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The use of headings and text organization as aids to recall of expository prose in grade 5 through 10… Gibbs, Richard Stephen 1985

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THE  U S E OF  HEADINGS TO  RECALL IN  AND T E X T O R G A N I Z A T I O N OF  EXPOSITORY  G R A D E S 5 THROUGH  AS A I D S  PROSE 10  W I T H AN E M P H A S I S ON G R A D E S 9 AND  10  By RICHARD STEPHEN B.Ed.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  GIBBS  British  Columbia,  A THESIS  SUBMITTED IN  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  THE  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  DEGREE  M A S T E R OF  THE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  DEPARTMENT  We a c c e p t to  THE  OF OF  this  GRADUATE LANGUAGE  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  EDUCATION  as  conforming  standard  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  AUGUST, © Richard  STUDIES,  Stephen  1985 Gibbs,  1985  1979  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  agree that  in partial  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  understood that for  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  s h a l l not  be  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  n/sn  of  further this  Columbia  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  University  the  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  written  ABSTRACT  This  study  organization expository mode.  investigated  on  grade  prose  Emphasis This  5 through  passages was  on  10.  two  parallel  studies  emphasized  and  8  1985).  Each  written  at  level.  Performance  and  his  without  subordinate  and  by  There number  was  written  of  King,  Some  by  The  headings.  evidence  majority  in  of  format  used  suggestions  on for  ideas  the  part  5 and  (Stables,  and one  the  6  in  of  written from  basis  at  the  a low  the  two  and  7 one  readability  with  headings  number  of  superordinate  and  trends  parallel  9  other  passages:  Developmental  the  The 1985)  passages of  grades  study.  r e c a l l e d two  recalled,  from  headings  had  ideas  recalled  from  of  differences differences,  trends  r e c a l l e d on  written  further  students  that  significant  Developmental  number  recall  a three  format.  data  text  were  studies  1985).  significant. the  on  the  and  written  from  recalls  ideas  and  superordinate  readability.  and  examined  subordinate  some  read  the  was  of  grades  level  headings  a classification/description  results  subject  i n c l u d i n g the  1985;  in  grade  on  of  students'  a component  organization,  investigated  the  her  headings  superordinate  (Stables,  or  10  the  and  (King,  was  effects  written  placed  study  the  in  recalls.  research  are  a passage  indicated however,  grades  a low  a significant  were  readability  discussed.  for  10  on  low  negative  5 through  Implications  of  effect  effects  not were  passage  noted  and  instruction  the and  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  • iii  L i s t of Tables  vii  L i s t of Figures  x  Acknowledgement . . . . . . 1  .xi  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. . .  1  Introduction  1  The Problem  2  The Need for the Study .  3  Definitions  6  Delimitations  .7  General Procedures  8  The Construction and Selection of the Instruments  8  The Selection of the Subjects  9  Administration of the Instruments .  10  The Collection of the Data  . .11  The Treatment of the Data Summary  11 12  iii  Table  of  Contents,  continued  Chapter  2  page  REVIEW OF Prose Study  RESEARCH.  .13  O r g a n i z a t i o n and M e t h o d s : P r e 1975  The I n f l u e n c e o f P r o s e O r g a n i z a t i o n on R e c a l l S u p e r o r d i n a t e and Subordinate  14  of  Ideas  15  Developmental Aspects i n A b i l i t y t o Use t h e A u t h o r ' s Organizational Structure Age  Effects  Reading  .  Level  19  .  19  Effects  20  The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Headings i n Aiding the Reader  .25  Summary  3  29  METHODOLOGY  31  Subjects  31  Materials  34  Administration Instruments. Scoring of  and  of .36  Tabulation  Data.  39  Design  40  Statistical  Procedures  .  Summary  4  A N A L Y S I S OF  .40 40  DATA.  .41  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on Recall of Superordinate and S u b o r d i n a t e Ideas  42 iv  Table  of  Contents,  continued  Chapter  Page  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on the Organizational Structure of the Students' Written Recall . . . . . .  .51  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e Number o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s on the  Recall  61  The  Effect  of Headings  the  Format  of  the  on  Written  Recall  63  Developmental  Factors  .72  P o s t Hoc A n a l y s i s o f Developmental Factors E x h i b i t e d by Good and Poor Readers i n Grades 5  through  10  .77  Summary  5  81  SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S Summary Effect Recall and  of of of  the Study  82 .  82  H e a d i n g s on Superordinate  Subordinate  Ideas.  86  Summary o f t h e E f f e c t s of H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l of S u p e r o r d i n a t e and Subordinate Ideas  88  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on t h e Organizational Structure of the Students' Written Recall  89  Summary o f t h e E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on t h e Organizational Structure of the Students' Written Recall. .  v  91  Table of Contents, continued Chapter  page  The Relationship Between Organization and the Number of Superordinate and Subordinate Ideas on the Recall  91  The Effect of Headings on the Format of the Written Recall Developmental Factors  .93 95  Summary of Developmental Factors  99  Summary of Research Findings  100  Post Hoc Analysis of Interrelationships of Research Variables  102  General Conclusions  104  REFERENCES  106  Appendix A: Sample Passages  113  Appendix B: Directions for Scoring and Sample Protocol Sheets  ....116  Appendix C: Student Information Record Sheet  121  Appendix D: Sample of Recall From Parrot Passage With Explanation of Marking Procedures  123  vi  LIST  OF  TABLES  Table  1  Page  P e r c e n t i l e S c o r e s on G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e Comprehension Subtest  2  by D i s t r i c t  32  Reading S c o r e s on G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e Comprehension S u b t e s t by Grade  33  3  Readability  35  4  E f f e c t o f Headings on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e Ideas by Grade 9 S t u d e n t s  5  7  8  9  Passages  by Grade  10 S t u d e n t s  11  12  .  .  .43  45  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e Ideas by Grade 9 Students by Reading Level  46  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s b y G r a d e 10 S t u d e n t s b y Reading Level  48  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s b y G r a d e 5 t h r o u g h 10 Students  50  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Grade  9  Students 10  .  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e Ideas  6  of  E f f e c t o f Headings on O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Grade Students  53  10 54  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Grade 9 Students by Reading L e v e l  56  E f f e c t o f Headings on O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r G r a d e 10 S t u d e n t s by Reading L e v e l  57  vii  List  of  Tables,  continued Page  13  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on O r g a n i z a t i o n for Grade Through  14  15  16  17  18  19  10  5  Students  60  C o r r e l a t i o n Between O r g a n i z a t i o n and Amount of Recall for the Parrot Passage  62  C o r r e l a t i o n Between O r g a n i z a t i o n and Amount of R e c a l l f o r the Grade Level Passage  62  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on t h e Number o f G r a d e 9 S t u d e n t s Who U s e d E a c h F o r m a t Characteristic  64  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on t h e N u m b e r o f G r a d e 10 S t u d e n t s Who U s e d E a c h F o r m a t Characteristic  66  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s on Number o f S t u d e n t s i n 5 T h r o u g h 10 Who U s e d Format C h a r a c t e r i s t i c  67  the Grade Each  R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s by G r a d e  73  20  Recall  73  21  T h e N u m b e r o f S t u d e n t s Who Used Each Format C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n G r a d e s 5 T h r o u g h 10  76  R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and Subordinate Ideas for Good R e a d e r s by Grade .  78  Recall Organization R e a d e r s by G r a d e  78  22  23  24  Organization  by  for  Grade  Good  R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and Subordinate Ideas for Poor Readers  by  Grade  .80  v i i i  List  of  Tables,  continued Page  25  Recall Organization R e a d e r s by Grade  for  Poor ..  ix  .  .80  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  1  Page  I n t e r a c t i o n o f Grade and Heading f o r t h e Use o f a T i t l e on t h e W r i t t e n R e c a l l From t h e Grade Level  Passage  69  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Special daughters beyond  their  Alyssa  their  "Thesis  thanks  ongoing  Rika,  and Kara  years,  Club".  to  my w i f e ,  who d i s p l a y e d  a n d my e x t e n d e d  Also, guidance  for her u n f a i l i n g  sincere thanks in this  wisdom and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  family, to  project.  support,  the other  the advisory  members committee  of  my far the  for  CHAPTER  S T A T E M E N T OF  1  THE  PROBLEM  Introduction  In must of  the current  be done  by r e a d i n g  the material  written  to process  Current affects  ability  to recall  limit  indicate optimized most  awareness  suggest  i f  to  structure  structure.  textbooks patterns  are structured for  of  the  the extent  recall.  1  c a n be  discourse of  the  may d e t e r m i n e patterns  to use paragraph  Students*  student  presented.  Developmental  abilities  majority  and i s  the student  the structure  presented.  The  facilitate  so that  the author's  ideas  learning  to the student  the information that  children's  textbooks.  Also,  the students'  efficient  of  comprehension.  of  the author's  In order  be s t r u c t u r e d  efficiently  studies  much  i s unfamiliar  format.  must  the students'  students'  which  t o be l e a r n e d  textbooks  system  commercially written  i n an e x p o s i t o r y  learning, taught  educational  recall  i n a manner  their may  headings  of material which  exist that may b e  reflects  the  The  The  purpose  students  in  of  grades  1)  to  use  2)  to  recall  3)  to  use  the 9  study  and  paragraph  to  investigate  the  ability  of  10: headings  information  the  is  Problem  author's  to  facilitate  material  written  organizational  recall; in  a descriptive  structure  to  form;  facilitate  recall. This parallel 7  and  8  levels  study  is  studies (King,  enables  one  component  emphasized  1985). the  The  above  of  grades  a three 5 and  i n c l u s i o n of  points  to  be  6  part  study.  (Stables,  data  from  1985)  the  investigated  The  and  other  in  a  other  two  grades  grade  developmental  context. The  study  1.0  In  seeks  a written  subordinate  ideas  headings  (b)  or  2.0 follow prose  3.0  to  recall  following  task,  r e c a l l e d when  no  the  are  the  more  prose  to  questions: superordinate be  each grade  level?  1.2  within  each grade  level  by  reading  1.3  over  5,  6,  7,  8,  task,  do  the  be  grade  a written  author's  levels  recall  organizational  r e c a l l e d has  (a)  2.1  within  grade  2.2  within  grade  2.3  over  Do  (a)  headings:  within  In  or  r e c a l l e d has  1.1  the to  answers  grade  students  10?  no  more  written  recalls  c l o s e l y when  the  headings:  levels? levels  levels  recall  (b)  9 and  students'  structure  headings  level?  more  by  5,  6,  reading 7,  8,  level? 9 and  superordinate  2  and  10? subordinate  ideas  when  they  written  when are  more  closely  recalls  4.0  Are  the  prose  there  there to  In in  (a)  written  recall, to  be  5,  over  expository structure  ideas  and  c)  format,  (  studies  will  the  receive There 1.  study,  several  different  or  are  in be  this two  author  Before  1975  of  headings,  the (b)  written no  recall  headings,  and  there  when  (b)  the  done  evidence  developmental  organization  results  at  of  the  of  grade  this 5,6,7  of  the  study  are  and  levels  8  For  The  in  Study  the  reading  include  Aspects  of  the  comprehension  content  structural  and  of  the  organization  study.  aspects of which  is  defined,  ideational conveys  structural for  purposes  arrangements  meaning.  Text  organization:  of  of  this,  information  c a n be  organized  units in  ways.  emphasis in  their  10?  format  is  factors  Typographic-Semantic  conveyance Headings  the  in  level?  involved  read.  s y n t a c t i c a l and  which  9 and  recalled,  Need  These  Organization,  through  2.  to  (a)  being  factors  passage  appear  the  organization  1985)?  emphasis  Text as  many  8,  task,  of  discourse. of  in  reading  recall  Stables,  are  7,  r e c a l l e d has  The  There  author's  6,  number  similar  1985;  the  differences  a written  effects  (King,  grades  differences  5.0  compared  over  follow  this the  of  Cues,  meaning  category  of  literature  which have, through  text  3  their  a structural  structural on  as  purpose,  the  feature.  organization.  organization  and  its  influence  on  reading  on  empirical research.  (1961, ways  1970),  to  about  comprehension  use  the  Smith's  them  in  insightful  a n d may  controlled  research.  Since  1975,  are  be  impact  on  structure  on  recall  subordinate  that in  study  1985  led  about  the the  than  we w e r e  ten  done  provide  more  The  by  in  way  years  of  text  1977,  to  be  headings  The  cues  for  as  cues  been  Dansereau,  Evans,  limitation  of  have  been  studies since  that in  Collins,  existing  restricted  that  involve  this  is  the  There  is  also  developmental  materials,  to  studies  and  in  period  need  for  patterns,  differences  in  upper  of  text are  the  has  a l l  product  had  of  an  text  significant,  the  of  superordinate  reading  Larson,  and  informed  comprehension  studies  already  1981). is  that  and  reading  cut  would  scoring units,  the  and  across be  as  is  and  1982;  the  the subjects  a need  junior for  cues  text,  However,  There  elementary  which  in  (Alverman,  headings  on  knowledge,  facts  students.  present,  4  prior  and  emphasis  studies if  and  statement  much b e t t e r  on  examined  involving  college level  students  first a  Brooks  now  method  answered.  as  has  Niles'  the  be  always,  concepts  recall  of  based  (1964)  author's  to  structure  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among for  and  influence  found  accentuating retrieval  patterns  1984)  students  as  SQ3R s t u d y  however,  We a r e  However,  his  minimally  statements  not,  (1975,  many m o r e .  ago.  of  were  p a s s a g e was  questions  importance  They  only  (1968),  The  literature.  influence  about  writing  items.  university  a  to  text  but  p e r c e i v i n g an  research  reading  ideas  of  typical  valid.  important  and  writing  comprehension  recall  Meyer's  the  extensive  d i s c u s s i o n of  to  (1965),  fairly  Robinson's  reading  importance  organization  was  for  secondary  information.  these  evident.  differences  grades  so  Variations in  treatments Therefore such  data  general  reading eight  across experimenters over  different  trends  ability  similar  as  to  adult;  in  number  in  number  of  passages  methods  utilitzed  immediate  to  There  of  and  is  pattern  much  Evidence  recognition  and  that grade  in  would  use  text,  result  level.  is  understanding  the  teachers  and  findings  emerging  instruction  of of  in  headings  existing  way  as  from area  this of  area  reading  of  128  age  per  from  recall,  or  data grade  grade  in 2  level; and  in  from  impossible to  the  study of  for  in  of  establish  by  students  area  of  closer  information aware  of  at  to  the  should  textbooks  reading  material.  research, materials comprehension  problem  organizational  constructing  the  come  the  student  author's  retention  become  5  for  recall  used,  and  the  educators  of  only  data.  guidelines  are  studies.  scoring units,  be  cues to  children process publishers  to  sequence  information  reading  examined  grades  in  would  compare  r e c a l l e d over  readings  e m p i r i c a l knowledge  gained,  the  provide  optimum  textbook  in  it  to  summary  20  12;  a developmental  would  As more  comprehension  between  the  in  from  2 to  Thus  from  (1984)  p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to  presented.  structure  time  days.  used  from  c a n be  proportion  Drum's  subjects  in  difficult  differences  given,  fourteen  a developmental  1984). showed  i t  experiments  increases in  (Drum,  studies  make  As  important and improve.  each  Definitions  Specific terras used i n this study are defined as follows:  1.  Heading:  For the purposes of t h i s study, a heading i s a  phrase set apart above the paragraph which cues the superordinate idea i n the paragraph.  2.  Superordinate idea:  superordinate  idea.  The main idea of a paragraph i s the  I t i s the central thought, meaning, or gist  of a passage; a statement which gives the stated or implied major topic of a passage and the s p e c i f i c way i n which the passage i s limited i n content or reference  3.  Subordinate idea:  superordinate  (Harris & Hodges, 1981, p. 188).  A d e t a i l which i s found under a  idea i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l structure of a paragraph  i s a subordinate idea.  4.  Written r e c a l l :  Written r e c a l l i s the task of writing down  everything that i s remembered from a previously read passage with no reference back to the passage and no aids to prompt memory.  5.  Organization:  The order of ideas and the extent to which the  student's organizational pattern i n the r e c a l l r e f l e c t s the author's organizational pattern.  6.  Format:  In this study, the format i s the general plan or  6  arrangement format one  the  written  recall.  characteristics will  grouping,  definition for  of  point  for  Scoring  form,  each of  in  be  The  studied:  numbering,  these  Appendix  items  presence title,  and  is  of  the  section  paragraphs.  contained  in  following headings,  A  the  precise Directions  B.  Delimitations  The the  size  of  population The  students school  grade in  the  over  which  9 and  10  regular,  d i s t r i c t s of  developmental non-streamed  sample, the  students  results  results  in  Richmond,  discussed are  5 through  10  each grade  be  generalized.  study  grade  Maple  from  can  this  non-streamed,  trends grade  50  are  9 and  Ridge, limited  10  and to  classrooms in  also  limited  classrooms in  Surrey.  limits  to the  The  students the  level,  in  above  regular,  mentioned  districts. The in  study  measured  a d e s c r i p t i o n form  materials  or  other  recall  a n d may  forms  of  performance not  be  expository  generalizable  expository  7  on  material  to  prose  narrative  organization.  written  General  The (a)  the  general  construction  selection (d)  the  Each  The  procedures  of  the  is  Construction  The  and  of  a Canadian  followed  the  the  in  the  investigation  instruments;  administration  and  (e)  the  of  (b)  the  treatment  are:  the instruments;  of  the  data.  briefly.  S e l e c t i o n of  subtest,  this  (c) data;  Gates-MacGinitie  Comprehension purposes  the  discussed  be  s e l e c t i o n of  subjects;  c o l l e c t i o n of  step  over  and  to  Procedures  Reading  was  study.  The  grades  10.  reliability  scores which  Test,  contains  population.  for  Instruments  Canadian  chosen because  It  appropriate  the  9 and  E  i t  is  Canadian  and The  F  Edition  appropriate  content  forms  of  from  .85  this  test  have  to  .92  and  this  comprehension  range  (1980), for  was  test  items  the normed  are  have  (Teacher's  manual,  p.  v). Appropriate parallel  forms  studies  at  lower  will  enable  comparison  the  parallel  studies.  A Megan  battery Crowhurst  levels This  of  ranging  study  passages studies  from (King,  (1984),  the  in  a  (King,  results  prose  grades battery  1985;  4,  9,  were  Stables,  of  also 1985; this  been  selected for  Stables, study  p a s s a g e s was  1985).  with  written  grade and  also  1985).  8  10  4 to  by  approximately  passages.  selected for This  enables  use  in  This  results  one  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / d e s c r i p t i o n form  approximately  the  this  of  grades  expository  from  uses  of  of  author,  at  grade  grade 10.  Appropriate use  in  the  comparison  parallel of  the  results  of  this  study  with  results  classification/description which  the  majority  selections receive been  are  carefully  Each level were of  was  at to  the  used  material  textbook  constructed  parallel because  is  each  it  is  written  passages  their  studies.  grade  (Niles,  on w h i c h level.  contain  5  the  The style 1965).  students  All  The  may  passages  superordinate  in  and  have 26  ideas.  the  was  given  a  4  level  passage.  the  Fry  grade  determined  the  of  assignments  student  and  textbook  typical  reading  subordinate  of  form  of  passages  by  were  passage  written Grade  readability  prepared  with  and  at  his  levels  approximate of  the  formula  (Fry,  without  headings  grade  passages  1968).  Versions  (see  Appendix  A). A made  The  pilot  to  materials  Selection  For three were  this  classes selected  Richmond,  Vancouver (Canada  at  10  these  three  students schools:  Garibaldi  are  September,  1984.  classes  grade  Adjustments  were  Subjects  grade  from  in  time.  of  1985)  these  that  study,  Surrey, and  conducted  specific  B.C.  were  comparable  chosen  Maple  communities in  to  Hugh M c R o b e r t s  Secondary, The  of  their  average  participate. Junior  Ridge,  chosen  9 students  B.C.;  are  a l l  and They  Secondary, and  Frank  suburbs  socioeconomic  Hurt  of  status  1981).  complete  (Stables,  was  the  Census,  The  of  of  B.C.;  Secondary,  each  study  study  and  grades  included  grades also  7  and  parallel  studies  at  8  1985).  Three  (King,  participated.  9  grades  5 and  classes  6  from  Intact,  regular,  chosen  for  the  study  grades  8,9  and  10  English  or  Three session Test,  second  chosen  receive  to  other  level  spent  the  At  test  level,  passage  received  randomly  chosen  received  passages  without  The  students  were  receiving  the  7  classes  were  Students  regular,  receive  the  the  from  non-streamed,  classes.  45  to  the  55 m i n u t e s  of  at  the  the  one-half  grade  passages with  of  class of  a  students  passage w r i t t e n  level,  of  at the  4  to  The  the  recall were  randomly  first  own  students  headings.  first  time.  level  their  the  Reading  According  administration  written  In  Gates-MacGinitie  administered.  one-half  the  and  grade were  other  half  headings.  given  following  each of  of  was  takes  each grade to  and  availability.  intact,  with  subtest  (1980)  each grade  students  f i r s t .  from  session involved  At  of  5,6  Instruments  Edition the  grade  classes.  Comprehension  passage.  the  the  Manual,  basis  chosen  Studies  of  Canadian  The  the  s e s s i o n s were  the  Teacher's  on  were  Social  Administration  non-streamed,  10  minutes  to  study  the  passage  after  instructions:  " Y o u w i l l h a v e 10 m i n u t e s t o s t u d y t h i s a r t i c l e . You must t r y to remember a s much i n f o r m a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e . I n -10 m i n u t e s I will c o l l e c t t h e a r t i c l e s and g i v e you e a c h a l i n e d p i e c e o f paper. You a r e t h e n t o w r i t e down a s much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a s y o u Can remember. Y o u w i l l h a v e a maximum o f 25 m i n u t e s i n w h i c h t o w r i t e down t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . " After were  10  minutes  distributed.  recall  task.  All  the  articles  Students papers  were  were  were  given  c o l l e c t e d and 25 m i n u t e s  c o l l e c t e d at  10  that  to  time.  foolscap complete  sheets the  Information  such  as  name,  finishers The groups time  The  were  reversed  written.  November  method  of  obtaining  is  the  for  common  (see  Treatment  Analysis the  factors  answering  of  of  the  the  grade  the  procedures  were  Early  remaining  second  passages  papers.  except not  the  time.  the  student  written  the  first  same.  conducted  within  a three  week  December,  1984.  Written  recall  a measure  of  measure  measure was  comprehension than  used  developed  do  in  of  the  questions  the  was  this  marking  of  during used  passage  (Clark,  research of  for  period  as  the the  because  1982).  It  type. each  of  the  B).  Data  variance  measured  the  the  to  for  the  Data  and  form  i n c l u d e d on  silently  similar  other  Appendix  of  read  that  a purer  form  A protocol  The  so  the  of  provides  to  All  months  passages  ;  s e s s i o n s were  it  s c h o o l was  s e s s i o n was  C o l l e c t i o n of  All  and  expected  third  were  were  grade,  in  research  was the  used study.  to  analyze This  questions.  11  the  provided  relationships a basis  for  among  Summary  This defined  chapter  the  procedures.  has  terms, The  introduced  noted  the  remainder  2:  Review  of  Chapter  3:  Methodology  Chapter  4:  Analysis  Chapter  5:  Summary  study,  delimitations,  of  Chapter  the  the  report  research  of  data  and c o n c l u s i o n s  12  is  given  the  rationale,  and o u t l i n e d  the  organized  follows:  as  gener  CHAPTER  R E V I E W OF  The  parameters  delineated. least  some  of  However, part  of  reading this  reading  RESEARCH  c o m p r e h e n s i o n may n e v e r  review  i s based  comprehension  follow  and t o use t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  either  to  The study  comprehend review  methods:  recall  of  factors  research  or  p r e 1975;  in ability  been  in aiding noted  (p.  3)  of  Prose  t o mean  13  to  passage later.  organization  (c)  Developmental  ideas;  plan;  and  on  and (d)  The  reader.  the l i t e r a t u r e that  deal  with  of  empirical  text  "text  the organizational  passage.  at  organization  the r e s e a r c h e r s use the term  structure"  that  prose  organizational  the  includes a l l studies  whether  for  The i n f l u e n c e  a prose  i t s content  (a)  fully  the a b i l i t y  of  or t o r e c a l l  and s u b o r d i n a t e  of headings  reviewed  "schema  (b)  requires  in H sections:  be  on the premise  structure  t o u s e an a u t h o r ' s  has already  organization  initially  i s Organized  superordinate  effectiveness As  i t  2  organization"  pattern  of  a  text  Prose  Before on  study  Writing (1965) and  on p r o s e  methods  was r e a s o n a b l y  extensive  by  The  the  to  and t o  that  were  reader's  SQ3R m e t h o d  of  and H a l l  t h e SQ3R  give  and s u b o r d i n a t e  study  based.  and  Niles  statements  the reader  recall  what  there  the appropriate  as the m a t e r i a l  to  ensure  to  recommended  This  known  the  high  what  about  the  the  organizational  that  Robinson  superior  idea  to  allowed  superordinate  was l e a r n e d .  be u s e f u l  of  had a  (Robinson,  was a l r e a d y It  a  ideas  an o r i e n t a t i o n  readings.  and a t t e m p t e d  with  (1941).  method  was an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  texts  work  i s also worth  in Science,  followed  certain  children  be t a u g h t  in  of  a passage  that  has been  influence  subordinate ideas  i n the  (1961)  school  b y many m e t h o d o l o g y  believed students.  text  authors  introduction.  Smith's school  Robinson  to help  would  1968)  the kinds  subsequent  h i s procedures  i t s  to  was i n p l a c e ,  memory  of  (1964,  approaching  superordinate  with  under  as an  but not e m p i r i c a l l y  facilitate  slotted  1975  1975.  retain  impact  Pre  organization  Smith  samples  the reader's  presented,  to ensure  pattern  She  before of  1970),  the best  SQ3R w a s d e s i g n e d  reader  since  of  1961,  the t h e o r e t i c a l basis  material,  that  made  importance  chapter  ideas  (1941,  some  educational  1961).  The  Robinson  framework  formed  Methods:  the l i t e r a t u r e  proposals  major  and Study  1975  provided  mental  Organization  later reading  Social  predictable  published  to  the various  She s u g g e s t e d  Studies,  Mathematics  writing  use these  a set of  noting.  patterns  patterns  workbooks  patterns.  14  and  that  to  that  English  and proposed  i n reading  (1968)  (1964)  that  comprehend.  provided  practice  Niles parallels probable The  (1965), between  in  the  the  organization  respect  frequency  with  with  article  system  and  in  mind  the  which her  which  it  is  Organization order  of  Perceived,  expository  of  the  reader  statement  has  been  cited  in  the  for  prose  and  its  efficient  viewed  subsequent  drew  is  recall.  evident  literature  in  the  about  study. The evidence  Robinson, that  discussed statements empirical  by  the  are  those  organization  two  an  and  time.  After of  and  effect  the  its  cited  structure  1975.  It  is  had  above, been  clear,  methodologists  concerned with on  the  in  the  content  with  the  same c o n t e n t  units  These  in  paragraphs  Subjects  each passage was  from were  psychology were: and was  effects  structure  study  recalled  treatments  passage  her  but  was  provide  seriously  however,  rather  that  than  their  those  of  three  on  manipulation and of  target  The  administered.  One  15  of  hierarchical  treated  recall  content  paragraphs to  or  content  structure.  105  factors  signaling phrases  a written  the  number  of  recall.  information  administered  course.  on R e c a l l Ideas  different  the  p a s s a g e s were read  the  comprehension  investigated  introductory  different  text  creative  were  variable  relationship  in  of  thinking,  Influence of Prose Organization o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e  (1975),  passages  subject.  of  before  studies  information  dependent  Niles  researchers.  Initial  of  and  influence  educators  The  Meyer  Smith  as  free  recall  week  later  using The  units by  enrolled  manipulated  random test  and  each  students  words,  level  order,  in  the  group,  factors. for  retention  a second w r i t t e n  free  recall  test  involved  using  passage. was  was a d m i n i s t e r e d cue words  Meyer  found  manipulated,  affected.  Ideas  the question:  affect  recall  passages.  for  each  topic were  topic.  In  Each  the sentences the second  Danner  both  found  in a sorting  The ideas showed  effect  of  that of  girls recall  grade,  grade  of  from  a n d 12  was g r e a t e r  supported  by Waters  a n d 128  topics  Meyer  (1975)  organization and was i t  using  In  topics  for those  appeared  topic. of  to cluster  sentences  version  sentence  each  described  four  one  on  descriptive  passage  with  each  from  the  in  i n one  The  passages  grades.  sentences  students  on t h e r e c a l l (1978)  placed  high  was r e c a l l e d b e t t e r  college  recalled  by  who  passages.  organization  information  text  and i t s e f f e c t s  students  a different boys  the  results?  the three  and a b i l i t y  organized  the passages  ideas  and t h e other main  of  were  prose  organization  content  targeted  of  (disorganized),  i n the hierarchical structure.  sixth  types  a fox  i n each  exercise  the t o p i c a l l y  was f u r t h e r  structure  12  original  r e c a l l e d was  subordinate.  had two v e r s i o n s .  by a sentence to  prose  had t h r e e  version  administered  received  described  passage  which  the  superordinate  f o r maximum  and s i x t h  passage  from  information  and s u b o r d i n a t e  the prose  One p a s s a g e  was f o l l o w e d  topic  low  How d i d d i f f e r e n t  fourth  Each  of  structurally  investigated  second,  (orgar.ized),  were  superordinate  (1976)  bear.  order.  which  to manipulate  with  a polar  were  test  the h i e r a r c h i c a l structure  structurally  raised  memory  when  recall  information  which  ideas  Danner  generate  and type  than  possible  that  as a cued  t h e amount  better  of  to  as w e l l  Waters  students  16  of  i n an experiment  which  i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l than  information  h a d 64 t h i r d  either  superordinate  generate  grade,  passages  placed 64 t o be  recalled  two weeks  subjects  and r e c a l l  word  outline  passage.  later, them  "prompt"  Each  sheet  and o r g a n i z e  their  generated  h i s or  passages  depending  subjects  were  asked  to  superordinate  ideas  than  direct  focused  students'  ninth  two m i n u t e s  grade into  tests.  Two  content  to  ideas  by  at  then or  to  the  the  read  listened  Students  to  the  later  the  recalled  the  a  prompt  either  Two w e e k s  i n both  other  was g i v e n  listening  look  group.  passages.  al  of  prose  by  more  "generated"  and  students.  that  the  prose  did not  improvement  of  manipulation  of  pursuing  in  have  reading  research.  (1980)  and Meyer,  Brandt  author's  structural  organization  investigated One h u n d r e d  were  and poor  used  (adversative) structure.  for  of  structure Each  with-signaling  version  explicitly  ninth  grade  on t h e the  and  Bluth, in  strategies students  basis  subjects.  had two  stated  the  were  were  reading  One  versions;  level  underlined,  Students  17  top  of  by  passage  a  signaling version.  and had key words did not.  reading  and one was  passage  and a w i t h o u t  signaling version  use of  groups  each  version  ideas,  the  and two  with-signaling  superordinate  the  was w o r t h  Elliott  average,  passages  to  of  strategies.  (1980)  good,  organization  however,  on t h e use o f  a comparison  without  or  recorder,  experimental  application  studies  problem/solution  the  subject  Subjects  tape  their  generated  Each  composing  subordinate  showed,  recall  et  divided  was  later.  while  the  recall  the  aspects  Subsequent  Meyer  of  It  organizational  the  passages  thoughts.  into  on t h e i r  educational  comprehension.  (1980)  her  to  treatments.  Manipulation any  study  was g i v e n  passage,  "listen"  listen  two weeks  to  subject  or  a  The structure, while  grouped  by  the  or  comprehension was  ability  and  sex.  the  assignment  used  to  determine  versions  of  the  the  two  students  then  good  reading  wrote  asked they  study  to  took  the  the  procedure  with  the  or  order  for  each  without of  group  signaling  presentation  of  expository  text.  investigated  would  one  of  One  was  was  written  lower  than  they  could  remember  protocols  was  top  structure  level  remembering  of  between  two  the  them.  used.  more  The to  level  out  week  from  sentences  from  but  of  sight,  later  they  each passage, the  structure  recall  of  102 the  versions  in  in the  fifth  few  sixth use  two  findings  units.  of  the  the were  and  passages.  did  poor  grade  improve  The the  readers  of  written  a well  Students after  method  of  The  top-level  written  form.  No  wrote  recalls  was n o t  of  student  had  down  the  expository recall  students'  in  passage  top-level  s c o r i n g the  differences  structure  recalls.  organized  reading  indicated that  their  knew  specific  attributive  days  students  adversative  grade.  Meyer's  organize  idea  types  what  written  level  to  top  recall  One  facilitate their  two  a  assigned  on  and whether  and  everything  remember.  immediate  structure reading  one  test  placing it  strategy.  patterns given  then  could  s i g n a l i n g of  organization  were  and  could  they  students'  (1980)  organizational Students  what  structure  Elliott prose  they  a recognition  that  the  a l l  write  average  employed  passage  of  determine  each passage  down  to  found and  about  and  a random  passages.  After  again  passages  Then  use  of  the  resulted  in  the  amount  recalled  significantly  different. These top  level  studies  demonstrated  organization  of  the  that text.  18  it  would  be  useful  to  examine  the  Developmental  Aspects  in Ability  Organizational  The use  developmental  the author's  Age  pattern  (1955),  who s u g g e s t e d  age and r e a d i n g  not been  Danner using  studied  level  on a b i l i t y  to  extensively.  of  use of  Brown, approach  reflect  language  common  developmental the  author's  t h e work  of  Piaget  developmental  and complex  instructed  to  suggested  that  that  fourth,  stages  thought  begin  ideas  (1981)  used  to  to  the developmental  do s o q u i t e were  dealing with  throughout  (p.  two types  of  19  students  five  author's  and seven  of  these  deficiency,  14).  (structure)  the school years.  course  spontaneously  readily."  older  age and  patterns.  between  a production  that  of  students  a schema t h e o r y  for  be used  grade  increased with  found  organizational  be r e f i n e d  called  c h i l d r e n was t h a t  and s i x t h  Danner  strategies  the strategy  there  young  to  stage  not produce  with  Recall of  and Day  patterns  intermediate  second,  the author's  age and c o n t i n u e  does  use of  i s a series of  organization.  and s u g g e s t e d  "Also  findings  done  passages.  Carnpione,  organizational  state,  a child's  who t e s t e d  paragraph  more  a n d make  there  the few s t u d i e s  (1976),  of  These  may b e a c l e a r  schema.  descriptive  degree made  or  there  follow  that  the a c q u i s i t i o n of  One  to  organization.  processes,  an  have  indicates that  i n the a b i l i t y  structural  of  structure  of  Author's  Effects  Research  in  effects  t o Use the  Structure  where  problems  that  et  They  strategies the  b u t c a n be p r o m p t e d Brown  years  al  could  i s  child or  also impede  comprehension:  inefficient  strategies  a  are  and  closely  underscore before  the  level.  to  He  the It  organization  and  Level  the  organizational  Both  of  Their  student's  these  problems  statements  developmental  stage  given. junior  high  three  school educably  level  grade  three  older  students  hypothesized experiences thus  and  students had  mentally  compared  reading  the  at  greater  retarded  their  recall  their  grade  ability  to  deal  that and  the  older  exposure  outperforms  the  student  to  generally  different  younger  student  has  had  styles  of  text  on t h e  written  Effects  This  section  poor  readers'  patterns  in  comparing  deals  and  ability  comparisons  are  variations  or  the  trends  recall  ability. have  author's it  of  The  be  than  given  to  20  evidence  noted  grade  the  in  that  presented  it  is  here  determining are  and  due  Close whether to  Variation in  the  In  possible  findings.  both.  students  good  organization.  levels or  of  developmental  specific  problems  particular  performance  different  scoring differences,  instruction  the  structural  should  rather  because at  comparing  readers  studies  difficult  differences,  instructions  use  overall  in  studies  recall  poor  to  various  only  with  passage  good  the  compare  treatment  knowledge.  development.  determine  and  passages.  that  the  child's  a grade  the  and  suggests  to  is  background  rules  structure.  background  Reading  to  at  found  c a n be  of  the  average  text  of  studied  reading  abilities  recall  to  need  (1981)  students  more  tied  instruction  Bos  with  lack  a p p l i c a t i o n of  in  the  various  experimental written given  designs  recall  to  the  also  while  present  others  students  were  problems.  required  oral  presented  in  Some  recall;  a variety  studies  required  and  passages  of  the  written  and  oral  formats. There research. 1.  are,  however,  They  are:  good  and  poor  three  trends  readers  seemed  clearly  to  use  identifiable  different  from  the  recall  strategies; 2.  readers  their  recalls  immediate author's 3.  cues  follow The  who  and  in  author's general  between  Doctorow,  and  without  passages  with  headings,  found  both  groups  students.  much  greater  of  for  finding  indicated in  the  the  subordinate  that  extent ideas  organizational  was  to and  prose  patterns  who  follow  did  helped  not  less  increased their  both  poor  readers  lay  their  and  results  the  good  the  a study  poor  the  reading  differed  to  grade  three  superordinate  (Tierney,  the  grade first  passages  performance  frorn t h e  generate  of  performance  readers.  of  recall  readers  the  poor  abilities.  differing  in  then  readers  one  in  recalls  21  and  that  increase  recalled  ability  and  improved  a study  readers  their  (1978),  headings  than  by  they  their  of  headings  readers  poor  Marks  in  able  recall  was  However,  in  in  showed  supported  in  structure  and  paragraph  which  those  organizing  information  studies  paragraph  the  more  in  the  the  good  than  format  structure;  Wittrock,  reading  both  recalls  trend  good  schema  remember  schema  compared  which  to  the  6 children which  This  author's  able  delayed  embedded the  strategies.  were  the  organizational  first  difference  used  of  was  students  good  readers  and author's  Bridge,  and  Cera,  1978-79). Eamon readers. and  14  (1978-79) He  used  lowest  class.  paragraphs  and  or  the  He  of  information  relevance  to  the  the  or  topic  A  second  introductory Test and  were the  write a  reading  what  they  cue word  paragraph  and  remembered  readers  were  but  the  a paragraph was  top  to  or  write  remembered than  the  second the  able and  organized  to  evidence  general  author's recall  Graves passages  were the  trend  (1980)  reading  good  with  about  the  readers  respect  unable  on  sample the  chosen as  to  to  its  identify  from  using  the  text  22  treatment  then  than  in  word)  to  page for  with  each  remember. cues  poorer  and  readers  cues.  Thus  poor  strategies. show  is  that  organizing  those  students  with  asked  a blank  non-thematic  studies  nine  The  thematic  structural the  readers"  could  The  Reading  "good  concept  they  the  patterns  grade  the  received  readers.  from  that  what  102  Iowa S i l e n t  s u b j e c t s were  down  of  readers".  non-thematic  poor  expository  a  subject  information had  highest  introductory of  the  were  on  "poor  The  more  structural  more  of  of  that  poor  14  statements  paragraphs  Scores  Each  a thematic  of  the  an  task  and  effectively.  16 as  good  pick  in  the  found  c a r r i e d out  chosen  asked  students  readers  students. the  to  importance  in  paragraphs.  much more  no  of  between  Test  students  poor  could r e c a l l .  readers  68  the  were  was  showed  used  Slate,  level  r e c a l l e d s l i g h t l y more  The who  from  presented  and  (either  Better  actually  of  six  Reading  He  psychology  16  Silent  paragraphs.  experiment  bottom  involved  the  topic  obtained  differences  assigned the  the  evaluated  the  students  ranking  theme  theme  Iowa  ability  psychology  topic  studied  who  did  read  clearly  readers  their  recalls  not.  Palmer,  two  well  identifiable  superordinate  ideas  and  then  write  protocols  indicated that  most  structure  for  their  original who  passages while  employed  recalled They  the  more  also  passage  organizing  Meyer, top-level  strategy  information  found  did  that  not  was  expected  from  students.  II).  fifth  Forty  grade  graders Forty  graders  McGee  to  has  5 poor  comprehending  administered  written  a third  grade  level  identical  three-level  idea  units.  read  the  aware  of  Oral  text  of  text  ideas  found  "Use  the  shown  to  of  be  a  crucial  third  fifth  were  a 3.0-4.5 were  two  and  randomly grade  randomly grade  attributive  selected  level  (S.R.A.  selected  level  from  (S.R.A.,  style  passages  readability  and  containing  of  importance  and  a s i m i l a r number  tape  recorded  after  that  fifth  grade  the  good  fifth  grade  fifth  grade  poor  poor  readers  23  more  third  displayed  recalled proportionately readers.  or  more  an  students  readers  Further,  good  the  120  than  grade  a  involving  units  third  of  not.  by  idea  and  did  of  amount  and r e c a l l e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  structure  than  She  were  who  syntax  structure,  superordinate readers.  hierarchy  recalls  passages.  of  organization  supported  a 3.0-4.5  McGee  Students  was  on  Blue).  same  the  not.  those and  in  the  This  readers  Multilevel at  to  been  readers on  did  that,  75).  (1981),  authors  textual  than  stated  (p.  used  the  outcomes.  relate  3 good  the  author's  a n a l y s i s of  graders  students  those  comprehending  grade  did  vocabulary  organization  by  ninth  passages  (1980)  and m e m o r y . "  a study  third  ability  the  structure  findings  all  from  Bluth  learning  as  using the  and  in  Primary  of  Brandt,  variable  a l l  recalls  low  Their  ability  n e c e s s a r i l y change  remembered;  from  high  s i m p l i f y i n g the  information  grade  most  recalls.  some  had  were total  grade  of  more and  good  awareness  superordinate  The  third  embedded follow  general  trend  i n the structure  the author's  examined  to determine  Following  the interview,  passages,  answered  a sixty  sentence  i n each  sentences used  from  criteria  different  organizational whatever ability  to  familiar.  their  identify skill  Berkowitz good  that  and poor  The r e s u l t s  perform  similarly  advance  cues  words.  It  Middle  Ages.  readers  text  read  the study  t o more  (1981)  Two v e r s i o n s  preparation were  adapted  24  that  the  superordinate  provided  the poorer a passage  Version  A  sixth  were  at below  and consumption  prepared.  on  readers can  on r e c a l l ,  i s written  and Trueman  based  they  poorer  Morris  food  which  of  author's  i n which  that  the s k i l l s  were  process.  suggest  accommodate  that  underlying  as to the  to  described  the  cues  and t h e m a t e r i a l  each  readers  suggested  a study  readers  of  t h e poor  prior  competent  passage,  important  i s an  with  process.  expository  importance  information  conducted  given  first  i n a passage  results  material  were  who f o l l o w e d  the summarization  (1981)  were  that  judged  These  graders'  for each  most  to  (1984)  importance  was i m p o r t a n t  interest.  readers  are given  readability Hartley,  Poor  enhances  of  questions  readers,  readers  six different  found  cues  the summarizing  the r e l a t i v e  what  important  The s t u d e n t s  read  Winograd  t h e good  and T a y l o r  ideas.  level  passage.  of  Students  about  choice  eighth  and s e l e c t e d t h e f i v e  pattern.  captured  strategic  grade  passage  those  text.  able  Winograd  and poor  knew  rated  i n determining  from  they  multiple  summary,  each  good  i s that  less  structure.  expository what  show,  may h e l p  the students  five  word  the text  between  i n summarizing  interviewed  wrote  of  the studies  organizational  the differences  strategies  that  grade  readers. of  during  about the  contained  300  headings  i n the margin  contained headings each the  headings were  study.  to  the main  Twenty-one  The a v e r a g e  ages  ranged  were  given  from  on t h e i r  again.  Hartley  questions,  7  years  15 m i n u t e s  tested  to  recall. et  headings,  or  identify  author's  organization.  an  of  questions  important In  have  part  author's  Robinson  read  8 months  10 y e a r s  later  that  embedded  test  and s u b o r d i n a t e  type  t h e SQ3R m e t h o d  of  cue.  This,  patterns  good  were  advance able  of  written  the i n the  course,  was  (1961).  and poor  and p r o p e n s i t y  children  the less  of  in  administered  by R o b i n s o n  that  part  and then was  in  reading  aspects  headings  described  suggests  took  The  of  a l l helped  that  The  and t h e i r  i n the form  questions  speculated  the evidence  class  passage  B  paragraphs  8 months.  t h e same  cues  Version  form.  the f i v e  a remedial  the appropriate  may b e t h e b e s t of  each of  from  to  One week  developmental  Effectiveness  (1961)  them  higher-level  (p.  of  stated,  training 29).  reading  Headings  "Superior  omitted  any b e t t e r ,  can with  comprehension" "A  3 months  questions.  i n statement  a g e w a s 12 y e a r s  They  i n and h e a d i n g s  comprehend headings  of  of  readers  to use the  structure.  The  headings  idea  the superordinate  conclusion,  different  written  children  a l reported  children  form  i n the form  i n the margin  cues  passage.  written  read  although be used  Robinson skill  to  in Aiding  students  increase  and H a l l  greatly  25  given  the former evidence  the  Reader  selections  no f a s t e r  indicates  with  nor  that  such  speed and  (1911)  emphasized  had suggested i n how-to-study  that, work  is  the  use  of  headings  indicate  the  for  efficient  more  college  students  Christensen recall  ideas  on  phrased  and  to  be  non-fiction developed,  reading"  had  (p.  material.  their  They skills  higher  level  Stordahl  (1955)  tested  with  and  questions,  and  (1975),  a  without  found  no  Since  effective  251).  the  passages  as  in  Air  found to  headings,  use  in  of  few  headings.  trainees'  including  significant  make  that  use  basic  headings  should  fact  make  Force  these  headings  differences  between  groups. Aulls sixth  grade  in  readers'  presentation  of  influence  recall.  that  not  on only  positive  effect,  passage,  the  more  Studies  were  restatement  of  idea)  aid  would  author's  reading  stories  main  ideas  than  did  tests  with topic  the  a  of  those used  sentences  statement (1975)  be  needed  to  determine  main  idea  the  the  even  DiVesta  if  which  a  with  also  26  indicated  statement  have  of  a  the  a  which were could  found  restated  significantly without  the  the  that  cue  the  and  main the  Marks  that or  of  students cued  greater  headings  readers  student  the recall  paragraph  high-ability found  a  aspects  Wittrock  which  also  greater  significant  which  important  graders,  stories  (1980)  have  beginning  headings  on  headings  They  to  the  on  recalled.  sixth  experiments  produced and  488  same  the  Doctorow,  produced  readers.  to  focus  organization.  paragraphs  a main  a question  to  paragraph  appeared  structure  that  idea  to  involving  found  of  was  readers  prose  a study  it  (or  of  completed  likely  reading in  scores,  was  low-ability  Dee-Lucas  the  effects  it  with  the  idea  presentation  poorer  study  the  closer  structural in  on  but  of  recall  Meyer  the  the  (1978),  literal  a main  did  study  and  generated  recall. found  that  student  generated  topic the  sentences  effects  restating detail.  the  by  physical  features  generated far  the  headings  a  distractor  involved  recall.  which would  consisted of  sorting  These  involve  the  compared  sentences  The  they  15  and of  courses.  and  findings  student  in  terms  structure,  if  topic  they  the  and  of a  a  topics.  All  were  sentences  supported  with  All  Each  specific  only  generated  133  R e c a l l c o n s i s t e d of  passage  general  were  paragraphs.  use.  a  were  subjects  describing a mineral  knowledge  Subject  when  psychology  significant effects  subject.  greatest  both  text.  processing,  for  study  sentences which restated  introductory  3 sentences  had  in  Their  additional  investigated  which  test  which  the  in  recall.  headings,  provided  mode o f  tested  by  or  a passage  test  and  enrolled  test,  greatest  were  reader  property,  matching  by  idea,  consisted of  recall  the  sentences,  features  the  read  paragraph  the  main  students  students  free  topic  These  generated female  of  produced  the  produced  use  author's  of  structural  organization. Hartley, students primary  into  groups  studied with  statements,  the and  a  that  level.  Overall  i t  form  of  significantly Holley,  high, and  short  passage  showed  the  of  t i t l e ,  results  in  Owen a n d  school records  children passage  Kenely,  the made  with  Evans,  ability  four  the  in  the  Collins,  27  but  on  grade  the  of  form  control,  of  questions.  The  for  every  or  the  headings  low-ability  form  Brooks,  of  pupils  ability  did  questions.  and  of  The  effect not  two  basis  results.  the  form  whether  200  conditions:  in  a marked  questions,  headings  of  in  difference or  low  headings  headings had  streamed  examination  one  with  headings no  in  (1980) and  first-year  passage  with  Dansereau,  medium,  passage  statements better  Trueman  Larson  (1981)  were  conducted Students were  read  given  results in The  a study  showed  scores  ten  that  for  the  one  Dansereau,  embedded  In  second as  on  In merits  headings  in  for  without  use to  of  in  as  half  the  students  processing aids.  increase recall  of  a study  The  percent  days  later.  not  involving  made  details  11  five  were  headings  recall  students.  and  training  that  the  an  delayed  (1982),  132  of  the  are  it  aids  (1983)  students.  found  improved  instruction,  a  thirty  significant  and m a i n  ideas  The  improved that  test  however,  reported first  delayed  instruction  to  two  experiment  test in  performance. failed  on  the  scores. use  of  Presentation  increase  test  experiment.  text."  (p.  evidence  shown  Holley  reliably  was  concludes,  headings,  and  psychology  "Titles  macropropositions  summary,  headings  or  headings  Alverman  headings  second  (1984)  the  of  percent  ability  experiment  without  the  Meyer  structure  of  accounted  Spurlin  processing  headings  on  without  college  week.  that  focus  ninety-five  use  with  students'  showed  scores  44  found  involving  of  and  the  groups  experiments  headings  on  different.  to  Brooks,  the  with  and  students,  contribution  involved  headings  recall  significantly  after  passages  instruction  immediate  grade  which  with in  most  subtitles  explicitly  c a n be  signal  the  employed top-level  133).  is or  and  and  not  yet  without studies  conclusive prior  to  28  as  to  the  instruction.  serve  as  an a i d  relative  However, to  memory.  to  Summary  The  influence  educators Meyers  for  was  level  the a b i l i t y  organization  indicate  Danner  that  affected  who  were  the  information  current  use  to  following  from  indicate  while  these  placed  demonstrated at  various  the author's  at  that  lower that grade  by  suggests  time  research showed  of  by  that  passages  i n the hierarchical i t  would  levels  be u s e f u l  to  to  use top  that  cues would  this  importance less  was t h e  t o remember  It  good  and poor  readers  have  difficulty  idea  presented  of  more  evident  of  importance  of  became  are unable  readers  readers  recall  they  each  recall  case.  that  readers  to  that  i n that  able  be h e l p f u l ,  be a b l e  testing.  research, Poor  facilitate  i n formulating  would  and d e l a y e d  to  done  was s p e c u l a t e d  structure  organization  the r e l a t i v e  It  the author  current  that  structure  factors.  strategies.  the r e l a t i v e  which  Empirical  e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h had n o t been  immediate  the author's  This  studies  information  empirical research  distinguish  1975.  d i s c u s s e d by  text.  presented  recall  seriously  i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l structure  use the author's  i s evident,  had been  before  other  students  (1976),  i n both  different  author.  of  of  by d e v e l o p n e n t a l  able  information  of  time  studies  the use of  was  It  than  Subsequent  Until  in  higher  recalled better  examine  structures  and f i n d i n g s  placed  structure.  text  a considerable  (1975)  information  of  would  the ideas  to by  be a i d e d in a  but not necessary,  for  in  the by  cues  passage, good  readers. Finally, means  of  evidence  cueing  for  indicates  less  able  that  readers  29  headings to  a r e t h e most  "access" the  effective  author's  structure. for  It  headings  empirical studies,  to  is be  studies to  serve  not  yet  useful are as  clear in  whether  increasing  conflicting. cues  to  prior  recall,  Headings  memory.  30  instruction as  were  is  results shown,  in  necessary  from most  recent  CHAPTER 3  METHODOLOGY  This  study  expository It  text  (King,  emphasized 1985).  instruments  to investigate  on t h e w r i t t e n  i s one component  studies  are  was d e s i g n e d  of  recall  a three  grades  part  students  study.  of headings  i n grades  The o t h e r  5 and 6 ( S t a b l e s ,  The s e l e c t i o n o f  described,  of  the effects  9 and 10.  two p a r a l l e l  1985) and grades  the subjects  and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  in  7  and 8  i s discussed, the and s c o r i n g  procedures  outlined.  Subjects  The The  participants  complete  (Stables,  study  i n the study  included  1985) and grades  grade  from  each  Maple  Ridge,  parallel 7  non-streamed  grade  regular,  non-streamed  English  and  10.  The c o m m u n i t i e s  are  comparable An  on  analysis  the percentile  of  scores  at grades  1985).  achieved  Studies  status  between  were  classes  of  the three  each  Richmond,  from  intact,  intact, at grades  of Vancouver,  (Canada  on the r e a d i n g  31  5 and 6  One c l a s s  and from  are a l l suburbs  socioeconomic  9 and 10.  school d i s t r i c t s of  classes  or Social  done  i n grades  The s u b j e c t s  5 , 6 and 7  chosen  variance  studies  Columbia  was c h o s e n .  regular,  in their  students  and 8 ( K i n g ,  of the B r i t i s h  and Surrey  were  Census, school  8,9  B . C . and 1981).  districts  comprehension  test  indicate school  no  districts.  percentile  Table  significant  difference  between  F(2,297)=.0975,  s c o r e s by  students  p=.3785.  See  District  Maple  An  Mean  the  102  53.35  30.69 26.74  Surrey  99  58.63  27.62  test  variance percentile  between  mean  done  grades.  percentile  between  grades  scores indicate F(5,294)=0.617,  scores,  Canadian  Edition  S.D.  54.31  grade  T-scores,  on  no  the  significant  p=0.6867.  and  reading  grade  See  Table  equivalents  2 at  level. the  completing 50 w e r e  Ridge  a n a l y s i s of  From  the  total  of  reading  randomly  chosen  numbers,  to  participate  students  at  each grade  at  1 for  Scores  99  differences the  n  Test,  Richmond  comprehension  68  Table  three  1  Percentile  each  the  district.  P e r c e n t i l e S c o r e s on G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g ( 1 9 8 0 ) , C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t , By D i s t r i c t  for  in  grade  5,  68  at  the  76  grade  9 and  comprehension from in  grade  each grade  the  level 6,  test  study.  were 70  54  grade  and  the  level, In  the  two  grade  32  7,  and  students  two  using  a l s o randomly at  10  written a table  recalls, of  random  parallel studies,  chosen from 62  at  grade  a total 8.  50 of  Table  2  Reading Grade  Scores  on G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Comprehension  Subtest  by  Scores Grade  5  Grade  Equiv.  T-Score  Mean  6.18  53.22  S.D.  2.48  6  Mean S.D.  7  Percentile  n  50  9.83  59.14 29.04  6.85 2.51  51.52 9.58  54.00 28.32  50  Mean S.D.  7.96  52.78 8.66  58.22 26.41  50  2.31  8  Mean S.D.  8.22 2.62  49.82 9.88  51.04 30.84  50  9  Mean S.D.  9.37 2.48  50.78 9.24  53.16 28.82  50  10  Mean S.D.  10.54 2.16  52.52 9.61  56.90  50  27.43  33  Materials  The  Gates-MacGinite  Comprehension reading This  was  selected to  comprehension  for  a l l  was  and  several  forms  could  made items of the  range  this  test  test A  words  each,  11  by  passages as  Table  over  used  in  parallel studies  1985;  the  six  from  test  are  Stables,  1985)  grades.  The  .85  to  encompass  .92  of  available at  thus  9 and  (1980),  standard  measure the  contains Canadian  so  the  that  grade  Manual,  10.  The  the p.  of  study.  Canadian students.  appropriate 5,6,7,  and  enabling comparisons  r e l i a b i l i t y of  (Teacher's  grades  It  a population  the  a  Edition  participating in  reasons.  of  8  to  be  comprehension  v).  Forms  hand-scored  E  and  version  F  of  used.  battery  authored The  was  normed  provide  forms  be  (King,  across  was  Canadian  subjects  selected for'several  i t  Also,  levels  Test,  subtest  test  content  Reading  of  was  seven  written  Megan  in  Crowhurst  range  determined  expository  by  in  a descriptive (1984),  readability  the  Fry  prose  and  from  Readability  3.  34  passages  of  format.  The  r e v i s e d by  passages  the  approximately Formula  approximately  (Fry,  300  were  researchers.  grade  3 to  1968).  grade  See  Table  3  Readability  Grade  of  Passages  Level  Topic  Readability  4  Parrots  5  Kwakiutl  6  Venus  Flytrap  7  7  Haida  Indians  7  8  Anorexia  9  Painkilling  10  Earthquakes  The because grade  readability a key  several  Thus  and  times  in  and  word  sentence with  3  the  resultant  level  is  Formula  again  applied  "anorexia"  and  level  readability  level.  seven  subordinate researchers.  does  the  to  of  grade  passages  ideas The  in  each  the  grade  The  Fry  Readability  take of  and  when  once, the  well  the  9 passage,  grade  an  the  determined  organized  35  by  with  the  repeated based  on  account.  syllables  8 passage  9 passage  in  high  Readability  the  5 superordinate  as  into  high  a r t i f i c i a l l y  Fry  counting  was  Formula,  repetition  grade  are  "anorexic"  syllables,  passages  contain  are  word  However,  the  9 passages  in  5 paragraphs,  passages  8 and  each passage,  number  only 9  grade  in  not  obtained.  "anesthesia"  readability  The  of  high  11 10  passage.  length,  10  Drugs  "anesthesia"  each  6  Nervosa  levels  readability was  Indians  m u l t i s y l l a b i c word  8 passage  level  had  a  a grade  ideas the  had  and  in  10  26  three  a clearly  defined  superordinate Versions  of  Headings  were  each  double  space.  cue  that  is  to  idea.  onto  passage  The  passages  for  of  use  were  All ensure ability  sheet  this  less  to  follow  handicapped  by  in A  in  able  of  8  October, level to  study  1984.  passage  read  the  treatment  use  in  or  their  grade  either  administered  had  with  sample T.  x  11  each paragraph  and  idea  without  or  a  a  headings  Copies  Westermark,  by  of  the  Department  of  Columbia.  4,  Apple  Computer  printer  paper.  9,  and  10  passages studies  levels  from  at  were  the  the  same  grade  5,6,7  the  grade  opportunity  4 level to  passage  to  demonstrate  structure  without  being  level.  of  with  assigned  Instruments  50  grade  to  read  passage.  headings  the  headings.  passages.  inch  read  the  level  paragraph.  superordinate  passages  Dr.  from  organizational  with to  the  each  1985).  study  conducted were  of  parallel  Stables, this  and  apart  Appropriate  readability  Students  passage  was  was  without  grades  Administration  A pilot  with  a dot-matrix  1/2  the  author's  passage  of  British  with  readers  the  of  sentence  set  two  from  study.  1985;  the  for  for  for  participants  that  prose  written  (King,  were  a restatement  printed  selected  8 levels  and  University  one  first  prepared  obtained  was  in  the  were  Appendix  c a n be  side  battery  The  See  one  chosen  are  Education,  Each  in  indented  They  passages  Language  stated  passage  not  identical.  other  and  idea  or  students  36  5 to  10  either  the  They were without following  students grade  also  4  assigned  headings. the  in  The  procedures  outlined the  in  chapter  resultant  data  participating  in  1.  The  was  the  not  students'  written  recalls  s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed.  pilot  study  did  not  were  scored  but  Students  participate  in  the  actual  study. Results  of  the  pilot  eliminate  ambiguities,  stated  the  the  in  main  changes  topic  idea. made  students  to  to  sentences,  the  unchanged,  to  avoid  also  to  include  The  instruments  November classes  and in  schools.  December,  the The  parallel  high  any  1984,  the  the  verbal  during  the to  headings  instructions student  cues.  passages  ideas to  correspond  were  with  to  to  reflect the  the  questions  Scoring  in  a three  regular  were  procedures  in  the  mornings  done  by  the  author  5,6,7  and  8  week  English  and  grade  the  were  evaluation.  administered  schools  at  revised  to  of  superordinate  revise  Although  a format  r e s e a r c h was  studies  also  to  a revision  the  responses  giving  were  that  and  were  passages.  standardized  prompted  ensure  Protocols  remained  revised  study  in  and  levels  or  period  in  Social  Studies  the by  elementary  the  (King,  authors 1985;  of  Stables,  1985). Students Using  a  level  were  the  table  class  of  numbered  random  randomly  remaining  each  were  was  students also  level  first,  level  passage  f i r s t .  both  remaining  the  grade  students  to  the  remaining  4 and  the  both  of  the the  passages  chosen  Students  read  half  receive  received  randomly  4  alphabetical order  numbers,  assigned  grade  read  in  to  grade the  the  level  grade  37  passages  receive  assigned  4  class  students  with  students  on  no  at  each  with  the  passages and  Half  passage  passages  at  their with  with the  grade  headings,  headings.  receiving  level  lists.  of  the  grade  headings  headings. grade  level  The  passages  without  Three two  headings.  s e s s i o n s were  reading-recall All  subtest  students of  The  test  and  by  the  was  the  schools,  In the  at  administered  lower  each of  procedure a l l  of  the  that  10  after  from  After students grade  and  write  down  just  the  No  the  recall  the  were  were  were  at  in  and  the  at  elapsed  write  to  were  passages  top  paper.  They  c o u l d remember  about  they  Questions answered  allowed. from  with,  were  They  students "Do  38  what  the  These  the  that  to  random  the  sessions  and  passage  they  for  could  passage  read.  given.  They  the  received  secondary  study  back  parallel  1985). student  a l l  school  Manual.  in  through  the  foolscap. of  use  session.  down  referring  the  for  each  (1980).  elementary  Teacher's  student  instructed  Edition  the  Stables,  both  Comprehension  secondary  at  the  sessions, to  to  the  selected  1985;  explanations  d i s c u s s i o n was  task.  session,  level  Canadian  experimental  without  had  the  outlined  third  were  Test,  researchers  researchers  they  lined at  the  (King,  the  Students  everything  read.  complete of  school  to  passage  received  a testing  appropriate  researchers  assigned  prior  minutes  the  test  and  been  by  or  same  no, f u r t h e r  10  each c l a s s :  Reading  the  levels  which  the  point  the  had  levels.  this  by  second  conducted  remember  given  procedures  grade  elementary  At  the  conducted  minutes  first  Gates-MacGinite  following  passage  were  were  forms  with  sessions.  classroom teachers  Appropriate studies  spent  were  told  collected  to  put  were the  were  think  they  to had  25 m i n u t e s  method is  name,  told  passage  regarding you  their  then  given  and  or  best".  to  format  Scoring  All  marking  was  parallel  studies  (King,  written  recalls  interrater (parrot  done  were  superordinate  by  then  author  was  by  and  the  ranging  .838, ideas  to  This  was  were  developed  of  Data  the  1985).  Stables,  remarked  subordinate  ideas.  Tabulation  the  1985;  correlations  passage)  and  Ten  of  the  percent  of  authors.  The  mean  from  for  grade  .976  for  .743  considered  authors  to  grade  be  an  the of  the level  4  level  acceptable  level  of  correlation. Recall  protocols  subordinate adjacent  ideas  boxes  protocols. The the  were  (See  number  format  of  in  the drawn  of  the  ideas recall  procedures  Directions  for  contains  the  reading  score  version  of  of  the  they  left  superordinate  appeared  of  each  of  in  the  the  and  passage.  ideas  on  Two  the  B). recalled, were  from  score  in  the  the  organization  evaluated.  Scoring  of  the  recall,  procedures  Niles  (1955).  See  Appendix  was  completed  for  each  C.  This  in  the  sheet study.  student  passage and  the  superordinate  the  grade  4 and  Appendix  read,  headings  level  and or  ideas  subordinate  grade  number;  T-scores  subordinate  and  the  See  identification  percentiles,  superordinate  procedures  that  the  B for  and  augmented the  Scoring.  covering  participating  to  Appendix  evaluation  A  order  listing  ideas  no  passages.  used.  39  score  student grade  grade;  the This  sheet sex;  equivalents;  headings;  recalled, and  student  the  and  the  the number  organization  format  scores of  completed  the  of both  scoring  Design  In  order  organization Design"  was  to  test  and used  the  effects  of  recall  of  ideas  a  (Borg  and  Gall,  1979,  data  posttest control or  processed using  scores of (without  reading  investigate The  the  group  p.  5 through  548).  a n a l y s i s of (with  and  variance  headings)  between  groups  c o r r e l a t i o n s were  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  Scheffe  Control-Group  between  group of  and  mean  the  different  grade  level.  product-moment the  students'  Procedures  experimental  headings)  ability  Pearson  grade  were  on  "Posttest-Only  Statistical  The  headings  test  was  used  to  ideas  detect  calculated  and  to  organization.  developmental  patterns  from  10.  Summary  This included  chapter  has  outlined  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  administration tabulation  of  of  the  data;  the  the  subjects  instruments;  and  methodology  reported  and  reviewed  the  procedures.  40  design  of  the  materials;  study.  It  outlined  the  s c o r i n g and  and  statistical  the  the  CHAPTER  ANALYSIS  In  this  presented.  chapter  the r e s u l t s  variables  of of  the relevant heading,  variety  of  (Anova)  was c o n d u c t e d  noted have  For  dependent  been  and  10  i f  of  patterns  analyses  students  encompassed students study. were  ideas  level  70  1985).  from  a table  chosen  from  and 50 grade  grade at  level  grade  7,  of  by  ability  be d e s c r i b e d .  to  the  are based  from  from  from  Analysis  on a of  variance  Differences  are  correlations  the relationship of  was u s e d  the to  (Stables,  recall.  discover  from  at  i n order  numbers,  were  used  achieve  50 s t u d e n t s  7  equal  were  chosen  from  76.  a l s o randomly  chosen  from  a total  41  5.  cell  at the grade  54 who p a r t i c i p a t e d  and 68 a t grade  entire  l e v e l who  possible of  6,  9  and 8  i n the  each grade to  grade  which  1985) and grade  300 s t u d e n t s  50 s t u d e n t s  random  on the data  the p a r a l l e l studies  population  68 a t g r a d e  a  grades.  data  a total  level  product-moment  investigate  be  independent  effects.  the Scheffe' test  9 students  were  followed  and r e a d i n g  Pearson  the  Data  a larger  will  of  the various  chapter  data  be r e s t a t e d  the data  The e f f e c t s  5 and 6 s t u d e n t s  included  Using were  study, each  (King,  chosen  in this  the analysis of  r e c a l l e d and o r g a n i z a t i o n  issues, among  DATA  will  will  p<.05.  along with  grade  This  sizes.  level  comparing  the developmental  significant  8,  grade  c a l c u l a t e d i n an e f f o r t  t h e number  The  data.  measures  as s i g n i f i c a n t  between  of  The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s  discussion  OF  4  Fifty of  10  i n the  students 62 a t  at  grade  Effect  Research  In  Question  a written  recalled  For between  the  within  the the  mean  passages  without  For between  task,  prose each  grade  from  10  and  are  to  be  grade  more  superordinate  r e c a l l e d has  (a)  and  subordinate  headings  or  (b)  ideas  no  level?  Students  recalled  Grade  Headings on R e c a l l of S u p e r o r d i n a t e Subordinate Ideas  1.1  recall  when  headings,  Grade 9  of  9 students,  scores for  the  there  the  passages with headings.  were  no  significant  superordinate headings  and  See  Table  4  for  students,  there  were  and  subordinate  those the  differences ideas  r e c a l l e d from  mean  the  scores.  Students  the the  subordinate  grade mean  from  passages  without  difference  scores  parrot  recalled  10  the  for  ideas,  the  and  headings.  between  the  of  parrot  subordinate  headings  However,  recall  significant  superordinate  the  passages with  no  and  there  grade those  was  superordinate  42  a  differences  ideas, level  the  ideas  r e c a l l e d from  the  significant  ideas  from  the  grade  Table  4  E f f e c t of Headings on R e c a l l of Superordinate S u b o r d i n a t e Ideas by Grade 9 S t u d e n t s  MEASURE  WITH HEADINGS MEANS  Parrots  WITHOUT  S.D.  and  HEADINGS  MEANS  DIFF.  S.D.  passage  Superordinate  Ideas  Subordinate  Ideas  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Ideas Ideas  2.52  .80  2.32  1.01  .20  17.20  4.58  16.46  3-92  .74  2.02  1.38  1.60  1.31  .42  12.52  5.76  11.40  4.41  1.12  n= : 2 5  n=25 *p<.05  43  level  passage  headings. passage  with  The  headings  mean  r e c a l l e d by  headings  was  2.36  headings  had  a mean  Research  Question  In  a written  recalled headings,  Grade  9  and  10  basis  of  percentile were  Good  For there  their  both  were  no  passages  without the  differences  are  to  and  (see  of  the  more  be  passage  ideas  for  reading Those  Table  5).  without  the  grade  passages who  had  level  without  passages  F(l,48)=6.000,  with  p<.05.  grade  read  reading  the  grade  who  while  grade between  10  the  10  students  Reading  had  or  those  were  (b)  next  comprehension  scored  readers  differences  See  above  no  the  taken  on  subtest  50th  percentile  who  had  scored below  the  and  the  grade  readers,  scores  between  headings  Table  readers  mean  headings  ideas  level?  9 and  passages with  good  subordinate  50th  readers.  9 good  headings.  (a)  and  Readers  Students readers  superordinate  r e c a l l e d has  by  Poor  significant  who  For  task,  l a b e l l e d poor  the  students  students  Gates-MacGinite  scores.  were  10  1.60  each grade  l a b e l l e d good  percentile  level  a possible 5.00.  only  prose  Subpopulations the  grade  superordinate  grade  of  of  of  the  1.2  the  within  a l l  out  recall  when  number  and  6 for  there for  44  and the  were the  the  no  9 poor  mean those  mean  scores who  from  read  scores.  significant  superordinate  parrot  the  Table  5  E f f e c t o f Headings on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s b y G r a d e 10 S t u d e n t s  MEASURE  Parrots  WITH HEADINGS  and  WITHOUT H E A D I N G S  DIFF.  MEANS  S.D.  MEANS  S.D.  2.84  1.04  2.62  1.09  .22  16.88  5.04  19.08  4.54  2.20  1.60  1.15  passage  Superordinate  Ideas  Subordinate  Ideas  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Ideas  Ideas  10.26  5.26  n=25  2.36  1.04  .76  10.88  4.85  .62  n=25  *p<.05  45  *  Table  6  E f f e c t o f Headings on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s by Grade 9 S t u d e n t s by R e a d i n g L e v e l  MEASURE  WITH HEADINGS MEANS  GOOD  READERS  Parrot  DIFF.  S.D.  n=15  passage Ideas  Subordinate  Ideas  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Ideas  Ideas  READERS  Parrot  HEADINGS  MEANS  S.D.  n= 13  Superordinate  POOR  WITHOUT  2.50  .87  2.30  1.05  .20  18.38  4.72  17.47  3.69  .91  2.31  1.58  1.83  1.50  .48  15.65  5.63  13.17  3.85  2.48  n= 10  n=10  passage  Superordinate  Ideas  Subordinate  Ideas  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Ideas  Ideas  2.45  .80  2.35  1.00  .10  15.90  4.69  14.95  3.95  .95  1.65  1.23  1.25  .92  .40  8.70  3.93  8.75  3.97  .05  *p<.05  46  ideas,  the subordinate  ideas the  r e c a l l e d from  level  between  passage  headings. received recall  of  good  the grade  ideas  recalled  from  Research  Question  a written  and  a total ideas  without  passages with  possible of  (see Table  grade  headings  5.00 for  7).  Those  significantly higher,  with  a  there  scores for  were  no  significant  the superordinate  the passages with  headings  and and  those  headings.  1.3  grade  for  passage  the  from  p<.01.  r e c a l l e d from  task,  the prose  5 through  level  who r e a d  scored  readers,  t h e mean  recall  over  10 w e r e  headings  the passages without  when  Results  1.63 out of  10 p o o r  subordinate  Grades  from  superordinate  between  headings,  ideas  level  differences  recalled  superordinate  10 r e a d e r s  F(1,28)=10.344,  recalled  significant  grade  2.80.  and t h o s e  level  was a  of  mean  In  of  grade  there  and t h e grade  grade  without  headings  However,  score  passages  For  headings  and the s u b o r d i n a t e  with  a mean  reading of  headings.  the r e c a l l  with  Those  ideas,  the passages  passages without  difference  parrot  a r e more  to  superordinate  be r e c a l l e d h a s (a)  levels  5,6,7,8,9,  and s u b o r d i n a t e  headings  or  (b)  ideas  no  and 10?  10  the effect  compiled with  of  headings  results  from  47  on i d e a  recall  t h e two s t u d i e s  for at  grades grades  9 5 and  Table  7  E f f e c t o f Headings on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e and S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s b y G r a d e 10 S t u d e n t s b y R e a d i n g  MEASURE  WITH HEADINGS MEANS  GOOD  READERS  Parrot  HEADINGS  MEANS  DIFF.  S.D.  n= 15  passage Ideas  Subordinate  Ideas  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Ideas Ideas  3.17  1 . 06  2.90  .99  .27  18.00  3 . 38  19.83  5.16  1.83  1.63  1. 06  2.80  .92  11.27  5 . 26  12.80  4.28  1.53  1.17*  n= 10  • n= 10  READERS  Parrot  S . D.  n: = 15  Superordinate  POOR  WITHOUT  Level  passage  Superordinate  Ideas  Subordinate  Ideas  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Ideas Ideas  82  2.20  1.16  .15  15.20  6 . 70  17.95  3-34  2.75  1.55  1 . 34  1.70  .86  .15  8.75  5 . 15  8.00  4.33  .75  2.35  •  *p<.05  48  6  (Stables,  1985),  set  of  data,  the  following  mentioned  subjects  but  effects  heading,  F  headings  had  were  The  significant  and  due  to  a mean  used.  headings  effects  from  An  the  of  effects to  due  of  to  For  which  to  grade  due  out  of  2.03  by  showed will  be  were and  due  passages  a possible  (see  heading  there  p<.000,  read  combined  5.  passage  who  this  run  question  parrot  2.30  a mean  found  A n o v a was  Students  score  1985).  F(5,294)=8.197,  p<.05.  scored  were  (King,  response  grade,  recall  8  significant  ideas  (1,298)=5.011,  without  7  discussed in  superordinate  significant  grades  results.  here  For  those  300  and  Table grade  to  with  5.00  8).  while  No  F(5,288)=0.378,  p=0.864. For  subordinate  ideas  significant  effects  due  significant  effects  were  or  due  to  For  heading  by  to  effects  due  significant  effects  were  p=0.592,  due  For  to  effect  significant  effects  p=0.936,  due  or  to  50th below  test  were  from  50th  were  from  grade  by  to  heading,  found by  to  the  total  were  level  heading,  to  level  before, good  heading,  passage, p<.000.  were  labelled  passage,  49  No  there  p<.000.  taken who  while  poor  were  was  No  F(1,298)=0.006,  students  readers  there  p=0.148.  F(5,288)=0.316,  data  p=.089,  F(1,298)=0.288,  F(5,294)=9.342,  due  No  p=0.638.  grade  grade  were  p<.000.  F(5,288)=1.643,  grade,  As  there  F(1,298)=2.915,  F(5,294)=8.771,  due  from  the  the  grade  labelled  percentile  passage  F(5,288)=0.681,  grade,  heading  percentiles.  percentile the  to  parrot  F(5,29*0=26.875,  due  found  ideas  due  Subpopulations reading  to  heading  subordinate  significant  found  ideas  significant  the  grade,  grade,  superordinate  or  from  on  p=0.903. the  basis  of  scored  above  the  those  readers.  who  scored  a  Table  8  E f f e c t of Headings on R e c a l l of Superordinate I d e a s b y G r a d e 5 T h r o u g h 10 S t u d e n t s  MEASURE  Parrot  WITH H E A D I N G S  WITHOUT  and S u b o r d i n a t e  HEADINGS  DIFF.  MEANS  S . D.  MEANS  S.D.  2.30  1 . 11  2.03  1.10  .27*  13.67  5 . 90  14.62  5.58  .95  1.76  1 . 32  1.83  1.21  .07  9.54  5 . 12  9.58  4.77  .04  passage  Superordinate  Ideas  Subordinate  Ideas  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Ideas  Ideas  n= 1 5 0  n= 1 5 0 *p<.05  50  There between  those  passages H=87;  were  Since form  2  (>84th  who r e a d  with  NH=87)  no s i g n i f i c a n t  or t h e poor  smaller  were  Effect  In  no d i f f e r e n c e s  found  task,  recalled  has (a)  Grade  Students  the  grade  organization same  or  or  absence  by t h o s e score  (b)  again,  more  i t was d e c i d e d very poor  no  good  to  readers  readers  (<16th  significant  readers.  no h e a d i n g s ,  recall  The mean  students by t h o s e  written  closely  of headings  written  structure.  a s t h e mean  level  o r poor  (n=174:  NH=62).  and v e r y  do t h e s t u d e n t s '  structure  headings  9 students'  organizational  readers  who r e a d  2.1  recall  presence  Once  and those  represent  test),  measures  o f Headings on t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Structure of the Students' Written Recall  organizational  The  H=59;  at this  good  (H)  t h e good  would  test).  for either  author's  9  (n=121:  which  i n the r e c a l l  headings  for either  on comprehension  Question  a written  with  readers  on comprehension  differences  Research  were  (NH)  subpopulations  percentile  percentile  passages  no h e a d i n g s  there  differences  when  51  grade  for  the  the  t o be  levels?  did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  score  students  follow  the prose  within  i n following  who r e a d  recalls  affect  author's  superordinate  passages who r e a d  with  headings  passages  was t h e  without  headings.  Differences  significant  Grade  10  (see Table  means  significantly measures.  for  passages  mean  for  better  than for  without  those  with  passage  was . 8 0 o u t o f with  recalls of  passages their  for  subordinate  were  also  headings  were  follow  organization  on t h e i r  The mean  for  that  out of  not  passages  36 p e r c e n t  the author's  10). of  of  the grade  recall  headings  organization.  The  level  80 p e r c e n t  responded  those  two  F(1,48)=5.505,  superordinate  with  for  the parrot  indicating that  overall those  of  headings  a possible 5.00.  (see Table  1.00  i n t h e same  was . 3 6 , meaning to  was 3 . 7 2  a possible  passages with  organization  was 2 . 8 4  no h e a d i n g s  the author.  passages without  reading  superordinate  arranged  recalls  those  headings  The mean  students  reading  headings  p<.05.  that  organization  9).  students  The mean  from  their  subordinate  Students  The  the  in their  on  with  of  having  structure  as  their  students  organized  F(1,48)=11.902,  p<.01.  Research  In  Question  a written  2.2  recall  task,  author's  organizational  recalled  has (a)  reading  do t h e s t u d e n t s '  structure  headings  or  (b)  more  written  closely  no h e a d i n g s  level?  52  when  within  recalls  follow  the prose grade  the  to  be  levels  by  Table  9  Effect  of Headings  on O r g a n i z a t i o n  f o r Grade  WITH HEADINGS  WITHOUT  MEASURE  Parrot  Students  HEADINGS  DIFF.  MEANS  S.D.  MEANS  S.D.  .60  .50  .60  .50  .00  3.00  1.38  3.12  1.36  .12  .60  .50  .60  .50  .00  2.48  1.42  .48  passage  Superordinate  Org.  Subordinate  Org.  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Org.  Org.  2.96  1.43  n=25  r  9  n=25  p<.05  53  Table  10  Effect  of Headings  on Organization  f o r Grade  WITH HEADINGS  WITHOUT  MEASURE  Parrot  10  Students  HEADINGS  DIFF.  MEANS  S.D.  MEANS  S.D.  .52  .51  .60  2.84  1.52  3-72  1.10  .88*  .36  .49  .80  .41  .44*  2.44  1.29  2.84  1.25  passage  Superordinate  Org.  Subordinate  Org.  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Org.  Org.  n=25  n=25  p<.05  54  .50  .08  .40  Grade  9  and  10  Good  Organization one  of  (see  the  Table  passage  level. or 9  four  categories  11).  In with  had  a mean  patterns  in  (<50th  Grade had  the  10  of  in  for  who  means  instances  did  score  as  mean  author.  students  with  author.  F(1,28) =16.200,  the  grade  possible  5.00  significantly one  headings  level  That Those  was  with  with  passage  while higher  significant  the  indicates that the  the at  (p<.05)  the  on  3.69  were  no  grade  level  while  those  without  the  significant  not  have  in  readers  the  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  those  for  87  organized  .05  differences  measures  27  of  recalls,  (a  grade  subordinate  headings  for  the  passages without  F(1,28)=4.255,  difference  with  the  organization passages  55  of  scored  the  10  on  out  of  of  headings There poor  of  was  in  those as  the of  a was only  readers. recall.  1.90  a  their  passage  .27)  parrot  a mean  of  same way  2.47  p<.05. grade  out  organization  for  3.33.  was  their  .87  of  the  passages  the  their  mean in  on  headings  organized  recalls  their  In  without  percent  the  12).  mean  mean  their  level  on  headings  Table  those  their In  headings  with  percent  p<.001. the  (see grade  Only  subordinate  headings  of  organization  (p<.05).  was  same way  of  headings  percentile)  the  than  possible  the  was  There  of  This  organization  This  organization  passages.  (>50th  by  readers.  readers  the  9 good  a a mean  superordinate 1.00  significantly affected  grade  had  scores  percentile)  two  for  p<.05.  mean  good  be  2.60.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  passages  to  headings  the  Readers  subordinate  F(1,26)=4.289,  poor  Poor  appeared  those  headings  and  while  Table  11  E f f e c t of Headings Reading Level  on  Organization for  MEANS  GOOD  READERS  Parrot  S.D.  9 Students  HEADINGS  MEANS  by  DIFF.  S.D.  n=15  n=13  passage  Superordinate  Org  Subordinate  Org  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  POOR  WITHOUT  WITH HEADINGS  MEASURE  Grade  Org  Org  .5  .6  .5  2.69  1.70  3.60  1.12  .91  .6  .5  .6  .5  .00  3.69  1.31  2.60  1.45  1.09*  READERS  Parrot  .1  .5  n=10  n=10  passage  Superordinate  Org  Subordinate  Org  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Org  Org  .6  .5  .6  .5  .00  3.10  .74  2.40  1.43  .70  .5  .5  .6  .5  .10  2.10  1.20  2.30  1.42  .20  *p<.05  56  Table  12  E f f e c t o f Headings Reading Level  on O r g a n i z a t i o n  f o r Grade  WITH HEADINGS  WITHOUT  MEASURE  MEANS GOOD R E A D E R S Parrot  by  DIFF.  S.D.  n=15  passage Org  Subordinate  Org  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Org  Org  .5  .7  .5  .20  3.47  1.30  3.87  1.06  .40  .3  .5  .9  .4  .60*  2.47  1.41  3-33  .82  .86  .52  .20  .5-  READERS  Parrot  HEADINGS  MEANS  n=15  Superordinate  POOR  S.D.  10 S t u d e n t s  n=10  n=10  passage  Superordinate  Org  Subordinate  Org  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Org  Org  .60 1.90  .50 2.40  .52  .40  1.37  3.50  .53 1.17  *p<.05  57  1.18  1.60*  .70  .48  .20  2.10  1.45  .30  those  without  headings  total  possible of  Research Question  In  a written  scored  5.00.  F(1,18)=7.837,  recall  task,  organizational  recalled  has (a) headings  Grades  5 Through  do t h e s t u d e n t s '  structure or  more  written  recalls  c l o s e l y when  (b) no h e a d i n g s ,  over  follow the  the prose grade  t o be  levels  10 w e r e  and  6 (Stables,  run  which  For  compiled with  heading,  superordinate  For  effects  here  on o r g a n i z a t i o n  from  1985).  from  p=0.758,  the parrot  or due t o heading  by  to question  5.  there  p=0.462, by  were  due t o  grade,  p=0.250.  subordinate  organization  effects  due t o g r a d e ,  significant  effects  were  found  or due t o h e a d i n g  from  the parrot  F(5,294)=10.219,  due t o h e a d i n g ,  by g r a d e ,  58  passage p>.000.  there No  F(1,298)=0.948,  F(5,288)=1.554,  5  An A n o v a w a s  passage  F(5,294)=0.929,  9  at grades  The s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s  b u t d i s c u s s e d i n answer  due t o g r a d e ,  f o r grades  t h e two s t u d i e s  and 8 ( K i n g ,  results.  significant  p=0.331,  7  organization  F(1,298)=0.095,  F(5,288)=1.334,  the results  the following  be m e n t i o n e d  significant  of headings  1985) and grades  showed  will  10  for the effect  and  no  p<.05.  9 and 10?  Results  grade  at 3.50 out of a  2.3  author's  5,6,7,8  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  p=0.173.  were  For there  superordinate  were  p=0.145  no  but 61  organized  the  as  the  of  .49)  Table  significant  there  headings,  13).  were due  were  no  ideas  who  to  grade,  level  passage,  F(5,29*0=1.657, P<«05.  out  the  of  1.00)  their  total  headings  significant  of  recalls  a lower  had  grade  F(1,298)=4.505,  of  with  due  to  on  effects  from  the  grade,  F(1.298)=0.241,  in  of  their due  students  the  49  Without  same  order  percent  (mean  passage  to  (see  heading  by  grade,  grade  level  passage,  F(5,294)=8.815,  p=0.624,  or  due  to  there  p<.000,  heading  but  by  not  grade,  p=0.220.  idea  recall,  were  significant  subpopulations  percentile)  and  poor  differences  were  readers  attributed  chosen  (<50th to  the  to  represent  percentile). presence  or  good  There  absence  headings. Further  subpopulations  percentile)  and  significant  difference  superordinate readers  poor  (<l6th  found  (p<.05).  was  organization  of  the  headings  represented  83  percent  or  recall  similar  readers  in  a  with who  way  headings followed  F(1,59)=7.750,  p<.01.  24  to  No  grade  group  out  the  group the  selected  readers  without  the  in  very  were  the  for  .61  organization  effects  (>50th  of  due  the  p=0.100.  subordinate  with  of  compares  There  readers no  mean  students  heading,  from  heading,  those  F(5,288)=1.412, As  for  (a  This  significant to  effects  superordinate  F(5,288)=1.869, For  were  percent  author. for  organization  of  29  author.  which  author's  for  very  percentile). This  level  had  was  students This  of who  organizational  59  in  differences  out  (>84th  one  the Very  .83  good  which  organized  compared 15  readers Only  recall.  a mean  represented  significant  good  to of  the  a mean 30 v e r y  of  .50  good  pattern. were  found  between  Table  13  E f f e c t of Headings Students  on Organization  MEASURE  Parrot  WITH  HEADINGS  f o r Grade  5 Through  WITHOUT H E A D I N G S  10  DIFF.  MEANS  S.D.  MEANS  .54  .62  .52  .50  .02  2.48  1.41  2.63  1.40  .15  S.D.  passage  Superordinate  Org.  Subordinate  Org.  Grade  passage  Level  Superordinate Subordinate  Org.  Org.  .49  .50  .61  .49  2.15  1.36  2.23  1.40  n= 1 5 0  n= 1 5 0  *p<.05  60  .18* .08  the  mean  with  organization  headings  The  Research  Do  Question  Grades  of  does  the r e c a l l over  Pearson was  readers  poor  reading  superordinate  5,6,7,8,9  appear  to  organization  headings.  of  ideas  in their  when  they  written  and 10?  be a r e l a t i o n s h i p  and t h e number grades  of  5 through  product  moment  between  c o r r e l a t i o n s were t h e amount  (p<.05)  Correlations  on t h e b a s i s  of  on a t w o - t a i l e d for  the parrot  Superordinate  organization  ideas  and s u b o r d i n a t e  the  organization  and s u b o r d i n a t e  ideas  10.  significant  freedom  between  superordinate  A l l correlations presented  (.1624)  passages  passages without  and s u b o r d i n a t e  organized.  of  reading  10  a relationship  degrees  readers  B e t w e e n O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e Number and S u b o r d i n a t e Ideas on t h e R e c a l l  the author's  grades  5 through  recalled  more  follow  over  There  poor  very  3  recall  closely  recalls,  and v e r y  Relationship Superordinate  students  more  scores of  of  computed  recall  values  there  14  a n d 15  are  c a l c u l a t e d f o r 298  test.  passage  are indicated  had low c o r r e l a t i o n s with ideas  see i f  a n d t h e way i t was  i n Tables  "t"  to  (.1222).  61  i n Table  14.  superordinate  Subordinate  Table  14  C o r r e l a t i o n Between the Parrot Passage  Organization  and  Amount  Superordinate Ideas  of  Recall  Subordinate Ideas  Superordinate Organization  .1624  .1222  Subordinate Organization  .3810  .5031  Table  for  15  C o r r e l a t i o n Between O r g a n i z a t i o n the Grade L e v e l Passage  and  Superordinate Ideas  Superordinate Organization  Amount  of  Recall  Subordinate Ideas  .3923  .2504  .3403  .5876  Subordinate Organization  62  for  organization,  however,  superordinate  ideas  Correlations These  organization subordinate This  Research  to  9  For was  for  .3810  subordinate  ideas.  with  grade  higher  level  than  passage  the  organization  are  shown  correlations  correlated  with  for  .3923  .2504  with  subordinate  correlated  .3403  with  superordinate  in  Table  the  15.  parrot  with  ideas.  Subordinate  ideas  and  .5876  with  ideas.  of  that  a relationship  superordinate  Effect  of  be  and  Headings  exists  between  subordinate  on  the  ideas  Format  of  the  recall  organization  recalled.  Written  Recall  4  differences  differences  Grade  correlations:  and  Question  there  prose  ideas  shows  number  The  Are  the  are  higher  .5031  Superordinate  superordinate  and  and  for  correlations  passage.  had  in  the  format  of  the  written  r e c a l l e d has  (a)  headings,  (b)  no  over  levels?  reading  recall  headings,  when  and  the  are  there  Students  the the  grade use  of  9 students, section  passages  (see  Table  16).  passages  with  headings  the  only  headings Five  used  of  in  significant the  recalls  twenty-five  section headings  63  difference of  students in  their  each of who  found the  read  parrot  recalls  Table  16  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s o n t h e Number o f used each Format C h a r a c t e r i s t i c  WITH HEADINGS  MEASURE  Parrots  S t u d e n t s who  9  WITHOUT  HEADINGS  DIFF.  Passage  Title  4  15  19  5  0  5*  Grouping  7  9  2  Form  4  7  3  1  1  0  17  16  1  n=25  n=25  14  18  6  0  6*  Grouping  5  7  2  Form  3  7  4  0  0  0  18  17  1  n=25  n=25  Section One  Grade  Point  Headings  Numbering Paragraphs  Grade  Level  Passage  Title Section One Point  Headings  Numbering Paragraphs  *p<.05  64  4  while used of  none  of  them.  the  none  Grade  the  10  with  grade  headings  students  The  done  a one  p<.05.  grouping  group  grade  did.  without  level  headings  passage,  while,  once  F(1,48)=7.579,  six  again,  p<.01.  students  without the  in  their  headings.  grade  level had  who  read  written  For  the  passage,  headings  also  format.  F(1,48)=4.747,  the  passages  recall  parrot  than  passage,  F( 1 , 4 8 ) = 4 . 5 7 1 ,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more P<.05.  recalls  (See  Table  17).  5.6,7,8,9,10  for  the  compiled with 1985)  number  students  of  which  grade  the  section headings  For  with  (Stables,  run  the  section headings  headings  passages  group  Results were  used  from  With  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  included  reading  p<.05.  Grades  without  10,  F(1,48)=4.571,  in  p<.05.  headings  group  students  Students  For with  twenty-five  F(1,48)=6.000,  group  of  the  showed  will For  the  use  and  who  the  of  use  effects  7  used  due  to or  a title due  to  on  from  studies  each  here  a title  headings  and  following  p=0.721, of  of  results  grades  the  effects  F(1,298)=0.128,  significant  the  be m e n t i o n e d  significant  For  effect  (King,  format  grade,  the  grade,  The  parrot  by  grades See  answer  recall,  grade,  grade  9 and  5 and  Table  18  An  level  to  there  for  question were  p=0.879,  recall  there  p=0.558,  10  6  Anova  the was  by 5.  no  heading,  F(5,288)=1.966,  F(5,294)=0.789,  65  grades  significant effects  F(5,294)=0.355,  heading on  1985).  discussed in  the  at  for  characteristic.  results.  but on  8  the  format  p=0.084.  were or  due  no to  Table  17  Effect of used each  H e a d i n g; s o n t h e N u m b e r o f Format C h a r a c t e r i s t i c  MEASURE  Parrots  WITH  10  WITHOUT  S t u d e n t s who  HEADINGS  DIFF.  Passage  Title Section One  HEADINGS  Grade  Headings  1  17  16  4  0  4*  3  4  Grouping  7  Form  8  4  4  0  0  0  14  19  5  n=25  n=25  16  14  4  0  4*  Grouping  8  2  6*  Form  7  4  3  1  0  1  14  20  6  n=25  n=25  Point  Numbering Paragraphs  Grade  Level  Passage  Title Section One Point  Headings  Numbering Paragraphs  -  *p<.05  66  2  Table  18  E f f e c t o f H e a d i n g s o n t h e Number o f S t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s T h r o u g h 10 Who U s e d E a c h F o r m a t Characteristic  MEASURE  WITH  Parrot  HEADINGS  WITHOUT H E A D I N G S  5  DIFF.  Passage  Title  92  95  30  0  54  58  4  39  35  4  Numbering  14  8  6  Paragraphs  75  82  7  Section One  Headings  Grouping  Point  Form  3 30*  n=150  n=150  86  83  30  2  57  56  1  31  38  7  Numbering  11  9  2  Paragraphs  77  81  4  Grade  Level  Passage  Title Section One  Headings  Grouping  Point  Form  n=150  *p<.05  n=150  3 28*  heading to  F(1,298)=0.123,  heading  the  by  grades  solid  grade,  have  line the  line  represent  passages by  any  the  For no  was  a  at  of  put  passages  without  percent  headings  passage.  grade,  F(5,288)=0.789,  were  no  there  the  p<.000.  use  their  passages  those  who  their  recalls.  grade,  did  the  significant  grade  of  connected  with  the who  the  which  the  who  dotted read  apparent  surpasses  of  with  students  is  8 level  each  connected  note  of  students  their  recalls.  used  headings  no  to  parrot  heading, who  the  positive  the  effect  at  recall,  on  there  P=0.558,  was  however  F(1,298)=36.986,  had  None  headings  of  their  significant  section headings effects  due  effects  put  headings have  There  the  F(5,29*0 =0.789,  a l l  twenty  not  grade,  on  of  again  use  each  due  those  on  who  recalls  effects  due  grade  level  their read  for  to  the  heading  by  p=0.558.  to  were  on  the  grade, to  heading,  percent  of  a l l  on  their  no  on  Only  passages  significant  there  p=0.073,  effects  who  had  headings  one  percent  of  used headings due  to  on  heading  p=0.198.  of  one  grouping  effects  due  to  grade,  on  the  parrot  recall,  F(5,294)=3.031,  68  but  F(1,298)=30.745,  students  recalls  their  recall,  F(5,294)=2.039,  due  headings  F(5,288)=1.475,  For  for  scores  students  due  were  significant  Once  Mean  of  effect  on  There  significant  were  to  headings  parrot  For  effects  grade  special  grade  due  significant  passages  each  significant  Points  Points  at  Of  1.  at  section headings  effect  Twenty  scores  score  the  p<.05.  Figure  headings.  were  grades.  use  p<.000.  in  mean  headings.  other  the  the  mean  headings  significant  there  graphed  with  the  without  effect of  been  passages  There  F(5,288)=2.395,  represent  read  p=0.726.  there  P<-05,  but  were no  by  on  Figure  1  Interaction of a T i t l e on the Level Passage  Grade and H e a d i n g F o r t h e Use W r i t t e n R e c a l l From the Grade  1.0  Mean Score .3 .2 .1 0.0  5  6  7  8  9  10  Grade  R e c a l l from passages with headings -  -  -  -  R e c a l l from passages without headings  69  of  significant heading For  by  effects grade,  to  heading,  F(5,288)=1.403, one  grouping  significant  effects  due  to  grade,  significant  effects  due  to  heading,  For  by  grade,  the  significant heading  use  For no  due  to  on  grade,  p=0.593,  use  of  point  effects  form  due  F(1,298)=0.923,  the  form  or  to  on  P=0.337,  use  of  numbering  on  heading,  grade, use  F(5,288)=1.231, of  numbering  on  to  grade,  significant  effects  due  to  heading,  grade, use  significant  For  but  there  p=0.383,  heading  grade, use  grade  level  by  were  no or  due  to  were due  no to  grade,  recall,  there  P=0.581,  to  heading  by  parrot  recall,  there  of  a paragraph  effects due  due to  to  were  due  to  grade,  were but  p=0.175,  level  recall, p<.000,  F(1,298)=0.230,  no or  there but  p=0.632,  due  to  were no  or  due  to  p=0.385. on  grade,  F(5,294)=2.907,  heading,  a paragraph  p<.01,  format  F(5,288)=0.868, of  grade  F(5,294)=5.604,  F(5,288)=1.056,  effects  the  there  p=0.902,  F(1,298)=1.846,  the  due  by  to  p=0.295.  effects  heading  p<.000,  recall,  F(5,294)=3.528,  significant  significant  to  due  the  to  were  due  p=0.186.  due  the  recall,  F(5,294)=0.757,  or  effects  For  due  grade,  significant  by  parrot  the  grade,  heading  level  F(5,294) =1 .060,  to  the  grade  F(1,298)=0.015,  the  due  For  or  p=0.305.  effects  by  the  F(5,294)=4.899,  significant  heading  p=0.628,  p=0.314.  F(5,288) =1.511, For  point  F(1,298)=0.287,  significant  heading,  of  effects  the  on  F(5,288)=1.209,  use  F(5,288)=1.189,  F(1,298)=0.236,  p=0.223-  of  heading  the  due  the  parrot  F(1,298)=0.671,  recall, P<.05,  p=0.413,  there but or  due  p=0.503.  format  70  on  the  grade  level  no  recall,  to  there  were  significant  but  no s i g n i f i c a n t  due  to  heading  effects  by grade  Subpopulations readers  were  effects  by h e a d i n g s  for on  level  for  Further  parrot  readers  recalls  titles  <16) for  of  headings  on b o t h  of  point  form  on  the grade For  section  passage  p=0.637,  were  or  i n both  <50)  positive  recalls:  F(1,172)=30.906,  readers,  for  (percentile  differences  headings  passage,  parrot  were were  good  passage,  good  p<.001;  F(1,172)=18.453,  passage, t h e poor  F(1,119)=6.903, readers,  found  recall.  as w e l l  p<.001;  (p<.05) recall For  and f o r  parrot  section headings,  71  level  with  titles  for grade  poor  on t h e  F(1 , 2 9 ) = 5 . 0 5 2 ,  for  level  headings  form,  of  parrot  readers  the use of  point  positive  recalls:  p<.05;  the very  very  as i n t h e use  and f o r  effects  and  Significantly  and grade  With  >84)  i n the use of  F(1,57)=4.583,  p<.01.  positive  (percentile  selected.  readers  F(1,57)=14.008,  on t h e p a r r o t level  very  the parrot  F(1,57)=10.188,  significantly  p<.05.  readers  the very  headings,  headings,  and poor  significant  on t h e p a r r o t  of  headings  on t h e p a r r o t  section  >50)  t h e good  level  subpopulations  effects  section  for  F(1,298)=0.224,  p<.01,  p<.01.  (percentile  (p<.05)  were  passage  F(5,294)=4.414,  p=0.680.  (percentile  The o n l y  and on t h e grade  F(1,119) =10.976,  poor  good  on the p a r r o t  the poor  grade,  due t o h e a d i n g ,  on t h e u s e o f  readers  the grade  p<.01;  of  due t o  F(5,288)=0.626,  selected.  t h e good  p<.001;  effects  for  section  section  there the use headings  F(1,29)=7.484, p<.05.  Developmental  Research  Question  In  a written  in  (a)  of  recall,  and  similar  studies  Stables,  Grades  5  recall  number  (c)  task,  ideas  is  there  recalled,  format,  when  done  the  at  5  through  the  effects  of  grade  5,6,7  and  developmental  this 8  of  the  study  levels  effects  written  are  compared  (King,  to  1985;  10  written  over  recall  task  organization  of  written  recalls  passages with  from  The parallel  data  the  from  studies  1985).  grade  for  this  at  An  and  the  were  made  with  the  were  significant differences  means.  See  organization  from  the  using  the  Tables  number  and  (c)  parrot  The  between  and  the  for  passage  72  the  and  were the  results  data  and  from  grades  two 7  of  each of  and  to  mean  the  scores for  grade  level  due  comparisons  determine  scores of  8  these  if  there  grades.  each comparison have  the  of  combined.  Multiple  method  in  when  (b)  significant effects  effect  mean  developmental  ideas r e c a l l e d ,  1985)  closely.  grades 20  with  showed  Scheffe's  lower  19  headings  (Stables,  more  of  of  format,  combined  which  investigated  noted  6  evidence  (a)  variables.  then  otherwise  were  run  were  data,  in  was  without  5 and  A n o v a was  many o f  10  study  grades  there  recall,  variables  lower  of  organization  results  5 through  Unless  (b)  the  grades  to  evidence  1985)?  In  (King,  Factors  the  ideas  passage.  and  Table  19  Recall  of  Superordinate  and S u b o r d i n a t e  Ideas  by  Grade  GRADE MEASURE Parrot Passage Superordinate Ideas Means S.D. Subordinate  Ideas Means S.D.  Grade Level Passage Superordinate Ideas Means Subordinate  6  8  9  10  1.77 '1.00  1.58 1.09  2.18 1.13  2.29 1.08  2.42 .91  2.73 1.06  9.58 5.46  10.08 4.32  14.70 4.84  15.69 4.98  16.83 4.24  17.98 4.88  1.98  1.28 1.12  2.53 1.07  1.20  1.81  1.98  1.05  1.35  1.15  10.23 4.24  9.44  11.96  4.89  5.11  10.57 5.02  50  50  50  7  S.D. Ideas Means  9.18  S.D.  4.75  5.97 3.54  50  50  1.36  n  Table  5  50  20  Recall  Organization  by  Grade GRADE  MEASURE Parrot Passage Superordinate Org. Means Subordinate  S.D. Org. Means S.D.  Grade L e v e l Passage Superordinate Org. Means S.D. Subordinate  Org. Means S.D. n  5  6  7  8  9  10  .48 .50  .62  .42 .50  .50  .60  .51  .49  .56 .50  2.76  3.06  1.29  1.36  3.28 1.39  .81  2.12  1.72  1.33  1.25  2.38 1.24  .56  .44  .66  .44  .60  .58  .50  .50  .48  .50  .49  .50  2.44  1.42 1.25  2.30 1.23  1.62  1.03  2.72 1.43  2.64  1.51 50  50  50  50  50  50  73  1.27  For  superordinate  significant method mean of  effects  showed  that  scores of  grade For  due  to  there  grade  6 and  ideas  5  subordinate  was  grade  ideas  significant  effects  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s between  10  grade,  and  10,  between  grades  7,8,9,  and  10,  and between ideas  from  effects  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s between  the  6 and  grade For  8.  8 mean  grade,  this  instance,  as  well  as  effects  ideas due  to  the from  mean was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower  5,7,8,9,  and  In  the  passages For  than  superordinate  there  were  no  subordinate  organization  d i f f e r e n c e s between  10, For  and  between  mean  the  grade  scores  scores of grade 6  each  each  7  and  of  of grade  passage there pCOOO. 7  were  10.  were  There  were  and e a c h  of  higher  than  there  were  mean was  mean.  grade  level  passage,  F(5,294)=9.342, the  6 and  grade  7  There  5 and  grade  level  were  p<.000.  grade  F(5,294)=8.771,  the  there  grade  s c o r e s of  means  and  10,  due  to  between  between  subordinate  of  from  the  significant effects  significant  and  mean  organization  effects  8,9  (p<.05)  p<.000.  The  each of  grade  6  grades  10.  significant  grades  passage,  scores of  grade  grade,  Scheffe's  and between  scores of  the  were  10.  parrot  mean  In  subordinate  significant  to  there  p<.000.  F(5,294)=26.875,  mean  significant  grades  due  and  mean  7,8,9,  superordinate  students  the  grades  For  passage,  F(5,294)=8.197,  8,9  from  to  parrot  a significant difference  grades  due  the  grade,  and  each of  from  mean  grade,  mean  in  the  parrot  scores of  scores of  organization  due  to  grades in  74  the  grade 7  and  grade  and  grade  level  grade.  recall,  F(5,294)=10.219,  mean  scores of  parrot  there  p<.000.  grade 5 and  6 and both  were  There each  were of  grades  9  10. level  passage,  there  were  significant effects  were  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between  (displaying between  mean  For due  to  the  significant of  and  scores of  grade  8  See  Table  one  use  due  For  due  to  on  grade, more  format the  the  use  of  numbering  effects  significant  difference  to  on  indicated  were was  between  the  to  For  on  use  method the  who  recall,  effects used  10  there  P<-05. were  On  each  were  For  the  use  significant  both  passages,  s u b j e c t s used  significant difference  number  parrot  use  by on  due  a  to  recall,  "one  of  there  There  5  and  the the to  For  were was  parrot grade,  5  5 and the  on  the  grade,  between  7,8,9  75  grade use  10  of effects  and  10.  the  In  Anova  F(5,294)=2.907,  number  a  subjects.  recall  grade  was  a significant  level  F(5,294)=4.414,  the  There  significant  grades  grade  were  p<.01.  grade  recall.  there  significant differences  paragraphs due  parrot  F(5,29*0=3.528,  grade  i n d i c a t e d no of  significant  there  p<.000.  p<.000.  paragraphs  use  the  recall,  of  greater  of  and  10.  students  parrot  recall,  the  the  level  significant effects a  on  between  numbers  was  the  grade  grade,  significant effects  Scheffe  grades.  grade  10,  recalls.  F(5,29*0 =5.604,  case there For  The  the  grade,  difference each  due  using numbering  numbering  6 than  their  There  6  and  9 and  some of  grade  5,7,9  F(5,294)=3.031.  level  on  grades  were  F(5,29*0=4.899,  grade  grades  number  on  grade,  grade  scores of  P<.000.  grade.  effects  significant  students  each  the  grouping  significantly grouping"  for  one  to  each of  and b o t h  of  grouping  effects  due  21  F(5,29*0=8.815,  mean  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s there  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c at the  grade,  mean)  format  For  to  lowest  grade.  format  due  of  p<.05.  between  recall, p<.01.  students  in  the  there There grade  6  Table  21  The Number i n Each of  o f S t u d e n t s Who U s e d G r a d e s 5 T h r o u g h 10  Each  Format  Characteristic  GRADE  MEASURE  Parrot  Section  Headings  Grouping  Point  Form  Numbering  7  8  9  10  31  31  29  29  34  33  8  6  3  4  5  4  19  28  20  19  16  10  11  16  16  8  11  12  4  6  1  2  0  21  19  24  27  33  33  25  25  27  30  32  30  11  4  3  4  6  4  9  Paragraphs  Grade  6  Passage  Title  One  5  Level  Passage  Title Section  Headings  20  29  17  25  12  10  11  15  14  8  10  11  Numbering  11  4  3  1  0  1  Paragraphs  23  28  21  35  34  One  Grouping  Point  Form  17  76  and  each of  recall. in  grades  The  their  students  format  The  data  (percentile  Good  at  differences  from of  the  higher  grades  the  between  three  good  <50).  the  on  made  not  grades,  the  grade  more  use  level of  paragraphs  r e l a t i n g to  the  lower  level  grades  in  analyzed  (percentile  >50)  c o m p a r i s o n s were  using  use  of  found.  s t u d i e s were  readers  Multiple  each grade  Scheffe^s  further  and poor  a g a i n made  method.  each comparison have  by  choosing  readers between  Unless  the  by  lower  the  otherwise means.  Readers  The readers method  idea at  and  organization  each grade  showed  that  level  for  significant  difference  and between  the  ideas  from  scores mean  the  paragraphs  Hoc A n a l y s i s o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l F a c t o r s E x h i b i t e d G o o d a n d P o o r R e a d e r s i n G r a d e s 5 t h r o u g h 10  subpopulations  noted,  in  using  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  Post  means  10  recalls.  Significant other  9 and  of  mean  parrots grade  scores of  5  grade  are  shown  superordinate between  scores of  there and  recall  were  each of 6 and  the  means in  grade  Tables  ideas  mean  scores for  from  22  grade  and  grade 10.  significant differences grades  each of  7,8,9,  grades  77  and  7,8,9,  23.  parrots  scores of  6 and  the  10  good Scheffe's  there  was  5 and  grade  For  between  10.  10  subordinate  and b e t w e e n  and  a  For  the the  mean  Table  22  Recall of Superordinate Readers by Grade  and S u b o r d i n a t e  Ideas  for  Good  GRADE MEASURE Parrots Passage Superordinate Ideas Means S.D. Subordinate  Ideas Means S.D.  Grade L e v e l Passage Superordinate Ideas Means Subordinate  7  8  9  10  1.83 .99  1.84  2.40  1.06  1.12  2.35 1.04  2.39 .96  3.03 1.02  11.16  11.36  15.72  3.71  5.27  17.38 4.59  17.89 4.14  18.92  5.11  2.19  2.05 1.52  2.22  14.32  12.03 4.78  1.60  1.41  1.57 1.24  2.68  S.D. Ideas Means  1.05  1.08  10.50  7.20  S.D.  4.51  3.57  10.85 4.64  12.10 3.98  32  28  n  Table  6  5  26  30  4.83  4.39  1.14  28  30  23  Recall  Organization  f o r Good  Readers  by  Grade GRADE  MEASURE Parrots Passage Superordinate Org. Means Subordinate  6  7  8  9  10  .50  .79 .96  .47  .65 .49  .57 • 5.0  .60 .50  1.71 1.18  2.57  S.D. Org. Means  2.31  S.D.  1.53  Grade L e v e l Passage Superordinate Org. Means S.D. Subordinate  5  Org. Means S.D. n  .51  .56 .50  • 43 .50  .51  3.08 1.32  3.18  .58 .50  .61  .47  .50  .57 .50  1.25  .70  1.47  3.67 1 ; 18  2.78 1.62  1.61 1.20  2.37 1.19  1.77 1.14  3-11 1.47  2.90 1.21  32  28  30  26  28  30  78  superordinate significant For  grades  was  8,9,  In  organization  grade  grade  between from  6 and  level  the  the  between  no  the  mean  grade  the  passage there scores of  level  mean  was  grade  passage  scores of  5 and  level grade  organization  of  the  a  6 and  grade  7.  a significant  grade  6 and  parrots  significant differences.  parrot grade  each of  grade  grade  each  of  10.  were in  grade  6 and  the  found  the  superordinate  there  between  ideas  and  the  passage  from  difference  subordinate  difference  in  ideas  recall 10  grades  mean  8,9,  were  10.  were  grade  For  subordinate  mean  subordinate  scores  grade  8  and  of  organization  significant differences  s c o r e s and between  level  significant differences  s c o r e s and between  and  passage there 9 mean  there  For  and  between  grade  9  mean  scores. It good  is  also  readers  i n t e r e s t i n g to  than  grade  8 good  note  that  readers  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  used  point  form  in  grade  6  their  recalls.  Poor  Readers  The each  idea  grade  showed  level  that  significant For  and  for  organization are  shown  superordinate  difference  subordinate  in  ideas  between from  recall  means  Tables  24  ideas  from  mean  parrots  and  for 25.  parrots  scores of there  the  were  poor  method  there  a  grade  was  6 and  scores of  grade  5 and  each of  grades  7,8,9,  between  mean  scores of  grade  6 and  each of  grades  8,9,  grade  level  from  the  79  grade  significant  mean  ideas  passage  at  Scheffe's  between  superordinate  readers  there  9.  differences and  and were  10  10.  and For  Table  24  Recall of Superordinate R e a d e r s by G r a d e  and S u b o r d i n a t e  Ideas  for  Poor  GRADE MEASURE  5  Parrot Passage Superordinate Ideas Means S.D. Subordinate Ideas Means S.D. Grade Level Passage Superordinate Ideas Means S.D. Subordinate Ideas  1.50 .97 5.84 3.76  1.63 1.15  8  7  9  10  1.25 1.07  1.87 1.12  2.23 1.14  2.40  8.45 4.57  12.87 3.57  13.85  15.43 4.25  16.58  .91  2.26 1.10  .77 .85  1.45  .83  1.63 1.10  4.83  .88  1.07  2.28 .98  5.34  Means  6.34  4.41  9.26  S.D.  2.89  3.57  6.56 4.14  8.73 3.85  8.38  4.07  22  19  24  20  20  16  Table  6  4.65  25  Recall  Organization  f o r Poor  Readers  by  Grade GRADE  MEASURE Parrot Passage Superordinate Org. Means Subordinate  S.D. Org. Means S.D.  Grade L e v e l Passage Superordinate Org. Means Subordinate  6  7  8  9  10  .44  .41  • 32  .51  • 50  .48  .33 .48  .60 .50  .51  2.16  2.42  1.21  1.18  2.75 1.16  5  S.D. Org. Means S.D. n  1.81 .83  1.73 1.35  .50  2.70 1.49  .63 .50  .45  .63  .60  .50  .29 .46  .55  .51  .51  .50  1.81 1.12  1.18  1.30  2.26 1.33  1.46 .88  2.20 1.28  2.25 1.29  16  22  19  24  20  20  80  significant between  differences  grade  significantly the  grade  mean  scores of  means  grade  higher  level  There level  7 and  between  in  passage grade  were  no  for  grade  8 mean  6 and  grade  7 mean  scores  scores.  The  grade  each comparison.  For  subordinate  a  significant difference  6 and  each of  significant  organization  of  grades  7 and  differences the  was  found  was ideas  from  between  9.  between  parrots  7 mean  and  any  passage  of  or  the  the  grade  grade  level  passage.  Summary  The this  results  chapter.  Each  addressed.  A  between  mean  of  these  the  of  post  the of hoc  analysis of the  results will  be  data  have  been  has  been  research questions  a n a l y s i s was  scores of  the  the  also  grades  discussed in  81  for  conducted good  Chapter  and 5.  to  presented  in  specifically note  poor  differences  readers.  All  CHAPTER 5  SUMMARY AND  In  this  given.  chapter  The summary  used,  collection  this,  each  a summary o f of  of  data,  question  will  Conclusions  will  questions.  Discussion  grades  5 and 6  Results  from  conclusions level, as  some  design  drawn.  after  will  (Stables,  will  1985) and grades  throughout for  grades  of  of  data  from  7  instruction  10,  of  will  be  Following reviewed.  the  similar  and 8 ( K i n g ,  results  5 to  each  will  materials  used.  and t h e f i n d i n g s  results  overall  the purpose,  analysis  discussion  hoc a n a l y s i s  and t h e r e s u l t s  review  and d a t a  include  Finally,  implications  the study  be a d d r e s s e d  be drawn  the post  results  the study  CONCLUSIONS  research studies  at  1985).  be d i s c u s s e d and  at the grade  general  and f u r t h e r  5 and 6  conclusions, research  will  as  well  be  discussed.  Summary o f  The students recall,  purpose  of  i n grades to recall  this  study  9 and 10:  organizational  structures.  was t o  Study  investigate  to use paragraph  information  classification/description  the  material  form,  and t o  82  headings  written  of  to  of  facilitate  in a  use the  The i n c l u s i o n  the a b i l i t y  data  author's from  two  parallel  studies 1985),  at  grades  enabled  context  of  5 and  the  grades  recalls  evaluated  on  recalled,  the  recalls, level  the  of  the  points  passages of  grade  4  the  grades  be  investigated  sought  to  measure  and  without  superordinate and  format  level  and  to  with  superordinate as  1985),  in  7  and  8  (King,  a  developmental  10.  study  number  as w e l l  and  above  (Stables,  5 through  Specifically written  6  of  the  9 and  headings.  and  subordinate  grade  both  were  ideas  organization from  students'  Recalls  subordinate  recalls  10  of  the  the  grade  passages.  Materials  The  Gates-MacGinite  Comprehension the  Megan  battery  of  Crowhurst  levels  ranging  This  study  from  this  (King,  used  this  to  Canadian  determine  the  grades  were  Stables, with  the  Edition reading  (1980), abilities  of  4,9  grade  and  10  This  of  the  each  4 to  approximately  passages.  selected for  1985).  to  by  one  a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / d e s c r i p t i o n form  also  results  p a s s a g e s was w r i t t e n  use  enabled  in  comparison of  parallel studies.  contain  5  superordinate  All  at  grade  grade  Appropriate parallel  author,  10.  passages  studies the  results  passages  and  were  26  ideas.  student  level Fry  the  in  prose  approximately  constructed  subordinate  grade  (1984),  battery  study  Each  expository  from  used  1985;  carefully  by  was  Test,  students. A  of  subtest  Reading  and  on  was the  readability  tested grade  on  a passage w r i t t e n  4 passage.  formula  (Fry,  Grade  1968).  83  at  his  approximate  l e v e l s were  Versions  of  determined  the  passages  were  prepared  with  and  without  headings  study  was  conducted  (see  Appendix  A  for  sample  passages). A made  pilot  to  materials  at  that  in  September,  1984.  Adjustments  were  time.  Subjects  For 9  this  students  from  Surrey, are  and  these  Garibaldi  specific three  classes  schools:  The  comparable  the of  subjects  grade  Hugh M c R o b e r t s  Secondary,  B.C.  study,  Maple  Ridge,  communities  10  were  students.  Junior  B.C.;  chosen  three  They  Secondary,  and  are  classes  a l l  Frank  in  their  average  socioeconomic status  complete  study  included parallel studies  grade  selected  Richmond,  Hurt  suburbs  were  of  of  B.C.;  Secondary, Vancouver  (Canada  and  Census,  1981). The (Stables, each  of  1985)  these  Intact,  and  grades  for  grades  8 through and  also  regular,  chosen  English  grades  the  study 10  7  and  8  (King,  were  grades  Three  5 and  classes  the  basis  chosen  Social Studies  grade  of  from  classes.  84  5,6,  and 7  availability. intact,  classes  were  Students  from  non-streamed,  6  from  participated.  non-streamed, on  1985).  at  regular  Collection  of  Three session Test,  the  sessions  the  Edition  second At  chosen  receive  the  other  level  spent  students  f i r s t .  At  level,  received  chosen to  received  passages without  session. sheets the as  After  were  task. name,  finishers The groups time  were All  months  of  10  grade, were  and  reversed  read.  All  sessions November  (see  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  to was  so  at  10  the  minutes articles  other  were  collected  at  the  first  Reading  a  students  grade  of  at the  recall were  4 level their  The  randomly  first  own  students  headings.  to  similar the  study  were  that  to  the  grade  and  grade were  other  half  and  December,  1984.  developed  for  B).  85  time.  the  and  each  foolscap  to  complete such  Early  remaining  second except  the  in  Information  papers.  the  a three  the  passages  25 m i n u t e s  passages not  p r o c e d u r e s were within  the  collected  given  s i l e n t l y for  conducted  Appendix  the  i n c l u d e d on  read  that  was  the  one-half  were  form  of  passages with  s c h o o l was  session  In  Gates-MacGinitie  passage w r i t t e n  Students  were  expected  third  the  level,  given  minutes  papers  A protocol passages  were  classes.  headings.  distributed. All  were  receive  the  administered.  one-half  the  each grade  students  the  passage w r i t t e n  randomly  The  each of  of  was  involved  each grade the  with  subtest  (1980)  session  passage. to  were  Comprehension  Canadian The  Data  read  time.  the  student  the  first  same. week  marking of  period  during  each of  the  the  Design  A  1979,  Data  posttest-only  control-group  of  variance  factors  the  research questions.  calculated  measured  to  recall.  discover  Research  For  headings,  The number level.  of  the  was  the  used  study  Pearson the  the  Question  of  and  Gall,  the  provided  product  moment  developmental  a basis  issues,  among  the  for  the  were  organization  Scheffe  test  among  answering  correlations  and  was  used  grades.  H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l o f S u p e r o r d i n a t e Subordinate Ideas  task,  prose  are  to  be  within  each  grade  presence  or  absence  superordinate No  which  relationships  and  1.1  recall  when  analyze  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  significant patterns  a written  recalled  in  determine  Effect  In  to  (Borg  Analysis  the  to  used  548).  p.  Analysis  idea  d e s i g n was  and  significant  more  superordinate  r e c a l l e d has  (a)  and  subordinate  headings  or  (b)  to  affect  ideas  no  level?  of  headings  subordinate differences  86  did  not  ideas (p<.05)  appear  r e c a l l e d at were  found  the at  the  grade the  9  grade  9  level  when  an a n a l y s i s  superordinate without  the  Headings  There  10  level  appeared  to  have  superordinate  was no d i f f e r e n c e  Question  a written  recalled  9 and  percentile)  No  on the  prose each  10  ideas  headings 10  in  poor  A significant good  readers.  number  recall  from  on s c o r e s  passages  of  was a s i g n i f i c a n t  a significantly  for  for  read  with  and  difference.  detrimental  r e c a l l e d from  subordinate  a r e more  to  the  ideas  effect  grade  from  superordinate  be r e c a l l e d h a s  grade  by  students readers  Gates-MacGinite  significant  grade  there  ideas  task,  and poor  superordinate without  the  within  Grade  scores  idea  was c o n d u c t e d  on  level  the  the  passage.  parrot  passage.  1.2  recall  when  headings,  the  and s u b o r d i n a t e  grade  of  Research  In  variance  headings.  At  number  of  reading  were  headings  into  percentile)  Reading were  good  Comprehension found  i n the  ideas  from  scores  grade  9 good  the  (b)  no  readers  according to  and s u b o r d i n a t e from  or  ideas  level?  categorized  (<50th  differences  (a)  and s u b o r d i n a t e  (>50th  their  subtest.  amount  passages  of  recall  read  with  and  readers  and  and poor  of  readers. difference  Headings  superordinate  was f o u n d  appeared ideas  to  have  i n the  a detrimental  r e c a l l e d from  87  scores  the  grade  for  the  effect level  grade on  the  passage.  10  Research  In  Question  a written  recalled  grades  overall found  the  grade  9  5 and  6  amount  were  5 to  more  students  reading  of  recall  of  the  the  Effect  Only  recall  when  seemed  reading  the  ideas  7  from and  8  significant  positively  the  or  (b)  similar  ideas  no  parrot  the  parrot  1985)  difference and  affect  passage.  passages with  studies  (King,  passages with  to  from  passage without  headings  those  grades one  subordinate  10?  and  and  and  was  without the  amount  Thus,  headings passage  over  generally  than  headings.  of  Headings  on R e c a l l o f  10  headings  seemed  Superordinate  and  Ideas  grades  5 to  superordinate  of  10  to  students  ideas  hinder overall  in  the and  the grade also  to  parrot level the  positively (grade  affect  4 level)  superordinate  subpopulation  of  the  passage.  idea  recall  grade  10  readers. Popular  text  1985)  (a)  and  results  r e c a l l e d from  superordinate  appeared  good  10  Headings  ideas  Headings grade  5,6,7,8,9  idea  students  recalled  Subordinate  of  superordinate  r e c a l l e d has  determined.  read.  10,  and  more  be  (Stables,  the  Over  to  levels  superordinate  Summary  are  grade  were  in  grades  prose  means  headings of  the  task,  over  Using at  recall  when  headings,  1.3  features  reading to  strategies  such as  increase comprehension  88  SQ3R u s e of  headings  expository  and  prose.  other These  strategies processes  are in  strategies help  to  learned  order  on  how  improve  to to  of  follow  In  Question  a written  Headings  organizational  recalled  has  students'  effect  on  the  subordinate organization actually  appeared  At  to  the  guided  through  Teaching  these  organizational  Organizational Written  do  the  students'  or  (b)  have  more no  the  students structure  may  Structure  Recall  no  on  recall  of  level the  author's  however,  organizational  grade  the  parrot  recall  passage.  author's  students.  89  It  and  to  the be  levels?  the  grade  9  organizational  headings  structure  follow  prose  effect  level,  the  the  significant  10  the  when  grade  grade  of  closely  recalls  within  following  organization  written  headings,  in  students'  hinder  on  Students'  recall  the  of  them.  author's  structure  headings  written  structure.  the  task,  author's  Headings  the  be  2.1  recall  (a)  from  must  comprehension.  of  Research  students  benefit  their  Effect  and  for  had  a  two  measures:  the  appears  organization  detrimental the  superordinate that  for  headings  untrained  may  Research  In  Question  a written  2.2  recall  task,  author's  organizational  recalled  has  reading  the  positive passage no  the  grade the  but  but  effect  or  10  9 good  on  the  effect on  the  grade  recall  of  (b)  more no  written  closely  headings,  recalls  when  the  within  follow  prose  grade  and  Headings  the  the  to  be  levels  by  recall other  task,  author's  organizational  recalled  has  5,6,7,8,9  and  Including  of  headings  had  subordinate on  also of  measures  the  had  the  to  the  level  measures.  grade  Headings  9 poor  readers.  a detrimental  of  effect  from  organization  a detrimental  organizational  a  grade  organization  recall  parrot  have  effect  subordinate  on  the from  the  organization  measures.  2.3  recall  (a)  and  effect  of  organizational  readers,  no  appeared  organization  other  superordinate  Question  a written  the  good  readers on  headings  organizational  passage.  poor  readers,  subordinate on  10  passage  effect  Research  In  the  parrot  no  grade  no  level  grade  student's  structure  headings  effect  For on  the  levels?  For  had  (a)  do  do  the  structure  headings  or  (b)  students' more no  written  closely  headings,  when over  recalls the grade  follow  prose  levels  10?  results  from  similar  studies  90  at  grades  to  5 and  6  the be  (Stables, have  1985)  and  grades  superordinate  passage.  There  superordinate  were  or  This headings  study to  readability  the  passages  Research  than  more  in  the  Question  over  on  the  following on  the  noted  for  to  the  grade  Organizational  do  not  level  other  to  have  structures. appeared  4 level  to  Structure  spontaneously  organizational  organizational  grade  seemed  structure.  some e f f e c t  of  use The  on  the  recall  Students,  with  the  exception  have  difficulty  more  structure  p a s s a g e when  in  grade  headings  Between O r g a n i z a t i o n and and S u b o r d i n a t e I d e a s on  the the  of  level were  Number Recall  present.  of  3  recall  closely  recalls,  author's  Relationship Superordinate  students  seems  readers,  headings  students  structure  students  author's  organizational  the  The  Do  passage  9 good  on  1985),  measures.  that  of  grade  following  shown the  author's  effect  of Headings Recall  recall the  (King,  significant differences  subordinate  has  8  organizational  no  Summary o f t h e E f f e c t the Students' Written  of  and  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative  author's  the  7  more  follow grades  the  superordinate author's  5,6,7,8,9,  and  subordinate  organization and  10?  91  in  their  ideas  when  written  they  There of  the  does  recall  recalled  over  Results between  number  grade  are  of  level  grade  the  level  followed 4  author's  to  grades  superordinate  5 to  10  r e c a l l e d from also  found  the  number This  author's passage  subordinate ideas.  superordinate  show m o d e r a t e and the  between ideas of  who  as  subordinate  ideas  that more  the  ideas  at  students closely  organization.  92  of  both  a  the  from  grade  closely. followed  students  closely followed  the  the  4  and  ideas On  also the  the  also recalled  passage  and  relationship  subordinate  who  moderate  organization  recalled,  more  and  subordinate  existence  that  level  more  Positive  superordinate and  correlations  superordinate  passage.  organization  grade they  of  r e c a l l e d more  organization  ideas  the  appears  appears  the  parrot  recalled,  subordinate  On  organization  positive  number  subordinate  it  students  i t  the  i n d i c a t e s the  Thus  and  the  10.  organization  passage,  superordinate  of  5 through  variables.  level  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  number  passages.  the  be  superordinate and  superordinate more  grades  ideas  organization  between  the  over  correlations  grade  and  subordinate  subordinate  the  appear  more  recalled author's  The  Research  Are  Effect  Question  there  prose  of  to  Headings  differences  recalled over  the  written  has  (a)  headings,  (b)  no h e a d i n g s ,  reading  wrote  their  recalls  passages  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  to  9 and  grouping Over  with the  10  parrot  and  by  at  grade  As for  the  grade  the  using  and  the  are  there  parrot  and  passages without to  with  grade  level  s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s when  contribute  used  titles  both  parrot  passages without reading  there of  to  compared  headings. the  their and  their  was  students written  students  At  greater  on  the  appeared  to  have  at  any  other  percentile), parrot  grade  headings.  passages with  recalls  reading  written a far  the  use  of  Very  reading  recalls poor  headings  passages of  both  passages due  recall  to from  greater  the  positive  grade. passages  passage r e c a l l  level  93  reading  a significant effect  a t i t l e  than  (>84th on  in  passages than  use  8 level  headings,  percentile)  when  reading passages  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  Headings  readers  reading  both  often  well,  good  on  of  reading  level  Very  headings  students  appeared  10,  passage.  the  10  section headings  grade  heading  effect  5 to  used  headings.  level  recall  format.  without  grade  students  headings  grades  headings  Recall  levels?  headings,  a one  Written  of  grade  level,  the  format  9 and  10  of  the  grade  grade  Format  in  Both  grade  the  4  differences be  on  more  readers  tended  to  and  with  section  often  than  those  (<l6th use  point  form  in  their  recall  level  passage  of  a  the  5  to  the  with  few  and  section headings  recall and  by  reading  written  recall.  very  passages  such  This as  may  from  headings without  also  without and  appear  students  exactly  passages  8 students  feature  passage  organization  10  text  passage  to  affect  used  the  in  their  grade  of  headings  with  passage  the  given  affected had  when  the  headings.  94  by  084th  of  prose  an to  in  up  in  their  headings  a  Very  headings  few  to  i n c l u s i o n of  a  Although  significantly percentile)  over  their  awareness  of  an  is  a l l  grades  in  read  t i t l e  more  a t i t l e  be  in  shortened  headings.  included  more  or  The  titles,  headings  Section  passages.  made  recall.  readers  indicate  a title  the  headings  their  seemed  good  in  students'  section headings  statistically significant.  quoted  affected  written  passages grade  were  reading  facilitate  prose  Although  either  seemed  students  on  a  results  recall,  form,  in  recall.  recalls,  parrot  recall.  Headings written  the  overall  sectioned  by  Developmental  Research  Question  In  a written  in  (a)  of  recall,  and  similar  studies  Stables,  (c)  passages  the  grade  able  at  low  of  developmental  organization of  grade  5,6,7  and  also  a l l  There  did  4  of  the 8  of  the  study  levels  of  effects  written  are  compared  (King,  to  1985;  main  of  better than  able  seem t o  be  any  and  subordinate  when  of  the  recall  using  of  than  was  in  students  passage  older  in  7,8,9  subordinate  common 6  and  to  recalled  grades  students  read.  and  investigated  grade  subordinate  grades  recalls  superordinate  materials  Students  of  The  readability,  fewer in  results  combined.  readability,  recall  younger  superordinate  and  ideas  students to  some  task  significantly than  are  studied.  low  ideas  there  were  low  a common  that  passage  headings  levels  a passage  passage  of  level  superordinate  recalled  not  number  a passage  grade  recall  readability  indicate  comprehension,  results  on  seemed  the  10  grade  of  from  fewer  to  4 level  students  (b)  results  without  aspect  Thus,  students  evidence  the  5 to  in  the  and  the  subjects  10.  at  grades  ideas  analyzing  better  of  done  with  significantly and  there  recalled, when  r e c a l l e d from  subordinate  all  is  format,  effects  developmental  by  ideas  over  developmental  of  task,  1985)?  Results  ideas  5  recall  number  Factors  8,9, were  Grade  5 and  ideas  from  10.  6 the  Older  ideas  on  a  passage  effects  in  the  students. developmental  95  number  of  superordinate  passages were  than  students  have  been  Indians as  On  any in  other  between  any  recalled.  7  The  ideas  5,7,8,9  10.  Venus  some  possibly  were  organization  parrot  there  between  grade  6 s c o r e s and  grade  10  passage  scores.  of  either  was  the This  may  students;  author's  differences students  and  and  between  to  because  headings  7  scored  cilia)  may  group  7  6  and  students on  grade  may  Haida  5 as  well  differences  grade  than  level  ideas  fewer  students  in  grades  some d i f f i c u l t y  scientific  have  grade  passage  the  have  the  been  with  processes  unfamiliar  and  and  problems.  the  parrot  8,9,  superordinate  grade  level  seen  Significant the  and  grades  10  that  older  between  the  recall  9 and and  level of  8 s c o r e s and  the  recall  the  grade  are  when  5,7,8,9  grade  the 7  and  better recalling  there  subordinate  the  were  scores;  passages  grade  of  10  students  a paragraph  scores of  96  in  passage.  differences  scores;  grade  grade  the  trend  schema w i t h i n  recall  in  or  the  the  of  level  without  grade  the  passage  On  the  in  grade  than  significant  seemed  indicate  readability.  6  level  s c o r e s and  grades  The  part  no  a developmental  5  grade  superordinate  organization.  grade  and  recalled significantly  perhaps  of  grade  are  of  6 group  the  low  content  were  number  grade  follow  significant of  the  the  digestion,  subordinate  found  to  the  the  ideas.  significant differences  recall  However,  able  in  passage  no  passages  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  There  grade  (ie.  passages with  Indians  caused comprehension  There  the  of  students  from The  vocabulary  and  some  grades  Flytrap  level  American  6  of  r e c a l l e d from  superordinate  with  grade  subordinate and  grade  curriculum.  other  ideas  recalls  grade  recalling  familiar  grade  of  the  since North  the  the  subordinate  results  combined.  higher 8  when  or  a  were  organization and  9 and  10  10  scores. this  However  variable  scores  from  It  is  organized manner  as  any  the of  did  the  The  author  the  parrot,  the  other to  from  outlined  described  the  students,  although  organization,  parrot's  used  trend  considerably  in  lower  schema  in  grade  passage  a physical  than  in  It  author's  recalling  a  similar  structure.  Many  habitat,  seemed  levels  description  habitat.  natural  features.  a l l  organizational  natural  the  at  parrot  gave  parrot's  following  own  students  author's  topic,  physical  their  a developmental  the  parrot's  the  perhaps  many  from  the  the  the  introduction,  be  s c o r e s were  that  ideas  introduced  then  8  to  grades.  note  different  first  seem  6 and  superordinate  was  the  not  grade  interesting  that  recalled  there  of  students  then  clear  that  these  subordinate the  superordinate  ideas. A number the  recalls  grouping"  developmental  from  grades  more  "numbering" recalls  from  level  passage  a  "numbering"  no  the  between  grade  the  grade  often On  difference  was  7,8,9  significant  in  recall  format,  seemed  to  evolve  from  format  consisting of to  it  a recall two  depend  or  be  on  in  than  10,  often  with  than were  10  as  from use  grade  5  found  other  on grade  of students  the writing  grouping  organize  students  the  between  Similarly, to  5  grades.  students' one  "one  students  the  the  that  written  numbering  in  of  passage  Grade  recalls  found  format  the  parrot  grade  the  the  used  students.  paragraphs.  97  seen  the  concluded  format  more  more  and  differences  can  of  10  passage.  and  be  6 students  recalls  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  other  seemed  5  could  Grade  their  parrot  grades  students  10.  than  significant  "numbering"  Although  often  trends  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  their  using  5 to  characteristic in  significantly used  of  to  younger their  a  information passage  than  did  information  coincide  with  When  the  the  older in  subjects  and  poor  same  the  total  ideas, the  for  subordinate  parrot  and  organization no  do  subordinate grade  readers  significant  organization between lower in the in  and  had  the  reading  author's poor  6 and  on  On  the the  both were  six  the found  scores of grade  differences good  numbered  grade  8,9  lower  mean.  experience  and  and  good  Scores grade  the  grades  10 This  any  readers.  98  parrot  grade  were 7  grade  On  10  indicate  that  in  and  parrot  readers;  may  greater  of  subordinate  In  is  group  between  the  readers.  the  both  passages  readers  good  on  of  level  found  good  between  the  subordinate  and  passages.  good  were  superordinate  the  6 and  found  (>50th  findings  of  level  it's affect  organization  the  to  organization  of  between  5 and  facts  readers  variables  level  the  recalled  structure.  differences  were  grade  6 student  superordinate  significant  subordinate  grade  percentile)  passages.  reading  scores of  grade  grade  age  However  but  into  (<50th  and  level  organization  9 good  passage  group  differences  readers.  order  grouped  readers  differ.  One  organizational  were  ideas,  grade  significant  poor  reverse  author's  percentile) as  students.  both the  ability good  and  cases  the  difference to  follow  readers  than  Summary  In grade  of  Developmental  this  study  levels  make  up  the  students into These  seemed  The  starts  child  Piaget,  his  rather  child  grade  at  organization, structure  with  is  however, greater  structure,  low  from  and  is  The  thinking  than  5  the  5 or  6 level  particularly  more  ability able  to to  students form,  ideas.  stage  a task Younger  more  an  unable  to  more  students  more  own  theories  the  than  to  the  thinking. and  theories is  or  capable  based  on  of more  1958).  The  author's since  in  this  grades  8,9  prose  and  and,  along  organizational to  the  to  more  tended  99  and  of  Piaget,  expository  author's  when  (Inhelder  own  the  Students  apt  level  years)  and  examined.  age)  14-15  fit  (1955)  thinking"  of  students  Piaget's of  to  10  variable  material,  with  and 7  his  aware  ideas  closely  the  years  (Inhelder  the  grade  fairly  seemed  8,9  build  his  concept.  requiring  The  own  (age  be  grade  on  between  categories  abstract  his  expository  seemed  of  found  students  accepts  to  experience  recall  6  (11-12  with  not  perceive  also  one  ideas  for  and  depending if  two  group.  building  may  have  low  higher  and  differences  scores  adolescent  abstract  are  mean  thus  a rather had  grade  group  concrete  readability.  related  of  critically  passage  paragraph  into  a concrete  structure  Older  subjects  the  organizational of  the  explained  "deal  own  significant  preadolescent  p.340)  abstract  10,  be  effectively.  analyzing  up  or  move  cannot  1958,  schemata  the  to  and  make  may  the  scores  group  high  groupings of  group  mean  to  the  description child  The  lower  either  many o f  seem t o  consistently.  Factors  recall younger  group  abstract list  the  author's  students  on  recalled ideas concept  of  recalled ideas  a  in  joining in  one  grouping  or  concrete  to  number  the  facts  Findings facilitate  from  5 to  10,  10,  recall  effect grade  on  recalled  the  subordinate readers. the of  did  and then,  At  are a  more  of  most  the  of  the  the  use  or grade  studied  in  5  superordinate a  level  positive passage  seemed  to  be  recall  of  the  the  or  grades  of  had  grade  of  low  Over  also  and  of  not  ideas,  groups  amount  headings  do  subordinate  a passage  Headings  comprehension of  headings  exceptions.  affect  levels  understanding  that or  of  true  few  passage.  students'  appear  the  to  be  that  students  aware  author's  of to  Headings At own  the  a relationship  organization  were  their  are  some  also  up  superordinate  organization  c l o s e l y were  structure  indicate  positively  more  recalls.  a  passage  by  passage,  structure  purposes.  There  seemed,  organization,  Findings  organization  there  parrot  a lack  study  however  from  to  of  findings  did  9 good  showing  These  Research  seem t o  subordinate  headings  the  detrimental  for  or  of  study  recall  readability.  through idea  the  students'  superordinate  grades  indicate  representation.  Summary  level  to  able  facilitate seem t o  a l l  grade  headings  who to  followed recall  idea  affect  levels to  score  it  over  the  more  organization  their  did  recall  between  the  grades  author's  ideas.  seemed  number  to  5 to  10.  ideas It  organization  Those be  of  able  students to  use  who this  recall.  the  format  was  facilitate  found their  100  of  students'  that  students  recall.  Some  written did  not  students  make  reading  passages  versions  of  students  listed  ideas  as  one  ideas  following  without the  the  with  headings  author's a l l  of  group.  headings  information  headings  the  format  the  passages.  titles  in  without  their  the  Developmental and  subordinate  recalls Older This  from  the  students may  author's  parrot  that  subordinate ideas  grade  6  instructed  from  the  did  that  use  of  either  as  features  text.  This  written and  results.  experience  organizational instruction,  passage  As  they  these  8,9  and  the  of  students  older  the  10  to of  by  low  subjects  a  to  study  of  get  older  become  within  students'  more  this this  from and  very  good  may  recognition  seemed  of  have  in  cues  of  of  grades  able  5 to  to  use  recalling In  had  as  such  the  more  contrast,  the  for  recall.  not  been  study as  analysis in  10.  students.  SQ3R, of  reading  However,  without of  as  ability  concept  recall  or the  the  and  t i t l e .  the  younger  study  gain  cued  superordinate  in  were  to  reading  i n c l u d i n g the  strategy  the  aware  a passage.  101  and  than  technique  evident  recall  organization  them  passages  them  readability. use  subordinate  those  students  assist  subordinate  headings  number  students  these  help  headings  variables  seem t o  seemed  seem  of  typographic-semantic  part  structure  the  written  to  did  structure, in  in  not  than  subordinate  a passage  strategies, of  seen  organization  appear  in  passage  the  grade  students  would  in  scored higher  subordinate  It  and  often  modified  reading  8 students with  the  and  Students  passages  or  Some o f  wrote  headings  presence  were  then  headings  Grade  more  The  effects  indicate  5 and  recalls  overall  ideas  written  reading  headings.  to  first, the  headings  recalls.  passage.  from  include  students  the  create  percentile)  these  of  author's  their  recalled  not  (>84th  passages  in  did  readers  the  headings  Others  the  used  of  the  an  structure text  and  written  its at  a  use  in  low  readability  Post  Data  from  determine a  post  if  hoc  the  Headings  grades  patterns  major  format  s c o r e s on  and  headings  no  involved  number  of  subordinate  score,  and  the  level  number  higher  the  of  were  combined  or  trends  examined  the  parrot  means  were  number ideas  of  as  and  to  and  of  analyzed  c o u l d be  to  determined  to  their  relationships  grade  level  passages.  combined.  The  superordinate  recalled,  the  organization  score  use  the  the  paragraph  the  subordinate  observed  achieved both of  the  eight  ideas  on  score  for  major  recalled,  superordinate  and  on  the  level  that  the  recall  subordinate  superordinate  grade  both  the  organization the  4 and  grade format  on  the  recalls.  As  Thus  it  passages was  investigation  seemed  parrot  and  tended  to  most  similar  to  was  conducted  to  102  passages, the  the see  higher  who  their  format if  greater and  the  the  less  greater  frequent  students  organize  recalled  the  less  The  subordinate  and  well,  the  that  ideas  level  grouping  variable  format.  and  one  organization  comprehended  in  the  format  format.  format  were  superordinate  frequent  An  the  trends  on  form  10  were  subordinate  organization  point  limited  passages.  Common the  seems  Interrelationships Variables  organization  variables  variables  grade  of  ideas  level.  Analysis of Research  5 through  of  basis.  Eight with  Hoc  facilitating recall  the  the the  use  score use  of  of on the  better  recalls  of  the  the  in  a  passages  independent  higher read.  variable  of  reading  of  amount  ability and  as  Gates-MacGinitie  .3385  of  passage for  the  to  correlation  with  correlation  between  subordinate  ideas  expect,  It  ideas  Correlations  the  the  for  to  in  the  dependent  passages. see  the  comprehension  number  ideas  at  of  Pearson  subtest  ideas  measures  relationship  and  ability  of  of  higher  of  the  between  the  level  and  grade  level  of  as  parrot  the  ability  there  was the  that  recall  a rough passage  from  parrot  did  the  passage,  for  not  have  a moderate number  a  high  positive  of  passages.  a relationship  ability  ideas  .4444  and  but  reading  used  from  level,  readability  determined be  ideas  c o r r e l a t i o n s were  students'  can  the  existence  levels  superordinate  Reading  measures  r e c a l l e d from  was  grade  level.  the  the  for  .1783  subordinate  reading  between  subordinate  were  for  of  passages  ability.  for  computed  from  from  grade  any  These  differences lower  at  indicates  variables.  were  role  recall.  .2881  ideas  recall  scores  ranged  subordinate  would  the  superordinate  This  of  obtained  and  Correlations parrot  significant  correlations  T-scores  organization  a  organization  product-moment between  played  between  the  predictable. serve  to  better of  measures  than  of  and  one  highlight  grade  predictor  As  passages  of  level reading  reading  ability. ability  low. Two  distinct  analysis. written read.  One  recalls The  is  ability  passage  of  that  is  level  higher  could  as more  followed  second  reading  trends  the and  the  be  determined  ideas  were  author's  positive the  from  the  recalled,  organization  post  the of  hoc  closer  the  passage  correlational relationship  amount  of  readability.  103  subordinate  idea  the  between  recall  from  a  General  In have  the higher  their who  conclusion,  passage  which  Doctorow  et  Meyer signal  al  present  indicated structure  study  role  need of  to  range the  of  passages  indicate  range  grade  stage  a clear  t h e need  levels.  strategies  (Inhelder  of  This  from  instructional  into  by  this  the written future  concrete 1958),  implication.  (1941)  to  recent  contrary result,  were  al  Study  c a n be used  (1983)  found  recall.  necessary  suggests  account study.  that  A  involved  in  that  future  studies  to c l a r i f y  the  cue. the  developmental  The s i g n i f i c a n c e  recalls  from  the  to u t i l i z e  there  11-12  to  to use the  i n order  abstract  about  104  with  the students  studies that  to  similar  written  component  was n o t e d  and P i a g e t ,  et  typographic-semantic  for  It  and H a l l  and s u b t i t l e s  the s k i l l s  encompassed  aspects  Robinson  of  (1980).  be t h a t  provided.  did not  i n the writing  had a p o s i t i v e  improved  would  study  headings  Studies  Brooks  headings  in this  a l s o were  al  titles  had not taken  levels  developmental  reasoning  et  in text.  as a u s e f u l  studies  grade  of  headings  that  t o make  cues  with  (1983).  add an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  headings  Previous  al  d i d n o t employ  typographic-sematic would  et  and H a r t l e y  assumption  use of  concurred  that  i n the use of  students  The r e s u l t s  by Brooks  (1978)  that  t o make  This  indicated  top-level  reasonable  skills  findings.  (1984)  instruction  appeared  recalls.  findings  findings,  the  level  h a d t h e same  research  i t  Conclusions  experimental or expand  was a change at the years  skills  of  the  in  preadolescent of  should  age.  There  be t a u g h t  at  i s  the  grade  abstract  6/7  reasoning  strategies awareness It  level,  that of  is  skills  recommended the  of  knowledge  7  students in  passage  appeared  to  attempting In should: prior The  is  in  of  ways.  read to  i t  knowledge;  be  a wide and  structure  Particular 12  year  age  in  a study  positively  note  should  group. of  this  affect  type  able  to  utilize  study  the  skill  organization  may  and  some  and  be made after i t  comprehension  the  revised  the  the  others  if  been  a  factor  to  the that  some  be  verbatim. that  future  studies  form  instructional  of  provide  for  training  advantage  for  in  the  in  study  i n s t r u c t i o n a l component  be  determined  105  of  factor  of  the  purposes.  an  recall  area  "accessing"  developmental  if  this  component.  of  and  on  instructions,  once,  control  to  deal  indicated  initial  appeared  of  a great  also  passage  before  effects  grades;  should i t  for  have  from  read  concluded of  be  a pretest  Observation  "study",  range  can  This  study.  utilize  control to  material  using  Only  text  have  times,  utilize  and  to  students  i n s t r u c t i o n a l component  author's  may  word  the  can  be  internalize  studies  order  current  several  it  encompass  in  Some  memorize  summary,  future  indicated.  the  of  would  schema.  that  the  to  overview  Passages  interpreted  a variety  the  passages  knowledge.  students  necessary  author's  previous  grade  these  involve  the  administering  prior  as  aspects  headings  expository  in  the is  do  11  to  included indeed  prose.  REFERENCES  Alverman,  D.  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Superordinate-subordinate  111  structure  in  semantic  memory:  the  Journal  of  VJinograd, Reading  P.  roles Verbal  (1984).  of  comprehension  Learning  and  Strategic  Research Quarterly,  and  Verbal  retrieval Behaviour,  difficulties in  19,  Summer,  11.2  processes. 17,  587-591.  summarizing  404-425.  texts.  APPENDIX SAMPLE  A  PASSAGES  113  Parrots  Beautiful  and  Interesting  Birds  Few b i r d s a r e a s i n t e r e s t i n g and b e a u t i f u l a s p a r r o t s . T h e r e a r e more t h a n 700 k i n d s o f b i r d s i n t h e p a r r o t family. P e o p l e l i k e p a r r o t s b e c a u s e t h e y can t e a c h them t o t a l k . They are a l s o admired for t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o u r s . How  Parrots  are  Different  Parrots are very d i f always has a l a r g e beak l The b i r d u s e s i t t o h e l p f e e t t o h o l d food and t o Parrots  Live  Where  i t  is  f e r e n t from other i k e a hook. This him c l i m b about. h e l p them c l i m b .  Like  Cages  More  The parrot very strong. a l s o use t h e i r  Warm  P a r r o t s c a n be f o u n d i n a l l t h e South A m e r i c a and A u s t r a l i a have the kinds. Many o f t h e m n e s t i n t r e e s . o t h e r s n e s t on t h e g r o u n d . Parrots  birds. beak i s Parrots  than  Other  warmer p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . g r e a t e s t number o f different Some n e s t i n c l i f f s . S t i l l  Birds  Of a l l t h e b i r d s k e p t a s p e t s , p a r r o t s seem t o l i k e c a g e s the most. The p a r r o t ' s c a g e s h o u l d be l a r g e e n o u g h f o r h i m t o move e a s i l y a b o u t w i t h o u t b r e a k i n g h i s f e a t h e r s . Now-a-days most c a g e s a r e made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . T h i s m e t a l i s v e r y s t r o n g and i s easy to c l e a n . Sand o r g r a v e l s h o u l d c o v e r t h e b o t t o m o f the cage. The c a g e s h o u l d be c l e a n e d once a week. Parrots  Eat  Nearly  Anything  P a r r o t s w i l l eat n e a r l y anything that i s given to them. Many t h i n g s a r e n o t g o o d f o r t h e m , t h o u g h . T h e y may e a t s o m e f r u i t , but not a l o t . The b e s t f o o d f o r t h e p a r r o t i s a m i x o f seeds and n u t s . L i q u i d v i t a m i n s s h o u l d be added t o t h e p a r r o t ' s food. F o l l o w i n g these simple r u l e s w i l l h e l p keep your parrot h e a l t h y and h a p p y f o r many y e a r s .  114  Earthquakes  S c i e n t i s t s e s t i m a t e t h a t one year. Fewer t h a n one h u n d r e d a r e o f t h e s e h a p p e n a t s e a , w h e r e man them. Even s o , about s e v e n t y - f i v e earthquakes throughout recorded h  m i l l i o n earthquakes occur each d e s t r u c t i v e , h o w e v e r , a n d many i s n o t u s u a l l y a f f e c t e d by m i l l i o n people have d i e d i n istory.  V a r i o u s a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o e x p l a i n how e a r t h q u a k e s happen. P e o p l e once b e l i e v e d t h a t e a r t h t r e m o r s were c a u s e d by t h e m o v e m e n t s o f m y t h i c a l c r e a t u r e s who c a r r i e d t h e w o r l d o n their backs. Today, the e x p l a n a t i o n most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i s the Theory of Plate T e c t o n i c s . This theory, the work of a Canadian s c i e n t i s t , d e s c r i b e s the e a r t h as c o n s i s t i n g of t h i c k , connecting p l a t e s w h i c h f l o a t above the e a r t h ' s c o r e . Spaces between p l a t e s are c a l l e d f a u l t s . When t w o p l a t e s c o l l i d e , pressure1forces m o l t e n r o c k upwards and c a u s e s an e a r t h q u a k e . T h e r e a r e a number o f modern t e c h n i q u e s f o r m e a s u r i n g earthquakes. They i n v o l v e t h e use o f the M e r c a l l i s c a l e , the s e i s m o g r a p h , and t h e R i c h t e r s c a l e . The M e r c a l l i s c a l e m e a s u r e s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f an e a r t h q u a k e d e p e n d i n g on t h e damage i t d o e s . H o w e v e r , t h i s m e t h o d i s n o t r e l i a b l e a n d i s no l o n g e r u s e d . The s e i s m o g r a p h m e a s u r e s t h e amount o f movement c a u s e d by an earthquake. The R i c h t e r s c a l e u s e s t h e s e i s m o g r a p h r e a d i n g t o measure t h e i n t e n s i t y o f an e a r t h q u a k e . The a f t e r m a t h o f an e a r t h q u a k e c a n be t e r r i b l e . T i d a l waves sometimes f o l l o w d i s t u r b a n c e s a t sea and f l o o d c o a s t a l t o w n s . F i r e s a n d d i s e a s e a r e common a t d r y - l a n d e a r t h q u a k e sites. F i r e b a l l s s o m e t i m e s a p p e a r due t o s t r a n g e e l e c t r i c c o n d i t i o n s . W i t h t h e p r o p e r i n f o r m a t i o n , an e a r t h q u a k e c a n be l o c a t e d . The f o c u s and t h e e p i c e n t r e n e e d t o be p i n p o i n t e d . The f o c u s i s the earthquake's point of o r i g i n i n s i d e the e a r t h . The e p i c e n t r e i s t h e p l a c e on t h e s u r f a c e where i t s e f f e c t s a r e strongest. S c i e n t i s t s can p i n p o i n t a tremor w i t h i n e i g h t h o u r s . Knowing about earthquake s i t e s around the world helps s c i e n t i s t s i d e n t i f y where f u t u r e d i s t u r b a n c e s w i l l take p l a c e .  115  APPENDIX  DIRECTIONS  FOR  B  SCORING  AND S A M P L E P R O T O C O L  116  SHEETS  Directions I.  To  score  the  number  of  for  superordinate  Scoring and  subordinate  ideas.  S t e p 1. R e c o r d , on t h e p r o t o c o l , t h e n u m e r i c a l o r d e r s u p e r o r d i n a t e and s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s a s t h e y a p p e a r on student's written recall 1) r e c o r d t h e o r d e r o f a l l i d e a s r e g a r d l e s s 2) w r i t e t h e numbers i n t h e f i r s t column o f protocol  of the the  of accuracy b o x e s on t h e  Step 2. To d e t e r m i n e c r e d i t f o r a c c u r a c y o f r e c a l l e d i d e a s . 1) r e c o r d t h e s e c o n d c o l u m n o f b o x e s o n t h e p r o t o c o l 2) mark c r e d i t as f o l l o w s : (+) f u l l c r e d i t f o r f u l l i d e a s as p r e s e n t e d on t h e p r o t o c o l (1/2) o n e - h a l f c r e d i t for p a r t i a l ideas i n c l u d i n g from o n e - t h i r d t o t w o - t h i r d s o f the i d e a as p r e s e n t e d on t h e protocol (-) no c r e d i t f o r u n a c c e p t a b l e i d e a s S t e p 3 . T o t a l t h e number o f s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d and r e c o r d t h e number i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box on t h e Student Information Record sheet. 1) m a x i m u m s c o r e i s 5 Step 4. T o t a l t h e number o f and r e c o r d t h e number i n t h e Information Record sheet. 1) m a x i m u m s c o r e i s 26  II. To ideas  score  the  organization  of  subordinate appropriate  the  ideas correctly recalled box on t h e S t u d e n t  superordinate  and  subordinate  S t e p 1. Evaluate the superordinate organization 1) F o r s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t r e c a l l a l l o f t h e superordinate i d e a s , t h e a s s u m p t i o n was made t h a t i f t h r e e o r m o r e c o n s e c u t i v e s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s were r e c a l l e d w i t h i n a p a r a g r a p h , t h e g i s t o f t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a was u n d e r s t o o d . The s t u d e n t r e c e i v e s no c r e d i t f o r r e c a l l i n g t h e superordinate i d e a , b u t c r e d i t may b e g i v e n f o r s u p e r o r d i n a t e organization. a) i f no s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a was r e c a l l e d f r o m a p a r a g r a p h , the p a r a g r a p h must c o n t a i n a t l e a s t t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e l y r e c a l l e d subordinate ideas in order to q u a l i f y for the following "averaging" procedure. b) on t h e p r o t o c o l , w r i t e t h e m i d d l e number o f the c o n s e c u t i v e l y r e c a l l e d subordinate ideas to the l e f t of the f i r s t c o l u m n o f t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a t h a t was m i s s i n g from the r e c a l l . This w i l l then represent the numerical order of that superordinate i d e a . 2) a t l e a s t two s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a s must be r e p r e s e n t e d i n order to receive c r e d i t for superordinate organization. 3) s c o r e 1 i f a l l o f t h e r e p r e s e n t e d s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a s ,  117  regardless  of  accuracy,  are  in  consecutive numerical  order.  Step 2. Evaluate the subordinate organization 1) a t l e a s t t w o s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s m u s t b e p r e s e n t i n a paragraph to receive c r e d i t for subordinate organization 2) s c o r e 1 i f a l l o f t h e r e c a l l e d s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s i n a p a r a g r a p h are i n c o n s e c u t i v e n u m e r i c a l o r d e r ( n , n+1, n+2...) 3) t o t a l t h e s c o r e f o r s u b o r d i n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m a l l p a r a g r a p h s and r e c o r d t h i s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box on t h e Student Information Record sheet 4)  III.  To  maximum  score  the  score  is  5  format  of  the  written  recall  S t e p 1. Evaluate each of s i x format f e a t u r e s . 1) s c o r e 1 i f t h e f e a t u r e i s p r e s e n t 2) s c o r e 0 i f t h e f e a t u r e i s a b s e n t 3) r e c o r d e a c h s c o r e i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box Information Record sheet  on  the  Student  C r i t e r i a for scoring format features 1) t i t l e - a n o v e r a l l h e a d i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e p a s s a g e t o p i c , w r i t t e n a t the t o p o f t h e r e c a l l , and d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e r e s t o f t h e r e c a l l by i n d e n t i n g , u n d e r l i n i n g , o r s p a c i n g was considered a t i t l e 2) s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s - one t o s e v e r a l w o r d s s e t a p a r t f r o m a s e c t i o n o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l by s p a c i n g , i n d e n t i n g , or u n d e r l i n i n g was c o n s i d e r e d a s e c t i o n h e a d i n g . R e c a l l s had t o c o n t a i n a t l e a s t two s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s i n o r d e r t o s c o r e o n e . 3) one g r o u p i n g - i f a r e c a l l was w r i t t e n i n one d i s t i n c t g r o u p i n g w i t h no d i s t i n c t b r e a k s , g a p s , p a r a g r a p h s , or s e c t i o n s i t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be w r i t t e n i n one g r o u p i n g . 4) p o i n t f o r m - a l i s t i n g o f f a c t s i n i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s , o r s i n g l e w o r d s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n p o i n t f o r m . . T h e s e f a c t s may o r m a y n o t h a v e b e e n p r e c e d e d b y s o m e i d e n t i f y i n g m a r k i n g . 5) n u m b e r i n g - i f t h e r e c a l l was g e n e r a l l y numbered so t h a t t h e numbers a p p l i e d t o t h e o v e r a l l arrangement r a t h e r than b e i n g s p e c i f i c t o one s e c t i o n o r p a r a g r a p h , t h e r e c a l l was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n u m b e r e d . 6) p a r a g r a p h s - i n o r d e r t o s c o r e one f o r " p a r a g r a p h s " a w r i t t e n r e c a l l must have had a t l e a s t two p a r a g r a p h s . Each p a r a g r a p h must have c o n t a i n e d a t l e a s t one c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e . I n d e n t i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p a r a g r a p h was n o t n e c e s s a r y , b u t a d i s t i n c t b r e a k , g a p , o r s p a c e h a d t o be e v i d e n t between paragraphs. The number o f i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n e a c h p a r a g r a p h on t h e r e c a l l was n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n .  118  Parrots  (  (  (  )(  )(  )(  )I.  Few ( )( ( )( talk ( )(  )II.  b i r d s a r e as b e a u t i f u l and I n t e r e s t i n g as p a r r o t s ) a ) m o r e t h a n 700 d i f f e r e n t k i n d s i n p a r r o t family ) b ) p e o p l e l i k e them b e c a u s e t h e y c a n t e a c h them t o )c)they  are  also  admired  for  their  bright  ( ( (  Parrots are d i f f e r e n t from other b i r d s )( ) a ) l a r g e beak l i k e a hook )( ) b ) v e r y s t r o n g beak )( ) c ) u s e s h i s beak t o h e l p him c l i m b about  ( (  )( )(  )III. ( (  )d)use )e)use  feet feet  to to  hold help  P a r r o t s l i v e where i t )( ) a ) S o u t h A m e r i c a )( )b)Australia  ( )( ) c ) S . A . and different kinds nest  food climb is  Aus.  have  in  trees  (  )(  )d)many  ( (  )( )(  )e)some n e s t i n ) f ) s t i l l others  colours  warm  the  cliffs n e s t on  greatest  the  number  of  ground  (  )(  )IV.Pet parrots are kept i n cages ( )( ) a ) p a r r o t s l i k e c a g e s more t h a n o t h e r p e t b i r d s ( )( ) b ) c a g e s h o u l d be l a r g e e n o u g h t o move e a s i l y without breaking feathers ( ) ( ) c ) c a g e s made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l n o w - a - d a y s ( )( ) d ) t h i s m e t a l i s s t r o n g and easy t o c l e a n ( )( ) e ) s a n d o r g r a v e l s h o u l d c o v e r t h e bottom o f the cage ( )( ) f ) c a g e s h o u l d be c l e a n e d o n c e a week  (  )(  )V. ( ( ( ( ( (  P a r r o t s e a t n e a r l y a n y t h i n g g i v e n t o them )( )a)many t h i n g s n o t good f o r them ) ( ) b ) m a y e a t some f r u i t , b u t n o t a l o t )( ) c ) m i x o f s e e d s and n u t s a r e b e s t f o o d f o r them )( ) d ) l i q u i d v i t a m i n s s h o u l d be added t o f o o d )( ) e ) f o l l o w i n g s i m p l e r u l e s keep p a r r o t s h e a l t h y ) ( ) f ) k e e p h a p p y f o r many y e a r s  119  Earthquakes  (  )(  )I. ( ( (  S c i e n t i s t s e s t i m a t e one m i l l i o n e a r t h q u a k e s ) ( ) a ) f e w e r t h a n 100 a r e d e s t r u c t i v e )( )b)many happen a t sea )( )c)man u s u a l l y n o t affected  ( )( )d)75 history ( )( been  million  people  died  in  occur  earthquakes  in  a  year  recorded  )II. V a r i o u s a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n how e a r t h q u a k e s h a p p e n h a v e made ( )( ) a ) o n c e b e l i e v e d t r e m o r s c a u s e d by c r e a t u r e s w i t h w o r l d on t h e i r b a c k s ( )( ) b ) t h e o r y o f P l a t e T e c t o n i c s most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d theory ( )( ) c ) w o r k o f C a n a d i a n s c i e n t i s t ( )( ) d ) e a r t h c o n s i s t s o f t h i c k c o n n e c t i n g p l a t e s (  )(  )e)plates  ( (  )( )(  ) f ) s p a c e s between p l a t e s c a l l e d faults ) g ) c o l l i d i n g p l a t e s cause pressure  float  (  )(  )h)molten  rock  above  forced  earth's  upwards  core  causes  earthquake  ( )( ) I I I . T h e r e a r e a number o f modern t e c h n i q u e s f o r m e a s u r i n g earthquakes ( )( ) a ) i n v o l v e u s e o f M e r c a l l i s c a l e , Seismograph, Richter scale ( )( ) b ) M e r c a l l i m e a s u r e s i n t e n s i t y d e p e n d i n g on damage ( )( ) c ) M e r c a l l i n o t r e l i a b l e - no l o n g e r u s e d ( )( ) d ) s e i s m o g r a p h m e a s u r e s movement c a u s e d by earthquake ( )( ) e ) R i c h t e r s c a l e u s e s i n t e n s i t y of earthquake (  (  )(  )(  )IV.  )V.  seismograph  reading  to  A f t e r m a t h o f an e a r t h q u a k e c a n be t e r r i b l e ( )( ) a ) t i d a l waves f o l l o w d i s t u r b a n c e s a t s e a and coastal towns ( )( ) b ) c a u s e s f i r e s and d i s e a s e on d r y l a n d ( )( ) c ) f i r e b a l l s a p p e a r due t o s t r a n g e electrical conditions  measure  flood  E a r t h q u a k e s c a n be l o c a t e d w i t h t h e p r o p e r information ( )( ) a ) f o c u s and e p i c e n t r e n e e d t o be p i n p o i n t e d ( )( ) b ) f o c u s i s p o i n t o f o r i g i n i n s i d e e a r t h ( )( ) c ) e p i c e n t r e i s p l a c e on s u r f a c e where e f f e c t s a r e strongest ( )( ) d ) s c i e n t i s t s c a n p i n p o i n t a t r e m o r w i t h i n 8 h o u r s ( )( ) e ) k n o w i n g a b o u t e a r t h q u a k e s i t e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d helps scientists ( )( ) f ) h e l p disturbances  scientists identify w i l l take place  120  where  future  APPENDIX STUDENT  INFORMATION  121  C RECORD  SHEET  STUDENT  Student Grade Sex  Gates-McGinitie  INFORMATION  Number ( (  Headings  Content  ) )  )  (  ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  Format  Level  Content  Level  ( ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) ) )  and O r g a n i z a t i o n  Superord. Ideas Subord. Ideas Superord. Org. Subord. Org. Grade  ( (  and O r g a n i z a t i o n  Title Section Head. One G r o u p i n g P o i n t Form Numbering Paragraphs  Grade  ) )  ( ) ( ) ( )  (  Superord. Ideas Subord. Ideas Superord. Org. Subord. Org. Parrots  ( (  Scores  Indicator Headings  Parrots  ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) )  R d g . Comp.  P e r c e n t i l e Rank T-Score Grade E q u i v .  RECORD  (  ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  Format  Title Section Head. One G r o u p i n g P o i n t Form Numbering  ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) )  Paragraphs  (  )  122  SHEET  APPENDIX  D  S A M P L E OF R E C A L L FROM P A R R O T P A S S A G E W I T H E X P L A N A T I O N OF M A R K I N G P R O C E D U R E S  123  Transcript  of  Sample  Recall  With  Ideas  Numbered*  Parrots  G^There pet  are  because  their  you  can  and find  "^South side  ®Lots  are  teach  parrots  most  to  of  the  parrot  is  known  and  points  awhile  will  numbers  Parrots move  cage  help  to  wich of  of  parrots.^They  talk.@They  around  their eat  keep  by  your  birds  used  warmer  Most  are  are  also  because  to  hold  areas  an  enjoyabe  admired  without be  about mixture parrot  breaking a mixture  of  the in  cages any of  for  them  healthy  marker.  124  is  like  ®iou  ancf^climb. world  trees as  hook  such or  long  as  on  as  sand  and  enjoy  seeds  ancr^appy  and for  the  their  feathers.^On  a n y t h i n g . <®They for  of^?ts  food  parrots^est  seem t o ^ n j o y  should  just  most are  the  also  b u t i ^ i good  inserted  to  than  and^ustralia.  o f ^ l i f f s . room  them  different  in  types  colors.  claws  bottom  *  can  its^trong  America  of  once  different  many b e a u t i f u l  ( p a r r o t s beak  700  the  gravel. © A a l i t t l e  fruit  nuts, many  se years.  Parrot  Protocol Marking For Sample R e c a l l  Sheet  Parrots  (  )(  )I.  Few b i r d s a r e a s b e a u t i f u l and I n t e r e s t i n g a s p a r r o t s ( l ) ( + ) a ) m o r e t h a n 700 d i f f e r e n t k i n d s i n p a r r o t family (7.) ( + ) b ) p e o p l e l i k e t h e m b e c a u s e t h e y c a n t e a c h t h e m t o talk (•3) ( + ) c ) t h e y a r e a l s o a d m i r e d f o r t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o u r s  (*/)(+•) I I .  Parrots are d i f f e r e n t from other b i r d s G5")("r)a)large beak l i k e a hook ( )( ) b ) v e r y s t r o n g beak ( )( ) c ) u s e s h i s beak t o h e l p him c l i m b about ( £ ) C f ) d ) u s e feet t o hold food (7)H")e)use feet to help climb  (£?)(+) I I I . P a r r o t s l i v e where i t (?)(+)a)South America (lO)0t)b)Australia  i s  warm  ( )( ) c ) S . A . a n d A u s . h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t number different kinds 00(+-)d)many n e s t i n t r e e s (12)(+0e)some n e s t i n c l i f f s ( )( ) f ) s t i l l o t h e r s n e s t on t h e ground (  )(  )IV.Pet  of  parrots  are kept i n cages l i k e c a g e s moro t h a n o t h e r p o t b i r d s (/*/) ( - H ) b ) c a g e s h o u l d b e l a r g e e n o u g h t o m o v e e a s i l y without breaking feathers ( ) ( ) c ) c a g e s made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l n o w - a - d a y s ( )( ) d ) t h i s m e t a l i s s t r o n g and easy t o c l e a n (15) ( + - ) e ) s a n d o r g r a v e l s h o u l d c o v e r t h e b o t t o m o f t h e cage ( )( ) f ) c a g e s h o u l d be c l e a n e d o n c e a week  US) 0/£)a)parrots  QQWV.  P a r r o t s e a t n e a r l y a n y t h i n g g i v e n t o them ( )( )a)many t h i n g s n o t good f o r them (n)("t~)b)may e a t s o m e f r u i t , b u t n o t a l o t ( l $ ) ( + ) c ) m i x o f s e e d s and n u t s a r e b e s t f o o d f o r them ( )( ) d ) l i q u i d v i t a m i n s s h o u l d be added t o f o o d (H) (+")e) f o l l o w i n g s i m p l e r u l e s k e e p p a r r o t s h e a l t h y 0S>) ( + ) f ) k e e p h a p p y f o r m a n y y e a r s  125  Commentary  I.  Scoring  of  Superordinate  on M a r k i n g  and  of  Sample  Subordinate  Recall  Ideas  The numbers i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e s a m p l e r e c a l l c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e numbering o f t h e i d e a s on the l e f t column o f the p r o t o c o l s h e e t . The column t o the r i g h t o f the numbers i n d i c a t e s the v a l u e a s s i g n e d t o the i d e a r e c a l l e d (+, 1/2, or - ) . E v a l u a t i o n was b a s e d o n t h e i d e a p r e s e n t e d r a t h e r t h a n on e x a c t w o r d i n g . For example, the s t u d e n t used the term "strong claws" instead of " f e e t " i n the s i x t h idea r e c a l l e d . T h i s was a s s i g n e d f u l l c r e d i t . H a l f c r e d i t was a s s i g n e d t o i d e a number m b e c a u s e l e s s t h a n two t h i r d s o f t h e i d e a was r e c a l l e d . Note t h a t t h e p o r t i o n n o t r e c a l l e d h a s b e e n c r o s s e d o f f on t h e p r o t o c o l . The v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e Roman n u m e r a l s ) w e r e t h e n t o t a l l superordinate ideas. The v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e lower c a s e l e t t e r s ) were t o t a l l e subordinate ideas. II.  Scoring  of  Organization  of  superordinate ideas (designated ed. T h i s sample c o n t a i n e d 3  subordinate ideas (designated with d next. T h i s s a m p l e c o n t a i n e d 16 1/2  the  The 3 s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a s o r d e r and t h e r e f o r e a s c o r e o f organization.  by  Superordinate  and  Subordinate  Ideas  r e c a l l e d were i n c o n s e c u t i v e n u m e r i c a l 1 was a s s i g n e d f o r superordinate  A s c o r e o f 5 was a s s i g n e d f o r s u b o r d i n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s t h e r e were 2 or more s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s i n c o n s e c u t i v e n u m e r i c a l o r d e r r e c a l l e d f r o m e a c h o f t h e 5 p a r a g r a p h s w i t h no i d e a s o u t o f o r d e r i n each s e c t i o n . III.  Scoring  of  Format  Features  The p a s s a g e was e v a l u a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f any o f t h e 6 f o r m a t f e a t u r e s were p r e s e n t . T h e r e was an o v e r a l l h e a d i n g , "Parrots", w r i t t e n a t the top o f the r e c a l l so " t i t l e " r e c e i v e d a s c o r e of one. At l e a s t two p a r a g r a p h s were i n e v i d e n c e so a s c o r e o f one was a l s o given for t h i s format feature. The f e a t u r e s o f " s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s " , "one g r o u p i n g " , " p o i n t f o r m " , or " n u m b e r i n g " were not p r e s e n t i n t h i s sample and t h e r e f o r e were e a c h a s s i g n e d a s c o r e o f zero. IV.  Scores  Assigned  to  Sample  Recall  P a r r o t s C o n t e n t and O r g a n i z a t i o n Superord. Ideas (3).(0) Subord. Ideas (1) (6).(5) Superord. Org. (1) Subord. Org. (5)  126  Parrots Format Title Section Head. One G r o u p i n g P o i n t Form Numbering Paragraphs  (1) (0) (0) (0) (0) (1)  

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