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Educational drama : one teacher's search for significance Jardine, Laurie 1991

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Educational Drama: One Teacher's Search for Significance By Laurie Jardine B.Ed. University of Alberta, 1979 A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1991 © LAURIE JARDINE, 1991  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  of this  his  or  her  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  DE-6 (2/88)  the  is  that  an  advanced  Library shall make it  permission for extensive  granted  by the  understood be  for  allowed  head  that without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT This study d e s c r i b e s the journey of one  teacher and  her students through a year of change i n t h i n k i n g p l a n n i n g and  implementing  the secondary  about,  drama program.  The  change o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of a six-week summer course which I took i n 1990,  with l e a d i n g drama t h e o r i s t ,  B o l t o n . In September, 1990, and  Gavin  I began to use the methodology  theory presented by B o l t o n i n my own  secondary  drama  program f o r Grade E i g h t , Nine and Ten students. The  data  for the study came from the student j o u r n a l s , teacher/ r e s e a r c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s , samples of student w r i t i n g - i n - r o l e and p o s t - u n i t e v a l u a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s c o l l e c t e d throughout  t h i s year of t r a n s i t i o n . The  results  i n d i c a t e that the change of methodology had an impact  on  the p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r both students and teacher. As w e l l , s t r o n g evidence s u r f a c e d to support b e l i e f that t e a c h i n g drama i n t h i s manner has  my  benefits  which may  not be e a s i l y achieved by other means. T h i s  study was  w r i t t e n f o r teachers and students i n the b e l i e f  t h a t both may  f i n d a more s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g experience  through the use of e d u c a t i o n a l drama.  iii Table o f Contents  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v  1  1  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Purpose  .  4  Educational  Significance  5  Limitations  10  D e f i n i t i o n o f terms  12  R e f l e c t i o n s on the Summer o f 1990  15  2  LITERATURE REVIEW  18  3  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  32  Selection of s i t e  4  ••  32  S e l e c t i o n of subjects  34  Research Role  35  Data c o l l e c t i o n  35  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA  39  Introduction  39  Planning  39  Co-learner Change o f teaching  . .41 style  42  5  THE YEAR: A DESCRIPTIVE NARRATIVE OF THE JOURNEY  45  6  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  99  iv Summary  99  Conclusions  100  Implications  105  Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study  107  Concluding  109  Remarks  Epilogue  109  REFERENCES APPENDIX A  APPENDIX B  110 Lesson Sequence: "A  Midsummer  Night's  Dream"  113  Interview with Grade Ten Students  132  v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This journey has been graced by many encounters special  with  people.  Thank you... Dr. P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r , f o r your own v i s i o n . Dr. Jean Barman, f o r your g u i d i n g q u e s t i o n s . Dr. C a r l Leggo, f o r your enthusiasm Susann Baum, f o r s h a r i n g the s t e p s . A l b e r t Murphy, f o r steady winds.  f o r journeys.  1 1.  Background to the  Study  To embark on a journey with a d e s t i n a t i o n i n mind i s e x c i t i n g and e n t i c i n g , but f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e . To begin a journey whose outcome i s u n c l e a r but i n v i t i n g adventure.  People undertake  adventures  i s an  when the r e a l i t y of  t h e i r l i v e s becomes too p r e d i c t a b l e , too s t a i d . A g r e a t number of p r o f e s s i o n a l educators take s h o r t t r i p s , substantially  fewer a c t u a l l y ready themselves  journey, e s p e c i a l l y  but  for a  i f they know that there may  be  no  reason to r e t u r n to t h e i r present l o c a t i o n . However, r e c e n t trends i n e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g encourage educators to d i s c o v e r many new  i d e a s , methodologies,  and c h a l l e n g e s  i n the world of t e a c h i n g , and change i s w i t h i n reach, f o r drama educators  particularly.  Drama e d u c a t i o n seems to be a term which i s c l e a r uncomplicated.  A g e n t l e probe beneath  and  the s u r f a c e ,  however, r e v e a l s a m u l t i p l i c i t y of q u e s t i o n s , c o n f l i c t i n g t h e o r i e s and confused, ungrounded p r a c t i c e s . The which surrounds several 1)  ambiguity  the study and t e a c h i n g of drama e x i s t s f o r  reasons: i t i s a c r e a t i v e a r t , whose form i s n a t u r a l l y  transitional; 2)  i t is a relative  i n f a n t on the c u r r i c u l a r agenda;  2 3)  a s i n g l e approach has y e t to be presented  which  can be agreed upon by the m a j o r i t y o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s ; 4) a s i g n i f i c a n t absence o f communication e x i s t s between t h e o r i s t s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s ; and 5 ) teacher  training  i n s t i t u t e s are n e g l i g e n t and  tardy i n e x p l o r i n g and endorsing  a wider range o f  s p e c i f i c approaches. How can drama teachers continue foundation  s e t by the drama pioneers o f the second h a l f o f  t h i s century? for  I t seems to me t h a t the only p o s s i b l e way  e d u c a t i o n a l drama to continue  the balance  to e x i s t  i s by s h i f t i n g  r e g a r d i n g l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . For some time  the trend i n drama education unquestioningly curriculum.  to b u i l d on the  has been to move  toward a p r i m a r i l y s k i l l s - b a s e d  I t has been suggested that drama become an  examinable s u b j e c t , with r i g i d c r i t e r i a to be met. This i s , o f course,  a long way from the e n e r v a t i n g chaos o f the  l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s when i n d i v i d u a l expression,  a t any c o s t , was the c h o i c e . However, the  s k i l l s - b a s e d only approach may l e a d to a chaos o f i t s own. Before  too many r a d i c a l moves are made, i t might be  u s e f u l to assess what i s r i g h t about the many and  techniques  t h e o r i e s t h a t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t , and perhaps, to  d i s c o v e r a way to meld them more c l o s e l y to f i n d the r i g h t  3 fit  f o r the coming decades. This study r e s u l t s  from my  with the nature and q u a l i t y secondary  increasing  dissatisfaction  of the work d i s p l a y e d by  drama students. I grew t i r e d of the  my  repetitive  t h e a t r e games which, while amusing, l e d nowhere. In i m p r o v i s a t i o n , the students f e l t compelled Hollywood mimicry at t h i s l e v e l  and soap-opera  relying  dramatics. Work with  (Grade E i g h t , Nine and Ten)  to s i n c e r e understanding  to demonstrate  had no  text  relation  of subtext or i n t e n t i o n ,  simply  on a r t i c u l a t i o n and o r a l r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . However,  no matter  how  shallow I p e r c e i v e d the e f f o r t s  students seemed to have an i n s a t i a b l e l u d i c r o u s and  to be,  the  a p p e t i t e f o r the  i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Sadly, none of the numerous  workshops I attended, the m a t e r i a l I swapped with drama c o l l e a g u e s , or the t o o - b r i e f annual Conference  Drama  p r o v i d e d the answers I was  Teacher's  seeking. I wanted  something that c o u l d go beyond e x e r c i s e s and entertainment. was  I d i s c o v e r e d through  sensing as missing i n my  O'Neill  group  t h i s study t h a t what I  l e s s o n s was  context.  Cecily  (1989) i n comments r e g a r d i n g B r i t i s h drama  education  states:  We've begun to move away from... short-term, fragmented e x e r c i s e s and sensory experiences.  Now  drama teachers are aiming to s e t up work which w i l l  4 allow f o r the growth o f the s i g n i f i c a n t context i n which meaning may be n e g o t i a t e d .  (p.211)  I e n r o l e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n p u r s u i t o f a remedy - a t o n i c - which would r e t u r n v i t a l i t y and v a l i d i t y  to my t e a c h i n g . As p a r t o f my  program o f s t u d i e s I completed  a six-week summer course  with noted B r i t i s h s c h o l a r , Gavin Bolton. The experience of t h i s s i n g l e c l a s s provided me with the framework I needed to r e t u r n to my classroom with a renewed s p i r i t o f c e r t a i n t y t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e to teach drama i n a s i g n i f i c a n t , h i g h l y p a r t i c i p a t o r y way. The new approach drove  t h i s e n t i r e study and w i l l r e c e i v e e l a b o r a t i o n  throughout  the document.  Purpose o f the study The  i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s study i s to d e s c r i b e the  journey I began with my students i n September, 1990, with the d e s i r e d outcome being an a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t drama teachers have c h o i c e s to make i n d e s i g n i n g t h e i r programs. One  of the most d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s i s t h a t teachers w i l l  f i n i s h r e a d i n g t h i s paper and exclaim, "I c o u l d do t h a t ! " There i s a g r e a t need f o r continued e x p l o r a t i o n o f the way drama i s used  i n the classroom.  To date l i t t l e  has been g i v e n to the k i n d o f r e f l e c t i v e  attention  practices  5  t h e o r i s t s have long agreed  are e s s e n t i a l  to drama work.,  although a r e c e n t study by Harpe (1991) addresses the student's p e r s p e c t i v e . My focus i s on how I as t e a c h e r / l e a r n e r made changes i n my t h i n k i n g as we t r a v e l l e d through  the year, and how the n o t i c e a b l e  evidence o f change was seen by both students and myself. The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s  f o r any drama teacher to u t i l i z e  techniques and philosophy which encourage meaning which i s significant  to the students.  Educational  Significance  An i n s i g h t f u l commentary on the a t t i t u d e o f many o f today's students i s made by E i s n e r (1979) when he says: The major task i n s c h o o l i n g f o r many students i s to d i s c o v e r j u s t what they need to do i n order to get through a t a l e v e l o f performance they regard as a c c e p t a b l e f o r themselves,  (p.60)  O p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t f o r drama teachers to help students push t h e i r l e v e l s higher. U s u a l l y , when a Grade E i g h t student e n r o l s i n secondary  school drama, a s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s e x i s t s ,  though t h a t student may have l i t t l e experience. When asked  even  p r i o r drama  to say what they t h i n k drama might  be about, they most f r e q u e n t l y r e p l y ,  x  a c t i n g ' . This  6 s i n g l e response  i s the key, or the b a r r i e r  that faces the  drama t e a c h e r . R e g a r d l e s s w h i c h m e t h o d o l o g y  a teacher  u s e s , e d u c a t i o n a l drama o r " a c t o r - t r a i n i n g ,  s t u d e n t s must  1  be e a s e d  i n t o t h e s u b j e c t i n a c o o p e r a t i v e manner, so t h a t  more t h a n s u p e r f i c i a l  results will  develop. Without  fail,  n o v i c e s t u d e n t s e x p e c t t o be a s k e d t o " p e r f o r m * . Contemporary  s t u d e n t s a r e consumers o f  incredibly  e f f e c t i v e m a r k e t i n g . Many s t u d e n t s i d o l i z e m o v i e s t a r s , listen  t o m u s i c w h i c h has become a s much v i s u a l  a u d i b l e , and r e a d m a g a z i n e s oriented.  T h i s a d o l e s c e n t group  information dictating to r e s i s t .  social  They a r e d i s p l a y  of reading, c r i t i c a l and o r a l  which are h e a v i l y  f l e e t i n g and g l a m o r o u s ,  fashion  i s barraged with  norms o u t s i d e o f t h e i r some d e f i c i e n c i e s  thinking,  language a b i l i t y .  as  power  i n the areas  s e l f - e s t e e m , group  skills,  I n a s o c i e t y which r e v e r e s the  i t i s not d i f f i c u l t  s t u d e n t s w o u l d want t o e m u l a t e  the " s t a r s '  to grasp  why  they are  inundated w i t h everyday. T h i s view o f success i s p e r p e t r a t e d by t e a c h e r s whose a r t i s t i c the l a t e s t American  view  i s g u i d e d by  stage h i t .  The c u r r e n t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Drama C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e evades  t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t s o f what i s d r a m a t i c . W i t h  i t s ultimate  i n t e n t i o n to produce  the student a c t o r , i t  d i c t a t e s a d i e t o f fragmented, i s o l a t e d e x e r c i s e s ,  taught  7 without  a context. Not only does t h i s approach f a l l  of success, i t a l s o leaves i n e x p e r i e n c e d bewildered  short  teachers  by i t s b r e v i t y and e v e n t u a l l y s u b j e c t e d to a  s t a t e o f i n e r t i a . The r e c e n t p o p u l a r i t y o f K e i t h Johnstone's Theatre  Sports technique  has had the e f f e c t o f  p r o v i d i n g teachers with r e c i p e cards f o r s u r v i v a l classroom.  i n the  There are some o b s e r v a t i o n s to be made on what  a steady d i e t o f such a c t i v i t y promotes. Barker  (1986)  comments: The major l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t (as i n c h i l d r e n ' s play) delight  i s the reward f o r p l a y i n g , and the a c t o r ,  g i v e n the c h o i c e , u s u a l l y takes the comic path r a t h e r than the t r a g i c .  This makes the performance very  e n j o y a b l e , but l i m i t s the area o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the human c o n d i t i o n , (p.231) I t i s only by p e e l i n g away the l a y e r s o f the human c o n d i t i o n t h a t a r t begins The v i t a l  to be r e v e a l e d .  l i n k which can b r i n g students  i n touch  with  t h e i r l e a r n i n g i s content e x p l o r e d i n context. E i s n e r (1979) e x p l a i n s : To d i s c e r n what an event means r e q u i r e s an understanding  o f the context i n which i t occurs; t h a t  context r e q u i r e s not only some knowledge o f the people  i n v o l v e d and the circumstances  w i t h i n which  8 the event o c c u r s , but i n many s i t u a t i o n s something about the past, a g a i n s t which the p a r t i c u l a r s of the present can be p l a c e d , (p.222) The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education C u r r i c u l u m Guides suggest C o n c e n t r a t i o n , Observation, and  that T r u s t ,  Imagination are  suitable  areas of study. I b e l i e v e t h a t while these elements are e s s e n t i a l to the whole p i c t u r e , they must develop as a product o f other e x p l o r a t i o n s , not as ends i n  themselves.  As B o l t o n (1985) s t a t e s : "Learning i n drama i s e s s e n t i a l l y a reframing. What knowledge a student has new  p e r s p e c t i v e " (p.  i s placed i n a  156).  The present B r i t i s h Columbia Drama C u r r i c u l u m i s based  on a developmental  B r i a n Way  model, formulated l a r g e l y  by  i n the 1960's. G e n e r a l l y , h i s i n t e n t i o n was  f u r t h e r the "growth of the i n d i v i d u a l  1  to  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  environment, to u t i l i z e an a r s e n a l of e x e r c i s e s and games to  evoke a sense of s t r u c t u r e i n the l e s s o n , and  emphasize sensory awareness, or d i r e c t experience  to f o r the  students. T h i s approach i s s e q u e n t i a l i n nature, assuming that students can a c q u i r e a s e t of s k i l l s a t one  grade  l e v e l , then develop other s k i l l s a t subsequent l e v e l s emerge a t the end  "fully  developed'.  and  T h i s method i s , a t  best, drawn s k e t c h i l y i n the c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l u m , and  9 leaves teachers without m a t e r i a l a f t e r perhaps three months' work. I needed to f i n d a model f o r my t e a c h i n g which would s u s t a i n my i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , and above a l l ,  future  i n t e r e s t , challenge  me  permit the very best  q u a l i t y of work from the students I would work with i n years to come. Specifically,  I d e s i r e d my  students to d i s p l a y a  g r e a t e r sense of commitment, an understanding  of  dramatic  a r t , g r e a t e r i n t e g r i t y toward in-depth d i s c o v e r y and, i m p o r t a n t l y , c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own  ability  drama and share the meanings of t h e i r worlds. become i n c r e a s i n g l y important s i g n i f i c a n t way  to c r e a t e I t has  to f i n d a more  to e x p l o r e c r e a t i v i t y , both i n the  students and myself, essence,  to me  most  through  the dramatic a r t form. In  "the teacher i s attempting  to match the c h i l d ' s  e x i s t i n g experience of p l a y to the l e s s f a m i l i a r  forms of  t h e a t r e i n order to focus and deepen the c h i l d ' s  learning  experience"  (Neelands,  1984,  p.7). I t i s our  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as educators to f i n d  f r e s h ways of framing  the work to enhance o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g . In the same way, be  i t i s important  f o r new  r e s e a r c h to  framed i n f r e s h ways to make the process and  the  r e s u l t s c l e a r and a c c e s s i b l e f o r the intended audience, i n t h i s case, t e a c h e r s . T h i s study evolved i n a q u a l i t a t i v e  10 way because the very nature o f drama i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e f l e c t i v e and p r o g r e s s i v e . I quote E i s n e r (1979) a g a i n for the c l a r i t y  i n the r a t i o n a l e :  There i s no area o f human i n q u i r y t h a t epitomizes the q u a l i t a t i v e more than a r t i s t s do when they work... A r t i s t s  i n q u i r e i n a q u a l i t a t i v e mode both i n  the f o r m u l a t i o n o f ends and the use o f means to achieve such ends. (p.216)  Limitations The  l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study stem from i t s a b i l i t y  only to r e p o r t one person's  move toward a h o l i s t i c method  o f drama t e a c h i n g . Thus the study can only provide i n s i g h t s i n t o the b e n e f i t s p e r c e i v e d by t h i s teacher and her students. Yet, because o f i t s p e r s o n a l v o i c e , I hope that my experience w i l l resonate  f o r other teachers who  may see s i m i l a r i t i e s to t h e i r own experience  i n my  journey. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s not a guidepost, but a c h r o n i c l e ; not a p r e s c r i p t i o n , but a p o s s i b i l i t y . The  study was r e s t r i c t e d to one school year and,  t h e r e f o r e , examines o n l y i n i t i a l  responses  to the changes.  A f u t u r e study c o u l d look a t long term development and progress i n one group o f students. The p o s i t i o n o f teacher as r e s e a r c h e r a l s o  11 i n c o r p o r a t e d teacher as l e a r n e r . While ongoing  throughout  the study was  the year, my r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were  t w o f o l d : both a c q u i r i n g the data and f u n c t i o n i n g as a teacher u s i n g an e n t i r e l y new methodology. Since both areas were new to me, the l e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e may be q u e s t i o n a b l e . N e i t h e r teacher nor students had had previous experience with the m a t e r i a l . I am s u f f i c i e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the school to have my personal standards and e x p e c t a t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d and unchallenged. A b i a s may e x i s t i n the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the students toward an undertaking approached by  enthusiastically  me. In summary, I decided to make changes to my t e a c h i n g  s t y l e because I no longer b e l i e v e d that the work I was doing had i n t e g r i t y or t h a t to continue on the same path would l e a d to an i n c r e a s e d understanding o f e i t h e r  myself,  my students or the a r t form. In order to move i n t o the f u t u r e with c o n f i d e n c e , teachers need to f e e l  free to  break away from some o f the t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f t h i n k i n g and prepare  to proceed  with open minds. Benjamin (1989)  writes: S o c i e t y ' s needs o f the p o p u l a t i o n w i l l demand a c t i v e - l e a r n i n g , higher c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , p r e s e n t - f u t u r e focus, s e r v i c e l e a r n i n g ,  past-  lifelong  12 l e a r n i n g , wholeperson e d u c a t i o n , coping with d i v e r s i t y , general education, t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y e d u c a t i o n , p e r s o n a l i z e d l e a r n i n g , a process approach, and e d u c a t i o n f o r communication,  (pp.8-12)  I f we can look a t drama as a composite o f a l l these p a r t s , then drama teachers are w e l l - p o i s e d to move ahead.  D e f i n i t i o n o f terms The f o l l o w i n g terms i n the f i e l d o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n are presented i n condensed of  form f o r the purposes  t h i s study.  Dramatic p l a y : The dramatic p l a y i n g mode occurs a t the e x p e r i e n t i a l end o f the dramatic a c t i o n continuum. i n t h i s medium that the p a r t i c i p a n t examines they are a c t u a l l y  It is  events as  occurring.  Performance mode: The performance mode l i e s a t the o p p o s i t e end o f the dramatic a c t i o n continuum. The purpose i s to demonstrate a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e to an audience, usually of co-learners.  Theatre elements: I t i s the m a n i p u l a t i o n of time space and a c t i o n which c r e a t e s symbols and c l a r i f i e s Theatre elements are i n t e g r a l  meaning.  to e d u c a t i o n a l drama.  E d u c a t i o n a l drama: E d u c a t i o n a l drama engages the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s with the i n t e n t i o n of e x p l o r i n g human s i t u a t i o n s . The  collective  experience of the p a r t i c i p a n t s leads to the c r e a t i o n of new  meanings and understanding.  i n the change i n understanding  The  focus of the work l i e s  c r e a t e d by the experience,  which i s shaped by a c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of the elements of the a r t form.  Dramatic  a c t i o n : Dramatic  a c t i o n examines a narrow aspect  of content deeply. The purpose i s to explore symbolic literal  not  meanings to e x t r a c t u n i v e r s a l meanings. I t takes  p l a c e i n the present, but draws from the  fictitious  s i t u a t i o n and  the i m a g i n a t i o n of the l e a r n e r s to b r i n g  understanding  to the  Context:  content area can o f f e r a wide v a r i e t y of  Any  new  participants.  experiences and p e r s p e c t i v e s . I t i s the p a r t i c u l a r  angle  or aspect t h a t the teacher chooses to examine t h a t forms the context of t h a t drama. Learning areas such as meanings or subtext are the teacher's p r i o r i t y . i s concerned  Student  involvement  with the development of the p r a c t i c a l  of that context.  details  Teacher  i n role  (TIR): A d e v i c e which p l a c e s the teacher  i n the dramatic a c t i v i t y a l o n g s i d e the students. From t h i s p o s i t i o n , the teacher can evoke, through n e g o t i a t i o n , the d i r e c t i o n o f the drama by drawing  on the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  the students.  Tableaux  (depiction): A s t i l l  image c r e a t e d by the  s e l e c t i v e use o f the a r t form which c l a r i f i e s meaning of an event or idea.  R e f l e c t i o n : A process i n t e g r a l to the understanding o f the ideas e x p l o r e d i n the drama and how they r e l a t e to the i n d i v i d u a l . R e f l e c t i o n can and should occur a t numerous p o i n t s i n the drama.  P l a y b u i l d i n g : The development o f a s i n g l e theme r e l e v a n t to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A c o l l e c t i v e p i e c e of work i s c r e a t e d through the use of dramatic conventions to convey m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s on the theme.  Role p l a y i n g : I n d i v i d u a l s or groups agree  to adhere to the  s o c i a l conventions o f a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e and time to encounter  an experience p e r t a i n i n g to the theme.  R e f l e c t i o n s on the summer o f 1990 In May, 1990, i t was suggested and  to teaching c o l l e a g u e  f e l l o w student Susann Baum and I , t h a t we e n r o l i n  Gavin Bolton's summer drama course. T h i s was to be a course  f o r graduate  experience  students o n l y , presumably ones with  i n r o l e drama. We were unaware, a t the time, o f  the r e a l content o f the course; we had both heard o f Bolton, but i n our ignorance had pigeon-holed c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with elementary As the essence  him as most  drama.  o f Gavin Bolton's work, began to r e v e a l  i t s e l f to us over the s i x weeks o f the course, we underwent a tremendously initial  powerful  shift  i n t h i n k i n g . Our  s c e p t i c i s m before beginning the course was almost  a c e r b i c , i n f a c t , c e r t a i n c o l l e a g u e s had even gone so f a r as to query  i n p u z z l e d tones why we would  s o r t o f t h i n g " ! I t was not u n t i l had passed  "go i n f o r t h a t  the f i r s t week o f c l a s s  t h a t the j o l t o f r e c o g n i t i o n o c c u r r e d . T h i s was  indeed going to have a s i g n i f i c a n t  impact  on our t e a c h i n g  s t y l e s . Even beyond t h a t , our t e a c h i n g paradigm was about to be i n j e c t e d with the v i t a l i t y we were seeking, sense o f d e s t i n y permeated the energy  and a  with which we s e t i n  to t a c k l e the assignments presented to us. I t was e s s e n t i a l  f o r us to have had the chance to be  Bolton's students, i n that we experienced  the d e t a i l e d  e x p e r t i s e he demonstrated  i n the s i m p l e s t o f l e s s o n s . The  moments o f sheer j o y which s p a r k l e d as we s t r u g g l e d and succeeded  to s o l v e a problem he s e t f o r us were frequent.  I became impatient f o r the time when I could p r o v i d e s i m i l a r c h a l l e n g e s f o r my students. He c l e v e r l y what h i s own books and a r t i c l e s c o u l d never articulate  gave us  quite  with such c l a r i t y : a way to imprint the moments  on o u r s e l v e s . He made the m a t e r i a l p e r s o n a l l y meaningful. As each day passed, the urge to absorb as much as p o s s i b l e was s t r o n g . I  have never taken more notes, or  followed more i n t e n t l y ,  the content o f any course - there  was always a  f e e l i n g of a n t i c i p a t i o n  shared next. Like a c h i l d f i n d i n g  about what would be  t r e a s u r e I wanted to  s t u f f a l l my pockets f o r the f u t u r e as insurance f o r the time when I would have to s t r i k e out on my own. In r e t r o s p e c t the summer proved somewhat disconcerting  f o r me. While I was c e r t a i n l y  ready to  embrace a new way o f t e a c h i n g , and p a r t i c u l a r l y one which had now proven i t s e l f to be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c r e d i b i l i t y and v a l u e , I was nervous about how much m a t e r i a l I was c a r r y i n g around  that now had to now be "unlearned". I knew  t h a t B o l t o n was p r o v i d i n g a l l the fundamental  background I  would need to make the change, y e t i t was d i f f i c u l t to f i n a l l y j u s t say, "I w i l l commit myself and my students to  trying  i t t h i s way  no matter how  f o r a whole year, whatever happens  frustrated I  Gavin Bolton's  get."  c o n v i c t i o n i n h i s work i n s p i r e d each  of us i n the course to c h a l l e n g e about drama. D i s c o v e r i n g  our  ways of t h i n k i n g  the many s i g n i f i c a n t ways of  engaging the students i n r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l exhilarating.  I was  s u r p r i s e d at how  was  s t r o n g l y I was  p e r s o n a l l y committed to t h i s approach to drama but  I recognized  that f o r the  reach a drama t e a c h i n g l e a r n e r s and  and  knowing.  first  time, I had  now  teaching, within  methodology whose essence enables  18 2. L i t e r a t u r e Review  This chapter  i s a review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to  the study and examines the views about drama i n e d u c a t i o n as i t r e l a t e s to c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g and  t h i n k i n g . The  main purpose i s to h i g h l i g h t the c o n t r i b u t i o n s drama can make to e d u c a t i o n when taught  i n t h i s manner.  There has not been a v a s t body of theory developed the s u b j e c t of drama education, and been formulated and  what does e x i s t  has  shaped by a handful of t h e o r i s t s  worldwide. However, from e a r l y i n the f i r s t h a l f of century, those who  on  this  have c o n t r i b u t e d to the f i e l d have done  so p a s s i o n a t e l y , not always with acute c l a r i t y  to the  l a y p e r s o n , but with i n t e g r i t y . F o r t u n a t e l y , each decade has added a new it  i s t h a t drama The  l a y e r to the common understanding  of what  accomplishes.  thread which weaves through  twentieth  century  drama theory i s s u c c i n c t l y t r a c e d by Gavin B o l t o n  (1984).  His use of the term " p i o n e e r s ' i n c l u d e s F i n l a y - J o h n s o n , C a l d w e l l Cook, Peter Slade, B r i a n Way Heathcote.  I t i s those  and  Dorothy  i n d i v i d u a l s whose work w i l l  provide  the foundation f o r t w e n t y - f i r s t century developments. premise which l i n k s a l l of these people  i s that the  The  child  has something to o f f e r to the experience, whatever i t  19 might be. As the t h i n k i n g of one g e n e r a t i o n merged with the next, the f a b r i c became r i c h e r and the t e x t u r e more dense, each new  l e n g t h adding value to the whole.  A c o n c i s e review of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by drama p r a c t i t i o n e r s to the l a t e (1984).  1970's i s presented by B o l t o n  S e r i o u s readers should c o n s u l t the t e x t s of the  v a r i o u s t h e o r i s t s to g a i n a thorough  foundation of the  h i s t o r y of drama e d u c a t i o n . Where does present day drama belong on the continuum?  historical  A move a f o o t i n Great B r i t a i n would p l a c e  drama i n the company of examinable s u b j e c t s . Davis  (1984)  d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n as a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , s a y i n g : At the very time when i t should be p o s s i b l e to make a leap forward on the b a s i s of the enormous c o n t r i b u t i o n from Dorothy Heathcote  and Gavin B o l t o n  over the l a s t twenty to t h i r t y years, and when the p o s i t i o n the young are i n demands c r e a t i v i t y  and  i n v e n t i o n , we have i n s t e a d , a whole trend back to t h e a t r e a r t s of the worst  sort.  (p.15)  S u r e l y , we can see an o p p o r t u n i t y here f o l l o w those i n B r i t a i n who  i n Canada not to  are s u p p o r t i n g t h i s  approach.  The pedagogical model presented by B o l t o n and Heathcote  addresses  great c l a r i t y .  the concerns  In implementing  of modern educators  t h i s approach i n the  with  20 secondary classroom, I d i s c o v e r e d d e v i c e s which help the students understand m a t e r i a l more s u c c e s s f u l l y , as w e l l as how of  to become a b e t t e r teacher. The most s t r i k i n g  concept  the work i s that the elements of the t h e a t r e are  present and must be j u d i c i o u s l y and  always  selectively  implemented from w i t h i n the dramatic events being e x p l o r e d . The sharpest d i v i s i o n between understanding the work done by drama p r a c t i t i o n e r s l i k e t h e a t r e - a r t s proponents  who  B o l t o n and that of  malign the method l i e s  emphasis p l a c e d on the importance  i n the  of the dramatic event  over the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s of a c t i n g . B o l t o n (1986) s t a t e s : Of course we want young people to develop s k i l l s i n t h e a t r e , but the f i r m e s t foundations f o r such  skills  d e r i v e from t r a i n i n g the d i r e c t o r ' s / p l a y w r i g h t ' s  eye  and ear, and i n the d i s c i p l i n e of ensemble p l a y i n g , (p.371) A tendency  toward  the 'academic'  has made some of the  w r i t i n g s of B o l t o n somewhat i n a c c e s s i b l e to the teacher, an u n f o r t u n a t e gap personal experience was  i n the e d u c a t i o n of many. My  t h a t , once having taken the course  with Gavin, r e r e a d i n g h i s work was understand.  average  f a r e a s i e r to  I f e l t that h i s unique a b i l i t y  as a teacher  came through much more profoundly i n the classroom. Even i n the s i m p l e s t of l e s s o n s , B o l t o n d i s p l a y e d  highly d e t a i l e d planning. thought and  Tiny moments had  a l t e r n a t i v e actions readied  been p r e -  for possible  use  throughout the l e s s o n s . C e r t a i n l y some of the d i r e c t i o n taken i n c l a s s must have been i n s t i n c t i v e and but  i t was  the acute a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l  deepest responses i n the  spontaneous,  that e l i c i t e d  students.  As p o i n t e d out by Hornbrook (1989), i t was Heathcote who  Bolton  dominated drama pedagogy throughout  1980's.  I t i s p r e c i s e l y because these s c h o l a r s  evaluate  and  push the boundaries of t h e i r own  that t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to c u r r e n t valuable.  the  and  the  constantly  theories  t h i n k i n g i s so  Indeed, i t i s c l e a r t h a t the s h i f t  t h i n k i n g to i n c l u d e m u l t i p l e c o n s t r u c t s of  in  Bolton's  the  "performance mode' makes i t much e a s i e r f o r former naysayers to begin a d i s c o v e r y of t h i s methodology. In h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of drama i n t o four  types,  B o l t o n manages to i n c l u d e a l l forms of drama, but  places  g r e a t e s t importance on drama as a v e h i c l e f o r l e a r n i n g about content. Learning C.  Briefly,  these c a t e g o r i e s a r e :  A. Drama as  about Content;  B. Drama as Personal  Development;  Drama as S o c i a l Development; and  D. Drama for  Learning  about Dramatic A r t Form. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n does not any  time exclude the relevance  techniques.  of t h e a t r e elements  Indeed these q u a l i t i e s are  integral  to  and  at  understanding  why  t h i s methodology i s optimal  for current  trends i n e d u c a t i o n , not j u s t drama e d u c a t i o n . B e n e f i t s to students  taught  through  an e d u c a t i o n a l  drama approach are numerous. The approach makes e a s i e r the need Graham (1986) sees to  "develop a c u r r i c u l u m r e l e v a n t  to the needs of i t s c l i e n t s , not i t s masters". According  to Morgan and  Saxton (1985) drama experiences  provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n of language.  Not  o n l y can the teacher model a p p r o p r i a t e language s t r a t e g i e s through  t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e , but they can s t i m u l a t e "language  o c c a s i o n s ' to develop content. Again,  s t y l e , language, tone,  logic  the experiences of the students  d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the s k i l l  and  are  the teacher d i s p l a y s with  the  approach, because, "the more r o l e s a teacher can p l a y i n a drama, the more o p p o r t u n i t i e s the students have f o r p l a y i n g r o l e s w i t h i n the same s i t u a t i o n ; the more o c c a s i o n s there are f o r students  to p l a y the same r o l e " i n  d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , the r i c h e r the language becomes" (p. 40 ) . O ' N e i l l and Lambert (1982) a l s o note  the p r o v i s i o n  f o r c h a l l e n g i n g student language r e s o u r c e s , p r i m a r i l y i n the areas of developing student competence i n h a n d l i n g description,  i n s t r u c t i o n , l o g i c a l reasoning,  and p l a n n i n g . V e r r i o u r (1986) agrees,  persuasion  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t when  23 students are i n the performance  mode, "they are expected  to engage i n d i a l o g u e that i s c l e a r  i n referential  intent  to the audience as well as the other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the drama" (p.256). Dramatic a c t i v i t y r e l i e s h e a v i l y on s o c i a l i z i n g behaviour which has been both a strong p o i n t f o r supporters and a t a r g e t f o r d e t r a c t o r s o f drama e d u c a t i o n from the b e g i n n i n g . Too much emphasis  on the development  of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y leads to chaos, while not enough makes the experience meaningless and s t e r i l e . However, meaningful group e f f o r t s o f t e n encourage students to f i n d what B o l t o n r e f e r s to as a " p u b l i c v o i c e ' , one which can be t e s t e d i n a p r o t e c t e d environment.  This group  s t r u c t u r i n g helps f o s t e r common conceptual understandings of the world and l i f e ,  or " u n i v e r s a l s ' . Neelands  (1984)  a l s o seeks t h i s c o l l e c t i v e view which a t the same time encourages  i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n the l a r g e r  community, one which has a l r e a d y agreed not to s e t t l e f o r the middle ground without c o n s i d e r i n g each person's contribution. O'Neill  (1989) agrees with t h i s when she  s t a t e s that a group i n a drama l e s s o n has to both "expect* and  "respond' to s i t u a t i o n s . This p a t t e r n r e q u i r e s the  student to "read' the r o l e s around them and d i s c o v e r about themselves and the s i t u a t i o n , and r e f l e c t on  clues  24 themselves The  from both  i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the drama.  s t r e n g t h of drama i s i t s a b i l i t y  to provide  these  m u l t i p l e p e r c e p t i o n s f o r students which, i n t u r n , empowers them. O ' N e i l l aiming  (1989) s t a t e s the o b j e c t i v e c l e a r l y :  to c r e a t e imagined  worlds  with our students  encourage them to p e r c e i v e themselves (p.211).  S u r e l y , t h i s i s one of the a c q u i s i t i o n s  situations  in their real  are  and  as world makers"  hope t h e i r students can r e l y upon when they unique  "We  teachers  encounter  worlds.  E q u a l l y r e l e v a n t to the c o n n e c t i o n with u n i v e r s a l s i s the way  a student w i l l  "make sense of t h e i r experience i n  the world and begin to organize i t i n t o the u n i t y , s i g n i f i c a n c e and coherence 1982  p.15).  of a r t " ( O ' N e i l l and  Lambert,  As w e l l , the o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c o g n i z e symbols,  to enter i n t o a degree of consciousness b e l o n g i n g to a f i c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e r and to focus on i n t e r a c t i n g o t h e r s spontaneously  is likely  which a student encounters  with  to enhance the depth  with  the r e a l world, and to a s s i g n  value to r e a l experiences as they occur. An a r t i c u l a t e advocate of  of the a r t s i n the development  e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m theory, E i s n e r (1979) i s adamant  i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t the a r t s provide a unique p e r s p e c t i v e . The degree of awareness developed to  by students i s r e l a t i v e  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s they have to " p a r t i c i p a t e  vicariously  25 i n the l i v e s of o t h e r s , to a c q u i r e an understanding s i t u a t i o n s , and  of  t h e r e f o r e to know them i n ways t h a t only  the a r t s can r e v e a l "  (p.227).  This emphasis on encouraging credence to t h e i r own  experience  students  to g i v e  in real l i f e  encounters  permeates a paper g i v e n by Highwater (1989) a t the as a Meaning Maker" American conference.  "Drama  In r e f e r e n c e to  the e f f e c t the media has had on the general p u b l i c , he states: What we  have done i s to censor  e x i s t e n c e . We  people  out of  have sent them under t h e i r beds.  We  have denied  t h e i r e x i s t e n c e so they don't want to be  anybody. We  have destroyed  t h e i r experience  and  we  are l e s s because of i t . (p.85) I would extend  t h i s analogy  to i n c l u d e the e f f e c t  that  the e d u c a t i o n system has had on i t s students.  Highwater  a l s o makes use of a phrase which captures  necessary  ambiguity  of the e n t i r e drama experience  the by  saying that  he r e l a t e s more c l o s e l y with a " m u l t i v e r s e ' than a u n i v e r s e . How teacher's  the essence of a drama  expectations.  Eisner The  c l e a r l y t h a t captures  (1979) c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s by w r i t i n g :  idea that there are m u l t i p l e ways i n which t h i n g s  are known - t h a t there i s a v a r i e t y of e x p r e s s i v e  m o d a l i t i e s through which what i s known can d i s c l o s e d - simply has been absent conversations community  be  from the  t h a t animate the e d u c a t i o n a l  research  . (p.224)  This idea of l a y e r i n g experience  i n a multiverse,  p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e from which to examine drama work. I t has been s t a t e d many times comprises a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s k i l l s ,  t h a t drama  but t h i s has yet to be  t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a h o l i s t i c view of the personal worlds of the student, both  inner and outer. In the past,  p e r s p e c t i v e of the most a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t i n the the p u p i l s , has not been regarded outcome of events.  class,  as r e c i p r o c a l to the  What Highwater suggests d o v e t a i l s  n i c e l y with the concepts  of drama education,  i n v i t e s both students and meaning  the  for i t  teachers to i n s i s t on making  together.  The  next b e n e f i t drama can envelop  t h a t of c h a l l e n g i n g and  students  in is  a s s e r t i n g moral v a l u e s . Drama i n  e d u c a t i o n , as i t i s c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i s e d , a s s e r t s Graham (1984), i s both a r t - f o r m and v a l i d and  important  different  from c o n v e n t i o n a l  learning-form.  kinds of knowledge to  It offers  students,  school knowledge. In a s o c i e t y  which i s complex and d i v e r s e , the boundaries a t t i t u d e are sometimes hazy. A r e c e n t paper  of moral (Hansen,1989)  t a l k s about  the importance  o f drama to the understanding  of v a l u e s : "Drama i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g context and context i s necessary f o r meaning" (p.216). This s t r o n g l y supports the Heathcote/Bolton stance o f drama as a v e h i c l e for  learning. Teachers who adopt an e d u c a t i o n a l drama  stand to b e n e f i t  approach  i n many ways, not the l e a s t o f which i s  to be regarded as human beings by students. Although the teacher remains group,  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the framework, the e n t i r e  teacher i n c l u d e d , must pursue  the l e a r n i n g outcomes  together. According to Morgan and Saxton  (1988), "The  teacher's f u n c t i o n i s to f i n d those approaches be d i v e r g e n t and open" (p.36). T h i s approach responsibility  which w i l l  balances the  i n the room, a c o n d i t i o n which  causes  a n x i e t y f o r many t e a c h e r s . V e r r i o u r (1985) s t a t e s  that,  through being i n r o l e , teachers and students are allowed to adopt s o c i a l r o l e s o u t s i d e the f a m i l i a r ones they c a r r y . A d i f f e r e n t and s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f o s t e r e d i n such an  environment.  As guideposts f o r t e a c h e r s , Neelands (1984) suggests t h a t teachers can e s t a b l i s h a comfortable environment f o r l e a r n i n g by working  toward  - t a k i n g informed  the f o l l o w i n g :  risks  - t r y i n g not to be the omnipotent  expert  28 - encouraging  self-assessment i n students and  self - h e l p i n g students f i n d t h e i r own v o i c e - a p p l y i n g meaningful classroom,and  c o n t e x t s i n the  not depending on i r r e l e v a n t  exercises The  importance  dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  o f these c r i t e r i a  i s t h a t they  i n the classroom. Granted,  suggest  the l i s t o f  behaviors f o r teachers sounds o p t i m i s t i c and, perhaps f o r some, even daunting. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f we are to bury the " p i t c h e r o f knowledge' theory f o r e v e r , teachers w i l l need to f i n d ways to meet the c h a l l e n g e s o f the c u r r e n t trends i n education. A q u a r r e l o f Hornbrook (1985) i s with the m y s t i c a l q u a l i t y which permeates the realm o f drama t e a c h i n g . I f the world o f pretend cannot  be m y s t i c a l , then we are i n  grave danger o f e l i m i n a t i n g much o f the r i t u a l o f t h e a t r e and c u l t u r a l h a b i t s i n g e n e r a l . His r e f e r e n c e to Dorothy Heathcote  as a mystic i n d i c a t e s h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s to  a p p r e c i a t e the c h a r i s m a t i c p e r s o n a l i t y o f a contemporary with c r e d i b i l i t y and a fear o f the unknown. As B o l t o n (1986) p o i n t s o u t : "Moving i n and out o f s c r i p t s i s something Dorothy Heathcote (p.370).  has been doing f o r y e a r s "  I t seems t h a t Hornbrook has a b l i n d eye i n  c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s . Graham (1984) c l a i m s , "Bolton defends drama i n e d u c a t i o n through  i d e n t i f y i n g the a e s t h e t i c o f  theatre as a key to good drama p r a c t i c e "  (p.284).  Hornbrook f a i l s to r e c o g n i z e what B o l t o n has c a t e g o r i c a l l y d e f i n e d i n h i s theory as the "performance mode', the end of the spectrum which p r o v i d e s f o r the very  experience  Hornbrook c l a i m s i s l a c k i n g . In a c o n c i s e manner, Male (1990) i n s i s t s t h a t Hornbrook has n e g l e c t e d f o r the most p a r t to i d e n t i f y anything s e r i o u s l y amiss with the methodology. Her g e n t l e sarcasm c a s t s c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt on the c l a i m s Hornbrook makes a g a i n s t drama i n e d u c a t i o n as she f i n d s numerous c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n Hornbrook's documentation. In s h o r t order she i d e n t i f i e s her major disagreements with h i s thoughts  on p h i l o s o p h i c a l underpinning,  historical  development o f drama, p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t h e o r i s t s , and l e g i t i m a t e course  content.  Only once does Hornbrook pose a q u e s t i o n which seems to want to bridge the opposing asks:  t h e o r i e s . This i s when he  " I f c h i l d r e n are l e a r n i n g through  are they l e a r n i n g ? " (p.356). door f o r a response,  drama, then what  F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s opens the  and here I quote Warwick Dobson  (1986) a t l e n g t h : They might be l e a r n i n g t h a t they have a v o i c e ; they  30 are  l e a r n i n g that i t i s p o s s i b l e to take  responsibility  f o r t h e i r own  l e a r n i n g that there  a c t i o n s ; they  are  i s a power i n c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ;  they are l e a r n i n g that i n d i v i d u a l s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that go beyond t h e i r own  self-  i n t e r e s t ; they are l e a r n i n g t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to use  dramatic forms to pose questions  and  explore  i s s u e s which have a d i r e c t bearing  on t h e i r  lives;  cultural  they are l e a r n i n g t h e i r own  possess l e g i t i m a c y ; and that drama and exposing and  above a l l they are  theatre provide  challenging  (p.  f i n d a way  373).  continued  generation  to merge the resources  paths i n a manner acceptable  of  of both  to everyone.  Hansen (1989) c a p s u l i z e s the u n d e r l y i n g  e f f e c t i v e way  and  the best elements of both forms to  be at work i n the classroom. Perhaps a new  both s i d e s by s a y i n g :  learning  the dominant ideology  What i s u l t i m a t e l y d i s t u r b i n g i s the  theorists will  forms  a potent means of  i t s p r e v a i l i n g modes of i n t i m i d a t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e to a l l o w i n g  own  i n t e n t i o n of  "Drama/theatre i s an e s p e c i a l l y  to n e g o t i a t e  the p o t e n t i a l and  actual  meaning of the behaviours t h a t make up a human l i f e " (p.218). I t i s my ahead and  b e l i e f that i f drama i s now  continue to b u i l d on the strengths  to move that e x i s t i n  31 the dramatic a r t form, there must be a d e s i r e to promote t h e o r i e s that do not develop f o r the sake of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ease, but f o r the b e n e f i t of the students we  teach. In a c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t e d toward  personal r e l e v a n c e we  can capture the events and s i t u a t i o n s which occur so r a p i d l y i n our h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l world, and anchor s e c u r e l y to an understanding based calls  "a h i s t o r i c a l ,  them  i n what Graham  (1986)  p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n t e x t " . I t  i s time to a c t on the b a s i s suggested by E i s n e r (1979) by b u i l d i n g c u r r i c u l a which "emphasizes p e r s o n a l meaning and the s c h o o l s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to develop programs which make such meanings p o s s i b l e "  (p.57).  Drama teachers are i n the u n i q u e l y s i t u a t e d to  facilitate  t h e i r own  position  such programming w i t h i n s c h o o l s , not o n l y i n  classrooms, but a l s o , should they choose to do  so, i n harmony with other s u b j e c t area teachers i n c h a l l e n g i n g , meaningful  ways.  32 3. Design o f the Study  Introduction The o b j e c t i v e o f the study was to d e s c r i b e as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , the events  i n Room 202, the Drama S t u d i o ,  d u r i n g the 1990-91 school year. The experiences o f a teacher implementing  a new program, u s i n g the unique s e t  o f s t r a t e g i e s o f the drama i n e d u c a t i o n model and a s h i f t i n l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , are not well-documented i n the literature.  Of course, the events a f f e c t two p a r t i e s ,  student and teacher, and every e f f o r t has been made to d e s c r i b e the p e r c e p t i o n s o f each group i n a balanced manner. Many q u e s t i o n s o f both a personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l nature were posed before embarking on t h i s adventure. For example: What are the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r drama education?  What i s wrong with the present arrangement? students c u r r e n t l y g a i n from the program? c u r r e n t l y g a i n from the program? accomplish by changing  paradigms?  What do What do I  What do I hope to At the very heart o f an  e d u c a t i o n a l drama program l i e s the need to q u e s t i o n and r e f l e c t and here I hope to f i n d my way to becoming "col e a r n e r / e x p l o r e r , not "omnipotent e x p e r t ' !  Selection of Site  33 The  study's  i n t i m a t e focus on the r e a c t i o n s o f the  students and myself  made i t e s s e n t i a l  f o r the r e s e a r c h to  be conducted i n the l e a s t t h r e a t e n i n g , most environment p o s s i b l e . For t h i s reason, classroom  comfortable  I chose my own  i n a Burnaby secondary school as the s i t e .  This p a r t i c u l a r school has some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which c o n t r i b u t e to i t s s u i t a b i l i t y as a r e s e a r c h s i t e . s i t u a t e d i n a predominantly  It is  r e s i d e n t i a l , mixed income  suburban neighbourhood. The student p o p u l a t i o n f l o a t s a t approximately  600, which i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r than many  contemporary secondary s c h o o l s . Thus i t resembles the s i z e of school l o c a t e d away from the h e a v i l y populated  urban  c e n t r e s . The student body i s m u l t i - e t h n i c and there are s e v e r a l programs f o r s p e c i a l need students The  s t a f f of t h i r t y - f i v e  i n the s c h o o l .  i s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t i v e o f each  other and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y become i n v o l v e d i n school activities. regarded this  The school and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are  as p r o g r e s s i v e and both demonstrated support o f  study. The Drama Studio i s l o c a t e d on the second f l o o r o f  the school i n a r e c e n t l y renovated a r e g u l a r classroom, and a small o f f i c e  classroom.  Larger  than  the s t u d i o has an annex f o r storage  f o r me. The space i t s e l f c o n t r i b u t e s to  the contentment I experience  as a teacher. The classroom  34 space  i s c a r p e t e d with a better-than-average  quality  c a r p e t . I t i s a comfortable, b r i g h t , f r i e n d l y space, muchadmired  by s t a f f and a p p r e c i a t e d by students. There are no  desks; c h a i r s are brought  i n as needed, but not on a  permanent b a s i s - we s i t on the  floor.  The Studio has three proper bars f o r hanging t h e a t r e l i g h t s and adequate power s u p p l i e s and o u t l e t s f o r the equipment t h a t e x i s t s . In s h o r t , i t i s a model, yet modest, example of a s u i t a b l e space  f o r drama. No other  c l a s s e s are taught i n the room. Students f r e q u e n t l y comment on the d i s t i n c t comparison  " p e r s o n a l i t y ' the room has i n  to the r e s t of the s c h o o l .  S e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s The study used the work of f i v e groups of students: two  Drama E i g h t c l a s s e s  background), class,  two  (with no p r e v i o u s drama  Drama Nine c l a s s e s and one Drama Ten  ( e i t h e r one or two  years drama experience a t the  time of the s t u d y ) . There are no p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r drama students a t the j u n i o r secondary  l e v e l which i n v i t e s a  g r e a t mixture of i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y , ranging from the "easy c r e d i t ' seekers to the "I'm  going to be an a c t o r '  h o p e f u l s . C l a s s e s are s i x t y minutes long, three times per week.  35  Research  Role  In my  dual r o l e as t e a c h e r / r e s e a r c h e r , I d i d not  t h a t there was proceedings  anything unusual  enough to a l t e r  i n c l a s s , nor would t h i s persona  to the students i n any way. school s i n c e 1988  be  disruptive  I have been a teacher i n t h i s  three-year appointment as V i s u a l and Performing  year of a Arts  students are accustomed to my  and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n the areas of d i s c i p l i n e and management. I f e e l t h a t the student/teacher i s most s a t i s f a c t o r y and a s s i s t e d t r u t h i n student  the normal  and am c u r r e n t l y i n the second  Department Head. The  feel  style  classroom  relationship  i n e l i c i t i n g depth  and  responses.  Often i n the course of the study I experienced m u l t i p l e r o l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , being conscious of as teacher, t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e , r e s e a r c h e r and was  myself  l e a r n e r . There  f r e q u e n t l y the s e n s a t i o n of the " i n f i n i t e m i r r o r '  syndrome of "watching  myself  watching'.  Data C o l l e c t i o n From the moment the b e l l rang to s i g n a l the beginning o f term  i n September, the spontaneous and  reflective  r e a c t i o n s of teachers and students to the events of the l e s s o n s were recorded. I t took d a i l y p r a c t i c e to be aware of the kinds of q u e s t i o n s I needed to ask myself as the  l e s s o n s unfolded. How  would I make the next step i n t o the  l e s s o n deepen b e l i e f or f o l l o w a student's idea? this  x  i n - r o l e ' sequence work so well  I s a i d as t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e that prompted from the students?  How  did  i n the morning c l a s s ,  but not a t a l l i n the a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n ?  responses  Why  will  What was  i t that  insightful I articulate  this  so other teachers w i l l be able to f o l l o w the t h i n k i n g ? The study o c c u r r e d over the ten months of the 1990-91 school year p r o v i d i n g a d i v e r s e v a r i e t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s for  data c o l l e c t i o n . My p e r s o n a l f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s were  ongoing, and were supplemented with j o u r n a l  reflections.  In a d d i t i o n , student j o u r n a l s , w r i t i n g - i n ^ - r o l e  assignments  and s h o r t e v a l u a t i o n papers were examined. A c e n t r a l premise  of the e d u c a t i o n a l drama approach  r e f l e c t i o n on the process i s e s s e n t i a l  i s that  for developing  p e r s o n a l i z e d knowledge of the event and a necessary i n g r e d i e n t i n understanding change i n p e r s p e c t i v e s . An important source of feedback was  throughout  provided by Susann Baum, a c o l l e a g u e and  study  the study  f r i e n d , whose  (1991) p r o v i d e s the complementary view of the s e n i o r  grades. E l e v e n and Twelve. Beginning i n the summer of 1990,  we both e n r o l e d i n Gavin Bolton's course, and  there, we grateful  shared the steps of our journey. I was f o r the chance to c o r r o b o r a t e f i n d i n g s ,  from  always clarify  t h i n k i n g about some element or commiserate when the going was tough. We acted as sounding were empathetic  boards f o r each other,  i n a way no other person c o u l d be, helped  each other organize p l a n s , and o f t e n found a r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r something the other c o u l d not. In many ways i t was the f i r s t r e a l o p p o r t u n i t y I had to enjoy effective collegial  support and c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , and  my wish i s to develop  t h i s k i n d o f arrangement more o f t e n  i n the f u t u r e . We need to be a l e r t to the resources that e x i s t i n our f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , and be generous about g i v i n g and d i p p i n g i n to the pool o f knowledge. There were many times d u r i n g the year when I f e l t on a wrong tangent,  t h a t I was heading o f f  only to d i s c o v e r through  t a l k i n g to  Susann t h a t she was f e e l i n g the same way. Without the reassurance  o f touching base r e g u l a r l y a t dinner meetings,  g e t t i n g through  the year would have been c o n s i d e r a b l y  harder. As we met throughout  the year to d i s c u s s our  p r o g r e s s , we were sometimes e l a t e d with our d i s c o v e r i e s , a t other times discouraged understanding. through  by our own l a c k o f  Perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y , the stumbling  the unknown that was i n e v i t a b l e and necessary  became an important  p a r t o f the journey.  Another b e n e f i t to our c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p was the o p p o r t u n i t y i t provided f o r probing the s u b j e c t more  38 deeply. Between the two  of us, one  was  o f t e n c l e a r e r on a  c e r t a i n aspect than the o t h e r ; thus, i n regard to our s t r e n g t h s , we complemented each other very w e l l . Even when i t came time to do the r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l , the q u e s t i o n i n g process we underwent was  of s u b s t a n t i a l use to both of us.  In r e t r o s p e c t , there was  a r e a l need to have the  c o n t a c t with someone l i k e Susann, p a r t i a l l y because drama teachers are i s o l a t e d  in their  i n d i v i d u a l schools and  also  because i t i s r a r e f o r such r a d i c a l changes to occur to people c o i n c i d e n t a l l y . As to how i n f l u e n c e d the study, I suggest  the r e l a t i o n s h i p may  have  t h a t , while the confidence  i t a f f o r d e d helped immensely to keep us on t r a c k , once i n the classroom, as ever, the teacher  i s q u i t e alone with  the students. At the same time, a c t i o n s taken may  later  analyzed a t l e n g t h , the a n a l y s i s to be of b e n e f i t  on  another  be  occasion.  This study emerged i n i t s present form because i t c o u l d not be done any other way, c h a l l e n g e not to f a l l  i t was  back i n t o o l d h a b i t s and  and having each other helped ensure would be  realized.  a day-to-day practices,  that our commitment  39 4.  The A n a l y s i s of the  Data  Introduction This chapter d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l aspects of the study which became apparent as the work progressed.  The  s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s which emerged from the data c o l l e c t e d  from the students are summarized here. Also  i n c l u d e d i n the chapter are the elements teaching r o l e .  which a f f e c t e d  my  I t became c l e a r as the study progressed  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between students and teacher was  an  e v o l v i n g , not a s t a t i c one.  to  make and one  Each p a r t y had adjustments  stage of growth p r e c i p i t a t e d the next.  changes of g r e a t e s t importance  The  o c c u r r e d i n my t e a c h i n g  s t y l e and these are a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s chapter.  Planning At the beginning of the study, Susann Baum and I decided to run p a r a l l e l programs throughout much as p o s s i b l e . Our reasons the assumption environment  f o r doing so were based  on  t h a t t h i s would make a more s u p p o r t i v e  f o r us to work i n as the m a t e r i a l was  u n f a m i l i a r . By being able to g i v e each other feedback  the year as  immediate  on our experiences i n the classroom, we would  r e i n f o r c e the events i n our memories and a l s o be able to  40 modify or a d j u s t the plans a c c o r d i n g l y i n s u c c e s s i v e , repeated and  l e s s o n s . We c o u l d a l s o begin to make  recommendations f o r the range o f grade l e v e l s we were  s t u d y i n g . Grade E i g h t through and of  suggestions  Ten f o r me and Grades Eleven  Twelve i n Susann's case. We f e l t the study  t h a t f o r the purposes  i t would be both s u i t a b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g i f  we concentrated on the process o f e d u c a t i o n a l drama, and t h a t i t was not c r i t i c a l  to devise e x t r a m a t e r i a l to  accommodate d i f f e r e n t grade  levels.  In terms o f teacher p r e p a r a t i o n t h i s approach s u p p l i e d b u i l t - i n c o n f i d e n c e , as the l e s s o n s were decided upon i n September f o r the e n t i r e year. This became important  as a s e c u r i t y measure to ensure that we d i d not  r e v e r t to the p r e v i o u s methodology simply f o r the sake o f convenience.  Indeed, once the i n i t i a l months were past,  the f e e l i n g o f a n x i e t y vanished without  l i n g e r i n g doubt  about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the new methodology. Another e f f e c t o f t h i s p l a n n i n g was the o p p o r t u n i t y i t provided for  r e f l e c t i o n on the experiences.  o f t e n too easy of  to b u l l d o z e through  In the past i t was the year with the kind  f r e n e t i c energy c r e a t e d by the mood o f the o l d  methodology. One o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f the new approach was t h a t events  seemed to slow down to a  manageable pace; i n s t e a d o f a b l u r o f abrupt  fragments.  41  moments became more r e c o g n i z a b l e and were seen i n d e t a i l .  Co-learner The unique  t e a c h i n g r o l e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l drama process i s  i n t h a t i t promotes the c r e a t i o n of a c o o p e r a t i v e  l e a r n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with students. A teacher  who  embraces t h i s method can no longer wear the mask of " e x p e r t , but must a c t i v e l y seek i n t e r a c t i o n with  students  1  through  the use of r o l e drama, shared d i s c o v e r y , and  t a k i n g . The do every day  teacher must do what students are - cope with new  i n a p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t way,  risk  expected  i n f o r m a t i o n to be  to  processed  c o n t r i b u t e spontaneously  i n c i d e n t s u n f o l d , and assess the value of the events  as  as  they a f f e c t the group as a whole. Even though my  r e l a t i o n s h i p with students  e x c e l l e n t i n the past, I f e l t  was  t h a t the r a p p o r t  was  enhanced when I began to enter i n t o the l e a r n i n g  with  them, r a t h e r than " d i r e c t i n g ' a c t i v i t i e s .  that  I felt  students were f i n a l l y able to see me as a human being l i k e them, s t r u g g l e d to understand  my  responses  to our  v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s . I a l s o f e l t much more connected a l e r t d u r i n g the day-to-day encounters,  as my  responses  and  teaching  c o u l d not r e l y on the successes of the past. No a n t i c i p a t i n g the expected  who,  longer  from the students to  the  x  t r i e d and t r u e ' e x e r c i s e s and scenes f r e e d me up to  become much more open to t h e i r responses and  consequently  to be more c r e a t i v e . As a r e s u l t o f the freshness o f each new a c t i v i t y the sense o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and boredom I had been e x p e r i e n c i n g disappeared.  Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  while many o f  the r o l e dramas were thought-provoking, c h a l l e n g i n g and stirring,  I knew t h a t these moments d i d not ever have to  be repeated;  that now,  of the dramatic  with a way of t a c k l i n g the essence  event, I c o u l d explore any i s s u e t h a t  might be o f i n t e r e s t to the students. drama t e a c h i n g , appropriate  i t was a constant  In the o l d s t y l e of  s t r u g g l e to f i n d  s c r i p t m a t e r i a l f o r young secondary  r e s u l t i n g i n repeated  students,  use when something good happened to  be unearthed.  Change o f t e a c h i n g  style  The importance of t e a c h i n g s t y l e to l e a r n i n g i s i n d i s p u t a b l e , and the teacher  o f e d u c a t i o n a l drama has  what Neelands (1984) r e f e r s to as an o p p o r t u n i t y to e s t a b l i s h a comfortable i n order  environment f o r l e a r n i n g . However,  to do t h i s , some o f the o l d ways must be  abandoned i n favor o f techniques  that place the teacher  i n s i d e the a c t i o n , not d i r e c t i n g from o u t s i d e . This i s not  to say t h a t t h i s i s the only way c l a s s e s are conducted, f o r l i k e any other s t y l e , I t i s a unique  i t would wear t h i n with  overuse.  experience as a teacher to be p a r t o f a  d i s c o v e r y t h a t i s not a n t i c i p a t e d or  predetermined.  S e v e r a l changes o c c u r r e d i n my approach to t e a c h i n g s t y l e as the year progressed. In many i n s t a n c e s , I was able to r e s i s t the "teacher' impulse  to t e l l  students how  to work through an idea and accept what the students o f f e r e d as s o l u t i o n s . When i t was obvious  that an  o p p o r t u n i t y was present to c l a r i f y a p o i n t o f t h e a t r e a r t form, I was able to do so i n the context o f the work i n p r o g r e s s , not through an u n f a m i l i a r or i n s i g n i f i c a n t example. This format allowed g r e a t freedom f o r the teacher to work on s e v e r a l planes a t once. During c l a s s I found much l e s s preoccupied with the outcome o f the event  I was than  with how we as a group would a r r i v e t h e r e . L a r g e l y because t h i s pressure was absent,  I f e e l t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , the  students were more "tuned  i n ' to the moment-to-moment  d e t a i l s and were able to open up more, give more i d e a s , work b e t t e r i n groups,  and b a s i c a l l y be more i n v o l v e d as  they were not working toward a mark out o f t e n f o r an i m p r o v i s a t i o n i n which they had i n v e s t e d ten minutes' work.  The  i s s u e of classroom  management became l a r g e l y a  moot p o i n t , as a l l the students were i n some way  occupied  with the b u i l d i n g of the drama. Lapses o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n were r a r e because there seemed to be a group pressure  on  i n d i v i d u a l s to make things work " f o r the good of the whole'. As Dorothy Heathcote One  (1972) a d v i s e s :  very r a r e l y f i n d s c h i l d r e n i n t h i s  to the teacher being rude or l a c k i n g  relationship  class  d i s c i p l i n e , because each r e c o g n i z e s the s t r e n g t h of the other i n the s i t u a t i o n . . . . This a t t i t u d e b r i n g s with  i t certain instinctively  c h i l d r e n w i l l not c r o s s , (p.  f e l t d i s c i p l i n e s which 162)  In s h o r t , many problems inherent to the o l d methodology were simply not encountered  i n the  new  approach. I t became c l e a r t h a t t h i s year provided a way to hammering out a program i n keeping  with the  philosophy  of the Year 2000 document proposed by the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Education. Here was  Columbia  a t a n g i b l e o p p o r t u n i t y to  explore c h i l d - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g , i n t e g r a t e d programming highly interactive thinking.  in  and  45 5. THE  YEAR: A DESCRIPTIVE NARRATIVE OF  Perhaps more than i n any years of t e a c h i n g , I t was  previous  September, 1990,  s p e c i a l because I f e l t ,  i n t o my  drama classroom and  had  finally,  THE  JOURNEY  year i n my  ten  a s p e c i a l meaning. that I c o u l d walk,  begin to o f f e r the kind  program which I sensed that drama c o u l d be.  I t was  of special  because the summer c l a s s with Gavin B o l t o n k i n d l e d some spark t h a t I was was  beginning to f e e l was  extinguished.  It  a l s o s p e c i a l because I knew that I would soon be  faced  with the kind of c r e a t i v e e x e r c i s e  that I had  s e r i o u s l y tapped i n t o s i n c e my  days as a student -  t h i n k i n g on my  own  f e e t , going with group d e c i s i o n s , working  toward understanding. A l l of these t h i n g s had pumping as the  my  f i f t h of September drew c l o s e r and  would soon be g a t h e r i n g experiences.  not  adrenalin classes  i n the s t u d i o f o r t h e i r drama  I f ever there was  develop as a drama teacher  to be a chance f o r me  i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way,  to  this  was  it. I was material  excited  I'd  by the o p p o r t u n i t y  to work through  learned over the summer, only now  l i v e students.  In t r u t h , I f e l t  a psychological the m a t e r i a l had  safety-net; a f f e c t e d me,  with r e a l  i n s p i r e d . This acted  since I already  the  like  understood  I f e l t more c o n f i d e n t  in  how  l e a d i n g my c l a s s e s through the same work. Susann and I agreed t h a t ,  as f a r as p o s s i b l e ,  we would t r y to  follow  the B o l t o n course c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , aiming to f i n i s h a t roughly the same time so that we c o u l d d i s c u s s details  of our r e s p e c t i v e  implementation.  the  This stage of  the journey was a t once e x c i t i n g and i n t i m i d a t i n g : d e l i g h t of  units  the  anticipation.  September, 1990 Journal Entry, confident, stimulated,  September 5 : I am e x c i t e d ,  determined,  joyous,  challenged,  alert,  expectant, conscious  nervous,  eager, of  details,  anchored i n my academic t h i n k i n g and ready to see u n f o l d i n a new,  exciting  introductory classes,  way. A f t e r  designed  the  simply to help me l e a r n  q u i c k l y leap i n to a r o l e drama. the high board,  I feel  I want  anxiety,  to  but,like  I know t h a t I have a l r e a d y  walked to the edge of the board and i t the  year  initial  names and for the students to meet each o t h e r ,  jumping o f f  the  is easier  to  take  leap than to t u r n and go back down the l a d d e r . For a  moment though,  I consider  it.  (end of  entry)  The f i r s t example of the new type of drama a c t i v i t y is  an a d a p t a t i o n of one of Gavin B o l t o n ' s e x e r c i s e s .  at this point I recognize,  perhaps s u b c o n s c i o u s l y ,  Even  that  for  the m a t e r i a l to succeed,  I must make i t my own, hence  the a d a p t a t i o n . The c l a s s become a r c h i t e c t u r a l students i n the second  term o f t h e i r  f i r s t year and are asked by t h e i r  i n s t r u c t o r to c o n s i d e r a proposal submitted by school board  the l o c a l  i n regard to d e s i g n i n g a brand new school to  accommodate s p e c i a l needs students. Even i n the apparent s i m p l i c i t y o f t h i s s c e n a r i o , many o f the e s s e n t i a l elements f o r meeting c r i t i c a l  l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s have  been s e t up. F i r s t , by e n s u r i n g t h a t the students are not in a t o t a l l y unfamiliar role I am s t i l l to  an i n s t r u c t o r ) ,  (they are s t i l l  students and  the way i s c l e a r e d f o r everyone  enter i n t o a new, imaginary world with a high degree o f  c o n f i d e n c e . The c l a s s has arranged direction,  itself,  without  i n t o a format a p p r o p r i a t e to the environment.  Before the c l a s s began I asked a student i f he would be w i l l i n g to take on the r o l e o f a student c o n f i n e d to a wheelchair, and i n s t r u c t e d him to keep one arm immobile and  to s l i g h t l y  adjustments  t u r n i n h i s toes. These very s u b t l e  allow the student to b u i l d b e i i e v a b i l i t y i n  the c h a r a c t e r without r e s o r t i n g to " a c t i n g as an i n v a l i d ' . Davis and B i r t w i s t l e  (1990) w r i t e : "Drama, as a r t , must  i n v o l v e high l e v e l s e l e c t i v i t y o f s i g n to enable  the s i g n  to  resonate l a y e r s o f meaning i n r e l a t i o n to the context  of  the drama" (p.11). In r e f l e c t i o n a f t e r the drama the  48 student class  journals  where  special  needs  compelled The  the  to  drama  person treat  recognized  paralysed  reveal  was was  the  symbol  arm.  almost done, so  as  this  Something  the  real  drama of  unanimously  was  that  person  that  and  every  playing  students  real  in  not  the  were  as  a  "reality'  was  always  resonating  for  these  special  needs  game. the  students. The and  are  class told  consultant questions person,  that  in  then  to  the  the  is  there  their  break  me  students  that  are  site  Would  for  needs  kinds  plans  small  depth  They  are  to  ask.  of  special  students  to  or  recreational  drama  guide,  the  it  and  is that  the  moment  quality  the  understanding  and  toward  developing  a  user.  have  should as  needs  establish  the a  special  of  needs  school  the  to  task-oriented  (integrated)  of  making  shows  the  a  as  The s i n c e r e  are  as  into  only  in  act  groups  point  student,  to  with  real.  the  like  together  What  their  am n e e d e d  they  you  special  I  ask  -  project.  By t h i s  more  they  intelligence suitable  design  well-engaged  progressively questions  person  into  designs.  to  as  introduced  and d i s c u s s  tentative clear  is  a we  separate  area  keep  building  the  possible?  activity  areas  do  you  for  49  think, are needed? Would i t be b e t t e r to have ramps or l i f t s ?  Which i s  most convenient?  In  a d d i t i o n , the students made myriad o b s e r v a t i o n s on  the small d e t a i l s ,  the h e i g h t of the l o c k e r s , the width of  the h a l l s , t a b l e s or desks, s l i d i n g or swinging  doors,  covered walkways and lowered water f o u n t a i n s . They began to  t h i n k i n r e a l terms w i t h i n the f i c t i o n a l  situation.  The nature of the drama allows the c l a s s to be endowed with q u a l i t i e s as the work proceeds.  I t i s not  necessary f o r anyone to " a c t ' i n a r o l e . The  simple  of  "student' i s enough f o r the c l a s s to e s t a b l i s h  a p p r o p r i a t e response  to the work. Since the  label  an  behaviours  r e q u i r e d are so s i m i l a r to these r e q u i r e d of them i n reality,  they are free to concentrate on the task not on  themselves  having to play a r o l e . I f they l o s e the focus  on the task, the drama f a i l s .  The  teacher i n r o l e helps to  keep the focus on the d e s i g n problem. Students comment s i m i l a r l y whether i n Grade E i g h t , Nine or Ten : Everyone  took i t s e r i o u s l y because i t was  s u b j e c t ; we a l l knew t h a t  a serious  c o u l d walk and  really  has the use of h i s arms and l e g s , but because of the e a r n e s t way  he presented h i s case, we  left  the drama  50 room and q u i c k l y became a r c h i t e c t students; the teacher was  s e r i o u s , so we were too.  I f e l t l i k e my  ideas might a c t u a l l y be u s e f u l !  The person who  played the man  i n the wheelchair  was  very c o n v i n c i n g . He d i d not have to think about the answers he gave to the q u e s t i o n s we asked. I t seemed as  though he a c t u a l l y was  i n a wheelchair and had  experienced some o f the problems that a handicapped person might come a c r o s s . Everyone came up with i n n o v a t i v e ideas to s o l v e the problem,and  i t was a l s o r e a l i s t i c because we  addressed each other I feel  formally.  that the s p o n t a n e i t y was  the key to the  r e a l i s m because nobody had a chance to t h i n k about what they were doing ahead of time. The f o l l o w i n g comments are from the boy who played the r o l e :  actually  I found myself t h i n k i n g : these k i d s have terrific  really  ideas.  The reason i t worked  so w e l l i s because i t wasn't  l i k e we were p l a y i n g a r o l e , r e a l l y happening.  i t was as i f i t were  What I b e l i e v e they have been able to understand i n c l u d e s a sense of t h e i r own  s o c i a l development t h a t , as  they f e e l success i n t a c k l i n g  a real social  issue,  they  assess and e v a l u a t e the responses of other students i n an a c t i v e way.  The group s o l v e s a s i g n i f i c a n t  problem  together, a c h i e v i n g i n one hour a f e e l i n g of u n i t y which formerly took weeks of games to accomplish, and most i m p o r t a n t l y develops a change of a t t i t u d e and awareness, both toward  the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by s p e c i a l  people and the nature of drama i t s e l f .  In p r a c t i c a l  the drama i s a success, f o r the students have  needs terms,  demonstrated  the a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e what i s r e q u i r e d of them i n the s i t u a t i o n and to make i n d i v i d u a l outcome. I s e c r e t l y  October,  cheer  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the  f o r Gavin B o l t o n !  1990  As I begin to f e e l more comfortable with the s t y l e , I n o t i c e myself g r a d u a l l y t u r n i n g d e c i s i o n making over to the c l a s s , not j u s t d u r i n g dramatic p l a y i n g , but any when I suspect i t would be j u s t as e f f e c t i v e  time  f o r them to  make a d e c i s i o n , and t h i s a l s o empowers them i n present and me  f u t u r e n e g o t i a t i o n s . I n o t i c e that they begin to t r u s t more, and c o n v e r s e l y I t r u s t them to make more mature  judgments - h a p p i l y , t h i s i s o c c u r r i n g . I'm  starting  to  get swamped by the r e g u l a r f a l l  r o u t i n e - the glow of  newness of September has d i s s i p a t e d and we  a l l f e e l more  comfortable with each o t h e r . Often t h i s i s the time of year when "problem' students begin to make known, but I f i n d t h a t t h i s  themselves  i s n ' t happening much a t  all.  Because the students are co-dependents i n the dramas, they are committed more to the work than e n t e r t a i n i n g each other. Although  I'm  not sure how  i t will  succeed,  I decide  to t r y a drama which not o n l y takes us to a d i s t a n t historical  time, but p l a c e s a l l the students i n an  u n f a m i l i a r r o l e o u t s i d e t h e i r experience. We  embark on  Bolton's monastery experience. In a l l f a i r n e s s , the work i s somewhat out of context - the students have not had  any  input i n the c h o i c e and I f e e l t h a t there i s a c e r t a i n resentment because o f t h i s n e g l e c t on my some extremely through  p a r t . However,  important elements of drama are a c c e s s i b l e  the u n i t , so we  proceed.  The u n d e r l y i n g o b j e c t i v e i s to help the understand  student  the concept of sanctuary. We begin by  e s t a b l i s h i n g the s e t t i n g . The  students are asked  something i n the room t h a t w i l l huge brass door knocker monastery. A f t e r  to l o c a t e  simulate the sound of a  on the f r o n t entrance of the  i n d i v i d u a l s and groups demonstrate  their  53 sounds, I ask them to arrange  the c h a i r s to r e p r e s e n t a  chapel area, a p l a c e where we meet f o r prayers every hours.  four  This problem to s o l v e i n v o l v e s a high degree of  s e r i o u s n e s s . Once the c h a i r s have been arranged adequate way,  I ask a l l of them to stand with me  of the space and observe  i n an i n front  what they have c r e a t e d . This  moment of a r t i s t i c c h o i c e i s c r i t i c a l  i n the development  of a s t r o n g image base f o r a l l of us, as w e l l as the r e a r r a n g i n g we do to enhance the image even f u r t h e r . t h e a t r i c a l use of space to c r e a t e a sense of order  The  and  h i e r a r c h y s u i t a b l e f o r the drama i s completed e n t i r e l y  by  the students, prodded simply by the q u e s t i o n , "Is i t e x a c t l y the way  you  imagine i t should be, now? I f not  make your f i n a l adjustments,  then  and we w i l l accept t h a t as  done." The drama continues to u n f o l d with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s t r a n g e r  (student i n r o l e ) who  monastery seeking sanctuary.  The  c o g n i z a n t of what t h i s means, and  a r r i v e s a t the  students are semii n an out of r o l e  d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r the c l a s s , s e v e r a l students b r i n g t h e i r c u r r e n t world-knowledge to l i g h t with the mention of the parallel  s i t u a t i o n which e x i s t e d f o r Manuel Noriega  the p r i e s t s country.  and  i n Panama d u r i n g the American i n v a s i o n of t h a t  Among the many p l e a s a n t s u r p r i s e s which occur f o r me i n t h i s u n i t i s the manner i n which students are able to f i n d t h e i r way i n t o the atmosphere monastery,  o f a f o u r t e e n t h century  t h e i r ease i n d e v e l o p i n g a s e n s i t i v i t y to the  r o l e of the monks and the abbot, and t h e i r treatment o f the s t r a n g e r with the proper mixture o f compassion and s u s p i c i o n . Keeping i n mind that these are r e g u l a r  classes  f u l l o f young teenagers, the c o n c e n t r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y are impressive. One  other p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t moment emerges  from t h i s u n i t . The c l a s s , d i v i d e d  i n t o groups o f s i x or  seven, i s asked to r e v e a l through a t a b l e a u what they b e l i e v e i s the s t r o n g e s t p o i n t o f t e n s i o n , or s t r u g g l e , i n the drama. Using the l i v i n g museum technique, we are t r e a t e d to such powerful images as the a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f man s t r u g g l i n g with the mores o f the s o c i e t y around him; the inhumanity o f the treatment some people r e c e i v e from s o c i e t y ; the omnipresent s t r u g g l e o f r e l i g i o n vs. p o l i t i c s ;  the s t r e n g t h o f compassion. The  students themselves are able to "read" the tableaux c l e a r l y and f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e the essence o f each  picture,  d i s c u s s i n g such d e t a i l s as the way groups have arranged themselves to help space c r e a t e the meaning o f the p i c t u r e , and how i n t e r e s t i n g i t i s to see what each group  h i g h l i g h t s as being  important.  When asked to comment on what was memorable from the u n i t some seven months l a t e r , some students r e p l i e d : I had no idea what was happening a t the beginning o f the u n i t , but by the time we had got to the end I r e a l i z e d how much I had a c t u a l l y l e a r n e d : staying i n role,concentrating  about  on what was happening  around me.  The  most d i f f i c u l t  t h i n g i n t h i s u n i t was t r y i n g to  compare our r e a c t i o n s  (to the idea o f sanctuary)  with a monk's r e a c t i o n i n the 1300's, and wondering i f they had to cope with some o f the same dilemmas that we have to i n 1990. In r e t r o s p e c t ,  i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r r e f l e c t i o n on the  events i n the u n i t to occur a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e passed. T h i s enforced  time had  the b e l i e f that the m a j o r i t y o f  growth which occurs through drama i s achieved  upon the  o b j e c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n which happens a t a d i s t a n c e  from the  events. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that there were s e v e r a l instances  i n t h i s u n i t where students were engaged i n  dramatic p l a y i n g , which was g e n e r a l l y u n f a m i l i a r to them.  Most students commented s i m i l a r l y  to the f o l l o w i n g i n  r e f l e c t i n g on the a c t i v i t i e s : I t was neat because when the stranger walked i n , we d i d n ' t know q u i t e what to expect and how to r e a c t , but a f t e r the f i r s t  few people had spoken i t was easy  to see what we had to d o . I t was neat because i t was so spontaneous - we had no p r e p a r a t i o n time to t h i n k up q u e s t i o n s f o r the s t r a n g e r .  The way the room became the monastery helped me b e l i e v e I was there.  As a teacher, I was e n j o y i n g the group communication that was happening without words. The c l a s s had reached a significant level  i n their  " dependence  upon a t a c i t  agreement by the members o f the group to manage and s u s t a i n the f i c t i t i o u s s o c i a l c o n t e x t "  (Bolton,1990). For  the c l a s s e s t h i s was a key moment i n understanding the nature o f drama. The monastery u n i t r a n f o r s i x to nine c l a s s e s , depending on the needs and d e s i r e s o f the p a r t i c u l a r group. Incorporated a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n the drama were i n d i v i d u a l , p a i r , small group and whole  class  i m p r o v i s a t i o n , d i r e c t i n g and s c r i p t w r i t i n g ,  recognizing  57 symbols, use o f space and dramatic t e n s i o n , use o f language to match the s i t u a t i o n and, n a t u r a l l y , some factual h i s t o r i c a l information. I experience moments o f p a n i c now. I have  finished  doing the monastery drama with a l l the Grade Nine and Ten c l a s s e s . Although  I r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s served to s e t the  tone o f s e r i o u s n e s s I sought,  i t has a l i e n a t e d some o f the  students. P a r t l y t h i s i s because they were not e x p e c t i n g t h i s type o f work, but a l s o , I l a t e r r e a l i z e ,  i t is  because I imposed i t on them - they had no stake i n the m a t e r i a l . Regardless, they d i s p l a y e d some o f the most t h o u g h t f u l , s o p h i s t i c a t e d c r e a t i v i t y I had seen them produce i n two years. However the panicky  f e e l i n g s e t s me  back a few steps as I f e e l t h a t I must somehow appease them and "win the "doubters' back... 1  F o r t u n a t e l y , I do not have time to c o n s i d e r back i n t o  falling  " o l d ' s t r a t e g i e s . Fate steps i n a t t h i s moment  as one o f the community outreach c o u n s e l l o r s a r r i v e s a t my door with an i n v i t a t i o n . The f i r s t  week o f November i s  Substance Abuse Awareness week; can I t h i n k o f any way to i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s as a theme i n the Fine A r t s Department? Since the l o g i c a l purpose o f the s p e c i a l  focus week i s to  reach as many students as p o s s i b l e with i n f o r m a t i o n on substance  abuse, the l o g i c a l route might be to produce a  58  p l a y to present a t noon hours f o r the r e s t of the school a perfect opportunity motivated ready  -  f o r a u n i t on p l a y b u i l d i n g . I am  to get underway as we  have only three weeks to  a p i e c e f o r the week i n d i c a t e d . I had only been  i n v o l v e d i n c o o r d i n a t i n g one  student c o l l e c t i v e  Fate a l s o i n d i r e c t l y guided before, I had  before.  t h i s step, as only a week  the e n l i g h t e n i n g and  fortunate opportunity  to observe Carole T a r l i n g t o n work with a group of elementary school students at the annual A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia Drama Educators  Conference.  Tarlington's  i n n o v a t i v e work over many years as d i r e c t o r of Vancouver Youth Theatre  has been e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d by  e d u c a t i o n community. This o p p o r t u n i t y all  the  for observation  I needed to f e e l c o n f i d e n t t h a t we c o u l d succeed  was with  a s i m i l a r model. I f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h a t , i f more teachers were w i l l i n g to provide such v a l u a b l e i n s e r v i c e , the myths t h a t are f l o a t i n g around c o u l d e a s i l y be Things  dispelled.  are p r o g r e s s i n g f o r the Grade Nine c l a s s e s . We  begin the p l a y by asking what i t i s t h a t i s important secondary school students Their l i s t  to know about Substance Abuse.  of concerns i s thorough and we  s t a r t to examine  the small d e t a i l s of v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . A l l of the initial  s c e n a r i o s are developed  t h e a t r e convention  for  of tableaux.  i n p a i r s through the Students  i n p a i r s are  59 asked to frame a s t i l l  p i c t u r e o f two people who might be  a f f e c t e d i n some way by even an o c c a s i o n a l use o f a substance. I want them to c o n s i d e r the l a r g e r q u e s t i o n , and to begin to d e f i n e f o r themselves, become abuse?"  "when does use  A l l students are keen to c o n t r i b u t e  either  personal s t o r i e s or o p i n i o n s . Knowing that the work w i l l soon be i n the performance impetus There "get  mode g i v e s the c l a s s added  to stay with the work and c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s high.  i s a d e f i n i t e d e s i r e on the p a r t o f the students to the s t o r i e s r i g h t ' ; they do not want to t r e a t the  scenes l i g h t l y  as they are o r i g i n a l c r e a t i o n s , they are  c o - c r e a t o r s and work extremely hard to make meaning f o r their  intended audience, whom they know w i l l  be students.  As Hansen (1989) noted i n an address to educators, "...a second aspect o f the n e g o t i a t i o n o f meaning i s o f g r e a t importance all  to drama with young people: the empowering o f  parties"  (p.216).  Now we are asked to prepare the e n t i r e assembly f o r Remembrance Day. I t i s , o f course, the normal  procedure,  e s p e c i a l l y as the e x p e c t a t i o n i s that one enjoys c r e a t i n g these events so that the enrolment  i n the program  will  i n c r e a s e . T h i s then s e t s us on t r a c k f o r the Grade Ten class. Meanwhile, I am anxious about  the Grade E i g h t  groups.  60 and  f e e l that I must get  f u r t h e r i n t o some of the  p l a y mode that B o l t o n has t h i n k i n g as the n a t u r a l  dramatic  c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n our  f i r s t step  i n t o r o l e drama.  Grade E i g h t c l a s s e s are seemingly more amenable to process,  as they do not have a previous  They enter  shyness and We the  s t a r t by  are h e l d  by  i n t e r e s t that i s generated i n a l o c a l murder s t o r y . A  some of h i s peers and gone bad. but we  been taken i n t o the woods by  bludgeoned to death over a drug deal  Many of the students are  a l s o look at the  f a m i l i a r with the  case,  issue that i s r e a l l y h o r r i f y i n g ,  that i s t h a t some of the students at that school know  about the event, but have not  t o l d anyone about i t !  Through a v a r i e t y of t h e a t r e conventions, we it  their  other.  l o o k i n g at teen v i o l e n c e and  t r o u b l e d young student has  and  me.  in their  but are, of course, r e s t r i c t e d by  u n f a m i l i a r i t y with each  the  h i s t o r y with  i n t o the work somewhat more f r e e l y  expectations,  The  i s p o s s i b l e f o r anyone to be  explore  how  i n v o l v e d i n such a  situation. A f t e r s e v e r a l days of e x p l o r a t i o n through small r o l e - p l a y s and the  i n t e r p r e t i v e tableaux,  where we  " a t - r i s k " person from many s i d e s i n c l u d i n g  perspectives  of f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,  p o l i c e , a whole c l a s s r o l e - p l a y was  undertaken.  group  examined the teachers,  I asked the group to arrange the room as i t would appear i f some school c o u n s e l l o r s and  teachers  were  a meeting. Without any  the room  was  transformed,  input from me,  collectively,  to a boardroom, with a f o u r -  foot by e i g h t - f o o t p l a t f o r m r a i s e d onto two square b l o c k s , and placed evenly volunteers useful  four-foot  c h a i r s f o r each c l a s s member  (28)  around the t a b l e . I then asked f o r three  to be placed on the  "Hot-seat  for interviewing characters  1  a  technique  for insight into a  p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . I took the three v o l u n t e e r s h a l l and e x p l a i n e d k i d s ' who  that they would be  would be granted  absolute  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y r e g a r d i n g anything Leaving  having  them i n the h a l l ,  i n t o the  i n r o l e as " s t r e e t  impunity that was  I returned  and said.  to the  classroom  i n r o l e as a school c o u n s e l l o r / f a c i l i t a t o r a t the meeting and  i n v i t e d the r e s t of the c l a s s to enter  r o l e s as teachers  and  c o u n s e l l o r s through a b r i e f  d i s c u s s i o n about the r i s i n g  i n c i d e n c e of crime throughout  the c i t y ' s s c h o o l s , n o t i n g t h a t i t was p r o p o r t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g our explained  who  into their  our guests  reaching  epidemic  immediate a t t e n t i o n . I  would be and  informed  them of  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y agreement. Once the three  " s t r e e t k i d s ' entered  the room,  s e v e r a l t h i n g s became n o t i c e a b l e . Here i s a b r i e f  the  62  d e s c r i p t i o n of my  initial  The  As these three  Street Kids:  entered to me  briefly  way  (two  the room, they were a l r e a d y  boys and  a girl)  i n r o l e . They  looked  to be d i r e c t e d to t h e i r seats at one  the board t a b l e and any  observations:  then d i d not r e q u i r e my  a f t e r that p o i n t . Imagine how  i n t i m i d a t i n g i t must  end  twenty-five  at them!  faces peering  of  guidance i n  have appeared to them to s i t at one enquiring  end  of an o v a l with  Seemingly unconcerned, they adapted themselves r e a d i l y to the s i t u a t i o n , v a r i o u s l y seated subtle defiance crossed  arms, chewing gum,  i n c r e d i b l y candid.  The  d i r e c t s t a r i n g back at  were reasonably p o l i t e  I am  convinced t h i s was  and  due  to  the  clause.  Teachers/Counsellors:  appropriately entered  and  slouch,  Once the d i s c u s s i o n began, they e a s i l y  the q u e s t i o n s ,  impunity  with an outward, yet  of a u t h o r i t y i n d i c a t e d by a  their interviewers. fielded  but  to me  Although the group responded  i n r o l e before  the three  the r o l e drama, i t wasn't u n t i l  over the a c t i v i t y and character  s t r e e t kids  they a c t u a l l y took  I b a s i c a l l y withdrew, that the group  emerged. I had  d e l i b e r a t e l y requested  c o u n s e l l o r s r a t h e r than a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  so t h a t  school an  atmosphere o f concern, a l s o allowed  not h o s t i l i t y , would p r e v a i l . I t  the students' own knowledge o f s t r e e t  v i o l e n c e to be exposed, as they p e r c e i v e t h a t a c o u n s e l l o r might know some o f these t h i n g s which happen, but a p r i n c i p a l would be too f a r removed from the " a c t i o n ' to be i n touch with what r e a l l y happens. I was c o r r e c t i n t h i s assumption, as the c l a s s became " s o f t l y  1  professional in  t h e i r demeanour, many s i t t i n g up s t r a i g h t e r , a l l d e f e r r i n g to  the next speaker,  r a i s i n g a hand when they wanted to  speak, p h r a s i n g t h e i r questions to the three v o l u n t e e r s i n an a d u l t / c h i l d  tone. Again, once they began the flow o f  d i s c u s s i o n and were focused on the task o f t r y i n g to understand of  the guests' p e r s p e c t i v e s on the i n c r e a s i n g r a t e  v i o l e n c e , they d i d not look to me f o r d i r e c t i o n . For a f u l l  f i f t y minutes, the three guests kept the  r e s t o f us e n t h r a l e d with t h e i r  family h i s t o r i e s . Detailed  e x p l a n a t i o n s were provided as to why they were i n such p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s . Each made personal o b s e r v a t i o n s on the s t a t e o f t h i n g s on the s t r e e t ,  i n the s c h o o l s and i n  s o c i e t y . Many candid s t o r i e s were shared about t h i n g s that had happened e i t h e r to them or t h e i r  friends.  Totally  s u r p r i s i n g l y , to me a t l e a s t , was t h a t they r e v e r s e d the q u e s t i o n i n g and asked  the " c o u n s e l l o r s ' about  approaches to k i d s and suggested  their  t h a t some o f the  p r a c t i c e s might be a l i e n a t i n g a c e r t a i n type o f k i d . Throughout the hour, I was i n t e r e s t e d to see i f there would be a dominance o f a few students d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w , but each new path o f q u e s t i o n i n g seemed to encourage new speakers.  By the end o f the hour, everyone  had c o n t r i b u t e d and everyone had been absorbed  i n the  experience. Although  the year has r e a l l y j u s t s t a r t e d , I am  beginning to sense a f a m i l i a r i t y and ease that i n a u s p i c i o u s l y creeps i n t o an experience  i f the t r a v e l l e r  remains long enough i n one p l a c e . I begin to use the currency f r e e l y , I become comfortable a d d r e s s i n g people i n the new language without to understand  t h e i r laughing, and I am l e a r n i n g  and use a p p r o p r i a t e conventions.  November, 1 9 9 0 Then i t i s the middle f l u season  o f November, the onset o f the  ... the crush to g e t r e p o r t cards done and the  r e a l i t y o f assessment h i t s me. Since I have not had the tidy  x  s i x out o f t e n c o l l e c t i o n o f marks to get me  through  1  the term, I must make d e c i s i o n s about the v a l i d i t y  of my e v a l u a t i v e techniques. I decide that the only way to move through  fair  t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s to base the mark on  s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t r e p o r t s from the students, and an open  e v a l u a t i o n from me on each i n d i v i d u a l student u s i n g a modified c h e c k l i s t . Examples of these e a r l y c r i t e r i a  are  such o b s e r v a t i o n s as: - responds  to classroom r u l e s , procedures  and  routines - d i s p l a y s a r e s p o n s i b l e a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l emotional  s a f e t y and  and  comfort  - works c o o p e r a t i v e l y and p r o d u c t i v e l y with a l l members of the c l a s s i n p a i r s , small groups and l a r g e groups - supports p o s i t i v e l y the work of others The e v a l u a t i o n sheet i s d i s t r i b u t e d to the and they are asked of  to complete the sheet u s i n g a r a t i n g  E = e x c e l l e n t , G=good, I=improving,  U=Unsatisfactory. We been completed  students  NW=Needs Work, and  meet i n d i v i d u a l l y a f t e r these have  to d i s c u s s any o u t s t a n d i n g areas of  concern. As the debate over s u i t a b l e assessment p r a c t i c e s i s c o n s t a n t , I am attempting try  to remain open-minded enough to  any p o t e n t i a l arrangement. But here, too, I begin to  see that the more i n v o l v e d i n the process I i n v i t e  the  students to be, the more accurate the e v a l u a t i o n . I realize through  f a i r l y q u i c k l y t h a t i f I am  to remain sane  the process o u t l i n e d above I w i l l have to b u i l d i n  66 some classroom  time where the students  u n i n t e r r u p t e d , without reasonable year,  can work  my input or d i r e c t i o n ,  for a  l e n g t h o f time. Thus, f o r the f i r s t  time i n the  I r e s o r t to an o l d standby, the o r a l r e a d i n g o f a  one-act p l a y ! U n f o r t u n a t e l y , of one. I t i s a standard used to introduce  i t i s not even a good example  "mellerdrammer' which I formerly  the use o f  tableaux.)  Although I do t h i s only with the Grade E i g h t c l a s s e s , I experience  a g r e a t deal o f g u i l t over t h i s e x e r c i s e ,  f e e l i n g t h a t I am compromising the i n t e g r i t y o f the program and not using l e g i t i m a t e e d u c a t i o n a l drama p r a c t i c e s , but r e a l i t y  i s t h a t I am r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one  hundred and e i g h t y p l u s students,  and I need the time to  step back from the work to breathe and analyze our progress.  In a c t u a l i t y they  too are r a t h e r t i r e d  from the  energy t h i s type o f working demands, and we a l l b e n e f i t from t h i s b r i e f h i a t u s . I t i s an o b s e r v a t i o n  t h a t we are  s h a r i n g a much more intense r e l a t i o n s h i p as a group than the other  system o f working allowed  us to develop.  In November, a way o f approaching "The C r u c i b l e " i s i n i t i a t e d with the Grade Nine and Ten c l a s s e s . Of a l l the work i n the B o l t o n course,  t h i s has l e f t the s t r o n g e s t  image with me. P r i m a r i l y used by Gavin to give us an understanding  o f n a r r a t i v e techniques  I f i n d that i t  67 captures the i m a g i n a t i o n of the students more than anything to date. Again, the s t r a t e g y of p e r s o n a l i z i n g knowledge p r o v i d e s a r i c h  the  foundation f o r the r e s t of the  drama to b u i l d upon. The reader must keep i n mind that while e x p e r i e n c i n g the essence of "The C r u c i b l e " i s the o b j e c t i v e here, the students w i l l not see the t e x t f o r a t l e a s t two weeks. We  will  first  spend  time b u i l d i n g  belief  and understanding i n the people and times of Salem d u r i n g the seventeenth century. F o l l o w i n g e x a c t l y the drama demonstrated  by Gavin B o l t o n , c l a s s members assume the  r o l e s of s e v e r a l  f a m i l i e s i n seventeenth century Salem.  They are summoned to the v i l l a g e church by the p r i e s t ( t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e ) to hear a r e p o r t that t h e i r  daughters  have been seen dancing naked i n the woods. Through a s e r i e s of small group and whole group g u i l t of s e v e r a l of the g i r l s  i m p r o v i s a t i o n s , the  i s e s t a b l i s h e d . Two  notes  here: the students are not bothered by the teacher i n r o l e being female, i n f a c t d u r i n g the r o l e drama someone addresses me as  x  sir';  second, the g i r l s who  a c t u a l l y are  g u i l t y have made the c h o i c e to be so themselves,  the r o l e s  are  choose  not imposed by the teacher. The students who  not to be g u i l t y are s t i l l  of major importance  to the  drama, however, as s u s p i c i o n i s c a s t on a l l of them e q u a l l y . Student comments:  68 J u s t to l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y made me b e l i e v e ,  really  b e l i e v e t h a t I was t h e r e , a t the church.  I observed  that people were " w i l l i n g  to be g u i l t y '  and t h a t everyone t r i e d hard to "see' the church and its  people.  When you (Teacher  i n Role) took a book and made us  place our hand on the " B i b l e ' i t was a very s t r o n g symbol  ( a c t i o n ) and that helped me b e l i e v e more.  When I had to go up and say "my soul i s pure' i t was hard to l i e .  I had a g u i l t y f e e l i n g i n s i d e so I had  to c o n f e s s to my parents and the reverend.  Some very s u r p r i s i n g moments occur d u r i n g the r o l e drama. Because o f the c a r e f u l l y designed e n t r y i n t o the drama, students are completely i n v o l v e d i n c h a r a c t e r s which they w i l l maintain over a few days. When they enter the chapel f o r the f i r s t  time, my o b s e r v a t i o n s as teacher  i n c l u d e s e e i n g some o f the boys, who are now Salem farmers, a u t o m a t i c a l l y reach to remove t h e i r hats as they step over the t h r e s h o l d . The g i r l s who are mothers take on the mannerisms o f women whose r e p u t a t i o n s are based on the  69 demeanor o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n - hushing them, q u i c k l y s l i c k i n g down unruly h a i r , and scowling a t the squirming of t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . Even students were s t a r t l e d by the r e a l i s t i c turns that the drama could  take:  I observed that people are not r e a l l y what you expect them to be. For example you expect your daughter not to be i n v o l v e d  i n i t , instead,  Some examples o f w r i t i n g the  they were!  i n r o l e from the study o f  two l i n e s a t the beginning o f Act I I f o l l o w below. The  students were engaged i n using  narration  subtext f o r an audience. The f o l l o w i n g  to i l l u m i n a t e  two l i n e s are  presented and a c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n begins about  possible  ways to i n t e r p r e t them.  E l i z a b e t h : What keeps you? I t ' s almost dark. John: I were p l a n t i n g  f a r out to the f o r e s t ' s edge.  With the e n t i r e c l a s s a c t i n g as d i r e c t o r s , and two v o l u n t e e r s p l a y i n g John and E l i z a b e t h , the c l a s s suggestions as to the s e t and opening a c t i o n s characters.  gives  o f both  To be c o n s i d e r e d , they decide, some q u e s t i o n s  need answering, f o r example: How does John a r r i v e ?  What  i s E l i z a b e t h doing as she waits?  The c l a s s  finds  extremely e f f e c t i v e ways to manipulate both time and space as they i n t e r p r e t the l i n e s s i l e n t l y , and  the  then  decide where i n the a c t i o n they should occur. During t h i s e x e r c i s e , the p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t i e s  arise  to d i s c u s s such t h e a t r e d i r e c t i o n s and terminology as upstage, downstage, masking and subtext. The  teacher must  not be a f r a i d or h e s i t a n t to i n c o r p o r a t e the elements the c r a f t a t the a p p r o p r i a t e times. What must be i s that t h i s method does not bathwater';  of  realized  "throw the baby out with the  i t a l l o w s f o r these elements  to be taught i n  context, with d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to the moment. The s t u d e n t - w r i t t e n examples o f f e r e d below were developed as n a r r a t i v e i n s e r t s a f t e r the c l a s s the v o l u n t e e r s through the two each p a i r wrote t h e i r  l i n e s . Broken i n t o  pairs,  "hidden thoughts' s e p a r a t e l y , then  p l a c e d them a p p r o p r i a t e l y both the o r i g i n a l  directed  i n the scene. Each p a i r then had  l i n e s and t h e i r own  to use i n t h e i r  presented work. Examples of student's hidden thoughts a r e : E l i z a b e t h : At f i r s t our marriage was r e a l l y was  true l o v e , but now  perfect. It  I have my doubts.  He  comes home l a t e and then g i v e s me another excuse. h i s excuses are g e t t i n g as c o l d as the dinner that awaits him every n i g h t . I want to t r u s t him and I  But  71 want our marriage to work out... we need to t a l k .  E l i z a b e t h : Look at him, he's a c t i n g l i k e nothing ever happened. Does he t h i n k I'm  a f o o l ? Did our marriage  vows mean nothing to him? He knows not how  to l o v e ,  only to d e c e i v e . I don't know whether to be angry with him or myself.  John: I know she doesn't b e l i e v e me.  I t o l d her I  was  s o r r y . Anyways, I stopped s e e i n g A b i g a i l . . .  Doesn't  she understand i t ' s over? Oh!  me.  She  irritates  I t i s easy to teach here that both words and  actions  can be s u r p l u s , and that economy i s a more e f f e c t i v e to express meaning. What works i n t h i s sequence many l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s can be met. drama about something,  way  i s that so  Through t e a c h i n g  (the l i v e s of people i n Salem i n  the seventeenth c e n t u r y ) , the students a l s o l e a r n e d  about  manipulating time, space and a c t i o n , the b a s i c elements o f t h e a t r e , n a r r a t i o n , h i s t o r y , language s t y l e s , qualities,  i n a way  vocal  that always kept them engaging with  meaning. I t becomes very c l e a r now  t h a t , indeed, showing  very important p a r t of the l e s s o n s , but not i n the  is a  previous format o f "go away and work on t h i s improv f o r twenty minutes".  When the students do present t h e i r work  to the c l a s s , everyone  i s tuned i n to the s p e c i f i c s o f  what they are s e e i n g . The performance  mode as seen by Gavin B o l t o n (1990)  i s a way to enhance l e a r n i n g through a s h a r p l y focused use of the t h e a t r i c a l elements Never to be mistaken  o f time, space, and a c t i o n .  f o r a c t o r t r a i n i n g , the performance  mode r e q u i r e s students to use t h e a t r e elements  to achieve  g r e a t e r understanding o f the m a t e r i a l being e x p l o r e d . There  i s no emphasis on s t u d y i n g t h e a t r e elements as  l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s on t h e i r own. The performance  mode  would be used when i t i s the i n t e n t i o n o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s to engage the i n t e r e s t o f an audience, which would g e n e r a l l y be the r e s t o f the c l a s s . A u s e f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the performance  mode, which a l s o  d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from dramatic p l a y i n g , i s that i t allows a r e p e a t a b i l i t y ,  thereby sharpening focus on a  s i n g l e o b j e c t i v e . Looking a t only two l i n e s o f t e x t and j u x t a p o s i n g some simple n a r r a t i v e techniques with them permits both audience and p a r t i c i p a n t s to examine the work c l o s e l y to o b t a i n g r e a t e r understanding and ownership o f the m a t e r i a l . Comments which a r i s e d u r i n g post-viewing d i s c u s s i o n s  73 include: I was  amazed at how  d i f f e r e n t l y people saw  the same  issues. The  way  they arranged the n a r r a t i o n was  very  power f u l . A s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n the way  I used my  v o i c e made a  b i g d i f f e r e n c e i n the meaning. The  way  eye  show the  contact  i s used i s r e a l l y  t e n s i o n between John and  I l i k e d how  we  changed c h a r a c t e r  important to  Elizabeth. each c l a s s . I think  i t allowed us to have d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s s t o r y and  to b e t t e r understand what was  the minds of a l l the c h a r a c t e r s , One  not  on  the  going on i n  just  one.  of the c r i t i c i s m s of t e a c h e r - i n - r o l e comes from  the o b s e r v a t i o n  that many inexperienced  those without drama background, and ones, i e . those who  say  "I'm  teachers,  ie.  even some experienced  not here to a c t f o r  the  k i d s " , are a f r a i d of t a k i n g the r i s k of " l o o k i n g s i l l y ' f r o n t of t h e i r students.  In f a c t , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x e r c i s e  proved i n d i s p u t a b l y to me, I take,  i t i s to my  in  that no matter how  b e n e f i t and  the students'  small a r o l e that I am  a  74 p a r t of the work i n a p a r t i c i p a t o r y , not  directorial  manner.  December,  1990  The Grade E i g h t c l a s s e s spend December r e a d i n g the  one-act  v e r s i o n of "A Christmas C a r o l " and doing a number of dramatic a c t i v i t i e s based on the p l o t , f o r example, a d i s c u s s i o n that takes p l a c e between Scrooge  and  Cratchit  before the p l a y begins, a business deal conducted Scrooge  and Jacob Marley which doesn't  succeed, a moment  i n the C r a t c h i t home when the c h i l d r e n want s p e c i a l which the household an almost seasonal s h i f t  by  something  cannot a f f o r d . Again, I n o t i c e  i n the a t t e n t i o n span of the  c l a s s e s as the h o l i d a y s draw nearer. Even working  i n t h i s mode, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  the rhythms of the school year. As we near the break,  to ignore Christmas  the l e v e l of f a t i g u e begins to show f o r teachers  and students. The symptoms are the standard ones of s h o r t tempers, l i m i t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n span,  increased incidents  of i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour, and general impatience s t a r t of the break.  Yet, I s t r o n g l y f e e l t h a t these  f o r the "end  o f term symptoms' are l e s s pronounced than i n other years both f o r the students and myself. This might be  attributed  to the f a c t that while we worked i n t e n s e l y on the p r o j e c t s  75  we chose,  there was  a t a n g i b l e f e e l i n g of slowing the  process down, of being i n c o n t r o l and of f o l l o w i n g  events  through to a n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n , not a r b i t r a r i l y making the events f i t the number of c l a s s e s  (or days remaining i n  term!).  January,  1991  Over the Christmas break, I have a chance to r e f l e c t  on  the progress so f a r and to begin mapping the next term. I have s e v e r a l t h i n g s i n mind that I want to accomplish,  and  f o r t u n a t e l y they seem to d o v e t a i l c o n v e n i e n t l y with other s u b j e c t areas i n the s c h o o l ; t h i s i s , however, more by a c c i d e n t than d e s i g n . During the B o l t o n course, our major assignment  was  to  c r e a t e a sequence of l e s s o n s on a t o p i c of our c h o i c e which would i n t e g r a t e the concepts and methodologies had been examining.  Susann and I chose  we  to d e s i g n a u n i t to  l e a d i n t o a study of "A Midsummer Night's Dream", as i t i s c u r r e n t l y r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g on the Grade Nine c u r r i c u l u m . Although  initially  English  we were daunted  apparent magnitude of the assignment,  by the  i n r e t r o s p e c t we  are  a l s o more than g r a t e f u l to B o l t o n f o r f o r c i n g us to take the step which has g i v e n us the c o n f i d e n c e to proceed our journey i n t o the methodology. Without  having  with  tackled  t h i s p r o j e c t too many q u e s t i o n s as to p o t e n t i a l would have remained unanswered. As i t was,  we  routes  were able  not only to d e s i g n the program, but a l s o to r e c e i v e feedback and  suggestions  from the e n t i r e c l a s s before  ever attempted i t i n a r e g u l a r  classroom.  "A Midsummer Night's Dream" seemed a p e r f e c t way begin the new initially  we  year with the Grade Nines.  to  The c l a s s e s were  nervous about t a c k l i n g Shakespeare, as are most  students, but the promise t h a t t h i s would be a d i f f e r e n t "way  i n ' helped them to r e l a x somewhat. During  "checkpoints' a f t e r the f i r s t  assessment  three l e s s o n s , students  announced t h a t they f e l t comfortable, c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r understanding  of the s t o r y , and well-immersed  ambience of the p l a y . This was t e x t was  not i n t r o d u c e d u n t i l  Since Susann and  i n the  not s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e the the f i f t h  I had developed  lesson.  this  particular  sequence, the f a m i l i a r i t y of i t gave us g r e a t c o n f i d e n c e , and  i t produced more evidence  t r a c k to h e l p i n g our students subject One  t h a t we were on the  right  f i n d personal meaning i n the  matter. e a r l y s e c t i o n of the sequence i s designed  students understand  to help  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Helena and  Hermia, as w e l l as the s e c r e t of the elopement of Hermia and Lysander.  The  students are g i v e n c o p i e s of the  77 following  passage:  Hermia:  And  i n the wood, where o f t e n you and I  Upon f a i n t primrose beds were wont to l i e , Emptying  our bosoms of t h e i r counsel sweet.  There my Lysander and myself s h a l l meet, And thence from Athens To seek, new  t u r n away our eyes.  f r i e n d s and s t r a n g e r  companies.  F a r e w e l l , sweet p l a y f e l l o w . Pray thou f o r us; And good luck grant thee thy Demetrius! Keep word, Lysander. We must s t a r v e our sight From l o v e r s ' food t i l l  tomorrow deep  midnight.  In groups o f t h r e e , they are s e t the task o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the l i n e s ,  to be shared with an audience.  However, I p l a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i r work which are that they must remain i n the same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n  throughout  the scene, moving o n l y from the waist up; they may  use  gestures to i n d i c a t e meaning, but no f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ; and they must i n t e r p r e t every l i n e o f the t e x t i n some d i s t i n c t manner. This a c t i v i t y serves s e v e r a l purposes. Not only i s  78  t h e work, s i m p l e , e f f e c t i v e a n d e c o n o m i c a l , b u t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e a l s o q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d by b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d a u d i e n c e . By a l l o w i n g  "theatre  w o r k , none o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s h o l d s s o l e for  "carrying'  t h e p i e c e , and t h i s  t o do t h e  responsibility  i s a b a s i c t e n e t upon  which B o l t o n ' s theory o f performance students never  1  mode r e l i e s  -  have t o " a c t ' ; t h e y a r e i n v o l v e d i n  f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on meaning, n o t on themselves. Some s t u d e n t r e f l e c t i o n s a f t e r scene  where H e r m i a t e l l s  We t r i e d  t o use symbolism  t o show t h e i r repeat Doing  Helena  the p l a n s f o r elopement:  by u s i n g o u r h a n d s o n l y  relationship...  and t r i e d  notto  actions. this  scene  h e l p e d me t o u n d e r s t a n d  b e c a u s e i t made me t h i n k a b o u t deeper  s h a r i n g work f o r m t h e  the language  t h e v o c a b u l a r y and  meanings.  We k e p t h e a r i n g t h e s c r i p t t o h e l p us u n d e r s t a n d i t ...you have t o u n d e r s t a n d  t h e words t o know how t o  act i t out. We w e r e n ' t  talking,  j u s t g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e i m a g e s so  we f o u n d o u t t h a t t h e r e was a l o t more t h a n one meaning t o words.  79  By l o o k i n g a t gestures you get a c l e a r message o f what the scene was about so then the language wasn't very hard to understand.  As with any m a t e r i a l essential  one uses i n t h i s method, i t i s  f o r the teacher to know the b a s i c  universal  purpose which d r i v e s the work. We chose the themes o f l o v e , power and i l l u s i o n as the most r e l e v a n t  to the l i v e s  of teenagers. Indeed, a d i s c u s s i o n about the i l l u s i o n o f love  i n today's world r e v e a l e d  remarkably mature i n s i g h t s  among the c l a s s e s . The levels:  l e a r n i n g which occurs here i s a t d i f f e r e n t i t resonates with the e t e r n a l warmth o f "best  f r i e n d s ' ; keeping s e c r e t s passionately existence).  x  i n love*  from parents; and being  (a perpetual  s t a t e o f teenage  The a c t i v i t y a l s o puts students i n touch with  the use o f n a r r a t i v e , the theatre  elements o f manipulating  space and a c t i o n and c l a r i f y i n g meaning f o r an audience. Finally,  i t serves as an e x c e l l e n t device  a c t i o n o f the e n t i r e play d e t a i l c l e a r l y , rather  to help  to slow down the  students see a small  than the b i g p i c t u r e ' vaguely. v  I t was a l s o a hope o f mine to i n t e g r a t e some drama work with S o c i a l S t u d i e s .  At the Grade Ten l e v e l ,  classes  were beginning to study Canadian h i s t o r y . I knew that one  80 of the obvious I was  f i g u r e s to emerge would be Louis R i e l ,  determined  scene,  not to focus on the i n t e r m i n a b l e  trial  an o f t - u s e d , but r a t h e r cloudy l e n s , through  to understand  the essence  which drove him  through  of the man  and  but  which  the p u r s u i t s  h i s t o r y . This was  a chance f o r me  to i n c o r p o r a t e again the p r i n c i p l e s of e d u c a t i o n a l drama which I was  t r y i n g to s o l i d i f y  our u n i t with a whole-class  i n my  own  mind and we  drama i n present  began  day  pariiament. The process of p l a n n i n g f o r content f r u s t r a t i n g and approach  i s often  time-consuming. To do j u s t i c e to t h i s  i t i s necessary  to back-track and p l a n with a  p o s s i b l e outcome i n mind ( i e . what do I want them to l e a r n ? ) . N a t u r a l l y , there w i l l be i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g along the way,  but the teacher must have some idea of  where they themselves would l i k e to go, and f l e x i b l e enough to adapt and a l t e r necessary, essential  then  be  the d i r e c t i o n i f i t i s  to accommodate the needs of the students. I t i s to narrow the focus s u f f i c i e n t l y before  p r e p a r a t i o n begins, as i t i s j u s t too easy  the  to head i n an  i r r e l e v a n t d i r e c t i o n . This step gets e a s i e r only with practice. I thought  about the R i e l u n i t f o r f i v e weeks before I  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t what I wanted was  to b u i l d  understanding  81 and empathy for the p o s i t i o n of contemporary n a t i v e peoples  i n Canada.  s i m i l a r i t y of  Through r e s e a r c h I d i s c o v e r e d that  the  i s s u e s from the n i n e t e e n t h century and today  is astonishing.  With the r e a l i t y of the Oka o r d e a l  f r e s h the t o p i c i s p e r t i n e n t .  Based on the  still  issue of land  c l a i m s and economic progress we do a f u l l - c l a s s  r o l e drama  as a present-day government i n s e s s i o n i n p a r l i a m e n t with teacher  i n r o l e as Prime M i n i s t e r ,  Ministers. defence  as  I ended the c l a s s with an excerpt w r i t t e n i n  of some a c t i o n that had been taken by a group of  n a t i v e people 1890,  and the c l a s s  ( a c t u a l l y a passage spoken by Louis R i e l  whose a u t h o r s h i p I d i d not r e v e a l u n t i l  d e b r i e f e d the s e s s i o n ) .  in  we had  There was a p r e c i o u s moment when  t h e i r jaws dropped s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with "you're k i d d i n g " ! I i n c l u d e here an e n t i r e  j o u r n a l e n t r y by a grade  student completed at the end of the i n i t are a l l  f i r s t l e s s o n . Embedded  the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s  i n the study of  ten  I hoped to  achieve  Riel:  Today, we began a u n i t s t u d y i n g Louis R i e l and Native Canadian i s s u e s .  Ms. J a r d i n e became the Prime  M i n i s t e r of Canada, and everyone e l s e became premiers (sic  members)  of business  i n the House of Commons. The main item  was the  "Oka s i t u a t i o n ' .  First,  several  people spoke up with t h e i r views on the s u b j e c t ,  then  82 we were separated i n t o s e v e r a l groups and g i v e n study material. asked  [Teacher Note: I c a l l e d these d o s s i e r s and  f o r a complete p o l i t i c a l  a n a l y s i s ] . In our  groups we were to read the newspaper a r t i c l e s and decide the main i s s u e s . When we reconvened,  we  d i s c u s s e d the i s s u e s together. Almost everyone had a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n on the t o p i c , but no r e a l arguments erupted. Next, we d i s c u s s e d p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , a l l of which had f a u l t s ,  (but nobody's p e r f e c t ) . L a t e r ,  we were handed a quote about how Native Canadians fought f o r t h e i r land and t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , i t was  perfectly valid  yet i t was s a i d over  f o r today's times and s i t u a t i o n s , 100 years ago by Louis R i e l .  This e x e r c i s e was very h e l p f u l understand  i n a i d i n g us to  the l i n k between h i s t o r i c a l and modern  c o n f l i c t s between the n a t i v e s and the government. This u n i t should a l s o teach us to a p p r e c i a t e the n a t i v e c u l t u r e o f Canada, as w e l l as other c u l t u r e s / r a c e s . I l i k e d t h i s c l a s s very much because i t made me aware o f the other s i d e o f the s t o r y , which i s , I t h i n k , something everyone should be exposed t o .  The a c t i v i t i e s  i n the u n i t proceed  to uncover  layers  83 of  understanding:  government Macdonald  of  and  his  Canada  and  relationship  between  through  the  role  the  Louis and  Riel his  contemporary and  the  at  eyes  Middleton;  Louis  play  looking  through  General  family;  contrast,  eventually  the  of  early  Sir  examining  John A.  the  and G a b r i e l  people;  position viewing  and by  of  of  Dumont; way  Metis  the  Louis  of  people,  CBC p r o d u c t i o n  Drums. The three of  culmination of  separate  the  pieces  narrative. answer  of  The elderly  is  work  after  ably  Grade are  which  holidays  their  full  so  in.  In p r e v i o u s  "paved', agenda, I  I  but no  I  would  start  afraid  of  where  jumping  with  in  with  the  the in  the  and  decide  the  whole no  way  trusting  us,  that  we  the  about  takes on a  a way  way  hidden  Truthfully, take  and  and  topic  students;  work w i l l  a  entire  the  family  to  had  conclusions.  by  teachers.  the  which  have  several  a discussion  determining  years,  about  performance;  after  to  question  examine  days  I  a  decide  two  now,  hold  to  of  linked  not  have  preconceived  am c u r i o u s  longer  for  classes  have  to  interactions  The p r o c e s s  presentation  students,  society,  traditions. class,  by  the  a  Studies  invited  classes in  is  students  seeing  Eight  and  are  managed  treated  study  Ten S o c i a l  The c l a s s e s  session  situation  the  Grade  this  although I  am n o will  84 create  the event  The  together.  predominant focus  i n t h i s sequence i s the s h i f t  of a t t i t u d e s that occurs f o r the students.  We do a s e r i e s  of f a m i l y p o r t r a i t s to i n d i c a t e where they see the members of t h e i r very  f a m i l i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to themselves. Some are  s u r p r i s e d by the r e s u l t s . In each group o f s i x , each  student gets the chance to s c u l p t t h e i r own For me the s t r o n g e s t  family.  image i s o f the f a m i l y  p o r t r a i t s , because I r e a l i z e d who I was c l o s e to and a l s o t h a t my f a m i l y i s very  close knit.  In many f a m i l i e s , I c o u l d see that grandparents are the c e n t r e  of a t t e n t i o n .  I discovered  that people's a t t i t u d e s toward the  e l d e r l y are d i f f e r e n t than I expected... some are close, others,  not a t a l l .  T h i s u n i t l a s t s about e i g h t c l a s s e s and moves through v a r i o u s phases i n c l u d i n g the whole c l a s s r o l e drama o u t l i n e d here. At the end o f the drama on aging,  the students were  asked to become members o f a community i n a c o u n c i l meeting where the b u i l d i n g o f a s e n i o r s complex was proposed. They were able  to represent  the v a r i o u s  being  members  a f t e r brainstorming  who might be i n t e r e s t e d  stakeholders  i n the advantages or disadvantages o f having the b u i l d i n g on the proposed s i t e . people with aging  The l i s t  parents,  i n c l u d e d : business men,  schoolchildren,  taxpayers,  people with young c h i l d r e n , people who were a n t i c o n s t r u c t i o n , and people who wanted more green-space. This t i e s  i n with what Bolton  the energies  (1979) suggests:  o f the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s kind o f work  resemble most normal c u r r i c u l u m is reading,  recording,  activities:  discussing,  the c l a s s  planning,  s e l e c t i n g , checking, e v a l u a t i n g ; a l l the common educational  s k i l l s are p r a c t i s e d and a great deal o f  o b j e c t i v e knowledge i s obtained,  (p.69)  Another component o f the u n i t has the students i n a hypothetical  f a m i l y u n i t with a r e s i d e n t grandparent who  must be placed  i n a home f o r the e l d e r l y . The students do  some w r i t i n g i n r o l e here and produce l e t t e r s which i n d i c a t e very mature reasoning hardship,  i n c l u d i n g economic  l a c k o f space, personal  members, " i t ' s f o r your own good',  t e n s i o n between f a m i l y and sheer  heartlessness: Mother, I'm s o r r y that t h i n g s had to t u r n out l i k e for you, but t h i s  this  i s f o r the best o f the f a m i l y .  86 Now  I must c l o s e o f f , I'm  m i s s i n g my  manicure.  Rhonda I am  thrilled  with the honesty  and depth  demonstrated  by these Grade E i g h t students. In r e f l e c t i o n , a s t r o n g sense of t h e i r own  moral f i b r e becomes c l e a r .  These are  comments t h a t come from the h e a r t ; there were true moments of understanding  where they stand on the i s s u e s  surrounding the e l d e r l y articulated  i n our s o c i e t y .  The  feelings  c l e a r l y and many students are warmed by  experience, but shocked imaginary accounts  as they r e a l i z e  are a l l too r e a l  are the  that their  f o r some  elderly  people. Already, I have begun to depart from my the summer's notes and o u t l i n e .  As 0'Toole  reliance  and Haseman  (1988) p o e t i c a l l y  phrase  so the person who  has l e a r n e d to swim i s f r e e r  dabbler i n the s h a l l o w s "  February,  on  t h i s , "as the water gets deeper, than  the  (p.vii).  1991  An u n d e r l y i n g e x p e c t a t i o n of many of the students, particularly  those who  Production, s t a r t s  are accustomed to an annual  to p e r c o l a t e , even though I  emphatic a t the s t a r t of the year that my  Spring  was  focus t h i s  year  87 would be on i n - c l a s s work. Upon f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , I r e a l i z e d t h a t I would not be p l a c i n g the i n t e g r i t y o f t h i s model i n jeopardy, nor would I i n c u r an o v e r l o a d o f e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r time, i f some o f the m a t e r i a l t h a t we developed  i n c l a s s was prepared  intimate audience two  purposes:  f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to an  o f f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . T h i s would serve  first,  every student i n the e n t i r e program  would have the o p p o r t u n i t y to be i n a performance mode i n a safe s i t u a t i o n  (as the m a t e r i a l would be a c o l l e c t i v e  e f f o r t ) ; and, second,  the community/administrative  e x p e c t a t i o n f o r "product' c o u l d be s a t i s f i e d on my terms. The r e s t o f the month i s absorbed  by e s t a b l i s h i n g the  t h e a t r i c a l elements o f the t o p i c s we decide to i n v e s t i g a t e . We adopt an experience first  first,  not performance  philosophy. The p l a y b u i l d i n g experience we had i n November with  the Substance Abuse Awareness Week p l a y s provided s u b s t a n t i a l background and t h i s time I f i n d the students more w i l l i n g to t r y out t h e i r  ideas on each other because  they f e e l safe w i t h i n the format. One c l a s s chooses the t o p i c racism; the o t h e r , an " i n s i d e r ' view o f being a teenager  today.  Some student  The most important  views:  l e s s o n I l e a r n e d while working on  t h i s p r o j e c t was to p l a y a r a c i s t person and when I  88 was  p l a y i n g the r a c i s t person how wrong i t f e l t .  The  important  l e s s o n I l e a r n e d through  working on the  p r o j e c t i s t h a t racism i s everywhere and i t ' s going to  take the help and support o f everyone to stop i t .  I l e a r n e d how i t f e l t  to be r a c i s t and how i t f e l t to  be a v i c t i m o f racism. Even the l i t t l e  t h i n g s t h a t we say about people o f a  d i f f e r e n t race can a f f e c t someone d r a m a t i c a l l y over the years. The l e s s o n i s stop and t h i n k before you speak. The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g i n the Teenage Years p l a y can be summed up: Since we are teenagers  and our p l a y was about t h a t ,  i t probably made most o f us f e e l comfortable, we acted i t out very w e l l and i t was r e a l . March, 1991 March i s a s h o r t month because o f Spring Break and a g a i n there are s i g n s o f f a t i g u e , but, because the c l a s s p r e s e n t a t i o n s are scheduled  f o r the week before the  v a c a t i o n , c l a s s work i s focused and p r o d u c t i v e r i g h t to the end. The p r e s e n t a t i o n s are an o u t s t a n d i n g success. The parents are extremely  proud o f the c r e a t i o n s t h e i r  89 c h i l d r e n have developed,  and,  n a t u r a l l y , the  students  r e v e l i n the a t t e n t i o n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , however, they commend themselves  on having worked together as a whole  c l a s s , of having done the work themselves, the process of c r e a t i v i t y  and on seeing  in a clearer light.  They  p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoy the comments provided by other about how  students  r e l e v a n t t h e i r work i s to other k i d s and  well i t was  done. Other  students r e c o g n i z e the s e r i o u s  e f f o r t s of the drama c l a s s e s and f o r everyone.  We  how  i t sets a s a t i s f y i n g  a l l leave f o r the v a c a t i o n with a  tone  sense  of accomplishment and a n t i c i p a t i o n of the l a s t term. For the f i r s t  time, I don't  what w i l l we do  April,  f e e l the n i g g l i n g haunt of "oh  no,  f o r the l a s t s i x weeks"!  1991  Heading i n t o the l a s t term year has passed  i s a shock because the  so q u i c k l y and with purpose.  moment of e l a t i o n - I b e l i e v e t h a t my  This i s a  students have  a c t u a l l y l e a r n e d about t h i n g s that w i l l have meaning f o r them i n the f u t u r e . Not once have we  touched  on the  mechanics of miming, the s p o n t a n e i t y of improv games or the need f o r "teamwork' e x e r c i s e s . Yet by t h i s  time,  students are able to use a p p r o p r i a t e gestures i n a mimetic f a s h i o n to communicate t h e i r environment and  intentions  90  c l e a r l y , they enter i n t o i m p r o v i s a t i o n , whether i n p a i r s or l a r g e groups with c o n f i d e n c e and b e i i e v a b i l i t y , and  the  c l a s s e s are cohesive and conscious of the b e n e f i t s of c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . An a i r of a u t h e n t i c i t y permeates the work. S e v e r a l moments from the l a s t p l a c e i n my  few months w i l l  mind's "photo album' of the  find a  journey.  When we begin to n e g o t i a t e the d i r e c t i o n of the  final  term, the c l a s s e s almost unanimously opt f o r e x p l o r i n g something i n a comic v e i n . They f e e l  that they have worked  s e r i o u s l y a l l year and need to e x p l o r e something t h a t i s n ' t , a t l e a s t on the s u r f a c e , so weighty. r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i n d i n g a way yet the r i g h t v e h i c l e has  The  teacher i s  to make meaning r e l e v a n t ,  to work f o r the students, too.  A f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n , we embark on a u n i t i n clowning.  I f e e l sure that I am not pursuing a s u b j e c t of  equal worthiness  to the work we have a l r e a d y done t h i s  year, but I a l s o know t h a t , because of the standard of work the students achieved throughout  the year,  the  a t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c i s much more d e d i c a t e d than i t would have been otherwise. E v e n t u a l l y , we agree  that i t  would be fun to work as " s t r e e t performers' and  travel  through  the school d u r i n g the l a s t  few days of school  doing s h o r t r o u t i n e s f o r other c l a s s e s , beginning  with  some background i n f o r m a t i o n about clowns i n g e n e r a l . This  study p r o v i d e s the chance f o r us to experiment  with the  c r e a t i v e e x e r c i s e of d e s i g n i n g and a p p l y i n g clown makeup. This a c t i v i t y  I justify  under the heading  "theatre a r t s ' ,  but i t f e e l s l i k e a throwback to a p r e v i o u s  life!  The clowning u n i t i s o u t l i n e d on the book by Mark Stolzman,  Be a Clown. I t i s a "how  t o ' of clowning which  takes students through a d e t a i l e d s e r i e s of  developmental  phases i n understanding the essence of clowning. s u p p l i e d with h i s t o r i c a l  Richly  f a c t s , c h a r a c t e r sketches of  famous clowns and some popular "gags', i t has a n i c e tone about  i t which makes the students see clowning as an a r t  first,  entertainment  second.  You d i d n ' t have to be y o u r s e l f . You were able to express y o u r s e l f i n many ways whether or not i t ' s yourself. ...being able to l e t go and have fun while doing work. ...helps people to l e a r n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ,  self-  c o n t r o l and e s p r i t de corps ( p r i d e i n one's group). Clowning  helped me  to understand  that i t ' s not a l l  that easy to make t h i n g s funny. I t ' s hard work.  While now  i t seemed a b i t f r i v o l o u s to me a t the time, I  r e a l i z e that because  we approached  the a c t i v i t y with  i n t e g r i t y we b u i l t upon some important areas of s e l f concept, i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and c r e a t i v i t y . However, during the u n i t , I f e l t  l i k e I was  t a k i n g the wrong t r a i n  to someplace I d i d n ' t want to go! We are a l s o a w a i t i n g a performance Stories"  of  "Canadian  by Vancouver Youth Theatre. There i s an  e x c e l l e n t guide to permit some preview a c t i v i t y  i n the  classroom. T h i s guide s e t s a precedent i n q u a l i t y that I have not seen before i n s i m i l a r t e a c h i n g a i d s . I t makes the a c t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n i n c r e d i b l y a l i v e f o r the audience. I am anxious f o r the students to develop empathy f o r the t o p i c , and we work through the s e r i e s of l e s s o n s suggested with g r e a t r e s p o n s i v e n e s s . The Grade Ten c l a s s a l s o opts f o r something so I suggest the commedia d e l l  comedic,  'arte. We e x p l o r e the  n o t i o n of stock c h a r a c t e r s i n whole c l a s s r o l e p l a y , and they whole-heartedly endorse  the s t a r t i n g p o i n t .  We  develop our understanding of the s t y l e by working troupes i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  way.  as  They develop three  separate groups, each with i d e n t i f y i n g troupe names: II Macho Tomato, The F l y i n g T o r t e l l i n i s , and II Comedi Moto. Based on stock s i t u a t i o n s between the c h a r a c t e r s , each  93 group improvises  a s h o r t c o l l e c t i o n of scenes.  I am pleased with the i n t e n s i t y and  Generally,  energy they b r i n g to  the p i e c e s . I t seems t h a t the u n i f y i n g thread through u n i t f o r them i s i n f a c t a h i s t o r i c a l f r i e n d l y competition  tradition, a  this  little  f o r c r e a t i n g the most engaging p i e c e ;  e i t h e r the w i t t i e s t , or the most p h y s i c a l or the z a n i e s t . Without doubt, i t i s unanimously enjoyed. the o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r these o l d e r students  I t a l s o provides to c h a l l e n g e  themselves with the c r a f t of the t h e a t r e . I leave  the  d e t a i l s of s t a g i n g to them, with a f i n a l conference  as a  whole c l a s s to d i s c u s s problem areas. They prove e x c e l l e n t d i r e c t o r s of t h e i r own  work.  May,1991 The all  l a s t month of c l a s s e s i s e f f e c t i v e l y upon us,  i s w e l l with the clowns and  A t t e n t i o n i s now  the commedia  insightful,  troupes.  d i r e c t e d to the upcoming p r e s e n t a t i o n s  and everyone i s g a i n f u l l y occupied. is distressing  f o r me  This p o i n t of the  while the work t i l l  s e r i o u s and  now  t h o u g h t f u l , I wonder why  not been able to s u s t a i n the pace. Some of my  has  year been  I have  conclusions  are that again because of the rhythm of the school we  and  year,  are a l l too t i r e d to be engaged i n intense m a t e r i a l ;  that students  are now  preoccupied  with the completion  of  t h e i r academic s u b j e c t s ; t h a t the usual abundance o f y e a r end a c t i v i t i e s , both i n and out o f school hours i s extremely  d i s r u p t i v e ; and, j u s t p o s s i b l y , the l u r e o f  summer v a c a t i o n i s too much to bear. f l e e t i n g disappointment  I suppose  this  i s , q u i t e f i t t i n g l y , another  stage  of the journey. When a person has been away from home f o r some time, an unbidden wave o f homesickness can break over the experience and b l u r the moment. Also t r u e , however, i s that the f e e l i n g subsides and one i s l e f t  to proceed  with  the journey r e f r e s h e d . On the other hand, I am convinced commitment the students d i s p l a y  that the l e v e l o f  i n the present work i s a  d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the tone s e t throughout don't  the year. They  t r e a t clowning or Commedia d e l l ' a r t e as an excuse to  do makeup or f o o l around. They are able to cope w e l l with the h i s t o r i c a l and t e c h n i c a l aspects o f the study. The whole school i s rewarded by t h i s i n t e g r i t y when the groups take one-minute r o u t i n e s i n t o classrooms  d u r i n g the l a s t  "dog-days' o f the school year.  June, 1991 This month I see each c l a s s only four times as the exam schedule begins the middle o f the second  week. I  schedule us to complete tasks which r e q u i r e a group  95  e f f o r t : p u t t i n g away the department equipment, d i s c a r d i n g and s o r t i n g o l d costumes, removing m a t e r i a l s from  the  w a l l s and b u l l e t i n boards, r e t u r n i n g the s t a c k i n g c h a i r s to the gymnasium. We  r e v e r s e time i n the room and  the p h y s i c a l evidence of our year's energy.  T h i s moment  always draws comments from the students as they where they v i s u a l i s e d themselves other times'. Now  erase  recall  i n "other p l a c e s and  i s the time f o r r e f l e c t i n g on the whole  year... to c a p t u r e , i f we can, the t a p e s t r y woven with the threads of c r e a t i v i t y each of us brought The e v a l u a t i v e requirements 1.  contribution  understanding  f o r them to share with me  "new'  3.  threefold:  f o r the students to assess t h e i r own  growth and  2.  are  to the o t h e r s .  t h e i r thoughts on  this  approach  f o r me  to e v a l u a t e my own  growth and  contributions  to the c l a s s and to s a t i s f y the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e requirements  of a s s i g n i n g a l e t t e r grade  to these  exper i e n c e s .  My  f e e l i n g s a t the c u l m i n a t i o n of the year are  s a t i s f a c t i o n , accomplishment, c o n f i d e n c e , and  anticipation  96 of next year. Because we have examined fewer considerable d e t a i l , connected a way  topics i n  the year seems to have been more  somehow - that we have made l o g i c a l  we c o l l e c t i v e l y determined.  progress i n  Students and I remark,  that we a l l l e a r n e d more about a v a r i e t y of t h i n g s and t h a t the depth with which we e x p l o r e d the t o p i c s p r e f e r a b l e to a s c a t t e r e d , m u l t i - t o p i c  was  approach.  I am g r a t e f u l to the students f o r being genuinely interested  i n the work and  i n s i g h t f u l and honest  f o r being s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ,  i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the year.  N a t u r a l l y , there are some whose disappointment of " o l d f a m i l i a r s t u f f  a t the l a c k  i s e v i d e n t ; i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough,  other students make the o b s e r v a t i o n that t h i s s t y l e of drama encourages  the p o t e n t i a l of everyone,  and that even  shy students c o n t r i b u t e d f a r more t h i s year than they had before. I end the year with some q u e s t i o n s which w i l l  take  some time to r e f l e c t on.  I w i l l c o n s i d e r what I need to  work on to help me  journey along t h i s path, f o r I am  now  i n my  c e r t a i n that I must do so to c r e a t e a s a t i s f y i n g  c a r e e r experience f o r myself. Also p e r t i n e n t becomes the q u e s t i o n of how  best to share the knowledge I've a c q u i r e d  through the study. I t seems that drama, a t i t s b e s t , i s the i n t e r a c t i o n of human beings i n an a u t h e n t i c , r e l e v a n t  way, and I think t h i s c o u l d be extended to c o l l e g i a l relationships. The  students  experiences  provide  insights  into  over the l a s t few years  work of 1990-91. In t h e i r  i n comparison to the  f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n , (see  appendix), and i n i n t e r v i e w s  (see t r a n s c r i p t ) ,  p a t t e r n s emerging which lend support r e l i e d on t h i s  t h e i r drama  I see  to the t h e o r i e s I've  year:  This year was more s e r i o u s and i n depth than l a s t year. I t h i n k you pay more a t t e n t i o n when your input i s really  important.  I t has become harder, more c h a l l e n g i n g than before. In the t e a c h i n g , instruction  there was l e s s s u p e r v i s i o n , more  and c r e a t i v e freedom t h i s  Students have come to r e a l i z e  year.  that drama i s n ' t a l l  t h e a t r e s p o r t s and improv. At the beginning,  I thought that I wouldn't be g i v e n  many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e ,  I thought t h a t  would be only a s e l e c t group o f students.  98 I t has g o t t e n harder and we have become more open. More o f what students wanted was used. Much wider range o f s u b j e c t s t h i s I thought doesn't.  year.  drama would put you on the spot, i t  We have become more able to f r e e l y talk, to the teacher. The u n i t s are longer and we go deeper i n to f i n d new t h i n g s i n every  class.  Finally: This year there i s more focus on l e a r n i n g . ... and I s m i l e , f o r my journey has brought me to a place I'd l i k e to spend time e x p l o r i n g .  99 6. Summary  This study  has d e s c r i b e d a year o f e x p l o r a t i o n and  d i s c o v e r y which sprang from my need to f i n d  i n my  teaching  what Dorothy Heathcote has termed " a u t h e n t i c i t y ' . The f u l l i n t e n t i o n o f the journey  was to determine i f a change i n  teaching paradigm c o u l d o f f e r a depth and s i g n i f i c a n c e I only i n t u i t i v e l y  sensed was missing.  i n the form o f student writing i n role,  The data,  collected  journals, reflective writing,  f i e l d notes and i n t e r v i e w s was analyzed  to e x t r a c t the general  feeling arising  from the new  approach. This new methodology, c a l l e d drama i n education, which by nature  i s a process  o f d i s c o v e r y and r e f l e c t i o n ,  with the main o b j e c t i v e to b r i n g about a change i n t h i n k i n g , provided  a s u i t a b l e model f o r the study.  not know, i n the beginning,  what the outcome o f the year's  work would be. Dorothy Heathcote's words convey the appropriateness learning  o f using the a c t o f r e f l e c t i o n as a  tool:  I t i s not the doing underlying  - i t i s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  the doing.  I t i s not the saying - i t i s the e f f e c t o f the saying.  I did  100  I t i s not merely learn,  t e l l i n g people what you want them to  i t i s the experience a r i s i n g out o f the a c t i o n  which enables them to l e a r n ,  I t was necessary  (p.200)  f o r me to depart from p r e v i o u s  t h i n k i n g s t y l e s and to adapt as much as p o s s i b l e to the t h i n k i n g embedded understand  i n the above quote i n order to  the path I was f o l l o w i n g . I needed to l e a r n  that r e f l e c t i o n  i s as much a p a r t o f the beginning o f the  journey as the end, and t h a t i t must be constant throughout  f o r the journey to be o f value. What I  discovered  i n the process made i t easy to want to continue  the  journey.  Conclusions This study supports a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s about both teachers and l e a r n e r s . I t i s abundantly  c l e a r that  drama i s a two-way process o f e x p l o r a t i o n ; the agenda cannot  be t o t a l l y  imposed by the teacher f o r true drama  work to be t a k i n g p l a c e . Each p a r t y b r i n g s with i t the raw m a t e r i a l to be fashioned i n t o new, r e l e v a n t understanding about the human c o n d i t i o n . Dramatic  a c t i v i t y n u r t u r e s the  need a l l people have to l o c a t e themselves community, to understand  i n the human  t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l and to  101 c r e a t i v e l y e x p l o r e the a r t of  interaction.  I b e l i e v e t h a t students want to c o n t r i b u t e i n a meaningful  way  to t h e i r , own  l e a r n i n g , but t h a t the c u r r e n t  system c r e a t e s enormous roadblocks to t h i s Eisner  potential.  (1979) d e s c r i b e s personal r e l e v a n c e as a l e a r n i n g  o r i e n t a t i o n which "places tremendous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the teacher". T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to t r a d i t i o n a l  methodologies  i n which " p r e s c r i b e d content and predetermined and  t e s t i n g procedures  i n many ways l i g h t e n the teacher's  l o a d . They a l s o l i g h t e n the i n t e l l e c t u a l must bear" Two  routines  l o a d the  students  (p.60).  t h i n g s emerged s t r o n g l y from the student  writing  about the year: 1) t h a t students want and need to be i n v o l v e d actively  i n the l e a r n i n g  process  2) t h a t students are w i l l i n g and able to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e l e v a n t l e a r n i n g and meaning which i s n e g o t i a t e d There were very few comments from students d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the approach.  indicating  Those comments which  d i d a r i s e had more to do with a d e s i r e f o r b r i e f encounters  with Theatre Sports than a r e t u r n to a steady  d i e t of them. On the whole the l e v e l of involvement all  students, i n c l u d i n g those who  from  would formerly have been  102 l a b e l l e d as d i s r u p t i v e , was notably previous  increased  over  years.  The l i s t o f teacher r e a l i z a t i o n s i s somewhat longer and must be c o n s i d e r e d as personal o p i n i o n s o n l y , from my o b s e r v a t i o n s about myself are o f f e r e d here as evidence e v o l v i n g understanding 1)  arising  d u r i n g the year. They  of personal growth and o f  of the f i e l d .  Teacher needs to r e a l l y l i s t e n to and i n v i t e the input o f students  2)  Teacher must opt f o r meaningful a c t i v i t i e s not time f i l l e r s  3)  Teacher must begin to a r t i c u l a t e knowledge and q u e s t i o n s with  4)  colleagues  Teacher needs to engage i n constant  self-  reflection 5)  Teacher must meet knowledge i n a personal  6)  Teacher must commit to keeping  way  up with c u r r e n t  t h i n k i n g i n the f i e l d These two l i s t s i n d i c a t e a s h i f t and  i n the general  tone  i n t e n t i o n o f both p a r t i e s t h a t i s r e c o g n i z a b l y  different  from p r i o r years. General  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn by  both me and the students about the students are summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Any segment o f t h i s  collection  might be expanded i n t o a more d e t a i l e d r e n d e r i n g , but t h a t  103 activity  i s beyond the scope o f t h i s  study.  One o f the e a s i e s t p o i n t s to r e c o g n i z e e a r l y on i n the year was that the general a t t i t u d e o f students had s h i f t e d to a much more c o n s c i e n t i o u s one; t h i s was evidenced by few behaviour problems d u r i n g c l a s s , and i n c r e a s e d commitment to the work and an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f input from a l l students. Students were f a r more open to s h a r i n g p e r s o n a l experiences r e l e v a n t to the content we happened to be s t u d y i n g and t h i s improved  student/student  as well as student/teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Often mentioned i n the student w r i t i n g was an i n c r e a s e d comfort l e v e l  i n the performance  mode; once the  work took on personal meaning, i t became e a s i e r to share with o t h e r s . Students a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e i r of  understanding  what drama c o u l d be had changed; they f e l t  had higher e x p e c t a t i o n s o f themselves  that they  and other students,  p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r s e e i n g what they a l l were capable o f achieving. Some students r e c o g n i z e d that t h i s method i s a l s o more c h a l l e n g i n g f o r the teacher, who must be extremely w e l l - p r e p a r e d and f l e x i b l e . A l l o f these developments created a c i r c u l a r e f f e c t  i n the way the year unfolded, as  o b v i o u s l y the a c t u a l management o f the c l a s s was not an i s s u e . The students i n d i c a t e d through t h e i r response  early  104  on that they were e x c i t e d by the approach,  which made i t  easy to continue e x p l o r i n g . The year probably had the most profound e f f e c t and l a s t i n g consequences on me as t e a c h e r / l e a r n e r . Simply  from  the a c t o f l i s t e n i n g more and u s i n g "teacher t a l k ' l e s s , I was able to broaden my understanding of my own r o l e and the r o l e o f the students i n the classroom. Since the teacher cannot n e c e s s a r i l y p r e d i c t what the responses of the students w i l l  l e a d t o , the l i s t e n i n g becomes an  e s s e n t i a l component o f the c r e a t i v e process as the c h o i c e s for f u r t h e r a c t i o n emerge from the work i n p r o g r e s s . This e l i m i n a t e s boredom from the workplace  instantly!  I found that by u s i n g c e r t a i n conventions to slow the work down, I helped myself and the students to r e c o g n i z e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the "moment', without the pressure to press toward  the outcome as a s o l e o b j e c t i v e . In a r e a l  way, the whole classroom experience became more human, connected  and s t i m u l a t i n g f o r me. I was t h r i l l e d  able to use my  to be  "storehouse' of personal knowledge o f  " t h i n g s ' to h e i g h t e n meaning f o r the c l a s s e s . I r e l i e d more o f t e n on i n t u i t i o n to help me s o l v e problems i n my own way, not f e e l i n g that I would f i n d the answer i n a resource book  somewhere.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of time was eased by p l a n n i n g  105 s t r a t e g i e s which i n v o l v e d schemes of work, not one-shot l e s s o n s . So while the p l a n n i n g took much longer to s t a r t with, the work fed i t s e l f  once s t a r t e d . Assessment became  a p l e a s u r e , as i t meant r e a l , honest students on t h e i r understanding invent new  of t h e i r own  work. I c o u l d  ways of seeing and r e a d i n g the e f f o r t s of the  c l a s s without ten',  feedback from the  the a r b i t r a r y assignment of "marks out of  which I had never been s a t i s f i e d In the end,  I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t I am  with. now  a much happier  teacher; reconnected  to c r e a t i v i t y , more intense and  p a s s i o n a t e about my  s u b j e c t area than ever, and ready  take the next step of the journey as i t presents  to  itself.  Implications The  i m p l i c a t i o n s to be made from t h i s study have  consequences f o r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s , school board o f f i c e r s and  hiring  both s p e c i a l i s t and g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s .  i n e v i t a b l e q u e s t i o n i s : " I f t h i s i s such an method of t e a c h i n g , why  The  effective  i s i t not more widely p r a c t i s e d ? "  There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e responses, which of the aforementioned  depending on  c a t e g o r i e s of people  i s being  addressed. First, to  the work i s demanding. I t r e q u i r e s a teacher  be d e d i c a t e d to e x t r a c t i n g minute d e t a i l  from  events  106 which are o r d i n a r y to make them e x t r a o r d i n a r y . This i s not a method which f o r g i v e s the "here i s a s i t u a t i o n , go away and make a scene about i t " or "another t h e a t r e s p o r t s game is..."  or "these are your new s c r i p t s , you have seven  c l a s s e s to prepare them" type o f t h i n k i n g . Here, the teacher t h i n k s  first.  The work cannot be done from r e c i p e cards, i e . ,  "101  Drama Ideas f o r the Secondary Classroom". The e d u c a t i o n a l drama teacher i s r e q u i r e d to combine broad knowledge with a c l e a r understanding o f the dramatic art  form; i n other words, the teacher must be able to use  the  a r t form from e x p e r i e n c i n g mode to demonstrating mode,  to  teach about t h i n g s through drama. The teacher must l e a r n to read the needs o f the c l a s s  as opposed  to p r e d e t e r m i n i n g the program.  This  implies  overcoming the fear o f t h i n k i n g on your f e e t , and j o i n i n g in  the l e a r n i n g process as a p a r t i c i p a n t a t the d i s c o v e r y  l e v e l sometimes,  not as a d i r e c t o r .  Constant assessment  i s necessary r e g a r d i n g the  important l e a r n i n g areas f o r the s t u d e n t s . I t i s a l s o essential  to examine e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s on an ongoing  b a s i s . The study has prompted  me to explore a model o f  assessment which r e l i e s h e a v i l y on s e l f assessment by the students. I now f e e l that the most a c c u r a t e and f a i r  form  of  e v a l u a t i o n i s provided by anecdotal r e p o r t i n g . School boards and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s need to look a t the  l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i r d i s t r i c t s when making d e c i s i o n s to h i r e teachers with e d u c a t i o n a l drama background over a r t s and  teachers whose dominant focus i s t h e a t r e  actor-training.  Those whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i s s c h e d u l i n g need to  recognize t h a t drama does not bend e a s i l y to the f i f t y s i x t y - m i n u t e block of time The  or  i t i s most o f t e n a l l o c a t e d .  work i s not served by being taught  course a t u n i v e r s i t y or through  in a single  fragmented workshops.  process of development r e q u i r e s a process of theory, e x e r c i s i n g i t i n the classroom,  The  accumulating  r e f l e c t i n g on  the  process as i t i s o c c u r r i n g and a n a l y z i n g the work a t critical  stages. Then i t r e q u i r e s r e t u r n i n g to the  t h e o r i s t s to encounter  t h e i r knowledge a t a new  What does i t take to t r a i n drama teachers?  level.  More than i s  currently accessible.  Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study The year has r e v e a l e d a number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . For i n s t a n c e , there i s not a s u f f i c i e n t body of r e s e a r c h d e t a i l i n g the general s t r a t e g i e s  behind  teacher t h i n k i n g . The d e t a i l with which the drama teacher  108 must p l a n , not o n l y i n p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r use, a l s o d u r i n g a l e s s o n , r e q u i r e s a unique  but  s e t of s k i l l s . I t  would be of i n t e r e s t f o r a study to examine and  analyze  the l e v e l s of teacher t h i n k i n g i n a p r a c t i c a l manner. Another  area of i n t e r e s t e x i s t s i n the p r o g r e s s i v e  development of students. A study c o u l d be done on the a c t u a l growth that evolves i n students taught by  this  method over a number of years. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to compare such development and understanding of the a r t form with a group of students taught with a s k i l l s - b a s e d approach. I t would a l s o be r e v e a l i n g to know how e d u c a t i o n a l drama approach  affects,  the  i n the long term,  the  p e r c e p t i o n s a student has when encountering c u l t u r e ; i e . i s there a heightened awareness of techniques i n f i l m , does the a c q u i r e d knowledge i n s p i r e more frequent attendance,  and c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , of t h e a t r e ?  Finally,  i t i s e s s e n t i a l to produce  investigative literature  more  from i n s i d e the classroom.  Educators must take g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e i r own know.  f o r examining  p r a c t i c e s and making meaning from what they  109 Concluding Remarks The d u r a t i o n of t h i s study presented me with o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s c o v e r y , a p o s s i b i l i t y i n any  an  journey.  Yet, t r a v e l l i n g on t h i s path has meant something q u i t e special:  i t i s a road which doesn't  take me back to the  p l a c e I came from, i t o n l y leads on to the  next  destination. An experienced t r a v e l l e r knows the r i c h n e s s a f f o r d e d by the g a t h e r i n g of new i n t o new  e x p e r i e n c e s , and how  t e r r i t o r y i n c r e a s e s the confidence one has to  complete f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n s . I f e e l eager the knowledge I a c q u i r e d through r e f l e c t i o n i s necessary accumulated ready  each f o r a y  now  to apply  t h i s study. A p e r i o d of  to allow the memory to f i l t e r  the  i n f o r m a t i o n , a s e t t l i n g process which makes i t  to s u r f a c e when i t i s needed. In drama terms,  this  i s a time of r e f l e c t i o n , a savouring of a l l the components experienced;  the t a s t e of a new  culture.  As t h i s p a r t of the journey concludes, the next  step  i s a l r e a d y beginning. Epilogue I t would be u s e f u l f o r the i n t e r e s t e d reader to l o c a t e the M.A.  t h e s i s of Susann Baum (1991).  The work  e x p l o r e s the i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study as they to the s e n i o r secondary  drama program.  relate  110 References  Barker,C.  (1988). Games i n e d u c a t i o n and theatre.New  Theatre Q u a r t e r l y . 15 Benjamin,S.  227-235.  (1989). An ideascape  f o r e d u c a t i o n : What  f u t u r i s t s recommend. E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 7, Bolton,G.  (1984). Drama as Education. Burnt H i l l ,  8-14.  Englanb:  Longman House. Bolton,G.  (1986). Weaving t h e o r i e s i s not enough. New  Theatre Q u a r t e r l y , 2, (8), 369-375. Byron,K. (1986). Drama a t the c r o s s r o a d s . 2D 7 (1), 4-22. Byron,K. (1988). The Heathcote legacy. 2D  8(1),22-25.  Davis,D. (1986). Drama as a weapon. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Drma A d v i s e r s and Teacher Educators Report,  cited  Conference  i n 2D, 4, 15-19.  Davis,D. & Lawrence,C.(1986). Gavin B o l t o n : S e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s on drama i n education. Burnt H i l l ,  England:  Longman House. Dobson,W. (1986). The b e n e f i t s of m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n . New Theatre Q u a r t e r l y . 2 (8), 371-385. Eisner,E.  (1979). The e d u c a t i o n a l imagination. New  York:  Macmillan. Graham,T. (1986). On the horns o f a dilemma. New Q u a r t e r l y . 2(7), 287-288.  Theatre  Hansen,B.(1989). Drama as n e g o t i a t i o n . Drama as meaning maker. ed. K a s e - P o l i s i n i , J . U n i v e r s i t y Press of America.  215-218.  Harpe,S. (1991). Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  Heathcote,D.  University  Vancouver.  (1972). Drama as c h a l l e n g e . The uses o f  drama; A c t i n g as a s o c i a l  and e d u c a t i o n a l f o r c e .  London: Eyre Methuen. 156-165. Highwater,J.  (1989). Meaning and the c h i l d . Drama as  meaning maker. ed. K a s e - P o l i s i n i , J . U n i v e r s i t y Press of America.  77-86.  Hodgson,J.(1972), The uses o f drama: A c t i n g as a s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l f o r c e . London: Eyre Methuen Hornbrook,D. (1985). Drama, e d u c a t i o n , and the p o l i t i c s o f change: p a r t one. New  Theatre Q u a r t e r l y . 4_ 346-358.  Hornbrook,D. (1985). Drama, e d u c a t i o n and the p o l i t i c s o f change: p a r t two. New  Theatre Q u a r t e r l y . 5, 16-25.  Male,C. (1990). E d u c a t i o n and dramatic a r t : a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . 2D_, 9 ( 2 ) , 5-17. • Morgan,N. & Saxton,J.  (1988). E n r i c h i n g Language through  drama. Language A r t s . 65.(1), 34-40. Neelands,J.  (1984). Making sense o f drama. London:  Heinemann. O'Neill,C.& Lambert,A. (1982). Drama s t r u c t u r e s . London:  Hutchinson. O'Neill,C.  (1985). Imagined  Worlds  i n t h e a t r e and drama.  Theory i n t o p r a c t i c e . 24(3), 159-165. O'Neill,C.  (1989). Ways of seeing:audience f u n c t i o n i n  drama and t h e a t r e . 2D, 8 ( 2 ) , 16-29. O'Neill,C.  (1989). Contexts, r o l e s and e v a l u a t i o n . Drama  as meaning maker, ed. K a s e - P o l i s i n i , J . U n i v e r s i t y press o f America.  211-214.  O ' N e i l l , C . & Johnson,L.(Eds.)  (1984). Dorothy  Heathcote:  C o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s on e d u c a t i o n and drama. London: Hutchinson. 0'Toole,J. & Hasemann,B. (1988). Dramawise: an i n t r o d u c t i o n to GCSE drama. Oxford: Heinemann. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia  M i n i s t r y of Education.  (1977). Prologue, Drama E i g h t . Secondary  guide and  r e s o u r c e . V i c t o r i a , B.C. C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch. Verriour,P.  (1985). Face to f a c e : n e g o t i a t i n g meaning  through drama. Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e , 24 ( 3 ) , 181-192. Verriour,P.  (1986). C r e a t i n g worlds of dramatic d i s c o u r s e .  Language A r t s , 63 ( 3 ) . 253-263. Wagner,B.J. (1979). Dorothy Heathcote: drama as a l e a r n i n g medium. London: Hutchinson.  113 APPENDIX A  An Approach to "A Midsummer Night's Dream"  Susann Baum Laurie  Jardine  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  114 Table  of Contents  Rationale Part 1 :  I n t r o d u c t i o n to  a) E l i z a b e t h a n b) "A Midsummer  Part 2 :  A Walk i n the Enchanted a)  Forest  Brainstorm  b) Map/Picture c) Magic P o t i o n d) Tableau  Part 3 :  Who  Holds the Power? a) Modern Times b) Text based  Part 4 :  The  Lovers  Part 5 :  The  Players  Part 6 :  The  F a i r y Kingdom  Part 7 :  Conclusion  : Tying  times Night's  Dream  115 Rationale  A sequence of l e s s o n s f o r moving i n t o the t e x t of  "A Midsummer Night's Dream" with secondary  The approach used  students.  i n t h i s s e r i e s of l e s s o n s focuses  on drama as a v e h i c l e f o r l e a r n i n g . I t r e q u i r e s no ability  acting  of the students, no formal t h e a t r e t r a i n i n g and  need f o r e x c e s s i v e and unnecessary  no  p r o p e r t i e s . I t does,  however, e s t a b l i s h a s e n s i t i v i t y to the economical  use of  t h e a t r i c a l elements and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a r t form. Involvement i n these experiences i s p e r s o n a l i z e d and committed. It i s helpful of  f o r the teacher to u t i l i z e  v o i c e , a keen sense of pacing, i n t u i t i v e  the c l a s s and, interest  the nuances  "reading" of  a t a l l times, to maintain an empathy  and  i n the experiences of the students.  Teachers  must help t h e i r students to r e c o g n i z e t h a t  " a c t i n g " i s not the i n t e n t i o n , r a t h e r i t i s hoped t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l respond  t r u t h f u l l y to each  development. Through t h i s approach, r e f i n e t h e i r understanding deepening We  students can begin to  of t h e a t r i c a l elements,  t h e i r understanding  have attempted  new  of the  while  text.  to i l l u m i n a t e c e r t a i n concepts  of  116 the p l a y i n d e t a i l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the notions o f l o v e , power and i l l u s i o n .  PART ONE INTRODUCTION Focus : to provide background i n f o r m a t i o n on E l i z a b e t h a n times and a summary o f "A Midsummer Night"s  Dream" (known  h e r e a f t e r as M.N.D.)  Materials  : tape r e c o r d e r taped  selection  o f music with  dreamlike  quality (approx 2 minutes)  1. Teacher asks students  to s i t i n c i r c l e on the f l o o r .  2. Teacher g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n on E l i z a b e t h a n times as presented  below. I t i s not necessary  to provide more  i n f o r m a t i o n than t h i s a t t h i s time. - "A.M.N.D" was w r i t t e n i n approx. 1595 by W i l l i a m Shakespeare - New World r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d ; e x p l o r a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g - i l l i t e r a c y common, people s t i l l strongly i n traditions,  tended to b e l i e v e  l o c a l customs and s u p e r s t i t i o n s  - E l i z a b e t h I was queen, thus " E l i z a b e t h a n " e r a  117 - the l e v e l s of power were c l e a r l y understood by a l l ; i n government and f a m i l y  both  life  - f a t h e r s were the unquestioned heads o f the household; daughters and wives had l i t t l e power - Midsummer Night o c c u r r e d between dusk June 23 and dawn June 24, p r e s e n t i n g  an o c c a s i o n f o r merrymaking,  s u p e r s t i t i o n , dancing and - Midsummer Night  was  pageantry.  a time when E l i z a b e t h a n  would w i l l i n g l y b e l i e v e  audiences  i n the s u p e r s t i t i o n that the  great heat of summer l e f t men's minds open to madness.  3. Teacher: " Everyone now  f i n d a comfortable s l e e p i n g  p o s i t i o n on the f l o o r , e y e s c l o s e d , arranged i n a c i r c l e . I'm  going to t u r n the l i g h t s out and t e l l  you a s t o r y . "  Play tape (ask students to imagine they are l y i n g i n a forest) 4. Teacher  :  (read as w r i t t e n ) *  "This i s a s t o r y about s e v e r a l groups o f people whose l i v e s become entangled one evening i n midsummer. Four young l o v e r s escape i n t o the f o r e s t where they become the entertainment of the King of the F a i r i e s , Oberon and h i s mischeivous a s s i s t a n t , Puck. The l o v e r s have come to the f o r e s t to be f r e e from the eyes o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , and are  118 unaware o f the eyes that watch them now. The f a i r y King and h i s Queen are q u a r r e l i n g and the enchanted  forest  becomes t h e i r b a t t l e g r o u n d . At the same time, the f o r e s t has become the r e h e a r s a l space f o r a group o f uncouth tradesmen who intend to produce a p l a y to c e l e b r a t e the upcoming marriage o f the King o f Athens, Theseus."  * as t h i s i s not teacher i n r o l e , i t t e x t be  i s suggested that the  f o l l o w e d as i t s economical framework, avoids  confusion.  PART TWO A Walk i n the F o r e s t  Focus: to c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h the s e t t i n g o f the p l a y M a t e r i a l s : 2 l a r g e sheets o f paper f o r each group o f 6 2-3 a s s o r t e d f e l t pens per group A^ BRAINSTORM 1.Teacher: "Please get i n t o groups o f 6. Q u i c k l y c r e a t e a l i s t on the f i r s t  sheet o f paper o f a l l  the t h i n g s that come to your minds about enchanted forests.  Include:  You  have 1 minute."  ** i f you  feelings objects ideas things t h a t c o u l d happen to you  f e e l the c l a s s needs s l i g h t l y longer extend time Group Management : Assign a  recorder reporter  ... BEFORE s t a r t i n g 2. Teacher : Now, you  your group spokesperson w i l l  f e e l are the most s i g n i f i c a n t  * c a u t i o n students  not  to repeat  share what  items on your what has  list.  been s a i d , and  t h a t the l a s t group might t h e r e f o r e have q u i t e a short list. C l a s s shares * Teacher should from the l i s t ,  t r y to e x t r a c t the most important  i n c l u d i n g such things as h i d i n g ,  p o t i o n s , magic, being B. MAP/  lists  watched, f a i r i e s ,  items  spells,  etc.  PICTURE  This s e r i e s e x p l o r e s  the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the  forest. 1.  Teacher:" We're going  minute, but  first,  l o v e , power and  to use  some of these ideas i n a  l e t ' s t a l k b r i e f l y about the n o t i o n s  i l l u s i o n and  the symbols that we  of  recognize  120 to  r e p r e s e n t them." D i s c u s s i o n o f symbols  2. Teacher  : "Now,  with the ideas t h a t you've heard,  your  group w i l l c r e a t e a map, or p i c t u r e , on the 2nd sheet o f paper t h a t d e p i c t s an enchanted  f o r e s t . Within i t , the  n o t i o n s of love and i l l u s i o n are r e p r e s e n t e d , and o u t s i d e the boundaries  of the f o r e s t , power and a u t h o r i t y are  shown. Include somewhere watching  i n the f o r e s t the idea of  and being watched."  * Allow s u f f i c i e n t time f o r t h i s : gauge the energy  o f the  class Post a l l maps around room 3.  Teacher:  "Representatives w i l l now share your map  with  the c l a s s , being sure to i n d i c a t e where on the map we should see power,love and  illusion."  Share maps D i s c u s s the use of symbols t h a t occ C. MAGIC POTION 1. Teacher  : "Can you think, o f o c c a s i o n s when s p e l l s and  p o t i o n s are used and f o r what reasons  someone might want  121  to use them?  General D i s c u s s i o n : e l i c i t  such ideas as f a i r y t a l e s ,  s c i e n t i s t s , love s t o r i e s ;  revenge, c o n t r o l ,  mad  to change the  future 2. Teacher: Both s p e l l s and a love p o t i o n appear i n A.M.N.D. In new groups o f 6 now, w r i t e a s p e l l o f 3-4 are  intended to make someone f a l l  lines  i n l o v e . You are to *  prepare to c a s t the s p e l l i n the most e f f e c t i v e can d e v i s e , over the r e s t o f the It  3.  way you  class.  i s important f o r your group to decide on how the c l a s s  should be p o s i t i o n e d when they f a l l *  which  under s p e l l .  don't rush t h i s Each group c a s t s s p e l l over o t h e r s i n t u r n . Discussion  What are your thoughts and f e e l i n g s  about power a f t e r  doing t h i s e x e r c i s e ? What do you n o t i c e about the use o f language? How d i d each o f the groups use space? D. TABLEAU:  D i v i d e c l a s s i n t o 2 groups Each group w i l l c r e a t e a s t i l l  p i c t u r e which r e p r e s e n t s  the map. Someplace i n your p i c t u r e you must suggest watching  l o v e , power,  and i l l u s i o n / f a n t a s y .  Museum e x e r c i s e 1. Ask. the 1st group to s e t up t h e i r 2.  tell to  picture  the r e s t o f the c l a s s to f i n d a f r i e n d to  as they observe  speak  the s t a t u e . . . they are to  WHISPER o n l y to each other and share any and a l l the impressions they "read" i n the s t i l l p i c . 3.  a f t e r a s u i t a b l e l e n g t h o f o b s e r v a t i o n , have the c l a s s share aloud what they t h i n k they have seen.  4.  have the s t i l l  5.  repeat with other  p i c t u r e r e l a x to e x p l a i n i t s e l f . half.  Discussion 1. Where i n your l i f e do you experience being i n f l u e n c e d by power? 2.  In what forms do we f i n d  3.  What kinds o f love are there?  i l l u s i o n / f a n t a s y i n our l i v e s ?  * any o f the above q u e s t i o n s might extend w r i t i n g assignment.  into a journal  123 PART THREE Who  Holds the Power?  Focus: a comparison of a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n f a m i l i e s i n modern and  a n c i e n t times  Materials: chairs A. MODERN SITUATION 1. Teacher  : " get  i n t o groups of 3, p l e a s e "  " arrange 3 c h a i r s i n a form t h a t would i n d i c a t e that 2 people are i n c o n f l i c t and 1 person i s there to help solve the problem." 1. the r o l e s are a g r a d u a t i n g student, the f a t h e r of the student and the school c o u n s e l l o r . 2. the s i t u a t i o n i s that you, the student have decided to go to u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r g r a d u a t i n g , but your wants you to take over h i s b u s i n e s s .  father  He has c a l l e d  t h i s meeting with the school c o u n s e l l o r to t r y to convince you to change your mind. You are h u m i l i a t e d and embarrassed by your f a t h e r ' s outspoken behaviour. "Go ahead with the meeting ,now." Discussion What d i d you observe happening i n t h i s encounter? (ask each r o l e i n t u r n s t a r t i n g with the student)  124 * h o p e f u l l y the responses w i l l  i n c l u d e . . . power, a u t h o r i t y ,  s u p p r e s s i o n , d e t e r m i n a t i o n , resentment, h e l p l e s n e s s , e t c . )  B. TEXT BASED Materials:  chairs  banners o f the f o l l o w i n g posted around room randomly: a) King: Theseus  " To you your f a t h e r should be as a god"  b) F a t h e r : Egeus  "As she i s mine I may dispose o f h e r "  c) Daughter: "I would my f a t h e r looked but with my Hermia eyes" 1. Teacher: "Stay i n your r o l e s from the l a s t  exercise,  but the c o u n s e l l o r becomes the King. Egeus, the f a t h e r has arranged a marriage f o r h i s daughter which she strongly  opposes. He wishes Theseus to make a  decision." "Show t h i s meeting from beginning to end,but each person may only speak once, to say t h e i r l i n e a t an a p p r o p r i a t e time.Decide as a group i n what order and why." Show a l l scenes Discussion What were some o f the d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s groups made to make the ideas c l e a r  to the audience?  125 (placement o f c h a i r s , order o f l i n e s , entrances,  exits,  i e , the a c t i o n : was i t l o g i c a l ? ) * t h i s p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s t h e a t r e elements PART FOUR The Focus:  Lovers  to introduce the l o v e r s  Materials:  chairs (essential) copy o f t e x t passage f o r each  Activity Description: Students  student  I n t e r p r e t i v e Gesturing  are asked to i n t e r p r e t a s h o r t p i e c e o f t e x t ,  u t i l i z i n g only upper body. They are to remain seated throughout and are permitted  to move only arms, hands, and  upper trunk. They may r o t a t e i n c h a i r . The face must remain e x p r e s s i o n l e s s . This i s not an o p p o r t u n i t y to MIME, r a t h e r a c t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t i o n a l and a b s t r a c t .  Avoid  the use o f c l i c h e and  convention. *  Teacher must demonstrate an i n t e r p r e t i o n o f one or two l i n e s  1.  Teacher s e t s up four c h a i r s i n s t r a i g h t  2.  C a l l a v o l u n t e e r up to r e p r e s e n t each c h a r a c t e r as they are  introduced,  line.  ( t h i s e x e r c i s e i s to make c l e a r which gender  matches each name).  126 "We know that Hermia with Lysander We  (girl  takes one o f the s e a t s ) i s i n love  (boy takes seat next to Hermia).  know that Demetrius  (a boy take seat on other s i d e o f  Hermia) l o v e s Hermia and has been g i v e n the r i g h t to c l a i m her  as h i s b r i d e .  The l a s t l o v e r , but unloved, i s Helena  (takes remaining seat  next to Demetrius), who i s b l i n d l y devoted to Demetrius,  who  rej ects her." Lysander  Hermia  Demetrius  Helena  Interpretive Gesturing Exercise 1.  Teacher e x p l a i n s the e x e r c i s e as above.  2.  Class i s divided  i n t o groups o f four p r e f e r a b l y two boys, two  girls. 3.  Each student r e c e i v e s copy o f the t e x t and c h a r a c t e r s assigned.  4.  Teacher does demonstration o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f i r s t three  5.  lines.  Students i n t e r p r e t e n t i r e passage  i n their  groups.  And o f t e n i n the woods where you and I Upon f a i n t primrose beds were wont to l i e . Emptying our bosoms o f t h e i r c o u n c i l sweet. There Lysander and myself s h a l l meet. And thence from Athens t u r n away our eyes. To seek new f r i e n d s and s t r a n g e r companies. F a r e w e l l , sweet p l a y f e l l o w . P r a y thou f o r us;  two or  127 And good luck grant thee they Demetrius! Keep word, Lysander. We must s t a r v e our s i g h t From Lover's food t i l l tomorrow deep midnight. Notes :  Teacher w i l l n a r r a t e s t o r y while groups do p r e s e n t a t i o n  of work. Teacher reminds c l a s s to take time and not miss any o f the a c t i o n or meaning o f passage. Teacher c a u t i o n s they are not a c t i n g but r e p r e s e n t i n g . the l o v e r s are going  c l a s s that  Teacher reminds c l a s s why  i n t o the f o r e s t .  * allow p l e n t y o f time f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e . SHARE ALL SCENES Discussion How d i d each group c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t the *  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  lovers? t h i s i s an o p p o r t u n i t y  to emphasize use o f space and a c t i o n PART FIVE The  Focus:  to introduce  Players  the play w i t h i n the play  the concept o f dual r o l e s an understanding o f the comic elements Materials:  A copy o f the prologue f o r each student list  o f tradesman and  player  corresponding  128 Introduction:  Teacher i n t r o d u c e s l a b o r e r s  "Also i n the f o r e s t i s a group of men are i n the f o r e s t to s e c r e t l y rehearse  who  are l a b o r e r s .  a p l a y to o f f e r t h e i r k i n g  Theseus and h i s b r i d e H i p p o l y t a on t h e i r wedding day. rough coarse  tradesmen who  are very anxious  would c a l l  They are  "hams."  D i s t r i b u t e copy o f prologue and c h a r a c t e r (see f o l l o w i n g page) Instructions: and  These are  to please t h e i r k i n g  so they tend to overdo even the s l i g h t e s t a c t i o n . p e r f e c t examples of what we  list  In groups of s i x , choose c h a r a c t e r s from the  as the prologue  They  list  i s being n a r r a t e d c r e a t e the a c t i o n which  goes with the t e x t i n the most exaggerated manner p o s s i b l e . When you get to the end of the prologue, capture  the elements of exaggeration  FREEZE, being sure to  i n the s t a t u e s .  SHARE ALL SCENES Discussion Caricature Comedy/Tragedy Buffoonery...enjoyment of others  discomfort  PART SIX The Focus:  F a i r y Kingdom  to e x p l o r e the ideas of power  j ealousy magic s p e l l s and  Materials:  poster o f :  INTRODUCTION: The  potions  "The next t h i n g she waking Looks upon She s h a l l pursue with the soul Of l o v e . "  f o r e s t a l s o holds a kingdom of f a i r i e s .  The  King, Oberon and h i s Queen, T i t a n i a meet unexpectedly  i n the f o r e s t a t a time when they  having a l o v e r ' s spat.  The  are  f a i r i e s love to c r e a t e  havoc f o r the purpose of e n t e r t a i n i n g themselves. Instructions:  In p a i r s , c r e a t e the a c t i o n of the meeting of Oberon and  T i t a n i a which leads up to the t e x t  above being spoken by Oberon. The j e a l o u s y , power and *  allow s u f f i c i e n t  ideas of  a love p o t i o n must be used.  time ,  SHARE ALL SCENES Discussion  How  does love a f f e c t  behavior?  PART SEVEN TYING THE Focus:  KNOT: CONCLUSION  to show the r e s o l u t i o n of a l l the  Materials:  poster:  "So s h a l l a l l the three  confusion  couples  Ever true i n l o v i n g INTRODUCTION:  be."  E v e n t u a l l y a l l the l o v e r s were round i n the  f o r e s t by Theseus, H i p p o l y t a and Egeus and a l l were f o r g i v e n f o r t h e i r d i s o b e d i e n c e . The magic of the f a i r i e s was everyone s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and  able to u n i t e  they a l l l i v e d h a p p i l y ever  after.  B. A WEDDING PORTRAIT Teacher:  a. b.  D i v i d e c l a s s i n t o three equal  Each group i s to c r e a t e a wedding p o r t r a i t of the three couples j u s t  c.  groups.  married.  Groups must d i s t i n g u i s h between the wedding p a r t y and  the wedding guests.  of Theseus/Hippolyta,  The wedding p a r t y c o n s i s t s  Hermia/Lysander, and  Helena/Demetrius. d.  Have c l a s s arrange  the space to r e p r e s e n t a palace  r e c e p t i o n area where each group must enter i n t o hall e.  through  the  an e s t a b l i s h e d entranceway.  Each group w i l l enter the h a l l and  s e t up  their  p o r t r a i t f o r the r e s t of the c l a s s to see.  The  f i n a l step i n the sequence i s to have a l l groups c r e a t e  t h e i r tableaux s i m u l t a n e o u s l y while the teacher speaks the f o l l o w i n g passage:  131 " I f we shadows have offended. Think but t h i s , and a l l i s mended: That you have but slumb'red here, While these v i s i o n s d i d appear." This  i s the end of the sequence.  further exploration  of the t e x t .  Teachers would now  move i n t o a  132 APPENDIX B  Interview with Grade Ten June 18, L:  Students  1991  This i s r e a l l y do t h i s .  i n f o r m a l and I a p p r e c i a t e you being able to o  I j u s t r e a l l y wanted to get some more i n f o r m a t i o n  so I can improve my  own  undestanding  year. That's a l l t h i s i s . So,  of what's happened t h i s  i f I ask. you a few  then I would a l s o l i k e you to ask me  questions  some q u e s t i o n s because  I t h i n k you probably have some q u e s t i o n s about how  things  went!  (students chuckle) I'm  not t a k i n g notes, i t ' s a l l on  tape.  What I'd l i k e to s t a r t with i s i f you n o t i c e d a  general d i f f e r e n c e i n the tone of the c l a s s t h i s  year  compared to l a s t ? #1:  For me 9/10  i t was  a r e a l l y b i g d i f f e r e n c e because I was  s p l i t c l a s s and  t h i s year with s t r a i g h t 10 I got to  know everyone r e a l l y w e l l .  In drama, you get r e a l l y  You always have to work with people and  L:  Is there something s p e c i a l about the way people  in a  close.  t r u s t them.  you work with  i n drama as opposed to other c l a s s e s t h a t helps  r e l a t i o n s h i p s work b e t t e r ?  those  133 #1:  You completely have to t r u s t the person - i t ' s a complete r e l a t i o n s h i p - you get to know people's they're t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g .  i n s i d e s , what  You're completely open - you  j u s t have to be to s u r v i v e .  #2:  I t was a l i t t l e hard the f i r s t used to  to d i f f e r e n t areas - a r c h i t e c t / m o n a s t e r y t h i n g - hard  g e t i n t o the swing o f i t .  molding,  L:  two months because we were  But t h a t was r e a l l y the  i t got us together f o r the s t u f f ahead.  Did you f i n d t h a t ' s what happened t h a t because you were working as a whole c l a s s group t h a t you came together  faster  as a group than you would have i f we'd done i t the way we used  to where we d i d a warmup and then something e l s e and an  improvisation.  Did t h a t have an e f f e c t on how you g e l l e d ?  #1:  I l i k e d the warmup the f i r s t  L:  Yes and i t ' s okay to do t h a t .  year.  Did you f i n d there were times  i n the r o l e drama where there was enough p h y s i c a l a c t i o n to keep you a l e r t ?  #1:  Yes i n the tableaux but not i n the monk u n i t .  134 L:  That has been the most u n i v e r s a l l y hated u n i t I've ever done. of  #1:  And  Except there was  some r e a l l y good work that came out  that.  some of the people you got to do t h i n g s l i k e  the s t r a n g e r r e a l l y opened him up a l i t t l e was  really  t h i n g t h a t was  hard f o r me  s t r u c t u r e d but i t was i t wasn't i n depth.  L:  it  #2:  It- was  r i g h t up.  The  that l a s t year i t was  jumping  from t o p i c to t o p i c  and  hard a t the beginning to get  suddenly in-depth s t u f f .  that i t wasn't going to be  (and I t h i n k that was  like  f a i r l y e a r l y on), what d i d  f e e l 1 ike?  At f i r s t was  was  always  Once you got over the f a c t l a s t year  he  had to open up.  The a r c h i t e c t t h i n g r e a l l y opened  into this  more because  taken i n and i t f o r c e d him to be i n a s i t u a t i o n  where he r e a l l y  #2:  as  I thought  "I don't l i k e t h i s " but once a s e c t i o n  done, you'd look back and r e a l i z e  learned.  how  much you'd  There were always p a r t s where you'd t h i n k : "I l i k e  t h i s or I l i k e t h i s " but then you'd look back and see that what you'd l i k e d  , you'd l e a r n e d on and what you d i d n ' t  like  135 you'd learned even more on.  #1:  Yah, I'd agree with t h a t - we learned a l o t t h i s year and when we were doing very  the monk t h i n k , I d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was  i n t e r e s t i n g but I l e a r n e d so much about  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and how important that was so g r e a t .  I loved t h a t so much how wer had to go  i n t o the f a m i l y groups. importance o f being  i t i s . "The C r u c i b l e " -  I t was so wonderful - the  so concentrated  on i t you can't go o f f  the t o p i c or e l s e i t ' s not i n t e r e s t i n g and I always get mad t h a t i n s c h o o l , there are people who don't r e a l l y wnat to be there.  Sometimes people do get out o f the r o l e and then i t s  not as r e a l i s t i c .  L:  L e t me ask a q u e s t i o n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h a t .  Do you  think that the l e v e l o f commitment, even by the people who weren't here to take  i t s e r i o u s l y i n c r e a s e d because o f the  kinds o f a c t i v i t i e s we were doing?  #1:  Yes, f o r the most p a r t - i t worked r e a l l y w e l l .  L:  By doing  the r o l e drama before we looked  that help your understanding?  a t the t e x t - d i d  136 #1:  I t h i n k i t may have dwelled on i t a l i t t l e  #2:  Also with t h a t - you made up your own scenes, got your own story l i n e  too long.  i n your head, and then when you read the a c t u a l  t e x t i t was  different.  L:  Did you f i n d  i t too hard to make a s h i f t ?  #1:  No, i t was okay.  L:  I f you f i n d t h a t you a r e working with people who are only semi-committed to the work, do you f i n d  i f you i n c r e a s e your  own l e v e l o f communication to the drama that t h i s w i l l help draw them i n as w e l l ?  #1:  Yes d e f i n i t e l y I yelled around  - when we were working on the n a t i v e s i s s u e .  a t one o f the group a l o t because  he was g o o f i n g  - and he would never l i s t e n ; but i f I a c t u a l l y  went and s t a r t e d doing i t , then he would s t a r t  just  to adapt.  So  I found t h a t shouting wasn't good.  #2:  What I f i n d I have a hard time with i s a c c e p t i n g other people's l e v e l s .  For me, i f I'm on a c e r t a i n  to go with i t r a t h e r than h o l d back.  l e v e l , I want  137 #1:  That's a l s o p a r t o f the t h i n g that some people t h i n k drama i s an easy course so they're not on the same l e v e l .  L:  In your understanding about what people are s a y i n g , when they t a l k about drama now what do they say? n o t i c e about  #2:  What do they  the changes i n the course?  Over the l a s t year, I t h i n k that the a t t i t u d e toward the course i s : i t ' s not fun and games, I mean, i t i s but t h a t ' s not a l l i t i s .  L:  Where do you f i n d that the best work came out o f t h i s year. What moments do you t h i n k people worked the hardest, not where they had the most fun but where d i d the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f a l l the people get drawn out the most.  #2:  I t h i n k when they understood what was going on l i k e the Commedia  d e l l ' a r t e where with the n a t i v e one or the monks,  by the time you'd understand, the u n i t was over.  L:  So t h e r e ' s a l o t o f s t r u g g l i n g to g e t to the meat o f the material.  #2:  And when you get to that then you b u i l d on t h a t .  138 #1:  I think the strong work came from the commedia, because o f s m a l l e r groups people p r a c t i c e d w e l l and the n i g h t performance was so g r e a t .  A l s o , when we had that theater  s p o r t s group, people were saying  "I f o r g e t how to do t h i s "  so I'd suggest t h a t one day a month should be j u s t  theatre  sports.  L:  Uh huh, I see.  I t h i n k t h a t I was so anxious to see what  would happen i f I d i v o r c e d t h e a t r e s p o r t s from c l a s s . . . I d i d n ' t see t h a t there were so many people who t h i n k t h a t ' s what drama's a l l about. any  #1:  By t a k i n g t h a t out, I was removing  k i n d o f f a m i l i a r i t y they had i n the c l a s s .  But i t was good t h a t you d i d that because now  they  a p p r e c i a t e the other s i d e .  #2:  I t h i n k the Louis R i e l t h i n g was our s t r o n g e s t because the l a s t tableaux  were so stong.  L:  Rememberance  Day?  #1:  When we were doing  i t , I'd t h i n k "Oh, t h i s i s nothing" but  when I look back a t each t h i n g , I t h i n k that each u n i t was very s t r o n g - (tape  interupted)  139 #2:  The t h i n g about t h e a t r e s p o r t s - people s a i d  they'd  f o r g o t t e n how to p l a y the games, but I t h i n k that through  the y e a r , i t brought up t h e i m p r o v i s a t i o n l e v e l , t h e y ' r e i m p r o v i s a t i o n a b i l i t y was higher without  #2:  I t ' s good t y i n g  i n the work l i k e R i e l to other c l a s s e s .  can remember t h i n g s f o r other  #2:  #1:  You  subjects.  With R i e l we c o u l d look a t d i f f e r e n t the  the games.  p e r s p e c t i v e s , not j u s t  textbook.  The teacher  has to have a l o t o f knowledge.  You gave us a  l o t o f background to b u i l d on - we had more o f a chance to do something with the i n f o r m a t i o n t h i s year  than l a s t .  L:  Is t h a t a l o t d i f f e r e n t  than what was happening l a s t year?  #3:  L a s t year we d i d a l o t o f i m p r o v i s a t i o n ; t h i s year,  I think  people got more out o f i t because there are people who a r e n ' t very good a t i m p r o v i s a t i o n .  This year we had a much  wider range to e x c e l i n .  #2:  P l u s , I've y e t to see a " s e r i o u s i m p r o v i s a t i o n ' - everyone goes f o r being  funny.  Plus with t h e a t r e s p o r t s , you're not  140  really  focused  - the t h i n g I learned  from the monks was  how  to focus y o u r s e l f .  L:  What d i d you  t h i n k of me  #3:  I t h i n k i t helped  being  i n r o l e with you?  because i f we'd  j u s t done i t o u r s e l v e s , i t  would have f a l l e n a p a r t , people would have s t a r t e d to and  not g o t t e n  q u i e t and  #2:  into character.  With you  laugh  there, people were  focused.  P l u s , a student  can p l a y an a d u l t , but  b e l i e v e that another student  f o r other  students  to  i s supposedly o l d e r i s harder  to do - i t ' s e a s i e r with an a c t u a l a d u l t .  L:  When you were doing r o l e dramas, what d i d you n o t i c e about being the c h a r a c t e r or developing  #3:  You  #4:  You're not  c o u l d make your own  else.  the  character?  character.  i n t e r p r e t i n g someone e l s e ' s p i c t u r e of someone  I t ' s your p i c t u r e of who  you are d u r i n g that r o l e  drama.  #2:  When you  s a i d we  would be w r i t i n g our own  s c r i p t s there were  141 a l o t o f ah's (groans), from a t e x t .  but I think  i t ' s e a s i e r than working  You a l s o get b e t t e r r e s u l t s when i t s x  your own  stuff.  L:  Let's "The  t a l k about the w r i t i n g process a l i t t l e . C r u c i b l e " , we d i d write  When we d i d  some monologue (hidden  thoughts).  #2:  That was i n t e r e s t i n g because i t brought out that not everything  i s spoken to the other person and i t was hard to  b r i n g out what you don't normally say.  #4:  Lots o f people f i n d  i t hard t r o say what they're t h i n k i n g or  b e l i e v e what other people are t h i n k i n g . what you think  i t flows,  I f you j u s t  i t sounds stronger  write  but n a t u r a l .  L:  Where were the most b e l i e v a b l e  events?  #2:  The a r c h i t e c t moment was f o r me the most b e l i e v a b l e  f o r me  the whole year.  #3:  I think the one I most remember was when I was one o f the girsls  i n the C r u c i b l e u n i t and we had to go o f f and say i f  we were g u i l t y or not o f being  there.  142 #4:  I l i k e d the a r c h i t e c t t h i n g too.  d i d such a good job  of being who he was t h a t you knew e x a c t l y what you needed to do.  L:  Did you ever  f e e l t h a t there was a pressure on you to  •perform'.  #3:  No.  L:  Is i t v a l i d  #2:  Yes but we don't want i t to be a c u r r e n t a f f a i r s  to use drama as a way o f studying i s s u e s ?  class  either!  L:  I'm a f r a i d our time  i s up. Thank you very much f o r s h a r i n g  these comments with me; i t helps me a l o t to see the year from your  eyes.  

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