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Drama in education : how successful has the classroom implementation of drama been in elementary schools? Ormiston, Patricia 1991

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DRAMA I N EDUCATION: HOW SUCCESSFUL HAS THE CLASSROOM IMPLEMENTATION OF DRAMA BEEN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS? b y P A T R I C I A ORMISTON B . E d . ( E l e m . ) , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H A u g u s t 1991 © P a t r i c i a O r m i s t o n , COLUMBIA 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT E d u c a t i o n i n t h e A r t s i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f e v e r y c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t and drama i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e F i n e A r t s s t r a n d o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p u r p o s e f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h i s s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f drama i n e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m s and t o e x a m i n e t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r t o what e x t e n t e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g ; i t s s t r u c t u r e , p u r p o s e , g o a l s , and r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s u s e , and what t y p e s o f drama e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were u s i n g t o meet t h e g o a l s o f drama a s mandated t h e F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e ( 1 9 8 5 ) . D a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d b o t h w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and o r a l i n t e r v i e w s . The r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h q u e s t i o n were t a b u l a t e d and an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c o n d u c t e d . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s were c o m p a r e d . The s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s l a c k e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n . T e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d c l a i m e d l i t t l e drama was t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e i r s c h o o l s , w h e r e a s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o u n d r e s p o n d e n t s s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e s c a r c i t y i n w h i c h drama a p p e a r s i n e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m s was b l a m e d on "an a l r e a d y o v e r l o a d e d t i m e t a b l e " and "no t r a i n i n g " . i i i Those teachers using drama attributed their success to courses or workshops they had attended. Most teachers saw the merit of drama in the curriculum but many didn't know how to use i t as a learning tool in other subject d i s c i p l i n e s . Those integrating drama in their programs used i t primarily as an extension of whole language. The results of t h i s study indicated that the implementation of drama could not successfully occur unless teachers were exposed to both the theory and methodology of i t s use in education. 3 i v CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i 1.STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Background to the study 2 Statement of the Problem 14 Limitations 16 Def i n i t i o n of Terms 19 Summary of Problem 22 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 25 Importance of the Arts in the Curriculum 25 The Evolution of Drama in the School Curriculum 28 Dramatic Playing And Theatre 32 Learning and Drama in Education 38 A Phenomenographical Study on Learning 40 Summary 42 3.RESEARCH DESIGN 44 Method 44 Time 49 Subjects 49 Data C o l l e c t i o n 50 Data Analysis 52 V Assumptions 54 4. PRESENTATIONS OF FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 55 General Overview 55 Analysis of Questionnaires 55 Written Responses from Questionnaires 77 Oral Interviews 80 Descriptions of Teachers' Conceptions 82 Samples from Interviews 82 Summary of Findings 105 5. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY 114 Summary 114 Conclusions 117 Recommendations 127 Recommendations for Further Research 130 Epilogue 133 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 141 7. APPENDICES 146 A. Letter to School P r i n c i p a l 146 B. Letter to Classroom Teacher 147 C. Teacher Questionnaire 148 D. Description of Oral Interview 152 E. Sample of Oral Interview (verbatim) 157 F. Raw Data from Oral Interviews 162 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects by Grade 55 Table 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Age 56 Table 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Experience 56 Table 4 Frequency of Subjects Teaching Extra Curricular Drama in Schools 57 Table 5 Type of Extra Curricular Drama Done by Subjects Responding Yes in Table 4 58 Table 6 Frequency of Subjects' Use of Dramatic Playing 59 Table 7 Frequency of Subjects' Use of Scripted Drama (Theatre) 60 Table 8 Number of Courses Subjects Completed in Dramatic Playing 62 Table 9 Number of Courses Subjects Completed In Theatre 63 Table 10 Number of Workshops Subjects Attended in Drama in Education 64 Table 11 Description of Subjects' Background in Theatre 65 Table 12 Frequency of Subjects' Training in Performance S k i l l s 66 Table 13 Di s t r i b u t i o n of Subject D i s c i p l i n e s Where Subjects Integrated Drama 67 Table 14 Scale of Subjects' Rating of Classroom Drama Experiences 68 Table 15 Frequency of Success Factors in Classroom Use of Dramatic Playing 70 Table 16 Frequency of Failur e Factors in Classroom Use of Dramatic Playing 71 Table 17 Frequency of Subjects Feeling Apprehensive in Role in Dramatic Playing 73 v i i Table 18 Frequency of Subjects' Use of "Off Stage" and Other Resource Material 75 Table 19 Frequency of Subjects' Use of Scripted Dramas For Performance 76 Table 20 Frequency of Form of Drama Preferred By Subjects for Classroom Use 77 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express my appreciation for the encouragement and support I received during the long and arduous year of struggle and exhilaration while pursuing t h i s study. My sincere thanks to: - my family who listened to my fr u s t r a t i o n s , and put up with my seemingly endless pre-occupation with drama. - Dr. Patrick Verriour, my advisor, who steadfastly waited, while I read and re-read, debated, and read some more, and then slowly s h i f t e d from my entrenched position on drama to a new and enlightened perspective. - Dr. Gavin Bolton who presented exciting models of dramatic playing at work thus providing me with the enthusiasm and i n s p i r a t i o n to pursue further study of t h i s form of drama. - the committee members Dr. Joe Belanger and Dr. Lee Gunderson who offered encouragement and suggestions. - Mr. Bob Hamelin who was always there to l i s t e n to problems. - Sharon Reid of Student Research and Assessment Office of the Vancouver School Board for guidance. - Dennis Tupman who gave encouragement and support when i t was d i f f i c u l t to conduct the survey. - the pr i n c i p a l s who permitted the surveys to be done in their schools. - the teachers who took the time from th e i r busy schedules to complete the questionnaires. - the teachers who volunteered to be interviewed and who contributed to the most exc i t i n g moments of thi s study. 1 CHAPTER 1 S T A T E M E N T O F " P R O B L E M INTRODUCTION Drama has i t s prescribed place on the Fine Arts curriculum designed by the Ministry of Education in B.C. It is intended to be a part of the art experience of a l l elementary students, from grade one to grade seven, presented in two strands: creation and appreciation. "Education in the arts i s an essential part of the development of every c h i l d " (Elementary Fine Arts 1985, p. 3). Art is recognized by most educators as a necessary part of the development of the c h i l d in the a f f e c t i v e domain where the c h i l d ...learns about himself and others through vicarious l i f e experiences and has the opportunity to integrate a l l kinds of knowledge and experience through meaningful human interaction (Elementary Fine Arts Guide, p. 84). The art experience of drama benefits the child's development in understanding human interaction, while v a l i d a t i n g his or her own perspective of l i f e through taking on the role of another human being in another context, dealing with a s p e c i f i c problem, as well as developing speech, movement, concentration, imagination, observation, and sense awareness. The central theme of t h i s study i s that while drama is recognized as a prescribed and necessary component of the timetable, is i t r e a l l y being implemented in the classroom? If i t is not, what are the reasons? 2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY W i t h t h e g r a d u a l s h i f t f r o m a t r a n s m i s s i o n b a s e d m o del o f t e a c h i n g t o a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h o f t e a c h i n g , d r ama, a s w e l l as a l l t h e a r t s , f o u n d a f e r t i l e g r o u n d i n t h e new p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n . " A r t s s h o u l d be t h e b a s i s f o r a l l e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s o c l o s e t o t h e human p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l c o r e " M a s l o w ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Drama, a c c o r d i n g t o D o r o t h y H e a t h c o t e ( 1 980) and G a v i n B o l t o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , c o u l d be u s e d i n c l a s s r o o m s a s a l e a r n i n g t o o l , p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o " l i v e t h r o u g h " and d e v e l o p t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s u b j e c t s l i k e s o c i a l s t u d i e s o r l i t e r a t u r e . I n r o l e as p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p e r h a p s a m o n a s t e r y o f t h e M i d d l e Ages o r as Roman s o l d i e r s d u r i n g C a e s a r ' s d i l e m m a o f c r o s s i n g t h e R u b i c o n , s t u d e n t s g a i n a d e e p e r m e a n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . T hey c a n "be t h e r e " , e x a m i n i n g i s s u e s and s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l "hands on" s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g a d v o c a t e d by J o h n Dewey t h a t became t h e b a s i s o f p e d a g o g y t h a t was t o g r o w i n p o p u l a r i t y among e d u c a t o r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . C h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y l e a r n b y e n g a g i n g i n make b e l i e v e p l a y , c o p y i n g a d u l t b e h a v i o r t o make s e n s e o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them. "Much o f t h e y o u n g c h i l d ' s e a r l y l a n g u a g e a r i s e s o u t o f s o c i a l and s o l i t a r y p l a y " ( T a r l i n g t o n and V e r r i o u r , 1 9 8 3 , p. 4 ) . I t i s on t h i s p r e m i s e t h a t t h e work and i d e o l o g i e s o f 3 H e a t h c o t e and B o l t o n a r e b a s e d and anyone who h a s w i t n e s s e d t h e i r work w i t h s t u d e n t s o r r e a d t h e i r t h e o r i e s o f how and why t h i s t y p e o f l e a r n i n g i s s u c c e s s f u l , c a n ' t h e l p b u t become an e n t h u s i a s t i c d i s c i p l e o f t h i s m e t h o d o l o g y . I was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i n 1987 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h D r . P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r . I s t u d i e d t h e t h e o r i e s o f H e a t h c o t e and B o l t o n , and a c c e p t e d t h e l o g i c o f t h e i r w o r k , b u t i n r e a l i t y t h e r e o f t e n e x i s t e d , among t h e p l a y e r s , an e l e m e n t o f f r i v o l i t y . B o l t o n a d d r e s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s p r o b l e m d u r i n g t h e s e m i n a r he gave a t U.B.C. ( J u l y , 1990) and a l s o i n R o b i n s o n (Ed.) E x p l o r i n g T h e a t r e & E d u c a t i o n where he e m p h a s i z e s t h e need f o r " t h e t i g h t n e s s o f t e a c h e r s t r u c t u r i n g " ( p . 84) s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e l e s s o n s f r o m e x t r a v e r t e d , w i l d a c t i n g o u t . H e a t h c o t e ( 1 9 8 0 , p. 21) a d v i s e s a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s i n d r a m a t i c p l a y : "When y o u f e e l a g i g g l e c o m i n g o n . . . d o n ' t c a t c h an e y e . " B o l t o n s t r e s s e s " t h e o n l y o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a t h a t must be met a r e t h o s e t h a t he ( t h e s t u d e n t ) n e e d s t o make h i s r o l e c r e d i b l e t o h i m s e l f and t o h i s c l a s s m a t e s " ( p . 8 3 ) . He a l s o c a u t i o n s t e a c h e r s t o be aware o f t h e e x i s t i n g ( r e a l ) r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s i n t h e drama: Sometimes t e a c h e r s do o p e r a t e w i t h d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s t h a t t h r e a t e n t o p e r m e a t e t h e b a r r i e r b e t w e e n t h e s i m u l a t e d n e t w o r k ( t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n ) and t h e r e a l n e t w o r k ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s among p u p i l s and b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s ) ( B o l t o n , i n R o b i n s o n ( E d . ) , 1980, p. 8 3 ) . I q u e s t i o n e d t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f t h e a t r e i n t h i s t y p e o f d r a m a , and t h e i n s i s t e n c e b y many o f i t s 4 a d v o c a t e s t h a t a c t i n g s k i l l s d i d n o t b e l o n g i n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g a t a l l . T r u e , i t w a s n ' t t h e a t r e , and t h e r e w a s n ' t an a u d i e n c e , b u t p a r t i c i p a n t s had t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g o b s e r v e d , a ware o f one a n o t h e r as b o t h a c t o r s and a u d i e n c e , and t h e r e f o r e were s u b j e c t e d t o some p r e s s u r e t o g i v e an i m p r e s s i v e p e r f o r m a n c e . One has t o a c c e p t t h e r e i s a p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h a t t h e a c t o r must c o m m u n i c a t e t o o t h e r s w i t h i n t h e drama. Would p l a y e r s i n t h i s c o n t e x t f e e l t h r e a t e n e d w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a t r e ? Was t h e t a s k t o o d i f f i c u l t i f one had n e v e r a c t e d b e f o r e ? How r e a l c o u l d t h e drama f e e l t o t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e a t r e s k i l l s ? C o u l d i t be t o o d e m a n d i n g f o r t h o s e who p e r h a p s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e t a s k as a " p e r f o r m a n c e " w i t h a l l e y e s w a t c h i n g them? I a l s o had c o n c e r n s a b o u t a d r a m a t i c f o r m i n e d u c a t i o n t h a t d i v o r c e d i t s e l f f r o m t h e a t r i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e , p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d n ' t n e e d t o know a n y t h i n g a b o u t a c t i n g , w h i l e b e h a v i n g and s o u n d i n g v e r y much l i k e t h e a r t f o r m o f drama ( t h e a t r e ) w i t h u s e o f t e r m s s u c h as t i m e , s p a c e , t e n s i o n , b e l i e v a b i 1 i t y , s y m b o l s , s i g n s , and p h r a s e s l i k e " i n s i d e t h e drama" and " o u t s i d e t h e drama". I f t h i s f o r m o f drama d i d n ' t r e q u i r e p r i o r t r a i n i n g i n t h e a t r e s k i l l s and d i d n ' t i n v o l v e a c t i n g , t h e n why w o u l d t h e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f t h e a t r e be f o u n d i n i t s l a n g u a g e ? . D r a m a t i c p l a y i n g a p p e a r s t o h o v e r b e t w e e n two camps: t h e a t r e as an a r t f o r m and drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l and i t s l i d e s i n t o w h i c h e v e r camp p r o v i d e s v a l i d i t y f o r t h a t moment. 5 This " c i t i z e n of two camps" could create ambiguity in the minds of some teachers. Teachers attending courses or workshops on dramatic playing as a learning t o o l , may have been told that t h i s form of drama i s not theatre but a learning t o o l . On the other hand teachers who have not received t r a i n i n g in drama in education, have often been l e f t to their own resources which could re s u l t in a variety of dramatic forms, not necessarily in concert with the goals of the ministry. Classroom teachers hesitate to use drama because they have not received t r a i n i n g in drama (Nelson, 1988) . In 1990, Gavin Bolton, while teaching a summer course at U.B.C, was adamant that dramatic playing was not theatre. While experiencing dramatic playing within his classes, we were reminded that no one should assume the role of "director" to improve the drama. Bolton argued that concern for improving "acting s k i l l s " could make the drama a r t i f i c i a l , and the focus would be on performing, and away from learning within the context of the drama. Yet, the demands of being able to "think" on one's feet, be creative, imaginative, convincing in r o l e , audible, and making appropriate verbal responses, i s surely d i f f i c u l t for those teachers and pupils lacking in theatre s k i l l s . In the hands of the s k i l l e d teacher-actor-director leader of the c l a s s , l i k e Gavin Bolton, dramatic playing can be most e f f e c t i v e in enlightening pupils through vicarious experiencing followed by discussion and r e f l e c t i o n on what has been learned, but to give t h i s task to 6 t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , w i t h no e x p e r i e n c e i n drama o r t h e a t r e seemed t o me t o be " i n v i t i n g t h e t e a c h e r t o f a i l " - a t h o u g h t a f f i r m e d by B o l t o n h i m s e l f . E d u c a t o r s o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i n s i s t t h a t t h e a t r e s k i l l s w i l l be l e a r n e d "en r o u t e " t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g . " T h e a t r e s k i l l s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e a g r o u p e n g a g e s i n d r a m a , b u t w o r k i n g i n drama i s l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p and e n h a n c e t h o s e s k i l l s " ( O ' N e i l l and L a m b e r t , 1982, p. 1 3 ) . B u t w o u l d t h e t e a c h e r w i t h o u t some b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e a t r e know what s k i l l s t o e n c o u r a g e , o r know what d i r e c t i o n h e / s h e s h o u l d be p u r s u i n g i n drama? S k i l l - b a s e d t e a c h i n g v e r s u s t h e h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h h a s been an o n - g o i n g d e b a t e among e d u c a t o r s . I f one t a k e s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t some t h e a t r e s k i l l s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s c o n f i d e n c e w h i l e e n g a g i n g i n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g , a r e t h e s k i l l s t o be t a u g h t b e f o r e , d u r i n g , o r a f t e r , o r a r e t h e y n o t t o be t a u g h t a t a l l b u t r a t h e r d i s c o v e r e d i n a h o l i s t i c l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t as O ' N e i l l and L a m b e r t (1982) s u g g e s t and B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 2) c o n f i r m s ? B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 2) s t a t e s t h a t drama t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be t e a c h i n g t h e how o f drama and t h a t s t u d e n t s "must o v e r t h e y e a r s a c q u i r e t h e b a s i c d r a m a / t h e a t r e s k i l l s o f s e l e c t i n g f o c u s , i n j e c t i n g t e n s i o n and c r e a t i n g m e a n i n g f u l s y m b o l s " . He t h e n adds " n o t i c e I u s e d t h e word ' a c q u i r e d ' i n s t e a d o f ' t a u g h t ' " , a p p a r e n t l y s u g g e s t i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t b a s i c s k i l l s o f t h e a t r e s h o u l d n o t be t h e f o c u s b u t w i l l be l e a r n e d w h i l e e n g a g i n g i n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g w i t h i n c o g n i t i v e p u r s u i t s . 7 B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o n f i r m s t h i s v i e w o f s k i l l l e a r n i n g c l a i m i n g " ' C o n s c i o u s n e s s o f d r a m a t i c f o r m ' i s s o m e t h i n g o f t e n s e n s e d a t a t a c i t l e v e l o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n " ( p . 3 8 ) . B e c a u s e t h e f o c u s i s on p r o c e s s ( d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g ) and n o t p r o d u c t ( t h e a t r e ) i t c o u l d be p o s s i b l e t h a t drama t e c h n i q u e m i g h t be o v e r l o o k e d . However, e n t h u s i a s t s o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g f e e l t h a t i f t h e e l e m e n t s o f " a c t i n g " were a d o m i n a n t f a c t o r t h i s c o u l d g i v e t h e drama an a i r o f a r t i f i c i a l i t y , where r e h e a r s i n g c o u l d become a m a j o r component o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e a r c h f o r m e a n i n g . The drama w o u l d l o s e i t s s p o n t a n e i t y . B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) d e s c r i b e s d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g as a " m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h s t i l l r e t a i n s t h e s p o n t a n e i t y , t h e now-ness and t h e me-ness o f an a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e " i n t h a t " i t i s h a p p e n i n g and y e t n o t h a p p e n i n g " ( p . 7 2 ) . B e c a u s e i t i s s o c l o s e t o e v e r y d a y l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s t e a c h e r s c a n u s e d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g " t o h e l p c h i l d r e n f i n d and r e f l e c t upon a l l k i n d s o f m e a n i n g s t h a t may n o t be a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v i n g " ( p . 7 2 ) . I n c o n t r a s t , B o l t o n s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h e a t r e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e a c t o r s c a n s a y " i t i s h a p p e n i n g t o me now; and I am m a k i n g i t h a p p e n " i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d o r o v e r s h a d o w e d by an o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , r e p e a t a b i l i t y , p r o j e c t i o n and s h a r i n g w i t h an a u d i e n c e . The a c t o r i n a p l a y i s a c t i n g , t h e c h i l d i n drama i s being. As t h e p l a y w r i g h t " f o c u s e s t h e m e a n i n g f o r t h e a u d i e n c e , s o t h e t e a c h e r h e l p s t o f o c u s m e a n i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n " ( p . 7 2 ) . B o l t o n c l a i m s t h a t when t h e t e a c h e r 8 becomes t h e p l a y w r i g h t , p r o v i d i n g t h e t e n s i o n and f o c u s f o r t h e d rama, i . e . , u s i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p l a y w r i g h t , a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f l e a r n i n g w i l l o c c u r . E v e r y d a y human i n t e r a c t i o n , and t h e human i n t e r a c t i o n i n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g and on t h e s t a g e , a l l have c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n common b u t t h e y a r e n o t t h e same. The a c t o r s o f t h e s t a g e p l a y a r e e n g a g e d i n t h e t a s k o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g a message o r m e a n i n g t o an p a s s i v e a u d i e n c e whose p u r p o s e i t i s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n s u c h a way as t o f i t w i t h t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e . I f t h e a u d i e n c e c a n ' t i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e p l a y , t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i l l mean l i t t l e . D r a m a t i c p l a y i n g , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d o e s n o t i n v o l v e p r e s e n t i n g t o a p a s s i v e a u d i e n c e w i t h t h e a i m o f m a k i n g a s t a t e m e n t , o r e n t e r t a i n i n g i n some way; i t i s t h e i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l " a c t i n g o u t " o f c e r t a i n human i n t e r a c t i o n s t o c r e a t e m e a n i n g among t h e p l a y e r s , r a t h e r l i k e a s e a r c h t h r o u g h c o n t e x t b u t o v e r u n e x p l o r e d u n f a m i l i a r t e r r a i n , t o l i v e i n a n o t h e r s e t t i n g o r t i m e , w h i l e l e a r n i n g what i t f e e l s l i k e t o be o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t . B o t h d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g and s c r i p t e d t h e a t r i c a l human i n t e r a c t i o n s e e k t o e m u l a t e and r e c r e a t e " e v e r y d a y " human i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e a c t u a l d rama. A l t h o u g h b o t h f o r m s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n p u r p o s e and s t r u c t u r e , common t o b o t h a r e t h e s k i l l s o f t h e a t r e and some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a t r i c a l f o r m . D r a m a t i c p l a y i n g p l a c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e s k i l l s w i t h i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e drama w h e r e a s t h o s e c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o t enough a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s k i l l s o f 9 t h e a t r e w o u l d p l a c e t h e s e s k i l l s i n a more f o r m a l c o n t e x t : t h e a t r e t r a i n i n g . B u r g e s s ( 1 982) s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h t o drama h i n d e r s t h e s t u d e n t ' s a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e a t r e t e c h n i q u e and " d e n i e d drama i t s a e s t h e t i c , a r t i s t i c m e r i t s " r e m i n d i n g us t h a t a f o c u s on drama as a t o o l t o d i s c o v e r m e a n i n g i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s l e f t s t u d e n t s s t r u g g l i n g t o l e a r n more a b o u t f o r m , s k i l l s , and t e c h n i q u e ( B u r g e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) . I t h a s b e e n my e x p e r i e n c e t h a t most t e a c h e r s a g r e e t h a t d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g and drama i n a l l i t s f o r m s i s a v a l u a b l e p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m b u t t h a t i n r e a l i t y , i f t i m e demands t h a t s o m e t h i n g be d r o p p e d f r o m t h e t i m e t a b l e , drama w o u l d be t h e f i r s t t o go. A t t h e h e a r t o f t h i s d i l e m m a i s p e r h a p s t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f drama and i t s v a l u e i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . " T e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s have been more h e a l t h i l y s k e p t i c a l o f i t s a i m s t h a n i s s o m e t i m e s s u p p o s e d " ( H o r n b r o o k , 1989, p. 5 3 ) . D a v i d B e s t ( 1 9 85) r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t drama f r o m t h e a e s t h e t i c s p h e r e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o have a p r o b l e m b e i n g t a k e n s e r i o u s l y i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m a s l o n g as p e o p l e s e e i t as s o m e t h i n g one f e e l s o r as a v e h i c l e o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , v o i d o f a l l r e a s o n . As l o n g as p e o p l e s h a r e t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e a r t s , s k i l l t e a c h i n g c a n n o t be a p r i o r i t y : f e e l i n g i s what c o u n t s , and t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . " I f a r t i s t i c j u d g e m e n t s c a n n o t be r a t i o n a l l y j u s t i f i e d , t h e r e c a n be no p l a c e f o r t h e a r t s i n e d u c a t i o n " ( B e s t , 1985, v i i i ) . B e s t ( 1 9 8 5 ) c l a i m s t h a t a w e a k n e s s i n t h e a r t s i s one o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y : 10 A c c o u n t a b i l i t y d e p e n d s n o t o n l y upon t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e wo r k , b u t upon t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h c a n be o f f e r e d f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h a t k i n d o f a c t i v i t y i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . ( B e s t , p. 1 3 ) . I f t h e o n l y t y p e o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s t h a t w h i c h i s o b s e r v a b l e and t e s t a b l e and t h e r e f o r e " a c c o u n t a b l e " , B e s t i s c o r r e c t . I n many c a s e s t h i s s t i l l r e m a i n s many p e o p l e ' s o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n . Many t a x p a y e r s want t o s e e c o n c r e t e i d e n t i f i a b l e r e s u l t s f o r t h e i r d o l l a r s . T h e r e a r e a l s o many e d u c a t o r s who need and d e s i r e a c l e a r s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n o r d e r t o t e a c h w i t h c o n f i d e n c e o r i n harmony w i t h what i s e x p e c t e d o f them. B u t i n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g much l e a r n i n g c a n t a k e p l a c e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r h a s n o t p l a n n e d and much l e a r n i n g c a n t a k e p l a c e where t h e s t u d e n t c a n n o t be t e s t e d t o s e e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e l e a r n i n g b e c a u s e t h i s l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s a c h a n g e i n p e r c e p t i o n ; s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n v a r y w i t h e a c h s t u d e n t and i s d i f f i c u l t t o v a l i d a t e . T h r o u g h my own e x p e r i e n c e o f t w e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s i n c l a s s r o o m s , I c a n a t t e s t t o B e s t ' s s t a t e m e n t a s I h a v e s e e n drama t a u g h t i n many d i f f e r e n t f o r m s b y my c o l l e a g u e s and i t w o u l d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o r e a c h a c o n s e n s u s among t e a c h e r s as t o w h i c h a c t i v i t y c o n s t i t u t e s " g o o d " drama f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m o r as t o t h e b e s t way t o e m p l o y t h e u s e o f drama i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I f drama i s t o be l e f t t o t h e autonomy o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , t h e v a r i a n c e s a l o n e c o u l d make one d o u b t t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e s t u d e n t . " I t i s o n l y i f r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n an a c t i v i t y 11 t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y c a n be j u s t i f i e d e d u c a t i o n a l l y " ( B e s t , 1985, p. 1 3 ) . B e s t s e e s a need f o r t h e a r t s t o h a v e t h e same o b j e c t i v e g o a l s r e q u i r e d o f t h e s u b j e c t s o f r e a s o n — t h e  s c i e n c e s — a n d i f t h e a r t s were a p p r o a c h e d t h a t way, t h e y w o u l d have more c r e d i b i l i t y . B u t s u b j e c t i v i s t s a c c e p t t h a t j u d g e m e n t s o f a r t i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n a r e n o t s u p p o r t a b l e b y r e a s o n s i n c e t h e y c a n n o t be s u p p o r t e d b y t h e k i n d o f r e a s o n i n g w h i c h i s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s c i e n c e s . One m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h e word reasoning t o be i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h a n y c o n c e p t o f a r t and t o a p p r o a c h t h e a r t s i n a s c i e n t i f i c way c o u l d e r o d e t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e a r t s . B e s t a r g u e s a g a i n s t t h i s p o s i t i o n c l a i m i n g t h e r e a r e n o t u n l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s when l o o k i n g a t a p a i n t i n g o r l i s t e n i n g t o a m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n and t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f r e a s o n i n g , a c r i t e r i a w h i c h c a n i n d e e d be t a u g h t . A r t i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , l i k e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n a n y s p h e r e , a l l o w s f o r t h e i n d e f i n i t e b u t n o t u n l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and o f an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s w h i c h g i v e s e n s e t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and j u d g e m e n t . ( B e s t , 1985, p. 3 3 ) . One c o u l d a r g u e h e r e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e t o a r t i n t h a t t h i s i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , b u t a t t h e r o o t o f t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t e v a l u a t i n g a r t i s e i t h e r b a s e d on a s e t c r i t e r i a f o r a p p r e c i a t i n g a r t o r i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e i n h e r e n t v a l u e s h e l d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t , i . e . , i f t h e a r t i s t o r v i e w e r t h i n k s t h e a r t i n q u e s t i o n i s b e a u t i f u l , t h e n i t i s . S h o u l d t h e f o c u s be on t h e s e l f o r t h e s u b j e c t ? Does one's p h i l o s o p h y g r a v i t a t e t o w a r d s a c h i l d -12 centered education or a subject-centered education? Does one embrace the s p i r i t of the eighteenth century Romanticists and Rousseau or are one's feelings aligned with the reasoning approach of the pragmatists? I don't think t h i s can be resolved as one's position rests on one's deep-rooted orientation to l i f e i t s e l f and therefore must surely have a strong impact on the type of teaching and drama that w i l l be carried on in the classroom, and on a larger scale one's di s p o s i t i o n to the arts. Silberman (1970, p. 4) claims "as has often been said, that a l l theories of education are autobiographical". As the arts are seen as part of the a f f e c t i v e domain and the expression of the individual and dramatic playing has been " t r a d i t i o n a l l y preoccupied with the p r i v a t i z a t i o n of experience" (Hornbrook, 1989, p. 3), many c l i e n t s and educators may not consider i t a serious subject in the curriculum. Dramatic playing excluding i t s e l f from the domain of the arts and taking the position of teaching methodology where i t addresses goals of both the a f f e c t i v e and cognitive domains could contribute to confusion among teachers as to expectations of students and the Ministry's expectations of teachers. Is drama in the curriculum an art or not? "To be inducted into any subject, d i s c i p l i n e , or area of knowledge is to learn to grasp i t s c r i t e r i a of value" (Best, 1985, p. 36). The s u b j e c t i v i s t who claims the a r t i s t must be free to create with no bounds to r e s t r i c t his i n d i v i d u a l i t y of expression, i s caught in a dilemma because art that is to have 13 i t s p l a c e i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m n e e d s t o have an o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r g o a l s t o be r e a c h e d s o , a s i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s , e v a l u a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e ( B e s t , 1 9 8 5 ) . B e s t a r g u e s a g a i n s t t h e s u b j e c t i v i s t 1 s s t a n c e s a y i n g t h a t i f a r t i s f o r t h e s o l e p u r p o s e o f e x p r e s s i o n , o f t h e a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n o f l e a r n i n g , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , how c a n t h e t e a c h e r s o f a r t a c c e p t t h e i r s a l a r y ? T hey h a v e n o t h i n g t o t e a c h . The c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e c h i l d , l e f t t o d e v e l o p i n h i s own i n d i v i d u a l way. As H o r n b r o o k (1989) c l a i m s , p o s t -war a r t s e d u c a t i o n g i v e s p r i m a r y s t a t u s t o k n o w l e d g e and e x p r e s s i o n o f s e l f t r u e t o t h e i d e o l o g y o f R o u s s e a u ( p . 6 1 ) . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , a l l a r t i s g o o d , as l o n g as i t i s s i n c e r e and t h e a r t i s t i s c o m m i t t e d t o h i s w o r k , and a n y o n e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a r t i s a s good a s a n o t h e r ' s , ( i . e . , t h e e v a l u a t i o n i s s i m p l y a v a l u e - j u d g e m e n t ) . " Y e t o f c o u r s e one c a n and f r e q u e n t l y d o e s o f f e r r e a s o n s i n s u p p o r t o f one's v a l u e - j u d g e m e n t s , and n o t o n l y i n t h e a r t s " ( B e s t , 1985, p. 3 6 ) . B e s t v i g o r o u s l y s u p p o r t s t h i s p o s i t i o n b u t one c o u l d a r g u e t h e r e i s room f o r b o t h s u b j e c t i v i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y i n drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 0) c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e i s o b j e c t i v i t y i n drama i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i n t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w o r k s l i k e a p l a y w r i g h t , b u i l d i n g t e n s i o n , u s i n g c o n t r a s t i n s o u n d , l i g h t and movement, c h o o s i n g s y m b o l i c a c t i o n s , e t c . [ T ] h e p r i n c i p l e f u n c t i o n o f a drama t e a c h e r , t h e n , i s t o us e t h e a t r i c a l f o r m i n o r d e r t o e n h a n c e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e ; b y u s i n g t h e t h e a t r i c a l e l e m e n t s o f t e n s i o n , f o c u s , c o n t r a s t and s y m b o l i z a t i o n , 14 a c t i o n s and o b j e c t s i n t h e drama become s i g n i f i c a n t ( i n R o b i n s o n , 1980, p . 7 3 ) . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y i n t h i s f o r m l i e s i n t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e t h e a t r i c a l f o r m i s u s e d i n o r d e r t o enh a n c e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e ; t h e g o a l i s t h a t t h e drama w i l l r e s u l t i n some c h a n g e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p e r c e p t i o n " o f o n e s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d one l i v e s i n " ( B o l t o n , i n R o b i n s o n (Ed.) p. 7 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B o l t o n a "change i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g i m p l i e s an a f f e c t i v e / c o g n i t i v e s h i f t i n t h e t o p i c " . One c a n n o t e v a l u a t e o r s a t i s f y a c l e a r s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n t h i s r e a l m b e c a u s e one c a n n o t " s e e " a c h a n g e w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l , i . e . , a c h a n g e i n h i s / h e r p e r c e p t i o n o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t o p i c . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book (1985) d e s c r i b e s t h e two s t r a n d s o f drama t h a t a r e t o be p r e s e n t e d t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : *'[T]he r e s o u r c e s f o r drama i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s a r e o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d a r e a s o f a p p r e c i a t i o n and c r e a t i o n . The two a r e a s a r e ' r e s p o n d i n g t o drama' and ' d o i n g d r a m a ' " ( p . 8 4 ) . The drama e x p e r i e n c e l e a d s t o " r e f l e c t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n " w h i c h i n t u r n c a n l e a d t o "a c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e o r a d i f f e r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g " ( E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s  C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book. 1985, p. 8 4 ) . A p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a t r e and l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h drama s h o u l d be c l e a r i n t h e e d u c a t o r ' s m i n d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e 15 s u c c e s s o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f drama i n e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m s and t o e x a m i n e t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . The s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r t o what e x t e n t e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s u n d e r s t o o d t h e u s e o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g a s a l e a r n i n g t o o l ; i t s s t r u c t u r e , p u r p o s e , o b j e c t i v e s , and t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s u s e . T h i s s t u d y a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d what t y p e s o f drama e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were u s i n g t o meet t h e g o a l s o f drama as mandated i n t h e F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e q u e s t i o n s I w i s h t o p u r s u e i n t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. To what e x t e n t i s drama b e i n g t a u g h t i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ? 2. A r e t e a c h e r s m e e t i n g t h e g o a l s o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n drama? 3. What k i n d o f drama a r e e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g ? (Drama games, t h e a t r e s p o r t s , s k i t s , s c r i p t d r a m a , p l a y s f o r s c h o o l c o n c e r t s , i m p r o v i s a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c a d e m i c l e s s o n s t o e n h a n c e l e a r n i n g , o r d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g ) ? 4. I s t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n s t r a n d o f drama t a k i n g p l a c e i n drama o r h a s i t b e e n d e s i g n a t e d t o l a n g u a g e a r t s c l a s s e s where p l a y s may be r e a d and s t u d i e d , b u t s e l d o m a c t e d o u t ? 5. How do t e a c h e r s d e f i n e drama? A r e t h e y aware o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l ? Have t h e y t a k e n a n y c o u r s e s , o r a t t e n d e d a n y w o r k s h o p s on d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g ? 16 6. If dramatic playing is not being used in the classroom, what are the reasons? 7. Are teachers able to make a clear d i s t i n c t i o n between performance and dramatic playing? 8. Do teachers f e e l that the lack of s k i l l s and experience in drama, both among students and teachers, hinder the success of dramatic playing in classrooms? 9. In t h i s l a s t decade the bulk of l i t e r a t u r e in drama and education has applauded dramatic playing as a valuable learning t o o l . Are teachers knowledgeable in the use of drama as a teaching tool? 10. What do teachers f e e l i s the main purpose of drama on the curriculum? 11. Do teachers recognize a clear set of objectives to be attained in drama as well as a c r i t e r i a for evaluation? LIMITATIONS The focus of the study was grade three to seven classrooms in elementary schools within a large urban area in the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The sample of educators, chosen at random, came from a wide variety of teaching si t u a t i o n s . I wanted a s t r a t i f i e d random sampling of forty percent of the schools but due to the time of the year the study was done, ( A p r i l , May and June), many pri n c i p a l s did not wish to impose upon their teachers the extra task of 17 c o m p l e t i n g a s u r v e y . T h e r e f o r e i n s t e a d o f t h e i n t e n d e d f o r t y p e r c e n t , t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s c h o o l s were s u r v e y e d . T h i s i n f l u e n c e d t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h i s s t u d y . T w e n t y -t h r e e p r i n c i p a l s g a v e p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e s u r v e y t o be done i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . One h u n d r e d s e v e n t e a c h e r s c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (See A p p e n d i x C ) . A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n c o u l d be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s a t t i t u d e and d i s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d s d r a m a , when d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s among t h e f i v e s t a f f members (one p e r g r a d e s t h r e e t o s e v e n t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d ) . B e c a u s e o f t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may h a v e i g n o r e d o r o v e r l o o k e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o c h o o s e t h e t e a c h e r whose name p r e c e d e d t h e o t h e r i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , and i n s t e a d , have g i v e n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e t e a c h e r who was i n t e r e s t e d i n d r ama. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t p r i n c i p a l s o f s c h o o l s t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n s u c c e s s f u l drama p r o g r a m s v o l u n t e e r e d t o h a v e t h e i r s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d . T h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e s u r v e y i n s o f a r as t h e random s a m p l e i n c l u d e d a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f r e s p o n d e n t s a l r e a d y s u c c e s s f u l l y u s i n g drama i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . I was made aware o f a t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n a s t h e r e s u l t o f a f i e l d s t u d y I c o n d u c t e d a t t h e s c h o o l where I am p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g . I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t e a c h e r s , i n s p i t e o f t h e a s s u r a n c e o f a n o n y m i t y , seemed r e l u c t a n t t o s a y t h e y were n o t u s i n g drama i n t h e c l a s s r o o m f o r f e a r o f some p r o f e s s i o n a l r e p e r c u s s i o n . I t a p p e a r e d t h e y were h e s i t a n t t o r e s p o n d w i t h a n y n e g a t i v e comments r e g a r d i n g drama i n c l a s s r o o m s as drama 18 i s m a ndated by t h e m i n i s t r y and f i t s w e l l w i t h p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , b e c a u s e e d u c a t o r s may have been d i s i n c l i n e d t o a n s w e r h o n e s t l y , t h i s l i m i t a t i o n c o u l d have a f f e c t e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . As i n v e s t i g a t o r , my d i s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d s drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d a l t e r my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . I t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o r e s e a r c h a t o p i c w i t h o u t t a k i n g a s t a n c e one way o r a n o t h e r o r t o a p p r o a c h an e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c w i t h t w e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o u t o n e ' s own a t t i t u d e s i n f l u e n c i n g o n e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . As t h e i n t e r p r e t e r o f c o l l e c t e d d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r a l i n t e r v i e w s , a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t was made n o t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p o s i t i o n on d rama. B u t as a p h e n o m e n o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y i s t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e phenomena u n d e r s c r u t i n y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h e r e s u l t s c a n c o n t a i n some b i a s . T h i s i s an u n a v o i d a b l e f l a w i n t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h . 19 DEFINITION OF TERMS Several terms are used in t h i s study which need to be defined for c l a r i f i c a t i o n . 1. C o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g : Learning in a noncompetitive environment where students work in small groups c o l l e c t i v e l y solving the problem. 2. Phenomenography: A research method where the investigator examines the various conceptions of a certain phenomenon held by subjects of the study. The data is collected through interviews, either in-person or by telephone, and then analyzed and assorted into categories indicating d i f f e r e n t conceptions of the same phenomena. 3. T h e a t r e : Performance or anything that goes into the making of performance, to be presented to an audience. 4. D r a m a t i c P l a y i n g : The term "dramatic playing" often e l i c i t s confusion among classroom teachers who have not been exposed to this form of drama through university courses, workshops or reading. It has been ca l l e d "role drama", "drama in education", "dramatic playing" or "dramatic play", but the terms are synonymous. I wrote the following description which was approved by Gavin Bolton during a summer course he taught in 1990 at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. What i s D r a m a t i c P l a y i n g ? In dramatic play, students are exploring meaning with no intention of communicating the meaning to an audience. The 20 s t u d e n t s a r e " i n r o l e " and D o r o t h y H e a t h c o t e , ( 1 9 82) s u g g e s t s . . . t h e p e r s p e c t i v e f r o m w h i c h p e o p l e a r e c o m i n g t o e n t e r t h e e v e n t i s c a l l e d f r a m e , and f r a m e i s t h e m a i n a g e n t i n p r o v i d i n g ( a ) t e n s i o n and (b) m e a n i n g f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t e a c h e r s e t s t h e f r a m e , i n r o l e , and t h r o u g h t h i s method i s a b l e t o i m p a r t many k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l be much more r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h a n i f t h e y r e c e i v e d i t i n t h e u s u a l c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n where k n o w l e d g e f l o w s f r o m t h e t e a c h e r , b e c a u s e t h e y w i l l be u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o make t h e i r drama more m e a n i n g f u l . T h e y a r e i n r o l e i n a s c e n e o r s i t u a t i o n u s i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e a t r e , t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s , ( p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and p r i o r k n o w l e d g e ) and what t h e y b e l i e v e t o be a p p r o p r i a t e o r l o g i c a l b e h a v i o r , l a n g u a g e , r e s p o n s e s , e t c . w i t h i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r theme, s e t t i n g , o r c o n t e x t . B e i n g i n r o l e i s n o t meant t o be m e r e l y i n t e r e s t i n g , o r e n t e r t a i n i n g ; i t may ha v e an o u t e r a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e o n l o o k e r t h a t a l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n r o l e i s d o i n g i s a c t i n g . R o l e s must n e v e r a c t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t an a c t o r may, f o r t h e y have a d i f f e r e n t j o b t o do ( H e a t h c o t e , 1982) . I t i s a c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t , a c o l l a b o r a t i v e e x e r c i s e on i m p r o v i s a t i o n l i k e n e d t o a game i n t h a t , w h i l e i n r o l e , p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v e i n t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e moment ( t h e game i s t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y ) and a f t e r t h e drama, a r e aware t h a t i t was n o t r e a l l i f e . I t a l s o h a s t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f a game, (a p r o b l e m t o be s o l v e d and c o m p e t i t i o n , w i t h o n e s e l f and w i t h o t h e r s ) . The f o c u s i s n o t on p l o t , b u t r a t h e r on f e e l i n g s , a w a r e n e s s , empathy, a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f 21 a content area, a chance to walk i n another person's shoes to g a i n a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e of the i s s u e . The moment i n time i s stopped, magnified, examined, l i v e d through, understood, and r e f l e c t e d upon. I t i s a chance to be there, to climb i n t o another world and l e a r n how i t s i n h a b i t a n t s f e e l , and conclude t h a t as human animals, we have shared human responses to the same s t i m u l i . There i s no audience i n dramatic p l a y . P a r t i c i p a n t s are both the a c t o r s and the audience. They are r e - e n a c t i n g everyday s i t u a t i o n s , making the drama more r e a l by using r i t u a l s , symbols, and s i g n a l s from s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s of l i f e . A c t u a l l i v i n g and t h e a t r e , which i s a d e p i c t i o n of l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , both use the same network of s i g n s as t h e i r medium of communication; namely the human s i g n a l l i n g across space, i n immediate time, to and with o t h e r s , each rea d i n g and s i g n a l l i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h i n the a c t i o n of each p a s s i n g moment (Heathcote, 1982). The more the drama uses " o r d e r i n g " , the c l o s e r i t w i l l be to t h e a t r e . The success of dramatic p l a y depends on everyone "managing" the drama, j u s t as i n everyday l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . For example, everyone must work hard at managing the r i t u a l of a wedding f o r i t to be a "good" or a p p r o p r i a t e wedding i n the s o c i a l sense. Responses by p l a y e r s must be l o g i c a l . The f r a g i l i t y of the dramatic p l a y r e s t s on the n o t i o n of everyone working towards the success of the drama. 5. The Performance Mode as a Vehicle For Learning: Although the main focus of drama i n education has been on the e x p r e s s i v e mode of the continuum, dramatic p l a y i n g , the performance mode which c o n t a i n s many of the same elements as 22 dramatic p l a y i n g , i s a l s o seen as a v e h i c l e f o r the l e a r n i n g of content ( s u b j e c t matter) as w e l l as t h e a t r e s k i l l s . An example of t h i s form would be the ta b l e a u where students present the essence of the drama i n a f r e e z e frame, a s t i l l p i c t u r e which can "come to l i f e " with thoughts of p a r t i c i p a n t s v e r b a l i z e d when "touched" by the te a c h e r . T h i s form f o r c e s students to think about r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h a r a c t e r s and to see beyond the s u r f a c e , i . e . , the subtext. The t a b l e a u q u i c k l y and eco n o m i c a l l y gets to the heart of the s u b j e c t , so students are both examining s u b t l e t i e s of the context as w e l l as using and l e a r n i n g t h e a t r e technique. The performance mode serves two masters: t h e a t r e s k i l l s and g e t t i n g beyond the s u r f a c e of the context, l e a r n i n g t h a t which i s not e x p l i c i t , the subtext. Whether f u n c t i o n a l or a e s t h e t i c , drama i s an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g . SUMMARY OF PROBLEM The goals of drama are c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the Fine A r t s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide of 1985 i n support of the c u r r e n t philosophy of the M i n i s t r y of Ed u c a t i o n . The conceptual model f o r drama found i n the Elementary F i n e A r t s Guide, p. 81, bases the i n c l u s i o n of drama on two p r i n c i p l e s : 1. A l l people l i v e t h e i r l i v e s w i t h i n a dramatic c o n t e x t . Teaching c h i l d r e n to recognize the nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s dramatic 23 c o n t e x t p r o v i d e s them w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d , and t o c o n s c i o u s l y a f f e c t , l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . 2. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d l e a r n t o make i n f o r m e d j u d g m e n t s a b o u t d r a m a t i c a r t ( i . e . , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and e x p r e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e a t r e , f i l m , and t e l e v i s i o n ) . C a t e g o r i e s o f l e a r n i n g a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two s t r a n d s : a) d o i n g d rama, ( p . 93) b) r e s p o n d i n g t o d r a m a , ( p . 95) I n t h i s s t u d y , I hoped t o d i s c o v e r t o what e x t e n t drama was b e i n g p r a c t i s e d i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , as w e l l a s u n c o v e r t h e r e a s o n s why i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s u c h an i m p o r t a n t component o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m may h a v e b e e n n e g l e c t e d . U s i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , I s u r v e y e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h drama was b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d i n e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m s . I n a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r t o be i n t e r v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o augment t h o s e f i n d i n g s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I c o n d u c t e d o r a l i n t e r v i e w s t o a n a l y z e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n , i . e . , t h e v a l u e o f u s i n g drama i n c l a s s r o o m s as a l e a r n i n g t o o l , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i t was b e i n g u s e d , how i t was b e i n g u s e d , and i f i t was n o t b e i n g u s e d , what were t h e r e a s o n s ? T h r o u g h o r a l 24 i n t e r v i e w s I hoped to d i s c o v e r any d i s t i n c t i o n teachers made between dramatic p l a y i n g and t h e a t r e , i f teachers saw a pl a c e f o r t h e a t r e s k i l l s i n drama, and which dramatic form was t h e i r p r e f e r ence when working with t h e i r students and why? 25 CHAPTER 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W : INTRODUCTION I t i s the i n t e n t of t h i s chapter to review the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t provides the b a s i s f o r t h i s study. There are four areas of p e r u s a l r e l a t e d to the study: 1. The importance of the a r t s i n the c u r r i c u l u m . 2. The e v o l u t i o n of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m . 3. The two d i f f e r e n t types of drama: dramatic p l a y i n g and t h e a t r e a r t s . 4. Le a r n i n g and drama i n educ a t i o n : phenomenography as a q u a l i t a t i v e method of re s e a r c h used to i n v e s t i g a t e l e a r n i n g , l e n d i n g support f o r the use of drama across the c u r r i c u l u m . THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ARTS IN THE CURRICULUM Postman (1983, ) w r i t e s ...we should e l e v a t e such s u b j e c t s as l i t e r a t u r e , music, and a r t to prominence. C l e a r l y , the s u b j e c t matter of these d i s c i p l i n e s c o n t a i n s the best evidence we have of the u n i t y and c o n t i n u i t y of human experience and f e e l i n g , (p. 316) E i s n e r (1985, p. 50) r e f l e c t s "What can be learned about a s l i c e of h i s t o r y through the study of the a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the p e r i o d , i t s music, i t s t h e o l o g i c commitments?" 26 B r o o k ( 1 9 8 7 ) p r o p o s e s t h a t . . . i f a t h e a t r e were t o t a k e on t h e t a s k o f d o i n g t h e e n t i r e work o f S h a k e s p e a r e , o u t o f an a b s o l u t e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h i s i s t h e g r e a t e s t s c h o o l o f l i f e t h a t t h e y know, t h a t g r o u p w o u l d be an a s t o n i s h i n g g r o u p i n human t e r m s , ( p . 79) I n s p i t e o f w i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a r t s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , f i n e a r t s d i s c i p l i n e s a r e r a r e l y v i e w e d w i t h t h e same r e s p e c t a s o t h e r s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , by s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , o r some t e a c h e r s . R o b i n s o n ( 1 983) w r i t e s " I n most s c h o o l s drama i s n o t w e l l p r o v i d e d f o r . . . i t s o v e r a l l s t a t u s i s s t i l l l o w " ( p . 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o R o b i n s o n , t h e l o w s t a t u s o f drama i s t h e r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : t h e s p l i t b e t w e e n drama and t h e a t r e w here drama t e a c h e r s were c r i t i c i z e d as f a i l i n g i n t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p a s s on t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s a c c o u n t a b i l i t y a f t e r t h e p e r i o d o f p r o g r e s s i v i s m ( 1 9 6 0 ' s ) , and a demand t o r e t u r n t o a more a c a d e m i c and c o n s e r v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o e d u c a t i o n . W i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e n e e d s o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e and e d u c a t i o n i n l i n e w i t h v o c a t i o n a l n e e d s , a d i s t i n c t i o n had b een made b e t w e e n work and non-work s u b j e c t s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t h e a r t s a p p e a r e d t o " b e a r no r e l a t i o n t o p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y and t o l i e o u t s i d e m a i n s t r e a m c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e r n s " ( R o b i n s o n , 1 9 8 3 , p. 1 1 ) . What p l a c e do c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s o f t h i s d e c a d e a d v o c a t e f o r t h e a r t s ? What t y p e o f drama i s t o be t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t ? T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l l o o k a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f drama and t h e a t r e a r t s 27 i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s drama and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n two d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o drama most l i k e l y t o be u s e d by e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s . T h e s e a r e d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g , a p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g , and t h e a t r e , an a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t . B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 2) c l a i m s drama . . . i s no l o n g e r c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e c h n i q u e s o r f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o r l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e a t r e b u t i s s e e n as a v e h i c l e f o r c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t g i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h o s e k i n d s o f c o n c e p t s w h i c h , w h i l e c u t t i n g a c r o s s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t b a r r i e r s , a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o l i v i n g , ( p . 42) B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 3) c o n s i d e r s t h e d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g mode as a way o f p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p a e s t h e t i c a l l y w h i l e e x p l o r i n g k n o w l e d g e on a d e e p e r l e v e l t h a n t h e u s u a l r e a d i n g o r l i s t e n i n g t h a t h a p p e n s i n most e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m s . He w r i t e s "The most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h drama must be a t t h e s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l o f f e e l i n g " ( p . 6 0 ) . B o l t o n i s n o t r e f e r r i n g t o u n b r i d l e d e m o t i o n b u t r a t h e r f e e l i n g c o n n e c t e d w i t h a v a l u e j u d g e m e n t o r a c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e . The drama e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s t u d e n t c a n b r i n g t o l i g h t new a r e a s o f k n o w l e d g e b u t t h i s w i l l n o t be as p r o f o u n d as when t h e d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e m o d i f i e s h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s c a n i n v o l v e a " c l a r i f i c a t i o n , a b r o a d e n i n g , a b r e a k i n g o f s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g , a c h a l l e n g i n g o f p r e j u d i c e , a q u e s t i o n i n g o f a s s u m p t i o n s , m a k i n g t h e i m p l i c i t e x p l i c i t , s e e i n g s o m e t h i n g i n a new l i g h t " ( B o l t o n , 1983, p. 6 1 ) . B o l t o n c l a i m s t h a t " i n t e r m s o f l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l , d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g h a s t h e g r e a t e s t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e " ( p . 6 2 ) . He a d v o c a t e s t h a t : 28 [T]he s i g n i f i c a n c e i n drama i n s c h o o l s s h o u l d not be c o n f i n e d t o p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s but the meaning of what i s c r e a t e d s h o u l d have some k i n d of u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n (p. 5 8 ) . One of the g o a l s f o r the a r t s i n the Year 2000 d r a f t a d d r e s s e s the importance of a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n : "To d e v e l o p an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e f i n e a r t s and a u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " (Year 2000, Goal 2, p. 16) . Only t h r o u g h exposure t o the a r t s , can the s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d man and h i s n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h meaning. A r t i s man's communicative e f f o r t s a c r o s s t i m e . THE EVOLUTION OF DRAMA IN THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM I n i t i a l l y drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m belonged i n the domain of t h e a t r e where the s t u d e n t a c t e d i n p l a y s and s t u d i e d d r a m a t i c l i t e r a t u r e . Robinson (1980) w r i t e s "Drama i n s c h o o l s d u r i n g t h e 1930's and 1940's had come t o mean two t h i n g s : t r a i n i n g i n speech and p r a c t i c a l work on p l a y s - a c t i n g " (p. 143). McGregor, T a t e , & Rob i n s o n , (1977) c l a i m t h a t " t r a d i t i o n a l l y t he p l a c e of drama i n s c h o o l s has been seen i n terms of the s t u d y of p l a y s as l i t e r a t u r e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , drama was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the E n g l i s h department" (p. 5 ) . To unde r s t a n d how drama s h i f t e d from t h e a t r e t o a l e a r n i n g t o o l , we can examine c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d i t s form. In E n g l a n d , t h e Plowden Repart (1967) c r i t i c i z e d s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m f o r i t s o b s e s s i o n w i t h c o n t e n t as a b a s i s f o r 29 p l a n n i n g , and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were made f o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s t h a t p l a c e d t h e c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e c e n t r e o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( B u r g e s s e_t a l , , 1 9 8 2 ) . Drama was s h i f t i n g i n an e d u c a t i o n a l c l i m a t e t h a t was l i n k e d t o t h e d e v e l o p i n g f i e l d o f c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y where t h e n o t i o n was l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e . Drama moved t o t h e r e a l m o f p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s who a d v o c a t e d a f o c u s on p r o c e s s , n o t p r o d u c t (Dewey 1902, 1929; Rugg, 1 9 2 7 ) . Some w r i t e r s c r i t i c i z e d t h i s s w i n g , e.g. A l l e n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , D a v i e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) , and H o r n b r o o k (1989) s t a t i n g t h e f o c u s s h o u l d be on a c t i n g s k i l l s t o d e v e l o p e x p r e s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s , b u t f o r most e d u c a t o r s , t h e a t r e , o r s c r i p t e d drama was s e e n as an e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y where i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t was q u e s t i o n e d . D r a m a t i c p l a y i n g , as a t o o l f o r t e a c h i n g , i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s k i l l t e a c h i n g f o u n d i n t h e a t r e a r t s , and was n o t t h o u g h t t o r e q u i r e a t h e a t r e e x p e r t as a t e a c h e r . B u t B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) c l a i m s d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i s "an a r t f o r m i n p r o c e s s n o t p r o d u c t " . So, w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e a t r e ( a s an a r t f o r m ) as p a r t o f i t s a g e n d a , i t may be i n t h e hands o f t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e a t r e . The e v o l u t i o n o f drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l a r g e l y has i t s r o o t s i n E n g l a n d , s t a r t i n g w i t h P e t e r S l a d e ' s r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t s p e e c h a r t s and e l o c u t i o n p r o g r a m s 30 f o r c h i l d r e n t h a t were p o p u l a r i n t h e 1940's and 1 9 5 0 ' s . S l a d e f e l t " s t a g e a c t i n g " w o u l d r u i n c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l t a l e n t . W r i t i n g i n 1954, S l a d e made a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a t r e and drama i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t . He saw t h e drama o f c h i l d r e n as an a r t f o r m and as a c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n , where t h e c r i t e r i a f o r s u c c e s s was a b s o r p t i o n and s i n c e r i t y . S l a d e c h a r t e d a new c o u r s e f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f drama. B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 9) w r i t e s t h a t S l a d e saw drama a s a s e e d w i t h i n t h e c h i l d , w h i c h c o u l d f l o w e r u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f a l o v i n g p a r e n t o r t e a c h e r i n t o an e x p r e s s i v e a r t . S l a d e was a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e p r e v a i l i n g mood o f t h e t i m e , one o f c r e a t i v i t y and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . B r i a n Way (1967) saw dr a m a , n o t as an a r t f o r m , b u t a s a medium f o r p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h p s y c h o - t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s . D e s c r i b i n g Way's i n f l u e n c e , H o r n b r o o k (1989) w r i t e s : [Dlrama i n e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , p e r s o n a l a w a r e n e s s , t a u g h t c h i l d r e n how t o c o - o p e r a t e i n g r o u p s , f o s t e r e d q u a l i t i e s o f t o l e r a n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( p . 1 3 ) . B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 9) w r i t e s t h a t Way saw drama as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r . . . p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p e c t o f what he saw a s ' f a c e t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y ' : t h e s e n s e s , i m a g i n a t i o n , p h y s i c a l s e l f , s p e e c h , e m o t i o n , i n t e l l e c t , and c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( p . 1 2 3 ) . R i c h a r d C o u r t n e y ( 1 968) d e s c r i b e s a f r a m e w o r k o f s t a g e s o f m a t u r a t i o n w i t h age s t a g e s o f dr a m a , a l i g n e d w i t h P i a g e t ' s c o g n i t i v e s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . C l e a r l y , drama a t t h i s s t a g e i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m and what i t c o u l d o f f e r l e a r n e r s had l e f t t h e d o m a i n o f t h e a r t s and t a k e n a s e a t w i t h 31 p s y c h o l o g y . H o r n b r o o k ( 1 9 8 9 ) w r i t e s "The o n l y t h i n g s c h o o l drama made no c l a i m s t o do was t o e q u i p y o u n g p e o p l e w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r d r a m a t i c c u l t u r e " ( p . 13) and H o r n b r o o k c l e a r l y m a i n t a i n s t h i s s h o u l d be one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f drama i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e o f D o r o t h y H e a t h c o t e , drama moved f r o m t h e r e a l m o f p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o one t h a t was r e g a r d e d as a method o f t e a c h i n g . H e a t h c o t e a d v o c a t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r become a p a r t o f t h e d r a m a , m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e f o c u s and theme l i k e a p l a y w r i g h t t o c r e a t e a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e c h i l d . H o r n b r o o k ( 1 9 8 9 ) w r i t e s " T h r o u g h t h e s e n s i t i v e a g e n c y o f t h e t e a c h e r , H e a t h c o t e a r g u e d , t h e i m a g i n a t i v e w o r l d s i m u l a t e d by t h e drama w o u l d r e v e a l t o a c l a s s new i n s i g h t s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s " ( p . 1 4 ) . C o n t e x t u a l i z e d d r a m a , drama t h a t c o n t a i n s u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s , embedded i n s u b j e c t s l i k e h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e c a n become c l e a r and m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e l e a r n e r when h e / s h e " t o u c h e s " t h e s i t u a t i o n as a f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l l b r a n c h e s o f human k n o w l e d g e a r e embedded i n t h e d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t w h e t h e r i t be d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g o r t h e a t r e . H e a t h c o t e ( 1 9 8 0 ) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e a t r e , l i k e s o c i o l o g y , s e e k s t o e x a m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i a l l i f e and d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g p r o v i d e s t h e c h i l d w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t on r e a l i t y w i t h i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e d e p i c t e d w o r l d . W i t h i n t h e d rama, t h e s t u d e n t i s g i v e n t h e f r e e d o m t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h o u t t h e b u r d e n o f f u t u r e r e p e r c u s s i o n s w h i l e p r o t e c t e d by t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e c h a n c e e l e m e n t o f r e a l l i f e . 32 H e a t h c o t e ( 1 9 8 0 ) d e c r i b e s t h i s as " t h e r o a d f r o m e x i s t i n g i n y o u r l i f e t o d e m o n s t r a t i n g how l i f e i s l i v e d " ( p . 8 ) . DRAMATIC PLAYING AND THEATRE ARTS D r a m a t i c p l a y i n g t h e n i s a c t i n g - o u t i n a c o - o p e r a t i v e s e t t i n g f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c l a r i f y i n g c o n c e p t s . W a t k i n s ( 1 9 83) d e f i n e s d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g as ...a m o d el o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s ; p e o p l e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s u n d e r s t r e s s , r e q u i r i n g r e s o l u t i o n o r a l l e v i a t i o n i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t where d e c i s i o n s must a f f e c t o t h e r s f o r b e t t e r o f w o r s e ( p . 4 7 ) . D r a m a t i c p l a y i n g h e l p s s t u d e n t s d i s c o v e r and r e f l e c t upon a l l k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e y may n o t be a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i v e s . The p r o c e s s o f drama p r e s e n t s an o n - g o i n g c h a n g e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 9) s t a t e s , What i s l e a r n e d becomes ' p a r t o f o n e s e l f ' : s o m e t h i n g u n d e r s t o o d i m p l i e s ownership o f t h a t k n o w l e d g e . Drama c a n c r e a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h e r e b y t h e p r o c e s s o f o w n e r s h i p b y t h e l e a r n e r c a n be a c c e l e r a t e d ( p . 1 2 7 ) . The work o f D o r o t h y H e a t h c o t e and G a v i n B o l t o n marks a d e f i n i t e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e l i f e o f drama i n s c h o o l s b e c a u s e a t t h i s f o r k i n t h e r o a d , drama becomes a way t o e n h a n c e p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and s t u d y o f p l a y s o r t h e drama f o r m o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n p r o p o s e d by S l a d e . I n t h e U.K. u n d e r t h e c u r r e n t E d u c a t i o n R e f o r m A c t ( 1 9 8 8 ) , m u s i c and a r t a r e t h e o n l y s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a r t s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m , and i n B.C. on t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e d r a f t o f t h e Y e a r 2000: A C u r r i c u l u m and A s s e s s m e n t Framework f o r t h e F u t u r e , drama i s d e s i g n a t e d a s p a r t o f t h e f i n e a r t s 33 s t r a n d w h i c h i s g i v e n a t i m e a l l o c a t i o n o f t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . Drama s h a r e s t h i s s t r a n d o f t e n p e r c e n t w i t h d a n c e , m u s i c , and v i s u a l a r t s b u t t h e l a t t e r two have a l w a y s had a p l a c e i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e c a u s e t h e y f i t i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l mode o f t e a c h i n g w h i c h i s i n c l i n e d t o be p r e s c r i p t i v e as o p p o s e d t o h e u r i s t i c . B o t h h a v e s p e c i f i c g o a l s and o u t c o m e s — t h e c h i l d s i n g s a s o n g o r p a i n t s a p i c t u r e — a n d b o t h v i s i b l y a n s w e r c u r r i c u l u m r a t i o n a l e s w i t h e f f i c a c y , s a t i s f y i n g t h e a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n and a e s t h e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s ( i n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g ) a r e l e s s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as more e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on t h e drama p r o c e s s t h a n t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . D a v i e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) s e e s l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g l i k e " u s i n g t h e s k i l l s o f r e a d i n g t o a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e ; l i k e u s i n g t h e s k i l l s o f m a p - r e a d i n g and d r i v i n g t o w i n a c a r r a l l y " ( p . 1 1 1 ) . T h e r e f o r e one o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h drama i n e d u c a t i o n as a t y p e o f c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g l i e s i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t h a t o c c u r s . I f drama i s t o be e v a l u a t e d as an a r t , H o r n b y (1987) c l a i m s t h a t e v a l u a t i n g a n y a r t f o r m i s d i f f i c u l t as a r t u s e s k e y t e r m s l i k e a m b i g u i t y and c o m p l e x i t y ( p . 1 9 ) . The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n e r i n drama as o u t l i n e d i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, (1985) i s b a s e d on s e l e c t e d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s s u c h a s : t h e a b i l i t y t o assume a r o l e , t h e a b i l i t y t o s u s p e n d d i s b e l i e f ( s e r i o u s n e s s ) , w o r k s w i t h commitment, a c c e p t s o t h e r s i n r o l e , p a r t i c i p a t e s i n 34 c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , d e m o n s t r a t e s i n s i g h t f r o m t h e drama e t c . ( p p . 9 0 - 9 1 ) . However, a d v o c a t e s o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g , s u c h a s B o l t o n ( 1 9 7 9 , 1984) and O ' N e i l l e t a ! (1976) m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e o f drama i s t o e f f e c t a s t u d e n t ' s c h a n g e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g as a r e s u l t o f e n g a g i n g i n t h e drama l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . H o r n b r o o k (1989) q u e s t i o n s B o l t o n ' s "moments o f s i g n i f i c a n c e " t h a t a r e s u p p o s e d t o t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c h i l d . How, he a s k s , c a n t h e s e be e v a l u a t e d ? The same w r i t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t "what a p p e a r s t o be t h e 'moment o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ' w i l l i n r e a l i t y h a v e w i d e l y v a r i a n t m e a n i n g s " f o r t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s " ( p . 1 2 1 ) . H o r n b r o o k d o u b t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s o f t h e d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . He wr i t e s : What a p p e a r s t o t h e f o r m e r as e s s e n t i a l r e v e l a t i o n m i g h t w e l l be more p r o s a i c a l l y i n s p i r e d , by a d e s i r e t o p l e a s e t h e t e a c h e r , f o r e x a m p l e , o r a f e a r o f ' g e t t i n g i t w r o n g ' o r by a h o s t o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o u t 'what t h e o t h e r s t h i n k ' ( p . 1 2 1 ) . I n c o n t r a s t , one o f t h e m a j o r c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e a t r e by t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i s t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f t h i s f o r m . Some w r i t e r s a p p e a r t o f e e l t h a t t h e a t r e r e s t r i c t e d c r e a t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n and t h a t " a c t i n g " was a p e r f o r m a n c e o f a d u l t e x p e c t a t i o n s . R o b i n s o n ( 1 980) a r g u e s t h a t . . . t a k i n g p a r t i n , o r l e a r n i n g a b o u t , t h e t h e a t r e was r e a l l y s u s p e c t on two a c c o u n t s . F i r s t b e c a u s e i t d i d i m p l y l e a r n i n g ' s k i l l s ' . ' S p o n t a n e i t y ' h o w e v e r , had b e en a r g u e d t o be t h e v e r y p u l s e o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and t h i s was e a s i l y r e t a r d e d , i f n o t a r r e s t e d 35 a l t o g e t h e r b y l i n g e r i n g o v e r t e c h n i q u e . M o r e o v e r , s k i l l s w ere o n l y u s e f u l f o r p u t t i n g t h i n g s a c r o s s t o an a u d i e n c e .... S e c o n d , where t h e e m p h a s i s i s on e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i n s i d e o u t , t e a c h i n g a b o u t r e a l i z e d a r t f o r m s - w h i c h o t h e r p e o p l e have c r e a t e d -s u c h as p l a y s , c o u l d e a s i l y be s e e n as a s o r t o f c u l t u r a l i m p o s i t i o n , ( p . 1 4 8 ) When e x a m i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e as i n t h e work o f P e t e r B r o o k , one s e e s a d i r e c t o r c l e a r l y w o r k i n g i n p r o c e s s f r o m t h e f i r s t r e h e a r s a l t h r o u g h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . B r o o k ( 1 9 8 7 ) w r i t e s : I n t h e b e g i n n i n g we h a v e a r e a l i t y w i t h o u t f o r m . A t t h e en d , when t h e c i r c l e i s c o m p l e t e d , t h i s same r e a l i t y may s u d d e n l y r e a p p e a r - g r a s p e d , c h a n n e l l e d and d i g e s t e d -w i t h i n t h e c i r c l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e i n communion, s u m m a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o a c t o r s and s p e c t a t o r s . O n l y a t t h a t moment w i l l r e a l i t y become a l i v i n g , c o n c r e t e t h i n g , and t h e t r u e m e a n i n g o f t h e p l a y emerge ( p . 1 8 ) . B u r g e s s , Roma, e t a _ l , ( 1 9 8 2 ) f e e l t h a t w i t h i n t h e c o n c e p t o f drama a s a l e a r n i n g t o o l , t h e a t r e s k i l l s w i l l be o v e r l o o k e d i n o n e's s e a r c h f o r m e a n i n g and s t a t e s t h a t t o " f u l l y e x p l o i t t h e l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l o f drama, t e a c h e r s must a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e a t r e " ( p . 6 ) . The a u t h o r s a r g u e t h a t . . . [ A ] s s t u d e n t s p r o g r e s s i n drama, t h e y f e e l an i n c r e a s i n g l y e a r n e s t d e s i r e t o r e f i n e p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g , and t o s h a p e i t t h r o u g h c o n t r a i n t s o f t h e a r t f o r m . The p r i v a t e n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t y c h a n g e s t o a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e p u b l i c , and t h e s o c i a l w o r l d o f o t h e r s . I t i s i n t h i s s o c i a l c o n t e x t t h a t t h e c r e a t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e a t r e i s n e e d e d a s a f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e ( p . 6 ) . However t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e a t r e and d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g d o e s n o t a p p e a r a s w i d e as one i n i t i a l l y m i g h t s u p p o s e . J a c o b u s ( 1 989) w r i t e s t h a t we e x p e r i e n c e drama on many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s a t t h e same t i m e . When s e e i n g a p l a y we a r e aware t h a t i t i s make b e l i e v e b u t a t t h e same t i m e we b e l i e v e t h a t we a r e 36 w i t n e s s i n g r e a l l i f e . The s t u d e n t e n g a g i n g i n d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g a l s o w o r k s on s e v e r a l l e v e l s . A l t h o u g h drama may seem t o have c l a i m e d a p l a c e s t e a d i l y m o v i n g away f r o m i t s i n t e g r i t y a s an a r t , and c l a i m i n g a p o s i t i o n a s a l e a r n i n g s t y l e , " t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e s u b j e c t by m o u l d i n g i t i n t o an a c c e p t a b l e a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e " ( D o b s o n , 1986, p. 3 7 2 ) , B o l t o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) d e s c r i b e s d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g as "an a r t f o r m i n p r o c e s s n o t p r o d u c t " and c l a i m s t h a t t h e t h e a t r i c a l f o r m i s u s e d i n o r d e r t o e n h a n c e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e ( p . 7 4 ) . He s e e s d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g as a way o f t e a c h i n g c o n t e n t and c h a n g i n g o ne's u n d e r s t a n d i n g b u t t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e a t r i c a l e l e m e n t s - t e n s i o n , f o c u s , e t c . I n o t h e r w o r d s he c o n s i d e r s d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g v e r y much an a r t f o r m . E d u c a t i o n i n t h e a r t s h a s b een c o n s i d e r e d a f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n v o l v i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n by t h e a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n by t h e a r t s . I n t h e c u r r e n t E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book ( 1 9 8 5 ) d e v e l o p e d by t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , drama i s d e s c r i b e d as b o t h a l e a r n i n g t o o l i n o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s and as a f i n e a r t s d i s c i p l i n e . I n s p i t e o f t h i s a p p a r e n t c o m p r o m i s e , one must q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r drama i s t a k e n s e r i o u s l y b y p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and s t u d e n t s ? I n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e f i n e a r t s i n E n g l a n d i n t h e 1985 W h i t e P a p e r , B e t t e r S c h o o l s , H o r n b r o o k ( 1 9 8 9 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t d e s p i t e " e n c o u r a g i n g n o i s e s , h o w e v e r , i n 37 r e a l i t y t h e a r t s r e m a i n e d a l o w p r i o r i t y " ( p . 4 1 ) . I n t h e wake o f t h e e f f e c t o f J o h n G o o d l a d ' s A P l a c e C a l l e d S c h o o l on c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m s , O ' N e i l ( 1 9 9 0 ) w r i t e s a b o u t c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s f a c i n g m u s i c w h i c h c a n a l s o a p p l y t o d rama. Drama, l i k e m u s i c has e m p h a s i z e d p e r f o r m a n c e , and h a s b e e n a l i g n e d w i t h e n t e r t a i n m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t h e l p s p r o d u c e c u l t u r a l l y l i t e r a t e s t u d e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o O ' N e i l , a d i l e m n a f a c i n g s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i s t h a t as l o n g a s t h e a r t s r e m a i n s o p t i o n a l , t h e y must s e r v e o n l y t h e " a r t i s t s " i n t h e s c h o o l and t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o s t u d e n t and p a r e n t a t t i t u d e s t h a t t h e a r t s a r e " f r i l l " s u b j e c t s . A t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , where t h e a r t s a r e c o m p u l s o r y , t h e a r t s a r e " s e c o n d c l a s s s u b j e c t s " i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . B o t h t e a c h e r s and l a y c i t i z e n s o f t e n s h a r e t h e v i e w " t h a t t h e a r t s a r e s o f t and on t h e edge o f i m p o r t a n c e " ( G o o d l a d , 1984, p. 2 3 8 ) . G o o d l a d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a n s w e r l i e s i n m a k i n g t h e a r t s p a r t o f t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m s o t h a t t h e h u m a n i t i e s s t r a n d o f e d u c a t i o n i s r e g a r d e d as i m p o r t a n t . O ' N e i l l ( 1 9 9 0 ) w r i t e s t h a t i f t h e a r t s a r e t o be p a r t o f t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e y must h a v e " c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t i n g c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s , l e a r n e r o u t c o m e s , s t u d e n t a s s e s s m e n t , and p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d s " ( p . 2 ) . O ' N e i l s t a t e s t h a t o n l y when m u s i c e d u c a t o r s e n s u r e t h a t m u s i c , (and one c o u l d i n c l u d e a l l t h e a r t s ) " i s t a u g h t i n t h e same r i g o r o u s , s e q u e n t i a l , and c o m p r e h e n s i v e way t h a t o t h e r s u b j e c t s a r e t a u g h t w i l l t h e f i e l d e n r i c h i t s c u r r i c u l a r r o l e " ( p . 3 ) . 38 In 1987, education l e g i s l a t i o n in England stated "Education in the Arts i s a fundamental part of our educational proposals for the curriculum" (Rumbold, 1987, para. 42). But with the curriculum taking on more and more subjects (vocational and technological) adding to school-based programs, i t was proposed that art and music become one, simply the arts (Hornbrook, 1989, p. 41). Hornbrook argues that t h i s could jeopardize the role of drama in the curriculum. This is what Hornbrook refers to as "the wrangle between theatre and drama" (p. 71). "I fear that a l l those who have conspired to is o l a t e school drama from the arts and to promote i t as an educational u t i l i t y , bear a heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for this state of a f f a i r s " (Hornbrook, 1989, p. 53). L E A R N I N G AND DRAMA IN E D U C A T I O N Different approaches to learning are the re s u l t of d i f f e r e n t conceptions of learning. Snyder (1968) claims that the hidden curriculum, where the student's conception of learning i s a mismatch with that which the teachers claim i s important, results in students learning the facts because that's what counts; that i s what he /she w i l l be tested on, so his/her conception of learning a l t e r s what he/she w i l l learn. Perry's (1970) longitudinal study of i n t e l l e c t u a l change in students' conceptions shows i n i t i a l l y a s t a t i c and absolute 39 conception of knowledge to a contextual one, with an i n t r i n s i c change in the learner rather than a c o l l e c t i o n of irrelevant fragmented b i t s of knowledge consumed for e x t r i n s i c rewards such as "marks". Bolton (1989) writes that "that the ac q u i s i t i o n of knowledge involves a cumulative process of assimilation and accommodation, the gradual integration of the new with a person's own frame of reference and value system" (p. 127). However as long as we have evaluation, we w i l l be working at odds with what we propose in a h o l i s t i c approach, a deep-l e v e l processing of knowledge as opposed to the surface l e v e l processing of knowledge (Marton and Saljo, 1976 a, p. 7-8). C o l a i z z i (1973) researched the nature of learning through phenomonological methods r e s u l t i n g in a d i s t i n c t i o n between acq u i s i t i o n of information and learning. C o l a i z z i concludes that "the phenomenon of learning is seen to be d i s t i n c t from a c t i v i t i e s in which information i s acquired. Learning is defined by the intentional power of the learner to co-constitute both his learned-content... and the learning s i t u a t i o n . " This concept i s at the core of dramatic playing where students "make a bridge between their own experience of the world and the meaning of the drama." (O'Neill and Lambert, 1982, p. 10). In the Year 2000. Intermediate Program: Response  Draft, the writers talk about transformation: interpreting information and integrating i t with prior knowledge. 40 Without g o i n g beyond the l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l and w i t h o u t t h i s p r o c e s s of " c o - c o n s t i t u t i o n " , C o l a i z z i (1973) m a i n t a i n s the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n w i l l o n l y be an a c q u i s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . A P H E N0M E N0G R A P H I C A L STUDY ON L E A R N I N G Marton, (1975) and S a l j o , (1975) d e s c r i b e q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o c e s s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s t o the outcome of l e a r n i n g . T h e i r r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t e d of e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r approach t o l e a r n i n g , i . e . , a c q u i s i t i o n of f a c t s or what S a l j o and Marton c a l l e d s u r f a c e l e v e l p r o c e s s i n g , or deep-l e v e l p r o c e s s i n g where the knowledge i s i n t e r n a l i z e d , becoming p a r t of t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x i s t i n g framework of knowledge. The r e a s o n f o r examining the work of S a l j o and Marton i n t h i s s t u d y i s i t p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e use of d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m - - t o promote d e e p - l e v e l p r o c e s s i n g . T h e i r r e s e a r c h shows a d i f f e r e n c e between a c q u i s i t i o n of f a c t s and a p p l y i n g knowledge t o make sense of one's w o r l d . They i n t e r v i e w e d 90 s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and what t h e y thought c o n s t i t u t e d " l e a r n i n g . " The r e s u l t s showed f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s of l e a r n i n g , and i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of t h i s s t u d y t o examine the f i v e c o n c e p t s as d e s c r i b e d by S a l j o and Marton as t h e y a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l i n 41 design showing stages of development in the learner's dispostion to learning. 1. Learning as the increase of knowledge. 2. Learning as memorizing. 3. Learning as acq u i s i t i o n of facts, procedures, etc. which can be retained and/or u t i l i z e d in practice. 4. Learning as the abstraction of meaning. 5. Learning as an interpretative process aimed at the understanding of r e a l i t y . Conceptions 1 and 2 are examples of surface-level processing, and the knowledge appears to be external to the students. Conceptions 4/5 are examples of deep-level processing and knowledge is the resu l t of an active e f f o r t from the student. In conception 5, the writers, Saljo and Marton (1975) imply that s t y l e would encompass " a c t i v i t i e s that promote meaningful connections between student learning i n schools and their understanding of the world" (Year 2000. The Intermediate  Program: Response Draft (p. 25). Dramatic playing or theatre provides students with t h i s experience. "Engagement, exploration, transformation -interpreting information" (Year 2000: Response Draft, p. 110). This method of teaching, through dramatic playing, can enhance the understanding of any text. Rike (1984) claims " i f a trained teacher knows how to involve a l l students in pantomime (simultaneously), a concept can become clear in minutes" (p. 36). The phenomenographical studies of Saljo and 42 Marton regarding learning have been reviewed in thi s study in support of the use of drama in the curriculum, and phenomenography has also been used as a method of q u a l i t a t i v e research in t h i s study in an attempt to probe deeper into conceptions of drama held by the teachers of intermediate elementary classrooms of B r i t i s h Columbia. SUMMARY Drama, l i k e the other arts, music, v i s u a l arts, and dance has emphasized doing as i t s focus because of the present h e u r i s t i c approach to learning preferred by most educators today. Producing the c u l t u r a l l y l i t e r a t e student or stressing technical s k i l l s has not been on the agenda to the same extent as "doing". This l i t e r a t u r e review has presented the various uses of drama in elementary schools and has suggested that there has been a movement away from an emphasis on performance (theatre) within the fine arts program to dramatic playing with i t s wider application across the curriculum. It was noted that the current B r i t i s h Columbia Fine Arts Elementary Curriculum appears ambivalent about the place of drama recommending that i t be taught both as an art form and as a method of teaching across the curriculum. Writers surveyed in t h i s study have suggested that the two positions are not ir r e c o n c i l a b l e but have warned that the increasing use of drama as a teaching tool might reduce i t s significance as a fine arts subject. 43 In the l i g h t of these problems related to the place of drama in the curriculum, my study w i l l examine to what extent drama is being taught at the intermediate l e v e l of education in a random sample of elementary schools in B r i t i s h Columbia. I w i l l also examine teachers' understanding and use of drama within the fine arts programme and across the school curriculum. My purpose for conducting t h i s study i s based on my concern that the implementation of drama, for a variety of reasons, may not be as successful as one would hope. It may be that although many teachers endorse drama in theory, i t may be in danger of being omitted from the curriculum altogether. Whether introduced to children as a learning tool or an art form, drama i s central to being a human being. " I t i s said that Mark Twain viewed theatre for children as the best teacher of morals and good conduct education has devised" (Rike, 1984, p. 39). 44 CHAPTER 3 R E S E A R C H D E S I G N METHOD This research was conducted as a survey as well as a phenomenographical study of teachers' engagement with, understanding of, and response to dramatic playing as a tool for learning in elementary classrooms. Two methods of research were used: a survey conducted using a questionnaire to give breadth to the study and to provide an overview of the conditions of drama in elementary schools and oral interviews were used to provide an opportunity to look deeper into the circumstances surrounding the implementation of drama. The oral interviews allowed the respondent an opportunity to c l a r i f y his/her understanding of the questions and the interviewer the chance to re-state the question. The questionnaire made i t possible to examine a larger population. The interaction within the oral interviews, i . e . , between interviewer and interviewee, e l i c i t e d more information than the questionnaires would have alone. Questions on the questionnaire centered on factors contributing to the success or the f a i l u r e of dramatic playing as a teaching strategy in elementary classrooms, and asked teachers to state their preference as to which form of drama would be most useful and b e n e f i c i a l in the curriculum: drama in the form of dramatic playing, where the objective i s to 45 enhance learning in certain subject d i s c i p l i n e s , or scripted drama, where the objective i s the acq u i s i t i o n of theatre s k i l l s and an appreciation for theatre as an a r t . The questions of the questionnaire were designed for the purpose of c o l l e c t i n g the information that would provide the basis for t h i s study. The f i r s t part of the questionnaire was designed to c o l l e c t personal data such as the educational role of the teachers, age, years of teaching experience, subjects taught, and whether extra-curricular drama was taught in their school. The rest of the survey contained questions related to the problems posed in the study, such as the respondents' engagement with drama in the classroom, t h e i r prior t r a i n i n g and experience in drama, theatre and the performing arts, and their perceptions of the value of drama in the curriculum. When the questionnaire was formulated, a f i e l d study was conducted to test the e f f i c a c y of the questions. The subjects of the f i e l d study included a l l the teachers of grades three to seven within one school. The results of t h i s f i e l d study proved that several questions on the questionnaire were too open-ended and others were not f a c i l i t a t i n g the information I was seeking. Dr. Frank Echols, in the Social and Educational Studies Department at U.B.C, helped me refine the questionnaire. The questions of the oral interviews were designed to probe further into teacher's attitudes toward educational drama and to be open-ended in order to act as a catalyst to 46 i n i t i a t e conversation and discussion on drama in schools (See Appendix D). The study of the findings of the interviews involved q u a l i t a t i v e research which has grown in popularity in recent years. This type of research can be a method of revealing people's feelings about, and conceptions of, certain phenomena within th e i r world which w i l l in turn aff e c t their response and experience with i t . Marton (1989) writes "There i s a centuries old human science t r a d i t i o n that we can draw on when we engage in discerning the d i f f e r e n t meanings various phenomena may have for people" (p. 1). This science i s c a l l e d phenomenology and for the purpose of t h i s study, I used t h i s type of research in order to ascertain how teachers perceived dramatic playing as an instrument of learning and their understanding of the d i s t i n c t i o n between dramatic playing and theatre as well as their conceptualization of student benefits r e s u l t i n g from drama in elementary school curriculums. Separating and examining these d i f f e r e n t conceptions of a phenomena i s c a l l e d phenomenography, and there i s a limited set of q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t ways people can have of conceptualizing any p a r t i c u l a r phenomena. According to Marton (1989), the group of concepts, c a l l e d the "outcome space" should, for purposes of v a l i d i t y and management, not exceed f i v e . There can be some uncommon conceptualizations of phenomena but they tend to be i d i o s y n c r a t i c , and the reverse of this i s concepts which are a l l the same, shared by a l l the subjects because they (the concepts) are c u l t u r a l l y bound. But somewhere between general and id i o s y n c r a t i c , one can 47 dis t i n g u i s h a limited number of varied concepts. In this study I was looking at how drama appeared to the subjects, the teachers. The difference in understanding among teachers depended on what the individuals focused upon. There i s also a v a r i a t i o n within the individual as he/she can have two or more overlapping concepts at the same time. A h i e r a r c h i c a l element of the concepts exists in that they indicate the contexture of human thinking, i . e . , the idea of d e f i n i t e levels of awareness in relationship to a pa r t i c u l a r domain. It i s a description of development but only in that f i e l d , and a l t e r s and progresses as experience and knowledge in that domain increases. An example of t h i s can be seen in one's development in learning to play the piano. There are a cert a i n series of steps everyone must go through to master the piano, and a group of piano students can be at d i f f e r e n t levels of mastery as they proceed with their engagement of studying the piano. S i m i l a r l y , teachers vary in th e i r conceptions of drama in accordance with how much t r a i n i n g i n , exposure to, or reading of drama they have experienced. The steps should not be conceived as being in the i n d i v i d u a l , but in the s k i l l , which in t h i s case i s in the understanding and teaching of drama in the elementary classroom. The teacher's own educational philosophy also plays an important part in his/her orientation towards drama and thus, most teachers shared more than one conception of drama. 48 The phenomenographical strand of this research was a study of conceptions based on the r e f l e c t i v e experience of teachers. Since the implementation of drama in elementary schools depends on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the teacher to drama as an art form or drama as a type of pedagogy, ( i . e . , his/her perception of drama, and whether he/she considers i t of value or not) i t seemed most appropriate to employ research of t h i s nature. Drama in the curriculum in the form of an art or as a tool for learning has been accepted by curriculum designers of t h i s province, and the fine arts, as development of the a f f e c t i v e domain, have been a part of the rationale of every curriculum since the days of Dewey. If teachers are not using drama, perhaps i t is due to th e i r perception and understanding of i t because q u a l i t y experience for students in creative drama requires teachers who have been trained (Rike, 1980). It was the intent of t h i s study to survey and examine what form of drama was being used by elementary school teachers, how often i t was' being used, and how knowledgeable they (the teachers) were in the methodology of drama in education.. "[Tleachers need coursework to help them develop confidence in guiding students" (Rike, 1984, p. 40). Although phenomenography i s not empirical research, the mainstream rules apply, i . e . , the f i v e conceptions can be found by others i f the descriptors are r e l i a b l e . The study can be replicated by another researcher, and in that sense, i t is v a l i d . 49 T i me The s t u d y was conducted between A p r i l 1991 and J u l y 1991. Sub j e c t s The s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d were t e a c h e r s of grade t h r e e t h r o u g h t o grade seven i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n a l a r g e urban a r e a i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. O r i g i n a l l y , t h e d e s i g n was such t h a t t h i r t y - s i x s c h o o l s were t o be randomly chosen by t h e s c h o o l b o a r d . I was l o o k i n g f o r a s t r a t i f i e d random sample but as e x p l a i n e d i n the l i m i t a t i o n s i n Chapter one, random s a m p l i n g was impeded because many p r i n c i p a l s d e c l i n e d t h e r e q u e s t t o t a k e p a r t i n the s u r v e y due t o o t h e r demands made on t e a c h e r s ' time i n t h e f i n a l term of the s c h o o l y e a r . Because of t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e two u n i v e r s i t i e s , U.B.C. and Simon F r a s e r , i t i s c o n t i n u a l l y asked t o t a k e p a r t i n e d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . T h i s means e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a r e asked t o do many s u r v e y s , and t h e r e f o r e a r e r e l u c t a n t t o impose t h i s e x t r a t a s k on t h e i r s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t such a busy time i n the s c h o o l y e a r . The r e q u e s t was made i n the l a s t term, t h e months of A p r i l , May, and June. Because of t h i s problem, t h e S u p e r v i s o r of E d u c a t i o n a l R esearch a t the Student Assessment And Res e a r c h Department of t h e s c h o o l board suggested t h a t a l l the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e d i s t r i c t be c o n t a c t e d i n an attempt t o f i n d enough s c h o o l s t o make t h e 50 study v a l i d . Twenty-three school p r i n c i p a l s responded. One hundred seven teachers completed the questionnaires. At the end of the questionnaire, teachers were asked to volunteer to be interviewed, either by telephone or in-person. Teachers were requested to include their phone number and a convenient time for the investigator to c a l l to set an appointment for the interview. Thirty-four teachers responded. (See l a s t page of the questionnaire for the interview volunteer form, Appendix C). Data C o l l e c t i o n I used two methods of data c o l l e c t i o n in t h i s study. They were: (a) Written responses to a questionnaire to survey how much drama was being done as part of the elementary school curriculum and what type of drama. (See Appendix C). The questionnaires were hand-delivered to each school p r i n c i p a l following a l e t t e r to the p r i n c i p a l describing the outline and purpose of the study, and a telephone c a l l confirming his/her approval. The p r i n c i p a l was given f i v e envelopes each containing the questionnaires and was instructed to d i s t r i b u t e one envelope to one grade three, four, f i v e , s i x and seven teacher on s t a f f . In cases where there was more than one teacher of the designated grade, the teacher whose surname preceded the other in alphabetical order 51 was selected. Teachers were given one week to complete the questionnaire, place i t in the envelope provided, seal i t and return i t to the p r i n c i p a l , who held them for me to c o l l e c t (one week after d i s t r i b u t i o n ) . The twenty-three schools represents approximately twenty-f i v e percent of the schools in the d i s t r i c t chosen for t h i s study. A l l sections of the urban area were represented. One hundred seven teachers answered the questionnaires and t h i r t y -four teachers took part in the oral interviews. (See Appendix D). (b) Oral interviews were conducted where body language subtleties were considered as well as verbal responses as subjects talked on their understanding of drama, in response to the interviewer's questions which encouraged subjects to elaborate on their thoughts and impressions of drama in schools. The categories or concepts in the "outcome space" were selected after the Interviews. The outcome space refers to a limited number of q u a l i t a t i v e variations of conceptions of the phenomena, which in t h i s instance was how teachers perceived drama and i t s value in the curriculum. Thirty-four teachers volunteered to be interviewed; seven chose to be interviewed in person, and twenty-seven chose to be interviewed by telephone. I purchased an answering machine that taped out-going telephone conversations, and informed the interviewee that the discussion on drama was being taped. Every three minutes a 52 tone alerted both parties that the conversation was being recorded. Each oral interview was from f i f t e e n to t h i r t y minutes long. I met with those teachers requesting an i n -person interview in th e i r classrooms after school. In every case, the in-person interviews were longer than the telephone interviews. I assumed t h i s was due to the added personal factor where more enthusiasm seemed to be generated surrounding "school t a l k " . These interviews were conducted between May 21, 1991 and July 18, 1991. A sample of an interview i s included in the Appendices (See Appendix E). The interviews were conducted in the form of a conversation between two educators discussing drama. There were some set questions but overa l l the intent of the interview was to focus where the subject focused. A sample of the questions can be found in Appendix D. Data A n a l y s i s I divided the transcripts of the interviews into two p i l e s , making judgements in order to separate the responses. An inter-judge, (a teaching colleague) assisted with sorting the tr a n s c r i p t s into "shared understanding" p i l e s ) . I n i t i a l l y the two " p i l e s " were created by separating those who described dramatic playing experiences in th e i r classrooms, and those who did not use any drama. The next "sorting" was to separate each of the two p i l e s into sub-groups; those interviews that contained shared b e l i e f s . The inter-judge replicated this 53 process after me and during t h i s process we discussed disagreements in an attempt to reach a consensus. The i n t e r -judge was a colleague chosen because he was familiar with the concept of dramatic playing, had a background in theatre, and understood the basic p r i n c i p l e s of phenomenography. We continued working separately, subdividing the two p i l e s u n t i l we had several groups representing a limited set of q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t perceptions of the value of drama in the curriculum. By q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t , I mean how their conceptions of the use of drama in the curriculum d i f f e r e d , i . e . , their d i f f e r e n t orientation towards educational drama. Each category of the teachers' conceptions of drama was described and labeled in such a way that a second person could judge and separate the responses to the interviews with the same r e s u l t s , i . e . , the same categories (conceptions). There were seven categories in a l l , representing the seven conceptions of drama held by the teachers. After the d i f f e r e n t conceptions were categorized, described, and labeled, I was able to examine both the variations in teachers' d i s p o s i t i o n towards drama in the curriculum as well as explore any factors e l i c i t e d by these interviews that may have affected the implementation of drama in elementary schools. As I studied the interviews, certain opinions, concerns, understandings, became dominant and representative of various "voices" of the teachers, i . e . , t h e i r shared reactions to drama in education. After the seven conceptions were 5 4 categorized and analyzed, I then selected various issues or concerns teachers repeatedly addressed in the interviews, and col l e c t e d samples of teachers' opinions on these issues under separate t i t l e s . It was my intent in t h i s research to investigate problems that could present obstacles to the successful implementation of drama in education. A s s u m p t i o n s My choice of school d i s t r i c t in which to conduct this survey was based on my assumption that because teachers of th i s large urban area would have easier access to courses offered at nearby u n i v e r s i t i e s , they should by reason of proximity, be more l i k e l y to be familiar with concepts of "dramatic playing". 55 CHAPTER 4 P R E S E N T A T I O N O E F I N D I N G S A N D This study was designed to answer questions pertaining to the implementation of drama in elementary school classrooms as described in the statement of the problem at the beginning of chapter one. Twenty-three school responded to the request to do the survey and 107 teachers out of 115 completed the questionnaires. I was not t o l d e x p l i c i t l y why eight teachers did not complete the questionnaire but in most cases when I arrived at each school one week after d e l i v e r y of the questionnaires to pick up the envelopes, in several instances some envelopes would be missing. Either the school secretary or some other s t a f f member would t e l l me that a teacher had misplaced i t or was absent etc. A N A L Y S I S O E D A T A GENERAL OVERVIEW TABLE 1 Dist r i b u t i o n of Subjects bv Grade Grade Frequency Percent Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Missing 22 21 21 23 20 8 19.1 18.3 18.3 20.0 17.4 7.0 Total 115 100.0 56 TABLE 2 Dist r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Age Age range Frequency Percent 2 0 - 2 4 1 .9 25 - 29 12 11.2 3 0 - 3 4 11 10.3 35 - 39 24 22.4 40 - 44 27 25.2 45 - 49 14 13.1 50 & over 15 14.1 missing 3 2.8 Total 107 100.0 As Table 2 shows the majority of teachers are over forty years of age and t h i s could have a bearing on the willingness to t r y innovative ideas or to seek t r a i n i n g in what might be considered by many to be new and unconventional teaching methods. This is not to imply that teachers at a certain age are less innovative but only to suggest that there i s possibly room for some future study to see i f there i s a co r r e l a t i o n between age and implementation of new teaching strategies. Three teachers did not wish to disclose their age. TABLE 3 Dis t r i b u t i o n of Subjects According to Experience  Years of experience Frequency Percent 1 2 1.9 2 3 2.8 3 9 8.4 4/5 9 8.4 6 - 10 13 12.1 11 - 15 20 18.7 16 - 20 26 24.3 Above 20 25 23.4 Total 107 100.0 57 As Table 3 shows, the largest categories are comprised of those teachers who have been teaching over sixteen years. However, the greatest percentage (52.3%) have been teaching for under 16 years. The findings of Table 3 are only of interest in that i t i s possible that teachers could be entrenched in established teaching styles that have worked well for them and they see no need to change. Dramatic playing i s a form of teaching that involves taking r i s k s and sp e c i a l t r a i n i n g . Since courses in educational drama are not mandatory for the student teacher, and that may convey the message that these courses in drama are not of great importance, i t seems u n l i k e l y that the experienced teacher would purposely seek out that kind of professional t r a i n i n g . Table 4 describes the frequency of subjects who teach extra-c u r r i c u l a r drama in schools. TABLE 4 Extra-curricular Drama as a Dramatic Experience Response Frequency Percent yes missing no 83 22 2 77.6 20.5 1.9 Total 107 100.0 As Table 4 indicates very l i t t l e extra-curricular drama is taking place in schools. Two teachers said they had a drama club that met after school, and the other twenty 58 teachers described their engagement with extra-curricular drama as rehearsals for school productions. Two teachers in Table 4 who responded that they were doing extra-curricular drama did not respond in describing the type of drama they were doing in Table 5. Table 5 describes the type of drama being done by the teachers responding yes in Table 4 TABLE 5 Type of Extra-curricular Drama Used By Teachers  Response Frequency Percent Drama Club Rehearsals for school concerts Both of the above In other forms not l i s t e d Total 1 4.0 18 72.0 3 12.0 3 12.0 25 100.0 In Table 4, twenty-two teachers said they were doing extra-curricular drama but the t o t a l responding in Table 5 i s twenty-five. Three said they were not doing extra-curricular drama and then described a type of drama they were doing. This could indicate that the three teachers in question did not consider rehearsals for concerts as being e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r . In Table 5 three teachers l i s t e d in the response "other forms not l i s t e d " described the extra-curricular drama they were doing as: - co-directed class musicals and Halloween plays. - wrote and produced plays with students. - ran a classroom drama program. 59 Two teachers who responded that they were doing extra-c u r r i c u l a r drama did not describe what type and three teachers who said they were not doing extra-curricular drama described another form. Two teachers who said they were not doing e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r drama responded that they were involved in rehearsals for school concerts. Table 6 describes how often the respondent had used dramatic playing as a classroom teaching strategy in the l a s t three three years. TABLE 6 Dramatic Playina - a Classroom Teachinq Strateay Time Frequency Percent Several times per week 8 7.5 Once a week 6... , 5.6 Several times a month 24 22.4 Once a month 21 19.6 Once a term 21 19.6 Once a year 13 12.2 Never 14 13.1 Total 107 100.0 It should be noted that the majority of teachers claim they are using dramatic playing in their classrooms between several times a month and once a term. This finding i s not consistent with the findings in the oral interviews where a l l of the subjects reported that to t h e i r knowledge very l i t t l e drama was being done in classrooms. One has to consider that most teachers are aware that drama i s mandated in the Fine  Arts Curriculum Guide of 1985 and have currently viewed the 60 intermediate draft of the Year 2000 where drama is part of the fine arts strand. As th i s questionnaire focuses on drama, giving the subject s i g n i f i c a n t importance, many teachers would be reluctant to declare they were not doing any mandated curriculum. Table 7 describes how often the respondent used scripted drama for the ac q u i s i t i o n of theatre s k i l l s and the appreciation of theatre in the classroom in the l a s t three years. TABLE 7 Scripted Drama - Frequency of Use in Classrooms Time Frequency Percent Several times per week 3 2.8 Once a week - 6 5.6 Several times a month 12 11.2 Once a month 14 ; 13.1 Once a term 32 29.9 Once a year 28 26.2 Never 12 11.2 Total 107 100.0 The telephone interviews revealed that teachers varied in thei r d e f i n i t i o n of dramatic playing, and therefore the high percentage of teachers doing dramatic playing could be inaccurate in that many teachers assumed that anything from charades to theatre sports and improvisational s k i t s could be considered a form of dramatic playing. 61 The large percentage of teachers doing scripted drama less frequently (once a term or once a year) i s perhaps a r e f l e c t i o n of the annual school concert or the interclass performances that take place at seasonal times of the year: Halloween, Christmas, Valentine's Day, Easter, Outdoor Ed., and the l a s t weeks of the school year. It could also indicate the lack of appropriate s c r i p t s available in classroom reading programs as part of the language arts program whereas dramatic playing, because of i t s spontaneous and improvisational nature, has a broader scope and therefore more teachers could imagine they were doing the dramatic playing form of drama even i f they weren't. Scripted drama i s concrete. One knows whether one i s reading a play or not, but some of the respondents were not clear on what constituted dramatic playing and assumed dramatic playing included a wider range of dramatic a c t i v i t i e s than i t r e a l l y does, l i t e r a l l y anything that's dramatic and isn't s c r i p t e d . This appeared to create confusion in the minds of many of the subjects. In short, they may think they are doing i t when they aren't. The telephone interviews confirmed t h i s as teachers described t h e i r "dramatic playing" a c t i v i t i e s . 62 Table 8 describes the number of "drama in education" courses the respondents completed at university/college. TABLE 8 Educational Drama Courses Completed at University or College Number of courses Frequency Percent None 84 78.5 one 14 13.1 two 8 7.5 three 1 .9 Total 107 100.0 Table 8 shows that 78.5 percent of the teachers had not taken any courses in drama in education and yet the results in table s i x reveal that 55.1 percent of the teachers use dramatic playing from several times per week to once per month. Considering the complexities involved in the teaching methodology of dramatic playing, t h i s raises the question of whether or not the teachers know what dramatic playing e n t a i l s . 63 Table nine describes the number of theatre arts courses that the respondents completed at a university/college. TABLE 9 Theatre Arts Courses Completed at University or College Number of courses Frequency Percent None 90 84.1 one 10 9.3 two 3 2.8 three 2 1.9 four 0 .0 fi v e 1 .9 missing 1 .9 Total 107 100.0 Table 9 shows that 84.1 percent of teachers have not had any t r a i n i n g in theatre arts at the university/college l e v e l but considering the status of drama (as an art) in the curriculum, t h i s is to be expected as drama is not perceived as a s p e c i a l i s t ' s subject at the elementary l e v e l . It i s interesting that in both music and vi s u a l arts, where these subjects are taught by s p e c i a l i s t s , the teachers in question would most l i k e l y have professional t r a i n i n g in these specialized areas of in s t r u c t i o n . 64 Table 10 describes the number of professional development "drama in education" workshops that teachers attended in the l a s t three years. TABLE 10 Frequency of Educational Drama Workshops Taken by Teachers Number of courses Frequency Percent none 62 57.9 one 22 20.6 two 9 8.4 three 8 7.5 four 2 1.9 f i v e 3 2.8 ten 1 .9 Total 107 100.0 Table 10 reveals that 57.9 percent of the teachers have not received any exposure to dramatic playing in the form of workshops, and yet Table 6 reveals that 55.1 percent of the teachers use dramatic playing from several times per week to once per month. Table 10 indicates a discrepancy between the expectations of the Ministry and the amount of professional development in drama available to teachers. Fifty-seven point nine percent of the teachers have not had any professional development i n educational drama, and yet drama i s mandated in the Fine Arts Curriculum Guide of 1985 and included in the Year 2000 document. 65 Table 11 indicates involvement in amateur or professional theatre outside the realm of the school and education. TABLE 11 . Teacher Experience in Professional Theatre Response Frequency Percent no 76 71.0 yes as: actor/actress 11 10.4 direc t o r 2 1.9 producer 2 1.9 musical director 1 .9 choreographer 1 .9 other 1 .9 many/all 12 11.2 missing 1 .9 Total 107 100.0 Table 11 shows that 71 percent of the teachers have no background in professional or amateur theatre outside the realm of school. This i s bound to ef f e c t the average classroom teacher's d i s p o s i t i o n towards drama when c a l l e d upon to include t h i s p a r t i c u l a r art form in his/her classroom studies, whether i t be dramatic playing or scripted drama. It should be noted that one teacher did not respond. 66 Table 12 indicates the number of teachers who have had t r a i n i n g in "performance s k i l l s " which could a f f e c t t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n to the a r t s . TABLE 12 Teachers' Experience in Performance S k i l l s Response Frequency Percent no 57 53.3 yes acting courses 7 6.5 elocution 6 5.6 singing 3 2.8 dancing 6 5.6 instrumental 5 4.7 public speaking 6 5.6 other 0 0 many 15 14.0 missing 2 1.9 Total 107 100.0 Table 12 indicates that 53.3 percent of the teachers have had no t r a i n i n g in performance and t h i s may be correlated to the question on the questionnaire where teachers were asked whether they would f e e l apprehensive in the capacity of teacher in role in an improvisational drama with their students. Many teachers claimed that they f e l t uncomfortable "acting" in front of their students. If the teacher has experience in performance, the fear of "being on stage" would most l i k e l y be reduced. However, one teacher commented that "teaching in front of a class was experience enough". Others may agree. Two teachers did not respond in Table 12. 67 Table 13 describes the context or subject d i s c i p l i n e used by the teacher when u t i l i z i n g dramatic playing as a learning tool in elementary classrooms. TABLE 13 Teachers' Choice Of Subject D i s c i p l i n e for Use of Drama Subject d i s c i p l i n e Frequency Percent Social Studies 21 19.6 Social s k i l l s 5 4.7 Language Arts 12 11.2 French 2 1.9 L.A. & S.S. 29 27.1 Puppetry 1 .9 Many subjects 10 9.4 missing 27 25.2 Total 107 100.0 In Table 13 twenty-seven teachers did not respond to t h i s question because they had not used dramatic playing i n the i r classrooms. It i s of interest to note that the t o t a l "missing" and the combined subtotals in Table 6 (the combination of the once a year response and the never response) are the same. This suggests that teachers in these two categories did not see themselves as using dramatic playing. In some instances, respondents who claimed to be using dramatic playing in many subject areas, included science and math but the use of these two subject d i s c i p l i n e s was minimal. Social studies and language arts had the highest frequency. Two teachers used dramatic playing in teaching French, and one used puppets as the medium for using dramatic playing in French classes. 68 Clearly, t h i s survey shows language arts and s o c i a l studies to be the subject d i s c i p l i n e s that teachers choose as benefitting the most from the use of dramatic playing as a learning t o o l . In the o r a l interviews, teachers chose language arts above s o c i a l studies as the subject d i s c i p l i n e in which they were most l i k e l y to use dramatic playing, whereas in Table 13, the respondents of the questionnaires chose s o c i a l studies over language arts as the subject d i s c i p l i n e that would benefit the most from the integration of drama. Table 14 indicates how teachers rated the success of their experience in engaging their classes in the dramatic playing described i n table t h i r t e e n . TABLE 14 Teachers' Rating of Dramatic Playing Experiences In Classroom  Scale: Poor Moderate Great 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rate Level Frequency Percent 1 Poor 0 0.0 2 Poor 1 .9 3 3 2.8 4 Moderate 10 9.4 5 Moderate 27 25.2 6 23 21.5 7 Great 21 19.6 8 Great 3 2.8 missing 19 17.8 Total 107 100.0 69 Nineteen teachers did not respond to t h i s question because they had not used the dramatic playing form. The reader w i l l note that in Table 6 only fourteen teachers said they had never used dramatic playing. It appears f i v e of the teachers who claimed they used dramatic playing did not rate their success. Table 15 describes teachers perceptions of factors that contributed to the success or f a i l u r e of their experiences with dramatic playing (improvisational drama) in their classrooms. As teachers could respond to as many factors as they f e l t applied to their p a r t i c u l a r experience, the percentage of the teachers' response to each separate factor i s calculated and i l l u s t r a t e d on i t s own. Table 15 shows that 14 teachers did not respond to t h i s section (which i s consistent with the figures in Table 6 representing teachers who acknowledged they had never done dramatic pl a y i n g ) . Therefore the percentages of teachers responding to each factor i s based on the 93 teachers who answered t h i s question. 70 TABLE 15 Factors Contributing to the Success of Dramatic Playing  Factors for Success; 1. Fun for the students; they loved i t . 2. Teacher trained i n the methodology. 3. A l l students had a part. 4. Co-operative learning. 5. Each student can express his/her point of view. 6. Children are natural actors/actresses. 7. Learning experience for students; f e l t the concept in the f i r s t person. Factors Frequency Percent Totals are not possible here as many teachers responded to more than one factor. As the res u l t s indicate, teachers saw many reasons for the success of dramatic playing. "Fun for the students; they loved i t " was the major factor contributing to the success of drama in elementary classrooms and t h i s was substantiated in the oral interviews. The factor with the least responses was "Teacher trained in the methodology" which again was substantiated in the oral inter-views where teachers claimed there were not enough resources or teacher t r a i n i n g in thi s area. The 18 teachers responding p o s i t i v e l y to t h i s factor attributed t h e i r success in dramatic playing to the t r a i n i n g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 86 18 63 74 60 50 63 92.5 19.4 67.7 79.6 64.5 53.8 67.7 71 they had received in the methodology of t h i s teaching strategy. A second factor the teachers appreciated was that dramatic playing provides co-operative learning which of course i s very much a part of the educational philosophy of today, as are factors 5 and 7. Although these findings are supported by the oral interviews, one has to examine another underlying factor contributing to such overwhelming support for dramatic playing. One can assume that as dramatic playing has many of the q u a l i t i e s that are in accord with the prev a i l i n g attitudes towards better teaching s t y l e s , teachers would be conditioned to respond favorably towards those descriptors l i s t e d above. Another c r u c i a l factor i s always present: drama i s mandated in the Pine Arts Curriculum. TABLE 16 Factors Contributing to the Failur e of Dramatic Playing •Factors for F a i l u r e : 8. Need guide books and teacher t r a i n i n g to aid success. 9. Children can act s i l l y ; d i s c i p l i n e factor. 10. Too time consuming for an already overloaded timetable. 11. Lack of teacher confidence: don't know how to "act" 12. Fear of parent/public disapproval: another " f r i l l " . 13. C u l t u r a l l y unacceptable. 14. Not clear on what i t i s or what are the goals. Factors Frequency Percent 8 26 28.0 9 27 29.0 10 32 34.4 11 13 14.0 12 2 2.2 13 4 4.3 14 5 5.4 72 Totals are not possible here as many teachers responded to more than one factor. Consistent with the findings in the or a l interviews, factors 8, 9, and 10 represent key problems contributing to the successful implementation of dramatic playing in elementary classrooms. Once more, teachers address the lack of resource material and teacher t r a i n i n g . Teachers also f e e l that with the freedom necessary for successful dramatic playing, students may take advantage of the s i t u a t i o n and become unruly or act s i l l y . D i s c i p l i n e becomes a factor. Teachers considered time a c r u c i a l factor in the implementation of drama. As substantiated in the oral interviews, teachers already f e e l pressed for time with so many new additions to the curriculum such as whole language, elements of inst r u c t i o n , computers, integration with l i b r a r y , and the sexual abuse program. Respondents to the questionnaire were not concerned with "how to act" nor f e l t they lacked confidence in t h i s area but in the oral interviews, teachers saw t h i s was a major factor. Actually, many of the teachers interviewed attributed that weakness to other teachers who weren't using dramatic playing or drama In any form. Respondents to the questionnaire appeared to understand what was involved in dramatic playing and the intended goals of that form, and yet in the oral interviews, several teachers were not at a l l clear on what dramatic playing entailed. Most 73 teachers interviewed could d i s t i n g u i s h i t from scripted drama, and could define i t as a type of improvisational drama, but in that context they saw i t as including anything from charades to reader's theatre to theatre sports to acting out a story from a novel or reader. The goals and objectives of drama i n classrooms were equally ambiguous. In most instances, teachers targeted such objectives as: the student learning to express himself, gaining poise and self-confidence in front of peers, communication s k i l l s , and learning how to deal with and solve s o c i a l problems. Very few teachers a r t i c u l a t e d the goal of using dramatic playing as a learning t o o l , i . e . , for a deeper understanding of the concept. The only teachers to do so were those teachers who had been trained in educational drama, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the strategies involved in dramatic playing. Table 17 shows the degree to which teachers would f e e l apprehensive taking a role in the capacity of "teacher in r o l e " in an improvisational drama with their students in the classroom. TABLE 17 Teachers Apprehensive About Dramatic Playing Response Frequency Percent no yes missing 88 15 4 82.2 14.1 3.7 Total 107 100.0 74 Table 17 shows that 82.2 percent of the teachers surveyed claimed that they would not be apprehensive or uneasy taking a role with their students in a classroom drama. Four teachers did not respond to t h i s question whereas 14 respondents in Table 6 had previously claimed they had never used dramatic playingi One possible explanation i s that the remaining 10 respondents assumed the question was asking whether they would be apprehensive should they attempt to t r y dramatic playing sometime in the future, and therefore they responded. Although the question required only a "yes" or "no" answer to whether the teacher would be apprehensive in role with the students, f i v e teachers chose to c l a r i f y t h e i r "yes" answer. The response ''nervous" was written on the questionnaire by two teachers and "not enough t r a i n i n g " was added by three teachers. The response nervous is c l o s e l y related to "apprehensive" and can be interpreted as an emphasis on the part of the respondent, indicating a need to r e i t e r a t e the q u a l i t y of apprehension. The response "not enough t r a i n i n g " can be interpreted the same way. Table 18 describes the degree to which the book Off  Stage, co-authored by Carole Tarlington and Dr. Patrick Verriour, i s used by elementary classroom teachers, as well as other sources of p r a c t i c a l methodology. 75 TABLE 18 Teachers Using "Off Stage" - Resource Book on Dramatic Playing Response Frequency Percent no 79 73.8 yes 26 24.3 missing 2 1.9 Total 107 100.0 It i s of pa r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e that 73.8 percent of the teachers have never used Off Stage in the i r schools. It has been my understanding that a l l the elementary schools in the par t i c u l a r urban area being surveyed had at least one copy on hand. Six of the 79 teachers who said they never used Off  Stage, were using other sources l i s t e d below. Eight of the teachers who said they did use Off Stage claimed they used many other sources as well. It i s inter e s t i n g to note that 59 teachers in Table 6 use dramatic playing anywhere between several times a week and once a month and yet the twenty-six of the "yes" group and s i x from the "no" group are the only teachers using any resource material or guide books. Two teachers did not respond to t h i s question and they did not respond to any questions pertaining to dramatic playing indicating they are not using t h i s form at a l l . 76 OTHER SOURCES: The following l i s t are sources of resource material teachers s a i d they used to a s s i s t them with dramatic playing in their classrooms. Dorothy Heathcote * Gavin Bolton * Diane Kay A l l the Desks a Stage Morgan and Saxton Teaching Drama Martin and V a i l i n s Exploration Drama Mclntyre Creative Drama in the Elementary Schools Jane Wagner on Dorothy Heathcote and Staging a Play. * School l i b r a r y and own experience. * Information gathered from U.B.C. - Education Drama Course. Materials by Harvey Ostroff (attained at S.F.U.) Curriculum Resources and workshop in Kelowna provided many materials. •Respondents did not l i s t the t i t l e of the resource material used. Table 19 describes the number of teachers who have involved t h e i r students in t h e a t r i c a l performances (rehearsing a s c r i p t for the purpose of presenting in front of an audience). Frequency of Teachers Using Drama in Theatrical Performances TABLE 19 Response Frequency Percent yes missing no 15 90 2 14.0 84.1 1.9 Total 107 100.0 The r e s u l t s in Table 19 indicate that most teachers have used scripted drama in some form of presentation, and that teachers see some value in dramatic performance as i t 77 contributes to the student's self-esteem, confidence and poise. These findings were supported by the oral interviews. Table 20 indicateswhich form of drama teachers' prefer to use in elementary classrooms. TABLE 20 Teachers' Preferences in Type of Drama Used in Classrooms Response Frequency Percent Scripted drama 17 15.9 Dramatic playing 26 24.3 No time for either 5 4.7 A l i t t l e of both 58 54.2 missing 1 .9 107 100.0 Table 20 shows that most teachers see drama as a necessary and valued part of the curriculum and believe that students should be exposed to both dramatic experiences, i . e . , scripted drama and dramatic playing. One teacher did not respond and as thi s was the only question that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r teacher omitted, so one can assume i t was overlooked. WRITTEN COMMENTS FROM QUEST!ONNAIRES The following comments were added by teachers when completing the questionnaires. These sample responses give the reader a clearer picture of how teachers vary in their d e f i n i t i o n of dramatic playing. I have included the grade in 78 which the type of drama occurred and how the subject rated the drama (see Table 14, p. 96). The remainder of written responses from the questionnaires can be found in Appendix P. The question was 13(a): If you have ever used r o l e drama or improvised drama as a learning t o o l for other subject d i s c i p l i n e s i n the classroom, please indicate i n which subject d i s c i p l i n e or i n what context. Those respondents who used drama as a component of language  a r t s ; Language Arts..Space Unit play was written by f i v e students "Lost in Space", grade 3, rated great. Poetry and s p e l l i n g , grade 3, rated great. I prefer using the pupils own ideas for l i t t l e presentations -some s c r i p t i n g done, grade 3, rated moderate. •Acting out s t o r i e s - language a r t s , grade 5, rated moderate. Language arts - part of reading.... assigned parts in a pre -written play put on for the remainder of the c l a s s . Students then (when they got the idea) picked a "moral" and wrote th e i r own plays around the idea, performed them (in groups of 8). grade 5, rated moderate. Language ar t s , i . e . , Robot Grammar Talk (robot speaks the c a p i t a l s , periods, prepositions) grade 7, rated great. Those respondents who used dramatic playing as a teaching tool  i n s o c i a l studies: Social studies - role playing, decision making; performed a Potlatch, role playing immigrants or explorers, grade 4, rated moderate. Socials - explorers, grade 5, rated moderate. Social studies -^Canada's past or B.C.'s past; to act-out an opera before viewing for better understanding; r o l e play to express f e e l i n g s , grade 3, rated moderate. In Social studies the children used costumes and props thus learning even more that I had f i r s t envisioned, grade 4, rated great. 79 Those respondents who used dramatic playing to teach s o c i a l  s k i l l s : To deal with s o c i a l problems, grade 4, rated poor. Talking about behaviour and feelings "How would you f e e l i f . . . . ? and getting quiet children to speak through puppets. grade 3, rated moderate. Communications and s o c i a l s k i l l s , grade 6, rated moderate. To develop understanding of feelings, solving s o c i a l problems, grade 3, rated moderate. Those respondents who integrated dramatic playing i n more than  one subject d i s c i p l i n e ; Language ar t s , reading, music, science, s o c i a l studies, grade 4, rated moderate. Oral language, math, music, s o c i a l issues, grade 7, rated moderate. Literature-based language a r t s . . . . also within an integrated unit which h i t s a l l subject areas, grade 7, rated moderate. Language arts - character sketches, c o n f l i c t resolutions in sexual abuse prevention programs, grade 6, rated moderate. A l l areas of language arts, math problem role plays, etc. works very well for me. I love drama! grade 7, rated great. Respondents to the questionnaires who rated t h e i r classroom dramatic experiences as "great" also stated they had taken courses in dramatic playing. The above responses as well as the remainder of the responses contained in the raw data in Appendix F indicate the broad spectrum that teachers believe encompasses "dramatic playing". Comments added bv teachers when completing question 13(c)  which was: Please comment on what factors you f e e l contributed to your success or f a i l u r e with dramatic playing (improvisational drama) i n your classrooms. 80 Those f a c t o r s t h a t respondents of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s saw as  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the success of t h e i r c l assroom dramas were: I love i t , so i t works, and so they love i t ! - makes l e a r n i n g meaningful, grade 3 Reasons f o r success...my background and c o n f i d e n c e and my own experience of the process, grade 6 I took a summer s c h o o l course with C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n and I r e a l l y know the ideas work, grade 3 Those f a c t o r s t h a t respondents of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s saw as  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the f a i l u r e of t h e i r c l assroom dramas were: S t i l l need more t r a i n i n g , grade 3 Too many demands; not enough t r a i n i n g and re-enforcement, bad experiences i n courses a t U.B.C. grade 6/7 I was a f r a i d t h a t a l a r g e group of "macho" boys would j u s t get out of hand completely, grade 4 Because I'm not c o n f i d e n t enough at p i c k i n g up the d i r e c t i o n or know what t o say or do next. I f I copy e x a c t l y the model I have I can do i t but I haven't been s u c c e s s f u l with my own a p p l i c a t i o n s . More courses needed? grade 4 Some samples from respondents of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s who c l a i m  they are not u s i n g drama i n t h e i r classrooms: Mot sure how to go about i t or where to use i t . grade 3 Wish I'd had some t r a i n i n g ! grade 3 I don't f e e l I do enough drama nor do I f e e l t h a t I have enough t r a i n i n g , i d e a s , r e s o u r c e s to i n c l u d e i t p r o p e r l y and r e g u l a r l y i n t o an elementary program, grade 7 C h i l d r e n l a c k e x p e r i e n c e - — b a c k g r o u n d — t o o much teacher input n e c e s s a r y — a n d we do too much p l a t o o n i n g to f i n d a chunk of time what with l i b r a r y , r e s e a r c h e t c . grade 4 Teachers who c i t e d reasons why e d u c a t i o n a l drama did not work s u c c e s s f u l l y f a r outnumbered those who claimed they were s u c c e s s f u l . T h i s i s documented by the w r i t t e n responses taken 81 from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The remainder of t h e s e responses can be found i n Appendix F. ORAL INTERVIEWS T h i r t y - f o u r s u b j e c t s from the 107 teachers who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , v o l u n t e e r e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , o f f e r i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to the f i n d i n g s of the w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Findings; As the r e s e a r c h methodology used i n the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s was phenomenographlcal and not s t a t i s t i c a l , s e t numbers and percentages do not belong i n t h e f i n d i n g s as not every teacher was asked the same s e t of q u e s t i o n s . The Interview was s u b j e c t d i r e c t e d , i . e . , although i n i t i a l l y prompted by q u e s t i o n s , the c o n v e r s a t i o n was d i c t a t e d by i s s u e s the s u b j e c t focused on, and not a l l the s u b j e c t s t a l k e d about the same i s s u e s . T h e r e f o r e d i s t i n c t f i g u r e s would be i n a c c u r a t e as, u n l i k e the s u b j e c t s completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the s u b j e c t s of the i n t e r v i e w s were not responding to a r i g i d s e t of q u e s t i o n s . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h were based on the t e a c h e r s ' q u a l i t a t i v e c o nceptions of the use of drama i n elementary classrooms. The t e a c h e r s v a r i e d i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of dramatic p l a y i n g or how drama should be used i n the c u r r i c u l u m , but most of the teachers agreed t h a t drama was important and t h a t v e r y l i t t l e was being done i n classrooms. 82 There was a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g the teacher had r e c e i v e d i n the elements of dramatic p l a y i n g and the teacher's use of i t as a t e a c h i n g methodology i n the classroom. There was a l s o a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t e a c h e r ' s background i n t h e a t r e and performance, and the value and i n t e r e s t the teacher d i s p l a y e d towards t h e a t r e a r t s . Many te a c h e r s suggested t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y of the teacher was a major f a c t o r i n whether a teacher should attempt dramatic p l a y i n g , to the degree t h a t i f the teacher was thoroughly t r a i n e d i n dramatic p l a y i n g and the methodology, he/she might, s t i l l be r e l u c t a n t to use drama because i t was not i n accord with h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l i t y . DESCRIPTORS OF TEACHERS* CONCEPTIONS OF DRAMA IN THE CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLASSROOMS. The t r a n s c r i p t s of t h i r t y - f o u r i n t e r v i e w s were s t u d i e d i n order to d i s c o v e r the d i f f e r e n t conceptions t h a t teachers may have of drama thereby shedding more l i g h t on the reasons why drama i s or i s not implemented i n elementary classrooms. I have c a t e g o r i z e d the i n t e r v i e w s i n t o seven c o n c e p t i o n s . Conception A ( I t ' s A F r i l l ) The d e f i n i t i o n of c o n c e p t i o n A i s : Drama i s a f r i l l or an e x t r a on an a l r e a d y overloaded t i m e t a b l e . Teachers have enough to do t o get through the b a s i c core c u r r i c u l u m . 83 There was only one teacher who e x p l i c i t l y described drama as a f r i l l , but a large percentage reported they were not doing drama of any kind and gave reasons which suggested that they see drama i n the l i g h t of an "extra". As drama i s mandated, I believe many teachers are reluctant to report that they aren't doing any. Some samples are: Not important enough to take precedence over other things. Interview 3, grade 4 I think a l o t of people don't see i t as part of the core , curriculum, and they think l i k e I've got so much else to do, how can I possibly f i t drama in as well...they see i t as something that's isolated. Interview 22, grade 5 The intermediate teachers when they (the students) get there say, "These kids spent too much time playing in school so now i t ' s time to get to work..." now the primary program allows up to grade three for you to just fool around a l l the time. Interview 23, grade 2/3 Conception B (Can't Do I t - Don't Know How) The d e f i n i t i o n of conception B i s : Drama Is not my subject. I can't teach i t as I have no tr a i n i n g or experience in that area. Drama i s a special subject, one of the ar t s , to be taught by a s p e c i a l i s t as is music and vi s u a l arts and therefore beyond the realm of the generalist, the classroom teacher. The interviews revealed that many teachers were acquainted with the basic form of dramatic playing or role drama. They knew i t was improvisational drama, not scripted, and had some knowledge of what i t involved, but there was some confusion as to i t s purpose in the curriculum, i t s underlying p r i n c i p l e s and objectives and how to use i t . Few said they 84 thought drama should be a s p e c i a l subject, but many f e l t they lacked the expertise to teach drama themselves although findings in the written questionnaires do not support t h i s . Respondents of the questionnaires appeared to be most s a t i s f i e d with the drama they have used in their classrooms, and have a very positive attitude about t h e i r a b i l i t y to work in t h i s area. I believe that most teachers do not f e e l secure in implementing drama and more teachers than the findings show f i t into the Conception B. Most teachers would be loath to say they could not handle teaching drama because most teachers have just recently been perusing the Year 2000 intermediate dr a f t where the generallst, not the s p e c i a l i s t , approach to education i s the current ideology i n teaching. Some samples are; I have no experience r e a l l y with dramatic play...I don't really...know how to approach i t . Interview 14, grade 3 I don't know what you mean by a teaching tool? Interview 18, grade 7 I don't know whether you'd consider what I do as drama....well, one of the things that we do i s l i k e theatre sports. Interview 27, grade 3/4 Conception C (For Personal Development) The d e f i n i t i o n of conception C i s : Drama used in the form of dramatic playing i s an excellent way to teach s o c i a l skills...behaviour modification...where children act out problems from their r e a l l i f e experiences to learn appropriate methods of reaching solutions. They also learn how to work together in a supportive and co-operative way. 85 Several teachers mentioned the sexual abuse program "Feeling Yes, Feeling No" as an area where they had used dramatic playing, and many teachers of the early intermediate grades stated they used dramatic playing as a method of teaching s o c i a l s k i l l s and how to get along with one another. Some - samples are Sometimes we do i t in co-ordination with a program that's happening. For example, we did the "Feeling Yes, Feeling No" sexual abuse prevention program. Interview 5, grade 4/5 If kids are having problems at home...they could act them out. Interview 6, grade 3 Conception D (An Extension of Whole Language) The d e f i n i t i o n of conception D i s : Drama i s seen as an extension of language arts and whole language as the or a l component of thi s realm, encompassing communication s k i l l s , self-expression, c r e a t i v i t y through oral language etc. Educational drama builds confidence and poise in expressing ideas in front of others. It should be part of the language arts core curriculum. This was the most popular conception of dramatic playing among the th i r t y - f o u r subjects interviewed. Eight teachers used i t i n conjunction with whole language, as the oral component, where they would have students continue a story that had been read to them, using improvisation, or in dramatic playing, write l e t t e r s or journals in r o l e , or have students write t h e i r own plays and perform them for other members of the c l a s s . Many teachers saw value in encouraging students to write, rehearse, and perform th e i r own plays considering the experience a form of improvisational drama. 86 Their goal was to improve the student's f a c i l i t y with language and to encourage self-expression through language. "Using language and understanding how language gives meaning" (Interview 9, grade 3). Some samples are; It's oral reading...it should be part of a reading program..it should be in the language arts core of the curriculum. Interview 2, grade 4 I've never seen such wonderful l e t t e r s , or pieces of writing, coming out of kids. Interview 8, grade 6 A r e a l l y wonderful way for children to be able to tap their c r e a t i v i t y , to find confidence....and be able to express their feelings, t h e i r ideas...I find that a l o t of children who don't have success in a l o t of other areas, find a great deal of confidence and success in drama. Interview 12, grade 3 We do part of i t as part of our book reviews in our l i t e r a t u r e based program...the kids have to do a performance. Interview 21, grade 5 C o n c e p t i o n B ( T h e a t r e And Performance) The d e f i n i t i o n of conception E i s : Drama i s used in the t h e a t r i c a l sense, to foster a love of theatre and to use theatre s k i l l s to develop poise and confidence in front of an audience, as in performance. Through th i s medium the art of acting is the focus of development. The objectives are the a c q u i s i t i o n of theatre s k i l l s , learning how to act, and an appreciation of theatre. Theatre arts enhance communication s k i l l s (voice, body, presentation) and builds confidence and poise. One teacher (out of 34 interviewed) saw the a c q u i s i t i o n of theatre s k i l l s or the appreciation of theatre and theatre technique as relevant in the elementary school. Others f e l t t h i s approach to drama belonged at the secondary l e v e l of 87 education. Three teachers applauded the pursuit of a tangible finished product and three teachers claimed scripted drama would be easier for both students and teachers to do. Some samples are: They can work on speaking s k i l l s , projection, they can also use the s c r i p t to analyze plays; they can understand the play better and be more c r i t i c a l of i t i f they know what went into the production of the play. Interview 1, grade 5/6 I would rather do a f u l l scale scripted school production. ..1 mean I get more out of that. Interview 13, grade 6/7 Conception F (A Learning Tool) The d e f i n i t i o n of conception F i s : Drama i s integrated with other subjects and used as a teaching tool to extract a deeper l e v e l of meaning in subject d i s c i p l i n e s . Through adopting a role within the context--by being t h e r e — c h i l d r e n learn the implications of the issue. Problems are posed, often by the teacher in r o l e , and students must use c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s in a co-operative s i t u a t i o n , to solve the problem and in doing so, arr i v e at universal truths. Seven of the t h i r t y - f o u r teachers interviewed saw t h i s as a viable use for drama but they were in the minority because most teachers lacked exposure to the p r i n c i p l e s on which t h i s teaching strategy r e s t s . If they had not taken any university courses in t h i s type of methodology nor attended more than one workshop on t h i s teaching strategy, they did not know what i t was, or how to use t h i s type of drama e f f e c t i v e l y . Some samples are: As a way of teaching concepts...it*s one of the more important reasons for doing drama. Interview 4, grade 7 I think you get a l o t more commitment from the children and an interest and a desire to learn about that concept. Interview 8, grade 6 88 They have to research their r o l e . . i t ' s quite amazing...whatever that knowledge i s c a l l e d when you're just sort of getting i t on the f l y . . . I mean, they retain i t . Interview 28, grade 5 Conception G (A Learning Tool And Theatre Arts) A d e f i n i t i o n of conception G i s : Dramatic playing and scripted drama should be used in conjunction with one another, although both serve two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t objectives: dramatic playing as a learning tool in subject d i s c i p l i n e s l i k e s o c i a l studies and l i t e r a t u r e , communication s k i l l s , c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s , creative expression and scripted drama as fostering a love of theatre and performance, theatre s k i l l s (how to act ) , as well as poise and confidence in presenting before an audience. Responses to the written questionnaires showed that 58 of the 107 teachers (54.2 percent) preferred to use both forms of drama, but I believe that i t was an uninformed decision. In concurrence with the theory of phenomenography that claims concepts are h i e r a r c h i c a l , many of the teachers did not understand what dramatic playing entailed and therefore they were unable to have a substantial concept of dramatic playing. Therefore I do not believe many teachers answering the questionnaires were experienced or knowledgeable enough in either form to say which would be of greater value to the student. Similar findings resulted in the oral interviews. Seventeen teachers interviewed claimed a preference for dramatic playing but as the tra n s c r i p t s revealed teachers were unclear as to what constituted dramatic playing. The questionnaire findings revealed that most teachers are using neither form of drama, and that drama i s not a consideration 89 in their curriculum. In the oral interviews there were 3 teachers of educational drama who were able to give a q u a l i f i e d response, i . e . , (expressing the methodology and p r i n c i p l e s of dramatic playing) in the knowledge that both forms are an integral part of the dramatic experience of the student. Some samples are; I l i k e to have both...because they serve two d i f f e r e n t purposes...dramatic playing as a teaching tool...voice, projection, empathizing with characters, and in scripted drama the appreciation of dramatic s k i l l s and the learning of dramatic s k i l l s . Also the appreciation of plays and the understanding of plays. Interview 25, grade 5 We ended up doing both t h i n g s . . i t ended up being part of the language arts program and part of co-operative learning, part of problem solving, working together... i t also ended up being a very good production..in order to get on the a i r . . . i t had to be t e c h n i c a l l y good. Interview 15, grade 3 F a c t o r s t e a c h e r s see as impeding the Implementation  of drama and f a c t o r s t h a t l e a d to the s u c c e s s of  d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m s . Whereas the various categories l i s t e d above describe the conceptions of drama held by the teachers, the samples below are clusters of focus, i . e . , attributes of the circumstances of using drama in elementary classrooms that teachers a r t i c u l a t e d during the interviews. The following are comments taken verbatim from the tr a n s c r i p t s of the oral Interviews where teachers were asked to express th e i r views on why drama may not be practiced to 90 the extent one would expect mandated c u r r i c u l u m to be p r a c t i c e d . The reasons v a r y but some of the more predominant f a c t o r s impeding implementation t h a t teachers addressed were the f o l l o w i n g : Teachers' lack of knowledge and t r a i n i n g : Teachers don't know how to do i t . . . a n d i t ' s not something t h a t they are r e a l l y comfortable with...and a s p e c i a l i s t would make the d i f f e r e n c e . Interview 28, grade 6 The low status of the arts i n the curriculum: I t h i n k t h a t they don't r e a l l y understand . . . i t ' s importance. I mean...they don't implement a r t (primary t e a c h e r s . . . grade t h r e e ) . . . t h e y might do some c o l o r i n g but i t ' s not a r t even, and I t h i n k they don't have the s k i l l s . . . n u m b e r one, and a l s o I t h i n k t h a t b a s i c a l l y they j u s t don't see i t as important l i k e l e a r n i n g how to do handwriting and-reading and so on. Interv i e w 32, grade 3/4 Any spare time or spare t e a c h e r s or spare room i s devoted t o computers... not to drama. Inte r v i e w 7, grade 4 Fear of d i s c i p l i n e problems created by teachers having to rel i n q u i s h some classroom c o n t r o l : I t h i n k t h a t i f i t doesn't have a d i r e c t i o n t o go i n , and k i d s s t a r t to f o o l around with i t , then t h a t ' s what they're a f r a i d of ( t e a c h e r s ) . . . t h e f a c t t h a t i f they g i v e a l i t t l e b i t , then the k i d s go w i l d on you and so t h a t ' s what they a n t i c i p a t e may occur, and so they're not going t o g i v e i t a t r y . I n t e r v i e w 23, grade 2/3 D i f f i c u l t to do: As d e s c r i b e d i n Concept B, many teach e r s f e l t t h a t they lacked c o n f i d e n c e , t r a i n i n g , and experience and f e l t t h a t to be expected t o do drama without some knowledge of how i t worked was beyond reason. Most teachers s a i d i f they had to teach drama, s c r i p t e d drama would be e a s i e r , but o n l y 3 of the 34 teachers i n t e r v i e w e d p r e f e r r e d t o use s c r i p t e d drama e x c l u s i v e l y . Many f e l t t h a t u s i n g drama would i n v o l v e more 91 organization than time would allow with an already overloaded curriculum. Quite s t r e s s f u l because you have to guide it...keep i t going and you have to have the right answers...to keep the role drama going...it seems to put a l o t of pressure on the leader...when I'm doing i t anyway. Interview 31, grade 3/4 Some teachers thought dramatic playing should begin i n the primary grades: Some teachers thought that i f dramatic playing was introduced in the primary grades and became an on-going pedagogy, intermediate students may accept i t more r e a d i l y . Others f e l t that i f dramatic playing was used extensively in primary grades, the intermediate students might consider i t c h i l d i s h . If i t ' s started e a r l i e r they (students) seem to see the sense more. Interview 13, grade 6/7 Primary teachers can afford a l e s s structured teaching environment: I can see primary teachers being more into i t , I think maybe they always have been...you know, with puppetry and d i f f e r e n t things l i k e that. Intermediates tend to be more s p e c i a l i s t s , subject area kind of people...that 1s a kind of r i s k I'm not so sure that they're w i l l i n g to take. Interview 16, grade 6/7 Attitude of parents: Attitude of parents did not seem to be a consideration of most of the teachers, so one can either assume that i t ' s not a concern because i t ' s not being done, or parents are supportive of drama in education. No teacher mentioned evaluation as a problem because i t wasn't being evaluated on i t s own so perhaps parents are not aware of any drama in the curriculum. 92 Most parents don't know what their kids are doing in school, e s p e c i a l l y some of the older ones. I don't think parents would understand i t s value or i f they did, they'd think the kids were just playing around. Interview 2, grade 4 Attitude of students as perceived by teachers: Most teachers said t h e i r students loved dramatic playing but the teachers not using dramatic playing perceived their students as thinking i t would be s i l l y . They love i t , and they would come to me and say, "When do we get to do i t again?" Interview 8, grade 6 Sometimes y o u ' l l get the kids who just think i t ' s kind of stupid and they r e a l l y can't see the sense to i t . Interview 13, grade 6/7 Some teachers addressed the factor that drama would be he l p f u l for B.S.L. populations: Several teachers mentioned the value in drama for providing E.S.L. students, the opportunity to improve their spoken English, and to help them adapt to the i r new culture. I find E.S.L. kids are not very creative in the i r thinking....they're very structured in the way that they think and perceive things.... they haven't got a l o t of vocabulary and so one of my objectives i s to gain a l o t of vocabulary and to also sort of loosen them up a l i t t l e b i t . Interview 23, grade 2/3 I f e e l i t helps them to speak English more f l u e n t l y without them knowing that they're even doing i t . Interview 24, grade 5 Lack of teacher t r a i n i n g i n dramatic playing: Lack of t r a i n i n g in dramatic playing or in any area of drama in the elementary classrooms appeared to be a major grievance among teachers interviewed. A l l but one teacher addressed t h i s problem. 93 Teachers can't do i t i f they don't know how. Interview 4, grade 7 If they are going to have t h i s i n the curriculum...they've got to have some kind of tr a i n i n g for teachers. 6 gr.3 I wish there were more...professional development courses on role drama. Interview 1, grade 5/6 Need s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g o r a s p e c i a l i s t t o do s c r i p t e d drama ( t h e a t r e a r t s ) The following samples from the tra n s c r i p t s of the oral interviews represent thoughts expressed by teachers as to whether a s p e c i a l i s t or someone with sp e c i a l t r a i n i n g should be used in the drama strand of the arts (scripted drama -theatre arts) just as a s p e c i a l i s t i s needed in v i s u a l arts and music. Teachers were divided on this question. Many teachers did not think that scripted drama belonged in the elementary school curriculum at a l l , but those that did see a place for musicals and plays presented in the form of school concerts claimed they f e l t unqualified to d i r e c t such enterprises, implying only a s p e c i a l i s t could offer students a valuable experience in thi s realm. They assume that anybody can take a s c r i p t and; develop i t but I don't think that's necessarily true. Interview 5, grade 4/5 Most teachers, I think, go to plays every so often and you get some kind of idea of how...a scene would be acted out. But i f you had somebody who was trained, then they could add the nuances that would make i t even better...but no, I don't think they have to be trained. Interview 21, grade 5 It's l i k e asking somebody who hasn't got any musical a b i l i t y or talent to teach music. Interview 7, grade 4 94 Relationship between success and t r a i n i n g i n drama. Several teachers referred to workshops they had attended which were given by a drama s p e c i a l i s t hired by the school board to f a m i l i a r i z e teachers with the appearance and strategies of t h i s type of drama. I believe the s t a f f of a school would make the request to have the drama s p e c i a l i s t v i s i t and use the children or teachers or both to demonstrate the dramatic playing process. Teachers indicated a positive r e l a t i o n s h i p between the success of the i r dramatic experiences with children and their knowledge of the methodology involved. Carole's come to our school and given courses r i g h t on the spot...she's been part of our professional development... quite strongly in the l a s t f i v e years. Interview 10, grade 3 I have some grounding in theatre and I've also been exposed to dramatic playing...in England and t h i s i s one of the reasons why i t interests me because I f e e l comfortable with both. Interview 17, grade 5/6 Drama : Mandated but not implemented Teachers were asked t h e i r thoughts on the fact that drama was mandated curriculum. This topic drew manyinteresting responses but the underlying theme was the teachers' frustrations with the ministry's expectations and the increasing stress l e v e l of teachers try i n g to cope with the growing body of mandated curriculum . Oh, but they can mandate i t u n t i l they're blue in the face but there's no funding and there's no encouragement . . . i t ' s absolutely ludicrous! Interview 4, grade 7 95 You know, i t ' s (the arts) are not supported generally in society...the government's just cut the funding for the theatre arts program at Community College... t r u l y in t h e i r hearts they're not committed...and they consistently underfund them and I guess i t a l l s t a r t s at the schools. Interview 15, grade 3 Lack o f space t o do drama The issue of available space in which to do drama was not of much concern suggesting that those teachers integrating drama with other subject d i s c i p l i n e s used the classroom. They can do wonderful drama a c t i v i t i e s with students right in the classroom and in moving the desks aside or l e t t i n g the students work in and around t h e i r desks. Interview 18, grade 7 Takes a c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t o t e a c h drama Many teachers claimed that the personality of the teacher was a key factor in whether he/she would engage his/her classes in dramatic a c t i v i t i e s . Many teachers suggested the teacher would have to be somewhat of an extrovert. Others claimed that any good teacher is. a performer, that being the very nature of the job, i . e . , "to hold an audience". You don't need a flamboyant personality but you"sort of have to have a . . . f l a i r . Interview 4, grade 7 I think a l o t of i t has to do with personality...because a l o t of times what you want to have the kids do, you have to be w i l l i n g to get involved yourself. If you're not prepared to leap right into i t and get involved yourself, then i t might be d i f f i c u l t . Interview 29, grade 6/7 96 Teachers f e e l a t r i s k i n t h e d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g mode i n t h a t t h e y might l o s e c o n t r o l o f t h e c l a s s . Many teachers interviewed f e l t that a key factor impeding dramatic playing was the lack of structure and the fact that the teacher must give up some control to enable the drama to be an expression of the students. Added to t h i s concern, teachers said that to take on a role with the students, as one of the "actors" within the drama, some teachers might f e e l vulnerable, lacking in class control, and out of their element (at r i s k ) . Commenting on the teacher being i n role with his/her students within the drama, most teachers f e l t t h i s would be very d i f f i c u l t for many of the i r colleagues, p a r t i c u l a r l y those teachers in the intermediate grades. It i s very interesting to note that in most cases teachers were describing how other teachers would f e e l , seldom r e f e r r i n g to themselves. But then one must take into consideration that in most cases the teachers volunteering to be interviewed were interested in drama and therefore probably f a i r l y successful and at ease in that medium. I think i t i s d e f i n i t e l y risky...there's always the chance that ....yeh, I can see i t being very threatening p a r t i c u l a r l y i f you've never done anything l i k e t h i s before. It's not r e a l l y a control s i t u a t i o n . Interview 13, grade 6/7 Teachers in role?...now that's the reason teachers reject i t because.... you 1 re no longer the teacher. You cannot be the teacher and do role drama e f f e c t i v e l y , and so i t doesn't follow necessarily the kind of...the l i f e of the drama isn't prescripted..so you're not sure exactly where i t ' s going to go. Interview 31, grade 3/4 97 Do t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e a c l e a r s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n drama..in e i t h e r form? I did not get the f e e l i n g in these interviews that teachers recognized a clear set of objectives. My interpretation was that each teacher formed his or her own set of objectives as part of the intended goals or outcomes of his/her own personally designed programs. I was continually amazed at the autonomy of each teacher and the fact that they developed t h e i r own programs, leading to tremendous inequities in experiences for the students. Most teachers I talked to were extremely proud of th e i r own i n d i v i d u a l l y developed programs, and those that weren't gave me a sense that they wanted some d i r e c t i o n or some assurance that what they were doing was a l l r i g h t . Dramatic play...I f e e l i t ' s a more internal expression and for me primarily i t ' s to have the children demonstrate their understanding of ideas...and t h e i r a b i l i t y to use divergent thinking...and just high l e v e l thinking s k i l l s whereas scripted drama, I find i t more performance oriented, working on speech, on rhythmic t a l k i n g , on oral reading, stage d i r e c t i o n , confidence, poise, that kind of thing. Interview 31, grade 3/4 Probably not. I don't even think I do and I do a l o t of drama. Interview 11, grade 7 My objectives would be confidence, standing before your peers, mostly public speaking, I guess. Interview 27, grade 3/4 why s h o u l d drama be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m ? Nearly a l l the teachers interviewed thought drama should d e f i n i t e l y be part of the curriculum and saw i t as f u l f i l l i n g many desired outcomes for the students. However many teachers 98 would probably associate the descriptors of drama with current educational ideologies, and may be reluctant to state they see no use for i t in the curriculum. B a s i c a l l y , then, teachers believe drama belongs in the curriculum, but very few appear to be using i t . You can learn about d i f f e r e n t cultures, you can learn about history by acting out d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l parts...you can learn to understand them better; you can problem solve...also as art appreciation and to work on their speaking s k i l l s . Interview 1, grade 5/6 If you're going to use the scripted, and go into some s k i l l s , then I think i t ' s going to get them more aware of what i t is that people who do any dramatic presentation have to consider ...and in role drama i t gives them a much clearer appreciation of the s i t u a t i o n which you're t r y i n g to get them to understand. Interview 17, grade 5/6 S h o u l d i t be a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t t a u g h t by a s p e c i a l i s t ? Most teachers interviewed were opposed to drama becoming a separate subject on the timetable, e s p e c i a l l y in upper intermediate grades and to be given the same consideration as music and v i s u a l art where students may go to another teacher for these subjects. If I was teaching drama, iso l a t e d , I would pick up themes that wouldn't necessarily be in l i n e with what they're doing in the classroom so there wouldn't be a l o t of follow through. Interview 8, grade 6 In elementary school, I'm not sure i f I'd want to see i t as a subject area of i t ' s own..I wouldn't want to have to get into..kind of knowing that once a week we're doing drama, you know l i k e once a week we do music..it doesn't work with the intermediate kids....the kids hate going to music... i t makes i t r e a l l y meaningful for them when i t ' s integrated. Interview 16, grade 6/7 99 Administration and s t a f f support. Most teachers interviewed did not think the role of the administrator was of s i g n i f i c a n t importance. Teachers commented whether the i r p r i n c i p a l was interested in drama or not but stated that t h i s was not a key factor. They would do drama regardless of the administrator's d i s p o s i t i o n towards i t . I ' l l t e l l you who doesn't know what I'm doing...is the p r i n c i p a l . I've told him what I'm doing and he hasn't once come to see i t . Interview 20, grade 3/4 Are the location and demographics of the school a f a c t o r , i . e . , whether i t i s on the east or west side of the c i t y ? I n i t i a l l y I wondered whether l o c a t i o n — t h e east side or west side of the ci t y — w o u l d be a factor but t h i s study indicated that t h i s had no e f f e c t . Whether students of a par t i c u l a r school were being exposed to the elements of scripted drama or dramatic playing was in the hands of the classroom teacher. Neither the location of the school or i t s ' population appeared to be a factor. I don't think so, no...I was involved in a...this i s secondary, mind you, but when I was at , they had an incredible drama department.....no, i t ' s the teacher...because they set the...once the enthusiasm and just the love of i t i s planted in the k i d s . . i t ' s l i k e a chain reaction, i t ' s wonderful! Interview 28, grade 6 Available Time Many teachers recognized the time factor as an impediment to the successful implementation of drama. Others claimed that i f the teacher was using dramatic playing as a learning 100 t o o l i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s , time would not be a f a c t o r any more than computers c o u l d be i n composition or c a l c u l a t o r s i n math. You have to s e t the stage f o r i t so to speak and i n f o r t y minutes sometimes i t ' s r e a l l y q u i t e d i f f i c u l t when they have to s o r t of put e v e r y t h i n g away and get ready to more to the next, you know, c l a s s . I nterview 3, grade 4 They would see i t as one more t h i n g stuck i n the c u r r i c u l u m and they (teachers) wouldn't see t h a t the t h i n g s t h a t they're t e a c h i n g a l r e a d y c o u l d be presented to the k i d s through drama. Interview 23, grade 2/3 The comment I hear a tremendous amount i s "Boy, I'd l i k e to do t h a t k i n d of t h i n g , but when do I do i t ? " Interview 29, grade 6/7 Should theatre s k i l l s be taught i n dramatic playing? S k i l l t e a c h i n g versus h o l i s t i c l e a r n i n g . Those teachers t h a t understood the i n t e n t behind dramatic p l a y i n g f e l t t h a t t h e a t r e s k i l l s , ( i . e . p r o j e c t i o n , body movement, a r t i c u l a t i o n , i n otherwords, a c t i n g s k i l l s ) d i d not belong on the agenda of dramatic p l a y i n g . Other teachers who saw dramatic p l a y i n g as an e x t e n s i o n of a language a r t s program f e l t t h a t speaking s k i l l s and p r e s e n t a t i o n should be addressed. Teachers' p e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e of t h e a t r e s k i l l s i n t h i s domain depended l a r g e l y on t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n towards drama and p a r t l y on t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y my q u e s t i o n to the teachers was d i d they f e e l t h a t t h e a t r e s k i l l s would b e n e f i t the dramatic p l a y i n g experience? I t w i l l be p a r t of what you're doing, but t h a t ' s not the purpose of your doing i t . I n t e r v i e w 4, grade 7 101 I think theatre s k i l l s should be taught..I would t e l l them how to be more believable...I think knowledge in that area i s very valuable. Interview 11, grade 7 Against s c r i p t e d drama: theatre a r t s , school plays, and concerts. Teachers were asked to comment on the value of scripted drama where the focus is on theatre and theatre technique. They were also asked to give t h e i r impressions of including the appreciation of theatre as an art and as a form of entertainment in the dramatic experience of the student. Most teachers f e l t that although scripted drama was easier to do, i t r e s t r i c t e d the student's i n t r i n s i c creative expression as the role to be portrayed was often a role the student could not i d e n t i f y with and therefore the task f e l t contrived and unnatural. It becomes very r e s t r i c t i v e i f you think of theatre arts and only the few who are very confident. Interview 4, grade 7 I find when I'm using s c r i p t drama that often the c r e a t i v i t y of the students w i l l stray...not necessarily from characterization or plot but from the dialogue. Interview 11, grade 7 For performance, either i n scripted drama or dramatic playing. Several teachers thought dramatic playing should be presented in the performance mode so that students had the experience of the reaction of an audience, and that whether scripted or dramatic playing, the students needed a product at the end of their process. 102 I think there are times when children should have an audience beyond th e i r own class group i f they've worked very hard and produced something,... then i t ' s worth showing to a larger group. Interview 18, grade 7 F o r S c r i p t e d drama Some teachers see scripted drama as the more preferable form of drama to use with students, e s p e c i a l l y children in the upper intermediate grades as expectations are clear in scripted drama, and i t is more c l o s e l y aligned with drama as an a r t . If i t ' s mandated and you have to squeeze i t i n , a l o t of people are more l i k e l y to choose scripted drama...because i t gives them clear guide l i n e s as to how i t i s supposed to come across...you don't get any unsuspected surprises...more structure...more control. Interview 21, grade 5 I think in the intermediate I would see more of the scripted because then they're behaving that way because i t ' s the character that they're portraying...whereas role play, I think they f e e l that's very c h i l d i s h behavior and I don't think they would be able to do i t as well. Interview 23, grade 2/3 Thoughts f o r and a g a i n s t t h e s c h o o l c o n c e r t . As many schools usually produce a concert or a musical, often as an extension of the music program, most teachers have experience in t h i s realm even i f only as an observer or in a small role such as putting on make-up or taking t i c k e t s at the door. Large scale concerts are usually an entire school e f f o r t and many teachers have strong feelings for and against such colossal enterprises. I think most kids are most l i k e l y to get t h e i r only dramatic experience in the form of the Christmas concert. Interview 12, grade 3 103 Undemocratic... excellent, wonderful productions but undemocratic and showcases for a small percentage of the kids in the leading role...you know, everybody would be involved but they might be marching on and off the stage. The same half a dozen kids would be the stars year after year. Interview 15, grade 3 Do you think many teachers are using drama i n t h e i r classrooms? Most teachers I talked to concluded that very few teachers were using drama either in scripted form or integrated into other subject d i s c i p l i n e s . How r e l i a b l e t h e i r assumptions are i s d i f f i c u l t to say as most teachers do not know what goes on in other classrooms but then, on the other hand, teachers who are enthusiastic about a pa r t i c u l a r lesson usually t e l l t h e i r colleagues. It i s interesting to note that although these t h i r t y - f o u r volunteers were very supportive of drama in the curriculum, twenty percent of them were not using drama in their classrooms. Common reasons were: there wasn't enough time, other things were of higher p r i o r i t y , and/or they did not f e e l comfortable or knowledgeable in using drama in education. I'm not sure there's r e a l l y a l o t of drama at a l l , period, even s c r i p t . Interview 2, grade 4 I'm the only one in my school that has any idea about i t . Interview 13, grade 6/7 I don't r e a l l y think i t ' s happening at a l l . Interview 14, grade 3 104 I f t e a c h e r s a r e u s i n g drama, what i s t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e , and why? It i s interesting to note that 54.2 percent of the respondents of the questionnaires said they preferred to use both forms of drama, scripted and dramatic playing, whereas 8.8 percent of the subjects interviewed claimed to be using both forms. When the teachers interviewed were asked which form of drama they preferred, 17 (50%) chose dramatic playing. However, as has already been noted in t h i s study, teachers indicated a misunderstanding of the boundaries of dramatic playing. In many cases, teachers were claiming that s c r i p t s , written, rehearsed, and performed for audiences were considered "dramatic playing". Script drama... teachers more inclined to go with that because i t ' s structured but the pay off i s l i k e l y to be less (than in dramatic playing) in the short run...unless they do a l o t of drama work or s k i l l s and then of course i t might be d i f f e r e n t . Interview 17, grade 5/6 My preference i s dramatic playing but I find scripted drama easier... even i f the kids are writing their own s c r i p t s I find role drama quite s t r e s s f u l . Interview 31, grade 3/4 Why a r e music and v i s u a l a r t s i n a s e c u r e p o s i t i o n on t h e t i m e t a b l e . . . i . e . t h e y a r e mandated and t a u g h t t o a l l s t u d e n t s whereas drama i s n ' t ? What a r e t e a c h e r s t h o u g h t s on drama s h a r i n g t h e f i n e a r t s s t r a n d w i t h music and v i s u a l a r t s ? Teachers found t h i s question thought provoking and d i f f i c u l t to answer, e s p e c i a l l y i f the i r perception of drama was in the realm of dramatic playing as a learning tool rather than drama as an a r t . 105 Maybe i t has to do with our culture... the way we have sort of grown up and the way music and art are presented. Interview 9, grade 3 Music and art are timetabled so they get done. Interview 15, grade 3 Drama i s the underused part of our fine arts curriculum because not enough people are promoting i t . Interview 25, grade 5 S i n c e drama i s mandated and y e t v e r y few s c h o o l s seem t o be d o i n g i t , do you t h i n k i t w i l l d i s a p p e a r from t h e a r t s s t r a n d l e a v i n g music and v i s u a l a r t s t h e o n l y a r t s a d d r e s s e d a t t h e el e m e n t a r y l e v e l ? When teachers were asked what they saw as the future for drama as a part of the curriculum and every student's educational experience, they were reluctant to speculate. Some blamed the d i s t r i c t for not supplying r e s o u r c e s -materials and workshops. Others claimed the problem was an already overloaded curriculum with too many new innovative strategies to be implemented, e.g., elements of inst r u c t i o n , whole language, computers, and integration with the l i b r a r y . Some said i t was too specialized a f i e l d and some teachers' personalities would be a deterrent because they were not outgoing enough or ready to take a r i s k , and others said that some teachers could not teach drama in the same sense that not everyone can teach v i s u a l arts or music. Visual arts and music t r a d i t i o n a l l y have been the art experience for students of elementary schools and i t appears some t r a d i t i o n s are d i f f i c u l t to break. I c e r t a i n l y hope n o t . . . i f we follow the intermediate program as i t ' s written and the primary program that's already been implemented, there i s plenty of encouragement in there for 106 dramatic expression and for drama as one of the strategies (for teaching). Interview 18, grade 7 Dramatic playing is r e a l l y going to be l e f t up to whether the teacher feels l i k e i t or can handle i t or whatever. Interview 29, grade 6/7 SUMMARY OF F I N D I N G S The tabulations of t h i s survey have found interesting responses to the questions t h i s study posed. (The questions are outlined on page 16 in the Statement.of the Problem). Some findings are d e f i n i t e but others are less c l e a r . The responses to the f i r s t question "To what extent i s drama being taught in elementary schools?" were somewhat ambiguous. Seventy-four percent of the respondents of the questionnaires claimed they were using drama i n the form of dramatic playing anywhere from several times per week to once a term. F i f t y -f i v e point one percent of the respondents claimed they were using dramatic playing anywhere from several times per week to once a month. But as respondents described the dramatic playing they were doing, i t became evident they were not clear on what constitutes dramatic playing as a learning t o o l . Findings in the oral interviews were contrary to the questionnaires in that the majority of teachers interviewed stated very l i t t l e drama in any form was taking place in elementary classrooms. These were the i r perceptions about other teachers. The questionnaires revealed that 62.6 percent of the respondents used scripted drama in their classrooms from 107 several times per week to once a term, and 32.7 percent of the teachers used scripted drama from several times per week to once a month, but t h i s finding was not supported by the oral interviews as subjects claimed very l i t t l e scripted drama was used by classroom teachers. But then, responses in the oral interviews showed that many teachers c l a s s i f i e d s c r i p t s written by students as dramatic playing, not scripted drama, even though students rehearsed i t , attempted to perfect i t , and presented i t . The interview findings indicated that 17.6 percent of the teachers used scripted drama (combined findings for concerts and scripted drama). Throughout the c o l l e c t i o n of data, i t became clear that teachers were not clear on what dramatic playing r e a l l y i s , and even though the questionnaire contained an in-depth d e f i n i t i o n of dramatic playing, and interviews provided the opportunity to c l a r i f y meaning through conversation, their understanding of the pr i n c i p l e s of dramatic playing as a learning t o o l appeared nebulous at best. It was rather l i k e asking non-musicians to discuss the elements of a concerto and to t e l l why they prefer that form to the symphony. But the very fact that some teachers were confused, lends strong support to my purpose in doing the study. Is drama being implemented and i f not, why? When respondents of the questionnaires answered question 13(a) "If you have used role drama or improvised drama as a learning t o o l for other subject d i s c i p l i n e s in the classroom, please indicate in which subject d i s c i p l i n e or in what 108 context," their written responses c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d ambiguous notions of what constitutes dramatic playing. Descriptions of the types of drama that the teachers interviewed were doing further confirms some misunderstandings among teachers of how drama can be used as a learning t o o l . Only 11.9 percent of the interviewees were using dramatic playing, i . e . , drama as a method of searching for a deeper meaning in other subject d i s c i p l i n e s . Twenty-three percent of the subjects interviewed stated they were using dramatic playing but when they described the dramatic a c t i v i t i e s of their classrooms, they were found to be using improvisational drama as an extension of language arts, i . e . , whole language. Twenty percent of the teachers were not using drama in any form which was surpri s i n g , as I had assumed that those teachers who chose to volunteer to be interviewed, did so because they were most l i k e l y using drama in th e i r classrooms. Three teachers reported scheduled drama periods in t h e i r schools where drama i s taught by a s p e c i a l i s t , (drama exercises, games, improvisation). Most teachers who are using drama at a l l , appear to be integrating i t with other subject d i s c i p l i n e s . The majority of teachers do not see drama as an autonomous subject on i t s own, with a s p e c i a l i s t as the teacher. Many teachers f e l t that would put drama in jeopardy, and that i f students went to another classroom and another teacher for inst r u c t i o n in drama, the themes worked on in drama would not be related to classroom work. 109 Answers to the remainder of the questions l i s t e d on page 16 in the Statement of the Problem are as follows: Question two asks "How are teachers meeting the goals of the Ministry of Education in drama?" and the study reveals that the subjects surveyed in t h i s study are experiencing either great d i f f i c u l t y in meeting the goals or they are not meeting them at a l l . However, on a positive note, those teachers who have experienced some tr a i n i n g and exposure in educational drama report that they love using drama in their classrooms, the children are enthusiastic, and the r e s u l t s are phenomenal. Question three asks "What kinds of drama are elementary students experiencing?" The findings from the questionnaires indicate dramatic playing i s the form used by most classroom teachers. This response, substantiated by the results of the oral interviews, i s perhaps dominant because dramatic playing has a l l the descriptors that are part of the pr e v a i l i n g educational philosophy, ( i . e . , co-operative learning, c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s , h e u r i s t i c learning, h o l i s t i c learning, experiential learning), and teachers would be loath to report that their work i s not in tune with current educational ideology^ added to the fact that drama i s mandated. Both the questionnaires and the oral interviews revealed that dramatic playing was most l i k e l y to be integrated with language arts programs as enhancing a l l areas of language, both written and spoken, and s o c i a l studies was the subject 110 d i s c i p l i n e most often chosen when dramatic playing was to be used as a learning tool to understand concepts. The findings to question four "Is the appreciation strand of drama taking place in drama or has i t been designated to language arts classes where plays may be read, studied, but seldom acted out?" were negative. Appreciation of theatre, per se, i s not on the agenda of most elementary classroom teachers, but scripted plays are used and performed, although in many cases, the s c r i p t s are written by students as part of the whole language program. It would appear that any appreciation or understanding of theatre as an art form would only be accessible to the elementary student who i s involved in the preparation of a major production such as the school concert.. Question f i v e asks "How do teachers define drama? Are they aware of dramatic playing as a learning tool? Have they taken any courses, or attended any workshops on dramatic playing?" The findings indicate that i n t u i t i v e l y teachers associate drama with theatre and stage acting, but most are very aware of the new role of drama in the classroom. How i t works, and where and why appear to be too d i f f i c u l t for most teachers to answer. Some teachers are aware of dramatic playing as a learning tool but most of the teachers see i t s best use as an extension of language a r t s , e.g., as the oral component to expressive language. Although some teachers seem to understand i t s value I l l as a l e a r n i n g t o o l i n the context of s o c i a l s t u d i e s , most do not understand the methodology i n v o l v e d . Seventy-eight p o i n t f i v e percent of the respondents of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s t a t e d t h a t they had not taken any e d u c a t i o n a l drama courses at a u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e and 84.1 percent of the teachers s t a t e d t h a t they had not take any t h e a t r e a r t s courses at a u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e . F i f t y - s e v e n p o i n t nine percent of the teach e r s s t a t e d t h a t they had not attended any workshops on drama i n educ a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s i n both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e t h a t teachers are l a c k i n g s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g to be able to s u c c e s s f u l l y implement drama as mandated c u r r i c u l u m . . Question s i x asks " I f dramatic p l a y i n g i s not being used i n the classroom, what are the reasons?" T h i s i s the key qu e s t i o n and the q u e s t i o n on which t h i s study i s based. Although t h e r e are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , and many are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s summary as w e l l as i n chapter f i v e , one reason dominates t h i s study. E v i d e n t l y many teach e r s do not know what dramatic p l a y i n g i s , and they do not know how to use drama o u t s i d e the domain of the s c r i p t e d p l a y . The answer to q u e s t i o n s i x w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d on i n Chapter f i v e . The f i n d i n g s t o q u e s t i o n seven, "Do teach e r s have d i f f i c u l t y making a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between performance and dramatic p l a y i n g ? " r e v e a l t h a t most teachers i n t e r p r e t performance as s c r i p t e d and dramatic p l a y i n g as i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l . 112 In q u e s t i o n e i g h t "Do teachers f e e l t h a t the lack of s k i l l s and experience i n drama, both among students and teache r s hinders the success of dramatic p l a y i n g i n classrooms?", the f i n d i n g s o f f e r overwhelming support f o r the need f o r t r a i n i n g and r e s o u r c e s . Seventy-eight p o i n t f i v e percent of teach e r s responding t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e had no t r a i n i n g i n drama i n education at a u n i v e r s i t y of c o l l e g e , and 5 7 . 9 percent of the teach e r s responding t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e had not attended any workshops on drama i n educ a t i o n . Many teache r s s t a t e d t h a t the lack of s k i l l s and experience was a very s t r o n g f a c t o r i n h i n d e r i n g the success of dramatic p l a y i n g . However, they d i d not t h i n k t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' lack of s k i l l s and experience was a f a c t o r at a l l . Question nine asks "In t h i s l a s t decade the bulk of l i t e r a t u r e i n drama and education has applauded dramatic p l a y i n g as a v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g t o o l . Do the m a j o r i t y of teachers know how to use i t ? " The f i n d i n g s i n the o r a l i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e t h a t v e r y few teachers understand e i t h e r the methodology behind u s i n g drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l , or i t s purpose, or i t s d e s i g n . Very few teach e r s have seen examples of t h i s form of drama. Teachers who d i d understand the i m p l i c a t i o n s behind drama as a l e a r n i n g t o o l had e i t h e r taken courses i n drama i n education or have had a c o n s u l t a n t from the s c h o o l board d e l i v e r a workshop. The f i n d i n g s to q u e s t i o n ten "What do teach e r s f e e l i s the main purpose of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m ? " v a r i e d and teachers addressed such outcomes as poise and co n f i d e n c e , 113 s o c i a l i z i n g , shared l e a r n i n g , o r a l language, and l e a r n i n g through e x p e r i e n c i n g . The main purpose of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m depended on what each i n d i v i d u a l teacher's p e r c e p t i o n of drama was and how the teacher used i t i n h i s / h e r classroom. The f i n d i n g s t o the q u e s t i o n eleven "Do t e a c h e r s re c o g n i z e a c l e a r s e t of o b j e c t i v e s to be a t t a i n e d i n drama: a c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n ? " were broad and v a r i e d . As s t a t e d above, o b j e c t i v e s depended on the purpose of the drama and the purpose of the drama was i n accordance with the teacher's p e r c e p t i o n of i t s most v a l u a b l e use. O b j e c t i v e s a l s o d i f f e r e d depending on the type of drama: s c r i p t e d drama or dramatic p l a y i n g . O v e r a l l , the f i n d i n g s were i n d i c a t i v e of some v e r y s e r i o u s problems o b s t r u c t i n g the s u c c e s s f u l implementation of drama. With r e s p e c t t o the q u e s t i o n i s i t an a r t or i s i t a t e a c h i n g t o o l , teachers appear to see i t i n both l i g h t s . However, they almost unanimously agree t h a t i n e i t h e r form, they need t r a i n i n g , and f o r anyone to expect s u c c e s s f u l implementation without the necessary t r a i n i n g of those given the job of implementation, i s unpragmatic to say the l e a s t . A grade four teacher from a west s i d e s c h o o l r e f l e c t s the sentiments of most teachers I in t e r v i e w e d . . . " I don't f e e l I do enough drama nor do I f e e l t h a t I have enough t r a i n i n g , i d e a s , resources to i n c l u d e i t p r o p e r l y and r e g u l a r l y i n t o an elementary program." 114 C H A P T E R 5 S U M M A R Y , - C O N C L U S I O N S , A3SfI> R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S SUMMARY Purpose The purpose of t h i s study was to discover whether or not drama, as part of the prescribed Fine Arts Curriculum is being implemented or not. The study has sought answers to the following questions: 1. To what extent i s drama being taught in elementary schools? 2. How are teachers meeting the goals of the Ministry of Education in drama? 3. What kinds of drama are elementary students experiencing? (Drama games, s c r i p t dramas, s k i t s , plays for school concerts, improvisation within the context of academic lessons, theatre sports, or dramatic playing)? 4. Is the appreciation strand of drama taking place in drama or has i t been designated to language arts classes where plays may be read, studied, but seldom acted out? 5. How do teachers define drama? Are they aware of dramatic playing as a learning tool? Have they taken any courses, or attended any workshops on dramatic playing? 115 6. I f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i s not b e i n g used i n the c l a s s r o o m , what a r e t h e r e a s o n s ? 7. Do t e a c h e r s have d i f f i c u l t y making a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between performance and d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g ? 8. Do t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t the l a c k of s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e i n drama, both among s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s h i n d e r s the s u c c e s s o f d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i n c l a s s r o o m s ? 9. I n t h i s l a s t decade t h e b u l k of l i t e r a t u r e i n drama and e d u c a t i o n has applauded d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g as a v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g t o o l . Do t h e m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s know how t o use i t ? 10. What do t e a c h e r s f e e l i s t h e main purpose of drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m ? 11. Do t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e a c l e a r s e t of o b j e c t i v e s t o be a t t a i n e d i n drama; a c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n ? Rationale The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e importance of t h i s s t u d y i s based on t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on e d u c a t i o n a l drama by t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n t h e F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide (1985) and s u p p o r t e d i n the Year 2000 I n t e r m e d i a t e D r a f t document. "Both drama and t h e a t r e a r e p a r t of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m , w i t h s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g about t h e a r t of t h e a t r e t h r o u g h t h e i r work i n drama." ( E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide. 1985, p. 8 5 ) . The F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide d e f i n e s t h e a t r e as "an a r t form i n v o l v i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d r a m a t i c l i t e r a t u r e t o an 116 audience", and defines drama as "a developmental process centered on the learner." Theorists of educational drama ci t e d in the l i t e r a t u r e review of t h i s study make strong claims for the role of drama in the education of the c h i l d . The l i t e r a t u r e review traces the evolution of drama in the curriculum from John Dewey to the educational drama theories of Dorothy Heathcote and Gavin Bolton. Drama i s to be used as an art form and as a "developmental process centered on the learner" integrated with other subject d i s c i p l i n e s as a learning t o o l . Bolton (1979) emphasizes the use of dramatic playing in cognition: "Drama appears to offer q u a l i t i e s and levels of meaning not normally available to children in anything but an abstract form". Bruner (1966) talks about the s p i r a l q u a l i t y of education as we add new knowledge to old knowledge r e f i n i n g our understanding. Drama provides the means to bridge the gap between that which we know and that which we are pursuing and provides the stimuli for students to question and debate issues which have become relevant through dramatic playing. Methodology To find answers to the questions posed in the study two instruments were used to c o l l e c t data. The f i r s t was a written questionnaire d i s t r i b u t e d among teachers of elementary schools. Grades three, four, f i v e , s i x , and seven in 23 schools were surveyed, and 107 teachers responded. 117 The second was an o r a l i n t e r v i e w , conducted in-person and by telephone i n which 34 of the s u b j e c t s completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s v o l u n t e e r e d to take p a r t . Seven s u b j e c t s were intervi e w e d i n - p e r s o n and 27 by telephone. T h i r t y - f o u r teachers responded and 34 teach e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d . The data c o l l e c t e d through the i n t e r v i e w s was meant t o a m p l i f y the f i n d i n g s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p r o v i d i n g a deeper search i n t o the p e r c e p t i o n s and conceptions of drama h e l d by the teachers as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the kinds of drama t a k i n g p l a c e i n elementary s c h o o l classrooms. CONCLUSIONS Both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t teachers h e l d c e r t a i n misconceptions concerning the methods and p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n dramatic p l a y i n g as a l e a r n i n g t o o l , and although some of the teachers interviewed claimed they were u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g , they were i n f a c t u s i n g a type of drama which i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to whole language, e.g., i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l dramas c r e a t e d by the c h i l d r e n and transformed i n t o w r i t t e n s c r i p t s f o r performance. T h i s i s unquestionably drama, and an e x c e l l e n t way of h e l p i n g students generate t h e i r own c r e a t i v e language e f f o r t s i n t o t e x t as w e l l as e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e a t r e a r t s , but i t i s a l i m i t e d use, and not n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t which i s c a l l e d dramatic p l a y i n g . Dramatic p l a y i n g develops i n the present through the p l a y e r s who don't know how the drama w i l l e v o l v e . I t i s spontaneous and not 118 e a s i l y repeated. Students writing s c r i p t s for performance are working more in the playwright-theatre mode. In the findings in both the questionnaires and the interviews, drama was most often integrated with language arts to encourage both oral and written creative expression. This involved improvisational dramas r e s u l t i n g i n s c r i p t s , l e t t e r s , journals, etc., or improvisational dramas displaying a simulation of the novel or story, after children have completed the reading assignment. The objectives addressed here were usually focused on a greater understanding of the l i t e r a t u r e the children were reading, improving oral reading, concentration, poise and confidence in front of peers, co-operative learning, and improving oral and written communication s k i l l s . This use of drama i s very popular with most teachers as a way of studying l i t e r a r y text, but i t i s not the dramatic experience termed "dramatic playing" where the goal i s a deeper understanding of the concept or universal under investigation through the combined e f f o r t s of the group acting in r o l e . An example of where to apply t h i s strategy for learning could be the study of Darwin's theory of evolution and i t s implications on s o c i e t i e s of that day or the power of a king, how he both achieves that power and how he holds i t . Although both these models are related to history, the same pr i n c i p l e s can be applied to l i t e r a t u r e , e.g., in the grade seven novel "Word to Caesar" exploring the motivation and d r i v i n g force behind Paul's journey to Rome leading students to a deeper 119 understanding of both the novel and the universal truths involved in t h i s story. Few teachers surveyed in t h i s study were using drama in th i s way. Dramatic playing i s more c l o s e l y related to a children's make-believe play. The c h i l d creates his/her own world where he/she can t r y "real l i f e " and a l l the problems and situations within i t through the r o l e of the character he/she has created. As Bolton says "We can regard them (dramatic playing and children's make-believe) as the same a c t i v i t y except that dramatic playing takes place in a school" (1979, p. 9). The elements of dramatic playing include the following: not limited to time, no s p e c i f i c goal, often no sense of completion, rules not always cle a r , experience is not e a s i l y repeatable, l i v i n g through rather than demonstrating ideas, very close to l i f e - p a c e , and freedom for individual c r e a t i v i t y . One of the purposes of t h i s study was to see i f teachers were using dramatic playing as an experiential type of learning, the type of learning experience Dorothy Heathcote and Gavin Bolton prescribe or John Fines (1982) describes when writing about the value of using drama in the teaching of history: Drama allows one to see history as a l a r g e l y unknown area in which one must experiment to find ways of understanding; i t allows one to take history at the right pace, at the r e a l time in which i t happened. It makes the study of past humanity relevant to our present concerns and most important, i t allows for a set of relationships in learning between teacher and pupils that I find most comfortable and conducive to good work. It is a natural way of doing the job. (pp. 115-116) 120 The questionnaires revealed that those teachers who used dramatic playing in the context of s o c i a l studies had taken courses in dramatic playing at a university or college. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that 78.5 percent of the teachers completing the questionnaires had not taken any courses in drama in education at a univer s i t y or college, 84.1 percent had not taken any courses in theatre at a university or college, 57.9 percent had not attended any workshops on drama in education, and 20.6 percent had attended only one course on drama in education. When one compares the findings on teacher t r a i n i n g in drama to the number of teachers who claim they are using dramatic playing or any drama in the classroom, one has to wonder how 74.7 percent of the teachers could possibly be using "dramatic playing" in the i r classrooms or at least the kind of dramatic playing described and defined in t h i s study. The oral interviews revealed that many teachers were unable to define dramatic playing beyond improvisational drama. Their understanding of drama was more c l o s e l y related to theatre and language arts where the central idea was that students created dramas. It was an exercise in s e l f -expression in the aesthetic sense combined with an understanding of the complexities of l i f e , some problem solving, confidence building, poise, and s k i l l s in oral communication. Teachers also used drama to teach s o c i a l s k i l l s , and interpreted t h i s as dramatic playing. This is a popular use 121 of drama among educators, and i t has i t s roots in psychology, one of the f i r s t areas of study to r e a l i z e the e f f i c a c y of improvisational drama but i t d i f f e r s in objectives from dramatic playing being more concerned with correcting emotional or behavioural problems than with enhancing students' i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional development. "Many of the proponents of drama in education have emphasized i t s role in promoting s o c i a l and emotional development" (Chilver, 1982, p. 84). The r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that teachers often use drama because students enjoy i t . As Bolton said, many teachers are happy i f the students are having fun. "Many teachers seem to put 'enjoyment' as a p r i o r i t y . If the pupils have enjoyed th e i r drama that i s evidence enough of i t s educational v a l i d i t y " (Bolton, 1979, p. 131). When respondents of the questionnaires were asked to state which factors contributed to the success of their work in dramatic playing, 92.5 percent of the teachers answered "Fun for the students; they loved i t . " Teachers interviewed supported t h i s claim. Because many teachers do not know the basic underlying p r i n c i p l e s of dramatic playing, t h i s study revealed that those teachers in the study who lacked t r a i n i n g in drama, were inclined to use their professional judgement as teachers to decide where and when to use drama, to i t s best educational advantage, and the place they most often choose is In the realm of or a l language (language arts) or creative expression 122 (whole language) and behaviour modification—psychology ( s o c i a l s k i l l s ) . Bolton addresses t h i s problem of defining drama when he says that teachers "speak from t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t conceptual frameworks in spite of using the same vocabulary" (1979, p. 1) and advises that we must " c l a r i f y a philosophy of drama in education in order to sharpen i t s practice" (1979, p. 1). Teachers developed their own par t i c u l a r drama programs based on the i r own pa r t i c u l a r interpretation of drama, producing a wide range of objectives and outcomes. It would seem limited to focus on one type of drama over a l l others and according to Bolton (1979) e s s e n t i a l l y the dramatic experience should be two-fold: dramatic playing where the c h i l d learns through experience, and theatre which encompasses acting s k i l l s and an appreciation for elements of theatre. Bolton (1979) writes "We cannot separate the two educational objectives of deepening understanding and learning about form: they are mutually dependent" (p. 114). Therefore drama, when used to teach children how to get along, or drama when used to teach children how to write a play, or drama when used in performance to teach children poise and presentation s k i l l s are a l l part of the dramatic experience, but too l i m i t i n g s i n g u l a r l y to warrant drama a place i n the curriculum. Many of the interviewees said they f e l t the children needed an end-product in th e i r drama work and although the thinking among today's educators is largely concerned with process over product, many teachers expressed t h e i r students' 123 love for performance and for "showing" what they had achieved to a larger audience than the teacher and other class members. The type of scripted drama that teachers were r e f e r r i n g to when stating that children wanted the opportunity to perform, were scripted dramas created by the students themselves. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate teachers use scripted dramas (professional s c r i p t s ) less frequently than dramatic playing, and the findings from the oral interviews are in agreement. Theatre arts and an appreciation of theatre seems to be present only when students are working on a "concert". Very few interviewees included acting s k i l l s as part of the dramatic experience for the student. " It w i l l be part of what you're doing, but that's not the purpose of your doing i t , " said a grade seven teacher. The B.C. Fine Arts Curriculum  Guide (1985) suggests that students learn "about the art of theatre through th e i r work in drama" because "drama has more potential for creating a safe, dynamic environment" whereas "theatre, by i t s very nature, e n t a i l s greater r i s k since i t i s subject to standards of excellence imposed from the outside" (p. 85). However the data c o l l e c t e d through t h i s study reveals that teachers are not usually concerned with elements of theatre in the dramatic experience of elementary students. "I haven't r e a l l y gone into the theatre part" was a common statement heard from those interviewed. The findings of both the oral interviews and the questionnaires c l e a r l y indicate that very l i t t l e i f any attention i s given to the elements of theatre, either with regard to s k i l l t r a i n i n g or appreciation. 124 Some connoisseurs of the arts are of the opinion that the only art that i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y valuable i s that which i s the resu l t of technical prowess, d i l i g e n t t r a i n i n g , and creative t a l e n t . They see s k i l l teaching as imperative for success in the a r t s . Ramon Delgado (1984) writes about achievement in playwriting, In order to achieve even moderate success in t h i s d i f f i c u l t a r t , the student must achieve a degree of proficiency in three areas. One of these areas i s correctable ( s p e l l i n g , grammar, punctuation); one area is teachable, ( l e v e l of c r a f t ) and one i s encourageable (l e v e l of a r t i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the a r t i s t ) . Delgado sees success in art as more than an experience in self-expression. He is c l e a r l y interested in producing accomplished a r t i s t s . Rosenblatt (1984) claims that "appreciation and understanding require the development of 't h e a t r i c a l s e n s i b i l i t y , ' which in turn i s dependent on the a b i l i t y to perceive and to respond to a work of a r t " (p. 11) This study suggests that the lack of t r a i n i n g , the lack of an understanding of the basic p r i n c i p l e s involved, and the lack of clear objectives, handicapped the a b i l i t y of teachers to implement drama successfully. There i s a prescribed curriculum but teachers don't seem to know what exactly they're supposed to teach, what to focus on, or what the objectives are. The r e s u l t i s as Gavin Bolton said during a course he was teaching at U.B.C. (1990) "Are we i n v i t i n g teachers to f a i l ? " When teachers are not sure what to do, or how to do i t , i . e . with varying experiences, conceptions, and information on drama, they develop th e i r own programs. 125 In both the questionnaires and the oral interviews, elementary teachers of grades three to seven, a r t i c u l a t e d their f r u s t r a t i ons with mandated curriculum but no tra i n i n g in methodology. The drama experiences available to elementary school children are diverse, not due to c r e a t i v i t y but out of necessity. The drama experiences available to elementary school children are barren, as discovered in the c o l l e c t i o n of data, and addressed by teachers in both the questionnaires and the oral interviews. Seventy-four point four percent of the teachers use dramatic playing in their classrooms from several times per week to once a term and yet 78.5 percent have not been exposed to any "drama in education" courses at a univer s i t y or college. Almost 80 percent of the teachers have not had any "lessons" in what this type of drama, c a l l e d dramatic playing, i s a l l about. These findings explain why teachers may have some d i f f i c u l t y implementing drama. Many teachers also attributed the f a i l u r e of dramatic playing to the time factor, an already over loaded timetable. Respondents to the oral interviews supported t h i s finding to a certai n degree but some claimed that i f teachers were integrating drama and using i t with other subject d i s c i p l i n e s , time should not impede the implementation of drama in the curriculum. In both the questionnaires and the interviews none of the teachers mentioned evaluation as a problem and I am assuming that where teachers are using drama integrated with other 126 subject d i s c i p l i n e s , assessment becomes part of the mark of that subject where drama i s incorporated. There is a d i s t i n c t discrepancy between the theory of drama in education and the practi c e . Regardless of theorists and research, the teachers decide what w i l l be Implemented and what w i l l not. And in that fact possibly l i e s the problem, the autonomy of the teacher. One teacher r e f l e c t s the common voice of many teachers I spoke to during the interviews. "Teaching i s such a personalized thing... there's going to be some things that just are not going to work because the person's heart's not in i t " . Therefore, currently in B r i t i s h Columbia there i s a mandated curriculum which the ministry believes i s a necessary part of the education of i t s youth, and yet there appears to be l i t t l e concern for tr a i n i n g the implementers of thi s curriculum. In ta l k i n g to many of the teachers I interviewed, I f e l t I was asking them to comment on a teaching tool they knew very l i t t l e about. The descriptors helped them, (co-operative learning, integration, h o l i s t i c learning, communication, child-centered), and through the language of the descriptors most teachers understood that whatever i t was, and however i t worked, i t would be good for the students. It was rather l i k e asking some housekeeper what he/she thought of a vacuum cleaner I was tr y i n g to promote but he/she had never seen one before, and did not know i t s function. However, those teachers who knew what dramatic playing was through courses, workshops, and reading were very strong in their 127 praises of i t s value in the curriculum. Apparently exposure to drama in education i s a l l that i s needed. RECOMMENDATIONS The conclusions of t h i s study lead to several recommendations: 1. If drama i s to be included in the fine arts strand of the curriculum, as a worthwhile part of the educative experience of every student in elementary classrooms, then teachers should be required to complete courses in the pri n c i p l e s and use of dramatic playing as a teaching t o o l . Courses in drama should be mandatory for intending teachers in the Faculty of Education. There i s a very substantial amount of l i t e r a t u r e to support such a claim for drama as a part of any curriculum. 2. Teachers, through workshops at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l , should be provided with the opportunity to see drama in education modeled frequently, and drama should be given the same attention as other teaching strategies (e.g., elements of inst r u c t i o n , whole language, and other programs: sexual abuse programs and computers). It has been my experience that most teachers are fam i l i a r with the name Donald Graves because of the attention given the writing process, but only three teachers mentioned Dorothy Heathcote and one recognized the name Gavin Bolton. 128 3. Teachers should be provided with the opportunity to observe their peers in the execution of dramatic playing as a learning tool and to be given the opportunity to share and support one another in their e f f o r t s rather than the present environment so prevalent in schools today of working in i s o l a t i o n . I discovered that in some schools where I interviewed more than one teacher, each teacher stated emphatically, that he/she was the only teacher at that school who used drama of any kind. The interviews in t h i s study proved that autonomy and i s o l a t i o n are d i s t i n c t blights on the success of drama. 4. To maintain the i n t e g r i t y of drama as an a r t , I suggest more attention should be given to theatre a r t s . Dramatic playing can be used as a learning tool in subject d i s c i p l i n e s ; in fact i t should be used right across the curriculum to enhance learning by providing a relevancy to that which is^ learned and by creating ah environment in which students can practice the language of the subject d i s c i p l i n e , but to r e s t r i c t drama to t h i s use alone i s not giving i t the status of an a r t . Alle n (1979) writes that "to claim that drama generally i s a tool for teaching other subjects is an offence to Shakespeare and a di s s e r v i c e to the very s p e c i a l i s t s who are making the claim" (p. 75). Students should be given the experience of working through a s c r i p t , learning the language of the stage, and the elements of 129 theatre, just as they should learn some of the elements of music in order to appreciate music. To appreciate drama, as stated in the Fine Arts Curriculum Guide (1985), students have to see theatre, and do theatre. Allen (1979) supports this view: "The suggestion that children should not be allowed or encouraged to come into contact with the work of the masters seems to me an outrage and quite as serious a deprivation as to prevent their contact with other aspects of contemporary culture" (p. 183). The concern that the teaching of s k i l l s and form might contaminate the freedom of the s p i r i t in a r t i s t i c expression is supporting an abundance of art that doesn't "involve the need for one jot of s k i l l , taste, talent, or preparation" (Allen, 1979, p.179). Alle n makes a strong claim for teachers of the arts to provide students with the appropriate s k i l l s and techniques so that they might "learn to embody the i r feelings and thoughts in a s a t i s f y i n g form of expression" (p. 135). He uses A r i s t o t l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of drama: " i t i s a security, because i t gives us a structure within which we can construct our own r e a l i t y . " My feelings on drama In the curriculum are refl e c t e d in the words of John Fines (1982, p. 123). "For me t h i s i s the ultimate aim of a l l — t h a t pupils should have pride in speech, as a part of a shared enterprise. Were one to be offered three things for a c h i l d in s c h o o l — l i t e r a c y , numeracy and o r a c y — I know where I would put my money". This has to be the undisputable argument on behalf of drama: that which can be 130 given the c h i l d to put him in good stead for shaping the most rewarding negotiations with a l l that l i f e has to o f f e r . What other way can one t r u l y present the assimilation of new knowledge to one's exis t i n g framework of knowledge that has given b i r t h to his/her own personal unique way of looking at l i f e . Without words, without the s k i l l of rh e t o r i c , without the a b i l i t y to a r t i c u l a t e thoughts, ideas remain locked within. Take anything else off the curriculum but not the very subject that makes learning relevant; not the subject that gives us the language to express ourselves in other subjects. Not the subject that teaches us to think on our feet. Not the subject that gives us the words and then the s k i l l to put them together so we can communicate our thoughts to others. Fines (1982) writes "To think hard and be able to speak those thoughts in a w i l l i n g debate i s the best of a l l the s k i l l s . We may forget the hist o r y we learn, the dates, the names, the d e t a i l s , but i f i t has been a medium for thi s kind of achievement, i t has earned i t s place in the curriculum." (p. 82). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The conclusions of t h i s study suggest several recommendations for further research in the f i e l d of educational drama. 131 1. An area of research that would be of interest for some future study would be to investigate the c o r r e l a t i o n between the age and experience of teachers and the use of innovative teaching strategies such as drama in education. With the present demographics of the teaching profession in the area t h i s study investigated, i . e . , a predominance of older and more experienced teachers, i t i s possible that "new" and innovative pedagogy may have less l i k e l i h o o d of being implemented than i f teaching s t a f f s of schools were i n f i l t r a t e d with recently trained "graduates" from u n i v e r s i t i e s . 2. As t h i s study focused on classrooms of grades three through f i v e , i t would interesting to compare how often drama is used in the primary grades to the frequency of use of drama in the upper intermediate grades (grades s i x and seven). 3. Although the findings of t h i s study implied that teachers who had studied the elements of educational drama at u n i v e r s i t i e s were strong supporters of dramatic playing, i t would be most interesting to investigate what proportion of teachers trained in the methodology of dramatic playing, use drama as a teaching tool in their classrooms. This might lend support to the notion that curriculum can not be implemented i f teachers are not trained. It could also indicate that regardless of t r a i n i n g and mandated curriculum, today's teachers decide for themselves what they w i l l teach. To see 132 whether there i s a positive c o r r e l a t i o n between courses in drama and drama in classrooms, would make a strong statement for courses offered at u n i v e r s i t i e s and workshops offered at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . 4. I would recommend that a similar study to t h i s one be conducted in f i v e years time to determine i f the gap between theory and practice has lessened and whether the underlying educational philosophies of the Year 2000 has s u f f i c i e n t l y permeated classrooms to allow the h e u r i s t i c learning environment to take place that dramatic playing f a c i l i t a t e s . 133 EPILOGUE Although the purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the status of drama in the curriculum and whether, as mandated curriculum, i t was being suc c e s s f u l l y implemented by elementary school teachers, there were some added unveiled findings. Teachers that I interviewed inadvertently expressed a need to talk about their work and seemingly the opportunity to do so i s missing in the current environment of schools. At such a busy time of the year, (the l a s t few weeks in June), I f e l t my questions on drama would not only be an imposition on teachers' limited time but regarded with as much interest as asking teachers in September how they plan to spend their summer holidays next year. Drama, or any facet of education i s not foremost on most teachers' minds in June. But the teachers I interviewed had a great deal to say, in fact so much that i t was often d i f f i c u l t to terminate the conversation. As t h i s happened with almost a l l t h i r t y - f o u r interviews, I concluded that either teachers are the world's greatest egotists or they had a need to t e l l someone, even late in June, what they had been doing behind those closed doors. They needed to t e l l someone about t h e i r wonderful programs, and the difference they were making in the l i v e s of their students. Maybe they were t i r e d of t e l l i n g t h e i r limited audience of family and friends, parents, spouses, or children, 134 and maybe t e l l i n g other teachers wasn't as s a t i s f y i n g because other teachers had th e i r own s t o r i e s to t e l l . Teachers appeared to have a need to have their work validated, endorsed, approved of, by someone of superior rank, such as a p r i n c i p a l , an area superintendent, a professor: someone " i n the know". Teachers do share what they are doing with other teachers in s t a f f rooms and do value th e i r colleagues' respect but other teachers' opinions aren't necessarily viewed as a meaningful assessment because peers do not represent a higher authority. Because I was doing my thesis on drama, I believe that I, as interviewer, was perceived as knowledgeable on the subject of drama. In any case, I interpreted their desire to t e l l me so much about th e i r programs as indicative of a need to be recognized, a way of asking "Am I doing t h i s r i g h t ? " -a need for some kind of presentation of th e i r work. Apart from the opportunity as interviewer to hear a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s that fellow teachers were using in drama, I had a sense that t h i s experience was almost l i k e a teacher "hot l i n e " . One teacher asked me to turn off the tape recorder so we could "talk"; another phoned me at home to add something more to what had been said; two young teachers, at the end of the interview, asked me questions on d i s c i p l i n e with grade sevens. One teacher wanted to know i f I, as a music teacher, had experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s with s t a f f members becoming unsupportive of musical productions. These "turns" in the format of the interview may not seem extraordinary to 135 the reader but one has to remember I was a stranger to these people before these conversations began. Although teachers volunteered to do these interviews, some were apprehensive about answering questions. One teacher said she couldn't do the interview yet, as she had "to read up on drama in education f i r s t " . I assured her i t wasn't a t e s t ! Almost a l l of the teachers told me with great pride some facet of their program. They talked about the exciting things they were doing with their classes and how successful their programs had been. They also talked about doubts and concerns, and the individual c h i l d who had made tremendous progress, or the kids that gave them trouble. It was interesting to note the subtle changes in the interviewees from the beginning of the conversation, where answers were guarded and circumspect, to an ambience of trust and shared enthusiasm, almost l i k e the conversation any two teachers might have about some phenomena of teaching. There was, however, one unnatural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n these "teacher conversations" and that was the r e s t r i c t i o n s I f e l t as the interviewer. I could not share my dramatic experiences nor could I give my views or opinions on dramatic playing for fear of skewing the responses. My chief purpose was to discover the subject's perception of drama in the curriculum and the type of drama he/she used but I continually f e l t my role as an interviewer s h i f t i n g to that of an appraiser, which was not my intention at a l l . The interviewee's descriptions of their work f a c i l i t a t e d a response. I did not f e e l I could l i s t e n to 136 teachers' portrayals of their successes with drama without comments l i k e "That's sounds great" or "That's so good for the students" and although these remarks enticed more enthusiastic accounts of teachers' uses and experiences with drama in the classroom, I f e l t almost fraudulent, because i t wasn't my place to give any assessment, only to c o l l e c t data. As each interview took on the same character, I was gradually becoming aware of teachers' needs to share th e i r programs with a seemingly non-threatening, unbiased but knowledgeable l i s t e n e r , one who could appreciate th e i r e f f o r t s and successes. With this apparent need to j u s t i f y one's work and have i t approved I began to wonder what were the underlying causes that could create such discourse from busy teachers at such a f r e n e t i c time of the year, other than the basic human attr i b u t e of loving to talk about one's work and a desire to have one's e f f o r t and success acknowledged. Perhaps there are two reasons for t h i s and perhaps they are the r e s u l t of the circumstances of teaching today: autonomy and Isolation. When the "old way" ended, the old way meaning the days when teachers were expected to follow, to the l e t t e r , everything the Ministry of Education dictated in that now antiquated b i b l e of every classroom teacher, the Course of  Study, autonomy and i s o l a t i o n began. Now teachers have been given the freedom to develop th e i r own programs, and as t h i s study indicates, they implement that which su i t s t h e i r teaching s t y l e , that which agrees with their philosophy of education, and that which i s deemed important to 137 them as professionals. Prior to t h i s , teachers were united by the Course of Study. They were to l d what to teach. Now as creators and innovators, teachers have more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and along with that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , with the designing of one's own programs comes the need to r e a l i z e one's success. But who t e l l s the designer how successful, how worthwhile those programs are? The lawyer equates the success of his work with the si z e of his practice. Teachers don't have that v a l i d a t i o n . They design l i k e a professional, and are assessed l i k e an employee (the p r i n c i p a l ' s report). The c l i e n t e l e , the only ones able to comment on these programs, are children, hardly s a t i s f y i n g to the teachers in terms of assessing one's work on professional terms. Of course, the reader might argue the teacher's own professional conscience should be able to judge the success of the program. But is that enough? Doesn't everybody have a need to show his/her work? Listening to these teachers, I was reminded once more how creative teaching i s , and how humanitarian i t i s . It i s an a r t . Yet, what art doesn't warrant a response? Teaching i s one of the few jobs I can think of where the artist/worker has nowhere to display his/her creation, except on the walls outside the classroom. Even in the simple task of cleaning one's car, one hopes someone w i l l notice. When anyone completes a task with e f f o r t and pride, doesn't one want recognition? Doesn't one want to show someone? It would be most unnatural to keep the spotless gleaming automobile locked in a garage under a shroud. 138 Teachers are quick to be c r i t i c i z e d , reprimanded for forgetting the hot dog count or some other o f f i c e form to be processed but seldom told whether their work is good, or mediocre, and sometimes not even t o l d i f i t ' s i n f e r i o r . Teachers work in i s o l a t i o n . Does a superior r e a l l y know what they (the teachers) are doing? Added to that, teachers often f e e l no one r e a l l y cares. Inspectors no longer v i s i t classrooms and p r i n c i p a l s only "check" teachers once every f i v e years, not that any teacher would want the return of inspections or numerous v i s i t s from the p r i n c i p a l . It seems rather unnatural and c e r t a i n l y not very motivating nor rewarding for any human e f f o r t as creative, innovative, and demanding as teaching to go on day after day unnoticed. I worked for years as a music teacher doing musicals so once a year my work was on display. I was provided an opportunity to put my work before the public and my peers. The acknowledgement and appreciation I received made me want to work harder and do even better next time. Even c r i t i c i s m can be constructive. But nothing? I believe praise is an incentive to work, and work made public i s an incentive to a response. We, as teachers, know that works with children, and psychology claims i t works for most humans—except teachers. B a s i c a l l y then, these oral interviews were a revelation. F i r s t of a l l , as a teacher/researcher I was given the chance to hear other teachers* thoughts, uses, and perceptions of drama. In my twenty-seven years of teaching, I've never had such access to what other teachers were doing and I've often 139 wished teachers could be given the opportunity to see other teachers at work, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n other schools where the personal factor can be eliminated. Staff dynamics could make in-school observations hazardous! On th i s issue then, I had the fee l i n g that these teachers, a l l teachers, work in tremendous i s o l a t i o n , where not even the p r i n c i p a l knows the wonderful things they are doing for children, and c e r t a i n l y not their employer, the school board. It concerned me, and a c t u a l l y saddened me that these teachers, in the l a s t month of the school year, should want to talk so much about what they were doing. It made me r e a l i z e what an untapped resource exists with teachers i f they got involved with co-operative learning, and were given the time to communicate professionally. What a tremendous source of energy, v i t a l i t y , and ideas i s out there i f teachers were encouraged to share and support one another. Teachers are better trained than ever and are professionals. They desperately need some professional feed-back. Another fact of interest e l i c i t e d from t h i s study was the average age of teachers today. There i s d e f i n i t e l y a preponderance of middle-aged teachers. Seventy-seven point six percent of the teachers surveyed were age t h i r t y - f i v e years and over, 55.2 percent of the teachers surveyed were age forty and over, and 30 percent of the teachers surveyed were age f o r t y - f i v e and over. As well, almost half of the teachers surveyed had more than sixteen years* teaching experience. I think that these two factors, age and experience, have a 140 strong e f f e c t on the type of teaching prevalent. Experienced older teachers have survived in classrooms because whatever they are doing works well for them. Innovative new approaches to teaching may not find f e r t i l e ground among these successful veterans who tend to regard the " l a t e s t in teaching" as re-cycled r e l i c s from the past. I f e e l I can say that with some authority as I am in that group. The implementation of drama in the curriculum i s new and innovative. Perhaps some experienced successful veterans are unl i k e l y to be interested in change, and may not be incl i n e d to shed old educational doctrines. Of course, t h i s is only a supposition, and a future study in educational drama may want to examine the r a t i o of veterans to "new" teachers using dramatic playing as a teaching t o o l . Apart from the relat i o n s h i p between the age of the majority of teachers and the Implementation of drama, I think i t i s unhealthy any time the progress of any profession or business is monopolized by one age group. 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Perry, W.G. (1970). Forms of i n t e l l e c t u a l and e t h i c a l development in the college years: A scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Postman, N e i l . (1983). "Engaging students in the great conversation". Phi Delta Kappan. 310 - 316. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education. (1985). Elementary fine arts curriculum guide/resource book. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education. (1990) Year 2000: A curriculum and assessment framework for  the future: Intermediate Program: Response Draft. V i c t o r i a , B.C. Curriculum Development Branch. Rike, Elizabeth.(1984 Winter). The Paideia proposal: Drama/theatre in education. Tennessee - Education. 13/ 30-42. Rike, Elizabeth. (1980 Nov.4). Workshop for Tennessee  supervisor's study council. Task Force report. Murtreesboro. Rosenblatt, Bernard S. (1984). A theory for curriculum for theatre education at the elementary grades. Children's  Theatre Review. 33.(2), 11-15 Ross, Malcolm.(Ed.).(1982). The development of aesthetic  experience. Oxford: Pergamon Robinson, Ken. (1975). Find a space. Unpublished manuscript., University of London Examination Department. Robinson, Ken. (Ed.). (1980). Exploring theatre & education. London: Heinemann. Robinson, Ken. (1983). The Status of drama in schools. In Christopher Day & John Norman (Eds.), Issues in  educational drama (pp.7-23). London: The Falmer Press. Rugg, Harold.(Ed.). (1927 b). The foundations of curriculum- making: Twenty-sixth yearbook of the national society  for the study of education. (Part 2.) Bloomington,I11: Rumbold, A. (1987). Speech by the minister of state at the  annual conference of the national association for  education in the a r t s . 28.10.87. Department of Education and Science, para. 42. 145 Saljo, Roger. (1979). Learning In the learner's perspective. Sweden: The Institute of Education University of Goteborg. Public school Publishing Co. Saljo, R. (1975). Qualitative differences in learning as a  function of the learner's conception of the task. Goteborg: Acta U n i v e r s i t a t i s Gothoburgensis. Silberman,C.E. (1970). The c r i s i s In the classroom: The Remaking of American Education. New York: Random House. Slade, Peter. (1954). Child drama. London: University of London Press. Snyder, B.R. (1971). The hidden curriculum. New York: Kopf. Stanislavsky, Constantin. (1936). An actor prepares. New York: Theatre Arts Books. Tanner,D. (1982)."Curriculum history". In HE. Mitzel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 5th E d i t i o n , New York: Free Press, pp. 412-20. Tarlington, Carole and Verriour, Patrick. (1983). Offstage. Toronto: Oxford University Press. Texas Education Agency. (1986). Theatre arts in the elementary school: An introductory overview. Austin: Division of curriculum Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 269818) Watkins, Brian. (1983). Drama Games. In Christopher Day & John L. Norman (Eds.), Issues in educational drama, (pp.35-48). London: The Falmer Press. Way, Brian. (1967). Development through drama. London: Longman. Williams, David. (1988). Peter Brook. A t h e a t r i c a l casebook. London: Methuen London Ltd. Williams,Raymond & Williams,Joy. (Eds.) (1973). Lawrence on  education. Middlesex: Penguin Education. Wright, Nicholas. (1980). From the universal to the p a r t i c u l a r . In Ken Robinson (Ed.), Exploring theatre &  education. (pp.88-104). London: Heinemann. 146 APPENDIX A Letter to p r i n c i p a l requesting permission to conduct questionnaire survey. Van Home Elementary School, 5855 Ontario Street, Vancouver, B.C., May 1, 1991. Dear P r i n c i p a l : I am a grade seven classroom teacher with twenty-seven years experience with the Vancouver School Board. I am presently teaching at Van Home Elementary School and am working on a thesis for my M.A. degree. I am requesting your permission and approval to conduct a survey at your school using a questionnaire to obtain research data for my thesis. As you are aware drama i s mandated by the Ministry of Education as outlined in the Fine Arts Curriculum Guide (1985) and as one of the Fine Arts strands in the Year 2000: A Curriculum and Assessment Framework for the Future. The purpose of my study i s to investigate teachers* perceptions of drama in the curriculum, and the e f f i c a c y and value of using drama as a teaching tool in other subject d i s c i p l i n e s . I also hope to gain insight into teachers' assessment of the various forms of drama and of each dramatic form's v a l i d i t y in the curriculum e.g. the study of theatre as an art form (culture), the study of theatre as performance (technique, self-presentation), improvisational drama (for self-expression and to extract meaning from context). With your permission, I would l i k e to deliver to your school, f i v e envelopes each containing a copy of the questionnaire, to be di s t r i b u t e d among one teacher per grades three, four, f i v e , s i x , and seven. I would request that teachers only be to l d that t h i s i s an educational survey, not a survey about drama, and that the choice of teacher from each grade be based on random s e l e c t i o n (alphabetical order -whichever teacher's surname precedes the other). An interest in drama cannot be the c r i t e r i a for choosing the teacher else the results w i l l be di s t o r t e d . Upon completion of the questionnaires, one week« I would ask that each teacher return the envelope containing the questionnaire to you who would then hold them for me to c o l l e c t within the week. I r e a l i z e there are many demands made on your time so any assistance you can give me in making i t possible to conduct th i s study w i l l be greatly appreciated. Yours t r u l y , P a t r i c i a Ormiston 147 APPENDIX B Letter to teacher with description of the study and purpose and intent of the questionnaire Van Home Elementary School, 5855 Ontario Street, Vancouver, B.C., May 1, 1991. Dear Educator: As a colleague and elementary school teacher of a class of students between grades three through grade seven, you have been invited to pa r t i c i p a t e in an investigation for my M.A. thesis. The aim of thi s study i s to examine teachers* perceptions of drama in the curriculum. Whether or not you teach drama is not important, but what I would l i k e to know is do you see drama as serving a useful purpose in the curriculum, either as a learning t o o l , or in the form of school plays, or as an art form (appreciation of the arts)? Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n by completing the attached questionnaire would be extremely valuable in conducting t h i s survey. Ten minutes or less of your time i s a l l that is required. My purpose in conducting the survey i s to determine i f teachers view drama as a methodology for making concepts clearer in academic subject d i s c i p l i n e s , or whether they view drama as an a c t i v i t y for the music/drama teacher or an extracurricular a c t i v i t y for those children interested in drama. Some of the questions require some general information about your teaching background and the school in which you work. This information w i l l not be used to i d e n t i f y any part i c u l a r educator or school. I would be pleased i f on completing the questionnaire you would volunteer to partic i p a t e in a personal interview to explore the subject in greater d e t a i l ; again anonymity w i l l be maintained. Please complete and enclose the portion containing the information necessary for volunteering for a personal interview in the sealed envelope containing the questionnaire. If the volunteer request form i s completed i t w i l l be assumed that consent has been given to conduct an interview. I r e a l i z e as a classroom teacher there are many demands on your time but I would greatly appreciate your assistance in thi s matter. Please return your sealed envelope containing the questionnaire to your p r i n c i p a l one week after receiving i t so I can c o l l e c t a l l the questionnaires when I return to your school. Thank you for your time and e f f o r t in a s s i s t i n g me with t h i s project. Yours t r u l y , P a t r i c i a Ormiston 148 APPENDIX C Teacher Questionnaire If the questionnaire is completed, i t w i l l be assumed that consent has been given to use the information provided for research purposes. Please check after the appropriate answer. 1. Which grade(s) do you teach? (Check a l l that apply): (a) grade three (b) grade four (c) grade f i v e (d) grade s i x (e) grade seven (f( other 2. Age range: 20 - 24 _ 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 & over 4.(a) Please check the subjects you teach Math Language Arts Social Studies Science Art P.E. Music Others (b) Do you teach extra c u r r i c u l a r drama in your school? No Yes If yes, do you supervise the: i . Drama club i i . Rehearsals for school concerts 149 If you teach extra c u r r i c u l a r drama in another context not l i s t e d above, please describe the form. 5. Please indicate the number of pupils enrolled in your school: (a) 0 - 9 9 (b) 100 - 199 (c) 200 - 299 (d) 300 - 399 (e) 400 - 499 (f) Over 500 6. "Drama in education","role drama","teacher in r o l e " "dramatic playing" and "improvisational drama" are terms used interchangeably to describe drama as an educational t o o l . Drama in t h i s sense i s used to create a deeper meaning for students dealing with concepts in subjects such as s o c i a l studies or l i t e r a t u r e . The teacher takes a role inside the drama, with the students, to give i t structure and d i r e c t i o n , and through his/her character provides information, tension, and problems to be solved using drama. How often in the l a s t three years have you used t h i s strategy in your classroom? (a) Several times per week (b) Once a week (c) Several times a month (d) Once a month (e) Once a term (f) Once a year (g) Never 7. Another form of drama i s scripted drama (using a written s c r i p t ) where the goal is the ac q u i s i t i o n of theatre s k i l l s such as voice, body projection, timing, a r t i c u l a t i o n , use of gesture, and the understanding of drama as entertainment and an art form r e f l e c t i n g s o c i e t a l cultures. How often in the l a s t three years have you used t h i s type of lesson in your classroom? (a) Several times per week (b) Once a week (c) Several times a month (d) Once a month (e) Once a term (f) Once a year (g) Never 150 8. Have you completed "drama in education" courses at a university/college? No Yes How many ? 9. Have you completed Theatre Arts courses at a university/college? No Yes How many ? 10. Have you attended professional development "drama in education" courses in the l a s t three years? No Yes If yes, please indicate the number of work shops. 11.(a) Have you ever been involved in amateur or professional theatre (outside the realm of the school and education?). No Yes If yes, please indicate in which of the following ca p a c i t i e s . (a) Actor/Actress (b) Director (c) Producer (d) Musical Director (e) Choreographer (f) Other 12. Have you ever had t r a i n i n g in "performance s k i l l s ? " No Yes If yes, please indicate the t r a i n i n g . (a) acting courses: theatre, mime, etc. (b) elocution (c) singing (d) dancing (e) instrumental (f) public speaking 13.(a) If you have used role drama or improvised drama as a learning t o o l for other subject d i s c i p l i n e s in the classroom, please indicate in which subject d i s c i p l i n e or in what context 13.(b) How would you rate your success? (Please c i r c l e one of the numbers below). Poor Moderate Great 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 13. (c) Please check those factors you f e e l contributed to your success or f a i l u r e with dramatic playing (improvisational drama) in your classroom. 151 Success: 1. Pun for the students; they loved i t 2. Teacher trained in the methodology 3. A l l students had a part 4. Co-operative learning 5. Each student can express his/her point of view 6. Children are natural actors/actresses 7. Learning experience for students; f e l t the concept in the f i r s t person F a i l u r e : 8. Need guide books and teacher t r a i n i n g to aid success 9. Children can act s i l l y ; d i s c i p l i n e factor 10. Too time consuming for an already overloaded timetable 11. Lack of teacher confidence: don't know how to "act" 12. Fear of parent/public disapproval: another " f r i l l " 13. C u l t u r a l l y unacceptable 14. Not clear on what i t i s or what are the goals If your reason for the success or f a i l u r e of classroom dramatic playing i s not l i s t e d above, please comment below. 14. Do you think you would fe e l apprehensive taking a role in the capacity of teacher in role in an improvisational drama with your students in the classroom? No Yes If you answered yes, please explain. 15. Have you used the book "Off Stage" co-authored by Dr. Patrick Verriour and Carole Tarlington, 1983 as a source of p r a c t i c a l methodology for drama in education? No Yes Do you use any other sources? Please indicate other sources. 16. In your teaching career, have you involved your students in t h e a t r i c a l performances? (rehearsing a s c r i p t for the purpose of presenting in front of an audience?) No Yes 153 APPENDIX D Oral Interview: The l i n e of questioning in the interview w i l l be loosely structured beginning with: "Do you fee l drama should be included in the fine arts strand in the curriculum?" As in normal research, I need only one question to e l i c i t answers. The d i r e c t i o n of the interview after t h i s i n i t i a l question, i s in the hands of the subject being interviewed: my focus i s an attempt to e l i c i t conceptions of drama held by the subject i . e . i s drama a useful part of the educating process? The l i n e of questioning w i l l be more i n t u i t i v e than agenda, where I w i l l be doing immediate "on the spot" interpretations to formulate my next question. Some questions can re s u l t in nothing, other questions can "trigger o f f " interesting data. My intention i s to not steer the interview, but rather to just "go with i t . " My objective i s to avoid contamination of data received from subjects by unwittingly revealing my own bias through my l i n e of questioning, but yet to use questioning to prompt the subject to stay on focus. I am looking for an outcome space depicting a variation in concepts of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phenomena, as there i s always contextual v a r i a t i o n in human thinking. My study then w i l l involve a survey from data c o l l e c t e d through the questionnaires and phenomenographical research from the data collected through oral interviews. When I have completed the sorting of collected data into variations of concepts, I w i l l begin my analysis to interpret the effect these conceptions have on the implementation of drama in Vancouver elementary schools. It i s my intent that the interviews w i l l permit a deeper investigation into teachers* perceptions of drama in education and complement the findings of the questionnaires. O r a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : The following questions are only to be used as a guide in that they represent the d i r e c t i o n I hope to pursue, and the information I hope to uncover. As I said in my description of the oral interview, the content and d i r e c t i o n of the interview w i l l be in the hands of the subject being interviewed. This i s P a t r i c i a Or mist-on c a l l i n g concerning my thesis study on drama in education. I r e a l l y appreciate your 154 willingness to be interviewed on t h i s topic. W i l l you describe your present teaching position? (grade, subjects, class s i z e , demographics, student a b i l i t i e s and any other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s you f e e l are important). How would you describe the school in which you work? (Dynamics of s t a f f : Are innovative ideas supported by parents, p r i n c i p a l , and co-workers?) Is there appropriate space to do drama? Do you f e e l drama should be included in the fine arts strand in the curriculum, and i f so, why? Can you describe the d i s t i n c t i o n between scripted drama (written plays) and dramatic playing and can you say which one you f e e l i s more useful and why? If you prefer to use one form of drama over the other (scripted drama or dramatic playing), could you explain why? QUESTIONS ON DRAMATIC PLAYING: Have you ever used role drama or improvisational drama as a learning tool for other subject d i s c i p l i n e s in the classroom? If the answer to the above question was yes, please describe the drama, the issues students were investigating, and in what context? Would you please rate how successful you f e e l the use of drama was in your classroom? If the answer to whether you have used drama as a teaching tool was no, please give reasons why you have never used th i s type of pedagogy in the classroom. Do you ever f e e l apprehensive taking a role in the capacity of teacher in ro l e in an improvisational drama with your students in the classroom? 155 As you are aware, drama i s a mandated s t r a n d of the f i n e a r t s program, along with v i s u a l a r t s , and music. Do you t h i n k i t should be i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m ? I f so, why? Do you see any f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to f a i l u r e i n t h i s mode of drama? I f not with you, with any teacher? Do you t h i n k t h e a t r e s k i l l s should be taught? Do you thi n k teacher t r a i n i n g i n drama should be mandatory, c o n s i d e r i n g i t i s mandated i n the cu r r i c u l u m ? Apart from u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g as a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y w i t h i n a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e , do you have any other o b j e c t i v e s f o r engaging i n t h i s form of drama? QUESTIONS ON SCRIPTED DRAMA: I f you p r e f e r u s i n g s c r i p t e d drama with your students r a t h e r than dramatic p l a y i n g , can you t e l l me why? If you have never t r i e d s c r i p t e d drama i n your classroom, c o u l d you g i v e the reasons why? What would be the b e n e f i t s of t h i s form of drama? Would a teacher be more i n c l i n e d t o use t h i s form over dramatic p l a y i n g ? Do you see s c r i p t e d drama as: - a way of l e a r n i n g t h e a t r e s k i l l s ? - an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n ? - a way of dev e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l s k i l l s l i k e a r t i c u l a t i o n , p o i s e , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , p r e s e n t a t i o n of ideas e t c . ? Do you see s c r i p t e d drama as a necessary p a r t of the e d u c a t i o n a l experience of the c h i l d ? - i n what sense? Does drama belong i n the c u r r i c u l u m at a l l ? 156 And f i n a l l y do you see a mismatch between the Ministry's mandate of drama in the curriculum and the available teacher education in th i s realm? Thank-you, you have been a great help allowing me t h i s interview. I r e a l l y appreciate your input on t h i s issue. Through the combined e f f o r t s of both a survey questionnaire and an oral interview I hope to discover whether teachers: 1. Understand the term "dramatic playing" and i t s underlying concepts. 2. Have used t h i s type of drama and experienced some d i f f i c u l t y . 3. See their lack of theatre s k i l l s as well as students lack of theatre s k i l l s as an obstacle to success. 4. See scripted drama as an art form to enhance appreciation and as a vehicle for s k i l l teaching in drama, as belonging in the curriculum at a l l . 5. See a mismatch between the Ministry's mandate in drama and the lack of available teacher education in th i s realm. 157 APPENDIX E The following i s a sample of one of the telephone interviews Interview twentv-five Experience 18 y r s . June 19/91 R Could you d e s c r i b e your present t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n . . . g r a d e , s u b j e c t s , c l a s s s i z e , student a b i l i t i e s . . 0 I've got a grade f o u r / f i v e s p l i t c l a s s , and c l a s s s i z e i s t w e n t y - f i v e . Student a b i l i t i e s range from grade two to grade seven. R And i t ' s a f o u r / f i v e s p l i t ? 0 Yes. R Are they easy to handle?...E.S.L. students? 0 Yes, I have... the s c h o o l i s termed a ...neighborhood s c h o o l which means we have to accept a l l students i n the neighborhood who are handicapped. We don't have any p h y s i c a l l y handicapped students but we have s e v e r e l y l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students i n the s c h o o l . . . I have t h r e e i n my c l a s s . R That might make doing drama d i f f i c u l t . Do you f e e l drama should be i n c l u d e d i n the f i n e a r t s s t r a n d of the curriculum...and i f so, why? 0 Oh, d e f i n i t e l y , I t h i n k i t should be i n c l u d e d i n the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . . . i n the language a r t s . . . a n d i n the s o c i a l s t u d i e s . R Okay, i t ' s mandated i n the f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m , so you can look at i t e i t h e r as s c r i p t e d drama...theatre a r t s i n a s p e c i a l drama program or i n t e g r a t e d i n the classroom. Are you saying...which way do you p r e f e r i t ? 0 Both...I l i k e t o have both. We're f o r t u n a t e enough i n t h i s s c h o o l to have a drama teacher who s p e c i a l i z e s i n drama and she has drama c l u b s . . . a s w e l l as I i n t e g r a t e i t r e g u l a r l y i n my classroom. R So you wouldn't say you p r e f e r one form over the other? O No, because they serve two d i f f e r e n t purposes. R E x a c t l y . . . s o when you're u s i n g dramatic p l a y i n g , you're u s i n g i t as a t e a c h i n g t o o l to enhance l e a r n i n g i n a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e . 0 That's r i g h t . . . a s a t e a c h i n g t o o l . R So t h e r e ' s d i f f e r e n t s e t s of o b j e c t i v e s here, i s n ' t there? 0 That's r i g h t . R Now do you see any v a l u e i n the o b j e c t i v e s i n the s c r i p t drama or the performance mode? 0 Oh, yes. R And c o u l d you t e l l me what they would be? 0 Well, the a p p r e c i a t i o n of dramatic s k i l l s f o r one, and the l e a r n i n g of dramatic s k i l l s . A l s o the a p p r e c i a t i o n of p l a y s and the understanding of p l a y s . 158 R And the objectives in the dramatic playing? O Objectives in the dramatic playing? R Right. O To learn voice, projection, empathizing with characters...and the scenes and the whole b i t . R What context would you be more l i k e l y to use i t i n ? . . . i n the dramatic playing...in the subject d i s c i p l i n e ? 0 In the subject d i s c i p l i n e ? R Which one?...would you be more l i k e l y to use i t in? 0 I don't understand. R Well, would you be using i t in s o c i a l studies, or would you be using i t in l i t e r a t u r e ? 0 Social studies and literature...about half and h a l f . R I see...so what would be the objective in the s o c i a l studies then? 0 Re-create h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . R I see...so they have a better understanding? 0 That's r i g h t . R Do you think that teachers could f e e l apprehensive or nervous about being in role...as a teacher? 0 Being in role? R Taking a role in a dramatic playing s i t u a t i o n with their class? 0 Teachers or students? R The teachers. 0 It's not normal, I don't think,... i t ' s as apprehensive as drawing or painting or something l i k e that. R It's not as apprehensive? 0 It's as apprehensive. R Do you think the teachers need some s k i l l s or t r a i n i n g in that line? 0 Oh, d e f i n i t e l y . . . t h e y should have experience...some experience... R It's kind of l i k e putting a music teacher in with no experience then? 0 That's r i g h t , or the art teacher...visual arts...drawing or painting. R Well, on that premise then, to your knowledge do you think there's very much drama being done by classroom teachers? O No. R And what would you say i s the reason why then? O Oh, the usual...I think apprehension...not being able to model ce r t a i n aspects of i t . Probably poor understanding of ... the material... well, l i t e r a t u r e , drama per se. R Now the average teacher who r e a l i z e s i t ' s mandated and doesn't have a background in theatre, what would they see as the main purpose of drama in the curriculum?...I mean, they don't have a background... just looking at i t ? 0 How would they look at i t ? 159 R No, what would the average teacher see as the main purpose f o r having drama i n the c u r r i c u l u m . . . i f they d i d n ' t have a t h e a t r e background? 0 Oh, I t h i n k f o r language a r t s . . . f o r r e a d i n g . . . r e a d i n g p l a y s , so there's o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n to take r o l e s . . . s o r t of a classroom c o n t r o l t h i n g i n some i n s t a n c e s . . . and drama i n terms of puppet t h e a t r e and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . R Okay...and do you see any value i n s c r i p t e d drama or c o n c e r t s . L i k e some schools...your s c h o o l has a drama teacher but some s c h o o l s . . . perhaps the o n l y dramatic experience the c h i l d r e n get i s the annual c o n c e r t . . . b u t how do you view t h a t kind of drama? 0 How do I f e e l ? R Yes...about performance drama?...concerts, Christmas c o n c e r t s ? 0 Well, i t ' s amateur.. R Is i t a v a l i d experience f o r the c h i l d r e n ? 0 I t ' s v a l i d but i t ' s l i m i t e d . . . i t ' s q u i t e l i m i t e d . I f the r e are no drama teachers about, somebody who's i n v o l v e d i n drama...if t h e r e ' s somebody who's i n v o l v e d i n drama, understands drama, i t takes quantum leaps...as does music or v i s u a l a r t s . R And do you thin k t h e a t r e s k i l l s should be taught? O Yes. R You do?...and t h a t would enhance the dramatic p l a y i n g experience of the c h i l d or do you thin k i t doesn't belong i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r mode, i t o n l y belongs i n s c r i p t e d drama? 0 Oh, no. I t belongs, w e l l . . . t h e s k i l l s gained by students ... i n the classroom, you mean?... i n t e g r a t e d i n the classroom? R R i g h t . I f he's doing dramatic p l a y i n g i n the classroom i n a s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e x t , should the c h i l d a l s o be taught t h e a t r e s k i l l s . 0 Oh, yes...yes... j u s t l i k e you would teach c o l o r , or you would teach s k e t c h i n g s k i l l s . . . i f you apply those to s k e t c h i n g i n the s o c i a l s t u d i e s or whatever. R Okay...just before you go, how many years have you taught? 0 I t h i n k about eighteen y e a r s . R And you're doing q u i t e a b i t of drama, are you? 0 I i n t e g r a t e i t , I don't teach i t as a drama teacher would. R No...not i n a separate s u b j e c t . You're u s i n g i t i n s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s ? 0 Y e s . . . i n language a r t s and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . R And you f i n d i t works w e l l f o r you? 0 Oh, v e r y w e l l , v e r y w e l l . R And the c h i l d r e n don't f o o l around? 0 Oh, at the s t a r t because there i s a c e r t a i n mind s e t t h a t goes with p o o r l y organized drama teaching...and i f the c h i l d r e n have had t h a t experience b e f o r e , then i t ' s a 160 l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t to s e t t h i n g s , but i f they haven't, u s u a l l y i t ' s e a s i e r . C h i l d r e n take v e r y q u i c k l y to i t . R Do you t h i n k some teachers would s t a y away from i t because of t h a t f a c t o r ? 0 Oh, I'm q u i t e s u r e . R Because they don't have the c o n t r o l ? 0 Well, they would l o s e the c o n t r o l because the kind of medium t h a t r e q u i r e s understanding, and i f c h i l d r e n f e e l you have no understanding of i t , t h e y ' l l j u s t simply not respond...the way you want them t o . R And have you taken courses i n i t ? 0 Did I take the course i n which? R In dramatic p l a y i n g or t h e a t r e . . . do you have a t h e a t r e background? 0 No, none. R None? 0 No. R So how d i d you become... able to do t h i s ? 0 Well, as a teacher, I s t a r t e d with r o l e p l a y i n g and developed from t h e r e . . . because I saw t h a t c e r t a i n t h i n g s can be taught more e a s i l y i f you take the focus o f f the c h i l d , o f f y o u r s e l f and on to another c h a r a c t e r or another scene...and then I a p p r e c i a t e p l a y s myself and I mentioned we have a teacher at our s c h o o l . I provide the v i s u a l s i d e of i t . I'm the a r t teacher i n the s c h o o l and I've done musicals and so on i n other s c h o o l s and I provide the v i s u a l s i d e of i t , so I am r e a l l y q u i t e i n v o l v e d t h a t way. R Oh, I see, because I'm sure t h e r e ' s a l o t of teachers who wouldn't understand the s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e d i n dramatic p l a y i n g because i t ' s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . 0 There would be a l o t because i t ' s an underused p a r t of our f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m . R I t ' s underused? 0 I b e l i e v e so....even though we have C a r o l T a r l i n g t o n i n our s c h o o l system who has been promoting dramatic a r t s f o r a long t i m e . . . s t i l l underused. R And t h a t ' s o n l y one person. O That's probably why. R And I am r e a l l y s u r p r i s e d t h a t you do know about i t because t h e r e i s so much to i t . . . i t ' s a s p e c i a l t e a c h i n g technique a c t u a l l y i f you're l o o k i n g at i t not as drama but as a t e a c h i n g t o o l . O Oh, yes...I'm l e a r n i n g a l o t from my present peer...she's j u s t been t h e r e f o r a year...she's e x c e l l e n t . R What do you t h i n k of the f a c t t h a t the m i n i s t r y i s mandating drama and t h e r e ' s so many people out t h e r e t h a t haven't a c l u e what i t ' s about. 0 Well, the m i n i s t r y ' s mandating a number of t h i n g s which a l o t of people know nothing about. R No, but they wanted us to teach whole language and they presented a l o t of m a t e r i a l on i t . . . 0 True, but t h e r e are l i m i t a t i o n s . . . n o w to L e a r n i n g f o r L i v i n g and so on... there are f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s 161 which do not enable the m i n i s t r y to implement them as they had, say, whole l a n g u a g e . d r a m a t i c a r t s i s one of them u n f o r t u n a t e l y . . . t h e good s t u f f i s going to be the v i c t i m . R Do you t h i n k i t ' s p o s s i b l y because the classroom teacher doesn't see a need f o r i t but they d i d with whole language?... or i s i t the other way around, t h a t whole Language was hyped enough t h a t the teachers saw a need f o r i t ? 0 That's a good question!....good q u e s t i o n ! R Because i s n ' t t h a t o f t e n the way...I mean you can t a l k people i n t o anything i f you spend enough money and time promoting i t . 0 Enough money, enough resou r c e s . . . p e o p l e who are b e l i e v e r s . . . of course y o u ' l l get them soon enough i f you have r e s o u r c e s . . . or p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s . R Because when you r e a l l y t h i n k of whole language, i t ' s q u i t e s i m i l a r to dramatic p l a y i n g . . . 0 Very much so. R They have the same r o o t s , haven't they?..communication? making language? 0 There's a r e l a t i o n s h i p . R Okay, w e l l , thanks a l o t , you've been r e a l l y h e l p f u l and I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e your time. 0 You're welcome. 162 APPENDIX F RAW DATA FROM THE QUESTIONNAIRES The following samples represent raw data taken from the written questionnaires completed by the 107 teachers surveyed: Comments added by teachers when completing question 14 which was; Do you think you would f e e l apprehensive taking a ro l e in the capacity of teacher i n r o l e i n an improvisational drama with your students i n the classroom? Many teachers claimed that the necessary relinquishing of class control for the sake of the success of the drama would make them f e e l uneasy and apprehensive. They are not my peers - thus I'd fe e l that I'd lose some control?...maybe, maybe not! grade 5 My fear i s that my responses w i l l not help to guide the drama and through my role I w i l l overly r e s t r i c t student expression, grade 4 Apprehensive?..not strongly, but somewhat. It requires you to be more vulnerable and exposed. It also requires you to give up control- a l l issues that give me an uneasy f e e l i n g , grade 5 Apprehensive?... no experience, depends on the objectives . I would f e e l okay doing something for enrichment or fun. grade 5. My own certainty l e v e l has improved the more role playing I take part i n . grade 3 I f e e l confident in using drama in the classroom on an informal basis but not in a more formal way involving others in the audience, grade 3 It would depend on the circumstances, as to whether I f e l t comfortable - i t would have to be spontaneous or scripted but not conscious improvisation on my part, grade 4. 163 RAW DATA FROM THE ORAL INTERVIEW Comments on d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g i n c l a s s r o o m s ; Lack of co n t r o l . . . teachers might fe e l that i t could get a b i t out of hand or noisy..but I think i f you know that you're aiming to foster that c r e a t i v i t y , y o u ' l l know i t s signs...give you an idea of whether they're a c t u a l l y moving along or just being s i l l y . Interview 30 grade 3 I think a l o t of teachers f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t and they give up on i t . Unless they're serious about i t , they wouldn't take a univers i t y course on i t because they'd f e e l very threatened by i t . Interview 31 grade 3/4 It arises from the kids, and I allow them to do i t , because i t gives them confidence in performing and speaking in front of the rest of the kids. Interview 15 grade 3 Drama as a t r i l l : Teachers don't see the arts as having an i n t r i n s i c value. Interview 32 grade 3/4 Parents in t h i s community are b a s i c a l l y interested in the three R's. I would put that at the bottom of the l i s t of things I have to do. We cannot timetable a l l the fine arts at the expense of other things. Interview 3 grade4 Drama f o r p e r s o n a l development; They role play and act out certa i n situations that could occur on the playground and then they incorporate what they could do to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . Interview 5, grade 4/5 I would use the role drama more, not so much to enhance learning in a subject areas as to deal with s o c i a l issues. Interview 2, grade 3/4 They got to know each other and valued each other. Interview 9, grade 3 You need to have those tools to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y . Interview 9 grade 3 164 It encourages working together; i t encourages focussing on a task; i t encourages co-operative group work amongst kids. Interview 15 grade 3 It gives them a good opportunity to s o c i a l i z e with other kids in a d i f f e r e n t way....and i t forces them to come to group decisions on how they're going to perform something or how something's going to be accomplished. Interview 22 gr.5 I've used i t in the "Feeling Yes, Feeling No" program. 22 gr.5 If they had a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n getting along with kids on the playground, we discussed i t and we sort of do a play right there about how you would handle cer t a i n situations....or how would you react i f a new student came into the room. Interview 23 gr.2/3 If I were using i t , I would see i t in counselling s k i l l s . Interview 26 gr.7 Problem solving?...the only time we used that was when we were doing "Feeling Yes, Feeling No". Interview 27 gr.3/4 Drama used as part of whole language To work on their speaking s k i l l s . Interview 1 grade 5/6 Communication break-down i s one of the most serious problems in the world today.... people can learn t h i s s k i l l through drama. Interview 2 grade 4 I found that children seem to enjoy the freedom to develop th e i r own (drama). Interview 5 grade 4/5 Do a puppet play where they make up their own vocabulary and scenes and s t u f f . Interview 6 grade 3 Some of them invent plays of their own, some of them read s t o r i e s and make up th e i r own s c r i p t s from i t but they don't write them down but they do practise and rehearse them. Interview 15 grade 3 We act out our poetry that we write, they've written a couple of plays in composition that they've worked on...we've written some commercials and acted those out on a video tape machine. Interview 18 grade7 To give them an emotional connection to t h e i r own imagination. Interview 19 grade 4 It forces them to become creative the whole way and to think on their feet. Interview 21 grade 5 165 I've used i t in literature...we*ve done what we c a l l story dramas, where a small group of students i s given a book and they're going to present i t to the rest of the group. Interview 22 grade 5 We did st o r i e s and also role playing a l i t t l e b i t with the st o r i e s about i f you were a shoe and you could talk, what would you say about your l i f e as a shoe...try to put themselves in the s i t u a t i o n of an inanimate object. Interview 23 grade 2/3 I use i t as part of integration...I have students do research and writing..more whole language sort of things, speaking s k i l l s , e l o c u t i o n . . i t ' s the learning tool for the expression of English. Interview 24 grade 5 A teacher without a background in theatre would see integration with language arts as the main purpose for drama in the curriculum....for reading, reading plays and an opportunity for children to take roles..and drama in terms of puppet theatre and that sort of thing. Interview 25 grade 5 I see i t as a teaching tool...used for creative expression, verbal expression...a l o t of language art s k i l l s . . . b u t I don't use i t . Interview 26 grade 7 Some of them at the beginning were r e a l l y nervous to even read out loud...in front of the rest of the cl a s s . Interview 27 grade 3/4 If I was doing drama, I would r e a l l y want to incorporate some into the language arts...I thought that would be just wonderful. Interview 28 grade 6 Sometimes I give them a story to improvise and work through...half of the class are going to do something and the other half w i l l figure out what they're doing and w i l l react to i t etc....I have the kids write s c r i p t s . Interview 29 grade 6/7 I have done that when we did a space project where a play was act u a l l y written by the students, and acted o u t . . . i t was written down and the parts were learned and rehearsed and then played out. Interview 30 grade 3. It's another way they can learn to express ideas and feelings and i t helps them gain confidence and poise. Interview 31 grade 3/4 I use i t as an art form so you could use i t as a way of expressing yourself and your emotions.... just as you probably would in doing a painting. Interview 32 grade 3/4 166 I have the children write their own s c r i p t s . 34 gr.7 Drama as theatre (scripted) In terms of h i t t i n g more kids, I find they tend to get more out of the scripted. I l i k e producing a finished product. Interview Interview 13 grade 6/7 It's easier for me to give them s c r i p t . I think there should be an end for them...some sort of goal... performance. Interview 5 grade 4/5 They learn how to stand, present yourself in front of an audience... even to be considerate of your audience...I think i t ' s r e a l l y e s s e n t i a l . Interview 9 grade 3 I see i t as the enjoyment of drama, dramatic expression for the kids. Interview 15 grade 3 I do i t as a club and so the kids who come to me there, are those who r e a l l y want to pursue i t from that angle..(theatre a r t s ) . Interview 16 grade 6/7 I do l i k e them to get an experience of standing up in front of others and presenting themselves in a dramatic way...so we do some presentations for the assemblies or for the concert.Interview 18 grade 7 Just the development in the kids' l e v e l of confidence and performance and the q u a l i t y of speech and fluency was incr e d i b l e . . . i t • s a challenge! Interview 31 grade 3/4 Drama as a learning t o o l It's so very easy...and i t makes a l l the tedious ways you t r y to get points across..you know you t r y to teach concepts.... i t makes i t so easy...and so fun! Interview 4, grade 7 B a s i c a l l y , i t ' s for problem solving. Interview 8 grade 6 I read a story to them....and they predict... any s i t u a t i o n . Interview 9 grade 3 Helping them to think, p a r t i c u l a r l y in s o c i a l studies...help them to think and to pursue an idea in a group s i t u a t i o n . Interview 10 grade 3 I find i t easier for myself to use ...with the grade sevens anyway. I find i t easier to focus in on a s o c i a l s lesson. Interview 13 grade 6/7 It gives them a more in-depth point of view..a better look at things. Interview 14 grade 3 167 They love i t e s p e c i a l l y once they've done i t for a l i t t l e w h ile....like in s o c i a l studies, I think just the knowledge that they gain from the s i t u a t i o n i s so much more real for them. Interview 16 grade 6/7 I came in my space s u i t and informed them that they had been chosen as a group to colonize space and they had to design the community and get there and solve the problem. Interview 19 grade 4 If your are doing i t with various courses l i k e s o c i a l studies, i f you're in grade f i v e , you can play the role of an immigrant...and t r y and get in contact with them. Interview 21 grade 5 If I were using i t , i t ' s perfect to use drama as a means to extend s o c i a l studies...when s o c i a l studies extends beyond the facts and figures...the study of s o c i e t i e s . This i s one of the things I have a d i f f i c u l t y with . . . i t just spreads wide open...and time becomes a factor. Interview 26 grade 7 We take a story and the stop the story....and adopt roles and solve problems. Interview 31 grade 3/4 It's a unique way of getting some concepts across. Interview 33 grade 6/7 Drama as a learning t o o l and as theatre arts I use dramatic playing more frequently but I love s c r i p t . . . a c t u a l l y I love doing Shakespeare with kids...no, I l i k e both. Interview 4 grade 7 It's a progression you go through, from the simplest sort of movement and mime... through when you s t a r t using voice and improvisation and a l l those other aspects and then get into problem solving and a l l that...within that you are also learning a l l the other s k i l l s . . . y o u know, projection and a l l that and theatre s k i l l s too. Interview 12 grade 3. A text book ideal exercise in the learning process and also in dramatic play too because i t was t h e i r own s c r i p t and they had to envision the whole thing and plot i t o u t . . . i t was for radio so they got a sense of what i t was to record something for radio and i t was played on a l l the radio stations... s i x or eight times over the summer. Interview 15 grade 3 168 Teachers' Shared Attitudes of Educational Drama E l i c i t e d From  the Oral Interviews D i s c i p l i n e Factors. They'll sort of sabotage things, so i t sort of goes the wrong way. It depends on the child....some kids never get in to i t . Interview 13 grade 6/7 Some of them come away saying t h i s class i s kind of boring. Interview 7 grade 4 No, they don't fool around...if i t comes from them. Interview 15 grade 3 Some were very s i l l y , e s p e c i a l l y the d i s c i p l i n e problems, but of course the d i s c i p l i n e problems are always s i l l y . Interview 19 grade 4 At the s t a r t , because there i s a certain mind set that goes with poorly organized drama teaching...and i f the children have had that experience before, then i t ' s a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t to set things, but i f they haven't, usually i t ' s easier. Interview 25 grade 5 D i f f i c u l t in grade seven...they're always experimental that way. Grade sevens are always rambunctious. They'll think i t ' s dumb because you have to demand something from them. Interview 26 grade 7 I think they fool around because they don't have the confidence. Interview 27 grade 4/5 Children s i l l y ? Yes, because i t gives them a chance to be away from the teacher for awhile, and to devise ways of making sound e f f e c t s . . . Interview 30 grade 3 If the kids misbehave, I think the teacher quickly gets out of ro l e , and becomes teacher... and i t loses the continuity of the drama. You can't f l i p back and forth. There's a l o t of trust and I think that's why i t has to be done more than. It's just l i k e when you ask teachers to do role drama as a group, there's a l o t of reluctance....the older you get! Interview 31 grade 3/4 Yes, I think depending on what sort of planning or how i t ' s introduced by the teacher. Interview 33 grade 6/7 169 D i f f i c u l t to do You have to be more innovative and creative. Too much work maybe for a l o t of people Interview 2 grade 4 I think you have to be able to sort of work with one small group and have the others sort of s e t t l e down and work qui e t l y and I don't have that t h i s year at a l l . Interview 3 grade 4 There's a chance that things can just sort of get out of control, (dramatic playing). Interview 14 grade 3 Certainly d i f f i c u l t to do unless they've had some kind of exposure to i t . Interview 17 grade 5/6 It's very d i f f i c u l t . . . y o u have to have a l l your wits there. Interview 20 grade 3/4 Sometimes kids just don't have the juices to be creative or dramatic and a l o t of other time, they just are p l a i n s i l l y . Interview 21 grade 5 I could think of teachers who would find i t very d i f f i c u l t . Interview 23 grade 2/3 I don't think I'm very familiar with i t but I would f e e l quite comfortable with i t from the sounds of i t because I'm a l l for c r e a t i v i t y and for them to loosen up and express themselves. Interview 30 grade 3 I know a l o t of teachers that r e a l l y would not want to do i t because that is n ' t maybe what they're good at or they don't have any confidence l e v e l in that area. Interview 33 grade 6/7 Should s t a r t i n Primary grades In primary they're one step away from c h i l d ' s play anyway.Interview 23 grade 2/3 Attitude of Students These were grade sevens, they r e a l l y enjoyed i t and they got right into i t s o . . . i t worked well. I was working with grade sixes and i t was a time when the B e r l i n wall came down...the kids and I were in role...the kids got t o t a l l y into i t and then after watching what happened in the news...it became so much more r e a l for them because for some of them they r e a l l y saw the negative parts and others saw the p o s i t i v e s . Interview 16 grade 6/7 Mine love i t ! I teach grade f i v e but I've also done i t with grade sixes and sevens and they loved i t . Interview 22 grade 5 170 I know one group of kids I wouldn't want to do i t with. Interview 31 grade 3/4 Lack of t r a i n i n g i n dramatic playing The government doesn't r e a l l y support...there's no re a l government support for anything that would be considered quote f r i l l s . You have to be taught..they should be teaching people how to do i t . Interview 4 grade 7 They can't just throw something in and say "Here, do i t " without giving us the t r a i n i n g . Interview 6 grade 3 Some of the teachers have probably never even heard of i t , wouldn't have a clue as to how to use i t or anything about i t . Interview 7 grade 4 Some people never go to any kind of workshop, l e t alone a drama workshop. Interview 7 grade 4 Just reading about i t i s not enough. Interview 6 grade 3 People don't use i t because they don't fe e l they know anything about i t . I think there should be drama workshops that come to the schools. Interview 12 grade 3 There's a l o t of material out there for teachers to use but there is n ' t a great deal of professional development available ...more i s needed. Interview 15 grade 3 If they've read their curriculum guides...if they've had the kind of professional development that we've had at our school where we've focussed s p e c i f i c a l l y on drama. Interview 18 grade 7 I don't know where to go next with i t . . . . I see I need more preliminary s k i l l and more follow up s k i l l s . Interview 19 grade 4 I'd say yes...I'd say at least some (training)...I wouldn't say a l o t but I would say at least a few courses of how to go about doing i t properly. Interview 23 grade 2/3 They say, "Well, go read a book and you can do i t " and i t ' s not true because I've read a l o t of the drama books that my daughter has given me, and she's explained a l o t of the things but without a great deal of careful study, I f e e l that I would be incompetent to do a number of those things in the book. Interview 24 grade 5 171 Weed sp e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n both forms of drama...just as a  s p e c i a l i s t would be required i n music and v i s u a l a r t s . I don't fe e l I'm trained adequately to possibly bring i t to i t s f u l l e s t . Interview 5 grade 4/5 A l o t of teachers would find i t d i f f i c u l t to include, mainly because they have not got the background or any education in that area. Interview 6 grade 3 It's l i k e asking somebody who hasn't got any musical a b i l i t y or talent to teach music. Interview 7, grade 4 Theatre t r a i n i n g and some s k i l l s are a must. Interview 8 grade 6 I think when someone's been through that themselves, then they can r e a l l y see the value of i t with kids. The year 2000, i t ' s wonderful, but there are also losses that come from that too because the s p e c i a l i s t people are no longer put into s p e c i a l i s t s ' positions. Interview 12 grade 3 It would be a very t a l l order to expect most teachers without exposure to or f a m i l i a r i t y with role drama to take t h i s on...it's asking a b i t much to expect people to do that. Interview 17 grade 5/6 A background in theatre i s more l i k e l y to lead the teacher into drama...but i t ' s not necessary. Interview 21 grade.5 How could somebody play the piano when they don't know how?...or teach i t ? This generalist idea i s in vogue right now... from the ministry.. .and said t h i s i s the most ri d i c u l o u s thing and h e ' l l fight i t every inch of the way. Interview 24 grade 5 It's l i k e putting a music teacher in with no experience or the art teacher...visual arts ...drawing or painting. Teachers would lose control because i t ' s the kind of medium that requires understanding, and i f children f e e l you have no understanding of i t , t h e y ' l l just simply not respond... the way you want them to. Interview 25 grade 5 (This teacher i s an art s p e c i a l i s t ) . If teachers look at drama as theatre, t h e y ' l l think they should have t r a i n i n g and therefore they won't do i t . Interview 27 grade 4/5 Need t r a i n i n g for dramatic playing as a teaching tool?..oh, yes... to f a c i l i t a t e something l i k e that, you r e a l l y have to be...it's such a juggling act because depending on the kids' personalities before you put them into a role...you have to be 172 very spontaneous and w i l l i n g to go with the flow. Interview 28 grade 6 I think that some workshops here and there would c e r t a i n l y help. Interview 29 grade 6/7 Do teachers need t r a i n i n g in drama?...definitely. I would l i k e to have some more myself. Interview 30 grade 3 A few people on our s t a f f have been to workshops and have t r i e d i t and don't find i t works, but I think you have to t r y i t a few times and hopefully learn. I think sometimes people abandon them a l i t t l e too soon. Interview 31 grade 3/4 It may need a s p e c i a l i s t because of the d i s c i p l i n e factor the kids might have a better attitude with a s p e c i a l i s t . . . t h a t ' s one of my apprehensions. Interview 33 grade 6/7 Relationship between success and t r a i n i n g i n drama. I've taken Carole Tarlington's workshops and a few other drama workshops....I'm learning as I go. Interview 31 grade 3/4 Drama: mandated but not implemented; They can mandate whatever they l i k e , teachers w i l l do what they f e e l best with....who's going to check, right? Interview 8 grade 6 If they're going to mandate i t and they r e a l l y want i t to go on, they're going to have to at least introduce teachers to it...do workshops and whatever... I mean most teachers don't have any idea. Interview 13 grade 6/7 Mandated and nobody's doing i t . . . i t ' s crazy! Interview 20 grade 3/4 A l o t of things are mandated but aren't timetabled and teachers make choices of what I can't handle and what I can handle, what I'm comfortable with, what I'm not comfortable with and where do I find the time. Interview 21 grade 5 The majority of the intermediate teachers at our school don't even want to do the intermediate program that's come out. Interview 23 grade 2/3 They don't know how to do it...and they can't be bothered sort of changing now at thi s point or trying something new. Interview 24 grade 5 There are f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s which do not enable the ministry to implement them as they had say, whole 173 language .... Dramatic arts is one of them unfortunately....the good s t u f f i s going to be the victim. Interview 25 grade 5 Even i f you mandate i t , for some people i t ' s not going to work. For some educators, they're not going to be comfortable with i t . Teaching is such a personalized thing ...there's going to be some things that just are not going to work because the person's heart's not in i t . Interview 28 grade 6 What did you say?...it i s mandated? Interview 30 grade 3 I think the drama people in B.C., in p a r t i c u l a r , have to r e a l l y push the board to provide workshops. Interview 31 grade 3/4 The whole Year 2000 isn ' t r e a l l y being implemented in our school...and i t ' s mandated. Interview 32 grade 3/4 No available space to do any drama: There's no place to do i t . Our classrooms are jam packed. Interview 7 grade 4 Teacher at r i s k in role playing The teacher is at risk...very much more so, because i t isn't a canned kind of a thing. You can go to co-operative learning and learn the l i t t l e t r i c k s that they have or you can go to Elements of Instruction and learn that l i t t l e canned package that they've got and deliver i t quite easily...or go to a computer workshop and learn that s t u f f , but THIS ....well, you have to be quite an expressive person yourself, I think... Interview 15 grade 3 I think to ac t u a l l y take on a role where the kids don't recognize them in the way that they usually do, I think immediately would put many of them (the teachers) i l l at ease and I think many teachers are inclined to go with what they know i s going to work rather than perhaps r i s k losing something... perhaps even losing face..I would say they would be loathe to t r y i t . . . c e r t a i n l y i f they've not been familiar with i t and how i t works. Interview 17 grade 5/6 I think that some teachers find i t very threatening because they f e e l that they're losing c o n t r o l . Interview 18 grade 7 It's a b i t ri s k y . . . I make a fool of myself sometimes..but the children think i t ' s just f i n e . Interview 24 grade 5 No, no, I wouldn't. Actually I read them a story and i t ' s amazing the imagination...I got the most beautiful drawings and s t o r i e s written as a r e s u l t of t h i s l i t t l e story I read. Interview 30 grade 3 174 Yes, dramatic playing means giving up some control. Interview 33 grade 6/7 Need a s p e c i a l personality I also think a l o t of teachers aren't comfortable . . . i t ' s not the i r s t y l e . Interview 4 grade 7 You have to be somewhat of an extrovert yourself.... and not af r a i d to look s i l l y in front of the kids. Interview 8 grade 6 The person who r e a l l y admired that technique (dramatic playing) simply couldn't do i t because th e i r teaching s t y l e was of a more structured s t y l e and I guess i t was too much of a r i s k to l e t i t a l l hang out. Interview 15 grade 3 I think i t ' s a personality thing...I think that there are people out there that r e a l l y would l i k e to t r y i t , but just haven't had any background in it. . . b u t I think that you're going to fi n d some r e a l closed doors...with some people. Interview 28 grade 6 I think some teachers might steer away from dramatic playing because of their p e r s o n a l i t i e s . . . but those teachers who are w i l l i n g to go ahead with the role playing in the f i r s t place, I think that those people would have enough g a l l . . . o r have enough confidence to get involved. Interview 33 grade 6/7 Do teachers recognize a clear set of objectives i n drama...in  either form? When I was taking creative drama workshops, the whole thing was i t was an internal thing, you worked i t out with somebody...it was almost l i k e therapy. Interview 20 grade 3/4 I think there's a lack of opportunity for children to talk...because a l o t of teachers s t i l l s t i c k to the old way .. . i n a sense where they have children s i t t i n g at their desks, working i n d i v i d u a l l y . Interview 30 grade 3 Why should drama be included i n the curriculum? To make learning f u n . . . i t brings variety to what you do instead of them always just l i s t e n i n g to the teacher. Interview 18 grade 7 One of the f i r s t things that comes to mind i s aesthetic, but for i t ' s own sake, for i t ' s own value. Interview 17, grade 5/6 Because children learn at a gut l e v e l . . . . t h i s idea of experiencing... learning by doing...and communication s k i l l s ...experience with words...you can't get everything out of books...this pencil and paper s t u f f i s far too valued. Interview 19 grade 4 175 You know what I'm doing i t for....concentration. They create the drama....for performance. Once they are performing t h e i r concentration and co-operation is beyond b e l i e f . Interview 20 grade 4 It gives kids another medium to express themselves in...not only art where you can do things v i s u a l l y but they can do things with t h e i r bodies. Interview 22 grade 5 I think kids learn by doing. I mean in math, I've always been an advocate you have to manipulate the materials before you know how to do the Math. I think to just sort of talk to kids about how to handle a cer t a i n s i t u a t i o n and give them di r e c t i o n without them a c t u a l l y trying i t out... themselves is u n r e a l i s t i c . It's important for them to be able to work together as a group. Interview 23 grade 2/3 It gives a students who aren't very good at writing or even reading a chance to be expressive verbally. Interview 24 grade 5 The main purpose of drama in the curriculum I would say, i s part of the music curriculum because when we put on a school production, i t ' s been mostly the music...music's always been a component, so i t ' s always the person who's in charge of music that sort of does the play. Interview 27 grade 3/4 I see incredible results from kids who have been turned on to drama. Interview 28 grade 6 The changes that I see in the kids through the drama..just the l i f e that I see come out of some of the kids and how i t brings some of them out...that they get to be so much more confident about themselves..just a new outlook on things. Interview 29 grade 6/7 My main objective i s to help foster c r e a t i v i t y in children and to have them become aware of their a b i l i t i e s , not only as a creative person but also to become more aware of themselves... in the environment we l i v e i n . Interview 30 grade 3 I think that drama i s one way, the non-written way that kids can demonstrate kinds of comprehension that they can't normally demonstrate in w r i t i n g . . . i t ' s an experiential thing. It's wonderful when you see these l i t t l e guys...having the confidence, the freedom and the i n i t i a t i v e to give on the spot performances.... there's quite a few kids in my class who just progressed incredibly. Interview 31 grade 3/4 The s o c i a l development in the t h i n g . . . i t can lead to s e l f -esteem, confidence...maybe tr u s t with t h e i r peers, being able to get up there and trust that people aren't going to laugh at 176 them...and another objective would be i t ' s just another way, and a d i f f e r e n t way, and probably a more exciting way for kids to learn. Interview 33 grade 6/7 To give the children an alternate a r t i s t i c expression...it's a form of communication. Interview 34 grade 7 Should i t be a separate subject taught by a s p e c i a l i s t ? I'd kind of hesitate to have i t taught (separately) because then i t can become deadly. But i f i t ' s an integral part of what they're doing...Inteview 19 grade 4 In elementary I can't see i t as being separated out s p e c i f i c a l l y . I think i t ' s something that goes across subjects. Interview 21 grade 5 At the elementary l e v e l I think not. I think i t would work best i f integrated with each subject or the subjects that are appropriate. Interview 22 grade 5 I tend to work i t (drama) into my schedule and I would hope that every classroom teacher.would deal with i t with their own c l a s s . I don't think i t ' s the kind of thing that you should have a class platooning to another teacher such.as they come to me for music or to the art teacher. Interview 29 grade 6/7 Administration and s t a f f support. The teachers come in with their classes... they see me doing this...none of them seem to think i t matters enough to learn how to do i t . Interview 20 grade 3/4 Our p r i n c i p a l fosters the idea of drama....very supportive and encouraging. Interview 31 grade 3/4 Available Time You don't have time for everything on the timetable. Interview 3 grade 4 It takes a l o t of time...a l o t of extra time you've got to take time away from something else. Interview 6 grade 3 There's the timetabling c o n f l i c t s t o o l . Interview 7 grade 4 I work i t in with other subjects...I integrate i t . Interview 9 grade 3 Time i s a problem..only i f they see i t as something extra that they have to do. Interview 16 grade 6/7 Time i s a d e f i n i t e factor. I have a hard enough time myself f i t t i n g in the things I need to. Interview 17 grade 5/6 177 I'm a great believer that you can find time for the things that you r e a l l y believe are important... and I think we waste an enormous amount of time in school... often doing things that for some reason we think we have to do. I think that we allow the pressures of f i n i s h i n g that text book or making sure that unit's done or c o l l e c t i n g hot dog money and we don't get to drama..it needs to be an integral part of the program. Interview 18 grade 7 Every day we did i t for a few minutes... fourth period which i s about a fo r t y minute period. Interview 19 grade 4 It's too time consuming. Interview 27 grade 3/4 If you're r e a l l y going to go very seriously about role playing and t h i s kind of work, then t h e o r e t i c a l l y i t should mix in with everything else. Interview 29 grade 6/7 Part of the problem could be the demand on time...the amount of things we're asked to do in a cert a i n amount of time. I'm thinking of drama as an addition rather than a substitute. Interview 33 grade 6/7 I think that the reason they're not doing drama, as much as we would probably l i k e to see, i s because of the time constraints of the curriculum...with everything else we're having to do...computer... Interview 34, grade 7 Should theatre s k i l l s be taught i n dramatic playing? What would you do i f the c h i l d mumbles?.... I'd t e l l him to speak upl Interview 8 grade 6 I haven't r e a l l y gone into the theatre part. Interview 10 grade 3 That's not the major focus. Interview 12 grade 3 I might say yes except I've seen those two films the school board has where Dorothy Heathcote i s in some reform school ...there's about f i f t e e n r e a l l y rough looking young guys about f i f t e e n or sixteen and she gets them into role play things and they get right into i t . Interview 15 grade 3 I shouldn't think so or whatever they are, they are very b r i e f . Interview 17 grade 5/6 If they're going to perform in front of a group, then the audience has to be able to hear them, see them... a l l those...you don't turn your back on the audience, you make sure you're at the right speed, a l l those things are very important. When I do the role playing things in the classroom s i t u a t i o n , I'm less concerned with the voice presentation and 178 the a r t i c u l a t i o n and the back-turning and that, 'cause they're so spur of the moment and I r e a l l y want to get the point across of the drama i t s e l f I think I do both at d i f f e r e n t times. Interview 22 grade 5 Oh, yes...yes... just l i k e you would teach color, or you would teach sketching s k i l l s . . . i f you apply those to sketching in the Social Studies or whatever. Interview 25 grade 5 Oh, I think a l o t . . . learning to say lines d i f f e r e n t l y . . . s a y i n g l i n e s through d i f f e r e n t characters... just learning how to carry t h e i r bodies, to express feeling...how would you stand i f you were fee l i n g courageous as opposed to fee l i n g scared...and do a l o t of those kinds of exercises...I think i t ' s sort of l i k e teaching art...on one hand we want to foster c r e a t i v i t y , but on the other hand, you have to teach certain technique so they can properly express themselves so I think i t goes hand in hand. I think an over reliance on teaching technique could probably d u l l the interest, because they have to express themselves through drama ...almost f i r s t before you even look at technique. Interview 31 grade 3/4 Acting? Not so much acting per se. I don't r e a l l y give them s k i l l s in acting other than placement of body on stage, the audience, voice, etc. Interview 34 grade 7 A g a i n s t s c r i p t e d drama: t h e a t r e a r t s , s c h o o l p l a y s , and  c o n c e r t s . I don't f e e l from the b i t I've done that they get a chance to express themselves quite so f r e e l y . Interview 5 grade 4/5 F o r p e r f o r m a n c e f e i t h e r i n s c r i p t e d drama o r d r a m a t i c p l a y i n g . In some very simple improvisational things, that you may propose problems for the kids...just the basic sense of working an idea out and having to present i t on a very quick kind of reaction. Interview 28 grade 6 I would l i k e to extend the dramatic play a b i t and...so that i f they wanted to r e p l i c a t e i t , they could and i f they wanted to extend i t by...they could put i t down on paper...and maybe al t e r i t a b i t and to be...have more dramatic value whatever...and then do a l l the other things associated with i t l i k e making props and...Interview 32 grade 3/4 F o r S c r i p t e d drama Merely a vehicle for teaching French...I used drama to do it...how else do you get kids to repeat something a hundred times....I wrote everything... absolutely scripted and absolutely memorized. Interview 20 grade 3/4 179 The scripted drama gives them (the students) boundaries and then they can t r y to interpret within that, and they don't get antsy. Interview 21 grade 5 The music teacher i s the one most l i k e l y to be implementing s c r i p t drama. Interview 29 grade 6/7 I find scripted drama easier to do...reader's theatre, adapting a story and dramatizing i t . . . k i d s writing commercials or whatever...they're writing t h e i r own s c r i p t s . Interview 31 grade 3/4 Thoughts for and against the school concert What do you think they're going to remember when they leave school? Interview 7 grade 4 A l l the parents l i k e the big production. Interview 14 grade 3 I think that scripted drama and the way that schools have used them..in concerts and plays that are put on for an audience, are a r e a l l y valuable part of the curriculum. Interview 15 grade 3 What I notice r e a l l y ...as very exciting i s the confidence building that happens when they a c t u a l l y go through, a job from the beginning of the auditions to the f i n a l performance...I mean i t ' s an incredible confidence builder. Interview 16 grade 6/7 I had a very early i n c l i n a t i o n that drama should not be a few kids being the sta r s . They (teachers of big concerts) get a l l hung up on standards... that's true but i t s t i l l i s process, and no elementary school i s ever going to put on anything with a bunch of kids that anyone other than the parents i s r e a l l y going to want to look at...and you have to recognize that. Interview 20, grade 3/4 It gives the kids a chance to work co-operatively, i t also gives them a chance to get up front on the stage....and have the spot l i g h t on them...builds self-esteem. You can get a s t a f f to do i t and commit the effort..you can do i t for about two or three years and then my experience i s . . i t s t a r t s to peter out.... s t a f f s burn out. The amount of time spent on i t year after year burns people out. Large scale productions are great every so often but not when i t gets to "Oh, God, not again!" Interview 21 grade 5 Concert?...I think that's great. I think they're very valuable... i t brings the children into contact with the r e a l i t y of the a r t s . Interview 26 grade 7 180 It gives them an appreciation for theatre. I would say there's a huge chunk of kids going from grade seven out of that school into drama classes. Interview 28 grade 6 Do you think many teachers are using drama i n t h e i r  classrooms? When I was taking the courses, I know teachers in other schools...most of them had no idea what I was t a l k i n g about...no idea at a l l . Interview 13 grade 6/7 If they've taken Carole Tarlington's course. Interview 9 grade 3 The more you become comfortable with i t , the more you see where you can use i t . Interview 11 grade 7 That's hard for me to say...I don't think in general there's a l o t of drama going on..I don't think so. Interview 12 grade 3 A l o t of teachers don't give the time to i t . Interview 15 grade 3 I don't think i t ' s used much in the intermediate l e v e l at a l l . Interview 16 grade 6/7 I have not been doing any drama per se..no...not in recent times. Interview 17 grade 5/6 I don't think i t i s and I think part of the reason i s that a l o t of teachers just f e e l so threatened by something going wrong. I doubt i t . I think you have to have teachers who w i l l take a r i s k with kids...most teachers have to guard themselves. Interview 19 grade 4 No, i t ' s being done precious l i t t l e . . . I ' m the only one doing i t in my school. Interview 20 grade 3/4 I think most teachers are using drama in the dramatic sense that we've talked about...not the scripted drama...I do two or three a year and I know some other classes had done i t so I know some goes on, but to what extent, I would say i t probably involves less than half the s t a f f . Interview 22 grade 5 I don't think there are very many...it's easier to do i t in primary, I think, than in intermediate because you always have these clowns jumping around and you always seem to have to be moving around. Interview 23 grade 2/3 I'm the only person who does i t . . . p r a c t i c a l l y the only person who does i t in my school. Interview 24 grade 5 181 No...I think due to apprehension..not being able to model certai n aspects of i t . Probably poor understanding of the material...drama per se. Interview 25 grade 5 I do very l i t t l e . . . n o t enough time and no t r a i n i n g in i t . Interview 26 grade 7 No, I don't think so...lack of confidence...lack of education on the subject. Interview 27 grade 3/4 I think drama should be included in the fine arts strand of the curriculum...but I'm not doing it....I'm not familiar with the process...new grade, new program. Interview 28 grade 6 I don't think there's probably very many doing dramatic p l a y i n g . . . i t scares people. Interview 29 grade 6/7 I think moreso nowadays because of the whole language approach and using more l i t e r a t u r e in the classroom but I think the teachers have to f e e l r e a l l y comfortable with doing that themselves. Interview 30 grade 3 To be honest, I'm not sure how much drama goes on in any school...I think there's a few teachers who r e a l l y get into i t and I think a l o t of people r e l y on scripted drama or I've seen people say they use drama, but i t ' s r e a l l y informal...and they have a dramatic play center. Interview 31 grade 3/4 No..in my school i t ' s not. Interview 32 grade 3/4 I would say not too much. I would say I've done minimal, c e r t a i n l y not near what I would l i k e to do. Interview 33 grade 6/7 If teachers are using drama, what Is t h e i r preference, and  why? Unscripted, because kids are not familiar p a r t i c u l a r l y with many of the finer points of what actors or actresses must do...many of those p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s . . . i n unscripted drama they can lose themselves in that s i t u a t i o n , you're going to get a quicker response and one which might be much less s t a i d or contrived and a much more honest one...I think you get more value out of i t . . . i n the short term. Interview 17 grade 5/6 I think they're both equally good. Interview 21 grade 5 I see both...but I find i t ' s (dramatic playing) r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e as a teaching t o o l . Interview 27 grade 3/4 Both..but for d i f f e r e n t things: scripted drama for the performance aspect and the oral speaking aspect and dramatic playing for the creative aspect and thinking aspect. I find role drama much more i n s i g h t f u l as to giving you keys to how 182 kids think...whereas scripted drama doesn't. Even i f they're writing t h e i r own s c r i p t , I think, e s p e c i a l l y with the younger kids, because they're so limited in their language, they cannot r e a l l y say through language what maybe they r e a l l y f e e l . Interview 31 grade 3/4 Why are music and v i s u a l arts i n a secure po s i t i o n on the  timetable...i.e. they are mandated and taught to a l l students  whereas drama isn't? What are teachers thoughts on drama  sharing the fine arts strand with music and v i s u a l arts? I think drama has the potential to be the most b e n e f i c i a l (for the student) because you can deal with so many feelings....moreso even than music because you're doing i t through speaking and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . . . l i k e more natural methods. Interview 14 grade 3 Music i s there because i t ' s just t r a d i t i o n . . . h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n . . . because an accomplished person was t r a d i t i o n a l l y somebody who could play an instrument, a piano, a v i o l i n , who could sing. We hire music s p e c i a l i s t s , we don't hire drama specialists.Interview 15 grade 3 

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