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Classroom communication : a case study of Native Indian adolescents Nakonechny, Carole 1986

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CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION: A CASE STUDY OF NATIVE INDIAN ADOLESCENTS By CAROLE NAKONECHNY B . A . , UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1986 © C a r o l e Nakonechny 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t . i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h ^ C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Department o f /IfP£jftfrf r ABSTRACT Language a r t s c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h e r s are p l a c i n g i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the r o l e of s tudents t a l k i n c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g , both i n terms of c o g n i t i v e development and as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i t e r a c y . A l i m i t e d body of l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to the c l a s s r o o m language of N a t i v e I n d i a n s tudents suggests that i t would be d i f f i c u l t to implement these g u i d e l i n e s w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n h e r e n t p o t e n t i a l of " t a l k i n g to l e a r n " methodology f o r a p o p u l a t i o n of N a t i v e I n d i a n s tudents with v a r y i n g s o c i o - c u l t u r a l backgrounds . The communication p a t t e r n s of t e a c h e r s and s tudent s were ana lyzed to determine b a s i c l e v e l s of f l u e n c y d u r i n g s tudent t r a n s a c t i o n a l turns i n r e l a t i o n to v a r i a b l e s of t u r n content and t a a c h e r s ' v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s . The study was des igned as a m i c r o - e t h n o g r a p h y of communicat ion p a t t e r n s d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s at O u t r e a c h , an a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n s tudent s of v a r y i n g backgrounds . A s e r i e s of t r a n s c r i p t s of n i n e t y hours of c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s performed the o r i g i n a l body of d a t a . One thousand two hundred and f o r t y - n i n e (1 ,249) turns were c a t e g o r i z e d , coded and ana lyzed a c c o r d i n g to l e n g t h , content and f u n c t i o n . Teacher t u r n s were a l s o coded f o r - i i i -i n s t r u c t i o n a l . s t r a t e g i e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p among the v a r i a b l e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h SPSS:X u s i n g c h i - s q u a r e . The e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n the contex t of n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g v e r b a t i m e x c e r p t s from the t r a n s c r i p t s through which c l a s s r o o m a t t i t u d e s and communicat ive s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be i n f e r r e d . The f i n d i n g s of the study demonstrate that the s tudents d i s p l a y e d a marked p r e f e r e n c e f o r u n e l a b o r a t e d language . Ins tances of s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e may have c o l l e c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d the a b b r e v i a t e d t u r n l e n g t h s . Student t r a n s a c t i o n a l long t u r n p r o d u c t i o n (3 or more c l a u s a l chunks) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t u r n c o n t e n t : 60% o f s tudent turns with p r i v a t e content f e l l w i t h i n the over 3 c l a u s a l chunk range , w h i l e o n l y 28% of s tudent t u r n s wi th p u b l i c content reached t h i s l e n g t h . The e f f e c t of s p e c i f i c t eacher s t r a t e g y on t u r n l e n g t h was l a r g e l y undermined a l t h o u g h c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s emerged as a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y in the e l i c i t a t i o n of long t u r n s . The f i n d i n g s of the study i n d i c a t e that a s u c c e s s f u l o r a c y component w i t h i n the language a r t s program would be dependent upon m o d i f i c a t i o n s of both the s tandard c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e and c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF APPENDICES v i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background to the Study 1 1.2 Purpose of the Study 9 1.3 Research Hypotheses 10 1.4 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 11 1.5 C o n t r i b u t i o n s of the Research 11 CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13 2.1 The Language of I n s t r u c t i o n a l C o n v e r s a t i o n s 13 2 . 1 . 1 E d u c a t i o n a l Assumptions U n d e r l y i n g Clas sroom D i s c o u r s e 13 2 . 1 . 2 Student T a l k as C o g n i t i v e P r o c e s s 14 2 . 1 . 3 Student T a l k as L i t e r a c y P r e p a r a t i o n 18 2 . 1 . 4 S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Assumptions U n d e r l y i n g C las sroom D i s c o u r s e 23 2 . 1 . 5 The S t r u c t u r e of C lassroom D i s c o u r s e 24 2 . 1 . 6 The S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Va lues of C lassroom D i s c o u r s e . 28 - V -Page 2.2 P a r t Two: The Language o f N a t i v e I n d i a n S tudents D u r i n g C las sroom D i s c o u r s e 36 2 . 2 . 1 "The S i l e n t I n d i a n C h i l d " 36 2 . 2 . 2 The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Home and C l a s s Room Language o f N a t i v e S tudents 41 2.3 C o n c l u s i o n s 51 CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY 54 3 .1 Research Des ign 54 3.2 Research Sample 55 3 .3 S e l e c t i o n of the Problem 57 3 .4 Data C o l l e c t i o n 59 3 .5 Data A n a l y s i s 62 3 .6 Data C o n t r o l Procedures 65 CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH 70 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n and Overview 70 4.2 H y p o t h e s i s #1 and R e s u l t s 70 4 . 2 . 1 D i s c u s s i o n 70 4 . 2 . 2 S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c A t t i t u d e s of the Students 76 4 .3 H y p o t h e s i s #2 & #3 With R e s u l t s 94 4 . 3 . 1 A t t i t u d e s Toward P u b l i c and P r i v a t e Content 94 4 . 3 . 2 N e g o t i a t i o n s Over the Use o f P u b l i c and P r i v a t e Content 103 4 . 3 . 3 Student Use of Impersonal Content D u r i n g Shor t Turns 108 4 . 3 . 4 Student Use o f P e r s o n a l Content D u r i n g Long Turns I l l - v i -Page 4.4 H y p o t h e s i s #4 and R e s u l t s 124 4 . 4 . 1 D i s c u s s i o n 129 4 . 4 . 2 Student A t t i t u d e s Toward Teacher V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s 133 4 . 4 . 3 Examples of T e a c h e r ' s V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s . . . 133 CHAPTER FIVE - SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS 136 5.1 Summary of the Study 136 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s 138 5.3 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Research 146 APPENDIX 1 - Outreach Background I n f o r m a t i o n 151 APPENDIX 2 - Student I n t e r v i e w 159 REFERENCES • 147 - v i i -LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page 1 Outreach Background I n f o r m a t i o n 151 2 Student I n t e r v i e w 159 - v i i i -LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page I T r a n s l a t i o n of F a m i l i a r Community Domain i n t o U n f a m i l i a r Schoo l Domain 35 II C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f T o t a l Number of Turns by F u n c t i o n 71 I I I C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of Student and Teacher Turn Length 72 IV C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l Student Turn Length by Turn Content 96 V Student Turn Length by C l o s e d Q u e s t i o n s , Open Q u e s t i o n s , and Statements : One-way A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n t s 126 VI C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s i n Q u e s t i o n Mode i n R e l a t i o n to Student Turn Length 127 V I I C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s i n Statement Mode i n R e l a t i o n to Student Turn Length 128 - i x -LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 Bar Graph Comparing Turn Length of Students and Teachers 73 2 Bar Graph Comparing Turn Length of Student T r a n s a c t i o n a l Turns wi th P r i v a t e and P u b l i c Content 95 - X -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There are so many people to thank . . . . My committee was e x c e p t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e : D r . Ken Reeder gave me i n i t i a l i n s p i r a t i o n ; P r o f e s s o r Mary Ashworth was always warmly encourag ing and D r . Bernard Mohan's good humor and i n t e l l e c t u a l guidance he lped me see an i n o r d i n a n t l y l e n g t h y p r o j e c t through to c o m p l e t i o n . My network of f r i e n d s and f e l l o w " t e a c h e r - r e s e a r c h e r s " p r o v i d e d a r i c h source of i d e a s , encouragement and feedback . S i n c e r e tanks to Joy W i l d , K e l l e e n Toohey, S y b i l F a i g i n and my s i s t e r Joanne . J o h n , my s t a t i s t i c s "eminence g r i s e " brought o r d e r out of chaos . The Outreach s t a f f — V i n c e Gogag, J e r r y Adams, Ray Irwin and Angie T o d d - D e n n i s — t a u g h t me about the N a t i v e v a l u e s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r the r i g h t s of o t h e r s . To the s t u d e n t s : thanks f o r be ing who you a r e , y o u ' r e w o n d e r f u l . My deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n goes to my f r i e n d and co-worker S t a r l a Anderson , whose common sense , i n s i g h t and c o - o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t made p o s s i b l e the r e a l i z a t i o n of many dreams, i n c l u d i n g t h i s t h e s i s . - 1 -CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Language a r t s c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h e r s are p l a c i n g i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the r o l e of s tudent t a l k i n c l a s s - r o o m l e a r n i n g (Tough 1977; Mof fe t 1968; Barnes 1978; W e l l s 1981). The language e x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h , which has r a d i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r y c las srooms throughout B r i t a i n and Nor th A m e r i c a , uses the n a t u r a l language and everyday e x p e r i e n c e s of c h i l d r e n as c u r r i c u l u m content ( H a l l 1970) . At the secondary l e v e l , e d u c a t o r s see c l a s s r o o m t a l k as a p o t e n t i a l v e h i c l e f o r g e t t i n g the s tudent s to i n t e g r a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i v e r e d by the s c h o o l w i th t h e i r own i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a l i t y systems. B a r n e s , B r i t t o n and Rosen are c r i t i c a l of c las srooms dominated by a h igh percentage of t e a c h e r t a l k and t r a d i t i o n a l l e c t u r e and r e c i t a t i o n methodology. They d e l i n e a t e the wide v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s served by s tudent t a l k and suggest i t m e r i t s a l e g i t i m a t e p l a c e i n the language a r t s c u r r i c u l u m . Through i m p r o v i s e d t a l k the s tudent can shape h i s i d e a s , modify them by l i s t e n i n g to o t h e r s , q u e s t i o n , p l a n , express doubt , d i f f i c u l t y and c o n f u s i o n , experiment wi th new language and f e e l f r e e to be t e n t a t i v e and i n c o m p l e t e . It i s through t a l k that he comes nearer to o t h e r s and w i t h them e s t a b l i s h e s a s o c i a l u n i t i n which l e a r n i n g can o c c u r , and i n which he can shape for p u b l i c use h i s p r i v a t e and p e r s o n a l v i ew . Thus - 2 -we t h i n k that s c h o o l l e a r n i n g should be so o r g a n i z e d that the p u p i l s may use to the f u l l t h e i r language r e p e r t o i r e and a l s o add to i t . ( B a r n e s , B r i t t o n & Rosen, 1978, p p . 162-163) However, these o p t i m i s t i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r a more s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d language p o l i c y c o u l d meet some unexpected c o n t r a d i c t i o n when a p p l i e d to p a r t i c u l a r c r o s s c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s where the s tudents have been s o c i a l i z e d i n t o r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of language use . Teachers who are g e n u i n e l y committed to " le t the c h i l d r e n t a l k " may f i n d many N a t i v e s tudents r e l u c t a n t to p a r t i c i p a t e . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , even when these s tudents do make c o n t r i b u t i o n s to c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n , t h e i r n a t u r a l mode of e x p r e s s i o n may be such a d i s j u n c t u r e wi th the demands of the s c h o o l that the t e a c h e r s are b a f f l e d i n knowing how to r e s p o n d . The ' S i l e n t I n d i a n C h i l d ' i s a p a r t of e d u c a t i o n f o l k l o r e (Cazden , Hymes, John 1972): a non-person of the c l a s s r o o m who uses s i l e n c e as a defence a g a i n s t c u l t u r a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n . These s tudents e v e n t u a l l y fade r i g h t out the c l a s s r o o m door to re-emerge i n the s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s on s c h o o l - l e a v i n g . In Admit tance R e s t r i c t e d — T h e  Canadian C h i l d as C i t i z e n i n Canada, a 1977 survey compared d r o p - o u t r a t e s o f N a t i v e and n o n - N a t i v e s tudents over a 12 year t ime span. The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : i n the t w e l f t h grade 29% of the n o n - I n d i a n s tudents had dropped - 3 -o u t . For the I n d i a n s tudents the dropout r a t e was 84%. The i n t e r a c t i o n of the f o r c e s u n d e r l y i n g these t r a g i c s t a t i s t i c s i s u n d e n i a b l y complex. C e r t a i n l y m a c r o - s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s e x e r t the most powerfu l i n f l u e n c e s on the e d u c a t i o n a l performance of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The p a i n f u l a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s Canadian N a t i v e poeple have undergone and the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l problems wi th the N a t i v e community have had a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e impact on t h e i r c h i l d r e n s ' s c h o o l i n g . However, the Canadian e d u c a t i o n system i t s e l f has been p a r t of the p r o b l e m . The p a t e r n a l i s t i c and e t h n o c e n t r i c assumptions which governed e a r l y Canadian e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s of N a t i v e c h i l d r e n c o n f i n e d to r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s where t h e i r language and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t r i p p e d away (Ashworth: 1979) C u r r e n t s t a t i s t i c s would i n d i c a t e the a l i e n a t i o n , o r , at b e s t , ambiva lence , which s t i l l e x i s t s between the N a t i v e community and the e d u c a t i o n system. Language i s s u e s i n the c l a s s r o o m have c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s a l i e n a t i o n . A l t h o u g h N a t i v e c h i l d r e n may no l o n g e r be punished f o r speaking t h e i r N a t i v e language i n s c h o o l , more c o v e r t r e s t r i c t i o n s s t i l l e x i s t w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t N a t i v e s tudents are o f t e n u n w i l l i n g or unable to d i s p l a y the f u l l range of t h e i r language competencies i n the s c h o o l . Research has shown tha t a s t r o n g c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y - 4 -appears to e x i s t between the s c h o o l and the N a t i v e s tudent r i g h t a c r o s s three i n t e r - r e l a t e d d imens ions of language: the s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c system; the s t a n d a r d / n o n s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t spectrum; and the development i n the f u n c t i o n s of language ( H a l l i d a y , 1978; P h i l i p s : 1972 ; S c o l l o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . T e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s a l i k e have n e g a t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d the v e r b a l performance of N a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s r o o m when these d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s became a p p a r e n t . The home environment of N a t i v e c h i l d r e n has been assumed to be the source of t h i s d e f i c i t . I n d i a n c h i l d r e n do r e c e i v e s t i m u l a t i o n but the v a r i e t y i s l i m i t e d to a narrow spectrum i n comparison wi th that a v a i l a b l e to most n o n - I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . . . . C o n v e r s a t i o n s between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n are o f t e n l i m i t e d ; q u e s t i o n s are answered i n m o n o s y l l a b l e s . (Hawthorn, 1967, pp . 112-113) The s tandard n o t i o n of language d e f i c i t ( B e r e i t e r : 1966) i s both e t h n o c e n t r i c and t h e o r e t i c a l l y c r u d e . The use of the d e f i c i e n c y model as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the poor e d u c a t i o n a l performance of m i n o r i t y s tudents has been t h o r o u g h l y d i s c r e d i t e d (Labov 1972) . However, the f a c t remains t h a t c l a s s r o o m proces s has a l i e n a t e d many N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . T h e i r s i l e n c e i s a form of c o m m u n i c a t i o n — t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e statement tha t they f e e l l i n g u i s t i c a l l y unwelcome i n s i d e the c l a s s r o o m . - 5 -C e r t a i n l y i t i s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y absurd to d e s c r i b e c h i l d r e n as coming to s c h o o l l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e p r i v e d so f a r as the presence of r e g u l a r grammar and the c a p a c i t y f o r the c r e a t i v e use of language i n s o c i a l l i f e i s c o n c e r n e d . But there i s the r u b . C h i l d r e n may indeed be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d e p r i v e d i f the language of t h e i r n a t u r a l competence i s not that of the s c h o o l ; i f the purposes to which they put language and the ways i n which they do so are absent or p r o h i b i t e d i n s c h o o l . (Hymes, 1972: pp . x i ) N a t i v e s tudents who are c o n f r o n t e d by s t r u c t u r e d c l a s s r o o m t a l k can f a i l to comply wi th i t s unspoken r u l e s f o r performance f o r two r e a s o n s . They may not know what i s expected of them, o r , s e c o n d l y , they may know what i s e x p e c t e d , but f e e l awkward or incompetent i n e x p r e s s i n g themselves i n those ways because they are not n a t u r a l i n t h e i r home community. In o ther words, the e x p e c t a t i o n s of c l a s s r o o m t a l k are s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r many N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . N a t i v e s tudents be long to a network of speech communit ies which conform to s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s and p a t t e r n s of language use that vary i n s u b t l e but powerfu l ways from mainstream North A m e r i c a n s . N a t i v e s t u d e n t s , l i k e a l l p e o p l e , have communicat ive competence w i t h i n the f a m i l i a r c o n t e x t s of t h e i r own speech community. - 6 -The a c q u i s i t i o n of competence f o r use can be s t a t e d i n these same terms as a c q u i s i t i o n f o r grammar. W i t h i n the deve lopmenta l m a t r i x i n which knowledge of the sentence of a language i s a c q u i r e d , c h i l d r e n a l s o a c q u i r e knowledge of a set of ways i n which language i s u s e d . From a f i n i t e e x p e r i e n c e of speech a c t s and t h e i r in terdependence wi th s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s , they deve lop a g e n e r a l theory of the speaking a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e i r community, which they employ l i k e o ther forms of t a c i t c u l t u r a l knowledge i n c o n d u c t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g s o c i a l l i f e . (Hymes, 1972) However, these s tudents may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h o r o u g h l y i n t e r n a l i z i n g the s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s which u n d e r l i e a p p r o p r i a t e c la s sroom d i s c o u r s e , because t h e i r c u l t u r a l theory of speaking i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s wi th these r u l e s of the c l a s s r o o m . Susan P h i l i p s p o i n t s out i n her a r t i c l e " P a r t i c i p a n t S t r u c t u r e s and Communicative Competence: Warm S p r i n g s C h i l d r e n i n Community and Classroom" tha t a f r e q u e n t l y h e l d assumption i s tha t i f s tudents speak E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t l anguage , they have a l s o a s s i m i l a t e d the s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s u n d e r l y i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m and o t h e r n o n - r e s e r v e s e t t i n g s . Knowledge of the grammat ica l r u l e s of a language does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y g i v e the speaker the s k i l l s to use i t a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n every s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . N a t i v e s tudents may be p e n a l i z e d because they have been s o c i a l i z e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of language use from - 7 those of mainstream C a n a d i a n s . M . A . K . H a l l i d a y , i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the e d u c a t i o n a l f a i l u r e of B r i t i s h working c l a s s c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e s the problem i n terms of the f u n c t i o n s of language i n the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l f a i l u r e i s not a l a c k of words; v o c a b u l a r y seems to be l e a r n t very e a s i l y i n response to o p p o r t u n i t y combined wi th m o t i v a t i o n . Nor i s i t , i n any sense , the impoverishment of the grammar. There i s no r e a l ev idence to show tha t the u n s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d uses or d i s p o s e s of a narrower range of s y n t a c t i c o p t i o n s . Rather i t would seem tha t the c h i l d who, i n B e r n s t e i n ' s terms, has on ly r e s t r i c t e d code s u f f e r s some l i m i t a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t to the se t of l i n g u i s t i c models we have o u t l i n e d . . . because some of the f u n c t i o n s ( h e u r i s t i c and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ) have deve loped o n e - s i d e d l y . The r e s t r i c t i o n i s a r e s t r i c t i o n on the uses of l anguage . ( H a l l i d a y , 1973, pg . 19) Strong d i s j u n c t u r e s may a l s o e x i s t between the s p e c i a l i z e d language e x p e r t i s e demanded by the s c h o o l w i t h i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and h e u r i s t i c f u n c t i o n s and the uses to which language has c u s t o m a r i l y been put i n the N a t i v e community. One important b a s i s f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be the membership of t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e people i n an o r a l c u l t u r e . N a t i v e speech communit ies , as p a r t of a g e n e r a l a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s , have had to o r i e n t themselves to l i t e r a t e E u r o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e wi th i t s more complex network of language f u n c t i o n s . Some N a t i v e communities are s t i l l i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l phase . N a t i v e c h i l d r e n who come from homes where l i t e r a c y i s s t i l l not v a l u e d w i l l be i n a - 8 -d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s i f the o ther c h i l d r e n have a c q u i r e d knowledge s t r u c t u r e s and v e r b a l s k i l l s i n l i t e r a t e homes ( S c o l l o n & S c o l l o n 1980, Cook-Gumperz 1978). They may choose i n s t e a d to become s i l e n t b y s t a n d e r s . A s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d language a r t s c u r r i c u l u m which uses the n a t u r a l language and everyday e x p e r i e n c e s of the s t u d e n t s has become a t r u i s m among p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t o r s . However, the r e a l i s t i c implementa t ion of these g o a l s wi th N a t i v e s t u d e n t s must beg in wi th a c o n f r o n t a t i o n of the " c u l t u r e of s i l e n c e " which has deve loped around these s t u d e n t s . The term " c u l t u r e of s i l e n c e " was o r i g i n a l l y used by P a u l o F r e i r e to d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s and t h e i r s tudents from oppressed c l a s s e s i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . F r e i r e (1974) has p o i n t e d out that most e d u c a t i o n f o r the powerless i n v o l v e s "those who know" ( t e a c h e r s ) t a l k i n g at "those who d o n ' t know" ( s t u d e n t s ) : he s t a t e s that t h i s k i n d of unequal and i n a u t h e n t i c d i a l o g u e engenders a response of s i l e n c e on the p a r t of the s tudents and i n d e e d , the p r e v a l e n c e of t h i s e x p e r i e n c e of be ing t a l k e d at engenders a " c u l t u r e of s i l e n c e . " (Toohey, u n p u b l i s h e d paper) F r e i r e ' s compass ionate o b s e r v a t i o n s should serve to broaden our own p e r s p e c t i v e s as e d u c a t o r s . Perhaps "those who know" a c t u a l l y d o n ' t know as much as they assume. S p e c i f i c a l l y , l i t t l e i s known about the c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g - 9 -s t y l e s of N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . T h i s l a c k of knowledge, t oge ther wi th l a c k of r e s p e c t , has c o n s o l i d a t e d the c u l t u r e of s i l e n c e . The commitment to " le t the c h i l d r e n t a l k " must be accompanied by r e s e a r c h i n t o the n a t u r a l language of N a t i v e s t u d e n t s , t h e i r meaning schema, s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c v a l u e s and i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t y l e s , and the way these operate i n c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t s . One p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h focus i s suggested by B a r n e s , B r i t t o n and Rosen' s d e l i n e a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n s of s tudent t a l k i n the c l a s s r o o m : I t i s through t a l k . . . the s tudent can shape f o r p u b l i c use , h i s p e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e v i ew . N a t i v e s tudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s may be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the degree they can i n t e g r a t e t h e i r " p r i v a t e and p e r s o n a l view" w i t h the p u b l i c meaning systems i n t r o d u c e d by the s c h o o l . The r e a c t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s to t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s as they m a n i p u l a t e these systems of meaning may a l s o a f f e c t t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y . 1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the s tudy i s to d e s c r i b e the communicat ion p a t t e r n s of t e a c h e r s and s tudents of a N a t i v e I n d i a n a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s . - 10 -Student speech was s t u d i e d p r i m a r i l y to determine l e v e l of f l u e n c y i n r e l a t i o n to the v a r i a b l e s of turn content and t e a c h e r ' s v e r b a l s t a t e g y . 1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES H y p o t h e s i s #1 Students w i l l take s i g n i f i c a n t l y more shor t turns (0 to 2 c l a u s a l chunks) than long t u r n s (3 and above c l a u s a l c h u n k s ) . H y p o t h e s i s #2 Student s h o r t t u r n s w i l l have p r e d o m i n a n t l y p u b l i c c o n t e n t . H y p o t h e s i s #3 Student long t u r n s (3 c l a u s a l chunks and above) w i l l have p r e d o m i n a n t l y p r i v a t e c o n t e n t . H y p o t h e s i s #4 Student t u r n l e n g t h w i l l vary a c c o r d i n g to teacher statement and q u e s t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . - 11 -1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. A l though the i n t e r a c t i o n of f o r c e s u n d e r l y i n g the t r a g i c s t a t i s t i c s on N a t i v e I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n a l f a i l u r e i s u n d e n i a b l y complex, m a c r o - s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . I t s scope w i l l be l i m i t e d to language i s s u e s i n the c la s sroom and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g methodology. 2. No f o r m a l l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h o n o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l f e a t u r e s of n o n - s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t v a r i a t i o n w i l l be a t t e m p t e d . 3. The r e s u l t s of the work cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d to a l a r g e r sample . A l l s tudents are e d u c a t i o n a l l y damaged, and from homes of very low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The p o p u l a t i o n base of the r e s e a r c h i s too unique i n c h a r a c t e r and l i m i t e d i n number to permi t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s . 1.5 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE RESEARCH There i s an obv ious need f o r a l t e r n a t i v e methodo log ie s i n language i n s t r u c t i o n which would be more congruent with the c o n c e p t u a l frameworks, speech r e p e r t o i r e s and i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t y l e s of N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . T h i s r e s e a r c h may he lp i n the development of more - I n -e f f e c t i v e methodology through p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n s e v e r a l a r e a s . 1. I t w i l l o f f e r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on how t e a c h e r s and N a t i v e s tudent s at Outreach a l t e r n a t i v e s c h o o l j o i n i n s e t t i n g up the s o c i a l c o n t e x t s of the communication system. 2. I t w i l l attempt a c r i t i c a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the " T a l k i n g to L e a r n " methodology w i t h i n the contex t of these s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . 3. The r e s e a r c h w i l l r e v e a l s p e c i f i c d i s c o u r s e areas where r a d i c a l readjus tment between t eacher and s tudent may be needed for t h i s methodology to have the d e s i r e d r e s u l t . - 13 -CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 PART ONE: THE LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTIONAL CONVERSATIONS 2.1.1 Educational Assumptions Underlying Classroom  Discourse I n t r o d u c t i o n : Teach ing and L e a r n i n g are Dependent on Language One of our fundamental c u l t u r a l assumptions about e d u c a t i o n i s tha t i t should i n v o l v e p u b l i c v e r b a l d i s p l a y s of knowledge by both t eacher and s t u d e n t s . R e c e n t l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l l e c t u r e - r e c i t a t i o n method of l e s s o n d e l i v e r y has come under severe c r i t i c i s m . Language a r t s c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h e r s are p l a c i n g i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the r o l e of t a l k i n s tudent l e a r n i n g ( M o f f e t t 1968, Barnes 1976, Wel l s 1981) . Student t a l k can be used to c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e s o c i a l c l i m a t e f o r l e a r n i n g ( B a r n e s , B r i t t o n and Rosen 1969) . Teachers use s tudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n as an index o f the amount of l e a r n i n g t a k i n g p l a c e . Student t a l k can f u n c t i o n as a p r e p a r a t i o n and accompaniment f o r the development o f l i t e r a c y s k i l l s ( W e l l s 1981) . When s tudents and t eacher t a l k to one a n o t h e r , they g a i n i n c r e a s e d access to one a n o t h e r ' s i n f o r m a t i o n schema, and the o p p o r t u n i t y to g e n u i n e l y i n t e r r e l a t e t h e i r i d e a s ( B a r n e s , B r i t t o n , and - 14 -Rosen 1969). 2.1.2. Student Talk as Cognitive Process E d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y i n Great B r i t a i n d u r i n g the l a s t decades has been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by i n q u i r i e s i n t o the l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l i n s tudent t a l k . The B u l l o c k R e p o r t , a major p o l i c y statement on language a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h S c h o o l s , d e c l a r e s : A p r i o r i t y f o r a l l s c h o o l s i s a commitment to the speech needs of t h e i r p u p i l s and a s e r i o u s study of the r o l e of o r a l language i n l e a r n i n g . (Stubbs & H i l l i e r , 1983, pg . 142) Research r e p o r t s from such sources as the B r i t i s h Schoo l s C o u n c i l G r o u p , the B r i s t o l Language P r o j e c t and the S o c i a l Research U n i t a l l s t r o n g l y emphasize the c r i t i c a l importance of s tudent t a l k i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge. Barnes , B r i t t o n and Rosen have c o n t r i b u t e d s i n g l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y to the e x p l o r a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n s of s tudent t a l k i n the c l a s s r o o m . James B r i t t o n (1976) deve loped a t r i p a r t i t e model for language a n a l y s i s which i n c l u d e d t r a n s a c t i o n a l , e x p r e s s i v e , and p o e t i c speech . T r a n s a c t i o n a l speech o c c u r s when a speaker i s i n a p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e , o c c u p i e d wi th the w o r l d ' s a f f a i r s . The emphasis here i s on t r a n s m i s s i o n of necessary i n f o r m a t i o n . P o e t i c speech i s p e r s o n a l , i d i o s y n c r a t i c - 15 -c r e a t i v e and r e f l e c t i v e , and i s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the speaker as s p e c t a t o r . Both t r a n s a c t i o n a l and p o e t i c speech d e r i v e from a more comprehensive f u n c t i o n , e x p r e s s i v e speech . E x p r e s s i v e speech , as e x p l a i n e d by B r i t t o n ' s c o l l e a g u e Nancy M a r t i n (1971) , was "nearest to hand language needed to net and g i v e i n i t i a l shape to the t r a n s i e n t f low of i d e a s . " T h i s language i s a d i r e c t f i r s t d r a f t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the mind ' s a c t i v i t y , the unexpurgated language of the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s . B r i t t o n c l a i m s that e x p r e s s i v e speech i s the most a c c e s s i b l e and e f f e c t i v e in s t rument which s tudent s can use when they are " t a l k i n g to l e a r n . " Douglas Barnes d e s c r i b e d a s i m i l a r k i n d of d i s c o u r s e , which he termed " e x p l o r a t o r y t a l k , " tha t had many analogous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to e x p r e s s i v e speech . I t s s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f requent r e p h r a s i n g s , f a l s e s t a r t s , hypotheses and q u a l i f i c a t i o n and changes of d i r e c t i o n . T h i s rough d r a f t e x t e r i o r , however, d i d not i n t e r f e r e wi th i t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the p r o c e s s of c o l l a b o r a t i v e meaning b u i l d i n g d u r i n g s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n (Barnes 1978) . Barnes saw t h i s form of t a l k as a c r i t i c a l i n t e r f a c e between the t e a c h e r ' s meanings and those of the s t u d e n t s . T h i s spontaneous " t h i n k i n g out loud" language c o u l d p r o v i d e the t e a c h e r w i t h access to the s t u d e n t s ' data base , i t s c o n t e n t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n . Students c o u l d use language to - 16 -r e c o r d new i n p u t i n terms of t h e i r own i n f o r m a t i o n schema, or r e - a r r a n g e those schema i f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s emerged. C las sroom l e a r n i n g can best be seen as an i n t e r a c t i o n between the t e a c h e r ' s meanings and those of h i s p u p i l s , r e - i n v e n t i n g t h e i r r e a l i t i e s . ( B a r n e s , 1976, p g . 22) The work of H a r o l d Rosen i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to that of B r i t t o n and B a r n e s . Rosen (1969, 1970) emphasized the r i c h v a r i e t y and u s e f u l n e s s of the t a l k of B r i t i s h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , much of which was r u l e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e by t e a c h e r s d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s . He advocated the acceptance of West I n d i a n and working c l a s s g e n r e , such as the p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e , i n o r d e r to empower m i n o r i t y s tudents wi th the use o f the f u l l range of t h e i r communicat ion s k i l l s i n the c l a s s r o o m . The t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s of the Schoo l s C o u n c i l r e s e a r c h group converge around s e v e r a l b a s i c n o t i o n s : the type of s tudent t a l k used d u r i n g problem s o l v i n g ; the subsequent r e - e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s t a l k as a v a l u a b l e phase i n the s t u d e n t ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s ; and the need f o r t e a c h e r s and s tudents to i n t e r a c t and b u i l d new p a t t e r n s of meaning t o g e t h e r . These p e r s p e c t i v e s are supported by r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d language a c q u i s i t i o n where d i a l o g u e s between c h i l d r e n and t h e i r c a r e - g i v e r s have been a n a l y z e d to show how c h i l d r e n - 17 -deve lop t h e i r symbol systems through c r e a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h those of o t h e r s . Ochs and S c h i e f f l i n (1979) , Cazden (1972) , Tough (1977) , Bruner (1967) , Gordon Wel l s (1978) a l l a n a l y s e d the complex p r o c e s s e s through which i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r p e n e t r a t e one a n o t h e r ' s symbol i c r e a l i t i e s through t a l k i n g , and the subsequent r e - o r d e r i n g of these r e a l i t i e s . The work of Gorden W e l l s with the B r i s t o l Language P r o j e c t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y worth n o t i n g as one of the most e x h a u s t i v e and c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r i e s i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p of language and l e a r n i n g . T h i s two-year l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy of the language b e h a v i o u r s of p r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d i n the i s o l a t i o n of a c l u s t e r of v a r i a b l e s which p r e d i c t e d u c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s . These v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e amount of language i n the home; c l a s s - f a m i l y background; and extent of c o n c e n t r a t i o n on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y . The most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e , however, was the presence or absence of genuine r e c i p r o c i t y and c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the c h i l d ' s language e x p e r i e n c e . ( W e l l s 1981, p g . 21) W e l l s ' r e s e a r c h demonstrated tha t when p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n e d , a d u l t - c h i l d c o n v e r s a t i o n were r i c h l y p r o d u c t i v e i n terms of the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l growth . A d u l t s needed to be g e n u i n e l y r e c e p t i v e to c h i l d r e n s ' - 18 -" t h e o r i e s " about how the w o r l d works and w i l l i n g to s u p p l y r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n or s t r u c t u r e f o r the c h i l d ' s use i n m a n i p u l a t i n g h i s systems of meaning. The " j o i n t c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning" w i t h i n the here and now r e a l i t y c o u l d be f u r t h e r extended i n terms of an i n v i t a t i o n t o the c h i l d t o c o n s i d e r the immediate p r e s e n t i n a wider framework of i n t e n t i o n and consequence, f e e l i n g s and p r i n c i p l e s . ( W e l l s , 1981, pg. 19) T h i s p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n p a r e n t - c h i l d d i a l o g u e s , i n which the c h i l d i s h e l p e d to d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e h i s e x p e r i e n c e and r e l a t e i t t o frameworks of p u b l i c knowledge, i s c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n terms of l i t e r a c y p r e p a r a t i o n . 2.1.3. Student Talk a s Literacy Preparation A g e n e r a l consensus e x i s t s i n the language a r t s l i t e r a t u r e t h a t o r a l language i s the b a s i s f o r l i t e r a c y . S t r a n g ( 1 972), one of the l e a d i n g e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d of i n i t i a l r e a d i n g , s t a t e s : " F a c i l i t y i n o r a l e x p r e s s i o n i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to s u c c e s s i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . " James M o f f e t t (1968) i s e q u a l l y e m p h atic. " L e a r n i n g to read and w r i t e w e l l depends i n l a r g e measure on the growth of o r a l speech." The v i t a l l i n k between the development of the f u n c t i o n s of language i n the s t u d e n t ' s o r a l language base, and s u c c e s s i n l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n has been e x p l o r e d i n the - 19 -work of a wide v a r i e t y of t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a c h e r s . Reading t h e o r i s t s such as Goodman and B u r k e , and S m i t h , who deve loped the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model of r e a d i n g , c l a i m tha t l i t e r a r y s k i l l s deve lop as the s tudent l e a r n s to c o - o r d i n a t e three systems, the grapho-phonemic , s y n t a c t i c and s e m a n t i c . The s tudent must l e a r n decoding s k i l l s to t a c k l e sound-symbol c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s ; however, the knowledge he b r i n g s of s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n s and word meanings and h i s c o n c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n t i a l base , w i l l act as a s p r i n g b o a r d i n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the meaning of what he has decoded . As Goodman e x p l a i n s Reading i s a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c gues s ing game, a p r o c e s s which i n v o l v e s the i n t e g r a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s grammat ica l system w i t h h i s knowledge of the wor ld and the p r i n t e d page. (Goodman 1972, p g . 507) When l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n i s seen i n terms of the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model , the c r i t i c a l importance of the c h i l d ' s o r a l language base becomes a p p a r e n t . The language e x p e r i e n c e approach i s one of the most w i d e l y accepted i n n o v a t i o n s i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , and i s based on the assumption that the s t u d e n t ' s o r a l e x p r e s s i o n can be used as a d i r e c t l i n k to l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . The n a t u r a l language and everyday e x p e r i e n c e s of the s t u d e n t s are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g t e x t s . The h i g h l e v e l of c o n t i n u i t y between the p r i n t e d - 20 -page and the "grammar and world" of the s tudent makes the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s very a c c e s s i b l e . Roach Van A l l e n , one of the o r i g i n a t o r s of the language e x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h , sees t a l k as the p l a c e where i t a l l b e g i n s . O r a l s h a r i n g of ideas i s the most b a s i c proces s i n communicat ion a v a i l a b l e i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s , and i t may be the most b a s i c language e x p e r i e n c e tha t feeds the growth of r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s . (Van A l l e n , 1976, pg . 100) C e r t a i n o r a l language s k i l l s i n v o l v i n g d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n forming the b r i d g e between the spoken and w r i t t e n d i m e n s i o n s . Gordon W e l l s e x p l a i n s that what seems to be r e q u i r e d i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i th the ways i n which language can be used s y m b o l i c a l l y to r e p r e s e n t remote, imaginary or even h y p o t h e t i c a l events and e x p e r i e n c e s , a l l of which are p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w r i t t e n language . S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n are c o n v i n c e d that i n Western l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y the c h i l d r e c e i v e s guidance from the e a r l i e s t p e r i o d of l i f e i n the d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s of l i t e r a c y , which enable a r e a s o n a b l y c o n t i n u o u s t r a n s i t i o n to the d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s of the c l a s s r o o m and l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . They d e s c r i b e a d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e ( l a t e r to be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l ) which they termed v e r t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , through which l i t e r a t e p a r e n t s s o c i a l i z e t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o the d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s p r e - r e q u i s i t e - 21 -to l i t e r a c y . They c l a i m that c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a g e r m i n a l form of e s s a y i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c e they were l e a r n i n g how to embed and d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e i n c r e a s i n g l y h igh l e v e l s of new i n f o r m a t i o n . Students who have absorbed a r u d i m e n t a r y sense of these p a t t e r n s through home and community language use are much more l i k e l y to o b t a i n success i n s c h o o l i n g . The e f f e c t of "home h a b i t s of h a n d l i n g language" on c l a s s r o o m success and l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n has been e x p l o r e d i n depth by S h i r l e y B r i c e Heath (1982) i n her ethnography of three d i f f e r e n t communit ies i n the r u r a l s o u t h . C h i l d r e n from both the b l a c k and white working c l a s s communit ies had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h s c h o o l a l though f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . The B l a c k c h i l d r e n had access to a r i c h speech r e p e r t o i r e which i n c l u d e d language games, humor, r i t u a l s and f a n t a s y ; u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i r space - t ime b o u n d a r i e s and r e f e r e n c e systems were too f l u i d and i d i o s y n c r a t i c f o r the s c h o o l . The working c l a s s s tudents on the o ther hand were c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e i r t i g h t l y o r g a n i z e d time frames and a wor ld view l i m i t e d to the p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s of d a i l y l i f e . Heath found tha t the t h i r d g r o u p , the mainstream c h i l d r e n , were at a d i s t i n c t advantage because they had l e a r n e d s o p h i s t i c a t e d v e r b a l s k i l l s such as e l a b o r a t i o n and d e c o n t e x u a l i z a t i o n r i g h t i n t h e i r homes. S i n c e p a r t i c u l a r o r a l language s k i l l s which are c r i t i c a l i n l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n appear to some extent to be - 22 -c u l t u r e and c l a s s s p e c i f i c , c h i l d r e n from n o n - l i t e r a t e or m i n o r i t y backgrounds are i n a d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n . C h i l d language r e s e a r c h e r s emphasize the importance of f i r s t a c c e p t i n g the language the c h i l d b r i n g s to s c h o o l , w i t h the e v e n t u a l g o a l d e f i n e d as "a g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n of h i s communicat ive powers to meet new demands and new s i t u a t i o n s " ( B u l l o c k 1975) . Cazden (1970) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t of s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s on o r a l speech p r o d u c t i o n , and the p o t e n t i a l f o r such f a c t o r s as t o p i c , t a s k , audience and f o r m a l i t y to be m a n i p u l a t e d to the s t u d e n t s ' advantage . Tough (1972) and Berko (1969) both found t h a t a l t h o u g h working c l a s s s tudents were l e s s l i k e l y to produce e l a b o r a t e d d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d speech , they were ab le to do so i f the s i t u a t i o n demanded i t . i n summary: the c h i l d ' s o r a l language base i s of v i t a l importance i n l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . S ince some c h i l d r e n s ' n a t u r a l language competencies are not those of the s c h o o l i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l that a "gradual e x t e n s i o n of t h e i r communicat ive powers" takes p l a c e through c l a s s r o o m t a l k . O r a l language then , i s the b a s i s f o r l i t e r a c y . Because o f t h i s , the development of spoken language shou ld assume p r i o r i t y i n a l l c la s srooms at a l l l e v e l s . It becomes e s p e c i a l l y important i n c la s srooms where c h i l d r e n are not o r a l l y f l u e n t i n the language of i n s t r u c t i o n , f o r i f the o r a l f o u n d a t i o n does not e x i s t , i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to expect p r o f i c i e n c y i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . (Vancouver Schoo l Board P r o j e c t B u i l d - Report 4 - Speaking 1978) - 23 -2.1.4 S o c i o l i n g u i s t l c Assumptions Underlying Classroom  Discourse Introduction: Teaching and Learning are S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Behaviour The open i n v i t a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s ' t a l k c o n t a i n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s i n r e a l i t y h i g h l y c o n d i t i o n a l . A consensus e x i s t s that s tudent t a l k i s v a l u a b l e , but r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o acknowledge "enormous w a l l s of c o n s t r a i n t " (Rosen 1969) which s t u d e n t s must n e g o t i a t e w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . These c o n s t r a i n t s are based upon "the h idden c u r r i c u l u m " (Jackson 1968), the t a c i t v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s around s tudent b e h a v i o u r which must be l e a r n e d i f s tudents are to be s u c c e s s f u l at s c h o o l (Stubbs 1976). The messages of the "hidden c u r r i c u l u m " are o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d through the d i s c o u r s e system of the c l a s s r o o m . Students must accept the a s y m m e t r i c a l power r e l a t i o n s between t eacher and s tudent i n the areas of t o p i c c h o i c e and c o n t r o l , e v a l u a t i o n , c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e n t r y r i g h t s , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a l k (Hammersley 1974; Cazden and Mehan 1978) . T h e i r l i n g u i s t i c performance w i l l be e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g to mainstream speech v a l u e s around p r o s o d y , r e g i s t e r , d i a l e c t , v o l u b i l i t y , and o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . As the s tudent s l e a r n to make - 24 -t h e i r i n p u t conform to these c o n s t r a i n t s , they a c q u i r e communicat ive competence i n the c l a s s r o o m . C las sroom d i s c o u r s e , however, i s in tended to r e f l e c t and p e r p e t u a t e mainstream speech s t a n d a r d s . M i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s may never a t t a i n f u l l communicat ive competence because t h e i r home h a b i t s of language use are too d i v e r g e n t w i t h those of the s c h o o l (Heath 1983) . These s tudents are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a p a i n f u l double message: TALK BECAUSE TALKING IS LEARNING DONT TALK, BECAUSE YOUR TALKING IS INAPPROPRIATE 2.1.5 The Structure of Classroom Discourse C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h has e s t a b l i s h e d the o r d i n a r y c h a l k and t a l k c l a s s r o o m as a complex communicat ion sys tem. The f i r s t i n s i g h t s came wi th the c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n s t u d i e s of the 1970s. Most were m i c r o - e t h n o g r a p h i e s of the every day c l a s s r o o m which on ly probed p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s (Barnes 1976, M i s c h l e r 1972, Gumperz and Herasmachuk 1972) . The next group of s t u d i e s , B e l l a c k et a l . (1966) S i n c l a i r and C o u l t h a r d (1975) , swi tched the focus from d a y - t o - d a y e t h n o - m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c l o s e - u p s to broader p e r s p e c t i v e s . These s t u d i e s attempted to p r o v i d e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e . - 25 -D i s c o u r s e System B e l l a c k ' s work was model led on W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s c e n t r a l metaphor of language as a game. C o n v e r s a t i o n a l turns were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r f u n c t i o n s and then mapped i n t o a h i e r a r c h y of t e a c h i n g c y c l e s , games, and subgames. The t e a c h e r emerges as the most a c t i v e p l a y e r i n the game; 15 t e a c h e r s made 50% more moves than 345 p u p i l s . S i n c l a i r and C o u l t h a r d t c o n t i n u e d t h i s r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n . They i s o l a t e d a b a s i c communicat ive u n i t i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s , the exchange, w i th three b a s i c c o n s t i t u e n t s : i n i t i a t i o n , r e s p o n s e , and feedback . With t h i s u n i t of a n a l y s i s they mapped a complex h i e r a r c h i c a l schema which u n d e r l a y r o u t i n e c l a s s r o o m t a l k . Mehan and Cazden's s tudy (1978) uses a s i m i l a r u n i t of a n a l y s i s , the i n i t i a t i o n , r e s p o n s e , e v a l u a t i o n c h a i n , to approach c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e . T h e i r e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the process by which Chicano s tudents i n a p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m g r a d u a l l y became aware of i t s i n h e r e n t s o c i a l and l i n g u i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and adapted to the demands s i g n a l l e d by the t e a c h e r ' s d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e . These s tudents were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s . They a l l d e s c r i b e d a complex schema u n d e r l y i n g c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e ; the t eacher as Prime Mover i n the language game; and s t r u c t u r e d c la s sroom t a l k as an ins trument f o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t r o l . - 26 -Power R e l a t i o n s The h i g h l y a s s y m e t r i c a l power r e l a t i o n s between -teacher and s tudent form the b a s i s of the d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e . E r i c k s o n and Mohatt (1982) d e s c r i b e the t eacher f u n c t i o n i n g as "a s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r " to whom much t a l k was addressed and by whom a l l a l l o c a t i o n of l e g i t i m a t e t u r n s at speaking was g r a n t e d . " Stubbs (1976) conc ludes the t eacher i s a d i s c o u r s e d i c t a t o r : Teachers e x e r t c o n t r o l over d i f f e r e n t a spec t s of the communication system i n the c l a s s r o o m . They c o n t r o l the channe l s of communication by opening and c l o s i n g them. OK NOW LISTEN ALL OF YOU. They c o n t r o l the amount of t a l k by a s k i n g p u p i l s to speak or keep q u i e t . COLIN, WHAT WERE YOU GOING TO SAY? They c o n t r o l the content of the t a l k and d e f i n e the r e l e v a n c e of what i s s a i d : NOW WE DON'T WANT ANY SILLY REMARKS. They c o n t r o l the language forms used . THAT'S NOT ENGLISH. And they t r y to c o n t r o l u n d e r s t a n d i n g : WHO KNOWS WHAT THIS MEANS? ( S t u b b s , 1976, pg . 106) D i s t r i b u t i o n of T a l k The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a l k d u r i n g l e s s o n s i s a l s o very d i f f e r e n t from n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s . Stubbs notes t h a t t e a c h e r s dominate t a l k by the amount of t h e i r own t a l k . He reminds us tha t " c h i l d r e n spend over a thousand hours per year i n s c h o o l . . . and f o r most of t h i s t ime the t eacher may be t a l k i n g . " Jackson (1968) found tha t t e a c h e r s t a l k e d - 27 -a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70% of t o t a l c l a s s r o o m t i m e . When Poo ley (1977) s t u d i e d o r a l / E n g l i s h l e s s o n s , he found the t e a c h e r s t a l k e d from 62% to 83% of the t i m e . Tes t Q u e s t i o n s Stubbs (1976) d i s c u s s e s another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s : q u e s t i o n s which are not genuine r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . Barnes (1976) r e f e r s to these as c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s , and Postman and Weingartner term them "guess what I'm t h i n k i n g " q u e s t i o n s . These q u e s t i o n and answer sequences have been s t a b l e f o r f i f t y years and a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . F l a n d e r s (1970) found 68% of c l a s s r o o m t a l k c o n s i s t e d of t e a c h e r s a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s and s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s . These q u e s t i o n and answer r i t u a l s are a h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t means f o r the t eacher to m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over l e a r n i n g . T o p i c C o n t r o l D u r i n g n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , speakers c o n t i n u a l l y n e g o t i a t e the change of t o p i c over a c o n v e r s a t i o n (Brown and Y u l e (1982) ) . I n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t o p i c c o n t r o l . One t h i n g which c h a r a c t e r i z e s much c l a s s r o o m t a l k i s the ex tent of which the t eacher has c o n v e r s a t i o n a l c o n t r o l over the t o p i c , over the r e l e v a n c e and c o r r e c t n e s s of what p u p i l s say . ( S t u b b s , 1976, pg . 105) - 28 -2.1.6 The Sociolinguistic Values of Classroom Discourse The majority of secondary teachers who teach through interaction and student p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t i l l prefer the more structured forms of classroom talk. The students are required to present their ideas, knowledge and opinions only through teacher sanctioned forms of communication. A student's verbal performance is evaluated in terms of the school system's c r i t e r i a for appropriate speech. Formal re g i s t e r , v o l u b i l i t y , cohesive linkage of discourse, elaborated language and standard English forms are a l l valued more than c o l l o q u i a l speech, economy of expression, simple grammatical forms, arbi t r a r y linkage of discourse and non-standard d i a l e c t . V o l u b i l i t y and Taciturnity Schools are: Language saturated i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . Teachers explain, lecture, question, exhort, reprimand and make jokes. Pupils l i s t e n , reply, make observations, c a l l o u t , mutter, whisper, and make jokes (Britton 1969, pg. 103) One dominant objective during i n s t r u c t i o n a l conversation is simply to get the students to par t i c i p a t e as much as possible. According to Green and Wallett (1978) the goal of in s t r u c t i o n a l conversations i s "fostering sustained coherent speech." - 29 -Teachers assume that j u s t to hear a c h i l d ' s v o i c e i s a good t h i n g . T h i s consuming p a s s i o n f o r t a l k and more t a l k c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be f e l t as an i m p o s i t i o n by s e v e r a l e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s who ho ld d i f f e r i n g s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c v a l u e s around the amount of t a l k a p p r o p r i a t e i n l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Stubbs (1976) c r i t i c i z e s the s c h o o l s ' assumption on grounds of e t h n o c e n t r i c i s m . He c i t e s the work of P h i l l i p s (1972) and Dumont (1972) w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n who used min imal amounts of speech w i t h i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . However, most language a r t s e d u c a t o r s would concur w i t h M o f f e t t (1968) . To deve lop t h e i r language powers, the s imple f a c t i s that c h i l d r e n must t a l k a l o t . They must use language and use i t an enormous amount. (Report 4, The Vancouver Schoo l B o a r d , 1978) R e g i s t e r Teachers p r e f e r that s tudents i n c o r p o r a t e as much f o r m a l r e g i s t e r as p o s s i b l e i n t o c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n . Kochman (1972) s t a t e s the case as f o l l o w s : The a t ta inment of formal and f r o z e n s t y l e i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a neces sary p r e r e q u i s i t e to academic achievement . B e r n s t e i n and o t h e r s have c i t e d the importance of i m p e r s o n a l i z i n g u t t e r a n c e s , g e n e r a l i z i n g about e v e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the a b i l i t y to d i s a s s o c i a t e o n e s e l f from an event i n which one was i n v o l v e d , to t a l k about i t i n g e n e r a l t erms . (Kochman, 1972, p g . 239) Barnes (1976) compares the approved c l a s s r o o m r e g i s t e r to the language of t ex tbooks and o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s which - 30 -d i s c u s s t o p i c s i n an i m p e r s o n a l p u b l i c way. H i s f i e l d s t u d i e s of a group of secondary l e s s o n s showed t h a t t e a c h e r s were i n c l i n e d t o " d e c o r a t e " t h e i r speech w i t h u n f a m i l i a r terms when s i m p l e r language c o u l d have s e r v e d the same f u n c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y many t e a c h e r s f a i l e d t o acknowledge t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' a n a l y s i s i f i t was couched i n everyday language. Brown Y u l e et a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) , c l a i m t h a t s c h o o l has s e t up an i m p o s s i b l e i d e a l f o r the average a d o l e s c e n t , the p r o d u c t i o n of "speech i n f l u e n c e d by w r i t i n g . " T h i s speech i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by L a t i n a t e v o c a b u l a r y and complex s y n t a x w i t h m u l t i p l e embeddings. They c l a i m t h i s speech i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i g h l y educated a d u l t s , w h i l e the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n and most young people produce v e r y s i m p l e language. Rosen (1969) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s c a t h i n g i n h i s remarks on the e f f e c t s of the widespread i m p o s i t i o n of f o r m a l r e g i s t e r i n the secondary c l a s s r o o m . Much of the language encountered i n s c h o o l l o o k s a t p u p i l s a c r o s s a chasm. Some f l u e n t c h i l d r e n . . . adopt the j a r g o n and p a r r o t whole s t r e t c h e s of l i n g o . . . the p e r s o n a l view i s never asked f o r . Language and e x p e r i e n c e get t o r n asunder. Worse s t i l l , many c h i l d r e n f i n d i m p e r s o n a l language mere n o i s e . I t i s a l i e n i n i t s p o s t u r e s , c o n v e n t i o n s and s t r a t e g i e s . (Rosen 1969, pg. 142) D i a l e c t and Prosody Non-standard d i a l e c t a l and p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s may not - 31 -d i r e c t l y a l t e r message c o n t e n t , but they may c r e a t e such a l e v e l of s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e between teacher and s tudent tha t a communication breakdown o c c u r s . The l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l of n o n - s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t s has been t h o r o u g h l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The e a r l y d e f i c i t t h e o r i s t s such as B e i r e i t e r and Engelmann who saw d i a l e c t s as deformed and incomple te language were routed by L a b o v ' s b r i l l i a n t defense i n "the L o g i c o f Non-Standard E n g l i s h " (1973) . Once Labov proved the B l a c k s u b c u l t u r a l d i a l e c t was a f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d language system, and e n t i r e l y adequate f o r the needs of the speech community which i t s e r v e d , a movement among e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s began to r e - e v a l u a t e the p l a c e of n o n - s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t s i n the s c h o o l system. R e s e a r c h e r s such as B a r a t z (1969) , Shuy (1965, 1969) and Goodman (1968) examined d i a l e c t from the p e r s p e c t i v e of d i f f e r e n c e r a t h e r than i n e q u a l i t y , i n o r d e r to determine more e f f e c t i v e methodology i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . However, w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d t h e o r i e s c a n ' t always change c l a s s r o o m r e a l i t i e s f o r c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s . K e l e e n Toohey, i n an u n p u b l i s h e d paper , s p e c u l a t e s on the r e c e p t i o n these s tudents may e n c o u n t e r . I t may be, however, that t e a c h e r s of n o n - s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t speaking s tudents have so l i t t l e i d e a of what t h e i r s tudents might say , what they might mean, tha t i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n of these - 32 -s o r t s of c la s srooms are even more t r u n c a t e d and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and o f t e n m i s t r u s t than are those of o ther c l a s s r o o m s . Topic Content and Organization In a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n the range of t o p i c s i n t r o d u c e d by the t e a c h e r i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d by government c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s . C lassroom s u b j e c t matter may have l i t t l e to do w i t h e i t h e r the s t u d e n t ' s day to day e x p e r i e n c e or t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l schema. S t u d e n t s , however, n a t u r a l l y p r e f e r t o p i c s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r e s t s . Research c l e a r l y shows that i f the s tudents are g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the t o p i c under d i s c u s s i o n , they w i l l come a l o t c l o s e r to g e n e r a t i n g the q u a l i t y of language the s c h o o l encourages . Cazden, i n d i s c u s s i n g L a b o v ' s work wi th ghet to t e e n a g e r s , summarizes the p r i n c i p l e as f o l l o w s . I t does not seem f a r f e t c h e d to suggest a common element i n these f i n d i n g s : the g r e a t e r degree of a f f e c t or p e r s o n a l involvement i n the t o p i c of c o n v e r s a t i o n , the g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d of s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . (Cazden , 1979, p g . 301) The secondary e d u c a t i o n system, however, i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y focused on: The t r a n s m i s s i o n and development of u n i v e r s a l i s t i c o r d e r of meaning. The s c h o o l i s concerned wi th the making e x p l i c i t and e l a b o r a t i n g through language p r i n c i p l e s , and o p e r a t i o n s as these app ly to o b j e c t s ( s c i e n c e ) and persons ( a r t s ) . ( B e r n s t e i n , 1971, p g . 196) - 33 -As the s tudent p r o g r e s s e s through the s c h o o l system, the g e n e r a l movement i s toward i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n s i o n of the s u b j e c t over time and space , and i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e between speaker and the o r i g i n a l phenomena which he i s a b s t r a c t i n g about . ( M o f f e t t 1968, p g . 32) S tudents are expected to i m p e r s o n a l i z e n a r r a t i v e s and g e n e r a l i z e about phenomena. T h e i r spoken and w r i t t e n communicat ions are e v a l u a t e d through c r i t e r i a which have e v o l v e d from European e s s a y i s t prose s t y l e ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n ) . Mohan (1986) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between p r a c t i c a l contex t -dependent language and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t - i n d e p e n d e n t l anguages . He emphasizes that a l t h o u g h t h e o r e t i c a l language i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r l e a r n e r s to a c q u i r e , i t s a c q u i s i t i o n i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r academic s u c c e s s . He recommends that knowledge s t r u c t u r e s such as c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s and e v a l u a t i o n , which u n d e r l i e t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c o u r s e be taught w i t h i n the content areas through i n q u i r y methods. The a b s t r a c t r a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n which i s the Western academic i d e a l can have an a l i e n a t i n g e f f e c t on s tudents not i n phase wi th the symbol i c o r d e r s of mainstream c u l t u r e (Heath 1982, B e r n s t e i n 1971) . S h i r l e y B r i c e H e a t h ' s work i l l u s t r a t e s these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m p e l l i n g way. Her e thnography of l i t e r a c y a c q u s i t i o n i n 3 communit ies i n the - 34 -r u r a l south p r o v i d e s a r i c h l y d e t a i l e d , s t r u c t u r a l l y c o h e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d i f f e r i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s which the communities have toward language and l e a r n i n g , as w e l l as the t r a n s i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s e r v e d by the s c h o o l . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e summarizes the paradigm she developed to e x p l a i n the o r d e r s of knowledge w i t h i n the community and s c h o o l domains. These themes were a l s o a d d r e s s e d i n S e a r l e ' s u n p u b l i s h e d study of Lower East-end a d o l e s c e n t s . H i s r e s e a r c h showed t h a t the s u b j e c t - p r e f e r r e d form of d i s c o u r s e was the p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e . U n s o l i c i t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s were u n u s u a l i n the d a t a . He found t h a t a s u r p r i s i n g number of t o p i c s i n t r o d u c e d i n the c l a s s r o o m c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h o u t - o f - s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s . However, once th e s e t o p i c s were p r o c e s s e d by the s c h o o l system knowledge machinery, they were u n r e c o g n i z a b l e to the s t u d e n t s . In o t h e r words, once f a m i l i a r e x p e r i e n c e s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of o b j e c t i v e and i m p e r s o n a l t e r m i n o l o g i e s , and o r g a n i z e d through the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems of e s t a b l i s h e d d i s c i p l i n e s , they became s u b s t a n t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s to the s t u d e n t s . The o b j e c t i v e language s e r v e d to shut out everyday e x p e r i e n c e by d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g the e x p e r i e n c e i t r e p r e s e n t e d . ( S e a r l e , pg. 272 u n p u b l i s h e d ) - 35 -T a b l e I T r a n s l a t i o n of F a m i l i a r Community Domain i n t o U n f a m i l i a r S c h o o l Domain F a m i l i a r community domain f e a t u r e s T r a n s l a t i o n Process U n f a m i l i a r school domain f e a t u r e s P e r s o n a l i z e d , c o n t e x t u a l i z e d v e r b a l knowledge— c h i e f l y o r a l o p i n i o n s n a r r a t i v e s with e v a l u a t i o n s , s a y i n g s , proverbs, r e c i p e s , newspaper items P e r s o n a l i z e d non-v e r b a l knowledge o b s e r v a t i o n of o t h e r s ' t r i a l and e r r o r attempts; repeated p a r t i -c i p a t i o n without a r t i c u l a t i o n of processes i d e n t i f y and d e f i n e f o l k terms, f o l k concepts s p e c i f y elements and processes from f o l k domain which have p a r a l l e l s i n u n f a m i l i a r domains i d e n t i f y gaps i n i n f o r m a t i o n - between two domains formulate s p e c i f i c q u e stions f o r o b t a i n i n g missing i n f o r m a t i o n determine methods of t e s t i n g occurrence s p e c i f i c sequenced steps or stages of a c t i v i t y segment continuum i n t o episodes i f process does not work, s p e c i f y t r o u b l e sources and c o n d i t i o n s i n environment which could aggravate problems i d e n t i f y i n un-f a m i l i a r domain p o s s i b l e explana-t i o n s of problems Depersonalized v e r b a l knowledge-l a r g e l y w r i t t e n statements of f a c t w r i t t e n accounts of p r i n c i p l e s as borne out i n experiments, demonstrations, t h i r d person obj e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e without e v a l u a t i o n from a pers o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n and demonstration of s c i e n t i f i c method defense of s c i e n t i -f i c method, need f o r t e s t i n g of hypotheses, f a c i l i t a t i n g r e p l i c a t i o n , e t c . Depersonalized b e h a v i o u r a l knowledge p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a -t i o n , i n s t r u c t o r demonstration accor d i n g to f o r m a l i z e d procedures w r i t t e n accounts of t r i a l and e r r o r of others n a r r a t i v e b i o -g r a p h i c a l accounts of i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t s , groups, or i n s t i t u t i o n s i n -volved i n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h Heath, S h i r l e y , p. 322, 1983). - 36 -2.2 PART TWO: THE LANGUAGE OF NATIVE INDIAN STUDENTS DURING CLASSROOM DISCOURSE 2.2.1 "The S i l e n t Indian C h i l d " The s i l e n t I n d i a n c h i l d i s a p r e v a i l i n g s t e r e o t y p e i n e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . Researchers i n e v i t a b l y r e f e r to c la s srooms of c h i l d r e n who are t o t a l l y mute, or e l s e speak i n whispered m o n o s y l l a b l e s . Dumont(1972) r e f e r s both to the u b i q u i t y and the c o m p l e x i t y of the " s i l e n c e syndrome." We have found that s tudent s i l e n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e s what goes on i n the formal s c h o o l i n g of American Ind ian c h i l d r e n . . . . We saw s i l e n c e as a response to what was not known or u n d e r s t o o d , a r e s u l t of language d i f f e r e n c e , a symptom of f e a r or shyness , or a t r a i t p e c u l i a r to c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . (Dumont, 1972, p . 334) The s i l e n c e s of N a t i v e I n d i a n s tudents are not a s imple absence of words. They are a c t u a l l y a powerfu l form of communicat ion themse lves . N e i t h e r are these infamous s i l e n c e s a u n i t a r y phenomenon. S i l e n c e serves a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s among N a t i v e s tudents and i t i s important to make at l e a s t some p r i m a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s . S i l e n c e i t s e l f i s a s p e c i f i c message, of c o u r s e , as a response w i t h i n d i s c o u r s e , and w i t h i n g a t h e r i n g s , a g e n e r a l i z e d message about one ' s r e l a t i o n to a group and i t s r u l e s of i n t e r a c t i o n . . . whether one speaks , and i f one speaks , the way i n which one speaks are e lements of c h o i c e , and hence of the meaningfu lness of language . (Hymes 1971) - 37 -P o s i t i v e S i l e n c e and T a c i t u r n i t y Hymes (1972) has commented that w i t h i n a l l c u l t u r e s t h e r e i s a time to speak and a time to remain s i l e n t . S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s have d i f f e r e n t norms g o v e r n i n g the sheer q u a n t i t y of speech a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s (Hudson 1975) . A p p r o p r i a t e volume of speech w i t h i n t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l N a t i v e speech communities has been o r i e n t e d toward s i l e n c e and t a c i t u r n i t y . Mainstream speakers appear h i g h l y v e r b a l i n c o m p a r i s o n . Hawthorne's (1967) comprehensive survey on N a t i v e Ind ian people i n Canada d e s c r i b e s some m a j o r , a l t h o u g h a d m i t t e d l y g e n e r a l , d i f f e r e n c e s i n language use . E x c e r p t s from Hawthorne's work as adapted by a recen t B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n r e s o u r c e book i n A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n f o r N a t i v e s o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g compar i son: LANGUAGE NATIVE NON-NATIVE - more n o n - v e r b a l communication - more v e r b a l communicat ion - o b s e r v a n t ( l e s s t a l k a t i v e ) - p a r t i c i p a n t (more t a l k a t i v e ) - o f t e n speaks n o n - s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h d i a l e c t - g e n e r a l l y speaks s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h d i a l e c t - more v i s u a l l y and o r a l l y o r i e n t e d - more p r i n t - o r i e n t e d - r a r e l y read t o ; few p r i n t m a t e r i a l s - o f t e n read t o ; home has v a r i e t y of p r i n t m a t e r i a l s - 38 -E t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d o c c a s i o n s when N a t i v e I n d i a n speakers use s i l e n c e and the r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r of t a c i t u r n i t y i n d i f f e r e n t contex t s and f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes w i t h i n s p e c i f i c N a t i v e communi t i e s . The contex t of f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g were observed to r e q u i r e r e l a t i v e l y min imal v e r b a l i n p u t . N a t i v e people appear to use "phat i c speech" to f i l l up c o n v e r s a t i o n a l space much l e s s than mainstream speakers would . When S p r a d l e y was doing p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n among K w a k u i t l , he found i t neces sary to make some major a d j u s t m e n t s . When I i n t e r v i e w e d K w a k u i t l in formants i n B . C . , I observed that f r i e n d s and kinsmen sat toge ther i n long p e r i o d s of s i l e n c e . A l though d i f f i c u l t , I l e a r n e d to s i t i n s i l e n c e , and converse more s l o w l y . ( S p r a d l e y , 1979, p g . 78) S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1980) a s c r i b e d i f f e r i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s to v o l u b i l i t y and t a c i t u r n i t y as one of the b a r r i e r s to u n d e r s t a n d i n g between white and Athapascan s p e a k e r s . Both groups c o n s i s t e n t l y s t e r e o t y p e d one another as s i l e n t Ind ians and o v e r t a l k a t i v e w h i t e . The Athapaskans p r e f e r r e d s i l e n c e , or v e r y l i t t l e speech i n i n i t i a l enounters ; v o l u b i l i t y was a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y among i n t i m a t e s . Whi te s , however, "got to know" people through c o n v e r s a t i o n , and were c o m f o r t a b l e wi th t a c i t u r n i t y on ly under c o n d i t i o n s of i n t i m a c y . - 39 -P h i l l i p s (1972) observed that minimal t a l k was used when Warm S p r i n g s Ind ian c a r e g i v e r s were i n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n new s k i l l s . L e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s f o l l o w e d a b a s i c p a t t e r n : 1. the c h i l d s i l e n t l y observed the performance of the t a r g e t s k i l l . 2. the c h i l d was i n s t r u c t e d through a minimum of v e r b a l cues ; she/he was guided through the mot ions r a t h e r than t a l k e d through them. 3 . the c h i l d p r a c t i s e d the s k i l l a lone and, once competency was a c h i e v e d , would choose a time to perform the s k i l l i n p u b l i c . The r u n n i n g commentary and q u e s t i o n and answer sequences which m i d d l e - c l a s s mainstream p a r e n t s i n c o r p o r a t e were n o t a b l y a b s e n t . D e f e n s i v e S i l e n c e The amount of t a l k which N a t i v e people f e e l i s a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n t h e i r home community i n t e r a c t i o n s i s c o l l e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d . In c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s , s i l e n c e and b r e v i t y are va lued over c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mainstream v e r b o s i t y . T h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i s p a r t of the n a t u r a l rhythms of community speech . However, s i l e n c e can serve a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n . When speakers i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n o f f end each - 40 -o t h e r ' s c u l t u r a l norms, s i l e n c e can be used as a defense s t r a t e g y a g a i n s t c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t . C o n v e r s a t i o n can be seen i n terms of a s e r i e s of n e g o t i a t i o n s i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s c r e a t e a shared p e r s p e c t i v e (Goffman 1974) . S i l e n c e can be the s i g n a l that these n e g o t i a t i o n s have broken down. C e r t a i n l y , speakers i n i n t e r e t h n i c c o n v e r s a t i o n s have more chance of g e t t i n g caught i n a c r o s s f i r e of wrong i m p r e s s i o n s , as d i f f e r e n t systems of s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s form the b a s i s of these i m p r e s s i o n s . Hymes (1969) warns that s i l e n c e can i n d i c a t e that these s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s have been b r o k e n . N a t i v e s tudent s be long to a network of speech communit ies whose p a t t e r n s of language use and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s v a r y i n s u b t l e but power fu l ways from those of mainstream North A m e r i c a n s . The s p e c i a l i z e d l i n g u i s t i c demands of c l a s s r o o m c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i t h the way i n which language i s used i n t h e i r home communi t i e s . S i l e n c e would appear the f i n a l r e c o u r s e of these s t u d e n t s . P h i l i p s (1972) observed tha t N a t i v e s tudents faced w i t h a l i e n p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e s e x h i b i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r such as s i l e n c e or nervous g i g g l i n g . When Mohatt and E r i c k s o n r e p l i c a t e d P h i l i p ' s study among the Odawan p e o p l e , the same s i l e n c e s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t eacher dominated i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s . V e r a John (1972) d e s c r i b e d the - 41 -m i s s i o n a r y z e a l w i th which American TESL t e a c h e r s used c u l t u r a l l y i n c o n g r u e n t a u d i o - l i n g u a l methods to t each Navaho c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n became s i l e n t s p e c t a t o r s . Dumont (1972) observed Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s c la s srooms p a r a l y z e d by s i l e n c e s which were e x p e r t l y m a i n t a i n e d by Sioux c h i l d r e n as a defense a g a i n s t c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t . I n u i t v i l l a g e h i g h s c h o o l s tudents were d e s c r i b e d by K l e i n f e l d (1972) as o f f e r i n g min imal responses to t e a c h e r s who d i s p l a y e d o v e r l y formal or s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e a c h i n g s t y l e s . 2.2.2 Relationship of Home and Classroom Language of Native  Students The p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e p o l i c y which N a t i v e s tudents dep loy a g a i n s t mainstream e d u c a t i o n comes out of a c o l l e c t i v e need to defend themselves from e d u c a t i o n which i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i th community norms. N a t i v e s t u d e n t s , l i k e a l l p e o p l e , have communicat ive competence w i t h i n the f a m i l i a r c o n t e x t s of t h e i r own speech community. However, these s tudents may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n making the t r a n s i t i o n between n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n t h e i r home community, and the hidden c u r r i c u l u m u n d e r l y i n g c l a s s r o o m t a l k . C u l t u r a l l y determined l e a r n i n g s t y l e s are i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i th the s t y l e of l e a r n i n g faced by ( N a t i v e s t u d e n t s ) upon e n t e r i n g the s choo l sys tem. L e a r n i n g i n the home i s couched i n - 42 -v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s not encouraged i n the c l a s s r o o m . . . . I n d i a n c h i l d r e n are accustomed to l e a r n i n g through o b s e r v a t i o n , m a n i p u l a t i o n , and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , making t h e i r own c h o i c e s on when they i n t e r a c t with a new s k i l l and when they are ready to demonstrate t h e i r competency in the new s k i l l . T h e i r response to the s choo l and the t e a c h e r s who remove the ( s t u d e n t s ' ) c o n t r o l of t h e i r l e a r n i n g and who i n s i s t on v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t e s t i n g competency i s to i n i t i a l l y become p a s s i v e and withdrawn fo l l owed by d r o p p i n g out . . . or l o s i n g i n t e r e s t a l t o g e t h e r . ( B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1981, p g . 17) The work of s o c i o l i n g u i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s such as P h i l i p s , Mohatt and E r i c k s o n (1982) , Dumont (1972) , S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1980) , and K l e i n f e l d (1972) a t tempts to l o c a t e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between s c h o o l e x p e c t a t i o n s and community norms. The work of Susan P h i l i p s among the Warm S p r i n g s S a l i s h (1974) c o n s t i t u t e s perhaps the most p e n e t r a t i n g i n q u i r y a v a i l a b l e on the t o p i c s of s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s in the N a t i v e community and t h e i r e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the s c h o o l . P h i l i p s addresses two main q u e s t i o n s : 1. When i s speaking a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n ? 2. Which p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e s , or r e l a t i o n s h i p s between speakers and l i s t e n e r s , are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the community norms? She found t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n had been s o c i a l i z e d i n t o a l e a r n i n g model which demanded s i l e n t o b s e r v a t i o n of the - 43 -t a r g e t s k i l l , f o l l o w e d by i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i s e and d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the s k i l l . C lassroom l e a r n i n g i s based on a format i n which a c q u i s i t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n of knowledge i s m a i n l y v e r b a l . The Warm S p r i n g s N a t i v e s tudents appeared to have the most d i f f i c u l t y i n c la s sroom c o n t e x t s where speech was used as per formance . P h i l i p s observed that the c h i l d r e n showed c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l u c t a n c e to speak out i n d i v i d u a l l y i n f r o n t of o ther s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y compared to n o n - I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . When . . . each i n d i v i d u a l must g i v e some k i n d of communicat ive v e r b a l performance in t u r n , I n d i a n c h i l d r e n much more f r e q u e n t l y r e f u s e , or f a i l to u t t e r a word when c a l l e d upon, and much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , i f e v e r , urge the t eacher to c a l l on them as n o n - I n d i a n s do . When the Ind ian c h i l d r e n do speak, they speak very s o f t l y , o f t e n i n tones i n a u d i b l e to a person more than a few fee t away, and i n u t t e r a n c e t y p i c a l l y s h o r t e r or b r i e f e r than those of t h e i r n o n - I n d i a n ' c o u n t e r p a r t s . ' ( P h i l i p s , 1972, pg . 378) T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s towards speech as performance may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the r e l u c t a n c e of N a t i v e s tudent s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s t r u c t u r e d c l a s s r o o m t a l k . S ince c h i l d r e n were never r e q u i r e d to prove t h e i r s k i l l through e x p l a n a t i o n s or some k i n d of v e r b a l g l o s s d u r i n g ta sk per formance , they d i d not v a l u e or f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e wi th v e r b a l d i s p l a y . P h i l i p s found that these p a r t i c u l a r N a t i v e c h i l d r e n - 44 -f u n c t i o n e d best as l e a r n e r s i n t e a c h e r - i n d e p e n d e n t s m a l l g r o u p s . The t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e , w i t h the t e a c h e r c o n t r o l l i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t r a f f i c and demanding i n d i v i d u a l v e r b a l demons tra t ions i n f r o n t of t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s , was i n a p p r o p r i a t e for these s t u d e n t s . E r i c k s o n and Mohatt (1982) a l s o e x p l o r e d the i s s u e of t e a c h e r dominance over v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r i n the c l a s s r o o m . They attempted to determine i f P h i l i p s ' f i n d i n g s about o p t i m a l p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e s f o r N a t i v e s tudents c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d to the Odawan people o f N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o . T h e i r double case a n a l y s i s of two c l a s s r o o m s , one taught by a N a t i v e and the o ther by a n o n - N a t i v e , p o i n t e d out some c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The i n t e r a c t i o n between the N a t i v e t eacher and her s tudents was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a key f e a t u r e of Odawan i n t e r a c t i o n a l e t i q u e t t e , the avo idance of d i r e c t and o v e r t s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n s i t u a t i o n s where n o n - I n d i a n s would i n t e r c e d e without h e s i t a t i o n . The white t eacher e x e r t e d much more dominance over the c l a s s r o o m . He acted as a c e n t r a l sw i t chboard o p e r a t o r who a l l o c a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d s tudent t u r n s at s p e a k i n g . He tended to use the ' s p o t l i g h t ' and i s s u e d i r e c t i v e s much more f r e q u e n t l y and e x p l i c i t l y than d i d the I n d i a n t e a c h e r . It made p e r f e c t sense f o r him to do so; what he was d o i n g , by c l a s s i c Nor th American p e d a g o g i c a l s t a n d a r d s , was good t e a c h i n g — p r o v i d i n g content focus and - 45 -m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t r o l ( E r i c k s o n and M o h a t t , 1 9 8 2 ) . H o w e v e r , i n s u c h p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e s t h e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d much more s i t u a t i o n a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r i n s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m ( s i l e n c e , f a i l u r e t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s , n e r v o u s g i g g l i n g ) t h a n d i d w h i t e s t u d e n t s . E r i c k s o n and M o h a t t ' s w o r k c o n f i r m e d P h i l i p s ' o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n d i s l i k e b e i n g p u t i n t h e s p o t l i g h t a n d made t o g i v e a v e r b a l d i s p l a y . A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t comes f r o m S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) who show t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e c o n t e x t s a r e a l i e n t o A t h a p a s k a n c h i l d r e n . F o r E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . . . t h e p a r e n t , a s s p e c t a t o r , e x p e c t s t o w a t c h w h a t a c h i l d d o e s . The c h i l d shows o f f h i s a b i l i t i e s t o t h e p a r e n t s and i s o f t e n e x p e c t e d t o be e n t e r t a i n i n g . . . . T h i s i s d i f f e r e n t f o r A t h a b a s k a n s . C h i l d r e n a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o show o f f f o r a d u l t s . A d u l t s as e i t h e r p a r e n t s o r t e a c h e r s a r e s u p p o s e d t o d i s p l a y a b i l i t i e s and q u a l i t i e s f o r t h e c h i l d t o l e a r n . ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n , 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 7 ) R o b e r t Dumont d e s c r i b e s t h e r e a c t i o n s o f N a t i v e s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s r o o m s w h e r e t h e s e r e l a t i v e l y s u b t l e a s p e c t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l e t i q u e t t e h a v e gone u n r e c o g n i z e d b y n o n - N a t i v e t e a c h e r s . I n L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h a n d How t o be  S i l e n t ( 1 9 7 2 ) he l o o k s a t s i l e n c e w h i c h i s s t u d e n t - d e v e l o p e d a n d s t u d e n t - m a i n t a i n e d a s a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t . When t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t s u m m o n s / a n s w e r o r q u e s t i o n / a n s w e r s e q u e n c e s a r e " i n t e r r u p t e d " by s i l e n c e , t h e - 46 -teacher becomes disoriented and negative about his/her work. Dumont also contrasted the student-teacher interactions in two di f f e r e n t Cherokee classrooms. Mr. M i l l e r ' s v i o l a t i o n s of many of the i m p l i c i t assumptions held about discourse by his Cherokee students are in sharp contrast to the gentle collaborations in Mr. Howard's room. Dumont's work i s capsulized by Arbess (1980). Dumont states that teaching i s seen by Native people f i r s t as the art of working out s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s (value-emotional orientation) and secondly to convey academic materials (task or i e n t a t i o n ) . Respect for the rights and point of view of the others i s primary. Judith Kle i n f e l d ' s major contribution has been the creation of a typology of teaching styles along dimensions of personal warmth/reserve and degree of task orientation. She found that v i l l a g e Indian and Eskimo students responded best to the "supportive gadfly," a teacher who created an intensely warm emotional climate, combined with a demand for a high l e v e l of academic work. T r a d i t i o n a l i s t teachers who focus on academic content but give l i t t l e personal warmth were d i s l i k e d by these students. Contemporary teachers with cool "media personality" delivery, and a sophisticated repertoire of verbal s k i l l s such as irony, challenging, and repartee were equally i n e f f e c t i v e . In a related study K l e i n f e l d probed the relationship of - 47 -c l a s s r o o m c l i m a t e to v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . She b e l i e v e d t h a t N a t i v e s t u d e n t s ' r e f u s a l to speak i n c l a s s i s based p r i m a r i l y on the s t u d e n t s ' i n s e c u r i t y and l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e i n a t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n . She had formed the h y p o t h e s i s , d u r i n g her e t h n o g r a p h i c work, tha t the extreme wi thdrawal p r a c t i s e d by these s tudents c o u l d be changed by the c r e a t i o n of a warm, r e l a x e d c l a s s r o o m c l i m a t e . When t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d e m p i r i c a l l y , a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between i n c r e a s e d v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the presence of " f r i e n d l y " m e t a l i n g u i s t i c s i g n a l s . S t r e s s , i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s , w a i t - t i m e and tone of v o i c e a l l g i v e impor tant cues to the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n about how to o r c h e s t r a t e t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . Many t e a c h e r s compla in about the i n a u d i b l e tones and l a c k of e x p r e s s i o n i n N a t i v e s t u d e n t s , and emphasize the need f o r s tudents to "read wi th e x p r e s s i o n , " or to " t a l k up" i n f r o n t of the c l a s s (Dumont, 1972) . In f a c t , these p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s , such as l e v e l l e d i n t o n a t i o n , are a t r a n s f e r a n c e from the o r i g i n a l N a t i v e languages r a t h e r than s i g n a l s of d i s i n t e r e s t ( W i l d , Nakonechny, S a i n t J a c q u e s , 1983) . W a i t - t i m e i s an important area f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . It r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the l e n g t h of time p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n are w i l l i n g to wait f o r a response b e f o r e s w i t c h i n g to o t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t a c t i c s , such as g o a d i n g , r e p l a c i n g the q u e s t i o n , changing the s u b j e c t , and - 48 -r e - d i r e c t i n g the q u e s t i o n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , N a t i v e people a l l >w a s l i g h t l y l onger pause time ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n 1981; W i l d , Nakonechny and S t . J a c q u e s , 1983) , that exceeds whi te midd le c l a s s t o l e r a n c e . Research has a l s o shown tha t t e a c h e r s are g u i l t y of r a p i d - f i r e q u e s t i o n i n g wi th reduced w a i t - t i m e s , which poses d i f f i c u l t i e s even f o r mainstream s tudent s (Rowe 1973). In our e x p e r i e n c e s we have not encountered N a t i v e Ind ian speakers who use extremely shortened w a i t - t i m e s i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . The "usual white" p e r c e p t i o n of a l eng thy w a i t - t i m e i s tha t the person i s e i t h e r unable or u n w i l l i n g to answer. On the o ther hand, many N a t i v e people comment on how "pushy" whites are w i th language: i . e . , they are i n a h u r r y and have a tendency to i n t e r r u p t t h o u g h t s . ( W i l d , Nakonechny, S t . J a c q u e s , 1983) A v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t body of work has r e c e n t l y been advanced by Ron and Suzanne B . K . S c o l l o n around the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n Athapaskan/mains tream i n t e r e t h n i c communicat ion , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i t e r a t e speech to the Athapaskan o r a l t r a d i t i o n . The S c o l l o n s , l i k e H a l l i d a y and B e r n s t e i n , are i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s d u r i n g the f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n and the r e l a t i v e p o t e n t i a l f o r the growth of l i t e r a c y w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r speech communi t i e s . T h e i r theory beg ins by c a t e g o r i z i n g a l l c u l t u r e s as p r e d o m i n a n t l y o r a l or l i t e r a t e i n n a t u r e . Speakers b e l o n g i n g to a l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e i n e v i t a b l y f i n d t h e i r o r a l - 49 -language i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l schema. T h e i r speech i s u s u a l l y h i g h l y d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d , or removed from the r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n , and s i g n a l l e d and c o n t r o l l e d by complex s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n i n g and t e x t u a l r u l e s f o r o r d e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . C h i l d r e n of l i t e r a t e parents undergo c a r e f u l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o the d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s of l i t e r a c y . The c e n t r a l speech p a t t e r n used during t h i s process i s v e r t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n which the care g i v e r c o n s t a n t l y pushes the c h i l d to s p e c i f y and e l a b o r a t e on the i n f o r m a t i o n put forward i n the o r i g i n a l message, which prepares them f o r d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n . 1. Infant makes an u t t e r a n c e . 2. Adult seeks e l a b o r a t i o n or q u a l i f i c a t i o n by posing a q u e s t i o n to f o r c e the i n f a n t to be more e x p l i c i t . 3. Infant speaks again responding to q u e s t i o n . Native c a r e - g i v e r s who come out of an o r a l t r a d i t i o n are observed not to i n t e r a c t with t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h i s way. No attempt i s made to make the c h i l d say anything e l s e or to say i t d i f f e r e n t l y ; the o b j e c t i s simply to understand i t f o r what i t i s . 1. Infant makes an 'utterance. 2. Adult paraphrases or g l o s s e s what the i n f a n t s a i d but does not request e l a b o r a t i o n or g r e a t e r e x p l i c i t n e s s . - 50 -S i n c e formal c l a s s r o o m c o n v e r s a t i o n s are s t r u c t u r e d to ac t as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s neces sary f o r l i t e r a c y (Cook Gumperz, 1978) , i t would f o l l o w tha t Athapaskan c h i l d r e n would be at a d i s a d v a n t a g e d u r i n g these c o n v e r s a t i o n s . The s c h o o l ' s o b j e c t i v e i s f o r c h i l d r e n to use l onger and longer t o p i c c o n t r o l l e d chunks o f d i s c o u r s e , and to s p e c i f y the c o n t e x t s of t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s . The Athapaskans would be uncomfor tab le w i th c l a s s r o o m c o n v e n t i o n s such as s h a r i n g c i r c l e s and l e s sons which p r e s s u r e them to t a l k i n these u n f a m i l i a r ways. The S c o l l o n ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s tha t the Athapaskan c h i l d would face f o r m i d a b l e problems a d j u s t i n g to the f u n c t i o n s of language i n the c l a s s r o o m . One i m p l i c a t i o n of what we have s a i d about p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i t e r a c y i s tha t where t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n i s absent , l i t e r a c y w i l l deve lop o n l y wi th d i f f i c u l t y . T h i s i s because the d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s upon which l i t e r a c y i s based are l e a r n e d very e a r l y as p a r t of the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l i z a t i o n to a c u l t u r a l world and as p a r t of the c h i l d ' s i d e n t i t y as a p e r s o n . L e a r n i n g new d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s i s tantamount to l e a r n i n g a new i d e n t i t y and, as we know, t h i s i s not done e a s i l y . In f a c t we b e l i e v e i t takes an e q u a l l y deep invo lvement i n the new i d e n t i t y over a comparable p e r i o d of time f o r a new i d e n t i t y to d e v e l o p . ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n 1980 u n p u b l i s h e d ) - 51 -2.3 CONCLUSIONS Summary R e s e a r c h e r s and t h e o r e t i c i a n s have e s t a b l i s h e d the v a l u e of s tudent t a l k , both as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i t e r a c y and an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the j o i n t c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning between t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . They s t r o n g l y recommend i n c r e a s e d s tudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n broader c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t s . The e d u c a t i o n system has deve loped i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e d i s c o u r s e r o u t i n e s w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m , based on the s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c v a l u e s of mainstream c u l t u r e . The c a l l f o r i n c r e a s e d s tudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n r e a l i t y c o n t i n g e n t on the s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y to ach i eve communicat ive competence w i t h i n the s p e c i a l i z e d c o n t e x t s of the c l a s s r o o m . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r N a t i v e S tudents The o p t i m i s t i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r a more s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d language a r t s c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be of l i t t l e b e n e f i t to m i n o r i t y s tudent s i f f a c t o r s c r e a t i n g s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e are not removed. C e r t a i n l y the c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of c l a s s - r o o m t a l k are m u l t i p l i e d i n a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . N a t i v e s tudents be long to networks of speech - 52 -communit ies which conform to s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s and p a t t e r n s of language use that v a r y i n s u b t l e but p o w e r f u l ways from those of mainstream C a n a d i a n s . N a t i v e s t u d e n t s , l i k e a l l p e o p l e , have communicat ive competence w i t h i n the f a m i l i a r c o n t e x t s of t h e i r own speech community. However, these s tudents may have d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c demands of the c l a s s r o o m , because t h e i r c u l t u r a l theory o f speaking a c t s as a k i n d of i n t e r f e r e n c e . Susan P h i l i p s has c a u t i o n e d : E d u c a t o r s cannot assume that because I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . . . speak E n g l i s h , or are taught i t i n the s c h o o l s that they have a l s o a s s i m i l a t e d a l l o f the s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s u n d e r l y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i n c l a s s r o o m s , and o ther n o n - I n d i a n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s where E n g l i s h i s spoken. ( P h i l i p s , 1972, p g . 392) The parameters f o r a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s r o o m t a l k o f f e r many sources of p o t e n t i a l s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s i n t e r f e r e n c e f o r N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . The asymmetr i ca l power r e l a t i o n s which form the b a s i c govern ing assumption of the d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e c o u l d c o n t r a d i c t N a t i v e v a l u e s of e g a l i t a r i a n i s m and r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s (Arbess 1980) . T h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h speech used as performance c o u l d be a d e f i n i t e d i s a d v a n t a g e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n where p u b l i c v e r b a l d i s p l a y s of knowledge are expected ( P h i l i p s 1972; S c o l l o n & S c o l l o n 1981) . I f s tudent s have been r a i s e d i n communities where an o r a l , r a t h e r than a l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e p r e d o m i n a t e s , t h e i r - 53 -o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from the k i n d s and o r d e r s of meanings i n the s c h o o l ( S c o l l o n 1980) . The d i a l e c t a l and p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s of "Nat ive I n d i a n " E n g l i s h c o u l d c r e a t e s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e between t e a c h e r and s tudents ( W i l d , Nakonechny, S t . J a c q u e s , 1983) , ( S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n , 1980) . H i s t o r i c a l l y the response of N a t i v e s tudents to the e d u c a t i o n system has o f t e n been to remain s i l e n t , or to l i m i t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n to the l e a s t p o s s i b l e amount. The o p t i m i s t i c assumption tha t i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s tudent t a l k would be an e f f e c t i v e approach f o r a l l s tudent s r e q u i r e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n terms of the N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . The s i l e n c e of these s tudents would seem to p r o v i d e an extreme c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the t a l k i n g to l e a r n methodology . - 54 -CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN The study was s t r u c t u r e d as a m i c r o - e t h n o g r a p h y of the communicat ion p a t t e r n s d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s at Outreach A l t e r n a t i v e S c h o o l . The raw da ta are r e c o r d e d sequences of c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n between teacher and s tudent s d u r i n g r e g u l a r c la s sroom l e s s o n s . The study was c o n s t r u c t e d a long d e s c r i p t i v e , i n d u c t i v e l i n e s , u s ing e t h n o g r a p h i c emphasis in o r d e r to r e c o r d and probe the a c t u a l r e a l i t i e s of langage use i n the c la s soom. T h e o r i s t s such as Hymes (1982) , Cazden (1971) , and Gumperz (1964, 1982) have argued a g a i n s t a c c e p t i n g i d e a l i z e d accounts of langage use as d e s c r i p t i o n s of a c t u a l communication and have suggested that we must f i n d ways to unders tand i n a g e n e r a l and t h e o r e t i c a l sense , the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r forms of language use i n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s . Ethnography p r o v i d e s the best m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t o o l s f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of what i s a c t u a l l y s a i d , by whom and to whom, when and where. V e r b a t i m accounts are an i n i t i a l and minimal requirement f o r d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s f o r the study of language f u n c t i o n s . I f the raw data i s p r e m a t u r e l y r e p r o c e s s e d at the time of o b s e r v a t i o n i n t o - 55 -r a t i n g s c a l e s or ca tegory systems, the dynamics and t e x t u r e s of i n t e r a c t i v e speech are l a r g e l y l o s t . M i c r o - e t h n o g r a p h y w i l l be d e f i n e d as a d e s c r i p t i o n of face to face i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l s cene . G e n e r a l e thnography , i n c o n t r a s t , attempts to d e s c r i b e the whole way of l i f e i n a n a t u r a l l y bounded s o c i a l group ( E r i c k s o n and Mohatt : 1982) . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r c r i t e r i a d i s t i n g u i s h ethnography from other methods of r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y ( P h i l i p s : 1982) . a . Ethnography i n v o l v e s d i r e c t face to face e n c o u n t e r i n g of s o c i a l proces se s be ing s t u d i e d . b . A l t e r a t i o n or d i s r u p t i o n of the s o c i a l system be ing s t u d i e d i s avo ided at a l l c o s t s . c . Indepth knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n i s ga ined through repeated o b s e r v a t i o n s on a r e g u l a r and p r o l o n g e d b a s i s . d . The methodology i s c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g i n that hypotheses and s t r a t e g i e s emerge as the s tudy p r o c e e d s . 3.2 RESEARCH SAMPLE Teacher s u b j e c t s are two Canadian white m i d d l e - c l a s s women who were t eam-teach ing the Humani t ies program and s e v e r a l o t h e r courses at O u t r e a c h . One t eacher f u n c t i o n e d i n the r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r . She observed and - 56 -r e c o r d e d the o ther t e a c h e r ' s l e s s o n s as w e l l as t e a c h i n g and r e c o r d i n g her own l e s s o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r had four y e a r s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g N a t i v e s tudents at a l l grade l e v e l s . The o ther t eacher had e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e in a wide range of s e t t i n g s i n c l u d i n g mainstream h igh s c h o o l s and o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e programs; t h i s was her f i r s t y e a r , however, t e a c h i n g N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . Both t eachers were doing graduate work i n language e d u c a t i o n and were deep ly commited to N a t i v e e d u c a t i o n . Student s u b j e c t s are 13 - 17 year o l d N a t i v e I n d i a n s tudent s c u r r e n t l y a t t e n d i n g Outreach A l t e r n a t i v e S c h o o l , an a l t e r n a t i v e - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program f o r urban N a t i v e a d o l e s c e n t s . The m a j o r i t y of the s tudents have had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h mainstream e d u c a t i o n , and appear to have l e s s h i g h l y deve loped academic s k i l l s when t e s t e d with the Canadian Tes t of B a s i c S k i l l s and the Woodcock In formal Reading I n v e n t o r y . P r e v i o u s s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h with these s tudents has r e v e a l e d s t r o n g though s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n communication p a t t e r n s between them and the wh i t e , m i d d l e c l a s s speech community. Non- s tandard d i a l e c t forms are n o t i c e a b l e i n many s t u d e n t s ' s p e e c h . A s p e c i a l note of c a u t i o n must be i n c l u d e d . N e i t h e r O u t r e a c h s c h o o l nor the N a t i v e community are homogenous e n t i t i e s . When a d d r e s s i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , one i s faced by the a d d i t i o n a l - 57 -c o m p l i c a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y among N a t i v e p e o p l e . I t i s e s t imated tha t there were more than 2,000 N a t i v e languages i n N o r t h and South America at the time of European c o n t a c t . B r i t i s h Columbia a lone i s home to a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s . The s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the r a p i d p r o c e s s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n to mainstream Canadian c u l t u r e t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n the N a t i v e community. A l t h o u g h there are some s i m i l a r t endenc i e s among N a t i v e communication s t r a t e g i e s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to make s t r i c t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s through the e n t i r e N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , Urban N a t i v e s w i l l have adopted many mainstream Canadian speech p a t t e r n s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f Outreach i n c l u d e s s tudents from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o a s t a l groups such as K w a k u i t l Nootka , S a l i s h , and T s i m s h i a n , as w e l l as i n t e r i o r peop les such as C a r r i e r , K o o t e n a i , and C r e e . The s tudents range from "country k i d s " j u s t o f f the r e s e r v e to urban met i s who have spent t h e i r e n t i r e l i v e s on the down-town E a s t - s i d e . 3.3 SELECTION OF THE PROBLEM S ince one of the p r i m a r y f e a t u r e s of ethnography i s i t s e v o l v i n g n a t u r e , no i n i t i a l hypotheses were p r e s e n t . The r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n was to f i r s t deve lop a c o m p a r a t i v e l y b r o a d - r a n g i n g data base , and then reduce i t - 58 -through s e v e r a l s tages of p r o g r e s s i v e r e f o c u s i n g ( P a r t l e t t and H a m i l t o n : 1972; S p r a d l e y : 1980), i n order to g i v e a p p r o p r i a t e weight to i s s u e s as they emerged d u r i n g the course o f the r e s e a r c h . A l l i n i t i a l hypotheses were s u b j e c t to q u e s t i o n , r e v i s i o n , r e d e f i n i t i o n , or r e j e c t i o n ; at the same time the r e s e a r c h e r wanted to remain r e c e p t i v e to u n a n t i c i p a t e d d i s c o v e r i e s and keep an ear to the ground i n o r d e r to f o l l o w unexpected and s u b t l e contours when mapping the s o c i a l env ironment . As the da ta was recorded and t r a n s c r i b e d , a c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d of o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s was r e c o r d e d i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s my f i e l d - n o t e s . At f i r s t , s tudent speech was s t u d i e d to i n f e r any s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c v a l u e s h e l d by s tudents i n a wide range of a r e a s . These areas i n c l u d e d : t o p i c n e g o t i a t i o n , d i a l e c t , p r o s o d y , o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , r e g i s t e r and f l u e n c y . These areas were examined i n terms of both language a t t i t u d e and communication s t r a t e g i e s . The focus of the r e s e a r c h was e v e n t u a l l y narrowed to the t o p i c of f l u e n c y . O b s e r v a t i o n s began to c e n t r e on q u e s t i o n s such as: How much do the s tudents t a l k ? What k i n d of t a l k i s be ing used? When do they t a l k ? When d o n ' t they t a l k ? Is t h e i r t a l k p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t i v e and p e r s o n a l , or p u b l i c and i m p e r s o n a l ? - 59 -When they do t a l k , i s the contex t p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t i v e and p e r s o n a l ? When they d o n ' t t a l k , i s the e x p e c t a t i o n p r i m a r i l y p u b l i c and impersona l? F i n a l l y , a body of hypotheses was deve loped which attempted to r e l a t e l e n g t h of s tudent t u r n to the v a r i a b l e s of c o n t e n t , f u n c t i o n , and t eacher d i s c o u r s e s t r a t e g i e s . In e t h n o g r a p h i c i n q u i r y , a n a l y s i s i s a p r o c e s s of q u e s t i o n - d i s c o v e r y . Ins tead of coming i n t o the f i e l d w i th s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s , the e thnographer a n a l y z e s the f i e l d data compi led from p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n to d i s c o v e r q u e s t i o n s . You need to a n a l y z e your f i e l d notes a f t e r each p e r i o d of f i e l d w o r k i n o r d e r to know what to look f o r d u r i n g your next p e r i o d of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . . . . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g f i e l d notes then are always f o l l o w e d by da ta a n a l y s i s , which l eads to f i n d i n g new e t h n o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n s , more data c o l l e c t i o n , more f i e l d notes and more a n a l y s i s . And so the c y c l e c o n t i n u e s u n t i l your p r o j e c t nears c o m p l e t i o n . ( S p r a d l e y , 1981, p . 34) 3.4 DATA COLLECTION Data was c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y through p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s over a three and one h a l f month p e r i o d a t O u t r e a c h . A p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y hours of c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s were r e c o r d e d . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n serves b a s i c a l l y two purposes : a . Engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e to the s e t t i n g . b . O b s e r v i n g the a c t i v i t i e s , people and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of the s i t u a t i o n . - 60 -The r e s e a r c h e r ' s r o l e in the c l a s s r o o m ranged between moderate and f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Dur ing the moderate p a r t i c i p a t i o n s e s s i o n s attempts were made to behave n a t u r a l l y w i t h the s tudents i n terms of h e l p i n g or t a l k i n g wi th them, but on ly w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s set by the o ther t e a c h e r i n her own c l a s s r o o m . Dur ing f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s e s s i o n s , when the r e s e a r c h e r was a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g the c l a s s , no p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g s t y l e were a t t empted . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s covered the l e n g t h of the e n t i r e c l a s s , r o u g h l y 45 minutes to 1 hour i n l e n g t h . S e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d a p a r t i a l range of c l a s s e s -h u m a n i t i e s . Two of the t e a c h e r s and the e n t i r e s tudent p o p u l a t i o n were r e c o r d e d d u r i n g the formal p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . More i n f o r m a l " r o v i n g r e p o r t e r " o b s e r v a t i o n was used d u r i n g the 15 minute i n t e r m i s s i o n s , at l u n c h p e r i o d and a f t e r s c h o o l . V e r b a t i m t a p e - s c r i p t s of n i n e t y hours of c l a s s - r o o m c o n v e r s a t i o n form the major p o r t i o n of the d a t a . These are accompanied by an e t h n o g r a p h i c g l o s s , c o - o r d i n a t i n g n o n - v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r of the s tudents w i th the t a p e - r e c o r d e d c l a s s r o o m c o n v e r s a t i o n . F i e l d Notes A d a i l y r e c o r d of o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n i t i a l a n a l y s e s , hunches and p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s was k e p t . As the a u d i o - t a p e s were be ing t r a n s c r i b e d , a second phase of a n a l y s i s and - 61 -r e c o r d k e e p i n g o c c u r r e d . Interviews Teachers were i n t e r v i e w e d i n f o r m a l l y i n order to determine t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on the d i f f i c u l t i e s and rewards of t e a c h i n g these s t u d e n t s . The i n t e r v i e w s u j e c t s i n c l u d e d a group of f o u r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s at B r i t a n n i a S e n i o r Secondary School as w e l l as both of the o ther t e a c h e r s on s t a f f a t O u t r e a c h , one of whom d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n the s t u d y . The Outreach s tudents were g i v e n open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e s midway through the s tudy to he lp determine t h e i r language a t t i t u d e s . On one o c c a s i o n , s e c t i o n s of the t a p e - s c r i p t from the > B r i t a n n i a t e a c h e r s ' group d i s c u s s i o n was quoted to i l l u s t r a t e language a t t i t u d e . Otherwise the i n f o r m a t i o n from the i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was not used d i r e c t l y i n the s t u d y , b u t , r a t h e r , as a means of c r o s s - c h e c k i n g da ta d e r i v e d from o ther s o u r c e s . Documents Cumula t ive r e c o r d s c a r d s , a n e c d o t a l comments r e : Outreach s t a f f , s c h o o l e v a l u a t i o n s , were used wherever neces sary when broad background d e s c r i p t i o n s of s e t t i n g s and p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e q u i r e d . - 62 -3.5 DATA ANALYSIS N i n e t y hours of t a p e - r e c o r d e d c la s sroom l e s s o n s were t r a n s c r i b e d . The t r a n s c r i p t s were randomly sampled. The f i r s t ten pages were used , the next ten d i s c a r d e d , through the e n t i r e body of the d a t a . The number of c l a u s a l chunks i n every speaker t u r n were counted and r e c o r d e d . The turns were s o r t e d a long a s c a l e o f 0 to 5 and above c l a u s a l chunks . Every t u r n was coded as having p r i m a r i l y p e r s o n a l , p r i v a t e content or i m p e r s o n a l , p u b l i c c o n t e n t . The t u r n s were broken down i n terms of f u n c t i o n s : i n t e r p e r s o n a l , i n s t r u m e n t a l and t r a n s a c t i o n a l . Student t u r n s were separated from teacher t u r n s . T r a n s a c t i o n a l s tudent turns were separated from the o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s . Only t r a n s a c t i o n a l s tudent turns were used i n t h i s s t u d y . A l though i n t e r a c t i o n a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l turns f u l f i l l impor tant f u n c t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m , the focus of t h i s study was f l u e n c y d u r i n g the t r a n s m i s s i o n of l e s s o n - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . Teacher turns which immediate ly preceded a l l s tudent t r a n s a c t i o n a l t u r n s i n the 3 to 5 c l a u s a l chunk range were coded i n terms of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . A matching number of t eacher turns immediate ly p r e c e d i n g s tudent turns i n the 0 to 2 c l a u s a l chunk range were randomly s e l e c t e d from the remain ing teacher t u r n s . These were s i m i l a r l y coded i n terms of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . - 63 -I n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y t u r n s were f i r s t d i v i d e d i n t o s i x d i f f e r e n t types of s t r a t e g y : v a l i d a t i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i o n , e l a b o r a t i o n , f a c t - d e l i v e r y a n a l y s i s and o p i n i o n . A l l t eacher s t r a t e g y turns were a g a i n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o q u e s t i o n and statement mode. A l l turns i n q u e s t i o n mode were d e s i g n a t e d as open q u e s t i o n s or c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s . A s e r i e s of s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s which i n c l u d e d l e n g t h of time i n Vancouver Schoo l B o a r d , l e n g t h o f t ime on r e s e r v e , l e s s o n s u b j e c t , t e a c h e r , age, sex, and speaker i d e n t i t y were a l s o i n c l u d e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i a b l e s were t e s t e d for s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h SPSS:X us ing c h i - s q u a r e and ANOVA ( a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n t s ) . The f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s were t e s t e d : Turn l e n g t h of s tudent t r a n s a c t i o n a l turns and s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . Turn l e n g t h of s tudent t r a n s a c t i o n a l turns and p e r s o n a l and impersona l c o n t e n t . Turn l e n g t h and seven v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s i n both q u e s t i o n and statement modes used by the teacher i n the immediate environment of s p e c i f i e d s tudent t u r n s . The e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n the c o n t e x t of n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g v e r b a t i m e x c e r p t s from the t r a n s c r i p t s , through which c l a s s r o o m a t t i t u d e s and communicat ive s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be i n f e r r e d . Category Divisions Functions T r a n s a c t i o n a l - Language used p r i m a r i l y to convey f a c t u a l or p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t e n t . M e s s a g e - o r i e n t e d - 64 -language, related to the topic framework of the lesson. Interactional - Language used primarily to establish social relations. Listener-oriented, unrelated to the topic framework of the lesson. Instrumental - Language used primarily for logistics, to get a particular task done. Content Private/Personal - Language content derived from direct experience and observation. Subjective, idiosyncratic, primarily oral transmission. Public/Impersonal - Language content derived from decontextualized information and knowledge structures. Objectively generalized, primarily written transmission. Verbal Strategies Incorporation - Verbatim chunks of discourse from the previous speaker's turn embedded anywhere within the present speaker's turn. Elaboration - Added information embedded around preceding message content. Analysis - Inquiry into the components and relationships within a situation or concept. Opinion - Subjective reaction based on a variety of c r i t e r i a , rational or emotional. Validation - Positive feed-back. - 65 -F a c t - d e l i v e r y - E m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , with no r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x p r e s s e d . Rating Scale A r a t i n g s c a l e of 0 to 5 was used . The measure used was the T - u n i t . 0 = s i n g l e word or fragment 1 = s i n g l e c l a u s a l chunks 2 = 2 c l a u s a l chunks 3 = 3 c l a u s a l chunks 4 = 4 c l a u s a l chunks 5 = 5 or more c l a u s a l chunks 3.6 DATA CONTROL PROCEDURES Attempts were made to s a t i s f y concerns around v a l i d i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y i n a v a r i e t y of ways. 1. Attempts were made to a v o i d c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the s e t t i n g by m i n i m i z i n g i n t e r a c t i o n with the s tudents d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e . A l though the presence of the r e s e a r c h e r had some i n i t i a l impact , the n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g s e t t i n g o f f e r e d powerfu l b e h a v i o u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n any c a s e . 2. Attempts were made to a v o i d p e r s o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s through a " d i s c i p l i n e d s u b j e c t i v i t y " ; i n i t i a l c o n c l u s i o n s were weighed through i n t r o s p e c t i o n and c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . - 66 -The r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c r o s s - c h e c k e d wi th feedback from the s t a f f and s tudents i n the s e t t i n g . By s y s t e m a t i c a l l y seeking to unders tand a c t i o n s from the d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s of v a r i o u s groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s , the r e s e a r c h e r a v o i d s g e t t i n g caught i n any one o u t l o o k . ( W i l s o n , S tephen , 1977, p g . 253) Developmental approaches such as o u t l i n e d i n S p r a d l e y (1981) or G l a s e r and S t r a u s s (1967) , p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e i n which emerging hypotheses are c o n t i n u a l l y t e s t e d a g a i n s t the r e a l i t y of d a i l y o b s e r v a t i o n s . Attempts were made to t r i a n g u l a t e the d a t a . Data d e r i v e d from the pr imary source -coded tape s c r i p t s of c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s , t o g e t h e r wi th data from secondary s o u r c e s , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s and e t h n o g r a p h i c o b s e r v a t i o n s , was ana lysed through q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y methods. As r e l a t i o n s h i p s emerged from the d a t a , they were t e s t e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Attempts to t r i a n g u l a t e , or to b u i l d m u l t i - m e t h o d m a t r i c e s wi th q u a l i t a t i v e data o f t e n r e s u l t i n congruences which s t r e n g t h e n the v a l i d i t y of the p i c t u r e one i s d r a w i n g . When the data do not converge then one goes to more data to recheck the new d e s c r i p t i v e mode l , c o n c e p t u a l system or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (Smith & G e o f f n y , 1968) - 67 -Special Note: Observer E f f e c t The presence of the observer and the t a p e r e c o r d e r was d e f i n i t e l y n o t i c e d by the s t u d e n t s . The s t r o n g e s t r e a c t i o n s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the f i r s t month of the r e s e a r c h , r a n g i n g from "grandstanding" d u r i n g c l a s s , p l a y f u l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and r o l e p l a y s wi th the machine a f t e r c l a s s and d i r e c t i n q u i r i e s . At l e a s t f i v e d i f f e r e n t s tudents and the r e s e a r c h e r had extended c o n v e r s a t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g k i n d . These s tudents p r o b a b l y communicated the i n f o r m a t i o n which they r e c e i v e d to o t h e r s . E r n e s t : "Are you r e c o r d i n g us C a r o l ? " C a r o l : "Hmmm" E r n e s t : "Are you?" C a r o l : "Mmmm" (more e m p h a t i c a l l y ) F r a n k : "Are you r e c o r d i n g e v e r y t h i n g we s a i d ? " C a r o l : "I'm going to b l a c k m a i l C a l d i c o t t f o r what he s a i d when Ms. Teacher was out of the room. . . . T e l l him $5 .00 ." ( l a u g h t e r ) F r a n k : "Give me $5.00 and I won't r e l e a s e II . . . C a r o l : "Yeah I ho ld the c o p y r i g h t . " In the p r e c e d i n g excerpt the r e s e a r c h e r attempted to defuse the importance of the t a p e r e c o r d e r through humor. At t imes the s tudents were a l lowed to experiment wi th p l a y i n g i t back and h e a r i n g t h e i r own v o i c e s f o r the same r e a s o n . In the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t the r e s e a r c h e r t r i e s to s a t i s f y a - 68 -s t u d e n t ' s c u r i o s i t y as c l e a r l y and h o n e s t l y as p o s s i b l e . The s tudent s appeared to l o s e i n t e r e s t f a i r l y q u i c k l y once t h e i r q u e s t i o n s were answered. Dawna: "How come y o u ' r e t a k i n g notes?" C a r o l : "Because I'm watching how S t a r l a t e a c h e s . I'm watching the t h i n g s that work w i t h you guys , when she can make you unders tand something and when i t d o e s n ' t work. I'm t r y i n g to see the d i f f e r e n c e . " Dawna: "So you are t e a c h i n g l a t e r on?" C a r o l : "Oh yeah I t e a c h Thursday and F r i d a y . The reason I'm doing t h i s i s f o r a u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e . " Dawna: "So t h e y ' l l l i s t e n to i t . " C a r o l : "No, j u s t me . . . and then I ' l l look at i t l a t e r . I look at the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n i t . When she ' s b o r i n g , or when she says something that makes sense and you guys get i n t o i t . " Dawna: "Oh yeah ." ( s i g n a l s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) At one p o i n t , w i t h i n the f i r s t month of r e s e a r c h , the o t h e r t eacher expressed concern that the r e s e a r c h e r ' s presence was c a u s i n g i n c r e a s e d d i s r u p t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m . She reques ted a c e i l i n g on the number of v i s i t s . T h i s s tatement was c r o s s - c h e c k e d among a number of s tudents and another t e a c h e r . They were unanimous i n say ing that they u s u a l l y f o r g o t a l l about the t a p e r e c o r d e r , or tha t they d i d n ' t c a r e . The r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n was tha t the n o v e l t y o f her presence wore o f f r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y . S i n c e she had - 69 -"seen i t a l l " a l r e a d y , she was a s i n g u l a r l y u n i m p r e s s i o n a b l e and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y audience f o r them. The n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g s e t t i n g — t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s wi th each o ther and the t e a c h e r , and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to t h e i r c l a s s r o o m ass ignments appeared to have the s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . - 70 -CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH 4.1 INTRODUCTION AND OVER-VIEW A s e r i e s of t r a n s c r i p t s of n i n e t y hours of c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s over a three and a h a l f month time p e r i o d formed the o r i g i n a l body of the d a t a . 1249 turns were c a t e g o r i z e d , coded and a n a l y s e d . They were broken down i n d e s c r i p t i v e terms i n the ways i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . The d a t a were ana lyzed i n terms of f o u r p r e v i o u s l y mentioned h y p o t h e s e s . 4.2 HYPOTHESIS 1 Students w i l l take s i g n i f i c a n t l y more shor t turns than long ones . R e s u l t s The m a j o r i t y (88%) of s tudents turns were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the 0-1-2 r a n g e . 4.2.1 Discussion The O u t r e a c h s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r r e d t u r n l e n g t h when us ing t r a n s a c t i o n a l speech was between 0 to 2 c l a u s a l chunks . 88% of t h e i r speech was w i t h i n t h i s range . There i s a marked g e n e r a l tendency toward b r e v i t y and economy of e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t s . - 71 -T a b l e II C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of T o t a l Number o f Turns by F u n c t i o n COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT FUNCTION INTERPER TRANSACT INSTRUME SONAL LENGTH 1| IONAL 2 | NTAL WORD OR FRAGMENT 1 ONE CLAUSAL CHUN TWO CLAUSAL CHUN THREE CLAUSAL CH FOUR CLAUSAL CHU F IVE OR MORE CHU COLUMN TOTAL 60 135 9 29 . 4 6 6 . 2 4 . 4 18 .7 15.1 23 . 1 4 . 8 10.8 . 7 190 353 21 3 3 . 7 6 2 . 6 3 .7 59 . 2 39 . 5 53 . 8 15.2 2 8 . 2 1 . 7 41 167 5 19 . 2 78 . 4 2 . 3 12.8 18 . 7 12.8 3 . 3 13 .3 .4 23 92 2 19 .7 7 8 . 6 1 . 7 7 .2 10. 3 5 . 1 1 .8 7 . 3 . 2 4 53 1 6 . 9 9 1 . 4 1 . 7 1 .2 5 . 9 2 . 6 . 3 4 . 2 . 1 3 93 1 3 . 1 9 5 . 9 1 .0 .9 10.4 2 . 6 . 2 7 .4 . 1 + j 321 893 39 2 5 . 6 7 1 . 3 3 . 1 3 | + ROW TOTAL 204 16 . 3 564 4 5 . 0 213 17 .0 1 17 9 . 3 58 4 . 6 97 7 . 7 1253 100.0 CHI -SOUARE D. F . S IGNIFICANCE MIN E . F . CELLS WITH E . F . < 5 7 2 . 9 0 6 7 7 10 0 . 0 0 0 0 1 .805 3 OF 18 ( 16.7%) - 72 -T a b l e I I I C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of Student and Teacher T u r n L e n g t h COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT LENGTH SPEAKER STUDENT TEACHER 1| 2 | - + ROW TOTAL WORD OR FRAGMENT 1 ONE CLAUSAL CHUN TWO CLAUSAL CHUN THREE CLAUSAL CH 161 7 8 . 9 2 2 . 4 12 .9 43 21.1 8.1 3 .4 371 6 6 . 0 51 .5 2 9 . 7 + + 103 4 8 . 8 14 .3 8 . 2 191 3 4 . 0 36 . 1 15 .3 108 5 1 . 2 2 0 . 4 8 . 6 44 3 7 . 6 6 . 1 3 . 5 73 6 2 . 4 13.8 5 .8 204 16.3 562 4 5 . 0 211 16 .9 117 9 . 4 4 20 38 58 FOUR CLAUSAL CHU 3 4 . 5 6 5 . 5 4 . 6 2 . 8 7 .2 1 .6 3 . 0 +. + + 5 21 76 97 F IVE OR MORE CHU 21 .6 7 8 . 4 7 .8 2 . 9 14.4 1 . 7 6.1 + + + COLUMN 720 529 1249 TOTAL 5 7 . 6 4 2 . 4 100 .0 CHI -SQUARE D . F . S IGNIFICANCE MIN E . F . C E L L S WITH E . F . < 5 144 .14726 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 4 . 5 6 5 NONE - 73 -F i g u r e 1 Bar Graph Comparing T u r n L e n g t h of S tudents and T e a c h e r s Ix 0-clautf, \-dm& adousb tfdau& s-c/ac/sl sr T ST T ST. T. Sr. T- ST T- Sfr T» (to* 95V %St r 75* \ 70>. (&'. \ icy. •• 5$>. -SO", f So/. /5> /0>. - 74 -S i x s tudents remained t o t a l l y s i l e n t d u r i n g l e s sons for p e r i o d s of time r a n g i n g from three weeks to s e v e r a l months. These r e s u l t s are not s u r p r i s i n g from one p e r s p e c t i v e . The d i s c o u r s e system of the t r a d i t i o n a l c h a l k and t a l k c l a s s r o o m has been shown throughout the l i t e r a t u r e to f u n c t i o n as a k i n d of r e d u c i n g v a l v e on s tudent o u t p u t . O b s e r v a t i o n of t u r n l e n g t h i n mainstream s tudents shows f o r e s h o r t e n e d e f f e c t s w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t s ( S t u b b s , 1976) . There i s no s p e c i f i c e m p i r i c a l da ta a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e on mean t u r n l e n g t h f o r mainstream s tudents d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s . S ince no b a s i s f o r comparison e x i s t s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to c l a i m that the speech of o u t r e a c h s tudents i s u n u s u a l l y t a c i t u r n ; however the p o i n t i s s t i l l worth d i s c u s s i o n . S u s t a i n e d coherent d i s c o u r s e i s a v a l u a b l e medium through which s tudents can l e a r n to deve lop t h e i r ideas ( B a r n e s , B r i t t o n , Rosen) . However, when s tudent t a l k i s l i m i t e d to u t t e r a n c e s of 2 c l a u s a l chunks 88% o f the t ime , i n d i c a t i o n s are tha t the s tudents are not e l a b o r a t i n g t h e i r i d e a s e x t e n s i v e l y . In f a c t , s tudent responses which s t a r t e d and s topped , or went nowhere, were d i s c o u r a g i n g l y common. The s c h o o l has t r i e d to o p t i m i z e s tudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n through v a r i o u s m o d i f i c a t i o n s : s m a l l c l a s s s i z e , s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a , warm p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s and - 75 -s t u d e n t s and i n f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m tone . However, the e f f e c t of c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s of language use and hidden s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e may not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y a d d r e s s e d . G i l l i a n Brown (1983) i m p l i e s that the a b i l i t y of s tudents to produce long t u r n s i s based on the environment of the home and speech community. The a b i l i t y to c o n s t r u c t such long turns appears to vary wi th i n d i v i d u a l s , i n p a r t , no doubt , depending on the o p p o r t u n i t y they have had to produce long turns which o ther people bother to l i s t e n t o . . . . I t i s an a b i l i t y which appears to need adequate models , adequate p r a c t i s e and f eedback . N a t i v e speech communit ies i n f l u e n c e d by t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s around t a c i t u r n i t y and v e r b a l performance may have l i m i t e d c o n t e x t s f o r t h i s k i n d of language p r a c t i s e ( P h i l i p s 1972) . T h i s p r o v o c a t i v e , but v e r y complex, q u e s t i o n i s beyond the scope of t h i s r e s e a r c h . E v i d e n c e of s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e does appear i n the d a t a . I t appears i n the form of n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g u n s o l i c i t e d d i s c o u r s e from which u n d e r l y i n g language a t t i t u d e s can be i n f e r r e d . S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e seems to occur around d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward language volume and p a r t i c u l a r aspec t s of the d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e such as t e s t q u e s t i o n s and t o p i c c o n t r o l . The s t u d e n t ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r own - 76 -language of n o n - s t a n d a r d forms may a l s o i n h i b i t them. 4.2.2 S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Attitudes of Outreach Students Attitude Toward Language Volume The a r r a y of l a r g e numbers of short turns wi th r e l a t i v e l y few long ones c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n p a r t because of a s tudent p r e f e r e n c e f o r a more a b b r e v i a t e d d i s c o u r s e s t y l e . Outreach t e a c h e r s o f t e n made demands>which appeared to c o n t r a d i c t these N a t i v e s t u d e n t s ' gut r e a c t i o n as to how much t a l k was a p p r o p r i a t e to a c c o m p l i s h h i s / h e r communicat ive i n t e n t . Perhaps there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the amount of t a l k N a t i v e people f e e l i s a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n t h e i r home and community i n t e r a c t i o n , and the amount o f t a l k which i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n . C e r t a i n l y one r e c u r r e n t theme throughout the da ta has been a n e g a t i v e s tudent a t t i t u d e toward language volume. At t imes Outreach s tudents f e e l that t h e i r whi te t e a c h e r s are end le s s t a l k e r s who have a p e r v e r s e , i n e x p l i c a b l e a p p e t i t e f o r more and more words . C o n t e x t : Student i n t e r v i e w of another s tudent for c l a s s newspaper. - 77 -S tudent : What do you t h i n k of our E n g l i s h t e a c h e r ? S tudent : W e l l , she i s a l l r i g h t . But she t a l k s too much when I'm doing my homework. I mean my work d u r i n g s c h o o l . When I get halfway through i t and she s t a r t s y a k - i n g about the q u e s t i o n s . (She 's a l l r i g h t t h o u g h . ) C o n t e x t : S t u d e n t / t e a c h e r conference about missed a s s ignments . S tudent : C a n ' t you g i v e me a t e s t on something I d i d , l i k e wars . T e a c h e r : E x p l a i n s tha t the notes are very b r i e f , t h a t the o ther teacher d i d n ' t do much i n c l a s s on m u l t i c u l t u r i s m . S tudent : She t a l k s t o o . She has a b i g mouth. She p r o b a b l y t a l k e d for h a l f an hour . She w r i t e s a l o t t o o . C o n t e x t : Teacher s t a r t i n g to c l e a r o f f the board to w r i t e out t e s t q u e s t i o n s f o r human s e x u a l i t y c l a s s . The s tudent appears to take t h i s as a cue that i t w i l l be a s t a n d a r d c h a l k and t a l k c l a s s . S t udent : Is i s go ing to be t a l k i n g ? I hate t a l k i n g . The s t u d e n t ' s s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g v e r b a l o v e r l o a d v a r y . At t imes they p o l i t e l y opt o u t . C o n t e x t : Group d i s c u s s i o n of N a t i v e p o l i t i c s . T e a c h e r : Okay l e t me ask you . Do you t h i n k you can have both? Can you have both I n d i a n government and a l s o have N a t i v e people i n the f e d e r a l government. What do you t h i n k ? - 78 -Student : Some one e l s e t a l k s . I'm g e t t i n g t i r e d . More common are bouts of n e g a t i v e behav iour in which they i n t e r r u p t , swear, t e l l j o k e s , r i d i c u l e " o f f - t o p i c " or r e t r e a t i n t o s i l e n c e . They are a l s o r e s i s t a n t to the t e a c h e r ' s coax ing f o r more deve loped e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r i d e a s . Context : Teacher: Student: Teacher: Other Student Student S t u d e n t - t e a c h e r conference on m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m take-home exam. Teacher at tempts to show them how to deve lop i d e a s through example. Okay what makes Chinese d i f f e r e n t ? They wear f l o o d s , s h o r t p a n t s . Come o n , t h a t ' s good, t h a t ' s r e a l a n t h r o p o l o g y , r e c o r d i n g what you o b s e r v e . But h e ' l l t e l l the whole t e s t . FUCK, ( s a d l y , w i s e l y ) T h a t ' s what they want Context S tudent : Other Student Teacher has reques ted the s tudents to e x p l a i n how to smoke salmon. You g o t t a get a b i g s t i c k . Then some k i n d of s t i c k to go t h r o u g h , so i t ho lds the f i s h . And you get to b u i l d a b i g f i r e . ( d i s p a r a g i n g l y ) Y o u ' r e t e l l i n g a l l the d e t a i l s ! How come y o u ' r e doing t h a t ? At o ther t imes they r e a l l y do not know what i s expected of them, at l e a s t i n i t i a l l y . - 79 -C o n t e x t : T e a c h e r - l e d s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n of a poem about j a i l "Behind B a r s . " C a r o l : " T a l k about t h i n g s tha t to you sound k i n d of i n t e r e s t i n g . " V e r n : "What's there to t a l k about . . . j a i l , man." R i c h a r d : " W e l l , somebody." V e r n : "What's there to t a l k about C a r o l ? Hey? Nancy: "You mean you've got to t a l k about what you t h i n k about?" C a r o l : "Yeah, you 've got to t a l k about what you t h i n k about ." Attitude Toward Test Questions The O u t r e a c h t e a c h e r s , l i k e the m a j o r i t y of c l a s s - r o o m t e a c h e r s every where, r e l i e d on t e s t q u e s t i o n s to s t r u c t u r e c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e . T h e i r l e s s o n s o f t e n adhered to the s tandard p e d a g o g i c a l form i n which s tudents are expected to i n f e r the t e a c h e r ' s d i r e c t i o n and "get the r i g h t answer." Stubbs (1976) d e s c r i b e s the almost c o e r c i v e q u a l i t y of t h i s d i s c o u r s e s t r a t e g y . C las sroom knowledge c o n s i s t s of s h o r t answers which can be i n d i v i d u a l l y e v a l u a t e d . C las sroom knowledge i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l l y c l o s e d , not open-ended. A l l q u e s t i o n s have c o r r e c t answers . T e a c h e r - p u p i l t a l k i s e s s e n t i a l l y a monologue w i t h the p u p i l s s u p p l y i n g s h o r t answers on demand to c o n t r i b u t e to the t e a c h e r ' s t r a i n of t h o u g h t . - 80 -Outreach t e a c h e r s used i n q u i r y methodology with s t rong frames "to he lp s tudents t h i n k . " A s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s was o f t e n used as s c a f f o l d i n g to t h i n k and t a l k t h e i r way through the c o n s t i t u e n t s of a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t . A l o n g s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s and c h a l l e n g e s may have worked w e l l f o r S o c r a t e s ; Outreach s t u d e n t s , however, d i d not i n t e r p r e t t h i s methodology as a c o l l e c t i v e s earch for knowledge. They f e l t themselves f o r c e d i n t o a performance s i t u a t i o n wi th a hidden agenda. On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , they were a s t o n i s h i n g l y p e r c e p t i v e . Context: Lesson on Feudalism Teacher : "Where d i d they get t h e i r money?" S t e v i e : "I wasn't l i s t e n i n g . " Teacher : "The merchant c l a s s gave t h e i r money to the k i n g . " S t e v i e : "You're go ing to get an A i n your own t e s t . " Context: Student asks teacher for help with map. Donny: "What i s t h a t ? " Teacher : " T h i s i s E u r o p e . " Donny: "I knew t h a t , I was j u s t t e s t i n g y o u . " Context: Teacher asks student question during humanities c l a s s . - 81 -T e a c h e r : "Where i s the A t l a n t i c Ocean?" E r n e s t : " Y o u ' r e r i g h t , y o u ' r e r i g h t , y o u ' r e r i g h t . T e a c h e r : " . . . between which c o n t i n e n t s ? " E r n e s t : "You 're r i g h t , y o u ' r e r i g h t , y o u ' r e r i g h t ! " Context: Teacher trying to demonstrate the reason Japan i s such a good market for Canadian f i s h . T e a c h e r : (wi th map) "Here i s Canada . . . how many times b i g g e r i s Canada than Japan?" W i l l y : "Oh, may be 20 t i m e s . " T e a c h e r : "I would say more than t h a t . " W i l l y : "I s a i d 20 t i m e s . " T e a c h e r : "But l o o k , i f you t r y and f i t Japan i n t o Canada, y o u ' r e p r o b a b l y going to f i t i t i n around 50 t i m e s . Now [ W i l l y t r i e s to say something] who knows how many people we have i n Canada?" W i l l y : " T e l l u s . T e l l us [ r e s e n t f u l l y ] . Test q u e s t i o n v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s are i n e v i t a b l y accompanied by " s p o t - l i g h t i n g " i n d i v i d u a l s tudents and demanding an answer. I n d i v i d u a l Outreach s tudents f e l t t h i s as a r e a l i n v a s i o n of p r i v a c y . T h e i r r e a c t i o n p a r a l l e l s a g e n e r a l tendency among N a t i v e s tudents which i s wel l -documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Context: The incident began when one of the 2 classroom teachers described her problem with a p a r t i c u l a r student. "She d o e s n ' t l i k e the academic p r e s e n t a t i o n . " - 82 -The second t e a c h e r had a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the g i r l . She t a l k e d w i t h her a f t e r s c h o o l . She t r i e d t o probe her d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the o t h e r t e a c h e r v i a a v a r i e t y of f e e l e r s , i . e . , are t h e r e mannerisms you don't l i k e , do you have to work too h a r d , does she remind you of someone e l s e ? F i n a l l y the g i r l b u r s t o u t . " I don't l i k e h e r . She i s always p u t t i n g me on the s p o t . " The f o l l o w i n g d a t a i l l u s t r a t e s the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of " s p o t l i g h t i n g . " The t e a c h e r i s i n t e n t on a v a l u a b l e o b j e c t i v e , h e l p i n g a s t u d e n t d e f i n e her i d e n t i t y , but the t e a c h e r ' s d i s c o u r s e r e f l e x e s have l e d her to s p o t l i g h t a t t e n t i o n on t h i s s t u d e n t and cause her extreme d i s c o m f o r t . "What about you, how would you d e f i n e an I n d i a n ? Who i s an I n d i a n ? " Nora: umm (no w a i t - t i m e ) Teacher: "What makes you I n d i a n ? " Nora: "I'm brown." Teacher: "Oh, you're b r o w n — h e y come o n — a l o t of pe o p l e are brown . . . and t h e y ' r e not I n d i a n s . " Nora: U n i n t e l l i g i b l e . Teacher: "No, your i d e n t i t y i s t h a t you're I n d i a n . What makes you f e e l t h a t ? " Another Stu d e n t : "The way people t r e a t you." Teacher: "Do people t r e a t you I n d i a n ? Do p e o p l e c a l l you I n d i a n ? " - 83 -N o r a : " . . . they c a l l me a squaw . . . ( i n a low v o i c e ) . I d o n ' t know what y o u ' r e t a l k i n g about . . . " T e a c h e r : " T h a t ' s j u s t who you a r e . ( L a u g h s . ) N o r a : (annoyed) "I d o n ' t know. I d o n ' t know what y o u ' r e t a l k i n g about . . . " Attitude Toward Non-Standard Forms Both t e a c h e r s were l i n g u i s t i c a l l y w e l l - i n f o r m e d , and s u p p o r t i v e o f the s tudents us ing s t y l i s t i c or d i a l e c t a l v a r i a n t s i n t h e i r speech . Both were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r emphasis on t a l k i n g as a t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s , r a t h e r than on the c o r r e c t i o n of s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e " i m p e r f e c t i o n s . " There were t imes when they a c t u a l l y t r i e d " m e t a l i n g u i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g . " Context: Class discussion on metis d i a l e c t in Margaret Laurence "The Diviners." [Lena reads the s t o r y ] C l a s s enjoys i t . . . laughs t h r o u g h . T e a c h e r : "Makes a good s t o r y , makes a good s t o r y . " L y d i a : "The E n g l i s h , my G o d . " T e a c h e r : "What do you t h i n k of the E n g l i s h ? " L y d i a : "Not v e r y good!" Teacher : "What makes i t not very good?" D " . . . me, and he 's . . . " L y d i a : "He's got an a c c e n t , or something . . . " Teacher : "Yes um um. Do you t h i n k he gets h i s p o i n t a c r o s s wi th that E n g l i s h ? " ? "Yes ." - 84 -? "He t e l l s a good s t o r y anyhow." Cr.: Did he keep your i n t e r e s t there?" Lena: "Yeah." ? "Yeah." Cr.: "Then what makes i t bad E n g l i s h ? " Lena: " I t ' s not that bad . . . at l e a s t i t s not l i k e some s t o r i e s with these b i g words that scare the h e l l out of a person. He d i d n ' t use h a r d l y any . . ." Cr.: "No he d i d n ' t . . . and can you guys see that a l l h i s ideas that he wanted to get through, he got through . . . i t ' s not necessary to use a l l those b i g words . . . and complicated sentences. Ideas are ideas . . . and they're e i t h e r . . . e i t h e r they have v a l u e , or they don't." However, some students, were s t r o n g l y ambivalent about non-standard forms. During the course of t h e i r s c h o o l i n g , they could e a s i l y have developed i n h i b i t i o n s over t h e i r speaking s k i l l s . The f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the kind of l i n g u i s t i c i n f e r i o r i t y complex which could s i l e n c e a student i n a classroom of standard speakers with a judgemental teacher. Context: Dictation of a s p e l l i n g l i s t , including words HAM SANDWICH. Teacher: "Ham sandwich." L y d i a : " . . . what do you mean?" [L y d i a r e f u s e s to say more. Then the teacher over hears L y d i a and Donna.] L y d i a : "How do they t a l k . . . do they t a l k l i k e A l b i n a and them t a l k ? " - 85 -T e a c h e r : [ i n t e r j e c t s ] "What do you mean, how do they t a l k i n A l e r t Bay ." L y d i a : " I d o n ' t know." Donna: "You know. They say soes ( s h o e s ) , soer (shower) k i t s e n ( k i t c h e n ) . " C a l d : "They t a l k Ind ian t a l k . " L y d i a : "Someone has to c o r r e c t them, or t h e y ' l l keep t a l k i n g l i k e t h a t . Attitude Toward Formal Register Formal r e g i s t e r i s another n o n - i s s u e from the Outreach t e a c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e ; both t e a c h e r s in t h i s study are committed to a s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d meaning emphasis approach which makes the a t ta inment of formal r e g i s t e r a r a t h e r remote and i r r e l e v a n t o b j e c t i v e . The t e a c h e r s e s t a b l i s h e d an i n f o r m a l l i n g u i s t i c atmosphere through a group of s imple s t r a t e g i e s such as d r o p p i n g t h e i r own r e g i s t e r , i g n o r i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e language whenever p o s s i b l e , and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of s tudent f o l k terms i n t o t h e i r own speech . At t imes they o v e r t l y d e m y s t i f i e d formal r e g i s t e r f o r the s tudent s or s a n c t i o n e d the use of " i m p o l i t e " language . Context: Classroom lesson on bones. Students discussing doctors' v i s i t s for broken bones. T e a c h e r : "Doctors are funny—they d o n ' t know how to put t h e i r d i a g n o s i s i n s t r e e t language . They h ide behind t h e i r b i g words ." - 86 -Student: "He used this big long word when he was talking about my nose." Student: You have to say, "Say i t in English." Context: Lesson on the reproductive system. Teacher: When you don't know the s c i e n t i f i c terms, you can use back-alley terms to describe them. Their own speech was studded with colloquialisms "you guys" "You'll just be a hassle" "spaced out" "that's a t o t a l drag" "she's a party-er" On occasion, the teachers adopted the vernacular of their students: "I know a l o t of you are pissed off because the White people came here." "She thought, 'Oh what an ugly guy, Yuk! Its kind of a neat story.'" They sometimes validated student "folk terms" by incorporating them into their own response. Context: Student discussion about the queen's v i s i t . Teacher: Okay, we'll talk about that right now. A l o t of people do want to see the Queen." Lydia: "Why do they l i k e her?" Caldi: "'Cause a l l the honkies l i k e ' e r out there.'" Teacher: "Not a l l the honkies . . . _I don't l i k e her." Context: Lydia i s reading her answer out loud. Lydia: "Father Andre t e l l Dumont that he i s hankering a f t e r . " - 87 -E r n e s t l a u g h s . Teacher : He's hanker ing a f t e r . . . The data on s tudent a t t i t u d e toward formal r e g i s t e r p o i n t s i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s . They seem to be aware of the d i f f e r e n c e between formal r e g i s t e r , which they v a r i o u s l y term "big words ," "proper E n g l i s h , " " M i l l i o n d o l l a r words", and i n f o r m a l r e g i s t e r which they c a l l "slang" or "the way I t a l k . " When the s tudents f e l t r e l a x e d and unthreatened they would s imply ask f o r he lp when c o n f r o n t e d wi th u n f a m i l i a r t erms . They sometimes i n c o r p o r a t e d new words by p l a y i n g wi th them i n a w o n d e r f u l l y c r e a t i v e way. E r n e s t : "What c l a s s i s t h i s ? " N o r a : " H u m a n i t i e s . " E r n e s t : "You mean, inhuman?" Donna: " E r n e s t , what 's t h i s p a r t ? " E r n e s t : " B i c e p s . " Donna: " T r i c e p s . " C a l d i : " T h a t ' s your c o n c e p t s ! " At o ther t i m e s , formal r e g i s t e r had the p o t e n t i a l to i n t i m i d a t e them. L y d i a r e f e r r e d to "big words which jump out of the page and scare the h e l l out of y o u . " Nora asked f o r a t r a n s f e r from one group to another because two or - 88 -t h r e e f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d s tudents were u s i n g "big words" which she d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d . Data from student i n t e r v i e w s showed that many s tudents had f e l t c o m p l e t e l y i n h i b i t e d i n r e g u l a r h igh s c h o o l when the t e a c h e r ' s c la s sroom d e l i v e r y went over t h e i r heads . A l t h o u g h the s tudents should have had l i t t l e reason to f e e l i n h i b i t e d d u r i n g Outreach c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s , t h e i r own p r o b l e m a t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n toward formal r e g i s t e r c o u l d have a f f e c t e d t h e i r output i n two ways. They c o u l d s t i l l be e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e s i d u a l " c a r r y - o v e r " e f f e c t from n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s i n the mains tream. Some s tudents have deve loped such l i n g u i s t i c i n f e r i o r i t y complexes they are h e s i t a n t to use t h e i r common sense or n a t u r a l language to answer c la s sroom q u e s t i o n s . They have l e a r n e d to d i s t r u s t t h e i r own language competencies and t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r to say n o t h i n g r a t h e r than r i s k be ing misunders tood a g a i n . A common say ing among Outreach s tudents i s "I know i t , but I c a n ' t say i t . " In o ther words, the c o m p l e x i t y or s u b t l e t y of t h e i r thought r e q u i r e s language which i s u n f a m i l i a r to them. Sometimes O u t r e a c h s tudents have been a b l e to c o r r e l a t e formal r e g i s t e r w i t h t h e i r own id iom i n unique and wonderfu l ways. - 89 -Context: Lesson on the c i r c u l a t o r y system. D o n n y : "What a r e c a p i l l a r i e s ? " T e a c h e r : " A n e t w o r k o f t i n y b l o o d v e s s e l s t h a t t r a n s p o r t n u t r i e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e b o d y . ' D o n n a : " Y o u mean y o u r f r i e s go t o y o u r r i g h t t o e . " Context: T e a c h e r : L e a h Teacher d i s c u s s i n g flashback technique w i t h students i n "The Ecstacy of R i t a Joe." " Y o u s e e , t h e r e a r e t i m e s when R i t a i s o v e r c o m e w i t h s u b c o n s c i o u s r e v e r s u s , e v e n on t h e w i t n e s s s t a n d . A l l o f a s u d d e n , s h e ' s n o t i n c o u r t . S h e ' s b a c k home on t h e r e s e r v e , p i c k i n g b l u e b e r r i e s . " " O h ! Y o u mean h e r b o t t o m t h o u g h t s a r e c o n t r o l l i n g h e r ! " U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e a r e o c c a s i o n s when new m e a n i n g s and v o c a b u l a r y a r e s o d i v e r g e n t f r o m t h e i r e v e r y d a y l a n g u a g e and i n f o r m a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s t h a t t h e y s t o p f u n c t i o n i n g as l e a r n e r s . Mass m e d i a i n p u t — C B C r a d i o p a n e l s h o w s , N . F . B . s o u n d t r a c k s , t h e e d i t o r i a l p a g e o f t h e S u n , s t a n d a r d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e x t s — a l l c r e a t e m i n i m u m p a r t i c i p a t i o n s i t u a t i o n s b e c a u s e f o r m a l r e g i s t e r i s n o t c o n t r o l l e d . A t t i t u d e Toward Topic C o n t r o l T o p i c c o n t r o l , when n o t managed s k i l l f u l l y , i s a p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n . - 90 -L e s s o n s , u n l i k e c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s , are g o a l d i r e c t e d and expected to have themat ic c o h e s i o n . Outreach t e a c h e r s p r e f e r s tudents to s tay w e l l w i t h i n t o p i c b o u n d a r i e s . Context: Two teachers discussing a taped lesson on Native p o l i t i c s . Teacher 1 "The tape was very r i c h . " Teacher 2 "Yeah, but they r e a l l y went t h e i r own way. They j u s t kept t a l k i n g about what t h e y . . . . They wander i n and o u t . . I n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s p a r t i a l l y ach i eve t h e i r much t i g h t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n through t o p i c c o n t r o l r e s t i n g w i t h the t e a c h e r . N a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s have a much l o o s e r s t r u c t u r e , and the speakers a l l n e g o t i a t e the change of t o p i c over the course of the c o n v e r s a t i o n . The t e a c h e r , as c l a s s r o o m c h a i r p e r s o n , c o n t r o l s the agenda. He/she m a i n t a i n s c o n t r o l over the t o p i c and w i l l r e j e c t as i n t r u s i o n s , c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e n t r i e s which attempt to change the s u b j e c t . Context: Teacher i l l u s t r a t i n g the concept of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n through the example of dental care. Teacher : "They f r e e z e i t , and they have machinery t h a t does i t . " W i l l y : "They j u s t p u l l e d i t o u t . " T e a c h e r : " W e l l , d o n ' t they u s u a l l y f r e e z e i t f i r s t ? " W i l l y : "Yeah . . . ooh i t ' s g r o s s , I was watching a d e n t i s t do t h a t . " - 91 -T e a c h e r : "Yeah, W i l l y , y o u ' r e p r e t t y good at g e t t i n g o f f the t r a c k here . . . l e t ' s get back h e r e . W i l l y : M u t t e r s a n g r i l y . One problem which appeared thoughout the data concerns the d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s which s tudents and t e a c h e r s had about what c o n s t i t u t e d " o n - t o p i c " i n p u t . The nexus between the s t u d e n t s ' meaning schema and the t e a c h e r ' s c o u l d be q u i t e t enuous . What was " o n - t o p i c " to them was not " o n - t o p i c " to the t e a c h e r . Sometimes the t e a c h e r ' s s t r u g g l e to connect s tudent i n p u t w i th the l e s s o n c o u l d assume a Rube G o l d b e r g q u a l i t y . Context: Teacher i s trying to explain the reasons f o r s e l f m u t i l a t i o n during the Sundance. Lee: "A guy would have to be on a c i d . " T e a c h e r : "And . . . i n a way, you know i t i s . " Boys laugh - C a r o l laughs "You know when people e x p e r i e n c e a l o t of p a i n l i k e that i t changes t h e i r minds a r o u n d . People through a l l h i s t o r y have done t h i s . . . changed t h e i r minds a r o u n d . They see v i s i o n s . " But you know t h a t ' s what White people used to do, l i k e the monks they used to have whips and they used to whip t h e m s e l v e s . They used to f l a g e l l a t e themse lves , h i t themselves w i th w h i p s . Lee : (mimics) "No good! No good!" T e a c h e r : ( laughs ) " T h a t ' s s o r t of the way i t was. They were p u n i s h i n g themselves for t h e i r s i n s but sometimes the p h y s i c a l s t r e s s would a f f e c t t h e i r minds and they would see v i s i o n s . " - 92 -Both t e a c h e r s were f o r c e d on many o c c a s i o n s to cut o f f s tudent c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n order to f u r t h e r coherence and l o g i c a l development . The s tudents appeared to re sent the t e a c h e r s ' a g g r e s s i v e d i s c o u r s e t a c t i c s . T h e i r resentment was expressed through a whole c a t a l o g u e of d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o u r s : s w e a r i n g , smoking, n o t e - p a s s i n g , l e a v i n g the room, a s k i n g the t i m e . The s tudent s r a r e l y use long t r a n s a c t i o n a l t u r n s on these o c c a s i o n s . Teacher: F r a n k : Teacher Frank: Teacher F r a n k : Teacher F r a n k : C a : 7 "Do you know what a h e r e t i c i s ? " "A what?" "A h e r e t i c . . . i t s somebody who goes a g a i n s t God . . . and the p r i e s t t h i n k s L o u i s R i e l i s go ing a g a i n s t God . . . why does he t h i n k t h a t ? " "Cause he ' s g o i n ' to war . . . he ' s not go ing a g a i n s t God . . . you know t h a t 1 s a s i n down eas t? T r y i n g to work on Sunday." "Yeah . . . ?" " T h a t ' s one of the b i g g e s t s i n s . " "What about L o u i s R i e l - he t h i n k s God i s t e l l i n g him to go to war—why does he t h i n k t h i s ? " "I dunno." "In h i s dreams . . . " "Preachers work on Sundays ." F r a n k : "But t h a t ' s not f o r money . . . remember L y d i a , we were t a l k i n g about t h a t ? " - 93 -T e a c h e r : "I'm a s k i n g you why L o u i s R i e l t h i n k s he ' s do ing what God wants him to . . . " ( g u i d i n g back to t o p i c ) L i : "Because he hears a v o i c e . . . " La " F r e d " Ca: " F r e d , g i v e i t to h e r . " F r e d : " T h a t ' s a d i r t y note I should have read i t . " L i : "See I'm l i s t e n i n g . " F r a n k : " F u c k . " E r i c : " T h a t ' s p r e t t y neat eh ." T e a c h e r : "I guess we can f i n i s h . . . " D "Well I wanna read" E r i c : "What time i s i t , C a r o l ? " Attitude Toward Topic Content The neces sary focus of the s c h o o l upon a range of t o p i c s l i m i t e d by government c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s as w e l l as the demand f o r an impersona l and g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n toward knowledge would appear to a l i e n a t e Outreach s tudents and d i s c o u r a g e c l a s s r o o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n of t o p i c content to t u r n l e n g t h w i l l be d e a l t w i th e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the f o l l o w i n g two hypothese s . - 94 -4.3 HYPOTHESIS 2 and 3 The m a j o r i t y of s h o r t t u r n s w i l l have p r e d o m i n a n t l y p u b l i c c o n t e n t . The m a j o r i t y of long turns w i l l have p r e d o m i n a n t l y p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t . Results The f i n d i n g s of the study show that content of s h o r t t u r n s i s much more o f t e n i m p e r s o n a l ; whereas the content of long t u r n s i s much more o f t e n p e r s o n a l ( c h i square = 291.14, DF = 10, s i g n i f i c a n c e = . 0012) . 4.3.1 Attitudes Towards Public and Private Content The s c h o o l system and Outreach s tudents ho ld wide ly d i v e r g e n t a t t i t u d e s toward the v a l u e of p e r s o n a l content i n c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from a group d i s c u s s i o n done w i t h c la s sroom t e a c h e r s at B r i t a n n i a Secondary S c h o o l , O u t r e a c h ' s parent s c h o o l , i s i l l u m i n a t i n g . These t eachers were d i s c u s s i n g the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of N a t i v e s tudents as they saw them. One p e r c e p t i o n they had concerned the r e l u c t a n c e o f N a t i v e s t u d e n t s to assume the r o l e of the detached o b s e r v e r . - 95 -F i g u r e 2 Bar Graph Comparing T u r n L e n g t h of Student T r a n s a c t i o n a l Turns w i t h P r i v a t e and P u b l i c Content hdajj& Z-cIajusc 3-clou&c ^-daUst 5-da&d T P I P J P J P I P I P ' 'ft/ •TOY. \tt)/ •&/. •5o>. -4& - 96 -T a b l e IV C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of T r a n s a c t i o n a l S tudent T u r n L e n g t h by Turn Content COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT LENGTH CONTENT PERSONAL IMPERSON PRIVATE AL PUBLI 1| 2 | WORD OR FRAGMENT 1 ONE CLAUSAL CHUN TWO CLAUSAL CHUN THREE CLAUSAL CH FOUR CLAUSAL CHU F IVE OR MORE CHU COLUMN TOTAL 9 39 . 1 9 . 9 5 .7 14 6 0 . 9 2 1 . 2 3 . 9 18 4 0 . 0 19.8 11.5 27 6 0 . 0 4 0 . 9 17.2 9 6 0 . 0 9 . 9 5 .7 6 4 0 . 0 9 . 1 3 .8 23 63 .9 2 5 . 3 14 .6 13 36 . 1 19.7 8 . 3 16 8 8 . 9 17 .6 10.2 16 8 0 . 0 17 .6 10. 2 2 11.1 3 . 0 1 . 3 4 2 0 . 0 6 . 1 2 . 5 91 58 .0 66 42 .0 ROW TOTAL 23 14.6 45 28 . 7 15 9 . 6 36 22 .9 18 11.5 20 12 .7 157 100.0 CHI -SQUARE D . F . S IGNIFICANCE MIN E . F . CELLS WITH E . F . < 5 2 0 . 9 0 2 7 4 5 0 .0008 6 .306 NONE - 97 -Now I d i d n ' t g i v e her a good mark l a s t semester because I d i d n ' t f e e l that was up to our s t a n d a r d s but she ' s coming . . . but I n o t i c e t h a t whenever  she ' s on a t o p i c of f r e e c h o i c e . . . s h e ' l l take  a l c o h o l i s m or something l i k e t h i s she ' s so , how  can I put i t . . . she ' s so p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d  t h a t her w r i t i n g i s not o f as h i g h c a l i b r e as i t  would be i f she c o u l d j u s t d i s t a n c e h e r s e l f . I t ' s not c o o l enough . . . do you know what I mean? Al though they admit ted tha t the bes t o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s came out of h i g h p e r s o n a l involvement they f e l t ambiva lent about t h e i r v a l u e i n terms of academic s u c c e s s . The "type of q u e s t i o n we r e a l l y have to d e a l wi th i n a grade 12 c l a s s " i m p l i e s a d e p e r s o n a l i z e d d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d o r i e n t a t i o n . Very o f t e n they have good o r a l a b i l i t y . . . o f  t h i n g s t h a t are of i n t e r e s t to the s t u d e n t . I can r e c a l l s e v e r a l years ago hav ing an e x c e l l e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n g i v e n o r a l l y on Ind ian foods and t r a d i t i o n a l p o t l a t c h t h i n g s , you know, . . . meals tha t would be used f o r c e l e b r a t i o n . And i t was o u t s t a n d i n g i n every way. When i t comes down to the type of q u e s t i o n that we r e a l l y have to d e a l w i t h i n a grade 11 or 12 academic c o u r s e , o f t e n t h e y ' r e turned o f f c o m p l e t e l y and then they get p r e t t y d i s c o u r a g e d . The da ta r e v e a l s many cases i n which Outreach s tudent s shared the same i n t e n s e enthus iasm f o r t o p i c s drawn from t h e i r r e a l - l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e i r a t t i t u d e toward p u b l i c knowledge, p a r t i c u l a r l y p o l i t i c s and h i s t o r y , c o u l d be very n e g a t i v e . F r a n k , an i n t e l l i g e n t 17 y e a r - o l d from an i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e c a l l e d Owikeeno, i s i n t e n s e l y r e s e n t f u l about the dominant White c u l t u r e . He i d e n t i f i e s i n t e l l e c t u a l procedure w i t h the White man's sys tem, and r e j e c t s b o t h . - 98 -Context: The teacher has just explained how the Native people taught the early explorers how to survive in the bush. F r a n k : "I d o n ' t know why i n the h e l l the Ind ians d i d a l l t h i s s h i t f o r them . . . I d o n ' t unders tand . . . they get s tabbed in the back l a t e r on . . . i n r e g u l a r s c h o o l a l l they teach you i s a p i e c e of s h i t . " Teacher : "Well t h a t ' s why I'm t r y i n g to teach you guys . . . . " Frank: "Wel l I unders tand . . . I j u s t d o n ' t l i k e w r i t i n g . . . I d o n ' t b e l i e v e anyone e l s e knows." On the o ther hand he d i s p l a y s who le -hear ted enthus iasm when he sees h i s home r e s e r v e i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m on o r a l h i s t o r y . Frank: (very e x c i t e d ) "Hey man, I know him (a l o g g i n g camp employee) . I know the dude he ' s my u n c l e , man . . . " Frank: "Hey I know L o u i s a W a l k i s , man. T h a t ' s one of my mom's f r i e n d s . . . a l l r i g h t ! " K i d s q u i e t , r e a d i n g Frank: " A l l r i g h t ! Hey man, t h i s i s p r e t t y i n t e r e s t i n g . " Donna, and C a l d i c o t t , o ther h a r d - c o r e s c h o o l h a t e r s , p r a i s e the t eacher for an " i n t e r e s t i n g " l e s s o n (the h ighes t p r a i s e p o s s i b l e ) a f t e r she opened t o p i c boundar i e s to i n c l u d e s t u d e n t ' s d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s wi th bears and the Sasquatch l e g e n d . Pammy broke a 3 month s i l e n c e i n c l a s s o n l y when she saw a p i c t u r e of her g r a n d f a t h e r from Hesqu ia t i n a book of o r a l h i s t o r i e s . In the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t , the s t u d e n t s spontaneous ly v o l l e y the names of b e r r i e s and - 99 -I n d i a n foods back and f o r t h i n a h igh good humor. Janet : C a l d i : Janet : C a l d i : Jane t : Pammy: Jane t : J a n e t : Teacher J a n e t : Teacher: J a n e t : Teacher J a n e t : "Clams, o y s t e r s . " ( j o i n s in ) " k e l p , o o l i c h a n s " "Yeah." "Seaweed i t s r e a l l y good. You put i t out on the rocks and i t gets r e a l l y s a l t y . " " T h e r e ' s s p r i n g water coming out of the mounta ins . We get the seaweed and then the f r e s h w a t e r . " "Do you eat pookmos - h e r r i n g ? " [ R e f e r s to c a r r y i n g a gun and the t eacher c h a l l e n g e s her about White man's weapons.] "You need them . . . t h e r e ' s b e a r . You f i r e up i n the a i r to s c a r e them away. You d o n ' t hunt them . . . and we went i n t o that s w i f t r i v e r , the Skeena, and we dragged a net and we got a l o t of f i s h that way . . . coho, salmon . . . a l l k i n d s . Did you see that d i s p u t e . . . i t s not mos t ly I n d i a n s , i t ' s mos t ly White p e o p l e . " " I t ' s a set up. And I r e a l l y f e e l that the people who set them up should go to j a i l . " "We p i c k s o a p b e r r i e s . " " S a s k a t o o n b e r r i e s . " "No s o a p b e r r i e s . " "I never heard of those ." " S o a p b e r r i e s l ook l i k e a whole p i l e of soap. You whip i t up wi th s u g a r . " The k i d s go back and f o r t h h u c k l e b e r r i e s s t r a w b e r r i e s - 100 -s a l m o n b e r r i e s b l u e b e r r i e s C a l d i : II Ever t a s t e s a l a l b e r r i e s ? 9 n T e a c h e r : II Never heard of them. II C a l d i : " T h e y ' r e l i k e s a s k a t o o n b e r r i e s t h e y ' r e b l a c k . " J a n e t : "They make good s y r u p . " [She then goes on to d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t ways of p r e s e r v i n g f i s h . . . smoke f i s h , d r y f i s h , canned f i s h , f o r f i v e m i n u t e s ] . " . . . d i d you ever hear of huck le jam, po ta toes and c a r r o t s ? " T h i s enthus iasm does not always seem to get t r a n s f e r r e d to l e s s o n s i n which t h e i r r e a l - l i f e everyday e x p e r i e n c e s get subsumed i n t o g e n e r a l i s s u e s . T h e i r behav iour i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of the E a s t - e n d a d o l e s c e n t s s t u d i e d by S e a r l e ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) who found tha t the s tudents f a i l e d to r e c o g n i z e out of s c h o o l t o p i c s framed through p u b l i c knowledge s t r u c t u r e s . The c l a s s , f o r example showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t when the t eacher i n v i t e d them to s i t u a t e t h e i r everyday e x p e r i e n c e — o p p r e s s i o n by the dominant c u l t u r e — w i t h i n the framework of remote e v e n t s — t h e s t r u g g l e s of the S a l v a d o r e a n s . A r e a l l y l a c k - l u s t r e response ensues: the s tudents p r o t e s t ; M e l i n d a keeps t a l k i n g , C a l d i c o t t y e l l s tha t he hates the news. F r a n k , who goes a long wi th the i n t e r a c t i o n , t h i n k s the people should g i v e up . He c l a i m s that f i g h t i n g i s a b i g waste of t i m e . What he i s s a y i n g , p e r h a p s , i s tha t - 101 -t h i s p a r t of the l e s s o n i s a b i g waste of t ime f o r him. The t eacher has j u s t been c o n n e c t i n g the unknown—conservat ive church p o l i c y toward s e c u l a r u p r i s i n g s — w i t h more unknown—El S a l v a d o r . The s tudents r e a l l y f a i l to see the s i g n i f i c a n c e of E l S a l v a d o r as an example of a p e o p l e s ' s t r u g g l e . I t ' s beyond t h e i r terms of r e f e r e n c e . The t u r n l e n g t h r e f l e c t s t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n . ? " . . . every f u c k i n g t i m e . " Teacher : "I j u s t want to say" Frank: " E l S a l v a d o r , i s that" ( u n i n t e l l i g i b l e ) T e a c h e r : " T h a t ' s r i g h t , i t ' s a l i t t l e c o u n t r y down here (she moves the map) t h i s l i t t l e y e l l o w c o u n t r y , v e r y t i n y . " F r a n k : "What the fuck?" Teacher : "And i n t h i s c o u n t r y there are people j u s t l i k e these N a t i v e people who are r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t the government—Linda l i s t e n ( a n g r i l y ) . " L i n d a : "I am l i s t e n i n g ! " ( l o u d l y . ) T e a c h e r : "Not when y o u ' r e t a l k i n g . " L i n d a : "I wasn't t a l k i n g . " ? "I j u s t asked her a q u e s t i o n . " ( s o f t l y ) T e a c h e r : "I want you to l i s t e n ( g e n t l y ) . In E l S a l v a d o r there are j u s t a few f a m i l i e s t h a t own a l l of the land and they l e t the peasants l i v e on that land and grow crops f o r them, and in r e t u r n the owners of the l and g i v e the peasants a l i t t l e b i t to feed themselves . . . okay . . . now these peasants d i d n ' t l i k e tha t - 102 -cause they do a l l the work but the l a n d l o r d s get a l l the money . . . and so they s t a r t e d having a r e b e l l i o n , t h e y ' v e been f i g h t i n g down there now f o r about 3 y e a r s , r i g h t . W e l l , y e s t e r d a y the Pope was i n E l S a l v a d o r . Did any of you watch the news y e s t e r d a y . " C a l d i : "Nah, I hate the news." T e a c h e r : "Well y e s t e r d a y the Pope was i n E l S a l v a d o r and what he s a i d to the people was, 'Put down your arms, b r i n g peace to the c o u n t r y , d o n ' t f i g h t , ' he s a i d . " E x a c t l y the same t h i n g that Fa ther Andre i s t e l l i n g these p e o p l e . He's s a y i n g to them ' . . . f o r g e t i t . . . put down your arms, you c a n ' t win a war a g a i n s t those p e o p l e , d o n ' t t r y , you o n l y b r i n g b l o o d s h e d . ' Now, what do you t h i n k ? Do you agree wi th that?" F r a n k : "Yep." T e a c h e r : "Do you t h i n k i t s u s e l e s s to t r y and f i g h t back?" F r a n k : "Yep." ( i n e x a c t l y the same tone of v o i c e ) T e a c h e r : "Do you?" F r a n k : ( l a u g h i n g a l i t t l e ) "Yeah, I t h i n k so ." T e a c h e r : "Do you t h i n k the p r i e s t i s r i g h t , and they should n o t . " F r a n k : " W e l l , t h e y ' r e going a g a i n s t thousands of enemies . Why t h e y ' r e gonna t r y t h e y ' r e going to a l l d i e . " T e a c h e r : "Okay, what about the people of E l S a l v a d o r where the odds are about 50/50?" F r a n k : "Well they should j u s t keep on go ing u n t i l they k i l l each o ther o f f , and then we wouldn ' t have to worry about them anymore." - 103 -C a l d i : "Where d i d you go y e s t e r d a y L o r i ? " F r a n k : " T h e y ' r e a l l j u s t one b i g waste of t ime ." T e a c h e r : "So you t h i n k the f i g h t i n g i s a b i g waste of t ime?" F r a n k : "Waste of l e a d . " T e a c h e r : "Well t h a t ' s sure something to t h i n k about ." (g ive s up) 4.3.2 Negotiations over the Use of Public and Personal Content i n the Classroom  Nonnie and the Sasquatch: Student-Teacher Negotiated Topics When s tudent s n e g o t i a t e the boundar i e s of the t o p i c framework i t would seem there i s more p o s s i b i l i t y that the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t i t u e n t s and p r o p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the framework w i l l have some c o n n e c t i o n to t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . G iven the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y of long t u r n s , the o c c u r r e n c e of s e v e r a l w i t h i n minutes of each o ther a f t e r a s tudent t o p i c nominat ion appears s i g n i f i c a n t . Context: Analysis of Florence Davidson's (Nonnie*s) o r a l history of l i f e in the Queen Charlotte islands to determine Haida moves and t r a d i t i o n s . Students nominate Sasquatch: "They say t h e r e ' s s t i l l S a s q u a t c h e s . " L y d i a : "My Dad seen one . . . s a i d he c o u l d f e e l i t , there was something there . . . i t was a s t range f e e l i n g . . . He s a i d i t r e a l l y s tank . . . and they seen the t r a c k s , r i g h t , of the S a s q u a t c h . " Donna: "I heard as a p a r t of a l e g e n d , whatever , that where the s t i n k comes from—from Sasquatches chopping up people and throwing them o u t . " - 104 -E a r n e s t : "The people up there say . . . the way a Sasquatch c l a i m s a t e r r i t o r y , i t t e a r s a whole t r e e down." Students nominate Bear [ t h r o u g h l i n k i n g p r o p o s i t i o n "c la ims a t e r r i t o r y " ] L y d i a : " . . . i t s l i k e where . . . i t s l i k e where in R i v e r s I n l e t t h e r e ' s s c r a t c h marks on the t r e e s , some of the t r e e s . There was . . . by the grave yard wherever and we were s l a s h i n g in the summertime and then l i k e we went up there one day we were s l a s h i n g the next day , l i k e the b r i d g e . . . t h i s r e a l l y o l d b r i d g e , r i g h t , but the logs u n d e r , t h e y ' r e p r e t t y o l d , but t h e y ' r e p r e t t y huge . . . t h e r e ' s t h i s b i g beam t h i n g was h o l d i n g up the b r i d g e . . . and the next day we went up there and the b r i d g e . . . I guess t h i s huge bear walked a c r o s s i t , or something walked a c r o s s i t , and i t broke the whole t h i n g . . . the b r i d g e . . . so we j u s t stopped w o r k i n ' t h e r e . E a r n e s t : "They shot one in the summer time because i t was g e t t i n g too c l o s e i n t o the v i l l a g e . There were three of them around the summertime . . . t h r e e g r i z z l i e s . Donna: "I know t h e i r head l i k e , one of them, the one they s h o t , t h e i r head was about l i k e t h i s . . . tha t wide . Queen Elizabeth and the Salmon Queen: How Students get Personal Topics on the Floor In o r d e r f o r the s tudents to f i r s t get t h e i r t o p i c s on the f l o o r , they must get the t e a c h e r , who ho lds f i n a l r i g h t s over t o p i c nominat ion to a g r e e . The proces s can be c o n v o l u t e d , t r i c k y and d i s r u p t i v e . When s tudents i n f l u e n c e - 105 -the d i r e c t i o n of the l e s s o n , i t can f e e l to the t eacher l i k e a l a t e r a l d r i f t a c r o s s t o p i c s r a t h e r than a l o g i c a l l y sequenced development . However, when the s tudents i n f l u e n c e the development of the t o p i c framework they appear to i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e i r own extended i n p u t , o f t e n about p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n s . The f o l l o w i n g case demonstrates the complex s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s t r a t e g i e s used by two s tudents and the t e a c h e r as they n e g o t i a t e t o p i c . Three long turns r e s u l t . Two are s imple n a r r a t i v e s . The l a s t i s both c o n c e p t u a l l y and s y n t a c t i c a l l y complex. Context: The teacher has used the Queen's v i s i t to Vancouver as a point of departure to discuss how kings or chiefs gained power i n their society." Dawna and L y d i a are w h i s p e r i n g toge ther i n the background . [ F i r s t s t r a t e g y t eacher attempts to o v e r - r i d e . ] T e a c h e r : [ l o u d l y ] "Let me t e l l you something about t h i s . . . way back about 500 y e a r s . " Classroom s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e : nobody t a l k s when the t e a c h e r does . Teacher : "Donna! L y d i a ! " One t o p i c r u l e : speakers who are on t o p i c have a r i g h t to p r o c e e d . Dawna: "Just ho ld on , we're t a l k i n g about the c h i e f . . . we A R E ! " - 106 -Classroom S - L r u l e : A l l l e g i t i m a t e t a l k i s shared t a l k . T e a c h e r : "Well t e l l i t to us , so we can hear about i t . " Depar ture a t tempt: Donna over-compensates w i t h p o l i t e n e s s . Dawna: "Well you guys are t a l k i n g ! " L y d i a : "Well uhhh." Dawna: "Ho, i t s not n o t h i n ' b i g butum . . . Don' t l e t us ' c o n s e r v e ' you eh?" ( s i c ) S h a r i n g r u l e repeated - c o n v e r s a t i o n stopped u n t i l r u l e i s honored . Teacher : "Hey y o u ' r e i n a c l a s s r i g h t now, and y o u ' r e e i t h e r going to share what you have or e l s e y o u ' r e not . . . (Teacher s tops l e s s o n , nobody says a n y t h i n g , w a i t s w h i l e the two g i r l s whisper . . . f i n a l l y . . . ) C lassroom S - L r u l e - "No y e l l i n g " - r u l e broken as p o w e r - p l a y . Pre tends c l a s s has broken another r u l e "no l i s t e n i n g i n on p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n . " Donna: ( y e l l s ) "Nosy bunch of p e o p l e ! Boy!" N e g o t i a t i o n - T e a c h e r ' s c o n d i t i o n s accepted L y d i a : " W e l l , do you want to hear about what I j u s t s a i d ? " . . . the g i r l s e x p l a i n the " e l e c t o r a l system" used f o r e l e c t i n g the R i v e r s I n l e t Salmon Queen . . . Teacher i n c o r p o r a t e s p e r s o n a l s tudent t o p i c "The Salmon Queen" w i t h i n her g e n e r a l t o p i c , the development of the r u l i n g c l a s s . - 107 -T e a c h e r : "Hmm w e l l in a c e r t a i n way that was how k i n g s and queens f i r s t s t a r t e d because whoever got the most s u p p o r t , whoever got the most k n i g h t s i n s h i n i n g armour to support them would be the k i n g . P r o t e s t over t o p i c change . C a l d i : "Don't t e l l me your p r o b l e m s . " Clas sroom r u l e "Don't t a l k whi l e the t eacher i s t a l k i n g " broken a g a i n - Donna asked to comply w i t h s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s "Be p a r t of t h i s group" T e a c h e r : "And a f t e r the k i n g got s t a r t e d - uh -Donna do you s t i l l have t h i n g s you want to say?" T e a c h e r : [ f i n a l l y l o s e s p a t i e n c e ] " E i t h e r y o u ' r e going to be p a r t of t h i s g r o u p , or I ' d l i k e you to go o u t , okay?" Donna explodes and l e a v e s . T e a c h e r ' s c o n d i t i o n s a c c e p t e d . L y d i a : "Okay are you s a t i s f i e d ? L e t ' s t a l k about the queen." Teacher i n v i t e s t o p i c nominat ion from s t u d e n t s . T e a c h e r : "What would you l i k e to t a l k about?" L y d i a : " E v e r y t h i n g but the Queen." Teacher r e p e a t s c a l l f o r t o p i c n o m i n a t i o n . T e a c h e r : " A l l r i g h t , you t h i n k of a t o p i c . " Students nominate t o p i c . C a l d i : "Indian r i g h t s . " - 108 -Students second nominat ion L y d i a : "Yeah, t h a t ' s a good one ." Teacher seconds n o m i n a t i o n . T e a c h e r : "That _is a good one . . . and t h a t ' s something I would l i k e to t a l k about w i th you ." Student i n c o r p o r a t e s t e a c h e r ' s t o p i c . L y d i a : "Yeah, okay but about queens and t h i s garbage ." Teacher recodes s tudent i n p u t Teacher : "What does the queen have to do wi th?" The l e s s o n c o n t i n u e s as the s tudents d i s c u s s womens' r i g h t s i n the I n d i a n A c t . 4.3.3 Student Use of Impersonal Content During Short Turns When s tudents were d e a l i n g wi th impersona l p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e i r responses were p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n the range of 0-1-2 c l a u s a l chunks . The s h o r t e r t u r n l e n g t h appears a t t r i b u t a b l e to two d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s : l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t eacher s t r a t e g y and l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by s tudent i n f o r m a t i o n base . - 109 -L i m i t a t i o n Imposed by Teacher S t r a t e g y A l a r g e p a r t o f the time the t eacher i n t e n t i o n a l l y adheres to a s t r i c t i n i t i a t i o n - r e s p o n s e - e v a l u a t i o n formula , T h i s s t r a t e g y i s used i n o r d e r to b u i l d up the s t u d e n t s ' i n f o r m a t i o n base and t e s t s t u d e n t s ' r e t e n t i o n . The t e a c h e r ' s o b j e c t i v e i s s h o r t t u r n l e n g t h ; the s tudents are behav ing a c c o r d i n g to e x p e c t a t i o n s when they " f i r e back" r i g h t answers . T e a c h e r : "Where would the people l i v e the l o n g e s t , i n the I r o q u o i s v i l l a g e or the A l g o n k i a n s ? Benny: " I r o q u o i s . " T e a c h e r : " T h a t ' s r i g h t , i n the I r o q u o i s v i l l a g e . . . those were very s e t t l e d v i l l a g e s . . . and t h a t ' s why they cou ld have t h e i r gardens and grow t h e i r c r o p s , what d i d Shauna read about the A l g o n k i a n people? How would they get t h e i r food? Benny: "Go h u n t i n g . " Teacher : "They would go h u n t i n g . T h a t ' s r i g h t , they would go h u n t i n g and they would . . . there was a c e r t a i n k i n d o f v e g e t a b l e or p l a n t they would g a t h e r . What d i d they say i t was? F i r s t p a r a g r a p h . . . . Benny: " F i s h . " Sharon: "Oh . . . r i c e . " Teacher : " T h a t ' s r i g h t . . . f i s h and w i l d r i c e . So they d i d n ' t grow any of t h e i r own f o o d . They were ab le to get a l l the food they needed by t r a v e l l i n g around and f i s h i n g , and g a t h e r i n g w i l d r i c e . - 110 -L i m i t a t i o n s Imposed by the Students I n f o r m a t i o n Base The l a r g e amounts of shor t answers can be in some p a r t a t t r i b u t e d to the s c h o o l ' s neces sary focus on t o p i c s which have l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s or e x i s t i n g knowledge s t r u c t u r e s . (The s t u d e n t s ' s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r y f o r such t o p i c s i s " b o r i n g , " a word which i s used o n l y too o f t e n throughout the t r a n s c r i p t s ) . Under such c o n d i t i o n s , even the most s t i m u l a t i n g and r e l e v a n t t o p i c s can s e l f - d e s t r u c t . Even when s tudents are i n v i t e d to nominate t h e i r own t o p i c s , o ther members of the c l a s s may s t i l l not have the s l i g h t e s t i d e a what i s go ing o n . C a l d i c o t t has never heard of sex ism; f o r him o p p r e s s i o n means N a t i v e s a g a i n s t h o n k i e s . Donna t h i n k s sexism means sex. No wonder she t h i n k s the t eacher i s r i d i c u l o u s . Context: Lydia, another student, has just asked an excellent question: "Why do women lose t h e i r Native rig h t s i f they marry a White man, when Native men not only r e t a i n t h e i r rights in a mixed marriage, but pass them on to their wives as well." Teacher : " T h a t ' s a good q u e s t i o n , t h a t ' s c a l l e d s ex i sm. Have you ever heard of t h a t word?" Donna: "It d o e s n ' t have to do wi th sex. boy ." ( s i g h s i n d i s g u s t ) Ooh T e a c h e r : "Hey, I ' l l t e l l you what Donna . . . a f t e r you get your t eacher t r a i n i n g , you can be the t eacher . . . okay?" - I l l -C a l d i : "Who says she wants to be the t eacher?" Donna: "Yeah, who says I wanted to go out and be a t e a c h e r ? " Teacher : " W e l l , you want to do a l l the t a l k i n g . " Donna and L y d i a t a l k i n g under t h e i r b r e a t h i n loud d i s g u s t e d t o n e s . T e a c h e r : "What does sexism mean? (she hears somebody) No i t d o e s n ' t ! " C a l d i : " I t ' s between a female and a man." Teacher : "No i t ' s no t !" C a l d i : "Sure i t i s ! " Donna: "It d o e s n ' t have to do wi th t h a t , S t a r l a ! " L y d i a : " E h , i t ' s the male i s the man of the house and a l l t h a t , r i g h t ? " [ S t a r l a has gone to the board and w r i t t e n a d e f i n i t i o n . . . one sex, u s u a l l y male , has more r i g h t s than the o t h e r ] . C a l d i : [Reads i t o f f the board to h i m s e l f . ] L y d i a : "What does i t say?" C a l d i : Repeat s . Teacher : " A l l r i g h t , Lena brought up a p r o b l e m . " Donna: "No, tha t i s not i t . " Teacher : "HEY DONNA!" C a l d i : "We're t a l k i n g about Ind ian r i g h t s not s ex i sm." 4.3.4 The Uses of Personal Content During Student Long  Turns There i s a s t r o n g c o - o c c u r r e n c e of l onger than average s tudent t u r n s w i t h p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t . Outreach s tudents - 112 -t a l k e d i n t u r n s of 3 to 5 c l a u s a l chunks i n l e n g t h when there was an i n t e r f a c e between the t e a c h e r s ' i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e i r p e r s o n a l w o r l d . There are cases in which s tudents s k i l l f u l l y d i s c u s s e d g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s or events which had l i t t l e to do wi th t h e i r d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e ; however, the m a j o r i t y of long t u r n s o c c u r r e d when the s tudents s i t u a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s i n the contex t of g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s or remote h y p o t h e t i c a l events i n t r o d u c e d i n the l e s s o n s . P e r s o n a l content was used to deve lop meaning in a v a r i e t y of ways. Students used p e r s o n a l content as a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and a n a l o g y , to c r e a t e p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s , and to in termesh t h e i r meaning systems wi th the d e c o n t e x u a l i z e d o b j e c t i v e meaning o r d e r s i n t r o d u c e d by the t e a c h e r . When the s tudents were i n t e r e s t e d and a c t i v e l y engaged i n making meaning, the volume and s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y of t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s n a t u r a l l y i n c r e a s e d (Labov: 1969) . Generalizations The s tudent s made some of t h e i r most mean ing fu l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s around t h e i r own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Such s tatements had i n t e g r i t y and a c c u r a c y because they were grounded i n the a c t u a l r e a l i t i e s of everyday l i f e . The s tudent s knew what they were t a l k i n g about . In cases where - 113 -s t u d e n t s are expected to use g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s whose r e f e r e n t s are c l a s s e s of p r e v i o u s l y a b s t r a c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n wi th which they are u n f a m i l i a r , t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n of these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may be l i m i t e d to a s u p e r i c i a l l e v e l based on i m i t a t i o n and m e m o r i z a t i o n . Ambi t ious s tudents may memorize and i m i t a t e but t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a l i t y remains s t a t i c . In the f o l l o w i n g d a t a , dynamic l e a r n i n g appears to take p l a c e , as f e a t u r e s of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e are i n t e g r a t e d and recoded i n t o more a b s t r a c t schema. Context: The teacher has just made a general statement about differences in value systems between White and Native cultures. I n d i a n people seem to take b e t t e r care of each o t h e r , and i f y o u ' r e not g e t t i n g a long too good i n your own home, u s u a l l y you have an a u n t i e or an u n c l e , or someone who w i l l welcome you to l i v e w i th them. White people a r e n ' t l i k e t h i s and the reason i s , f o r most White p e o p l e , t h e y ' r e too busy and d o n ' t want to be b o t h e r e d . They say no, I d o n ' t want you coming to s tay h e r e , y o u ' l l j u s t be a h a s s l e . Margaret expands the t e a c h e r ' s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n v e r y s k i l l f u l l y . She a b s t r a c t s the v a l u e of "egoism" and deve lops i t i n terms of another r e l a t e d v a l u e "achievement ." T h e y ' r e hung up on t h e i r jobs l i k e and they want to make i t a l l the way—being dragged down, i f they he lp someone e l s e (very q u i e t ) . When the t eacher se t s up a c a t e g o r y , " l e a r n i n g about I n d i a n t h i n g s " , and asks how i t ' s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of e x p e r i e n c e , Margaret i s a b l e to l i s t a s e r i e s of e x p e r i e n c e s - 114 -which be long to t h i s c l a s s and g e n e r a l i z e about what makes the Ind ian e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n t from the W h i t e . Teacher : "You wanted to l e a r n about Ind ian t h i n g s . . . how d i d you go about do ing t h a t ? How d i d you go abut l e a r n i n g about Ind ian t h i n g s ? How would you say i t s d i f f e r e n t ? " M a r g a r e t : " T r y i n g to go to s c h o o l s where I n d i a n people or o ther s c h o o l s I went to they were a l l White . . . s t a r t e d meeting Ind ian people and going to Pow-wows." (almost i n a u d i b l e , c a n ' t r e a l l y p i c k i t a l l u p ) . . . . and some of them get t r e a t e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what the White people do . . . i n a u d i b l e . L y d i a 1 s q u e s t i o n , which i s a l s o d e r i v e d from p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , i s one o f the most s t r u c t u r a l l y complex u t t e r a n c e s i n the d a t a . L y d i a : " T h e r e ' s something about , i f you m a r r y , i f y o u ' r e an I n d i a n , l i k e a White broad or woman or l a d y or whatever you want to c a l l i t m a r r i e s a N a t i v e , she becomes a N a t i v e , s o r t o f , . . . i n a way, she ge ts the N a t i v e r i g h t s . But when a female m a r r i e s a White guy, whatever , they l o s e i t . . . why i s t h a t , a White m a r r i e s a N a t i v e ? Analogy T h i s s t r a t e g y was used by on ly one s tudent i n the sample. The s tudent used analogy on three s epara te o c c a s i o n s . A l l a n a l o g i e s were based on s i m p l e , homely - 115 -e x p e r i e n c e s or o b s e r v a t i o n s . A l though the s tudent had some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s t r u c t u r i n g h i s a n a l o g i e s , they proved a good h e u r i s t i c t o o l . The o ther s tudents were so impressed by the l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r t i s e of h i s l a s t and most s u c c e s s f u l analogy t h a t s e v e r a l made comments l i k e "Holy !" and "What a neat way to say t h a t . " Donny*s Analogies Concept: Native Indian sundance participants mutilate themselves by threading leather thongs under their skins. Analogy: " I t ' s l i k e g e t t i n g your ear p i e r c e d , and l e a v i n g the thread on i t . " Concept: C h i l c o t i n Native people had underground housing to protect themselves from the cold. Analogy: " L i k e a dog b u r y i n g i t s bone i n the ground i t s something l i k e an oven t h a t ' s why a dog d i g s a ho l e and takes a bone and b u r i e s i t under there and l eaves i t f o r a w h i l e and then comes back , and d i g s i t up, and i t s warm, r i g h t . I t ' s l i k e a pot of water on the s tove and coming back and i t s a l l warmed up . . . r i g h t ? W e l l , i t s the same t h i n g a dog does , and they prevent themselves from g e t t i n g c o l d . " Concept: Moisture-laden clouds t r a v e l l i n g toward the P r a i r i e s meet the ba r r i e r of the Rocky Mountains. Analogy: "When the c l o u d s p i c k up r a i n , when t h e r e ' s a bunch of r a i n i n the c l o u d s . . . . i t ' s l i k e p u t t i n g a sponge i n t o a  p a i l o f water , and i t j u s t soaks i t up and l e a v e s i t d r y , and how heavy i t g e t s , uh , and i t s the same t h i n g wi th a - 116 -c l o u d , i t d o e s n ' t have enough uh f l u i d to get over the mountain . . . i t ge ts too much water and they have to l e t i t out t h i s s i d e of the m o u n t a i n . " S p e c i f i c Examples Within A General Case A r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n seemed to be: t e a c h e r s u p p l i e s g e n e r a l s ta tement . Students supply p a r t i c u l a r examples from t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . The s tudents were ab le to recode p u b l i c o r d e r s of meaning i n terms of e i t h e r t h e i r own d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , or p r e v i o u s l y a b s t r a c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . R i c k uses the s l a v e s h i p ep i sode from the t e l e v i s i o n drama "Roots" to i l l u s t r a t e the concept " o p p r e s s i o n " ; he expres se s v i s u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the word. T e a c h e r : "Does anyone know what oppressed mean?" R i c k : "Oppressed ." T e a c h e r : "Yeah, what does oppressed mean? Nancy & R i c h a r d s t a r t r e a d i n g out l o u d . R i c k : "Glare? We're j u s t g u e s s i n g . " T e a c h e r : " T h a t ' s okay . . . t h a t ' s what y o u ' r e supposed to d o . " R i c k : "Depress ." T e a c h e r : " I t ' s l i k e d e p r e s s . A l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t than d e p r e s s . " Nancy: "You mean f r u s t r a t e d ? " T e a c h e r : " T h e r e ' s a f e e l i n g of f r u s t r a t i o n there Nancy. Y o u ' r e q u i t e r i g h t . T h a t ' s a good i n s i g h t . O p p r e s s , though, means -master and s l a v e . Oppress i s to i m p r i s o n or keep down.' - 117 -R i c k : " I t ' s l i k e in R o o t s . They had them d o w n s t a i r s , a l l l o cked up i n c h a i n s . They c o u l d n ' t even see . And take 'em out on the deck and they would be a b l e to see and t h e y ' d s p l a s h water on them. In the f o l l o w i n g c a s e , the t eacher had deve loped the concept of legend and o r a l h i s t o r y i n an e a r l i e r l e s s o n . T e a c h e r : "The o t h e r t h i n g I know i s that the Ind ian people used to have legends of the o l d man of the woods and the o l d woman of the woods was . . . her name name was Tsonoqua . . . and the o l d man was Bookwis . And t h e y ' r e connected to the i d e a of the Sasquatch . . . you know, the Abominable Snowman comes from N e p a l , i t ' s l i k e the Sasquatch . . . i t ' s r e a l l y amazing to t h i n k Ind ian people have the same legends as people who l i v e over t h e r e . " Donna has i n t e g r a t e d the concept of "legend" i n t o her l e x i c o n on both the r e c e p t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e l e v e l s . Her s l i g h t awkwardness w i th her l i n g u i s t i c experiment i s shown by the way she b r a c k e t s i f o f f wi th "or whatever ." You know, I heard t h i s , as p a r t of a l e g e n d , or whatever . . . I heard tha t where the s t i n k comes from, from Sasquatches chopping up people and throwing them o u t . " Directions Extended t u r n l e n g t h a l s o o c c u r r e d when s tudents e x p l a i n e d how a p a r t i c u l a r task i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . The s t u d e n t s appeared to g i v e t h e i r most deve loped r e p l i e s i n - 118 -answer to genuine q u e s t i o n s as opposed to t e s t q u e s t i o n s Some examples f o l l o w : Janice describes Native Indian food preparation T e a c h e r : "Do you smoke that f i s h ? " J a n i c e : "I l e a r n e d how to cut that f i s h . . . we cut i t r i g h t down the backbone . . . and f l i p i t r i g h t over and cut i t i n l i t t l e s t r i p s . . . you should see how sharp the k n i v e s are . . . my f i n g e r was cut o f f . . . I c a n ' t bend i t . . . r e a l l y sharp . . . and , um, we went camping wi thout any . . . Donna describes the Sun-dance Donna: C a l d i : Donna: C a l d i : Donna: " I t ' s we ird man." "Why i s i t we ird?" "Because they take these . . . someth in ' l i k e . . . you know how a t o o t h p i c k i s , r i g h t ? " "Yeah y e a h . " "With a sharpened , w e l l any ways they got 'em on both ends and they s t i c k i t through your c h e s t , they take two of them and they s t i c k i t through h e r e . And they go . . . t w i s t , p u l l . . . and then when they l ean o u t , they blow on a w h i s t l e i n s t e a d of y e l l i n g . " Personal Narratives (in class) A l a r g e group of long t r a n s a c t i o n a l turns be longs to the p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e c a t e g o r y . Students t e l l s t o r i e s from t h e i r own l i f e e x p e r i e n c e which they f e e l w i l l i l l u s t r a t e - 119 -some aspect of the t o p i c framework. Sometimes these s t o r i e s are s e l f - i n i t i a t e d — t h e s tudents see a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r l i v e s and the t o p i c under d i s c u s s i o n or e l s e they are t o l d i n r e p l y to a s p e c i f i c r eques t from the t e a c h e r . Context: Janice and the teacher are discussing Indian i d e n t i t y . T e a c h e r : "Is your i d e n t i t y Indian?" J a n i c e : "Yeah." T e a c h e r : "Is tha t because of where you were brought up?" J a n i c e : "Yeah . . . I was brought up i n my hometown, on a r e s e r v e . . . a l l I n d i a n s . " T e a c h e r : "So you know the way of l i f e . " J a n i c e : "Just t h i s summer we went f i s h i n g on the Skeena R i v e r . . . l i k e we went out i n the speedboat . . . and you know how s w i f t the r i v e r i s . . . we went net f i s h i n g . . . one of our f r i e n d s got a body i n h i s net . . . Simon B i r d , t h i s o l d guy." The f o l l o w i n g except shows how one s tudent s k i l l f u l l y b u i l d s h i s knowledge s t r u c t u r e downward from the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about the water c y c l e and e v a p o r a t i o n to h i s c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e d of mis t r i s i n g on a summer l a k e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the t eacher d o e s n ' t f o l l o w h i s l e a d . She chooses to remain on a more g e n e r a l i z e d p lane i n order to deve lop her argument. - 120 -T e a c h e r : "Where do c l o u d s get t h e i r water from?" Donna: "From the r i v e r s and the l a k e s . " Randy: "You know what happened, i n the summer sometimes I go n o r t h somewhere and the water , uh , e a r l y i n the morn ing , eh , the sun w i l l be b e a t i n ' down on the water e a r l y i n the morning and I'm out there t a k i n ' a swim, and see a l l t h i s s team. Teacher : "Hmm. And then l i k e Donny says when the c l o u d s get too heavy . . . down i t comes, i t waters the crops and t h a t ' s why they can grow g r a i n . " Personal Narratives Out of Class The l o n g e s t s tudent d i s c o u r s e s f e l l i n t o the c a t e g o r y of out of c l a s s p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s . A l though they are not f o r m a l l y p a r t o f the s t u d y , these data serve as a t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g u n o f f i c i a l p o s t - s c r i p t . They i n v a l i d a t e the t e a c h e r - a c c e p t e d f o l k - l o r e that N a t i v e s tudents d o n ' t t a l k . C e r t a i n l y there are many o c c a s i o n s when N a t i v e s tudent s l i m i t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l a s s , but t h i s s i t u a t i o n cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d to o t h e r c o n t e x t s . Dur ing the course of the s t u d y , f o u r d i f f e r e n t s tudents i n i t i a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s of e x t r a - o r d i n a r y l e n g t h d u r i n g l u n c h hour . A l l f o u r t a l k e d from 15 minutes to n e a r l y h a l f an hour wi th minimal feedback from the t e a c h e r , o ther than a few c h a n n e l l e d - b a c k r e s p o n s e s . The g i r l s t a l k e d about t h e i r b o y f r i e n d s , N a t i v e i d e n t i t y , b a b i e s , f e e l i n g s such as - 121 -a g g r e s s i o n or i n s e c u r i t y , the f u t u r e , f o o d - g a t h e r i n g around H a z e l t o n . The most remarkable s t o r y w i l l be t r e a t e d as a m i n i - c a s e - s t u d y of the g e n r e . Pammy's Story Background . Pammy i s a 15 y e a r - o l d Nootka g i r l from an i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e on the west coas t o f Vancouver I s l a n d . Her s i s t e r G i l d a a l s o a t t ends O u t r e a c h . Pammy at tended Outreach from the b e g i n n i n g of the second t erm. D u r i n g the e n t i r e  t ime—8 weeks—she had not spoken a s i n g l e word i n c l a s s . C o n t e x t . (as e x c e r p t e d d i r e c t l y from f i e l d n o t e s ) . Amazing! J u s t had a 28 minute c o n v e r s a t i o n wi th Pammy, the c l a s s mute. I threw i n a coup le of q u e s t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s , but b a s i c a l l y i t was j u s t h e r . I t a l l s t a r t e d when I overheard a fragment of c o n v e r s a t i o n between h e r , Shauna and V i n c e (another program t e a c h e r , o f N a t i v e Ind ian o r i g i n ) . A l l I heard was "bones . . . the I n d i a n way." I asked her "What do you mean, i s there something s p e c i a l i n the Ind ian way?" She t o l d me, " y o u ' r e not supposed to touch o l d bones ." I asked her i f they had found any bones at the a r c h e o l o g y d i g . They h a d n ' t , j u s t some t o o l s . I asked Pammy i f she would have touched the bones i f she found them. Our gazes r e a l l y c o n n e c t e d . Then she s a i d , "You - 122 -would have to pray over them, to make i t okay ." [I am s i t t i n g down at a desk . She i s about 12 f e e t away. She i s t a l k i n g q u i c k l y wi th a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l of a n i m a t i o n . In the middle of her n a r r a t i v e , she comes over to where I am, and s i t s down next to me.] The f o l l o w i n g i s an attempt to r e c r e a t e Pammy's n a r r a t i v e . I t i s remembered speech—my sentence p a t t e r n s , w i t h her i d e a s and some v e r b a t i m phrases which I marked w i t h q u o t a t i o n marks . Her own account was not so s t r i c t l y sequenced, and was t o l d i n s t r o n g n o n - s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t . S t o r y . I had j u s t asked Pammy i f she ever had dreams t h a t came t r u e . She d e s c r i b e d an i n c i d e n t where her unc le B r u c e , her l i t t l e c o u s i n and three o ther people d i e d when t h e i r f i s h i n g boat e x p l o d e d . She s a i d that a l l that n i g h t she c o u l d hear loud thumping n o i s e s o u t s i d e on the p o r c h . Next morning she f e l t "a b i g c h i l l go through her" and another u n c l e s a i d "We l o s t B r u c e . " Pammy s a i d she had l o s t many r e l a t i v e s and t h a t her grandmother t o l d her "When you l o s e r e l a t i v e s , you have to be s t r o n g and pray f o r them." She d e s c r i b e d a ceremony where cedar i s burnt and the people s m e l l the smoke. " T h e r e ' s a t h i n g such as I n d i a n sweat lodges where people go. Then they swim i n a c o l d stream a f t e r . " She mentioned tha t her aunt belonged to the Peyote r e l i g i o n and that she had l e a r n e d these t h i n g s from - 123 -her grandmother C e c e l i a . Her grandmother r a i s e d h e r , because her own parent s were a l c o h o l i c . She c o n t i n u e d "If you dream of someone you l o s t , i t s b a d . When they come back , t h e y ' r e t r y i n g to t e l l you someth ing ." Her grandmother , and r e l a t i v e s had t o l d her about see ing the r e t u r n e d dead as moving l i g h t . "Sometimes I see people walk ing down the s t r e e t and I t h i n k i t ' s them, some r e l a t i v e I l o s t . " Pammy t a l k e d about t a k i n g her grandma to the bathroom. "There were always s p i d e r s t h e r e . They 'd always come out t h e n . " Her grandma e x p l a i n e d that " th ings around you g i v e you s i g n s . " Another t ime , Pammy and her s i s t e r were v i s i t i n g t h e i r grandmother i n the h o s p i t a l . She s a i d to the younger s i s t e r , "Do me a favour and s top smoking. The younger s i s t e r d i d n ' t l i s t e n . She f e l t a ' k i c k i n g ' i n her b a c k . The grandmother s a i d , "You have to l i s t e n to somebody on t h e i r d e a t h - b e d . " Pammy then c o n t i n u e d to t e l l about l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s , the k i d s f i n d i n g b i g toads and snakes and s c a r i n g each o t h e r wi th them. "I hate the f e e l i n g of snakes . I'm an I n d i a n p r i n c e s s from Hesqu ia t . . . you get t r e a t e d the same. . . . Except f o r d a n c i n g . You have to dance , you c a n ' t r e f u s e . When I was d a n c i n g , I moved my arms the way t h a t I saw my granny move." - 124 -D i s c u s s i o n . Pammy's s t o r y h e l d some of the most v i v i d language , images, and thought s t r u c t u r e i n the e n t i r e s t u d y . She i s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y of her community domain. She knows she c o n t r o l s the r e a l i t y framework. I t i s not the s c h o o l ' s , the p l a c e where you l e a r n how to be Whi te . It i s her own. She be longs to a world whose people l i v e w i t h open ocean , storms and danger , where the b o u n d a r i e s between the l i v i n g and the dead, between human and na ture are s t i l l f l u i d . The Nootka are s t i l l a b l e to walk between the w o r l d s . Optimum c o n d i t i o n s f o r communication are p r e s e n t (Brown 1983) . The content i s i n t e n s e l y m e a n i n g f u l to Pammy. Her audience i s not s imply i n t e r e s t e d , but awes truck . A genuine i n f o r m a t i o n gap i s p r e s e n t ; Pammy knows that i t would be next to i m p o s s i b l e f o r the t eacher to know anyth ing about her s u b j e c t m a t t e r . There i s no c r i t i c a l a u d i e n c e , a r t i f i c i a l and c o n f u s i n g c la s sroom d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e , or extraneous demands f o r d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n or r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . ^ The r e s u l t s speak f o r themse lves . 4.4 HYPOTHESIS Turn l e n g t h w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g to t eacher q u e s t i o n and statement s t r a t e g i e s . - 125 -Teacher t u r n s are grouped i n t o three broad c a t e g o r i e s : s ta tements , c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s and open q u e s t i o n s . Among these g r o u p i n g s , s i x s t r a t e g i e s were i d e n t i f i e d : e l a b o r a t i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i o n , v a l i d a t i o n , o p i n i o n , a n a l y s i s , and f a c t - d e l i v e r y . 1. C l o s e d q u e s t i o n s e l i c i t the s h o r t e s t t u r n l e n g t h (1.73 c l a u s a l chunks mean l e n g t h ) , t eacher s tatements the l o n g e s t (2 .59 c l a u s a l c h u n k s ) , w i t h open q u e s t i o n s i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n (2 .2 c l a u s a l c h u n k s ) . (F = 3 .82 , DF = 2, F P r o b . = 0.024) 2. Teacher s tatements as a group e l i c i t l onger t u r n l e n g t h than teacher q u e s t i o n s . The mean l e n g t h of t u r n s e l i c i t e d through t eacher s tatements i s 2.59 c l a u s e s . The mean l e n g t h of t u r n s e l i c i t e d through t eacher q u e s t i o n s i s 2 . 0 1 . These f i n d i n g s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . (F = 0 .769 , DF = 1, Fprob = .382) 3 . 83% of c e l l s w i t h i n the c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of s tudent t u r n l e n g t h by t eacher q u e s t i o n s t r a t e g y have l e s s than f i v e cases which c o m p l i c a t e s t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . There appears to be no c l e a r p a t t e r n i n r e l a t i o n to the e f f e c t of t eacher q u e s t i o n s t r a t e g i e s on s tudent t u r n l e n g t h . 4. 95% of c e l l s w i t h i n the c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of s tudent t u r n l e n g t h by t eacher statement s t r a t e g y have l e s s - 126 -T a b l e V S tudent Turn L e n g t h by C l o s e d Q u e s t i o n s , Open Q u e s t i o n s and S t a t e m e n t s : One-Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n t s . -< 70 H ui o n a H £ 00 I o -CD > O - ( •or - 73 a m 00 01 w z H > m o a - i -\ -I I r* C3 > H Z W c > X £ as b > Cfl a r- m m •o r- HH m < I ro n 2 3 O a Z m • • 7 3 2 oo a m c Z < < i o I D B J O o rn Z m O CD 0) fi> ^ 00 X S O "3 -n 70 CD co s s t 03 - H- J n 70 O X) a — 3 — S I m > n c a c 0) 0) i C 10 DI O O z -a c 70 CT CT 3 rt- 3 3 H a X o co -o O —' i CO -1 r+ at 0 in o m a CO m CD (D -1 c < i to 2 O c i 7 3 71 si n n ID 2 at u z > z T O 3 O m m Ol A - t "O r— I -1 — X ll CD O •n -n r~ m m f-01 - m -n -n o z 1 CD m 3 -n 2 r f r- m m •< CD < Z O B < O CD -1 i o CD ll X i H - t I > —i O (/» CO \ Z X \ -tl m ro ro ro a < C/l 2 2 i > 2 0) < -t a a ro ui ro - J 2 a r Z - T O ) a a Ol co oo ro m Ol Ul i m a 3 - T 2 m m & .CO 00 "J > ro O ro •n I z ^. a -- > r- r- CO OO CD CO Z o i CD m 3 3 0) H £ -t Z C 0 3 m i I < 3 CD O r -\ ID a a O i O 7 3 < co u) -n m i/t CO z -n a 0) C < H & CO O CO > CD i z -J 3 00 . -A > O 00 c c z co 2 j . *—. m > Z Ol 01 CO > 2 J » •-4 I —i m 0) < H 01 cn Ol CD CD - i a 70 r- CO c z 3 0) € o CO 00 CO b en m Q -< i O -1 O T m ro ro CO - J CJ a TO Ul o co -n CO H m c/l ID — m CO & .u z o 00 CO CO hH X Z 0) Z oo ro 01 CO y—t ! H 1 3 LT> 1 O o a I (D a CO -n H -< CO in 2 —i C I 71 -1 • . > < > C o m z CO t> z I z a II z ro ^ -~ ro ro X) o O 7 3 co m m Ul ro CO oo oi n > C 2 (-« I 1> Z Z 00 CO ro co cn a xi ro CO > m > n - i H O en O co oi ro TO a 70 > z 1 H CO u u u 01 oo m z o u o d) < at ro CO m t O Cfl CO CD CO > CO & z CO X) & 00 ] > —4 1—1 r- 7 3 > 2 I w > -O T 3 Z Z o Z I H CO II II m b O O O c > O O O O 2 o 7 3 n O O O O C Z H O O O O 2 CO z CO i-i - J 00 70 o CO A 00 > m z CD Ol ro —* -n & CO i—t £ V 00 O CO > 2 > Ti O Ol Ol Ol Ul t> n X "0 -< -i b b o b »—t O 7 3 0 .u o o o o 2 ro O -n i X o o o o C & 00 en o o o o 2 O CO 1 -A UI _— ro • CO •o CO CO ro - 4 ro o i CO CO _ oo co -1 oo 00 ^ ro O i IO ro O - J o a i H -I H -H —t z O a a o a a n 1 i—i Z 1 -< 1 -n i CO ro ro ro ro ro O X) i CO Ul Ol co ro CD - J CO M 2 i Ol Ol CO Ol CO m O O at CO CO CO > 1 - 127 -T a b l e VI C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s i n Q u e s t i o n Mode i n R e l a t i o n to S tudent T u r n L e n g t h . 7 APR 86 TURN LENGTH AND ENVIRONMENTS - - STUDENTS & TRANSACTIONALS 13:24:27 STRATEGY AND LENGTH OF STUDENT (TRANSACTIONAL) TURNS LENGTH HOW LONG IS THIS TURN? CONTROLLING FOR.. PROBE C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N BY STRATEGY VALUE = O F - - - - - -TEACHERS STRATEGY 1.00 QUESTION COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT LENGTH STRATEGY ELABORAT UNDEFINE OPINION VALIDATI ANALYSIS FACT ION D ON 1 .001 3 .001 4 .001 5 .001 7 .001 8 .001 WORD OR FRAGMENT 1 ONE CLAUSAL CHUN TWO CLAUSAL CHUN 3 3 3 9 16 7 16 7 16.7 50.0 60 0 25 0 15.8 20.0 3 4 3 4 3.4 10. 1 1 2 3 7 16 3 4 6 9 10 3 24 . 1 55 . 2 33 3 40 0 25 0 36 ."8 35.6 1 1 2 2 3 4 7.9 18.0 16 33 1 1 16.7 20.0 1 . 1 4 66.7 8.9 4 . 5 ROW TOTAL 18 20. 2 29 32.6 6 6 . 7 3 1 3 3 9 16 THREE CLAUSAL CH 6 3 18 .8 18 . 8 56 3 18.0 20 0 25 .0 15 .8 20 0 1 1 3 . 4 3 . 4 10 1 4 1 2 2 5 10 FOUR CLAUSAL CHU 10 0 20 .0 20 .0 50 0 11.2 20 0 16 .7 10 . 5 1 1 1 1 1 2 . 2 2 . 2 5 6 5 1 1 1 1' 4 2 10 FIVE OR MORE CHU 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 .0 40 .0 20 0 11.2 33 3 20 0 20 0 8 . 3 21 . 1 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 4 . 5 2 2 COLUMN 3 5 5 12 19 45 89 TOTAL 3 4 5 6 5 6 13 . 5 21 . 3 50 6 100.0 CHI-SQUARE D . F . 24.23993 25 SIGNIFICANCE 0.5055 MIN E .F 0. 202 CELLS WITH E . F . < 5 30 OF 36 ( 83.3%) - 128 -T a b l e V I I C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n o f V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s i n Statement Mode i n R e l a t i o n to Student T u r n L e n g t h . 7 APR 86 TURN LENGTH AND ENVIRONMENTS - - STUDENTS & TRANSACTIONALS 13:24:27 STRATEGY AND LENGTH OF STUDENT (TRANSACTIONAL) TURNS C R O S S T A B U L A T I O N O F - - - - - -LENGTH HOW LONG IS THIS TURN? BY STRATEGY TEACHERS STRATEGY CONTROLLING FOR.. PROBE VALUE = 2.00 STATEMENT COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT LENGTH WORD OR STRATEGY ELABORAT INCORPOR UNDEFINE OPINION VALIDATI ANALYSIS FACT ION ATION D ON 1.00| 2 .00| 3 .00| 4.00| 5.00| 7.00| 8.00| 0 FRAGMENT 1 ONE CLAUSAL CHUN TWO CLAUSAL CHUN THREE CLAUSAL CH FOUR CLAUSAL CHU FIVE OR MORE CHU COLUMN TOTAL 1 25 .0 5.9 1 .6 3 18.8 17.6 4.9 4 50.0 23 . 5 6.6 6 37 . 5 35 . 3 9.8 2 28.6 11.8 3 . 3 1 10.0 5.9 1 .6 17 27.9 2 12.5 25 .0 3 . 3 3 18.8 37 . 5 4.9 1 14.3 12.5 1 .6 20.0 25.0 3 . 3 8 13. 1 1 25.0 25 .0 1 .6 2 50.0 8 . 7 3 . 3 2 12.5 50.0 3 . 3 2 12.5 50.0 3 . 3 4 25.0 17.4 6 . 6 2 12.5 100.0 3 . 3 4 50.0 17.4 6.6 12 50 3 5 31.3 21 .7 8.2 1 14.3 25 .0 1 .6 3 42 . 9 13.0 4.9 4 6 . 6 4 6.6 50.0 21 .7 8 . 2 23 37 . 7 1 6 . 3 33 . 3 1 .6 2 3 . 3 2 20.0 66 . 7 3 . 3 3 4 . 9 ROW TOTAL 4 6.6 16 26.2 8 13.1 16 26 . 2 7 11.5 10 16.4 61 100.0 CHI-SOUARE D . F . SIGNIFICANCE MIN E . F . CELLS WITH E . F . < 5 29.16010 30 0.5092 0.131 40 OF 42 ( 95.2%) - 129 -than f i v e cases which c o m p l i c a t e s t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . There appears to be no c l e a r p a t t e r n i n r e l a t i o n to the e f f e c t by t eacher statement s t r a t e g i e s on s tudent t u r n l e n g t h . 4.4.1 Discussion There appear to be no e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s to date which d e a l wi th t u r n l e n g t h i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r s t r a t e g i e s . References i n the l i t e r a t u r e are made in a g e n e r a l way to the l i m i t a t i o n s on s tudent t a l k imposed by the d i s c o u r s e system of the c l a s s r o o m . T e a c h e r s ' t a l k has been d e s c r i b e d through d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s as h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d a l t e r n a t i o n s between i n i t i a t i o n turns and e v a l u a t i o n t u r n s which c i r c u m s c r i b e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s tudent input (Mehan 1979; Stubbs 1976) . Teachers are c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r r e l i a n c e on lower order and r e c a l l q u e s t i o n s ( H a r g i e 1978) and t h e i r n e g l e c t i n e l a b o r a t i n g s t u d e n t s ' answers ( W e l l s 1980). The s p e c i f i c na ture of t e a c h e r s ' s t r a t e g i e s i n the c l a s s r o o m , the methods they use to i n c o r p o r a t e the p r e c e d i n g u t t e r a n c e s of t h e i r s tudents as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r t a l k , has not as yet been a d d r e s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s c o n s t i t u t e a p r e l i m i n a r y i n q u i r y i n t o the g e n e r a l area of t e a c h e r s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r e f f e c t on s tudent t u r n l e n g t h . - 130 -Finding One The s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r t u r n l e n g t h a s s o c i a t e d with c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n these f i n d i n g s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n s made throughout the l i t e r a t u r e on the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s s t r a t e g y ( G a l l a g h e r 1965; Stubbs 1976; Barnes 1976) , as w e l l as e t h n o g r a p h i c da ta d i s c u s s e d wi th r e g a r d to p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s . T r a n s c r i p t e x c e r p t s have shown O u t r e a c h s tudents to have d i s t i n c t l y h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e s toward "test q u e s t i o n " and " s p o t - l i g h t i n g " i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . C l o s e d q u e s t i o n s are almost synonymous w i t h "test q u e s t i o n " s t r a t e g i e s ; t eacher u s u a l l y knows the answer a l r e a d y and i s t e s t i n g the s t u d e n t ' s r e t e n t i o n or comprehension of the s u b j e c t m a t t e r . Hidden s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e may r e s t r i c t t u r n l e n g t h w i t h i n these c o n t e x t s ( P h i l i p s 1972; E r i c k s o n and Mohatt 1982) . The t e a c h e r ' s volume o b j e c t i v e s d u r i n g these r i t u a l i z e d q u e s t i o n and answer " f i l l i n the b l an k s " s e s s i o n s are low, p a r t i c u l a r l y when f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s the t a r g e t . The a p p r o p r i a t e response w i t h i n t h i s contex t i s a chorus of one word answers . Open q u e s t i o n s f e l l i n t o an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n between c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s and s ta tements . They d i d not appear to generate s i g n i f i c a n t l y l onger t u r n l e n g t h than f a c t q u e s t i o n s , and they were l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n g e n e r a t i n g l o n g e r t u r n l e n g t h than s tatements as a whole . - 131 -These r e s u l t s are somewhat unexpected i n terms of the p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of d i v e r g e n t q u e s t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e ( G a l l a g h e r 1965) as w e l l as Brown & Y u l e ' s r e c e n t i n q u i r i e s i n t o the e f f e c t of an i n f o r m a t i o n gap between speaker and l i s t e n e r i n i n c r e a s i n g t a l k . C l o s e r examinat ion of the data would i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of two f u r t h e r subsets w i t h i n the "open" c a t e g o r y . The f i r s t subset are q u e s t i o n s which are genuine r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . The teacher i s aware that the s tudent knows the answer; c o n v e r s e l y the s tudent knows tha t the t eacher d o e s n ' t know the answer. T h i s type of q u e s t i o n would f u l f i l l one of Brown and Y u l e ' s (1983) c o n d i t i o n s f o r optimum p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h a t an i n f o r m a t i o n gap e x i s t between speaker and l i s t e n e r so tha t the former w i l l be m o t i v a t e d to communicate what he knows. In a d d i t i o n the use of these q u e s t i o n s t e m p o r a r i l y defuses two r e l a t e d sources of communicat ion breakdown: the a s s y m e t r i c a l power r e l a t i o n s between t eacher and s t u d e n t , and the demand f o r v e r b a l performance and e v a l u a t i o n . The second subset i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s "open." These are d i v e r g e n t q u e s t i o n s f o r which the s tudents have a range of o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to them; however, the t eacher n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i n e s the l i m i t s of the d i v e r g e n c e and e v a l u a t e s the q u a l i t y of the answer. The f i r s t s u b s e t ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r g e n e r a t i n g i n c r e a s e d t u r n l e n g t h c o u l d be t e s t e d i n i s o l a t i o n from the second through f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . - 132 -Finding 2, 3, and 4 None of the s i x c a t e g o r i e s which had been generated to d e s c r i b e v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s proved s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e i n the e l i c i t a t i o n of long turns i n e i t h e r q u e s t i o n or statement mode. N e i t h e r was there any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the l e n g t h of turns e l i c i t e d by s tatements and the l e n g t h of turns e l i c i t e d by q u e s t i o n s . These r e s u l t s may be a t t r i b u t e d to s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . The cod ing system may have been too i n s e n s i t i v e to s p e c i f y impor tant d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s c o u r s e b e h a v i o u r . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s neces sary to r e f i n e the c a t e g o r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n a f t e r t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y data a n a l y s i s . The r e s e a r c h was c o n f i n e d to a very narrow f o c u s — t u r n by t u r n v e r b a l exchanges between teacher and s t u d e n t . The use of the t u r n as a u n i t of a n a l y s i s l i m i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s o c c u r r i n g at s u p e r - o r d i n a t e d i s c o u r s e l e v e l s . A l l e n , F r o l i c h and Spada c l a i m "the communicat ive o r i e n t a t i o n of c lassrooms i s not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i n g l e f e a t u r e , but by a c l u s t e r of i n t e r - r e l a t e d d imens ions" ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The e f f e c t s of v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s may be n u l l i f i e d by powerfu l i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n o ther d imens ions of c l a s s r o o m communicat ion , such as c l a s s r o o m management t o p i c c o n t r o l , p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e s and a c t i v i t y t y p e . C e r t a i n l y the v a r i o u s ways i n which t e a c h e r s r e a c t to t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n s should have some e f f e c t on t h e i r s tudents o u t p u t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y these r e s u l t s do not - 133 -g i v e any c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of how s t u d e n t t u r n l e n g t h may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s , v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s . 4.4.2 Students Attitudes Toward Teacher Verbal Strategies Few s t u d e n t remarks r e l a t e e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y the c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n the c o d i n g system. The d i s t i n c t i o n would appear too f i n e g r a i n e d f o r the s t u d e n t s to n o t i c e i n most c a s e s . The o n l y c a t e g o r i e s which the s t u d e n t s made s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o were q u e s t i o n s and e l a b o r a t i o n s . These have been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r w i t h i n the H y p o t h e s i s One r e s u l t s . 4.4.3 Examples of Teachers' Verbal Strategies Open Q u e s t i o n s : " T e l l me how you smoke t h a t f i s h . " "What would you l i k e t o t a l k a bout?" "Do you f e e l you're l e a r n i n g a l o t about N a t i v e people? C l o s e d Q u e s t i o n s : "Who can remember what an o r a l h i s t o r y i s ? " "Why do the M e t i s want to have t h e i r own government?" "Did the I r o q u o i s have a garden i n t h e i r v i l l a g e ? " V a l i d a t i o n : Q u e s t i o n : Teacher: "No, no i t s h e r r i n g roe they t r y and g e t . " W i l l y : "No!" Teacher: " I s n ' t i t W i l l y ? " Statement: W i l l y : " I dunno — may be they don't have salmon i n Japan." Teacher: " W e l l t h a t ' s a good p o i n t . I doubt i t , I doubt i t v e r y much." - 134 -I n c o r p o r a t i o n : Q u e s t i o n : Very good! "They w r i t e l i k e they t a l k . " . . . they use the n a t u r a l language of everyday l i f e . . . Now has everybody got a way of say ing t h a t ? Statement: I n c o r p o r a t i o n : Teacher : Nora: Teacher : A n a l y s i s : Q u e s t i o n : "What would happen to Canada i f Japan stopped t r a d i n g wi th u s . . . . And d i d a l l t h e i r t rade wi th o ther c o u n t r i e s ? " Statement: "If they f i s h e d a l l the f i s h o u t , next season t h e y ' d have no f i s h , so the Japanese buy f i s h from other c o u n t r i e s . They have a v e r y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n , they c a n ' t get enough f i s h . " E l a b o r a t i o n : Q u e s t i o n : "Your Dad i s a c o n t r a c t o r . Does tha t mean he h i r e s 9 " " F a n t a s i e s — o k a y . . . . What k i n d of f a n t a s i e s ? " Statement: "Okay t h i s i s what we would c a l l an o r a l people who l i v e d i t . . . . Very i n f o r m a l . . . a l o t of you on your r e s e v e s , you may have heard of your e l d e r s t e l l i n g s t o r i e s to v i s i t i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . " "Why do you t h i n k t e a c h e r s have s tudents l e a r n about o ther c o u n t r i e s ? " "So you know what 's going on i n the world?" " T h a t ' s r i g h t , because what 's go ing on i n the wor ld a f f e c t s you . . . when you s t a r t h e a r i n g about unemployment and how the government d o e s n ' t have any more, those t h i n g s are a f f e c t e d by our r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o ther c o u n t r i e s . " - 135 -O p i n i o n : Q u e s t i o n : "Do you t h i n k -he gets h i s p o i n t a c r o s s w i th t h a t E n g l i s h ? " "Do you t h i n k i t s u s e l e s s to t r y and f i g h t back?" Statement: "The Queen looks l i k e she 'd r a t h e r be p l a y i n g with her g r a n d c h i l d r e n . She d o e s n ' t l ook l i k e she ' s e n j o y i n g h e r s e l f at a l l . F a c t D e l i v e r y : Q u e s t i o n : "What i s Ottawa the c a p i t a l o f ? " Statement: "Ottawa i s where the p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s a r e . T h a t ' s where the Prime M i n i s t e r and a l l h i s f r i e n d s make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . " - 136 -CHAPTER FIVE - SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS In t h i s c h a p t e r the f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t to the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be summarized. C o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be drawn from the f i n d i n g s i n terms of the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e rev i ew . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to p o s s i b l e i n n o v a t i o n s i n c l a s s r o o m methodology w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 5.1 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY Hypothes i s Ul: S tudents w i l l take s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s h o r t turns (0 to 2 c l a u s a l chunks) than long ones (3 and above c l a u s a l c h u n k s ) . E i g h t y - f i v e percent of the t r a n s a c t i o n a l turns taken by Outreach s tudents d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s were w i t h i n the 0-2 c l a u s a l chunk r a n g e . The absence of a c o n t r o l group or any e m p i r i c a l data on s tudent t u r n l e n g t h i n the l i t e r a t u r e make a comparison between the s tudents and o ther p o p u l a t i o n s i m p o s s i b l e . The i n f e r e n c e may be drawn that the s tudents do not use e l a b o r a t e d language the m a j o r i t y of the t ime . A c o n f i g u r a t i o n of language a t t i t u d e s which appeared to c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s communication s t y l e was drawn from n a t u r a l i s t i c d a t a . The s tudents s t a t e d p r e f e r e n c e s for - 137 -economy of e x p r e s s i o n in terms of t h e i r own speech , and r e a c t e d a n x i o u s l y a g a i n s t the volume of language t h e i r t e a c h e r s generated and e x p e c t e d . Students r e a c t e d n e g a t i v e l y to t e s t - q u e s t i o n s and s p o t - l i g h t i n g s t r a t e g i e s . They were s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about t h e i r own n o n - s t a n d a r d forms and i n f o r m a l r e g i s t e r s . T h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r p e r s o n a l content over impersona l content was r e f l e c t e d in extended t o p i c n e g o t i a t i o n and f o r e - s h o r t e n e d t u r n l e n g t h d u r i n g t u r n s u s i n g p u b l i c c o n t e n t . Hypothesis #2 and #3 S t u d e n t s ' s h o r t turns w i l l have p r e d o m i n a n t l y p u b l i c c o n t e n t . S t u d e n t s ' l o n g turns w i l l have p r i m a r i l y p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t . The content of s h o r t t u r n s i s much more o f t e n i m p e r s o n a l ; whereas the content of long turns i s much more o f t e n p e r s o n a l (X square = 29 .14 , DF = 10, F Prob = . 0012) . These f i n d i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of p a t t e r n s which were r e v e a l e d through e t h n o g r a p h i c i n q u i r y methods. Students and t e a c h e r s showed d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e toward p u b l i c and p e r s o n a l modes i n c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g . Students were observed i n extended t o p i c n e g o t i a t i o n s to g a i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l time f o r p e r s o n a l - 138 -content t o p i c s . The s tudents made s k i l l f u l use of p e r s o n a l content as they deve loped t h e i r ideas through such v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s as g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , ana logy , p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e , and s p e c i f i c examples w i t h i n g e n e r a l c a s e s . Hypothesis #4 Student t u r n l e n g t h w i l l vary a c c o r d i n g to t eacher q u e s t i o n and statement s t r a t e g i e s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between s tudent t u r n l e n g t h and the t e a c h e r ' s use of any of the s i x d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s i n e i t h e r q u e s t i o n or statement mode. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appeared between open and c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s ; however, c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s as a sub group e l i c i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer long turns than statement s t r a t e g i e s as a g r o u p . 5.2 CONCLUSIONS P r o g r e s s i v e language a r t s e d u c a t o r s s t r o n g l y recommend i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s tudent t a l k d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e some i n h e r e n t problems i n the implementa t ion of such a p p a r e n t l y s imple and p o s i t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s w i t h i n the Outreach A l t e r n a t i v e Schoo l s e t t i n g . They a l s o i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s - 139 -a long which a s u c c e s s f u l oracy component c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . The b a s i c p o s i t i o n of the " t a l k i n g to l e a r n " advocates i s expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g excerpt from Language, The  L e a r n e r , and the S c h o o l . We are s a y i n g that i t i s as t a l k e r s , q u e s t i o n e r s , a r g u e r s , g o s s i p s , c h a t t e r b o x e s tha t our p u p i l s do most of the important l e a r n i n g . [ T h e i r everyday t a l k i n g v o i c e s are the most s u b t l e and v e r s a t i l e means o f making sense of what they do, and f o r making sense of o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g t h e i r t e a c h e r s . Schoo l should be a p l a c e i n which we can hear the sound of ' the c o n v e r s a t i o n of mankind' . . . f o r i n the end, the t eacher can o n l y make sense of h i s p u p i l s making sense . He can on ly work wi th t h e i r m e a n i n g s ] . ( B a r n e s , B r i t t o n and Rosen , 1969, p . 127) The r e s u l t s of the s tudy i n terms of t h i s p o s i t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s . Outreach s tudents were observed making sense of t h e i r t e a c h e r ' s meanings through a wide v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ; however, t h e r e were a l s o many o c c a s i o n s when they r e s i s t e d or withdrew from c l a s s r o o m communicat ion . T h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t u r n l e n g t h was l i m i t e d to 2 c l a u s a l chunks c l o s e to 90% of the t ime , which i s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t i v e that they d i d not e x t e n s i v e l y e l a b o r a t e t h e i r ideas most of the t i m e . If the t e a c h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n i s to "work wi th s tudent meanings" then a r i c h v a r i e t y of these meanings must be a c t i v a t e d to serve as the pr ima m a t e r i a f o r l e a r n i n g . The study shows i n s t a n c e s of s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e and - 140 -c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s which appear to c o n s t r i c t t a l k ; the f o s t e r i n g of s u s t a i n e d e l a b o r a t e d d i s c o u r s e d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s at Outreach may depend on m o d i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e . Adequate s tudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n would a l s o seem dependent on the i n c l u s i o n of p e r s o n a l content w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of a p p r o p r i a t e c la s sroom t o p i c s . The second s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g of t h i s study shows a s t r o n g c o - o c c u r r e n c e of extended t u r n l e n g t h wi th p e r s o n a l content d u r i n g t r a n s a c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s tudent t u r n s . S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Considerations The s tandard d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e of the c l a s s r o o m d i d not appear to p r o v i d e the s tudents w i th an environment which encouraged long t u r n p r o d u c t i o n . The d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s produced s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e s which were r e f l e c t e d i n s tudent b e h a v i o u r and a r t i c u l a t e d by the s tudents themse lves . A consensus e x i s t s among r e s e a r c h e r s ( P h i l i p s 1972; E r i c k s o n & Mohatt 1982; Dumont 1972; L a r s e n 1983) tha t the p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e i n which a t eacher e v a l u a t e s the v e r b a l performance of an i n d i v i d u a l s tudent i n f r o n t of an audience of h i s c la s smates i s a l i e n to the communication e t i q u e t t e of N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . The p o t e n t i a l o f a l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n format g e n e r a t i n g an a p p r e c i a b l e amount of e l a b o r a t e d speech with the N a t i v e s tudents at Outreach would appear l i m i t e d . Optimum - 141 -c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of t h i s s t r u c t u r e had been p r e s e n t d u r i n g the s t u d y . The s tudents were a l l o f N a t i v e o r i g i n , were on f a m i l i a r terras wi th one another and the t e a c h e r s , and a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g environment was c u l t i v a t e d . The t e a c h e r s i n some ways attempted to work " i n l o c o p a r e n t i s " to p r o v i d e "the r i c h v a r i e t y of sentences c l o s e l y t i e d to the c h i l d ' s p r o d u c t i o n " (de V i l l i e r s 1983) which c h i l d language a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h c l a i m s o f f e r s the optimum environment f o r language development . T h i s i d e a l language l e a r n i n g contex t—"the n e g o t i a t i o n of i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y between c h i l d and c a r e g i v e r " (Wel l s 1982) appears o n l y p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a b l e i n the c l a s s r o o m environment due to the a s s y m e t r i c a l power r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r and s tudents as w e l l as s tudent a t t i t u d e s around performance and e v a l u a t i o n . The r e a l i z a t i o n of the l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l i n h e r e n t i n the " t a l k i n g to l e a r n " methodology may be c o n t i n g e n t on a rework ing of the p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n O u t r e a c h c l a s s r o o m s . G i l l i a n Brown (1983) found that the s m a l l group p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e met both c o n d i t i o n s f o r optimum speech p r o d u c t i o n : t o p i c s c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d i n which a f u n c t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n gap e x i s t e d between speakers and l i s t e n e r s , and communicat ive s t r e s s was n e u t r a l i z e d s i n c e s tudent s were t a l k i n g to t h e i r equa l s as opposed to an a d u l t w i t h i n a performance s i t u a t i o n . Mof fe t (1968) recommends a - 142 -p a r t i c i p a n t s t r u c t u r e i n which s tudents are p e r m i t t e d to address one another d i r e c t l y wi thout the t eacher s e r v i n g as an i n t e r m e d i a r y between a l l speaking t u r n s . Douglas Barnes (1976) compares the r i c h n e s s of language c h i l d r e n generate i n s m a l l group s i t u a t i o n s wi th t h e i r more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and s t a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s when they are t r y i n g to "second-guess" the t e a c h e r . Susan P h i l i p s (1972) demonstrated c o n c l u s i v e l y tha t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n f u n c t i o n e d best as l e a r n e r s i n t e a c h e r - i n d e p e n d e n t smal l groups and were s i n g u l a r l y r e l u c t a n t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s t r u c t u r e d c la s sroom t a l k . S i n c e t e a c h e r - l e d l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n s c e n a r i o s dominate the presen t secondary e d u c a t i o n system, i t would appear p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to document s tudent p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n these c o n t e x t s . Outreach s tudents s t r o n g l y p r e f e r r e d tha t i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s be m o d i f i e d to more c l o s e l y resemble n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s . They were observed in the da ta to c o n s t a n t l y lobby f o r i n c r e a s e d r i g h t s i n t o p i c c o n t r o l and fewer t e s t q u e s t i o n s and performance s i t u a t i o n s . S t u d e n t - i n i t i a t e d " i n t e r m i s s i o n p e r i o d s , " when i n t e r p e r s o n a l language dominated , were a l s o v e r y common throughout the d a t a ; these p e r i o d s appeared to r e s t o r e e q u i l i b r i u m , and s tudents w i l l i n g l y r e t u r n e d to the t r a n s a c t i o n a l t o p i c framework a f t e r t h e i r time o u t . K l e i n f e l d ' s (1972) work i s p a r t i c u l a r l y germane when c o n s i d e r i n g these i s s u e s . She emphasizes that the - 143 -i n t e r p e r s o n a l d imens ion i s h i g h l y va lued i n ind igenous c u l t u r e s , and c l a s s r o o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c o n t i n g e n t on s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s forming p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t would appear that t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e communication c o n t e x t s f o r N a t i v e s tudents to the ex tent that mainstream e d u c a t i o n system c r i t e r i a f o r a p p r o p r i a t e speech are r e l a x e d and the c l a s s r o o m atmosphere p e r s o n a l i z e d . Meaning-Related Considerations The secondary s choo l system i s n e c e s s a r i l y concerned wi th i n c r e a s i n g l y d e p e r s o n a l i z e d , d e - c o n t e x t u a l i z e d o r d e r s of meaning. A l though O u t r e a c h i s an a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g env ironment , the emphasis of c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s i s s t i l l p r i m a r i l y on p u b l i c systems of meaning. C u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t s tudents l i k e the N a t i v e I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s at Outreach may not be i n phase wi th the o r d e r s of meaning t r a n s m i t t e d through the mainstream e d u c a t i o n system, p a r t i c u l a r l y at a secondary l e v e l where the s tudents are expected to i m p e r s o n a l i z e n a r r a t i v e s and g e n e r a l i z e about phenomena, a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a which have evo lved through the development of the European e s s a y i s t prose s t y l e . The e d u c a t i o n a l f a i l u r e of m i n o r i t y s tudents i s o f t e n e x p l i c a t e d i n terms of a h y p o t h e t i c a l mismatch between the - 144 -language o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l i a r community domain and the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the s c h o o l system ( H a l l i d a y 1973; B e r n s t e i n 1971). S c o l l o n and S c o l l o n (1981) t h e o r i z e d that a n t i t h e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s to meaning operate w i t h i n the "bush consc iousnes s" of Athapaskan N a t i v e s , and the " l i t e r a t e consc iousnes s" of m i d d l e - c l a s s W h i t e s . B r i c e Heath (1982) c h r o n i c l e s the c o n f u s i o n and d iscouragement of B l a c k and White working c l a s s c h i l d r e n when they t r y to use i n a p p r o p r i a t e "home h a b i t s of h a n d l i n g language w i t h i n the mainstream c l a s s r o o m . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study demonstrate tha t the Outreach s tudents p a r t i c i p a t e d r e l a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e l y i n c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s when a nexus e x i s t e d between home/community knowledge and s c h o o l knowledge. When the s tudents were ab le to i n t e r r e l a t e e lements of t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e a l i t y w i th the p u b l i c knowledge system presented through the s c h o o l , h i g h e r l e v e l s of e l a b o r a t i o n and extended t u r n l e n g t h o c c u r r e d . Classroom t a l k may be ab le to serve a v a l u a b l e t r a n s i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n between the meaning o r d e r s of home and community and those of the s c h o o l . Schoo l knowledge i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of o b j e c t i v e and i m p e r s o n a l t e r m i n o l o g i e s , and o r g a n i z e d through the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems of e s t a b l i s h e d d i s c i p l i n e s . The p r o v i s i o n of - 145 -c o n t e x t s f o r i n f o r m a l s t u d e n t t a l k d u r i n g which p r i n t e d t e x t , or t e a c h e r s ' l e s s o n s c o u l d be c o l l e c t i v e l y t a l k e d over and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the s t u d e n t s ' terms of r e f e r e n c e would h e l p reduce the a l i e n a t i o n and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n these s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . M o f f e t ' s summary o f c u r r i c u l u m i d e a l s g i v e s a t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o acce s s knowledge through whichever s t r u c t u r e s a re a p p r o p r i a t e i n terms of t h e i r p e r s o n a l development and p r e v i o u s s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The e s s e n t i a l purpose of a c u r r i c u l u m would be to have s t u d e n t s a b s t r a c t a t a l l ranges of the s y m b o l i c spectrum and p r o g r e s s i v e l y to i n t e g r a t e t h e s e a b s t r a c t i o n s i n t o thought s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a s s i m i l a t e both a u t i s t i c and p u b l i c modes of c o g n i t i o n . . . the g o a l i s not so much to a t t a i n h i g h e r l e v e l s but to p r a c t i s e a b s t r a c t i n g a l l a l o n g the way. No g r e a t e r v a l u e i s a s c r i b e d t o one l e v e l than the o t h e r . Both c o n c r e t e n e s s and a b s t r a c t i o n are dangerous and v a l u a b l e . ( M o f f e t 1968, pg. 25) The p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which a r i s e from t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e an e q u a l l y s t r o n g argument f o r the i n c l u s i o n of more p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t w i t h i n the Outreach h u m a n i t i e s c u r r i c u l u m . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a " t a l k i n g t o l e a r n " o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s depends on the w i l l i n g n e s s of the s t u d e n t s t o t a l k . The study has demonstrated t h a t these s t u d e n t s t a l k at l e n g t h p r i m a r i l y when they a re i n v o l v e d w i t h - 146 -p e r s o n a l content w i t h i n the t o p i c framework of the l e s s o n . 5.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH S e v e r a l s p e c i f i c areas of i n t e r e s t emerged from t h i s r e s e a r c h . - T o p i c n e g o t i a t i o n emerged as a v e r y p r o v o c a t i v e area f o r f u t u r e study s i n c e i t served as an index of power r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s , and o f f e r e d i n s i g h t s i n t o the ways the s tudents t r y to o v e r l a p t h e i r meaning system wi th the t e a c h e r s ' . - The e n t i r e area of t e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s i n the c lassroom—how they i n c o r p o r a t e the u t t e r a n c e s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s — c e r t a i n l y m e r i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . - The p o t e n t i a l o f c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g and s m a l l group c o n t e x t s w i th N a t i v e I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s tudents should be i n v e s t i g a t e d t h o r o u g h l y . - E x t e n s i v e e t h n o g r a p h i c i n q u i r i e s mode l l ed a f t e r B r i c e Heath ' s s tudy are needed to o f f e r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about language and l i t e r a c y w i t h i n the growing urban Ind ian p o p u l a t i o n . - 1 4 7 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , Roach van . Language E x p e r i e n c e i n Communicat ion . Houghton M i f f l i n , 1976. A r b e s s , S a u l , Penny Joy and Maureen Murdoch. New S t r a t e g i e s  i n I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n : U t i l i z i n g the I n d i a n C h i l d ' s  Advantages i n the Elementary Clas sroom ( I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ) , 1982. Ashworth , Mary. The F o r c e s Which Shaped Them: A H i s t o r y o f  the E d u c a t i o n of M i n o r i t y Group C h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a . New Star Books , V a n c o u v e r . Ashton-Warner , S y l v i a . T e a c h e r . Simon & S c h u s t e r , 1963. B a r n e s , D. From Communication to C u r r i c u l u m . T oronto Penguin E d u c a t i o n , 1976. B a r n e s , D . , B r i t t o n , J . , Rosen, J . ( e d s . ) . Language, the  L e a r n e r and the S c h o o l . London: Penguin Papers i n E d u c a t i o n , Penguin E d u c a t i o n , 1969. B e r e i t e r , C a r l and Engelman, S e i g f r i e d . Teach ing  Di sadvantaged C h i l d r e n i n the P r e - S c h o o l . ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1966) . B e r k o , J e a n . "An E x p e r i m e n t a l Approach to Improving C h i l d r e n s ' Communicative A b i l i t y i n Language" i n E a r l y  C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . E d . Courtney B. Cazden ( N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the E d u c a t i o n of Young C h i l d r e n , 1972) . B e r n s t e i n , B a s i l . "A S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Approach to S o c i a l L e a r n i n g " i n C l a s s Codes and C o n t r o l V o l . 2. E d . B a s i l B e r n s t e i n , London: Rout lege and Kegan P a u l , 1971. B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , N a t i v e L i t e r a c y and  L i f e S k i l l s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e l i n e s : A Resource Book f o r  A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n , 1981. B r i t t o n , J . Language and L e a r n i n g . Harmondsworth: Penguin Books , 1976. Brown, G i l l i a n , Y u l e George . D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s . Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983. Brown, Roger W. Language and C a t e g o r i e s i n A Study o f T h i n k i n g , Jerome B r u n e r , J a c q u e l i n e J . Goodenow, and George A u s t i n . New Y o r k : John Wiley and Sons , I n c . , 1967, pp . 247-248. •148-B r u n e r , Jerome, Goodenow, J a c q u e l i n e J . , and A u s t i n , George . A Study of T h i n k i n g . New Y o r k : John Wiley and Sons , I n c . , 1967. B u l l o c k , A l a n ( C h a i r m a n ) . A Language for L i f e . London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , 1975. Cazden, C . , Hymes, D . , and J o h n , V . The F u n c t i o n s of  Language i n the C l a s s r o o m . New Y o r k : Columbia T e a c h e r ' s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1972. Cazden, C . B . "The S i t u a t i o n , A N e g l e c t e d Source of S o c i a l C l a s s D i f f e r e n c e s i n Language Use" i n S o c i o l i n g u i s t i e s . E d s . J . B . P r i d e and Holmes, J . P e n g u i n , 1979. Dumont, Robert N . J r . , " L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h and How to Be S i l e n t : S t u d i e s i n Sioux and Cherokee Classrooms" i n F u n c t i o n s o f Language i n the C l a s s r o o m , E d . C . B . Cazden , V . P . J o h n , and D. Hymes. New Y o r k : Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1972. Edwards, A . D . Language i n C u l t u r e and C l a s s . London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n Books , 1976. E r i c k s o n , F r e d e r i c k and Mohat t , G e r a l d . The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n of P a r t i c i p a n t S t r u c t u r e s i n Two Classrooms o f I n d i a n S t u d e n t s . Doing the Ethnography  of S c h o o l i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l A n t h r o p o l o g y i n A c t i o n . George S p i n d l e r , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1982. Goodman, Y e t t a and B u r k e , C a r o l i n e . Reading Miscue  I n v e n t o r y . M a c m i l l a n , 1972. G r e e n , J u d i t h and W a l l e t , C y n t h i a . Ethnography and Language  i n E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s . Norwood, New J e r s e y : Ablex P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981. Gumperz, John J . and D e l l , Hymes. D i r e c t i o n s i n S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s : The Ethnography of Communicat ion . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1972. Gumperz, John J . D i s c o u r s e S t r a t e g i e s . Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. H a l l , Mary Ann. T e a c h i n g Reading as a Language E x p e r i e n c e . C h a r l e s & M e r v i l l , 1970. H a l l i d a y , M . A . K . E x p l o r a t i o n s i n the F u n c t i o n s o f  Language. A r n o l d , 1973. -149-Hasan, Ruqaya. "Code, R e g i s t e r and S o c i a l D i a l e c t " i n B a s i l B e r n s t e i n ( e d . ) , C l a s s , Codes , and C o n t r o l , V o l . II (London: Rout lege and Kegan P a u l , 1973) . Hawthorn, H . et a l . A Survey o f the Contemporary Indians o f  Canada: V o l . I I . Ottawa: I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , 1967. Heath , S h i r l e y . Ways With Words: Language L i f e and Work i n  Communities and C l a s s r o o m s . New Y o r k : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983. Hymes, D e l l . I n t r o d u c t i o n i n F u n c t i o n s of Language i n the  C l a s s r o o m . E d . Courtney Cazden, D e l l Hymes and Vera P . J o h n . Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1972. Hymes, D . H . "On Communicative Competence" i n S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s . E d s . J . B . P r i d e and Holmes, J . P e n g u i n , 1972. K l e i n f e l d , J u d i t h . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e and the Performance  o f I n d i a n and Eskimo S t u d e n t s . U n i v e r s i t y of A l a s k a , F a i r b a n k s , 1972, ERIC Document No. E d . 059 831. Kochman, Thomas. Rapping i n the B l a c k G h e t t o . T r a n s a c t i o n , F e b r u a r y , 1979. L a b o v , W i l l i a m . "The L o g i c of Non-Standard E n g l i s h " i n V a r i e t i e s of P r e s e n t Day E n g l i s h . E d . by Fay Robinson and B a i l e y , R . B . M a c M i l l a n C o . , 1973. Mehan, Hugh. L e a r n i n g L e s s o n s . Cambridge , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. M o f f e t , James. A S t u d e n t - C e n t e r e d Language A r t s C u r r i c u l u m ;  Grades K - 1 3 : A Handbook f o r T e a c h e r s . Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , B o s t o n , 1973. M o f f e t , James. Teach ing the U n i v e r s e of D i s c o u r s e . B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1968. Mohan, Bernard A . Language and C o n t e n t . A d d i s o n - W e s l e y , 1986. Nakonechny, C a r o l e and Anderson , S t a r l a . . N a x ' N i l h Algax  Ha'm: C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r Teach ing Language A r t s to  N a t i v e S tudents i n Secondary C l a s s r o o m s . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Schoo l B o a r d . S c o l l o n , Ron and S c o l l o n , Suzanne, B . K . S c o l l o n . N a r r a t i v e ,  L i t e r a c y and F a c e . Ablex P r e s s , 1980. -150 ' S p i n d l e r , George . Doing the Ethnography of S c h o o l i n g : E d u c a t i o n a l A n t h r o p o l o g y i n A c t i o n . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins ton , 1982. S p r a d l e y , James P . The E t h n o g r a p h i c I n t e r v i e w . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1979. S t r a n g , R u t h . D e v e l o p i n g O r a l E x p r e s s i o n . Language A r t s  i n The Elementary S c h o o l : R e a d i n g s . Hal D. Funk & De-Wayne T r i p l e t t s E d s . T o r o n t o : J . B . L i p p i n c o t t C o . , 1972. S tubbs , M. Language, S c h o o l s and C l a s s r o o m s . London: Methuen, 1976. S tubbs , M i c h a e l and H i l l i e r , H i l a r y . Readings on Language,  S c h o o l s , and C l a s s r o o m s . London and New Y o r k , 1983. Tough, J o a n . T a l k i n g and L e a r n i n g : A Guide to F o s t e r i n g  Communication S k i l l s i n Nursery and I n fant S c h o o l . S c h o o l s C o u n c i l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1977. T r u d g i l l , P e t e r . S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n . P e n g u i n , 1978. W e l l s , G o r d o n . L e a r n i n g Through I n t e r a c t i o n . Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. W i l d , J o y , Nakonechy, C a r o l e , S t . J a c q u e s , B e r n a r d . S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Aspec t s o f N a t i v e Speech. J o u r n a l of  S o c i a l L i n g u i s t i c s . Volume 14, Number 1. W o l c o t t , Harry F . A K w a k u i t l V i l l a g e and S c h o o l . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1967. -151 APPENDIX 1 OUTREACH BACKGROUND INFORMATION Source : B r i t a n n i a Secondary Schoo l A c c r e d i t a t i o n Document. H i s t o r i c a l Overview Outreach Schoo l had i t s b e g i n n i n g s on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t i n 1973. S o c i a l w o r k e r s , youth and r e c r e a t i o n workers , and s t a f f at the F i r s t U n i t e d Church were concerned wi th the l a r g e numbers o f N a t i v e I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s , some b a r e l y o l d e r than e lementary s c h o o l age, who were hanging around on "the drag" ( H a s t i n g s S t r e e t from r o u g h l y Gore to Cambie S t r e e t ) . Many of them were seemingly homeless , and were i n v o l v e d wi th a l c o h o l , g lue and o t h e r d r u g s , or were not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . S e v e r a l downtown agenc ies met about the p r o b l e m , and a p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d wi th a LIP g r a n t . T h i s e a r l y p r o j e c t was a youth d r o p - i n , runn ing from l a t e a f t e r n o o n to e a r l y e v e n i n g . A core group of "youth" responded very w e l l to t h i s i n p u t , and began coming e a r l i e r and e a r l i e r i n the day . They a l s o began to express i n t e r e s t i n o b t a i n i n g t u t o r i n g , because they had been out of s choo l f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , or had v e r y low s k i l l l e v e l s , or b o t h . The L I P s t a f f began borrowing books and t u t o r i n g the s t u d e n t s . E v e n t u a l l y , a t eacher was h i r e d by the P r i n c i p a l o f B r i t a n n i a Secondary S c h o o l . -152 The f i r s t o f f i c i a l program at O u t r e a c h ran from 1:00 -3:00 and had a t u t o r i a l type format w i t h a t eacher and some L I P workers t e a c h i n g Math and E n g l i s h on ly wi th a patchwork c o l l e c t i o n of books and m a t e r i a l s i n one room i n the F i r s t U n i t e d C h u r c h . The program t r i e d to cover a l l a spec t s of the s t u d e n t ' s l i v e s . A d r o p - i n was s t i l l o p e r a t i n g n i g h t l y , w i t h workers from nearby S t r a t h c o n a Community Centre a l s o i n v o l v e d . S t a f f he lped s tudents wi th h o u s i n g , c o n n e c t i o n s with s o c i a l workers , c o u r t appearances , d e a l i n g wi th p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , o b t a i n i n g w e l f a r e a i d , m e d i c a l and d e n t a l prob lems , and drug and a l c o h o l c o u n s e l l i n g . Thus , from the very b e g i n n i n g , Outreach s c h o o l has f u n c t i o n e d as a s t a b l e , s u p p o r t i v e i n f l u e n c e i n i t s s t u d e n t s ' l i v e s . The L I P grant e v e n t u a l l y ended, l e a v i n g o n l y one t eacher f o r s i x t e e n s tudents working a c a d e m i c a l l y on a Grade 3 to 10 l e v e l . A t e a c h e r ' s a ide was added to the program, and the then Vancouver Resources Board became i n v o l v e d , p r o v i d i n g two c h i l d care workers and o ther s u p p o r t . Another t e a c h e r was added. By 1976, the s c h o o l s t a f f evo lved to i t s p r e s e n t form: two t e a c h e r s , two c h i l d care w o r k e r s , and t h i r t y s t u d e n t s . The s c h o o l c o n t i n u e d to meet i n one c l a s s r o o m u n t i l September of 1977, when the Schoo l Board agreed to r e n t another room from the C h u r c h . The s t r u c t u r e of the s c h o o l and t e a c h i n g methods have changed g r e a t l y from i t s b e g i n n i n g s to the p r e s e n t t i m e . -153-The nature of the s tudent p o p u l a t i o n has a l s o changed. In f a c t , Outreach Schoo l has gone through major program changes v i r t u a l l y every year s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g , to accommodate changing p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n , changing s tudent p o p u l a t i o n , and s t a f f changes . The e a r l y s c h o o l as d e s c r i b e d had a c a s u a l d r o p - i n t u t o r i a l , w i t h each s tudent working i n d i v i d u a l l y at h i s / h e r own l e v e l , b e i n g t e s t e d , and then p r o g r e s s i n g to the next l e v e l . As more permanent s t a f f were h i r e d , the s tudents were d i v i d e d i n t o g r o u p s , wi th one s t a f f be ing t o t a l l y i n charge of the s tudents i n each group . These s tudents worked i n d i v i d u a l l y , and were a group on ly i n the sense that they a l l had the same t e a c h e r . The t e a c h e r s d e a l t wi th a l l a spec t s of the s t u d e n t s ' program, as w e l l as d e a l i n g w i t h p a r e n t s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , and b e h a v i o r and at tendance problems of those s t u d e n t s . Except f o r some s p o r t s e v e n t s , the s tudents were never t o g e t h e r as a group . Because of the severe b e h a v i o r and emot iona l problems of some of the s t u d e n t s , i t was f e l t tha t they c o u l d not f u n c t i o n i n l a r g e group s e t t i n g s . The s c h o o l a l s o had a d a i l y I n c e n t i v e Program, funded by the C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h , i n which the s tudent s were p a i d d a i l y f o r the amount of s c h o o l work done. A hot l u n c h was a l s o served d a i l y , cooked by s t a f f and s t u d e n t s . From 1976 onward, the s c h o o l moved s t e a d i l y toward more -154-and more s t r u c t u r e , and i n c r e a s i n g group a c t i v i t i e s and c l a s s e s . The d a i l y 15 minute meet ing was the f i r s t r e g u l a r group a c t i v i t y , then o c c a s i o n a l a f t e r n o o n c l a s s e s were i n t r o d u c e d . Funding was cut f o r the I n c e n t i v e Program, and v a r i o u s o t h e r i n c e n t i v e programs were t r i e d , and were f i n a l l y e l i m i n a t e d i n 1978 i n f a v o r of a g r a d i n g system. G r a d u a l l y the s tudent p o p u l a t i o n changed, wi th the s c h o o l g e t t i n g fewer and fewer "s tree t k i d s " and g e t t i n g more s tudents who l i v e d wi th at l e a s t one p a r e n t , or i n a group or f o s t e r home. The s c h o o l a l s o got fewer s tudent s w i t h l e g a l problems and fewer wi th severe " a c t i n g out" a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . E a r l y s tudents were a lmost e x c l u s i v e l y from the McLean Park or Raymur housing p r o j e c t s , or o ther homes i n the S t r a t h c o n a A r e a . The c u r r e n t Outreach s tudent p o p u l a t i o n comes to the s c h o o l f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s , and from a wide v a r i e t y of backgrounds . Many are from out of town and e x p e r i e n c e urban adjustment prob lems , as c o n t r a s t e d to the s tudents who had grown up i n the c i t y . In September of 1977, the s c h o o l began an a l l day group c l a s s system f o r the f i r s t t i m e . T h i s was p o s s i b l e because a second c l a s s r o o m was r e n t e d from the church and the s tudent s were d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s , w i t h each t eacher hav ing charge of one group f o r Math and E n g l i s h . Courses i n L i f e S k i l l s and N a t i v e S t u d i e s were a l s o t a u g h t . One group was on a Grade 9/10 l e v e l , and the o ther Grade 8 and -155--r e m e d i a l . In September of 1979, the gym became a v a i l a b l e f o r the whole morning, so the students were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups, with one teacher teaching Math on a l l l e v e l s , and the other t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h on a l l l e v e l s . The c h i l d care workers ran the P.E. c l a s s . A f u l l a fternoon schedule of courses was a l s o developed t h i s year. C h i l d care workers were a l s o now i n charge of d e a l i n g with s o c i a l workers, parents, and students' l i f e problems, while t e a c h e r s s p e c i a l i z e d i n academic areas. Statement of Philosophy The Outreach program i s one attempt being made to adapt the school s e t t i n g to the s p e c i a l needs of the Indian student. Since the school's f u n c t i o n i s to r e f l e c t and perpetuate the i d e a l s of middle c l a s s Canada, the classroom can represent a strange and traumatic world to a young Indian student. B a s i c value c o n f l i c t s , a l i e n a t i o n , poor s e l f - e s t e e m as l e a r n e r s and low s k i l l development can a l l work a g a i n s t t h e i r e f f o r t s to succeed. Some of the problems can be b r i e f l y summarized as f o l l o w s : a. Indian c h i l d r e n b r i n g s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l t r a i t s i n t o the classroom which may c o n f l i c t with classroom r o u t i n e s . For example: -156-c h i l d r e a r i n g occurs i n a p e r m i s s i v e n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner c o m p e t i t i o n i s downplayed group and common ownership i s r e i n f o r c e d knowledge i s passed through the f a m i l y by demons tra t ing and do ing i n a c a s u a l open-ended atmosphere v e r b o s i t y i s downplayed t ime i s not so t i g h t l y o r g a n i z e d Students may face l o n e l i n e s s and s o c i a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n a f t e r moving from a s m a l l I n d i a n day s c h o o l to a l a r g e h igh s c h o o l . They may l a c k a peer group and f e e l consp icous and d i f f e r e n t . The s t u d e n t s ' sense of t h e i r own n a t i v e n e s s becomes c o n f u s e d , i n f a c t , a minor form of c u l t u r e shock may ensue when thrown i n t o d i r e c t exposure wi th the urban white w o r l d . Fami ly breakdown, or a g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s f u l home s i t u a t i o n can add to the s t u d e n t s ' c o n f u s i o n , and c e r t a i n l y c i t y l i f e can o f t e n make a very n e g a t i v e impact on N a t i v e f a m i l i e s . S tudents o f t e n have a lower l e v e l of s k i l l development than t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , due to e a r l i e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s c h o o l . Standard core c u r r i c u l u m becomes an o b s t a c l e r a t h e r than a p o s s i b i l i t y . -157-O u t r e a c h i s one s m a l l attempt i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n , i n b r i n g i n g the s c h o o l c l o s e r to the s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g needs of the s t u d e n t . In terms of s o c i a l needs, a l l - N a t i v e e n r o l l m e n t i s perhaps the most p o s i t i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r . The s tudents have deve loped a s t rong sense of community and the s c h o o l has become a p l a c e where they can f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h each o t h e r and s t a f f members. A f e e l i n g of c a s u a l f r i e n d l i n e s s and i n f o r m a l i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d , which the s tudent s can f e e l much more e a s i l y a t tuned t o . The s imple r o u t i n e s and l i m i t e d space d o n ' t make heavy o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demands on them and the need f o r e x c e s s i v e p u n c t u a l i t y i s r e l a x e d . Students f a c i n g s t r e s s f u l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s or p e r s o n a l problems can r e c e i v e he lp and c o u n s e l l i n g i m m e d i a t e l y , and the i n f o r m a l l i n e s of communicat ion are u s u a l l y good enough, so that at l e a s t one s t a f f member w i l l be aware of any p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m . B u i l d i n g a p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e i s g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of N a t i v e n e s s and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . The Outreach s t a f f r e c o g n i z e s the need to gear t eacher e x p e c t a t i o n s and methodology to the s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e s o f N a t i v e s t u d e n t s . -158-Program Goal Statements  Goals of Outreach School 1. To improve the s tudents s k i l l s i n Math and E n g l i s h . 2. To encourage p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l development , and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3 . To f o s t e r the s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowledge of N a t i v e Ind ians and t h e i r own " n a t i v e n e s s . " 4. To f a c i l i t a t e employment of s t u d e n t s . 5. To meet some p h y s i c a l development needs of the s tudent s such as P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and b r e a k f a s t . 6. To m a i n t a i n and f o s t e r awareness and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , and community p e r s o n n e l , or o t h e r people w i t h whom the s tudent i s i m p o r t a n t l y i n v o l v e d , such as c h i l d care workers or p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . 7. To f o s t e r c o o p e r a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l growth among s t a f f members and s t u d e n t s . 8. To f o s t e r communication and involvement between s tudents and s t a f f and the s c h o o l program. 9 . To m a i n t a i n s t r u c t u r e d program. 10. To g i v e s tudent s e x p e r i e n c e s i n non-academic a r e a s , e . g . , h a n d i c r a f t s , c o o k i n g , photography , t y p i n g . 11. Improve the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n i n g r o u p s . 12. To encourage r e g u l a r and p u n c t u a l a t t e n d a n c e . 13. To p r o v i d e a s t r o n g support system f o r s tudents whose l i v e s may be p e r i o d i c a l l y d i s r u p t e d . -159-APPENDIX 2 STUDENT INTERVIEW Name: Age: Length o f t ime at O u t r e a c h : Home r e s e r v e : Length of t ime i n c i t y : D i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s a t t ended -E l e m e n t a r y : High Schoo l I haven ' t been i n a l a r g e c i t y h igh s c h o o l f o r a long time . . . can you d e s c r i b e what i t ' s l i k e . . . what the k i d s are l i k e , how the t e a c h e r s a r e , the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s that go o n . Can you remember what the c l a s s e s were l i k e ? D i d you t a l k much to the t e a c h e r s d u r i n g c l a s s , a n d / o r a f t e r c l a s s ? Did you t r y and answer l o t s of q u e s t i o n s / t a l k much i n c l a s s ? Did you have any I n d i a n s tudent s i n your c l a s s e s — d i d they t a l k as much i n c l a s s as the o ther s tudents? Do you t h i n k you would t a l k more i n f r o n t of a c l a s s or White k i d s , or a c l a s s o f I n d i a n k i d s ? E x p l a i n . D i f f e r e n c e s between Outreach and o ther s c h o o l s . Can you t e l l me what a b o r i n g l e s s o n i s l i k e . . . i n h u m a n i t i e s . . . i n math. What do you do d u r i n g a b o r i n g c l a s s ? What are d i f f e r e n t ways of bugging the t e a c h e r ? I f the k i d s bug the t eacher a l o t , what t h i n g s cou ld happen? Sometimes k i d s bug the teacher because Can you t e l l me how a good t eacher teaches the c l a s s . . . how do they make the c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r the s t u d e n t s ? Can you d e s c r i b e what a bad t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s i s l i k e ? =160-When do you l e a r n more i n c l a s s : (a) When the t eacher i s g i v i n g a l e s s o n : a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s or g e t t i n g k i d s to answer, or (b) When you are do ing your work? Do you t h i n k you l e a r n s t u f f from l i s t e n i n g to o ther k i d s t a l k and g i v e answers d u r i n g c l a s s ? I f I d o n ' t unders tand what the t eacher i s t a l k i n g about , I u s u a l l y . when? Do the t e a c h e r s ever make you mad when t h e y ' r e t e a c h i n g you? When the t eacher s t a r t s us ing b i g words, I Have you ever heard the say ing "Indian t a l k ? " G i v e me an example. How do you f e e l about i t ? Do you hangout at the C a r n e g i e Centre or the I n d i a n Centre? Would you say t h e r e ' s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of group at both p l a c e s ? Have you ever not t a l k e d at a l l i n c l a s s f o r a long t i m e — o r I n o t i c e tha t you 'd sooner watch or r e a c t — k e e p to y o u r s e l f — i n s t e a d of t a l k i n g — s o m e t i m e s k i d s won't t a l k at a l l i n c l a s s because . What do you t h i n k about say ing fuck you to t e a c h e r s — a r e there p e o p l e , or s i t u a t i o n s you would never swear in? Can you t e l l what a f i n e d i s c u s s i o n i s , what i t ' s good f o r ? What t h i n g s do you t h i n k are i n t e r e s t i n g to d i s c u s s i n c l a s s ? What do you t h i n k of k i d s who are f i r s t w i th the answer, shout them out i n c l a s s ? What do you do—outshout them or be q u i e t ? 

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