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Drama in education : how successful has the classroom implementation of drama been in elementary schools? Ormiston, Patricia 1991

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DRAMA I N E D U C A T I O N : HOW  S U C C E S S F U L HAS THE CLASSROOM  I M P L E M E N T A T I O N OF DRAMA B E E N I N E L E M E N T A R Y  SCHOOLS?  by PATRICIA  ORMISTON  B.Ed.(Elem.),The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1987  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S (Department  We a c c e p t to  o f Language  this  thesis  the required  Education)  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A August 1991 ©Patricia  O r m i s t o n , 1991  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his  or  her  representatives.  It is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  i i  ABSTRACT  Education child's strand  of the c u r r i c u l u m Columbia.  elementary classrooms i n the This  of dramatic  and r a t i o n a l e  interviews.  The s t u d y  scarcity blamed  study  was  of  were u s i n g  Arts  included  i n the purpose,  revealed  and  little  slightly  a majority  on "an a l r e a d y  appears  overloaded  and  were  conducted.  Results  were compared. of teachers  lacked  i n education. taking  place  Teachers in their  of the questionnaires  more p o s i t i v e .  i n w h i c h drama  was  of  (1985).  t o each question  d r a m a was  whereas the r e s u l t s  Guide  written questionnaires  interviews  that  of drama  t o meet t h e g o a l s  Curriculum  both  The r e s p o n s e s  claimed  extent  i t ss t r u c t u r e ,  i n t h e methodology o f drama  respondents  of  conceptions  were knowledgeable  playing;  teachers  from the questionnaires  schools,  Arts  of drama i n  t o what  and an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  interviewed  this  f o r i t su s e , and what t y p e s  Data c o l l e c t i o n  training  f o r conducting  to discover  drama as mandated t h e F i n e  tabulated  of Education  and t o examine t e a c h e r s '  teachers  elementary classroom  oral  every  i n the Fine  of the implementation  attempted  elementary classroom  goals,  of the M i n i s t r y  of  curriculum.  study  methodology  i s included  The p u r p o s e  examine t h e success  drama  i s a necessary part  d e v e l o p m e n t and drama  British to  i n the Arts  In both  found  cases the  i n elementary classrooms timetable"  and  "no  was  training".  iii  Those teachers using drama a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r success to courses or workshops they had attended. Most teachers saw the merit of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m but many d i d n ' t know how t o use i t as a l e a r n i n g t o o l subject d i s c i p l i n e s .  i n other  Those i n t e g r a t i n g drama i n t h e i r  programs used i t p r i m a r i l y as an extension of whole language. The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study  i n d i c a t e d that the implementation  drama could not s u c c e s s f u l l y occur unless teachers were exposed to both the theory and methodology of i t s use i n education.  3  of  iv  CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  viii  1.STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  1  Introduction  1  Background t o the study  2  Statement of the Problem  14  Limitations  16  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  19  Summary of Problem  22  3. LITERATURE REVIEW  25  Importance of the A r t s i n the C u r r i c u l u m  25  The E v o l u t i o n of Drama i n the School C u r r i c u l u m  28  Dramatic P l a y i n g And Theatre  32  L e a r n i n g and Drama i n Education  38  A Phenomenographical Study on Learning  40  Summary  42  3.RESEARCH DESIGN  44  Method  44  Time  49  Subjects  49  Data C o l l e c t i o n  50  Data A n a l y s i s  52  V  Assumptions  54  4. PRESENTATIONS OF FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA  55  General Overview  55  A n a l y s i s of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  55  W r i t t e n Responses from Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  77  O r a l Interviews  80  D e s c r i p t i o n s of Teachers'  Conceptions  Samples from Interviews  82 82  Summary of F i n d i n g s  105  5. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY  114  Summary  114  Conclusions  117  Recommendations  127  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research  130  Epilogue  133  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY  141  7. APPENDICES  146  A. L e t t e r t o School P r i n c i p a l  146  B. L e t t e r t o Classroom  147  Teacher  C. Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  148  D. D e s c r i p t i o n of O r a l Interview  152  E. Sample of O r a l Interview  157  (verbatim)  F. Raw Data from O r a l Interviews  162  LIST  OF TABLES  Table 1  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects by Grade  55  Table 2  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According t o Age  56  Table 3  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According t o Experience  56  Table 4  Frequency of Subjects Teaching E x t r a C u r r i c u l a r Drama i n Schools 57  Table 5  Type of E x t r a C u r r i c u l a r Drama Done by S u b j e c t s Responding Yes i n Table 4  58  Frequency of S u b j e c t s ' Use of Dramatic Playing  59  Frequency of S u b j e c t s ' Use of S c r i p t e d Drama (Theatre)  60  Number of Courses Dramatic P l a y i n g  Subjects Completed i n 62  Number of Courses Theatre  S u b j e c t s Completed In  Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17  Number of Workshops Subjects i n Drama i n E d u c a t i o n  63 Attended 64  D e s c r i p t i o n of S u b j e c t s ' Background i n Theatre  65  Frequency of S u b j e c t s ' T r a i n i n g i n Performance S k i l l s  66  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subject D i s c i p l i n e s Where Subjects I n t e g r a t e d Drama  67  Scale of S u b j e c t s ' Rating of Classroom Drama Experiences  68  Frequency of Success F a c t o r s i n Classroom Use of Dramatic P l a y i n g  70  Frequency of F a i l u r e F a c t o r s i n Classroom Use of Dramatic P l a y i n g  71  Frequency of Subjects F e e l i n g i n Role i n Dramatic P l a y i n g  73  Apprehensive  vii Table 18 Table 19 Table 20  Frequency of S u b j e c t s ' Use of "Off Stage" and Other Resource M a t e r i a l  75  Frequency of S u b j e c t s ' Use of S c r i p t e d Dramas For Performance  76  Frequency of Form of Drama P r e f e r r e d By Subjects f o r Classroom Use  77  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the encouragement and support I r e c e i v e d d u r i n g the long and arduous year of s t r u g g l e and e x h i l a r a t i o n while pursuing t h i s study. My s i n c e r e thanks t o : - my f a m i l y who l i s t e n e d t o my f r u s t r a t i o n s , and put up with my seemingly endless pre-occupation with drama. - Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r , my a d v i s o r , who s t e a d f a s t l y waited, while I read and r e - r e a d , debated, and read some more, and then s l o w l y s h i f t e d from my entrenched p o s i t i o n on drama to a new and e n l i g h t e n e d p e r s p e c t i v e . - Dr. Gavin B o l t o n who presented e x c i t i n g models of dramatic p l a y i n g a t work thus p r o v i d i n g me with the enthusiasm and i n s p i r a t i o n t o pursue f u r t h e r study of t h i s form of drama. - the committee members Dr. Joe Belanger and Dr. Lee Gunderson who o f f e r e d encouragement and s u g g e s t i o n s . - Mr. Bob Hamelin who was always there t o l i s t e n t o problems. of  - Sharon Reid of Student Research and Assessment O f f i c e the Vancouver School Board f o r guidance.  - Dennis Tupman who gave encouragement and support when i t was d i f f i c u l t t o conduct the survey. - the p r i n c i p a l s who permitted the surveys t o be done i n their schools. - the t e a c h e r s who took the time from t h e i r busy schedules t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . - the t e a c h e r s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d and who c o n t r i b u t e d t o the most e x c i t i n g moments of t h i s study.  1  CHAPTER 1  S T A T E M E N T  OF"  P R O B L E M  INTRODUCTION Drama has i t s p r e s c r i b e d p l a c e on the F i n e A r t s c u r r i c u l u m designed by the M i n i s t r y of Education i n B.C.  It  i s intended t o be a p a r t of the a r t experience of a l l elementary  students, from grade one to grade seven,  presented  i n two s t r a n d s : c r e a t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n . "Education i n the a r t s i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the development of every c h i l d "  (Elementary F i n e A r t s 1985, p. 3 ) .  A r t i s recognized by most educators as a necessary part of the development of the c h i l d  i n the a f f e c t i v e domain where the  child . . . l e a r n s about himself and others through v i c a r i o u s l i f e experiences and has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e g r a t e a l l kinds of knowledge and experience through meaningful human i n t e r a c t i o n (Elementary F i n e A r t s Guide, p. 84). The a r t experience of drama b e n e f i t s the c h i l d ' s development i n understanding  human i n t e r a c t i o n ,  while  v a l i d a t i n g h i s or her own p e r s p e c t i v e of l i f e through t a k i n g on the r o l e of another  human being i n another  context, d e a l i n g  with a s p e c i f i c problem, as w e l l as d e v e l o p i n g  speech,  movement, c o n c e n t r a t i o n , imagination, o b s e r v a t i o n , and sense awareness.  The c e n t r a l theme of t h i s study i s t h a t while  drama i s recognized as a p r e s c r i b e d and necessary component of the t i m e t a b l e , i s i t r e a l l y being implemented i n the classroom?  I f i t i s not, what are the reasons?  2  BACKGROUND With teaching  the gradual  shift  OF  to a child-centered  holistic  as a l l t h e a r t s ,  new p h i l o s o p h y  of education.  education  psychological according could  students  approach  and b i o l o g i c a l  core"  i n classrooms  of  should  model o f  teaching,  ground  i nthe  be t h e b a s i s f o r  t o t h e human  Maslow  (1971).  Drama,  (1980) and G a v i n B o l t o n  as a l e a r n i n g  to "live  understanding  based  a fertile  because they a r e so c l o s e  the opportunity  conceptual  found  "Arts  t o Dorothy Heathcote  be u s e d  STUDY  from a transmission  drama, as w e l l  all  THE  tool,  through"  of subjects  like  (1979),  providing  and d e v e l o p social  their  studies  or  literature. In  r o l e as people w i t h i n  monastery of the Middle  "be  dramatic on"  style  basis  examining  issues  experience.  This  of learning  educators  throughout  Children copying  adult  reflects  behavior  i n popularity  by engaging  and s o l i t a r y  premise  i n make  t o make s e n s e  social  I t i s on t h i s  a  They c a n  (Tarlington that  became t h e  among  century.  "Much o f t h e y o u n g c h i l d ' s e a r l y  4).  gain  t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l "hands  them.  play"  students  b y J o h n Dewey t h a t  was t o g r o w  learn  during  of the s i t u a t i o n .  the twentieth  initially  a  and s o l v i n g problems w i t h i n t h e  advocated  of pedagogy t h a t  play,  the Rubicon,  meaning and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  there",  of perhaps  A g e s o r a s Roman s o l d i e r s  Caesar's dilemma of c r o s s i n g deeper  the context  believe  of the world  language a r i s e s  and V e r r i o u r ,  t h e work  around out of  1983, p.  and i d e o l o g i e s o f  3  Heathcote their this  and B o l t o n  work w i t h type  disciple  I was f i r s t University studied  the  logic  students  of learning  enthusiastic  I  of B r i t i s h  possibility  seminar (Ed.) need  Heathcote dramatic catch  his  to dramatic  an element  Theatre  of teacher  that  role credible to himself  relationships  and a c c e p t e d  often Bolton  existed, addressed  i n Robinson  s t r u c t u r i n g " ( p . 84)  a giggle  wild  acting out.  of students i n coming  "the only  on...don't  objective  (thestudent)  criteria  n e e d s t o make  and t o h i s c l a s s m a t e s "  (p.  t o be aware o f t h e e x i s t i n g  between s t u d e n t s  the  where he e m p h a s i z e s t h e  a group  he  Verriour.  problem during  from extraverted,  stresses  teachers  there  of this  & Education  "When y o u f e e l  cautions  i n 1987 a t t h e  ( J u l y , 1990) and a l s o  m u s t be met a r e t h o s e  He a l s o  b u t become an  playing  of f r i v o l i t y .  of the existence  Bolton  help  and B o l t o n ,  work, but i n r e a l i t y  ( 1 9 8 0 , p. 21) a d v i s e s  an e y e . "  o f how a n d w h y  methodology.  of Heathcote  the lessons  play:  theories  Columbia through Dr. P a t r i c k  f o r "the tightness  safeguarding  that  of t h i s  h e g a v e a t U.B.C.  Exploring  their  i s successful, can't  the theories of their  a n d a n y o n e who h a s w i t n e s s e d  or read  introduced  among t h e p l a y e r s , the  a r e based  83).  (real)  i n t h e drama:  Sometimes t e a c h e r s do o p e r a t e w i t h d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s t h a t t h r e a t e n t o permeate t h e b a r r i e r between t h e s i m u l a t e d network ( t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n ) a n d t h e r e a l n e t w o r k ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s among p u p i l s and between t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s ) ( B o l t o n , i n R o b i n s o n ( E d . ) , 1 9 8 0 , p. 8 3 ) . I  questioned  this  type  t h e absence  of the technical s k i l l s  o f d r a m a , a n d t h e i n s i s t e n c e b y many o f  of theatre i n i t s  4  advocates playing  that  acting  at a l l .  audience,  True,  therefore  as both a c t o r s  performance.  performance  i n that  t h e drama.  threatened difficult  and t h e r e wasn't of being  observed,  the actor  must communicate t o o t h e r s  Would p l a y e r s  i n this  context  acted before?  Was  feel  the task too  How r e a l  t o t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t some k n o w l e d g e  interpreted  i t be t o o d e m a n d i n g  the task  an  One h a s t o a c c e p t t h e r e i s a  i f one had n e v e r  Could  an  and a u d i e n c e , and  without experience i n theatre?  feel  skills?  had t h e sense  i n dramatic  w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o some p r e s s u r e t o g i v e  impressive  drama  d i d not belong  i twasn't t h e a t r e ,  but participants  aware o f one a n o t h e r  within  skills  f o r t h o s e who  as a "performance"  with  could the of  theatre  perhaps  a l l eyes  watching  them? I  also  had c o n c e r n s  that  divorced  itself  that  participants  about  a dramatic form  from t h e a t r i c a l  didn't  need  performance,  b e h a v i n g a n d s o u n d i n g v e r y much l i k e  drama  (theatre)  tension, "inside If theatre  this  skills  and d i d n ' t  skills  playing  t h e a r t form of  as t i m e ,  and p h r a s e s  which  like  prior  acting,  t h e n why w o u l d t h e  training in  i n i t s language?.  t o hover  between two camps:  as an a r t form and drama as a l e a r n i n g into  space,  require  be f o u n d  appears  acting,  t h e drama".  involve  of theatre  such signs,  form o f drama d i d n ' t  Dramatic  slides  symbols,  t h e drama" and " o u t s i d e  technical  theatre  use of terms  believabi1ity,  proclaiming  t o know a n y t h i n g a b o u t  while  with  i n education  e v e r camp p r o v i d e s v a l i d i t y  tool  and i t  f o r that  moment.  5  T h i s " c i t i z e n of two  camps" could c r e a t e ambiguity i n the  minds of some t e a c h e r s . workshops on dramatic  Teachers a t t e n d i n g courses  or  p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l , may  have  been t o l d t h a t t h i s form of drama i s not t h e a t r e but a learning t o o l .  On the other hand teachers who  r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n drama i n education, to  t h e i r own  dramatic  resources  which could r e s u l t  have not  have o f t e n been  left  i n a v a r i e t y of  forms, not n e c e s s a r i l y i n concert with the goals of  the m i n i s t r y .  Classroom teachers  h e s i t a t e to use drama  because they have not r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n drama  (Nelson,  1988) . In 1990, U.B.C, was  Gavin B o l t o n , while t e a c h i n g a summer course  adamant t h a t dramatic  While e x p e r i e n c i n g dramatic were reminded that no one to  improve the drama.  improving  p l a y i n g was  not  at  theatre.  p l a y i n g w i t h i n h i s c l a s s e s , we  should  assume the r o l e of  "director"  Bolton argued t h a t concern f o r  " a c t i n g s k i l l s " could make the drama a r t i f i c i a l ,  the focus would be on performing,  and  w i t h i n the context  Yet, the demands of  of the drama.  and  away from l e a r n i n g being  able to " t h i n k " on one's f e e t , be c r e a t i v e , i m a g i n a t i v e , convincing  i n r o l e , a u d i b l e , and making a p p r o p r i a t e  responses,  is surely d i f f i c u l t  lacking  in theatre s k i l l s .  f o r those teachers  In the hands of the  verbal  and  pupils  skilled  t e a c h e r - a c t o r - d i r e c t o r leader of the c l a s s , l i k e Gavin B o l t o n , dramatic  p l a y i n g can be most e f f e c t i v e i n e n l i g h t e n i n g p u p i l s  through v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c i n g  followed by d i s c u s s i o n and  r e f l e c t i o n on what has been l e a r n e d , but to give t h i s task  to  6  the  regular  classroom  theatre  seemed  t o me  thought  affirmed  Educators will  engages  insist  "en r o u t e "  through  the process  skills  enhance those  But  would  the teacher  t o encourage,  be  i n drama?  Skill-based  position  that  students  and t e a c h e r s  playing,  are the s k i l l s  a  holistic  suggest  teaching years focus,  acquire  "notice  I used  'taught'",  apparently  of  should  engaging  he/she  I f one t a k e s  should  the  to give  engaging  before,  know  i n dramatic  during,  or  after,  discovered  in  (1982)  confirms?  students skills  should  t h e word  suggesting  'acquired' the notion but w i l l  be  "must o v e r t h e of  and c r e a t i n g m e a n i n g f u l  n o t be t h e f o c u s  i n dramatic  to develop  as O ' N e i l l and Lambert  o f drama and t h a t  tension  group  approach has  at a l l but rather  the basic drama/theatre  injecting  theatre  t o be t a u g h t  a  i n theatre  are necessary while  skills  1 9 8 2 , p. 1 3 ) .  (1982) s t a t e s t h a t drama t e a c h e r s  t h e how  t h e n adds  skills  l e a r n i n g environment  Bolton  and Lambert,  the holistic  confidence  (1982)  - a  dramatic  before  i s likely  among e d u c a t o r s .  n o t t o be t a u g h t  and B o l t o n  of  some b a c k g r o u n d  versus  some t h e a t r e  to fail"  theatre  o r know what d i r e c t i o n  teaching  been an o n - g o i n g d e b a t e  i n drama  (O'Neill  without  what s k i l l s  that  are not necessary  skills"  i n drama o r  himself.  i n drama, b u t working  are they  the teacher  playing  and  or  no e x p e r i e n c e  t o be " i n v i t i n g  by B o l t o n  "Theatre  pursuing  with  of dramatic  be l e a r n e d  playing.  teacher,  selecting symbols".  He  instead of that  basic  be l e a r n e d  playing within cognitive pursuits.  skills while  7  Bolton  (1982) c o n f i r m s  "'Consciousness a  tacit  level  of  of  product  technique  dramatic  focus  (theatre)  m i g h t be playing  dominant  factor this  of  the  that  rather its  give  than  experience  "it  i s happening  and  yet  everyday  dramatic  playing  kinds  of  meanings t h a t  daily  living"  theatre  the  happening  "to  (p.  me  significantly  72).  now;  and or  with  audience.  the  audience,  children"  (p.  The As  so  the  72).  could  at  search  and  drama of  " a c t i n g " were air  a  of  become a m a j o r  component  f o r meaning.  the  an  playing  be  actual  The  the  I am  (p.  repeatability, actor  in a play  playwright  teacher Bolton  helps  claims  72).  and  can  by  an  can  them  say  use  in  their  that  in  " i t is is  orientation  p r o j e c t i o n and i s a c t i n g , the the  to  meaning  focus  that  upon a l l  suggests  "focuses  that  in  Because i t  reflect  i t happen"  overshadowed  spontaneity,  teachers  Bolton  actors  making  a  experience"  a v a i l a b l e to  contrast,  as  r e t a i n s the  experiences  not  which  reduced  i s being.  of  d r a m a an  children find  In  interpretation,  drama  playing)  that  elements  happening"  lived  may  towards an  not  help  degree to  to  possible  which s t i l l  me-ness of  to  (dramatic  dramatic  the  close  sensed  spontaneity.  now-ness and  so  often  38).  the  the  the  is  claiming  However, e n t h u s i a s t s  (1980) d e s c r i b e s  "metaphorical  be  learning  i s something  (p.  i f the  could  skill  process  where r e h e a r s i n g  lose  Bolton  i s on  i t could  feel  experience  drama would  form'  overlooked.  dramatic  artificiality,  v i e w of  comprehension"  Because the not  this  when t h e  sharing child  meaning for  teacher  for the  in  8  becomes t h e p l a y w r i g h t , the  drama,  greater  i . e . , using  degree  t h e elements  of learning w i l l  E v e r y d a y human dramatic  providing the tension  interaction,  a n d t h e human  a r e n o t t h e same.  p l a y a r e engaged  i n the task  meaning t o an p a s s i v e interpret  frame  interaction i n  The a c t o r s  of the stage  of communicating  a message o r  i n such  of reference.  the play,  identify  with  Dramatic  p l a y i n g , on t h e o t h e r  i ti sto  a way a s t o f i t w i t h  I f the audience  the experience  will  mean  little.  hand, does n o t i n v o l v e  to a passive  statement,  o r e n t e r t a i n i n g i n some way; i t i s t h e  create  audience  another  setting  be o t h e r  unexplored or time,  characters  Both dramatic  while  i n another  interaction  f o r the purposes  these  skills  concerned  there  like  to  human  "everyday"  human Although  i n p u r p o s e a n d s t r u c t u r e , common a n d some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  playing places  w i t h i n the process  that  i tfeels  context.  of theatre  Dramatic  through  to live in  of t h e a c t u a l drama.  different  are the s k i l l s form.  l e a r n i n g what  t o emulate and r e c r e a t e  forms a r e v e r y  theatrical  a search  p l a y i n g and s c r i p t e d t h e a t r i c a l  seek  both  like  a  interactions to  unfamiliar terrain,  interaction  to  t h e aim of making  m e a n i n g among t h e p l a y e r s , r a t h e r but over  both  with  " a c t i n g o u t " o f c e r t a i n human  context  their  can't  presenting  improvisational  a  a l l have c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n  a u d i e n c e whose p u r p o s e  the presentation  established  of the playwright,  occur.  p l a y i n g and on t h e s t a g e ,  common b u t t h e y  and f o c u s f o r  of  the development of  o f t h e drama whereas  those  i s n o t enough a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s k i l l s  of  9  theatre  would  theatre  training.  approach to in  theatre  merits"  of  the  has  and  skeptical p. David  but  At  the  this  themselves  i t s aims than  Best  i t s value  that  be  the  perhaps in  the  have been more  (1985) r a i s e s the  i n the  curriculum  something  one  or  As  long  skill  what c o u n t s ,  and  the  arts  be  as  to  question  healthily (Hornbrook,  as  long  people  can  not  as  share be  people  i n education"  drama  from  see  this  justified,  a weakness  as void  perspective  a priority:  (Best,  i t  feeling  "If  i n the  of is  artistic  there  1985,  the  taken  self-expression,  experience.  rationally  that  that  have a p r o b l e m b e i n g  a v e h i c l e of  aesthetic  (1985) c l a i m s  accountability:  as  teaching  judgements cannot f o r the  continue  feels  a l l reason.  Best  is  part  53).  seriously  place  dilemma  that  is a valuable  drama would  to  1982).  agree  i s sometimes supposed"  will  arts,  (Burgess,  i f t i m e demands  heart  drama and  to  struggling  most t e a c h e r s  timetable,  of  artistic  a tool  students  from the of  development  i t s aesthetic,  technique  that  process  artistic  left  and  context:  the  drama as  in reality,  sphere  the  on  that  i n a l l i t s forms  aesthetic  of  focus  skills,  that  "Teachers  of  drama  subjects  drama  perceptions  curriculum.  a  experience  dropped  go.  student's  "denied  that  form,  b e e n my  be  teachers'  1989,  us  curriculum  to  and  i n a more f o r m a l  (1982) s t a t e s the  i n other  playing  something first  technique  meaning  dramatic  skills  drama h i n d e r s  more a b o u t It  these Burgess  reminding  discover learn  place  can  be  no  viii). arts  i s one  of  10  A c c o u n t a b i l i t y depends n o t o n l y upon t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e work, b u t upon t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h c a n be o f f e r e d f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n of that kind of a c t i v i t y i n the curriculum. ( B e s t , p. 1 3 ) . If  the only type  the  activity  c u r r i c u l u m i s t h a t which  therefore s t i l l  "accountable",  their  a clear  confidence  the  student  orientation  p l a y i n g much l e a r n i n g  cannot  something  learning which  drama t a u g h t  classroom the  only  t o teach  i s expected  with  o f them.  But  place that the can take  place  where  of the  i n v o l v e s a change i n  can vary with  each  activity  student  and i s  or as t o t h e best  teacher,  credibility i frational  statement  years i n as I have  seen  f o r m s b y my c o l l e a g u e s a n d i t  t o reach  constitutes  I f drama  of twenty-seven  t o Best's  i n many d i f f e r e n t  classroom.  classroom the  I can attest  be v e r y d i f f i c u l t  which  results for  who n e e d a n d  be t e s t e d t o s e e t h e r e s u l t s  this  education.  identifiable  can take  this  to validate.  classrooms,  to  I n many c a s e s  towards  a n d much l e a r n i n g  T h r o u g h my own e x p e r i e n c e  would  i s correct.  s e t of o b j e c t i v e s i n order  because  perception; difficult  and t e s t a b l e and  T h e r e a r e a l s o many e d u c a t o r s  has not planned  learning  i s observable  o r i n harmony w i t h what  dramatic  teacher  i s acceptable i n  want t o s e e c o n c r e t e  dollars.  desire  that  Best  r e m a i n s many p e o p l e ' s  Many t a x p a y e r s  in  of learning  a c o n s e n s u s among t e a c h e r s  "good" drama f o r t h e  as  elementary  way t o e m p l o y t h e u s e o f drama i n  i s t o be l e f t  the variances alone  of the experience justification  t o t h e autonomy o f t h e c o u l d make o n e d o u b t  f o r the student.  i s possible within  " I t i s an  activity  11  that p.  the a c t i v i t y  13).  Best  objective  sees  goals  sciences—and  c a n be j u s t i f i e d a need  required  reason  since  which word to  of a r t i s t i c  reasoning  approach  integrity Best  of the subjects  appreciation  i n the sciences.  t o be i n c o n g r u o u s the arts  1985,  reason—the  that  way, t h e y  by t h e k i n d  of  by  reasoning  One m i g h t c o n s i d e r  with  in a scientific  any concept way c o u l d  would  that  are not supportable  be s u p p o r t e d  the  o f a r t and  erode the  of the a r t s . argues  against  this  position claiming  unlimited  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s when  listening  to a musical  are  of  But s u b j e c t i v i s t s accept  they cannot  i s employed  (Best,  f o r t h e a r t s t o h a v e t h e same  i f t h e a r t s were approached  have more c r e d i b i l i t y . judgements  educationally"  looking  composition  the r e s u l t of reasoning,  there  are not  a t a p a i n t i n g or  and t h a t  a criteria  interpretations  which  can indeed  be  taught. A r t i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , l i k e understanding i n any sphere, allows f o r the i n d e f i n i t e but not unlimited p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and o f an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s which g i v e sense t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and judgement. ( B e s t , 1985, p. 3 3 ) . One c o u l d art  i n that  these either  this  based  subject?  important,  i s the notion  on a s e t c r i t e r i a  on t h e i n h e r e n t  the a r t i s t  beautiful,  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l personal  i s equally  two p o s i t i o n s  dependent if  argue here  or viewer  then  i ti s .  that  but at the root evaluating  for appreciating  values  held  response t o  a r ti s  a r t or i s  by t h e r e s p o n d e n t ,  thinks  the a r t i n question  Should  the focus  Does one's p h i l o s o p h y  of  i s  be on t h e s e l f  g r a v i t a t e towards  i.e.,  a  or the  child-  12  centered  education  embrace the s p i r i t  or a s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d education?  Does one  of the eighteenth century Romanticists and  Rousseau or are one's f e e l i n g s a l i g n e d with the reasoning approach of the pragmatists?  I don't think t h i s can be  r e s o l v e d as one's p o s i t i o n r e s t s on one's deep-rooted orientation to l i f e  i t s e l f and t h e r e f o r e must s u r e l y have a  s t r o n g impact on the type of t e a c h i n g and drama t h a t w i l l be c a r r i e d on i n the classroom, d i s p o s i t i o n to the a r t s .  and on a l a r g e r s c a l e one's  Silberman  (1970, p. 4) claims "as  has o f t e n been s a i d , t h a t a l l t h e o r i e s of education are autobiographical". As the a r t s are seen as p a r t of the a f f e c t i v e domain and the e x p r e s s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l and dramatic " t r a d i t i o n a l l y preoccupied experience" educators  p l a y i n g has been  with the p r i v a t i z a t i o n of  (Hornbrook, 1989, p. 3), many c l i e n t s and  may not c o n s i d e r i t a s e r i o u s s u b j e c t i n the  curriculum.  Dramatic p l a y i n g e x c l u d i n g i t s e l f  from the domain  of the a r t s and t a k i n g the p o s i t i o n of t e a c h i n g methodology where i t addresses  goals of both the a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e  domains could c o n t r i b u t e t o c o n f u s i o n among teachers as t o e x p e c t a t i o n s of students and the M i n i s t r y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s of teachers.  Is drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m an a r t or not?  "To be inducted  i n t o any s u b j e c t , d i s c i p l i n e , or area of  knowledge is t o l e a r n to grasp 1985,  i t s c r i t e r i a of v a l u e "  (Best,  p. 36). The s u b j e c t i v i s t who claims the a r t i s t must be  f r e e to c r e a t e with no bounds t o r e s t r i c t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y of e x p r e s s i o n , i s caught i n a dilemma because a r t t h a t i s to have  13  its  place  criteria  i n the curriculum f o r goals  evaluation  1  purpose  t o be r e a c h e d  i s possible  subjectivist s  needs  stance  (Best, saying  of expression,  t o have an s o , as  1985). that  of the a f f e c t i v e  art  accept  in  progress  h i s own  war  arts  education  this  sincere  of s e l f  and  evaluation and  the a r t i s t  i s simply  36).  argue  there  drama  i n the Bolton  in  how  As H o r n b r o o k  primary  status  of  left  as a n o t h e r ' s ,  as  i s room f o r b o t h  The  subjectivity  post-  and (p. 61).  i tis anyone's  (i.e.,  the  "Yet of course of  (Best,  position and  of  develop  and  i n support  this  to  of Rousseau  i n the a r t s "  vigorously supports  learning,  to teach.  i s committed t o h i s work,  reasons  sole  (1989) c l a i m s ,  a value-judgement).  the  can the teachers  a l l a r t i s good, as l o n g  and n o t o n l y  against  t o knowledge  to the ideology  f r e q u e n t l y does o f f e r  Best  domain  by t h e c h i l d ,  of a r t i s as good  value-judgements, p.  gives  perspective,  interpretation  can  way.  true  argues  They have n o t h i n g  i s determined  individual  expression From  salary?  subjects,  i f a r t i s f o r the  the development of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  child's  i n other  Best  and  their  objective  one  one's 1985,  b u t one  could  objectivity  in  curriculum. (1980) c l a i m s  the classroom  i n that  that  there  the teacher  building  tension,  using  contrast  choosing  symbolic  actions, etc.  is objectivity works  like  i n sound, l i g h t  a  i n drama  playwright, and  movement,  [T]he p r i n c i p l e f u n c t i o n of a drama t e a c h e r , t h e n , i s t o use t h e a t r i c a l f o r m i n o r d e r t o enhance t h e meaning o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e ; by u s i n g t h e t h e a t r i c a l e l e m e n t s o f t e n s i o n , f o c u s , c o n t r a s t and s y m b o l i z a t i o n ,  14  a c t i o n s a n d o b j e c t s i n t h e drama become s i g n i f i c a n t R o b i n s o n , 1980, p.73). At  t h e same t i m e ,  premise  that thetheatrical  the  meaning  the  drama w i l l  perception (Bolton, "change in  result  (Ed.)  understanding  realm  of a  because  around  creation. drama'"  Fine  and  discussion"  attitude  theatre  OF THE  a clear  "see"  shift  s e t of  a change  i nhis/her perception or  PROBLEM  i n t h e elementary areas  The drama e x p e r i e n c e which  i nBritish  Book  Columbia:  grades a r e  o f a p p r e c i a t i o n and  a r e 'responding  t o drama'  and 'doing  leads t o " r e f l e c t i o n  i n t u r n c a n l e a d t o "a change i n understanding"  Guide/Resource  mind.  /cognitive  o f drama t h a t a r e t o be  the interrelated  and l e a r n i n g  educator's  in"  to Bolton a  or s a t i s f y  school children  f o r drama  or a different  Curriculum  one l i v e s  Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource  The two a r e a s  (p. 84).  According  i . e . , a change  t o elementary  organized  i s that  topic.  Elementary  resources  t o enhance  i n understanding and  one cannot  (1985) d e s c r i b e s t h e two s t r a n d s  *'[T]he  i n the  thegoal  t o the world  evaluate  lies  i n order  experience;  p. 7 5 ) .  STATEMENT  presented  form  i m p l i e s an a f f e c t i v e  One c a n n o t  an i n d i v i d u a l ,  The  i s used  i nrelation  i n understanding  i nthis  i nthis  i n some c h a n g e  "ofoneself  i nRobinson  objectives  form  of the participant's  thetopic".  within  thesubjectivity  (in  Book.  through  The p u r p o s e  1985,  (Elementary p. 8 4 ) .  drama s h o u l d of this  Arts  Appreciation of  be c l e a r  study  Fine  i n the  was t o e x a m i n e t h e  15  success  of the implementation  classrooms the  The s t u d y  elementary  dramatic  in  elementary  and t o examine t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s  curriculum.  extent  of drama  classroom  playing  objectives,  attempted  as a l e a r n i n g  what t y p e s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide  The  questions  I  1. To w h a t  tool;  t h e use of  i t ss t r u c t u r e ,  f o r i t suse.  of drama  were u s i n g t o meet t h e g o a l s Arts  t o d i s c o v e r t o what  teachers understood  and t h e r a t i o n a l e  investigated  o f drama i n  This  elementary  purpose,  study  classroom  of drama as mandated  also  teachers  i n the Fine  (1985).  wish  extent  to  pursue  i n this  i s drama b e i n g  taught  study  in  are:  elementary  schools? 2. A r e t e a c h e r s m e e t i n g Education  the goals of the M i n i s t r y  of  i n drama?  3. W h a t k i n d experiencing?  of drama  are elementary  students  (Drama games, t h e a t r e s p o r t s ,  skits,  script  drama, p l a y s f o r s c h o o l c o n c e r t s , i m p r o v i s a t i o n w i t h i n context  of academic  l e s s o n s t o enhance l e a r n i n g ,  the  or  dramatic  I s t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n s t r a n d of drama t a k i n g  place i n  playing)? 4. drama  or has  plays  may 5.  i t been d e s i g n a t e d  be r e a d How  t o language  arts  and s t u d i e d , but seldom a c t e d  do t e a c h e r s d e f i n e drama?  dramatic  playing  as a l e a r n i n g  courses,  or attended  tool?  any workshops  out?  Are they Have  they  on d r a m a t i c  c l a s s e s where  aware of taken  any  playing?  16  6.  I f dramatic  classroom, 7.  p l a y i n g i s not being used i n the  what are the reasons?  Are teachers able to make a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between  performance and dramatic 8.  Do teachers f e e l t h a t the lack of s k i l l s and  experience  i n drama, both among students and t e a c h e r s , hinder  the success of dramatic 9. and  playing?  p l a y i n g i n classrooms?  In t h i s l a s t decade the bulk of l i t e r a t u r e  education has applauded dramatic  learning t o o l .  i n drama  p l a y i n g as a v a l u a b l e  Are teachers knowledgeable i n the use of drama  as a t e a c h i n g t o o l ? 10. What do teachers f e e l i s the main purpose of drama on the  curriculum? 11. Do teachers r e c o g n i z e a c l e a r s e t of o b j e c t i v e s to be  attained  i n drama as w e l l as a c r i t e r i a  for evaluation?  LIMITATIONS  The  focus of the study was grade three to seven  classrooms  i n elementary  s c h o o l s w i t h i n a l a r g e urban area i n  the province of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The sample of educators,  chosen at random, came from a wide v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g situations.  I wanted a s t r a t i f i e d  random sampling  of f o r t y  percent of the schools but due t o the time of the year the study was done, ( A p r i l , May and June), many p r i n c i p a l s d i d not wish to impose upon t h e i r teachers the e x t r a task of  17  completing percent, This  a survey.  twenty-five percent  i n f l u e n c e d the  three  principals  their  schools.  A second principal's  the  grades  constraints,  the  drama. were  the  and  three  to  other  were  this  study.  survey  Twenty-  t o be  completed  could  the  done  be  the  result  towards drama,  seven teachers  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may  five  of  staff  members Because  have  ignored  or  to choose the  teacher  whose  teacher  and  who  influenced  the  random sample successfully I was field  teaching. assurance  I conducted I discovered  u s i n g drama  anonymity, i n the  repercussion. negative  of  the  included a predominance u s i n g drama  of  limitations  generalizability  made a w a r e o f  study  These  in their a third at  the  that  schools  classroom  I t appeared  that to  have  have  i n so  f a r as  respondents  limitation  as  the  s c h o o l w h e r e I am in spite  reluctant to  f o r f e a r of  they  could  in  the  already  classrooms.  teachers,  seemed  of  name  interested  of  survey  of  i n s t e a d , have  was  It i s also possible that principals  the  when  surveyed).  in alphabetical order,  surveyed.  in  C).  questionnaire to the  schools  forty  surveyed.  teachers  disposition  instructions  intended  i n v o l v e d i n s u c c e s s f u l drama programs v o l u n t e e r e d  their  any  Appendix  of  f o r the  seven  the  schools  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s among t h e  time  the  the  possible limitation  per  preceded  hundred  (See  (one  overlooked  of  gave p e r m i s s i o n  attitude  distributing  i n s t e a d of  generalizability  One  questionnaire.  given  Therefore  say  result  presently of  the  they  were  not  some p r o f e s s i o n a l  were h e s i t a n t t o respond  comments r e g a r d i n g drama  of  i n classrooms  as  with drama  a  18  is  mandated  by  educational Therefore, answer  As  p h i l o s o p h i e s of because  of  this  without  without  of  oral  influence  own of  my  possible  with  unavoidable  way  to  the  of  study of can  flaw in this  to  another  or  effort  topic an  experience  researcher's  research.  i n the  was  drama.  c o n t a i n some b i a s . of  a  one's p e r s p e c t i v e .  especially  on  to  approach  teaching  phenomena under  type  responses  or  position  the  the  research  data,  i s the  the  in  impossible to  influencing  collected  results  towards drama  twenty-seven years  attitudes  conception the  present  have a f f e c t e d  interpretation  one  respondents  phenomenographical subject's  could  interviews, a concerted  the  with  have been d i s i n c l i n e d  disposition  It is virtually  interpreter the  my  alter  topic  one's  may  limitation  taking a stance  educational  well  study.  could  questions.  fits  a child-centered education.  educators  investigator,  curriculum  the  m i n i s t r y and  honestly, this  findings  the  the  analysis  made n o t But  as  This  is  to  a  conception scrutiny,  As  of  i t is an  the  19  DEFINITION S e v e r a l terms are used be d e f i n e d f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . 1. C o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g :  OF  TERMS  i n t h i s study which need to  Learning i n a  noncompetitive  environment where students work i n s m a l l groups c o l l e c t i v e l y s o l v i n g the problem. 2. P h e n o m e n o g r a p h y :  A r e s e a r c h method where the  i n v e s t i g a t o r examines the v a r i o u s conceptions of a c e r t a i n phenomenon h e l d by s u b j e c t s of the study. c o l l e c t e d through  interviews, either  The data i s  in-person or by  telephone, and then analyzed and a s s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t i n g d i f f e r e n t conceptions of the same phenomena. 3. T h e a t r e :  Performance or anything t h a t goes i n t o the  making of performance, to be presented to an 4. D r a m a t i c  audience.  Playing:  The term "dramatic p l a y i n g " o f t e n e l i c i t s c o n f u s i o n among classroom teachers who  have not been exposed to t h i s  form of drama through u n i v e r s i t y courses, workshops or reading.  I t has been c a l l e d  " r o l e drama", "drama i n  education", "dramatic p l a y i n g " or "dramatic p l a y " , but the terms are synonymous. was  approved  i n 1990  I wrote the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n which  by Gavin B o l t o n d u r i n g a summer course he  at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  taught  Columbia.  What i s D r a m a t i c P l a y i n g ? In dramatic p l a y , students are e x p l o r i n g meaning with i n t e n t i o n of communicating the meaning to an audience.  The  no  20  students  are "in role"  and Dorothy  Heathcote,  (1982)  suggests  ...the p e r s p e c t i v e from which people a r e coming t o enter the event i s c a l l e d frame, and frame i s t h e main agent i n p r o v i d i n g (a) t e n s i o n and (b) meaning f o r t h e participants. The is  teacher able  sets  t o impart  more r e l e v a n t usual  i n role,  many k i n d s  to the students  classroom  teacher, their  t h e frame,  because  situation they  using  will  (personal  experiences  believe  elements  than  i f they  be u s i n g  received  own  behavior,  etc. within the particular  be much  i t i nthe  t o make  i n a scene or resources,  k n o w l e d g e ) and what  or l o g i c a l  method  from the  the information  They a r e i n r o l e  and p r i o r  this  that w i l l  flows  of theatre, t h e i r  t o be a p p r o p r i a t e  responses,  of information  where knowledge  drama more m e a n i n g f u l .  situation  and through  they  language,  theme, s e t t i n g ,  or  context. Being i n r o l e entertaining; onlooker that acting. Roles may, f o r t h e y 1982) . It  i s a co-operative  improvisation participants taken was (a  i s n o t meant t o be m e r e l y i n t e r e s t i n g , o r i t may h a v e a n o u t e r a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e a l l the individual i n role i s doing i s must n e v e r a c t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t an a c t o r have a d i f f e r e n t j o b t o do (Heathcote,  very  effort,  l i k e n e d t o a game believe  life.  awareness,  ( t h e game i s  t h e drama, a r e aware t h a t i t  and c o m p e t i t i o n ,  i s n o t on p l o t ,  empathy, a deeper  on  in role,  o f t h e moment  I t a l s o has t h e b a s i c  p r o b l e m t o be s o l v e d The f o c u s  i n that, while  i n the reality  s e r i o u s l y ) and a f t e r  not real  others).  a collaborative exercise  elements with  but rather  understanding  o f a game,  oneself on  and w i t h  feelings,  of the concepts of  21  a c o n t e n t a r e a , a c h a n c e t o walk gain a d i f f e r e n t is  stopped,  and  p e r s p e c t i v e of the  world  upon. and  learn  how  as human a n i m a l s , we  same  stimuli.  both  i s no  audience  t h e a c t o r s and  everyday  situations,  rituals,  symbols,  person's The  through,  I t i s a c h a n c e t o be  that  There  issue.  m a g n i f i e d , examined, l i v e d  reflected  another  i n another  to climb  feel,  and  human r e s p o n s e s  i n dramatic  play.  signals  into  conclude to  the  Participants  are  They a r e r e - e n a c t i n g  making t h e drama more r e a l  and  understood,  have s h a r e d  the audience.  to  moment i n t i m e  there,  i t s inhabitants  shoes  from s o c i a l  by u s i n g  situations  of  life.  A c t u a l l i v i n g and t h e a t r e , w h i c h i s a d e p i c t i o n o f l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , b o t h use t h e same network o f s i g n s as t h e i r medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; n a m e l y t h e human s i g n a l l i n g a c r o s s s p a c e , i n immediate t i m e , t o and w i t h o t h e r s , each r e a d i n g and s i g n a l l i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h i n t h e a c t i o n of each p a s s i n g moment ( H e a t h c o t e , 1 9 8 2 ) . The to  more t h e drama u s e s  theatre.  The  s u c c e s s of d r a m a t i c  "managing" t h e drama, j u s t For  example, e v e r y o n e  a wedding social  fragility working  f o r i t t o be  sense.  " o r d e r i n g " , the c l o s e r  as  p l a y depends on  i n everyday  must work h a r d  i t will  life  everyone  situations.  a t managing t h e r i t u a l  a "good" o r a p p r o p r i a t e wedding  R e s p o n s e s by p l a y e r s must be  of the d r a m a t i c p l a y r e s t s  be  logical.  on t h e n o t i o n o f  of  i n the The everyone  t o w a r d s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e drama.  5. The Performance Although  Mode as a V e h i c l e For L e a r n i n g :  t h e main  f o c u s o f drama  on t h e e x p r e s s i v e mode o f t h e c o n t i n u u m , performance  i n e d u c a t i o n has dramatic playing,  mode w h i c h c o n t a i n s many o f t h e same e l e m e n t s  been the as  22  dramatic  p l a y i n g , i s a l s o s e e n as a v e h i c l e f o r t h e l e a r n i n g  of c o n t e n t An students a still  ( s u b j e c t m a t t e r ) as w e l l as t h e a t r e example o f t h i s  present  t h e essence  characters  context  a r e both  gets  drama i s an e f f e c t i v e  goals  tool  G u i d e o f 1985 i n s u p p o r t  i n the  technique.  Elementary  learning that  f u n c t i o n a l or  forlearning.  stated i n the Fine of the c u r r e n t  The c o n c e p t u a l  context. nature  live  Arts  philosophy  model  f o r drama  F i n e A r t s G u i d e , p. 81, b a s e s t h e  o f drama on two p r i n c i p l e s :  1. A l l p e o p l e  skills  PROBLEM  o f drama a r e c l e a r l y  of t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n .  inclusion  OF  Whether  of the  of the  two m a s t e r s : t h e a t r e  the subtext.  SUMMARY  Curriculum  This  between  to the heart  the s u r f a c e of the context,  i s not e x p l i c i t ,  The  of  by t h e t e a c h e r .  examining s u b t l e t i e s  p e r f o r m a n c e mode s e r v e s  g e t t i n g beyond  found  thoughts  as w e l l a s u s i n g and l e a r n i n g t h e a t r e  aesthetic,  frame,  and t o s e e beyond t h e s u r f a c e , i . e . , t h e s u b t e x t .  so s t u d e n t s  The  which  with  t o t h i n k about r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t a b l e a u q u i c k l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y  subject,  and  o f t h e drama i n a f r e e z e  v e r b a l i z e d when " t o u c h e d "  form f o r c e s s t u d e n t s  The  f o r m would be t h e t a b l e a u where  p i c t u r e w h i c h c a n "come t o l i f e "  participants  skills.  their  Teaching  lives  children  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  within a  dramatic  to recognize the of t h i s  dramatic  23  context  provides  understand,  them w i t h  the a b i l i t y  to  and t o c o n s c i o u s l y a f f e c t ,  life  situations.  2. S t u d e n t s  should  about dramatic expressing  learn  t o make  art (i.e.,  preferences  informed  judgments  understanding,  and  in theatre, film,  and  television).  Categories  of l e a r n i n g  a) d o i n g  drama,  b) r e s p o n d i n g  In  this  was  being  the  reasons  of  practised  classrooms being  teachers augment  those  findings  conceptions  u s i n g drama i t was  being  of such  i n classrooms  being  used,  from  interviews to analyze of drama  used,  how  important  uncover  component  elementary  classrooms.  In  drama  addition,  interviewed i n order  the questionnaires. elementary  i n education,  as a l e a r n i n g i t was  school  the degree t o which  i n elementary  obtained  an  as  drama  neglected.  t o v o l u n t e e r t o be  teachers'  not  have been  extent  s c h o o l s , as w e l l  to investigate  implemented were asked  strands:  ( p . 95)  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , I surveyed  oral  which  t o drama,  implementation  i n order  two  ( p . 93)  i n elementary  conducted  of  into  I hoped t o d i s c o v e r t o what  t h e c u r r i c u l u m may Using  was  study,  why  are divided  being  what were t h e r e a s o n s ?  to  I  school  i . e . , the value  tool, used,  Through  the degree t o and oral  i f i t was  24  interviews  I hoped t o d i s c o v e r  between d r a m a t i c for  theatre  preference  any d i s t i n c t i o n  p l a y i n g and t h e a t r e ,  skills  i f teachers  i n drama, and w h i c h d r a m a t i c  when w o r k i n g w i t h  their  teachers  students  made  saw a p l a c e  f o r m was  and why?  their  25  CHAPTER  2  L I T E R A T U R E  R E V I E W :  INTRODUCTION It that  i s the i n t e n t of t h i s  provides  of p e r u s a l  the basis  chapter  for this  of t h e a r t s  2. The e v o l u t i o n o f drama 3. The two d i f f e r e n t theatre  qualitative  Postman  There are four  areas  types  and drama  o f drama: d r a m a t i c  p l a y i n g and  used  phenomenography as a  to investigate learning,  f o r t h e use o f drama a c r o s s  IMPORTANCE  (1983,  i n the curriculum.  i n education:  method o f r e s e a r c h  support  i n the curriculum.  arts.  4. L e a r n i n g  THE  study.  r e l a t e d to the study:  1. The i m p o r t a n c e  lending  to review the l i t e r a t u r e  OF  THE  ARTS  IN T H E  the curriculum.  CURRICULUM  ) writes  ...we s h o u l d e l e v a t e s u c h s u b j e c t s as l i t e r a t u r e , m u s i c , and a r t t o p r o m i n e n c e . C l e a r l y , the s u b j e c t matter of t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s c o n t a i n s t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e we have o f t h e u n i t y and c o n t i n u i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e and f e e l i n g , (p. 316) Eisner a slice  (1985, p . 50) r e f l e c t s  "What c a n be l e a r n e d  of h i s t o r y through the study  architecture commitments?"  of the p e r i o d ,  o f t h e a r t and  i t s music,  i t s theologic  about  26  Brook  (1987) proposes  that  . . . i f a t h e a t r e w e r e t o t a k e on t h e t a s k o f d o i n g the e n t i r e work o f S h a k e s p e a r e , o u t o f an a b s o l u t e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h i s i s t h e g r e a t e s t s c h o o l of l i f e t h a t t h e y know, t h a t g r o u p w o u l d be a n a s t o n i s h i n g g r o u p i n human t e r m s , (p. 79) In s p i t e of in  the  with  curriculum,  the  parents,  most s c h o o l s  status  is s t i l l  According result  fine  same r e s p e c t  students, "In  wide support  of  to  (p.  to  and  conservative towards  the  needs  of  to the  with  v o c a t i o n a l needs,  work  and  appeared lie p.  on  status  split  by  (1983)  writes  for...its  overall  as  cultural the  market  to  no  relation  to  mainstream curriculum  is  heritage, of  in  With  theatre  the  trend  progressivism and  an o r i e n t a t i o n  and had  the  their  a more a c a d e m i c  place  i n the  drama  failing  period  a distinction  of  b e t w e e n drama and  education.  subjects  outside  low  return to  non-work "bear  arts  viewed  disciplines,  well provided  the  the  a demand t o approach  the  rarely  Robinson  were c r i t i c i z e d  pass  are  of  8).  accountability after  (1960's),  subject  f a c t o r s : the  where drama t e a c h e r s  towards  i s not  Robinson,  several  responsibility  other  some t e a c h e r s .  drama low"  importance  arts disciplines  as  or  f o r the  education b e e n made  curriculum productive  and  in  between  the  activity  concerns"  line  arts and  (Robinson,  to 1983,  11). What p l a c e  advocate  f o r the  experience review  do  will  of  the  look  curriculum designers  arts?  What t y p e  of  elementary school at  the  development  of  this  drama student? of  i s to  decade be  This  drama and  the literature  theatre  arts  27  in  the  the  school  curriculum,  changing  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n two  likely  to  be  used  by  playing,  a process  product.  Bolton  different  elementary  of  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s drama approaches  teachers.  l e a r n i n g , and  (1982) c l a i m s  t o drama  These are  theatre,  an  and most  dramatic  artistic  drama  . . . i s no l o n g e r c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e c h n i q u e s o r f r e e e x p r e s s i o n or l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e a t r e b u t i s s e e n as a v e h i c l e f o r c o g n i t i v e development g i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e to the l e a r n i n g of those k i n d s of c o n c e p t s w h i c h , w h i l e c u t t i n g across the t r a d i t i o n a l subject b a r r i e r s , are n e v e r t h e l e s s of c e n t r a l importance to l i v i n g , (p. 42)  Bolton way  of  (1983) c o n s i d e r s  providing  aesthetically the  usual  while  reading  classrooms.  He  understanding feeling"  change  can as  writes  "The  Bolton  rather  bring to  broadening,  that  light as  i s not  feeling  This  a breaking  of  implicit  explicit,  1983,  61).  seeing  Bolton  of  of  claims  to  p l a y i n g has  a value by  judgement  the  this  value"  62).  advocates  i n a new  that:  greatest  of  will  not  be  his  a challenging  light" of  or  student  modifies  thinking, a  " i n terms  the  in  unbridled  assumptions, making  that  elementary  change  "clarification,  something  than  subjective level  experience  stereotyped  dramatic He  the  with  level  i n most  knowledge but  involve a  potential, (p.  at  a  develop  a deeper  referring  dramatic  can  to  drama e x p e r i e n c e d  areas  when t h e  on  happens  connected  The  new  p l a y i n g mode a s  most s i g n i f i c a n t  prejudice, a questioning  p.  opportunity  listening  in attitude.  profound  the  e x p l o r i n g knowledge  or  60).  understanding.  of  student  dramatic  t h r o u g h d r a m a m u s t be  (p.  emotion but a  the  the  the (Bolton,  learning  educational  28  [ T ] h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n drama i n s c h o o l s s h o u l d n o t be c o n f i n e d t o p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s b u t t h e meaning o f what i s c r e a t e d s h o u l d h a v e some k i n d o f u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n (p. 5 8 ) . One o f t h e g o a l s f o r t h e a r t s addresses  t h e importance  i n t h e Y e a r 2000  o f a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n : "To d e v e l o p a n  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e f i n e a r t s and a u n d e r s t a n d i n g heritage"  (Year  2000, G o a l  across  of c u l t u r a l  2, p. 1 6 ) . O n l y t h r o u g h  to thea r t s , can thestudent n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h meaning.  draft  understand  exposure  man a n d h i s  A r t i s man's c o m m u n i c a t i v e  efforts  time.  THE  EVOLUTION OF DRAMA  I n i t i a l l y drama  i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m belonged  o f t h e a t r e where t h e s t u d e n t dramatic  IN THE SCHOOL  literature.  acted  Robinson  CURRICULUM  i n t h e domain  i n p l a y s and s t u d i e d  ( 1 9 8 0 ) w r i t e s "Drama i n s c h o o l s  d u r i n g t h e 1930's a n d 1940's h a d come t o mean two t h i n g s : training 143).  i n speech and p r a c t i c a l  McGregor, Tate,  work on p l a y s - a c t i n g " ( p .  & Robinson,  " t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e p l a c e o f drama  (1977) c l a i m t h a t i n s c h o o l s h a s been s e e n i n  terms of t h e study o f p l a y s as l i t e r a t u r e .  Generally  s p e a k i n g , drama was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e E n g l i s h department"  ( p . 5 ) . To u n d e r s t a n d  how drama s h i f t e d  from  t h e a t r e t o a l e a r n i n g t o o l , we c a n e x a m i n e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t influenced  i t s form.  In England,  t h e Plowden Repart  (1967) c r i t i c i z e d  curriculum f o r i t s obsession with content  school  as a b a s i s f o r  29  planning, that  a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e made f o r e d u c a t i o n  placed  the child's  development  c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making  (Burgess  shifting  climate  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  developing  field  of c h i l d  learning  through  personal  development,  communication designers 1902,  be  a focus  was  t o develop  not product".  form) as p a r t  teachers  The Columbia Slade's  (1979),  t h e focus  should  o f p e r s o n a l i t y and theatre, or  d e v e l o p m e n t was f o rteaching,  teaching  found  a theatre  dramatic  playing  So, w i t h  expert  where  questioned. i s not  i n theatre  a r t s , and  as a teacher.  But  i s "an a r t f o r m i n  t h e elements  of i t s agenda,  trained i ndifferent  necessarily  (Dewey  as an e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y  to require  (1980) c l a i m s  process  of  curriculum  e.g. A l l e n  b u t f o r most e d u c a t o r s ,  the s k i l l  not thought  swing,  expression  p l a y i n g , as a t o o l  with  was  not product  (1989) s t a t i n g  contribution to the child's  Bolton  art  on p r o c e s s ,  this  and Hornbrook  d r a m a was s e e n  concerned  was l i n k e d t o t h e  1927).  on a c t i n g s k i l l s  Dramatic  Drama was  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  who a d v o c a t e d  communication s k i l l s ,  its  that  following the ideologies of e a r l y  (1983),  scripted  e_t a l , , 1 9 8 2 ) .  Drama moved t o t h e r e a l m  Some w r i t e r s c r i t i c i z e d Davies  at the centre of  p s y c h o l o g y where t h e n o t i o n  experience.  1929; Rugg,  programs  of theatre  (as an  i t may b e i n t h e h a n d s o f  subject  disciplines, not  theatre.  e v o l u t i o n o f drama largely  i n the curriculum  has i t s r o o t s  reaction against  speech  i n England,  i n British  starting  a r t s and e l o c u t i o n  with  Peter  programs  30  for  children that  Slade  felt  "stage  talent.  Writing  theatre  and drama  children  were p o p u l a r a c t i n g " would  ruin  i n 1954, Slade  children's natural  made a d i s t i n c t i o n  i n the school  context.  between  He s a w t h e d r a m a o f  as an a r t form and as a c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y  expression,  where t h e c r i t e r i a  sincerity.  Slade  drama.  i n t h e 1940's and 1950's.  Bolton  the child,  loving  parent  creativity Brian  which  or teacher  that  could into  the prevailing  was a b s o r p t i o n  f o r the teaching  Slade  flower  selfand  of  saw drama as a seed  under  an e x p r e s s i v e  the guidance art.  mood o f t h e t i m e ,  of a  Slade  was  one o f  and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Way  (1967) saw drama, n o t as an a r t form,  medium f o r p e r s o n a l benefits.  a new c o u r s e  (1989) w r i t e s  within  articulating  charted  f o r success  of  development, with  Describing  Way's  but as a  psycho-therapeutic  i n f l u e n c e , Hornbrook  (1989)  writes: [Dlrama i n e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , p e r s o n a l a w a r e n e s s , t a u g h t c h i l d r e n how t o c o - o p e r a t e i n g r o u p s , f o s t e r e d q u a l i t i e s o f t o l e r a n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g (p. 1 3 ) . Bolton  (1989) w r i t e s  t h a t Way s a w d r a m a a s a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r  . . . p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p e c t o f what he s a w a s ' f a c e t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y ' : t h e s e n s e s , imagination, p h y s i c a l s e l f , speech, emotion, i n t e l l e c t , and c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( p . 1 2 3 ) . Richard of  maturation  cognitive in  Courtney with  stages  (1968) d e s c r i b e s  age s t a g e s  had l e f t  of  o f drama, a l i g n e d w i t h  of development.  stages Piaget's  C l e a r l y , drama a t t h i s  i t s relationship to the curriculum  learners  a framework  and what  i tcould  t h e domain o f t h e a r t s and t a k e n  stage offer  a seat  with  31  psychology.  Hornbrook  d r a m a made no  claims  understanding  of  clearly in  the  the  was  from the  dramatic  this  should  equip  only  be  one  thing  school  young people w i t h  c u l t u r e " (p.  as  realm  of  personal  a method  of  teaching.  teacher  and  theme l i k e  for  the  become a p a r t  the  simulated  by  Hornbrook teacher,  the  of  the  13)  and  an  Hornbrook of  drama  Dorothy Heathcote,  drama  to  Heathcote  functions  when h e / s h e  can  (1989) w r i t e s  "Through  argued,  reveal  Simultaneously  are  i n the  embedded or  sociology,  dramatic  Heathcote  seeks  to  playing provides  reflect  on  world.  Within  experiment protected  reality the  without by  the  the  first  nature with  the  w i t h i n the  p r o t e c t i o n of  drama, the  student  the  of  burden  absence  of  human  the  of  learner  knowledge dramatic  that  theatre,  social  i s given  element  and  to  depicted the  freedom  future repercussions chance  life  opportunity the  that  history  the  i t be  (1980) m a i n t a i n s  child  like  hand  examine the  world  drama, drama  as  whether  focus  insights  to  context  the  the s e n s i t i v e  meaningful  of  that  imaginative  in subjects  a  was  experience  t o a c l a s s new  a l l branches  dramatic  theatre.  the  Contextualized  situation  experience.  that  advocated  learning  14).  the  one  a  become c l e a r and  "touches"  to  drama, m a n i p u l a t i n g  create  Heathcote  (p.  development  u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s , embedded  literature  playing  the  drama would  understandings"  contains  of  a playwright  child.  agency of  like  to  i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e of  the  and  do  "The  curriculum.  regarded  and  to  their  maintains  With moved  (1989) w r i t e s  of  real  to  while life.  32  Heathcote  (1980) d e c r i b e s  your  t o demonstrating  life  DRAMATIC  Dramatic setting  Dramatic  in  kinds their  on-going  PLAYING  for t h e purpose dramatic  ...a m o d e l o f relationships alleviation i affect others  from e x i s t i n g i n  i slived"  (p.  THEATRE  ARTS  of c l a r i f y i n g  i na  8).  co-operative  concepts.  Watkins  p l a y i n g as  s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n procedures; people's under s t r e s s , r e q u i r i n g r e s o l u t i o n o r n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t where d e c i s i o n s must f o r b e t t e r o f worse ( p . 4 7 ) .  of knowledge t h a t day l i v e s .  change  AND  road  i sacting-out  playing helps  every  as "the  how l i f e  playing then  (1983) d e f i n e s  all  this  students they  discover  and r e f l e c t  may n o t b e a b l e  The p r o c e s s  i n understanding.  to  experience  o f drama p r e s e n t s  Bolton  (1989)  upon  an  states,  What i s l e a r n e d b e c o m e s ' p a r t o f o n e s e l f ' : s o m e t h i n g u n d e r s t o o d i m p l i e s ownership of that knowledge. Drama can c r e a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s whereby t h e process o f o w n e r s h i p b y t h e l e a r n e r c a n be a c c e l e r a t e d ( p . 1 2 7 ) . The definite at  this  personal plays  work  of Dorothy Heathcote  turning point fork  i n the road,  learning, rather  o r t h e drama  arts of the  music  Future,  than  i n schools  the presentation  the current  because  and s t u d y o f  Education subjects  by  Slade.  Reform A c t representing the  a n d i n B.C. o n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e  2000: A C u r r i c u l u m drama  marks a  drama becomes a way t o e n h a n c e  and a r t a r e t h e o n l y  i n the curriculum,  t h e Year  o f drama  Bolton  form of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n proposed  I n t h e U.K. u n d e r (1988),  i nthe life  and Gavin  i sdesignated  draft  and Assessment Framework f o r as part  of the fine  arts  33  strand  which  i s given  curriculum.  a place  as  efficacy,  of  dramatic  emphasis  strand  a r t s but  to  the  the  the  i s placed  on  ten  per  of  the  per  cent  with  latter  two  have  always  they  f i t into  Both  a song  or  In c o n t r a s t , the less easily  the  drama p r o c e s s  a  be specific  paints  a  rationales with  d o m a i n and  are  to  have  curriculum  affective  cent  ten  is inclined  sings  answer  of  of  heuristic.  child.  playing)  which  child  visibly  satisfying  development  this  teaching  opposed  both  allocation  c u r r i c u l u m because  outcomes — the  picture—and  (in  visual  mode o f  prescriptive and  and  i n the  traditional  goals  time  Drama s h a r e s  dance, music, had  a  aesthetic  learning  identifiable than  the  outcomes  as  more  finished  product. Davies "using the  the  skills  111).  skills of  as  evaluation evaluated form  on  of  an  (p.  acquire  driving  as  knowledge;  to  difficulties  classroom  win with  a r t uses  key  in  terms  using (p.  in  the  i s to  that  like  rally"  drama  I f drama  (1987) c l a i m s  like  a car  learning lies  occurs.  playing  be  evaluating  like  any  ambiguity  and  19).  Arts  selected  works w i t h  the  a r t , Hornby  e v a l u a t i o n of  assume a r o l e ,  to  and  learning that  Elementary Fine based  of  is difficult  complexity The  reading  one  a type  of as  of  learning through dramatic  map-reading  Therefore  education  art  (1983) sees  the  the  learner  Curriculum  i n drama as  Guide/Resource  l e a r n i n g outcomes such as: ability  to  commitment, a c c e p t s  suspend others  outlined in Book,  the  disbelief in role,  (1985)  ability  the is  to  (seriousness), participates in  34  class (pp.  d i s c u s s i o n s , demonstrates 90-91).  Bolton  However, advocates  (1979,  overall  insight  1984)  and  understanding  as  of d r a m a t i c  O ' N e i l l et  o b j e c t i v e of drama a result  i s to of  from the  a!  drama  p l a y i n g , such  (1976) m a i n t a i n  effect  engaging  a student's  i n the  etc. as  that  change  the of  drama l e a r n i n g  process. Hornbrook significance" dramatic  that are  experience  evaluated? the  (1989) q u e s t i o n s  The  'moment o f  variant  outcomes  of  the  the  will  for teachers the  dramatic  "moments  take  place  How,  he  suggests  significance'  doubts  to  child.  same w r i t e r  meanings"  Hornbrook  of  supposed  Bolton's  that  of  experience  can  the these  "what a p p e a r s  students"  validity  within  asks,  in reality  and  of  have (p.  assessing  be  to  be  widely 121).  student  with confidence.  He  wr i t e s : What a p p e a r s t o t h e f o r m e r as e s s e n t i a l r e v e l a t i o n m i g h t w e l l be m o r e p r o s a i c a l l y i n s p i r e d , b y a d e s i r e t o p l e a s e t h e t e a c h e r , f o r example, or a f e a r of ' g e t t i n g i t wrong' o r b y a h o s t o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o u t 'what t h e o t h e r s t h i n k ' (p. 121). In the this  c o n t r a s t , one  supporters form.  restricted performance  of  the  of d r a m a t i c  major  p l a y i n g i s the  Some w r i t e r s a p p e a r creativity of  criticisms  to  in children  adult expectations.  feel and  theatre  artificiality  that  that  of  of  theatre  "acting"  Robinson  by  (1980)  was  a  argues  that . . . t a k i n g p a r t i n , o r l e a r n i n g a b o u t , t h e t h e a t r e was r e a l l y s u s p e c t on two a c c o u n t s . F i r s t because i t d i d i m p l y l e a r n i n g ' s k i l l s ' . ' S p o n t a n e i t y ' h o w e v e r , had b e e n a r g u e d t o be t h e v e r y p u l s e o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , a n d t h i s was e a s i l y r e t a r d e d , i f n o t a r r e s t e d  35  a l t o g e t h e r by l i n g e r i n g over technique. Moreover, s k i l l s were o n l y u s e f u l f o r p u t t i n g t h i n g s a c r o s s t o an a u d i e n c e .... S e c o n d , w h e r e t h e e m p h a s i s i s o n educating c h i l d r e n from t h e i n s i d e o u t , teaching about r e a l i z e d a r t forms - which other people have c r e a t e d s u c h a s p l a y s , c o u l d e a s i l y be s e e n a s a s o r t o f c u l t u r a l i m p o s i t i o n , (p.148) When e x a m i n i n g Peter  Brook,  one s e e s  from the f i r s t Brook  professional  (1987)  theatre  a director clearly  rehearsal  through  each  as i n t h e work o f working  i n process  i n d i v i d u a l performance.  writes:  I n t h e b e g i n n i n g we h a v e a r e a l i t y w i t h o u t f o r m . At the e n d , w h e n t h e c i r c l e i s c o m p l e t e d , t h i s s a m e r e a l i t y may s u d d e n l y r e a p p e a r - grasped, c h a n n e l l e d and d i g e s t e d w i t h i n t h e c i r c l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e i n c o m m u n i o n , s u m m a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o a c t o r s and s p e c t a t o r s . Only a t t h a t moment w i l l r e a l i t y b e c o m e a l i v i n g , c o n c r e t e thing, and t h e t r u e m e a n i n g o f t h e p l a y emerge ( p . 1 8 ) . Burgess,  Roma,  e t a_l, (1982) f e e l  of  drama as a l e a r n i n g  in  one's s e a r c h  the  learning  theatre"  tool,  theatre  that  skills  f o r meaning and s t a t e s  that  p o t e n t i a l of drama, t e a c h e r s  (p. 6 ) .  The a u t h o r s  argue  within will  the concept  be  to "fully  must a l s o  overlooked exploit consider  that  ...[A]s s t u d e n t s p r o g r e s s i n drama, t h e y f e e l an i n c r e a s i n g l y earnest d e s i r e t o r e f i n e personal meaning, and t o s h a p e i t t h r o u g h c o n t r a i n t s o f t h e a r t f o r m . The p r i v a t e nature of c h i l d r e n ' s dramatic a c t i v i t y changes to a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e p u b l i c , and t h e s o c i a l world o f others. I t i s i n t h i s s o c i a l context that the creative communicative f u n c t i o n of t h e a t r e i s needed as a f u r t h e r extension of the learning experience (p.6 ) . However t h e gap between t h e a t r e appear  as wide  writes  that  the  make b e l i e v e  as one i n i t i a l l y m i g h t  we e x p e r i e n c e  same t i m e .  and d r a m a t i c  playing  suppose.  does n o t  Jacobus  (1989)  d r a m a on many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s a t  When s e e i n g  a play  b u t a t t h e same t i m e  we a r e a w a r e t h a t we b e l i e v e  that  i t i s  we a r e  36  witnessing playing  real  a l s o works  Although moving  life.  position  as  moulding  i t into  1986,  372),  "an  a  a r t form  theatrical  way  of  through  not  w o r d s he  an  a place  a r t , and  "to l e g i t i m i z e  steadily  claiming a the  subject  academic d i s c i p l i n e "  product"  i n order  experience  of  dramatic  (1980) d e s c r i b e s d r a m a t i c  i s used  use  as  acceptable  to  (p. 74).  teaching content the  In other  style,  Bolton  in  seem t o have c l a i m e d  i n process  participant's a  an  engaging  levels.  i t s integrity  learning  form  student  several  d r a m a may  away f r o m  p.  on  The  and  He  (Dobson,  p l a y i n g as  claims that  enhance sees  the  by  the  meaning of  dramatic  playing  and  changing  one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g  theatrical  elements  - tension, focus,  considers dramatic  the as but  etc.  p l a y i n g v e r y much an  art  form. Education part the  of  the  student's  cognitive  development current  i n the  of  the  (1985) developed  tool spite  of  this  drama  i s taken  the  points  1985 out  been c o n s i d e r e d involving  the  a  development  academic d i s c i p l i n e s , domain by  the  fundamental  arts.  and  by  the  Province drama  apparent  of  British  i s d e s c r i b e d as and  as  a  fine  c o m p r o m i s e , one  seriously to the  White Paper,  by  parents,  promotion  of  In  the  that despite "encouraging  both  arts  a  learning  discipline.  t e a c h e r s , and  Better Schools,  Book  Columbia's  must q u e s t i o n  the  of  the  Fine A r t s Curriculum Guide/Resource  subject areas  In r e f e r r i n g in  the  affective  of E d u c a t i o n ,  in other  has  experience  d o m a i n by  Elementary  Ministry  arts  fine  arts  Hornbrook  In  whether  students? in  England  (1989)  n o i s e s , however,  in  37  reality  the  a r t s remained  wake o f  the  e f f e c t of  curriculum problems  reforms,  music  with  entertainment  has  curriculum According as  only  the  to  O'Neil  (1990) w r i t e s  helps  as  the  "artists" and  subjects.  At  compulsory,  the  the  than  produce  also  as  and  In  Called  School  to  drama.  has  been  aligned  essential ingredient  and  literate  attitudes that  that  the  elementary school  schools  "second  a r t s are  in  a  students. is  serve  contributes  level,  on  Drama,  o p t i o n a l , t h e y must  school  the  current  facing secondary  a r t s remains  a r t s are  apply  an  41).  about  culturally  a dilemna  i n the  parent  can  (p.  A Place  performance,  rather  O'Neil,  priority"  John Goodlad's  emphasized  that  long  student  low  f a c i n g music which  like  that  a  to  " f r i l l "  where the  class subjects"  arts  in  are  the  curriculum. Both the  teachers  a r t s are  1984,  p.  making  humanities O'Neill core  Goodlad  methods"  curriculum  enrich  that  (p.  i f the  way  2). that  i n the  that  other  i t s curricular  the  O'Neil music,  (and  subjects (p.  the  important. be  part  assessment,  states  that  one  are 3).  "that  in  of  articulating  same r i g o r o u s ,  role"  to  lies  that  as  a r t s are  "clearly  so  view  (Goodlad,  answer  i s regarded  outcomes, student  ensure  " i s taught  comprehensive field  the  core  the  importance"  that  t h e y must have  learner  share  suggests  education  of  often  edge of  strand  educators  arts)  the  of  curriculum,  music  on  (1990) w r i t e s  evaluation  lay citizens  arts part  objectives,  the  s o f t and  238).  the  and  could  course  and  only  program when  include a l l  sequential, taught  the  will  and the  38  In 1987, "Education  education  i n England s t a t e d  i n the A r t s i s a fundamental part of  e d u c a t i o n a l proposals para. 42). subjects  legislation  f o r the c u r r i c u l u m "  our  (Rumbold,  1987,  But with the c u r r i c u l u m t a k i n g on more and more  ( v o c a t i o n a l and  programs, i t was  t e c h n o l o g i c a l ) adding to  school-based  proposed t h a t a r t and music become  simply the a r t s (Hornbrook, 1989,  p. 41).  one,  Hornbrook argues  that t h i s could j e o p a r d i z e the r o l e of drama i n the curriculum.  This i s what Hornbrook r e f e r s to as "the wrangle  between t h e a t r e and drama" (p. 71). who to  have c o n s p i r e d  "I f e a r t h a t a l l those  to i s o l a t e school drama from the a r t s and  promote i t as an e d u c a t i o n a l u t i l i t y ,  bear a heavy  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s "  (Hornbrook, 1989,  p.  53).  LEARNING  AND  DRAMA  IN  EDUCATION  D i f f e r e n t approaches to l e a r n i n g are the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t conceptions  of l e a r n i n g .  Snyder (1968) claims t h a t  the hidden c u r r i c u l u m , where the student's  conception  l e a r n i n g i s a mismatch with t h a t which the teachers important,  results  t h a t ' s what counts; h i s / h e r conception Perry's  i n students  of  claim i s  l e a r n i n g the f a c t s because  t h a t i s what he /she  w i l l be t e s t e d on,  so  of l e a r n i n g a l t e r s what he/she w i l l l e a r n .  (1970) l o n g i t u d i n a l study of i n t e l l e c t u a l change  in students' conceptions  shows i n i t i a l l y a s t a t i c and  absolute  39  conception  of knowledge to a c o n t e x t u a l one, with an  intrinsic  change i n the l e a r n e r r a t h e r than a c o l l e c t i o n of i r r e l e v a n t fragmented b i t s of knowledge consumed  f o r e x t r i n s i c rewards  such as "marks". Bolton  (1989) w r i t e s t h a t "that the a c q u i s i t i o n of  knowledge i n v o l v e s a cumulative accommodation, the gradual  process  of a s s i m i l a t i o n and  i n t e g r a t i o n of the new with a  person's own frame of r e f e r e n c e and value system" (p. 127). However as long as we have e v a l u a t i o n , we w i l l be working at odds with what we propose i n a h o l i s t i c approach, a deepl e v e l p r o c e s s i n g of knowledge as opposed to the s u r f a c e  level  p r o c e s s i n g of knowledge (Marton and S a l j o , 1976 a, p. 7-8). Colaizzi  (1973) researched  the nature  phenomonological methods r e s u l t i n g  of l e a r n i n g through  in a distinction  a c q u i s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and l e a r n i n g .  Colaizzi  between concludes  that "the phenomenon of l e a r n i n g i s seen to be d i s t i n c t activities  i n which i n f o r m a t i o n  i s acquired.  from  Learning i s  d e f i n e d by the i n t e n t i o n a l power of the l e a r n e r to coc o n s t i t u t e both h i s learned-content... and the l e a r n i n g situation." T h i s concept i s at the core of dramatic students world  "make a bridge  p l a y i n g where  between t h e i r own experience  and the meaning of the drama."  of the  ( O ' N e i l l and Lambert,  1982, p. 10). In the Year 2000. Intermediate  Program: Response  D r a f t , the w r i t e r s t a l k about t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : i n t e r p r e t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i n g i t with p r i o r  knowledge.  40  Without going t h i s process the  b e y o n d t h e l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l and  of " c o - c o n s t i t u t i o n " , C o l a i z z i  learning situation w i l l  (1973)  without maintains  o n l y be an a c q u i s i t i o n o f  information.  PHEN0MEN0GRAPHICAL  A  Marton, differences  ( 1 9 7 5 ) and S a l j o , i n process,  of extensive  ON  LEARNING  (1975) d e s c r i b e  qualitative  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e  d i f f e r e n c e s t o t h e outcome consisted  STUDY  of l e a r n i n g .  Their  interviews with subjects  research regarding  t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g , i . e . , a c q u i s i t i o n o f f a c t s o r what S a l j o and M a r t o n c a l l e d s u r f a c e level processing  level processing,  where t h e k n o w l e d g e  part of the student's  existing  o r deep-  i s internalized,  becoming  framework o f knowledge.  The r e a s o n f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e work o f S a l j o and M a r t o n i n t h i s study  i s i t provides  playing across processing.  a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e use of dramatic  t h e c u r r i c u l u m - - t o promote  Their research  deep-level  shows a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  a c q u i s i t i o n o f f a c t s and a p p l y i n g k n o w l e d g e t o make s e n s e o f one's  world. They i n t e r v i e w e d  activities  90 s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g  and what t h e y  r e s u l t s showed  learning  t h o u g h t c o n s t i t u t e d " l e a r n i n g . " The  f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s o f l e a r n i n g , and i t i s  in the i n t e r e s t s of t h i s study described  their  t o examine t h e f i v e c o n c e p t s as  b y S a l j o and M a r t o n a s t h e y a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l i n  41  design showing stages of development i n the l e a r n e r ' s dispostion to learning. 1. L e a r n i n g as the i n c r e a s e of knowledge. 2. L e a r n i n g as memorizing. 3. L e a r n i n g as a c q u i s i t i o n of f a c t s , procedures, e t c . which can be r e t a i n e d and/or u t i l i z e d  in practice.  4. L e a r n i n g as the a b s t r a c t i o n of meaning. 5. L e a r n i n g as an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e process aimed at the understanding  Conceptions  of r e a l i t y .  1 and 2 are examples of s u r f a c e - l e v e l p r o c e s s i n g ,  and the knowledge appears t o be e x t e r n a l to the s t u d e n t s . Conceptions  4/5 are examples of d e e p - l e v e l p r o c e s s i n g and  knowledge i s the r e s u l t of an a c t i v e e f f o r t  from the student.  In conception 5, the w r i t e r s , S a l j o and Marton (1975) imply that s t y l e would encompass  " a c t i v i t i e s t h a t promote  meaningful  connections between student l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l s and t h e i r understanding  of the world"  (Year 2000. The Intermediate  Program: Response D r a f t (p. 25). Dramatic p l a y i n g or t h e a t r e p r o v i d e s students with experience. "Engagement,  this  exploration, transformation -  i n t e r p r e t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " (Year 2000: Response D r a f t , p. 110). T h i s method  of t e a c h i n g , through dramatic p l a y i n g , can  enhance the understanding  of any t e x t .  Rike  (1984) claims " i f  a t r a i n e d teacher knows how t o i n v o l v e a l l students i n pantomime ( s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) , a concept can become c l e a r i n minutes" (p. 36). The phenomenographical s t u d i e s of S a l j o and  42  Marton r e g a r d i n g l e a r n i n g have been reviewed  i n t h i s study i n  support of the use of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m , and phenomenography has a l s o been used as a method of q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s study i n an attempt  t o probe deeper  into  conceptions of drama held by the teachers of intermediate elementary  classrooms  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  SUMMARY  Drama, l i k e the other a r t s , music, v i s u a l a r t s , and dance has emphasized doing  as i t s focus because of the present  h e u r i s t i c approach t o l e a r n i n g p r e f e r r e d by most today.  Producing  educators  the c u l t u r a l l y l i t e r a t e student or s t r e s s i n g  t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s has not been on the agenda t o the same extent as "doing".  T h i s l i t e r a t u r e review has presented the v a r i o u s  uses of drama i n elementary  s c h o o l s and has suggested  that  there has been a movement away from an emphasis on performance ( t h e a t r e ) w i t h i n the f i n e a r t s program t o dramatic p l a y i n g with i t s wider a p p l i c a t i o n across the c u r r i c u l u m . noted t h a t the c u r r e n t B r i t i s h Columbia F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m appears  ambivalent  I t was Elementary  about the p l a c e of drama  recommending t h a t i t be taught both as an a r t form and as a method of t e a c h i n g across the c u r r i c u l u m . t h i s study have suggested  W r i t e r s surveyed i n  t h a t the two p o s i t i o n s are not  i r r e c o n c i l a b l e but have warned that the i n c r e a s i n g use of drama as a t e a c h i n g t o o l might reduce fine arts subject.  i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a  43  In the l i g h t of these problems r e l a t e d to the place of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m , my study w i l l examine t o what extent drama i s being taught a t the intermediate l e v e l of education i n a random sample of elementary  schools i n B r i t i s h  I w i l l a l s o examine t e a c h e r s ' understanding  Columbia.  and use of drama  w i t h i n the f i n e a r t s programme and across the s c h o o l curriculum. My purpose f o r conducting t h i s study i s based on my concern  t h a t the implementation  of drama, f o r a v a r i e t y of  reasons, may not be as s u c c e s s f u l as one would hope.  I t may  be t h a t although many teachers endorse drama i n theory, i t may be i n danger of being omitted  from the c u r r i c u l u m a l t o g e t h e r .  Whether introduced to c h i l d r e n as a l e a r n i n g t o o l or an a r t form, drama i s c e n t r a l t o being a human being. " I t i s s a i d that Mark Twain viewed t h e a t r e f o r c h i l d r e n as the best teacher of morals and good conduct (Rike, 1984, p. 39).  education has d e v i s e d "  44 CHAPTER 3 R E S E A R C H  D E S I G N  METHOD  T h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted  as a survey as w e l l as a  phenomenographical study of t e a c h e r s ' engagement with, understanding  o f , and response  f o r l e a r n i n g i n elementary  t o dramatic  classrooms.  r e s e a r c h were used: a survey conducted to g i v e breadth  p l a y i n g as a t o o l  Two methods of using a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  to the study and to provide an overview  c o n d i t i o n s of drama i n elementary  of the  s c h o o l s and o r a l i n t e r v i e w s  were used t o provide an o p p o r t u n i t y t o look deeper i n t o the circumstances oral  surrounding the implementation  i n t e r v i e w s allowed the respondent  c l a r i f y h i s / h e r understanding  of drama.  The  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  of the questions and the  i n t e r v i e w e r the chance t o r e - s t a t e the q u e s t i o n .  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e made i t p o s s i b l e t o examine a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n . The  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the o r a l  i n t e r v i e w s , i . e . , between  i n t e r v i e w e r and i n t e r v i e w e e , e l i c i t e d more i n f o r m a t i o n than the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would have alone. Questions  on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e centered on f a c t o r s  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the success or the f a i l u r e of dramatic p l a y i n g as a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y i n elementary  classrooms,  and asked  teachers t o s t a t e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e as t o which form of drama would be most u s e f u l and b e n e f i c i a l i n the form of dramatic  i n the c u r r i c u l u m : drama  p l a y i n g , where the o b j e c t i v e i s t o  45  enhance l e a r n i n g i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , or s c r i p t e d drama, where the o b j e c t i v e i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e a t r e skills  and an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e a t r e as an a r t .  The questions of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were designed  f o r the  purpose of c o l l e c t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would provide the basis for t h i s The  study.  f i r s t p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed t o  c o l l e c t personal data such as the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e of the t e a c h e r s , age, years of t e a c h i n g experience,  subjects  and whether e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama was taught  taught,  in their school.  The r e s t of the survey contained questions r e l a t e d t o the problems posed i n the study, such as the engagement with drama i n the classroom, and  experience  respondents'  their prior  i n drama, t h e a t r e and the performing  training a r t s , and  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the value of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m . When the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was formulated,  a field  conducted t o t e s t the e f f i c a c y of the q u e s t i o n s . of  the f i e l d  study  to  seven w i t h i n one s c h o o l .  study  was  The s u b j e c t s  i n c l u d e d a l l the teachers of grades three The r e s u l t s of t h i s f i e l d  study  proved t h a t s e v e r a l questions on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were too open-ended and others were not f a c i l i t a t i n g was s e e k i n g .  the i n f o r m a t i o n I  Dr. Frank E c h o l s , i n the S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s Department at U.B.C, helped me r e f i n e the questionnaire. The questions of the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s were to  designed  probe f u r t h e r i n t o teacher's a t t i t u d e s toward e d u c a t i o n a l  drama and t o be open-ended i n order t o a c t as a c a t a l y s t t o  46  i n i t i a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n on drama i n s c h o o l s Appendix D).  The study of the f i n d i n g s of the i n t e r v i e w s  involved q u a l i t a t i v e recent years.  (See  r e s e a r c h which has grown i n p o p u l a r i t y i n  T h i s type of r e s e a r c h can be a method of  r e v e a l i n g people's f e e l i n g s  about, and conceptions of,  phenomena w i t h i n t h e i r world which w i l l response and experience with i t .  in turn affect  Marton (1989) w r i t e s  certain their "There  i s a c e n t u r i e s o l d human s c i e n c e t r a d i t i o n t h a t we can draw on when we engage i n d i s c e r n i n g the d i f f e r e n t meanings v a r i o u s phenomena may  have f o r people" (p. 1 ) .  phenomenology and  f o r the purpose  This science i s c a l l e d  of t h i s study, I used  type of r e s e a r c h i n order to a s c e r t a i n how  this  teachers p e r c e i v e d  dramatic p l a y i n g as an instrument of l e a r n i n g and  their  understanding of the d i s t i n c t i o n between dramatic p l a y i n g  and  t h e a t r e as w e l l as t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of student b e n e f i t s resulting  from drama i n elementary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m s .  S e p a r a t i n g and examining  these d i f f e r e n t  conceptions of a  phenomena i s c a l l e d phenomenography, and there i s a set  of q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t  c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g any p a r t i c u l a r  limited  ways people can have of phenomena.  A c c o r d i n g to Marton  (1989), the group of concepts, c a l l e d the "outcome space" should, f o r purposes five.  of v a l i d i t y and management, not  exceed  There can be some uncommon c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of  phenomena but they tend to be i d i o s y n c r a t i c ,  and the r e v e r s e  of t h i s i s concepts which are a l l the same, shared by a l l the s u b j e c t s because they (the concepts) are c u l t u r a l l y bound. But somewhere between g e n e r a l and  idiosyncratic,  one  can  47  d i s t i n g u i s h a l i m i t e d number of v a r i e d concepts. study I was teachers.  l o o k i n g at how The d i f f e r e n c e  drama appeared  In t h i s  to the s u b j e c t s , the  i n understanding among teachers  depended on what the i n d i v i d u a l s focused upon.  There  i s also  a v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l as he/she can have two  or  more o v e r l a p p i n g concepts at the same time. A h i e r a r c h i c a l element of the concepts e x i s t s i n that they i n d i c a t e the contexture of human t h i n k i n g , i . e . , the i d e a of d e f i n i t e  l e v e l s of awareness i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to a  p a r t i c u l a r domain.  I t i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of development but  o n l y i n t h a t f i e l d , and a l t e r s and progresses as experience and knowledge i n t h a t domain i n c r e a s e s . An example of t h i s can be seen l e a r n i n g t o p l a y the piano. steps everyone  i n one's development i n  There are a c e r t a i n s e r i e s of  must go through to master the piano, and a  group of piano students can be at d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s of  mastery  as they proceed with t h e i r engagement of s t u d y i n g the piano. S i m i l a r l y , teachers vary i n t h e i r conceptions of drama i n accordance  with how  much t r a i n i n g i n , exposure  of drama they have experienced.  t o , or reading  The steps should not be  conceived as being i n the i n d i v i d u a l , but i n the s k i l l ,  which  i n t h i s case i s i n the understanding and t e a c h i n g of drama i n the elementary classroom.  The teacher's own e d u c a t i o n a l  p h i l o s o p h y a l s o p l a y s an important p a r t i n h i s / h e r o r i e n t a t i o n towards drama and thus, most teachers shared more than conception of drama.  one  48  The phenomenographical s t r a n d of t h i s r e s e a r c h was study of conceptions based teachers.  a  on the r e f l e c t i v e experience of  Since the implementation  of drama i n  elementary  s c h o o l s depends on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the teacher to drama as an a r t form or drama as a type of pedagogy, ( i . e . , h i s / h e r p e r c e p t i o n of drama, and whether he/she c o n s i d e r s i t of value or not) i t seemed most a p p r o p r i a t e to employ r e s e a r c h of t h i s nature. Drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m i n the form of an a r t or as a t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g has been accepted by c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s of t h i s p r o v i n c e , and the f i n e a r t s , as development of the a f f e c t i v e domain, have been a p a r t of the r a t i o n a l e of every c u r r i c u l u m s i n c e the days of Dewey. drama, perhaps i t i s due  I f teachers are not u s i n g  to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n and  understanding  of i t because q u a l i t y experience f o r students i n c r e a t i v e drama r e q u i r e s teachers who I t was  have been t r a i n e d  (Rike, 1980).  the i n t e n t of t h i s study t o survey and  what form of drama was t e a c h e r s , how  being used by elementary  o f t e n i t was' being used, and how  examine  school knowledgeable  they (the t e a c h e r s ) were i n the methodology of drama i n education..  " [ T l e a c h e r s need coursework to help them develop  c o n f i d e n c e i n g u i d i n g s t u d e n t s " (Rike, 1984, Although  p.  40).  phenomenography i s not e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h , the  mainstream r u l e s apply, i . e . , the f i v e conceptions can found by others i f the d e s c r i p t o r s are r e l i a b l e . can be r e p l i c a t e d by another is  valid.  r e s e a r c h e r , and  The  be study  i n t h a t sense, i t  49  T i me  The  s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d b e t w e e n A p r i l  1991 a n d J u l y 1 9 9 1 .  Sub j e c t s  The  s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and b e i n g  i n t e r v i e w e d were t e a c h e r s seven i n elementary Columbia.  of grade three through  schools  Originally,  t o grade  i n a l a r g e urban area  t h e d e s i g n was s u c h t h a t  in British  thirty-six  s c h o o l s w e r e t o be r a n d o m l y c h o s e n b y t h e s c h o o l b o a r d . looking f o ra s t r a t i f i e d limitations  random s a m p l e b u t a s e x p l a i n e d  i n C h a p t e r one, random s a m p l i n g  t o take part i n  t h e s u r v e y d u e t o o t h e r demands made on t e a c h e r s ' t i m e term of the school year.  i n the  was impeded  b e c a u s e many p r i n c i p a l s d e c l i n e d t h e r e q u e s t  final  I was  i n the  Because of t h e s c h o o l  d i s t r i c t ' s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e two u n i v e r s i t i e s , U.B.C. and Simon F r a s e r , i t i s c o n t i n u a l l y a s k e d t o t a k e p a r t i n educational studies.  T h i s means e l e m e n t a r y  a r e a s k e d t o do many s u r v e y s ,  i n the school year.  s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t such a The r e q u e s t  was made i n t h e  l a s t t e r m , t h e months o f A p r i l , May, and J u n e . t h i s problem, the Supervisor  principals  and t h e r e f o r e a r e r e l u c t a n t t o  impose t h i s e x t r a t a s k on t h e i r busy time  school  Because of  of Educational Research a t the  S t u d e n t A s s e s s m e n t And R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e s c h o o l suggested  that a l l the elementary  contacted  i n an attempt t o f i n d  schools  board  i n the d i s t r i c t  enough s c h o o l s t o make t h e  be  50  study v a l i d .  Twenty-three s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s responded. One  hundred seven teachers completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . At the end of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , teachers were asked to v o l u n t e e r t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , e i t h e r by telephone Teachers were requested convenient  to i n c l u d e t h e i r phone number and a  time f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o c a l l  appointment f o r the i n t e r v i e w . responded.  or in-person.  t o s e t an  T h i r t y - f o u r teachers  (See l a s t page of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the  i n t e r v i e w v o l u n t e e r form, Appendix C ) . Data  Collection  I used two methods of data c o l l e c t i o n  in this  study.  They were:  (a) W r i t t e n responses t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o survey  how  much drama was being done as p a r t of the elementary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and what type of drama.  (See Appendix C ) .  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were hand-delivered  t o each s c h o o l  p r i n c i p a l f o l l o w i n g a l e t t e r t o the p r i n c i p a l d e s c r i b i n g the o u t l i n e and purpose of the study, and a telephone confirming his/her approval.  call  The p r i n c i p a l was given  five  envelopes each c o n t a i n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and was i n s t r u c t e d t o d i s t r i b u t e one envelope t o one grade t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x and seven teacher on s t a f f .  In cases where  there was more than one teacher of the designated teacher whose surname preceded the other  grade, the  i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order  51  was s e l e c t e d .  Teachers  were g i v e n one week to complete the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p l a c e i t i n the envelope  p r o v i d e d , s e a l i t and  r e t u r n i t to the p r i n c i p a l , who held them f o r me to c o l l e c t (one week a f t e r The  distribution).  twenty-three  s c h o o l s r e p r e s e n t s approximately  twenty-  f i v e percent of the schools i n the d i s t r i c t chosen f o r t h i s study.  A l l s e c t i o n s of the urban area were r e p r e s e n t e d . One  hundred seven teachers answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h i r t y four teachers took p a r t i n the o r a l  i n t e r v i e w s . (See Appendix  D).  (b) O r a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted  where body language  s u b t l e t i e s were considered as w e l l as v e r b a l responses s u b j e c t s t a l k e d on t h e i r understanding  as  of drama, i n response  to the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s questions which encouraged s u b j e c t s t o e l a b o r a t e on t h e i r thoughts schools.  and impressions  The c a t e g o r i e s or concepts  were s e l e c t e d a f t e r the Interviews.  of drama i n  i n the "outcome space" The outcome space r e f e r s  to a l i m i t e d number of q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n s of conceptions of the phenomena, which i n t h i s i n s t a n c e was how teachers p e r c e i v e d drama and i t s value i n the c u r r i c u l u m .  Thirty-four  teachers v o l u n t e e r e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d ; seven chose to be interviewed  i n person, and twenty-seven chose t o be  interviewed by telephone. I purchased telephone  an answering machine t h a t taped  c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and informed  d i s c u s s i o n on drama was being taped.  out-going  the interviewee that the Every t h r e e minutes a  52  tone a l e r t e d both p a r t i e s t h a t the c o n v e r s a t i o n was recorded.  Each o r a l i n t e r v i e w was  minutes l o n g . person  I met  being  from f i f t e e n to t h i r t y  with those teachers r e q u e s t i n g an i n -  i n t e r v i e w i n t h e i r classrooms  after school.  In every  case, the in-person i n t e r v i e w s were longer than the interviews.  I assumed t h i s was  f a c t o r where more enthusiasm surrounding "school t a l k " . between May  21, 1991  telephone  due t o the added p e r s o n a l  seemed to be  generated  These i n t e r v i e w s were  and J u l y 18, 1991.  conducted  A sample of an  i n t e r v i e w i s i n c l u d e d i n the Appendices (See Appendix E ) . i n t e r v i e w s were conducted between two  i n the form of a c o n v e r s a t i o n  educators d i s c u s s i n g drama.  There were some s e t  q u e s t i o n s but o v e r a l l the i n t e n t of the i n t e r v i e w was where the s u b j e c t focused. found  i n Appendix  be  D.  Analysis  I d i v i d e d the t r a n s c r i p t s of the i n t e r v i e w s i n t o p i l e s , making judgements i n order t o separate the  two  responses.  i n t e r - j u d g e , (a t e a c h i n g c o l l e a g u e ) a s s i s t e d with s o r t i n g  the t r a n s c r i p t s i n t o "shared understanding" p i l e s ) . the two  Initially  " p i l e s " were c r e a t e d by s e p a r a t i n g those who  dramatic p l a y i n g experiences who  to focus  A sample of the q u e s t i o n s can  Data  An  The  d i d not use any drama.  each of the two  piles  i n t h e i r classrooms, and The next " s o r t i n g " was  described those  to separate  i n t o sub-groups; those i n t e r v i e w s t h a t  contained shared b e l i e f s .  The  inter-judge replicated  this  53  process  a f t e r me and d u r i n g t h i s process  we d i s c u s s e d  disagreements i n an attempt t o reach a consensus.  The i n t e r -  judge was a c o l l e a g u e chosen because he was f a m i l i a r with the concept of dramatic  p l a y i n g , had a background i n t h e a t r e , and  understood the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of phenomenography. continued  We  working s e p a r a t e l y , s u b d i v i d i n g the two p i l e s  until  we had s e v e r a l groups r e p r e s e n t i n g a l i m i t e d s e t of q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t perceptions the c u r r i c u l u m . conceptions  of the value of drama i n  By q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t , I mean how t h e i r  of the use of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m d i f f e r e d ,  i . e . , t h e i r d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n towards e d u c a t i o n a l drama. Each category  of the t e a c h e r s ' conceptions  of drama was  d e s c r i b e d and l a b e l e d i n such a way t h a t a second person could judge and separate same r e s u l t s ,  the responses t o the i n t e r v i e w s with the  i . e . , the same c a t e g o r i e s  were seven c a t e g o r i e s i n a l l , conceptions  (conceptions).  There  r e p r e s e n t i n g the seven  of drama held by the t e a c h e r s .  A f t e r the d i f f e r e n t conceptions  were c a t e g o r i z e d ,  d e s c r i b e d , and l a b e l e d , I was able t o examine both the v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h e r s ' d i s p o s i t i o n towards drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m as w e l l as explore any f a c t o r s e l i c i t e d by these i n t e r v i e w s t h a t may have a f f e c t e d the implementation of drama i n elementary s c h o o l s . As I s t u d i e d the i n t e r v i e w s , c e r t a i n o p i n i o n s , understandings,  concerns,  became dominant and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of v a r i o u s  " v o i c e s " of the t e a c h e r s , drama i n e d u c a t i o n .  i . e . , t h e i r shared  reactions to  A f t e r the seven conceptions  were  54  c a t e g o r i z e d and analyzed, I then s e l e c t e d v a r i o u s i s s u e s or concerns  t e a c h e r s r e p e a t e d l y addressed  i n the i n t e r v i e w s , and  c o l l e c t e d samples of t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s on these i s s u e s under separate  titles.  I t was  my  intent  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h to i n v e s t i g a t e problems  t h a t c o u l d present o b s t a c l e s to the s u c c e s s f u l of  implementation  drama i n e d u c a t i o n .  Assumptions  My c h o i c e of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t survey was  based  on my  assumption  i n which to conduct  this  t h a t because teachers of  t h i s l a r g e urban area would have e a s i e r access to courses o f f e r e d at nearby u n i v e r s i t i e s , they should by reason of p r o x i m i t y , be more l i k e l y to be f a m i l i a r with concepts "dramatic p l a y i n g " .  of  55 CHAPTER P R E S E N T A T I O N  O E  A N A L Y S I S  GENERAL  T h i s study was designed the implementation described  F I N D I N G S O E  A N D  D A T A  OVERVIEW  t o answer q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o  of drama i n elementary  i n the statement  chapter one.  4  s c h o o l classrooms as  of the problem a t the beginning of  Twenty-three s c h o o l responded  t o the request t o  do the survey and 107 teachers out of 115 completed the questionnaires.  I was not t o l d e x p l i c i t l y why e i g h t teachers  d i d not complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e but i n most cases when I a r r i v e d a t each s c h o o l one week a f t e r d e l i v e r y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o pick up the envelopes, some envelopes  would be m i s s i n g .  i n s e v e r a l instances  E i t h e r the s c h o o l s e c r e t a r y  or some other s t a f f member would t e l l me t h a t a teacher had misplaced  i t or was absent e t c .  TABLE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects bv Grade Grade Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Missing Total  Frequency 22 21 21 23 20 8 115  Percent 19.1 18.3 18.3 20.0 17.4 7.0 100.0  56  TABLE 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Age Age range  Frequency  20-24 25 - 29 30-34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 & over missing Total  Percent  1 12 11 24 27 14 15 3  .9 11.2 10.3 22.4 25.2 13.1 14.1 2.8  107  100.0  As Table 2 shows the m a j o r i t y of teachers a r e over  forty  years of age and t h i s c o u l d have a b e a r i n g on the w i l l i n g n e s s to t r y i n n o v a t i v e ideas or t o seek t r a i n i n g  i n what might be  c o n s i d e r e d by many t o be new and unconventional t e a c h i n g methods.  T h i s i s not to imply t h a t teachers a t a c e r t a i n age  are l e s s i n n o v a t i v e but o n l y t o suggest t h a t t h e r e i s p o s s i b l y room f o r some f u t u r e study t o see i f there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between age and implementation  of new t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  Three teachers d i d not wish t o d i s c l o s e t h e i r age. TABLE 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Experience Years of experience 1 2 3 4/5 6 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 Above 20 Total  Frequency  Percent  2 3 9 9 13 20 26 25  1.9 2.8 8.4 8.4 12.1 18.7 24.3 23.4  107  100.0  57  As Table  3 shows, the l a r g e s t c a t e g o r i e s are comprised of  those teachers who  have been t e a c h i n g over s i x t e e n y e a r s .  However, the g r e a t e s t percentage (52.3%) have been t e a c h i n g f o r under 16 y e a r s . interest  The  f i n d i n g s of Table  3 are o n l y of  i n t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t teachers  could  be  entrenched i n e s t a b l i s h e d t e a c h i n g s t y l e s t h a t have worked w e l l f o r them and  they see no need to change.  Dramatic  p l a y i n g i s a form of t e a c h i n g t h a t i n v o l v e s t a k i n g r i s k s special training.  Since courses  mandatory f o r the student  i n e d u c a t i o n a l drama are  teacher, and t h a t may  message t h a t these courses  Table  not  convey the  i n drama are not of great  importance, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the experienced would purposely  and  teacher  seek out t h a t kind of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  4 d e s c r i b e s the frequency  of s u b j e c t s who  teach  extra-  c u r r i c u l a r drama i n s c h o o l s . TABLE 4 E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r Drama as a Dramatic Response  Experience Percent  Frequency  77.6 20.5 1.9  83 22 2  no yes missing Total  107 As Table  100.0  4 i n d i c a t e s very l i t t l e  is taking place in schools. drama c l u b t h a t met  Two  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama  teachers s a i d they had  a f t e r s c h o o l , and  the other  twenty  a  58  teachers d e s c r i b e d t h e i r engagement with e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama as r e h e a r s a l s f o r s c h o o l p r o d u c t i o n s . Table 4 who responded t h a t they were doing drama d i d not respond  Two t e a c h e r s i n extra-curricular  i n d e s c r i b i n g the type of drama they  were doing i n Table 5. Table 5 d e s c r i b e s the type of drama being done by the teachers responding yes i n Table 4 TABLE 5 Type of E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r Drama Used By Teachers Response Frequency Drama Club 1 Rehearsals f o r s c h o o l c o n c e r t s 18 3 Both of the above In other forms not l i s t e d 3  Percent 4.0 72.0 12.0 12.0  25  Total  100.0  In Table 4, twenty-two teachers s a i d they were doing e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama but the t o t a l responding twenty-five.  Three s a i d they were not doing  i n Table 5 i s  extra-curricular  drama and then d e s c r i b e d a type of drama they were d o i n g . T h i s c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t the three teachers i n q u e s t i o n d i d not c o n s i d e r r e h e a r s a l s f o r c o n c e r t s as being In Table 5 three teachers l i s t e d  extra-curricular.  i n the response  "other forms  not l i s t e d " d e s c r i b e d the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama they were doing a s : - c o - d i r e c t e d c l a s s musicals and Halloween p l a y s . - wrote and produced p l a y s with s t u d e n t s . - r a n a classroom drama program.  59  Two teachers  who responded t h a t they were doing  extra-  c u r r i c u l a r drama d i d not d e s c r i b e what type and t h r e e  teachers  who s a i d they were not doing e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama d e s c r i b e d another form.  Two teachers who s a i d they were not doing  e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama responded t h a t they were i n v o l v e d i n rehearsals f o r school  concerts.  Table 6 d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n t h e respondent had used p l a y i n g as a classroom three  dramatic  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y i n the l a s t  three  years. TABLE 6 Dramatic P l a y i n a - a  Classroom  Teachinq S t r a t e a y  Frequency  Time S e v e r a l times per week Once a week S e v e r a l times a month Once a month Once a term Once a year Never Total  Percent 7.5 5.6 22.4 19.6 19.6 12.2 13.1  8 6 . . . . . , 24 21 21 13 14 107  100.0  I t should be noted t h a t the m a j o r i t y of teachers they are using dramatic  claim  p l a y i n g i n t h e i r classrooms between  s e v e r a l times a month and once a term.  This finding  i s not  c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s i n the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s where a l l of the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t o t h e i r knowledge very drama was being done i n classrooms. most teachers  little  One has t o c o n s i d e r  that  are aware t h a t drama i s mandated i n the F i n e  Arts Curriculum  Guide of 1985 and have c u r r e n t l y viewed the  60  intermediate d r a f t of the Year 2000 where drama i s p a r t of the fine arts strand.  As t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e  g i v i n g the s u b j e c t s i g n i f i c a n t  focuses on drama,  importance, many teachers would  be r e l u c t a n t to d e c l a r e they were not doing any mandated curriculum.  Table 7 d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n the respondent used s c r i p t e d drama for the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e a t r e s k i l l s and the a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e a t r e i n the classroom  i n the l a s t three  years.  TABLE 7 S c r i p t e d Drama - Frequency of Use i n Classrooms Time  Frequency  S e v e r a l times per week Once a week S e v e r a l times a month Once a month Once a term Once a year Never Total  The  telephone  Percent  3 6 12 14 32 28 12  2.8 5.6 11.2 ; 13.1 29.9 26.2 11.2  107  100.0  i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t teachers v a r i e d i n  t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of dramatic  p l a y i n g , and t h e r e f o r e the high  percentage of teachers doing dramatic  p l a y i n g c o u l d be  i n a c c u r a t e i n t h a t many teachers assumed t h a t anything  from  charades t o t h e a t r e s p o r t s and i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l s k i t s could be considered  a form of dramatic  playing.  61  The  l a r g e percentage  of teachers doing s c r i p t e d drama  l e s s f r e q u e n t l y (once a term or once a year) i s perhaps r e f l e c t i o n of the annual s c h o o l c o n c e r t or the performances Halloween,  a  interclass  t h a t take p l a c e at seasonal times of the year:  Christmas, V a l e n t i n e ' s Day,  and the l a s t weeks of the s c h o o l y e a r .  E a s t e r , Outdoor I t could also  Ed.,  indicate  the lack of a p p r o p r i a t e s c r i p t s a v a i l a b l e i n classroom r e a d i n g programs as p a r t of the language  a r t s program whereas dramatic  p l a y i n g , because of i t s spontaneous and i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l nature, has a broader scope and t h e r e f o r e more t e a c h e r s c o u l d imagine  they were doing the dramatic p l a y i n g form of drama  even i f they weren't. S c r i p t e d drama i s c o n c r e t e .  One  knows whether one i s  r e a d i n g a p l a y or not, but some of the respondents  were not  c l e a r on what c o n s t i t u t e d dramatic p l a y i n g and assumed dramatic p l a y i n g i n c l u d e d a wider range of dramatic than i t r e a l l y does, isn't scripted.  activities  l i t e r a l l y anything t h a t ' s dramatic  T h i s appeared  and  to c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n i n the  minds of many of the s u b j e c t s .  In s h o r t , they may t h i n k they  are doing i t when they a r e n ' t .  The  telephone i n t e r v i e w s  confirmed t h i s as t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r activities.  "dramatic  playing"  62  Table 8 d e s c r i b e s the number of "drama i n e d u c a t i o n " courses the respondents  completed  at u n i v e r s i t y / c o l l e g e .  TABLE 8 E d u c a t i o n a l Drama Courses Number of courses  Completed a t U n i v e r s i t y or C o l l e g e Frequency  Percent  None one two three  84 14 8 1  78.5 13.1 7.5 .9  Total  107  100.0  Table 8 shows t h a t 78.5 percent of the teachers had not taken any courses i n drama i n education and y e t the r e s u l t s i n t a b l e s i x r e v e a l t h a t 55.1 percent of the teachers use dramatic p l a y i n g from s e v e r a l times per week t o once per month.  C o n s i d e r i n g the c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the t e a c h i n g  methodology of dramatic p l a y i n g , t h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of whether or not the teachers know what dramatic p l a y i n g entails.  63  Table nine d e s c r i b e s the number of t h e a t r e a r t s courses  that  the respondents completed a t a u n i v e r s i t y / c o l l e g e .  TABLE 9 Theatre  A r t s Courses Completed a t U n i v e r s i t y or C o l l e g e  Number of courses  Frequency  None one two three four five missing Total  90 10 3 2 0 1 1  84.1 9.3 2.8 1.9 .0 .9 .9  107  100.0  Table 9 shows t h a t 84.1 percent any t r a i n i n g  Percent  of teachers have not had  i n t h e a t r e a r t s a t the u n i v e r s i t y / c o l l e g e l e v e l  but c o n s i d e r i n g the s t a t u s of drama (as an a r t ) i n t h e curriculum, t h i s  i s t o be expected as drama i s not perceived  as a s p e c i a l i s t ' s s u b j e c t a t the elementary l e v e l .  It is  i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n both music and v i s u a l a r t s , where s u b j e c t s are taught  by s p e c i a l i s t s , the teachers  i n question  would most l i k e l y have p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n these s p e c i a l i z e d areas of i n s t r u c t i o n .  these  64  Table 10 d e s c r i b e s the number of p r o f e s s i o n a l development "drama i n e d u c a t i o n " workshops t h a t teachers attended  i n the  l a s t three y e a r s . TABLE 10 Frequency of E d u c a t i o n a l Drama Workshops Taken by Teachers Number of courses  Frequency  none one two three four five ten  Percent  62 22 9 8 2 3 1  Total  57.9 20.6 8.4 7.5 1.9 2.8 .9  107 Table 10 r e v e a l s t h a t 57.9  100.0 percent of the teachers have  not r e c e i v e d any exposure to dramatic  p l a y i n g i n the form of  workshops, and yet Table 6 r e v e a l s t h a t 55.1 teachers use dramatic once per month.  percent of the  p l a y i n g from s e v e r a l times per week to  Table 10 i n d i c a t e s a d i s c r e p a n c y between the  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the M i n i s t r y and  the amount of p r o f e s s i o n a l  development i n drama a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r s .  Fifty-seven point  nine percent of the teachers have not had any p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n e d u c a t i o n a l drama, and yet drama i s mandated i n the F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide of 1985 Year 2000 document.  and  i n c l u d e d i n the  65  Table 11 i n d i c a t e s involvement  i n amateur or p r o f e s s i o n a l  t h e a t r e o u t s i d e the realm of the s c h o o l and  education.  TABLE 11 . Teacher Response no  Experience  i n P r o f e s s i o n a l Theatre  Frequency 76  Percent 71.0  yes as: actor/actress director producer musical d i r e c t o r choreographer other many/all missing Total  11 2 2 1 1 1 12 1  10.4 1.9 1.9 .9 .9 .9 11.2 .9  107  100.0  Table 11 shows t h a t 71 percent of the t e a c h e r s have no background i n p r o f e s s i o n a l or amateur t h e a t r e o u t s i d e the realm of s c h o o l .  T h i s i s bound t o e f f e c t the  average  classroom teacher's d i s p o s i t i o n towards drama when c a l l e d upon t o i n c l u d e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r t form i n h i s / h e r classroom s t u d i e s , whether i t be dramatic p l a y i n g or s c r i p t e d drama. I t should be noted t h a t one teacher d i d not  respond.  66  Table 12 i n d i c a t e s the number o f teachers who  have had  t r a i n i n g i n "performance s k i l l s " which c o u l d a f f e c t  their  d i s p o s i t i o n to the a r t s . TABLE 12 Teachers' Experience Response  i n Performance S k i l l s  Frequency  no  Percent  57  53.3  7 6 3 6 5 6 0 15 2  6.5 5.6 2.8 5.6 4.7 5.6 0 14.0 1.9  107  100.0  yes a c t i n g courses elocution singing dancing instrumental p u b l i c speaking other many missing Total  Table 12 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 53.3 had no t r a i n i n g  percent of the teachers have  i n performance and t h i s may  be c o r r e l a t e d t o  the q u e s t i o n on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e where teachers were asked whether they would f e e l apprehensive  i n the c a p a c i t y of  teacher i n r o l e i n an i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama with t h e i r students.  Many t e a c h e r s claimed t h a t they f e l t  " a c t i n g " i n f r o n t of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . experience  has  However, one t e a c h e r commented that  "teaching i n f r o n t of a c l a s s was agree.  I f the teacher  i n performance, the f e a r of "being on s t a g e " would  most l i k e l y be reduced.  may  uncomfortable  Two  experience enough".  teachers d i d not respond  i n Table  12.  Others  67  Table 13 d e s c r i b e s the context or s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e used by the teacher when u t i l i z i n g dramatic p l a y i n g as a learning tool  i n elementary  classrooms. TABLE 13  Teachers' Choice Of Subject D i s c i p l i n e Subject d i s c i p l i n e  Frequency  Social Studies Social s k i l l s Language A r t s French L.A. & S.S. Puppetry Many s u b j e c t s missing Total  f o r Use of Drama Percent  21 5 12 2 29 1 10 27  19.6 4.7 11.2 1.9 27.1 .9 9.4 25.2  107  100.0  In Table 13 twenty-seven  teachers d i d not respond to t h i s  q u e s t i o n because they had not used dramatic p l a y i n g i n t h e i r classrooms.  I t i s of i n t e r e s t  t o note that the t o t a l  " m i s s i n g " and the combined s u b t o t a l s i n Table 6 (the combination of the once a year response and the never response) a r e the same.  T h i s suggests t h a t t e a c h e r s i n these  two c a t e g o r i e s d i d not see themselves as u s i n g dramatic playing. In some i n s t a n c e s , respondents who claimed t o be u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g i n many s u b j e c t areas, i n c l u d e d s c i e n c e and math but the use of these two s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s was minimal. Social  s t u d i e s and language a r t s had the h i g h e s t frequency.  Two t e a c h e r s used dramatic p l a y i n g i n t e a c h i n g French, and one used puppets as the medium f o r u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g i n French c l a s s e s .  68  C l e a r l y , t h i s survey shows language  a r t s and  social  s t u d i e s t o be the s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t t e a c h e r s choose as b e n e f i t t i n g the most from the use of dramatic p l a y i n g as a learning t o o l . language  In the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , t e a c h e r s chose  a r t s above s o c i a l s t u d i e s as the s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e  i n which they were most l i k e l y t o use dramatic whereas i n Table 13, the respondents chose s o c i a l s t u d i e s over language  playing,  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  a r t s as the s u b j e c t  d i s c i p l i n e that would b e n e f i t the most from the i n t e g r a t i o n of drama. Table 14 i n d i c a t e s how  t e a c h e r s r a t e d the success of  t h e i r experience i n engaging playing described i n table  t h e i r c l a s s e s i n the dramatic  thirteen. TABLE 14  Teachers' R a t i n g of Dramatic  P l a y i n g Experiences In Classroom  Scale: Poor 1  Moderate 2  Rate  Level  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 missing  Poor Poor  Total  Moderate Moderate Great Great  3  4  Great 5  Frequency 0 1 3 10 27 23 21 3 19 107  6  7  8 Percent 0.0 .9 2.8 9.4 25.2 21.5 19.6 2.8 17.8 100.0  69  Nineteen teachers d i d not respond  to t h i s q u e s t i o n  because they had not used the dramatic p l a y i n g form.  The  reader w i l l note t h a t i n Table 6 o n l y f o u r t e e n teachers s a i d they had never  used dramatic p l a y i n g .  I t appears  f i v e of the  t e a c h e r s who claimed they used dramatic p l a y i n g d i d not r a t e their  success.  Table 15 d e s c r i b e s t e a c h e r s p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to the success or f a i l u r e of t h e i r  experiences  with dramatic p l a y i n g ( i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama) i n t h e i r classrooms. As t e a c h e r s c o u l d respond  t o as many f a c t o r s as they  a p p l i e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r experience, the percentage t e a c h e r s ' response  felt  of the  t o each separate f a c t o r i s c a l c u l a t e d and  i l l u s t r a t e d on i t s own.  Table 15 shows t h a t 14 t e a c h e r s d i d not respond section  (which  to this  i s c o n s i s t e n t with the f i g u r e s i n Table 6  r e p r e s e n t i n g t e a c h e r s who acknowledged they had never done dramatic p l a y i n g ) .  T h e r e f o r e the percentages  responding t o each f a c t o r i s based answered t h i s q u e s t i o n .  of teachers  on the 93 t e a c h e r s who  70  TABLE 15 F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g to the Success of Dramatic P l a y i n g F a c t o r s f o r Success; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Fun f o r the s t u d e n t s ; they loved i t . Teacher t r a i n e d i n the methodology. A l l students had a p a r t . Co-operative l e a r n i n g . Each student can express h i s / h e r p o i n t of view. C h i l d r e n are n a t u r a l a c t o r s / a c t r e s s e s . L e a r n i n g experience f o r s t u d e n t s ; f e l t the concept f i r s t person.  Factors  Frequency  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  i n the  Percent 92.5 19.4 67.7 79.6 64.5 53.8 67.7  86 18 63 74 60 50 63 T o t a l s a r e not p o s s i b l e here as many t e a c h e r s  responded  to more than one f a c t o r . As the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e , t e a c h e r s saw many reasons f o r the success of dramatic p l a y i n g .  "Fun f o r the s t u d e n t s ; they  loved i t " was the major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the success of drama i n elementary  classrooms  the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s . "Teacher  trained  and t h i s was s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n  The f a c t o r with the l e a s t responses was  i n the methodology" which again was  s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the o r a l inter-views where t e a c h e r s claimed there were not enough r e s o u r c e s or teacher t r a i n i n g area.  The 18 teachers responding p o s i t i v e l y t o t h i s  a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r success  in this factor  i n dramatic p l a y i n g t o the t r a i n i n g  71  they had r e c e i v e d i n the methodology of t h i s  teaching  strategy. A second f a c t o r the teachers a p p r e c i a t e d was t h a t dramatic course  p l a y i n g provides c o - o p e r a t i v e  l e a r n i n g which of  i s v e r y much a p a r t of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy of  today, as a r e f a c t o r s 5 and 7. supported  Although these  f i n d i n g s are  by the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , one has t o examine another  u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o such overwhelming f o r dramatic  playing.  support  One can assume t h a t as dramatic  playing  has many of the q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e i n accord with the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s towards b e t t e r t e a c h i n g s t y l e s , would be c o n d i t i o n e d to respond f a v o r a b l y towards d e s c r i p t o r s l i s t e d above.  teachers  those  Another c r u c i a l f a c t o r i s always  present: drama i s mandated i n the Pine A r t s  Curriculum.  TABLE 16 F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o the F a i l u r e o f Dramatic P l a y i n g •Factors f o r F a i l u r e : 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Need guide books and teacher t r a i n i n g t o a i d s u c c e s s . C h i l d r e n can a c t s i l l y ; d i s c i p l i n e f a c t o r . Too time consuming f o r an a l r e a d y overloaded t i m e t a b l e . Lack of teacher c o n f i d e n c e : don't know how t o " a c t " Fear of p a r e n t / p u b l i c d i s a p p r o v a l : another " f r i l l " . C u l t u r a l l y unacceptable. Not c l e a r on what i t i s or what a r e the g o a l s .  Factors 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  Frequency 26 27 32 13 2 4 5  Percent 28.0 29.0 34.4 14.0 2.2 4.3 5.4  72  T o t a l s a r e not p o s s i b l e here as many teachers  responded  to more than one f a c t o r . C o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s i n the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , f a c t o r s 8, 9, and 10 r e p r e s e n t key problems c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the s u c c e s s f u l implementation elementary  classrooms.  of dramatic p l a y i n g i n  Once more, teachers address the lack  of resource m a t e r i a l and teacher t r a i n i n g .  Teachers  also  feel  t h a t with the freedom necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l dramatic p l a y i n g , students may take advantage of the s i t u a t i o n and become u n r u l y or a c t s i l l y . Teachers implementation  D i s c i p l i n e becomes a f a c t o r .  c o n s i d e r e d time a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the of drama.  As s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the o r a l  i n t e r v i e w s , t e a c h e r s a l r e a d y f e e l pressed f o r time with so many new a d d i t i o n s t o the c u r r i c u l u m such as whole  language,  elements of i n s t r u c t i o n , computers, i n t e g r a t i o n with  library,  and the s e x u a l abuse program. Respondents t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were not concerned  with  "how to a c t " nor f e l t they lacked c o n f i d e n c e i n t h i s area but i n the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , t e a c h e r s saw t h i s was a major  factor.  A c t u a l l y , many of the t e a c h e r s interviewed a t t r i b u t e d t h a t weakness t o other  teachers who weren't u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g  or drama In any form. Respondents t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e appeared  t o understand  what was i n v o l v e d i n dramatic p l a y i n g and t h e intended goals of t h a t form, and y e t i n the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , s e v e r a l teachers were not a t a l l c l e a r on what dramatic p l a y i n g e n t a i l e d .  Most  73  teachers and  interviewed could d i s t i n g u i s h i t from s c r i p t e d drama,  c o u l d d e f i n e i t as a type of i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama, but i n  t h a t context to reader's  they saw i t as i n c l u d i n g anything  from charades  t h e a t r e t o t h e a t r e s p o r t s t o a c t i n g out a s t o r y  from a novel or reader. The  goals and o b j e c t i v e s of drama i n classrooms were  e q u a l l y ambiguous.  In most i n s t a n c e s , teachers  o b j e c t i v e s as: t h e student  t a r g e t e d such  l e a r n i n g t o express h i m s e l f ,  g a i n i n g poise and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n f r o n t of peers, communication s k i l l s , and l e a r n i n g how t o d e a l with and s o l v e s o c i a l problems. u s i n g dramatic understanding  Very few teachers  a r t i c u l a t e d the goal of  p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l , of the concept.  i . e . , f o r a deeper  The o n l y teachers  t o do so were  those teachers who had been t r a i n e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l drama, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v e d i n dramatic  Table  playing.  17 shows the degree t o which teachers would  feel  apprehensive t a k i n g a r o l e i n the c a p a c i t y of "teacher i n r o l e " i n an i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama with t h e i r students  i n the  classroom. TABLE 17 Teachers Apprehensive About Dramatic P l a y i n g Response no yes missing Total  Frequency  Percent  88 15 4  82.2 14.1 3.7  107  100.0  74  Table 17 shows t h a t 82.2  percent of the teachers surveyed  claimed t h a t they would not be apprehensive or uneasy t a k i n g a r o l e with t h e i r students i n a classroom drama.  Four teachers  d i d not respond t o t h i s q u e s t i o n whereas 14 respondents i n Table 6 had p r e v i o u s l y claimed they had never used dramatic playingi  One  p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the remaining  respondents assumed the q u e s t i o n was  10  a s k i n g whether they would  be apprehensive should they attempt t o t r y dramatic p l a y i n g sometime i n the f u t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e they  responded.  Although the q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e d o n l y a "yes" or  "no"  answer to whether the teacher would be apprehensive i n r o l e with the s t u d e n t s , f i v e t e a c h e r s chose t o c l a r i f y t h e i r answer.  The response ''nervous" was  w r i t t e n on the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e by two t e a c h e r s and "not enough t r a i n i n g " added by t h r e e t e a c h e r s .  "yes"  The response nervous  was  is closely  r e l a t e d t o "apprehensive" and can be i n t e r p r e t e d as an emphasis on the p a r t of the respondent,  i n d i c a t i n g a need to  r e i t e r a t e the q u a l i t y of apprehension.  The response  enough t r a i n i n g " can be i n t e r p r e t e d the same  "not  way.  Table 18 d e s c r i b e s the degree t o which the book Off Stage, co-authored by C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n and Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r , i s used by elementary classroom t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as other sources of p r a c t i c a l methodology.  75  TABLE 18 Teachers Using "Off Stage" - Resource Response no yes missing Total  Book on Dramatic  Frequency  Playing  Percent  79 26 2  73.8 24.3 1.9  107  100.0  I t i s of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t 73.8 percent of the teachers have never used O f f Stage i n t h e i r s c h o o l s .  I t has  been my understanding t h a t a l l the elementary s c h o o l s i n the p a r t i c u l a r urban area being surveyed had a t l e a s t one copy on hand. S i x of the 79 t e a c h e r s who s a i d they never used O f f Stage, were u s i n g other sources l i s t e d below.  E i g h t of the  t e a c h e r s who s a i d they d i d use O f f Stage claimed they used many other sources as w e l l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t 59 t e a c h e r s i n Table 6 use dramatic p l a y i n g anywhere between s e v e r a l times a week and once a month and y e t the twenty-six of the "yes" group and s i x from the "no" group a r e the o n l y teachers u s i n g any resource m a t e r i a l or guide books. Two t e a c h e r s d i d not respond t o t h i s q u e s t i o n and they d i d not respond t o any q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o dramatic p l a y i n g i n d i c a t i n g they are not u s i n g t h i s form a t a l l .  76  OTHER SOURCES:  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t  are sources of resource  m a t e r i a l t e a c h e r s s a i d they used t o a s s i s t them with playing in their  dramatic  classrooms.  Dorothy Heathcote * Gavin B o l t o n * Diane Kay A l l the Desks a Stage Morgan and Saxton Teaching Drama M a r t i n and V a i l i n s E x p l o r a t i o n Drama Mclntyre C r e a t i v e Drama i n the Elementary Schools Jane Wagner on Dorothy Heathcote and Staging a P l a y . * School l i b r a r y and own experience. * Information gathered from U.B.C. - Education Drama Course. M a t e r i a l s by Harvey O s t r o f f ( a t t a i n e d a t S.F.U.) C u r r i c u l u m Resources and workshop i n Kelowna provided many m a t e r i a l s . •Respondents d i d not l i s t used.  the t i t l e of the resource m a t e r i a l  Table 19 d e s c r i b e s the number of t e a c h e r s who have i n v o l v e d t h e i r students i n t h e a t r i c a l performances ( r e h e a r s i n g a script  f o r the purpose of p r e s e n t i n g i n f r o n t of an  audience). TABLE 19 Frequency of Teachers Using Drama i n T h e a t r i c a l Performances Response no yes missing Total  Frequency  Percent  15 90 2  14.0 84.1 1.9  107  100.0  The r e s u l t s i n Table 19 i n d i c a t e t h a t most t e a c h e r s have used s c r i p t e d drama i n some form of p r e s e n t a t i o n , and t h a t t e a c h e r s see some v a l u e i n dramatic performance as i t  77  c o n t r i b u t e s t o the student's s e l f - e s t e e m , c o n f i d e n c e and poise.  These f i n d i n g s were supported  by the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s .  Table 20 i n d i c a t e s w h i c h form of drama t e a c h e r s ' p r e f e r t o use i n elementary  classrooms. TABLE 20  Teachers' P r e f e r e n c e s i n Type of Drama Used i n Classrooms Response Scripted Dramatic No time A little missing  Frequency drama playing for either of both  Percent  17 26 5 58 1  15.9 24.3 4.7 54.2 .9  107  100.0  Table 20 shows t h a t most t e a c h e r s see drama as a necessary and valued p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m and b e l i e v e t h a t students should be exposed t o both dramatic e x p e r i e n c e s , i . e . , s c r i p t e d drama and dramatic p l a y i n g . was  One teacher d i d not respond  and as t h i s  the o n l y q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r teacher omitted, so  one can assume i t was overlooked.  WRITTEN COMMENTS  The  FROM  QUEST!ONNAIRES  f o l l o w i n g comments were added by teachers when  completing t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  These sample responses  give  the reader a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of how teachers v a r y i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of dramatic p l a y i n g .  I have i n c l u d e d the grade i n  78  which the type of drama occurred drama (see Table  14, p. 96).  The  and  how  the subject rated  the  remainder of w r i t t e n  responses from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s can be found i n Appendix The  q u e s t i o n was  P.  13(a):  I f you have ever used r o l e drama or improvised drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l f o r other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s i n the classroom, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i n which s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e or i n what c o n t e x t . Those respondents who arts;  used drama as a component of language  Language Arts..Space U n i t p l a y was w r i t t e n by f i v e "Lost i n Space", grade 3, r a t e d g r e a t . P o e t r y and  students  s p e l l i n g , grade 3, r a t e d g r e a t .  I p r e f e r u s i n g the p u p i l s own ideas f o r l i t t l e p r e s e n t a t i o n s some s c r i p t i n g done, grade 3, r a t e d moderate.  -  •Acting out s t o r i e s - language a r t s , grade 5, r a t e d moderate. Language a r t s - p a r t of r e a d i n g . . . . assigned p a r t s i n a pre w r i t t e n p l a y put on f o r the remainder of the c l a s s . Students then (when they got the idea) picked a "moral" and wrote t h e i r own p l a y s around the idea, performed them ( i n groups of 8 ) . grade 5, r a t e d moderate. Language a r t s , i . e . , Robot Grammar Talk (robot speaks the c a p i t a l s , p e r i o d s , p r e p o s i t i o n s ) grade 7, r a t e d g r e a t . Those respondents who in social studies:  used dramatic  p l a y i n g as a t e a c h i n g  tool  S o c i a l s t u d i e s - r o l e p l a y i n g , d e c i s i o n making; performed a P o t l a t c h , r o l e p l a y i n g immigrants or e x p l o r e r s , grade 4, r a t e d moderate. S o c i a l s - e x p l o r e r s , grade 5, r a t e d moderate. S o c i a l s t u d i e s -^Canada's past or B.C.'s past; to a c t - o u t an opera before viewing f o r b e t t e r understanding; r o l e p l a y to express f e e l i n g s , grade 3, r a t e d moderate. In S o c i a l s t u d i e s the c h i l d r e n used costumes and props thus l e a r n i n g even more t h a t I had f i r s t e n v i s i o n e d , grade 4, r a t e d great.  79  Those respondents who skills:  used dramatic p l a y i n g t o teach  social  To d e a l with s o c i a l problems, grade 4, r a t e d poor. T a l k i n g about behaviour and f e e l i n g s "How would you f e e l i f . . . . ? and g e t t i n g q u i e t c h i l d r e n to speak through puppets. grade 3, r a t e d moderate. Communications and  social s k i l l s ,  grade 6, r a t e d moderate.  To develop understanding of f e e l i n g s , s o l v i n g s o c i a l problems, grade 3, r a t e d moderate. Those respondents who i n t e g r a t e d dramatic p l a y i n g i n more than one s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e ; Language a r t s , r e a d i n g , 4, r a t e d moderate.  music, s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , grade  O r a l language, math, music, s o c i a l i s s u e s , grade 7, moderate.  rated  L i t e r a t u r e - b a s e d language a r t s . . . . a l s o w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t which h i t s a l l s u b j e c t areas, grade 7, r a t e d moderate. Language a r t s - c h a r a c t e r sketches, c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s i n sexual abuse p r e v e n t i o n programs, grade 6, r a t e d moderate. A l l areas of language a r t s , math problem r o l e p l a y s , e t c . works very w e l l f o r me. I love drama! grade 7, r a t e d g r e a t . Respondents t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s who r a t e d t h e i r classroom dramatic experiences as " g r e a t " a l s o s t a t e d they had taken courses i n dramatic p l a y i n g .  The  above responses as w e l l as the remainder of the  contained  i n the raw  responses  data i n Appendix F i n d i c a t e the  spectrum t h a t teachers  broad  b e l i e v e encompasses "dramatic p l a y i n g " .  Comments added bv teachers which was:  when completing q u e s t i o n  13(c)  P l e a s e comment on what f a c t o r s you f e e l c o n t r i b u t e d t o your success or f a i l u r e with dramatic p l a y i n g ( i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama) i n your classrooms.  80  T h o s e f a c t o r s t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s saw a s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m dramas were: I l o v e i t , s o i t works, and meaningful, grade 3  so t h e y l o v e  Reasons f o r success...my background experience of the p r o c e s s , grade 6  and  i t ! - makes  learning  c o n f i d e n c e and  my  I t o o k a summer s c h o o l c o u r s e w i t h C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n and r e a l l y know t h e i d e a s work, g r a d e 3  own  I  T h o s e f a c t o r s t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s saw a s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m dramas were: Still  need  more t r a i n i n g ,  grade  3  Too many demands; n o t enough t r a i n i n g and r e - e n f o r c e m e n t , e x p e r i e n c e s i n c o u r s e s a t U.B.C. g r a d e 6/7  bad  I was a f r a i d t h a t a l a r g e g r o u p o f "macho" b o y s would j u s t o u t o f hand c o m p l e t e l y , g r a d e 4 B e c a u s e I'm n o t c o n f i d e n t enough a t o r know what t o s a y o r do n e x t . If have I c a n do i t b u t I h a v e n ' t b e e n applications. More c o u r s e s needed?  p i c k i n g up t h e d i r e c t i o n I c o p y e x a c t l y t h e model I s u c c e s s f u l w i t h my own grade 4  Some s a m p l e s f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s who t h e y a r e n o t u s i n g drama i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s : Mot  s u r e how  Wish I'd had  t o go a b o u t  i t o r where t o use  some t r a i n i n g !  grade  get  i t . grade  claim  3  3  I d o n ' t f e e l I do enough drama nor do I f e e l t h a t I have enough t r a i n i n g , i d e a s , r e s o u r c e s t o i n c l u d e i t p r o p e r l y and r e g u l a r l y i n t o an e l e m e n t a r y p r o g r a m , g r a d e 7 C h i l d r e n l a c k e x p e r i e n c e - — b a c k g r o u n d — t o o much t e a c h e r i n p u t n e c e s s a r y — a n d we do t o o much p l a t o o n i n g t o f i n d a chunk o f t i m e what w i t h l i b r a r y , r e s e a r c h e t c . g r a d e 4 Teachers  who  successfully successful.  cited  r e a s o n s why  f a r outnumbered This  e d u c a t i o n a l drama did  t h o s e who  not  work  c l a i m e d t h e y were  i s documented by t h e w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s  taken  81  from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . be f o u n d  The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e  responses  can  i n Appendix F. ORAL  Thirty-four  INTERVIEWS  s u b j e c t s f r o m t h e 107 t e a c h e r s  questionnaires,  volunteered  information related  who  completed the  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , o f f e r i n g  more  t o the f i n d i n g s of the w r i t t e n  questionnaires.  Findings; As t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d  i n the o r a l  was p h e n o m e n o g r a p h l c a l and n o t s t a t i s t i c a l , percentages was a s k e d  do n o t b e l o n g  subject d i r e c t e d , i . e . , although  focused issues.  of  Therefore d i s t i n c t  was  prompted  by  by i s s u e s t h e s u b j e c t  figures  would be i n a c c u r a t e a s ,  the questionnaires, the  o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were n o t r e s p o n d i n g  questions.  elementary  The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s  classrooms.  interpretation  was  initially  teacher  o n , and n o t a l l t h e s u b j e c t s t a l k e d a b o u t t h e same  teachers' qualitative  in  The I n t e r v i e w  t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n was d i c t a t e d  unlike the subjects completing subjects  s e t numbers and  i n t h e f i n d i n g s as n o t e v e r y  t h e same s e t o f q u e s t i o n s .  questions,  interviews  conceptions  r e s e a r c h were b a s e d on t h e  o f t h e u s e o f drama i n  The t e a c h e r s  of dramatic  varied in their  p l a y i n g o r how drama s h o u l d  t h e c u r r i c u l u m , b u t most o f t h e t e a c h e r s important  classrooms.  to a r i g i d set  and t h a t v e r y l i t t l e  agreed  be used  t h a t drama  was b e i n g done i n  82  T h e r e was professional of d r a m a t i c  a direct  training  relationship  towards t h e a t r e  dramatic  the  use  T h e r e was  and  of  i t as a  also a  background  interest  of  elements teaching  positive  in theatre  the teacher  and  displayed  arts. suggested  a major  trained  factor  t h a t the  p e r s o n a l i t y of  i n whether a t e a c h e r  i n dramatic  p l a y i n g and  be  not  his/her personality.  with  r e l u c t a n t t o use  the  the  should  i f the teacher  h e / s h e might, s t i l l in accord  amount  r e c e i v e d i n the  teacher's  p l a y i n g , to the degree t h a t  thoroughly  between t h e  had  teacher's  the value  Many t e a c h e r s was  teacher  classroom.  between t h e  p e r f o r m a n c e , and  teacher  the  p l a y i n g and  methodology i n the  relationship  attempt  was  methodology,  drama b e c a u s e i t  was  D E S C R I P T O R S OF T E A C H E R S * C O N C E P T I O N S OF DRAMA I N THE C U R R I C U L U M OF T H E E L E M E N T A R Y SCHOOL CLASSROOMS.  The order  transcripts  to d i s c o v e r the d i f f e r e n t  have o f drama t h e r e b y drama i s or  i s not  Conception  A  definition  shedding  implemented  have c a t e g o r i z e d t h e  The  of t h i r t y - f o u r  (It's A  i n t e r v i e w s were s t u d i e d i n  conceptions more l i g h t  that teachers  may  on  the reasons  why  i n elementary  classrooms.  I  i n t e r v i e w s i n t o seven  conceptions.  Frill)  of c o n c e p t i o n  A is:  Drama i s a f r i l l or an e x t r a on an a l r e a d y o v e r l o a d e d timetable. T e a c h e r s have enough t o do t o g e t t h r o u g h the b a s i c core c u r r i c u l u m .  83  There was o n l y one teacher who e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e d drama as a f r i l l ,  but a l a r g e percentage  r e p o r t e d they were not  doing drama of any kind and gave reasons  which suggested  they see drama i n the l i g h t of an " e x t r a " .  that  As drama i s  mandated, I b e l i e v e many teachers a r e r e l u c t a n t t o r e p o r t t h a t they aren't doing any. Some samples a r e : Not important enough t o take precedence over other t h i n g s . Interview 3, grade 4 I t h i n k a l o t of people don't see i t as p a r t of the core , c u r r i c u l u m , and they think l i k e I've got so much e l s e to do, how can I p o s s i b l y f i t drama i n as w e l l . . . t h e y see i t as something t h a t ' s i s o l a t e d . Interview 22, grade 5 The i n t e r m e d i a t e teachers when they (the students) get there say, "These k i d s spent too much time p l a y i n g i n s c h o o l so now i t ' s time t o get t o work..." now the primary program allows up to grade three f o r you t o j u s t f o o l around a l l the time. Interview 23, grade 2/3  Conception  B  (Can't Do I t - Don't Know How)  The d e f i n i t i o n of conception B i s : Drama Is not my s u b j e c t . I can't teach i t as I have no t r a i n i n g or experience i n t h a t a r e a . Drama i s a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t , one of the a r t s , t o be taught by a s p e c i a l i s t as i s music and v i s u a l a r t s and t h e r e f o r e beyond the realm of the g e n e r a l i s t , the classroom t e a c h e r . The  i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t many teachers were  acquainted with the b a s i c form of dramatic drama.  p l a y i n g or r o l e  They knew i t was i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama, not s c r i p t e d ,  and had some knowledge of what i t i n v o l v e d , but there was some c o n f u s i o n as t o i t s purpose i n the c u r r i c u l u m , i t s u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s and o b j e c t i v e s and how t o use i t . Few s a i d  they  84  thought  drama should be a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t , but many f e l t  lacked the e x p e r t i s e to teach drama themselves  they  although  f i n d i n g s i n the w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s do not support  this.  Respondents of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s appeared to be most s a t i s f i e d with the drama they have used i n t h e i r  classrooms,  and have a v e r y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e about t h e i r a b i l i t y to work in this  area.  I b e l i e v e t h a t most t e a c h e r s do not f e e l secure i n implementing drama and more teachers than the f i n d i n g s show fit  i n t o the Conception  B.  say they c o u l d not handle  Most teachers would be l o a t h to t e a c h i n g drama because most teachers  have j u s t r e c e n t l y been p e r u s i n g t h e Year 2000 intermediate d r a f t where the g e n e r a l l s t , not the s p e c i a l i s t , approach to education i s the c u r r e n t i d e o l o g y i n t e a c h i n g . Some samples are; I have no experience r e a l l y with dramatic p l a y . . . I don't really...know how to approach i t . Interview 14, grade 3 I don't know what you mean by a t e a c h i n g t o o l ? Interview grade 7  18,  I don't know whether you'd c o n s i d e r what I do as drama....well, one of the t h i n g s t h a t we do i s l i k e t h e a t r e s p o r t s . I n t e r v i e w 27, grade 3/4 Conception  C  (For P e r s o n a l Development)  The d e f i n i t i o n of conception C i s : Drama used i n the form of dramatic p l a y i n g i s an e x c e l l e n t way to teach s o c i a l s k i l l s . . . b e h a v i o u r modification...where c h i l d r e n a c t out problems from t h e i r r e a l l i f e experiences to l e a r n a p p r o p r i a t e methods of r e a c h i n g s o l u t i o n s . They a l s o l e a r n how to work together i n a s u p p o r t i v e and c o - o p e r a t i v e way.  85  S e v e r a l teachers mentioned the sexual abuse program " F e e l i n g Yes, F e e l i n g No" as an area where they had used dramatic p l a y i n g , and many teachers of the e a r l y intermediate grades  s t a t e d they used dramatic p l a y i n g as a method of  teaching s o c i a l s k i l l s  and how t o get along with one another.  Some - samples a r e Sometimes we do i t i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n with a program t h a t ' s happening. For example, we d i d the " F e e l i n g Yes, F e e l i n g No" sexual abuse p r e v e n t i o n program. Interview 5, grade 4/5 If k i d s a r e having problems a t home...they c o u l d a c t them out. Interview 6, grade 3 Conception D  (An E x t e n s i o n o f Whole Language)  The d e f i n i t i o n of c o n c e p t i o n D i s : Drama i s seen as an e x t e n s i o n of language a r t s and whole language as the o r a l component of t h i s realm, encompassing communication s k i l l s , s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , c r e a t i v i t y through o r a l language e t c . E d u c a t i o n a l drama b u i l d s c o n f i d e n c e and p o i s e i n e x p r e s s i n g ideas i n f r o n t of o t h e r s . I t should be p a r t of the language a r t s core curriculum. T h i s was the most popular c o n c e p t i o n of dramatic p l a y i n g among the t h i r t y - f o u r s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d . used  i t i n c o n j u n c t i o n with whole language,  E i g h t teachers as the o r a l  component, where they would have students continue a s t o r y t h a t had been read t o them, u s i n g i m p r o v i s a t i o n , or i n dramatic p l a y i n g , w r i t e l e t t e r s or j o u r n a l s i n r o l e , or have students w r i t e t h e i r own p l a y s and perform them f o r other members of the c l a s s .  Many teachers saw value i n encouraging  students t o w r i t e , rehearse, and perform t h e i r own p l a y s c o n s i d e r i n g the experience a form of i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama.  86  T h e i r g o a l was  to improve the student's  and to encourage s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n through language and ( I n t e r v i e w 9,  understanding  how  f a c i l i t y with language.  language  "Using  language g i v e s meaning"  grade 3 ) .  Some samples a r e ; I t ' s o r a l r e a d i n g . . . i t should be p a r t of a r e a d i n g program..it should be i n the language a r t s core of the c u r r i c u l u m . Interview 2, grade 4 I've never seen such wonderful l e t t e r s , or p i e c e s of w r i t i n g , coming out of k i d s . Interview 8, grade 6 A r e a l l y wonderful way f o r c h i l d r e n to be a b l e to tap t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y , to f i n d confidence....and be able to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s , t h e i r i d e a s . . . I f i n d t h a t a l o t of c h i l d r e n who don't have success i n a l o t of other areas, f i n d a great d e a l of c o n f i d e n c e and success i n drama. Interview 12, grade 3 We do p a r t of i t as p a r t of our book reviews i n our l i t e r a t u r e based program...the k i d s have to do a performance. Interview 21, grade 5 Conception B  ( T h e a t r e And P e r f o r m a n c e )  The d e f i n i t i o n of conception E i s : Drama i s used i n the t h e a t r i c a l sense, to f o s t e r a love of t h e a t r e and to use t h e a t r e s k i l l s to develop p o i s e and confidence i n f r o n t of an audience, as i n performance. Through t h i s medium the a r t of a c t i n g i s the focus of development. The o b j e c t i v e s are the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e a t r e s k i l l s , l e a r n i n g how to a c t , and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e a t r e . Theatre a r t s enhance communication s k i l l s ( v o i c e , body, p r e s e n t a t i o n ) and b u i l d s c o n f i d e n c e and p o i s e . One of  teacher  (out of 34 interviewed) saw  the  acquisition  t h e a t r e s k i l l s or the a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e a t r e and  technique as r e l e v a n t i n the elementary t h i s approach to drama belonged  school.  a t the secondary  theatre  Others  felt  l e v e l of  87  education.  Three teachers applauded  the p u r s u i t of a t a n g i b l e  f i n i s h e d product and three t e a c h e r s claimed s c r i p t e d drama would be e a s i e r f o r both students and teachers t o do. Some samples a r e : They can work on speaking s k i l l s , p r o j e c t i o n , they can a l s o use the s c r i p t t o analyze p l a y s ; they can understand the p l a y b e t t e r and be more c r i t i c a l of i t i f they know what went i n t o the p r o d u c t i o n of the p l a y . Interview 1, grade 5/6 I would r a t h e r do a f u l l s c a l e s c r i p t e d s c h o o l p r o d u c t i o n . ..1 mean I get more out of t h a t . Interview 13, grade 6/7 Conception F  (A Learning Tool)  The d e f i n i t i o n of c o n c e p t i o n F i s : Drama i s i n t e g r a t e d with other s u b j e c t s and used as a t e a c h i n g t o o l t o e x t r a c t a deeper l e v e l of meaning i n subject d i s c i p l i n e s . Through adopting a r o l e w i t h i n the context--by being t h e r e — c h i l d r e n l e a r n the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the i s s u e . Problems are posed, o f t e n by the teacher in r o l e , and students must use c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s i n a c o - o p e r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n , t o s o l v e the problem and i n doing so, a r r i v e a t u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s . Seven of the t h i r t y - f o u r t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d saw t h i s as a v i a b l e use f o r drama but they were i n the m i n o r i t y because most teachers l a c k e d exposure t o the p r i n c i p l e s on which t h i s teaching strategy r e s t s .  I f they had not taken any u n i v e r s i t y  courses i n t h i s type of methodology nor attended more than one workshop on t h i s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y , they d i d not know what i t was, or how t o use t h i s type of drama e f f e c t i v e l y . Some samples a r e : As a way of t e a c h i n g c o n c e p t s . . . i t * s one of the more reasons f o r doing drama. Interview 4, grade 7  important  I t h i n k you get a l o t more commitment from the c h i l d r e n and an i n t e r e s t and a d e s i r e t o l e a r n about t h a t concept. Interview 8, grade 6  88  They have t o r e s e a r c h t h e i r r o l e . . i t ' s q u i t e amazing...whatever t h a t knowledge i s c a l l e d when you're j u s t s o r t of g e t t i n g i t on the f l y . . . I mean, they r e t a i n i t . Interview 28, grade 5 Conception  G (A L e a r n i n g T o o l And Theatre  A d e f i n i t i o n of conception  Arts)  G is:  Dramatic p l a y i n g and s c r i p t e d drama should be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with one another, although both serve two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s : dramatic p l a y i n g as a learning tool i n subject d i s c i p l i n e s l i k e s o c i a l studies and l i t e r a t u r e , communication s k i l l s , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n and s c r i p t e d drama as f o s t e r i n g a love of t h e a t r e and performance, t h e a t r e s k i l l s (how t o a c t ) , as w e l l as p o i s e and confidence i n p r e s e n t i n g before an audience. Responses t o the w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s showed t h a t 58 of the 107 teachers  (54.2 percent)  p r e f e r r e d to use both forms of  drama, but I b e l i e v e t h a t i t was an uninformed d e c i s i o n . concurrence with the theory of phenomenography t h a t  In  claims  concepts a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l , many of the teachers d i d not understand what dramatic  p l a y i n g e n t a i l e d and t h e r e f o r e  were unable t o have a s u b s t a n t i a l concept of dramatic Therefore  playing.  I do not b e l i e v e many teachers answering the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were experienced either  they  or knowledgeable enough i n  form t o say which would be of g r e a t e r value t o the  student.  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s r e s u l t e d i n the o r a l  Seventeen teachers dramatic  interviewed claimed  interviews.  a preference f o r  p l a y i n g but as the t r a n s c r i p t s r e v e a l e d teachers were  u n c l e a r as t o what c o n s t i t u t e d dramatic questionnaire  playing.  The  f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t most teachers a r e using  n e i t h e r f o r m of drama, and t h a t drama i s not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  89  in their curriculum. teachers  In the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s there were 3  of e d u c a t i o n a l drama who  were able to g i v e a  q u a l i f i e d response, i . e . , ( e x p r e s s i n g the methodology and p r i n c i p l e s of dramatic  p l a y i n g ) i n the knowledge t h a t both  forms are an i n t e g r a l part of the dramatic  experience  of  the  student. Some samples are; I l i k e to have both...because they serve two d i f f e r e n t purposes...dramatic p l a y i n g as a t e a c h i n g t o o l . . . v o i c e , p r o j e c t i o n , empathizing with c h a r a c t e r s , and i n s c r i p t e d drama the a p p r e c i a t i o n of dramatic s k i l l s and the l e a r n i n g of dramatic s k i l l s . A l s o the a p p r e c i a t i o n of p l a y s and the understanding of p l a y s . Interview 25, grade 5 We ended up doing both t h i n g s . . i t ended up being p a r t of the language a r t s program and p a r t of c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , part of problem s o l v i n g , working t o g e t h e r . . . i t a l s o ended up being a very good p r o d u c t i o n . . i n order to get on the a i r . . . i t had to be t e c h n i c a l l y good. Interview 15, grade 3  Factors of  teachers  drama  and  dramatic  see  as  impeding  factors that  playing  lead  in elementary  the  to  Implementation  the  success  of  classrooms.  Whereas the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d above d e s c r i b e conceptions  of drama held by the t e a c h e r s , the samples below  are c l u s t e r s of focus, i . e . , a t t r i b u t e s of the of u s i n g drama i n elementary classrooms t h a t a r t i c u l a t e d d u r i n g the The  the  circumstances  teachers  interviews.  f o l l o w i n g are comments taken verbatim  t r a n s c r i p t s of the o r a l Interviews to express t h e i r views on why  from the  where teachers were asked  drama may  not be p r a c t i c e d to  90  t h e e x t e n t one would e x p e c t mandated c u r r i c u l u m t o be practiced. factors the  The r e a s o n s v a r y b u t some o f t h e more  impeding  implementation  that  predominant  teachers addressed  were  following:  Teachers' l a c k o f knowledge and t r a i n i n g : T e a c h e r s d o n ' t know how t o do i t . . . a n d they are r e a l l y comfortable with...and t h e d i f f e r e n c e . I n t e r v i e w 28, g r a d e 6  i t ' s not something a s p e c i a l i s t would  that make  The low s t a t u s o f t h e a r t s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m : I t h i n k t h a t they don't r e a l l y understand . . . i t ' s importance. I mean...they d o n ' t implement a r t ( p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s . . . g r a d e t h r e e ) . . . t h e y m i g h t do some c o l o r i n g b u t i t ' s n o t a r t e v e n , and I t h i n k t h e y d o n ' t have t h e s k i l l s . . . n u m b e r one, and a l s o I t h i n k t h a t b a s i c a l l y t h e y j u s t don't s e e i t as important l i k e l e a r n i n g how t o do h a n d w r i t i n g a n d - r e a d i n g and s o o n . I n t e r v i e w 32, g r a d e 3/4 Any s p a r e t i m e o r s p a r e t e a c h e r s o r s p a r e room i s d e v o t e d t o c o m p u t e r s . . . n o t t o drama. I n t e r v i e w 7, g r a d e 4  Fear o f d i s c i p l i n e problems c r e a t e d by t e a c h e r s having t o r e l i n q u i s h some c l a s s r o o m c o n t r o l : I t h i n k t h a t i f i t d o e s n ' t have a d i r e c t i o n t o go i n , and k i d s s t a r t t o f o o l a r o u n d w i t h i t , t h e n t h a t ' s what t h e y ' r e a f r a i d of ( t e a c h e r s ) . . . t h e f a c t t h a t i f t h e y g i v e a l i t t l e b i t , t h e n t h e k i d s go w i l d on y o u and s o t h a t ' s what t h e y a n t i c i p a t e may o c c u r , and s o t h e y ' r e n o t g o i n g t o g i v e i t a t r y . I n t e r v i e w 23, g r a d e 2/3  D i f f i c u l t t o do: As d e s c r i b e d i n C o n c e p t lacked be  confidence, training,  expected  t e a c h drama, s c r i p t e d  Most t e a c h e r s s a i d  drama would be e a s i e r ,  Many f e l t  that  they  that to  some knowledge o f how i t  teachers interviewed preferred  exclusively.  that  and e x p e r i e n c e and f e l t  t o do drama w i t h o u t  worked was beyond r e a s o n .  34  B, many t e a c h e r s f e l t  i f t h e y had t o but o n l y 3 of the  t o use s c r i p t e d  u s i n g drama would  drama  i n v o l v e more  91  o r g a n i z a t i o n than time would a l l o w with an a l r e a d y overloaded curriculum. Q u i t e s t r e s s f u l because you have t o guide i t . . . k e e p i t going and you have to have the r i g h t answers...to keep the r o l e drama g o i n g . . . i t seems t o put a l o t of pressure on the leader...when I'm doing i t anyway. Interview 31, grade 3/4 Some t e a c h e r s thought dramatic p l a y i n g s h o u l d b e g i n i n the primary grades: Some t e a c h e r s thought introduced  t h a t i f dramatic p l a y i n g was  i n the primary grades and became an  pedagogy, i n t e r m e d i a t e students may Others  on-going  accept i t more r e a d i l y .  f e l t t h a t i f dramatic p l a y i n g was  used e x t e n s i v e l y i n  primary grades, the intermediate students might c o n s i d e r i t childish. If i t ' s s t a r t e d e a r l i e r they (students) seem t o see the more. Interview 13, grade 6/7  sense  Primary t e a c h e r s can a f f o r d a l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t e a c h i n g environment: I can see primary t e a c h e r s being more i n t o i t , I t h i n k maybe they always have been...you know, with puppetry and d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . Intermediates tend to be more s p e c i a l i s t s , s u b j e c t area kind of p e o p l e . . . t h a t s a kind of r i s k I'm not so sure t h a t they're w i l l i n g t o take. Interview 16, grade 6/7 1  A t t i t u d e of p a r e n t s : A t t i t u d e of parents d i d not seem t o be a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of most of the t e a c h e r s , so one can e i t h e r assume t h a t i t ' s not a concern because i t ' s not being done, or parents are s u p p o r t i v e of drama i n e d u c a t i o n .  No teacher mentioned e v a l u a t i o n as a  problem because i t wasn't being evaluated on i t s own  so  perhaps parents are not aware of any drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m .  92 Most parents don't know what t h e i r k i d s a r e doing e s p e c i a l l y some of the o l d e r ones. I don't t h i n k would understand i t s value or i f they d i d , they'd k i d s were j u s t p l a y i n g around. Interview 2, grade  i n school, parents t h i n k the 4  A t t i t u d e o f s t u d e n t s as p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s : Most t e a c h e r s s a i d t h e i r students loved dramatic p l a y i n g but the t e a c h e r s not u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g p e r c e i v e d t h e i r students as t h i n k i n g i t would be s i l l y . They love i t , and they would come t o me and say, "When do we get t o do i t again?" Interview 8, grade 6 Sometimes y o u ' l l get the k i d s who j u s t t h i n k i t ' s k i n d of s t u p i d and they r e a l l y can't see t h e sense t o i t . Interview 13, grade 6/7 Some t e a c h e r s addressed t h e f a c t o r t h a t drama would be h e l p f u l f o r B.S.L. p o p u l a t i o n s : S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s mentioned the v a l u e i n drama f o r p r o v i d i n g E.S.L. s t u d e n t s , the o p p o r t u n i t y t o improve t h e i r spoken E n g l i s h , and t o h e l p them adapt t o t h e i r new c u l t u r e . I f i n d E.S.L. k i d s a r e not v e r y c r e a t i v e i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g . . . . t h e y ' r e v e r y s t r u c t u r e d i n the way t h a t they t h i n k and p e r c e i v e t h i n g s . . . . they haven't got a l o t of vocabulary and so one of my o b j e c t i v e s i s t o g a i n a l o t of v o c a b u l a r y and to a l s o s o r t of loosen them up a l i t t l e b i t . Interview 23, grade 2/3 I f e e l i t helps them t o speak E n g l i s h more f l u e n t l y without them knowing t h a t they're even doing i t . Interview 24, grade 5 Lack o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n dramatic p l a y i n g : Lack of t r a i n i n g  i n dramatic p l a y i n g or i n any area of  drama i n the elementary  classrooms  appeared  g r i e v a n c e among teachers i n t e r v i e w e d . addressed  t h i s problem.  t o be a major  A l l but one teacher  93 Teachers grade 7  can't do i t i f they don't  know how. Interview 4,  I f they a r e going t o have t h i s i n the curriculum...they've got to have some kind of t r a i n i n g f o r t e a c h e r s . 6 gr.3 I wish t h e r e were m o r e . . . p r o f e s s i o n a l development courses on r o l e drama. Interview 1, grade 5/6 Need s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g o r a s p e c i a l i s t t o d o s c r i p t e d (theatre arts) The  drama  f o l l o w i n g samples from the t r a n s c r i p t s of the o r a l  i n t e r v i e w s r e p r e s e n t thoughts  expressed  by teachers as to  whether a s p e c i a l i s t or someone with s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g should be used  i n the drama s t r a n d of the a r t s ( s c r i p t e d drama -  t h e a t r e a r t s ) j u s t as a s p e c i a l i s t and music.  Teachers  i s needed i n v i s u a l  were d i v i d e d on t h i s q u e s t i o n .  t e a c h e r s d i d not t h i n k t h a t s c r i p t e d drama belonged elementary  school curriculum at a l l ,  arts  Many i n the  but those t h a t d i d see a  p l a c e f o r musicals and p l a y s presented  i n the form of s c h o o l  c o n c e r t s claimed they f e l t u n q u a l i f i e d to d i r e c t  such  e n t e r p r i s e s , implying o n l y a s p e c i a l i s t c o u l d o f f e r students a v a l u a b l e experience  in this  realm.  They assume t h a t anybody can take a s c r i p t and develop i t but I don't t h i n k t h a t ' s n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e . Interview 5, grade 4/5 ;  Most t e a c h e r s , I t h i n k , go t o p l a y s every so o f t e n and you get some kind of idea of how...a scene would be acted out. But i f you had somebody who was t r a i n e d , then they c o u l d add the nuances t h a t would make i t even b e t t e r . . . b u t no, I don't t h i n k they have t o be t r a i n e d . Interview 21, grade 5 I t ' s l i k e a s k i n g somebody who hasn't got any musical or t a l e n t t o teach music. Interview 7, grade 4  ability  94  R e l a t i o n s h i p between success and t r a i n i n g i n drama. S e v e r a l teachers r e f e r r e d t o workshops they had attended which were g i v e n by a drama s p e c i a l i s t h i r e d by the s c h o o l board  t o f a m i l i a r i z e teachers with the appearance and  s t r a t e g i e s of t h i s type of drama.  I b e l i e v e the s t a f f of a  s c h o o l would make the request t o have the drama s p e c i a l i s t v i s i t and use the c h i l d r e n or t e a c h e r s or both t o demonstrate the dramatic  p l a y i n g process.  Teachers  indicated a positive  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the success of t h e i r dramatic  experiences  with c h i l d r e n and t h e i r knowledge of the methodology i n v o l v e d . C a r o l e ' s come t o our s c h o o l and g i v e n courses r i g h t on the spot...she's been p a r t of our p r o f e s s i o n a l development... q u i t e s t r o n g l y i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s . Interview 10, grade 3 I have some grounding i n t h e a t r e and I've a l s o been exposed t o dramatic p l a y i n g . . . i n England and t h i s i s one of t h e reasons why i t i n t e r e s t s me because I f e e l comfortable with both. Interview 17, grade 5/6 Drama : Mandated but not implemented Teachers  were asked  was mandated c u r r i c u l u m . responses  t h e i r thoughts  on the f a c t t h a t drama  T h i s t o p i c drew m a n y i n t e r e s t i n g  but the u n d e r l y i n g theme was the t e a c h e r s '  f r u s t r a t i o n s with the m i n i s t r y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and the i n c r e a s i n g s t r e s s l e v e l of teachers t r y i n g t o cope with the growing body of mandated c u r r i c u l u m . Oh, but they can mandate i t u n t i l they're blue i n the face but t h e r e ' s no funding and t h e r e ' s no encouragement . . . i t ' s a b s o l u t e l y l u d i c r o u s ! I n t e r v i e w 4, grade 7  95 You know, i t ' s (the a r t s ) are not supported g e n e r a l l y i n s o c i e t y . . . t h e government's j u s t cut the funding f o r the t h e a t r e a r t s program at Community C o l l e g e . . . t r u l y i n t h e i r h e a r t s they're not committed...and they c o n s i s t e n t l y underfund them and I guess i t a l l s t a r t s at the s c h o o l s . Interview 15, grade 3 L a c k o f s p a c e t o do drama The  i s s u e of a v a i l a b l e space i n which to do drama was  of much concern  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t those teachers  drama with other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s used the  not  integrating classroom.  They can do wonderful drama a c t i v i t i e s with students r i g h t i n the classroom and i n moving the desks a s i d e or l e t t i n g the students work i n and around t h e i r desks. Interview 18, grade 7 Takes a c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t o t e a c h  drama  Many teachers claimed t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y of the was  a key f a c t o r  teacher  i n whether he/she would engage h i s / h e r  c l a s s e s i n dramatic  activities.  Many teachers suggested  teacher would have to be somewhat of an e x t r o v e r t . claimed t h a t any good teacher  is. a performer,  very nature of the job, i . e . , "to hold an  the  Others  t h a t being  the  audience".  You don't need a flamboyant p e r s o n a l i t y but you"sort of have to have a . . . f l a i r . Interview 4, grade 7 I t h i n k a l o t of i t has to do with p e r s o n a l i t y . . . b e c a u s e a l o t of times what you want to have the k i d s do, you have to be w i l l i n g to get i n v o l v e d y o u r s e l f . I f you're not prepared to leap r i g h t i n t o i t and get i n v o l v e d y o u r s e l f , then i t might be d i f f i c u l t . Interview 29, grade 6/7  96  T e a c h e r s f e e l a t r i s k i n t h e d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g mode i n t h a t they might l o s e c o n t r o l o f t h e c l a s s . Many teachers interviewed f e l t t h a t a key f a c t o r dramatic  impeding  p l a y i n g was the lack of s t r u c t u r e and the f a c t t h a t  the teacher must g i v e up some c o n t r o l t o enable the drama t o be an e x p r e s s i o n of the s t u d e n t s .  Added t o t h i s  concern,  teachers s a i d t h a t t o take on a r o l e with the s t u d e n t s , as one of  the " a c t o r s " w i t h i n the drama, some teachers might  feel  v u l n e r a b l e , l a c k i n g i n c l a s s c o n t r o l , and out of t h e i r element (at  risk).  Commenting on the teacher being i n r o l e with  h i s / h e r students w i t h i n the drama, most teachers f e l t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t  f o r many of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y those teachers It  this  i n the intermediate  grades.  i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n most cases  teachers were d e s c r i b i n g how other r e f e r r i n g t o themselves.  teachers would f e e l , seldom  But then one must take  into  c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t i n most cases the teachers v o l u n t e e r i n g to be i n t e r v i e w e d were i n t e r e s t e d i n drama and t h e r e f o r e probably f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l and a t ease i n t h a t medium. I think i t i s d e f i n i t e l y r i s k y . . . t h e r e ' s always the chance t h a t ....yeh, I can see i t being v e r y t h r e a t e n i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y i f you've never done anything l i k e t h i s b e f o r e . I t ' s not r e a l l y a c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n . Interview 13, grade 6/7 Teachers i n role?...now t h a t ' s the reason teachers r e j e c t i t because.... you re no longer the t e a c h e r . You cannot be the teacher and do r o l e drama e f f e c t i v e l y , and so i t doesn't f o l l o w n e c e s s a r i l y the kind o f . . . t h e l i f e of the drama i s n ' t p r e s c r i p t e d . . s o you're not sure e x a c t l y where i t ' s going t o go. Interview 31, grade 3/4 1  97  Do t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e a c l e a r s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n d r a m a . . i n e i t h e r form? I d i d not get the f e e l i n g i n these i n t e r v i e w s t h a t teachers recognized a c l e a r s e t of o b j e c t i v e s . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  My  t h a t each teacher formed h i s or her own  set  of o b j e c t i v e s as p a r t of the intended goals or outcomes of h i s / h e r own  p e r s o n a l l y designed  programs.  I was  amazed at the autonomy of each teacher and developed  t h e i r own  continually  the f a c t t h a t they  programs, l e a d i n g to tremendous  inequities  i n experiences  f o r the s t u d e n t s .  Most teachers I t a l k e d to  were extremely  proud of t h e i r own  individually  programs, and  those t h a t weren't gave me a sense t h a t they  wanted some d i r e c t i o n or some assurance doing was  developed  t h a t what they were  a l l right.  Dramatic p l a y . . . I f e e l i t ' s a more i n t e r n a l e x p r e s s i o n and f o r me p r i m a r i l y i t ' s to have the c h i l d r e n demonstrate t h e i r understanding of ideas...and t h e i r a b i l i t y to use d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g . . . a n d j u s t high l e v e l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s whereas s c r i p t e d drama, I f i n d i t more performance o r i e n t e d , working on speech, on rhythmic t a l k i n g , on o r a l r e a d i n g , stage d i r e c t i o n , c o n f i d e n c e , p o i s e , t h a t kind of t h i n g . I n t e r v i e w 31, grade 3/4 Probably not. I don't even t h i n k I do drama. Interview 11, grade 7  and  I do a l o t of  My o b j e c t i v e s would be c o n f i d e n c e , s t a n d i n g before your peers, mostly p u b l i c speaking, I guess. Interview 27, grade 3/4 why s h o u l d d r a m a be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? N e a r l y a l l the teachers interviewed thought d e f i n i t e l y be p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m and saw many d e s i r e d outcomes f o r the s t u d e n t s .  drama should  i t as  fulfilling  However many teachers  98  would probably educational  a s s o c i a t e the d e s c r i p t o r s of drama with  current  i d e o l o g i e s , and may be r e l u c t a n t t o s t a t e they see  no use f o r i t i n the c u r r i c u l u m .  B a s i c a l l y , then,  teachers  b e l i e v e drama belongs i n the c u r r i c u l u m , but very few appear to  be u s i n g i t .  You can l e a r n about d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , you can l e a r n about h i s t o r y by a c t i n g out d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l parts...you can l e a r n t o understand them b e t t e r ; you can problem s o l v e . . . a l s o as a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and to work on t h e i r speaking s k i l l s . Interview 1, grade 5/6 If you're going t o use the s c r i p t e d , and go i n t o some s k i l l s , then I think i t ' s going t o get them more aware of what i t i s t h a t people who do any dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n have t o c o n s i d e r ...and i n r o l e drama i t g i v e s them a much c l e a r e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n which you're t r y i n g t o get them t o understand. Interview 17, grade 5/6 S h o u l d i t be a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t t a u g h t b y a s p e c i a l i s t ? Most teachers a separate  interviewed were opposed t o drama becoming  s u b j e c t on the t i m e t a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n upper  intermediate  grades and t o be given the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n as  music and v i s u a l a r t where students for  these  may go t o another  teacher  subjects.  If I was t e a c h i n g drama, i s o l a t e d , I would p i c k up themes t h a t wouldn't n e c e s s a r i l y be i n l i n e with what they're doing i n the classroom so there wouldn't be a l o t of f o l l o w through. Interview 8, grade 6 In elementary s c h o o l , I'm not sure i f I'd want t o see i t as a s u b j e c t area of i t ' s own..I wouldn't want to have t o get i n t o . . k i n d of knowing t h a t once a week we're doing drama, you know l i k e once a week we do m u s i c . . i t doesn't work with the intermediate k i d s . . . . t h e k i d s hate going t o music... i t makes i t r e a l l y meaningful f o r them when i t ' s i n t e g r a t e d . Interview 16, grade 6/7  99  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s t a f f Most teachers  support. interviewed d i d not t h i n k the r o l e of  the a d m i n i s t r a t o r was of s i g n i f i c a n t  importance.  Teachers  commented whether t h e i r p r i n c i p a l was i n t e r e s t e d i n drama or not but s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was not a key f a c t o r .  They would do  drama r e g a r d l e s s of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s d i s p o s i t i o n towards it. I ' l l t e l l you who doesn't know what I'm d o i n g . . . i s the principal. I've t o l d him what I'm doing and he hasn't once come t o see i t . Interview 20, grade 3/4 Are the l o c a t i o n and demographics o f the s c h o o l a f a c t o r , i . e . , whether i t i s on t h e east o r west s i d e o f t h e c i t y ? Initially  I wondered whether l o c a t i o n — t h e east s i d e or  west s i d e of the c i t y — w o u l d  be a f a c t o r but t h i s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s had no e f f e c t .  study  Whether students  of a  p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l were being exposed t o the elements of s c r i p t e d drama or dramatic classroom  teacher.  p l a y i n g was i n the hands of the  Neither the l o c a t i o n of the s c h o o l or i t s '  p o p u l a t i o n appeared t o be a f a c t o r . I don't t h i n k so, no...I was i n v o l v e d i n a . . . t h i s i s secondary, mind you, but when I was a t , they had an i n c r e d i b l e drama department.....no, i t ' s the teacher...because they s e t the...once the enthusiasm and j u s t the love of i t i s planted i n the k i d s . . i t ' s l i k e a c h a i n r e a c t i o n , i t ' s wonderful! Interview 28, grade 6 A v a i l a b l e Time Many teachers  recognized  the time f a c t o r as an impediment  to the s u c c e s s f u l implementation of drama. t h a t i f the teacher was u s i n g dramatic  Others  claimed  p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g  100  tool  in various subject d i s c i p l i n e s ,  factor  any  calculators  time  more t h a n c o m p u t e r s c o u l d be  would n o t be  i n composition  a or  i n math.  You have t o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r i t s o t o speak and i n f o r t y m i n u t e s s o m e t i m e s i t ' s r e a l l y q u i t e d i f f i c u l t when t h e y have t o s o r t o f p u t e v e r y t h i n g away and g e t r e a d y t o more t o t h e n e x t , you know, c l a s s . I n t e r v i e w 3, g r a d e 4 T h e y would s e e i t as one more t h i n g s t u c k i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t h e y ( t e a c h e r s ) w o u l d n ' t s e e t h a t t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h e y ' r e t e a c h i n g a l r e a d y c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d t o t h e k i d s t h r o u g h drama. I n t e r v i e w 23, g r a d e 2/3 The comment I h e a r a t r e m e n d o u s amount i s "Boy, I'd l i k e t o do t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g , b u t when do I do i t ? " I n t e r v i e w 29, g r a d e 6/7  Should t h e a t r e s k i l l s be taught i n dramatic p l a y i n g ? Skill that  teaching versus  understood  the  intent  theatre s k i l l s , ( i . e . in  otherwords,  dramatic an  skills)  Other  and  perceptions  arts  saw  addressed.  l a r g e l y on  on t h e i r  p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n . d i d they  orientation  feel  playing  that  teachers  felt  that  articulation,  on t h e agenda o f  dramatic  program f e l t  of t h e a t r e s k i l l s  their  playing  d i d not belong  depended  t h e t e a c h e r s was  dramatic  Those  body movement,  p r e s e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be of the r o l e  learning.  t e a c h e r s who  e x t e n s i o n of a language  skills  behind  projection,  acting  playing.  holistic  that  playing  as  speaking  Teachers'  in this  domain  t o w a r d s drama and  B a s i c a l l y my  partly  question to  theatre s k i l l s  would  benefit  the dramatic  experience?  It w i l l purpose  be p a r t o f what y o u ' r e d o i n g , b u t t h a t ' s n o t o f y o u r d o i n g i t . I n t e r v i e w 4, g r a d e 7  the  101 I think t h e a t r e s k i l l s should be taught..I would t e l l them how to be more b e l i e v a b l e . . . I t h i n k knowledge i n t h a t area i s v e r y v a l u a b l e . Interview 11, grade 7  A g a i n s t s c r i p t e d drama: t h e a t r e a r t s , s c h o o l p l a y s , concerts.  and  Teachers were asked to comment on the value of s c r i p t e d drama where the focus  i s on t h e a t r e and  They were a l s o asked to g i v e t h e i r  theatre  impressions  the a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e a t r e as an a r t and entertainment  i n the dramatic  Most teachers e a s i e r to do,  experience  f e l t t h a t although  student  c o u l d not  c o n t r i v e d and  i d e n t i f y with and  of i n c l u d i n g  as a form of of the  student.  s c r i p t e d drama  i t r e s t r i c t e d the student's  e x p r e s s i o n as the r o l e to be portrayed  technique.  was  was  i n t r i n s i c creative often a role  t h e r e f o r e the task  the felt  unnatural.  I t becomes very r e s t r i c t i v e i f you t h i n k of t h e a t r e a r t s and o n l y the few who are very c o n f i d e n t . Interview 4, grade 7 I f i n d when I'm using s c r i p t drama t h a t o f t e n the c r e a t i v i t y of the students w i l l s t r a y . . . n o t n e c e s s a r i l y from c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n or p l o t but from the d i a l o g u e . Interview 11, grade 7 For performance, e i t h e r i n s c r i p t e d drama or dramatic S e v e r a l teachers presented experience  p l a y i n g should  i n the performance mode so t h a t students of the r e a c t i o n of an audience, and  s c r i p t e d or dramatic the end  thought dramatic  of t h e i r  p l a y i n g , the students  process.  had  playing. be the  t h a t whether  needed a product  at  102 I think there are times when c h i l d r e n should have an audience beyond t h e i r own c l a s s group i f they've worked v e r y hard and produced something,... then i t ' s worth showing to a l a r g e r group. Interview 18, grade 7 For Scripted  drama  Some teachers see s c r i p t e d drama as the more p r e f e r a b l e form of drama to use with s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y c h i l d r e n upper i n t e r m e d i a t e grades s c r i p t e d drama, and  i n the  as e x p e c t a t i o n s are c l e a r i n  i t i s more c l o s e l y a l i g n e d with drama as  an a r t . If i t ' s mandated and you have t o squeeze i t i n , a l o t of people are more l i k e l y to choose s c r i p t e d drama...because i t g i v e s them c l e a r guide l i n e s as t o how i t i s supposed t o come across...you don't get any unsuspected surprises...more structure...more c o n t r o l . I n t e r v i e w 21, grade 5 I t h i n k i n the intermediate I would see more of the s c r i p t e d because then they're behaving t h a t way because i t ' s the c h a r a c t e r t h a t they're portraying...whereas r o l e p l a y , I think they f e e l t h a t ' s v e r y c h i l d i s h behavior and I don't t h i n k they would be a b l e to do i t as w e l l . Interview 23, grade 2/3 Thoughts f o r and a g a i n s t t h e s c h o o l  concert.  As many s c h o o l s u s u a l l y produce a c o n c e r t or a m u s i c a l , o f t e n as an e x t e n s i o n of the music program, most teachers have experience  i n t h i s realm even i f o n l y as an observer or i n a  s m a l l r o l e such as p u t t i n g on make-up or t a k i n g t i c k e t s at the door.  Large s c a l e c o n c e r t s are u s u a l l y an e n t i r e s c h o o l  e f f o r t and many teachers have s t r o n g f e e l i n g s f o r and a g a i n s t such c o l o s s a l e n t e r p r i s e s . I t h i n k most k i d s are most l i k e l y t o get t h e i r o n l y dramatic experience i n the form of the Christmas c o n c e r t . Interview 12, grade 3  103 Undemocratic... e x c e l l e n t , wonderful productions but undemocratic and showcases f o r a s m a l l percentage of the k i d s i n the l e a d i n g r o l e . . . y o u know, everybody would be i n v o l v e d but they might be marching on and o f f the s t a g e . The same h a l f a dozen k i d s would be the s t a r s year a f t e r year. Interview 15, grade 3 Do you t h i n k many t e a c h e r s a r e u s i n g drama i n t h e i r classrooms? Most t e a c h e r s I t a l k e d t o concluded teachers were u s i n g drama e i t h e r  t h a t v e r y few  in scripted  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s . assumptions a r e i s d i f f i c u l t  form or How r e l i a b l e  their  to say as most teachers do not  know what goes on i n other classrooms  but then, on the other  hand, t e a c h e r s who are e n t h u s i a s t i c about a p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n usually t e l l their colleagues.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t  although these t h i r t y - f o u r v o l u n t e e r s were v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m , twenty percent of them were not u s i n g drama i n t h e i r classrooms.  Common reasons  were: there wasn't  enough time, other t h i n g s were of higher p r i o r i t y , and/or they d i d not f e e l comfortable  or knowledgeable i n u s i n g drama i n  education. I'm not sure t h e r e ' s r e a l l y a l o t of drama at a l l , p e r i o d , even s c r i p t . Interview 2, grade 4 I'm the o n l y one i n my s c h o o l t h a t has any idea about i t . Interview 13, grade 6/7 I don't r e a l l y t h i n k i t ' s happening a t a l l . grade 3  I n t e r v i e w 14,  104  I f t e a c h e r s a r e u s i n g d r a m a , what i s t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e , a n d why? It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t 54.2 percent of the  respondents of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s a i d they p r e f e r r e d to use both forms of drama, s c r i p t e d and dramatic p l a y i n g , whereas 8.8 percent of the s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d claimed t o be u s i n g both forms.  When the t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d were asked which  form of drama they p r e f e r r e d , 17 (50%) chose dramatic p l a y i n g . However, as has a l r e a d y been noted i n t h i s study, teachers i n d i c a t e d a misunderstanding of the boundaries of dramatic playing.  In many cases, t e a c h e r s were c l a i m i n g t h a t  w r i t t e n , rehearsed, and performed  scripts,  f o r audiences were  c o n s i d e r e d "dramatic p l a y i n g " . S c r i p t drama... teachers more i n c l i n e d to go with t h a t because i t ' s s t r u c t u r e d but the pay o f f i s l i k e l y t o be l e s s (than i n dramatic p l a y i n g ) i n the s h o r t run...unless they do a l o t of drama work or s k i l l s and then of course i t might be d i f f e r e n t . Interview 17, grade 5/6 My p r e f e r e n c e i s dramatic p l a y i n g but I f i n d s c r i p t e d drama e a s i e r . . . even i f the k i d s a r e w r i t i n g t h e i r own s c r i p t s I f i n d r o l e drama q u i t e s t r e s s f u l . I n t e r v i e w 31, grade 3/4 Why a r e m u s i c a n d v i s u a l a r t s i n a s e c u r e p o s i t i o n o n t h e t i m e t a b l e . . . i . e . t h e y a r e mandated a n d t a u g h t t o a l l s t u d e n t s w h e r e a s d r a m a i s n ' t ? What a r e t e a c h e r s t h o u g h t s o n drama s h a r i n g t h e f i n e a r t s s t r a n d w i t h music and v i s u a l a r t s ? Teachers found t h i s q u e s t i o n thought provoking and difficult  t o answer, e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of drama  was i n the realm of dramatic p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l than drama as an a r t .  rather  105 Maybe i t has to do with our c u l t u r e . . . the way we have s o r t of grown up and the way music and a r t are presented. Interview 9, grade 3 Music and a r t are t i m e t a b l e d so they get done. Interview 15, grade 3 Drama i s the underused p a r t of our f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m because not enough people a r e promoting i t . Interview 25, grade 5 S i n c e d r a m a i s m a n d a t e d a n d y e t v e r y f e w s c h o o l s seem t o b e d o i n g i t , do y o u t h i n k i t w i l l d i s a p p e a r from t h e a r t s s t r a n d l e a v i n g music and v i s u a l a r t s t h e o n l y a r t s addressed a t t h e elementary l e v e l ? When t e a c h e r s were asked what they saw as the f u t u r e f o r drama as a p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m and every student's e d u c a t i o n a l experience, they were r e l u c t a n t t o s p e c u l a t e . Some blamed the d i s t r i c t m a t e r i a l s and workshops.  f o r not s u p p l y i n g r e s o u r c e s Others c l a i m e d the problem was an  a l r e a d y overloaded c u r r i c u l u m with too many new i n n o v a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o be implemented, e.g., elements of i n s t r u c t i o n , whole language,  computers, and i n t e g r a t i o n with the l i b r a r y .  Some s a i d i t was too s p e c i a l i z e d a f i e l d and some t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s would be a d e t e r r e n t because they were not outgoing enough or ready t o take a r i s k , and others s a i d t h a t some teachers c o u l d not teach drama i n the same sense that not everyone can teach v i s u a l a r t s or music.  V i s u a l a r t s and  music t r a d i t i o n a l l y have been the a r t experience f o r students of  elementary  difficult  s c h o o l s and i t appears  some t r a d i t i o n s a r e  to break.  I c e r t a i n l y hope n o t . . . i f we f o l l o w the i n t e r m e d i a t e program as i t ' s w r i t t e n and the primary program t h a t ' s a l r e a d y been implemented, t h e r e i s p l e n t y of encouragement i n t h e r e f o r  106 dramatic e x p r e s s i o n and f o r drama as one of the s t r a t e g i e s ( f o r t e a c h i n g ) . Interview 18, grade 7 Dramatic p l a y i n g i s r e a l l y going to be l e f t up to whether the teacher f e e l s l i k e i t or can handle i t or whatever. Interview 29, grade 6/7  SUMMARY  The  OF  FINDINGS  t a b u l a t i o n s of t h i s survey have found  responses  interesting  t o the questions t h i s study posed. (The questions  are o u t l i n e d on page 16 i n the Statement.of the Problem). Some f i n d i n g s are d e f i n i t e but others are l e s s c l e a r . responses taught  The  t o the f i r s t q u e s t i o n "To what extent i s drama being  i n elementary  Seventy-four  s c h o o l s ? " were somewhat ambiguous.  percent of the respondents  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  claimed they were u s i n g drama i n the form of dramatic p l a y i n g anywhere from s e v e r a l times per week t o once a term. f i v e p o i n t one percent of the respondents  Fifty-  claimed they were  u s i n g dramatic  p l a y i n g anywhere from s e v e r a l times per week t o  once a month.  But as respondents  p l a y i n g they were doing,  i t became evident they were not c l e a r  on what c o n s t i t u t e s dramatic F i n d i n g s i n the o r a l  d e s c r i b e d the dramatic  p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l .  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n t r a r y t o the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n t h a t the m a j o r i t y of teachers  interviewed  s t a t e d very l i t t l e drama i n any form was t a k i n g p l a c e i n elementary other  classrooms.  These were t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about  teachers. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t 62.6 percent of the  respondents  used s c r i p t e d drama i n t h e i r classrooms  from  107  s e v e r a l times per week t o once a term, and 32.7 percent of the teachers used s c r i p t e d drama from s e v e r a l times per week t o once a month, but t h i s f i n d i n g was not supported i n t e r v i e w s as s u b j e c t s claimed v e r y l i t t l e used by classroom t e a c h e r s .  s c r i p t e d drama was  But then, responses  i n t e r v i e w s showed t h a t many teachers c l a s s i f i e d w r i t t e n by students as dramatic even though students rehearsed and presented  by the o r a l  i n the o r a l scripts  p l a y i n g , not s c r i p t e d drama, i t , attempted t o p e r f e c t i t ,  i t . The i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 17.6  percent of the teachers used s c r i p t e d drama (combined f i n d i n g s for  c o n c e r t s and s c r i p t e d drama). Throughout the c o l l e c t i o n of data, i t became c l e a r t h a t  teachers were not c l e a r on what dramatic  playing r e a l l y i s ,  and even though the q u e s t i o n n a i r e contained an in-depth d e f i n i t i o n of dramatic  p l a y i n g , and i n t e r v i e w s provided the  o p p o r t u n i t y t o c l a r i f y meaning through understanding  conversation, their  of the p r i n c i p l e s of dramatic  l e a r n i n g t o o l appeared nebulous a t b e s t .  p l a y i n g as a  I t was r a t h e r l i k e  a s k i n g non-musicians to d i s c u s s the elements of a concerto and to  tell  why they p r e f e r t h a t form t o the symphony.  very f a c t t h a t some teachers were confused, support t o my purpose i n doing the study.  But the  lends s t r o n g Is drama being  implemented and i f not, why? When respondents 13(a)  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s answered q u e s t i o n  " I f you have used r o l e drama or improvised drama as a  l e a r n i n g t o o l f o r other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s i n the classroom, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i n which s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e or i n what  108  c o n t e x t , " t h e i r w r i t t e n responses  c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d ambiguous  n o t i o n s of what c o n s t i t u t e s dramatic p l a y i n g . D e s c r i p t i o n s of the types of drama t h a t the teachers interviewed were doing f u r t h e r confirms some  misunderstandings  among t e a c h e r s of how drama can be used as a l e a r n i n g t o o l . Only 11.9 percent of the interviewees were u s i n g dramatic  p l a y i n g , i . e . , drama as a method of s e a r c h i n g f o r a  deeper meaning i n other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s .  Twenty-three  percent of the s u b j e c t s interviewed s t a t e d they were using dramatic  p l a y i n g but when they d e s c r i b e d the dramatic  a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r classrooms,  they were found t o be using  i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama as an e x t e n s i o n of language a r t s , i . e . , whole language.  Twenty percent of the teachers were not using  drama i n any form which was s u r p r i s i n g , as I had assumed t h a t those teachers who chose t o v o l u n t e e r t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , d i d so because they were most l i k e l y u s i n g drama i n t h e i r classrooms.  Three teachers r e p o r t e d scheduled  drama periods  i n t h e i r s c h o o l s where drama i s taught by a s p e c i a l i s t , (drama e x e r c i s e s , games, i m p r o v i s a t i o n ) .  Most teachers who are u s i n g  drama at a l l ,  appear t o be i n t e g r a t i n g i t with other s u b j e c t  disciplines.  The m a j o r i t y of teachers do not see drama as an  autonomous s u b j e c t on i t s own, with a s p e c i a l i s t as the teacher.  Many teachers f e l t t h a t would put drama i n jeopardy,  and t h a t i f students went t o another  classroom and another  teacher f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n drama, the themes worked on i n drama would not be r e l a t e d t o classroom work.  109  Answers to the remainder of the questions  listed  on page  16 i n the Statement of the Problem are as f o l l o w s :  Question  two  asks "How  the M i n i s t r y of Education  are teachers meeting the goals of i n drama?" and  that the s u b j e c t s surveyed e i t h e r great d i f f i c u l t y meeting them at a l l . teachers who  i n t h i s study are  reveals  experiencing  i n meeting the goals or they are  However, on a p o s i t i v e note,  have experienced  some t r a i n i n g and  e d u c a t i o n a l drama r e p o r t t h a t they classrooms,  the study  not  those  exposure i n  love using drama i n t h e i r  the c h i l d r e n are e n t h u s i a s t i c , and  the r e s u l t s  are  phenomenal. Q u e s t i o n three asks "What kinds of drama are elementary students  experiencing?"  i n d i c a t e dramatic teachers.  The  f i n d i n g s from the  questionnaires  p l a y i n g i s the form used by most  classroom  T h i s response, s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the r e s u l t s of  o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , i s perhaps dominant because dramatic has a l l the d e s c r i p t o r s t h a t are part of the e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy, thinking s k i l l s ,  ( i . e . , co-operative  that t h e i r work i s not  playing  prevailing learning, c r i t i c a l  heuristic learning, h o l i s t i c  e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g ) , and  the  learning,  teachers would be l o a t h to r e p o r t  i n tune with c u r r e n t  educational  ideology^ added to the f a c t t h a t drama i s mandated. Both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h a t dramatic  p l a y i n g was  the o r a l  interviews  most l i k e l y to be  i n t e g r a t e d with  language a r t s programs as enhancing a l l areas both w r i t t e n and  spoken, and  revealed  of language,  s o c i a l s t u d i e s was  the  subject  110  d i s c i p l i n e most o f t e n chosen when dramatic used as a l e a r n i n g t o o l t o understand The  p l a y i n g was to be  concepts.  f i n d i n g s to q u e s t i o n four "Is the a p p r e c i a t i o n s t r a n d  of drama t a k i n g p l a c e i n drama or has i t been designated t o language a r t s c l a s s e s where p l a y s may be read, s t u d i e d , but seldom acted out?" were n e g a t i v e .  A p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e a t r e ,  per s e , i s not on the agenda of most elementary  classroom  t e a c h e r s , but s c r i p t e d p l a y s a r e used and performed,  although  i n many cases, the s c r i p t s a r e w r i t t e n by students as part of the whole language program.  I t would appear t h a t any  a p p r e c i a t i o n or understanding  of t h e a t r e as an a r t form would  o n l y be a c c e s s i b l e t o the elementary  student who i s i n v o l v e d  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a major p r o d u c t i o n such as the s c h o o l concert.. Question  f i v e asks  they aware of dramatic  "How do teachers d e f i n e drama? p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l ?  taken any courses, or attended playing?"  Are  Have they  any workshops on dramatic  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that i n t u i t i v e l y  teachers  a s s o c i a t e drama with t h e a t r e and stage a c t i n g , but most a r e v e r y aware of the new r o l e of drama i n the classroom. works, and where and why appear t o be too d i f f i c u l t  How i t  f o r most  teachers to answer. Some teachers are aware of dramatic  p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g  t o o l but most of the t e a c h e r s see i t s best use as an extension of language a r t s , e.g., as the o r a l component t o e x p r e s s i v e language.  Although  some teachers seem to understand  i t s value  Ill  as  a learning tool  not  understand  point five  s t u d i e s , most do  percent  of the respondents  of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had n o t t a k e n a n y  e d u c a t i o n a l drama c o u r s e s percent  of the teachers  theatre arts point  courses  nine percent  attended both  of s o c i a l  the methodology i n v o l v e d .  Seventy-eight the  i n the context  a t a u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e and 84.1  s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had n o t t a k e a n y  a t a u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e .  of the teachers  a n y w o r k s h o p s on drama  stated that they  i n education.  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h e o r a l  teachers  are lacking  successfully Question  sufficient  s i x asks  on w h i c h t h i s  there are several factors,  summary a s w e l l a s i n c h a p t e r  this  study.  This study  used  i s t h e key i s based.  and many a r e d i s c u s s e d i n five,  one r e a s o n  dominates  E v i d e n t l y many t e a c h e r s do n o t know what  dramatic  i s , and t h e y do n o t know how t o u s e drama o u t s i d e t h e  domain o f t h e s c r i p t e d  play.  be e l a b o r a t e d on i n C h a p t e r  The answer t o q u e s t i o n s i x w i l l five.  f i n d i n g s t o q u e s t i o n seven,  difficulty dramatic  that  t o be a b l e t o  p l a y i n g i s not being  what a r e t h e r e a s o n s ? "  this  The  The f i n d i n g s i n  interviews indicate  training  " I f dramatic  q u e s t i o n and t h e q u e s t i o n  playing  had n o t  implement drama a s mandated c u r r i c u l u m . .  in the classroom,  Although  Fifty-seven  making a c l e a r  distinction  "Do t e a c h e r s  between p e r f o r m a n c e and  p l a y i n g ? " r e v e a l t h a t most t e a c h e r s  performance as s c r i p t e d improvisational.  and d r a m a t i c  have  interpret  p l a y i n g as  112  In q u e s t i o n skills  and e x p e r i e n c e  teachers  hinders  classrooms?", need  training  had  and r e s o u r c e s . responding  i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n  percent  teachers  Seventy-eight  f o r the  point  five  t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e had no at a university  o f c o l l e g e , and  to the questionnaire  a n y workshops on drama i n e d u c a t i o n .  stated that the lack of s k i l l s  very strong  playing i n  overwhelming support  of the teachers responding  not attended  that the lack of  among s t u d e n t s and  of dramatic  the findings offer  of teachers  feel  i n drama, b o t h  the success  for training  percent  57.9  e i g h t "Do t e a c h e r s  factor  Many  and e x p e r i e n c e  i n hindering the success  was a  of dramatic  playing.  However, t h e y d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s '  of  and e x p e r i e n c e  skills  Question literature playing teachers  nine asks  "In t h i s  i n drama and e d u c a t i o n  know how t o u s e i t ? " indicate  that very  the methodology behind  f o r m o f drama.  implications courses  behind  i n drama  the s c h o o l board The  at a l l . decade t h e bulk of  has a p p l a u d e d  dramatic  Do t h e m a j o r i t y o f  The f i n d i n g s i n t h e o r a l few t e a c h e r s  understand  either  u s i n g drama a s a l e a r n i n g t o o l ,  purpose, or i t s d e s i g n . this  last  as a v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g t o o l .  interviews  of  was a f a c t o r  Very  few t e a c h e r s  Teachers  have s e e n  who d i d u n d e r s t a n d  drama a s a l e a r n i n g t o o l  i n education deliver  lack  or  examples  the  had e i t h e r  o r have had a c o n s u l t a n t  taken from  a workshop.  findings to question  t e n "What do t e a c h e r s  feel i s  t h e main p u r p o s e o f drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? " v a r i e d and teachers  addressed  such  its  outcomes a s p o i s e and c o n f i d e n c e ,  113  socializing, through  shared  learning,  experiencing.  oral  The main p u r p o s e  c u r r i c u l u m d e p e n d e d on what e a c h perception  language,  o f drama was and how  and  learning  o f drama i n t h e  individual  teacher's  t h e t e a c h e r used  i t i n his/her  classroom. The  f i n d i n g s t o t h e q u e s t i o n e l e v e n "Do  recognize a clear criteria  s e t of o b j e c t i v e s  t o be a t t a i n e d  f o r e v a l u a t i o n ? " were b r o a d  and v a r i e d .  a b o v e , o b j e c t i v e s d e p e n d e d on t h e p u r p o s e purpose  o f t h e drama was  i n accordance  p e r c e p t i o n o f i t s most v a l u a b l e u s e . depending  teachers i n drama: a As  stated  o f t h e drama and t h e  with the teacher's Objectives also  on t h e t y p e o f drama: s c r i p t e d  differed  drama o r d r a m a t i c  playing. Overall,  t h e f i n d i n g s were  s e r i o u s problems o b s t r u c t i n g  indicative  o f some v e r y  the s u c c e s s f u l  implementation  of  drama. With teaching  r e s p e c t t o t h e q u e s t i o n i s i t an a r t o r i s i t a tool,  t e a c h e r s appear  However, t h e y a l m o s t t h e y need t r a i n i n g , implementation the  unanimously  sentiments  without  that  i s unpragmatic  f o u r t e a c h e r f r o m a west s i d e  lights.  in either  of those  to include  elementary program."  given  to say the l e a s t .  school r e f l e c t s the  o f most t e a c h e r s I i n t e r v i e w e d . . . " I d o n ' t that  form,  successful  the necessary t r a i n i n g  enough drama n o r do I f e e l resources  agree  and f o r anyone t o e x p e c t  job of implementation,  A grade  to see i t i n both  feel  I h a v e enough t r a i n i n g ,  i t p r o p e r l y and r e g u l a r l y  i n t o an  I do  ideas,  114 CHAPTER S U M M A R Y , -  5  C O N C L U S I O N S ,  A3SfI>  R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  SUMMARY  Purpose The  purpose of t h i s study was t o d i s c o v e r whether or not  drama, as p a r t of the p r e s c r i b e d F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m implemented or n o t . following  i s being  The study has sought answers t o the  questions:  1. To what extent  i s drama being taught  i n elementary  schools? 2. How a r e teachers meeting the goals of the M i n i s t r y of Education  i n drama?  3. What kinds of drama a r e elementary experiencing?  students  (Drama games, s c r i p t dramas, s k i t s , p l a y s f o r  s c h o o l c o n c e r t s , i m p r o v i s a t i o n w i t h i n the context l e s s o n s , t h e a t r e s p o r t s , or dramatic 4.  playing)?  Is t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n s t r a n d of drama t a k i n g p l a c e i n  drama or has i t been designated  t o language a r t s c l a s s e s where  p l a y s may be read, s t u d i e d , but seldom acted 5.  of academic  How do teachers d e f i n e drama?  dramatic  p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l ?  courses,  or attended  out?  Are they aware of Have they taken any  any workshops on dramatic  playing?  115  6.  I f dramatic  classroom,  p l a y i n g i s not b e i n g used i n t h e  what a r e t h e r e a s o n s ?  7. Do t e a c h e r s have d i f f i c u l t y m a k i n g a c l e a r b e t w e e n p e r f o r m a n c e and d r a m a t i c 8.  Do t e a c h e r s  experience  and  playing?  f e e l t h a t t h e l a c k o f s k i l l s and  i n d r a m a , b o t h among s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s  the success 9.  distinction  of dramatic  In this  p l a y i n g i n classrooms?  l a s t decade t h e bulk of l i t e r a t u r e  e d u c a t i o n has applauded d r a m a t i c  learning tool.  hinders  i n drama  p l a y i n g as a v a l u a b l e  Do t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s know how t o u s e  it? 10. the  What do t e a c h e r s  feel  i s t h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f drama i n  curriculum? 11.  attained  Do t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e a c l e a r s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s t o be i n drama; a c r i t e r i a  f o r evaluation?  Rationale The  r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e importance  of t h i s study  i s based  on t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on e d u c a t i o n a l drama b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f Education  i n t h e F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e ( 1 9 8 5 ) and  supported  i n t h e Y e a r 2000 I n t e r m e d i a t e  D r a f t document.  drama and t h e a t r e a r e p a r t o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m , w i t h l e a r n i n g about t h e a r t of t h e a t r e through drama." ( E l e m e n t a r y The  their  "Both  students  work i n  F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e . 1 9 8 5 , p. 8 5 ) .  F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e d e f i n e s t h e a t r e a s "an a r t f o r m  i n v o l v i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of dramatic  literature  t o an  116  audience",  and d e f i n e s drama as "a developmental  process  centered on the l e a r n e r . " T h e o r i s t s of e d u c a t i o n a l drama c i t e d  i n the  literature  review of t h i s study make s t r o n g c l a i m s f o r the r o l e of drama i n the education of the c h i l d .  The  l i t e r a t u r e review t r a c e s  the e v o l u t i o n of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m from John Dewey to the e d u c a t i o n a l drama t h e o r i e s of Dorothy Heathcote and  Gavin  Bolton. Drama i s to be used as an a r t form and as a "developmental  process centered on the l e a r n e r " i n t e g r a t e d  with other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s as a l e a r n i n g t o o l .  Bolton  (1979) emphasizes the use of dramatic  playing in cognition:  "Drama appears to o f f e r q u a l i t i e s and  l e v e l s of meaning not  normally a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n form".  i n anything but an a b s t r a c t  Bruner (1966) t a l k s about the s p i r a l q u a l i t y of  education as we add new our understanding.  knowledge to o l d knowledge r e f i n i n g  Drama p r o v i d e s the means to b r i d g e the  between t h a t which we know and p r o v i d e s the s t i m u l i  t h a t which we are pursuing  f o r students to q u e s t i o n and  i s s u e s which have become r e l e v a n t through  gap and  debate  dramatic p l a y i n g .  Methodology To f i n d answers to the questions posed i n the study instruments  were used to c o l l e c t d a t a .  The  f i r s t was  w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d among teachers of schools.  a elementary  Grades t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x , and seven i n 23  s c h o o l s were surveyed,  and  107  teachers responded.  two  117  The by  s e c o n d was an o r a l  telephone  teachers collected findings the as  conducted  i n w h i c h 34 o f t h e s u b j e c t s  questionnaires interviewed  interview,  volunteered  in-person  responded  t o take  completing  part.  the  Seven s u b j e c t s  and 27 b y t e l e p h o n e .  and 34 t e a c h e r s  i n - p e r s o n and  were  Thirty-four  were i n t e r v i e w e d .  The d a t a  t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w s was meant t o a m p l i f y t h e of the questionnaires,  perceptions  and c o n c e p t i o n s  p r o v i d i n g a deeper s e a r c h  into  o f drama h e l d b y t h e t e a c h e r s  w e l l as p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the kinds of  drama t a k i n g p l a c e  i n elementary school  classrooms.  CONCLUSIONS  Both t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s teachers and  held  c e r t a i n misconceptions  principles  tool,  involved  and a l t h o u g h  i n dramatic  were u s i n g d r a m a t i c  type  o f drama w h i c h  i s more c l o s e l y  into written scripts  revealed  t h e methods  interviewed  claimed  were i n f a c t  using a  r e l a t e d t o whole  language,  by t h e c h i l d r e n and  f o r performance.  This i s  unquestionably  drama, and an e x c e l l e n t way o f h e l p i n g  generate t h e i r  own c r e a t i v e l a n g u a g e e f f o r t s  as  experiencing  necessarily  theatre  t h a t which  playing develops  arts,  i n the present  know how t h e drama w i l l  evolve.  dramatic  students  i n t o t e x t as w e l l  but i t i s a l i m i t e d  i s called  that  p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g  p l a y i n g , they  i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l dramas c r e a t e d  transformed  concerning  some o f t h e t e a c h e r s  they  e.g.,  and t h e i n t e r v i e w s  playing.  u s e , and n o t Dramatic  t h r o u g h t h e p l a y e r s who d o n ' t I t i s s p o n t a n e o u s and n o t  118  e a s i l y repeated.  Students w r i t i n g s c r i p t s f o r performance are  working more i n the p l a y w r i g h t - t h e a t r e mode. In the f i n d i n g s i n both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the i n t e r v i e w s , drama was most o f t e n i n t e g r a t e d with language a r t s to encourage both o r a l and w r i t t e n c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . i n v o l v e d i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l dramas r e s u l t i n g i n s c r i p t s ,  This  letters,  j o u r n a l s , e t c . , or i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l dramas d i s p l a y i n g a s i m u l a t i o n of the novel or s t o r y , a f t e r c h i l d r e n have completed  the r e a d i n g assignment.  The o b j e c t i v e s addressed  here were u s u a l l y focused on a g r e a t e r understanding l i t e r a t u r e the c h i l d r e n were r e a d i n g , improving  of the  o r a l reading,  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , p o i s e and c o n f i d e n c e i n f r o n t of peers, coo p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , and improving communication s k i l l s .  o r a l and w r i t t e n  T h i s use of drama i s v e r y popular  with  most teachers as a way of s t u d y i n g l i t e r a r y t e x t , but i t i s not the dramatic experience termed "dramatic p l a y i n g " where the goal i s a deeper understanding  of the concept  or u n i v e r s a l  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n through the combined e f f o r t s of the group acting in role. An example of where t o a p p l y t h i s s t r a t e g y f o r l e a r n i n g c o u l d be the study of Darwin's theory of e v o l u t i o n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s on s o c i e t i e s of t h a t day or the power of a k i n g , how he both achieves t h a t power and how he holds i t .  Although  both these models are r e l a t e d t o h i s t o r y , the same p r i n c i p l e s can be a p p l i e d to l i t e r a t u r e , e.g., i n the grade seven  novel  "Word t o Caesar" e x p l o r i n g the m o t i v a t i o n and d r i v i n g f o r c e behind Paul's journey to Rome l e a d i n g students to a deeper  119  understanding of both the novel and the u n i v e r s a l involved i n t h i s story. were u s i n g drama i n t h i s Dramatic make-believe  Few  t e a c h e r s surveyed  truths  in this  study  way.  p l a y i n g i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to a c h i l d r e n ' s  play.  The c h i l d c r e a t e s h i s / h e r own  world where  he/she can t r y " r e a l l i f e " and a l l the problems and  situations  w i t h i n i t through the r o l e of the c h a r a c t e r he/she has created.  As B o l t o n says "We  and c h i l d r e n ' s make-believe)  can regard them (dramatic p l a y i n g as the same a c t i v i t y except  dramatic p l a y i n g takes p l a c e i n a s c h o o l " (1979, p. 9 ) . elements  that The  of dramatic p l a y i n g i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : not  l i m i t e d t o time, no s p e c i f i c g o a l , o f t e n no sense of completion, r u l e s not always c l e a r , experience i s not r e p e a t a b l e , l i v i n g through r a t h e r than demonstrating very c l o s e to l i f e - p a c e , and  easily ideas,  freedom f o r i n d i v i d u a l  creativity. One  of the purposes  of t h i s study was  t o see i f t e a c h e r s  were u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g as an e x p e r i e n t i a l type of l e a r n i n g , the type of l e a r n i n g experience Dorothy  Heathcote  and Gavin B o l t o n p r e s c r i b e or John F i n e s (1982) d e s c r i b e s when w r i t i n g about  the value of u s i n g drama i n the t e a c h i n g of  history: Drama allows one to see h i s t o r y as a l a r g e l y unknown area i n which one must experiment to f i n d ways of understanding; i t allows one t o take h i s t o r y at the r i g h t pace, at the r e a l time i n which i t happened. I t makes the study of past humanity r e l e v a n t to our present concerns and most important, i t allows f o r a s e t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n l e a r n i n g between teacher and p u p i l s t h a t I f i n d most comfortable and conducive to good work. I t i s a n a t u r a l way of doing the j o b . (pp. 115-116)  120  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t those teachers who used dramatic courses  p l a y i n g i n the context of s o c i a l s t u d i e s had taken i n dramatic  It  p l a y i n g a t a u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e .  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t 78.5 percent of the  teachers completing courses  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had not taken any  i n drama i n education a t a u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e , 84.1  percent had not taken any courses  i n theatre at a u n i v e r s i t y  or c o l l e g e , 57.9 percent had not attended  any workshops on  drama i n education, and 20.6 percent had attended course on drama i n e d u c a t i o n .  o n l y one  When one compares the f i n d i n g s  on teacher t r a i n i n g i n drama to the number of teachers c l a i m they are u s i n g dramatic classroom,  p l a y i n g or any drama i n the  one has to wonder how 74.7 percent of the teachers  could p o s s i b l y be u s i n g "dramatic or a t l e a s t the kind of dramatic in t h i s  drama. to  playing" in their  classrooms  p l a y i n g d e s c r i b e d and d e f i n e d  study.  The unable  who  o r a l i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t many teachers were  to d e f i n e dramatic  p l a y i n g beyond i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l  T h e i r understanding  of drama was more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  t h e a t r e and language a r t s where the c e n t r a l  students c r e a t e d dramas.  idea was t h a t  I t was an e x e r c i s e i n s e l f -  e x p r e s s i o n i n the a e s t h e t i c sense combined with an understanding  of the c o m p l e x i t i e s of l i f e ,  some problem  s o l v i n g , confidence b u i l d i n g , p o i s e , and s k i l l s  in oral  communication. Teachers  a l s o used drama t o teach s o c i a l s k i l l s , and  i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s as dramatic  playing.  T h i s i s a popular use  121  of drama among educators, and i t has i t s r o o t s i n psychology, one of the f i r s t areas of study t o r e a l i z e the e f f i c a c y of i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama but i t d i f f e r s  i n objectives  dramatic p l a y i n g being more concerned  with c o r r e c t i n g  emotional or b e h a v i o u r a l problems than with  enhancing  s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional development. the proponents i n promoting  from  "Many of  of drama i n education have emphasized i t s r o l e  s o c i a l and emotional development" ( C h i l v e r , 1982,  p. 84). The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t teachers o f t e n use drama because students enjoy i t .  As B o l t o n s a i d , many  teachers are happy i f the students a r e having f u n . teachers seem to put 'enjoyment' as a p r i o r i t y .  "Many  I f the p u p i l s  have enjoyed t h e i r drama t h a t i s evidence enough of i t s educational v a l i d i t y " respondents  ( B o l t o n , 1979, p. 131). When  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were asked t o s t a t e which  f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the success of t h e i r work i n dramatic p l a y i n g , 92.5 percent of the t e a c h e r s answered "Fun f o r the s t u d e n t s ; they loved i t . "  Teachers  interviewed supported  this  claim. Because many teachers do not know the b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s of dramatic p l a y i n g , t h i s study r e v e a l e d that  those  t e a c h e r s i n the study who lacked t r a i n i n g i n drama, were i n c l i n e d to use t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement as teachers t o d e c i d e where and when t o use drama, t o i t s best e d u c a t i o n a l advantage,  and the p l a c e they most o f t e n choose i s In the  realm of o r a l language  (language a r t s ) or c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n  122  (whole language) and behaviour (social  modification—psychology  skills).  B o l t o n addresses  t h i s problem of d e f i n i n g drama when he  says t h a t teachers "speak from t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t  conceptual  frameworks i n s p i t e of u s i n g the same vocabulary" and  (1979, p. 1)  a d v i s e s t h a t we must " c l a r i f y a philosophy of drama i n  education i n order t o sharpen Teachers  developed  i t s practice"  (1979, p. 1 ) .  t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r drama programs  based on t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of drama,  producing a wide range of o b j e c t i v e s and outcomes.  I t would  seem l i m i t e d t o focus on one type of drama over a l l others and a c c o r d i n g t o Bolton (1979) e s s e n t i a l l y the dramatic should be t w o - f o l d : dramatic through skills  experience  p l a y i n g where the c h i l d l e a r n s  experience, and t h e a t r e which encompasses a c t i n g and an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r elements of t h e a t r e .  Bolton  (1979) w r i t e s "We cannot separate the two e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s of deepening understanding  and l e a r n i n g about form:  they a r e mutually dependent" (p. 114). T h e r e f o r e drama, when used t o teach c h i l d r e n how t o get along, or drama when used t o teach c h i l d r e n how t o w r i t e a p l a y , or drama when used i n performance t o teach c h i l d r e n p o i s e and p r e s e n t a t i o n s k i l l s are a l l p a r t of the dramatic  experience, but too l i m i t i n g  s i n g u l a r l y t o warrant drama a p l a c e i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Many of the interviewees s a i d they f e l t the c h i l d r e n needed an end-product i n t h e i r drama work and although the t h i n k i n g among today's  educators  i s l a r g e l y concerned  process over product, many teachers expressed  their  with  students'  123  love f o r performance and f o r "showing" what they had achieved to The  a l a r g e r audience  than the teacher and other c l a s s members.  type of s c r i p t e d drama t h a t teachers were r e f e r r i n g to  when s t a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n wanted the o p p o r t u n i t y t o perform, were s c r i p t e d dramas c r e a t e d by the students  themselves.  The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e teachers use s c r i p t e d dramas ( p r o f e s s i o n a l s c r i p t s ) l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than  dramatic  p l a y i n g , and the f i n d i n g s from the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s are i n agreement. to  Theatre a r t s and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e a t r e seems  be present o n l y when students are working on a " c o n c e r t " .  Very few interviewees i n c l u d e d a c t i n g s k i l l s as p a r t of the dramatic experience f o r the s t u d e n t .  "Itwill  be p a r t of what  you're doing, but t h a t ' s not the purpose of your doing i t , " s a i d a grade seven t e a c h e r .  The B.C. F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m  Guide (1985) suggests t h a t students l e a r n "about the a r t of t h e a t r e through t h e i r work i n drama" because "drama has more p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g a s a f e , dynamic environment" whereas " t h e a t r e , by i t s v e r y nature, e n t a i l s g r e a t e r r i s k s i n c e i t i s s u b j e c t t o standards of e x c e l l e n c e imposed from the o u t s i d e " (p.  85).  However the data c o l l e c t e d through t h i s  r e v e a l s t h a t teachers are not u s u a l l y concerned of  study  with elements  t h e a t r e i n the dramatic experience of elementary  "I haven't statement the o r a l  students.  r e a l l y gone i n t o the t h e a t r e p a r t " was a common heard  from those i n t e r v i e w e d .  The f i n d i n g s of both  i n t e r v i e w s and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c l e a r l y  t h a t very l i t t l e  indicate  i f any a t t e n t i o n i s given t o the elements of  t h e a t r e , e i t h e r with regard to s k i l l  t r a i n i n g or a p p r e c i a t i o n .  124  Some connoisseurs of the a r t s are of the o p i n i o n that the only a r t t h a t i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y v a l u a b l e i s t h a t which i s the r e s u l t of t e c h n i c a l prowess, d i l i g e n t t r a i n i n g , and talent. the a r t s .  They see s k i l l  creative  t e a c h i n g as imperative f o r success i n  Ramon Delgado (1984) w r i t e s about achievement i n  playwriting, In order t o achieve even moderate success i n t h i s d i f f i c u l t a r t , the student must achieve a degree of p r o f i c i e n c y i n three a r e a s . One of these areas i s c o r r e c t a b l e ( s p e l l i n g , grammar, p u n c t u a t i o n ) ; one area i s t e a c h a b l e , ( l e v e l of c r a f t ) and one i s encourageable ( l e v e l of a r t i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the a r t i s t ) . Delgado sees success i n a r t as more than an experience i n self-expression. accomplished  He  is c l e a r l y interested  artists.  Rosenblatt  " a p p r e c i a t i o n and understanding  i n producing  (1984) c l a i m s t h a t  r e q u i r e the development of  ' t h e a t r i c a l s e n s i b i l i t y , ' which i n t u r n i s dependent on the a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e and to respond  to a work of a r t " (p.  11)  T h i s study suggests t h a t the l a c k of t r a i n i n g , the lack of an understanding  of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d , and  lack of c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , handicapped to implement drama s u c c e s s f u l l y .  the  the a b i l i t y of teachers  There i s a p r e s c r i b e d  c u r r i c u l u m but t e a c h e r s don't seem to know what e x a c t l y they're supposed to teach, what to focus on, or what the objectives are. course he was  The r e s u l t  t e a c h i n g at U.B.C. (1990) "Are we  t e a c h e r s to f a i l ? " how  i s as Gavin B o l t o n s a i d d u r i n g a inviting  When t e a c h e r s are not sure what t o do,  to do i t , i . e . with v a r y i n g experiences, c o n c e p t i o n s ,  i n f o r m a t i o n on drama, they develop t h e i r own  programs.  or and  125  In both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , elementary  t e a c h e r s of grades  t h r e e t o seven,  articulated  t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s with mandated c u r r i c u l u m but no t r a i n i n g i n methodology.  The drama experiences a v a i l a b l e t o elementary  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e d i v e r s e , not due to c r e a t i v i t y but out of necessity.  The drama experiences a v a i l a b l e t o elementary  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e barren, as d i s c o v e r e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n of data, and addressed  by t e a c h e r s i n both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s . Seventy-four  p o i n t four percent of the t e a c h e r s use  dramatic p l a y i n g i n t h e i r classrooms  from s e v e r a l times per  week t o once a term and y e t 78.5 percent have not been exposed to any "drama i n e d u c a t i o n " courses a t a u n i v e r s i t y or college.  Almost 80 percent of the teachers have not had any  " l e s s o n s " i n what t h i s type of drama, c a l l e d dramatic p l a y i n g , i s a l l about.  These f i n d i n g s e x p l a i n why teachers may have  some d i f f i c u l t y implementing  drama.  Many teachers a l s o a t t r i b u t e d the f a i l u r e of dramatic p l a y i n g t o the time f a c t o r , an a l r e a d y over loaded t i m e t a b l e . Respondents to the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s supported  t h i s finding to a  c e r t a i n degree but some claimed t h a t i f t e a c h e r s were i n t e g r a t i n g drama and u s i n g i t with other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , time should not impede the implementation  of drama i n the  curriculum. In both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the i n t e r v i e w s none of the teachers mentioned e v a l u a t i o n as a problem and I am assuming t h a t where t e a c h e r s are u s i n g drama i n t e g r a t e d with other  126  s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , assessment becomes p a r t of the mark of t h a t s u b j e c t where drama i s i n c o r p o r a t e d . There i s a d i s t i n c t d i s c r e p a n c y between the theory of drama i n education and the p r a c t i c e . and  Regardless  of t h e o r i s t s  r e s e a r c h , the teachers decide what w i l l be Implemented and  what w i l l n o t . And i n t h a t f a c t p o s s i b l y l i e s the problem, the autonomy of the t e a c h e r .  One teacher r e f l e c t s the common  v o i c e of many teachers I spoke t o d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . "Teaching  i s such a p e r s o n a l i z e d t h i n g . . . t h e r e ' s going to be  some t h i n g s t h a t j u s t are not going t o work because the person's  h e a r t ' s not i n i t " .  T h e r e f o r e , c u r r e n t l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e i s a mandated c u r r i c u l u m which the m i n i s t r y b e l i e v e s i s a necessary p a r t of the education of i t s youth, and y e t t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e  concern  curriculum. I felt  f o r t r a i n i n g the implementers of t h i s  In t a l k i n g t o many of the teachers I i n t e r v i e w e d ,  I was a s k i n g them to comment on a t e a c h i n g t o o l  knew v e r y l i t t l e  about.  they  The d e s c r i p t o r s helped them, ( c o -  operative learning, integration, h o l i s t i c learning, communication, c h i l d - c e n t e r e d ) , and through the d e s c r i p t o r s most teachers understood  the language of  t h a t whatever i t was,  and however i t worked, i t would be good f o r the s t u d e n t s .  It  was r a t h e r l i k e asking some housekeeper what he/she thought of a vacuum c l e a n e r I was t r y i n g t o promote but he/she had never seen one b e f o r e , and d i d not know i t s f u n c t i o n . those teachers who knew what dramatic  p l a y i n g was  However, through  courses, workshops, and r e a d i n g were very s t r o n g i n t h e i r  127  p r a i s e s of i t s value i n the c u r r i c u l u m .  Apparently  exposure  to drama i n education i s a l l t h a t i s needed.  RECOMMENDATIONS The c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s study l e a d t o s e v e r a l recommendations:  1. I f drama i s t o be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n e a r t s s t r a n d of the c u r r i c u l u m , as a worthwhile p a r t of the educative experience of every student  i n elementary  classrooms,  teachers should be r e q u i r e d t o complete courses p r i n c i p l e s and use of dramatic  then  i n the  p l a y i n g as a t e a c h i n g t o o l .  Courses i n drama should be mandatory f o r i n t e n d i n g teachers i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n .  There i s a very s u b s t a n t i a l amount  of l i t e r a t u r e to support such a c l a i m f o r drama as a p a r t of any c u r r i c u l u m .  2. Teachers,  through workshops a t the d i s t r i c t  level,  should be provided with the o p p o r t u n i t y to see drama i n education modeled f r e q u e n t l y , and drama should be g i v e n the same a t t e n t i o n as other t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s  (e.g., elements of  i n s t r u c t i o n , whole language, and other programs: s e x u a l abuse programs and computers).  I t has been my experience t h a t most  teachers are f a m i l i a r with the name Donald Graves because of the a t t e n t i o n g i v e n the w r i t i n g process, but o n l y three teachers mentioned Dorothy Heathcote and one recognized the name Gavin  Bolton.  128  3. Teachers observe  should be provided with the o p p o r t u n i t y to  t h e i r peers  i n the e x e c u t i o n of dramatic  p l a y i n g as a  l e a r n i n g t o o l and to be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to share support one another  and  i n t h e i r e f f o r t s r a t h e r than the present  environment so p r e v a l e n t i n s c h o o l s today of working i n isolation.  I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n some s c h o o l s where I  interviewed more than one t e a c h e r , each teacher s t a t e d e m p h a t i c a l l y , t h a t he/she was who  used drama of any k i n d .  proved  t h a t autonomy and  the o n l y teacher at t h a t s c h o o l The  interviews i n t h i s  study  i s o l a t i o n are d i s t i n c t b l i g h t s on  the  success of drama.  4. To maintain the i n t e g r i t y of drama as an a r t , I suggest  more a t t e n t i o n should be given to t h e a t r e a r t s .  Dramatic p l a y i n g can be used as a l e a r n i n g t o o l i n s u b j e c t disciplines;  i n f a c t i t should be used r i g h t a c r o s s the  c u r r i c u l u m to enhance l e a r n i n g by p r o v i d i n g a r e l e v a n c y t o t h a t which is^ learned and by c r e a t i n g ah environment i n which students can p r a c t i c e the language of the s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e , but to r e s t r i c t drama to t h i s use alone i s not g i v i n g s t a t u s of an a r t .  Allen  i t the  (1979) w r i t e s t h a t "to c l a i m t h a t  drama g e n e r a l l y i s a t o o l f o r t e a c h i n g other s u b j e c t s i s an o f f e n c e to Shakespeare and a d i s s e r v i c e to the v e r y s p e c i a l i s t s who  are making the c l a i m " (p. 75).  should be g i v e n the experience  of working through  l e a r n i n g the language of the stage, and  Students a script,  the elements of  129  t h e a t r e , j u s t as they should  l e a r n some of the elements of  music i n order t o a p p r e c i a t e music. s t a t e d i n the F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m to  see t h e a t r e , and do t h e a t r e .  view: "The suggestion  To a p p r e c i a t e drama, as Guide (1985), students  A l l e n (1979) supports  have  this  t h a t c h i l d r e n should not be allowed or  encouraged to come i n t o c o n t a c t with the work of the masters seems t o me an outrage and q u i t e as s e r i o u s a d e p r i v a t i o n as to  prevent  culture" The  t h e i r c o n t a c t with other aspects  of contemporary  (p. 183). concern t h a t the t e a c h i n g of s k i l l s and form might  contaminate the freedom of the s p i r i t  in artistic  expression  i s s u p p o r t i n g an abundance of a r t t h a t doesn't " i n v o l v e the need f o r one j o t of s k i l l , ( A l l e n , 1979, p.179).  t a s t e , t a l e n t , or p r e p a r a t i o n "  A l l e n makes a s t r o n g c l a i m f o r teachers  of the a r t s t o provide students and  techniques  with the a p p r o p r i a t e  skills  so t h a t they might " l e a r n t o embody t h e i r  f e e l i n g s and thoughts i n a s a t i s f y i n g form of e x p r e s s i o n " (p. 135).  He uses A r i s t o t l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of drama: " i t i s a  s e c u r i t y , because i t g i v e s us a s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which we can c o n s t r u c t our own r e a l i t y . " My f e e l i n g s on drama In the c u r r i c u l u m are r e f l e c t e d i n the words of John F i n e s  (1982, p. 123). "For me t h i s i s the  u l t i m a t e aim of a l l — t h a t as a p a r t of a shared  enterprise.  three t h i n g s f o r a c h i l d oracy—I  p u p i l s should have p r i d e i n speech, Were one t o be o f f e r e d  i n s c h o o l — l i t e r a c y , numeracy and  know where I would put my money".  undisputable  T h i s has t o be the  argument on behalf of drama: that which can be  130  given the c h i l d t o put him i n good stead f o r shaping  the most  rewarding n e g o t i a t i o n s with a l l t h a t l i f e has t o o f f e r . other way can one t r u l y present  What  the a s s i m i l a t i o n of new  knowledge t o one's e x i s t i n g framework of knowledge t h a t has given b i r t h t o h i s / h e r own personal unique way of l o o k i n g a t life.  Without words, without  the s k i l l  of r h e t o r i c ,  without  the a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e thoughts, ideas remain locked within.  Take anything  e l s e o f f the c u r r i c u l u m but not the  very s u b j e c t t h a t makes l e a r n i n g r e l e v a n t ; not the s u b j e c t t h a t g i v e s us the language t o express o u r s e l v e s subjects. feet. skill to  i n other  Not the s u b j e c t t h a t teaches us t o think on our  Not the s u b j e c t t h a t g i v e s us the words and then the t o put them together  so we can communicate our thoughts  others. Fines  those  (1982) w r i t e s "To t h i n k hard and be able t o speak  thoughts i n a w i l l i n g debate i s the best of a l l the  skills.  We may f o r g e t the h i s t o r y we l e a r n , the dates, the  names, the d e t a i l s , but i f i t has been a medium f o r t h i s kind of achievement, i t has earned i t s p l a c e i n the c u r r i c u l u m . " (p. 82). RECOMMENDATIONS The  FOR FURTHER  RESEARCH  c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s study suggest s e v e r a l  recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h e d u c a t i o n a l drama.  i n the f i e l d of  131  1.  An area of r e s e a r c h t h a t would be of i n t e r e s t f o r some  f u t u r e study would be to i n v e s t i g a t e the c o r r e l a t i o n between the age and  experience of teachers and  the use of i n n o v a t i v e  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s such as drama i n e d u c a t i o n .  With the  present demographics of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n i n the area t h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d , i . e . , a predominance of o l d e r and more experienced  t e a c h e r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t "new"  i n n o v a t i v e pedagogy may implemented than  and  have l e s s l i k e l i h o o d of being  i f t e a c h i n g s t a f f s of s c h o o l s were  i n f i l t r a t e d with r e c e n t l y t r a i n e d "graduates"  from  universities.  2.  As t h i s study focused on classrooms  through  five,  of grades three  i t would i n t e r e s t i n g to compare how  o f t e n drama  i s used i n the primary grades to the frequency of use of drama i n the upper intermediate grades (grades s i x and  seven).  3.  Although  the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y i m p l i e d t h a t teachers  who  had s t u d i e d the elements of e d u c a t i o n a l drama at  u n i v e r s i t i e s were s t r o n g supporters of dramatic p l a y i n g , i t would be most i n t e r e s t i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e what p r o p o r t i o n of teachers t r a i n e d  i n the methodology of dramatic  drama as a t e a c h i n g t o o l i n t h e i r classrooms.  p l a y i n g , use T h i s might lend  support to the n o t i o n t h a t c u r r i c u l u m can not be i f teachers are not t r a i n e d .  implemented  I t c o u l d a l s o i n d i c a t e that  r e g a r d l e s s of t r a i n i n g and mandated c u r r i c u l u m ,  today's  teachers decide f o r themselves what they w i l l teach.  To  see  132  whether there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between courses i n drama and drama i n classrooms, would make a s t r o n g statement f o r courses o f f e r e d at u n i v e r s i t i e s and workshops o f f e r e d at the d i s t r i c t  4.  level.  I would recommend t h a t a s i m i l a r study t o t h i s one  conducted  i n f i v e years time to determine  be  i f the gap between  t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e has lessened and whether the u n d e r l y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s of the Year permeated classrooms environment  2000 has  to a l l o w the h e u r i s t i c  sufficiently  learning  t o take p l a c e t h a t dramatic p l a y i n g  facilitates.  133  EPILOGUE Although  the purpose of t h i s study was  to i n v e s t i g a t e the  s t a t u s of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m and whether, as mandated c u r r i c u l u m , i t was elementary  being s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented  by  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , t h e r e were some added u n v e i l e d  findings. Teachers  t h a t I interviewed i n a d v e r t e n t l y expressed  need to t a l k about t h e i r work and seemingly  a  the o p p o r t u n i t y to  do so i s m i s s i n g i n the c u r r e n t environment of s c h o o l s . At such a busy time of the year,  (the l a s t few weeks i n  June), I f e l t my questions on drama would not o n l y be i m p o s i t i o n on t e a c h e r s ' l i m i t e d time but regarded i n t e r e s t as asking teachers i n September how spend t h e i r summer h o l i d a y s next year. education i s not foremost  an  with as much  they p l a n to  Drama, or any  f a c e t of  on most t e a c h e r s ' minds i n June.  But the teachers I interviewed had a great d e a l to say, i n f a c t so much t h a t i t was  o f t e n d i f f i c u l t to terminate  the  conversation. As t h i s happened with almost I concluded  a l l thirty-four interviews,  t h a t e i t h e r teachers are the world's g r e a t e s t  e g o t i s t s or they had a need to t e l l  someone, even l a t e i n  June, what they had been doing behind They needed to t e l l and  those c l o s e d doors.  someone about t h e i r wonderful  programs,  the d i f f e r e n c e they were making i n the l i v e s of t h e i r  students. audience  Maybe they were t i r e d of t e l l i n g t h e i r of f a m i l y and  f r i e n d s , parents, spouses,  limited or c h i l d r e n ,  134  and maybe t e l l i n g other teachers wasn't as s a t i s f y i n g other teachers had t h e i r  own  stories  to t e l l .  because  Teachers  appeared to have a need to have t h e i r work v a l i d a t e d , endorsed, approved o f , by someone of s u p e r i o r rank, such as a p r i n c i p a l , an area superintendent, a p r o f e s s o r : someone " i n the know". Teachers  do share what they are doing with other  teachers  in s t a f f rooms and do value t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s ' r e s p e c t but other t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s a r e n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y viewed as a meaningful authority.  assessment because peers do not r e p r e s e n t a higher Because I was  doing my  t h a t I, as i n t e r v i e w e r , was s u b j e c t of drama. t e l l me  t h e s i s on drama, I b e l i e v e  p e r c e i v e d as knowledgeable on  the  In any case, I i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r d e s i r e to  so much about t h e i r programs as i n d i c a t i v e  to be r e c o g n i z e d , a way  of a s k i n g "Am  of a need  I doing t h i s r i g h t ? "  -  a need f o r some kind of p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r work. Apart  from the o p p o r t u n i t y as i n t e r v i e w e r to hear a wide  range of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t f e l l o w teachers were u s i n g i n drama, I had a sense t h a t t h i s experience was "hot l i n e " .  One  teacher asked  me  something more to what had been s a i d ;  with grade sevens. music teacher, had  One  in  the format  phoned me  tape  at home to add  two young t e a c h e r s , at  me questions on  discipline  teacher wanted to know i f I, as a  experienced  becoming unsupportive  l i k e a teacher  to t u r n o f f the  recorder so we c o u l d " t a l k " ; another  the end of the i n t e r v i e w , asked  almost  d i f f i c u l t i e s with s t a f f members  of musical p r o d u c t i o n s .  of the i n t e r v i e w may  These " t u r n s "  not seem e x t r a o r d i n a r y to  135  the reader but one has to remember I was  a s t r a n g e r to these  people before these c o n v e r s a t i o n s began. Although  teachers v o l u n t e e r e d to do these i n t e r v i e w s ,  some were apprehensive  about answering q u e s t i o n s .  s a i d she c o u l d n ' t do the i n t e r v i e w y e t , as she had on drama i n education f i r s t " .  I assured her  Almost a l l of the teachers t o l d me f a c e t of their  program.  concerns,  and  teacher  "to read  up  i t wasn't a t e s t !  with great p r i d e some  They t a l k e d about the e x c i t i n g t h i n g s  they were doing with t h e i r c l a s s e s and programs had been.  One  how  successful their  They a l s o t a l k e d about doubts and  the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d who  had made tremendous  progress, or the k i d s t h a t gave them t r o u b l e . I t was  i n t e r e s t i n g to note the s u b t l e changes i n the  interviewees from the beginning of the c o n v e r s a t i o n , where answers were guarded and circumspect, and shared  enthusiasm, almost  to an ambience of t r u s t  l i k e the c o n v e r s a t i o n any  teachers might have about some phenomena of t e a c h i n g . was,  however, one unnatural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n these  c o n v e r s a t i o n s " and interviewer.  t h a t was  the r e s t r i c t i o n s  I c o u l d not share my dramatic  two There  "teacher  I f e l t as the experiences  nor  c o u l d I g i v e my views or o p i n i o n s on dramatic p l a y i n g f o r fear of  skewing the responses.  My c h i e f purpose was  to d i s c o v e r  the s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m and type of drama he/she used but I c o n t i n u a l l y f e l t my  r o l e as an  i n t e r v i e w e r s h i f t i n g to t h a t of an a p p r a i s e r , which was i n t e n t i o n at a l l . work f a c i l i t a t e d  The  the  not  my  i n t e r v i e w e e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r  a response.  I d i d not f e e l I c o u l d l i s t e n to  136  t e a c h e r s ' p o r t r a y a l s of t h e i r successes with drama without comments l i k e  "That's sounds g r e a t " or "That's so good f o r  the s t u d e n t s " and although these remarks e n t i c e d more e n t h u s i a s t i c accounts of t e a c h e r s ' uses and experiences with drama i n the classroom, I f e l t almost f r a u d u l e n t , because i t wasn't my p l a c e t o g i v e any assessment, o n l y to c o l l e c t d a t a . As each  i n t e r v i e w took on the same c h a r a c t e r , I  was  g r a d u a l l y becoming aware of t e a c h e r s ' needs t o share programs with a seemingly non-threatening, unbiased knowledgeable l i s t e n e r , one who and s u c c e s s e s .  but  could appreciate t h e i r  With t h i s apparent  and have i t approved  their  efforts  need to j u s t i f y one's work  I began to wonder what were the  u n d e r l y i n g causes that c o u l d c r e a t e such d i s c o u r s e from busy t e a c h e r s at such a f r e n e t i c time of the year, other than the b a s i c human a t t r i b u t e  of l o v i n g to t a l k about  one's work and a  d e s i r e to have one's e f f o r t and success acknowledged. Perhaps there are two  reasons f o r t h i s and perhaps  they  are the r e s u l t of the circumstances of t e a c h i n g today: autonomy and  Isolation.  When the " o l d way"  ended, the o l d  way  meaning the days when t e a c h e r s were expected to f o l l o w , to the l e t t e r , e v e r y t h i n g the M i n i s t r y of Education d i c t a t e d now  a n t i q u a t e d b i b l e of every classroom t e a c h e r , the Course  Study, autonomy and Now own  i n that of  i s o l a t i o n began.  t e a c h e r s have been given the freedom to develop  programs, and as t h i s study i n d i c a t e s ,  their  they implement that  which s u i t s t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t y l e , t h a t which agrees with t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y of education, and that which i s deemed important to  137  them as p r o f e s s i o n a l s . the Course of Study. c r e a t o r s and  P r i o r to t h i s , teachers were u n i t e d by They were t o l d what t o t e a c h .  Now  as  i n n o v a t o r s , t e a c h e r s have more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  and along with t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , with the d e s i g n i n g of one's own But who  programs comes the need t o r e a l i z e one's s u c c e s s .  t e l l s the designer how  those programs are?  The  s u c c e s s f u l , how  lawyer  equates  work with the s i z e of h i s p r a c t i c e . validation.  worthwhile  the success of h i s  Teachers don't  have t h a t  They d e s i g n l i k e a p r o f e s s i o n a l , and are assessed  l i k e an employee (the p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t ) .  The c l i e n t e l e ,  the  o n l y ones a b l e to comment on these programs, are c h i l d r e n , h a r d l y s a t i s f y i n g to the teachers i n terms of a s s e s s i n g one's work on p r o f e s s i o n a l terms. the teacher's own  Of course, the reader might argue  p r o f e s s i o n a l conscience should be a b l e to  judge the success of the program.  But  i s t h a t enough?  Doesn't everybody have a need to show h i s / h e r work? L i s t e n i n g to these t e a c h e r s , I was c r e a t i v e t e a c h i n g i s , and how art.  Yet, what a r t doesn't  reminded once more  humanitarian  warrant  it is.  a response?  how  I t i s an  Teaching i s  one of the few jobs I can t h i n k of where the a r t i s t / w o r k e r has nowhere to d i s p l a y h i s / h e r c r e a t i o n , except on the w a l l s o u t s i d e the classroom.  Even i n the simple task of c l e a n i n g  one's c a r , one hopes someone w i l l n o t i c e . completes  When anyone  a task with e f f o r t and p r i d e , doesn't  recognition?  Doesn't one want to show someone?  most unnatural t o keep the s p o t l e s s gleaming i n a garage under a  shroud.  one want I t would be  automobile  locked  138  Teachers  are quick t o be c r i t i c i z e d ,  reprimanded f o r  f o r g e t t i n g the hot dog count or some other o f f i c e form t o be processed but seldom t o l d whether t h e i r work i s good, or mediocre, Teachers  and sometimes not even t o l d work i n i s o l a t i o n .  Does a s u p e r i o r r e a l l y know what  they (the t e a c h e r s ) are doing? f e e l no one r e a l l y c a r e s . classrooms  i f i t ' s inferior.  Added t o t h a t , teachers o f t e n  I n s p e c t o r s no longer  visit  and p r i n c i p a l s o n l y "check" t e a c h e r s once every  f i v e y e a r s , not t h a t any teacher would want the r e t u r n of i n s p e c t i o n s or numerous v i s i t s  from the p r i n c i p a l .  I t seems  r a t h e r unnatural and c e r t a i n l y not very m o t i v a t i n g nor rewarding  f o r any human e f f o r t as c r e a t i v e ,  i n n o v a t i v e , and  demanding as t e a c h i n g to go on day a f t e r day unnoticed. I worked f o r years as a music teacher doing musicals so once a year my work was on d i s p l a y .  I was provided an  o p p o r t u n i t y t o put my work before the p u b l i c and my peers. The acknowledgement and a p p r e c i a t i o n I r e c e i v e d made me want to work harder and do even b e t t e r next time. can be c o n s t r u c t i v e .  But nothing?  Even c r i t i c i s m  I b e l i e v e p r a i s e i s an  i n c e n t i v e t o work, and work made p u b l i c i s an i n c e n t i v e t o a response.  We, as t e a c h e r s , know t h a t works with c h i l d r e n , and  psychology c l a i m s i t works f o r most humans—except t e a c h e r s . B a s i c a l l y then, these o r a l F i r s t of a l l ,  i n t e r v i e w s were a r e v e l a t i o n .  as a t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r I was g i v e n the chance  to hear other teachers* thoughts, uses, and p e r c e p t i o n s of drama.  In my twenty-seven years of t e a c h i n g , I've never had  such access to what other teachers were doing and I've o f t e n  139  wished teachers c o u l d be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to see other teachers a t work, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n other s c h o o l s where the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r can be e l i m i n a t e d .  S t a f f dynamics could make  i n - s c h o o l o b s e r v a t i o n s hazardous! On t h i s  i s s u e then, I had the f e e l i n g t h a t these  t e a c h e r s , a l l t e a c h e r s , work i n tremendous i s o l a t i o n , where not even the p r i n c i p a l knows the wonderful  t h i n g s they are  doing f o r c h i l d r e n , and c e r t a i n l y not t h e i r employer, the s c h o o l board.  I t concerned  me, and a c t u a l l y saddened me t h a t  these t e a c h e r s , i n the l a s t month of the s c h o o l year, want to t a l k so much about what they were d o i n g .  should  I t made me  r e a l i z e what an untapped resource e x i s t s with teachers i f they got i n v o l v e d with c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , and were g i v e n the time t o communicate p r o f e s s i o n a l l y .  What a tremendous source  of energy, v i t a l i t y , and ideas i s out t h e r e i f teachers were encouraged to share and support one another.  Teachers are  b e t t e r t r a i n e d than ever and are p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  They  d e s p e r a t e l y need some p r o f e s s i o n a l feed-back. Another f a c t of i n t e r e s t e l i c i t e d average age of teachers today.  from t h i s study was the  There i s d e f i n i t e l y a  preponderance of middle-aged t e a c h e r s . s i x percent of the teachers surveyed  Seventy-seven p o i n t  were age t h i r t y - f i v e  years and over, 55.2 percent of the teachers surveyed  were age  f o r t y and over, and 30 percent of the teachers surveyed age  f o r t y - f i v e and over.  surveyed  As w e l l , almost  were  h a l f of the teachers  had more than s i x t e e n years* t e a c h i n g experience.  t h i n k t h a t these two f a c t o r s , age and experience, have a  I  140  s t r o n g e f f e c t on the type of t e a c h i n g p r e v a l e n t . o l d e r teachers have s u r v i v e d i n classrooms they are doing works w e l l f o r them.  Experienced  because whatever  Innovative new approaches  t o t e a c h i n g may not f i n d f e r t i l e ground among these s u c c e s s f u l veterans  who tend to regard the " l a t e s t  c y c l e d r e l i c s from the p a s t .  I f e e l I can say t h a t with some  a u t h o r i t y as I am i n that group.  The implementation  i n the c u r r i c u l u m i s new and i n n o v a t i v e . experienced  i n t e a c h i n g " as r e -  s u c c e s s f u l veterans  of drama  Perhaps some  are u n l i k e l y t o be i n t e r e s t e d  i n change, and may not be i n c l i n e d t o shed o l d e d u c a t i o n a l doctrines. f u t u r e study  Of course, t h i s  i s o n l y a s u p p o s i t i o n , and a  i n e d u c a t i o n a l drama may want t o examine the  r a t i o of veterans a teaching t o o l .  t o "new" teachers using dramatic Apart  p l a y i n g as  from the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the age  of the m a j o r i t y of teachers and the Implementation of drama, I think i t i s unhealthy or business  any time the progress  i s monopolized by one age group.  of any p r o f e s s i o n I t would be j u s t  as q u e s t i o n a b l e t o have the m a j o r i t y of teachers  inexperienced  and under t h i r t y i n age. I t h i n k these added f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study  indicate a  need f o r some f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t o the q u a l i t y of " l i f e as a teacher".  141 B I B L I O G R A P H Y  A l l e n , J . (1979). Drama i n s c h o o l s ; I t s t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , London: Heinemann Best,David. (1985). F e e l i n g and reason i n the a r t s . London: George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . B o l t o n , Gavin. (1979). Towards a t h e o r y of drama i n e d u c a t i o n . London: Longman Group L i m i t e d . B o l t o n , Gavin. (1980). Theatre Form i n Drama Teaching. In Ken Robinson (Ed.), E x p l o r i n g t h e a t r e & education (pp.71-87). London: Heinemann. B o l t o n , Gavin. (1982). P h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on drama and the c u r r i c u l u m . In Jon Nixon (Ed.), Drama and the whole c u r r i c u l u m (pp.27-42). London: Hutchinson & Co. (Publishers) L t d . B o l t o n , Gavin. (1983). 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( 1 9 8 4 W i n t e r ) . The P a i d e i a p r o p o s a l : Drama/theatre i n e d u c a t i o n . Tennessee - E d u c a t i o n . 13/ 30-42. Rike, E l i z a b e t h . (1980 Nov.4). Workshop f o r Tennessee s u p e r v i s o r ' s study c o u n c i l . Task Force r e p o r t . Murtreesboro. R o s e n b l a t t , Bernard S. (1984). A t h e o r y f o r c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e a t r e education at the elementary grades. C h i l d r e n ' s Theatre Review. 33.(2), 11-15 Ross, Malcolm.(Ed.).(1982). The development of a e s t h e t i c experience. Oxford: Pergamon Robinson, Ken. (1975). F i n d a space. Unpublished U n i v e r s i t y of London Examination Department.  manuscript.,  Robinson, Ken. (Ed.). (1980). E x p l o r i n g t h e a t r e & e d u c a t i o n . London: Heinemann. Robinson, Ken. (1983). The Status of drama i n s c h o o l s . In C h r i s t o p h e r Day & John Norman ( E d s . ) , Issues i n e d u c a t i o n a l drama (pp.7-23). London: The Falmer P r e s s . Rugg, H a r o l d . ( E d . ) . (1927 b ) . The foundations of c u r r i c u l u m making: Twenty-sixth yearbook of the n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y f o r the study of e d u c a t i o n . (Part 2.) Bloomington,I11: Rumbold, A. (1987). Speech by the m i n i s t e r of s t a t e a t the annual conference of the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n f o r education i n the a r t s . 28.10.87. Department of Education and Science, para. 42.  145  S a l j o , Roger. (1979). L e a r n i n g In the l e a r n e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . Sweden: The I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y of Goteborg. P u b l i c s c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Co. S a l j o , R. (1975). Q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g as a f u n c t i o n of the l e a r n e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the t a s k . Goteborg: Acta U n i v e r s i t a t i s Gothoburgensis. Silberman,C.E. (1970). The c r i s i s In the classroom: The Remaking of American E d u c a t i o n . New York: Random House. Slade, P e t e r . (1954). C h i l d drama. London: U n i v e r s i t y of London P r e s s . Snyder, B.R.  (1971). The hidden c u r r i c u l u m . New  York:  S t a n i s l a v s k y , C o n s t a n t i n . (1936). An a c t o r prepares. York: Theatre A r t s Books.  Kopf. New  Tanner,D. (1982)."Curriculum h i s t o r y " . In HE. M i t z e l (Ed.), E n c y c l o p e d i a of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 5th E d i t i o n , New York: Free P r e s s , pp. 412-20. T a r l i n g t o n , C a r o l e and V e r r i o u r , P a t r i c k . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  (1983). O f f s t a g e .  Texas E d u c a t i o n Agency. (1986). Theatre a r t s i n the elementary s c h o o l : An i n t r o d u c t o r y overview. Austin: D i v i s i o n of c u r r i c u l u m Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 269818) Watkins, B r i a n . (1983). Drama Games. In C h r i s t o p h e r Day & John L. Norman (Eds.), Issues i n e d u c a t i o n a l drama, (pp.3548). London: The Falmer P r e s s . Way,  B r i a n . (1967). Development through drama. London: Longman.  W i l l i a m s , David. (1988). Peter Brook. A t h e a t r i c a l London: Methuen London L t d .  casebook.  Williams,Raymond & W i l l i a m s , J o y . (Eds.) (1973). Lawrence on e d u c a t i o n . Middlesex: Penguin E d u c a t i o n . Wright, N i c h o l a s . (1980). From the u n i v e r s a l t o the p a r t i c u l a r . In Ken Robinson (Ed.), E x p l o r i n g t h e a t r e & e d u c a t i o n . (pp.88-104). London: Heinemann.  146 APPENDIX A L e t t e r t o p r i n c i p a l r e q u e s t i n g permission q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey.  t o conduct  Van Home Elementary School, 5855 O n t a r i o S t r e e t , Vancouver, B.C., May 1, 1991. Dear P r i n c i p a l : I am a grade seven classroom teacher with twenty-seven years experience with the Vancouver School Board. I am p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g a t Van Home Elementary School and am working on a t h e s i s f o r my M.A. degree. I am r e q u e s t i n g your permission and approval t o conduct a survey a t your s c h o o l using a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o o b t a i n r e s e a r c h data f o r my t h e s i s . As you a r e aware drama i s mandated by the M i n i s t r y of Education as o u t l i n e d i n the F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide (1985) and as one of the F i n e A r t s s t r a n d s i n the Year 2000: A C u r r i c u l u m and Assessment Framework f o r the Future. The purpose of my study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e teachers* p e r c e p t i o n s of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m , and the e f f i c a c y and value of using drama as a t e a c h i n g t o o l i n other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s . I a l s o hope t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t e a c h e r s ' assessment of the v a r i o u s forms of drama and of each dramatic form's v a l i d i t y i n the c u r r i c u l u m e.g. the study of t h e a t r e as an a r t form ( c u l t u r e ) , the study of t h e a t r e as performance (technique, s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n ) , i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama ( f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and t o e x t r a c t meaning from c o n t e x t ) . With your permission, I would l i k e t o d e l i v e r t o your s c h o o l , f i v e envelopes each c o n t a i n i n g a copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o be d i s t r i b u t e d among one teacher per grades t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x , and seven. I would request t h a t teachers o n l y be t o l d t h a t t h i s i s an e d u c a t i o n a l survey, not a survey about drama, and t h a t the c h o i c e of teacher from each grade be based on random s e l e c t i o n ( a l p h a b e t i c a l order whichever teacher's surname precedes the o t h e r ) . An i n t e r e s t i n drama cannot be the c r i t e r i a f o r choosing the teacher e l s e the r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s t o r t e d . Upon completion of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , one week« I would ask t h a t each teacher r e t u r n the envelope c o n t a i n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o you who would then hold them f o r me t o c o l l e c t w i t h i n the week. I r e a l i z e there a r e many demands made on your time so any a s s i s t a n c e you can g i v e me i n making i t p o s s i b l e t o conduct t h i s study w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Yours t r u l y , P a t r i c i a Ormiston  147  APPENDIX B L e t t e r to teacher with d e s c r i p t i o n of the study and purpose and i n t e n t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e Van Home Elementary 5855 O n t a r i o S t r e e t , Vancouver, B.C., May 1, 1991.  School,  Dear  Educator: As a c o l l e a g u e and elementary s c h o o l teacher of a c l a s s of students between grades three through grade seven, you have been i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r my M.A. t h e s i s . The aim of t h i s study i s to examine teachers* p e r c e p t i o n s of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Whether or not you teach drama i s not important, but what I would l i k e to know i s do you see drama as s e r v i n g a u s e f u l purpose i n the c u r r i c u l u m , e i t h e r as a l e a r n i n g t o o l , or i n the form of school p l a y s , or as an a r t form ( a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a r t s ) ? Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n by completing the attached q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be extremely v a l u a b l e i n conducting t h i s survey. Ten minutes or l e s s of your time i s a l l that i s r e q u i r e d . My purpose i n conducting the survey i s t o determine i f teachers view drama as a methodology f o r making concepts c l e a r e r i n academic s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , or whether they view drama as an a c t i v i t y f o r the music/drama teacher or an e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y f o r those c h i l d r e n i n t e r e s t e d i n drama. Some of the questions r e q u i r e some general i n f o r m a t i o n about your t e a c h i n g background and the s c h o o l i n which you work. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l not be used t o i d e n t i f y any p a r t i c u l a r educator or s c h o o l . I would be pleased i f on completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e you would v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a personal i n t e r v i e w to explore the s u b j e c t i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l ; again anonymity w i l l be maintained. Please complete and enclose the p o r t i o n c o n t a i n i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r v o l u n t e e r i n g f o r a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n the s e a l e d envelope c o n t a i n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . If the v o l u n t e e r request form i s completed i t w i l l be assumed that consent has been given to conduct an i n t e r v i e w . I r e a l i z e as a classroom teacher there are many demands on your time but I would g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e your a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s matter. Please r e t u r n your s e a l e d envelope c o n t a i n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to your p r i n c i p a l one week a f t e r r e c e i v i n g i t so I can c o l l e c t a l l the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s when I r e t u r n t o your s c h o o l . Thank you f o r your time and e f f o r t i n a s s i s t i n g me with t h i s p r o j e c t . Yours t r u l y , P a t r i c i a Ormiston  148  APPENDIX Teacher  C  Questionnaire  I f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s completed, i t w i l l be assumed t h a t consent has been given to use the i n f o r m a t i o n provided for r e s e a r c h purposes. Please check a f t e r the a p p r o p r i a t e answer. 1. Which (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f( 2. Age  4.(a)  grade(s) do you teach? grade t h r e e grade four grade f i v e grade s i x grade seven other  range: 20 25 30 35 40 45 50  &  (Check a l l t h a t a p p l y ) :  24 _ 29 34 39 44 49 over  Please check the s u b j e c t s you Math Language A r t s S o c i a l Studies Science  teach  Art P.E. Music Others  (b) Do you teach e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r drama i n your No Yes I f yes, do you s u p e r v i s e i. ii.  Drama c l u b Rehearsals f o r s c h o o l  the: concerts  school?  149 If you teach e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r drama i n another not l i s t e d above, please d e s c r i b e the form.  5. Please school:  context  i n d i c a t e the number of p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n your (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  0-99 100 - 199 200 - 299 300 - 399 400 - 499 Over 500  6. "Drama i n e d u c a t i o n " , " r o l e drama","teacher i n r o l e " "dramatic p l a y i n g " and " i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama" are terms used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y t o d e s c r i b e drama as an e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l . Drama i n t h i s sense i s used t o c r e a t e a deeper meaning f o r students d e a l i n g with concepts i n s u b j e c t s such as s o c i a l s t u d i e s or l i t e r a t u r e . The teacher takes a r o l e i n s i d e the drama, with the students, to g i v e i t s t r u c t u r e and d i r e c t i o n , and through h i s / h e r c h a r a c t e r provides i n f o r m a t i o n , t e n s i o n , and problems to be s o l v e d u s i n g drama. How o f t e n i n the l a s t three years have you used t h i s s t r a t e g y i n your classroom? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  S e v e r a l times per week Once a week S e v e r a l times a month Once a month Once a term Once a year Never  7. Another form of drama i s s c r i p t e d drama (using a w r i t t e n s c r i p t ) where the goal i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e a t r e s k i l l s such as v o i c e , body p r o j e c t i o n , t i m i n g , a r t i c u l a t i o n , use of g e s t u r e , and the understanding of drama as entertainment and an a r t form r e f l e c t i n g s o c i e t a l c u l t u r e s . How o f t e n i n the l a s t three years have you used t h i s type of l e s s o n i n your classroom? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  S e v e r a l times per week Once a week S e v e r a l times a month Once a month Once a term Once a year Never  150 8. Have you completed "drama i n e d u c a t i o n " courses a t a university/college? No Yes How many ? 9. Have you completed Theatre A r t s courses a t a university/college? No Yes How many ? 10. Have you attended p r o f e s s i o n a l development "drama i n e d u c a t i o n " courses i n the l a s t t h r e e years? No Yes If yes, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e the number of work shops. 11.(a) Have you ever been i n v o l v e d i n amateur or p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e ( o u t s i d e the realm of the s c h o o l and e d u c a t i o n ? ) . No Yes I f y e s , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i n which of the f o l l o w i n g capacities. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 12.  Actor/Actress Director Producer Musical Director Choreographer Other  Have you ever had t r a i n i n g i n "performance No Yes If y e s , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e the t r a i n i n g . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  skills?"  a c t i n g courses: t h e a t r e , mime, e t c . elocution singing dancing instrumental p u b l i c speaking  13.(a) I f you have used r o l e drama or improvised drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l f o r other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s i n the classroom, please i n d i c a t e i n which s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e or i n what context 13.(b) How would you r a t e your success? the numbers below). Poor 1  2  (Please c i r c l e one of  Moderate 3  4  Great 5  6  7  8  13. (c) Please check those f a c t o r s you f e e l c o n t r i b u t e d t o your success or f a i l u r e with dramatic p l a y i n g ( i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama) i n your classroom.  151 Success: 1. Pun f o r the s t u d e n t s ; they loved i t 2. Teacher t r a i n e d i n the methodology 3. A l l students had a p a r t 4. Co-operative l e a r n i n g 5. Each student can express h i s / h e r p o i n t of view 6. C h i l d r e n a r e n a t u r a l a c t o r s / a c t r e s s e s 7. L e a r n i n g experience f o r s t u d e n t s ; f e l t the concept f i r s t person  i n the  Failure: 8. Need guide books and teacher t r a i n i n g t o a i d success 9. C h i l d r e n can a c t s i l l y ; d i s c i p l i n e f a c t o r 10. Too time consuming f o r an a l r e a d y overloaded t i m e t a b l e 11. Lack of teacher c o n f i d e n c e : don't know how t o " a c t " 12. Fear of p a r e n t / p u b l i c d i s a p p r o v a l : another " f r i l l " 13. C u l t u r a l l y unacceptable 14. Not c l e a r on what i t i s or what a r e the goals If your reason f o r the success or f a i l u r e of classroom dramatic p l a y i n g i s not l i s t e d above, p l e a s e comment below.  14. Do you t h i n k you would f e e l apprehensive t a k i n g a r o l e i n the c a p a c i t y of teacher i n r o l e i n an i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama with your students i n the classroom? No Yes If you answered yes, please e x p l a i n .  15. Have you used the book "Off Stage" co-authored by Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r and C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n , 1983 as a source of p r a c t i c a l methodology f o r drama i n education? No Yes Do you use any other sources? Please i n d i c a t e other s o u r c e s . 16. In your t e a c h i n g c a r e e r , have you i n v o l v e d your students i n t h e a t r i c a l performances? ( r e h e a r s i n g a s c r i p t f o r the purpose of p r e s e n t i n g i n f r o n t of an audience?) No Yes  153  APPENDIX D Oral The l i n e of q u e s t i o n i n g s t r u c t u r e d beginning with:  Interview: i n the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be l o o s e l y  "Do you f e e l drama should be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n e a r t s s t r a n d i n the c u r r i c u l u m ? " As i n normal r e s e a r c h , I need o n l y one q u e s t i o n t o e l i c i t answers. The d i r e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w a f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n , i s i n the hands of the s u b j e c t being i n t e r v i e w e d : my focus i s an attempt t o e l i c i t conceptions of drama held by the s u b j e c t i . e . i s drama a u s e f u l part of the educating process? The l i n e of q u e s t i o n i n g w i l l be more i n t u i t i v e than agenda, where I w i l l be doing immediate "on the spot" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o formulate my next q u e s t i o n . Some questions can r e s u l t i n nothing, other questions can " t r i g g e r o f f " i n t e r e s t i n g data. My i n t e n t i o n i s t o not s t e e r the i n t e r v i e w , but r a t h e r t o j u s t "go with i t . " My o b j e c t i v e i s t o avoid contamination of data r e c e i v e d from s u b j e c t s by u n w i t t i n g l y r e v e a l i n g my own b i a s through my l i n e of q u e s t i o n i n g , but y e t to use q u e s t i o n i n g t o prompt the s u b j e c t t o s t a y on focus. I am l o o k i n g f o r an outcome space d e p i c t i n g a v a r i a t i o n i n concepts of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phenomena, as there i s always c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a t i o n i n human t h i n k i n g . My study then w i l l i n v o l v e a survey from data c o l l e c t e d through the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and phenomenographical r e s e a r c h from the data c o l l e c t e d through o r a l i n t e r v i e w s . When I have completed the s o r t i n g of c o l l e c t e d data i n t o v a r i a t i o n s of concepts, I w i l l begin my a n a l y s i s t o i n t e r p r e t the e f f e c t these conceptions have on t h e implementation of drama i n Vancouver elementary s c h o o l s . I t i s my i n t e n t t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s w i l l permit a deeper i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o teachers* p e r c e p t i o n s of drama i n education and complement the f i n d i n g s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  Oral  Questionnaire:  The f o l l o w i n g questions are o n l y t o be used as a guide i n that they represent the d i r e c t i o n I hope t o pursue, and the i n f o r m a t i o n I hope t o uncover. As I s a i d i n my d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r a l i n t e r v i e w , the content and d i r e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be i n t h e hands of the s u b j e c t being i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s i s P a t r i c i a Or mist-on c a l l i n g concerning my t h e s i s study on drama i n e d u c a t i o n . I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e your  154 w i l l i n g n e s s t o be interviewed on t h i s t o p i c . W i l l you d e s c r i b e your present t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n ? (grade, s u b j e c t s , c l a s s s i z e , demographics, student a b i l i t i e s and any other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s you f e e l a r e important). How would you d e s c r i b e the s c h o o l i n which you work? (Dynamics of s t a f f : Are i n n o v a t i v e ideas supported by parents, p r i n c i p a l , and co-workers?) Is there a p p r o p r i a t e space t o do drama? Do you f e e l drama should be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n e a r t s s t r a n d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , and i f so, why? Can you d e s c r i b e the d i s t i n c t i o n between s c r i p t e d drama ( w r i t t e n p l a y s ) and dramatic p l a y i n g and can you say which one you f e e l i s more u s e f u l and why? If you p r e f e r t o use one form of drama over the other ( s c r i p t e d drama or dramatic p l a y i n g ) , could you e x p l a i n why?  QUESTIONS ON DRAMATIC PLAYING: Have you ever used r o l e drama or i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l f o r other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s i n the classroom? If the answer t o the above q u e s t i o n was yes, please d e s c r i b e the drama, the i s s u e s students were i n v e s t i g a t i n g , and i n what context? Would you p l e a s e r a t e how s u c c e s s f u l you f e e l the use of drama was i n your classroom? If the answer t o whether you have used drama as a t e a c h i n g t o o l was no, please g i v e reasons why you have never used t h i s type of pedagogy i n the classroom. Do you ever f e e l apprehensive t a k i n g a r o l e i n the c a p a c i t y of teacher i n r o l e i n an i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama with your students i n the classroom?  155  As you a r e aware, drama i s a mandated s t r a n d o f t h e f i n e a r t s p r o g r a m , a l o n g w i t h v i s u a l a r t s , and m u s i c . Do y o u t h i n k i t s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? I f s o , why? Do y o u s e e a n y f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o f a i l u r e drama? I f not with you, with any t e a c h e r ?  Do y o u t h i n k  theatre  skills  should  be  i n t h i s mode o f  taught?  Do you t h i n k t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n drama s h o u l d be m a n d a t o r y , c o n s i d e r i n g i t i s mandated i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? Apart from u s i n g d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g as a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y w i t h i n a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e , do y o u have a n y o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s f o r e n g a g i n g i n t h i s f o r m o f drama?  QUESTIONS ON SCRIPTED DRAMA:  I f you p r e f e r u s i n g s c r i p t e d drama w i t h y o u r s t u d e n t s t h a n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g , c a n y o u t e l l me why? I f you have n e v e r t r i e d s c r i p t e d drama c o u l d y o u g i v e t h e r e a s o n s why? What would be t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h i s Would a t e a c h e r be more i n c l i n e d dramatic playing? Do y o u -  i n your  rather  classroom,  f o r m o f drama?  t o use t h i s  form  over  s e e s c r i p t e d drama a s : a way o f l e a r n i n g t h e a t r e s k i l l s ? an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n ? a way o f d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l s k i l l s l i k e a r t i c u l a t i o n , poise, self-confidence, presentation of i d e a s e t c . ?  Do y o u s e e s c r i p t e d drama as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c h i l d ? - i n what s e n s e ? Does drama b e l o n g  i n the curriculum  at a l l ?  156  And f i n a l l y do you see a mismatch between the M i n i s t r y ' s mandate of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m and the a v a i l a b l e teacher education i n t h i s realm? Thank-you, you have been a great help a l l o w i n g me t h i s interview. I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e your input on t h i s i s s u e .  Through the combined e f f o r t s of both a survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e and an o r a l i n t e r v i e w I hope t o d i s c o v e r whether t e a c h e r s : 1. Understand the term "dramatic concepts.  p l a y i n g " and i t s u n d e r l y i n g  2. Have used t h i s type of drama and experienced difficulty.  some  3. See t h e i r lack of t h e a t r e s k i l l s as w e l l as students of t h e a t r e s k i l l s as an o b s t a c l e t o success.  lack  4. See s c r i p t e d drama as an a r t form t o enhance a p p r e c i a t i o n and as a v e h i c l e f o r s k i l l t e a c h i n g i n drama, as belonging i n the c u r r i c u l u m a t a l l .  5. See a mismatch between the M i n i s t r y ' s mandate i n drama and the lack of a v a i l a b l e teacher education i n t h i s realm.  157 APPENDIX  E  The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample of one of the telephone i n t e r v i e w s  Interview R 0 R 0 R 0  R 0 R  0  R O R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0  twentv-five  E x p e r i e n c e 18 y r s .  June  19/91  C o u l d you d e s c r i b e y o u r p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g position...grade, subjects, class s i z e , student abilities.. I've g o t a g r a d e f o u r / f i v e s p l i t c l a s s , and c l a s s s i z e i s twenty-five. S t u d e n t a b i l i t i e s r a n g e f r o m g r a d e two t o grade seven. And i t ' s a f o u r / f i v e s p l i t ? Yes. Are they easy t o handle?...E.S.L. s t u d e n t s ? Yes, I h a v e . . . t h e s c h o o l i s termed a . . . n e i g h b o r h o o d s c h o o l w h i c h means we have t o a c c e p t a l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d who a r e h a n d i c a p p e d . We d o n ' t have any p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s b u t we have s e v e r e l y l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students i n the s c h o o l . . . I have t h r e e i n my c l a s s . T h a t m i g h t make d o i n g drama d i f f i c u l t . Do you f e e l drama s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n e a r t s s t r a n d o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . . . a n d i f s o , why? Oh, d e f i n i t e l y , I t h i n k i t s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . . . i n the language a r t s . . . a n d i n the s o c i a l s t u d i e s . Okay, i t ' s mandated i n t h e f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m , s o you c a n l o o k a t i t e i t h e r as s c r i p t e d d r a m a . . . t h e a t r e a r t s i n a s p e c i a l drama p r o g r a m o r i n t e g r a t e d i n t h e classroom. A r e you s a y i n g . . . w h i c h way do you p r e f e r it? B o t h . . . I l i k e t o have b o t h . We're f o r t u n a t e enough i n t h i s s c h o o l t o have a drama t e a c h e r who s p e c i a l i z e s i n drama and she has drama c l u b s . . . a s w e l l as I i n t e g r a t e i t r e g u l a r l y i n my c l a s s r o o m . So you w o u l d n ' t s a y you p r e f e r one f o r m o v e r t h e o t h e r ? No, b e c a u s e t h e y s e r v e two d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . E x a c t l y . . . s o when y o u ' r e u s i n g d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g , y o u ' r e u s i n g i t as a t e a c h i n g t o o l t o enhance l e a r n i n g i n a certain subject d i s c i p l i n e . That's r i g h t . . . a s a t e a c h i n g t o o l . So t h e r e ' s d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f o b j e c t i v e s h e r e , i s n ' t there? That's r i g h t . Now do you s e e any v a l u e i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e s c r i p t drama o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e mode? Oh, y e s . And c o u l d you t e l l me what t h e y would be? W e l l , t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d r a m a t i c s k i l l s f o r one, and the l e a r n i n g of d r a m a t i c s k i l l s . Also the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f p l a y s and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p l a y s .  158 R O R O R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R O R O  R  0  And the o b j e c t i v e s i n the dramatic p l a y i n g ? O b j e c t i v e s i n the dramatic p l a y i n g ? Right. To l e a r n v o i c e , p r o j e c t i o n , empathizing with c h a r a c t e r s . . . a n d the scenes and the whole b i t . What context would you be more l i k e l y t o use i t i n ? . . . i n the dramatic p l a y i n g . . . i n the s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e ? In the s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e ? Which one?...would you be more l i k e l y to use i t in? I don't understand. W e l l , would you be u s i n g i t i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , or would you be u s i n g i t i n l i t e r a t u r e ? S o c i a l s t u d i e s and l i t e r a t u r e . . . a b o u t h a l f and h a l f . I see...so what would be the o b j e c t i v e i n the s o c i a l s t u d i e s then? Re-create h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . I see...so they have a b e t t e r understanding? That's r i g h t . Do you t h i n k t h a t t e a c h e r s c o u l d f e e l apprehensive or nervous about being i n r o l e . . . a s a teacher? Being i n r o l e ? Taking a r o l e i n a dramatic p l a y i n g s i t u a t i o n with t h e i r class? Teachers or students? The t e a c h e r s . I t ' s not normal, I don't t h i n k , . . . i t ' s as apprehensive as drawing or p a i n t i n g or something l i k e t h a t . I t ' s not as apprehensive? I t ' s as apprehensive. Do you t h i n k the t e a c h e r s need some s k i l l s or t r a i n i n g i n that l i n e ? Oh, d e f i n i t e l y . . . t h e y should have experience...some experience... I t ' s kind of l i k e p u t t i n g a music teacher i n with no experience then? That's r i g h t , or the a r t t e a c h e r . . . v i s u a l a r t s . . . d r a w i n g or p a i n t i n g . W e l l , on t h a t premise then, t o your knowledge do you think t h e r e ' s very much drama being done by classroom teachers? No. And what would you say i s the reason why then? Oh, the u s u a l . . . I t h i n k apprehension...not being able t o model c e r t a i n aspects of i t . Probably poor understanding of ... the m a t e r i a l . . . w e l l , l i t e r a t u r e , drama per se. Now the average teacher who r e a l i z e s i t ' s mandated and doesn't have a background i n t h e a t r e , what would they see as the main purpose of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m ? . . . I mean, they don't have a background... j u s t l o o k i n g at it? How would they look a t i t ?  159 R 0  R  0 R 0 R 0  R O R  0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0  No, what would t h e a v e r a g e t e a c h e r s e e a s t h e main p u r p o s e f o r h a v i n g drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . . . i f t h e y d i d n ' t have a t h e a t r e b a c k g r o u n d ? Oh, I t h i n k f o r l a n g u a g e a r t s . . . f o r r e a d i n g . . . r e a d i n g p l a y s , so t h e r e ' s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n to take r o l e s . . . s o r t o f a c l a s s r o o m c o n t r o l t h i n g i n some i n s t a n c e s . . . and drama i n t e r m s o f p u p p e t t h e a t r e and that s o r t of t h i n g . Okay...and do y o u s e e a n y v a l u e i n s c r i p t e d drama o r concerts. L i k e some s c h o o l s . . . y o u r s c h o o l has a drama t e a c h e r b u t some s c h o o l s . . . p e r h a p s t h e o n l y d r a m a t i c experience the c h i l d r e n get i s the annual c o n c e r t . . . b u t how do y o u v i e w t h a t k i n d o f drama? How do I f e e l ? Yes...about performance drama?...concerts, Christmas concerts? W e l l , i t ' s amateur.. Is i t a v a l i d experience f o r the c h i l d r e n ? I t ' s v a l i d but i t ' s l i m i t e d . . . i t ' s q u i t e l i m i t e d . I f t h e r e a r e no drama t e a c h e r s a b o u t , somebody who's i n v o l v e d i n d r a m a . . . i f t h e r e ' s somebody who's i n v o l v e d i n drama, u n d e r s t a n d s drama, i t t a k e s quantum l e a p s . . . a s does music or v i s u a l a r t s . And do y o u t h i n k t h e a t r e s k i l l s s h o u l d be t a u g h t ? Yes. You d o ? . . . a n d t h a t would e n h a n c e t h e d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c h i l d o r do y o u t h i n k i t d o e s n ' t b e l o n g i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r mode, i t o n l y b e l o n g s i n s c r i p t e d drama? Oh, no. I t b e l o n g s , w e l l . . . t h e s k i l l s g a i n e d b y s t u d e n t s ... i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , y o u mean?... i n t e g r a t e d i n the classroom? R i g h t . I f he's d o i n g d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i n a s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e x t , s h o u l d t h e c h i l d a l s o be taught t h e a t r e s k i l l s . Oh, y e s . . . y e s . . . j u s t l i k e y o u would t e a c h c o l o r , o r y o u would t e a c h s k e t c h i n g s k i l l s . . . i f y o u a p p l y t h o s e t o s k e t c h i n g i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s or whatever. O k a y . . . j u s t b e f o r e y o u go, how many y e a r s have y o u taught? I t h i n k about e i g h t e e n y e a r s . And y o u ' r e d o i n g q u i t e a b i t o f drama, a r e you? I i n t e g r a t e i t , I d o n ' t t e a c h i t a s a drama t e a c h e r would. No...not i n a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t . You're u s i n g i t i n subject d i s c i p l i n e s ? Y e s . . . i n l a n g u a g e a r t s and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . And y o u f i n d i t works w e l l f o r you? Oh, v e r y w e l l , v e r y w e l l . And t h e c h i l d r e n d o n ' t f o o l a r o u n d ? Oh, a t t h e s t a r t b e c a u s e t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n mind s e t t h a t goes w i t h p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d drama t e a c h i n g . . . a n d i f t h e c h i l d r e n have had t h a t e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e , t h e n i t ' s a  160  R 0 R 0  R 0 R 0 R  0 R 0  R 0 R 0 R O R  O R  0 R 0  l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t to s e t t h i n g s , but i f t h e y haven't, usually i t ' s easier. C h i l d r e n take v e r y q u i c k l y to i t . Do you t h i n k some t e a c h e r s would s t a y away f r o m i t because of t h a t f a c t o r ? Oh, I'm q u i t e s u r e . B e c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t have t h e c o n t r o l ? W e l l , t h e y would l o s e t h e c o n t r o l b e c a u s e t h e k i n d of medium t h a t r e q u i r e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and i f c h i l d r e n f e e l you have no u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t , t h e y ' l l j u s t s i m p l y n o t r e s p o n d . . . t h e way you want them t o . And have you t a k e n c o u r s e s i n i t ? Did I take the course i n which? In d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g or t h e a t r e . . . do you have a t h e a t r e background? No, none. None? No. So how d i d you become... a b l e t o do t h i s ? W e l l , as a t e a c h e r , I s t a r t e d w i t h r o l e p l a y i n g and d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e r e . . . b e c a u s e I saw t h a t c e r t a i n t h i n g s c a n be t a u g h t more e a s i l y i f you t a k e t h e f o c u s o f f t h e c h i l d , o f f y o u r s e l f and on t o a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r or a n o t h e r s c e n e . . . a n d t h e n I a p p r e c i a t e p l a y s m y s e l f and I m e n t i o n e d we have a t e a c h e r a t our s c h o o l . I p r o v i d e t h e v i s u a l s i d e o f i t . I'm t h e a r t t e a c h e r i n t h e s c h o o l and I've done m u s i c a l s and so on i n o t h e r s c h o o l s and I p r o v i d e t h e v i s u a l s i d e o f i t , so I am r e a l l y quite involved that way. Oh, I s e e , b e c a u s e I'm s u r e t h e r e ' s a l o t o f t e a c h e r s who wouldn't understand the s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e d i n dramatic p l a y i n g because i t ' s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e would be a l o t b e c a u s e i t ' s an u n d e r u s e d p a r t of our f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m . I t ' s underused? I b e l i e v e s o . . . . e v e n t h o u g h we have C a r o l T a r l i n g t o n i n our s c h o o l s y s t e m who has been p r o m o t i n g d r a m a t i c a r t s for a long t i m e . . . s t i l l underused. And t h a t ' s o n l y one p e r s o n . That's probably why. And I am r e a l l y s u r p r i s e d t h a t you do know a b o u t i t b e c a u s e t h e r e i s so much t o i t . . . i t ' s a s p e c i a l t e a c h i n g technique a c t u a l l y i f you're l o o k i n g at i t n o t as drama b u t as a t e a c h i n g t o o l . Oh, y e s . . . I ' m l e a r n i n g a l o t f r o m my p r e s e n t p e e r . . . s h e ' s j u s t been t h e r e f o r a y e a r . . . s h e ' s e x c e l l e n t . What do you t h i n k o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m i n i s t r y i s m a n d a t i n g drama and t h e r e ' s so many p e o p l e o u t t h e r e t h a t h a v e n ' t a c l u e what i t ' s a b o u t . W e l l , t h e m i n i s t r y ' s m a n d a t i n g a number o f t h i n g s w h i c h a l o t o f p e o p l e know n o t h i n g a b o u t . No, b u t t h e y wanted us t o t e a c h whole l a n g u a g e and t h e y p r e s e n t e d a l o t o f m a t e r i a l on i t . . . True, but t h e r e are l i m i t a t i o n s . . . n o w t o L e a r n i n g f o r L i v i n g and so on... t h e r e a r e f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s  161  R  0 R 0 R 0 R 0 R 0  w h i c h do n o t e n a b l e t h e m i n i s t r y t o implement them a s t h e y h a d , s a y , whole l a n g u a g e . d r a m a t i c a r t s i s one o f them u n f o r t u n a t e l y . . . t h e good s t u f f i s g o i n g t o be t h e v i c t i m . Do y o u t h i n k i t ' s p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r d o e s n ' t s e e a need f o r i t b u t t h e y d i d w i t h whole l a n g u a g e ? . . . or i s i t t h e o t h e r way a r o u n d , t h a t whole Language was hyped enough t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s saw a need for i t ? T h a t ' s a good q u e s t i o n ! . . . . g o o d q u e s t i o n ! B e c a u s e i s n ' t t h a t o f t e n t h e way...I mean y o u c a n t a l k p e o p l e i n t o a n y t h i n g i f y o u s p e n d enough money and t i m e promoting i t . Enough money, enough r e s o u r c e s . . . p e o p l e who a r e b e l i e v e r s . . . o f c o u r s e y o u ' l l g e t them s o o n enough i f you have r e s o u r c e s . . . o r p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s . B e c a u s e when y o u r e a l l y t h i n k o f whole l a n g u a g e , i t ' s quite s i m i l a r to dramatic playing... V e r y much s o . T h e y have t h e same r o o t s , h a v e n ' t t h e y ? . . c o m m u n i c a t i o n ? making l a n g u a g e ? There's a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Okay, w e l l , t h a n k s a l o t , y o u ' v e been r e a l l y h e l p f u l and I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e your time. Y o u ' r e welcome.  162  APPENDIX F RAW DATA FROM THE QUESTIONNAIRES The f o l l o w i n g samples r e p r e s e n t raw data taken from the w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed by the 107 teachers surveyed: Comments added by t e a c h e r s when completing q u e s t i o n 14 which was; Do you t h i n k you would f e e l apprehensive t a k i n g a r o l e i n the c a p a c i t y of teacher i n r o l e i n an i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l drama with your students i n the classroom? Many teachers claimed t h a t the necessary r e l i n q u i s h i n g of c l a s s c o n t r o l f o r the sake of the success of the drama would make them f e e l uneasy and apprehensive. They are not my peers - thus I'd f e e l that I'd l o s e some control?...maybe, maybe n o t ! grade 5 My fear i s t h a t my responses w i l l not help to guide the drama and through my r o l e I w i l l o v e r l y r e s t r i c t student e x p r e s s i o n , grade 4 Apprehensive?..not s t r o n g l y , but somewhat. I t r e q u i r e s you t o be more v u l n e r a b l e and exposed. I t a l s o r e q u i r e s you to g i v e up c o n t r o l - a l l i s s u e s t h a t g i v e me an uneasy f e e l i n g , grade 5 Apprehensive?... no experience, depends on the o b j e c t i v e s . I would f e e l okay doing something f o r enrichment or f u n . grade 5. My own c e r t a i n t y l e v e l has improved the more r o l e p l a y i n g I take p a r t i n . grade 3 I f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n u s i n g drama i n the classroom on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s but not i n a more formal way i n v o l v i n g others i n the audience, grade 3 I t would depend on the circumstances, as to whether I f e l t comfortable - i t would have t o be spontaneous or s c r i p t e d but not conscious i m p r o v i s a t i o n on my p a r t , grade 4.  163  RAW DATA FROM THE ORAL INTERVIEW  Comments o n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i n c l a s s r o o m s ; Lack of c o n t r o l . . . teachers might f e e l t h a t i t c o u l d get a b i t out of hand or noisy..but I t h i n k i f you know t h a t you're aiming t o f o s t e r t h a t c r e a t i v i t y , y o u ' l l know i t s s i g n s . . . g i v e you an idea of whether they're a c t u a l l y moving along or j u s t being s i l l y . Interview 30 grade 3 I t h i n k a l o t of teachers f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t and they g i v e up on i t . Unless they're s e r i o u s about i t , they wouldn't take a u n i v e r s i t y course on i t because they'd f e e l v e r y threatened by i t . Interview 31 grade 3/4 I t a r i s e s from the k i d s , and I a l l o w them t o do i t , because i t g i v e s them c o n f i d e n c e i n performing and speaking i n f r o n t of the r e s t of the k i d s . I n t e r v i e w 15 grade 3 Drama a s a  trill:  Teachers don't see the a r t s as having an i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . Interview 32 grade 3/4 Parents i n t h i s community a r e b a s i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the three R's. I would put t h a t a t the bottom of the l i s t of t h i n g s I have t o do. We cannot t i m e t a b l e a l l the f i n e a r t s at the expense of other t h i n g s . Interview 3 grade4 Drama f o r p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; They r o l e p l a y and a c t out c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d occur on the playground and then they i n c o r p o r a t e what they c o u l d do to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . Interview 5, grade 4/5 I would use the r o l e drama more, not so much t o enhance l e a r n i n g i n a s u b j e c t areas as to d e a l with s o c i a l i s s u e s . Interview 2, grade 3/4 They got t o know each other and valued each o t h e r . 9, grade 3 You need t o have those t o o l s t o communicate Interview 9 grade 3  Interview  effectively.  164 I t encourages working t o g e t h e r ; i t encourages f o c u s s i n g on a task; i t encourages c o - o p e r a t i v e group work amongst k i d s . Interview 15 grade 3 I t g i v e s them a good o p p o r t u n i t y to s o c i a l i z e with other k i d s i n a d i f f e r e n t way....and i t f o r c e s them to come to group d e c i s i o n s on how they're going to perform something or how something's going to be accomplished. Interview 22 gr.5 I've used i t i n the " F e e l i n g Yes, F e e l i n g No"  program. 22  gr.5  If they had a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n g e t t i n g along with k i d s on the playground, we d i s c u s s e d i t and we s o r t of do a p l a y r i g h t there about how you would handle c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . . . . o r how would you r e a c t i f a new student came i n t o the room. Interview 23 gr.2/3 If I were u s i n g i t , I would see i t i n c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s . Interview 26 gr.7 Problem s o l v i n g ? . . . t h e o n l y time we used t h a t was when we were doing " F e e l i n g Yes, F e e l i n g No". Interview 27 gr.3/4 Drama used as p a r t of whole language To work on t h e i r speaking  skills.  Interview 1 grade  5/6  Communication break-down i s one of the most s e r i o u s problems in the world today.... people can l e a r n t h i s s k i l l through drama. I n t e r v i e w 2 grade 4 I found t h a t c h i l d r e n seem to enjoy the freedom to t h e i r own (drama). Interview 5 grade 4/5 Do a puppet p l a y where they make up t h e i r own scenes and s t u f f . Interview 6 grade 3  develop  vocabulary  and  Some of them invent plays of t h e i r own, some of them read s t o r i e s and make up t h e i r own s c r i p t s from i t but they don't w r i t e them down but they do p r a c t i s e and rehearse them. Interview 15 grade 3 We a c t out our p o e t r y t h a t we w r i t e , they've w r i t t e n a couple of p l a y s i n composition t h a t they've worked on...we've w r i t t e n some commercials and acted those out on a video tape machine. Interview 18 grade7 To g i v e them an emotional Interview 19 grade 4  c o n n e c t i o n to t h e i r own  I t f o r c e s them to become c r e a t i v e the whole way on t h e i r f e e t . Interview 21 grade 5  imagination.  and to think  165  I've used i t i n l i t e r a t u r e . . . w e * v e done what we c a l l s t o r y dramas, where a s m a l l group of students i s g i v e n a book and they're going t o present i t to the r e s t of the group. I n t e r v i e w 22 grade 5 We d i d s t o r i e s and a l s o r o l e p l a y i n g a l i t t l e b i t with the s t o r i e s about i f you were a shoe and you c o u l d t a l k , what would you say about your l i f e as a s h o e . . . t r y t o put themselves i n the s i t u a t i o n of an inanimate o b j e c t . Interview 23 grade 2/3 I use i t as p a r t of i n t e g r a t i o n . . . I have students do r e s e a r c h and writing..more whole language s o r t of t h i n g s , speaking s k i l l s , e l o c u t i o n . . i t ' s the l e a r n i n g t o o l f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of E n g l i s h . Interview 24 grade 5 A teacher without a background i n t h e a t r e would see i n t e g r a t i o n with language a r t s as the main purpose f o r drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m . . . . f o r r e a d i n g , reading p l a y s and an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n to take r o l e s . . a n d drama i n terms of puppet t h e a t r e and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . I n t e r v i e w 25 grade 5 I see i t as a t e a c h i n g t o o l . . . u s e d f o r c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n . . . a l o t of language a r t s k i l l s . . . b u t I don't use i t . I n t e r v i e w 26 grade 7 Some of them a t the beginning were r e a l l y nervous t o even read out l o u d . . . i n f r o n t of the r e s t of the c l a s s . Interview 27 grade 3/4 If I was doing drama, I would r e a l l y want t o i n c o r p o r a t e some i n t o the language a r t s . . . I thought that would be j u s t wonderful. Interview 28 grade 6 Sometimes I g i v e them a s t o r y t o improvise and work t h r o u g h . . . h a l f of the c l a s s are going t o do something and the other h a l f w i l l f i g u r e out what they're doing and w i l l r e a c t to i t e t c . . . . I have the k i d s w r i t e s c r i p t s . Interview 29 grade 6/7 I have done t h a t when we d i d a space p r o j e c t where a p l a y was a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n by the s t u d e n t s , and acted o u t . . . i t was w r i t t e n down and the p a r t s were learned and rehearsed and then played out. Interview 30 grade 3. I t ' s another way they can l e a r n t o express ideas and f e e l i n g s and i t helps them g a i n confidence and p o i s e . Interview 31 grade 3/4 I use i t as an a r t form so you c o u l d use i t as a way of e x p r e s s i n g y o u r s e l f and your emotions.... j u s t as you probably would i n doing a p a i n t i n g . Interview 32 grade 3/4  166 I have the c h i l d r e n w r i t e t h e i r own  s c r i p t s . 34  gr.7  Drama as t h e a t r e ( s c r i p t e d ) In terms of h i t t i n g more k i d s , I f i n d they tend to get more out of the s c r i p t e d . I l i k e producing a f i n i s h e d product. I n t e r v i e w Interview 13 grade 6/7 I t ' s e a s i e r f o r me to g i v e them s c r i p t . I t h i n k there should be an end f o r them...some s o r t of g o a l . . . performance. I n t e r v i e w 5 grade 4/5 They l e a r n how to stand, present y o u r s e l f i n f r o n t of an audience... even to be c o n s i d e r a t e of your audience...I think i t ' s r e a l l y e s s e n t i a l . Interview 9 grade 3 I see i t as the enjoyment of drama, dramatic the k i d s . I n t e r v i e w 15 grade 3  e x p r e s s i o n for  I do i t as a c l u b and so the k i d s who come to me t h e r e , are those who r e a l l y want to pursue i t from t h a t a n g l e . . ( t h e a t r e a r t s ) . Interview 16 grade 6/7 I do l i k e them to get an experience of s t a n d i n g up i n f r o n t of others and p r e s e n t i n g themselves i n a dramatic way...so we do some p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r the assemblies or f o r the c o n c e r t . I n t e r v i e w 18 grade 7 J u s t the development i n the k i d s ' l e v e l of confidence and performance and the q u a l i t y of speech and f l u e n c y was i n c r e d i b l e . . . i t • s a c h a l l e n g e ! Interview 31 grade 3/4 Drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l I t ' s so v e r y easy...and i t makes a l l the t e d i o u s ways you t r y to get p o i n t s across..you know you t r y to teach concepts.... i t makes i t so easy...and so fun! Interview 4, grade 7 Basically,  i t ' s f o r problem s o l v i n g . Interview 8 grade 6  I read a s t o r y to them....and they p r e d i c t . . . any Interview 9 grade 3  situation.  Helping them to t h i n k , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s . . . h e l p them to t h i n k and to pursue an idea i n a group s i t u a t i o n . Interview 10 grade 3 I f i n d i t e a s i e r f o r myself to use ...with the grade sevens anyway. I f i n d i t e a s i e r to focus i n on a s o c i a l s l e s s o n . Interview 13 grade 6/7 I t g i v e s them a more in-depth p o i n t of view..a b e t t e r look at t h i n g s . Interview 14 grade 3  167 They love i t e s p e c i a l l y once they've done i t f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e . . . . l i k e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , I t h i n k j u s t the knowledge that they gain from the s i t u a t i o n i s so much more r e a l f o r them. Interview 16 grade 6/7 I came i n my space s u i t and informed them t h a t they had been chosen as a group to c o l o n i z e space and they had to design the community and get there and s o l v e the problem. Interview 19 grade 4 I f your are doing i t with v a r i o u s courses l i k e s o c i a l s t u d i e s , i f you're i n grade f i v e , you can p l a y the r o l e of an immigrant...and t r y and get i n c o n t a c t with them. Interview 21 grade 5 I f I were u s i n g i t , i t ' s p e r f e c t to use drama as a means to extend s o c i a l studies...when s o c i a l s t u d i e s extends beyond the f a c t s and f i g u r e s . . . t h e study of s o c i e t i e s . T h i s i s one of the t h i n g s I have a d i f f i c u l t y with . . . i t j u s t spreads wide open...and time becomes a f a c t o r . Interview 26 grade 7 We take a s t o r y and the stop the story....and and s o l v e problems. Interview 31 grade 3/4 I t ' s a unique way 33 grade 6/7  adopt r o l e s  of g e t t i n g some concepts a c r o s s .  Interview  Drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l and as t h e a t r e a r t s I use dramatic p l a y i n g more f r e q u e n t l y but I love s c r i p t . . . a c t u a l l y I love doing Shakespeare with kids...no, l i k e both. Interview 4 grade 7  I  I t ' s a p r o g r e s s i o n you go through, from the s i m p l e s t s o r t of movement and mime... through when you s t a r t using v o i c e and i m p r o v i s a t i o n and a l l those other aspects and then get i n t o problem s o l v i n g and a l l t h a t . . . w i t h i n t h a t you are a l s o l e a r n i n g a l l the other s k i l l s . . . y o u know, p r o j e c t i o n and a l l t h a t and t h e a t r e s k i l l s too. Interview 12 grade 3. A t e x t book i d e a l e x e r c i s e i n the l e a r n i n g process and a l s o i n dramatic p l a y too because i t was t h e i r own s c r i p t and they had to e n v i s i o n the whole t h i n g and p l o t i t o u t . . . i t was f o r r a d i o so they got a sense of what i t was to r e c o r d something f o r r a d i o and i t was played on a l l the r a d i o s t a t i o n s . . . s i x or e i g h t times over the summer. Interview 15 grade 3  168  Teachers' Shared A t t i t u d e s of E d u c a t i o n a l Drama E l i c i t e d the O r a l I n t e r v i e w s  From  D i s c i p l i n e Factors. T h e y ' l l s o r t of sabotage t h i n g s , so i t s o r t of goes the wrong way. I t depends on the child....some k i d s never get i n to i t . Interview 13 grade 6/7 Some of them come away s a y i n g t h i s c l a s s i s kind of b o r i n g . Interview 7 grade 4 No, they don't f o o l a r o u n d . . . i f i t comes from them. I n t e r v i e w 15 grade 3 Some were v e r y s i l l y , e s p e c i a l l y the d i s c i p l i n e problems, but of course the d i s c i p l i n e problems are always s i l l y . I n t e r v i e w 19 grade 4 At the s t a r t , because there i s a c e r t a i n mind s e t t h a t goes with p o o r l y organized drama teaching...and i f the c h i l d r e n have had t h a t experience b e f o r e , then i t ' s a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t to s e t t h i n g s , but i f they haven't, u s u a l l y i t ' s e a s i e r . Interview 25 grade 5 D i f f i c u l t i n grade seven...they're always experimental t h a t way. Grade sevens are always rambunctious. T h e y ' l l think i t ' s dumb because you have to demand something from them. I n t e r v i e w 26 grade 7 I t h i n k they f o o l around because they don't have the c o n f i d e n c e . I n t e r v i e w 27 grade 4/5 Children s i l l y ? Yes, because i t g i v e s them a chance to be away from the teacher f o r awhile, and to d e v i s e ways of making sound e f f e c t s . . . I n t e r v i e w 30 grade 3 If the k i d s misbehave, I think the teacher q u i c k l y gets out of r o l e , and becomes t e a c h e r . . . and i t l o s e s the c o n t i n u i t y of the drama. You can't f l i p back and f o r t h . There's a l o t of t r u s t and I t h i n k t h a t ' s why i t has t o be done more than. I t ' s j u s t l i k e when you ask teachers to do r o l e drama as a group, t h e r e ' s a l o t of r e l u c t a n c e . . . . t h e o l d e r you g e t ! I n t e r v i e w 31 grade 3/4 Yes, I t h i n k depending on what s o r t of p l a n n i n g or how introduced by the t e a c h e r . I n t e r v i e w 33 grade 6/7  it's  169  D i f f i c u l t t o do You have to be more i n n o v a t i v e and c r e a t i v e . Too much work maybe f o r a l o t of people Interview 2 grade 4 I t h i n k you have to be able to s o r t of work with one s m a l l group and have the others s o r t of s e t t l e down and work q u i e t l y and I don't have t h a t t h i s year at a l l . Interview 3 grade 4 There's a chance t h a t t h i n g s can j u s t s o r t of get out of c o n t r o l , (dramatic p l a y i n g ) . Interview 14 grade 3 C e r t a i n l y d i f f i c u l t to do unless they've exposure to i t . Interview 17 grade 5/6  had  some kind of  I t ' s very d i f f i c u l t . . . y o u have to have a l l your wits t h e r e . Interview 20 grade 3/4 Sometimes k i d s j u s t don't have the j u i c e s to be c r e a t i v e or dramatic and a l o t of other time, they j u s t are p l a i n s i l l y . Interview 21 grade 5 I c o u l d t h i n k of teachers who Interview 23 grade 2/3  would f i n d  i t very  difficult.  I don't t h i n k I'm v e r y f a m i l i a r with i t but I would f e e l q u i t e comfortable with i t from the sounds of i t because I'm a l l f o r c r e a t i v i t y and f o r them to loosen up and express themselves. Interview 30 grade 3 I know a l o t of teachers t h a t r e a l l y would not want to do i t because t h a t i s n ' t maybe what they're good at or they don't have any confidence l e v e l i n t h a t a r e a . Interview 33 grade 6/7 Should s t a r t i n Primary  grades  In primary they're one step away from c h i l d ' s p l a y anyway.Interview 23 grade 2/3 A t t i t u d e of  Students  These were grade sevens, they r e a l l y enjoyed i t and they got r i g h t i n t o i t s o . . . i t worked w e l l . I was working with grade s i x e s and i t was a time when the B e r l i n w a l l came down...the k i d s and I were i n r o l e . . . t h e k i d s got t o t a l l y i n t o i t and then a f t e r watching what happened i n the news...it became so much more r e a l f o r them because f o r some of them they r e a l l y saw the negative p a r t s and others saw the p o s i t i v e s . Interview 16 grade 6/7 Mine love i t ! I teach grade f i v e but I've a l s o done i t with grade s i x e s and sevens and they loved i t . Interview 22 grade 5  170 I know one group of k i d s I wouldn't want to do Interview 31 grade 3/4  i t with.  Lack of t r a i n i n g i n dramatic p l a y i n g The government doesn't r e a l l y s u p p o r t . . . t h e r e ' s no r e a l government support f o r anything t h a t would be considered quote f r i l l s . You have to be taught..they should be t e a c h i n g people how to do i t . Interview 4 grade 7 They can't j u s t throw something i n and say "Here, do i t " without g i v i n g us the t r a i n i n g . Interview 6 grade 3 Some of the teachers have probably never even heard of i t , wouldn't have a c l u e as to how to use i t or anything about i t . Interview 7 grade 4 Some people never go to any k i n d of workshop, l e t alone a drama workshop. Interview 7 grade 4 J u s t r e a d i n g about i t i s not enough. Interview 6 grade 3 People don't use i t because they don't f e e l they know anything about i t . I t h i n k there should be drama workshops t h a t come to the s c h o o l s . Interview 12 grade 3 There's a l o t of m a t e r i a l out t h e r e f o r teachers to use but there i s n ' t a great d e a l of p r o f e s s i o n a l development a v a i l a b l e ...more i s needed. Interview 15 grade 3 If they've read t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s . . . i f they've had the kind of p r o f e s s i o n a l development t h a t we've had at our s c h o o l where we've focussed s p e c i f i c a l l y on drama. Interview 18 grade 7 I don't know where to go next with i t . . . . I see I need more p r e l i m i n a r y s k i l l and more f o l l o w up s k i l l s . Interview 19 grade 4 I'd say yes...I'd say at l e a s t some ( t r a i n i n g ) . . . I wouldn't say a l o t but I would say at l e a s t a few courses of how to go about doing i t p r o p e r l y . I n t e r v i e w 23 grade 2/3 They say, "Well, go read a book and you can do i t " and i t ' s not t r u e because I've read a l o t of the drama books t h a t my daughter has given me, and she's e x p l a i n e d a l o t of the t h i n g s but without a great d e a l of c a r e f u l study, I f e e l t h a t I would be incompetent to do a number of those t h i n g s i n the book. Interview 24 grade 5  171  Weed s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n both forms of drama...just as a s p e c i a l i s t would be r e q u i r e d i n music and v i s u a l a r t s . I don't f e e l I'm t r a i n e d adequately i t s f u l l e s t . Interview 5 grade 4/5  to p o s s i b l y b r i n g i t to  A l o t of teachers would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to i n c l u d e , mainly because they have not got the background or any education i n t h a t a r e a . Interview 6 grade 3 I t ' s l i k e asking somebody who hasn't got any musical or t a l e n t to teach music. Interview 7, grade 4  ability  Theatre t r a i n i n g and some s k i l l s are a must. Interview 8 grade 6 I t h i n k when someone's been through t h a t themselves, then they can r e a l l y see the value of i t with k i d s . The year 2000, i t ' s wonderful, but there are a l s o l o s s e s t h a t come from t h a t too because the s p e c i a l i s t people are no longer put i n t o s p e c i a l i s t s ' p o s i t i o n s . Interview 12 grade 3 I t would be a very t a l l order to expect most teachers without exposure to or f a m i l i a r i t y with r o l e drama to take t h i s o n . . . i t ' s a s k i n g a b i t much to expect people to do t h a t . Interview 17 grade 5/6 A background i n t h e a t r e i s more l i k e l y to l e a d the teacher i n t o drama...but i t ' s not necessary. Interview 21 grade.5 How c o u l d somebody p l a y the piano when they don't know how?...or teach i t ? T h i s g e n e r a l i s t idea i s i n vogue r i g h t now... from the m i n i s t r y . . .and s a i d t h i s i s the most r i d i c u l o u s t h i n g and h e ' l l f i g h t i t every inch of the way. I n t e r v i e w 24 grade 5 I t ' s l i k e p u t t i n g a music teacher i n with no experience or the a r t t e a c h e r . . . v i s u a l a r t s ...drawing or p a i n t i n g . Teachers would l o s e c o n t r o l because i t ' s the kind of medium t h a t r e q u i r e s understanding, and i f c h i l d r e n f e e l you have no understanding of i t , t h e y ' l l j u s t simply not respond... the way you want them t o . Interview 25 grade 5 (This teacher i s an a r t specialist). I f teachers look at drama as t h e a t r e , t h e y ' l l t h i n k they should have t r a i n i n g and t h e r e f o r e they won't do i t . Interview 27 grade 4/5 Need t r a i n i n g f o r dramatic p l a y i n g as a t e a c h i n g t o o l ? . . o h , yes... to f a c i l i t a t e something l i k e t h a t , you r e a l l y have to b e . . . i t ' s such a j u g g l i n g a c t because depending on the k i d s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s before you put them i n t o a r o l e . . . y o u have to be  172 very spontaneous and w i l l i n g t o go with the flow. Interview 28 grade 6 I t h i n k t h a t some workshops here and there would c e r t a i n l y h e l p . I n t e r v i e w 29 grade 6/7 Do teachers need t r a i n i n g i n d r a m a ? . . . d e f i n i t e l y . I would l i k e to have some more myself. Interview 30 grade 3 A few people on our s t a f f have been t o workshops and have t r i e d i t and don't f i n d i t works, but I think you have to t r y i t a few times and h o p e f u l l y l e a r n . I t h i n k sometimes people abandon them a l i t t l e too soon. Interview 31 grade 3/4 It may need a s p e c i a l i s t because of the d i s c i p l i n e factor the k i d s might have a b e t t e r a t t i t u d e with a s p e c i a l i s t . . . t h a t ' s one of my apprehensions. Interview 33 grade 6/7 R e l a t i o n s h i p between success and t r a i n i n g i n drama. I've taken C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n ' s workshops and a few other drama workshops....I'm l e a r n i n g as I go. Interview 31 grade 3/4 Drama: mandated but not implemented; They can mandate whatever they l i k e , teachers w i l l do what they f e e l best with....who's going t o check, r i g h t ? Interview 8 grade 6 If they're going t o mandate i t and they r e a l l y want i t t o go on, they're going to have t o at l e a s t i n t r o d u c e teachers to i t . . . d o workshops and whatever... I mean most teachers don't have any i d e a . Interview 13 grade 6/7 Mandated and nobody's doing i t . . . i t ' s grade 3/4  c r a z y ! Interview 20  A l o t of t h i n g s are mandated but a r e n ' t t i m e t a b l e d and teachers make c h o i c e s of what I can't handle and what I can handle, what I'm comfortable with, what I'm not comfortable with and where do I f i n d the time. Interview 21 grade 5 The m a j o r i t y of the i n t e r m e d i a t e teachers a t our s c h o o l don't even want t o do the intermediate program t h a t ' s come out. Interview 23 grade 2/3 They don't know how t o do i t . . . a n d they can't be bothered of changing now a t t h i s p o i n t or t r y i n g something new. Interview 24 grade 5 There are f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s which do not enable the m i n i s t r y to implement them as they had say, whole  sort  173 language .... Dramatic a r t s i s one of them u n f o r t u n a t e l y . . . . t h e good s t u f f i s going t o be the v i c t i m . Interview 25 grade 5 Even i f you mandate i t , f o r some people i t ' s not going to work. For some educators, they're not going t o be comfortable with i t . Teaching i s such a p e r s o n a l i z e d t h i n g ...there's going t o be some t h i n g s t h a t j u s t are not going t o work because the person's h e a r t ' s not i n i t . Interview 28 grade 6 What d i d you s a y ? . . . i t  i s mandated? Interview 30 grade 3  I think the drama people i n B.C., in particular, have t o r e a l l y push the board t o p r o v i d e workshops. Interview 31 grade 3/4 The whole Year 2000 i s n ' t r e a l l y being implemented i n our school...and i t ' s mandated. Interview 32 grade 3/4 No a v a i l a b l e space t o do any drama: There's no p l a c e to do i t . Our classrooms Interview 7 grade 4 Teacher  at risk  are jam packed.  i n role playing  The teacher i s a t r i s k . . . v e r y much more so, because i t i s n ' t a canned k i n d of a t h i n g . You can go t o c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g and l e a r n the l i t t l e t r i c k s t h a t they have or you can go to Elements of I n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n t h a t l i t t l e canned package that they've got and d e l i v e r i t q u i t e e a s i l y . . . o r go to a computer workshop and l e a r n t h a t s t u f f , but THIS . . . . w e l l , you have to be q u i t e an e x p r e s s i v e person y o u r s e l f , I t h i n k . . . Interview 15 grade 3 I t h i n k t o a c t u a l l y take on a r o l e where the k i d s don't r e c o g n i z e them i n the way t h a t they u s u a l l y do, I t h i n k immediately would put many of them (the t e a c h e r s ) i l l at ease and I think many teachers a r e i n c l i n e d to go with what they know i s going t o work r a t h e r than perhaps r i s k l o s i n g something... perhaps even l o s i n g f a c e . . I would say they would be l o a t h e t o t r y i t . . . c e r t a i n l y i f they've not been f a m i l i a r with i t and how i t works. Interview 17 grade 5/6 I t h i n k t h a t some t e a c h e r s f i n d i t v e r y t h r e a t e n i n g because they f e e l t h a t they're l o s i n g c o n t r o l . Interview 18 grade 7 I t ' s a b i t r i s k y . . . I make a f o o l of myself sometimes..but the c h i l d r e n think i t ' s j u s t f i n e . Interview 24 grade 5 No, no, I wouldn't. A c t u a l l y I read them a s t o r y and i t ' s amazing the imagination...I got the most b e a u t i f u l drawings and s t o r i e s w r i t t e n as a r e s u l t of t h i s l i t t l e s t o r y I read. Interview 30 grade 3  174 Yes, dramatic 33 grade 6/7  p l a y i n g means g i v i n g up some c o n t r o l .  Interview  Need a s p e c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y I a l s o think a l o t of teachers a r e n ' t comfortable t h e i r s t y l e . Interview 4 grade 7  . . . i t ' s not  You have to be somewhat of an e x t r o v e r t y o u r s e l f . . . . and not a f r a i d to look s i l l y i n f r o n t of the k i d s . Interview 8 grade 6 The person who r e a l l y admired t h a t technique (dramatic p l a y i n g ) simply c o u l d n ' t do i t because t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t y l e was of a more s t r u c t u r e d s t y l e and I guess i t was too much of a r i s k t o l e t i t a l l hang out. Interview 15 grade 3 I think i t ' s a p e r s o n a l i t y t h i n g . . . I think t h a t there are people out t h e r e t h a t r e a l l y would l i k e t o t r y i t , but j u s t haven't had any background i n i t . . . b u t I think t h a t you're going t o f i n d some r e a l c l o s e d doors...with some people. Interview 28 grade 6 I t h i n k some teachers might s t e e r away from dramatic p l a y i n g because of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . . . but those teachers who are w i l l i n g t o go ahead with the r o l e p l a y i n g i n the f i r s t p l a c e , I think t h a t those people would have enough g a l l . . . o r have enough confidence t o get i n v o l v e d . Interview 33 grade 6/7 Do t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e a c l e a r s e t of o b j e c t i v e s i n drama...in e i t h e r form? When I was t a k i n g c r e a t i v e drama workshops, the whole t h i n g was i t was an i n t e r n a l t h i n g , you worked i t out with somebody...it was almost l i k e therapy. Interview 20 grade 3/4 I think there's a lack of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n to talk...because a l o t of teachers s t i l l s t i c k t o the o l d way . . . i n a sense where they have c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g a t t h e i r desks, working i n d i v i d u a l l y . Interview 30 grade 3 Why should drama be i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m ? To make l e a r n i n g f u n . . . i t b r i n g s v a r i e t y to what you do i n s t e a d of them always j u s t l i s t e n i n g t o the t e a c h e r . Interview 18 grade 7 One of the f i r s t t h i n g s t h a t comes t o mind i s a e s t h e t i c , but for i t ' s own sake, f o r i t ' s own v a l u e . Interview 17, grade 5/6 Because c h i l d r e n l e a r n a t a gut l e v e l . . . . t h i s idea of e x p e r i e n c i n g . . . l e a r n i n g by doing...and communication s k i l l s ...experience with words...you can't get e v e r y t h i n g out of b o o k s . . . t h i s p e n c i l and paper s t u f f i s f a r too valued. Interview 19 grade 4  175  You know what I'm doing i t f o r . . . . c o n c e n t r a t i o n . They c r e a t e the drama....for performance. Once they are performing t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n i s beyond b e l i e f . Interview 20 grade 4 I t g i v e s k i d s another medium to express themselves i n . . . n o t o n l y a r t where you can do t h i n g s v i s u a l l y but they can do t h i n g s with t h e i r bodies. Interview 22 grade 5 I think k i d s l e a r n by doing. I mean i n math, I've always been an advocate you have to manipulate the m a t e r i a l s before you know how to do the Math. I think to j u s t s o r t of t a l k to k i d s about how to handle a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n and g i v e them d i r e c t i o n without them a c t u a l l y t r y i n g i t out... themselves i s unrealistic. I t ' s important f o r them to be a b l e to work together as a group. Interview 23 grade 2/3 It g i v e s a students who a r e n ' t v e r y good at w r i t i n g or even r e a d i n g a chance to be e x p r e s s i v e v e r b a l l y . Interview 24 grade 5 The main purpose of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m I would say, i s part of the music c u r r i c u l u m because when we put on a s c h o o l p r o d u c t i o n , i t ' s been mostly the music...music's always been a component, so i t ' s always the person who's i n charge of music t h a t s o r t of does the p l a y . Interview 27 grade 3/4 I see i n c r e d i b l e r e s u l t s from k i d s who drama. Interview 28 grade 6  have been turned on to  The changes t h a t I see i n the k i d s through the drama..just the l i f e t h a t I see come out of some of the k i d s and how i t b r i n g s some of them o u t . . . t h a t they get to be so much more c o n f i d e n t about t h e m s e l v e s . . j u s t a new outlook on t h i n g s . Interview 29 grade 6/7 My main o b j e c t i v e i s to help f o s t e r c r e a t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n and to have them become aware of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , not o n l y as a c r e a t i v e person but a l s o to become more aware of themselves... i n the environment we l i v e i n . Interview 30 grade 3 I t h i n k t h a t drama i s one way, the non-written way t h a t k i d s can demonstrate kinds of comprehension t h a t they can't normally demonstrate i n w r i t i n g . . . i t ' s an e x p e r i e n t i a l t h i n g . I t ' s wonderful when you see these l i t t l e guys...having the c o n f i d e n c e , the freedom and the i n i t i a t i v e to g i v e on the spot performances.... there's q u i t e a few k i d s i n my c l a s s who j u s t progressed i n c r e d i b l y . Interview 31 grade 3/4 The s o c i a l development i n the t h i n g . . . i t can lead to s e l f esteem, confidence...maybe t r u s t with t h e i r peers, being able to get up there and t r u s t t h a t people aren't going to laugh at  176 them...and another o b j e c t i v e would be i t ' s j u s t another way, and a d i f f e r e n t way, and probably a more e x c i t i n g way f o r k i d s to l e a r n . Interview 33 grade 6/7 To g i v e the c h i l d r e n an a l t e r n a t e a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . . . i t ' s a form of communication. Interview 34 grade 7 Should  i t be a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t taught by a s p e c i a l i s t ?  I'd kind of h e s i t a t e to have i t taught ( s e p a r a t e l y ) because then i t can become deadly. But i f i t ' s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of what they're doing...Inteview 19 grade 4 In elementary I can't see i t as being separated out specifically. I t h i n k i t ' s something t h a t goes across s u b j e c t s . I n t e r v i e w 21 grade 5 At the elementary l e v e l I t h i n k not. I t h i n k i t would work best i f i n t e g r a t e d with each s u b j e c t or the s u b j e c t s t h a t are a p p r o p r i a t e . Interview 22 grade 5 I tend t o work i t (drama) i n t o my schedule and I would hope that every classroom teacher.would d e a l with i t with t h e i r own class. I don't t h i n k i t ' s the kind of t h i n g t h a t you should have a c l a s s p l a t o o n i n g to another teacher such.as they come to me f o r music or t o the a r t t e a c h e r . Interview 29 grade 6/7 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s t a f f  support.  The teachers come i n with t h e i r c l a s s e s . . . they see me doing this...none of them seem to t h i n k i t matters enough to l e a r n how to do i t . Interview 20 grade 3/4 Our p r i n c i p a l f o s t e r s the idea of drama....very s u p p o r t i v e and encouraging. Interview 31 grade 3/4 A v a i l a b l e Time You don't have time f o r e v e r y t h i n g on the t i m e t a b l e . Interview 3 grade 4 It takes a l o t of time...a l o t of e x t r a time you've got to take time away from something e l s e . Interview 6 grade 3 There's  the t i m e t a b l i n g c o n f l i c t s t o o l . I n t e r v i e w 7 grade 4  I work i t i n with other s u b j e c t s . . . I i n t e g r a t e i t . Interview 9 grade 3 Time i s a problem..only i f they see i t as something e x t r a t h a t they have to do. Interview 16 grade 6/7 Time i s a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r . I have a hard enough time myself f i t t i n g i n the t h i n g s I need t o . Interview 17 grade 5/6  177  I'm a g r e a t b e l i e v e r t h a t you can f i n d time f o r the things t h a t you r e a l l y b e l i e v e are important... and I t h i n k we waste an enormous amount of time i n s c h o o l . . . o f t e n doing t h i n g s t h a t f o r some reason we t h i n k we have t o do. I t h i n k t h a t we a l l o w the p r e s s u r e s of f i n i s h i n g t h a t t e x t book or making sure t h a t u n i t ' s done or c o l l e c t i n g hot dog money and we don't get t o drama..it needs to be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the program. Interview 18 grade 7 Every day we d i d i t f o r a few minutes... f o u r t h p e r i o d which i s about a f o r t y minute p e r i o d . Interview 19 grade 4 I t ' s too time consuming. I n t e r v i e w 27 grade  3/4  If you're r e a l l y going to go very s e r i o u s l y about r o l e p l a y i n g and t h i s kind of work, then t h e o r e t i c a l l y i t should mix i n with e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . Interview 29 grade 6/7 P a r t of the problem c o u l d be the demand on time...the amount of t h i n g s we're asked to do i n a c e r t a i n amount of time. I'm t h i n k i n g of drama as an a d d i t i o n r a t h e r than a s u b s t i t u t e . Interview 33 grade 6/7 I t h i n k t h a t the reason they're not doing drama, as much as we would probably l i k e to see, i s because of the time c o n s t r a i n t s of the c u r r i c u l u m . . . w i t h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e we're having t o do...computer... Interview 34, grade 7 Should t h e a t r e s k i l l s be taught i n dramatic p l a y i n g ? What would you do i f the c h i l d mumbles?.... I'd t e l l him to speak upl Interview 8 grade 6 I haven't grade 3  r e a l l y gone i n t o the t h e a t r e p a r t . Interview 10  That's not the major f o c u s . Interview 12 grade 3 I might say yes except I've seen those two f i l m s the s c h o o l board has where Dorothy Heathcote i s i n some reform s c h o o l ...there's about f i f t e e n r e a l l y rough l o o k i n g young guys about f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n and she gets them i n t o r o l e p l a y t h i n g s and they get r i g h t i n t o i t . Interview 15 grade 3 I shouldn't t h i n k so or whatever they are, they are v e r y b r i e f . Interview 17 grade 5/6 I f they're going to perform i n f r o n t of a group, then the audience has to be able to hear them, see them... a l l those...you don't t u r n your back on the audience, you make sure you're at the r i g h t speed, a l l those t h i n g s are very important. When I do the r o l e p l a y i n g t h i n g s i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n , I'm l e s s concerned with the v o i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  178 the a r t i c u l a t i o n and the b a c k - t u r n i n g and t h a t , 'cause they're so spur of the moment and I r e a l l y want t o get the p o i n t a c r o s s of the drama i t s e l f I t h i n k I do both a t d i f f e r e n t times. Interview 22 grade 5 Oh, yes...yes... j u s t l i k e you would teach c o l o r , or you would teach s k e t c h i n g s k i l l s . . . i f you apply those t o s k e t c h i n g i n the S o c i a l S t u d i e s or whatever. Interview 25 grade 5 Oh, I t h i n k a l o t . . . l e a r n i n g t o say l i n e s d i f f e r e n t l y . . . s a y i n g l i n e s through d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s . . . j u s t l e a r n i n g how to c a r r y t h e i r bodies, t o express feeling...how would you stand i f you were f e e l i n g courageous as opposed to f e e l i n g scared...and do a l o t of those kinds of e x e r c i s e s . . . I t h i n k i t ' s s o r t of l i k e t e a c h i n g a r t . . . o n one hand we want to f o s t e r c r e a t i v i t y , but on the other hand, you have t o teach c e r t a i n technique so they can p r o p e r l y express themselves so I t h i n k i t goes hand i n hand. I t h i n k an over r e l i a n c e on t e a c h i n g technique c o u l d probably d u l l the i n t e r e s t , because they have to express themselves through drama ...almost f i r s t before you even look a t technique. Interview 31 grade 3/4 A c t i n g ? Not so much a c t i n g per s e . I don't r e a l l y g i v e them s k i l l s i n a c t i n g other than placement of body on stage, the audience, v o i c e , e t c . I n t e r v i e w 34 grade 7 A g a i n s t s c r i p t e d drama: t h e a t r e a r t s , s c h o o l p l a y s , and concerts. I don't f e e l from the b i t I've done t h a t they get a chance t o express themselves q u i t e so f r e e l y . Interview 5 grade 4/5 For performance In some propose working k i n d of  f  either  i n s c r i p t e d drama o r d r a m a t i c  playing.  very simple i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l t h i n g s , t h a t you may problems f o r the k i d s . . . j u s t the b a s i c sense of an idea out and having to present i t on a very quick r e a c t i o n . I n t e r v i e w 28 grade 6  I would l i k e to extend the dramatic p l a y a b i t and...so that i f they wanted t o r e p l i c a t e i t , they c o u l d and i f they wanted to extend i t by...they c o u l d put i t down on paper...and maybe a l t e r i t a b i t and t o be...have more dramatic v a l u e whatever...and then do a l l the other t h i n g s a s s o c i a t e d with i t l i k e making props and...Interview 32 grade 3/4 For S c r i p t e d  drama  Merely a v e h i c l e f o r t e a c h i n g French...I used drama t o do it...how e l s e do you get k i d s t o repeat something a hundred times....I wrote e v e r y t h i n g . . . a b s o l u t e l y s c r i p t e d and a b s o l u t e l y memorized. I n t e r v i e w 20 grade 3/4  179 The s c r i p t e d drama g i v e s them (the students) boundaries and then they can t r y t o i n t e r p r e t w i t h i n t h a t , and they don't get antsy. Interview 21 grade 5 The music teacher i s the one most l i k e l y t o be s c r i p t drama. Interview 29 grade 6/7  implementing  I f i n d s c r i p t e d drama e a s i e r t o do...reader's t h e a t r e , adapting a s t o r y and d r a m a t i z i n g i t . . . k i d s w r i t i n g commercials or whatever...they're w r i t i n g t h e i r own s c r i p t s . Interview 31 grade 3/4 Thoughts f o r and a g a i n s t t h e s c h o o l c o n c e r t What do you t h i n k they're going t o remember when they leave school? Interview 7 grade 4 All  the parents l i k e the b i g p r o d u c t i o n . Interview 14 grade 3  I t h i n k t h a t s c r i p t e d drama and the way t h a t s c h o o l s have used them..in c o n c e r t s and p l a y s t h a t are put on f o r an audience, are a r e a l l y v a l u a b l e p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m . Interview 15 grade 3 What I n o t i c e r e a l l y ...as v e r y e x c i t i n g i s the confidence b u i l d i n g t h a t happens when they a c t u a l l y go through, a job from the beginning of the a u d i t i o n s t o the f i n a l performance...I mean i t ' s an i n c r e d i b l e c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d e r . Interview 16 grade 6/7 I had a v e r y e a r l y i n c l i n a t i o n t h a t drama should not be a few k i d s being the s t a r s . They (teachers of b i g c o n c e r t s ) get a l l hung up on standards... t h a t ' s t r u e but i t s t i l l i s process, and no elementary s c h o o l i s ever going to put on anything with a bunch of k i d s t h a t anyone other than the parents i s r e a l l y going to want to look at...and you have to r e c o g n i z e t h a t . Interview 20, grade 3/4 I t g i v e s the k i d s a chance to work c o - o p e r a t i v e l y , i t a l s o g i v e s them a chance t o get up f r o n t on the stage....and have the spot l i g h t on them...builds s e l f - e s t e e m . You can get a s t a f f t o do i t and commit the e f f o r t . . y o u can do i t f o r about two or three years and then my experience i s . . i t s t a r t s to peter out.... s t a f f s burn out. The amount of time spent on i t year a f t e r year burns people out. Large s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n s are great every so o f t e n but not when i t gets t o "Oh, God, not a g a i n ! " Interview 21 grade 5 Concert?...I t h i n k t h a t ' s g r e a t . I t h i n k they're v e r y v a l u a b l e . . . i t b r i n g s the c h i l d r e n i n t o c o n t a c t with the r e a l i t y of the a r t s . Interview 26 grade 7  180 I t g i v e s them an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e a t r e . I would say t h e r e ' s a huge chunk of k i d s going from grade seven out of t h a t s c h o o l i n t o drama c l a s s e s . Interview 28 grade 6 Do you t h i n k many t e a c h e r s are u s i n g drama i n t h e i r classrooms? When I was t a k i n g the courses, I know teachers i n other schools...most of them had no idea what I was t a l k i n g about...no idea at a l l . Interview 13 grade 6/7 If they've 3  taken C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n ' s course. Interview 9 grade  The more you become comfortable with i t , the more you where you can use i t . Interview 11 grade 7  see  That's hard f o r me t o say...I don't t h i n k i n g e n e r a l there's a l o t of drama going on..I don't t h i n k so. Interview 12 grade 3 A l o t of t e a c h e r s don't grade 3  g i v e the time to i t . I n t e r v i e w 15  I don't t h i n k i t ' s used much i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l at Interview 16 grade 6/7 I have not been doing any drama per se..no...not times. Interview 17 grade 5/6  all.  i n recent  I don't t h i n k i t i s and I t h i n k p a r t of the reason i s t h a t a l o t of teachers j u s t f e e l so threatened by something going wrong. I doubt i t . I t h i n k you have to have teachers who w i l l take a r i s k with kids...most teachers have to guard themselves. I n t e r v i e w 19 grade 4 No, i t ' s being done p r e c i o u s l i t t l e . . . I ' m the o n l y one i t i n my s c h o o l . Interview 20 grade 3/4  doing  I t h i n k most teachers are u s i n g drama i n the dramatic sense t h a t we've t a l k e d about...not the s c r i p t e d drama...I do two or three a year and I know some other c l a s s e s had done i t so I know some goes on, but t o what extent, I would say i t probably i n v o l v e s l e s s than h a l f the s t a f f . Interview 22 grade 5 I don't t h i n k t h e r e are v e r y many...it's e a s i e r to do i t i n primary, I t h i n k , than i n i n t e r m e d i a t e because you always have these clowns jumping around and you always seem to have to be moving around. Interview 23 grade 2/3 I'm who  the o n l y person who does i t . . . p r a c t i c a l l y the o n l y person does i t i n my s c h o o l . Interview 24 grade 5  181 No...I t h i n k due to apprehension..not being a b l e to model c e r t a i n aspects of i t . Probably poor understanding of the material...drama per se. Interview 25 grade 5 I do very l i t t l e . . . n o t enough time and no t r a i n i n g Interview 26 grade 7  in i t .  No, I don't t h i n k s o . . . l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e . . . l a c k of education on the s u b j e c t . Interview 27 grade 3/4 I t h i n k drama should be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n e a r t s s t r a n d of the c u r r i c u l u m . . . b u t I'm not doing i t . . . . I ' m not f a m i l i a r with the process...new grade, new program. I n t e r v i e w 28 grade 6 I don't t h i n k t h e r e ' s probably very many doing p l a y i n g . . . i t s c a r e s people. Interview 29 grade  dramatic 6/7  I t h i n k moreso nowadays because of the whole language approach and u s i n g more l i t e r a t u r e i n the classroom but I t h i n k the teachers have to f e e l r e a l l y comfortable with doing t h a t themselves. Interview 30 grade 3 To be honest, I'm not sure how much drama goes on i n any s c h o o l . . . I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a few t e a c h e r s who r e a l l y get i n t o i t and I think a l o t of people r e l y on s c r i p t e d drama or I've seen people say they use drama, but i t ' s r e a l l y informal...and they have a dramatic p l a y c e n t e r . Interview 31 grade 3/4 No..in my  s c h o o l i t ' s not. Interview 32 grade  3/4  I would say not too much. I would say I've done minimal, c e r t a i n l y not near what I would l i k e to do. I n t e r v i e w 33 grade 6/7 I f t e a c h e r s are u s i n g drama, what Is t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e , and why? U n s c r i p t e d , because k i d s are not f a m i l i a r p a r t i c u l a r l y with many of the f i n e r p o i n t s of what a c t o r s or a c t r e s s e s must do...many of those p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s . . . i n u n s c r i p t e d drama they can l o s e themselves i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n , you're going to get a q u i c k e r response and one which might be much l e s s s t a i d or c o n t r i v e d and a much more honest one...I t h i n k you get more value out of i t . . . i n the s h o r t term. Interview 17 grade 5/6 I think they're both e q u a l l y good. Interview 21 grade 5 I see both...but I f i n d i t ' s (dramatic p l a y i n g ) r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e as a t e a c h i n g t o o l . Interview 27 grade 3/4 Both..but f o r d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s : performance aspect and the o r a l p l a y i n g f o r the c r e a t i v e aspect r o l e drama much more i n s i g h t f u l  s c r i p t e d drama f o r the speaking aspect and dramatic and t h i n k i n g a s p e c t . I find as to g i v i n g you keys to how  182 k i d s think...whereas s c r i p t e d drama doesn't. Even i f they're w r i t i n g t h e i r own s c r i p t , I t h i n k , e s p e c i a l l y with the younger k i d s , because they're so l i m i t e d i n t h e i r language, they cannot r e a l l y say through language what maybe they r e a l l y f e e l . Interview 31 grade 3/4 Why a r e music and v i s u a l a r t s i n a secure p o s i t i o n on the t i m e t a b l e . . . i . e . they a r e mandated and taught t o a l l students whereas drama i s n ' t ? What a r e t e a c h e r s thoughts on drama s h a r i n g the f i n e a r t s s t r a n d with music and v i s u a l a r t s ? I t h i n k drama has the p o t e n t i a l to be the most b e n e f i c i a l ( f o r the student) because you can d e a l with so many feelings....moreso even than music because you're doing i t through speaking and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . . . l i k e more n a t u r a l methods. Interview 14 grade 3 Music i s t h e r e because i t ' s j u s t t r a d i t i o n . . . h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n . . . because an accomplished person was t r a d i t i o n a l l y somebody who c o u l d p l a y an instrument, a piano, a v i o l i n , who could sing. We h i r e music s p e c i a l i s t s , we don't h i r e drama specialists.Interview 15 grade 3  

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