completed.  No  of b i r t h .  between  statistically  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were o b s e r v e d between h e a l t h  e i t h e r sex o r p l a c e  schooling  a b o v e t h e s a m p l e m e d i a n , as  e i g h t and t e n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g significant  higher  of patients with  index scores  status  observed  Higher levels of health  f u n c t i o n i n g were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h quarters  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  and h e a l t h  = 1 6 . 8 6 , d . f . = 4, p <.01).  almost three  not  significant.  A statistically  (X  above  status  98 The v a r i a b l e h e a l t h  c h a n g e was  obtained  standardized  r e s i d u a l s from a r e g r e s s i o n  index scores  on p r e - t e s t h e a l t h  by s a v i n g  of post-test  index scores.  No  d i f f e r e n c e s were found between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n change s c o r e s variables  b y any o f t h e s i x s e l e c t e d  (Table  the  health  significant  of health  /  socio-demographic  4, A p p e n d i x 6 ) .  Personality Characteristics^The mean e x t r a v e r s i o n was  13.87 w i t h  scale score  a standard.deviation  a median s c o r e  o f 14.1.  o f 3.7, a r a n g e o f 2 2 , a n d  and e x t r a v e r s i o n  s i g n i f i c a n c e (X  2  scale  f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  scores  (Table  and  of neuroticism  The m a j o r i t y  neuroticism  scores  2  scale scores  (X = 1 0 . 0 , s . d . =  above t h e median  6, A p p e n d i x 6 ) . was  ( r = -.17,  (11.1) w h i l e  o v e r t h e age o f 40 h a d s c o r e s  associated with  5.0)  o f a d u l t s b e l o w t h e age o f 40 h a d  = 1 8 . 6 7 , d . f . = 4, p < . 0 0 1 ) .  scores  (Table  s i g n i f i c a n t b e y o n d t h e .01 l e v e l  p < .004).  of a d u l t s  scale  d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d , however, i n t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n age a n d n e u r o t i c i s m  statistically  (X  related to extraversion  the selected socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s  An i n v e r s e  variables  5, A p p e n d i x 6 ) .  Several distributions  score  = 4.85, d . f . = 2,  p < .09) n o n e o f t h e s i x s e l e c t e d s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c was  sample  W h i l e the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n s by m a r i t a l s t a t u s approached s t a t i s t i c a l  f o r the t o t a l  neuroticism  below t h e median  S e x was  a l s o n o t e d t o be  w i t h males tending  i n comparison t o females  (X  2  = 6.36,  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a r i t a l s t a t u s ''"See T a b l e s 5, 6 and 7 i n A p p e n d i x  6.  the majority  and  t o have low  d . f . = 1, p < . 0 2 ) . neuroticism  99 approached s t a t i s t i c a l p < .10)  significance  (X  2  = 3.73,  w i t h s i n g l e s and the widowed, s e p a r a t e d  d.f. = and  divorced  groups r e c o r d i n g s c o r e s above the median s c a l e s c o r e the m a j o r i t y of m a r r i e d  2,  while  p a t i e n t s r e p o r t e d s c o r e s below the  median. Although  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between  years o f s c h o o l i n g and n e u r o t i c i s m was significant  (X  2  = 15.62, d . f . = 4, p < .01)  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t obtained was  not l i n e a r  found  (r = 0.03,  to be  statistically  the Pearson  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  p < .3).  Adults with  relationship  l e s s than e i g h t  years of s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d low n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e s c o r e s , p a t i e n t s w i t h between e i g h t and  twelve  r e p o r t e d h i g h l e v e l s of n e u r o t i c i s m and than of  twelve  years of s c h o o l i n g those w i t h  years o f s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d r e l a t i v e l y  neuroticism.  greater lower  levels  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  e x i s t s between years of s c h o o l i n g and n e u r o t i c i s m , and t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s confounded by the e f f e c t s of age older adults with  that with  few years o f s c h o o l i n g completed r e p o r t i n g  lower n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s than younger a d u l t s w i t h l e s s high school completion.  No  d i f f e r e n c e s were observed  than between  the n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s of p a t i e n t s by country of b i r t h or by socio-economic  status.  The mean l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c a l e s c o r e f o r the sample was 17.  8.3  Although  w i t h a standard  d e v i a t i o n of 3.7  t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  and  total a range of  significant differences  between the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c o r e s and sex and m a r i t a l s t a t u s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n s were i n terms of years o f s c h o o l i n g , country socio-economic  status  of b i r t h  (Table 7, Appendix 6).  and  age, noted  100 E x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c o r e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low  l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g and  as p r e d i c t e d were observed schooling s t a t u s was higher  (r = -.24,  i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c o r e s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s of  p < .001).  S i m i l a r l y , low  socio-economic  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c o r e s  l e v e l s of socio-economic  and  s t a t u s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l scores  (r = -.19,  p < .005).  p a t i e n t s born i n Canada tended to be i n t e r n a l l y  Those  controlled  w h i l e the non-Canadian born tended to be e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d (X  2  = 4.65,  d . f . = 1, p < .05) .  Learning A c t i v i t y  and A t t i t u d e  Toward A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  Characteristics^-  The mean l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c a l e s c o r e s 1806.2, w i t h a s t a n d a r d  d e v i a t i o n of 1158.3.  (SEALS)  was  F i f t y per  cent  9  of the sample had  s c o r e s below 1620.4 and w h i l e males tended  to r e p o r t h i g h e r s c o r e s than  females,  and  singles reported  s c o r e s than the widowed, s e p a r a t e d  and d i v o r c e d ,  d i f f e r e n c e s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  6).  As was  expected  from f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s  these  (Table 8, Appendix research,  l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c o r e s f o r p a t i e n t s between 30 and age  the  49 years  tended t o be g r e a t e r than those of a d u l t s below the age  30 and above the age  of 50.  The  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c o r e s by age s i g n i f i c a n t at the As was  .1 l e v e l  (X  2  lower  of  of  distribution  group were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  = 7.42,  d . f . = 4, p < .1).  a n t i c i p a t e d , years of s c h o o l i n g was  strongly c o r r e l a t e d with learning a c t i v i t y  found  (r = 0.30,  While t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of .those p a t i e n t s with more than of s c h o o l i n g had s c o r e s above the median, almost ''"See T a b l e s 8 and 9 i n Appendix 6.  to be  p < .001). 14  years  three-quarters  101 o f t h o s e w i t h l e s s than e i g h t y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g had below the median f o r t h e t o t a l sample ( X p < .01).  = 17.36, d . f . =  2  Similarly, a statistically significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y was  observed  ( r = 0.25,  scores  linear  s t a t u s and l e a r n i n g  p < .001).  While only  p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h B l i s h e n Index s c o r e s below 30.1 SEALS s c o r e s above t h e median, 53.1 B l i s h e n s c o r e s o f 30.1 63.6  t o 40.0  had  had  s c o r e s above t h e median,  above t h e median SEALS s c o r e and 65.7  median s c o r e  31.6  per cent of those w i t h  p e r c e n t w i t h B l i s h e n s c o r e s o f 40.1  more than 50.0  4,  t o 50.0  had  scores  per cent of those w i t h  a t t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e had s c o r e s above the SEALS (X  2  = 17.21, d . f . = 3, p <  .001).  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s c o r e s o f t h e Canadian born and  the  non-Canadian b o r n i n t h e s t u d y sample. A mean s c o r e o f 10 3.9 26.4  was  scale.  obtained'on Although  w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of  t h e a t t i t u d e toward  adult education  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were s l i g h t t h e r e was  f o r the 30 t o 59 y e a r o l d r e s p o n d e n t s  a tendency  t o r e p o r t more p o s i t i v e  a t t i t u d e s towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n than t h e 20 t o 29, and 59 y e a r o l d age groups.  N e i t h e r sex nor m a r i t a l s t a t u s  found t o be r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e s toward  over was  adult education  (Table 9, Appendix 6 ) . P r e d i c t a b l y , y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g was  found t o be  positively  and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ( r = 0.25,  p < .001).  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s c o r e s by  years of s c h o o l r e v e a l s a s t r o n g l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o n e - t h i r d of those respondents  w i t h l e s s than e i g h t y e a r s  s c h o o l i n g r e c o r d i n g s c o r e s below t h e median a t t i t u d e s c a l e  of  102 s c o r e w h i l e o v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f those w i t h more than 14  years  o f s c h o o l i n g r e c o r d e d h i g h e r than median a t t i t u d e s c a l e scores  (X  2  = 14.58, d . f . = 4, p < .01).  socio-economic (r = 0.27, respondents  Similarly, with  s t a t u s and a t t i t u d e toward  adult education  p < .001), the l o w e s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e c o r d e d 65.8  median s c o r e s w h i l e 65.7  grouping  of  p e r c e n t o f i t s members w i t h below p e r c e n t o f the h i g h e s t  socio-economic  s t a t u s group r e c o r d e d a t t i t u d e s c o r e s above the median. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  a l s o observed  between the  r e c o r d e d a t t i t u d e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n and non-Canadian b o r n w i t h t h e Canadian b o r n e x p r e s s i n g more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards adult education  (X  2  = 6.14,  d . f . - 1, p < .02).  SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has d e s c r i b e d t h e s t u d y sample i n terms o f socio-demographic  v a r i a b l e s and i n terms o f b i v a r i a t e  d i s t r i b u t i o n s r e l a t i n g socio-demographic  v a r i a b l e s t o measures  o f h e a l t h , s t r e s s , p e r s o n a l i t y , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and toward  attitude  adult education. The mean age o f the sample was  40.3  y e a r s , and t h e r e  was  no s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e between the s e x e s , w h i c h were a l m o s t e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the sample. the sample were m a r r i e d  The m a j o r i t y o f  (70.5%) w h i l e the r e m a i n d e r were s i n g l e  (14.7%) and widowed), s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d ( 1 4 . 8 % ) . number o f c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d was r e p o r t e d h a v i n g no  1.7,  The mean  and o n e - t h i r d o f the sample  children.  F o u r o f e v e r y f i v e s u b j e c t s i n t h e sample were i n the l a b o u r f o r c e , w i t h 61.9  p e r c e n t o f the sample employed  t i m e ; h a l f o f the s u b j e c t s had been employed i n t h e i r  full  present  103 job f o r l o n g e r than 5.2 y e a r s .  The mean p e r s o n a l annual income  r e p o r t e d was $10,285 and t h e mean household income was $18,169. In terms o f socio-economic s t a t u s t h e sample r e p r e s e n t e d upper working c l a s s and lower middle c l a s s s t r a t a w i t h o c c u p a t i o n s r a n g i n g from t e x t i l e and weaving  occupations to administrators  i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . Almost h a l f  (45.9%) o f t h e sample was f o r e i g n born.  However, no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were noted  between the Canadian and non-Canadian  born by sex and by age.  The mean number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l completed by t h e sample was 10.41 years w i t h n e a r l y one i n f i v e o f the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g more than twelve y e a r s o f s c h o o l .  O l d e r s u b j e c t s had completed  fewer years o f s c h o o l i n g than t h e younger sample.  s u b j e c t s i n the  The r e p o r t e d l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s was g e n e r a l l y low, w i t h o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were observed between the e x t r a v e r s i o n s c a l e and s i x s e l e c t e d socio-demographic  variables.  However, socio-demographic d i f f e r e n c e s were observed i n the case o f t h e n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e and s i x s e l e c t e d variables.  However, socio-demographic  i n t h e case o f t h e n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e .  socio-demographic  d i f f e r e n c e s were observed Younger a d u l t s  tended  t o have h i g h e r n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e s c o r e s than o l d e r a d u l t s . Females tended t o have h i g h e r n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s than  males.  A n o n - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed between y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and n e u r o t i c i s m .  Those s u b j e c t s w i t h e i g h t t o twelve y e a r s  1  o f s c h o o l i n g r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f n e u r o t i c i s m than both s u b j e c t s w i t h fewer than e i g h t y e a r s and those w i t h g r e a t e r than twelve y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g .  104 Although no s i g n i f i c a n t distributions  o f locus  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  of c o n t r o l scores  and age,  sex,  and  m a r i t a l s t a t u s were o b s e r v e d , d i f f e r e n c e s were noted i n terms of years of s c h o o l i n g , status.  Subjects  years of schooling  country of b i r t h and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  c l a s s i f i e d as i n t e r n a l s had completed more than s u b j e c t s  c l a s s i f i e d as  externals.  Low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s s c o r e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x t e r n a l subjects while high socio-economic status subjects have h i g h i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l s c o r e s .  tended to  Additionally,  the f o r e i g n born tended to be c l a s s i f i e d as e x t e r n a l s the Canadian born tended t o be c l a s s i f i e d as  while  internally  controlled. The number of years of s c h o o l completed and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were observed t o be r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y  scores  with high l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y scores being associated with high l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n and h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . positive  attitudes  Similarly  to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were a s s o c i a t e d  h i g h l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n and h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  with  status.  Although c o u n t r y of b i r t h was not r e l a t e d t o l e a r n i n g  activity  s c o r e s , Canadian born s u b j e c t s were observed t o express more positive  attitudes  toward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n than d i d  non-Canadian  born s u b j e c t s . The sample had e x p e r i e n c e d g e n e r a l l y stress,  low l e v e l s o f  and they r e p o r t e d low l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e  Only the r e l a t i o n s h i p between SRRS s c o r e s proved t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  stress.  and m a r i t a l  status  s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h the widowed,  s e p a r a t e d and d i v o r c e d r e p o r t i n g s c o r e s Similarly,  above the median.  the sample r e p o r t e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s of  functioning.  social  On o n l y one of the s i x  selected  health  socio-demographic  105 v a r i a b l e s , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , was significant  Higher levels  levels of health  significant  of education  functioning.  statistically of patients were  No  and t h e s i x s e l e c t e d  health  associated  statistically  d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between t h e  o f h e a l t h change s c o r e s variables.  a  difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  status scores. with high  there  distribution  socio-demographic  106  CHAPTER V  DATA A N A L Y S I S  This path  chapter  describes  t h e o r i g i n s and purposes o f  a n a l y s i s ; the procedures followed t o prepare the data;  the equations  f o r the path  r e s u l t s of the path  and e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ;  a n a l y s i s f o r each o f f i v e sub-sets  paths w i t h i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model.  is all  The c h a p t e r  concludes  change  with a synopsis of  o f t h e m a j o r p r o c e d u r e s and t h e outcomes o f t h e a n a l y s i s  f o r each o f t h e t e n p r o p o s i t i o n s d e r i v e d framework Path  simultaneously  t h e endogenous v a r i a b l e s o f h e a l t h and h e a l t h  also reported.  of  A description of the t o t a l  system w i t h a l l o f t h e exogenous v a r i a b l e s affecting  and t h e  from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  described, i n Chapter I I .  Analysis Geneticist Sewell Wright  ( 1 9 2 1 , 19 34)  developed  path  a n a l y s i s n o t t o d i s c o v e r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a s e t o f variables but to confirm or disconfirm a posited causal  model  107 w h i c h had been e s t a b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h and a p r i o r i Path analysis  on t h e b a s i s  of prior  empirical  a s s u m p t i o n s b a s e d upon p r i o r  research.  i t s e l f does n o t e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l i t y ; r a t h e r i t  e n a b l e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o i n t e r p r e t from c o r r e l a t i o n and regression any  c o e f f i c i e n t s whether a t h e o r e t i c a l framework  relationship to empirical, r e a l i t y .  Path analysis  indicates  w h e t h e r o r n o t r e l a t i o n s among a d a t a s e t a r e c o n s i s t e n t the  predicted  theoretical relationships  bears  with  ( K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur,  1973) . Four assumptions underlying a n a l y s i s have been d e s c r i b e d Firstly,  the a p p l i c a t i o n of path  by K e r l i n g e r  r e l a t i o n s among t h e v a r i a b l e s  and Pedhazur  included  (1973).  i n a model  s u b j e c t e d t o p a t h a n a l y s i s must be l i n e a r ,  additive  S e c o n d l y , i t i s assumed t h a t  are not correlated  the residuals  among t h e m s e l v e s , n o r a r e t h e y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h within  t h e model.  In order f o rt h i s  s t e p s must be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t t o be r e l e v a n t variable  are treated  that  for on the  that  thought  W h i l e t h e exogenous  as l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e exogenous together with  the  associated  assumption f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f path  there i s a s t r i c t  t h a t no r e c i p r o c a l c a u s a l is  a l l of the variables  term.  A third is  variables  a s s u m p t i o n t o be met,  i n t h e model.  o t h e r endogenous v a r i a b l e s  residual  other  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t a n a l y s e d , a l l endogenous  variables and  are included  and c a u s a l .  o n e way c a u s a l  flow  relations exist.  i n t h e model and  The f i n a l  t h e l e v e l s o f measurement o f t h e v a r i a b l e be  parametric  p r o c e d u r e s and t h a t  an i n t e r v a l o r r a t i o s c a l e . r e j e c t i o n o f any p a r t  analysis  assumption appropriate  each v a r i a b l e be measured  No b a s i s  appears t o e x i s t f o r  o f e i t h e r t h e model o r t h e study  data  108 on t h e b a s i s o f g r o s s v i o l a t i o n s o f one o r more o f t h e f o u r assumptions  identified.  Data P r e p a r a t i o n The d a t a w e r e i n i t i a l l y  screened  f o r extreme  v a l u e s a n d n o n - l i n e a r i t y b y means o f v i s u a l scattergram plots. as v a l i d  outlier  inspection of  E x t r e m e v a l u e s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be  cases were observed  d e c i s i o n was made t o e x c l u d e  justified  on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s and t h e values which f e l l  o u t s i d e the range  o f p l u s o r m i n u s t w o s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e mean. While  i t was c l e a r f r o m t h e s c a t t e r g r a m p l o t s t h a t s t r o n g  linear relationships  among t h e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s d i d n o t e x i s t ,  no h i g h e r o r d e r d e v i a t i o n s f r o m s i m p l e and  no a t t e m p t  through  l i n e a r i t y were  was made t o " i m p r o v e " t h e l i n e a r i t y  l o g or polynomial  observable,  of the data  transformations.  Path C o e f f i c i e n t A n a l y s i s A path coefficient  coefficient i s a standardized p a r t i a l  and i n d i c a t e s t h e d i r e c t  one v a r i a b l e h a s u p o n a n o t h e r . enables and  influence or effect  . The a n a l y s i s o f p a t h  the researcher to p a r t i t i o n  indirect  regression  correlations  that  coefficients  into  direct  effects.  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c a u s a l n e t w o r k i s r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 10, where s i n g l e - a r r o w e d  lines  r e p r e s e n t t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f o n e v a r i a b l e o r more u p o n another. the  Path C o e f f i c i e n t s  subscript i indicating  are noted  s y m b o l i c a l l y as P i j w i t h  t h e dependent v a r i a b l e and s u b s c r i p t  j t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e whose i n f l u e n c e i s u n d e r  study.  The f o l l o w i n g t h i r t e e n v a r i a b l e s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n e a c h  109 path c o e f f i c i e n t a n a l y s i s : 1) S o c i a l S t r e s s  (SRRS)  2) S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s 3) N e u r o t i c i s m  (SSS)  (EPI)  4) Locus o f C o n t r o l 5) E x t r a v e r s i o n 6) L e a r n i n g  (Rotter)  (EPI)  (SEALS)  7) S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 8) H e a l t h 9) 10)  (Bush p o s t - t e s t o r p r e - p o s t  13)  residuals)  Age Personal  Income  11) A t t i t u d e t o A d u l t 12)  (Chapin)  Years of School  Education  Completed  Sex  U s i n g the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s  (SPSS),  (Nie e t a l , 1975), p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each a n a l y s i s were o b t a i n e d by e s t i m a t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g system o f l i n e a r through a s e r i e s of r e g r e s s i o n XI = E l X2 = X3 X4 X5 X6  X7  = = = =  =  X8 = X9 = X10 = Xll= X12 = X13=  analyses:  2,l l E3 + P ^ X E4 E5 E6 + P_ . X + 6,1 1 6 ,2 2 6,9 9 6 ,10 1 0 6,13 13 E7 P^ X 7 ,6 6 E8 4- P X 48 ,3 3 E9 E10 Ell E12 E13 E 2  +  P  X  3  ?  P  n  +  P  +  P  X  +  P  X  X  +  +  6 ,3 3 6 , 11 X, P  P  X  +  P  +  6,4 4 6,12 X  P  X  +  equations  5  8 ; 1  5  +  x  P  X  P  X  +  P  8 ,6  X  6  +  P  8,7  X  7  +  6,5 12 P  X  X  5  Figure THE 11 A t t i t u d e to Adult Education  10  PATH MODEL  10 Income  P6,ll  Locus of C o n t r o l  P6,10  12  Y e a r s of  Extraversion  Schooling  P7,5 13 Sex  %  Participation - i n Learning P6  P7,6  4  Social  Participation  ,2  P8,7 P6 ,3  lective !tress E2  Social Stress  P3,l  >|  Perceived Stress-Neuroticism  P8 ,3  8 Health  E7  110a  Leaves 111-13 are missing from this thesis. The same leaves are missing from the Library's 2d copy and also from the copy i n the Adult Education Division, Faculty of Education. The author, Dr. Adrian Blunt, has been approached but ^ i s unable to supply the missing leaves.  114 The p a t h model as t e s t e d ( F i g u r e 10) i s d e p i c t e d  with  the p r o p o s e d c a u s a l p a t h s r e f l e c t i n g e x a c t l y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter. I I . present  the r e l e v a n t path c o e f f i c i e n t s  coefficients analyses  i effect  (C..) and r e s i d u a l p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s  (E.) f o r two  w i t h l e v e l o f h e a l t h a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y  (Bush H e a l t h  period  Index P o s t Test) and h e a l t h change ( t h e Bush H e a l t h  Index P r e - p o s t 1)  T a b l e 19 and F i g u r e 11  t e s t r e s i d u a l s ) as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s .  H e a l t h and S t r e s s V a r i a b l e P a t h s When t h e Bush p o s t - t e s t measure o f h e a l t h was t a k e n as  the dependent v a r i a b l e , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l stress (P  Q  (SRRS) on h e a l t h were i n t h e d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d  ,=-.22).  T h a t i s an i n c r e a s e o f one s t a n d a r d  deviation  i n s o c i a l s t r e s s was found t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a decrement i n h e a l t h o f .22 s t a n d a r d were h e l d c o n s t a n t .  d e v i a t i o n when a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s  The p a t h s between s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s  (?2 -^=.-28) and p e r c e i v e d  s t r e s s as measured by t h e E P I  n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e (P., , = .29) related to social stress.  scores  were, as a n t i c i p a t e d , s t r o n g l y  A l s o as p r e d i c t e d , n e u r o t i c i s m was  o b s e r v e d t o be i n v e r s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e a l t h  (P_  =-.16).  0,0  When t h e a n a l y s i s was r e p e a t e d  w i t h h e a l t h change (as measured  by t h e Bush p r e - p o r t r e s i d u a l s ) i n c l u d e d as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between n e u r o t i c i s m and h e a l t h (Pg  ^=-.01)  and between s o c i a l s t r e s s (SRRS) and h e a l t h  (P„ ,=-.15) were a g a i n o b s e r v e d , though t h e y were s m a l l e r . The d a t a s u p p o r t e d t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t : 1) h i g h l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s (SRRS) a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low levels of health functioning.and  decrements i n h e a l t h o v e r  time.  115 T a b l e 19 PATH COEFFICIENTS (P. .) , EFFECT COEFFICIENTS (C. ..) AND RESIDUAL PATH COEFFICIENTS (E..) ID  FOR PATH ANALYSES  28  2,1  9590 29  3,1  '6,2 '6,3 '6,4 '6,5 '6,9 '6,10 '6,11 '6 ,12 '6,13  P  P  E  8,3 8,6  8,7 8  =C  03  =C  01  =C  01  =C  05  =C  09  =C  10  =C  06  =C  28  =C  06  =C  03 9945  (Bush P o s t - t e s t )  -.22 -.16 .08 -.10 .9561  C  C  C  C  8,i 8,3 8 ,6 8,7 .  -.18 -.16 .07  3,1 6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4 6,5 6,9 6,10 6 ,11 6 ,12 6 ,13  =C 6,7,5 =C 7,6  10  a)Health  P  06  9330  7,5 '7,6  8,l  =C  9573  6,1  P  =C 2,1  b ) H e a l t h Change (Bush Pre-Post Residual) P  P  8,l  8,3 8,6 P 8,7 8 P  E  -.15 -.07 .02 -.13 .9708  C  C  C  C  8,l 8,3 8,6 8,7  -.17 -.07 .01  116 2) L e v e l s stress by  of subjective  (SRRS) e x p e r i e n c e d a n d 3) p e r c e i v e d  related to social s t r e s s , as measured  the p e r s o n a l i t y dimension of n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y , i s  related to social influences 2)  stress are d i r e c t l y  stress  (SRRS) e x p e r i e n c e d a n d  levels of health  function.  S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and P e r s o n a l i t y V a r i a b l e All  factors  three  detrimentally  Paths  of the v a r i a b l e s measuring  psychological  thought to influence p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning  (SEALS), f a i l e d participation  t o become e s t a b l i s h e d  i n learning.  as p r e d i c t o r s  While locus  correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with  activities  of  of control scale  scores  participation i n learning  ( r = - . l l , p < .05) t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d  (SEALS)  (Pg ^=-.01)  indicated  little  o r no u n i q u e c o m p o n e n t o f l e a r n i n g  associated  with  Similarly,  the extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning d i d not  locus  of control i n the regression  a p p e a r t o be d e p e n d e n t upon n e u r o t i c i s m theoretical propositions generalized  (Pg ^=.0 5 ) .  was equation.  All  three  concerning the purported e f f e c t s of the  expectancy f o r c o n t r o l over the s o c i a l  environment  and  the p e r s o n a l i t y dimensions of  extraversion-intraversion  and  neuroticism-stability influencing participation i n learning  a c t i v i t i e s w e r e r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s  of the path c o e f f i c i e n t s  obtained. 3)  S o c i o - D e m o g r a p h i c and L e a r n i n g V a r i a b l e  Paths  Four socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s , sex, years of i n c o m e a n d age w e r e i n c l u d e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning.  i n t h e model as v a r i a b l e s exogenous The s i n g l e m o s t p o w e r f u l  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g score years of schooling  completed  schooling,  (SEALS) was  ( P , , =.28)  with  predictor  t h e number o f income (P,  =.10),  117 age  (Pg ^=.09) a n d s e x (Pg ^^=-.06)  upon l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . of schooling  and  A s was p r e d i c t e d , h i g h  completed, higher  male were a s s o c i a t e d  demonstrating weaker e f f e c t s  with  incomes, being  numbers o f y e a r s  o l d e r and b e i n g  participation i n learning  activities  the p r o p o s i t i o n a l statement that these v a r i a b l e s  participation  i n l e a r n i n g was  accepted.  Although a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t education significantly  influence  correlated with  was  participation i n learning  ( r = .15., p < .01) t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d (Pg  ^ = . 0 6 ) was much l o w e r t h a n h a d b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d .  the  e f f e c t s o f a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education  by  Although  were overshadowed  t h e s i n g l e dominant p r e d i c t o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g ,  number o f y e a r s o f p r e v i o u s  schooling;,  t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was  accepted t h a t a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t education participation  i n learning  does  activities.  W i t h t h e Bush p o s t - t e s t measure o f h e a l t h variable,  l e a r n i n g was f o u n d t o e x e r t  e f f e c t upon h e a l t h  (P  Q c  influence  =.08).  as t h e dependent  a p o s i t i v e , though  An i n c r e a s e  o f one  small,  standard  o , b  deviation i n the variable p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning, with a l l other of  variables held  .08 i n h e a l t h  variable  constant,  level.  produced a corresponding  With health  change as t h e dependent  (measured by t h e Bush p r e - p o s t r e s i d u a l s ) , t h e p a t h  c o e f f i c i e n t between l e a r n i n g and h e a l t h t o be so l o w i t i s c o n s i d e r e d the is  (P  g  g=.02) was  t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  associated  with higher  levels of health  of the path c o e f f i c i e n t obtained  (P  found  However,  p r o p o s i t i o n was a c c e p t e d t h a t e n g a g i n g i n l e a r n i n g  basis  increase  activities  f u n c t i o n i n g , on t h e =-.10).  118 4)  Social  P a r t i c i p a t i o n , L e a r n i n g and H e a l t h  One  unexpected f i n d i n g  among t h e p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s  t h a t o f an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p participation  and h e a l t h ,  being associated with health.  between f o r m a l  lower l e v e l s  scores  o f h e a l t h and d e c r e m e n t s i n ( P ^ g=.10) as  were f o u n d t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d .  a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was w i t h good h e a l t h  was  social  with high s o c i a l participation  L e a r n i n g and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  anticipated  Paths  However, t h e  positively  associated  and w i t h improvements i n h e a l t h were  shown  t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e by t h e o b t a i n e d p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s  (P_ _) a, I  of  -.10  a n d -.13 b e t w e e n s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  h e a l t h change r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The p r o p o s i t i o n  and h e a l t h that  participation  in  formal s o c i a l organizations i s associated with high  of  health  functioning  and  levels  and i m p r o v e m e n t s i n h e a l t h o v e r t i m e  was  rejected. 5)  S t r e s s and t h e P a r t i c i p a t i o n From t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  proposed that.as  levels  subjective  participation perceived failed of  stress  framework o f t h e study i t had been  o f s o c i a l change  over-responsiveness to l i f e of  i n Learning  crises  i n learning  activities  (Pg^3=.01) Social  with participation  c h a n g e was  that those i n d i v i d u a l s  feelings  influence  and o n l y m i n i m a l  effects  stress  (Pg 2 - 0 3 )  significantly  correlated  ( r = .10, p < .05)  However, t h e p a t h  with  obtained  =  indicating  e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e most s o c i a l  learners.  and  as a means o f c o p i n g  and s u b j e c t i v e  i n learning  were t h e most a c t i v e  and  The p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s  to support t h i s proposition,  were o b s e r v e d .  (neuroticism),  (SSS) i n c r e a s e d , t h e y w o u l d  social stressors.  neuroticism  (SRRS), a n x i e t y  change  coefficient  119 o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o v a r i a b l e s was more m o d e s t  ( P , ,=.06), b ,l  indicating factor  e x p o s u r e t o s o c i a l c h a n g e was n o t a m a j o r  initiating  majority 6)  that  the decision  t o engage i n l e a r n i n g  of adults.  The M o d e l The m o d e l i s c o m p r i s e d o f t w o s e t s  or  f o r the  fixed variables  the  stock  and f l o w  variables  of variables;  o r manipulated variables.  Among  a r e a g e , s e x , number o f y e a r s o f  school  c o m p l e t e d and o t h e r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w h i c h been f i x e d by a s i n g l e o b s e r v a t i o n  a t one p o i n t  w h i c h t h e o r e t i c a l l y c a n n o t be i n f l u e n c e d system v a r i a b l e s . participation  Examples  i n learning  p a r t i c i p a t i o n which flow  activity,  stress  variable  i s depicted  by change i n o t h e r variables  include and s o c i a l  as i n f l u e n c i n g  as ' d r i v i n g  1  the system,  variables  work b e g i n s w i t h health  (see F i g u r e  social stress  (Bush p o s t - t e s t  (I>2 .^=-.28) a n d p e r c e i v e d d i s c e r n i b l e e f f e c t flow As  the incremental  and s u b j e c t i v e model,  variables  t h e m o d e l some o f w h i c h a r e b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d o r l i m i t e d  by s t o c k  future  other  system o r model.  d e t e r m i n i n g t h e range o f v a r i a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r flow within  have  i n t i m e and  social stress  are conceptualized  variables within.the Social  of the flow  stock  11).  A view o f t h e model a t  strongly  influencing levels of  Pg y=-.22),  stress  subjective  ( P ^ ^=.29) w i t h  a small but  influencing participation i n learning.  effects of s o c i a l stress  stress  stress  levels, variables  raise the perceived  not i d e n t i f i e d  i n the  b u t whose p r e s e n c e i s known t o b e i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s y s t e m  a l s o work t o d i v e r t t h e e f f e c t s o f v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n confounding t h e magnitude  of forces  within  the system,  t h e system and  F i g u r e 11 THE PATH MODEL AND PATH COEFFICIENTS 11  Attitude t o Adult  Education P6,ll=.06  10 Income  Locus o f C o n t r o l 6,4=-.01  P6,10=.10  12  P6 ,9=.0  Years o f S c h o o l i n g  P7,6=.10  Participation i n Learning P6,2=.03  Extraversion  P6,5=.05  ^P7,5=.0!  ^  Participation  Social  T  P8,7 Health P o s t Test=-.10 Health Change=-.13  E6=.9 33 P6,3=.01  959  E3=.9573 L  Perceived Stress-Neuroticism 'El  E7=.9945  P8 ,6 Health P o s t Test=.08 Health Change=.02  Health P8 ,3 P o s t Test=-.16 Health  P8,l Health P o s t Test=-.22 Health Change=-.15  8 Health E8 Health P o s t Test=.956 Health Change=.9708  NJ O  121 competing f o r c o n t r o l system v a r i a b l e error,  over system v a r i a b l e s .  effects  a p p e a r s weak as  i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n the  the  s y s t e m and  due  to  the  quality  poor explanatory  inadequacies of  upon h e a l t h  are  system e f f e c t s the  the  instruments  support c i r c u i t r y  system p a r t s .  are  to  allowed to of  (Pg  in learning  (P- .. = . 1 0 ) , age o , UJ  (Pg  (P,  the  of  the  weakened or  sex  l o c u s of  The  originates  status  to  (Pg  reduced  -j_2=' ) • 28  may  (Cg  -^.=-.18).  other  raising  the  number o f  Other e f f e c t s personal  to  adult  effects  on years  raising  the  income  education  contribute  another  (Pg  ^=-.01) i s  e f f e c t by  the  stock variables  attitude  to adult  to  the  contributing  control,  seemingly of  education  years wherein  i n p a r t have i t s o r i g i n s .  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g  social participation ^=.08) s l i g h t l y  While extraversion  variable  strongest effect  are  full  learning  w i t h the  (P.. =.05) 6/5  s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d and control  When t h e  ( P , ,.,=-.06). 6 ,1J  d r a i n e d of  Effects  are  of  stress  dependent  system are  magnitude of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g , flow variable,  social  ==  =.09), a t t i t u d e b ,y  While extraversion  directly  system  spite  2. '0 6') i s m i n i m a l ,  l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning  l o c u s of  monitoring i n the  ^=-.22).  influence  t h i s mediating variable.  of p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g  of  measurement  In  of  increase i n participation i n social stress  ( P , , ,=.06) and 6 ,11  (Pg  social stress  pre-disposing characteristics  participation  effects  d i r e c t l y observable  W h i l e the attributable  the  system, the  decremental e f f e c t s  l e v e l s of  a r e s u l t of  the  o r i g i n a l d e s i g n h a v i n g been c o n c e i v e d i n i s o l a t i o n  from a p r i o r understanding of the  of  Each of  (P_ 7  r a i s i n g the 0 3)  /.=>  (P  effects  =.10)  activities  and  to  health  observed l e v e l s of are  flow  each.  o b s e r v a b l e upon s o c i a l  122 participation meaningful.  (P_ =.03) t h e y a r e so s m a l l as t o be n o t However, t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l  participation  upon f u t u r e h e a l t h s t a t u s a r e o b s e r v a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e (P  Q  =-.10).  Social p a r t i c i p a t i o n , previously  t h o u g h t t o be  c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g i n c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon f u t u r e h e a l t h i n a s i m i l a r way t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g actually  activities,  f o r c e s f u t u r e h e a l t h l e v e l s l o w e r , and t h e power o f  t h i s d i r e c t negative effect  (P  =-.10) appears t o be g r e a t e r  Q  o, /  than t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g W i t h a l l o f t h e system v a r i a b l e s the  i n effect  detrimental effects of s o c i a l stress  simultaneously,  a r e o b s e r v e d t o be  reduced (Pg ^=-.22; Cg -^=-.18) , as t h e i n c r e m e n t a l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g C  8,6  =.07).  (P =.08). 8,6  effects  a r e s l i g h t l y reduced  U s i n g t h e model t o p r e d i c t  (P =.08; 8,6 changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s  t h a t a r e u n r e l a t e d t o p r e v i o u s l e v e l s o f h e a l t h shows t h a t the d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s  continue t o a f f e c t  health  a d v e r s e l y , making improvement i n h e a l t h d i f f i c u l t  (P =-.15). 8,1 S i m i l a r e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h o r i g i n a t e from i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s (Pg 3=-. 07) j social participation (P_ =-.13). The p o s i t i v e i n c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n 8,7 i n l e a r n i n g t h o u g h t t o be c a p a b l e o f p r o m o t i n g improvements a n c  i n p r i o r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h were i n s u b s t a n t i a l a l l o f t h e system v a r i a b l e s  (P =.02). 8,6  With  i n e f f e c t simultaneously the negative  e f f e c t s o b s e r v a b l e upon f u t u r e h e a l t h changes by l e v e l s o f s o c i a l stress  increased s l i g h t l y  ( C ,=-.17). 0  o, x  SUMMARY Path a n a l y s i s  was s e l e c t e d  as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  p r o c e d u r e f o r a s s e s s i n g whether o r n o t t h e p r o p o s e d  theoretical  12 3 model c o u l d be s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s found t o e x i s t among t h e e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s screening  After  o u t extreme d a t a v a l u e s , t h e d e c i s i o n was made t o  exclude a l l observations  which f e l l outside  or minus two s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s The  gathered i n the study.  t h e range o f p l u s  from t h e mean.  p a t h model as r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e  11  shows t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s among t h e t h i r t e e n v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e model. p a r t i a l regression model as P ^  Path c o e f f i c i e n t s o r  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each p a t h shown i n t h e  ( i i n d i c a t i n g t h e dependent and j i n d i c a t i n g t h e  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) were o b t a i n e d analyses. and  standardized  from a s e r i e s o f r e g r e s s i o n  E f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C - ) which r e p r e s e n t the d i r e c t  i n d i r e c t c o v a r i a t i o n between a l l o f t h e u n c o n s t r a i n e d  system v a r i a b l e s were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r s e l e c t e d  paths.  R a t h e r than u s i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r evaluating  the importance o f path c o e f f i c i e n t s , the simple  c r i t e r i o n o f .05 as t h e m i n i m a l s i z e f o r a m e a n i n g f u l p a t h o r e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t was adopted. The  e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s on Bush H e a l t h  p o s t - t e s t scores  Index  (Pg |=-.22) and h e a l t h change s c o r e s  was o b s e r v e d as p r e d i c t e d w i t h low l e v e l s o f h e a l t h  (Pg ^=-.15)  functioning  a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y p e r i o d , and decrements i n h e a l t h  over  the s t u d y p e r i o d was adopted ( P r o p o s i t i o n 1 ) . There was e v i d e n c e of support f o r t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s o c i a l s t r e s s participation i n learning a c t i v i t i e s  influenced  (Pg ^=.06), however t h e  e f f e c t s o b s e r v e d were q u i t e modest ( P r o p o s i t i o n 2 ) . W h i l e l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s were o b s e r v e d t o be related to levels of s o c i a l stress  (P2 ^=-.28) as p r e d i c t e d ,  s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s e f f e c t s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g  12 4 a c t i v i t i e s were below t h e s t a n d a r d o f e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s (Pg  2 - 0 3) i =  a n <  3 t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was n o t a c c e p t e d  S i m i l a r l y , perceived  (Proposition  4) .  s t r e s s as measured by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  d i m e n s i o n o f n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y was o b s e r v e d t o i n f l u e n c e levels of health  function  as p r e d i c t e d  (P  Q  =-.16)  (Proposition  o ,3  5). in  However, t h e e f f e c t s o f p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g were m i n i s c u l e  (P  s t r e s s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n  =.01), and t h i s  proposition  b ,J  was t h e r e f o r e  rejected.  Generalized  expectancy  f o rc o n t r o l over the s o c i a l  e n v i r o n m e n t was f o u n d n o t t o i n f l u e n c e  the decision  (Pg = - . 0 1 ) ( P r o p o s i t i o n  t o engage  in  learning activities  of  the p e r s o n a l i t y dimension of e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n  4  6 ) . The e f f e c t s  participation  i n l e a r n i n g were a t t h e m i n i m a l l e v e l o f  acceptability  f o r meaningfulness  (P'  =.05) e n a b l i n g  upon  proposition  b , j  seven t o be a c c e p t e d adult  (Proposition  7 ) . Although a t t i t u d e  toward  e d u c a t i o n was f o u n d t o i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g  activity  scores (Proposition  8) t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  was n o t a s g r e a t a s a n t i c i p a t e d All  four  to influence  (P =.06). 6,11  o f the socio-demographic  variables  t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g  predicted  activities  ( P r o p o s i t i o n 9) w e r e o b s e r v e d t o h a v e m e a n i n g f u l e f f e c t s . Number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g  (P..  =.28) was t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l  b , 12  e f f e c t upon l e a r n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r t h r e e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s i n c o m e (P = . 1 0 ) , age (P =.09) 6,10 6,9 and s e x ( P , .. =-.06) h a d more m o d e s t e f f e c t s . . 6,13 The t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n formal s o c i a l organizations of h e a l t h  functioning  r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s  (10) t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  w o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d  and w i t h  with  high  improvements i n h e a l t h  o f d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s on h e a l t h  levels  was status  125 (P  Q  =-.10) a n d h e a l t h Finally,  change  (P  Q  =-.13) b e i n g  observed.  on t h e b a s i s o f a n o b s e r v e d e f f e c t o f .08  ( o c ) o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g on l e v e l s o f h e a l t h o, o p  f u n c t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e study p e r i o d learning activities functioning.  do p r o m o t e h i g h e r  However, no b a s i s  i t was c o n c l u d e d  levels of health  f o r part of the proposition  t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d be with was  associated  improvements i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h over t h e study obtained  each other  i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t a n i n c r e a s e  deviation i n social post-test (C  stress scores  l e v e l s o f h e a l t h b y .18 s t a n d a r d  deviation units  incremental  (C =-.17). 8,1  e f f e c t s o f an i n c r e a s e  o f h e a l t h was .07 s t a n d a r d effects  on h e a l t h  be n o t m e a n i n g f u l  o f one s t a n d a r d  Q  the  deviation  on p o s t - s t u d y  levels  deviation units of health, while the  change were b a r e l y (C  units  c h a n g e b y .17  Simultaneously  in participation i n learning activities  standard  lowering  deviation  ,=0.18) a n d d e t r i m e n t a l l y e f f e c t i n g h e a l t h o,i  i n relation  o f one  was c a p a b l e o f  D  standard  period  (Pg g=.02).  With a l l o f t h e model's v a r i a b l e s f r e e t o vary with  that  =.01).  o b s e r v a b l e and judged t o  126  CHAPTER V I  CONCLUSIONS  S o c i a l , economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i s o c c u r r i n g a t an u n p r e c e d e n t e d r a t e so t h a t p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e s e e m i n g l y u n c o n t r o l l a b l e changes i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s .  The e f f e c t s o f  t h e s e changes have been r e f e r r e d t o i n p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e as f u t u r e shock and i n t h e h e a l t h c a r e and e p i d e m i o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e as s o c i a l s t r e s s .  Many s t u d i e s have i d e n t i f i e d  a l i n k between t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g decrements i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h .  o f s o c i a l s t r e s s and subsequent However, i t has been  t h a t n o t a l l who e x p e r i e n c e s o c i a l s t r e s s become i l l . i n d i v i d u a l s appear t o have immunity t o s t r e s s - i n d u c e d o r use c o p i n g  research  recognized Some illness  s t r a t e g i e s t o r e s i s t the harmful e f f e c t s of  s t r e s s f u l experiences.  The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o  d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g  activities  i s e f f e c t i v e as a c o p i n g  strategy.  Do t h o s e a d u l t s who a r e  active learners maintain  t h e i r health a f t e r experiencing  stress;  127 and do a d u l t s who  a r e n o t a c t i v e l e a r n e r s e x p e r i e n c e decrements  i n t h e i r l e v e l s o f h e a l t h when exposed t o s t r e s s ? Design of the  Study  Three major problems i n f l u e n c e d d e c i s i o n s made i n the development o f the model f o r t h i s s t u d y .  There was  little  research t o guide the s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e model. powers was for  The number o f v a r i a b l e s w i t h p o t e n t i a l e x p l a n a t o r y  l a r g e and t h e r e f o r e many v a r i a b l e s - had t o be  t h e model t o be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d .  omitted  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e were  r e l a t i v e l y few d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s of r e l i a b i l i t y  and v a l i d i t y a v a i l a b l e t o q u a n t i f y t h e  variables selected. No consensus was  found t o e x i s t i n the l i t e r a t u r e  on  a u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f s t r e s s , and many t h e o r e t i c a l models were i d e n t i f i e d S c o t c h , 1970,  ( S e l y e , 1956,  Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend, 1974).  Levine While  and no  s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n o f s t r e s s i s a c c e p t e d , one b r o a d c a t e g o r y o f s t r e s s models - t h a t o f s t r e s s as a b e h a v i o u r a l r e s p o n s e s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i - has emerged d u r i n g t h e  to  last  f i f t e e n y e a r s t o become dominant i n s o c i a l s t r e s s r e s e a r c h . The  s i n g l e most w i d e l y used i n s t r u m e n t i n t h i s a r e a i s t h e  S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (SRRS), d e v e l o p e d by Holmes and Rahe (1967). was  F o r purposes  of t h i s study s o c i a l  stress  o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n terms o f s c o r e s on t h e SRRS. The  s t u d y used a randomly s e l e c t e d sample i n a p a n e l  d e s i g n , w i t h two d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y months a p a r t .  nine  The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f a l l t h e p a t i e n t s  o v e r e i g h t e e n and under s i x t y - f i v e , y e a r s of age who  had  sought  12 8 h e a l t h c a r e from a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n i n E a s t Vancouver the year preceding  the  study.  Each of t h e 86 7 p a t i e n t s was Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e were r e t u r n e d  (SRRS).  mailed  not r e t u r n e d .  p a t i e n t s was  c o m p l e t e d SRRS r e t u r n s . f i r s t i n t e r v i e w and  226  (58.4%) forms  224  to  (25.8%) were  forms r e c e i v e d by p a t i e n t s the  72 p e r c e n t w i t h 66.8  A random sample o f 300  Social  (12.6%) were r e t u r n e d  o f f i c e as u n d e l i v e r a b l e and Of t h e 758  of r e s p o n s e was  a copy o f the  A t o t a l o f 506  f u l l y c o m p l e t e d , 109  the p h y s i c i a n ' s  during  rate  per c e n t f u l l y c o m p l e t e d . s e l e c t e d from t h e 506  A t o t a l of 263  fully  p a t i e n t s completed  completed the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w .  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w d a t a were c o l l e c t e d on status, perceived  socio-demographic data.  The  p e r s o n a l i t y and  basic  second s e t o f i n t e r v i e w s  c o n d u c t e d n i n e months l a t e r t o g a t h e r the f o l l o w i n g health s t a t u s , s u b j e c t i v e estimates  o f s t r e s s and  was  data:  locus  of  S e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s s c a l e s c o r e s were  by t h e p h y s i c i a n f o r each o c c a s i o n c a r e , and  health  stress, participation in learning a c t i v i t i e s ,  a t t i t u d e towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ,  control scores.  the  assigned  the p a t i e n t sought h e a l t h  the number of v i s i t s t o t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s  office  together  w i t h t h e number of days s p e n t i n h o s p i t a l were a l s o r e c o r d e d . Health by Bush and 1973)  s t a t u s was  associates  q u a n t i f i e d using a s c a l e developed (Bush and F a n s h e l ,  19 70; Bush and  w h i c h a s s e s s e s h e a l t h from the p e r s p e c t i v e  a b i l i t y to function s o c i a l l y employment. modified  and  i n h i s or her  S e v e r i t y o f i l l n e s s was  s c a l e d e v e l o p e d by H i n k l e  of a p e r s o n ' s regular  assessed using a (1960) t o r e c o r d  The  slightly  physician's  assessments o f the s e v e r i t y of i l l n e s s i n terms of the t h a t an e p i s o d e o f i l l n e s s g e n e r a t e s .  Chen,  disability  variable health  129 change was g e n e r a t e d by u s i n g t h e r e s i d u a l s o f a r e g r e s s i o n o f Bush h e a l t h s t a t u s p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s on Bush h e a l t h present  status  scores. F i v e measures o f s t r e s s were used i n t h e s t u d y .  Social  s t r e s s was q u a n t i f i e d by t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g  Scale  (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) , a s c a l e c o n s i s t i n g o f 43 i t e m s o r l i f e e v e n t s w h i c h demand s o c i a l r e a d j u s t m e n t s on t h e p a r t o f an i n d i v i d u a l when e x p e r i e n c e d . by t h e S u b j e c t i v e  Stress Scale  Subjective  s t r e s s was measured  (SSS; Chapman, 1966).  The  n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y s c a l e from t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory  (EPI) was used as a measure o f p e r c e i v e d  stress  (Eysenck and E y s e n c k , 1966). P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s was q u a n t i f i e d by a s c a l e d e v e l o p e d f o r use i n t h e s t u d y c a l l e d t h e S u b j e c t i v e Estimation  of Adult Learning Scale  magnitude e s t i m a t i o n non-credit,  (SEALS; B l u n t , 1977).  This  s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 26 i t e m s i n c l u d i n g c r e d i t ,  v o c a t i o n a l , general  i n t e r e s t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  self directed learning a c t i v i t i e s .  A t t i t u d e towards  e d u c a t i o n was measured by a T h u r s t o n e s u c c e s s i v e  adult  intervals  s c a l e a l s o d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use i n t h e s t u d y . Rotter's  I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e  (1966)  was used t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h p a t i e n t s ' e x p e c t a n c i e s f o r c o n t r o l over t h e i r environment i n f l u e n c e d the d e c i s i o n t o participate i n adult learning a c t i v i t i e s .  The p e r s o n a l i t y  d i m e n s i o n o f e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n was measured by t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y  (1966) w h i c h d e s c r i b e s  as o u t g o i n g , u n i n h i b i t e d , i m p u l s i v e  and h i g h l y  sociable  b e h a v i o u r s as compared t o t h e i n h i b i t e d , c a r e f u l and behaviours which t y p i f y i n t r o v e r s i o n .  extraversion  reserved  130 Several  s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n  the s t u d y i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e  t h e s t u d y sample and t o a s s e s s  the e x t e n t t o w h i c h s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s and h e a l t h t h r o u g h t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning a c t i v i t i e s . s e l e c t e d were t h e p e r s o n a l  Among t h e v a r i a b l e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f age, s e x , m a r i t a l  s t a t u s , i m m i g r a n t s t a t u s , number o f c h i l d r e n , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and  t h e number o f a d u l t s i n t h e h o u s e h o l d .  of labour  force a c t i v i t y , information  force status, occupation,  Under t h e c a t e g o r y  was -.collected on  labour  number o f y e a r s a t p r e s e n t j o b and  B l i s h e n socio-economic status i n d i c e s  ( B l i s h e n , 1976).  Finally,  the p a t i e n t s ' l e v e l s o f income and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l organizations Scale  social  as measured by t h e C h a p i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n  ( C h a p i n , 19 38)  were a l s o  included.  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y A l l o f t h e h e a l t h and s t r e s s measures were found t o be correlated at s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant levels. construct  To t e s t t h e  v a l i d i t y o f t h e two s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s , f a c t o r a n a l y s e s  were c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e v a r i a b l e s would c l u s t e r t o g e t h e r i n t o d i s c r e t e groups o f h e a l t h and stress variables. and  One a n a l y s i s e m p l o y i n g o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n  i m p o s i n g no f a c t o r c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e number o f f a c t o r s  t o be e x t r a c t e d y i e l d e d f o u r f a c t o r s a c c o u n t i n g f o r 61.8 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e .  The f o u r f a c t o r s were l a b e l l e d S t r e s s ,  Severity of I l l n e s s , Health  Function  and H e a l t h  Change.  Each  o f t h e f o u r f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d p r e s e n t e d a c l e a r , unambiguous grouping of the v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d i n g strong  support f o r t h e i r  v a l i d i t y as i n d i v i d u a l measures o f t h e c o n s t r u c t s  o f h e a l t h and  stress. S c o r e s on t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f i v e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s 1) y e a r s of  school  c o m p l e t e d , 2) s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 3) s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , 4) i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s of> c o n t r o l , and Previous  r e s e a r c h had  5) p e r s o n a l  s u g g e s t e d t h a t each o f t h e f i v e  income. criterion  v a r i a b l e s w o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b o t h a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t  education.  A l t h o u g h t h e i r magnitude was  s m a l l e r t h a n had  been  a n t i c i p a t e d i n most c a s e s , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e  five  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and  l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y as w e l l as a t t i t u d e  towards a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  .05  exception.  l e v e l w i t h o n l y one  s i g n i f i c a n t at  the  C o l l e c t i v e l y , the observed  i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s supported the v a l i d i t y of the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y and a t t i t u d e toward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  scales.  Seven p s y c h o - m e t r i c s c a l e s used i n t h e s t u d y Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e , S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s  (Subjective  Scale,  Neuroticism-stability, Introversion-Extraversion, Subjective E s t i m a t i o n of A d u l t L e a r n i n g  Scale, A t t i t u d e to Adult  Education  S c a l e and t h e R o t t e r Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e ) were a n a l y s e d t h e b a s i s o f the zero-one i t e m r e s p o n s e s and Hoyt c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d . reliability  c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was  c o e f f i c i e n t of .69 f i v e s c a l e s had  reliability  neuroticism-stability Education  .70.  c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging  (EPI) t o .87  reliability The  lowest  f o r t h e SEALS w i t h  f o l l o w e d by the SRRS w i t h  on  The  a remaining  from .73  for  f o r the A t t i t u d e to Adult  Scale.  Data A n a l y s i s The  r e s u l t s o f a s e r i e s of p a t h a n a l y s e s were examined  132 to determine whether o r not each of t e n t h e o r e t i c a l could  be s u p p o r t e d on t h e b a s i s  propositions  of the path c o e f f i c i e n t s  obtained. P r o p o s i t i o n 1: H i g h s o c i a l s t r e s s w i l l b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g and.with decrements i n h e a l t h over time. With a l l other v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n an i n c r e a s e  o f one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  s t r e s s s c o r e s was  the model h e l d  i n the magnitude of  o b s e r v e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d  of h e a l t h  a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y p e r i o d  deviation  units  by  constant,  by  with .22  social  lower l e v e l s standard  ( P ,=-.22) a n d t o l o w e r h e a l t h c h a n g e s c o r e s a, i .15 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u n i t s (P .=-.15). On t h e b a s i s o f Q  8,1  these observations -.18  and t h e magnitude o f the e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t s  and -.17 on h e a l t h  status  and h e a l t h  demonstrating the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l  change r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  stress with  a l l other  s y s t e m v a r i a b l e s u n c o n s t r a i n e d , t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 2: Participation i n learning w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d b y s o c i a l s t r e s s , w i t h highly stressed individuals participating i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o a g r e a t e r extent than individuals experiencing l i t t l e social stress. The o b s e r v e d e f f e c t o f s o c i a l in  l e a r n i n g s c o r e s was  meaningfulness  s t r e s s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n  at the lowest acceptable l e v e l of e f f e c t  .0 6 (Pi •) e n a b l i n g  the proposition  t o be  6 ,1  tentatively  accepted.  P r o p o s i t i o n 3: Participation i n learning a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g , and improvements i n l e v e l s of health over time. Although the e f f e c t i s not powerful the influence participation of h e a l t h  i n learning activities  s c o r e s was  considered  upon p o s t - s t u d y  t o be m e a n i n g f u l  of  level  (P '  =.0 8;  o, b  C  n  8,6  =.07).  However,  t h e e f f e c t upon h e a l t h  c h a n g e was  a t the  133 m i n i m a l o b s e r v a b l e l e v e l and below t h a t o f a c c e p t a b l e  effect  meaningfulness  the f i r s t  part  (Pg g=.02; Cg g = . 0 1 ) .  of the proposition  associated  with  Therefore, only  that participation i n learning i s  incremental  e f f e c t s u p o n h e a l t h was a c c e p t e d .  P r o p o s i t i o n 4: L e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e s t r e s s w i l l be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s and w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . While the e f f e c t of s o c i a l subjective  s t r e s s was o n e o f t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l  observed i n the study  (P  2  ^=-.28) t h e r e  e f f e c t observed of subjective learning stating was  s t r e s s upon l e v e l s o f  (Pg = . 0 3 ) . 2  that  influenced  was n o m e a n i n g f u l  s t r e s s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  That part  the decision  relationships  of the theoretical proposition  t o engage i n l e a r n i n g  by l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e  activities  s t r e s s was  rejected.  P r o p o s i t i o n 5: P e r c e i v e d s t r e s s as measured by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y dimension o f neuroticism-stability will directly influence levels of health functioning and t h e d e c i s i o n t o e n g a g e i n l e a r n i n g activities. As a n t i c i p a t e d , n e u r o t i c i s m with  s c o r e s were  d e c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon l e v e l s o f h e a l t h  (P„ .,=-.16) a n d h e a l t h predicted  change ( P  effect of neuroticism  Q  ,=-.07).  associated functioning  However, t h e  upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g  s c o r e s was b e l o w t h a t o f e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s  (P,_  =.01).  Therefore, that s e c t i o n o f the p r o p o s i t i o n a l statement p r e d i c t i n g that perceived  s t r e s s as measured by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  of n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y would i n f l u e n c e in  learning  the decision  a c t i v i t i e s was n o t a c c e p t e d .  P r o p o s i t i o n 6; G e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c y of c o n t r o l over the s o c i a l environment  dimension t o engage  134 i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the decision engage i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  to  No s u p p o r t f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n o b s e r v a b l e from the path c o e f f i c i e n t obtained  (P  was  =.01).  6,4 P r o p o s i t i o n 7: The p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n of e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n w i l l d i r e c t l y influence participation i n learning activities with introverts p a r t i c i p a t i n g to a greater degree than e x t r a v e r t s . Although there  was an o b s e r v e d e f f e c t o f  upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s , obtained  extraversion  the path c o e f f i c i e n t  was a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f e f f e c t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s  acceptable  (Pg ,- = . 0 5 ) .  The p r o p o s i t i o n was  t e n t a t i v e l y accepted.  P r o p o s i t i o n 3: A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be a f a c t o r p o s i t i v e l y influencing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult learning activities. Although a t t i t u d e toward adult significantly with  education scores  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning scores  p < .01), the path c o e f f i c i e n t obtained  correlated  ( r = .15,  (P,.-,,=.06) was  lower  6 ,11  than a n t i c i p a t e d , p o s s i b l y of  due t o t h e s t r o n g  t h e v a r i a b l e number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l  predictor  completed.  the  o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p was c o n s i d e r e d  the  p r o p o s i t i o n was a c c e p t e d . P r o p o s i t i o n 9: The s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s o f age, s e x , income and y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g completed w i l l d i r e c t l y e f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n in learning a c t i v i t i e s . All  the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s as p r e d i c t e d  influence sex  (P  followed  __=-.06). 6 ,13  (P  However,  t o be m e a n i n g f u l a n d  four of the socio-demographic factors  of years of schooling  effects  influenced with  -.28) b e i n g t h e s i n g l e m o s t  number powerful  6,12 b y i n c o m e ( P . ., =..10) , age ( P . =.09) a n d 6,10 6,9 The p r o p o s i t i o n was t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d .  P r o p o s i t i o n 10: P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y p e r i o d , and i m p r o v e m e n t s i n l e v e l s o f h e a l t h over the study p e r i o d . Although the in  e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  learning activities  o r g a n i z a t i o n s was  and  participation  o b s e r v e d as  participation  i n formal  a n t i c i p a t e d (P  social  =.10),  the  7,6  o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m a l h e a l t h s t a t u s p r o v e d t o be relationship. a p p e a r s t o be undesireable  the  i n v e r s e of the  High p a r t i c i p a t i o n detrimental  social participation  i n formal  to health  (P  anticipated  social  organizations  =-.10) and  o, /  changes i n l e v e l s of h e a l t h  and  (P  to  =-.13).  promote The  data  o, 7  provided  strong  support f o r the  O v e r a l l the hypothesized variables  and  participation  No  e v i d e n c e was  in  learning activities  or perceived formal  obtained  for  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  to i n d i c a t e t h a t the  i s i n f l u e n c e d by  although  in learning.  positively  with  F i n a l l y , m o d e s t s u p p o r t was i n learning no  in  decremental  associated  promotes f u t u r e l e v e l s of h e a l t h although  engage  subjective  Participation  f o u n d t o have  proposition that participation  c h a n g e i t s e l f was  stress  decision to  l e v e l s of  of c o n t r o l .  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was  participation  proposition.  i n l e a r n i n g were a l l d i s c o n f i r m e d .  s t r e s s , or locus  e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h  r e j e c t i o n of the  obtained  activities  e f f e c t upon  health  observable.  Discussion The  s i n g l e most d i f f i c u l t  r e s u l t s of t h i s  study  the major c o n s t r u c t s  centre i n the  have u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t a b l e  problem i n d i s c u s s i n g  the  around the o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l , none o f  which  definitions  to  or instruments  q u a n t i f y them.  C l e a r l y the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  must be  interpreted  i n terms o f the e x a c t phenomena t h a t were q u a n t i f i e d . evidence of instrument v a l i d i t y  While  f o r the major v a r i a b l e s  has  been p r e s e n t e d , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the i n s t r u m e n t s t o measure t h e i r respective constructs  ought not t o pass u n q u e s t i o n e d .  F o r example, s o c i a l s t r e s s i s q u a n t i f i e d s o l e l y i n terms of the 42 l i f e e v e n t s on t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g (Holmes and  Scale  Rahe, 1967), not a l l of w h i c h are e q u a l l y l i k e l y  to  be e x p e r i e n c e d by each r e s p o n d e n t such as d i v o r c e , d e a t h o f spouse o r pregnancy.  The  s c a l e i t e m s l i m i t the range o f  r e s p o n s e s p o s s i b l e f o r each s u b j e c t and an a p p r o p r i a t e  sample o f s t r e s s o r s from the u n i v e r s e  l i k e l y t o be e x p e r i e n c e d by each s u b j e c t The  t h e r e f o r e may  Bush H e a l t h  Status  i n the  not of  be  stressors  study.  Index (Bush and F a n s h e l ,  1970)  measures the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l p a t i e n t t o f u n c t i o n i n his  normal o c c u p a t i o n a l  and  social settings.  Relative  d i f f e r e n c e s between p a t i e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o f u n c t i o n are Individual differences i n motivation, i n f l u e n c e , pain or discomfort  personal  thresholds  and  ignored.  need, f a m i l y  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  t h e s o c i a l and n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t are among f a c t o r s w h i c h v  i n f l u e n c e the p a t i e n t s d e c i s i o n t o d i s c o n t i n u e when e x p e r i e n c i n g illness  a h e a l t h problem.  The  d e c i s i o n to  as the cause of h e a l t h d y s f u n c t i o n  not be a p p r o p r i a t e ,  and  normal  of A d u l t L e a r n i n g S c a l e  claim  i n some cases  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t r u e and  l e v e l s of h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e magnified. in learning a c t i v i t i e s  activities  may observed  Participation  as measured by the S u b j e c t i v e  Estimation  i s r e s t r i c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  twenty-seven l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . d e m o n s t r a t e d t o have v a l i d i t y  W h i l e the s c a l e has  been  i n terms o f i t s a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e  137 scores with  w h i c h c o r r e l a t e s i g n f i c a n t l y and  other  v a r i a b l e s , i t i s not  items which comprise the  i s possible therefore  yielded higher  known w h e t h e r t h e  directions  sample  s c a l e adequately r e f l e c t the  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s It  in predicted  f o r the  population  of  universe  of i n t e r e s t .  t h a t a l t e r n a t e items might have  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g scores  f o r some  subjects. These problems of q u a n t i f i c a t i o n are study.  However, r e c o g n i t i o n o f the  observations among t h i s f o r the it  m u s t be  i s appropriate  the  of the  i n t e n t of the  l i m i t a t i o n s of  generally  this  the  lower than  desirable  theoretical propositions.  Further,  t o remember t h a t t h e r e  study's constructs  l e a r n i n g and  unique to  made when t h e m a g n i t u d e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s  study's v a r i a b l e s are  confirmation  not  that require  s t r e s s t o be respective  are  l i m i t a t i o n s on  t e r m s s u c h as  health,  interpreted solely within specified instruments to quantify  those  constructs. All for this  of the  s t u d y was  students,  naval  previous b a s e d on  personnel,  p a t i e n t g r o u p s s u c h as This  research  on  social stress  special populations  s u c h as  h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s and  coronary or t u b e r c u l o s i s  with  college  specific patients.  s t u d y i s d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t i t u s e s a random sample  adults w i t h i n the p r a c t i c e of a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n . while  reviewed  the  great majority  of previous  retrospective designs,  panel design  this  to c o n t r o l f o r the  research  study used a e f f e c t s of  was  of  Further, conducted  prospective  measurement  contamination. The s t r e s s and  study f i n d i n g t h a t the health  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  social  i s o b s e r v a b l e among a r a n d o m s a m p l e o f  adults  13 8 r e g i s t e r e d as p a t i e n t s special patient interested i n the  of  a family physician  g r o u p s has  i n the  research  implications and  family practice setting.  learning  can  be  activities  as  an  f o r the  Given the the  great  family  the  stress.  initial  included of  that  the  that  in this  a l t e r n a t i v e explanatory  i n the model; t h e r e f o r e  l e a r n i n g a p p e a r t o go  physician medicine  number  of  attempting  e f f e c t s of  posited  unchallenged.  not  causative  It i s also  e f f e c t s o b s e r v e d were r e l a t i v e l y  social  explanatory  of h e a l t h were  the  influence-  practice  for researchers  to i d e n t i f y s t r a t e g i e s f o r coping with  investigation  family  a d d i t i o n a l , though modest  i s a promising observation  I t i s recognized  just  fact that p a r t i c i p a t i o n  o b s e r v e d among a r a n d o m s a m p l e o f  patients  not  p r a c t i c e of p r e v e n t i v e  f a c t o r s known t o i n f l u e n c e h e a l t h , in  and  small  effects  recognized  in  absolute  terms. Two  unanticipated  study f i n d i n g s .  Firstly,  Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y the  in  formal  Scale  a p p e a r w a r r a n t e d by  personality  Inventory  Locus of C o n t r o l  participation  conclusions  ( E y s e n c k and  (Rotter,  1966)  in learning activities.  social organizations  e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h .  as m e a s u r e d by  has  the  E y s e n c k , 1968) d i d not  influence -  deleterious  b e e n a d d e d by  this  t o knowledge about f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning activities.  Those s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c  previously  as b e i n g m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  identified  participation associated this in  study.  i n adult  with  However, the  learning activities  study adult  variables  e d u c a t i o n w e r e a l s o c o n f i r m e d as  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult  and  Secondly, p a r t i c i p a t i o n  appeared t o have  N o t h i n g new  the  learning  with being  activities  in  h y p o t h e s i z e d e f f e c t s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n  o f p e r s o n a l i t y , s o c i a l s t r e s s and  attitude  139 toward a d u l t education  w e r e shown t o be  W i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f any provide  g u i d a n c e , i t was  non-existent  d i r e c t previous  o r weak.  research  assumed t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  w o u l d be  of h e a l t h  G i v e n t h a t s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has  f r e q u e n t l y been c i t e d education  (Boshier,  as  1971)  activity the  i t was  related to health  and  reasonable to  as  the hypothesized  case r a i s e s the question  social  That t h i s  activity  would  status.  i n f l u e n c i n g the and  be  learning  appears not  social  to  be  organization  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a l e a r n i n g environment  might r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s being  variables  adult  of what d i f f e r e n c e s might e x i s t  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a formal  v a r i a b l e s upon h e a l t h  levels  hypothesize  social organizations  - health relationship.  between s o c i a l  with  a motive f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal similarly  associated  formal  social organizations function.  positively  to  o b s e r v e d by  these  W h e t h e r o r not' t h e r e  nature of the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal  e f f e c t s of  that  are  two  other  learning  social organizations  is  unknown. With the e r r o r , the the  possible detrimental  l i m i t a t i o n s of the  constructs  the  as  r e s u l t s obtained  over-estimate upon h e a l t h  the  as  likely  the magnitude of the status.  nature of the  opposed t o i l l )  are  I t i s not  Nor  t o be  'real  1  e f f e c t s of  sample that  and  to  learning  possible to claim that  unworthy of  e f f e c t of  study  t o u n d e r - e s t i m a t e as  the  health  is  further investigation.  i s i t p o s s i b l e to c l a i m t h a t the  that a substantive  quantify  i t i s possible  observed r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y so n e g l i g i b l e as  measurement  i n s t r u m e n t s used t o  t h e m s e l v e s , and  (relatively healthy  e f f e c t s of  r e s u l t s demonstrate  evidence  l e a r n i n g upon h e a l t h m i g h t e x i s t  140 , which would r a i s e t h e i m p o r t a n c e  of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  i n t h i s a r e a above t h e i m p o r t a n c e  of the e f f e c t s of other  s o c i a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s which m i g h t m e d i a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s and h e a l t h . s t a n d p r e s e n t l y as an i s o l a t e d  The  results  o b s e r v a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g the  t h e s i s advanced by Moss (1973) t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n f o r m a t i o n networks e n a b l e s one t o a c q u i r e immunity from i l l n e s s .  As  such,  t h e s t u d y advances the c h a l l e n g e t o r e s e a r c h e r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to f u r t h e r c o n f i r m or d i s c o n f i r m the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s promotes good h e a l t h . I n r e t r o s p e c t t h i s s t u d y may e a r l y and t h e methodology may  have been conducted  too  have been t o o a m b i t i o u s an  attempt  t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s , h e a l t h and learning.  The  s t u d y may  have been conducted  t o o e a r l y because  the i n s t r u m e n t s needed t o q u a n t i f y t h e major s t u d y had not been p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d , o r were n o t  variables  universally  r e c o g n i z e d and v a l i d a t e d , and because no p r i o r s t u d i e s o f s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s o r groups had been conducted design of the study.  The  s t u d y may  t o guide  a l s o have been too  the  ambitious  because i t used a community-care sample as compared t o a sample from a h i g h s o c i a l s t r e s s o r h i g h i l l n e s s g r o u p , and t h e s t u d y d e s i g n was  developed  t o a s s e s s changes i n h e a l t h s t a t u s o v e r  t i m e as compared t o l e v e l s o f h e a l t h s t a t u s a t o n l y one p o i n t in  time.  L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e The  Study  s t u d y sample c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f  non-Canadian b o r n  (45%) and r e p r e s e n t e d a p r e d o m i n a n t l y  working c l a s s s o c i a l stratum.  F u r t h e r , each o f t h e  upper  141 respondents represent physician. t o be care  only  users of the  Generalizations  of the  l i m i t e d to groups w i t h  s e r v i c e s of  therefore  s i m i l a r s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c and  health  utilization characteristics.  solely other  i n terms of the data c o l l e c t i o n  construct  to gather the  data.  i s not  a l l social  of the  42  status  and  Each of the  s o l e l y the  (Holmes and  All  of  the  study  Alternate  v a r i a b l e s might generate s l i g h t l y important therefore  t o be  to recognize  w i t h i n the  s c a l e s , i n d e x e s and  This  on  the  each  Social  Rahe, 1967).  other  for Further study provides  upon t h e i r  s t u d y can  Similarly,  be  operationalized  different results. t h a t the  the It is  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  l i m i t a t i o n s of the  not  respective  instruments to quantify  them.  Research modest s u p p o r t f o r the  s t r e s s by m e d i a t i n g t h e  s t r e s s upon h e a l t h .  are  literal  forms of q u a n t i f y i n g  that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n learning a c t i v i t i e s social  therefore  s t u d y ' s t h e o r e t i c a l model ought  i n t e r p r e t e d beyond the  Implications  study  used  instruments.  variables in this  i n a v a r i e t y o f ways.  constructs  instrument  participation in learning activities  the  or  the  occurrence of  events i d e n t i f i e d  v a r i a b l e s which have parameters p l a c e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by  measures  s o l e l y i n terms of the  Scale  validity  study v a r i a b l e s i s  Social stress in this  life-change  s t u d y has  to. w h i c h e a c h s c a l e , i n d e x  instrument accurately  s t r e s s but  Readjustment Rating health  extent  i n question.  operationally defined  with  family  study f i n d i n g s ought  Data f o r each of the v a r i a b l e s i n the  the  a  proposition  i s a strategy  detrimental  for  e f f e c t s of  I f w i t h i n a random s a m p l e o f  the  coping social  patients  of a f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n ' s p r a c t i c e i t can be demonstrated, t h a t a c t i v e l e a r n e r s do n o t e x p e r i e n c e decrements i n h e a l t h  subsequent  t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i t ought t o be p o s s i b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p h o l d s t r u e among h i g h s o c i a l s t r e s s samples, extremes o f a c t i v e and  non-active  l e a r n e r s , and b o t h good and poor h e a l t h groups. Prospective learning process,  s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o i d e n t i f y whether t h e the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process during  formal  l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o r t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d a f f e c t s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t r e s s and health.  U n t i l the nature of the hypothesized  model have been e x p l o r e d research  linkages i n the  more s p e c i f i c a l l y and t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t  t e c h n i q u e s and m e t h o d o l o g i e s , t h e r e can be no c l e a r  d i r e c t i o n s f o r adult educators to take regarding  the u t i l i z a t i o n  o f knowledge about t h e e f f e c t s o f l e a r n i n g upon t h e outcomes of s o c i a l s t r e s s .  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e c l e a r l y  n o n - s p e c i f i c i n terms o f t h e development o f a d u l t  education  s t r a t e g i e s t o combat t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r e s s . G i v e n such b r o a d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e conduct o f research  i t i s l i k e l y that a s e r i e s of smaller studies of  s p e c i f i c groups such as s i n g l e p a r e n t s , graduate students,  firemen,  immigrants,  offenders,  p h y s i c i a n s , d e n t i s t s and o t h e r  such h i g h s t r e s s o c c u p a t i o n s o r s o c i a l groups may be r e q u i r e d r a t h e r than b r o a d l y  based h e t e r o g e n e o u s community samples such  as was used i n t h i s  study.  One c o n c l u s i o n  t o be drawn from t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e  p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s o f e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n and n e u r o t i c i s m - s t a b i l i t y do n o t appear t o e f f e c t d e c i s i o n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n learning, a c t i v i t i e s .  A l t h o u g h p e r s o n a l i t y may  143 a f f e c t a c t u a l l e a r n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e and u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t h e a l t h t h r o u g h t h a t means t h e r e  is little  evidence from t h i s  to support the i n c l u s i o n of Eysenck's p e r s o n a l i t y in s i m i l a r future studies.  The same c o n c l u s i o n  from t h e e f f e c t s o f R o t t e r ' s  Locus o f C o n t r o l  study  constructs  c a n be drawn  Scale  Scores  w h i c h d i d n o t appear t o i n f l u e n c e engagement i n l e a r n i n g activities  a s was p r e d i c t e d .  I f p e r s o n a l i t y and l o c u s o f  c o n t r o l a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a n d not To  others  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e e f f e c t s are confounded.  d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h i s was t h e c a s e a n a l y s i s o f t h e S u b j e c t i v e  Estimation  of Adult  Learning  through p o i n t - b i s e r i a l p r o c e d u r e w o u l d be The  while  i n d i v i d u a l item  c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o r some s i m i l a r  o f why p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l  social  w o u l d be i n v e r s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h e a l t h  participation i n learning activities  correlated, i s a question studies.  responses  required.  question  organizations  Scale  status,  i s positively  o f i m p o r t a n c e t o be answered by  Given the frequently  cited  reason of  future  'opportunities  f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' s t a t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n formal adult education  programs i t i s - u n e x p e c t e d  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e two a c t i v i t i e s related to health categories  status.  t h a t t h e outcomes should  I t i s possible that there  o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have  l e v e l s o f s o c i a l a p p e a l a n d e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h Similarly  be d i s - s i m i l a r l y  may b e a s s o c i a t e d  with  differing  status.  c e r t a i n forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l  organizations  are certain  social  e f f e c t s upon h e a l t h  are p o s i t i v e and t h e s e e f f e c t s a r e c o n f o u n d e d by o t h e r s are  detrimental Since  t o health  this  which which  maintenance.  s t u d y was b e g u n one i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e  144 r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s has Brickell  t r a n s i t i o n s and  been r e p o r t e d .  (1980) h a v e r e p o r t e d  t h a t 49  participation in  Aslanian  and  percent of a United  n a t i o n a l sample p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s 83 p e r c e n t o f t h e  learners  reasons f o r l e a r n i n g . hypothesis Cross  that l i f e  (19 81)  has  cited  The  life  s t u d y was  t r a n s i t i o n s are  pointed  out  the  designed to t e s t  the  r e a s o n s f o r l e a r n i n g and  i n v e s t i g a t o r s may  have  to support t h e i r hypothesis.  Further  i n f l u e n c i n g the The  importance of  studies  life  changes as  s t u d y has  obtained  health  education  and  m i g h t be  identified  - the  h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l and conclusion  i t appears t h a t the  major constructs  the  function for  f u n c t i o n of  help  to maintain  e f f e c t s of  While t h i s  and  f o r coping s t u d y has  present during adult education  or even o t h e r  the  question  with  change  produced activities  content of  i s not  known.  t h e p o t e n t i a l t o s e r v e a new  p r o m o t i o n o f h o m e o s t a s i s o f p h s y c i o l o g i c a l and h e a l t h must remain a q u e s t i o n  the  s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h may  learning activities has  three  h e a l t h , whether i t i s the b e n e f i c i a l  l e a r n i n g t h a t promote h e a l t h , the  learning activity  In  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  m o d e s t e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g may  adult  psychological health.  learning i s a strategy  remains l a r g e l y unanswered.  activities  promoting  remain i n need of c l a r i f i c a t i o n  of whether or not  to  activities.  been to e x p l o r e  t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a new  data  factors  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t r e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g and  as  influenced  are needed  d e c i s i o n t o engage i n l e a r n i n g  purpose of t h i s  that  their  i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s and  or r e f u t e the  and  States  t r a n s i t i o n s as  t h e i r respondents through the  confirm  adult  for future  be  Whether or function,  the  psychological  studies.  not  145  BIBLIOGRAPHY A d o l p h , T. and R.F. W h a l l e y , " A t t i t u d e s Toward A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S p r i n g (1967(, 152-156. A p p l e y , M o r t i m e r H. and R i c h a r d Trumbell., eds., P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r e s s (New Y o r k : A p p l e - C e n t u r y C r o f t s , 1967). A s l a n i a n , C a r o l B. and Henry M. B r i c k e l l , Americans i n T r a n s i t i o n : L i f e Changes as Reasons f o r A d u l t L e a r n i n g (New Y o r k , C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n Board) 1980. B e n d i g , A.W., "The R e l a t i o n o f Temperament F r u i t s o f S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n and E m o t i o n a l i t y t o V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s , " J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y , 69 (1963) , 311-318. B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R. and Hugh A. 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L i n d , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s and S u d d e n C a r d i a c Death: A P i l o t Study," J o u r n a l of Psychosomatic R e s e a r c h , 15 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 1 9 - 2 4 . R e e d e r , L.G., P.G.M. S c h r a m a and J.M. D i r k e n s , " S t r e s s and C a r d i o v a s c u l a r H e a l t h : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o - o p e r a t i v e S t u d y - I , " S o c i a l S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e , 7 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 573-574. R o t t e r , J u l i a n B., S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1954) . R o t t e r , J u l i a n B., S h e p h a r d L i v e r a n t and D o u g l a s P. C r o w n e , "The G r o w t h and E x t i n c t i o n o f E x p e c t a n c i e s i n C h a n c e C o n t r o l l e d and S k i l l e d T a s k s , " J o u r n a l o f Psychology, 52 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 6 1 - 1 7 7 . R o t t e r , J u l i a n B., " G e n e r a l i z e d E x p e c t a n c i e s f o r I n t e r n a l Versus E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l of Reinforcement," P s y c h o l o g i c a l M o n o g r a p h s , 80 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 1-28. S a v a g e , R.D., " P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s and A c a d e m i c P e r f o r m a n c e , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 32 (1962), 251-253. S c h a a r , M-/ L.G. R e e d e r and J.M. D i r k e n s , " S t r e s s and C a r d i o v a s c u l a r H e a l t h : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o - o p e r a t i v e S t u d y - I I , The M a l e P o p u l a t i o n o f a F a c t o r y a t Z u r i c h , " S o c i a l S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e , 7 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 5 8 5 - 6 0 3 . Seaman, Don F. and Wayne L. S c h r o e d e r , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n E x t e n t o f E d u c a t i v e B e h a v i o u r by A d u l t s and t h e i r A t t i t u d e s Toward C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 20:2 (1976), 99-105. Seeman, M e l v i n , "On t h e M e a n i n g o f A l i e n a t i o n , " A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 24 (1959) , 7 8 3 - 7 9 1 . Seeman, M e l v i n and J o h n W. E v a n s , " A l i e n a t i o n and L e a r n i n g a H o s p i t a l S e t t i n g , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 27 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 7 7 2 - 7 8 2 . Seeman, M e l v i n , A l i e n a t i o n and S o c i a l L e a r n i n g i n a R e f o r m a t o r y , " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 69 270-284. Seeman, M e l v i n , " A l i e n a t i o n , M e m b e r s h i p and A Comparative Study," P u b l i c Opinion 359-367.  in  (1963) ,  P o l i t i c a l Knowledge: Q u a r t e r l y , 30 (1966),  Seeman, M e l v i n , "On t h e P e r s o n a l C o n s e q u e n c e s o f A l i e n a t i o n i n Work," A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 32 (1967a), 273-285.  152  Seeman, M e l v i n , " P o w e r l e s s n e s s and Knowledge: A Comparative Study o f A l i e n a t i o n and L e a r n i n g , " S o c i o m e t r y , 30 (1967b), 105-123. Seeman, M e l v i n , " A l i e n a t i o n and Knowledge-Seeking: A Note on A t t i t u d e and A c t i o n , " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , (1972), 3-17. S e l l i n , T. and M.E. Wolfgang, The Measurement o f D e l i n q u e n c y (New York: W i l e y I n t e r s c i e n c e , 1964). S e l y e , Hans, S t r e s s W i t h o u t D i s t r e s s S i g n e t , 1975). S e l y e , Hans, The S t r e s s of L i f e  (Scarborough, O n t a r i o :  (New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l ,  1956).  S h i n n , A l l e n Mayhew J r . , The A p p l i c a t i o n o f P s y c h o p h y s i c a l S c a l i n g Techniques t o Measurement of P o l i t i c a l V a r i a b l e s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a : I n s t i t u t e f o r Research i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1969),16. S i n h a , A.K.P. and H. O j h a , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l Study o f t h e O p e r a t i o n o f P r e s t i g e S u g g e s t i o n i n E x t r o v e r t s and I n t r o v e r t s , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 61 (1963), 29-34. S p i l k e n , A.Z. and M.A. J a c o b s , " P r e d i c t i o n o f I l l n e s s B e h a v i o u r from Measures o f L i f e C r i s i s , M a n i f e s t D i s t r e s s and M a l a d a p t i v e C o p i n g , " P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e , 33 (1971), 251-264. S t e v e n s , S.S. and E.H. G a l a n t e r , " R a t i o S c a l e s and C a t e g o r y S c a l e s f o r a Dozen P e r c e p t u a l C o n t i n u a , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 54 (1957), 377-411. S t e v e n s , S.S., "A M e t r i c f o r the S o c i a l Consensus," 151 (1966), 530-541.  Science,  S t r i c k l a n d , Bonnie Ruth, "The P r e d i c t i o n o f S o c i a l A c t i o n From a Dimension o f I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l , " The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 66 (1965), 353-358. S u l l i v a n , D.F., C o n c e p t u a l Problems i n D e v e l o p i n g and Index o f H e a l t h : V i t a l and H e a l t h S t a t i s t i c s : Data E v a l u a t i o n and Methods R e s e a r c h , U.S. N a t i o n a l C e n t r e f o r H e a l t h S t a t i s t i c s , S e r i e s 2, No. 17 (Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1966). T a p l i n , J u l i a n R., " C r i s i s Theory: C r i t i q u e and R e f o r m u l a t i o n , " Community M e n t a l H e a l t h J o u r n a l , V I I ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 13-23. T h e o r e l l , T. and R.H. Rahe, " P s y c h o s o c i a l F a c t o r s and M y o c a r d i a l I n f a r c t i o n , I : An I n p a t i e n t Study i n Sweden, J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o s o m a t i c R e s e a r c h , 15 (1971) , 25-31.  153 Throop, Warren F. and A.P. MacDonald, J r . , , " I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus o f C o n t r o l : A B i b l i o g r a p h y , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 28 (1971), 175-190. Thurlow, H. J o h n , " I l l n e s s i n R e l a t i o n t o L i f e S i t u a t i o n and S i c k - R o l e Tendency," J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o s o m a t i c R e s e a r c h , 15 (1971), 73-88. T o f f l e r , A l v i n , F u t u r e Shock (New Y o r k : Bantam Books, 1970). T o l l e f s o n , D.J. , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between t h e O c c u r r a n c e o f F r a c t u r e s and L i f e C r i s i s E v e n t s , " ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1972). T r o t t e r , Robe r t J . , " S t r e s s : C o n f u s i o n and C o n t r o v e r s y , " S c i e n c e News, 197 (1975), 356-359. V e r n e r , C o o l i e and A l a n B o o t h , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (New York: C e n t r e f o r A p p l i e d Research i n E d u c a t i o n , 1964).  The  V e r n e r , C. and J . Newberry, "The N a t u r e o f A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 8 (1958), 208-222. V i n c e n t , M.O., "Help Stamp Out P s y c h i a t r i s t s , " Canadian P h y s i c i a n , March (1973), 60-71.  Family  W i l l i a m s , C.B. and James B. N i c k e l s , " I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l Dimension as R e l a t e d t o A c c i d e n t and S u i c i d e Proneness," J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 33 (1969), 485-494. W o l f f , H.G., S t r e s s and D i s e a s e ( S p r i n g f i e l d , C h a r l e s C. Thomas, P u b l i s h e r , 1953). W o l f f , H a r o l d G., S t r e s s and D i s e a s e (2nd ed.; I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, P u b l i s h e r ,  Illinois: Springfield, 1968).  W y l e r , A l l e n R., M i n o r u Masuda and Thomas H. Holmes, "Magnitude of L i f e E v e n t s and S e r i o u s n e s s o f I l l n e s s , " J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e , 33 (1971) , 115-121.  154  APPENDICES  156  A P P E N D I X  2  PATIENT NO.: INTERVIEWER'S NAME DATE:  FAMILY PRACTICE PATIENT CARE RESEARCH STUDY  HEALTH INDEX  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION  INTERVIEWER' S COMMENTS  158 PAGE 1 (MARK AND SHOW CALENDAR; RECORD DATES ON TOP OF PAr.E IA: CROSS OUT REMAINING COLUMNS)— For most of the questions I ' l l be asking about the past 8 days, that i s . from a week ago yesterday, o r l a s t (day/date) through yesterday (day/date). SPC1.  (CARD 1) F i r s t I would l i k e t o ask about any symptoms o r problems you might have had. Please look at t h i s l i s t one at a time and t e l l me the number of a l l of the items that you had at any time during the past 8 days. Don't worry about how important or serious the problem was; i f i t was present at a l l l a s t wefek, please give me the number. (PUT NUMBERS IN LEFT HAND COLUMN)  SPC2.  Were there any other symptoms or problems not on the l i s t that you had a-t any time during the past 8 days? What were they? (PROBE TO CHECK IF COVERED ON SPC LIST: IF NOT, FILL OUT X, Y, OR Z. ) (IF NO SPC's AT ALL, RECORD AND TURN TO MOB1 p. 2. IF ANY SPC's ASK) ;  SPC3.  On which days, from a week ago yesterday (day/date) through yesterday (day/date), d i d you have ( f i r s t number given)? (CIRCLE ALL DAYS; REPEAT QUESTION FOR ALL SPC's, INCLUDING X, Y, AND Z.) s  SPC4.  (FOR ALL DAYS WITH MORE THAN ONE NUMBER RECORDED, ASK) You've t o l d me that on (day/date)'you had numbers (repeat a l l numbers given f o r that day). Which d i d you consider the most undesirable on that day? ("PUT AN "X" THROUGH THE APPROPRIATE CIRCLE; REPEAT UNTIL ALL DAYS ARE RATED.)  1  CARD  1.  Trouble  seeing  ( i n c l u d e s wearing g l a s s e s  Pain or discomfort  3.  Trouble  4. 5. 6.  E a r a c h e , t o o t h a c h e , o r p a i n i n jaw. S o r e t h r o a t , l i p s , t o n g u e , gums o r s t u f f y , runny n o s e . S e v e r a l o r a l l permanent t e e t h m i s s i n g o r c r o o k e d .  7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 1?. 13.  14. 15. 16. 17. 18.  Pain,  bleeding,  both ^ y e s .  ( i n c l u d e s wearing  itching,  or  s u c h as  hearing  discharge  burning or  itching.  aid).  (drainage)  fsom s e x u a l  organs,  (excludes  menstruat i o n ) . I t c h i n g , b l e e d i n g , or p a i n i n rectum. P a i n i n c h e s t , s t o m a c h , s i d e , back o r h i p s . Cough and f e v e r or c h i l l s . C o u g h , wheezing, o r s h o r t n e s s of b r e a t h . S i c k o r upset s t o m a c h , v o m i t i n g , o r d i a r r h e a ( w a t e r y bowel movements). F e v e r or c h i l l s w i t h a c h i n g a l l over and vomiting or diarrhea ( w a t e r y bowel  H e r n i a or rupture of abdomen (stomach). P a i n f u l , burning, or frequent u r i n a t i o n (passing water). Headache, d i z z i n e s s or ringing In ears. Spells of f e e l i n g hot, nervous or s h a k y . Weak or deformed ( c r o o k e d ) back.  19.  Pain,  20.  One arm  stiffness, and  one  numbness, leg  wearing a r t i f i c i a l  21.  or  contacts).  2.  hearing  i n one  or  or  deformed l i m b s or  discomfort of  neck, h a n d s ,  feet,  (crooked), paralyzed ( u n a b l e t o  arms, l e g s ,  move), or  normal  movements).  or  broken  several  joints  (includes  braces).  One hand o r ana m i s s i n g , deformed (crooked), paralyzed 'unable to move), or broken (includes wearing a r t i f i c i a l l i m b s or braces).  22.  One foot or leg mlaaing, deformed (crooked), paralyzed (unable to move), or broken ( i n c l u d e s  24.  wearing a r t i f i c i a l limbs or bracea). Two legs deformed (crooked), paralyzed (unable to move), or broken (Includes wearing a r t i f i c i a l llmba or braces). Two legs mlaaing (Includes wearing a r t i f i c i a l llmba or braces).  25.  Skin defect of face, body, a n a or legs, such aa acera, pimples, warts, bruises or changes  26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 36.  in c o l o r . Burning or i t c h i n g rash on large areaa of face, body, area, or legs. Burn over large areaa of face, body, arms or lega. Overweight f o r age and height. General t i r e d n e s s , weakness, or weight losa. Trouble t a l k i n g , auch aa l i s p , s t u t t e r i n g , hoaraenaaa, or being unable to speak. Trouble l e a r n i n g , remembering, or thinking c l e a r l y . Loss of conaclousneaa auch aa aelzurea ( f l t a ) , f a i n t i n g , or coma (out cold or knocked out). Taking medication or staying oa preacrlbed d i e t f o r health reaaona. Breathing amog or unpleaaant a i r . S p e l l a of f e e l i n g upaet, depressed', or c r y i n g .  23.  159  PACE IA  SYMPTOM/PROBLEM COMPLEX ANSWER SHEET Month(s)  SPC No  NONE  A.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  8.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  C.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  D.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  E.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  F.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  G.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed. Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  H.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  I.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  J.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  K.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  L.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  M.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  N.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  0.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  P.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Q.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  R.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  S.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  T.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  X.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Y.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu' F r i  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Z.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  X Y Z  NONE  Fri  160  PAGE 2 (MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 2 A ) During the next few questions I w i l l be asking you about a l l of the past 8 days, that l s , from (day/date) through (day/date), including weekends, holidays, days o f f , and so on. Although t h i s may involve some r e p e t i t i o n , once you hear the pattern of each question for one day, you w i l l see that wa can run through a d d i t i o n a l days very quickly.  M0B1.  On which of the past 8 days, i f any, d i d you spend any part of a day or night as a bed patient i n a h o s p i t a l , nursing home, mental i n s t i t u t i o n , home for the retarded, or s i m i l a r place? NONE  (CIRCLE D»YS SPENT IN HOSPITAL AND, FOR ALL DAYS TOGETHER, ASK) IA.  What was the reason that you were i n the ( h o s p i t a l , etc.)? (RECORD "ESPONSE)  DR.SCR. (Driving Screener)  Do you have a v a l i d d r i v e r ' s license? YES  NO  A.  i.  Is the reason you do not have a license i n any way related to your health? YES  i  CODE H FOR ALL DAYS ON MOB 2 ANSWER SHEET AND SKIP TO P.T.SCR. PAGE 3 MOB 2  NO SKIP TO P.T. SCR. PAGE 3 .  On which of the past 8 days, i f any, d i d you d r i v e a car? drove  ALL  days  (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE DAYS WHEN DROVE, X REMAINING DAYS: FOR FIRST X DAY ASK)  i 2A.  And what was the reason that you did not driveon (day/date)? (RECORD REASON) 'IF H CODE)  (IF NOT H ASK) 2B.  In addition to that (reason) were there any reasons related to your health that you did not d r i v e on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O)  (REPEAT 2A UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O)  (TURN TO PACE 3 P.T. SCR.)  \  (TURN TO PAGE 3 P.T. SCR.)  161  PAGE 2A (ENTER DATES) Month(s)  "  Da te M0B1•  Sun Mon  Tue Wed  Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed  Thu F r i  Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon  Thu F r i  Sat  IA.  M0B2. -  Sun Mon  H. RELATED NOT H. REL.  (day/date)  y/date)  (day/date)  H 0  0  Tue Wed H  H 0  0  H  H 0  H 0  H 0  H 0  H 0  Tue Wed H 0  H 0  H 0  Sat  H  H  0  0  162  PAGE 3 (MARK D«TES AT TOP OF PAGE 3A) P.T.SCR.  (Public Transportation Screener) Do you ever use public such as a bus, t r a i n , plane, or subway? 2.  YES A.  NO  I  Is the reason you do not use public transportation i n any way related to your health? NO  YES CODE H FOR ALL DAYS ON MOB3 ANS. SHT. AND SKIP TO PAC1 PAGE 4 MOB3.  On which of the past 8 days, i f any, d i d you use public  Used  ALL  SKIP TO PAC1 PAGE 4  transportation?  (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE DAYS USED; X REMAINING DAYS. FOR FIRST X DAY ASK)  days  CIRCLE ALL DAYS FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK  transportation,  34.  And what was the reason that you did not use public transportation on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD RESPONSE) (IF NOT H ASK) MOB 3B.  In addition to that (reason), were there any reasons related to your health that you did not use public transportation on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD) (IF NOT H CODE 0 AND ASK)  REPEAT 3A UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS) SKIP TO PAC 1 p. 4, FOR FIRST) CIRCLED DAY ASK  3C.  On (day/date) d i d you use help from someone e l s e i n order to take public transportation?  3C.  If you had taken public transportation on (day/date) would you have used help to do so?  APROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE U/NU; IF X DAYS REMAIN REPEAT 3A; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT 3C; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR SKIP TO PAC 1 PAGE 4{  163  PAGE 3A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) .ate M0B3.  • Sun  Mon  Tue  wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  H. RELATED  H  a  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  NOT H. REL.  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  U  U  U  U  U  U  U  U  U  U  U  U  NU  NU  NU  NU  NU  NU  USED NOT USED  (day/date)  ( d a y / d a t e )  ( d a y / d a t e )  U NU  U NU  NU  NU  NU  NU  NU  NU  164  PAGE 4 (MARK DATES ST TOP OF PAGE 4A)  PAC1.  On which of the past 8 days, i f any, d i d you spend most or a l l of the day in bed?  NONE No days i n bed  <CIRCLE DAYS IN BED, AND FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK) IA.  And what was the reason that you stayed i n bed on (day/date)?(RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK)  I  In a d d i t i o n to that (reason), were there any other reasons that (day)? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK)  I  Anything else? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE; IF NOT H, REPEAT PROBE UNTIL H OR NO OTHER REASONS)  (REPEAT IA UNTIL ALL CIRCLED DAYS CODED H/O) (P«C2, p. 5)  (PAC2, p. 5)  165  PAGE 4A (ENTER DATES) Sun  QAC1. H.  RELATED  NOT H.  REL.  (day/date)  (day/date)  Mon H  Tue  H 0  Wed  H 0  Thu  H 0  Fri  H 0  Sat  H 0  H 0  0  Sun  Mon  Tue  H  H  H  0  0  Wed H  0  0  Thu  Fri  Sat  H  H  H  0  0  0  166  PAGE 5  (MARK D»TES AT TOP OF PAGE 5A) PAC2.  ,  On which of the past 8 days, i f any, d i d you s i t f o r most or a l l of the day i n any type of chair, couch, or wheelchair? NONE No days spent i n cha i r, etc.  (CIRCLE DAYS SPENT IN CHAIR, ETC.; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK) 2A.  ^nd what was the reason that you spent most or a l l of the day (day/date) i n a (chair/wheelchair/etc.)? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK)  4 In addition to that (reason), were there any other reasons that (day)? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE) (IF NOT H, ASK) Anything else? (RECORD) (IF H, CODE; IF NOT H, REPEAT UNTIL H OR NO OTHER REASONS) (REPEAT 2A UNTIL ALL CIRCLED DAYS CODED H/O)  PAC3. 3A  On which of the past 8 days, i f any, d i d you have trouble - or not t r y to - l i f t , stoop, bend over, or use s t a i r s or i n c l i n e s ?  NONE  (CIRCLE DAYS AND FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY ASK) Al.  3B.  On which of the past 3 days, i f any, d i d you limp, or use a cane, crutches, or walker?  NONE  (CIRCLE DAYS AND FOR EACH CIRCLED D«Y ASK) Bl.  V 3C.  What was the reason (that you...) on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY)  What was the reason (that you...) on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY)  On which of the past 8 days, i f any, did you have any (other) physical l i m i t a t i o n s or not try to walk as f a r or as fast as most persons your age are able?  NONE  (CIRCLE DAYS AND FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY ASK) Cl.  (TURN TO ROL1 p. 6 )  What was the trouble or l i m i t a t i o n on (day/date)? (RECORD REASON AND CODE H/O FOR EACH CIRCLED DAY)  (TURN TO ROL1 p. 6 )  167  PAGE 5A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) n  ite  PAC2. H. RELATED  Sun Mon '  H  NOT H. REL.  Tue Wed H  0  H  Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon H  0  O  H  H  H  O  0  O  H 0  Tue Wed  H  0  H  0  H  0  Thu F r i  Sat  H  H  H  0  0  0  Thu  Fri  Sat H  O  (day'date)  (day/date)  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  H. RELATED  PAC3A.  H  . H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  NOT H. REL  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Wed  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thn  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  RELATED  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  NOT H. REL.  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0-  0  0  0  0  0  0  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  H. RELATED  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  NOT H. REL.  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  PAC3B.  PAC3C.  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  168  PACE 6 ROU.  Are you p r i m a r i l y working;, r e t i r e d , disabled, unemployed, a student, or what? (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY)  I  STUDENT  UNEM  DSBL  WRKG  RTRD  I  I  i SKIP TO SAC1. BELOW  SKIP TO SAC1. BELOW  SKIP TO SAC1 PAGE 8  SKIP TO SAC1 PAGE 7  SKIP TO SAC1. BELOW  (housewife), HSWF  I SKIP TO SAC1 PAGE 9  (MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 6A) I  WORKING, DISABLED, UNEMPLOYED, ON STRIKE, SICK LEAVE SAC1.  Worked  During the past 8 days, including weekends, holidays and so on, on which days, i f any, d i d you work on a job at a l l ? (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE YES DAYS; X REMAINING DAYS, FOR FIRST X DAY ASK)  ALL days  (CIRCLE ALL DAYS) (FOR 1ST CIRCLED DAY ASK) SAC IA  And what was the reason that you d i d not work on a job on (day/date)? (IF H, CODE AND RECORD RESPONSE) (IF NOT H, ASK) SAC IB  In a d d i t i o n to that (reason), were there any reasons related to (your?) health that you d i d not work on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD)  1  (IF NOT H, CODE 0 AND ASK)  REPEAT SAC IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS I CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS| SKIP TO SAC2, P.10, FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK IC  On (day/date), were you l i m i t e d i n any way i n the amount or kind of work i n job, such as,  WORKING DISABLED UNEMPLOYED!  IC  If you had worked on a job on (day/date), would you have been l i m i t e d i n any way, such as,  using s p e c i a l working aids not doing certain tasks or strenuous work, taking; s p e c i a l rest periods or working only part of the day?  X  I PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR, TURN TO SAC2. PAGE 10  169  /PACE 6A  (ENTER DATES)  Month(s) Date SAC1.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  H. RELATED  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H -  H  H  H  NOT H. REL.  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  LIMITED  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NOT LIMITED  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  170  PAGE 7 MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 7A-  STUDENT SAC1.  During the past S days, including weekends, holidays, and so on, on which days, i f any, d i d you attend classes or school a c t i v i t i e s at a l l ? ..ALL  school a c t i v i t i e s a l l days  (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE YES. DAYS: X REMAINING DA'.'S, FOR FIRST X DAY ASK)  CIRCLE ALL DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED D4Y ASK IA.  And what was the reason that you d i d not (attend c l a s s e s / do school a c t i v i t i e s ) on (day/date)? (IF H CODE) (IF NOT H ASK) IB.  In addition any reasons you did not activities) (IF H CODE)  i  to that (reason) were there related to your health that (attend classes/do school on (day/date)? (IF NOT H CODE 0 AND 1SK)  REPEAT IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS, SKIP TO SAC2, P.10. FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK IC.  On (day/date), were you l i m i t e d i n any way i n the amount or,kind of school a c t i v i t i e s such as  IC.  If you had (attended c l a s i done school a c t i v i t i e s ) on (day/date) would you have been limited i n any way such as  being excused from c e r t a i n courses, including gym or recess a c t i v i t i e s , attending a s p e c i a l school or classes, having s p e c i a l teaching or courses at home, o r not c a r r y i n g a f u l l schedule? _  V PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR TORN TO SAC2. PAGE 10  171  PAGE  7A  (ENTER DATES)  Month(s) Date SAC1.  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sal  H  H  H  H  H  H 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  L NL  (day/date)  Mon  H  0  (day/date)  Sun  H  LIMITED  (day/date)  Sat  H  NOT H. REL.  (day/date)  Fri  H  H  (day/date)  Thu  H  H  (day/date)  W°d  H  H. RELATED  NOT LIMITED  Tue  172  PAGE 8 RETIRED SAC1.  MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 8A During the past 8 days including weekends, holidays, and so on, on which days, i f any, did you do any work a c t i v i t i e s at a l l such as shopping, cooking, or working i n or around the house, yard, or garden? ALL  did work activities a l l days CIRCLE ALL IA. DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK  (IF NOT ALL, CIRCLE YES DAYS, X REMAINING DAYS, FOR FIRST X DAY ASK)  And what was the reason that you did not do work a c t i v i t i e s on (day/date)? (IF H, CODE AND RECORD) (IF NOT H ASK)  I IB.  In addition to that (reason) were there any reasons related to your health that you d i d not do work a c t i v i t i e s on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD) (IF NOT H CODE 0 AND ASK)  REPEAT SAC IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O. IF NO CIRCLED DAYS SKIP TO SAC2 P. 10. FOR FIRST CIRCLED LDAY ASK , IC.  On (day/date) were you l i m i t e d i n any way i n the amount or kind of work a c t i v i t i e s such as  IC.  V If you had done work a c t i v i t i e s on (day/date) would you have been l i m i t e d i n any way such as  using s p e c i a l working aids, not doing c e r t a i n tasks or strenuous work, taking s p e c i a l rest periods, or working only part of the day?  PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR TURN TO SAC2, PAGE 10  173  PACE 8A (ENTER DATES) Month(s) Date SAC1. H. RELATED NOT H. REL. LIMITED NOT LIMITED  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sai  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  . 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  174  PAGE 9 MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 9A HOUSEWIFE SAC1. housework  During the past 8 days, including weekends, holidays, and so on, on which days, i f any, d i d you do any housework at a l l ? ALL  days '  (IF MOT ALL, CIRCLE YES DAYS; X REMAINING DAYS, FOR FIRST DAY ASK)  CIRCLE ALL DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK  IA.  And what was the reason that you d i d no housework on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD RESPONSE) (IF NOT H ASK) IB.  v  IC.  In addition to that (reason) were there any reasons related to your health that you d i d no housework on (day/date)? (IF H CODE AND RECORD) (IF NOT H, CODE 0 AND ASK)  REPEAT IA UNTIL ALL X DAYS CODED H/O; 'IF NO CIRCLED DAYS SKIP TO SAC2. PAGE 10 FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY ASK On (day/date) were you limited i n any way i n the amount or kind of housework such as  IC.  If you had done housework on (day/date), would you have been limited i n any way, such as  not l i f t i n g small children, not cooking, washing, or ironing, or not doing heavy cleaning, or taking s p e c i a l rest periods.  PROBE, RECORD RESPONSE, CODE L/NL; IF X DAYS REMAIN, REPEAT IA; IF CIRCLED DAYS REMAIN REPEAT IC; IF ALL DAYS ACCOUNTED FOR TURN TO SAC2, PAGE 10  175  PAGE 9A (ENTER DATES)  onth(s) Data SAC1. H. RELATED  Sun  Mon  Tua  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  0  0  Sat  NOT H. REL.  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  LIMITED.  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  L  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NL  NOT LIMITED  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  (day/date)  176  PACE 10  (MARK DATES AT TOP OF PAGE 10 SAC2.  — —  :  (CARD X (OTHER ACTIVITIES) On which of the past 8 days, i f any, were you limited in any way in the amount or kind of any a c t i v i t i e s other than (work/ housework/work a c t i v i t i e s / s c h o o l ) , such as the examples shown on t h i s card, as usual f o r your age? NONE not limited on any days  SFCR  :  (CIRCLE DAYS; FOR FIRST CIRCLED DAY, 2A.  if  ASK)  ^ In what way were you l i m i t e d on (day/date)? (RECORD RESPONSE AND CODE H/O; REPEAT 2A FOR NEXT CIRCLED DAY UNTIL ALL ACCOUNTED FOR)  (CARD XI (SELF-CARE) On which days, i f any, from a week ago yesterday through yesterday, did you have more than the usual help f o r most persons your age with any items on t h i s card? NONE  (CIRCLE ALL DAYS WHEN ANY DAY ASK) IA.  END  ONE  APPLIED: FOR  FIRST CIRCLED  Please give me the numbers that applied on (day/date)? (RECORD RESPONSES AND CIRCLE NUMBERS FOR EACH DAY; REPEAT IA FOR NEXT CIRCLED DAY UNTIL ALL ACCOUNTED FOR) END  EXAMPLES ONLY (as usual f o r age)  CARD X OACT  Going shopping, handling personal business, and so on. Taking part i n hobbies, games, play, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and so on. Taking part i n i n d i v i d u a l or group sports, a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , etc. V i s i t i n g or meeting with f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , and so on. Taking part i n church, Sunday School, synagogue, or other r e l i g i o u s activities. Taking part i n community work, c i v i c projects, etc. Going to club, lodge, other meetings, Attending movies, ballgames,  and so on.  plays, concerts, other entertainment, and so on.  Taking part in e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s such as chorus, drama, sports, etc.  177  PAGE 10A (ENTER DATES)  Month(s) Date SAC2.  Sun Mon Tue Wed  H. RELATED  H  NOT H. REL.  H  O  O  H  Thu F r i Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed H  O  O  Thu F r i  Sat  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  H  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  (day/date)  (day/date)  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Frt  Sat  Sun  Mon  Tue  Wed  Thu  Fri  Sat  DRESS  1  I  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  I  1  1  1  FEED SELF  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  TAKE BATH  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  USE TOILET  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  SFCR1.  (day/date)  (day/date)  | HAD MORE HELP| THAN OTHERS THE SAME AGE 1.  CARD XI SFCR Had help to DRESS (tying shoes, buttoning s h i r t , blouse, coat, e t c . ) , or d i d not DRESS f o r health reasons.  2.  Had help to FEED SELF (being fed, having meat cut, bread buttered, e t c . ) , or d i d not FEED SELF (e.g., received f l u i d s by vein).  3.  Had help to use TOILET (getting on or o f f the seat, cleaning with t i s s u e s , e t c . ) , or did not use TOILET f o r health reasons (e.g., bedpan).  4.  Had help to-TAKE BATH (getting i n or out of tub or shower, washing a l l parts of the body, etc.) or d i d not TAKE BATH f o r health reasons.  178 A P P E N D I X  3  PATIENT NO.: INTERVIEWER'S NAME DATE:  FAMILY PRACTICE PATIENT CARE RESEARCH STUDY  FIRST INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION  179  INTERVIEWER' S COMMENTS  PERSONAL HEALTH IIEPORT We ere now going to ask you to make a comparison between your past average health and your health as you see It today. We w i l l ask you to make this comparison by drawing a l i n e . We w i l l say that your average health for the past f i v e years l s represented by a l i n e this long: past health  Now, In the space above, we would l i k e you t o draw a l i n e Indicating how your present health compares to your average health over the last f i v e years. For example, l f your present health l s about half as good as your average health In the past, then draw a line about half as long as the l i n e above. i f you view your present health as — say 2\ times better than your average health for the l a s t f i v e years, then draw a Hue 2j times longer than the l i n e above.  00  O  PERSONAL STRESS REPORT  We are now g o i n g t o compare how s t r e s s e d you f e e l you a r e at t h i s time w i t h y o u r a v e r a g e l e v e l o f s t r e s s f o r t h e past f i v e y e a r s . A g a i n we w i l l ask you to make t h i s c o m p a r i s o n by d r a w i n g a l i n e . We w i l l say t h a t y o u r a v e r a g e s t r e s s l e v e l f o r the p a s t f i v e y e a r s l s r e p r e s e n t e d by a l i n e t h i s l o n g : past  stress  Now, i n the s p a c e a b o v e , draw a l i n e I n d i c a t i n g how y o u r p r e s e n t s t r e s s l e v e l compares t o y o u r a v e r a g e s t r e s s o v e r the l a s t f i v e y e a r s .  182  Page  Directions:  1.  If you can answer YES to the question asked, put a c i r c l e the YES.  around  2.  If you have to answer NO to the question asked, put a c i r c l e around the NO.  3.  Please answer a l l the questions. answer.  If you are not sure, guess the  For O f f i c e Use Only Dup 1-4 During the l a s t six months have you:  5  1. - Taken a high school credit course by correspondence?  YES  NO  6  2. - Taken a non-credit course of study by correspondence?  YES  NO  7  3. - Taken a u n i v e r s i t y credit course by correspondence?  YES  NO  8  <>. - Been registered in an apprenticeship t r a i n i n g program?  YES  NO  9  5. - Attended a community college non-credit course to learn a new language, to improve your English or to learn a hobby or handicraft, etc.?  YES  NO  10  6. - Attended a School d i s t r i c t adult education nonc r e d i t course to learn a new language, to improve your English or to learn a s k i l l such as wood carving or pottery, etc.? YES  NO  11.  7. - Taken a u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t course? (other than by correspondence.)  YES  NO  12.  8. - Attended a f u l l - t i m e vocational course at a p r o v i n c i a l vocational school?  YES  NO  13.  9. - Attended a part-time vocational course f o r credit towards a trade c e r t i f i c a t e such as Typing, Welding, or E l e c t r i c a l Code Courses?  YES  NO  14.  10. - Attended a one day convention or professional association meeting?  YES  NO  15.  11. - Attended a one day workshop or educational course on any topic?  YES  NO  16.  12. - Taken a course at a recreation centre to learn a r e c r e a t i o n a l or hobby s k i l l such as tennis, skating, g o l f , bridge, pottery, or painting, etc.?  YES  NO  17.  3  183  Page  13. - Taken a c o l l e g e - l e v e l credit course at a community college? (other than by correspondence).  "ES  NO  18.  14. - Taken a high school l e v e l credit course given by a school d i s t r i c t adult education department? (other than by correspondence).  '/ES  NO  19.  15. - Spent a day at a boat, house, car or a g r i c u l t u r a l show?  YES  MO  20.  16. - Have you worked through a programmed text book such as a "how to do i t " or "teach yourself" book on car mechanics, book-keeping, or nacrame, etc.?  YES  NO  17. - Attended a short t r a i n i n g or educational course given by a labour union or a professional association?  Please note:  : ES  NO  22.  In the following questions i f the answer i s YES indicate the number of times that you have engaged in each a c t i v i t y . Example: 1. 1 3 4 5 more than 5 Never ?. 1  How  21. (  2  3  5 (more than 5) Never  4  often during the last s i x months have you: 18. - Listened to a teaching tape or record on subjects such as learning a foreign language or improving one's job performance, etc.? 5  more than 5  Never  23.  Never  24.  19. - Taken tours or educational v i s i t s to art g a l l e r i e s , museums, h i s t o r i c buildings, i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s or armed forces bases, etc? 1  5  more than 5  ?0.  attended a public lecture? (Not an e l e c t i o n meeting).  ?1.  Attended a labour union, professional association or conrrauni rv jroup meetings'  22.  Taken i n d i v i d u a l lessons or tutoring to develop a r e c r e a t i o n a l or hobby s k i l l such as piano, guitar, tennis or swimming, etc. ?  more than 5  more than 5  more than 5  Never  Never  26.  Never  27.  184  Page For O f f i c e Use Only 23. - Read a serious n o n - f i c t i o n book of your own, borrowed from a l i b r a r y , a f r i e n d or from any other source? 1 2  3  4  5 more than 5 Never  28.  24. - Thoroughly read a news, or c u l t u r a l magazine such as Time, Newsweek, Reader's Digest or Macleans, etc.? 1 2 25.  3  4  5 more than 5 Never 29.  Do you usually read a news or c u l t u r a l magazine as often as you d i d l a s t month? (CHECK ONE ITEM, X) Yes, I always read as much as I did l a s t month I usually read a l i t t l e less • I usually read only h a l f as much I usually read less than h a l f as much I usually read less than a quarter as much No, I rarely read as much as I did l a s t month  30.  26. - Watched a serious or educationally valuable feature t e l e v i s i o n program such as the National fTeographic Series, World at War, W5, Ombudsman, Maclean or Newsweek f o r between h a l f an hour and an hour? 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  more than 9  Never 31.  27. - Do you u s u a l l y watch educationally valuable t e l e v i s i o n programs as often as you did l a s t month? (CHECK ONE ITEM, X) Yes,  I always watch as much educational t e l e v i s i o n as I did l s s t month I u s u a l l y watch a l i t t l e l e s s I usually watch only h a l f as much I usually watch less than h a l f as much I u s u a l l y watch less than a quarter as much No, I r a r e l y watch as much as I did l a s t month  32.  28. - Listened to a serious or educationally valuable radio program such as "Cross-Country Check Up" or "As It Happens", etc. f o r between h a l f an hour and an hour? 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  more than 9 Never 33.  29. - Do you usually l i s t e n to as much educationally valuable radio as you d i d l a s t month? (CHECK ONE ITEM, X) Yes,  I always l i s t e n to as much educational radio as I did l a s t month I usually l i s t e n to a l i t t l e less I usually l i s t e n only h a l f as much I usually l i s t e n less than half as much I usually l i s t e n less than a quarter as much ^ ^ ^ ^ No, I r a r e l y l i s t e n as much as I d i d l a s t month  34.  185  Page Directions:  1.  If you can answer YES to the question asked, put a c i r c l e around the YES.  2.  If you have to answer NO to the question asked, put a c i r c l e around the NO.  For Use  3.  Please answer a l l the questions. guess the-answer •  Dup  If you are not sure,  5 1.  Do you l i k e plenty of excitement and bustle around you?  Yes  No  S  2.  Have you often got a r e s t l e s s f e e l i n g that you want something but do not know what?  Yes  No  7  Do you nearly always have a "ready answer" when people talk to you?  Yes  No  8  Do you sometimes f e e l happy, sometimes sad without any real reason?  Y s e  No  9  5.  Do you usually stay i n the background at parties or "get-togethers"?  Yes  No  10  6.  Do you sometimes sulk?  Yes  No  11  7.  When you are drawn into a q u a r r e l , do you prefer to"have i t out" to being s i l e n t hoping things w i l l get better?  Yes  No  12  8.  Are you moody?  Yes  No  13  9.  Do you l i k e mixing with people?  Yes  No  14  10.  Have you often lost sleep over your worries?  Yes  No  15  11.  Would you c a l l yourself  Yes  No  16  12.  Do you often make your mind up too late?  Yes  No  17  13.  Do you l i k e working alone?  Yes  No  18  14.  Have you often f e l t l i s t l e s s and t i r e d f o r no good reason?  Yes  No  19  15.  Are you rather  Yes  No  20  ie.  Do you often f e e l "fed-up".  Yes  No  21  17.  Do you f e e l uncomfortable i n anything but everyday clothes?  Yes  No  22  18.  Does your mind often wander when you are trying to attend c l o s e l y to something?  Yes  No  23  19.  Can you put your thoughts into words quickly?  Yes  No  24  20.  Are you often " l o s t  Yes  No  25  21.  Do you l i k e p r a c t i c a l jokes?  Yes  No  26  22.  Do you often think of your past?  Yes  No  27  23.  Do you very much l i k e good food?  Yes  No  28  3. 4.  happy-go-lucky?  lively?  i n thought"?  186  Page  Ves  No  29  Do you mind s e l l i n g things or asking people f o r money f o r some good cause?  Yes  No  30  26.  Are you touchy or s e n s i t i v e about some things?  Ves  No  31  27.  Would you rather be at hone on your own than go to a boring party?  Yes  No  32  28.  Do you sometimes get so r e s t l e s s that you cannot s i t long in a chair?  Yes  No  33  29.  Do you l i k e planning things c a r e f u l l y , well ahead of time?  Yes  No  34  30.  Do you have dizzy spells?  Yes  No  35  31.  Do you usually do things better by f i g u r i n g them out alone than by t a l k i n g to others about i t ?  Yes  No  36  32.  Do you ever get short of breath without having done heavy work?  Yes  No  37  33.  Are you an easy-going person, not generally bothered having everything "Just-so"?  Yes  No  38  34.  Do you s u f f e r from "nerves"?  Yes  No  39  35.  Would you rather plan things than do things?  Yes  No  40  36.  Do you get nervous i n places l i k e elevators, t r a i n s or tunnels?  Yes  No  41  37.  When you make new f r i e n d s , i s i t usually you who makes the f i r s t move, or does the i n v i t i n g ?  Yes  No  42  38.  Do you get very bad headaches?  ves  No  43  39.  Do you generally f e e l that things w i l l turn out r i g h t i n the end somehow?  Yes  No  44  40.  Do you find i t hard to f a l l asleep at bedtime?  Yes  No  45  Yes  No  46  Yes  No  47  Yes  No  48  Yes  No  49  ?4.  When you get annoyed do you need someone f r i e n d l y t o talk to about i t ?  75.  41. • Do you sometimes say the f i r s t head?  about  thing that comes into your  42.  Do you worry too long a f t e r an embarrassing  experience?  43.  Are you a private person?  44.  Do you often get i n t o trouble because you do things thinking?  45.  Do you l i k e t e l l i n g Jokes and funny s t o r i e s to your friends?  Yes  - No  50  46.  Do you often f e e l self-conscious when you are with  Yes  No  51  without  superiors?  187  Page  47.  48.  In a r i s k y s i t u a t i o n , do you s t i l l usually think i t worth taking a chance?  Y  Do you often f e e l nervous i n your stomach before an important occasion?  e  a  Yes  N  o  No  3  2  53  Below are 4 statements r e l a t i n g to everyday stress and s t r a i n s which may describe how you f e e l at t h i s time. Please check the extent to which each statement describes you. For example, i f statement number one describes you " f a i r l y w e l l " then you should c i r c l e the number '2' opposite that statement. Continue u n t i l you have responded to a l l 4 statements.  This describes me: 1 very well 1.  2 f a i r l y well  3  4  not very well  not at a l l  In general, I am unusually tense or nervous.  2.  I experience a great amount of nervous s t r a i n connected with my d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s .  3.  At the end of the day I am completely exhausted, mentally and p h y s i c a l l y .  4.  1  2  3  4  54.  1  2  3  4  55.  1  2  3  4  56.  1  2  3  4  57.  My d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s are extremely t r y i n g and s t r e s s f u l .  188  Page DI r e c t i o n s :  1.  If you agree with each of the items l i s t e d below put a c i r c l e around the AGREE.  2.  If you disagree with each of the items l i s t e d below put a c i r c l e around the DISAGREE.  3.  Please answer a l l of the items. For O f f i c e Use Only Dup 1-4 5  Adult education helps you to recognize opportunities in l i f e .  Agree  Disagree  Adult education helps a person to adjust to change.  Agree  Disagree  Adult education can help me to a t t a i n my goals i n l i f e .  Agree  Disagree  Adult education .will not help a person to become a better worker.  Agree  Disagree  Most people involved i n adult education have nothing better to do.  Agree  Disagree  10  Adult education i s not important i n the f i g h t against poverty.  agree  Disagree  11  7.  I r e a l l y cannot see any benefits i n adult education.  Agree  Disagree  12  8.  The more an adult learns the better equipped he i s to deal with the important problems i n l i f e .  agree  Disagree  13  9.  People are exaggerating the need f o r adult education.  •igree  Disagree  14  10.  I do not have the time to take an interest i n adult education.  Agree  Disagree  15  11.  Adult education helps a person to reach t h e i r potential.  Agree  Disagree  16  12.  adult education l s a good way of learning more about c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s .  Agree  Disagree  17  13.  Government agencies should promote adult education.  Agree  Disagree  18  14.  Adult education has value to the community.  agree  Disagree  19  15.  Adult education does not develop a person's confidence.  Agree  Disagree  20  16.  Adult education w i l l not help a person become a better c i t i z e n .  Agree  Disagree  21  17.  Adult education i s a poor way to use one's l e i s u r e time.  Agree  Disagree  22  18.  Most of the people attending adult education classes are not the type of person I would choose to be f r i e n d s with.  Agree  Disagree  23  19.  adult education ts l i k e investing i n one's s e l f .  Agree  Disagree  24  20.  adult education l s Just as important as the education of children.  Agree  Disagree  25  full  self  189  Page  For O f f i c e Use Only 21.  Adult education i s a waste of time.  22.  Adult education can help a person become sel,f and independent.  23.  Business and industry should do more to encourage people to take part i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s .  24.  As people get more time f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s education w i l l be i n greater demand.  reliant  adult  Agree  Disagree  26  Agree  Disagree  27  Agree  Disagree  28  Agree  Disagree  29  25.  I resent spending money on adult education.  Agree  Disagree  30  26.  The way society i s changing adults i n the future w i l l have to keep on learning a l l through t h e i r l i v e s .  Agree  Disagree  31  27.  Adult education does not help you to get ahead.  Agree  Disagree  32  28.  An adult who i s an active learner i s respected by others.  Agree  Disagree  33  190 FOR OFFICE USE ONLY DATE  PATIENT CODE NO.  TIME 1-4 5  Age on l a s t  15 - 19 y e a r s  1  20 - 29 y e a r s  2  30 - 39 y e a r s  3  40 - 49 y e a r s  4  50 - 59 y e a r s  5  60  +  Sex.  3.  birthday  Marital  years  years.  6  Male  1  Female  2  Status.  Occupational  6-7  Single  1  Married  2  Widowed  3  Separated  4  Divorced  5  Common-law m a r r i a g e or c o h a b i t i n g  6  10  Status. Employed F u l l Time  1  Employed P a r Time  2  Homemaker  3  Unemployed  4  Retired  5  Disabled - not i n labour force  6  11  191 FOR OFFICE USE ONLY  5.  P e r s o n a l income b e f o r e t a x e s from employment a n d / o r p r i v a t e income s o u r c e s , t o n e a r e s t $500.00 d u r i n g 1975 $ less  6.  thanL $5,000  1  $5,000 -  $5,999  2  $6,000 -  $6,999  3  $7,000 -  $7,999  4  $8,000 -  $8,999  5  $9,000 -  $9,999  6  $10,000 - $10,999  7  $11,000 - $11,999  8  $12,000 - $12,999  9  $13,000 +  A  T o t a l househod income b e f o r e t a x e s , i n c l u d i n g s p o u s e , s o n s , d a u g h t e r s and r e l a t i v e s t o n e a r e s t $5000.00 d u r i n g 1975 $ l e s s t h a n $7,000  1  $7,000 -  $7,999  2  $8,000 -  $8,999  3  $9,000 -  $9,999  4  $10,000 - $10,999  5  $11,000 - $11,999  6  $12,000 - $12,999  7  $13,000 - $13,999  8  12-16  18-22  $14,000 - $14,999 . 9 $15,000 +  7.  A  O c c u p a t i o n - F u l l t i t l e of j o b and b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 24-25 26-27  192 FOR OFFICE USE ONLY 8.  Number o f y e a r s a t p r e s e n t j o b  years.  28-29 30  9.  10.  B o r n i n Canada.  Yes  1  No  2  31  I f " N o " , how many y e a r s r e s i d e n c y i n Canada? years.  32-33  11.  Ethnic  34-35  12.  Number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d . Grade 1 t o U n i v e r s i t y years.  origin.  less  than 8 years  1  8-10  years  2  11 - 12  years  3  13 - 14  years  4  15 y e a r s +  36-37  5  13.  Number o f  children.  14.  Number of a d u l t s p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g i n y o u r household  38  39-40  41-42  193 A P P E N D I X  4  PATIENT  NO:  INTERVIEWER'S DATE:  FAMILY  PRACTICE  PATIENT  RESEARCH  STUDY  SECOND  INTERVIEW  UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT  OF OF  SCHEDULE  BRITISH ADULT  CARE  COLUMBIA EDUCATION  NAME:  PERSONAL HEALTH  REPORT  As w i t h the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l a s t S p r i n g , we would l i k e you t o make some comparisons u s i n g the l e n g t h o f a l i n e as a r e f e r e n c e . Please think of the h e a l t h of the people you are i n c o n t a c t w i t h i n your d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . We w i l l say t h a t the average h e a l t h o f these people i s a l ^ n e t h i s l o n g :  Now i n the space above draw a l i n e i n d i c a t i n g how your average h e a l t h over the p a s t y e a r compares t o the h e a l t h o f o t h e r s around you. F o r example, i f you view your h e a l t h o v e r the p a s t year as about twice as good as people around you then you would draw a l i n e which i s two times as long as the l i n e above. I f , on the o t h e r hand, your h e a l t h i s about 1/3 as good as o t h e r s , you would c o r r e c t l y respond by drawing a l i n e 1/3 as long as the r e f e r ence l i n e .  PERSONAL  STRESS  REPORT  Now t h i n k of the people with whom you are i n d a i l y c o n t a c t and v i s u a l i z e the amount of s t r e s s which you see they e x p e r i e n c e . We w i l l say t h a t t h i s average s t r e s s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a l i n e t h i s l o n g :  In the space above, draw a l i n e i n d i c a t i n g how your own year compares t o the s t r e s s o f o t h e r s around you.  p e r s o n a l s t r e s s over the  past  196  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o f i n d o u t the way i n which c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n o u r s o c i e t y a f f e c t d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . Each item c o n s i s t s o f a p a i r o f a l t e r n a t i v e s narked a. o r b. Please s e l e c t the one statement o f each p a i r - and o n l y one - which you more n t r u n q l y b e l i e v e to be t r u e as f a r as you a r e c o n c e r n e d . This i s a measure o f your p e r s o n a l b e l i e f . There a r e no r i g h t o r wrong answers WHICH DO YOU BELIEVE TO BE TRUE? CIRCLE THE NUMBER YOU SELECT. l . a . Many o f the unhappy t h i n g s i n peoples l i v e s are p a r t l y due t o bad l u c k .  or  l . b . People's misfortunes r e s u l t from the m i s t a k e s thev make,  2 . a . One o f t h e major reasons why we have wars i s because p e o p l e don't take enough i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s  or  2.b.  3.a.  or  3 . b . U n f o r t u n a t e l y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s worth o f t e n passes u n r e c o g n i s e d no matter how h a r d he t r i e s .  or  4.b. Capable p e o p l e who f a i l t o become l e a d e r s have n o t taken advantage o f t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s  In the l o n g r u n p e o p l e g e t the r e s p e c t they d e s e r v e i n t h i s world.  4 . a . Without t h e r i g h t breaks one cannot be an e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r .  5 . a . Mo matter how hard you t r y some o r people j u s t don't l i k e you.  .a. I have o f t e n found t h a t what is- g o i n g to happen w i l l happen.  or  There w i l l always be wars, no matter how hard people t r y to p r e v e n t them.  5,b. People who c a n ' t g e t o t h e r s t o l i k e them don't understand how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s .  6.b. T r u s t i n g t o f a t e has never t u r n e d o u t as w e l l f o r me as making a d e c i s i o n t o take a d e f i n i t e course of a c t i o n .  197  7.a.  I f people e x e r c i s e d and had a good d i e t they wouldn't become' i l l .  or  7.b.  H e a l t h i s a m a t t e r of l u c k no matter what you do, i f you are u n l u c k y you become ill.  8.a.  Becoming a success i s a m a t t e r o f hard work, l u c k has l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o do w i t h i t .  or  8.b.  G e t t i n g a good job depends m a i n l y on b e i n g i n the r i g h t p l a c e a t the r i g h t time.  9.a.  The average c i t i z e n can have an i n f l u e n c e i n government decisions.  or  9.b.  T h i s w o r l d i s run by the few people i n power, and t h e r e i s not much the l i t t l e guy can do about i t .  When I make p l a n s , I am almost c e r t a i n t h a t I can make them work.  or 10.b.  I t i s not always wise to p l a n too f a r ahead because many t h i n g s t u r n out to be a m a t t e r o f good or bad f o r t u n e anyhow.  11.a.In my case g e t t i n g what I want has l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g to do with luck.  o r 11.b.  Many times we might j u s t as w e l l d e c i d e what to do by flipping a coin.  12.a.Who gets t o be the boss o f t e n or 12.b. depends on who was l u c k y enough to be i n the r i g h t p l a c e f i r s t .  G e t t i n g p e o p l e to do the r i g h t t h i n g s depends upon a b i l i t y , l u c k has l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o do w i t h i t .  10.a.  13.a.  As f a r as world a f f a i r s are o r 13.b. c o n c e r n e d , most o f us a r e the v i c t i m s of f o r c e s we can n e i t h e r u n d e r s t a n d , nor c o n t r o l  By t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s the p e o p l e can c o n t r o l world events.  198  14.a.Most p e o p l e don't r e a l i z e the e x t e n t t o which t h e i r l i v e s are c o n t r o l l e d by a c c i d e n t a l happenings.  o r 14.b. There r e a l l y i s no such t h i n g as " l u c k " ,  1 5 . a . I t i s hard t o know whether o r n o t a p e r s o n r e a l l y l i k e s you.  o r 15.b. How many f-riends you have depends upon how n i c e a p e r s o n you a r e .  16.a.In the l o n g run the bad t h i n g s t h a t happen t o us a r e b a l a n c e d by t h e good ones.  o r 16.b. Most m i s f o r t u n e s a r e t h e r e s u l t of lack of a b i l i t y , ignorance, l a z i n e s s , or a l l three.  17.a.With enough e f f o r t we c a n p u t a o r 17.b stop t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u tion.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r people t o have much c o n t r o l over t h i n g s such as the p o l l u t i o n of o u r environment.  18.a.Many times I f e e l t h a t I have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over t h e t h i n g s t h a t happen t o me.  o r 18.b. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o b e l i e v e t h a t chance o r l u c k p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n my l i f e .  19.a.People a r e l o n e l y because they don't t r y t o be f r i e n d l y .  o r 19.b. There's n o t much use i n t r y i n g t o o hard t o p l e a s e p e o p l e , i f they l i k e you they l i k e you.  20.a.What happens t o me i s my own doing.  o r 20.b. Sometimes I f e e l t h a t I don't have enough c o n t r o l o v e r the d i r e c t i o n my l i f e is taking.  199  THE  Original Ratings  1  HINKLE ET AL  Amended Ratings  SEVERITY  OF ILLNESS RATING SCALE  Characteristics  1. Low  I l l n e s s e s associated with a d e f i n i t e abnormality of c e l l s or metabolic systems but not seriously impairing the function of any organ system.  2. High  Examples: Orthostatic albuminuria; l a t e latent lues, manifested only by seropostivity; small benign naevus.  3. Low  I l l n e s s e s associated with a d e f i n i t e impairment of one or more organ systems, but having l i t t l e or no e f f e c t upon the capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l to carry out his usual a c t i v i t i e s . Examples: Functional constipation; moderate grades of obesity; early stages of hypertensive vascular disease.  2  4. High  5. Low  Illnesses which seriously impair the function of one or more organ systems, but which have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the highest integrative functions, so that the i n d i v i d u a l may carry out his usual a c t i v i t i e s , but in a somewhat r e s t r i c t e d manner.  6. High  Examples: Many episodes of active peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus; hypertensive cardiovascular discease; the common cold; vascular headache.  7. Low  I l l n e s s e s which prevent an i n d i v i d u a l from carrying out his usual a c t i v i t i e s , but do not prevent a l l other a c t i v i t i e s . Examples: Measles; fracture of anTcle; moderately severe anxiety state; many episodes of the common cold or dysmenorrhea; any disease which  ' j  4  8. High  9. Low  c 3  (1960)  10. High  Illnesses which severely impair the highest integrative functions, and make i t impossible for the i n d i v i d u a l to carry out any a c t i v i t i e s other than those d i r e c t l y associated with survival. Examples: Menigococcus meningitis; hepatic coma typhoid; catatonic schizophrenia.  200 A P P E N D I X  5  TABLE 1 ATTITUDE SCALE ITEMS AND  VALUES Scale  Item Adult education 2 3 4 5 6  i s mainly  f o r those  who d i d n o t c o m p l e t e h i g h s c h o o l  7.7  Adult education  7.0  i s a•waste o f time  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a g o o d way o f l e a r n i n g more a b o u t c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t e s Adult education i s not important i n the f i g h t against poverty  6.8 6.7  A d u l t education h e l p s you t o r e c o g n i s e opportunities i n l i f e  6.6  Government a g e n c i e s education  6.4  should promote a d u l t  A d u l t education helps^a person their potential 8  Value  reach  6.3  M o s t p e o p l e h a v e j o b s t h a t r e q u i r e them t o l e a r n how t o k e e p a b r e a s t o f c h a n g e  6.1  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n has v a l u e t o t h e community  6.1  10  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h e l p s t o overcome t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s o f e v e r y day l i f e  6.0  11  I resent spending  5.9  12  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s j u s t as i m p o r t a n t the education o f c h i l d r e n  9  13  14  money o n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as  5.7  The more an a d u l t l e a r n s t h e b e t t e r e q u i p p e d he i s t o d e a l w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n t problems i n l i f e  5,4  B u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r y s h o u l d do more t o encourage people t o take p a r t i n a d u l t education a c t i v i t i e s  5.2  201  I r e a l l y c a n n o t see any b e n e f i t s i n adult education People a r e exaggerating adult education  t h e need f o r  A d u l t education can help a person s e l f - r e l i a n t and i n d e p e n d a n t  become  As p e o p l e g e t more t i m e f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be i n g r e a t e r demand Most o f the people a t t e n d i n g a d u l t education c l a s s e s a r e not the type o f person I would choose t o ke f r i e n d l y w i t h A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a p o o r way t o u s e one's l e i s u r e time A d u l t e d u c a t i o n does n o t h e l p you t o g e t ahead Adult education one's s e l f  i s like  investing i n  Money s h o u l d be s p e n t o n i m p r o v i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r adult education Adult education w i l l not help a become a b e t t e r c i t i z e n I do n o t h a v e t h e t i m e in adult education  t o t a k e an  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n does n o t d e v e l o p self-confidence I w o u l d be w i l l i n g education  person interest a  t o p a y more f o r a d u l t  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n c a n h e l p me a t t a i n goals i n l i f e Adult education other people  person's  my  h e l p s you i n d e a l i n g w i t h  202  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Continuum 0.65  1.91  2.87  3.78  4.69  6.03  7.52  203 A P P E N D I X  6  l  Table  DISTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL CHANGE SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e  20 30 40 50  Totals  *  Age -  <20 29 39 49 59 >59  %  3 22 26 42 29 7  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  129 X  1  Score  %  *  42.9 41.5 43.3 60.9 51.8 63.6 50.4'  %  #  4 31 34 27 27 4  57.1 58.5 56.7 39.1 48.2 36. 4  7 53 60 60 56 11  127  49.6  256  100.0  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100 .0 100.0  = 6.87, d . f . = 4, N.S.  Sex 63 66  50.8 49.6  61 67  49.2 50.4  124 133  100.0 100.0  129  50.2  128  49. 3  257  100 .0  24 79 25  55. 8 43. 4 78. 1  43 182 32  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  128  49. 8  257  100 .0  Male Female Totals  X Marital  2  d . f . = 1, N .S.  Status  Single Married Other ' Totals  19 103 7  44.2 56.6 21.9  129  50.2  X Yrs  = .04,  2  •  = 13.87, d . f . . = 2 , P < • 001  School 28 36 36 12 13  < 8 Yrs 8 - 1 0 Yrs 11 - 12 Y r s 13 - 14 Y r s >14 Y r s Totals  125 1  X  58.3 50.0 43.9 48.0 54.2  20 36 46 13 11  49.8  126  7 0 1 0 3  48 72 82 25 24  50. 2  251  100 .0  41. 50. 56. 52. 45.  100 100 100 100 100  .0 .0 .0 .0 .0  = 2.76, d . f . = 4, N.S.  2  Canadian Born 62 66  Born i n Canada Not Born i n Canada Totals  128 X  Socio-Economic Less 30.1 40.1 More  2  44.9 56.4  76 51  55. 1 43. 6  138 117  100 .0 100 .0  50.2  127  49 .8  255  100 .0  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  = 3.34, d . f . , = 1, N.S.  Status 40 27 22 16  52.6 55.1 50.0 45.7  36 22 22 19  47. 44. 50. 54.  3  76 49 44 35  105  51.5  99  48. 5  204  than. 30.1 - 40.0 - 50.0 than 50.0 Totals  X  2  = 0.30, d . f . = 3, N.S.  4 9  0  204  Table 2 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTIVE STRESS SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  S u b j e c t i v e S t r e s s Scale Scores Less than 13  1  Age 20 30 40 50  -  <20 29 39 49 59 >59  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  %  13 and G r e a t e r %  #  Totals IT  %  3 34 32 30 34 3  42.9 64.2 53.3 43.5 59.6 27.3  4 19 28 39 23 8  57.1 35.8 46.7 56.5 40.4 72.7  7 53 60 69 57 11  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  136  52.9  121  47.1  257  100 .0  X  = 9.38, d. f . = 5, N .S.  2  Sex Male Female Totals  66 71  52.8 53.4  59 62  47.2 46.6  125 133  100 .0 100 .0  137  53.1  121  46.9  258  100 .0  X  = 0.01, d. f . = 1, N .S.  2  M a r i t a l Status Single Married Other Totals-  28 91 18  63.6 50.0 56.3  16 91 14  36.4 SO.O 43.8  44 182 32  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  137  53.1  121  46.9  258  100 .0  X  = 2.79, d. f . = 2, N .S.  2  Yrs School < 8 Yrs 8 - 1 0 Yrs 11 - 12 Y r s 13 - 14 Y r s >14 Y r s Totals  20 34 54 12 12  41.7 46.6 65.9 48.0 50 .0  28 39 28 13 12  58.3 53.4 34.1 52.0 50.0  48 73 82 25 24  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  132  52. 4  120  47.6  252  100 .0  X Canadian  3orn  Born i n Canada Not Born i n Canada Totals  77 58  55.4 49.6  62 59  44.6 50.4  139 117  100 .0 100 .0  135  52.7  121  47.3  256  100 .0  X Socio-Economic Less 30.1 40.1 More  = 9.41, d. f . = 4, N .S.  2  2  = 0.86, d. f . = 1, N .S .  Status  than 30 .1 - 40.0 - 50.0 than 50 .0 Totals  43 26 24 21  56.6 53.1 54.5 60.0  33 23 20 14  43. 4 46.9 45.5 40.0  114  55.9  90  44.1 -  X  2  = 0.45, d. f . = 3, N .S.  76 49 44 35 204  100 . 0 100 .0 100..0 100 .0 100..0  205  Table 3 DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH INDEX SCORES (POST-TEST) AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  Bush H e a l t h S t a t u s Index ( P o s t - T e s t ) Less than 0.747 % *  Acre  i?  20 30 40 50  - <20 29 - 39 - 49 - 59 >59  %  Totals %  #  3 15 27 34 30 6  50.0 31.3 50.9 54.0 60.0 66.7  3 33 26 29 20 3  50. 0 68. 7 49 .1 46. 0 40. 0 33. 3  6 48 53 63 50 9  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  114  50.2  114  49 .8  229  100 .0  Y Yr rs s Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  G r e a t e r than 0.747  X  2  = 10.16, d . f . = 5, N.S.  Sex Male Female Totals  54 62  49.1 51.7  56 58  50. 0 48. 3  110 120  100 .0 100 .0  116  50.4  114  49 .6  230  100 .0  X Marital  = 0.15, d . f . = 1, N.S.  Status  Single Married Other  16 82 18. Totals  116 X  Yrs  2  2  41.0 49.7 69.2  23 83 8  59. 0 50. 3 30 .8  39 165 26  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  50.4  114  49. 6  230  100 .0  = 5.09, d . f . = 2, N.S.  School  < 8 8-10 11 - 12 13 - 14 >14  22 43 32 12 6  51.2 70.5 43.2 48.0 26.1  21 18 42 13 17  48. 8 29. 5 56. S 52. 0 73. 9  43 61 74 25 23  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  115  50.9  111  49. 1  226  100 .0  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  X  2  = 16.86, d . f • = .4, P < .01  Canadian Born 61 54  50.4 50.5  60 53  49. 6 49. 5  121 107  100 .0 100 .0  115  50.4  113  49. 6  228  100 .0  Born i n Canada Not Born i n Canada Totals  X Socio-Economic Less 30.1 50.1 More  2  = .0066, d . f . = 1, N.S.  Status  than 30.1 - 49.0 - 50.0 than 50.0 Totals X  34 22 19 15  52.3 51.2 48.7 44.1  31 21 20 19  47. 7 48. 3 51. 3 55. 9  65 43 39 34  90  49.7  91  50. 3  181  2  = 0.65,. d . f . = 3, N.S.  100 100 100 100  .0 .0 .0 .0  100 .0  206  Table 4 DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH CHANGE SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  H e a l t h Change Scores (Bush P r e - T e s t , P o s t - T e s t R e s i d u a l s ) .007 and l e s s % NO.  No.  Totals. No. %  %  Age » 20 30 40 50  -  <20 29 39 49 59 >59  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  3 20 25 34 27 5  50.0 42.6 48.1 54.0 54.0 55.6  3 27 27 29 23 4  114  50.2  113  X  2  50. 57. 51. 46. 46. 44.  0 4 9 0 0 4  6 47 52 63 50 9  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  49. 8  227  100 .0  = 1 .94, d. f. = 5, N • S.  Sex Male Female Totals  55 60  50.0 50.8  55 58  50. 0 49 .2  110 118  100 .0 100 .0  115  50.4  113  49 .6  228  100 .0  X Marital  = 0 .02, d. f.. = 1, N .S.  Status  Single Married Other Totals  19 80 16  58.7 49.1 61.5  20 83 10  51. 3 50. 9 38. 5  39 163 26  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  115  50.4  113  49. 6  228  100 .0  1 3 4 0 8  43 61 72 25 23  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  49. 1  224  100 .0  119 107  100 .0 100 .0  X Yrs  2  2  = 1 .45, d. f. = 2, N .S.  School  < 8 Yrs 8 - 1 0 Yrs 11 - 12 Y r s 13 - 14 Y r s >14 Y r s Totals  18 ' 37 35 12 12  41.9 60.7 48.6 48.0 52.2  114  50.9  X  2  25 • 24 37 13 11 110  58. 39. 51. 52. 47.  = 3 .98, d. f. = 4, N .S.  Canadian Born Born i n Canada Not Born i n iCanada Totals  65 49 114 X  54.6 45.8  54 58  45. 4 54. 2  50.4  112  49. 6  226  100 .0  - 1 .76, d. f. = 1, N .S .  2  Socio-Economic S t a t u s Less 30.1 40.1 More  than 30 .1 - 40.0 - 50.0 than 50 .0 Totals X  33 22 14 21  50.8 51.2 35.9 61.8  32 21 25 13  49. 48. 64. 38.  2 8 1 2  65 43 39 34  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  90  49.7  91  50. 3  181  100 .0  2  = 5 .02,  d.f. = 3, N .S.  207  Table 5 DISTRIBUTION OF EXTRAVERSION-INTROVERSION SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  EPI E x t r a v e r s i o n S c a l e S c o r e Less than 15 # %  15 and G r e a t e r # %  Totals #  %  Age 20 30 40 50  -  <20 29 39 49 59 >59  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  4 27 35 39 28 8  57.1 50.9 58.3 56.5 49.1 72.7  3 26 25 30 29 3  42. 9 49. 1 41. 7 43. 5 50. 9 27. 3  141  54.9  116  45. 1  X  2  7 53 60 69 57 11 •  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  257  100 .0  = 2 •79, d. f . = 4, N. S.  Sex 68 73  54.4 54.9  57 60  45. 6 45. 1  125 133  100 .0 100 .0  141  54.7  117  45. 3  258  100 .0  Male Female Totals  X  2  = 0 .01, d. f . = 1, N. S.  M a r i t a l Status Single Married Other Totals  23 106 12  52.3 58.2 37.5  21 76 20  47. 7 41. 8 62. 5  44 182 32  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  141  54.7  117  45. 3  258  100 .0  X  2  = 4 .85, d. f . = 2, P < . 09  Yrs School < 8 3-10 11 - 12 13 - 14 >14  28 33 45 18 12  58.3 45.2 54.9 72.0 50.0  20 40 37 7 12  41. 7 54. 8 45. 1 28. 0 50. 0  136  54.0  116  46. 0  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  X  2  48 • 73 82 25 24  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  252  100 .0  139 117  100 .0 100 .0  = 6 .08, d. f . = 4, N. S.  Canadian Born 71 68  51.1 58.1  68 49  48. 9 41. 9  139  54.3  117  45. 7  Born i n Canada Not Born i n Canada Totals  X Socio-Economic Less 30.1 40.1 More  2  256  100 .0  = 1 .27, d. f . = 1, N. S.  Status 37 28 28 15  48.7 57.1 63.6 42.9  39 21 16 20  51. 3 42. 9 36. 4 57. 1  76 49 44 35  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  108  52.9  96  47. 1  204  100 .0  than 30.1 - 40.0 - 50.0 than 50.0 Totals  X  2  = 4 .35, d. f . = 3, N. S.  208  Table 6 DISTRIBUTION OF NEUROTICISM-STABILITY SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  EPI N e u r o t i c i s m S c a l e Less than #  12 %  Score  12 and G r e a t e r # %  Totals #  %  Age 20 30 40 50  <20 - 29 - 30 - 49 - 59 >59  1 20 27 48 31 3  14.3 37.7 45.0 69.6 54.4 72. 7  6 33 33 21 26 3  85. 7 62. 3 55. 0 30. 4 45. 6 27. 3  7 53 60 69 57 11  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  135  52.5  122  47 .5  257  100 .0  39. 2 54. 9  125 133  100 .0 100 .0  47. 3  258  100 .0  56. 8 43. 4 56. 3  44 182 32  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  47. 3  258  100 .0  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  X  2  = 18.67, d . f • = 4, P < .001  Sex 76 60  60.8 45.1  49 73  136  52.7  122  Male Female Totals  X Marital  = 6.36, d . f . = 1, P  < . 02  Status  Single Married Other Totals  19 103 14  43.2 56.6 43.8  25 79 18  136  52.7  122  X Yrs  2  2  = 3.73, d . f . = 2, P  < .1  School 34 34 34 18 14  70.8 46.6 41.5 72.0 58.3  14 39 43 7 10  29. 2 53. 4 58. 5 28 .0 41. 7  48 73 82 25 24  134  53.2  118  46 .3  252  100 .0  < 3 Yrs 8 - 1 0 Yrs 11 - 12 Y r s 13 - 14 Y r s >14 Y r s Totals  X  2  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 . 0  = 15.62, d . f . = 4, P < .01  Canadian Born 76 60  54.7 51.3  63 57  45. 3 48. 7  139 117  100 .0 100 .0  136  53.1  120  46. 9  256  100 .0  Born i n Canada Not B o r n . i n Canada Totals  X Socio-Economic Less 30.1 40.1 More  2  = 0.29, d . f . = 1, N -S.  Status 42 28 24 19  55.3 57.1 54.5 54.3  34 21 20 16  44. 7 42. 9 45. 5 45. 7  76 49 44 35  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  113  55.4  91  44. 6  204  100 .0  than 30.1 - 40.0 - 50.0 than 50.0 Totals  X  2  = 0.09, d . f . = 3, N .S.  209  Table 7 DISTRIBUTION OF LOCUS OF CONTROL SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  Locus o f C o n t r o l S c a l e Score Less than. .9 # %  Age 20 30 40 50  -  <20 29 39 49 59 >59  4 27 29 31 25 3  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  52.7  119 X  2  66.7 57.4 55.8 50 .0 50.0 33.3  9 and g r e a t e r # %  Totals #  %  2 20 23 31 25 6  33. 3 42. 6 44. 2 50. 0 50. 0 66. 7  6 47 52 62 50 9  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  107  47. 3  226  100 .0  = 2.59, d . f . = 4, N.S.  Sex Male Female  61 59 Totals  56 .0 50.0  120 X  2  52.9  48 59  44. 0 50. 0  109 118  100 .0 100 .0  107  47. 1  227  100 .0  35. 9 48. 1 57. 7  39 162 26  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  47. 1.  227  100 .0  = 0.81, d . f . = 1, N.S .  M a r i t a l Status 25 84 11  64.1 51.9 42.3  14 78 15  120  52.9  107  Single Married Other Totals  X  2  = 3.21, d . f . = 2, N.S.  Yrs S c h o o l < 8 Yrs 8 - 10 Y r s 11 - 12 Y r s 13 - 14 Y r s >14 Y r s Totals  16 31 38 19 15  38.1 50.8 52.8 76.0 65.2  26 30 34 6 8  61. 9 49 .2 47. 2 24. 0 34. 8  42 61 72 25 23  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  119  53.4  104  46. 6  223  100 .0  X Canadian  = 10.55, d . f . = 4 , P < .05  Born 71 48  Born i n Canada Not Born i n Canada Totals  119 X  Socio-Economic Less 30.1 40.1 More  2  2  59.7 45.3 52.9.  48 58  40. 3 54. 7  119 106  100 .0 100 .0  106  47. 1  225  100 .0  = 4.65, d . f . = 1, P < • 05  Status  than 30.1 - 40.1 - 50.0 than 50.0 Totals X  24 30 23 22  37.5 69.8 57.5 64. 7  40 13 17 12  62. 5 30. 2 42. 5 35. 3  64 43 40 34  99  54.7  82  45. 3  181  2  = 13.08, d . f . = 3 / P < .01  100 100 100 100  .0 .0 .0 .0  100 .0  210  Table 8 DISTRIBUTION OF LEARNING ACTIVITY SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  S u b j e c t i v e Estimation of Adult Learning Scale Less than #  1621 %  1621 and G r e a t e r 1 %  Scores  . Totals # %  A2£  20 30 40 50  -  <20 29 39 49 59 >59  7 29 26 28 33 6  100.0 54.7 43.3 40 .6 57.9 54.5  0 24 34 41 24 5  0.0 45.3 56.7 59.4 42.1 45.5  7 53 60 69 57 11  129  50.2  12 8  49.8  253  100 .0  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  X  2  100 100 100 100 100 100  .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0  = 7.42, d . f . = 4, p < .1  Sex 57 72  Male Female Totals  129 X  Marital  68 61  54.4 45.9  125 133  100 .0 100 .0  50.0  129  50.0  258  100 .0  = 1.88, d . f . = 1, N.S.  Status 25 91 13  Single Married Other Totals  129 X  Yrs  2  45.6 54.1  2  56.3 50.0 40.6  19 91 19  43.2 50.0 59. 4  44 182 32  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  50 .0  129  50 .0  258  100 .0  = 1.94, d . f . = 2, N.S .  School  < 8 8-10 11 - 12 13 - 14 >14  35 37 36 12 6  72.9 50.7 43.9 48.0 25.0  13 36 46 13 18  27.1 49.3 56.1 52.0 75.0  48 73 82 25 24  126  50.0  126  50 .0  252  100 .0  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  X  2  100 100 100 100 100  .0 .0 .0 .0 .0  = 17.36, d . f . = 4 , p < .01  Canadian Born Born i n Canada Not Born i n Canada Totals  68 61  48.9 52.1  71 56  51.1 47.9  139 117  100 .0 . 100 .0  129  50.4  127  49.6  256  100 .0  ,X = 0.26, d . f . = 1, N.S. 2  Socio-Economic Less 30.1 40.1 More  Status  than 30.1 - 40.0 - 50.0 than 50.0 Totals  52 23 16 12  68.4 46.9 36.4 34.3  24 26 28 23  31.6 53.1 63.6 65.7  76 49 44 35  103  50.5  101  , 49.5  204  X = 17.21, d . f . = 3, p < .001 2  100 100 100 100  .0 .0 .0 .0  100 .0  211  Table 9 DISTRIBUTION OF ATTITUDE TO ADULT EDUCATION SCORES AND SELECTED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Variable  Attitude Less  than  112.1 %  #  to Adult Education Scale 112.1 and G r e a t e r #  %  Age 20 30 40 50  -  <20 29 39 49 59 >59  Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Yrs Totals  Scores  Totals #  %  3 29 29 32 25 3  42.9 54.7 48.3 46.4 43.9 72.7  4 24 31 37 32 3  57.1 45.3 51.7 53.6 56.1 27.3  7 53 60 69 57 11  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  126  49 .0  131  51.0  257  100 .0  X  = 3.73, d . f . = 4, N.S  2  Sex Male Female  64 62 ' Totals  126 X  Marital  61 71  48. 8 53. 4  125 133  100 .0 100 .0  48.4  132  51.6  258  100 .0  = 0.54, d . f . = 1, N.S  2  Status  Single Married Other Totals  22 89 15  50.0 48.9 46.9  22 93 17  50.0 51.1 53.1  44 182 32  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  126  48.8  132  51.2  258  100 .0  X Yrs  51.2 46.6  2  = 0.07, d . f . = 2 , N.S  School  < 8 Yrs 8 - 1 0 Yrs 11 - 12 Y r s 13 - 14 Y r s >14 Y r s Totals  32 36 38 10 5  66.7 49.3 46.3 40.0 20.8  16 37 44 15 19  33.3 50.7 53.7 60.0 79 .2  48 73 82 25 24  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  121  48.0  131  52.0  252  100 .0  X  2  = 14.58, d . f . = 4, p < .01  Canadian Born Born i n Canada Not Born i n Canada Totals  58 67  41.7 57.3  81 50  58.3 42.7  139 117  100 .0 100 .0  125  48.8  131  51.2  256  100 .0  X Socio-Economic Less 30.1 40.1 More  2  = 6.14, d . f . = 1, P < .02  Status  than 30.1 - 40.0 - 50.0 than 50.0 Totals X  50 23. 14 12  65.8 46 .9 31.8 34.3  26 26 30 23  34.2 53.1 68.2 65.7  76 49 44 35  100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0  99  48.5  105  51.5  204  100 .0  2  = 16.88, d . f . = 3, p < .001  

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