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The relationship between symbolic style and kindergarten children's emergent writing 1991

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYMBOLIC STYLE AND KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN'S EMERGENT WRITING by BONITA STEFFLER B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1984 Dip.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Language E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1991 © B o n i t a S t e f f l e r , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 9 1 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT A c c o r d i n g t o r e s e a r c h , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way young c h i l d r e n l e a r n u s i n g symbols i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f growth and development. H a r v a r d ' s P r o j e c t Zero r e s e a r c h e r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e s o f symbol use i n t h e way t h e y draw, c r e a t e u s i n g c l a y and p l a y o b j e c t s , and t e l l s t o r i e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e " s y m b o l i c s t y l e s " o f P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s have been i d e n t i f i e d . | ^ T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r r e d s y m b o l i c s t y l e and t h e i r e a r l y w r i t i n g a t t e m p t s ^ S i x f o c a l c h i l d r e n (3 P a t t e r n e r s , and 3 D r a m a t i s t s ) were s e l e c t e d from a t o t a l o f 26 c h i l d r e n . Over a p e r i o d o f 4 months, d a t a were c o l l e c t e d a t a c l a s s r o o m w r i t i n g c e n t r e . C o l l e c t e d d a t a i n c l u d e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n and drawn p r o d u c t s , a u d i o t a p e d r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k , o b s e r v a t i o n s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s e s s i o n s , and t a p e d r e s p o n s e s t o i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . T h i s d a t a were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e any s i m i l a r i t i e s o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n each groups' approach t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and t h e i r v i e w s about w r i t i n g . y^Data a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . D i f f e r e n c e s among group members were o b s e r v e d i n some i n s t a n c e s . D i s c u s s i o n compared t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n / d r a w n p r o d u c t s and o b s e r v e d w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s b o t h t o each o t h e r and t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i Acknowl edgement v i i i C h a p t e r One: I n t r o d u c t i o n To The Study I n t r o d u c t i o n ; 1 Background t o the Problem 2 Statement of the Problem 5 Purpose of the Study 6 Questions 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Design and Sample 9 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 10 C h a p t e r Two: Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e I n t r o d u c t i o n 12 Drawing as a Symbolizing A c t i v i t y 15 W r i t i n g as a Symbolizing Event 18 C h i l d r e n as 'Symbol Weavers 1 24 V a r i a t i o n i n Symbolic Development 31 Avenues t o L a t e r S y m b o l i z a t i o n 38 Summary 43 i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ( c o n t i n u e d ) C h a p t e r Three: Methodology R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 48 S i t e and Program 49, S u b j e c t s 50 Data C o l l e c t i o n 51 Data A n a l y s i s 56 Ch a p t e r F o u r : R e s u l t s I n t r o d u c t i o n 69 P r o d u c t A n a l y s e s 69 Composing P r o c e s s A n a l y s e s 75 W r i t i n g I n t e r v i e w A n a l y s i s 92 Summary o f R e s u l t s 95 C h a p t e r F i v e : D i s c u s s i o n and Recommendations Summary 99 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s from P r o d u c t A n a l y s e s 100 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s from Composing P r o c e s s A n a l y s e s 103 D i s c u s s i o n o f Responses t o W r i t i n g I n t e r v i e w s 110 D i s c u s s i o n o f D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n groups I l l Summary D i s c u s s i o n 114 Recommendations f o r P r a c t i c e 116 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 118 i v TABLE OP CONTENTS ( c o n t i n u e d ) R e f e r e n c e s 121 Appendix A: Example o f d a i l y l o g e n t r y 126 Appendix B: Phase one d a t a a n a l y s e s 127 C r i t e r i a f o r D e t e r m i n i n g Media Responses S y m b o l i c S t y l e R a t i n g Index C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Responses t o S y m b o l i c S t y l e Tasks Appendix C: Phase two d a t a a n a l y s e s 132 W r i t i n g P r o c e s s Components Worksheet used t o a n a l y z e and code composing e v e n t s Language F u n c t i o n s and S t r a t e g i e s Meaning Elements Worksheet Appendix D: C o n v e n t i o n s used i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s c r i p t s 137 Appendix E: D r a w i n g / W r i t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s 138 v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1 R e s o u r c e s C h i l d r e n B r i n g t o W r i t t e n D i s c o u r s e ....44 2 Comparison o f S y m b o l i c S t y l e S c o r e s and PPVT-R S c o r e s 60 3 Number o f J o u r n a l E n t r i e s C o l l e c t e d and Average Number o f Words p e r E n t r y 70 4 How Drawing and W r i t i n g were Combined 71 5 P e r s o n a l S t a n c e i n C h i l d r e n ' s T e x t 73 6 P r e s e n c e o f N a r r a t i v e Movement i n C h i l d r e n ' s T e x t s 74 7 Segmentation o f o r a l language d u r i n g e n c o d i n g 77 8 T o p i c s o f D r a m a t i s t s ' t a l k 83 9 T o p i c s o f P a t t e r n e r s ' t a l k 84 10 Degree o f s y m b o l i c i n v o l v e m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k 86 11 Language F u n c t i o n s o f C h i l d r e n ' s t a l k 87 12 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and D i r e c t i v e Language S t r a t e g i e s Used 89 13 H e u r i s t i c and P e r s o n a l Language S t r a t e g i e s Used...90 14 Meaning Elements c o n t a i n e d i n t a l k , d r a w i n g , & w r i t i n g 91 15 W r i t i n g P r o c e s s Components: D r a m a t i s t s v s . P a t t e r n e r s 96 16 Meaning Elements f o c u s e d on i n t a l k , d r a w i n g & w r i t i n g 98 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 Ogive Curve of Symbolic S t y l e Scores 58 2 Box-and-whisker p l o t of Symbolic S t y l e Scores ....59 3 Sammy's b i r d s t o r y 79 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o thank a l l c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o thank Dr. Lee Gunderson and Dr. C l a i r e S t a a b from t h e Department o f Language E d u c a t i o n , and Dr. M a r i o n P o r a t h from t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e as committee members. I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. J o n S h a p i r o , f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s and t o my husband f o r h i s c o n t i n u a l s u p p o r t . v i i i CHAPTER ONE I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Study I n t r o d u c t i o n The r o l e o f c h i l d r e n ' s d r awings i n d e v e l o p i n g w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n has been a t o p i c o f i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n o v e r t h e p a s t few y e a r s . There i s a gr o w i n g awareness t h a t 'every c h i l d has a s t o r y t o t e l l ' ( G raves, 1983). Perhaps as t e a c h e r s we have been m i s s i n g p a r t s o f t h i s s t o r y by n o t s e e i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f d r a w i n g , w r i t i n g , and o r a l language. The o f t e n r e p e a t e d p h r a s e , "A p i c t u r e i s w o r t h a thousand words" might c o n t i n u e t o be o v e r l o o k e d by some t e a c h e r s who d i s r e g a r d c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g s and see them as "added f r i l l s " . J u s t as we a r e now l o o k i n g a t language a r t s from a h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e , we need t o l o o k a t a l l t h e c h a n n e l s o f communication a c h i l d u s e s t o a c q u i r e language and make sense o f p r i n t . C h i l d r e n ' s d rawings a r e " v i a b l e t o o l s f o r problem s o l v i n g .... Through them c h i l d r e n make sense o f t h e w o r l d , and i m p a r t t h e i r v i s i o n s " (Hubbard, 1987, p. 6 0 ) . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , d r a w i n g s r e p r e s e n t an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f w r i t t e n communication f o r young c h i l d r e n . As Graves' (1983) r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e b e g i n n i n g w r i t e r ' s p r o g r e s s i o n from d r a w i n g t o c o m p o s i t i o n . 1 W r i t i n g and d r a w i n g can b o t h be v i e w e d as s y m b o l i c t a s k s . C h i l d r e n have been found t o e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c approaches t o s y m b o l i c t a s k s such as d r a w i n g and s y m b o l i c p l a y . Wolf and Gardner i d e n t i f i e d two s y m b o l i c s t y l e s . One group o f c h i l d r e n were c a l l e d P a t t e r n e r s , t h e o t h e r group D r a m a t i s t s . No r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d t h a t e x p l o r e s how a young c h i l d ' s approach t o w r i t i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r a pproach t o s y m b o l i c t a s k s i n g e n e r a l . One s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by Dyson (1986) d e s c r i b e d how f o u r k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ' s b e g i n n i n g w r i t i n g showed s i g n s o f d i f f e r i n g s y m b o l i c s t y l e . However, t h i s was n o t t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t o f h e r r e s e a r c h , b u t r a t h e r an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c o v e r y . Dyson's work f o c u s e d on o n l y a s m a l l sample o f c h i l d r e n . Thus, more r e s e a r c h needs t o be done i n t h i s a r e a i f we a r e t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d how young c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o use symbols t o communicate t h e i r ' s t o r i e s ' . Background t o t h e Problem T h i s s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f V y g o t s k y (1978) who l o c a t e d t h e r o o t s o f w r i t i n g development i n t h e young c h i l d ' s g r o w i n g a b i l i t y t o use v a r i e d symbols. The a b i l i t y t o compose w r i t t e n t e x t - t o convey meaning t h r o u g h l e t t e r g r a p h i c s - grows out o f g e s t u r e , speech, d r a m a t i c p l a y , and d r a w i n g . Recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f young w r i t e r s p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o how c h i l d r e n use o t h e r media, p a r t i c u l a r l y d r a w i n g , as 2 t h e y d i s c o v e r t h e u n i q u e s t r u c t u r e s and s t r a t e g i e s o f each symbol system. F o r example, c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e symbol system o f d r a w i n g ( o f u s i n g l i n e s and c u r v e s t o r e p r e s e n t o b j e c t s ) may s e r v e as a t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e i r i n i t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e symbol system o f w r i t i n g ( o f u s i n g t h e l i n e s and c u r v e s o f l e t t e r s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e names o f o b j e c t s ) (Dyson, 1982; F e r r e i r o & Teberosky, 1982). I n a d d i t i o n , young c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous t e x t s a r e o f t e n composed o f m u l t i p l e media, i n c l u d i n g d r a w i n g , t a l k i n g , and w r i t i n g . H a r s t e , Woodward, and Burke (1984) s u g g e s t t h a t " b o r d e r s k i r m i s h e s " , i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n waver between w r i t i n g and d r a w i n g , may h e l p c h i l d r e n pose and r e s o l v e t h e problems i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r r e - i n v e n t i o n o f w r i t t e n language. A c c o r d i n g t o Dyson (1986), t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g i s "a d e c e p t i v e l y s i m p l e one" (p.381). She d e s c r i b e s young c h i l d r e n as 'symbol weavers'. The i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s t h e y form on paper may r e l y on v a r i e d symbol systems o r media. However, as c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p as symbol u s e r s , t h e y soon d i s c o v e r t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e and powers o f each form o f communication (Wolf and Gardner, 1981). F i n a l l y , w h i l e d r a w i n g , c h i l d r e n may r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t approaches t o t h e g r a p h i c a c t i v i t y . They have d i f f e r i n g s t y l e s o r p r e f e r r e d ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s . D i f f e r e n c e s between s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d and o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d s t y l e s have been documented i n c h i l d r e n ' s use o f v a r i e d media, i n c l u d i n g 3 speech and d r a w i n g . I n d r a w i n g , f o r example, c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n may f o c u s on t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f a f i g u r e t o be r e p r e s e n t e d ; o t h e r s may use g r a p h i c symbols as p r o p s i n a t o l d s t o r y (Gardner, Wolf, & S m i t h , 1982). These d i f f e r e n c e s i n use o f s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l s may l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g p a t h s . D i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n may f o c u s on and d e v e l o p d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e complex symbol- p r o d u c i n g p r o c e s s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s ( B u s s i s , C h i t t e n d e n , A m a r e l , & K l a u s n e r , 1985; N e l s o n , 1981; Wolf & Gardner, 1979) . I f one a c c e p t s b o t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w r i t i n g grows out o f " t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f s i g n development i n t h e c h i l d " ( V y g o t s k y , 1978, p.106) and t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s may be o b s e r v e d i n how c h i l d r e n approach open- ended composing t a s k s , one can assume as w e l l t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e s o u r c e s and t h e t e n s i o n s c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e as t h e y a t tempt new forms o f s y m b o l i z i n g . I n h e r r e s e a r c h on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , N e l s o n (1981) s t r e s s e s t h a t most c h i l d r e n f a l l between t h e two extremes o f s t y l e ( r e f e r e n t i a l v e r s u s e x p r e s s i v e ) ; f u r t h e r , c h i l d r e n may d i s p l a y d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . N o n e t h e l e s s , s t u d y i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g s t y l e s i l l u m i n a t e s b o t h t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e symbol system t o be l e a r n e d and t h e c h a l l e n g e s t h a t system poses f o r l e a r n e r s . 4 Statement o f t h e Problem The c a p a c i t y t o use symbols has o f t e n been c o n s i d e r e d , t h e h a l l m a r k o f human c o g n i t i o n . Y e t , v e r y l i t t l e has been e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l y c o u r s e o f t h i s c r u c i a l human a b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h few s c h o l a r s have assumed t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y m b o l i c competence i s a s i m p l e p r o c e s s , much i n v e s t i g a t i o n has tended t o lump a l l s y m b o l i c systems t o g e t h e r o r t o s t u d y o n l y one i n de p t h w h i l e i g n o r i n g i t s r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s y m b o l i c systems. I n t o d a y ' s s c h o o l s i t i s n o t uncommon t o f i n d w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n o c c u r i n g from t h e f i r s t day o f grade one. I t i s even o c c u r i n g i n many k i n d e r g a r t e n programs. As w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n move t o l o w e r g r a d e s , e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d be i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r knowledge o f what i n f l u e n c e s w r i t i n g development a t e a r l y ages. We know t h a t c h i l d r e n d i f f e r i n s t y l e i n t h e a r e a s o f d r a w i n g , s y m b o l i c p l a y and o r a l language development. I f c h i l d r e n ' s development as s y m b o l i z i n g b e i n g s i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p r e f e r r e d s y m b o l i c s t y l e , we need t o know what i n f l u e n c e t h i s w i l l have on t h e i r e a r l y w r i t i n g a t t e m p t s . What i n f l u e n c e w i l l t h i s have on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f w r i t i n g ? F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e u n i v e r s a l p r o p e r t i e s o f symbol use, t h o s e a s p e c t s o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n t h a t may d i f f e r a c r o s s media and t h e n a t u r e o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s i n p a t t e r n s o f symbol use. 5 Purpose o f t h e Study The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s • p r e f e r r e d s y m b o l i c s t y l e and t h e i r e a r l y w r i t i n g a t t e m p t s . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f w r i t i n g , as w e l l as t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g were a l s o examined. Q u e s t i o n s The s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. Do c h i l d r e n who d i f f e r i n s y m b o l i c s t y l e (as i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g S u l l i v a n ' s [1986] c r i t e r i a ) a l s o d i f f e r i n t h e i r e a r l y w r i t i n g a t t e m p t s ? I f so, what i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s ? la) What r o l e do dr a w i n g and w r i t i n g s e r v e i n one g r a p h i c p r o d u c t ? A r e t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e way P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s combine d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g i n t h e i r work? lb) What p e r s o n a l s t a n c e i s e v i d e n t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t e x t s ? Does t h i s d i f f e r between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s ? Ic) I s t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f n a r r a t i v e movement i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s ? Do P a t t e r n e r s o r D r a m a t i s t s i n c l u d e more movement i n t h e i r t e x t s ? 6 Id) A r e t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e message q u a l i t y o f P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s c o m p o s i t i o n s ? I f so, what i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s ? l e ) What r o l e does language p l a y i n each g r o u p s ' a pproach t o w r i t i n g ? I f ) What meaning elements a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g , t a l k i n g and w r i t i n g ? l g ) What t o p i c s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k as t h e y draw and w r i t e ? How r e l e v a n t i s t h i s t a l k t o t h e i r o n going j o u r n a l a c t i v i t y ? What d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t h e r e between t h e t o p i c s o f P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s t a l k ? 2. Do P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f w r i t i n g and t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g ? I f so, how do t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s v a r y ? D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 1. Symbol - something t h a t s t a n d s f o r something e l s e ; s o mething c o n c r e t e t h a t r e p r e s e n t s o r s u g g e s t s a n o t h e r t h i n g t h a t c a nnot i n i t s e l f be r e p r e s e n t e d o r v i s u a l i z e d 2. S y m b o l i c S t y l e - a d i s t i n c t i v e o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c manner i n w h i c h a p e r s o n uses symbols. Such a s t y l e has many components, i n c l u d i n g t h e means whereby c h i l d r e n s e l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n , c a p t u r e i t i n s y m b o l i c forms, o r g a n i z e i t i n t o c o h e r e n t messages, and t r a n s m i t i t d e l i b e r t l y t o o t h e r s . 7 3. Patterners - (as d e s c r i b e d by Wolf and Gardner, 1979) c h i l d r e n who d i s p l a y a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t (and s k i l l ) i n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l uses o f m a t e r i a l s — t h e making o f p a t t e r n s , s t r u c t u r e s , and o r d e r s . They e x h i b i t a p e r s i s t e n t c u r i o s i t y about t h e o b j e c t w o r l d around them. They want t o know how something works, how i t might be named, how t o e x p l o r e and v a r y i t . G i v e n m a t e r i a l s , such c h i l d r e n a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n m e c h a n i c a l and d e s i g n p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a n i n communication o r r e c r e a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Language i s o n l y a p e r i p h e r a l p a r t o f t h e d r a w i n g p r o c e s s . P a t t e r n e r s a r e a t t r a c t e d t o r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n s and o f t e n t h e y t e n d t o p l u n g e d i r e c t l y i n t o d r a w i n g o r b u i l d i n g t a s k s . They have sometimes been c a l l e d v i s u a l i z e r s . 4. Dramatists - (as d e s c r i b e d by Wolf and Gardner, 1979) c h i l d r e n who a r e s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d and d i s p l a y an a b i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e human s u r r o u n d i n g : what o t h e r s do, how t h e y t h i n k and f e e l , how o t h e r s can be c o n t a c t e d and a f f e c t e d . F o r them, d r a w i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e i n t e r w o v e n w i t h t a l k . They make e x t e n s i v e use o f n a r r a t i v e d u r i n g d r a w i n g . D r a m a t i s t s o f t e n appear more r e f l e c t i v e o f t a s k a t hand. A l l t h e i r energy i s de v o t e d toward e f f e c t i v e communication w i t h o t h e r s and t o w a r d d r a m a t i c s h a r i n g o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . 5. Personal stance - t h e r o l e o r s t a n c e w h i c h t h e c h i l d a u t h o r appeared t o be t a k i n g as t h e y worked. 8 6 . N a r r a t i v e Movement - (as d e f i n e d by Dyson, 1989, p.296) used f o r d e s c r i b i n g t i m e . N a r r a t i v e movement e x i s t e d i n a t e x t i f t h e r e were two t e m p o r a l l y o r d e r e d , independent c l a u s e s p r e s e n t i n g a c t i o n o r a c h a r a c t e r ' s r e a c t i o n . 7. message q u a l i t y - (a term borrowed from C l a y , 1975) t h e c h i l d ' s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f meaning and t h e system f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g t h a t meaning. 8. Meaning Elements - t h o s e components t h r o u g h w h i c h meanings a r e e x p r e s s e d ( i n c l u d e s o b j e c t s , a c t o r s , a c t i o n s , placement i n space and t i m e , and s e n s o r i m o t o r q u a l i t i e s ) . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e D e s i g n and Sample The s t u d y examined k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e symbol systems o f d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g . The s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d t h e same K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s f o r e i t h e r t h e morning o r a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n . Data c o l l e c t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o two phases. Phase one ( l a s t i n g 6 weeks) was an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n phase i n w h i c h a l l 26 s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d . Twelve s y m b o l i c s t y l e t a s k s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o each c h i l d t o d e t e r m i n e any p a t t e r n s i n t h e i r approach t o t h e s e t a s k s . C r i t e r i a a dapted by S u l l i v a n (1986) from Wolf and Gardner's (1979) r e s e a r c h was used t o a s s e s s media r e s p o n s e s . Case s t u d y c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d who demonstrated an i d e n t i f i a b l e s y m b o l i c s t y l e . The Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d (PPVT-R) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s e s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . 9 Phase two l a s t e d f o u r months. Data was g a t h e r e d on s i x c a s e s t u d y c h i l d r e n as t h e y worked a t t h e J o u r n a l W r i t i n g C e n t r e . Comparisons o f approach t o w r i t i n g were made between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . Each c h i l d was i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y about w r i t i n g . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study 1. The use o f i n t a c t groups l i m i t s t h e making o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s beyond t h i s s t u d y . 2. Sample s i z e was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l (26 f o r phase one and 6 f o r phase t w o ) . Phase one i n c l u d e d a l l k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n b o t h t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s . S u b j e c t s f o r phase two were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f s t r o n g p a t t e r n s o f s y m b o l i c s t y l e on t h e s y m b o l i c t a s k s a d m i n i s t e r e d . 3. The two groups a t t e n d e d k i n d e r g a r t e n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e day. Group one a t t e n d e d mornings a l l y e a r and group two a t t e n d e d i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s . T h i s t i m e f a c t o r may have a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f phase one. The c h i l d r e n s 1 a b i l i t i e s t o a t t e n d t o and r e s p o n d t o t h e t a s k s g i v e n may have been a f f e c t e d . A l s o , t h e t e a c h e r may have responded d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e c h i l d r e n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e day. 4. V a r y i n g l e v e l s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e among t h e s u b j e c t s was a n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s were n o t a v a i l a b l e . W i t h no 10 random s a m p l i n g , t h i s f a c t o r c o u l d n o t be c o n t r o l l e d f o r i n t h i s s t u d y . However, an e s t i m a t e o f r e c e p t i v e language v o c a b u l a r y , measured w i t h use o f t h e Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d (Dunn, Dunn, R o b e r t s o n , & E i s e n b e r g , 1981), was used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e two g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h PPVT-R s c o r e s s h o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s , s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d comparable mean s t a n d a r d s c o r e s between t h e PPVT-R and McCarthy S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s ( M i t c h e l l , 1985, p.1127). 5. Only t h o s e a s p e c t s o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h were made p u b l i c t h r o u g h c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n / d r a w n p r o d u c t s , a c t i o n s and t a l k were tapped. A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a base i s r i c h w i t h examples, much more may have gone u n d i s p l a y e d and t h e r e f o r e u n a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . 6. S u b j e c t s f o r phase two were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p a t t e r n s on b e h a v i o r on t w e l v e t a s k s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p r e f e r r e d s y m b o l i c s t y l e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e t a s k s were adapted from t h o s e used i n Wolf & G a r d n e r ' s (1979) and S u l l i v a n ' s (1986) r e s e a r c h , t h e i r v a l i d i t y as a c c u r a t e measures o f s y m b o l i c s t y l e i s s t i l l somewhat q u e s t i o n a b l e . 7. Many o f t h e c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s were adapted from Dyson's (1982, 1989) r e s e a r c h . The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e o n l y as v a l i d as t h i s a n a l y s i s was a c c u r a t e l y e x p o s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s . 11 CHAPTER TWO Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e I n t r o d u c t i o n The c a p a c i t y t o use symbols has o f t e n been c o n s i d e r e d t h e h a l l m a r k o f human c o g n i t i o n . A d u l t s i n a l l c u l t u r e s u t i l i z e (and even d e v i s e ) a wide range o f symbol systems, r a n g i n g from language and g e s t u r e , t o d r a w i n g , s c u l p t u r e , m u s i c , and dance. I n Werner and K a p l a n ' s (19 63) model s y m b o l i z i n g i n v o l v e s t h e symbol i t s e l f ( e . g . , a g r a p h i c f o r m ) , t h e s y m b o l i c r e f e r e n t ( t h e e x p e r i e n c e b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o ) , t h e p e r s o n p r o d u c i n g t h e symbol, and an i n t e n d e d r e c i p i e n t . A s y m b o l i c a c t i s g u i d e d by t h e p r o d u c e r ' s i n t e n t i o n — what t h e p e r s o n wants t o a c c o m p l i s h . S m i t h (1981) d e s c r i b e d s y m b o l i z a t i o n as a means t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e and communicate p e r s o n a l i n s i g h t about e x p e r i e n c e s . B a t e s (1979) saw s y m b o l i z a t i o n as a s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s whereby t h e i n d i v i d u a l chose one a s p e c t from a complex a r r a y t h a t c o u l d s e r v e as a " l i g h t - w e i g h t m ental t o k e n t h a t can be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e e n t i r e knowledge-package"(p. 6 5 ) . The c a p a c i t y t o c r e a t e and decode was based on t h e i m p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t an element, o r s e t o f e l e m e n t s , c o u l d s t a n d f o r some o b j e c t o r e x p e r i e n c e . The development o f s y m b o l i c competence i n v o l v e s t h e a b i l i t y t o a t t r i b u t e meaning t o a b s t r a c t forms and i s a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e . 12 A c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f such symbol use, s t u d e n t s o f human development have p o r t r a y e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n s y m b o l i z a t i o n as a p r i m a r y achievement o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f l i f e (see B r u n e r , O l v e r , and G r e e n f i e l d , 1966; P i a g e t , 1962; Werner and K a p l a n , 1963). Indeed, by t h e t i m e c h i l d r e n a r e 5, 6, o r 7, t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y q u i t e s k i l l e d i n t h e use o f s e v e r a l symbol systems, e x h i b i t i n g t h e c a p a c i t i e s b o t h t o produce " l e g i b l e " messages i n t h e s e systems and t o " r e a d " t h o s e communications f a s h i o n e d by o t h e r members o f t h e c u l t u r e . Even though an i n s i s t e n c e on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f symbol use i s not i n i t s e l f c o n t r o v e r s i a l , v e r y l i t t l e has been e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l y c o u r s e o f t h i s c r u c i a l human a b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h few s c h o l a r s have assumed t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y m b o l i c competence i s a s i m p l e p r o c e s s , much i n v e s t i g a t i o n has tended e i t h e r t o lump a l l s y m b o l i c systems t o g e t h e r o r t o s t u d y o n l y one i n de p t h w h i l e i g n o r i n g i t s r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s y m b o l i c systems. As a r e s u l t , t h e u n i v e r s a l p r o p e r t i e s o f symbol use, t h o s e a s p e c t s o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n t h a t may d i f f e r a c r o s s media o r a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , and t h e n a t u r e o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s i n p a t t e r n s o f symbol use have not y e t been f u l l y a s c e r t a i n e d . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e range o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way young c h i l d r e n make meaning o ut o f o b j e c t s , images, and u t t e r a n c e s , r e c e n t r e s e a r c h has a t t e m t e d t o i d e n t i f y 13 p a t t e r n s o f development i n t h e way i n d i v i d u a l s use symbols. Numerous s t u d i e s o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n were c o n d u c t e d as a p a r t o f H a r v a r d ' s P r o j e c t Zero w h i c h sought t o c o n s t r u c t a model o f i n d i v i d u a l s y m b o l i c competence and t r a c e i t s development from i n f a n c y t o a r t i s t r y (Gardner, 1976; Gardner, Wolf, & S m i t h , 1975; I v e s , S i l v e r m a n , K e l l y , & Gardner, 1981; P e r k i n s & Gardner, 1978; Winner, R o s e n s t e i l , & Gardner, 1976; Wolf & Gardner, 1979). Wolf and Gardner (1981) t h e o r i z e t h a t t h e r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence t o c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f how meaning can be r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h s y m b o l i c forms. The d i s c o v e r y o f new ways o f e n c o d i n g meanings u n d e r l i e s a b i l i t i e s i n v a r i e d symbol systems ( d r a w i n g , m u s i c , l a n g u a g e ) , a l t h o u g h each symbol system makes i t s own u n i q u e demands on t h e c h i l d . I n d e v e l o p i n g as symbol u s e r s , c h i l d r e n s e p a r a t e more c l e a r l y symbols and t h e i r r e f e r e n t s , p r o d u c e r s and r e c i p i e n t s , and t h e y l e a r n new ways o f l i n k i n g t h e s e e l e m e n t s . As Wolf and Gardner (1981) i l l u s t r a t e , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o assume t h a t young c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s f o l l o w i d e n t i c a l r u l e s as t h e y t a l k , draw, p l a y — o r , I might add, w r i t e . C h i l d r e n c o n t i n u a l l y r e f i n e t h e i r ways o f e n c o d i n g meaning. Both d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g can be v i e w e d as s y m b o l i z i n g e v e n t s . When young c h i l d r e n combine d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g , t h e y can be r e f e r r e d t o as 'symbol weavers', a term c o i n e d by Dyson (1982). Recent r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s a r e a r e v e a l s t h e 14 s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g s p l a y i n t h e i r development as w r i t e r s . I f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e way young c h i l d r e n use symbols, as s u g g e s t e d by Wolf and Gardner (1979), and b o t h d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g a r e v i e w e d as s y m b o l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h e n how do t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e s e s e p a r a t e symbol systems? Can p a t t e r n s o f symbol use i n d r a w i n g p r e d i c t p a t t e r n s o f symbol use i n w r i t i n g ? Do p a t t e r n e r s and d r a m a t i s t s approach t h e t a s k o f w r i t i n g d i f f e r e n t l y ? A r e t h e i r e a r l y w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s d i f f e r e n t ? These q u e s t i o n s a r e t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n s o f t h i s r e v i e w . The f o c u s i s on how young c h i l d r e n , aged 2 t h r o u g h 7 y e a r s , d e v e l o p as symbol u s e r s . Development i n t h e symbol systems o f d r a w i n g and o f w r i t i n g a r e each d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d ' C h i l d r e n as Symbol Weavers' i n w h i c h r e s e a c h i n t o how young c h i l d r e n combine d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g i s r e v i e w e d . Wolf and Gardner's (1979) t h e o r y o f p r e f e r r e d s t y l e s o f symbol use i s t h e n d e s c r i b e d , f o l l o w e d by a s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t r a n s f e r o f s y m b o l i c s t y l e from d r a w i n g , s y m b o l i c p l a y and s t o r y t e l l i n g t o more a b s t r a c t symbol systems such as e a r l y w r i t i n g . 15 Drawing; as a S y m b o l i z i n g A c t i v i t y I n o u r c u l t u r e e v e r y c h i l d draws and, i f g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , n e a r l y e v e r y c h i l d p roduces hundreds o f a p p e a l i n g d r a w i n g s d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . Drawing comes n a t u r a l l y t o t h e c h i l d . I t b e g i n s about t h e age o f two w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t c e r t a i n s u b s t a n c e s l e a v e marks on s u r f a c e s . These e a r l y marks e v o l v e i n t o s c r i b b l e s , f i r s t random and d i s o r g a n i z e d , b u t as t i m e goes by become more o r d e r e d . V y g o t s k y (1978) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e e a r l y s c r i b b l e s a c t u a l l y have t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h e a c t i o n s and g e s t u r e s t h e c h i l d u ses t o i n d i c a t e meaning, and t h a t t h e y might be v i e w e d as g e s t u r i n g w i t h p e n c i l . K e l l o g g (1970), a w i d e l y r e s p e c t e d s c h o l a r o f c h i l d r e n ' s s c r i b b l e s , d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e r e a r e t w e n t y b a s i c s c r i b b l e s w h i c h a t w o - y e a r - o l d makes w h i l e f r e e s c r i b b l i n g . S e v e r a l s c r i b b l e s o v e r l a i d become so complex t h a t t h e y appear t o be d i s o r g a n i z e d . They a r e n o t r e t a i n e d i n memory by e i t h e r c h i l d o r a d u l t . Images t h a t have b a l a n c e d p r o p o r t i o n s a r e most e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d and r e t a i n e d i n memory. These o f t e n o c c u r around t h r e e y e a r s o f age. S c r i b b l e s a r e t h o u g h t t o be t h e o r i g i n o f b o t h d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g (Gardner, 1980). K i n g (1980) s t a t e d t h a t : "The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e s e e a r l y a t t e m p t s w i t h a p e n c i l i s t h a t t h e y a r e more t h a n random marks; t h e y r e p r e s e n t c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e n t i o n s t o c r e a t e v i s u a l c o n s t r u c t s and messages" (p.164). K e l l o g g (1970) and B r i t t a i n (1972) v i e w 16 young c h i l d r e n ' s s c r i b b l i n g as an accomplishment l e a d i n g t o w a r d a r i c h h e r i t a g e o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and warn a g a i n s t a d u l t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e s c r i b b l i n g a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a g a i n s t a d u l t l a b e l i n g o f s c r i b b l e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h a t were n e v e r i n t e n d e d by t h e c h i l d . A t about t h e age o f f o u r , c h i l d r e n move from t h e S c r i b b l i n g Stage t o t h e P r e s c h e m a t i c Stage where t h e y make t h e i r f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a t t e m p t s ( L o w e n f e l d and B r i t t a i n , 1987). Here c h i l d r e n draw t h e t y p i c a l h e a d - f e e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p e r s o n and b e g i n t o draw a number o f o t h e r o b j e c t s i n t h e i r environment. These f i g u r e s o r o b j e c t s appear somewhat randomly p l a c e d on t h e paper and can v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n s i z e . The c h i l d has d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s i m p l e forms can s y m b o l i z e o b j e c t s i n t h e r e a l w o r l d . He t h e n b e g i n s t o b u i l d a g r a p h i c v o c a b u l a r y i n w h i c h shapes and l i n e s a r e combined and m o d i f i e d w i t h g r e a t v e r s a t i l i t y t o s t a n d f o r whatever he w i s h e s (Goodnow, 1977). A c c o r d i n g t o L o w e n f e l d and B r i t t a i n (1987), i t i s n o t u n t i l t h e c h i l d r e a c h e s t h i s s t a g e o f making and r e p r o d u c i n g symbols a t w i l l t h a t he can b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e have a l s o made symbols, n o t o n l y i n p i c t u r e s , b u t i n w r i t i n g as w e l l . The n e x t s t a g e i s t h e Schematic S t a g e , w h i c h s t a r t s somewhere around seven and l a s t s u n t i l about n i n e y e a r s o f age ( L o w e n f e l d and B r i t t a i n , 1987). Here c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p a d e f i n i t e form c o n c e p t . T h e i r d rawings s y m b o l i z e p a r t s o f t h e e nvironment i n a d e s c r i p t i v e way; c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y 17 r e p e a t w i t h some v a r i a t i o n t h e schema t h a t t h e y have d e v e l o p e d f o r a p e r s o n a g a i n and a g a i n . I t i s a t t h i s t i m e t h a t one i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g s a p p e a r s : c h i l d r e n a r r a n g e t h e o b j e c t s t h e y a r e p o r t r a y i n g i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e . W r i t i n g as a S y m b o l i z i n g Event V y g o t s k y l o c a t e d t h e r o o t s o f w r i t i n g development i n t h e c h i l d ' s g r o w i n g a b i l i t y t o use v a r i e d symbols. He d e s c r i b e d t h e essence o f w r i t i n g as 'the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f meaning by s y m b o l i c s i g n ' (1978, p. 114). V y g o t s k y d i s c u s s e s t h e development o f a c h i l d ' s w r i t t e n language i n terms o f a d v a n c i n g from f i r s t o r d e r symbolism t o second o r d e r symbolizm t o d i r e c t symbolism. F i r s t o r d e r symbolism was d e f i n e d as a h i g h l y a r b i t r a r y means o f r e p r e s e n t i n g o b j e c t s i n t h e environment. Meaning i s s y m b o l i c , b u t n o t s t a t i o n a r y , n o r does r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l o w f o r c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n among groups o f p e o p l e . G e s t u r e s , s y m b o l i c p l a y , and d r a w i n g a r e f i r s t o r d e r symbols because o f t h e i r h i g h l y a r b i t r a r y , i n c o n s i s t e n t and t e m p o r a l c o n s t r a i n t s . Second o r d e r symbolism i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d means o f r e p r e s e n t i n g words i n o r a l language t h r o u g h w r i t t e n symbols. Once meaning i s a s s i g n e d t o a symbol, i t becomes a s i g n , m a i n t a i n i n g i t s meaning a c r o s s t i m e and space. I d e o g r a p h i c o r r e b u s w r i t i n g and a l p h a b e t i c w r i t i n g a r e forms o f second 18 o r d e r symbolism. D i r e c t symbolism i s a t t a i n e d when t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l i n k o f spoken language d i s a p p e a r s . Words on t h e p r i n t e d page d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t c o n c e p t s , a c t i o n s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W i t h d i r e c t symbolism, a c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d system o f communication, t r a n s c e n d i n g t e m p o r a l and c o n t e x t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s , i s m a i n t a i n e d . The a b i l i t y t o use symbols i s perhaps t h e most c r i t i c a l o f a l l a b i l i t i e s t h e c h i l d must d e v e l o p t o be an e f f e c t i v e w r i t e r . The c h i l d must come t o see language use i n a l l i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as an a b s t r a c t s y m b o l i z i n g p r o c e s s . And t o do t h i s , t h e c h i l d must f i r s t come t o g r i p s w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f symbol — what i t i s , how i t can be c r e a t e d , and what i t s u s e s a r e . T h i s can be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h f o u r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s : i n p l a y , i n d r a w i n g , i n m u s i c , and i n drama. As e a r l y as age 2 o r 3, c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n t h e i r s c r i b b l e s between w r i t i n g and d r a w i n g (DeFord, 1980; S u l z b y & T e a l e , 1985; Woodward, 1988). Between t h e ages o f t h r e e and s i x , c h i l d r e n ' s s c r i b b l i n g g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r i n t — i n c l u d i n g l i n e a r i t y , h o r i z o n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and t h e arrangement o f l e t t e r l i k e forms ( C l a y , 1975). DeFord (1980) has c h r o n i c l e d t h e development o f u n i f o r m i t y , i n n e r c o m p l e x i t y , symmetry, l e f t - t o - r i g h t m o t i o n and t o p - t o - b o t t o m d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i n c h i l d r e n ' s s c r i b b l e s . Woodward (1988) a n a l y z e d a v i d e o t a p e o f one s t u d e n t , 19 " E r i c " , age t h r e e y e a r s , engaged i n d i a l o g u e w i t h h i s t e a c h e r about a p i c t u r e he had drawn. I n t h i s e n c o u n t e r , E r i c a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d as a maker o f meaning and c o n t i n u e d t o l e a r n about language and t h e use o f o t h e r s i g n systems by u s i n g them i n a m e a n i n g f u l s i t u a t i o n . E r i c ' s a r t symbols were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h o s e used f o r w r i t i n g . F o r t h e young c h i l d , l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e i s v i e w e d as a p r o c e s s o f g r a d u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e s e two forms o f g r a p h i c symbolism. I n w r i t i n g development, d r a w i n g i s t h e p r e c u r s o r o f p i c t o g r a p h y , t h e f i r s t g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n w i t h t h e s y m b o l i c f e a t u r e s c l o s e s t t o t h e i d e o g r a p h s humans employ i n w r i t i n g . I t i s c r u c i a l t o t h e c h i l d ' s e v o l v i n g sense o f symbol ( K l e i n , 1985). P i c t o g r a p h y s e r v e s as an i m p o r t a n t t r a n s i t i o n from d r a w i n g - - r e p r e s e n t i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y w i t h p e n c i l o r c r a y o n — t o an a b b r e v i a t e d form o f d r a w i n g t h a t i s s o r t o f a s h o r t h a n d i n t h a t what i s drawn s t a n d s f o r something o t h e r t h a n what i s drawn. The c h i l d t h e n p a r t i a l s o u t r e a l i t y by l e a v i n g out c r i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s i n t h e d r a w i n g . The d r a w i n g t h e n r e p r e s e n t s r a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t s . The p i c t o g r a p h i s a symbol t h a t s t a n d s f o r s omething g r e a t e r i n b o t h d i m e n s i o n and c o n c e p t i o n t h a n i t s e l f . The c h i l d i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s u m marizing r e a l i t y on p aper by a b b r e v i a t i n g w i t h p e n c i l . T h i s i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h e p r e s c h o o l e r . The p r e s c h o o l c h i l d must u n d e r s t a n d t h a t marks on paper can be g r e a t e r i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l 20 t h a n t h a t from w h i c h t h e y d e r i v e and, p o s s i b l y , t h a n t h a t f o r w h i c h t h e y s t a n d . The p i c t o g r a p h i c element i n c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g development has not been g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n i n r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f e a r l y w r i t i n g . I t seems c l e a r t h a t many c h i l d r e n do employ a ' p i c t o g r a p h i c h y p o t h e s i s ' about w r i t i n g a t some p o i n t , and t h a t more may be perhaps l e a r n e d about c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s by e x a m i n i n g t h e s e genuine h y p o t h e t i c a l systems. L u r i a (1983) s e t out t o l o o k a t young c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s o f w r i t i n g and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o use n o t a t i o n as a t o o l b e f o r e t h e y had l e a r n e d t o w r i t e . He found t h a t t h e youngest c h i l d r e n ( f o u r / f i v e y e a r o l d s ) were g e n e r a l l y u n a b l e t o respond t o h i s r e q u e s t s . They were o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n " w r i t i n g l i k e grown-ups" as t h e y t r i e d t o copy t h e form o f a d u l t w r i t i n g ; f o r them t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g was not a means o f remembering, o r r e p r e s e n t i n g some meaning, b u t an a c t t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s own r i g h t . L u r i a d e s c r i b e s t h e way i n w h i c h some c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n s how t o use marks on paper as mnemonic s i g n s , sometimes by t h e use o f r u d i m e n t a r y p i c t o g r a p h s . L u r i a was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n from p u r e l y p i c t o g r a p h i c w r i t i n g t o a more i d e o g r a p h i c s t y l e o f w r i t i n g w h i c h sometimes o c c u r r e d when e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s were asked t o r e c o r d more a b s t r a c t i d e a s . He n o t e d t h e p r o g r e s s i o n from s i m p l e marks w h i c h a c t 21 as a j o g t o memory, t o p i c t o g r a p h s , t o more a b s t r a c t s i g n s . I t would be v a l u a b l e t o have more n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s use o f p i c t o g r a p h i c s i g n s . James B r i t t o n (1983) r e c a l l e d how, i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , h i s g r a n d - d a u g h t e r seemed t o h o l d a t o p o g r a p h i c h y p o t h e s i s about w r i t i n g ( t h e p o s i t i o n o f marks on t h e paper r e c a l l i n g t h e i r m e anings). When, as a ' w a i t r e s s ' , she t o o k down o r d e r s from B r i t t o n i n t h e r o l e o f customer, she 'read back' h i s o r d e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e arrangement o f h e r marks. From t h i s she moved t o a p i c t o g r a p h i c h y p o t h e s i s when she 'drew' a l e t t e r t o a n e i g h b o u r w h i c h d e p i c t e d f i v e l i t t l e c i r c l e s , i n a n o t e w h i c h meant ' P l e a s e buy me some eggs'. These examples s u g g e s t t h a t t h e younger c h i l d r e n were e m p l o y i n g a t r a n s i t i o n a l p i c t o g r a p h h y p o t h e s i s , as t h e y a c t i v e l y e x p l o r e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w r i t i n g system, b e f o r e t h e y f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d i t s a l p h a b e t i c n a t u r e . They needed t o l e a r n t h a t , i n V y g o t s k y ' s words, 'one can draw n o t o n l y o b j e c t s b u t a l s o speech' (1978, p. 115). Once t h e y g e t t h e i d e a o f what can be done i n w r i t i n g , c h i l d r e n s e t about d i s c o v e r i n g more and more about t h e p r o c e s s . A t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e young c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g s t r a t e g i e s have r e v e a l e d a g e n e r a l , b u t c o m p l i c a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t h , moving from l o w e r - a p p e a r i n g forms l i k e s c r i b b l i n g , d r a w i n g , and making l e t t e r - l i k e forms, t o u s i n g s t r i n g s o f l e t t e r s and p h o n e t i c a l l y based i n v e n t e d s p e l l i n g , and f i n a l l y t o u s i n g r e g u l a r o r t h o g r a p h y . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n s have not y e t been f u l l y documented, b u t we can t r a c e some o f t h e forms i n a rough c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence, k e e p i n g i n mind t h a t d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n appear t o use d i f f e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t h s toward c o n v e n t i o n a l w r i t i n g . S u l z b y , B a r n h a r t , & H i e s h i m a (1989) c o n d u c t e d a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f t h e forms o f w r i t i n g and r e r e a d i n g t h a t 123 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n used when asked t o w r i t e s t o r i e s . C h i l d r e n from two o f t h e f i v e c l a s s e s were f o l l o w e d i n t o grade one. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t group d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s e s s i o n , t h e f i v e major w r i t i n g forms used by k i n d e r g a r t e n e r s were modeled ( s c r i b b l e , d r a w i n g , l e t t e r s t r i n g s , i n v e n t e d s p e l l i n g , and c o n v e n t i o n a l w r i t i n g ) . The c h i l d r e n produced e i g h t w r i t i n g and r e r e a d i n g samples i n a group s e t t i n g i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y monthly i n t e r v i e w s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y produced a n o t h e r t h r e e samples i n i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s c o nducted q u a r t e r l y . W h i l e t h e c h i l d was w r i t i n g o r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r ( o r t e a c h e r ) checked t h e a p p r o p r i a t e boxes on t h e "Forms o f W r i t i n g and R e r e a d i n g " c h e c k l i s t (p. 52, S u l z b y , B a r n h a r t , & H i e s h i m a , 1989). The most common forms o f w r i t i n g i n O c t o b e r were d r a w i n g , s c r i b b l i n g , and random o r p a t t e r n e d l e t t e r s t r i n g s . The predominant form o f r e r e a d i n g was w r i t t e n monologue. These r e s e a r c h e r s s t r e s s e d t h e need t o examine t h e forms o f w r i t i n g by e x a m i n i n g how c h i l d r e n r e r e a d t h e i r w r i t i n g . 23 C h i l d r e n as 'Symbol Weavers' Many o b s e r v e r s have n o t e d t h a t when young c h i l d r e n w r i t e , t h e y o f t e n draw p i c t u r e s as p a r t o f t h e same a c t i v i t y . S t u d y i n g t h e composing b e h a v i o r s o f young c h i l d r e n , Graves (1979) found t h a t some 6 and 7-year o l d s seemed t o use d r a w i n g as a " r e h e a r s a l " f o r w r i t i n g , whereas o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o r b e g i n n i n g w r i t e r s , w r i t i n g and d r a w i n g sometimes f u n c t i o n as a s i n g l e "mixed medium" ( H a r s t e , Woodward, & Burke 1984; Gundlach 1982). Dyson (1982) d e s c r i b e d c h i l d r e n as 'symbol weavers'. She b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s t h e y form on paper may r e l y on v a r i e d symbol systems o r media - d r a w i n g , t a l k i n g , w r i t i n g . I n h i s s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g s , Gardner (1980) n o t e d t h a t i n some c a s e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n combine d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l r o l e o f w r i t i n g i s se c o n d a r y e a r l y i n t h e c h i l d ' s w r i t t e n language development and becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y dominant as t h e c h i l d becomes a more f l u e n t w r i t e r . To demonstrate t h i s p o i n t , Gardner r e p o r t s t h e c a s e o f a c h i l d whose dr a w i n g s were c o l l e c t e d by G e r t r u d e H i l d r e t h a t Columbia Teacher's C o l l e g e i n t h e 193 0s. H i l d r e t h ' s s u b j e c t was a p p a r e n t l y "obsessed w i t h t r a i n s [and] drew many hundred such v e h i c l e s o v e r a t e n y e a r 24 p e r i o d ( p . 1 5 5 ) . " Gardner c o n t i n u e s : I f one l o o k s a t t h e r o l e o f w r i t i n g i n t h e s e d r a w i n g s , one can o b s e r v e a s u b t l e y e t u l t i m a t e l y d e c i s i v e t r a n s i t i o n i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e t r a i n s : i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s , l e t t e r s and words were used m e r e l y as d e c o r a t i o n s upon t h e t r a i n s ; b u t i n t h e y e a r s o f m i d d l e c h i l d h o o d i t i s t h e v e h i c l e s and t r a c k s t h a t a r e m e r e l y d e c o r a t i v e , f o r t h e major t h r u s t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e i s now c a r r i e d by v e r b a l means (p.155). I t seems p l a u s i b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s c h i l d b u i l t a b r i d g e f o r h i m s e l f from t h e a c t i v i t y o f d r a w i n g t o t h e a c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g . He i n i t i a l l y used w r i t t e n language t o s u p p o r t t h e f u n c t i o n s a l r e a d y s e r v e d by d r a w i n g and t h e n , once he became more adept a t h a n d l i n g t h e forms o f w r i t t e n l a nguage, i n h i s l a t e r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g he more f u l l y e x p l o i t e d t h e n a r r a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f language. There i s no r e a s o n t o suppose t h a t t h i s l i n k p r o v i d e d t h e o n l y b r i d g e t o t h e c h i l d ' s e x p l o r a t i o n s o f t h e p o s s i b l e uses o f w r i t i n g ; r a t h e r , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t c h i l d r e n make c o n n e c t i o n s o f s e v e r a l k i n d s between v a r i o u s s y m b o l - u s i n g a c t i v i t i e s and t h e a c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g (Gundlach, 1982). A major weakness o f G a r d n e r s ' a n a l y s e s i s t h a t i t has been drawn from an " a f t e r t h e f a c t " p e r s p e c t i v e . He d i d n o t o b s e r v e t h e c h i l d a c t u a l l y f o r m i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s as he drew and w r o t e ; he can o n l y s p e c u l a t e about them a f t e r w a r d s based on t h e p r o d u c t c r e a t e d . Recent r e s e a r c h e r s have n o t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e composing p r o c e s s as a d a t a g a t h e r i n g approach. 25 Hayes and C h e r r i n g t o n (1985) o b s e r v e d t h r e e , f o u r , and f i v e y e a r o l d s as t h e y engaged i n w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n were asked i n d i v i d u a l l y t o draw p i c t u r e s , w r i t e about them, r e a d what t h e y had w r i t t e n , and respond t o q u e s t i o n s g u a g i n g t h e i r knowledge o f w r i t t e n language. T h i s d a t a were examined i n terms o f V y g o t s k y ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w r i t i n g as s y m b o l i c p r o g r e s s i o n . Hayes and C h e r r i n g t o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t c h i l d r e n p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r use o f i n c r e a s i n g l y a b s t r a c t symbolism t o communicate. However, t h e p r o g r e s s i o n i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s and r e q u i r e s t h e s u p p o r t o f a d u l t s who a l l o w them t o ex p e r i m e n t w i t h t h e many forms o f w r i t i n g . K a r n o w s k i (1986) a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e need f o r s u p p o r t i v e a d u l t s t o h e l p c h i l d r e n c o n n e c t t h e f u n c t i o n o f w r i t i n g t o t h a t o f o t h e r means o f communication. I n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e young c h i l d r e n composing, he s e t up a w r i t i n g c e n t e r i n a p r e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m . He n o t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n , r a n g i n g i n age from t h r e e t o f i v e , u s u a l l y w r o t e as a v e r y s o c i a l group o f t h r e e s t u d e n t s a t a t i m e . The w r i t i n g c e n t r e was a f r e e c h o i c e a r e a and t h e average t i m e s p e n t a t t h e c e n t e r was 35 t o 40 m i n u t e s . K a r n o w s k i n o t e d t h a t as t h e young w r i t e r s composed, t h e y a l s o used o r a l l anguage, d r a w i n g , music, and drama t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r communication p o t e n t i a l . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t e a c h e r s must r e d e f i n e t h e i r i d e a s about w r i t i n g and c h i l d r e n ' s communication knowledge. 26 Hubbard (1987) i l l u s t r a t e d t h e ways c h i l d r e n from a f i r s t - g r a d e c l a s s r o o m were encouraged t o communicate t h e i r m e n t a l images o f movement, s p a t i a l c o n c e p t s , and i m a g i n a t i o n t h r o u g h d r a w i n g s and w r i t i n g . As a r e s i d e n t r e s e a r c h e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , she o b s e r v e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s as t h e y w r o t e , drew, t a l k e d about t h e i r work, and s h a r e d t h e i r p i e c e s . She found t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n s c h i l d r e n made about t h e i r words and p i c t u r e s h e l p e d t h e i r growth and development by p r o v i d i n g meaning. She c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and w r i t i n g becomes m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e when c h i l d r e n a r e encouraged t o use whatever communication system w i l l work b e s t f o r them i n each p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s from Hayes & C h e r r i n g t o n (1985), K a r n o w s k i (1986), and Hubbard's (1987) r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t each o t h e r , t h e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s i n c o m p l e t e . We do n o t know much about t h e c h i l d r e n who were o b s e r v e d n o r about t h e r e g u l a r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . Many q u e s t i o n s a r e l e f t unanswered: how many c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d ; how many w r i t i n g / d r a w i n g samples were c o l l e c t e d and by whom; how l o n g d i d t h e s e s t u d i e s l a s t ? I f more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n were made a v a i l a b l e t o us we c o u l d b e t t e r judge t h e s e s t u d i e s . A more complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f methodology i s p r o v i d e d by Dyson (1982, 1985a, 1985b, 1986a) who b e l i e v e s t h a t d r a w i n g and t a l k i n g p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h t r a n s i t i o n s t o w r i t i n g . She i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 27 d r a w i n g s , e a r l y w r i t i n g , and t h e c o n t e x t o f t a l k i n w h i c h b o t h phenomena o c c u r . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n methodology was used i n a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d p u b l i c s c h o o l k i n d e r g a r t e n i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r d a t a d a i l y d u r i n g a 3-month p e r i o d . The c l a s s r o o m chosen was n a t u r a l l y - i n t e g r a t e d and b a l a n c e d s o c i a l l y , e t h n i c a l l y , and a c a d e m i c a l l y . Of t h e 22 c h i l d p a r t i c i p a n t s , t e n were f e m a l e ; t w e l v e were male. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y t h e mean age o f t h e c h i l d r e n was 5 y e a r s , 7 months. F i v e c h i l d r e n who r e f l e c t e d t h e c l a s s r o o m ' s ranges o f t y p e s o f c h i l d w r i t e r s were chosen f o r ca s e s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A w r i t i n g c e n t e r was e s t a b l i s h e d and c h i l d r e n f r e e l y drew and wro t e w h i l e Dyson o b s e r v e d and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h them t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about t h e s e a c t i o n s . A t o t a l o f 12 5 g r a p h i c e p i s o d e s were r e c o r d e d . P a t t e r n s were i d e n t i f i e d i n how t h e c h i l d r e n combined t h e d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g p r o c e s s e s i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f one g r a p h i c p r o d u c t and i n t h e manner t h e y used d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g t e r m i n o l o g y r e f e r e n t i a l l y a c r o s s p r o d u c t i o n modes. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s , i n f e r e n c e s were made about w r i t t e n language development. L e a r n i n g t o w r i t e was p o r t r a y e d as a p r o c e s s o f g r a d u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e s e p a r a t e meanings o f t h e s e two forms o f g r a p h i c symbolism. I n h e r second major s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a , Dyson (1986b) examined t h e meanings young c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s i n t a l k , p i c t u r e s , and w r i t t e n t e x t , f o c u s i n g on how c h i l d r e n draw 28 upon a l l t h r e e i n one composing e v e n t . Data c o l l e c t i o n t o o k p l a c e an average o f t w i c e p e r week o v e r a f i v e month p e r i o d ( J a n . - May, 1985) i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l k i n d e r g a r t e n . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i v e - w e e k phase, Dyson o b s e r v e d and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , e s t a b l i s h i n g h e r r o l e as a p a r t i c i p a n t , n o t as a t e a c h e r . A l t h o u g h a l l 18 c l a s s members were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , f o u r c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d as case s t u d i e s d u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l phase: J e s s e , R e g i n a , C h r i s t o p h e r , and Reuben. D u r i n g t h e second d a t a c o l l e c t i o n phase, each c h i l d ' s composing p r o c e s s was o b s e r v e d as t h e y produced t h e i r j o u r n a l e n t r i e s ( p i c t u r e / t e x t s e t s ) . C o l l e c t e d d a t a i n c l u d e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s drawn and d i c t a t e d p r o d u c t s , a u d i o t a p e d r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k w h i l e d r a w i n g and o f t h e i r d i c t a t i o n s , and o b s e r v a t i o n a l n o t e s . The s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e how t h e s e c h i l d r e n used d r a w i n g and t a l k t o c r e a t e i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s . A t t h e same t i m e , problems a r o s e f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n as t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o t r a n s f e r t h o s e w o r l d s t o t e x t . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d i n how c h i l d r e n used s y m b o l i c media t o c r e a t e t h e i r w o r l d s . Dyson (1988a, 1988b) expanded on t h i s r e s e a r c h by c o n t i n u i n g t o g a t h e r d a t a from t h e s e s t u d e n t s f o r f o u r months d u r i n g 1986. She added two more c l a s s e s t o t h e sample and under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e same t e a c h e r , " j o u r n a l t i m e " i n t h r e e c l a s s e s ( k i n d e r g a r t e n , f i r s t / s e c o n d 29 g r a d e , and s e c o n d / t h i r d grade i n an u r b a n , s o c i a l l y and e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e s c h o o l ) was i n v e s t i g a t e d . A l t h o u g h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 s t u d e n t s were o b s e r v e d , t h e s t u d y f o c u s e d c l o s e l y on e i g h t s t u d e n t s , f o u r k i n d e r g a r t e n e r s and f o u r f i r s t g r a d e r s . C h i l d r e n ' s t a l k was a u d i o t a p e d , o b s e r v a t i o n a l n o t e s on t h e i r b e h a v i o r were r e c o r d e d , and a l l j o u r n a l s were p h o t o c o p i e d . Case s t u d i e s o f two o f t h e s t u d e n t s i l l u s t r a t e t h e n o t i o n o f m u l t i p l e w o r l d s where w r i t i n g c o u l d appear i n t h e c o n t e x t s o f an i m a g i n a r y w o r l d , a p r e s e n t s o c i a l w o r l d , and a w i d e r e x p e r i e n c e d w o r l d . I n t h e s e c o n t e x t s , w r i t i n g d e v e l o p e d as i t became a way o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s and o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r s . Dyson (1988b) e x p l a i n s : When I f i r s t began v i s i t i n g M a r g a r e t ' s room, I d i d n o t have t h i s b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e , t h i s n o t i o n o f m u l t i p l e w o r l d s .... I examined t h e s e t o f "composing e v e n t s " c o m p i l e d f o r each c h i l d . F o r each composing e v e n t I had t h e c h i l d ' s drawn p i c t u r e , an a u d i o t a p e o f t a l k , and t h e completed w r i t t e n t e x t . I f o c u s e d o n l y on t a l k t h a t seemed " t a s k i n v o l v e d " — d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e w o r l d t h e c h i l d was c o n s t r u c t i n g . (p. 5) Dyson (1988b) e x p l a i n s f u r t h e r : As I c o n t i n u e d t o f o l l o w t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each o t h e r grew. And I began t o r e a l i z e t h a t I c o u l d n o t t e l l t h e s t o r y o f any one c h i l d ' s growth as a w r i t e r w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g t h e s t o r i e s o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n as w e l l . The c h i l d r e n ' s i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s were i n c r e a s i n g l y embedded w i t h i n t h e i r o n going s o c i a l w o r l d (p. 6 ) . Thus, t h e r e were now two new k i n d s o f t a l k t o a t t e n d t o — t a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n one's own w o r l d , and t a l k i n v o l v i n g 30 o n e s e l f i n o t h e r ' s w o r l d s . F i n a l l y , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s comments on each o t h e r ' s work l e d t o t a l k t h a t was t a s k - r e l a t e d — t a l k about t h e w i d e r e x p e r i e n c e d w o r l d o f p e o p l e , p l a c e s , e v e n t s , and t h i n g s . The c h i l d r e n ' s i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s were t h u s i n c r e a s i n g l y embedded w i t h i n y e t a n o t h e r w o r l d . T h i s embedding, t o o , c o u l d l e a d t o c l a s h e s , as t h e c h i l d r e n w r e s t l e d w i t h how t r u e e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s f i g u r e d i n t o t h e i r "made-up" w o r l d s (Dyson, 1988b, P«6). Data a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k , p i c t u r e s , and t e x t i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n v e n t symbols f o r f i g u r e s , o b j e c t s , and e v e n t s ; engage i n t h e t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s o f o r g a n i z i n g and a b s t r a c t i n g as t h e y work t o p o r t r a y t h e i r c o n c e p t s ; and communicate t h e i r i d e a s t o t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s . Dyson (1988a) s t r e s s e s t h a t b o t h d r a w i n g and t a l k p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e f l e c t upon, o r g a n i z e , and s h a r e e x p e r i e n c e s . Drawing i s i m p o r t a n t p r i m a r i l y because i t h e l p s c h i l d r e n p l a n and o r g a n i z e t h e i r d i c t a t e d o r w r i t t e n t e x t . I n t e r e s t i s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o communicate a message i n d e p e n d e n t l y from t h e p i c t u r e s . C h i l d r e n need t o work t o make t h e v i s u a l image and t h e language c o o p e r a t e . V a r i a t i o n i n S y m b o l i c Development I n Werner and K a p l a n ' s (1963) model o f symbol use, any s y m b o l i c a c t i n v o l v e s t h e symbol i t s e l f , t h e symbol's r e f e r e n t , t h e p e r s o n p r o d u c i n g t h i s symbol, and an i n t e n d e d r e c i p i e n t . W i t h development, t h e s e f o u r e n t i t i e s become 31 i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o r d i s t a n c e d from one a n o t h e r and a l s o l i n k e d o r i n t e g r a t e d i n new ways. B u i l d i n g on Werner and K a p l a n ' s i d e a s , Wolf and Gardner (1979, p. 127) p o i n t out t h a t , i n e a r l y s y m b o l i c growth, c h i l d r e n may c o n c e n t r a t e on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h i s s y m b o l i c p r o c e s s : "... each component i n t h e s y m b o l i c e q u a t i o n may be h i g h l i g h t e d o r n e g l e c t e d ; t h e c h a l l e n g e o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n may be apprehended i n d i v e r s e ways by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . " As a p a r t o f H a r v a r d ' s P r o j e c t Zero (a s t u d y o f e a r l y s y m b o l i z a t i o n ) , Gardner, Wolf, & S m i t h (1975, 1982) o b s e r v e d 12 c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from 2.5 t o 5 y e a r s and examined t h e i r approach t o symbol use. They were drawn a t random from a n u r s e r y s c h o o l t h a t e n r o l l e d t h e o f f s p r i n g o f m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l i e s . These y o u n g s t e r s were o b s e r v e d o v e r s e v e r a l months as t h e y engaged i n d a i l y p r e s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and as t h e y p l a y e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y w i t h v a r i o u s media. Each c h i l d was a l s o seen i n more " c o n t r o l l e d " s u r r o u n d i n g s by an e x p e r i m e n t e r who examined t h e c h i l d ' s a pproach and h i s r e s p o n s e s t o a number o f e x p e r i m e n t a l demands. C h i l d r e n worked i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h an o b s e r v e r i n a s e r i e s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r s e s s i o n s s p r e a d out o v e r no more t h a n a month. Because o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s performance w i t h d i f f e r e n t symbols, and i n t h e range o f performance w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r symbol system, t h e s e t a s k s v a r i e d a l o n g two d i m e n s i o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , each c h i l d was asked t o work 32 w i t h f o u r s e p a r a t e s y m b o l i c media: language ( s t o r y t e l l i n g ) ; s y m b o l i c p l a y ( a c t i n g o ut a scene w i t h g e o m e t r i c b l o c k s t h a t c o u l d " s t a n d f o r " i m a g i n a r y c h a r a c t e r s ) ; t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l d e p i c t i o n ( d r a wing w i t h Magic M a r k e r s ) ; and t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l d e p i c t i o n ( m o lding o r s c u l p t i n g w i t h P l a y Doh). Then, w i t h i n each o f t h e s e f o u r media, t h e c h i l d had t o p e r f o r m f o u r t a s k s : produce a "work", o r s y m b o l i c p r o d u c t s p o n t a n e o u s l y ; complete a work w h i c h , though begun, had been l e f t i n c o m p l e t e by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ; assemble a work o u t o f s e v e r a l p a r t s o r segments s u p p l i e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ; and copy o r r e p r o d u c e as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e a work o r performance e x h i b i t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . U s u a l e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s were employed: s e s s i o n s were r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d ; t h e o r d e r o f t a s k p r e s e n t a t i o n was c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e d a c r o s s c h i l d r e n ; and t h e d a t a was a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y by, and t h e n d i s c u s s e d among, t h r e e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t r a i n e d e x p e r i m e n t e r s u n t i l a p r e l i m i n a r y consensus on t h e f i n d i n g s had been r e a c h e d . A l t h o u g h c a u t i o u s about t h e i r f i n d i n g s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s d i d i d e n t i f y complex p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n e a r l y s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n i n g . These i n t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n have u n d e r l i n e d t h e m u l t i f a c e t e d q u a l i t y o f e a r l y symbol use. An i n t e n s i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f n i n e f i r s t - b o r n , m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n (3 males and 6 females) was u n d e r t a k e n t o f u r t h e r examine i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s i n a range o f media 33 a r e a s (Gardner, 1976; S h o t w e l l , Wolf, & Gardner, 1980; Wolf & Gardner, 1979). These c h i l d r e n were f o l l o w e d on a r e g u l a r (weekly o r b i w e e k l y ) b a s i s f o r f i v e y e a r s b e g i n n i n g a t t h e age o f one. They were o b s e r v e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e i r p a r e n t s as t h e y i n i t i a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d and g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e d a m a s t e r y o f seven s e p a r a t e s y m b o l i c media: language ( p a r t i c u l a r l y s t o r y t e l l i n g and metaphor), s y m b o l i c p l a y ( a c t i n g out sequences u s i n g o b j e c t s and l a n g u a g e ) , two- d i m e n s i o n a l d e p i c t i o n ( d r a w i n g ) , t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l d e p i c t i o n ( c o n s t r u c t i o n s out o f c l a y and b l o c k s ) , m u s i c , movement (da n c e ) , and number. A v a r i e t y o f measures were employed, r a n g i n g from s t a n d a r d t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c o g n i t i o n , t o r e s e a r c h e r - d e s i g n e d t e s t s o f s y m b o l i c competence, t o i n t e n s i v e t r a n s c r i p t s o f f r e e - p l a y s e s s i o n s . O b s e r v a t i o n s showed t h a t c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d p a t t e r n s o f media p r e f e r e n c e and s t y l e s o f w o r k i n g t h a t r e f l e c t e d l e v e l s o f s k i l l w i t h v a r i o u s media. These f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f " c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s " (Gardner, Wolf, & S m i t h , 1975, p. 1 8 ) , o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r i n t h e way c h i l d r e n m a s t ered s y m b o l i c forms. The i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s was more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n l a t e r s t u d i e s , and t h e two l a b e l s P a t t e r n e r and D r a m a t i s t were pr o p o s e d . Wolf and Gardner (1979) d e s c r i b e d P a t t e r n e r s as c h i l d r e n who d i s p l a y e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l u s e s o f m a t e r i a l s and t h e making o f p a t t e r n s , s t r u c t u r e s and 34 o r d e r s . They o b s e r v e d t h a t g i v e n m a t e r i a l s , such c h i l d r e n were more o f t e n i n t e r e s t e d i n m e c h a n i c a l and d e s i g n p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a n communication o r r e c r e a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . P a t t e r n e r s ' complements, l a b e l e d " d r a m a t i s t s , " m a n i f e s t e d an a b i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e human s u r r o u n d i n g s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s e n e r g i e s was d e v o t e d toward e f f e c t i v e communication w i t h o t h e r s and t o w a r d d r a m a t i c s h a r i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e s , (p. 124) P a t t e r n e r s f o c u s e d on t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d and t h e i r f i r s t v o c a b u l a r i e s c o n s i s t e d o f a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f o b j e c t names. I n p a i n t i n g and b l o c k b u i l d i n g , t h e y f o c u s e d on p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s , such as how t h e p a i n t mixed. T h e i r s y m b o l i c a c t i v i t y t e n d e d t o depend on t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l so t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e d round shape would be r e f e r r e d t o as an " a p p l e " . I n c o n t r a s t , " d r a m a t i s t s ' " language c o n t a i n e d a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o p e r names and s o c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . These c h i l d r e n t e n d e d t o use p a i n t i n g and b l o c k b u i l d i n g t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s . T h e i r s y m b o l i c use o f p a i n t i n g and b l o c k s d i d n o t r e l y h e a v i l y on p r o p e r t i e s o f o b j e c t s , so a r e d round shape c o u l d be a " p e r s o n " , a " f i s h " , o r w hatever t h e c h i l d w i s h e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Gardner and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way young c h i l d r e n l e a r n u s i n g symbols was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f growth and development. T h e i r work s u g g e s t e d t h a t c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n used media i n a way t h a t 35 emphasized a " d r a m a t i c " o r p e r s o n - c e n t e r e d approach, w h i l e o t h e r s used media i n a way t h a t emphasized a " p a t t e r n e d " o r o b j e c t - c e n t e r e d p r e f e r e n c e . W h i l e o b s e r v a t i o n s have been made c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n i n g i n development, and p a r t i c u l a r approaches t o s y m b o l i z a t i o n c h a r t e d , t h e s e v i e w s a w a i t c o n f i r m a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r s a t P r o j e c t Zero d e s c r i b e d a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s t o acco u n t f o r p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l development, y e t s u f f i c i e n t e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o f u l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s has n o t been o b t a i n e d . T h e i r f i n d i n g s were based on a s m a l l sample t h a t was s t u d i e d under a t y p i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . I n r e p o r t i n g t h e i r f i n d i n g s , t h e y d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e number o f c h i l d r e n who were c a t e g o r i z e d as P a t t e r n e r s o r D r a m a t i s t s , n o r i f any s u b j e c t s f e l l between t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s . D e s p i t e t h e s e and o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f a s m a l l group o f c h i l d r e n has p r o v i d e d a l o g i c a l p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e s t u d y o f s y m b o l i c development. S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s between more s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d and o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d s t y l e s have been n o t e d i n t h e a r e a o f language development as w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y by N e l s o n (1973) and P e t e r s (1977). F o r example, N e l s o n s t u d i e d t h e f i r s t words o f 18 c h i l d r e n from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 t o 2 1/2 y e a r s o f age. The s t u d y u t i l i z e d r e c o r d s k e p t by mothers as w e l l as t a p e - r e c o r d i n g s o f language used by mother and c h i l d d u r i n g monthly v i s i t s i n t h e home and p e r i o d i c a l p r o b e s o f such 36 developments as comprehension, i m i t a t i o n , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , and r e f e r e n c e . A major outcome o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e f i n d i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l approaches t o t h e t a s k s o f l e a r n i n g t h e language. These approaches were r e f l e c t e d i n a number o f ways, f i r s t i n t h e k i n d s o f words and p h r a s e s c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d and used d u r i n g t h e s i n g l e - w o r d p e r i o d . N e l s o n found t h a t f o r most o f t h e c h i l d r e n , whom she r e f e r r e d t o as " r e f e r e n t i a l , " e a r l y v o c a b u l a r i e s c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y o f o b j e c t names (nouns) w i t h some v e r b s , p r o p e r names, and a d j e c t i v e s . F o r a l a r g e m i n o r i t y , whom she r e f e r r e d t o as " e x p r e s s i v e , " v o c a b u l a r i e s were more v a r i e d and i n c l u d e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f s o c i a l r o u t i n e s ("Stop i t , " " I want i t . " ) . N e l s o n ' s r e f e r e n t i a l c h i l d r e n were s i m i l a r t o Wolf and Gardner's p a t t e r n e r s , and h e r e x p r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n were s i m i l a r t o t h e i r d r a m a t i s t s . I n a r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n o r a l language development, N e l s o n (1981) s t r e s s e s t h a t most c h i l d r e n no doubt f a l l between t h e extremes o f d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s ; f u r t h e r , c h i l d r e n may e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f u s i n g language i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . N o n e t h e l e s s , as she p o i n t s o u t , s t u d y i n g c h i l d r e n who a r e e x t r e m e l y d i f f e r e n t i n s t y l e does i l l u m i n a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e system t o be l e a r n e d . 37 Avenues t o L a t e r S y m b o l i z a t i o n As t h e w o r l d o f c h i l d r e n e n l a r g e s beyond t h e f a m i l y - f r i e n d s c i r c l e , c h i l d r e n must not o n l y meet new c o n t e x t s b u t a l s o l e a r n h i g h l y u n f a m i l i a r and s e e m i n g l y a r b i t r a r y forms o f c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . These a r e d i s c u s s e d by S h o t w e l l , W o lf, & Gardner (1980) as f o l l o w s : A l t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h a t normal s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n s h a r e performance s k i l l s i n p a t t e r n i n g and d r a m a t i z i n g , i t may be c r u c i a l t o make t h e most o f t h e i r f a v o r e d means o f a c c e s s as t h e y a r e asked t o become competent u s e r s o f such c u l t u r a l forms as t e x t s , maps, and number (p. 194). As t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s t u d y came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h some o f t h e s e i s s u e s , S h o t w e l l e t a l . (1980) had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n how t h e y h a n d l e d b o t h mapping and w r i t i n g problems. They found t h a t o f t e n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s approaches seemed t o be m e d i a t e d by s k i l l s t h a t had a l r e a d y t a k e n r o o t i n p a t t e r n i n g and d r a m a t i z i n g . By t h e age o f 4, t h e d r a m a t i s t ' s i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r o l e s and n a r r a t i v e sequences, c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p a t t e r n e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n o b j e c t a t t r i b u t e s , s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and s y m b o l i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , c u l m i n a t e d i n s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t forms o f emergent mapping s k i l l s . Thus, when asked t o e n a c t a p r e t e n d p i c n i c t r i p and t o l a t e r make a map o f t h e t r i p , c h i l d r e n v a r i e d as t o w h i c h t a s k f o c u s was p e r formed most s t r o n g l y . J u l i e ( t h e d r a m a t i s t ) e n t e r e d i n t o t h e s y m b o l i c p l a y sequence c o n f i d e n t l y and f u l l y , o f t e n d i r e c t i n g t h e p l a y h e r s e l f . A n i t a ( t h e 38 p a t t e r n e r ) , on t h e o t h e r hand, i n f r e q u e n t l y t o o k t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n i m a g i n a r y p l a y . The y o u n g s t e r s ' maps a l s o d i f f e r e d . When asked t o map t h e e v e n t , J u l i e ' s map was c u r s o r y : She [ J u l i e ] draws a j a g g e d l y c u r v e d e n c l o s u r e and t h e n p o i n t s o u t t h e t r i p ' s h i g h l i g h t s as t h e E x p e r i m e n t e r r e q u e s t s them. A l t h o u g h she a p p a r e n t l y has a v e r y g e n e r a l i d e a o f where t o p l a c e p o i n t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r a c t u a l s p a t i a l l a y o u t , she o n l y o r d e r s them l i n e a r l y by s i t u a t i n g them r o u g h l y (but a p p r o p r i a t e l y ) from r i g h t t o l e f t on t h e e n c l o s u r e ( S h o t w e l l e t a l . , 1980, p. 195). A n i t a ' s map, however, demonstrated a c l e a r and c a r e f u l c o n c e r n t o r e p r o d u c e t h e s p a t i a l l a y o u t o f t h e t r i p i n g r a p h i c form. She [ A n i t a ] can n o t o n l y o r i e n t p o i n t s i n two- d i m e n s i o n a l space, b u t can a l s o draw t h e shapes o f v a r i o u s o b j e c t s a t t h e h i g h l i g h t p o i n t s as w e l l ( S h o t w e l l e t a l . , 1980. p.195). The c h i l d r e n seemed t o a l s o approach w r i t i n g i s s u e s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s , w h i c h e i t h e r r e f l e c t e d o r made use o f t h e i r l e v e l o f mapping s k i l l s and t h e i r s y l i s t i c c o n c e r n s . The r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t J u l i e ' s main i n t e r e s t i n w r i t i n g was i n i t i a l l y t o be a b l e t o s i g n h e r name a t t h e bottom o f a l l h e r p i c t u r e s . T h i s i n t e r e s t e v o l v e d i n t o " e n d l e s s p r a c t i c i n g o f h e r f u l l name, t h e n many ho u r s s p e n t w r i t i n g a l l t h e words she can t h i n k t o ask h e r mother t o s p e l l o u t " (p.195). Over a p e r i o d o f months, J u l i e l e a r n e d s e v e r a l words t h a t h e r mother no l o n g e r had t o s p e l l o u t l e t t e r by l e t t e r , These words were l e a r n e d a l m o s t as whole u n i t s . J u l i e d i d not e x p l o i t t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f 39 l e t t e r s t o sound. R a t h e r , she o p e r a t e d on c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t u n i t - c o m b i n a t i o n s o f l e t t e r s and e v e n t s and p e o p l e . F o r example, she q u i c k l y l e a r n e d " C a r o l " f o r h e r mother, " J u l i e " f o r h e r s e l f , "Merry C h r i s t m a s " f o r t h e h o l i d a y s , and " c a t " f o r a p i c t u r e o f a c a t . O v e r a l l , she seemed p r i m a r i l y t o be concerned w i t h t h e map between t h e w r i t t e n and t h e s o c i a l w o r l d o f o b j e c t and p e r s o n i n t e r a c t i o n . S h o t w e l l e t a l . found t h a t p a t t e r n e r s ' i n t e r e s t i n mapping c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s and shapes g u i d e d t h e i r w r i t i n g c o n c e r n s i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n : I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s l e s s r e l i a n c e on r i t u a l i s t i c p r a c t i c i n g o f whole words and l e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l dynamics o f h a v i n g t h e p a r e n t s p e l l o u t words. P a t t e r n e r s f o c u s f i r s t on p r a c t i c i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r shapes, g o i n g on e v e n t u a l l y t o l e a r n some l e t t e r r e c o g n i t i o n s k i l l s , a l o n g w i t h s i m p l e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between l e t t e r s and t h e sounds r e p r e s e n t e d (p.196). T h e i r i n t e r e s t i n w r i t i n g appeared t o stem l e s s from l a b e l i n g t h a n from d i s c e r n i n g and r e p a t t e r n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f spoken words. S h o t w e l l e t a l . (1980) c o n c l u d e t h a t p a t t e r n e r s and d r a m a t i s t s h i g h l i g h t e d d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f w r i t i n g and mapping a b i l i t i e s i n t h e i r f i r s t e n c o u n t e r s w i t h g r a p h i c l a n g u a g e s . W h i l e t h e y s t r e s s e d t h a t a l l normal c h i l d r e n seem t o a c h i e v e a p o o l o f complementary s t y l i s t i c approaches t h a t p r o v i d e t h e means o f e f f e c t i v e symbol use, t h e y f e l t t h a t i t was w o r t h e x a m i n i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a c h i l d ' s 40 o r i g i n a l s t y l e may p e r s i s t . Dyson (1986a) n o t e d i n h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f f o u r c a s e s t u d y c h i l d r e n ( A s h l e y , R a c h e l , V i v i , and Tracy) t h a t " t h e y appeared t o have d i f f e r e n t ways o f a p p r o a c h i n g w r i t t e n l a nguage, approaches t h a t made sense when each c h i l d was vie w e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r own u n i q u e i n t e r e s t s and s t y l e s o f f u n c t i o n i n g " (p. 211). F o r example, T r a c y w r o t e words by memorizing l e t t e r s and t h e i r s p a t i a l arrangements. T r a c y ' s i n t e r e s t s i n d r a w i n g and i n c o n s t r u c t i v e p l a y were t o " b u i l d " p a r t i c u l a r e n t i t i e s . Her i n t e r e s t i n words as e n t i t i e s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t d r a w i n g and p l a y s t y l e . I n c o n t r a s t , R a c h e l w r o t e by r e q u e s t i n g words and a l s o by s i m p l y p u t t i n g down l e t t e r s randomly, d e s p i t e h e r awareness t h a t such w r i t i n g was not " r e a l " . However, R a c h e l w r o t e f o r a v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s ; she a t t e m p t e d l i s t s o f p e e r s , n o t e s t o f r i e n d s , d i a l o g u e f o r h e r s t o r i e s . Her i n t e r e s t i n t h e purposes o f w r i t i n g was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h e r i n t e r e s t s as a p e r s o n . She engaged o f t e n i n d r a m a t i c , i m a g i n a t i v e p l a y — even h e r drawings t o o k shape w i t h i n e l a b o r a t e n a r r a t i o n s . R a c h e l ' s i m a g i n a t i v e n a r r a t i v e s , l i k e o t h e r i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y f o c u s e d on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e . Dyson (1986b) found s i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n s i n f u r t h e r c a s e s t u d y a n a l y s i s . As t h e ob s e r v e d c h i l d r e n drew and t a l k e d , t h e y were busy c r e a t i n g i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s . They b u i l t scenes from t h e c a s t o f c h a r a c t e r s t h e y had drawn; t h e c h a r a c t e r s 41 were o f t e n engaged i n a c t i o n s and, i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n y e a r ; i n c r e a s i n g l y t h e y were l o c a t e d i n s e t t i n g s o f t i m e and p l a c e . Dyson o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e r e were: ... i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n how t h e c h i l d r e n used s y m b o l i c media t o c r e a t e t h e i r w o r l d s ... t h e c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d i n t h e degree t o w h i c h d r a w i n g was a "language" a c t i v i t y , t h a t i s , i n how and how much t h e y made use o f t a l k and d r a w i n g and i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d r a w i n g and t a l k i n g and t h e d i c t a t e d t e x t (p.403). The documented i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n ways o f i n t e r r e l a t i n g s y m b o l i c media s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s u p p o r t d r a w i n g and t a l k p r o v i d e f o r young w r i t e r s i n t h i s a c t i v i t y — t h e r e s o u r c e s and t e n s i o n s t h e y c r e a t e — w i l l v a r y f o r d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s i n d e e d what Dyson d i s c o v e r e d . The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s i s l i m i t e d , i n one sense, as t h e sample i s s m a l l . F u r t h e r , t h e c h i l d r e n were chosen as case s t u d i e s p r e c i s e l y because t h e y had d i f f e r i n g approaches t o t h e j o u r n a l a c t i v i t y . N o n e t h e l e s s t h e f i n d i n g s do i l l u s t r a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n how c h i l d r e n i n t e r r e l a t e s y m b o l i c media; t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d i n v a r i e d s y m b o l i c a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e t h u s c o r r o b o r a t e s and s t r e n g t h e n s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . 42 Summary R e s e a r c h e r s have begun t o d e t a i l ways i n w h i c h d r a w i n g and o r a l language s u p p o r t each o t h e r i n young c h i l d r e n ' s development as w r i t e r s . T a b l e 1 shows t h e key streams o f development t h a t c h i l d r e n b r i n g t o w r i t i n g i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c and d r a w i n g knowledge, c h i l d r e n o f c o u r s e a l s o b r i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l knowledge o f t h e w o r l d . W h i l e l i n k i n g w r i t i n g t o o r a l l anguage, i t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o i m p l y t h e two p r o c e s s e s a r e t h e same, f o r w r i t i n g i s s u r e l y more t h a n t a l k w r i t t e n down. Based on t h e r e s e a r c h d i s c u s s e d h e r e , t h e r e appears t o be a d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e young c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s i o n from s c r i b b l i n g t o d r a w i n g t o w r i t i n g . T h i s s u p p o r t s V y g o t s k y ' s t h e o r y o f symbol use. C h i l d r e n advance i n t h e i r use o f i n c r e a s i n g l y a b s t r a c t symbolism. Drawing p l a y s a c r u c i a l r o l e i n t h i s development. P i c t o g r a p h y i s an i m p o r t a n t t r a n s i t i o n t o ward w r i t i n g . The p i c t o g r a p h i s a symbol t h a t s t a n d s f o r something more t h a n what i s drawn. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c r u c i a l t o t h e young c h i l d ' s e v o l v i n g sense o f symbol. C h i l d r e n need t o be g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f w r i t i n g and d e v e l o p h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Young c h i l d r e n l e a n on v a r i e d symbol systems i n t h e i r e a r l y a t t e m p t s a t w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n . They o f t e n use d r a w i n g t o v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t t h e i r deas. As t h e y i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o use words, 43 c h i l d r e n must work t o make the v i s u a l image and the language cooperate. Table 1: Resources Children Bring to Written Discourse DEVELOPMENT ORAL LANGUAGE 0 (Learning the System) Grammar of Fun c t i o n s 2 yrs. 2+ \ I n t e r p e r s o n a l I d e a t i o n a l (dialogue) (monologue, s e l f - s p e e c h ) WRITING Gestures S c r i b b l e s Diagonals & Curves DRAWING Gestures ! S c r i b b l i n g Stage - d i s o r d e r e d - c o n t r o l l e d -named T e x t u a l 4 yrs. School R e g i s t e r 5 (e.g., responses t o questions) 5+ I 6 yrs. 7 Sus t a i n e d T a l k ( e x p l a n a t i o n s , n a r r a t i v e ) D i c t a t e d S t o r i e s L e t t e r - l i k e shapes Symbol/Signs "Messages" (Words)-Invented S p e l l i n g (groups o f words) Preschematic Stage - f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l attempts - d i s c o v e r s t h a t simple forms can symbolize o b j e c t s - b u i l d s g r a p h i c v o c a b u l a r y W r i t i n g ( l a b e l s , l i s t s , own s t o r i e s ) Schematic Stage - d e f i n i t e form concept -drawings symbolize i n a d e s c r i p t i v e way Adapted from King (1980) 44 R e s e a r c h e r s a t H a r v a r d ' s P r o j e c t Zero s e t o u t t o i n v e s t i g a t e how young c h i l d r e n p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r development as symbol u s e r s . Two major s t u d i e s , one r e p o r t e d i n Gardner, Wolf, & Sm i t h (1975, 1982) and t h e second r e p o r t e d i n Gardner (1976), S h o t w e l l , Wolf & Gardner (1980), and Wolf & Gardner (1979) l e d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f complex p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s on e a r l y s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n i n g . The e x i s t e n c e o f " c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s " (Gardner e t a l . , 1975, p. 18 ) , o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r i n t h e way c h i l d r e n m astered s y m b o l i c forms was s u g g e s t e d . These became l a b e l l e d as P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . Some y o u n g s t e r s d i r e c t e d t o ward a l l media what was c o n s i d e r e d a " p a t t e r n i n g a p proach"; t h e y were c o n c e r n e d w i t h o b j e c t s and w i t h o v e r a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and p a t t e r n s , t h e y f o c u s e d on t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e media. O t h e r s had a complementary " n a r r a t i v e " o r " d r a m a t i c " emphasis: t h e y t r e a t e d media as s e q u e n t i a l ; t h e y were i n t e r e s t e d i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and i n e v e n t s w h i c h u n f o l d e d o v e r t i m e . S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s between more s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d and o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d s t y l e s were d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e a r e a o f language development ( N e l s o n , 1973; P e t e r s , 1977). N e l s o n i d e n t i f i e d one group o f c h i l d r e n , whom she r e f e r r e d t o as " r e f e r e n t i a l " , who were s i m i l a r t o Wolf and Gardner's (1979) p a t t e r n e r s . A second group o f c h i l d r e n , s i m i l a r t o Wolf and Gar d n e r ' s d r a m a t i s t s , were r e f e r r e d t o as " e x p r e s s i v e " . N e l s o n (1981) r e v i e w e d t h e r e s e a r c h on i n d i v i d u a l 45 d i f f e r e n c e s and c o n c l u d e d t h a t most c h i l d r e n f a l l between t h e extremes o f d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , c h i l d r e n may e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . Y e t , she p o i n t s o u t t h a t s t u d y i n g c h i l d r e n who a r e e x t r e m e l y d i f f e r e n t i n s t y l e s i l l u m i n a t e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e system t o be l e a r n e d . As young c h i l d r e n p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r use o f more a b s t r a c t symbols, t h e y may approach t h e s e new t a s k s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t used when f i r s t e n c o u n t e r i n g s i m p l e r symbols systems. S h o t w e l l , Wolf, & Gardner (1980) d e s c r i b e d how y o u n g s t e r s t h e y were s t u d y i n g approached t h e t a s k s o f mapping and b e g i n n i n g w r i t i n g w i t h s k i l l s t h a t c o u l d be t r a c e d back t o t h e i r e a r l i e r p a t t e r n i n g o r d r a m a t i z i n g b e h a v i o r s . The c h i l d r e n f o c u s e d on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e new t a s k , and t h e i r p r o d u c t s d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y approached t h e s e new i s s u e s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s , w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e i r s t y l i s t i c c o n c e r n s . Dyson (1986b) found s i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n s i n h e r c a s e s t u d y a n a l y s e s . She o b s e r v e d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n how t h e c h i l d r e n used s y m b o l i c media i n j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k s . The degree t o w h i c h t h e y viewed d r a w i n g as a "language" a c t i v i t y v a r i e d as d i d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d r a w i n g , t a l k i n g , and d i c t a t e d t e x t . W h i l e most i n d i v i d u a l s a q u i r e s k i l l i n b o t h s y m b o l i c approaches — i n d e e d , everyday i n t e r c h a n g e r e q u i r e s b o t h 46 p a t t e r n i n g and d r a m a t i z i n g s k i l l s — t r a c e s o f t h e s e c o n t r a s t i n g modes can s t i l l be o b s e r v e d a t much l a t e r s t a g e s o f development. Wolf & Gardner (1979) c l a i m t h a t : I n o u r s t u d i e s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n we f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y who can s t i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d r e l i a b l y as s t r o n g p a t t e r n e r s o r s t r o n g d r a m a t i s t s . Moreover, even i f most o f us can adopt e i t h e r c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , i t may w e l l be t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l r e t a i n s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " s t r e n g t h " o r " l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n . " These s t r e n g t h s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y m a n i f e s t when we engage i n p l a y f u l a c t i v i t y i n wh i c h o n l y o ur i m p u l s e s a r e a t s t a k e o r when we c o n f r o n t a new and u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l (p.135, 136). The e x t e n t t o wh i c h p r e f e r r e d s t y l e i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f e a r l i e r forms o f symbolism a f f e c t l a t e r s y m b o l i c development has, as y e t , n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d f u l l y . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o add t o t h e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s i m p o r t a n t a r e a . 47 CHAPTER THREE Methodology R e s e a r c h D e s i g n T h i s s t u d y was conducted t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between K i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r r e d s y m b o l i c s t y l e and t h e i r . e a r l y w r i t i n g a t t e m p t s . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f w r i t i n g and t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n i t were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t was d i v i d e d i n t o two phases. D u r i n g phase one t h e r e s e a r c h e r s e t o ut t o i d e n t i f y c a s e s t u d y c h i l d r e n who dem o n s t r a t e d a s t r o n g , c o n s i s t e n t s y m b o l i c s t y l e when g i v e n a v a r i e t y o f t a s k s t o p e r f o r m u s i n g f o u r d i f f e r e n t s y m b o l i c media. The c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g , c l a y m o d e l i n g , and s t o r y t e l l i n g p r o d u c t s were a s s e s s e d , as w e l l as t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o a s e r i e s o f s y m b o l i c - p l a y t a s k s u s i n g b l o c k s . To o b t a i n measures o f s y m b o l i c s t y l e i n t h e s e v a r i o u s media, c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o complete t h r e e t a s k s t h a t i n c l u d e d p r e s c r i b e d t o p i c s , c o m p l e t i o n t a s k s , and f r e e c h o i c e . D u r i n g phase two t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e l e c t e d c a s e s t u d y c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g , w r i t t e n t e x t , and t a l k were examined u s i n g two i m p o r t a n t s t r a t e g i e s o f q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w i n g (Bogdan and B i k l e n , 1982). The use o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n methodology r e f l e c t s t h e s t u d y ' s a s s u m p t i o n t h a t composing b e h a v i o r i n any medium i s shaped 48 by i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i n t e n t i o n s and s t y l e s o f f u n c t i o n i n g . The aim was t o p e r c e i v e t h e a c t i v i t y from t h e c h i l d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . Formal and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s were con d u c t e d w i t h each f o c a l c h i l d t o f u r t h e r examine t h e i r v i e w s on w r i t i n g . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n as t h e y worked i n t h e i r J o u r n a l s . A u d i o t a p e s , w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s , and o b s e r v a t i o n a l n o t e s were examined. T h i s q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . As an o b s e r v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d d a t a from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s w h i c h o c c u r e d n a t u r a l l y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . As t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d , t h e r e s u l t s were c a t e g o r i z e d and e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f what had happened t o each c h i l d . A n a l y s i s was on-going and s e r v e d as a g u i d e t o f u r t h e r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . S i t e and Program The p r o j e c t s i t e was a p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia. R e s e a r c h was c a r r i e d out i n one K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s r o o m . C h i l d r e n from b o t h t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s p a r t i c i p a t e d . Both s e s s i o n s were t a u g h t by t h e same t e a c h e r . The c l a s s e s were h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y formed and d i v e r s i t y i n academic achievement was i n e v i d e n c e . The K i n d e r g a r t e n program i n v o l v e d t h e use o f l e a r n i n g 49 c e n t r e s . C e n t r e t i m e o c c u r e d from 9:30 t o 10:15 each morning and 1:00 t o 1:45 each a f t e r n o o n . One o f t h e c e n t r e s a v a i l a b l e was t h e J o u r n a l W r i t i n g C e n t r e . Subjects The s u b j e c t s were e n r o l l e d i n t h e same K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s , e i t h e r i n t h e morning o r a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n . Twenty- s i x c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f i r s t phase o f t h i s s t u d y , 13 f e m a l e s and 13 males. A t s c h o o l e n t r y t h e y ranged i n age from f o u r y e a r s , e l e v e n months t o f i v e y e a r s , e i g h t months w i t h a mean age o f f i v e y e a r s , f o u r months. Twenty-three o f t h e c h i l d r e n spoke o n l y E n g l i s h . Three c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d a r e g u l a r K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s i n t h e morning and a s p e c i a l Language Enhancement K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s v a r i e d from l o w e r t o upper m i d d l e c l a s s s t a t u s w i t h c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n e i t h e r s i n g l e p a r e n t , two p a r e n t o r extended f a m i l y homes. Phase two i n c o r p o r a t e d case s t u d i e s o f s i x c h i l d r e n as t h e y c o n t i n u e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o a c q u i r e s k i l l i n w r i t t e n communication. T h i s group c o n t a i n e d o n l y E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n who ranged i n age from f i v e y e a r s one month t o f i v e y e a r s s i x months w i t h a mean age o f f i v e y e a r s t h r e e months ( a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f phase t w o ) . I t i n c l u d e d f o u r g i r l s and two boys. C r i t e r i a and method o f s e l e c t i o n a r e f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 50 Data C o l l e c t i o n The data c o l l e c t e d was h o l i s t i c , d e s c r i p t i v e data: the children's t a l k , t h e i r products, and observations of t h e i r behavior. Data c o l l e c t i o n took place i n both phases. Data c o l l e c t i o n for phase one occured an average of three times per week f o r a six-week period (mid October 1990 through November 1990). Phase two data c o l l e c t i o n occured an average of four times per week for a four-month period (February 1991 through May 1991). Phase One: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Phase. During the f i r s t six-week phase, a l l 26 children were observed during Centre time. Children was assessed to determine t h e i r preferred s t y l e of symbol use i n four separate media: language ( s t o r y - t e l l i n g ) ; symbolic play (acting out a scene with geometric blocks that could "stand f o r " imaginary characters); two-dimensional depiction (drawing with Magic Markers); and three-dimensional depiction (modeling or sculpting with Play-Doh). Within each of these media the c h i l d performed three tasks: they produced a symbolic product spontaneously (free choice task); completed a work which, though begun, had been l e f t incomplete by the researcher; and produced a product given a prescribed to p i c . The various tasks have been summarized below: 1. Drawing. A l l the drawing tasks were completed on 8 1/2 x 11 inch white paper using colored markers. The children were in v i t e d to create a drawing of anything they 51 wanted t o f o r t h e f r e e - c h o i c e t a s k . F o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n t a s k t h e c h i l d r e n were g i v e n an i n c o m p l e t e d r a w i n g o f a v e h i c l e and asked t o f i n i s h i t . The t h i r d d r a w i n g t a s k r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o produce a d r a w i n g o f a p e r s o n . 2. Plav-Doh M o d e l l i n g . Play-Doh was used f o r t h e m o d e l l i n g t a s k s , and t h e c h i l d r e n were a l s o g i v e n a s e t o f s i m p l e t o o l s . F o r t h e f r e e - c h o i c e t a s k c h i l d r e n were asked t o make a model o f a n y t h i n g t h e y wanted. The c o m p l e t i o n t a s k r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o f i n i s h an i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e o f an a n i m a l . To make a model o f a p e r s o n was t h e t h i r d m o d e l l i n g t a s k . 3. Language ( S t o r y t e l l i n g ) . The language t a s k s were completed i n i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s w i t h r e s p o n s e s and comments b e i n g t a p e r e c o r d e d . F o r t h e f r e e - c h o i c e t a s k each c h i l d was a s k ed t o make up a s t o r y o f t h e i r own. F o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n t a s k t h e c h i l d was t o l d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s t o r y w h i c h began as f o l l o w s : "Once t h e r e was a c a t who wanted t o be a p e r s o n . He t h o u g h t t h a t e a t i n g what p e o p l e a t e would h e l p . So e v e r y day f o r l u n c h t h i s c a t had t h r e e sandwiches, f o u r k i n d s o f soup, s i x c o o k i e s , two marshmallows, and t e n p i c k l e s " . The c h i l d was asked t o f i n i s h t h e s t o r y . The t h i r d t a s k r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d t o c o n s t r u c t a s t o r y t h a t c o n t a i n e d s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s ( b o y / g i r l , t i g e r , and b u t t e r f l y ) . The c h i l d was g i v e n a p i c t u r e c a r d o f each o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r s t o h e l p s t i m u l a t e r e s p o n s e . 52 4. S y m b o l i c p l a y u s i n g b l o c k s . S m a l l s e t s o f wooden b l o c k s were used t o s t r u c t u r e t a s k s t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d t o r e s p o n d v e r b a l l y and t o m a n i p u l a t e o b j e c t s i n a form o f s y m b o l i c p l a y . F o r t h e f i r s t t a s k t h e c h i l d was g i v e n a s e t o f ambiguously shaped wooden b l o c k s (some o f w h i c h s u g g e s t e d p e o p l e , some o f wh i c h were more c o n v e n t i o n a l l y b l o c k l i k e ) and c a r s . As a warm-up e x e r c i s e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s k ed t h e c h i l d t o imagine what s e v e r a l o f t h e shapes might be. Then t h e c h i l d was g i v e n t h e e n t i r e s e t o f b l o c k s and asked t o " p r e t e n d w hatever you want." The second t a s k r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d t o use i m a g i n e r y p l a y t o complete a problem a f t e r b e i n g t o l d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s t o r y and shown t h e a c t i o n s u s i n g b l o c k s . The s t o r y s t a r t s w i t h a " l a d y " - b l o c k i n a c a r , h u n t i n g . f o r a p a r k i n g space a l o n g a row o f c a r s . One c a r has p u l l e d o ut o f t h e row so t h e r e i s an empty space. The r e s e a r c h e r t h e n l e f t t h e s t o r y t o t h e c h i l d t o r e s o l v e . The t h i r d t a s k r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d t o t e l l a s t o r y about a b o y / g i r l , a b o a t , and a dog and show t h e a c t i o n s u s i n g t h e b l o c k s . Two p r o c e d u r e s were used t o g a t h e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . C h i l d r e n were t e s t e d i n random groups o f f i v e f o r t h e P l a y - Doh and d r a w i n g t a s k s . Media were c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d between gro u p s , as were t a s k s w i t h i n each s e s s i o n . To o b t a i n d a t a on s t o r y t e l l i n g and s y m b o l i c p l a y u s i n g b l o c k s , each c h i l d was seen i n d i v i d u a l l y . As w e l l as t h e p r o d u c t s c r e a t e d , o b s e r v a t i o n n o t e s , p h o t o g r a p h s , and v i d e o t a p e 53 t r a n s c r i p t i o n s h e l p e d f a c i l i t a t e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s . A l t h o u g h a l l c l a s s members p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s phase, o n l y s i x c h i l d r e n who demonstrated t h e most c o n s i s t e n t p r e f e r r e d s t y l e o f symbol use ( p a t t e r n e r o r d r a m a t i s t ) o v e r a l l media, were f o l l o w e d i n t o phase two. These c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s f e l l w i t h i n t h e o u t e r q u a r t i l e s o f t h e range o f s c o r e s . S e l e c t e d c a s e s t u d y s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d (PPVT-R), Form L, t o check on t h e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e two groups ( P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s ) on r e c e p t i v e language knowledge. Comparisons o f approach t o w r i t i n g were made between groups o f P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . Phase Two: Re s e a r c h Phase. T h i s phase l a s t e d from F e b r u a r y 1991 t o t h e end o f May 1991. The purpose o f t h i s second phase was t o c o l l e c t d a t a on each c a s e s t u d y c h i l d ' s composing p r o c e s s d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f j o u r n a l e n t r i e s ( p i c t u r e / t e x t s e t s ) and on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f w r i t i n g and t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n i t . I n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s o c c u r r e d w i t h each c a s e s t u d y c h i l d , a s t h e y worked r e g a r d i n g t h e i r w r i t i n g and d r a w i n g s . These c o n v e r s a t i o n s were a u d i o - t a p e d . C h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d , i n d i v i d u a l l y about t h e i r v i e w s on w r i t i n g . Samples o f c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n work from a c r o s s t h e s c h o o l y e a r were g a t h e r e d . Data were c o l l e c t e d f o u r t i m e s p e r week a t t h e j o u r n a l 54 w r i t i n g c e n t r e d u r i n g t h e r e g u l a r c e n t r e t i m e . F i v e t y p e s o f d a t a were c o l l e c t e d : a u d i o r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous t a l k a t t h e c e n t r e , a u d i o r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r s * i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n t o t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s , h a n d w r i t t e n o b s e r v a t i o n a l n o t e s , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s , and l o g e n t r i e s on p e r c e i v e d t r e n d s i n b o t h t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e c a s e s t u d y c h i l d r e n and t h a t o f t h e c l a s s as a whole. 1. Spontaneous t a l k : D u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s a t a t t h e w r i t i n g c e n t e r w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . A t a p e - r e c o r d e r was p l a c e d e i t h e r on t h e f l o o r o r on t h e edge o f t h e t a b l e b e h i n d t h e box c o n t a i n i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p a p e r s . A u n i d i r e c t i o n a l microphone was p l a c e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t a b l e . I t was d i r e c t e d t oward t h e c a s e s t u d y c h i l d . 2. I n t e r v e n t i o n s : A t c e r t a i n t i m e s d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g c e n t e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v e n e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s . An a t t empt was made t o l i m i t i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e i n f l u e n c e on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g p r o c e s s e s . However, u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e a s o n i n g sometimes r e q u i r e d t h e p o s i n g o f q u e s t i o n s . The n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s asked depended upon t h e p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r s b e i n g o b s e r v e d . F o r example, as t h e c h i l d r e n were d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g , t h e r e s e a r c h e r asked them t o e x p l a i n t h e i r work o r a s ked them where t h e y g o t t h e i d e a f o r t h e i r p i e c e o f w r i t i n g . 55 3. O b s e r v a t i o n a l n o t e s : As t h e c a s e - s t u d y c h i l d w r o t e , b r i e f n o t e s were t a k e n on w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s such as t h e o r d e r o f p r o d u c t i o n , e r a s i n g s , use o f r e f e r e n c e s m a t e r i a l s , sound e f f e c t s and o t h e r l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . 4. W r i t t e n p r o d u c t s : The j o u r n a l s were k e p t i n a box ne a r t h e w r i t i n g c e n t r e . J o u r n a l s were c o l l e c t e d (and p h o t o c o p i e s made) so t h a t t h e y c o u l d be examined as p a r t o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . 5. D a i l y l o g : D a i l y e n t r i e s were made by t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n a j o u r n a l . The e n t r i e s d e a l t w i t h t h e w r i t i n g t r e n d s o f b o t h i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t u d y c h i l d r e n and t h e c l a s s as a whole. (See appendix A f o r an example.) Data A n a l y s i s Phase One: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Phase Data g a t h e r e d d u r i n g phase one were examined i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e each c h i l d ' s approach t o t h e s y m b o l i c t a s k s a d m i n i s t e r e d . F i e l d n o t e s , completed p r o d u c t s , p h o t o g r a p h s , and v i d e o t a p e s were examined by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o n o t e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h p o i n t e d t o P a t t e r n e r o r D r a m a t i s t s t y l e s . A t r a i n e d a s s o c i a t e (who was an e x p e r i e n c e d P r i m a r y t e a c h e r ) c o n d u c t e d an independent r a t i n g o f 24% o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . These two r a t i n g s were co n d u c t e d - s e p a r a t e l y and t h e n compared. The p e r c e n t a g e o f agreement y i e l d e d an o v e r a l l i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f .96. To o b t a i n measures o f s y m b o l i c s t y l e , r a t i n g i n d i c e s 56 a d a p t e d by S u l l i v a n (1986) from Wolf and Gardener's (1979) r e s e a r c h were used. C r i t e r i a used f o r d e t e r m i n i n g media r e s p o n s e s and a sample o f t h e r a t i n g i n d e x used a r e g i v e n i n Appendix B. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e s made by a P a t t e r n e r and a D r a m a t i s t a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d i n Appendix B. The t a s k s u t i l i z e d t o a s s e s s s y m b o l i c s t y l e were a n a l y z e d and s c o r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. The c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o each o f t h e a s s i g n e d t a s k s were c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h r e e a r e a s — Approach t o Task, Use o f Language, and Approach t o D e s i g n . The elements i n c l u d e d i n each c a t e g o r y a r e as f o l l o w s : A. Approach t o D e s i g n - r e s p o n s e t o e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g ( r e l u c t a n t o r e n t h u s i a s t i c ) - r e s p o n s e t o t a s k ( t a s k - c e n t e r e d o r e x p e r i m e n t e r - c e n t e r e d ) B. Use o f Language - amount o f language ( l i t t l e o r a l o t ) - l a n g u a g e / a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ( s e p a r a t e o r s i m u l t a n e o u s ) - l a n g u a g e / t a s k r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r e l a t e d o r u n r e l a t e d ) - form o f language ( d e s c r i p t i v e o r e x p r e s s i v e ) C. Approach t o D e s i g n - o r i e n t a t i o n ( o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d o r p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d ) - arrangement based on f o r m a l p r o p e r t i e s o r n a r r a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s - emphasis on d e s i g n o r c o n t e n t N e g a t i v e numbers were a s s i g n e d t o P a t t e r n e r - t y p e r e s p o n s e s and p o s i t i v e numbers were a s s i g n e d t o D r a m a t i s t - t y p e r e s p o n s e s . One p o i n t ( e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ) was g i v e n f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f each element. R a t i n g s were g i v e n 57 f o r each t a s k from -10 ( P a t t e r n e r ) t o +10 ( D r a m a t i s t ) a c c o r d i n g t o how c l o s e t h e r e s p o n s e s came t o r e p r e s e n t i n g each s t y l e . An o v e r a l l s y m b o l i c s t y l e r a t i n g ( r a n g i n g from a p o s s i b l e -120 t o +120) was computed f o r each c h i l d by summing t h e f i n a l s c o r e s f o r each o f t h e t w e l v e t a s k s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t w e l v e S y m b o l i c S t y l e Tasks i n phase one i n d i c a t e d a range o f performance a c r o s s a l l o f t h e 26 c h i l d r e n t e s t e d . S c o r e s ranged from -101 t o +92 w i t h a median s c o r e o f +5. These r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 1 Ogive c u r v e o f S y m b o l i c S t y l e S c o r e s n=2 6 C u m u l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e ( P a t t e r n e r s ) Raw S c o r e ( D r a m a t i s t s ) 58 A n a l y s i s showed t h a t o n e - h a l f o f t h e c h i l d r e n t e s t e d s c o r e d n e g a t i v e numbers i n d i c a t i n g P a t t e r n e r - t y p e r e s p o n s e s , and t h e o t h e r h a l f s c o r e d p o s i t i v e numbers i n d i c a t i n g D r a m a t i s t - t y p e r e s p o n s e s . S i x females and seven males s c o r e d as P a t t e r n e r s , whereas seven females and s i x males s c o r e d as D r a m a t i s t s . The average P a t t e r n e r s c o r e was -53.7; t h e average D r a m a t i s t s c o r e was +52.2. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s i s summarized i n F i g u r e 2. T h i s box-and-whisker p l o t shows t h e s c o r e s d i v i d e d i n t o q u a r t i l e s . The "box" e x t e n d s from Q l t o Q3 and d e f i n e s t h e m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . From t h e o g i v e i n F i g u r e 1, Q l and Q3 were e s t i m a t e d t o be -36 and +45, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The v e r t i c a l l i n e c r o s s i n g t h e box a t "+5" d e f i n e s t h e median (Q2). Figure 2 Box-and-whisker plot of Symbolic Style scores ft R -82 -3fa + 5 +45 +14 F i v e c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d below Q l and f i v e c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d above Q3 were s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . These 59 c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d t h o s e whose r e s p o n s e s were most c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h i n t h e i r p r e f e r r e d s t y l e ( e i t h e r P a t t e r n e r o r D r a m a t i s t ) . The Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d (PPVT-R), Form L was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s e c h i l d r e n . A c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t i n g s t a n d a r d s c o r e e q u i v a l e n t s (SSE) w i t h S y m b o l i c S t y l e S c o r e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. G i v e n t h i s d a t a , s i x c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d t o f o c u s oh d u r i n g Phase Two. ( T h e i r names have been changed t o a s s u r e t h e i r anonymity.) C a r o l i n e , Sammy, and J i l l i a n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e D r a m a t i s t group; Meghan, Donald, and K a t h r y n t h e P a t t e r n e r group. / T a b l e 2 Comparison o f S y m b o l i c S t y l e S c o r e s and PPVT-R S c o r e s S y m b o l i c S t y l e S c o r e PPVT-R s c o r e *Meghan -90 91 *Donald -92 112 * K a t h r y n -101 102 J a c k i e -71 83 D a v i d -75 81 • C a r o l i n e +89 87 *Sammy +92 115 * J i l l i a n +75 102 Amber + 60 115 M i c h e l l e +92 154 * C h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d as f o c a l c h i l d r e n . 60 Phase Two: R e s e a r c h Phase As t h e d a t a g a t h e r i n g proceeded i n phase two, t h e h a n d w r i t t e n n o t e s , t r a n s c r i b e d t a l k , and w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s were examined each week i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n as w e l l as p o s s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g d a t a . To o r g a n i z e t h i s d a t a , i n d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s were used. I n d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e , f i r s t o f a l l , segmenting c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r i n t o u n i t s ; second, comparing l i k e u n i t s ; and, t h i r d , composing d e s c r i p t o r s t o s p e c i f y how t h o s e u n i t s v a r y . Both t h e c h i l d r e n ' s v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r s d u r i n g w r i t i n g were o f i n t e r e s t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d r e f e r r e d t o b o t h t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l , and t h e t o p i c s and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e accompanying t a l k i n p a r t i c u l a r . The c h i l d r e n ' s v i e w s about w r i t i n g and t h e w r i t t e n / d r a w n p r o d u c t s t h e m s e l v e s were a l s o examined. These c a t e g o r i e s were c o n s t a n t l y m o d i f i e d and f i n d i n g s from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n f o r m e d b u t d i d n o t d i c t a t e d a t a a n a l y s i s . A n a l y s i s was a l s o g u i d e d by t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were f u r t h e r r e f i n e d as t h e d a t a g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y s i s proceeded. The g o a l o f t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s was n o t e x a c t measurement and c o d i n g o f v a r i a b l e s t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . R a t h e r , t h e aim was t o d e v e l o p c a t e g o r i e s and p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r s t h a t would a l l o w t h e comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r s . 61 The f i r s t t a s k was t o o r g a n i z e t h e d a t a i n t o u n i t s upon w h i c h t o base t h e a n a l y s i s . The b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e composing e v e n t . A composing e v e n t r e f e r s t o a l l t h e b e h a v i o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f one j o u r n a l e n t r y . T h i s r e f e r s t o a f o c a l c h i l d ' s t a l k i n g , d r a w i n g and composing b e h a v i o r s . W r i t i n g P r o c e s s Components: The composing e v e n t was t h e framework f o r d e f i n i n g a s p e c t s o r components o f t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . I n an e a r l i e r s t u d y o f young c h i l d r e n ' s emerging w r i t i n g , Dyson (1985) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r main components o f t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . These components were not l i n e a r segments, b u t r a t h e r o v e r l a p p i n g and r e c u r s i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e composing event w h i c h c o u l d be combined i n a l t e r n a t e ways. The f o u r components i d e n t i f i e d by Dyson (1985, pp. 71, 72) were: 1. Message F o r m u l a t i o n : d e v i s i n g t h e message(s) t o be conveyed i n p r i n t ; 2. Message E n c o d i n g : u s i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o c o n v e r t t h e f o r m u l a t e d message(s) i n t o p r i n t ; 3. M e c h a n i c a l F o r m a t i o n : p h y s i c a l l y p l a c i n g t h e l e t t e r s o r l e t t e r - l i k e forms on paper ( i . e . , h a n d w r i t i n g ) ; and, 4. Message Decoding: u s i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o t r a n s l a t e an unknown message w h i c h had a l r e a d y been w r i t t e n . A n a l y s i s o f t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d t h e s e components. P r o p e r t i e s were i s o l a t e d w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d each component and d e s c r i p t o r s were composed t o s p e c i f y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . To i l l u s t r a t e , t h e Message 62 F o r m u l a t i o n component d i f f e r e d i n t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e message. There were two a l t e r n a t e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s d e f i n i n g t h e p r o p e r t y o f s p e c i f i c i t y : s p e c i f y i n g o n l y t h e t o p i c o f t h e message, o r s p e c i f y i n g t h e e x a c t words c o n t a i n e d i n t h e message. R e s u l t i n g w r i t i n g p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s , w h i c h were adapt e d from Dyson's (1985) work t o d e s c r i b e t h i s s e t o f d a t a , and a copy o f t h e worksheet used t o a n a l y z e and code t h e s e w r i t i n g process: components a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix C. A n a l y s i s o f C h i l d r e n ' s T a l k : C h i l d r e n ' s t a l k became t h e p r i m a r y window f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s approaches t o s y m b o l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r e v o l v i n g v i e w s about w r i t i n g . B a s i c c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t o r s f o r t o p i c s , language f u n c t i o n s , and meaning e l e m e n t s . A. T o p i c s o f T a l k : The t o p i c s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k were examined and compared, n o t i n g t h e i r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d i n t h e degree o f r e l e v a n c y o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k t o t h e i r o n g o i n g j o u r n a l a c t i v i t y . The f o l l o w i n g t o p i c c a t e g o r i e s (adapted from Dyson, 1989, pp. 287, 289) d e s c r i b e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . 1. T a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e c h i l d ' s own o n g o i n g j o u r n a l e n t r y . V a r i a t i o n s were n o t e d i n t h e degree o f s y m b o l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e t a s k . The c h i l d m i g h t : f o c u s on t h e i r own f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s ; f o c u s on t h e a c t i o n s o r s t a t e o f t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s and e v e n t s ; 63 d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s and e v e n t s and t h e i m a g i n e d f i g u r e s o r e v e n t s t o be r e n d e r e d ; o r f o c u s on t h e s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e i t s e l f , s e p a r a t e from t h e ima g i n e d o r d e p i c t e d e x p e r i e n c e . V a r i a t i o n s were a l s o n o t e d i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t i m e frame c r e a t e d . A c h i l d m ight c r e a t e a s t a t i c t i m e frame i n which t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s do n o t move t h r o u g h t i m e o r a dynamic t i m e frame i n w h i c h t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s do move t h r o u g h t i m e . 2. O t h e r 1 s - t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o a p e e r ' s composing e v e n t . The c h i l d ' s t a l k can be coded f o r degree o f s y m b o l i c i n v o l v e m e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e t i m e frame g o v e r n i n g t h a t t a l k . 3. T a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r i n one's own t a l k i s f o c u s e d on b o t h t h e c h i l d ' s ongoing t a s k and on a n o t h e r c h i l d . T h i s t a l k c o u l d a l s o be coded f o r degree o f s y m b o l i c i n v o l v e m e n t and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t i m e frame g o v e r n i n g t h a t t a l k . 4. T a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k i s t a l k w h i c h i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d ' s o n g oing work. T a l k may be t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d o r use t h e r e f e r e n t c a t e g o r y o f t h e o b j e c t s o r e v e n t s b e i n g d e p i c t e d . 5. N o n t a s k - i n v l o v e d t a l k i s t a l k w h i c h d o e s n ' t f a l l i n t o any o f t h e p r e c e d i n g c a t e g o r i e s . B. Language F u n c t i o n s : The c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s were compared i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e range o f f u n c t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e y used t a l k . T h e i r spontaneous t a l k was c a t e g o r i z e d , b a s i n g t h e i n i t i a l c a t e g o r y system on t h e work o f Dyson (1985, 1989). These f u n c t i o n s were m o d i f i e d , d e l e t e d , and added t o i n o r d e r t o a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a . The r e s u l t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system has f i v e major f u n c t i o n s w i t h accompanying s t r a t e g i e s . (See Appendix C f o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system.) I n b r i e f , t h e c h i l d r e n used language t o r e p r e s e n t r e a l and i m a g i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s ( r e f e r r e d t o as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e ) ; t o m o n i t o r and d i r e c t t h e i r own b e h a v i o r , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s ( d i r e c t i v e l a n g u a g e ) ; t o seek i n f o r m a t i o n ( h e u r i s t i c l a n g u a g e ) ; t o e x p r e s s t h e i r f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s ( p e r s o n a l l a n g u a g e ) ; and t o manage s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( i n t e r a c t i o n a l l a n g u a g e ) . (The l a b e l s used f o r t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were based on t h o s e by H a l l i d a y , 1973.) C. Meaning Elements: T h i s d e s c r i b e d t h e meanings t h e c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s e d not o n l y i n t h e i r t a l k , b u t a l s o i n t h e i r d r a w i n g s and i n t h e i r w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s . I n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e meaning elements c a t e g o r i e s , Dyson's (1989) work was a g a i n i n f l u e n t i a l . The f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d : o b j e c t s , a c t o r s , a c t i o n s , placement i n t i m e ( p a s t , p r e s e n t , f u t u r e ) and space ( l o c a t i o n ) , and s e n s o r i m o t o r q u a l i t i e s ( d i r e c t i o n , f o r c e , speed, v o l u m e ) . F o r each o b s e r v e d composing e v e n t , t h e meaning elements c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c h i l d ' s d r a w i n g , t a l k i n g , and composing were compared. F i g u r e 4 i n Appendix C i l l u s t r a t e s t h e w o r k s h e e t used t o r e c o r d t h i s a n a l y s i s . 65 A n a l y s i s o f W r i t i n g I n t e r v i e w Responses: The c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were examined t o n o t e p o s s i b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s and/or d i f f e r e n c e s i n each groups* v i e w s o f t h e n a t u r e o f w r i t i n g and t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n i t . P r o d u c t A n a l y s i s : A l l o f t h e p r o d u c t s c o l l e c t e d were a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o : d e t e r m i n e how t h e c h i l d r e n combined d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f one g r a p h i c e p i s o d e ; t o d i s c o v e r what s t a n c e t h e c h i l d r e n t o o k as a u t h o r s , and; t o a s s e s s whether o r n o t t h e s e t e x t s c o n t a i n e d e v i d e n c e o f n a r r a t i v e movement. A. How w r i t i n g and d r a w i n g were combined: A n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e c h i l d r e n used d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g . Composing e v e n t s were o r g a n i z e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n combined d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g i n s i m i l a r ways. F i n d i n g s from Dyson's (1982) e a r l i e r work i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e s c r i p t o r s used t o s p e c i f y t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each c a t e g o r y . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r c a t e g o r i e s r e s u l t e d from e x a m i n i n g t h e c o l l e c t e d p r o d u c t s : 1) Drawing and w r i t i n g c o n t r i b u t e d r o u g h l y e q u a l l y t o t h e complete p r o d u c t ; 2) W r i t i n g s e r v e d as a l a b e l f o r a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e drawn g r a p h i c s ; 3) W r i t i n g was p a r t o f t h e drawn g r a p h i c , and; 4) Drawing p r o v i d e d t h e m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t f o r t h e w r i t i n g - i t was n o t s i m p l y an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e w r i t i n g . 66 B. P e r s o n a l S t a n c e i n C h i l d r e n ' s T e x t s : E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t e x t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c h i l d a u t h o r might assume any o f t h r e e r o l e s : commentator, o b s e r v e r , and/or a c t o r . The r o l e o f commentator i n v o l v e d t h e c h i l d d e s c r i b i n g h i s p i c t u r e s u s i n g p h r a s e s such as " T h i s l i t t l e g i r l " and/or p r o g r e s s i v e v e r b s ( " i s j u m p i n g " ) . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n p r o d u c t s w h i c h Dyson (1989) l a b e l l e d " a r t n o t e s " . A t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e c h i l d might assume t h e r o l e o f o b s e r v e r o f t h e e v e n t s and t h i n g s w i t h i n t h e t e x t i t s e l f . T h i s s t a n c e was r e f l e c t e d i n t h i r d - p e r s o n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t e x t . A c h i l d might a l s o assume t h e r o l e o f a c t o r w i t h i n t h e t e x t . T h i s s t a n c e was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e use o f t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n pronoun, I . F i n a l l y , a c h i l d a u t h o r might appear t o change s t a n c e s a b r u p t l y : such t e x t s were c l a s s i f i e d as s h i f t i n g between d i f f e r e n t s t a n c e s . C. N a r r a t i v e Movement: As d e f i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , n a r r a t i v e movement e x i s t e d i f t h e r e were two o r more t e m p o r a l l y o r d e r e d , independent c l a u s e s p r e s e n t i n g a c t i o n o r a c h a r a c t e r ' s r e a c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s an example: The b i r d One day t h e r e was a l i t t l e g i r l who c a t c h e d a b i r d . And she wouldn't l e t i t go. She p u t i t on h e r d r e s s e r b u t i t f a i l e d . The b i r d g o t out o f t h e cage. And i t f l i e d around. And i t g o t out by t h e window. T e x t s c o u l d a l s o i m p l y movement, a l t h o u g h t h a t movement was n o t a c t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d , as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e x t : There was a t r e e . I t was w a i t i n g f o r a a n i m a l t o go i n i t and t h e r e was f o o d i n i t . 67 0 Each text was examined for evidence of narrative movement, no narrative movement or implied narrative movement. 68 CHAPTER FOUR R e s u l t s I n t r o d u c t i o n R e s u l t s a r e o r g a n i z e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t o t h r e e main s e c t i o n s - P r o d u c t A n a l y s e s , Composing P r o c e s s A n a l y s e s , and W r i t i n g I n t e r v i e w A n a l y s i s . W i t h i n each s e c t i o n , . / c o m p a r i sons a r e shown between P a t t e r n e r s (P) and D r a m a t i s t s (D). The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e f i n d i n g s from t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e w r i t t e n / d r a w n p r o d u c t s . T h i s i n c l u d e s how t h e c h i l d r e n combined d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g , what p e r s o n a l s t a n c e was e v i d e n t i n t h e i r w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s , and a n a l y s i s o f n a r r a t i v e movement i n t h e i r t e x t s . The second s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h o s e f i n d i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o a n a l y s i s o f t h e composing p r o c e s s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s components d a t a as w e l l as a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k ( e x amining t o p i c s , language f u n c t i o n s , and meaning elements) a r e r e p o r t e d . F i n d i n g s g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h t h e w r i t i n g i n t e r v i e w s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n . Summaries o f r e s u l t s from P r o d u c t and P r o c e s s a n a l y s i s a r e g i v e n a t t h e end o f t h i s c h a p t e r . P r o d u c t Analyses By t h e end o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 h o u r s o f a u d i o t a p e d d a t a and 107 j o u r n a l e n t r i e s produced 69 by t h e f o c a l c h i l d r e n had been c o l l e c t e d . C o n v e n t i o n s used i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s c r i p t s a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix D. T a b l e 3 shows t h e number o f j o u r n a l e n t r i e s c o l l e c t e d f o r each c h i l d , d i v i d e d i n t o t h o s e w h i c h were d i c t a t e d , t h o s e w r i t t e n i n d e p e n d e n t l y , and t h o s e c o n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i c t a t i o n and independent w r i t i n g . The average number o f words c o n t a i n e d i n each c h i l d ' s w r i t t e n t e x t s i s a l s o shown. T a b l e 3 Number o f J o u r n a l E n t r i e s C o l l e c t e d and Average Number o f Words p e r E n t r y D r a m a t i s t s : Number o f D i c t a t e d E n t r i e s Own Combo. Average Number o f Words J i l l i a n 5 9 1 33.7 C a r o l i n e 9 7 0 32.5 Sammy 7 12 3 15.4 T o t a l s : 21 + 28 + 4 = 53 27.2 P a t t e r n e r s : K a t h r y n 8 2 7 28.0 Donald 14 2 1 8.5 Meghan 8 11 1 12.0 T o t a l s : 30 + 15 + 9 = 54 19.4 70 How drawing and w r i t i n g were combined What r o l e d i d d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g s e r v e i n one g r a p h i c p r o d u c t ? A r e t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t combine d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g ? These two q u e s t i o n s were posed i n Cha p t e r 1. To a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s , a l l j o u r n a l e n t r i e s c o l l e c t e d were examined t o d e t e r m i n e t h e ob s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g p r o c e s s e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4. T h i s t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e most p r e v a l e n t t y p e o f w r i t t e n p r o d u c t produced by b o t h D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s was c a t e g o r y D i n whi c h t h e d r a w i n g p r o v i d e d a m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t f o r t h e w r i t i n g . Examples o f p r o d u c t s from each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a r e shown i n Appendix E. T a b l e 4 How W r i t i n g and Drawing were Combined P r o d u c t Type D r a m a t i s t s P a t t e r n e r s % No. % No. A. Drawing and w r i t i n g c o n t r i b u t e d 28 15 20 11 ( r o u g h l y ) e q u a l l y t o t h e complete p r o d u c t B. W r i t i n g s e r v e d as a l a b e l f o r a t 25 13 28 15 l e a s t p a r t o f t h e drawn g r a p h i c s . C. W r i t i n g was p a r t o f t h e drawn 4 2 0 0 g r a p h i c s . D. Drawing p r o v i d e d t h e m e a n i n g f u l 43 23 52 28 c o n t e x t f o r t h e w r i t i n g ; i t was no t s i m p l y an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f ' t h e w r i t i n g . 71 P e r s o n a l stance i n c h i l d r e n ' s t e x t s As d e s c r i b e d i n Cha p t e r 3, t h e o b s e r v e d c h i l d r e n appeared t o t a k e v a r i o u s s t a n c e s as a u t h o r s . These s t a n c e s ranged from commentator, i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p i c t u r e , t o o b s e r v e r ( r e f l e c t e d i n t h e use o f t h i r d - p e r s o n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e x t ) , t o a c t o r , i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e t e x t ( r e f l e c t e d i n t h e use o f t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n pronoun I ) . To d e t e r m i n e if P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s assumed d i f f e r e n t s t a n c e s , each p r o d u c t c o l l e c t e d was examined t o no t e what r o l e t h e s e c h i l d a u t h o r s were assuming t h r o u g h t h e i r t e x t s . T a b l e 5 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s . T a b l e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e r o l e s o f commentator and o b s e r v e r were most common among b o t h t h e D r a m a t i s t and P a t t e r n e r groups. The r o l e o f a c t o r was t h e l e a s t o b s e r v e d s t a n c e . Some s h i f t i n g between s t a n c e s was n o t e d f o r each o f t h e c h i l d r e n . A t f i r s t g l a n c e i t appears t h a t g e n e r a l l y t h e o b s e r v e r s t a n c e was p r e f e r r e d by t h e D r a m a t i s t s and t h e commentator s t a n c e was p r e f e r r e d by t h e P a t t e r n e r s . However, c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t a l t h o u g h b o t h Sammy and J i l l i a n assumed t h e o b s e r v e r s t a n c e most o f t e n , C a r o l i n e (a f e l l o w D r a m a t i s t ) appeared t o p r e f e r t h e r o l e o f commentator b e s t . I n a d d i t i o n , K a t h r y n d i d n o t f i t i n w i t h t h e o t h e r P a t t e r n e r s . She o n l y demonstrated use o f t h e commentator s t a n c e t w i c e compared w i t h Donald's e i g h t and Meghan's 13 t i m e s . E i g h t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f h e r t e x t s were w r i t t e n from an o b s e r v e r s t a n c e . T a b l e 5 P e r s o n a l Stance i n C h i l d r e n ' s Texts Commenta- Commentator/ Commentator/ C h i l d t o r Obs e r v e r A c t o r O b s e r v e r A c t o r % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. D r a m a t i s t s Sammy 43 10 48 11 0 0 9 2 0 0 C a r o l i n e 50 8 31 5 6 1 13 2 0 0 J i l l i a n 13 2 74 11 13 2 0 0 0 .0 T o t a l s : 37 20 50 27 6 3 7 4 0 0 P a t t e r n e r s Donald 76 13 6 1 12 2 6 1 0 0 Meghan 40 8 25 5 10 2 20 4 5 1 K a t h r y n 12 2 82 14 0 0 0 0 6 1 T o t a l s : 43 23 37 20 7 4 9 5 4 2 O v e r a l l T o t a l s : 40 43 44 47 6 7 8 9 2 2 N a r r a t i v e movement i n c h i l d r e n ' s t e x t s F i n d i n g s c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n used n a r r a t i v e t i m e i n d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h i n t h e i r t e x t s . The r e s u l t s o f a n a l y z i n g t h e p r o d u c t s f o r e v i d e n c e o f movement a r e 73 p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6. T h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h a l f o f t h e c o l l e c t e d p r o d u c t s d i d n o t c o n t a i n n a r r a t i v e movement and h a l f e i t h e r i m p l i e d o r a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n e d movement. D i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t i n t h e amount o f n a r r a t i v e movement i n c l u d e d i n t e x t s w r i t t e n by D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s . P a t t e r n e r s e i t h e r used o r i m p l i e d movement i n 59% o f t h e i r t e x t s , whereas D r a m a t i s t s o n l y i n c l u d e d o r i m p l i e d movement i n t h e i r t e x t s 41% o f t h e t i m e . T a b l e 6 Presence o f Movement i n C h i l d r e n ' s Texts C h i l d No Movement Implied Movement Movement % No. % No. % No. D r a m a t i s t s : Sammy 61 14 17 4 22 5 C a r o l i n e 56 9 19 3 25 4 J i l l i a n 60 9 0 0 40 6 T o t a l s : 59 32 13 7 28 15 P a t t e r n e r s : Donald 47 8 18 3 35 6 Meghan 45 9 20 4 35 7 K a t h r y n 29 5 18 3 53 9 T o t a l s : 41 22 18 10 41 22 O v e r a l l T o t a l s : 50 54 16 17 34 37 74 Composing P r o c e s s A n a l y s e s W r i t i n g P r o c e s s A n a l y s i s A n a l y s e s o f w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s were u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e s i m i l a r i t i e s o r d i f f e r e n c e s between P a t t e r n e r s ( P ) and D r a m a t i s t s (D) i n terms o f message q u a l i t y ( t h e c h i l d ' s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e message t o be e x p r e s s e d and t h e system used f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h a t message). The f o u r components o f t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s were examined f o r each group. A. Message F o r m u l a t i o n When f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r messages, t h e P a t t e r n e r s o b s e r v e d t e n d e d t o s p e c i f y o n l y t h e t o p i c o f t h e i r message b u t n o t t h e a c t u a l w o r d i n g o f t h a t message. D r a m a t i s t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, d i d s p e c i f y e x a c t w o r d i n g d u r i n g a few (16%) o f t h e i r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s e s s i o n s . However, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t i m e o n l y t o p i c s were s p e c i f i e d by b o t h g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h a l l t h e messages were i n some way r e l a t e d t o t h e g r a p h i c s on t h e page, t h e l e v e l o f coherance v a r i e d between t h e two groups. F o r t h e D r a m a t i s t s , o n l y 58% o f t h e t i m e d i d t h e e n t i r e p r o d u c t produce a c o h e r a n t whole. The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t i m e t h e messages appeared o n l y somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e g r a p h i c s produced. C o h e s i v e n e s s between t h e g r a p h i c s and t h e w r i t t e n messages appeared t o be more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e P a t t e r n e r s o b s e r v e d . E i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t 75 o f t h e t i m e t h e s e two components went t o g e t h e r t o form a c o h e s i v e whole. A n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n ranged from s i n g l e words t o groups o f two o r more s e n t e n c e s . The D r a m a t i s t s w r o t e messages o f two o r more s e n t e n c e s 72% o f t h e t i m e . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e i r e n t r i e s were s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s o r one-word l a b e l s . The P a t t e r n e r s 1 t e x t s f e l l ( r o u g h l y ) e q u a l l y i n t o e i t h e r s i n g l e o r m u l t i p l e s e n t e n c e l e n g t h s . B. Message E n c o d i n g Segmenting t h e o r a l message d u r i n g e n c o d i n g was much more common among t h e P a t t e r n e r s t h a n t h e D r a m a t i s t s . P a t t e r n e r s segmented t h e o r a l message i n t o p h r a s e s , words, s y l l a b l e s o r sounds 84% o f t h e t i m e . T h i s i s h i g h compared t o o n l y 4 5% f o r t h e D r a m a t i s t s . A breakdown o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7. A c o m b i n a t i o n o f s y s t e m a t i c and n o n s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e s were used by t h e c h i l d r e n when e n c o d i n g t h e i r message segments. A d u l t - d e p e n d e n t e n c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s were r e g u l a r l y used by b o t h groups t o r e q u e s t s p e l l i n g s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d ) . F o r P a t t e r n e r s , t h i s s t r a t e g y was used f r e q u e n t l y t o o b t a i n o b j e c t l a b e l s . The l a b e l s r e q u e s t e d were t y p i c a l l y f o r well-known o b j e c t s and/or o b j e c t s i n t h e immediate environment. On a number o f o c c a s i o n s Donald (P) went 76 beyond s i m p l y r e q u e s t i n g t h e s p e l l i n g o f words t o a c t u a l l y g u i d i n g t h e a d u l t ' s r e c o r d i n g o f t h e s e words i n a s p e c i f i c way. T h i s r e q u e s t p r o c e d u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t : Donald: I need a new word. How do you s p e l l b l o c k s ? (Donald was d i r e c t i n g h i s r e q u e s t t o me.) Mrs. S.: Okay, j u s t hand me t h e f e l t pen and y o u r word c a r d s — Donald: — I want t o use two c o l o r s . A p a t t e r n ! I want a p a t t e r n ! (Donald gave me two f e l t pens i n s t e a d o f t h e u s u a l one.) Mrs. S.: Okay. Donald: B l u e , r e d , b l u e , r e d , b l u e , r e d . (Donald seemed more co n c e r n e d w i t h c r e a t i n g a p a t t e r n t h a n w i t h h i s o r i g i n a l r e q u e s t f o r t h e word b l o c k s . ) T a b l e 7 Segmentation o f O r a l Language D u r i n g E n c o d i n g Type o f Segmentation D r a m a t i s t s P a t t e r n e r s % No. % No. Not a p p l i c a b l e (one word message) 1.5 2 0 0 No s e g m e n t a t i o n e x i s t e d 53.5 73 16 22 Segmented i n t o p h r a s e s 30 40 37 51 Segmented i n t o words 9 12 26.5 36 Segmented i n t o s y l l a b l e s 1 1 9.5 13 Segmented i n t o sounds 5 7 11 15 77 Among t h e D r a m a t i s t s , r e q u e s t s f o r s p e l l i n g s were a l s o made t o b o t h a d u l t s and p e e r s . But u n l i k e P a t t e r n e r s , D r a m a t i s t s o f t e n had s p e c i f i c , p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e words t h e y r e q u e s t e d . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e : *How do you w r i t e [ l a s t name]? 'Cause I want t o w r i t e my l a s t name. ~" *How do you s p e l l Edmonton? T h a t ' s where my c o u s i n l i v e s . * I need t h e name L i l a . 'Cause I don't know and t h a t ' s my A u n t i e ' s name. I want t h i s mermaid t o be L i l a . A v a r i e t y o f s y s t e m a t i z e d , o r t h o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e s were used by t h e c h i l d r e n t o encode t h e i r messages i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Sammy and J i l l i a n ( b o t h D r a m a t i s t s ) used a l e t t e r - n a m e s t r a t e g y when w r i t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Sammy's b i r d s t o r y shown i n F i g u r e 3. I n t h i s example, he used t h e l e t t e r Y f o r t h e word "why" and t h e l e t t e r U f o r t h e word "you". H i s s t o r y r e a d s , "Why do you quack?". The use o f a p e r s o n a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l system o f sound/symbol c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used s t r a t e g y by t h e D r a m a t i s t s . P a t t e r n e r s a l s o used t h i s s t r a t e g y , b u t n o t as o f t e n . S p e l l i n g s were a l s o based on v i s u a l r e c a l l . By t h e end o f phase two J i l l i a n (D), Sammy (D), and Meghan (P) were s p e l l i n g many words i n d e p e n d e n t l y . On t h e o t h e r hand, C a r o l i n e (D), Donald ( P ) , and K a t h r y n (P) w r o t e v e r y few words u s i n g t h i s s t r a t e g y . Word l i s t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t were used as r e f e r e n c e s by b o t h groups. 78 F i g u r e 3 Sammy's b i r d s t o r y C. M e c h a n i c a l F o r m a t i o n C o n v e n t i o n a l use o f symbols was c o n s i s t e n t among each o f t h e c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d . L e t t e r s were used i n a l m o s t a l l o f t h e w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s . The use o f l e t t e r - l i k e forms was o n l y e v i d e n t i n a few i n s t a n c e s . A l l l e t t e r s were produced as unconnected symbols and most were produced f l u e n t l y . S p a t i a l arrangement ( i n c l u d i n g d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n and 79 s p a c i n g o f t e x t s ) v a r i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y between t h e two grou p s . B o t h D r a m a t i s t s ' and P a t t e r n e r s ' t e x t s showed c o n v e n t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s and some use o f spaces between words. I n a d d i t i o n , two o f Meghan's (P) t e x t s w h i c h were q u i t e e x t e n s i v e d i d not c o n t a i n any u n c o n v e n t i o n a l arrangements o r s p a c i n g o f t e x t . She wr o t e i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n and l e f t s p a c i n g between words. D. Message Decoding Fewer i n s t a n c e s o f d e c o d i n g were o b s e r v e d t h a n were i n s t a n c e s o f message f o r m u l a t i o n and e n c o d i n g . Among t h e P a t t e r n e r group, Meghan r e r e a d many o f h e r j o u r n a l e n t r i e s w i t h o u t segmenting t h e w r i t t e n message. She appeared t o base d e c o d i n g on v i s u a l r e c a l l o f words and used a c o n v e n t i o n a l system o f sound/symbol c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s t o "sound o u t " unknown words. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t she a l s o r e a d o t h e r t e x t s (books, c h a r t s ) i n d e p e n d e n t l y . N e i t h e r Donald (P) n o r K a t h r y n (P) were o b s e r v e d d e c o d i n g t h e i r messages i n d e p e n d e n t l y . They r e l i e d on t h e t e a c h e r t o r e r e a d t h e i r j o u r n a l e n t r i e s . Based on t h i s l i m i t e d d a t a , i t was n o t e d t h a t Sammy (D) and J i l l i a n (D) segmented t h e w r i t t e n message i n t o p h r a s e s about 20% o f t h e t i m e . They used t h e f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o decode t h e i r messages: s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t ; a l e t t e r - name s t r a t e g y ; a p e r s o n a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l system o f 80 sound/symbol c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , and; v i s u a l r e c a l l o f t h e word. L i k e Donald (P) and K a t h r y n ( P ) , C a r o l i n e (D) r e l i e d on someone e l s e t o decode h e r w r i t t e n messages. A n a l y s i s o f C h i l d r e n ' s T a l k Three q u e s t i o n s were posed i n r e g a r d s t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k : What t o p i c s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k and how r e l e v a n t i s t h i s t a l k t o t h e ongoing j o u r n a l a c t i v i t y ? ; What r o l e does language p l a y i n each groups' approach t o w r i t i n g ? ; What meaning elements a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i r t a l k i n g , d r a w i n g , and composing? The c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k was examined i n t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s and r e s u l t s from t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . T h i s a n a l y s i s was based on t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f a u d i o t a p e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k as t h e y worked a t t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g c e n t r e . The u n i t o f a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k was an u t t e r a n c e (a ph r a s e o r i d e a u n i t ) . The,amount o f t a l k w h i c h o c c u r r e d v a r i e d between groups and among i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . The average number o f u t t e r a n c e s p e r composing e v e n t f o r t h e D r a m a t i s t s was 32 w i t h a range o f 24 t o 40. P a t t e r n e r s a veraged 21 u t t e r a n c e s p e r composing e v e n t w i t h a range o f from 10 t o 39. Sammy (D) spoke s l i g h t l y l e s s and Donald (P) more t h a n t h e o t h e r members o f t h e i r group. 81 1. T o p i c s o f T a l k E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t o p i c s o f t h e f o c a l c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k r e v e a l e d some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e degree o f r e l e v a n c y o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k t o t h e i r o n going j o u r n a l a c t i v i t y . F i v e m ajor t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o r e l e v a n c y were i d e n t i f i e d : A. Task- i n v o l v e d T a l k B. O t h e r ' s - t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k C. T a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n one's own t a s k D. T a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k E. Non t a s k - r e l a t e d / n o n t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k P e r c e n t a g e s o f t a l k w h i c h f e l l i n t o each o f t h e s e t o p i c s (see C h a p t e r t h r e e f o r d e s c r i p t i o n and examples) were c a l c u l a t e d . V a r i a t i o n s were d i s c o v e r e d w i t h i n some o f t h e s e t o p i c s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t a l k w h i c h f e l l i n t o each sub- c a t e g o r y ( v a r i a t i o n ) was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e s 8 and 9. S i n c e t h e amount o f t a l k d i f f e r e d from c h i l d t o c h i l d , p e r c e n t a g e s a r e r e p o r t e d r a t h e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l number o f u t t e r a n c e s . 82 T a b l e 8 T o p i c s o f D r a m a t i s t s ' T a l k * T o p i c s A B C D E • C h i l d r e n S C J S C J S C J S C J S C J O v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e s 46 59 68 17 13 7 4 7 8 8 2 7 25 19 10 Degree o f s y m b o l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i ) f o c u s on 18 16 21 21 32 50 50 46 13 own f e e l i n g s / a c t i o n s i i ) f o c u s 44 48 32 31 28 21 17 15 0 on a c t i o n s o f f i g u r e s / e v e n t s i i i ) d i f f e r - 0 3 2 7 8 0 0 0 0 e n t i a t i e between d e p i c t e d and imagined f i g u r e s / e v e n t s i v ) f o c u s 30 26 39 41 32 29 33 39 87 on s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e N a t u r e o f t i m e frame c r e a t e d i ) s t a t i c 5 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 i i ) dynamic 3 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 T h e m a t i c a l l v 64 75 20 r e l a t e d Use o f r e f e r e n t 36 25 80 c a t e g o r y * T o p i c s : A. T a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k B. O t h e r 1 s - t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k C. T a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n one's own t a s k D. T a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k E. Non t a s k - r e l a t e d / n o n t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k * S=Sammy; C = C a r o l i n e ; J = J i l l i a n 83 T a b l e 9 T o p i c s o f P a t t e r n e r s 1 T a l k * T o p i c s A B C D E * * C h i l d r e n D M K D M K D M K D M K D M K O v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e 56 73 80 18 Degree o f s y m b o l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i ) f o c u s on 36 10 7 26 99 20 own f e e l i n g s / a c t i o n s i i ) f o c u s on 20 45 54 36 1 0 a c t i o n s o f f i g u r e s / e v e n t s i i i ) d i f f e r - 0 0 0 2 0 0 e n t i a t e between d e p i c t e d and i m a g i n e d f i g u r e s / e v e n t s i v ) f o c u s 41 35 30 36 0 80 on s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e 16 41 6 0 0 33 0 53 0 67 7 20 7 N a t u r e o f t i m e frame c r e a t e d 1 2 i ) s t a t i c i i ) dynamic T h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d Use o f r e f e r e n t c a t e g o r y 3 7 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 1 50 83 99 50 * T o p i c s : A. T a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k B. O t h e r 1 s - t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k C. T a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n one's own t a s k D. T a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k E. Non t a s k - r e l a t e d / n o n t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k ** D=Donald; M=Meghan; K=Kathryn 84 Data r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e most o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k was t a s k - i n v o l v e d . F o r D r a m a t i s t s t h i s amount was s l i g h t l y l o w e r (60%) t h a n f o r P a t t e r n e r s ( 6 5 % ) . An average o f 12% o f b o t h g r o u p s ' t a l k was p e r c e i v e d as d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o a p e e r ' s composing e v e n t ( o t h e r ' s - t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k ) . The p e r c e n t a g e o f t a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n one's own t a s k was somewhat l o w e r : 6% f o r D r a m a t i s t s ; 11% f o r P a t t e r n e r s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f T a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k was s i m i l a r f o r b o t h g r o u p s : 4% f o r D r a m a t i s t s ; 3% f o r P a t t e r n e r s . Y e t , when d i v i d e d i n t o t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t a l k v e r s u s t a l k w h i c h used t h e r e f e r e n t c a t e g o r y o f t h e o b j e c t s o r e v e n t s b e i n g d e p i c t e d , d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d . D r a m a t i s t s t a l k e d more (64%) about t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s t h a n P a t t e r n e r s ( o n l y 1 7 % ) . I n a d d i t i o n , P a t t e r n e r s used t h e r e f e r e n t c a t e g o r y more o f t e n i n t h e i r t a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k t h a n D r a m a t i s t s (83% v s . 3 6 % ) . Data a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t D r a m a t i s t s engaged i n t w i c e as much non t a s k - i n v o l v e d , non t a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k t h a n P a t t e r n e r s . T h i s i s t a l k w h i c h was p e r c e i v e d as n o t f a l l i n g w i t h i n any o f t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . F u r t h e r a n l a y s i s o f t h i s d a t a was u n d e r t a k e n t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s i n t h e degree o f s y m b o l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e t a s k . A l l t a l k f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k , o t h e r ' s - t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k , and t a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n one's own t a s k ) was examined t o i d e n t i f y 85 t h e f o c u s . T a b l e 10 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s . G i v e n t h i s breakdown o f d a t a , i t appears t h a t ( o v e r a l l ) t h e D r a m a t i s t s t a l k e d most o f t e n about t h e a c t i o n s o r s t a t e o f t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s and e v e n t s whereas t h e P a t t e r n e r s t a l k e d most o f t e n about t h e s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e i t s e l f . However, t h e p e r c e n t a g e s d i d n o t v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e s e a r e a s . S i m i l a r i t i e s were n o t e d i n t h e f o c u s on one's own f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s . D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between d e p i c t e d and i m a g i n e d f i g u r e s and e v e n t s was t h e l e a s t e v i d e n t f o c u s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k . T a b l e 10 Degree o f S y m b o l i c Involvement i n C h i l d r e n ' s T e x t s Focus o f D r a m a t i s t s P a t t e r n e r s T a l k S C J T o t a l D M K T o t a l N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Focus 24 22 31 22 38 24 93 23 68 36 5 18 8 10 81 27 on own a c t i o n s / f e e l i n g s Focus 45 40 61 44 46 30 152 38 40 21 13 46 42 52 95 32 on a c t i o n s o r s t a t e o f d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s & e v e n t s D i f f e r - 2 2 5 4 2 2 9 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e n t i a t e between d e p i c t e d & i m a g i n e d f i g u r e s & e v e n t s F O C U S 38 36 42 30 71 45 151 37 82 43 10 36 31 38 123 41 on s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e 86 2. Language F u n c t i o n s The c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s were compared i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e range o f f u n c t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e s e c h i l d r e n used t a l k . The r e s u l t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was two- t i e r e d , w i t h f i v e major f u n c t i o n s and t h e accompanying s t r a t e g i e s used t o e f f e c t each. The p e r c e n t a g e o f t a l k w h i c h f e l l i n t o each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s was c a l c u l a t e d . T a b l e 11 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s . T a b l e 11 Language F u n c t i o n s o f C h i l d r e n ' s T e x t s (by p e r c e n t a g e ) C h i l d Rep. Lang. D i r e c t . Lang. H e u r i s t i c Lang. P e r s o n a l Lang. I n t e r a c t . Lang. D r a m a t i s t s : Sammy 37 41 10 8 4 C a r o l i n e 27 52 6 11 3 J i l l i a n 12 69 10 7 2 T o t a l s : 24 56 9 9 2 P a t t e r n e r s : Donald 20 50 10 13 5 Meghan 30 55 2 7 7 K a t h r y n 4 85 2 7 1 T o t a l s : 18 60 7 11 4 O v e r a l l T o t a l s : 21 57 8 10 3 87 Language w h i c h s e r v e d t o d i r e c t t h e a c t i o n s o f s e l f and/or o t h e r s was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used. T h i s was f o l l o w e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l language, t h e n p e r s o n a l , h e u r i s t i c , and f i n a l l y i n t e r a c t i o n a l language. T h i s r a n k e d o r d e r o f r e s u l t s was t h e same f o r b o t h P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . V a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s were used w i t h i n each o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . T a b l e 12 shows t h e s t r a t e g i e s used w i t h i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and d i r e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . I t can be i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s : R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l language r e p r e s e n t e d 37% o f Sammy's language (as shown i n T a b l e 1 1 ) . Of t h i s , 13% i n v o l v e d l a b e l i n g , 18% i n v o l v e d e l a b o r a t i n g o r d e t a i l i n g , 62% was r e p o r t i n g , 5% was n a r r a t i n g , and t h e r e m a i n i n g 2% was r e a s o n i n g . Those s t r a t e g i e s used w i t h i n t h e H e u r i s t i c and P e r s o n a l language f u n c t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 13. These s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f use w i t h i n each f u n c t i o n and may be i n t e r p r e t e d as was T a b l e 12. No d i v i s i o n i n t o s t r a t e g i e s was made i n t h e I n t e r a c t i o n a l language f u n c t i o n . I n most i n s t a n c e s P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s used t a l k t o s e r v e s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s . T h e i r s t r a t e g y use was s i m i l a r as w e l l . One i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e can be seen by ex a m i n i n g T a b l e 13 and n o t i n g t h e P e r s o n a l Language s t r a t e g i e s . D r a m a t i s t s engaged i n about t h r e e t i m e s more p l a y f u l language use t h a n P a t t e r n e r s . P a t t e r n e r s 1 p e r s o n a l language use was more s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e t h a n D r a m a t i s t s ' . 88 T a b l e 12 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and D i r e c t i v e Language S t r a t e g i e s Used S t r a t e g i e s D r a m a t i s t s P a t t e r n e r s *S C J **D M K R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l Language a) L a b e l i n g 13 14 18 25 0 0 b) E l a b o r a t i n g 18 12 14 18 28 0 c) R e p o r t i n g 62 63 54 52 57 100 d) N a r r a t i n g 5 2 0 2 0 0 e) D r a m a t i z i n g 0 0 0 0 0 0 f ) R e a s o n i n g 2 9 14 3 15 0 D i r e c t i v e Language a) M o n i t o r i n g 0 2 0 2 0 0 b) P l a n n i n g 25 25 31 36 19 27 c) E n c o d i n g 24 53 44 23 54 63 d) Decoding 19 4 15 6 15 6 e) A c c e s s i n g 12 2 3 1 0 1 f ) I n s t r u c t i n g 1 4 1 6 4 0 g) R e q u e s t i n g 18 8 5 23 8 3 h) O f f e r i n g 1 2 1 3 0 0 * S=Sammy, J = J i l l i a n , C = C a r o l i n e ** D=Donald, M=Meghan, K=Kathryn 89 T a b l e 13 H e u r i s t i c and P e r s o n a l Language S t r a t e g i e s Used S t r a t e g i e s D r a m a t i s t s *S P a t t e r n e r s **D M K H e u r i s t i c Language a) S e e k i n g c o n f i r m a t i o n b) S e e k i n g f a c t c) S e e k i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n P e r s o n a l Language a) E v a l u a t i n g o t h e r s 50 50 72 50 50 24 0 0 4 7 35 29 b) E v a l u a t i n g s e l f 36 35 29 c) P l a y i n g w i t h 57 30 42 language 28 0 100 69 100 15 67 12 75 33 63 10 0 25 * S=Sammy, J = J i l l i a n , C = C a r o l m e ** D=Donald, M=Meghan, K=Kathryn 3. Meaning Elements The f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k i n v o l v e d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f meaning elements. Meaning elements ( t h o s e components t h r o u g h w h i c h meanings a r e expres s e d ) e v i d e n t i n t h r e e mediums ( t a l k , d r a w i n g , and w r i t i n g ) were compared t o f i n d answers t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . (1) I n what medium were meaning elements most e v i d e n t ? (2) W i t h i n each medium, w h i c h meaning element was e x p r e s s e d most o f t e n ? 90 I n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s f i r s t q u e s t i o n , d a t a a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f meaning elements were e v i d e n t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k (40% f o r P a t t e r n e r s , 43% f o r D r a m a t i s t s ) . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by w r i t i n g (36% f o r P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s ) and, f i n a l l y , d r a w i n g (24% f o r P a t t e r n e r s , 21% f o r D r a m a t i s t s ) . T a b l e 14 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f d a t a r e l a t i n g t o t h e second q u e s t i o n posed. Amounts a r e g i v e n i n p e r c e n t a g e s so t h a t c omparisons c o u l d be made between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . T a b l e 14 Meaning Elements C o n t a i n e d i n T a l k , Drawing and W r i t i n g Meaning Elements Medium S e n s o r i m o t o r Time/ O b j e c t s A c t o r s A c t i o n s Q u a l i t i e s Space T a l k P D P D P D P D P D 1 1 18 15 25 24 22 26 34 34 Drawing P D P D P D P D P D 0 2 0 0 55 59 29 34 16 5 W r i t i n g P D P D P D P D P D 0 0 16 16 19 22 23 25 42 37 W i t h i n t h e medium o f t a l k , P a t t e r n e r s ' e x p r e s s e d meanings were m o s t l y r e l a t e d t o a c t i o n s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by t a l k r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t s , a c t o r s , t i m e / s p a c e , and s e n s o r i - motor q u a l i t i e s . L i k e P a t t e r n e r s , D r a m a t i s t s t a l k e d m o s t l y about a c t i o n s . T h e i r second most common meaning element 91 e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t a l k was a c t o r s , f o l l o w e d by o b j e c t s , t i m e / s p a c e , and s e n s o r i - m o t o r q u a l i t i e s ( d i r e c t i o n , f o r c e , speed, volume). W i t h i n t h e medium o f d r a w i n g , b o t h groups f o c u s e d most on o b j e c t s , f o l l o w e d by a c t o r s and a c t i o n s . D r a m a t i s t s a l s o e x p r e s s e d a s m a l l amount o f meaning r e l a t e d t o s e n s o r i - m o t o r q u a l i t i e s i n t h e i r d r a w i n g s . The t h i r d medium examined was t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g . Once a g a i n , b o t h groups demonstrated s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s o f f o c u s . A c t i o n s were e x p r e s s e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n w r i t i n g , f o l l o w e d by i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a c t o r s , o b j e c t s and t i m e / s p a c e . W r i t i n g I n t e r v i e w R e s u l t s As was e x p e c t e d , t h e D r a m a t i s t s spoke more f l u e n t l y about t h e i r v i e w s o f w r i t i n g t h a n d i d t h e P a t t e r n e r s . Each gr o u p s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s asked were as f o l l o w s : I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n Responses D r a m a t i s t s P a t t e r n e r s When you a r e w r i t i n g and you come t o something t h a t i s d i f f i c u l t o r h a r d , what do you do? ( S ) I j u s t t r y t o do i t r i g h t . I l e a r n e d t o s p e l l words by t h e sounds. (J) I t h i n k v e r y , v e r y h a r d . (J) I e r a s e i t . (C) I go and l o o k around t h e room and see i f I can f i n d any words o r I l o o k i n my words and copy one o f t h o s e . (C) I ask t h e t e a c h e r o r somebody e l s e . (D) I s c r i b b l e o v e r i t o r I e r a s e i t . ( K ) I a s k t h e t e a c h e r f o r h e l p . (M) I make a p i c t u r e . 92 I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n Responses D r a m a t i s t s P a t t e r n e r s Who i s a good w r i t e r t h a t you know? What makes him/her a good w r i t e r ? (S) My b r o t h e r , i n grade f o u r . (C) I f t h e i r f a v o r i t e t h i n g i s w r i t i n g t h e n t h e y would do i t a l l day. (J) My mom, 'cause she w r i t e s v e r y n i c e , l i k e p r i n c e s s w r i t i n g . He's 9 and (D) My b r o t h e r . He's b i g g e r t h a n me. (M) K e v i n . He made a l e t t e r f o r me. (K) I don't know. I f t h i s good w r i t e r had t r o u b l e w i t h t h e i r w r i t i n g , what would t h e y do about i t ? (S) He would e r a s e i t . (C) They would p r o b a b l y j u s t s t i c k i t o u t . I f t h e y wanted t o w r i t e a s t o r y and t h e y had a problem, t h e y ' I d j u s t have t o t h i n k about i t . (J) Maybe she would ask me o r my dad. (D) He would e r a s e i t . (M) He might do a p i c t u r e . (K) I don't know. What would do you do i f you saw someone was h a v i n g t r o u b l e w i t h t h e i r w r i t i n g ? (S) I would t e l l t h e t e a c h e r . (D) E r a s e i t & (C) I ' I d ' t e l l them s t o r i e s . i t f o r them. (J) I would ask them: (M) H e l p them. "What's wrong w i t h y o u r w r i t i n g ? " . (K) H e l p them. What would t e a c h e r do t o h e l p t h a t p e r s o n ? (S) She would j u s t say, " F i x i t up!". (C) Help them w i t h some o f t h e w r i t i n g . (J) T a l k a l o t about l e t t e r s and how i t sounds. (D) She would a e r a s e i t . (M) Maybe she would do i t . (K) H e l p them. How d i d you l e a r n t o w r i t e ? (S) My mom t o l d me t h a t you make t h e sounds and when you put them t o g e t h e r you have a word. (C) My mom t a u g h t me how t o s p e l l h e r name. (J) My p r e s c h o o l and my mom t o l d me t h e sounds. (D) I l e a r n e d by m y s e l f by t r y i n g . (K) The t e a c h e r h e l p e d me. (M) I d i d i t m y s e l f . 93 Interview Question Responses Dramatists Patterners What would (S) S p e l l more words. (K) I don't you l i k e (C) Color i n the l i n e s . know. to be able (J) Do pictures instead of (D) P r i n t to do words so I could read i t . n icer. better as (M) Have more a writer? ideas. Are you a good writer? Why/ Why not? (S) Yes, because I can s p e l l . (D) Yes, 'cause (C) No, because I s c r i b b l e . (J) Yes, because I know sounds. I write good. (K) No, I don't know how to write. (M) Yes, because I write and color good. Examination of these responses points to the varying perceptions which each group held i n regards to writing. Patterners appeared to hold a view of writing i n which form and conventionality of text was important. Their responses focused on encoding and neatness of texts. Dramatists also discussed aspects of encoding (such as sounding out words) but t h i s was i n addition to comments about finding ideas, sharing s t o r i e s , and reading what you or others have written. They appeared to hold a much more i n c l u s i v e view of writing. Content and form were important to the Dramatists interviewed. 94 Summary o f R e s u l t s How drawing; and w r i t i n g were combined A l l o f t h e c o l l e c t e d p r o d u c t s c o n t a i n e d d r a w i n g s and w r i t i n g s w h i c h were t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . . The most p r e v a l e n t t y p e o f p r o d u c t produced by b o t h D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s was one i n whi c h t h e d r a w i n g p r o v i d e d a m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t f o r t h e w r i t i n g . P e r s o n a l s t a n c e The r o l e s o f commentator and o b s e r v e r were most common among b o t h D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s . A l t h o u g h c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t D r a m a t i s t s p r e f e r r e d t h e o b s e r v e r s t a n c e and P a t t e r n e r s p r e f e r r e d t h e commentator s t a n c e , t h i s was n o t c o n s i s t e n t among a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n i n each group. N a r r a t i v e movement R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h a l f o f t h e c o l l e c t e d p r o d u c t s d i d n o t c o n t a i n e v i d e n c e o f n a r r a t i v e movement and h a l f e i t h e r i m p l i e d o r / a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n e d n a r r a t i v e movement. P a t t e r n e r s appeared t o i n c l u d e o r i m p l y movement i n t h e i r t e x t s more o f t e n t h a n D r a m a t i s t s d i d . W r i t i n g P r o c e s s Components The f o u r components o f t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e s i m i l a r i t i e s between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s i n terms o f message q u a l i t y . T h i s i n c l u d e d t h e i r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e message t o be e x p r e s s e d and t h e i r system f o r e x p r e s s i n g i t . T a b l e 15 summarizes t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . 95 T a b l e 15 W r i t i n g Process Components: Dramatists v s . P a t t e r n e r s Component Dramatists P a t t e r n e r s Both Groups Message * s p e c i f i e d * s p e c i f i e d t o p i c F o r m u l a t i o n a c t u a l words * h i g h e r l e v e l * a l l messages o f coherance r e l a t e d t o g r a p h i c s *one-word * s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e l a b e l s s e n t e n c e l e n g t h s Message E n c o d i n g •45% o f t i m e *84% o f t i m e *used l e t t e r - name s t r a t e g y *segemented o r a l message * a d u l t - d e p e n d e n t *used p e r s o n a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l system o f sound/symbol c o r r e s p o n d e n c e • s p e l l i n g s based on v i s u a l r e c a l l *used r e f e r e n c e s M e c h a n i c a l F o r m a t i o n • c o n v e n t i o n a l use o f l e t t e r s o r l e t t e r - l i k e symbols, f l u e n t l y formed • c o n v e n t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n , some s p a c i n g Message •Sammy & •Meghan decoded Decoding J i l l i a n s e g - w i t h o u t segment- mented w r i t t e n a t i o n message i n t o • K a t h r y n & p h r a s e s Donald r e l i e d •used s i t u a t i o n a l on an a d u l t c o n t e x t and l e t t e r - name s t r a t e g i e s • C a r o l i n e r e l i e d on a d u l t f o r d e c o d i n g •used a p e r s o n a l / c o n v e n t i o n a l system o f sound/symbol c o r r e s p o n d e n c e •used v i s u a l r e c a l l 96 T o p i c s of T a l k O v e r a l l , Dramatists t a l k e d more than P a t t e r n e r s d u r i n g the observed j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s e s s i o n s . Both groups t a l k e d most o f t e n about t h e i r ongoing j o u r n a l w r i t i n g t a s k s . Equal percentages o f each groups' t a l k was p e r c e i v e d as d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a peer's composing event. The percentage of t a l k i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n one's own t a s k was a l s o s i m i l a r f o r P a t t e r n e r s and Dramatists. The percentage o f t a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k was s i m i l a r , but the focus of t h a t t a l k v a r i e d between the two groups. Dramatists t a l k e d more about r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s , whereas P a t t e r n e r s used the r e f e r e n t c a t e g o r y more o f t e n i n t a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k . Dramatists engaged i n t w i c e as much non-task r e l a t e d t a l k as P a t t e r n e r s . G e n e r a l l y , Dramatist t a l k e d most o f t e n about the a c t i o n s or s t a t e of the d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s and events whereas P a t t e r n e r s t a l k e d more about the symbolic v e h i c l e i t s e l f . However, v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n these areas was noted among group members. Both groups t a l k e d some about t h e i r own f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s . Language Fu n c t i o n s In most i n s t a n c e s , P a t t e r n e r s and Dramatists used t a l k t o serve s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s . D i r e c t i v e language was used most o f t e n , f o l l o w e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l language, p e r s o n a l language, h e u r i s t i c language, and i n t e r a c t i o n a l language. T h e i r s t r a t e g y use was s i m i l a r as w e l l . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the focus of p e r s o n a l language was e v i d e n t . Dramatists engaged 97 i n t h r e e t i m e s as much p l a y f u l language as P a t t e r n e r s . P a t t e r n e r s ' p e r s o n a l language was more s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e t h a n D r a m a t i s t s . Meaning Elements F o r b o t h P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s meaning elements were most e v i d e n t i n t h e i r t a l k . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by meaning elements i n t h e i r w r i t i n g , and d r a w i n g . W i t h i n each medium v a r i o u s meaning elements were f o c u s e d on by each group. These a r e summarized i n T a b l e 16. T a b l e 16 Meaning Elements f o c u s e d on w i t h i n T a l k , Drawing & W r i t i n g Medium D r a m a t i s t s P a t t e r n e r s T a l k - a c t i o n s - a c t o r s , o b j e c t s , t i m e / space, s e n s o r i - m o t o r q u a l i t i e s - a c t i o n s - o b j e c t s , a c t o r s , t i m e / s p a c e , s e n s o r i - motor q u a l i t i e s Drawing - f o c u s on o b j e c t s , a c t o r s , a c t i o n s , & s e n s o r i - m o t o r q u a l i t i e s - f o c u s on o b j e c t s , a c t o r s & a c t i o n s W r i t i n g - f o c u s on a c t i o n s , a c t o r s , o b j e c t s , & t i m e / s p a c e - f o c u s on a c t i o n s , a c t o r s 98 CHAPTER FIVE Summary/ D i s c u s s i o n , and Recommendations Summary The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s y m b o l i c s t y l e (as d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g S u l l i v a n ' s [1986] c r i t e r i a ) and k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y w r i t i n g a t t e m p t s . S i x f o c a l c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d from a t o t a l o f 26 c h i l d r e n . Sammy, C a r o l i n e , and J i l l i a n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e D r a m a t i s t group; Donald, Meghan, and K a t h r y n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e P a t t e r n e r group. A l l o f t h e i r w r i t t e n and drawn p r o d u c t s , o b s e r v a t i o n s o f j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s e s s i o n s , and r e s p o n s e s t o i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e any s i m i l a r i t i e s o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r approaches t o j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and v i e w s o f w r i t i n g i n g e n e r a l . The s t u d y sought answers t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o b o t h t h e w r i t t e n / d r a w n p r o d u c t s t h e m s e l v e s and t o t h e p r o c e s s e s o b s e r v e d as t h e c h i l d r e n were i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g . Comparisons were made between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s i n each a r e a . Of i n t e r e s t were t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : how t h e ob s e r v e d c h i l d r e n combined dr a w i n g and w r i t i n g ; what p e r s o n a l s t a n c e was e v i d e n t i n t h e i r work; i f t h e y i n c l u d e d n a r r a t i v e movement i n t h e i r t e x t s ; t h e message q u a l i t y o f t h e i r work; what t h e y t a l k e d about as t h e y drew and w r o t e ; t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s language; what meaning elements were 99 c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e i r t a l k , d r a w i n g s , and w r i t t e n t e x t s , and; how t h e y viewed w r i t i n g i n g e n e r a l and t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e i n p a r t i c u l a r . The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . A n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . D i f f e r e n c e s among group members were o b s e r v e d i n some i n s t a n c e s . The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r compares t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n / d r a w n p r o d u c t s and o b s e r v e d w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s b o t h t o each o t h e r ' s and.to t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n groups f o l l o w s . . I t c o n c l u d e s w i t h recommendations f o r p r a c t i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s from P r o d u c t A n a l y s e s How d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g were combined • ' • . 1 (', D i f f e r e n c e s p e r c e i v e d between P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s i n how t h e y combined d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g were m i n i m a l . A l l o f t h e f o c a l c h i l d r e n produced j o u r n a l e n t r i e s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d drawings and w r i t i n g w h i c h were t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . T h i s f i n d i n g d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y from Dyson's (1982) r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . She d i s c o v e r e d , i n h e r s t u d y o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d r a w i n g and e a r l y w r i t i n g , t h a t t h e i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g w h i c h were n o t r e l a t e d t h e m a t i c a l l y was t h e most t y p i c a l t y p e o f w r i t t e n p r o d u c t produced by t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n she o b s e r v e d . 100 One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be t h a t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d was e a r l i e r i n t h e s c h o o l y e a r t h a n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o d u c t s c o l l e c t e d i n Dyson's s t u d y were s p o n t a n e o u s l y produced w i t h no g u i d a n c e from t h e t e a c h e r . The p r o d u c t s c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y were shaped by t h e t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , w h i c h i n c l u d e d c o p y i n g a d i c t a t e d "key word", d r a w i n g a p i c t u r e and w r i t i n g about t h e s e l e c t e d word. The o r d e r o f p r o d u c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n was t h a t t h e s e p r o d u c t s would be r e l a t e d t h e m a t i c a l l y . T h i s may e x p l a i n why t h e most p r e v a l e n t t y p e o f p r o d u c t produced by b o t h P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s was one i n w h i c h t h e d r a w i n g p r o v i d e d a m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t f o r t h e w r i t i n g . One o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e i n how d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g were combined was t h a t D r a m a t i s t s i n c l u d e d w r i t i n g as a p a r t o f t h e drawn g r a p h i c u s u a l l y i n t h e form o f a speech b u b b l e h o l d i n g t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s ' t a l k . P a t t e r n e r s , on t h e o t h e r hand, were n ot ob s e r v e d c o m b i n i n g d r a w i n g and w r i t i n g i n t h i s manner. T h i s does n o t seem u n u s u a l g i v e n t h a t t h e D r a m a t i s t s ' s t o r i e s i n c l u d e d many c h a r a c t e r i n t e r a c t i o n s and d i a l o g u e was common i n t h e i r t o l d s t o r i e s . T h i s was one o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s o f t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g o b s e r v e d i n phase one. An a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n between groups was n o t e d i n t h e l e v e l o f coherence between t h e g r a p h i c s and t h e w r i t t e n message. C o h e s i v e n e s s was more e v i d e n t i n t h e P a t t e r n e r s ' 101 p r o d u c t s t h a n i n t h o s e produced by t h e D r a m a t i s t s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s s u p p o r t e d by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Gardner, Wolf & Sm i t h , 1982; Wolf and Gardner, 1979) i n w h i c h t h e d r a w i n g b e h a v i o u r s o f D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s . When d r a w i n g , D r a m a t i s t s used g r a p h i c symbols as pr o p s i n a t o l d s t o r y , where d r a w i n g was p a r t o f a l a r g e r a c t i v i t y . P a t t e r n e r s f o c u s e d r e l a t i v e l y more on t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f a f i g u r e t o be r e p r e s e n t e d , c r e a t i n g a p i c t u r e "about" t h e o b j e c t w o r l d . When e x a m i n i n g t h e p r o d u c t s c r e a t e d a p a r t from t h e language w h i c h s u r r o u n d e d t h e i r f o r m a t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t P a t t e r n e r s ' d r a w i n g s ( b e i n g more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e f i g u r e o r o b j e c t s e l e c t e d ) would be jud g e d t o be more r e l a t e d t o t h e w r i t t e n message t h a n t h e D r a m a t i s t s . P e r s o n a l s t a n c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s t e x t s When t h e c o l l e c t e d p r o d u c t s were a n l a y z e d f o r e v i d e n c e o f p e r s o n a l s t a n c e , t h e r o l e s o f commentator and o b s e r v e r were most common among b o t h groups and t h e r o l e o f a c t o r was t h e l e a s t o b s e r v e d s t a n c e . These r e s u l t a r e s u p p o r t e d by Dyson's (1989) r e s e a r c h . She r e p o r t e d t h a t o v e r a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d , t h e o b s e r v e d c h i l d r e n "moved away from t h e e a r l y t e ndency t o comment on p i c t u r e s , t o w a r d a tendency t o ob s e r v e scenes and, f i n a l l y , t o a c t w i t h i n t h e i r t e x t u a l w o r l d s " (p.296). D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f h e r s t u d y t h e c h i l d r e n were i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . As t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e months o f F e b r u a r y t h r o u g h May, i t 102 would seem r e a s o n a b l e t h a t some o f t h e c h i l d r e n would have advanced beyond t e x t s w h i c h were dominated by d r a w i n g s . T h i s was e v i d e n t i n t h e i r use o f v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l s t a n c e s i n w r i t i n g . Movement i n c h i l d r e n ' s t e x t s D i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t i n t h e amount o f n a r r a t i v e movement c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t e x t s . T e x t s w r i t t e n by P a t t e r n e r s i m p l i e d o r i n c l u d e d movement more t h a n t h o s e w r i t t e n by D r a m a t i s t s (59% v s . 4 1 % ) . Perhaps t h i s was because t h e D r a m a t i s t s had t a l k e d more about t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s w h i l e d r a w i n g t h a n t h e P a t t e r n e r s had (as r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n s ' t a l k r e v e a l e d ) and t h e r e b y d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h i s i n t h e i r w r i t t e n t e x t s . T h i s message had a l r e a d y been r e l a y e d t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t a l k . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Dyson's (1989) d e s c r i p t i o n o f one c h i l d ' s n a r r a t i v e s w h i c h were based on a c t u a l movement t h r o u g h t i m e and "depended on d i a l o g u e and on new i n f o r m a t i o n beyond t h a t i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a l k accompanying h e r d r a w i n g " (p.135). D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s from Composing P r o c e s s A n a l y s e s W r i t i n g P r o c e s s Components I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s components a n a l y s i s , P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s were a l i k e i n many ways. However, two r e v e a l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t . F i r s t l y , s e g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r a l message d u r i n g e n c o d i n g was much 103 more p r e v a l e n t among P a t t e r n e r s t h a n D r a m a t i s t s . D r a m a t i s t s u s u a l l y d i d not segment o r a l language d u r i n g e n c o d i n g . When some d i d , i t was t o t h e p h r a s e l e v e l o n l y . They appeared t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h k e e p i n g t h e message f l o w i n g . P a t t e r n e r s , on t h e o t h e r hand, segmented t h e o r a l message i n t o p h r a s e s , words, s y l l a b l e s , and sounds 84% o f t h e t i m e . They f o c u s e d more on t h e words w h i c h were b e i n g r e c o r d e d t h a n t h e o v e r a l l message. Comparing t h i s t o t h e s t r a t e g i e s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g d e c o d i n g , D r a m a t i s t s s t i l l o n l y segmented t o t h e p h r a s e l e v e l . Meghan was t h e o n l y P a t t e r n e r o b s e r v e d d e c o d i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y . She d i d not appear t o segment t h e w r i t t e n message, b u t r e l i e d on q u i c k v i s u a l r e c a l l o f words. Perhaps i f she had n o t been so s u c c e s s f u l w i t h v i s u a l r e c a l l more s e g m e n t a t i o n would have been e v i d e n t . S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n approaches t o d e c o d i n g were n o t e d i n B u s s i s , C h i t t e n d e n , A m a r e l , & K l a u s n e r ' s r e s e a r c h on l e a r n i n g t o r e a d (1985). They d e s c r i b e d two groups o f c h i l d r e n w i t h v a r y i n g f o c u s e s d u r i n g r e a d i n g . One group ( s i m i l a r t o t h e P a t t e r n e r s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y ) f o c u s e d on t h e a c c u r a t e d e c o d i n g o f words; t h e i r s e l f - d i r e c t e d t a l k ( o r a l r e a d i n g ) r e f l e c t e d t h e i r d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o f i g u r e o u t i n d i v i d u a l words. Other c h i l d r e n ( l i k e t h e D r a m a t i s t s observed) f o c u s e d r e l a t i v e l y more on k e e p i n g t h e message f l o w i n g s m o o t h l y ; t h e i r s e l f - d i r e c t e d t a l k r e v e a l e d t h e o r a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d s t o r y . One can o n l y s p e c u l a t e t h a t 104 t h e s e c h i l d r e n would approach e n c o d i n g i n s i m i l a r ways, f o c u s i n g more on e i t h e r t h e words o r t h e message. A l t h o u g h b o t h P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u e s t e d t h e s p e l l i n g s o f words, d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t i n t h e t y p e s o f words r e q u e s t e d . P a t t e r n e r s o f t e n r e q u e s t e d l a b e l s f o r common o b j e c t s o r o b j e c t s from w i t h i n t h e immediate environment whereas D r a m a t i s t s ' r e q u e s t s f o r l a b e l s were f o r more s p e c i f i c , p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . Many o f t h e r e q u e s t s from D r a m a t i s t s were f o r names o f p e o p l e and p l a c e s . T h i s p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s by Gardner, Wolf, & S m i t h (1982) and Wolf & Gardner (1979) o f P a t t e r n e r s as o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d and D r a m a t i s t s as more s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s t e n d e n c y t o be e i t h e r o b j e c t - o r s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d may be r e l a t e d t o t h e t y p e o f words each group r e q u e s t e d . T o p i c s o f T a l k A l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y used t a l k most o f t e n t o s u g g e s t o r t o e l a b o r a t e upon t h e meanings o f t h e i r own w r i t t e n t e x t s and drawn g r a p h i c s . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h i s t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k r e v e a l e d t h a t each group t a l k e d about d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f w r i t i n g as t h e y worked. D r a m a t i s t s t a l k e d most about t h e a c t i o n s o r s t a t e o f t h e i r d e p i c t e d f i g u r e s whereas P a t t e r n e r s t a l k e d most about t h e s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e i t s e l f ( t h e a c t o f d r a w i n g and/or w r i t i n g ) . They t a l k e d about l e t t e r s and sounds, where t o p u t t h e i r t e x t s , and how t o draw v a r i o u s o b j e c t s . T h i s f i n d i n g c o n c u r s w i t h 105 Dyson's (1989) r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h some o f t h e o b s e r v e d c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k was n o t o n l y a t o o l f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e a c t o f d r a w i n g ; i t a l s o s e r v e d w i t h d r a w i n g t o r e p r e s e n t meaning. These c h i l d r e n ( l i k e t h e D r a m a t i s t s i n t h e p r e s e n t study) commented on and, a t o t h e r t i m e s , d r a m a t i z e d t h e f e e l i n g s o r a c t i o n s o f t h e f i g u r e s and e v e n t s i n t h e i r d r a w i n g s and w r i t i n g . They used language " i n a c t i v i t y " . O t h e r c h i l d r e n ( s i m i l a r t o P a t t e r n e r s ) f o c u s e d t h e i r t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k on t h e i r own f e e l i n g s o r a c t i o n s and i t s e r v e d t o d i r e c t — t o p l a n and o r g a n i z e — and e v a l u a t e t h e i r drawn and w r i t t e n g r a p h i c s . They t a l k e d "about" t h e i r a c t i v i t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k , b o t h groups a l s o t a l k e d about what t h e i r p e e r s were d o i n g . The p e r c e n t a g e o f t a l k w h i c h s e r v e d t o i n v o l v e o t h e r s i n one•s own t a s k was s i m i l a r f o r P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s . I n a r e l a t e d s t u d y , Dyson (1989) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s comments on each o t h e r ' s work c o u l d l e a d t o t a l k t h a t was t a s k - r e l a t e d . She found t h a t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and e a r l y f i r s t g rade most o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k about each o t h e r ' s work o r about t h e w i d e r w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e s happened d u r i n g d r a w i n g . T h i s was t r u e o f t h e t a l k o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y as w e l l . T h i s p a t t e r n i s not u n u s u a l g i v e n t h a t d r a w i n g i s one o f t h e e a r l i e s t means o f g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o v e r w h i c h c h i l d r e n g a i n c o n t r o l . T h e i r d rawings and t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g them a r e o f t e n i n f u s e d w i t h and s u r r o u n d e d by t a l k . Thus, c h i l d r e n may c o n f r o n t t h e q u e s t i o n : How do meanings 106 formulated i n c o l o r f u l drawings and/or l i v e l y t a l k " f i t " onto the f l a t symbolic s u r f a c e of w r i t t e n t e x t ? Of the t a l k which was t a s k - r e l a t e d , d i f f e r e n c e s were noted between what P a t t e r n e r s and Dramatist focused on. Dramatists t a l k e d more about r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s and P a t t e r n e r s used the r e f e r e n t c a t e g o r y of the o b j e c t s o r events b e i n g d e p i c t e d more o f t e n . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h each groups' o v e r a l l o r i e n t a t i o n t o drawing. Dramatists have been d e s c r i b e d as being s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not unusual f o r them t o use t h e m a t i c a l l y - r e l a t e d experiences when t a l k i n g t o t h e i r p e ers. P a t t e r n e r s , b e i n g o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d , would l i k e l y use the r e f e r e n t category of the o b j e c t s or events of t h e i r peers' drawing i n t h e i r t a s k - r e l a t e d t a l k . Non-task t a l k was p e r c e i v e d as not f a l l i n g i n t o any of the p r e c e d i n g c a t e g o r i e s . A major d i f f e r e n c e between groups was noted i n the amount of non-task t a l k . Dramatists engaged i n two times as much non-task t a l k than d i d P a t t e r n e r s . However, the r e l e v a n c e of t a l k i n i t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d as n o n t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y become apparent. T h i s was o f t e n the case w i t h the D r a m a t i s t s ' t a l k . For example, C a r o l i n e had been t a l k i n g w i t h her peers about an upcoming b i r t h d a y p a r t y , a s u b j e c t t h a t had no c l e a r r e l e v a n c e t o her ongoing composing event. A f t e r completing t h a t j o u r n a l e n t r y , though, she immediately began another about her p a r t y . In r e l a t i o n t o the composing event 107 she was engaged i n as she spoke, t h e t a l k about h e r p a r t y was n o n t a s k - i n v o l v e d . However, i n r e l a t i o n t o h e r new composing e v e n t , t h a t same t a l k was t a s k - i n v o l v e d and f o c u s e d on t h e e v e n t t o be r e n d e r e d . When t h i s t y p e o f non- t a s k t a l k (which s p a r k e d i d e a s f o r f u t u r e t o p i c s ) was e l i m i n a t e d , b o t h P a t t e r n e r s and D r a m a t i s t s had s i m i l a r p e r c e n t a g e s o f t a l k i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i s f i n d i n g may be o f i n t e r e s t when e x a m i n i n g t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e t o p i c s t h e c h i l d r e n chose. Perhaps, because t h e y t a l k e d more, t h e D r a m a t i s t s had an e a s i e r t i m e d e c i d i n g on i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c s t o draw and w r i t e about n e x t . As t h i s was n o t f o c u s e d on i n t h i s s t u d y , one can o n l y s p e c u l a t e t h a t P a t t e r n e r s may have had more d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g t o p i c s q u i c k l y . Language F u n c t i o n s I n most i n s t a n c e s , D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s u sed t a l k t o s e r v e s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s . The use o f language t o d i r e c t t h e a c t i o n s o f s e l f o r o t h e r s was t h e most f r e q u e n t language f u n c t i o n o b s e r v e d . A l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s s t r a t e g y use w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s language f u n c t i o n s o b s e r v e d was s i m i l a r , one i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n s t r a t e g y use was n o t e d w i t h i n t h e P e r s o n a l Language c a t e g o r y . D r a m a t i s t s engaged i n t h e , p l a y f u l use o f language t h r e e t i m e s more t h a n P a t t e r n e r s b u t t h e i r p e r s o n a l language was l e s s s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e t h a n P a t t e r n e r s ' . T h i s r e l a t e s back t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t a s k - i n v o l v e d t a l k . D r a m a t i s t s * t a l k was p r i m a r i l y e x p r e s s i v e . I t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s y m b o l i c a c t i v i t y i t s e l f . 108 P a t t e r n e r ' s t a l k , i n c o n t r a s t , was p r i m a r i l y a n a l y t i c . I t was an a d j u c t t o a c t i v i t y , a way o f m o n i t o r i n g t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o r . Meaning; Elements Meaning elements were found i n a l l t h r e e mediums examined ( t a l k , d r a w i n g , and w r i t i n g ) . F o r b o t h D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s meaning elements were most e v i d e n t i n t h e i r t a l k . T a l k f o c u s i n g on a c t i o n s was t h e most common f o r b o t h g r o u p s . Perhaps t h i s was due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was much e a s i e r t o t a l k about a c t i o n s t h a n i t was t o draw them o r , f o r some c h i l d r e n , t o w r i t e about them. As can be e x p e c t e d , P a t t e r n e r s f o c u s e d more o f t h e i r t a l k on o b j e c t s ; D r a m a t i s t s f o c u s e d more on t h e a c t o r s . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t o p i c s o f t a l k d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . To a l e s s e r degree, meaning elements were e v i d e n t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d r awings and w r i t i n g . As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , d r a w i n g i s t h e f i r s t s y m b o l i c medium o v e r w h i c h c h i l d r e n g a i n c o n t r o l . However, i n o r d e r t o s h a r e t h e meanings r e l a t e d i n t h e s e drawings t h e c h i l d r e n must o f t e n t a l k about them. As t h e s e c h i l d r e n c o n t i n u e d t o e x p l o r e w r i t i n g t h e y were a b l e t o p l a c e i n c r e a s i n g amounts o f meaning i n t o t h i s medium. A n a l y s i s o f meaning elements w i t h i n t a l k , d r a w i n g , and w r i t i n g h e l p e d c l a r i f y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n - r i c h n a t u r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a l k . 109 D i s c u s s i o n o f Responses t o W r i t i n g I n t e r v i e w s A q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y was whether i n f a c t a c h i l d ' s n o t i o n s about w r i t i n g c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s y m b o l i c s t y l e . I t appears t h a t many o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o d u c t s and p r o c e s s e s o b s e r v e d may be r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n s ' v i e w s about w r i t i n g . Responses t o t h e w r i t i n g i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t each group seemed t o be f o c u s i n g on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f w r i t i n g . P a t t e r n e r s appeared t o be more concerned w i t h t h e form o f t h e i r w r i t i n g t h a n D r a m a t i s t s were. The D r a m a t i s t s r e s p o n s e s a l s o f o c u s e d on form, b u t t h e emphasis appeared t o be on t h e communication o f a message. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s about w r i t i n g would be r e q u i r e d t o make a d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t about t h i s . S i m i l a r v i e w s about w r i t i n g were d e s c r i b e d by Dyson (1985). T r a c y (who was l a b e l l e d a P a t t e r n e r ) was d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : " F o r T r a c y , w r i t i n g appeared t o i n v o l v e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a v i s u a l image w h i c h s e r v e d as a r e f e r e n t ' s l a b e l . There was no ob s e r v e d attempt a t w r i t t e n communication w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e " (p.86). I n c o n t r a s t t o T r a c y , R a c h e l (who was l a b e l l e d a D r a m a t i s t ) was d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : " F or R a c h e l , w r i t i n g was n o t t i e d t o c o n c r e t e r e f e r e n t s . R a t h e r , i t was a system f o r e x p r e s s i n g meanings, meanings w h i c h were f i r s t r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t a l k . W r i t i n g was p r i m a r i l y a form o f communication" ( p . 8 7 ) . 110 These v a r y i n g v i e w s toward w r i t i n g r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s . One can o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o d u c t s and p e r c e p t i o n s about w r i t i n g . Perhaps t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not l i n e a r b u t r a t h e r c i r c u l a r i n n a t u r e . As t h e young c h i l d o b s e r v e s and e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h v a r i o u s w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s , t h e i r v i e w s about what i s i m p o r t a n t about w r i t i n g a r e i n f l u e n c e d . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e s e d e v e l o p i n g v i e w s a f f e c t t h e p r o d u c t s t h e y t h e n c r e a t e . The r e a c t i o n t o t h e s e p r o d u c t s by p e e r s and a d u l t s may once a g a i n r e f o r m t h e c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n s about w r i t i n g . These new p e r c e p t i o n s t h e n i n f l u e n c e subsequent w r i t t e n p r o d u c t s . A p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s between P a t t e r n e r ' s and D r a m a t i s t s ' v i e w s about w r i t i n g may l i e i n t h e i r p r e f e r r e d s t y l e o f a p p r o a c h i n g symbols. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by Dyson (1985) found s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s . However, no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s can be made from t h e l i m i t e d d a t a o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n o f D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n Groups D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f o c a l c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d from t h e o u t e r q u a r t i l e s o f s y m b o l i c s t y l e s c o r e s , d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h i n each group were e v i d e n t i n some o f t h e a r e a s examined. Each c h i l d appeared t o have d i f f e r e n t ways o f a p p r o a c h i n g w r i t i n g , approaches w h i c h made sense when each was viewed w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f 111 h i s \ h e r own un i q u e i n t e r e s t s and s t y l e o f f u n c t i o n i n g . D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n groups were e v i d e n t t h r o u g h b o t h p r o d u c t and p r o c e s s a n a l y s i s . R e l a t e d t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f p r o d u c t s f o r e v i d e n c e o f p e r s o n a l s t a n c e , some i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s among group members were n o t e d . A l t h o u g h D r a m a t i s t s Sammy and J i l l i a n assumed t h e o b s e r v e r s t a n c e most o f t e n , C a r o l i n e u s u a l l y w r o t e as a commentator. V a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e P a t t e r n e r group was a l s o e v i d e n t . K a t h r y n appeared t o p r e f e r t h e o b s e r v e r s t a n c e w h i l e Donald was u s u a l l y commenting on h i s g r a p h i c p r o d u c t s (commentator s t a n c e ) and Meghan appeared q u i t e f l e x i b l e u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f s t a n c e s i n h e r w r i t i n g . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r such i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s among t h e groups may be t h a t p e r s o n a l s t a n c e w i t h i n w r i t i n g i s t i e d i n some way t o a b i l i t y o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h w r i t i n g . F i n d i n g s from Dyson's (1989) r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w (as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e s e c t i o n on p e r s o n a l s t a n c e ) . A n a l y s i s o f w r i t i n g p r o c e s s components a l s o r e v e a l e d some d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e groups. A l t h o u g h b o t h D r a m a t i s t s and P a t t e r n e r s used a d u l t - d e p e n d e n t e n c o d i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e i r w r i t i n g , t h i s s t r a t e g y was n o t used e q u a l l y by a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n a g i v e n group. I t was used c o n s i s t e n t l y by Donald (P) who d i c t a t e d a l m o s t t w i c e as many e n t r i e s as t h e o t h e r f o c a l c h i l d r e n . He r a r e l y w r o t e h i s own t e x t s . J i l l i a n (D), Sammy (D), and Meghan (P) were t h e most independent i n t h e i r w r i t i n g , b u t 112 each s t i l l d i c t a t e d about o n e - t h i r d o f t h e i r e n t r i e s . K a t h r y n (P) and C a r o l i n e (D) each d i c t a t e d about o n e - h a l f o f t h e i r t e x t s and wrote t h e r e m a i n i n g h a l f i n d e p e n d e n t l y . These i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s among group members may a g a i n be r e l a t e d t o e x p e r i e n c e w i t h w r i t t e n language. As t h e c h i l d r e n g a i n e d i n c r e a s i n g c o n t r o l o v e r w r i t i n g t h e y became more independent and r e l i e d l e s s on an a d u l t t o r e c o r d t h e i r messages. A n a l y s i s o f t h e t a l k w h i c h o c c u r e d a t t h e j o u r n a l w r i t i n g c e n t r e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e amount o f t a l k v a r i e d between t h e two groups. A l t h o u g h D r a m a t i s t s t a l k e d more t h a n P a t t e r n e r s o v e r a l l , some i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s w i t h i n each group were n o t e d . D r a m a t i s t s J i l l i a n and C a r o l i n e t a l k e d about t h e same amount whereas Sammy t a l k e d s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h e y d i d . W i t h i n t h e P a t t e r n e r group, K a t h r y n and Meghan were s i m i l a r b u t Donald t a l k e d much more. He t a l k e d a l m o s t as much as J i l l i a n and C a r o l i n e . There c o u l d be s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n amount o f t a l k . F i r s t , t h e c h i l d ' s mood o r s t a t e o f mind would p r o b a b l y a f f e c t how much t h e y t a l k e d . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n may be who t h e c h i l d r e n were w o r k i n g w i t h . F r i e n d s h i p s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n how c o m f o r t a b l e t h e c h i l d r e n f e l t i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t a l k . As t h e s m a l l group w i t h w h i c h t h e y w r o t e v a r i e d , so t o o d i d t h e amount o f t a l k i n g . 113 Summary Discussion T h i s s t u d y o f young k i n d e r g a r t e n e r s 1 w r i t i n g , t h e n , documents t h e v a r i a b i l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f a s p e c t s o f e a r l y l i t e r a c y development and t h u s complements t h e work o f B i s s e x (1980), B u s s i s e t a l . (1985), C l a y (1975, 1979), and Dyson (1982, 1985, 1987, 1989). Dyson (1989) s t a t e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s ways o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h p e o p l e and s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l s i s an o r g a n i z i n g f o r c e i n w r i t i n g development (p.259). These c h i l d r e n had d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and t h e i r j o u r n a l a c t i v i t y was s u p p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t s y m b o l i c and s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . Thus t h e i r ways o f c a r r y i n g out t h i s a c t i v i t y d i f f e r e d as w e l l . V a r i a b l e c h i l d s t r a t e g i e s f o r e x p l o r i n g t h e symbol system were e v i d e n t . The e x a c t s t r a t e g i e s a c h i l d uses may v a r y w i t h what e x a c t l y t h e c h i l d i s a t t e n d i n g t o o r t r y i n g t o f i g u r e o u t about w r i t t e n language. Even a c k n o w l e d i n g , however, t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y t a s k s — and t h u s p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d b e h a v i o r s — w i l l v a r y , t h e e s s e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a l l e n g e s seem g e n e r a l i z a b l e . F o r example, young c h i l d r e n may w r i t e s t o r i e s on b l a n k paper, w h i c h does n o t p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d r a w i n g from w r i t i n g . I n such a t a s k t h e y may mix media (Dyson, 1982; Gundlach, 1982; H a r s t e e t a l . , 1984) i n w h i c h t h e w r i t t e n words and p i c t u r e s a r e a l l e n v e l o p e d i n one t o l d s t o r y . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s remain t h e same: What o f t h e s t o r y i s a c t u a l l y 114 r e c o r d e d ? I n what s y m b o l i c media? How can t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s t h a t s u r r o u n d s t h e w r i t i n g be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n t h e w r i t t e n t e x t i t s e l f ? Such q u e s t i o n s would seem t o a r i s e b o t h from t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own a c t i o n s as dra w e r s , t a l k e r s , and w r i t e r s , and from t h e s o c i a l r e s p o n s e s t h e i r work g e n e r a t e s . These q u e s t i o n s a c t i v a t e t h e t e n s i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m u l t i m e d i a e f f o r t s . Those t e n s i o n s o r t h o s e p r o d u c t i v e c o n f l i c t s , s e t l e a r n i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n on i t s way ( P i a g e t & I n h e l d e r , 1969). E a r l y W r i t i n g as Symbol Development The w r i t i n g o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i n b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s n o t e d a c r o s s c h i l d r e n , a l s o complements t h e l i t e r a t u r e on e a r l i e r o c c u r r i n g symbol development. F o r example, i n a l l a r e a s o f symbol development t h e r e a r e r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s use o f v a r i e d s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l s (language, b l o c k s , d r a w i n g s ) , a phenomenon d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . C e r t a i n l y t h e ob s e r v e d c h i l d r e n made c o n t r a s t i n g uses o f w r i t t e n and drawn g r a p h i c s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n use o f s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l s have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t forms o f p r o d u c t s ( e . g . , speech, b l o c k c o n s t r u c t i o n s , drawn p i c t u r e s ) . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n use may l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t r o u t e s t o s y m b o l i c competence ( N e l s o n , 1981; Wolf & Gardner, 1979). Comparisons can be made between t h e v a r i e d w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s o f t h e o b s e r v e d c h i l d r e n and t h e v a r i a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on 115 symbol development. I n Wolf and Gardner's terms (and based on t h e i r performance on t w e l v e s y m b o l i c s t y l e t a s k s a d m i n i n s t e r e d i n phase one o f t h i s s t u d y ) , Sammy, C a r o l i n e , and J i l l i a n appeared t o be D r a m a t i s t s ; Donald, Meghan, and K a t h r y n appeared t o be P a t t e r n e r s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y do s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a p p r o a c h i n g w r i t i n g i n ways w h i c h may be s i m i l a r t o t h e i r a pproach t o s y m b o l i c t a s k s i n g e n e r a l . However, t h e r e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f c h i l d w r i t e r s o r p r e s e t p a t h s c h i l d r e n f o l l o w i n l e a r n i n g w r i t t e n language. L o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a on i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n i s not a v a i l a b l e . The o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s may be t h e r e s u l t o f s y m b o l i c s t y l e s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n p u t , and/or some o t h e r f a c t o r s y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , from t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d i s p l a y e d d i f f e r e n c e s , c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b o t h p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h a r e c l e a r . These a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h e n e x t s e c t i o n s . Recommendations f o r P r a c t i c e Based on t h e f i n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e f o l l o w . L e a r n i n g t o w r i t e i n v o l v e s coming t o u n d e r s t a n d how w r i t t e n g r a p h i c s f u n c t i o n as a symbol system. I n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n may f o c u s on v a r i e d a s p e c t s o f t h e w r i t i n g a c t . Thus, t h e c o n c e p t o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i m p l i e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f 116 c a r e f u l observation so that teachers may understand children as unique indivi d u a l s with p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e s of writing and approaches to writing. Second, as the study progressed i t became more and more evident that young children express meanings not only i n written texts, but also i n t h e i r drawings and e s p e c i a l l y i n the t a l k which surrounds the writing a c t i v i t y . Therefore, as teachers, we must acknowledge a l l modes of expression and l e g i t i m i z e them as v a l i d forms of communication for the young c h i l d . In addition, we might also consider the range of contexts for writing presented i n school. Children need opportunities to i d e n t i f y the diverse range of situations i n which writing and/or drawing are e f f e c t i v e modes of expression. Third, the perceived r e l a t i o n s h i p between young children's early writing behaviors and t h e i r notions about writing argues for increased value to be placed on children's own spontaneous exploration of the writing process. For i t i s through such exploration that these views are developed and refined. Direct or i n d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n could also serve to shape the young c h i l d ' s views about writing. The structure provided for the children's writing and the classroom context both influence the c h i l d ' s notions about writing. t r e a t i n g written language as a system of rules (e.g F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest caution i n 117 g o v e r n i n g l e t t e r f o r m a t i o n , meaning encoding) t h a t can be d i v o r c e d from t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e s y m b o l i z e r — t h e c h i l d . A l s o s u g g e s t e d i s c a u t i o n i n i m p l e m e n t i n g c u r r i c u l a o r g a n i z e d around s e q u e n t i a l s k i l l m a s tery w i t h o u t f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e n t i o n s t h a t w i l l o r g a n i z e s k i l l s i n s e n s i b l e ways t o a c c o m p l i s h ends, and, second, w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f each c h i l d . T h i s r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s , t h e r e f o r e , both, t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f l i t e r a c y programs f o r t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y t r e a t w r i t t e n language and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a c h e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o ways i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n approach w r i t i n g . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h i s s t u d y was an a t t empt t o b e g i n t o e x p l o r e t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g s y m b o l i c s t y l e and emergent w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r s . F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s uch r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, such a c o n n e c t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t appears t o o e x p a n s i v e and complex f o r any one f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h t o be c o n c l u s i v e . R e s e a r c h i s needed t o f u r t h e r e x p l o r e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y f o l l o w . 1. W i t h i n t h i s s t u d y , c h i l d r e n ' s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g was t h e o n l y t y p e o f w r i t i n g examined. P a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r were d e s c r i b e d based on t h i s one w r i t i n g c o n t e x t . Would t h e s e same p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r be e v i d e n t i n o t h e r w r i t i n g c o n t e x t s ? 118 2. How does t h e c h i l d ' s i d e n t i f i e d s y m b o l i c s t y l e i n f l u e n c e t h e i r spontaneous w r i t i n g a t s c h o o l o r a t home? L i n k s between home and s c h o o l w r i t i n g need t o be examined t o g a i n a f u l l p i c t u r e o f each c h i l d ' s approach t o w r i t i n g . 3. A l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y were m o n o l i n g u a l , C a u c a s i a n c h i l d r e n who came from m i d d l e - c l a s s homes. Would c h i l d r e n from o t h e r c u l t u r a l , e t h n i c , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c backgrounds demonstrate s i m i l a r b e h a v i o r s ? A r e t h e r e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h a f f e c t how young c h i l d r e n e x p l o r e t h e use o f symbols? R e s e a r c h e r s o f e a r l y l i t e r a c y have n o t e x t e n s i v e l y examined v a r i a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n ' s e x p l o r a t i o n s o f w r i t t e n language. 4. As e v i d e n c e d i n t h i s s t u d y , c h i l d r e n can appear more o r l e s s s k i l l e d , depending upon w h i c h a s p e c t o f t h e w r i t t e n language system we a r e f o c u s i n g on. T h e r e f o r e , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f young c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g s h o u l d f o c u s on more t h a n one a s p e c t o f t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . 5. The c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y demonstrated t h a t meaning elements may be found i n d r a w i n g , t a l k , and w r i t t e n t e x t s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f l i t e r a c y r e s e a r c h e r s cannot be i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t e x t . They must l o o k f o r i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n a l l t h e forms o f s y m b o l i z i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n use. 6. T h i s s t u d y c o n s i d e r e d c h i l d r e n ' s v a r y i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f w r i t i n g and what i s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n r a i s e s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n : Where do c h i l d r e n ' s 119 conceptions of writing come from? While i n d i v i d u a l differences may be related i n part to i n d i v i d u a l makeup, c e r t a i n l y the environment has a r o l e to play. 7. The question of whether or not perceptions about writing are changeable also arises from t h i s study. I f children's views are not fixed, what influences them? What e f f e c t would d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n play? 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Meghan - word was " f r i e n d s " - drew f i r s t , p i c t u r e c o n t a i n e d rainbow, two c h i l d r e n (a boy and a g i r l ) , ground, g r a s s , and a sun - she wanted t o do her own s t o r y (not d i c t a t e ) - p r i n t e d Meghan.AND. - then asked f o r s p e l l i n g o f Kyle Meghan.AND.KYLE.WAS.FRIENDS. - asked f o r went, knew be g i n n i n g and ending consonants Meghan.AND.KYLE.WAS.FRIENDS.WENT.TO.THE. - asked f o r s t o r e Meghan.AND.KYLE.WAS.FRIENDS.WENT.TO.THE.ST. - a p e r i o d was p l a c e d between words, l e f t no spaces Donald - asked f o r word " r o c k e t " - some d i f f i c u l t y copying the word - c a r e f u l drawing of a r o c k e t going up - used g o l d and s i l v e r - d i c t a t e d s t o r y I am i n the r o c k e t s h i p . J i l l i a n - word was Mom - p i c t u r e of her mom was q u i t e complex - i n c l u d e d h a i r , eyes, nose, mouth, eyebrows, cheeks, body, s k i r t , arms, l e g s , shoes, h a i r r i b b o n s - no c o l o r - good copying o f word - no s t o r y (yet) M i c h e l l e - word "dragon" - drew w i t h p e n c i l , c o l o r e d w i t h wax crayon - drew p i c t u r e q u i c k l y and wanted h e l p w i t h her s t o r y . As I and parent h e l p e r were both busy, she worked on her own. - wrote "One day a dragon was walking on h i s mother's back. 1 DAD-A-dragon- VAS-UAL KING-ON HIS MOTHERS BACK - helped by parent t o s p e l l walking, mothers, and back. 126 APPENDIX B C r i t e r i a f or Determining Media Responses P a t t e r n e r Dramatist Drawing -emphasis on d e s i g n : human o b j e c t o r i e n t a t i o n p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n - c a r e f u l placement of p a r t s on the page - i n t e r e s t i n shape, l i n e , c o l o r , e l a b o r a t i o n o f scene, d e t a i l -language use: product t o comment on -emphasis on content: o r i e n t a t i o n , -medium becomes a prop t o t e l l s t o r y -language use: t o comment on scene o r t a l k about s e l f , t a l k i n g — then drawing Clay modeling - i n t e r e s t i n p r o p e r t i e s o f c l a y - l a c k o f d e t a i l i n i t s e l f (e.g., e x c e s s i v e smoothing p e r f e c t i n g product out, reshaping) -use of product as a prop -concern w i t h p r o p o r t i o n , d e t a i l (e.g., making a c a r and then moving i t ) -content: human o r i e n t a t i o n language use: as i n drawing -language use: as i n drawing Language ( S t o r y t e l l i n g ) - s t o r y p r o p e l l e d by a c t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n -atemporal — no l o g i c a l sequence -a l o t of o b j e c t s i n c l u d e d , i t e m i z a t i o n -on completion t a s k : r e p e t i t i o n immediate ending - s t o r y i n c l u d e s c h a r a c t e r i n t e r a c t i o n s - i n t e r p r e t i v e , sequent- t i a l , a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l -a l o t of d i a l o g u e -on completion t a s k : d i a l o g u e , o t h e r o r c h a r a c t e r s i n t r o d u c e d Symbolic Block p l a y - o b j e c t o r i e n t a t i o n imaginary p l a y w i t h o b j e c t s based on v i s u a l p r o p e r t i e s o f b l o c k s s t r u c t u r a l a c t i o n s : s t a c k i n g , l i n i n g up -language: statements about the b l o c k s - c h a r a c t e r o r i e n t a t i o n : - naming, f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t - i o n s such as r o l e s , sex - d e p i c t i v e a c t i o n s : - l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between form of the b l o c k and i t s p a r t i n the p l a y -language: dramatic d i a l o g u e , n a r r a t i v e Source: S u l l i v a n (1986), p.14 127 APPENDIX B Continued Symbolic S t y l e R a t i n g Index; P a t t e r n e r v s . Dramatist Name: Task: A. Approach t o Task P a t t e r n e r (-) Dramatist (+) Response t o experimental s e t t i n g : r e l u c t a n t e n t h u s i a s t i c Response t o t a s k : t a s k - c e n t e r e d experimenter- c e n t e r e d Type of a c t i o n : B. Use o f Language Amount of language: Language/action r e l a t i o n s h i p : Language/task r e l a t i o n s h i p : Form of language: C. Approach t o Design O r i e n t a t i o n : Arrangement based on: Emphasis on: s t r u c t u r a l d e p i c t i v e a l i t t l e s e p arate r e l a t e d d e s c r i p t i v e o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d formal p r o p e r t i e s a l o t simultaneous u n r e l a t e d e x p r e s s i v e person- o r i e n t e d n a r r a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s d e s i g n content Source: adapted from S u l l i v a n (1986), p. 19 128 APPENDIX B C o n t i n u e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Responses t o S y m b o l i c S t y l e Tasks A P a t t e r n e r P r o f i l e Kathryn spent 18 minutes engrossed i n her f r e e - c h o i c e drawing t a s k . She worked s i l e n t l y and m e t i c u l o u s l y on a drawing of her f a v o r i t e t o p i c , rainbows. She c a r e f u l l y f i l l e d the page wi t h bands of c o l o u r , u s i n g a l l the a v a i l a b l e markers. The reoccurence of p r e f e r r e d themes i d e n t i f i e d by Gardner, Wolf, and Smith (1975) can be seen i n Kathryn's response t o the f r e e - c h o i c e t a s k i n m o d e l l i n g w i t h Play-Doh. Her mastery of m o t i f s and schema r e l a t e d t o rainbows were used as she completed a "drawing" w i t h P l a y - Doh. By a d a p t i n g imagery and s k i l l t o a l e s s f a m i l i a r medium, Kathryn was a b l e t o c r e a t e a c o l o r f u l model o f a rainbow. Kathryn's p r e f e r e n c e f o r v i s u a l media was r e f l e c t e d i n her b r i e f responses t o s t o r y t e l l i n g t a s k s . When problems were c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d , Kathryn's approach was l o g i c a l and s e r i o u s . When t o l d the b e g i n n i n g of the s t o r y about the l a d y who i s l o o k i n g f o r a p a r k i n g spot and asked t o f i n i s h t he s t o r y and show the a c t i o n s u s i n g wood b l o c k s , Kathryn proceeded t o show the l a d y f i n d i n g a p a r k i n g spot, g e t t i n g the m i l k from the s t o r e , and then r e t u r n i n g home. Tasks t h a t r e q u i r e d Kathryn t o s p e c u l a t e on the p o s s i b l e r o l e of u n u s u a l l y shaped b l o c k s e l i c i t e d a l i s t o f responses t h a t were based on v i s u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . T h i s focus on form was f u r t h e r emphasized when Kathryn was asked t o t e l l a s t o r y u s i n g the b l o c k s . She spent some time s e l e c t i n g , o r d e r i n g , and matching forms as she a s s o c i a t e d them w i t h o b j e c t s and i d e a s . "I'm going t o make a c a r , these are the wheels, or I can use t h i s l o n g p i e c e t o make a b r i d g e , no, I'm going t o make a house." Once underway, Kathryn's o n l y comments were d e s c r i p t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the problem a t hand. When asked what her s t o r y was she r e p l i e d t h a t she d i d n ' t have a s t o r y t o t e l l . Kathryn"s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c approach t o symbol use can be seen t o conform t o the P a t t e r n e r p r o f i l e . Her a l l e g i a n c e t o v i s u a l forms and e x p r e s s i o n and her use of p r e c i s e and l o g i c a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s appear r e l a t i v e l y u n iform a c r o s s media. 129 APPENDIX B Continued A Dramatist P r o f i l e Sammy's response t o the f r e e - c h o i c e t a s k i n drawing was completed i n a few minutes, y e t the d e t a i l i n the drawing d i d not match the complexity of the v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n . Sammy took some time t o e x p l a i n why the boy i n the p i c t u r e was sad and why the c l o u d s looked the way they d i d . "Are you wandering why the c l o u d s look t h a t way? The c l o u d s are moving away from the sun. He [the boy] would have t o s t a y i n s i d e u n t i l the sunburn went away." The a v a i l a b i l i t y of Play-Doh o f f e r e d a range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s as Sammy i n i t i a l l y used a p l a s t i c k n i f e and f o r k t o make the b a l l of Play-Doh i n t o a sandwich, then p e r o g i e s , and f i n a l l y some c h i c k e n which he then proceeded t o " e a t " as the o t h e r c h i l d r e n watched. T h i s was f o l l o w e d by h i s statement t h a t he was p r e t e n d i n g t o be i n a s t o r e as he " p a i d " f o r a sandwich from C a r o l i n e w i t h a l a r g e b l o b o f Play-Doh. "I have $100.00, r i g h t here." He then proceeded t o p r etend t o take a l a r g e b i t e and exclaimed, "Needs some more sour cream. E x t r a sour cream, p l e a s e . " S t o r y t e l l i n g p r o v i d e d Sammy with an i d e a l forum f o r h i s r i c h r e p e r t o i r e of animated a c t i o n s , g e s t u r e s , and e x p r e s s i v e v o i c e as he c r e a t e d e l a b o r a t e d t a l e s . Sammy's completion of the s t o r y of the l a d y who i s l o o k i n g f o r a p a r k i n g spot was a good example: She's g e t t i n g her p a r k i n g spot now. He's going t o go see i f t h e r e ' s anyone home i n t h i s b i g y e l l o w house. He asked the g i r l t h a t took the c a r away i f t h a t was her house. "Is t h a t your house down the r e ? The b i g y e l l o w house wi t h the b i g y e l l o w r o o f ? " She s a i d , "Yes." He f o l l o w e d her. She went t o her house. She unlocked the door. There. He's going t o get some f u r n i t u r e out. There. She had a bed f o r him, j u s t a l l made and ready. She had a boat from a b i g stream. I t was a b i g tug boat. And then her went t o the b i g t u g boat. The woman f o l l o w e d i t . I t jumped back i n t o the stream and so d i d the l a d y . I t was a water c a r . And then the boat f e l l a p a r t and she put the boat back t o g e t h e r . Then the man went a l l the way t o the gas s t a t i o n . (I'm going t o make a gas s t a t i o n now. What can I use? Esso gas s t a t i o n 'cause t h a t ' s where my dad goes t o put gas i n h i s work car.) I t sounds l i k e a r e a l c a r . I t went so f a s t t h a t i t bumped i n t o a jeep and the jeep bumped i n t o the gas s t a t i o n . The gas s t a t i o n f e l l a p a r t . The man i n s i d e the s e r v i c e s t a t i o n heard a b i g c r a s h . Then the b i g y e l l o w c a r went t o the y e l l o w house and he thought t h a t the l a d y must have 130 APPENDIX B C o n t i n u e d bought a new c a r . He went and s e l l e d h i s je e p . He went t o a s t o r e and he bought a new c a r - a b i g , b i g , red c a r . Sammy's n a r r a t i v e was enhanced wi t h b l o c k s b e i n g used t o d e p i c t the ongoing a c t i o n s . These d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Sammy's use of symbolic media conform t o Dramatist c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H i s a p t i t u d e f o r v e r b a l communication can be seen t o i n f l u e n c e h i s response t o t a s k s a c r o s s media. 131 APPENDIX C W r i t i n g process c a t e g o r i e s WRITING PROCESS COMPONENTS Message Formulation 1. L e v e l of s p e c i f i c i t y (a) the t o p i c of the message i s s p e c i f i e d (e.g., " I t ' s about a n i n j a . " ) (b) the a c t u a l wording of the message i s s p e c i f i e d (e.g., " T h i s i s going t o say, 'The n i n j a i s i n k a r a t e . • " 2. L e v e l of coherance (a) no apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the message and g r a p h i c s p r e v i o u s l y drawn on the page (b) message i s r e l a t e d i n some i d e n t i f i a b l e , thematic way t o o t h e r (but not a l l ) g r a p h i c s on the page (c) e n t i r e product produces a coherent whole 3. L e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n (adapted from Clay, 1975) (a) word (b) any two- or three-word phrase (c) any simple sentence c o n s i s t i n g of 3 o r more words (d) a group of 2 or more sentences Message Encoding 1. Segmented o r a l message (a) not a p p l i c a b l e ( i . e . , one word message[s] not segmented i n t o s m a l l e r u n i t s ) (b) no segmenting e x i s t s (c) message i s segmented i n t o phrases, words, s y l l a b l e s , or sounds 2. Systematic procedures f o r encoding segments ( i . e . , procedures f o r independently s e l e c t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l e t t e r s t o r e p r e s e n t p a r t i c u l a r o r a l language segments) (a) no o r t h o g r a p h i c s y s t e m a t i z i n g e x i s t s (request e n t i r e message be encoded by another) (b) some s y s t e m a t i z i n g ; c h i l d may ( i ) use a letter-name s t r a t e g y , ( i i ) use p e r s o n a l or c o n v e n t i o n a l system of sound/symbol correspondences, ( i i i ) r e q u est s p e l l i n g of a segment from another, (iv) base s p e l l i n g on v i s u a l r e c a l l , (v) c o n s u l t a r e f e r e n c e (e.g., word l i s t ) (c) a combination of s y s t e m a t i c and nonsystematic procedures 132 APPENDIX C Continued WRITING PROCESS COMPONENTS (Continued) Mechanical Formation 1. C o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f symbols (a) i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f l e t t e r s and l e t t e r - l i k e forms (b) l e t t e r s 2. Ease and e f f i c i e n c y o f p r o d u c t i o n (a) some s t r o k e s are s l o w l y drawn (b) l e t t e r s o r l e t t e r - l i k e forms are f l u e n t l y produced 3. S p a t i a l arrangement (adapted from Clay, 1975) (a) c o n v e n t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n (b) c o n v e n t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n and spaces between words (c) e x t e n s i v e t e x t without any u n c o n v e n t i o n a l i t i e s o f arrangement and s p a c i n g of t e x t Message Decoding 1. Segmented w r i t t e n message (a) not a p p l i c a b l e ( i . e . , one word message not segmented i n t o s m a l l e r u n i t s ) (b) no segmenting e x i s t s (c) the w r i t t e n t e x t i s segmented ( i . e . , p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n s o f the t e x t are focused on t o be decoded i n t o p a r t i c u l a r o r a l phrases, words, s y l l a b l e s , o r sounds) 2. Systematized procedures f o r decoding segments (a) no s y s t e m a t i c o r t h o g r a p h i c procedures used f o r decoding t e x t ; c h i l d may request e n t i r e message be decoded by another (b) some s y s t e m a t i c o r t h o g r a p h i c procedure o r combination o f procedures are used; c h i l d may ( i ) request encoding o f segment from another, ( i i ) use s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t as the b a s i s f o r decoding, ( i i i ) use a s y l l a b l e - b a s e d decoding system, ( i v ) use a letter-name s t r a t e g y , (v) use a p e r s o n a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l system o f sound/symbol correspondences, (vi ) base decoding on v i s u a l r e c a l l o f a s i m i l a r word. 133 APPENDIX C C o n t i n u e d Worksheet used t o a n a l y z e and code composing e v e n t s WORKSHEET C h i l d ' s name Composing event # COMPOSING EVENT COMPONENTS Message Formulation p r e s e n t absent 1. L e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y 2. L e v e l o f coherence 3. L e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n Message Encoding p r e s e n t absent 1. Segmenting o r a l message 2. Systematized Mechanical Formation p r e s e n t absent 1. C o n v e n t i o n a l i t y 2. D i s c r e t e n e s s 3. Ease & e f f i c i e n c y o f p r o d u c t i o n 4. S p a t i a l Arrangement Message Decoding p r e s e n t absent 1. Segmented w r i t t e n message 2. Systematized 134 APPENDIX c c o n t i n u e d Language f u n c t i o n s and s t r a t e g i e s 1. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l language: language which s e r v e s t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about events and s i t u a t i o n s . The s t r a t e g i e s a r e : (a) l a b e l i n g or naming (b) e l a b o r a t i n g or d e t a i l i n g (c) r e p o r t i n g an a c t i o n or event (d) n a r r a t i n g a s e r i e s of a c t i o n s or events (e) d r a m a t i z i n g or a c t i n g out a s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s (f) r e a s o n i n g 2. D i r e c t i v e language: language which s e r v e s t o d i r e c t the a c t i o n s of s e l f and/or o t h e r s . T h e , s t r a t e g i e s a r e : (a) m o n i t o r i n g (ongoing a c t i o n s appear t o be c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d ) ; f o r example, a c h i l d i s copying a word and says, "A g, and then, and then, and then - a o." (b) p l a n n i n g ( f u t u r e a c t i o n s appear t o be c o n t r o l l e d or d i r e c t e d ) ; f o r example, a c h i l d i s drawing and says, "I'm gonna make a sun i n the sky." (c) encoding (words and phrases are transformed from the o r a l t o the w r i t t e n language channel) (d) decoding (sounds, s y l l a b l e s , words, o r phrases are t r a n s f e r r e d from the w r i t t e n t o the o r a l language channel) (e) a c c e s s i n g (seeking or r e t r i e v i n g l e t t e r s o r words from memory; i n w r i t t e n language s i t u a t i o n s , t h i s s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e s r e r e a d i n g ) ; f o r example, a c h i l d r e r e a d s the t e x t i n o r d e r t o remember what word needs t o be w r i t t e n next. (f) i n s t r u c t i n g (conveying i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c e i v e d as r e q u i r e d by someone e l s e ; language used t o "teach") (g) r e q u e s t i n g (h) o f f e r i n g 3. H e u r i s t i c language: language used t o e x p l o r e o r t o seek i n f o r m a t i o n or l e a r n about r e a l i t y . S t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e : (a) s e e k i n g c o n f i r m a t i o n ; f o r example, c h i l d asks " I s t h i s how you s p e l l was: W-A-Z?" (b) s e e k i n g f a c t ; f o r example, a c h i l d seeks the i d e n t i t y of unknown c h a r a c t e r s i n a peer's s t o r y , a s k i n g "Who's the 'them'?" (c) s e eking demonstrations; f o r example, a c h i l d asks, "Do you know how t o draw a j e l l y bean f o r me?" 4. P e r s o n a l language: language used t o express one's f e e l i n g and a t t i t u d e s . Three s t r a t e g i e s i d e n t i f i e d a r e : (a) e v a l u a t i n g o t h e r s (b) e v a l u a t i n g s e l f (c) p l a y i n g w i t h language 5. I n t e r a c t i o n a l language: language which s e r v e s t o i n i t i a t e , m a n i t a i n , and terminate s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . No d i v i s i o n i n t o s t r a t e g i e s was done. 135 APPENDIX C Continued Meaning Elements Worksheet C h i l d ' s Name: Composing Event # Meaning Elements Medium Sensorimotor Time/ Ob j e c t s A c t o r s A c t i o n s Q u a l i t i e s Space T a l k During W r i t i n g T a l k During I n t e r v i e w Drawing D i c t a t i o n (composing) APPENDIX D Conventions used i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s c r i p t s ( ) Parentheses e n c l o s i n g t e x t c o n t a i n notes, u s u a l l y about c o n t e x t u a l and nonverbal i n f o r m a t i o n ; e.g., (s i g h s , l o o k s a t her) Empty parentheses, on the oth e r hand, i n d i c a t e u n i n t e l l i g i b l e words or phrases; e.g., Meghan: You're supposed t o have one ( ). [ ] Brackets c o n t a i n e x p l a n a t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n s e r t e d i n t o q u o t a t i o n s by the observer, r a t h e r than the speaker. A s i n g l e l a r g e b r a c k e t i s used t o i n d i c a t e o v e r l a p p i n g speech; e.g. Jen: I wish I were i n the l a n d o f c o t t o n candy. Sammy: c o t t o n candy. N-O C a p i t a l i z e d l e t t e r s s eparated by hyphens i n d i c a t e t h a t l e t t e r s were spoken or words were s p e l l e d a l o u d by the speaker. NO A c a p i t a l i z e d word or phrase i n d i c a t e s i n c r e a s e d volume. /n/ P a r a l l e l s l a s h e d l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the speaker made the sound of the en c l o s e d l e t t e r o r l e t t e r s . /n:/ A c o l o n i n c l u d e d i n the p r e v i o u s symbol i n d i c a t e s t h a t the g i v e n l e t t e r sound was elo n g a t e d by the speaker. E l l i p s i s p o i n t s i n s e r t e d i n the middle o f a blank l i n e i n d i c a t e omitted m a t e r i a l ; e.g., Jen: One day some gras s growed i n the garden. Does i t (day) s t a r t w i t h D? Conventional p u n c t u a t i o n marks ( p e r i o d s , q u e s t i o n marks, exclamation p o i n t s ) are used t o i n d i c a t e ends of u t t e r a n c e s or sentences, u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d by s l i g h t pauses on the audiotape. Commas r e f e r t o pauses w i t h i n sentence u n i t s , as when the speakers paused between words or word phrases d u r i n g d i c t a t i o n . Dashes (—) i n d i c a t e d i n t e r r u p t e d u t t e r a n c e s . 137 APPENDIX E Samples o f D r a w i n g / W r i t i n g C o m b i n a t i o n s Type A: Drawing and w r i t i n g c o n t r i b u t e d (roughly) e q u a l l y t o the completed product. K i t t e n by Kathryn One day t h e r e was a c a t . She runned away from home. She d i d n ' t come back. But the next day she d i d . 138 APPENDIX E Continued Type B: W r i t i n g served as a l a b e l f o r a t l e a s t p a r t o f the drawn g r a p h i c s . F r i e n d s by J i l l i a n T h i s i s K i r s t e n . T h i s i s Donaldle. 139 APPENDIX E Continued Type C: W r i t i n g was p a r t of the drawn g r a p h i c s . Eggs by Sammy 140 APPENDIX E Continued Type D: Drawing p r o v i d e d the meaningful c o n t e x t f o r the w r i t i n g ; i t was not simply an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the w r i t i n g . Tree by Meghan There was a t r e e . I t was w a i t i n g f o r a animal t o go i n i t and t h e r e was food i n i t . 0 u ua<5 ^ e N TA ^ Afi^1 TO GO \M ^ M D

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