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An analysis of cultural contents of high school English textbooks in Japan Kawano, Madoka 1987-07-23

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AN ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL CONTENTS OF HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS IN JAPAN By MADOKA KAWANO B.A., Tsuda College, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard COLUMBIA THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH SEPTEMBER, 1987 © Madoka Kawano, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ^eptUnh&r- ^^j• ^9^7 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT This study was conducted for the following two purposes: 1) to create and test a process by which cultural information in English textbooks in Japan can be analyzed, and 2) to examine what and how much information about foreign culture is taught in English classes in Japan. First, a process was developed from Joiner's evaluation form to gauge the cultural content of EFL textbooks. Action was taken to ensure that the process included both qualitative and quantitative steps. Second, the process entailed an analysis of the cultural content of 10 senior high school English textbooks published in Japan. The process was found to be functional and the analysis revealed that the textbooks were inadequate for the purpose of raising students' cultural awareness. The results of this study may be utilized not only for the improvement of textbooks, but also for future studies which might examine junior high school and college English textbooks. - iii -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. I. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 II. CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Textbook Selection/Evaluation Methods 3 Guidelines and Research on Cultural Contents of EFL Textbooks 5 Sociological Studies on Textbooks 7 Summary 12 III. CHAPTER 3: RATIONALE OF STUDY The Purposes of the Study 15 Justification of the StudySubproblems 20 Assumptions 2 IV. CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY 24 Samples 25 Framework of the Study 26 Coding Procedures 31 V. CHAPTER 5: PRESENTATION OF DATA 40 VI. CHAPTER 6: INTERPRETATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS First Purpose 90 Second Purpose 5 Conclusions 108 VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY 110 VIII. APPENDICES 7 - iv -LIST OF TABLES Page No. Table A-l: Number of all Units and Number of Units Which Explicitly Explain Foreign Culture 41 Table A-2: Category of Units Which Explicitly Explain Foreign Culture 42 Table A-3: Number of Units Whose Settings are Abroad and Number of Units Implicitly Require Cultural Background Information 43 Table A-4: Category of Units Which Implicitly Require Cultural Background Information 44 Table B: Countries Illustrated in the Textbooks 49 Table C-l: Countries Mentioned in the Textbooks 52 Table C-2: Cities Mentioned in the Textbooks 53 Table C-3: Places Mentioned in the Textbooks 5'4 Table D-l-A: Number of Main Characters - Nationality 57 Table D-l-B: Number of Main Characters - Ethnicity 58 Table D-2-A: Number of AIL Characters - Nationality 60 Table D-2-B: Number of All Characters - Ethnicity 61 Table D-3-A: Number of Characters Illustrated - Nationality 63 Table D-3-B: Number of Characters Illustrated - Ethnicity 64 Table D-4: Raw Scores of Each Textbook on Nationality and Ethnicity 66 Table D-5: Frequency of Male and Female Characters 80 Table E: Discourse Patterns of the Cultural Units 81 - v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Grateful acknowledgement is made to Professor Mary Ashworth, Dr. Bernard Mohan and Dr. Margaret Early of the Language Education Department, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, for the advice and encouragement. I am also grateful to my husband Tetsuya for his help and support. - 1 -CHAPTER 1 Learning a foreign language involves learning a foreign culture and vice versa. In Japan, according to the Course of Study suggested by the Ministry of Education, one of the goals of English for Secondary Schools is to develop an understanding of ways of living and thinking in foreign countries. In other words, to study foreign culture is a main objective of English courses in the upper secondary schools. 'To study foreign culture' is a vague statement which provides teachers with no guidelines as to what should be taught or when and how it should be taught. Teachers and textbook publishers make decisions about the cultural content of their courses according to their own ideas and philosophies. While the teaching of grammar in English classes has been studied and argued about for more than a hundred years, the cultural domain has only recently become a part of the English curriculum. The subject has rarely been discussed by teachers and textbook publishers in Japan; very little research has been done on textbook content and an analytical process has not been developed. Recently, Japanese educators have been advocating that education in Japan has to be internationalized and that English education should help students to raise cultural awareness. Although there is no consensus as to what the term 'cultural awareness' means, the author would interpret that it involves three factors; first, students must have attained a survival level of English and be able to communicate with foreign people. Second, - 2 -they must increase their respect for foreign cultures. Lastly, they must be knowledgeable about Japanese culture and be prepared to explain it. This study will examine whether English classes at high schools are serving those needs. In this study, the author attempts first to devise a process by which to analyze the cultural domain of English textbooks in Japan, and then to employ that process to investigate what and how much is learnt by Japanese students about foreign culture in their English classes. After presentation of a tentative framework for analysis, ten series of high school English textbooks published in Japan will be studied in terms of the quality and quantity of the cultural information they contain. This study, it is hoped, will assist high school educators by suggesting a method of analysis which encourages discussion among educators. At the same time, the results will reveal characteristics of English instruction in Japan as well as providing some hints on how to improve such instruction in the future. - 3 -CHAPTER 2 The purpose of this chapter is to examine literature dealing with the process by which EFL textbooks can be analyzed in terms of the treatment of culture and to review related studies which deal with the subject matter of textbooks. Formats to select or to evaluate textbooks are discussed, followed by guidelines and research on the cultural content of EFL textbooks. Then sociological studies which are mainly about history textbooks and basal readers are cited with an emphasis on the analysis of their methodology. Textbook Selection/Evaluation Methods The literature survey at the first stage was conducted by going through textbooks selection/evaluation methods. Systems particularly intended to evaluate ESL/EFL materials were advocated by Cowles (1976), Tucker (1978), and Stelglitz (1982). William (1983) suggested a scheme in which four assumptions are made; guidelines for non-native teachers, up-to-date methodology, needs of students, and relevant socio-cultural setting. However, on account of the tendency of ESL/EFL specialists to center attention on the linguistic domain of textbooks, their rating systems are not suitable for content analysis of cultural treatment. When the author widened the range of literature search from ESL/EFL to general subject areas, some systems concerned with cultural - 4 -and social aspects of the textbooks were found. Zender and Zender ( 1976) wrote a handbook for an overall criteria scheme for textbook adoption and selection. Their checklists include items which ask if a textbook is appropriate in treatment of race, religion, sex, social group, and self-image. Regrettably, these items are too general and are hard to judge at a glance. Educational Research Service (ERS) reports a procedure of the Carroll County, Maryland Board of Education which has criteria from the perspective of the rights of women and minorities (Kunder, 1976). In order to sense biases, it suggests counting the number of times gender and ethnic group are mentioned in the textbook. This can be an important part of cultural content analysis of a textbook, for omission or underrepresentation is considered to be a chief form of textbook bias. A systematic and comprehensive scheme of textbook evaluation is offered by the Educational Products Information Exchange (EPIE) Institute (Thiagarajan, 1977). The main purpose of EPIE analysis is to match materials and school curricula by in-depth study of the material. The tone of this system is more analytical rather than judgmental, thus enabling analysts to observe and express fully the characteristics of the textbook. This scheme also takes into consideration the capacity of the teachers and educational environment, which are indispensable factors for textbook evaluation and bias detection. - 5 -Guidelines and Research on Cultural Contents of EFL Textbooks The second stage of the literature survey looked at guidelines and research which investigate cultural content of ESL/EFL textbooks. As a rationale to examine the textbook content in terms of culture, Joiner (1974) maintains that educators are responsible for evaluating the various segments of the society represented by the textbook such as socio economic level, age group, sex, and life styles. She explains, "Because of the potential impact of the textbook on the student's conception of the foreign culture, it is important that language teachers look beyond eye catching illustrations and investigate the 'hidden' cultural-content of the material which they use" (p. 242). Her form of evaluating the cultural content is composed of four major sections; 1) illustrations, 2) text containing material of a cultural nature, 3) general questions relating to culture, and 4) supplementary material available from the publisher. A strength of this form is that evaluators are forced to look into the hidden color of a textbook and to speculate if it is actually promoting positive attitudes towards people and towards the languages which they speak. As a weakness, the rating may vary more or less according to investigators because some rating methods are dependent on their first impressions and subjective views. Examples are the questions which ask if the texts are lively or dull, if the texts are fresh and original or stereotyped, and if illustrations are positive or negative. - 6 -Willcott (1974) reported that advanced EFL textbooks were unsubstantial, compared to regular freshman composition textbooks for native speakers. He illustrated the triviality, immorality, inaccuracy, and mistakes of EFL textbooks by citations. Willcott does not seem to have followed any particular process which has led him to the conclusion that EFL textbooks are unreal and faulty; therefore, his study is not replicable, especially for non-native educators. Nevertheless, his finding which probably resulted from his considerable experience as an EFL teacher raises an educationally significant issue. In Japan, Hatori (1975) analyzed six English conversation textbooks used in senior high schools and found that they contained practical information such as using the telephone, traveling, shopping, etc. He went through inside covers, appendices, number of units, and theme of the units in the textbooks. Kitao (1978) attempted to find what and how much is presented on American culture in English courses in Japan by using Joiner's rating scheme previously mentioned. Kitao reviewed several series of high school textbooks of English readers and concluded that little information on American culture was presented and that what there was not always accurate. He proved that most English readers were language-oriented rather than culture-oriented, that teachers rarely referred to foreign things and ways of life and, consequently, very little of intercultural understanding could be nourished in English classes. His study also proved - 7 -that Joiner's evaluation form is basically useful and applicable for EFL textbooks except some items which may be improved. This will be discussed in detail in the chapter on Methodology. After Kitao, the school curriculum in Japan was largely reformed in 1981, and there are no more English readers or conversation courses in high schools. Instead, comprehensive courses called English I and English II have become the subjects usually pursued in senior high schools. From a historical standpoint, it is therefore interesting to examine what is being taught currently in English classes. So far I have reviewed four studies on cultural content of EFL textbooks, one guideline and three pieces of research. As for the method of analysis, Joiner's guideline seems functional; however, besides the field of ESL/EFL where the examples of content analysis are scarce, other areas of studies on textbooks from sociological perspectives will be reviewed next. Sociological Studies on Textbooks Procedures of textbook analysis are also found in the studies of social studies textbooks and basal readers which investigate bias or racism in content. It should be noted here that general textbook evaluation formats previously cited are different in essence from processes to detect textbook bias or racism; the purpose of the former is to select or to adopt - 8 -a textbook, so whole aspects of textbooks are inspected including their bias, cultural meaning, linguistic structure, evaluation method, and so on. Analysts may not have any preoccupations or hypotheses before they actually face textbooks. On the other hand, the bias detection is chiefly conducted for the sake of social justice and for the purpose of asking if the textbook reflects ideal pictures of the democratic and diverse society. Investigators may have suspicions or hypotheses in their minds and try to substantiate them by certain processes. In their research, the analysis of the textbook itself is not the purpose but simply a vehicle by which to gain access to classroom activities and the quality of the curriculum. The educational and sociological approaches can be divided into three areas; quantitative research, qualitative evaluation checklists, and qualitative research. First, the author reviews quantitative research, which can be defined as research that yields some statistical data as a conclusion of enquiry. To measure the treatment of minorities in the textbooks, a scheme called Evaluation Coefficient (ECO) analysis was developed by Pratt (1972). According to this analysis system, words or terms in the texts are connected to positive and negative images of a majority group and then scored by a formula. This method in which researchers score words that have a relation to certain abstract notions is sometimes used with content analysis research (Abercrombie, 1976; Croghan, 1979). It is very effective when researchers have confidence in judging which word is related to - 9 -which notion. Nevertheless, in EFL teaching where the textbook content covers an infinite range of topics and where there are no established lists of words related to notions of culture, ECO analysis is difficult to carry out. Counting the number of minorities as principal characters in stories would be a more reliable method of finding race bias in basal readers. The rationale of this method is that inclusion and omission of an ethnic group is a form of textbook bias. Klein (1985) claims that omission is considered to be one of the most widespread forms of bias and that reading materials need scrutiny, because "the most dangerous aspect of omission is that books may very effectively conceal what is left out of them, or even that anything has been left out" (p. 30). According to the Baltimore Feminist Group (1976) and Butterfield (1979), extensive studies of basal readers proved that the number of stories featuring minorities was extremely small compared to the number of stories with white characters. Britton and Lumpkin (1977) also reported similar findings by a process called Sexism and Racism Profile which consists of examinations of 1) minority major character role assignments by sex/race and 2) minority different career role assignments by sex/race. The profile is an objective method which would be useful and applicable for non-native evaluators of EFL textbooks. Kyle (1978) and Butterfield ( 1979) presented another process of studying basal readers: stories in the textbook are reviewed and - 10 -categorized as to those related to a single ethnic group or those related to a racially mixed group. The rationale is that such analysis will reveal whether or not a basal reader sees the society consisting of one majority group or to be a mixture of diverse races. As a result, it was found that very few stories displayed the activities by a single minority group or by a multiethnic group, while majority males had dominant roles in basal readers. A common process with content analysis of textbooks is the examination of pictures. To name a few, Weitzman (1972), Vukelich (1976), and Glazer (1983) studied pictures to detect sexism and racism in the textbook. Hawkins (1978) inspected to what extent whites, blacks, hispanics, orientals, and American Indians were pictured in elementary social studies textbooks. The impact that photographs and illustrations have on children is enormous because in recent times children have become more familiar with videos and television rather than with printed letters. In Japan, if a student finds only pictures of African tribes with spears and arrows in the textbook, he might be convinced that every African is primitive. Therefore, it is advisable that the way the pictures are depicted should be looked at as a supplementary analysis after scoring the number of pictures. So far quantitative processes of content analysis have been reviewed. Lastly, qualitative approaches of enquiry are discussed. In the United States, a considerable number of guidelines were advocated by states, - 11 -publishers, institutions, and individual educators in the 19701 s. Researchers such as Rosenberg ( 1976) and Bragaw (1979) suggested a set of criteria to evaluate textbook content and illustrations. Not only racism but also sexism, ageism, and other social prejudices were targeted for deletion from school materials, especially from American history textbooks. Among various studies, the most comprehensive and rational guideline was presented by the Council on International Books for Children (CIBC) which carried on a longitudinal survey on history textbooks in the United States (1977, 1980). The CIBC suggests that, besides a quantitative search of overrepresented or underrepresented peoples, the following five areas ought to be probed; 1) characterization - stereotypes, 2) language and terminology - obvious bigotry, color symbolism and "loaded" words, 3) historical accuracy - omissions, distortions, and Eurocentrism, 4) cultural authenticity - white perspectives , distortions and trivializations , and 5) illustrations - facial characters, clothing, and socio-economic settings. This qualitative method would provide researchers with deep insights and correct understanding of the textbook in question. Such qualitative approach was seen in many studies and one of the classical examples is an examination of history textbooks conducted by Marcus (1961). Seven criteria used constantly in assessing textbook materials are inclusion of minority groups, validity of the information, balance of the negative and positive information about a minority, comprehensiveness of the content, concreteness and unity of the information, and realism of the treatment of minorities. Findings are - 12 -reported in citations and arguments. These seven criteria were used by Kane (1970) whose motivation was to determine how textbook treatments of minorities had changed over the decade. His conclusion was that, though some improvements had occurred, textbook materials concerning minority groups must still be considered inadequate. As for the applicability of the seven criteria to EFL textbook evaluation, the first two criteria, inclusion of minority group and validity of the information, should be useful. However, other criteria such as "comprehensiveness of the content" would be difficult to judge and to discuss, for there is no norm as to what is a comprehensive EFL textbook. A difficulty of EFL textbook evaluation lies in the fact that evaluation has not yet discussed "how the content should be". Without concrete ideas and considerations on what should be taught through English, analysts cannot tell if a certain textbook is satisfactory or not. In summary, among existing qualitative methods to detect textbook bias, a screening scheme suggested by CIBC would be the most appropriate in EFL textbook evaluation. Summary In this chapter, on methods for analyzing the cultural information in EFL textbooks, three types of studies were discussed: 1) textbook selection/evaluation method, 2) guidelines and research on cultural content of EFL textbooks, and 3) sociological guidelines and research of textbooks. In the first place, existing guidelines for textbook selection/evaluation methods were all found to be insufficient for the narrowly focused study of cultural treatment. This insufficiency is quite natural because the - 13 -purpose of checklists and an evaluating scheme is to see a textbook as a whole and not to extract one aspect of it. However, a grasp of various parts of the textbook might be necessary in order to find out the characteristics of culture presented in the textbook. Next, very few guidelines and research about culture in EFL textbooks could be located. As far as the author's survey goes, one guideline by Joiner and three other pieces of research were found. Willcott (1974) said advanced EFL texts were unsubstantial in cultural contents. The results of two studies in Japan were controversial; Hatori (1975) reported that English conversation textbooks contained foreign customs of daily life. Kitao (1978), however, who followed Joiner's form, maintained that high school English readers lacked information about American culture. The latter limited himself to only American culture, though his findings can be considered to be closer to the real state of English classes in Japan than Hatori, for reading was a main activity in the curriculum, while there were very few conversation classes held at high schools. Concerning methodology, Joiner's framework seems to be valid and applicable to any EFL situations because of its objectivity and feasibility for non-native evaluators. Nevertheless, it still needs changing. Third, the studies on textbooks from a sociological perspective were reviewed for the purpose of facilitating methodology of textbook analysis. Processes to examine basal readers and American history textbooks can be - 14 -divided into two types; one is qualitative and the other is quantitative. There are some quantitative processes relevant for content analysis of EFL textbooks: 1) count percentage of minority groups as major characters, 2) categorize stories in the textbook as either related to a majority group or as multiethnic stories, and 3) check pictorial representation of ethnic groups. Strengths of these processes are, needless to say, objectivity and applicability. As a limitation, they cannot always manifest implicit tone of bias in the textbook; a close examination by holistic approaches should follow. Qualitative research where analysts go through a list of criteria also has some implication for EFL textbook analysis. The textbook content can be scrutinized for terminology, accuracy, characterizations, cultural authenticity, and illustration as suggested by CIBC. In summary, a combination of qualitative and quantitative processes should be the most suitable method for a study of the cultural content of EFL textbooks. - 15 -CHAPTER 3 The Purposes of the Study The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to create and test a process by which the cultural content of English textbooks in Japan can be analyzed, and 2) to examine what and how much information about foreign culture is taught in English classes in Japan. Justification of the Study The first purpose of this study is to propose a method to analyze the treatment of culture in English textbooks in Japan. First, a tentative procedure, an adaptation of Joiner's form is developed, applied to research on ten textbooks, and discussed in terms of its practicality and significance. Throughout the process of content analysis, the procedure is constantly remade and reformed. Attention is paid to coding the data in order to increase intercoder reliability. The process must also take into consideration non-native evaluators as well as native speakers of English; both groups must be able to follow the process without difficulty. It is often the case with Japanese teachers of English that because of the absence of evaluation processes, teachers cannot grasp the characteristics of a textbook; they might have a vague feeling that something is wrong with the textbook, but they cannot tell where and how. Discussing the content of EFL textbooks is a complicated matter, involving idiosyncracy - 16 -of language and culture. There is no norm of cultural contents that should be included in EFL textbooks. The question of what aspects of which country should be introduced in English classes rarely has been raised in Japan. In such a state, educators who are concerned about intercultural communication need a well-founded method by which to analyze textbook content. In chapter 2, the scarcity of research that studied cultural content of EFL textbooks was pointed out. The most suitable form for evaluators in Japan seems to be Joiner's framework combined with statistical manipulation presented by sociological studies of the textbooks. The methodology used in this study will be explained in detail in the next chapter. The other purpose of this study is to review the cultural treatment of ten English textbooks used at high schools in Japan, according to Joiner's framework as reformed to suit this particular piece of research. One of the recent trends of education in Japan is international education, which is a popular term frequently mentioned as a slogan of educational renovation. An increasing number of English-speaking foreigners is domiciled in Japan; correspondingly, nearly 500,000 Japanese nationals reside outside of Japan. Not only educators but also business people emphasize the necessity to raise Kokusaijin (internationally minded children) who know manners and skills for getting along with foreign - 17 -people. However, it seems that very little progress has been made in spite of the high demand for the internationalization of education. Problems concerning the friction between Japan and foreign countries can be roughly divided into two types: the first is the problem with those Japanese who cannot adjust themselves to the unfamiliar culture of a foreign land. This is the case not only with Japanese, of course, but also with people from other countries. However, by mass media such as television, newspaper, and magazines, it was repeatedly reported that some Japanese students who recently arrived at American schools caused confrontation with other students and teachers. The other problem is the conflict between Japanese and foreigners in Japan; Japanese people cannot accept foreigners or Japanese who have spent several years abroad. Not only institutionally but also emotionally, foreigners and Kikokushijyo (Japanese who have just come back from abroad) are sometimes excluded from educational and occupational opportunities. Why do these maladjustments and conflicts occur? The author thinks they stem from 1) the lack of discussion and/or research about the concrete meaning of international education and 2) the insularity of Japan. First, international education is a favorite term occasionally mentioned by politicians, school administrators, and teachers. The term is sometimes replaced by synonyms such as global education and intercultural education. Nevertheless, educators do not seem to have concrete ideas as to what those terms actually indicate. There is no consensus or even discussion about "what does it mean to be an international child?" or "what must a - 18 -school do to raise an international child?" In other words, while the goal of international education is advocated, learning objectives and classroom activities of the curriculum are still vague. In such a situation, it is quite natural that the effect of international education has not become apparent yet. Second, the root of the confrontation between Japanese and foreigners exists in the history and society of Japan. Maladjustment of Japanese nationals in foreign countries results from the characteristic of Japanese society that the unity of a group takes precedence over the interests and happiness of individuals. To be independent of others and to be different from others is not recommended, so students are discouraged from projecting their own opinions. In spite of this tradition, when they go abroad, they are required to state their opinions clearly. What blocks the Japanese from smooth assimilation into the new culture is not just language, but also their attitudes and views towards the society and human life. Another trait of Japanese society, homogeneity, is also detrimental to the raising of an international consciousness. Inside the country, Japanese are reluctant to embrace foreign customs and practices. They cannot imagine that a country can be multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural. Instead, they are inclined to view each foreign country as a homogeneous society. This tendency is strengthened by mass media and education. - 19 -Heretofore, reasons causing cultural conflicts between Japanese and foreigners have been discussed. Some practical solutions can, however, be drawn: first, educators must discuss, even if they do not reach consensus, objectives, student's activities, and learning outcomes of international education. In the domain of English teaching, teachers who have devoted themselves almost entirely to grammatical targets will have to pay attention to the content of the materials used in class. Second, students should be introduced to the diversity existing in other countries. When a foreign country is a topic in an English class, students have to be taught that it might be a diverse society composed of peoples of many races and ethnic origins. On account of the economic tie, many Japanese have had and will have the opportunity to go to the United States, where they themselves are a minority group. Nevertheless, most Japanese never imagine the degree of multiculturalism of the States until they land at the airport. Third, students should learn about foreign cultures in such a way as to enhance equal respect for all nations and people. Japanese often describe the English language and those who have some command of English as "Kakkoii" (good looking, neat, and often western-looking). The author believes that English education is responsible for having created the image that being fluent in English is modern, advanced, sophisticated, and western. Conversely, other languages and peoples, especially Asian, are considered of secondary importance and less prestigious. With those - 20 -prejudices, English can never be adequately learned, nor can intercultural awareness be achieved. This paper focuses on the second and third issues relating to English education, namely, do English classes convey an awareness of the diversity of foreign countries and do they provide biased information or not? In order to answer these questions, the following subproblems were established. Subproblems a) How much of the English textbook is devoted to teaching culture? What is the percentage of cultural topics in a text? Does the textbook offer enough information on foreign culture to students? b) What aspects of foreign and Japanese culture are featured? In this study, the term 'culture' means not just an intellectual and artistic activity, but also "the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns characteristic of a people" (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language). Therefore, various phases of life - family, human relationship, school system, sports and games, non-verbal communication, conception of time, etc., are all regarded as cultural topics. The quality of cultural information of a textbook is equally important as the amount of - 21 -information. Students will react differently when they learn both the bright side and the dark side of a foreign country. Willcott (1974) pointed out that EFL textbooks failed to put forth a humanistic and liberal view education and that they avoided argumentative essays and controversial topics regarding the society. Hayashino (1981) criticized English "extbooks in Japan as being boring, monotonous, and meaningless. This study will attempt to determine if their statements apply to the current textbooks. c) Which country and ethnic groups are most often presented? By answering this question, the author tries to refer to more inferential questions about the ideology of English and about textbook bias. Concerning the ideology of English, the question should be asked which country and what kind of society the English language is considered to belong to? Are English lessons helping students to develop respect for other nations? Whose benefit do they serve? Are they influencing students to take an interest in their own culture? Those concepts, ideas, and notions hidden in the textbook will be discussed. Subproblem C also leads into bias in the textbook; in this study, among various kinds of biases, ethnic bias or racism bias will be considered. Of course, ethnic bias often goes hand-in-hand with sexism bias and ageism bias, so the other biases are referred to if necessary. Racism in the textbook sometimes takes the form of omission, subtle or blatant. The bias can be proved by statistical analysis and close - 22 -examination of individual units in the textbook. Klein reported that EFL textbooks being developed in Germany were taking care in the illustrations to reflect diversity in British cities (1985, p. 78). It is high time Japan also started to think about diversity of the world. Here three concrete and practical problems were posed: a) how much of the textbook is devoted to teaching culture? b) what aspects of foreign culture are featured? and c) which country and ethnic group are most often presented? In chapter 4 the process which corresponds to these questions is presented and an effort is made to establish the reliability and the validity of that process. Assumptions This study is based upon two assumptions; first, it is taken for granted that EFL education has to contain some teaching of foreign culture. Culture "establishes for each person a context of cognitive and affective behavior, a blueprint for personal and social existence" (Brown, 1981, p. 123). Mastering a foreign language is inseparable from knowing a foreign culture. It is amazing how many cultural events, phrases from the Bible, and pieces of Shakespeare are embedded in English language commonly used in daily life. In the area of teaching reading in a second language, there is a prevailing theory that existing knowledge about culture in the learner, which is called schema or schemata, promotes - 23 -comprehension of a given passage (Johnson, 1982; Carrell, 1983; Anderson, 1984). The second assumption in this paper is that the curriculum to enhance cultural awareness does affect students' attitudes. In Japan, research concerning international education is yet to be done. In North America, there are studies that have proved the effect of multicultural readers on students (Singer, 1967; Litcher & Johnson, 1969; Kehoe & Stone, 1978; Izaz, 1982). In this paper, assuming that multicultural and multiethnic textbooks would make Japanese students culturally sensitive, the author attempts to analyze the present status of English textbooks in Japan. - 24 -CHAPTER 4 The major purposes of this paper are to find a process by which the treatment of culture in EFL classes can be analyzed and to examine the cultural content of English classes in Japan. This chapter first looks at reasons why classroom activities can be analyzed by the content analysis of textbooks. Then the author describes the samples of the study, procedures of data collection, and process of data analysis. The textbook is regarded as the best source for investigating what is actually taught in the classroom for the following reasons. First, the textbook plays a very important role in Japanese school curricula. It is not merely a tool or a supplement, but weighs heavily in determining students' activities. In that sense, the textbook is the school curriculum itself. To explain further, in Japan all textbooks for elementary and secondary schools are screened by the Ministry of Education before they are published. A screening committee meeting is held by the members of the Textbook Authorization and Research Council, textbook publishers, and writers. If a textbook is not satisfactory or not in accordance with the national policy of education, it has to be revised and submitted to the committee again. This unique system of textbook adoption also makes the textbook the central factor of education in Japan. Publishing and selecting textbooks are not just pedagogical issues but also raise a political and nation-wide concern. - 25 -Second, there is a belief in Japan that textbooks are holy, precious, and hold the essence of all knowledge. In many families, children are taught to handle textbooks with care and to treasure them for many years. Teenagers regard the textbook as a bible that has to be memorized. Letters and printed matters are credited highly in Japan. Reading is considered to be an essential part of learning. There is a saying: "Read it one hundred times, and the meaning will come to you." Therefore, to analyze textbooks means to probe the learning activities of students. Close examination of contents of textbooks will reveal the quality and quantity of the cultural information students would obtain from English classes. Samples Ten textbooks of Senior High School English were chosen. The objective of English I is to develop basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. As mentioned in the previous chapter, school curriculum was drastically changed in 1981, when all series of textbooks were rewritten to fulfill the requirements of the new curriculum. Accordingly, most of the content of English textbooks was changed or edited at that time. The samples used in this study were all published in 1984, three years after the curriculum reformation. Ten textbooks of ten different publishing companies were available to the author; a number which would be large enough to generalize the results gained by the study. Title, publisher, and editor of each textbook are as follows: - ~ - 26 -Title Publisher Editor(s) MAINSTREAM I The New Comprehensive English Course WHY ENGLISH I THE NEW CENTURY ENGLISH SERIES I New Edition FRESH English I NEW LIGHT ENGLISH I SENIOR SWAN English Course I Zoshindo Gakko Tosho Sanseido Daiichi Gakushusha Kairyudo Kaitakusha Shoichi Ando David Hale Katsumata Ikenaga Eiichi Kobayashi Shunsuke Wakabayashi Ichiro Yasuda Eiji Hato Ichiro Tanaka Sakae Serizawa NEW STANDARD ENGLISH I REVISED EDITION Hitotsubashi Kenzo Kihara Sunrise English I Obunsha Yoshio Ogawa Go, English! I The Rainbow English Course I Tokyo Shoseki Bun-Eido Shigeo Imamura Kuniaki Suenaga Framework of the Study A framework to investigate these ten textbooks was developed, based upon Joiner's form for evaluating the cultural content of EFL textbooks. It was chosen because the rationale of her coding form was most consistent with the purpose of this study: - 27 -While selecting and creating culturally sound texts and materials may not eradicate all stereotypes and usher in an unprecedented era of cultural understanding, we cannot afford to do less than give foreign language students an objective and accurate picture of the country whose language they are studying. It is hoped that this instrument, in its present form or modified to conform to individual concerns, will be used in different ways by a variety of people with one common aim - to promote positive attitudes toward peoples and toward the languages which they speak. (Joiner, 1974, p 243) In this study, Joiner's form was revised so that it should work effectively in reviewing English textbooks in Japan. A major difference between the original form and the adaptation lies in data scoring; in Joiner's original, questions are asked in yes/no alternatives. In this study, instead, "how many" and "what" questions are raised in order to seek more exact and detailed data. Chapter 2 suggested that a method which is composed of quantitative and qualitative phases would be most appropriate for content analysis of EFL textbooks. A weakness of the original form is the lack of objectivity and preciseness, therefore, a method widely used in the sociological studies of textbooks was adopted to increase the reliability. - 28 -The new revised form includes questions concerning what country and ethnic group are most often presented in the textbook. This perspective is often taken to find out about inclusion and exclusion of ethnic groups in basal readers (the Baltimore Feminist Group, 1976; Butterfield, 1979; Britton and Lumpskin, 1977; Klein, 1985). This approach was chosen because of a) its prevalence in sociological textbook research, b) validity and reliability, and c) objectivity of the data. In this study, illustrations as well as the written text are reviewed according to nationality and ethnicity depicted. There are also items newly added by the author that were developed from the implementation of the pilot study. By conducting the pilot study, it was found that three types of units need to be recognized. They are 1) units which explicitly introduce and discuss cultural topics, 2) units whose settings are foreign places, and 3) units in which themes are not about i culture but cultural background knowledge is implicitly required. The last category of units was established, for the units belonging to that category require the special attention of the teacher. Teachers who provide students with supplemental information about the backgrounds of those units would ensure comprehension by the students and growth in understanding towards foreign countries. On the contrary, if teachers fail to supply adequate cultural information, they will jeopardize students' interests as well as their true mastery of the units. To exemplify, a unit about the origin of jazz music belongs to this type of unit; it requires students to have an understanding of American history, geography, and - 29 -society. The textbook editor may assume that students have such knowledge and that there is no necessity to refer to it in the textbook. In that case, if students do not actually know enough about the background, the unit would be dull and irrelevant to them. During the course of the pilot study, the author came to suspect that those tricky units would be seen quite often in English textbooks in Japan. This study will serve to clarify whether the suspicion is justified, or not. Here the framework of the method, the revised Joiner's form of evaluating the cultural contents of EFL textbooks is presented, followed by detailed coding procedures. FRAMEWORK A. Number of units 1. Number of all units in the textbook 2. Number of units which explicitly explain foreign culture 3. Number of units whose settings are abroad 4. Number of units which implicitly require cultural background knowledge B. Number of times countries are illustrated photographs - colour photographs - black and white - 30 -drawings maps cartoons reproductions Name and number of foreign places (cities and countries) mentioned in the textbook Presentation of nationality and ethnicity 1. Number of main characters in the units 2. Number of all characters in the units 3. Number of characters illustrated in the textbook Discourse patterns adopted for the units about foreign culture Dialogue Narrative Essay Letter Fiction Song Poem Newspaper Joke Folktale - 31 -Simplified novel Biography Play F. Evaluators' comments on the characteristics of the society represented in the textbook 1. Illustrations 2. Texts Coding Procedures For the consistency of this study, the term "unit" is used to express a group of pages on the same topic, which is sometimes called a unit, a lesson, a story or a section, depending on the publishers. Here each item of the framework is discussed in terms of its rationale and coding procedures on a practical level, which had been constantly changed throughout the analysis for the purpose of increasing interrater reliability. Consequently, as far as 10 textbooks reviewed in this paper, interrater reliability of the coding procedures was kept to more than 85%. In this study,- in addition to the author, an undergraduate student who majored in French worked as a rater. A. Number of units 1. Number of all units in the textbook - 32 -- Supplemental notes, summary of grammar, the list of vocabulary, and phonetic system tables are not counted. Number of units which explicitly explain foreign culture - The following units should be counted; a) Units which describe history, nature, people, language, customs, and arts of foreign countries b) Units which introduce ways of living and thinking in foreign countries c) Units which compare and contrast Japanese and foreign culture d) Units whose chief purpose is to raise cultural awareness of the students Number of units whose settings are abroad Units in which conversations, episodes or events take place outside Japan are counted. If one unit is related to more than one country, decimal numbers are used for scoring. For instance, if a unit is about Britain and France and both of the countries occupy approximately the same weight in the story, 0.5 point are added to them respectively. - 33 -4. Number of units which implicitly require cultural background knowledge Analysts should look for units which do not present cultural background information but assume that teachers would offer it or students would be already familiar with it. Number of times countries are illustrated The meaning of this analysis is straightforward; the illustrations such as pictures, cartoons, and maps are essential elements of the textbook not only because they help students comprehend the texts by visualizing the context but also because they act as an important medium to convey cultural information. In Japan where direct contact with foreign countries is extremely limited, the influence of illustrations cannot be overemphasized. Illustrations are categorized according to 1) names of the countries presented and 2) modes of illustrations such as photographs, maps and so on. Countries and cities mentioned in the textbook - The aim of this tallying task is to clarify the names of foreign places that students are most likely to encounter in English classes. This item is also concerned with the question "to which country does the English language appear - 34 -to belong?" It is natural that students should be influenced by a particular country repeatedly mentioned in the textbook and be led to relate the English language to that country. The task is to count names of countries, cities, and places that appear in English sentences, including main texts, supplemental notes, and exercises. A country is tallied whether it is called by an official name or by an informal name. For instance, it does not matter if the Soviet Union is called the U.S.S.R. or Russia. Names of states, provinces, mountains, rivers, and valleys are counted. Small areas in a city such as Central Park and Buckingham Palace are not included. When the same place is mentioned twice in a single sentence, in so far as the name itself is used instead of a pronoun, tally number will be "2". Tally is increased when the nationals of a country are referred to; for example, people of France or French people should be both tallied under the category of France, for both are closely connected to the notion of the country France. Presentation of nationality and ethnicity The aim of this task is to investigate inclusion and omission of nationals and ethnicities in the textbook. From this - 35 -information, a judgement can be made as to whether or not the textbook is biased. Nationality and ethnicity of a character who appears in the units is judged and counted according to the following categories: a) male, b) female, c) group, and d) individual, (a) is a male character and (b) is a female character. When a character's gender cannot be identified from the information given in the unit, the character is categorized as (d) individual, (c) is a group of people who are the same nationality and ethnicity. Especially in counting characters illustrated in textbooks, it is sometimes difficult and meaningless to count every single person of a crowd of people; in such a case, tally is increased in (c) group. The classification of nationality and ethnicity are: White Americans Black Americans Hispanic Americans Native Americans Asian Americans Unidentified Americans British French Italians Greeks Canadians - 36 -Australians Chinese Japanese Caucasians who speak English - nationality is not clear but the fact that he/she is a Caucasian and that he/she speaks English is clear. English speakers - nationality and ethnicity cannot be recognized, but the fact that he/she is a native or native-like speaker of English is clear. Unidentified - even whether he/she speaks English is unknown. There is no information on his/her ethnicity and language. Others In this study this classification is sufficiently detailed to categorize characters in the textbook. Further breakdown of ethnicity such as Jewish American and Chinese American should not be needed. When the same character appears in many units, a tally is added each time. Historical countries like Roman Empire and Babylonia are also listed. - 37 -1. Number of main characters of the units Major characters who play important roles in a unit are counted. - In a unit of conversation, the chief characters in the dialogues and also the persons discussed by them are tallied. For example, when A and B are talking about C, three of them, namely A, B, and C are considered as major characters of the unit. 2. Number of all characters of the units All the characters who appear or are referred to in the units are counted. Characters who appear in the exercise at the end of a unit are also counted. 3. Number of characters illustrated in the textbook Illustrations of all parts of the textbook including the cover and appendices are looked at. Analysts can judge the nationality and ethnicity of an illustrated person with help of the main texts. E. Discourse patterns adopted for the units about foreign culture The purpose of this question is to find out if there are any particular discourse patterns employed to convey the cultural - 38 -information. Previous studies by Hatori (1975) and Kitao (1979) seem to indicated that dialogue is more often connected to cultural topics than any other discourse pattern. The task is to classify cultural topics that have been identified in Analysis A, according to their discourse patterns. It may be possible that the form of a unit can be put into more than one category. For instance, a unit may be considered as a joke and also as a dialogue. Then analysts should try to figure out which category is more characteristic of the unit. One unit can be tallied in only one category. F. Evaluators' comments on the characteristics of the society represented in the textbook Here evaluators may express their impressions and personal opinions about illustrations and texts. They should look at the information in the textbook from the viewpoint of its value and ideology. Analysts may point out the socio-economic level of the society described in the textbook, the tone of the editor, the stereotypes seen there, the accuracy or inaccuracy of the information, and authenticity of the information. - 39 -Any comment that cannot be expressed in the previous quantitative steps should be made here. The methodology of this study has been described in this chapter. An emphasis was put on the coding procedures of each item to establish reliability of findings. While the analysis was conducted, procedures were edited many times and finally decided on as presented here. Improving analysis steps is necessary if the content analysis of EFL textbooks is to be effective. - 40 -CHAPTER 5 This chapter presents the data collected from content analysis of 10 English textbooks for Japanese senior high school students. The process of analysis consisted of six items: A) Number of cultural units, B) Number of illustrations, C) Number of foreign places in the texts, D) Nationality and ethnicity, E) Discourse patterns and cultural units, and F) Evaluators' comments. In this order, findings are described, accompanied by tables. A. Number of Units 1. Number of all units The number of all units in a textbook varied from 22 to 11. The average of 10 textbooks was 17.4 units. The thickest one had 173 pages, while the thinnest one was 112 pages. 2. Number of units which explicitly explain foreign culture The proportions of units directly related to foreign culture to all units in the textbook varied from 38.89% to 9.09%. The New Century English Series contained 7 cultural units out of 18 units, while Sunrise English contained only one unit, which is a general introduction to Australia. As an average, 22.41% of a textbook dealt with culture directly, and in 10 textbooks there were 39 such cultural Title (full) MAINSTREAM 1 The New Comprehensive English Course WHY ENGLISH I Publisher Zoshindo Gakko-Tosho Editor(s) Shoichi Ando David Hale Katsumasa Ikenaga Eichi Kobayashi 1. Number of all Units 16 THE NEW CENTURY ENGLISH SERIES I New Edition Sanseido Shunsuke Wakabayashi Ichiro Yasuda 18 FRESH English 1 Daiichi Gakushusha Eiji Hato NEW LIGHT ENGLISH I Kalryudo Ichiro Tanaka 13 SENIOR SWAN English Course I Kaitakusha Sakae Serizawa 17 NEW STANDARD ENGLISH I REVISED EDITION Hitotsubashi Kenzo Kihara 19 Sunrise English I Go. English! I Obunsha Tokyo Syoseki Yoshio Ogawa Shigeo Imamura 22 The Rainbow English Course 1 Bun-Eido Kuniaki Suenaga JO 171 (Total) Table A I Hu«ber of Units 2. Units Which Explicitly Explain Foreign Culture Number Percent 31.25 Content Big Ben, countries English spoken, gestures, proverbs, American and Japanese customs. 17.66 Japanese and Western doors, some English words and their origins, difference between Britain and United States. 38.89 Foreign customs, the origin of jazz, some English words and their nuance, Japanese and Greek tales about Milky Way, letters of a Japanologist, Japanese and American customs, history of hair style in the West. 12.90 Customs of clothing, images of English words, Halloween, roots of English names. 12.50 Language and gender, history and use of garlic in the world. 29.41 School life in America, origin of English names, things in London, a trip to Philadelphia. 10.53 Sightseeing of New York and London. 9.09 Introduction of Australia. 36.36 School in Japan and United States, introduction of Sacramento, California, berbeque and picnic, flipping of a coin, manners of greeting, foreign meal manners, language and nation. 22.00 A day in four countries, bath tub race in Canada. 39 (Total) 22.41 (Average) - 41 -Table A-2 Category of Units Which Explicitly Explain Foreign Culture Title MAINSTREAM WHY ENGLISH THE NEW CENTURY FRESH English NEW LIGHT SENIOR SWAN NEW STANDARD Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbuw Terri torial Social Cere- Organi- Para- Commu-Language Travel Customs Aesthetics Education monies Leisure zational language nication Myths Food Familj; 1 1 1 - 42 -Table A-3 Huaber of Units 3. Units Whose Settings are Abroad Title MAINSTREAM WHY ENGLISH THE NEW CENTURY FRESH English NEW EIGHT SENIOR SWAN NEW STANDARD Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbow Total (Percent) U.S. 10 3 (62.50) 10 5 (58.82) 6 1 (33.33) 17 4 (54.84) 9 (69.23) 15 (88.24) 14 (73.68) 9 2 (81.82) 9 9 (40.91) 5.25 3.25 (52.50) U.K. Canada Australia Some Country English 1s Spoken 4. Units Which Implicitly Require Cultural Background Information Some Foreign Country Japan 1 Others A European country 1 A European country 1, various countries 1 India 1, (unknown 4) 1 An Arabic country 1 Number (Percent) ? (12.50) 3 (17.65) 5 (27.78) 6 (19.35) France 0.5, Haiti 0.5, 5 Greece 1, various (38.46) countries 1 9 (52.94) 0.25 0.25 1.25 Greece 0.25, Peru 0.25 8 (42.11) 3 (27.27) 3 (13.64) 2 (20.00) Nomination (Knowledge Required) Christmas as a custom, social structure in the United States. Party, thank you note. Party, the South of America, class in Britain, Greek myth, history of Britain. Christmas, schools in the United States Fahrenheit, party, mailbox in the United States. History of Britain, native Indians, Catholic religion. Pope, English meals, French culture, life of Napoleon. Lady-first, American history, Christmas, birthday custom, meal manner, schools in the United states, climate of America and Britain. American sports, native Australians, taking a shower, measurement system, New York State and N.Y.C., things in N.Y.C. Public schools in England, gallon, climate in England. Measurement system (mile), American food, American geography. Measurement system (yard), industry of Canada. - 43 -Table A-4 Category of Units Which Implicitly Require Cultural Background Knowledge Social Geo- Edu- Measure- Re- Lei- Social Transpor- Natural Title Customs History graphy cation ment Nature ligion sure Sports Food Class Travel tation Myths Resource MAINSTREAM 1 1 WHY ENGLISH 1 2 THE NEW CENTURY 111 11 FRESH English 1 2 11 1 NEW LIGHT 4 1 SENIOR SWAN 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 NEW STANDARD 113 1 2 Sunrise English 1 Go, English! 1 1 1 The Rainbow  ' - 44 -- 45 -units altogether. Among them, 8 units introduced customs in different countries such as greetings, meal manners, social life, and so forth. A comparative view of different countries was taken in a few units. There were 7 units about the background and origin of some English words in 6 textbooks. It can be said that more than half the textbooks contained at least one unit which fostered a student's interests in English language. There were 3 textbooks which contained 5 sightseeing topics; 3 of them described a trip to London, England, 1 to New York, and 1 to Philadelphia. Only 3 units were found to introduce school life of teenagers abroad. Not many events in foreign countries were introduced, either; 1 textbook described Halloween and 1 wrote about a bath tub race in Vancouver, Canada. There was only 1 unit which discussed paralanguage in the entire 10 textbooks. 3. Number of units whose settings were abroad In Senior Swan, 88.24% of all the units were those whose settings were abroad; on the other hand, 33.33% of The New Century happened in foreign countries. The average of units whose settings were abroad was 59.91% per textbook, which means events, conversations, and stories were taking place abroad in 6 units out of 10 units of an English textbook. Countries of location were different, depending on textbooks. For instance, Sunrise English involved 6 countries which were relatively well balanced. Go, - 46 -English! had 9 units whose settings were abroad, all of which were the United States. This means, in Go, English! whatever happens outside Japan, the background is always America. In Fresh English, as many as 11 units were regarded as happening in foreign places where English was spoken, although the names of the places were not specified. It is doubtful that students would see the English language to be real and substantial when they study the units whose settings are obscure. In summary, as a general tendency of 10 textbooks, 26.58% of all the units had their locations in the United States and 11.06% in the United Kingdom. Very few other countries were mentioned. Every textbook had a different type of distribution of countries of settings, which would contribute in developing the tone of the textbook. 4. Number of units which implicitly require cultural background knowledge In 10 textbooks, 46 units or 26.44% of all the units required an understanding of the background. Put in another way, in more than one-fourth of all the units it was assumed that students were familiar with the background of target sentences. The information required can be roughly categorized into the following types: a) events and customs of foreign countries -- Christmas, parties, and - 47 -greetings, b) history of Britain, America, France and the world, c) educational system of Britain, America, and other Western countries, d) measurement scale -- mile, yard, gallon, and pound, e) geography of other countries, and f) others. Here is a paragraph which will serve as an example of the first type: It is Friday evening at the West house. Father is in the living room. He is reading a newspaper. Peter, age 10, is lying on the floor. He is watching television. Mother is in the kitchen. A car horn sounds. Nancy, age 15, runs down the stairs and rushes to the door. Nancy: Bye-bye, everyone. I'm late. Father: Just a minute, young lady. Where are you going? Nancy: A birthday party for Gloria. (The New Century English I, p.9) In order to understand the situation of this passage, the readers first have to know that the party is common in Western countries, especially in North America. They also should know what Friday nights mean to Western people. It may be unbelievable for some Japanese students that a girl in the same generation may go out at eight in the evening. The prevalence of cars might be foreign to many students. Without such knowledge about the lifestyle in Western countries, exercises and role plays of conversation between Father and Nancy would be meaningless to students. - 48 -Another example of passages that require cultural background is: The fastest time ever recorded for 100-yard three-legged race is 11.0 seconds. The record was made by two American brothers on April 24, 1909. You know it is impossible for most people to run 100 yards in 11.0 seconds. (The Rainbow English Course I, p. 56) The problem of this passage is that most Japanese students would have no idea of "yard". They may be able to comprehend the passage vaguely, but they will never appreciate the true message conveyed by this passage, for they are usually familiar with the metric system. It was found that in some textbooks, the percentages of the units which had such risky passages amounted to 40% and 50%. B. Number of times countries are illustrated In all 10 textbooks, there were 845 illustrations, which were categorized by country and type of illustrations. First, as for types of illustrations, cartoons were most often drawn than any other types, consisting of 40.12% of all illustrations. Cartoons were especially likely to be used for dialogues and exercises at the end of Table B Countries Illustrated in The Textbooks U.S. Japan U.K. Greece-Canada Australia Italy France China India Nepal Yugoslav ia Egypt A Country Where English Is Spoken An Eastern European Country World Others Not Identifiable Total (%) Photo graphs Colour 38 1 8 0 2 3 1 2 4 0 1 0 1 1 0 19 J. 82 9.70 72 31 34 4 7 5 7 4 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 4 16 196 23.20 Drawi ngs 51 17 29 13 3 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 21 4 0 0 24 169 20.00 Maps 21 2 5 0 1 11 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 _0 39 .62 Cartoons 28 72 54 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 112 0 0 2 63 339 40.12 Repro-ductions 4 12 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 20 2.37 Total 214 135 130 19 15 15 9 8 7 3 3 3 2 140 6 6 26 104 845 (100%) % 25.33 15.98 15.38 2.25 1.78 1.78 1.07 0.95 0.83 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.24 16.57 0.71 0.71 3.08 12.31 - 49 - 50 -the unit. Some textbooks included comic strips in a whole unit, which largely increased the total number of cartoons. Black and white photographs occupied 23. 20% and drawings occupied 20.00% of illustrations. Maps and reproductions were not common in English textbooks. It is surprising that only 4 world maps were found in 10 textbooks. Maps of the United States and Britain were also regional, focusing on particular small local areas. Next, 14 countries were identified in all. The United States was more often depicted than other countries, occupying 25.33% of 845 illustrations. There was a tendency for the United States to be illustrated in photographs rather than in cartoons which was the most popular mode of illustration for other countries. Photographs of famous sightseeing spots like Disneyland, San Francisco, and the Statue of Liberty were included in many textbooks. 15.98% of all the illustrations were related to Japan and more than half of them were cartoons. Britain was the subject of 15.38% of all the illustrations. Very few Asian, African, and South American countries were included. 12.31% could not be identified. The sum of the countries where English is spoken as an official or a native language, namely America, Britain, Canada, Australia, India, and unidentified English-speaking countries, amounted to 61.2% of the total. The rest of the illustrations were either those which depicted non-English-speaking countries or those which were not related to any country at all. Generally speaking, the results of Analysis B were by and large - 51 -consistent with the data resulting from Analysis A; the more frequently a country was discussed, the more often it was illustrated. C. Nomination and number of foreign places mentioned in the textbook The aim of Analysis C was to nominate and to count the names of countries, states, provinces, cities, plains, and rivers every time they were mentioned in the textbook. The result revealed that there were 31 countries mentioned in 10 textbooks. As an average, one textbook contained 9.5 countries. The countries often cited were the United States (26.48%), Japan (19.44%), the United Kingdom (11.83%), France (7.04%) and China (6.48%). The sum of the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada where English is spoken as a native tongue came to 45.92%, being less than half of the total score. The frequency with which non-English-speaking countries were mentioned was higher than the author had expected; Japan took one-fifth of the total, and France and China were named at least once in most textbooks. About half of 10 textbooks mentioned Greece (mainly in Greek myths) and Egypt also. Concerning cities, different textbooks had different patterns in cities mentioned according to topics that the textbooks contained. Among various cities, London was most frequently cited (42 times), followed by 37 references to New York, 14 to Kyoto, 12 to Tokyo, and 11 to San Francisco. Table CI Countries Mentioned in the Textbooks Title U.S. Jaj jan U.K. France China Australia Canada Egypt Greece Spain Germany Italy Switzerland Korea Turkey U.S.S. ,R. Others Mainstream 1? 6 8 1 1 1 1 Why English 10 4 2 1 The New Century 13 11 8 2 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 Rumania 2, Yugoslavia Fresh English 6 1 2 4 1 1 Burneo 1 New Light 3 3 3 5 4 4 1 Belgium 4, Crete 5, Vatican 1 Senior Swan New Standard 8 12 17 8 3 5 2 9 4 2 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 Finland 3, Sweden 2, Norway 1 Sunrise English 3 6 3 3 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 Holland 1 Go, English! 20 18 1 1 1 1 Mexico 1, Brazil 1, Phillipines 1 The Rainbow _7 _7 _5 _4 J J J J _2 Persia 2, Peru 1 Total (*) 94 26.48 19 69 .44 42 11.83 25 7.04 23 6.48 15 4.23 12 3.38 12 3.38 9 2.54 6 1.69 6 1.69 5 1.41 3 0.85 3 0.85 2 0.56 2 0.56 27 7.61 - 52 -Table C-2 Cities Mentioned in the Textbooks Title Mainstream Why English The New Century Fresh English New Light Senior Swan New Standard Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbow London 1 1 2 1 20 New York 3 7 Kyoto 18 1 Tokyo 1 1 San Francisco Los Angeles 1 Rome Paris Osaka 1 Nagoya Others 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 Montogomery 1, Memphis 1 Atlanta 4, Cincinnati, Seto 1 Liverpool 1, Cambridge 1 New Orleans 1, Hirosaki 1, Belgrade 1 Hiroshima 3 Florence 2 Philadelphia 4, Houston 1, Lincoln 1, Birmingham 1, Brighton 1 Katmandu 1 Boston, Tuscumbia 1 Sacramento 7, Nara 1, Nikko 1, Detroit 1 York 4, Peking 4, Venice 4, Athens 3, Vancouver 3, Nanaimo 3, Sapporo 2, Wimbledon 2, Hiaeji 1, Total (*) 42 20.49 37 18.04 14 12 6.83 5.86 11 5.37 6 2.93 6 5 3 2.93 2.44 1.46 2 0.98 67 32.68 - 53 -Table C-3 Places (States. Counties. Provinces, Prefectures, Rivers. Valleys) Mentioned In the Textbooks Title Mainstream U.S. Georgia, Alabama, Massachusettes, Hawaii U.K. Clevedon, Bromley, Chippenham, Queensborough, Watford, Winkfield Plain Japan Area Names, etc. Why English The New Century Fresh English New Light Senior Swan New Standard California, Vermont, Georgia, Massachusettes Louisiana, the Southland Hollywood, Horton Bay California (2), Memphis, Oxford (2), Alabama (2), Arkansas, Manhattan, Hudson River Long Island, Manhattan, East River, Lake Michigan English Channel, Atlantic Ocean Shikoku (2), Kyushu, Kanagawa Mt. Fuji Wakasa, Aomori, Asakusa Hokkaido (3) The Thames Kyushu, Sakai, Yamagata, The Sumida Africa, Southeast Asia, Babylonia, Carpathian Mts. Europe, Middle East, Transylvania, Mt. Olympus Asia, Africa, Guiana, Bali, Europe, North America, South America North America, Haiti, Europe Europe (9), Scandinavia Arabia, Africa, Mt. Everest, Europe Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbow California (4), Michigan, Grand Canyon, Vermont (3) Texas (3) Ohio (2), North Carolina, Grand Lake, Lake Huron, Grand Canyon, Death Valley Winchester, Hampshire The Thames Mt. Fuji, Shikoku Hokkaido (4) Yuzawa, Akanko, Masyuko Suwako, Mt. Hotaka, Mt. Fuji, Mt. Yari, Nikko, Arashiyama, Kanagawa, the Toyohashi River Africa (3), Europe Africa (2), Central America, Middle East, South America Mediterranean countries. North America, Asia, Yangtze References more than twice are numbered in parentheses. - 54 -- 55 -Local places in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan were scattered in a wide range. The places mentioned in plural textbooks are; Grand Canyon, Manhattan, California, and Georgia in the United States; in Britain, the Thames was mentioned in two textbooks; in Japan, Hokkaido and Mt. Fuji appeared twice, respectively. Names to indicate larger areas in the world such as Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa were commonly seen in all textbooks. So far the findings have been described as to which countries, cities, regional names were often cited in English textbooks in Japan. Besides such findings, characteristics of each textbook will be added here briefly. Mainstream was well-balanced and detailed in its citation of foreign places. Why English referred to only 4 countries in the entire textbook and cities and regions mentioned were all located in America, Britain, or Japan. Many foreign places were mentioned in The New Century, including exotic names such as Carpathian Mountains and Babylonia. There were few places specified in Fresh English which, for instance, specified names of countries only 16 times. New Light seems to be well balanced in citing foreign places, though it excluded Japan completely. The same fact was also seen in Senior Swan, which instead emphasized Britain. There London was mentioned 20 times. In New Standard, the country of Japan was stated 17 times and the city of New York was counted 18 - 56 -times, which were very notable numbers in the tables. Sunrise English put a slight emphasis on Australia which introduced students to its history, society, and culture in a unit. Figures of the tables show that Go, English! focused on Japan and America, especially California. This trait maybe due to the comparative perspective of Japan and America that can be frequently seen in a few units. Finally, The Rainbow English offered the most detailed information of cities and regional places. It included many local places in Japan which might be useful in motivating students. D. Presentation of nationality and ethnicity 1. Number of main characters in the units Characters who play major roles were identified, categorized by nationality or ethnicity, and tallied. First, as for nationality, 11 countries were nominated in all. 68 out of 223 characters - which is 30.49% of all major characters - were Americans, 14.80% were British, and 13.90% were Japanese. Those 3 nationals amounted to 59.19% and any other national occupied less than 2%. About 35% of major characters could not be clearly identified in terms of nationality; however, 19.28% were inferred to be white people who speak English and 11.21% were thought to be those who speak English as a first, second, or foreign language. Table D-l-A Number of Main Characters - Nationality Why The New Fresh New Senior New Sunri se Go, The Nationality Mainstream English Century English Light Swan Standard English English! Rainbow Total % American 4 5 1 3 4 7 13 4 16 11 68 30 49 British 2 1 4 4 4 13 2 1 2 33 14 .80 Japanese 1 2 7 1 1 2 14 3 31 13 90 Greek 3 3 1 35 French 1 1 2 0 90 Australian 1 1 0 45 Canadian 1 1 0 45 Belgiam 1 1 0 45 1talian 1 1 0 45 Indian 1 1 0 45 Yugoslav ian 1 1 0 45 Caucasian English Speaker 14 3 13 2 10 1 43 19 28 English Speaker 5 1 11 3 5 25 11 21 Westerner 2 2 4 1 80 European 1 1 0 45 Arabic 1 1 0 45 Unidenti fiable — — _2 _3 — _1 — — — 6 2 69 Total 14 24 20 37 15 26 27 13 30 17 223 - 57 -Table D-l-B Number of Main Characters - Ethnicity Ethnicity American Canadian Title White Black Unidentifiable Native Mainstream 12 1 Why English 5 The New Century 1 Fresh English 3 New Light 1 3 1 Senior Swan 4 3 New Standard 12 1 Sunrise English A Go, English! 14 2 The Rainbow 6 _5 Total 48 2 18 1 (*) 70.59 2.94 26.47 100.00 - 58 -- 59 -From a view of ethnicity, among 68 Americans who were the main characters of the units, 48 were white Americans, 2 were black Americans, and 18 were those whose ethnic origin could not be traced from the context. Except for 2 black Americans of Mainstream I, there were no minority groups which played important roles in the units. 2. Number of all characters in the units Altogether 967 characters were counted in 10 textbooks. Except Go, English! that had an extremely large number and New Light that had a very small number of characters, the rest of the textbooks were similar in total number of characters, gathering around 96.7 characters per textbook. Nearly 45% of all characters could not be specified as to their nationality; however, it was inferred that 11.58% would be Caucasians who speak English and that 28.44% would be any national who has command of English. Such inference was made by going through the context and illustrations of a unit. There were 20 nationals found in all textbooks studied. Compared to the results from the previous analysis of main characters, percentages of Americans and British were smaller, being 19.96% and 9.20%. In other words, one fifth of characters in English textbooks is American and less than a tenth is British. The rate of Table D-2-A Number of All Characters - Nationality Nationali ty American Japanese British Canadian Greek French Australi an Italian Belgian Indian English Speaker Caucasian English Speaker Others Un identifiable Total Ma i nstream 18 9 7 1 29 7 3 14 89 Why English 16 12 4 16 27 1 _2 78 The New Century 17 28 11 6 3 12 8 14 2 101 Fresh English 13 27 4 3 1 1 45 33 3 6 136 2 11 2 3 6 3 2 2 J 47 Senior Swan 18 19 New Sunrise Go, Standard English English! 23 2 4 _3 69 32 19 8 25 17 4 107 12 5 12 32 6 1 72 41 59 63 7 1 172 The Rainbow 18 14 13 10 1 1 2 4 25 5 1 _2 96 Total 193 175 89 13 13 12 8 7 2 2 275 112 33 33 967 19.96 18.10 20 34 34 1.24 0.83 0.72 0.20 0.20 28.44 11.58 3.41 3.41 - 60 -Table 0-2-B Number of all Characters - Ethnicity Ethnici ty American Canadian Australian  Title White Black Asian Unidentifiable Native Unidentifiable Native Unidentifiable Mainstream 6 3 9 1 Why English 9 7 The New Century 8 1 8 Fresh English 3 0 New Light 3 5 2 Senior Swan 6 12 New Standard 22 0Sunrise English 9 3 12 Go, English! 25 1 15 1 Ihe Rainbow __Z__ JUL _ ' _ _J? Total 98 4 1 90 2 11 3 5 {%) 50.78 2.07 0.52 46.63 15.38 84.62 37.5 62.5 - 61 -- 62 -Japanese was higher than in the main character analysis, composing 18.10% of all characters. As for ethnicity, out of 193 Americans, 98 were specified as White Americans, 4 as Black Americans, and 1 as Japanese Americans. In total, only 5 minority Americans (2.59%) were presented in the 10 textbooks and other minorities could not be found. Among the 10 textbooks, Mainstream, The New Century, and Go, English! included minority Americans. In case of Australians only 1 Aboriginal was mentioned. Likewise, only 2 native Canadians and 1 Ainu (a Japanese minority) appeared in 10 textbooks. Consequently, it can be said that there are very few minority groups of a country presented to students. The way the minorities are described is not to suggest that they are integrated into the mainstream of the society, but rather that they are isolated from the majority group, preserving their own lives. 3. Number of characters illustrated in the textbook In this analysis, the highest score was 25.64% marked by the Caucasians who speak English. All the textbooks but one contained a great number of pictures of typical Caucasians with long noses, big eyes, and blonde hair. The second score was 21.68% by Japanese. A reason of this high percentage may be due to The New Century which contained a unit of Japanese cartoons. Americans scored 18.18% and Table D-3-A Number of Characters Illustrated - Nationality Nationality Why The New Fresh New Senior Mainstream . English Century English Light Swan New Sunrise Go, The Standard English English! Rainbow Total Japanese American British Canadian Greek French Italian Indian Belgian Australian Caucasian English Speaker Engl ish Speaker-Others Unidentifiable Total 21 16 11 20 3 4 J6 93 5 20 8 50 _4 87 126 14 23 5 2 22 16 14 222 25 12 4 132 22 5 30 233 4 18 18 4 1 1 _6 76 20 16 12 3 51 14 49 10 37 8 4 28 150 3 9 54 45 49 2 16 J. 93 13 3 3 113 36 27 51 21 28 2 3 169 279 234 195 25 21 11 7 3 3 2 330 34 38 105 1,287 21.68 18.18 15.15 1.94 1.63 0.85 0.54 0.23 0.23 0.16 25.64 2.64 2.95 8.16 - 63 -Ethnicit. Title Mainstream Why English The New Century Fresh English New Light Senior Swan New Standard Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbow Total W Table D-3-B Number of Characters Illustrated - Ethnicity American Canadian  Unidenti- Unidenti-White Black Asian fiable Native fiable 10 5 1 19 1 13 1 1 11 18 4 18 2 34 15 9 49 _18 • _ _2 _7 _ 21 189 7 2 36 4 21 80.77 3.00 0.85 15.38 16.00 84.00 - 64 -- 65 -British were 15.15%. Except for Americans, British, and Japanese, small percentages were obtained by 15 other countries such as Canada, Greece, and France. Concerning the ethnic distribution of Americans, 80.77% were White Americans, 3.00% were Black Americans, and 15.38% could not be categorized. The concentration on White Americans was heavier than in two previous items of analysis. In other countries, there were only 4 native Canadians depicted in New Light. In summary of this analysis, 10 textbooks depicted 11 minorities in illustrations, which was 0.85% of all 1,287 characters. So far the findings of Analysis D have been described with a reference to Tables D-l, D-2, and D-3. Next findings from Table D-4, which presents detailed data on individual textbooks are discussed. First, 23 countries or nationals were either mentioned or illustrated in 10 textbooks studied in this paper. Among them, 5 were countries where English is spoken as a native tongue or as an official language; they were the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and India. 11 European countries or nationals were included, though each score was small. There were very few countries or nationals of Asia, South America, and Africa. Table D-4 Raw Scores of Each Textbook on Nationality and Ethnicity Note: in = Male f = Female g = Group i = Individual M = Number of Main Characters A = Number of All Characters I = Number of Characters Illustrated Table 0-4 consists of 10 tables on raw scores of each textbook. - 66 -Mainstream Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % American (White) m 1 4 8 13 f 2 2 4 (Black) m 1 1 2 4 f 1 2 3 6 19.39 (Unidentifiable) m 1 1 f 1 1 2 9 3 1 4 i 4 4 38 English Speaker m 4 19 2 25 f 1 2 3 9 3 1 4 i 5 5 37 18.88 Japanese in 1 4 9 14 f 2 3 5 i 3 9 12 31 15.82 Caucasian English Speaker m 6 17 23 f 1 3 4 27 13.78 British m 2 5 11 f 2 20 10.20 Westerner m 2 German f 1 1 3 3 1.53 Indian 9 1 1 1 0.51 Australian ID 1 1 1 0.51 Portuguese m 1 1 1 0.51 Italian f 1 1 1 0.51 Chinese f 1 1 1 0.51 Arabic m 1 1 1 0.51 African m 1 1 1 0.51 Unidentifiable m 10 10 0.51 f 1 4 5 15.31 9 13 2 15 30 Total 14 89 93 196 - 67 -Why English Nationality (ethnicity) Caucasian English Speaker Gender m f 9. 12 2 16 11 33 15 2 Subtotal 61 28 2 Total 91 18.15 American (White) (Black) (Unidentifiable) m f f m f 9 i 11 8 1 19 14 1 2 1 2 2 41 21.69 Japanese m f g i 11 3 4 1 19 10.05 English Speaker 10 5 1 10 5 1 16 8.47 British 11 1 1 6.88 Westerner Unidentifiable m f 1.59 3.17 Total 24 78 87 189 - 68 -The New Century (1) Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % Japanese m 4 15 88 107 f 3 10 38 51 g 2 2 i 1 1 161 46.94 British m 4 3 23 30 f 3 3 g 4 4 i 1 1 38 11.08 Caucasian English Speaker m 2 4 15 21 f 1 4 6 11 9 1 1 33 9.62 American (White) m 1 6 11 18 f 2 2 4 (Black) g 1 1 2 (Unidentifiable) m 1 1 f 3 3 g 2 2 i 2 2 32 9.33 European m 1 2 11 14 g 1 1 15 4.37 English Speaker m 1 6 7 f 6 6 13 3.79 Greek m 4 2 6 f 2 2 4 g 1 1 11 3.21 French m 2 2 f 1 1 9 1 1 2 5 1.46 - 69 -The New Century (2) Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total (Ancient) Roman m 1 1 1 2 1 3 0.87 Yugoslavian , f 1 1 1 3 3 0.87 Dutch m 2 2 2 0.58 Egyptian m 9 1 1 ; 2 0.58 Chinese m g 1 1 ; 2 0.58 Rumanian m 1 j 0.29 Babylonian g 1 ! 0.29 African m 1 l ! 0.29 Asian m 1 ! ! 0.29 Southeast Asian g 1 l ! 0.29 Unidentifiable m 9 i 2 2 11 2 1 15 2 1 18 5.25 Total 20 101 222 343 - 70 -Fresh English Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % Caucasian English Speaker m f 9 i 8 5 16 16 1 85 46 1 109 67 1 1 178 43.84 English Speaker ID f 7 4 24 21 11 11 42 36 78 19.21 Japanese ID f g 1 18 6 3 13 8 4 31 15 7 53 13.05 American (White) (Unidentifiable) m f f 9 i 2 1 3 5 2 3 1 4 3 2 2 4 11 6 5 2 28 6.90 British m 4 4 4 12 12 2.96 Indian m 9 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 0.99 Asian g 1 3 4 4 0.99 French m 1 1 1 3 3 0.74 Greek m 3 3 3 0.74 African m g 1 1 1 1 2 0.49 European g 1 1 1 0.25 South American g 1 1 1 0.25 Unidentifiable m f 9 i 3 6 17 8 2 3 26 8 2 3 39 9.61 Total 37 136 233 406 Hew Light Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total * British m f g 4 10 7 1 21 11 1 33 23.91 American (White) (Unidentifiable) m f m f 1 1 2 1 • 10 8 13 9 4 3 1 3D 21.74 French m f g 1 7 1 12 2 1 15 10.87 Greek m 3 B 14 14 10.14 Italian m g 1 5 8 1 9 6.5? Canadian (Native) m f 1 3 1 5 ? 7 5.07 Belgian f g 1 3 5 1 6 4.35 Japanese m f 4 5 1 6 4.35 English Speaker ID f • 1 3 3 6 4.35 Egyptian m g 1 1 1 2 1.45 German m 1 1 n.7? Unidentifiable n f 3 3 3 6 3 9 6.52 Total 15 47 76 138 - 72 -Senior Swan Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % British m 9 f 4 9 14 4 1 15 1 38 9 1 48 32.88 American (White) (Unidentifiable) m 2 f 2 m f 2 9 1 i 2 4 5 5 1 1 7 11 2 11 17 7 7 2 1 45 30.82 English Speaker m 3 f 11 12 14 12 26 17.81 Caucasian English Speaker m 1 f 1 1 1 7 5 9 16 10.96 African m f 1 2 > 3 2.05 German f 1 l 1 0.68 Egyptian 9 1 1 1 0.68 Chinese g 1 l 1 0.68 European g 1 ] 1 0.68 Unidentifiable m 1 f 1 2 2 2 4 2.74 Total 26 69 51 146 - 73 -New Standard Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % American (white) m 7 11 18 36 f 5 11 16 32 (Unidentifiable) m 1 7 4 12 f 1 7 8 9 1 4 5 i 1 1 94 33.09 Caucasian English Speaker m 8 14 27 49 f 2 3 10 15 64 22.54 Japanese m 1 13 7 21 f 2 3 5 9 4 4 8 34 11.97 English Speaker m 18 6 24 f 6 2 8 i 1 1 33 11.62 British m 2 5 5 12 f 2 1 3 9 1 4 5 20 7.04 Arabic m 1 2 3 6 9 2 1 3 9 3.17 Australian (Native) 9 2 2 2 0.70 Unidentifiable m 18 18 f 10 10 28 9.86 Total 27 107 150 284 - 74 -Sunrise English Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % British m 1 6 40 47 f 4 14 18 9 1 1 i 1 1 67 37.64 English Speaker m 4 19 23 f 1 11 12 i 2 2 37 20.79 American (White) m 1 4 4 9 f 3 4 5 12 i 1 1 (Unidentifiable) f 3 3 25 14.04 Caucasian English Speaker m 2 6 8 f 1 4 9 14 g 1 1 23 12.92 Japanese m 1 3 1 5 f 1 2 1 4 g 1 1 10 5.62 Greek m 7 7 f 1 1 8 4.49 Australian (Native) g 1 1 (Unidentifiable) f 2 2 g 2 2 5 2.80 French f 1 1 1 0.56 Spanish f 1 1 1 0.56 Unident ifiable f 1 1 1 0.56 Total 13 72 93 178 - 75" -Go, English! Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % Japanese m 8 33 28 69 f 4 18 16 38 9 2 8 1 11 118 37.46 American (white) m 12 20 42 74 f 1 5 6 12 g 1 1 2 (Asian) 9 1 1 (Unidentifiable) m 4 4 f 3 3 g 2 8 10 106 33.65 English Speaker m 33 33 f 30 30 63 20.00 Caucasian English Speaker m 2 9 11 f 5 4 9 20 6.35 Canadian 9 1 1 1 0.32 Chinese 9 1 1 1 1 0.32 Mexican m 1 1 1 0.32 Turki sh m 1 1 1 0.32 Unidentifiable m 3 3 f 1 1 4 1.27 Total 30 172 113 315 - 76 -The Rainbow (1) Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % British m 2 8 30 40 f 4 20 24 9 1 1 2 66 23.40 American (White) ro 3 4 7 14 f 3 3 11 17 (Asian) m 1 1 f 11 (Unidentifiable) m 3 4 3 10 f 2 3 1 6 9 2 3 5 i 2 2 56 19.86 Japanese (Majority) m 2 7 21 30 f 4 11 15 9 1 2 4 7 (Ainu) 9 1 53 18.79 Caucasian English Speaker m 3 17 20 f 2 11 13 33 11.70 Canadian ra 4 15 19 f 1 6 7 9 4 4 i 1 1 31 10.99 English Speaker m 14 14 f 11 11 25 8.87 Italian m 4 1 5 5 8.87 Australian (Native) i ! 1 (Unidentifiable) f 1 1 2 3 1.06 French m 1 1 0.35 - 77 -The Rainbow (2) Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % Greek m 1 1 0.35 Spanish m 1 1 0.35 Chinese f 1 1 0.35 Iranian f 1 1 0.35 Unidentifiable m f 1 1 3 4 1 5 1.77 Total 17 96 169 282 - 78 -- 79 -Regional names to indicate a larger area than country were seen in all textbooks; they were the West, Europe, Asia, Southeast Asia, Arab, Africa, and South America. Lastly, Table D-5 shows the distribution of genders. The result is that male characters are mentioned and depicted more than twice as often as female characters. Of note is that main characters of the units are dominated by male characters which exceed female characters by the rate of three to one. There are 53 women playing important roles in the textbooks, while there are 157 men of major characters. Each nationality has its own pattern of distribution of male and female; however, it is notable that British women are scarcely described in the textbooks in question; only 4 British ladies play major roles of the units, while there are 29 British gentlemen as main characters. A closer look at Table D-4 reveals that Mainstream and The New Century have uneven distribution of male and female. . On the other hand, books with a more equal treatment of both sexes are Sunrise and Senior Swan. E. Type of Writing This analysis made it clear that cultural content was most often connected with essay-type form than with any other discourse patterns. Most textbooks contained essays which discussed foreign customs and lifestyles in one way or another. There were as many Table D-5 Frequency of Male and Female Characters Mai n Characters All Characters Characters Illustrated Total Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Femali American 40 24 93 62 135 85 268 171 Bri tish 29 4 54 24 146 43 229 71 Caucasian English Speaker 31 12 64 47 216 130 311 189 English Speaker 19 6 157 106 19 14 195 126 Japanese 18 _9 101 46 174 82 293 137 Total 158 53 524 296 834 384 1,516 733 - 80 -Table E Discourse Patterns of the Cultural Units Title Type of Units Discourse Patterns Dialogue Narrative Essay Song Poem Letter Newspaper Joke Myth Simplified Novels Fiction Biography Play Why The New Fresh New Mainstream English Century English Light Senior New Sunrise Go, The Total of 10 Swan Standard English English! Rainbow Textbooks ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC A+B+C 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 111 12 2 3 2 11 543 462 231 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 4 5 14 2 1 1 1 1 13 1 11 5 5 1 14 2 1 1 37 15 6 26 5 1 10 4 26 40 18 84 1 1 10 1 5 4 12 2 11 1 (A) Units which explicitly explain foreign culture. (6) Units whose settings are abroad. (C) Units which implicitly require culture background information. - 81 -- 82 -as 40 essays whose settings were abroad. At the same time, 18 essays were seen as being based on the assumption that readers would have certain background knowledge. For instance, in New Standard, there were 7 essays altogether, 5 of which required some cultural background information in order to fully understand those units. Dialogue came second as discourse patterns connected to the cultural content. In particular, 8 of 10 textbooks contained dialogues which were taking place in foreign countries. 4 textbooks employed dialogues to deal with foreign culture as a theme of the unit. Letter form was mostly used to introduce foreign things into the setting, usually in the format of a person abroad writing a letter to family and friends. Rarely used in the cultural units were songs, poems, plays, and newspaper articles. F. Evaluators' comments on the characteristics of the society  represented in the textbook Analyses A, B, C, D, and E were quantitative approaches which yielded statistical data concerning the cultural treatment in English - 83 -textbooks in Japan. In Analysis F, qualitative evaluation of the cultural information is undertaken. Comments are made on every textbook. a) Mainstream I In this textbook, sexism is obvious rather than racism. Table D-4 shows that the numbers of male and female major characters are 11 and 3 respectively. It includes a wide range of countries and ethnicities which are comparatively well balanced. America and Great Britain seem to be equally weighed and two black Americans play important roles. Mainstream I also includes a unit on paralanguage which is a crucial element of intercultural communication. Stereotypes can be seen in some pictures; Englishmen cannot use chop sticks and cannot eat raw fish, either. Japanese women wear kimonos and Japanese men are in business suits, wearing black rimmed glasses. Foreign places pictured are famous tourist spots like Hawaii, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. Writers appear to be positive towards American or foreign ways and negative towards Japanese culture. An example is that the relationship of family in the States is described as natural and that Japanese families need to be restructured. - 84 -b) WHY ENGLISH I In this textbook, the writer's intention to motivate students is manifested. With that intention, aspects of school life in the United States such as friendship, love, and social activities are emphasized. The pop culture of the Beatles, Rolling' Stones, and rock music are also introduced as a theme of a unit. Some units are comparisons of two different cultures and the tone is fair to both cultures. As for the illustrations, the cartoons are stereotyped and dominantly depict only Caucasian people. c) THE NEW CENTURY ENGLISH SERIES I, The New Edition This textbook refers to the widest variety of countries in all 10 textbooks. It contains information on ancient Rome, ancient Greece, and Babylonia, thus requiring students to have some knowledge of world history. A strength of mentioning many countries and places is that it might motivate the interest of some students, because it is challenging to their intelligence. However, one drawback here is that some students will find the unfamiliar names of places confusing and irritating and may lose interest in the whole unit. In the treatment of cultural differences, respect for other cultures is shown. In a comparison of two customs, the writer says: - 85 -"The custom has a very long history and they believe that their way is much better" (p. 17). "It only means that customs in the two countries are different" (p. 18). It is emphasized that there are no better customs nor worse customs in the world. d) FRESH English I Regional names such as Asia and Europe rather than specific countries are used to indicate foreign places. Only Americans and British could be identified. Among Americans, most of them cannot be labeled by their ethnicities. In the texts and the exercises, characters are given only simple names such as Ken, Tom, and Mr. Green. The average age of characters is low, for the lives of children are often described there. Therefore, the impression that the content is accessible but childish is inevitable. Compared to other textbooks, this textbook is full of cartoons, most of which are caricatures of.white people. The cartoons are oversimplified and stereotyped. Every white woman has a similar face that has pretty eyes and long, curly blond hair. In one cartoon, a white man in a business suit is talking to a naked Indian with, a turban who is practicing Yoga in front of the Taj Mahal. - 86 -e) NEW LIGHT ENGLISH I In this textbook, European people and countries are often described, including Belgium and Ancient Greece, there are no units which are related to Japanese things and no Japanese play major characters. There are few units about the same generation of high school students and few themes about everyday life. Instead, the content of the textbook is literature-oriented, being derived from works by Hemingway, Mansfield, and so forth. There seems to be no pictorial bias; pictures and minute drawings are used instead of cartoons, and their tone is very serious. f) SENIOR SWAN English Course I It puts the second heaviest emphasis on Britain in the 10 textbooks. America is also featured and there are only 3 nationals besides Americans and Britons. Not a single Japanese is to be found here. Accordingly, a perspective of comparing and contrasting Japanese and foreign culture is not taken at all. As for content, American schools and teenagers are discussed in plural units which refer to the multicultural nature of a class in the United States. There are also units about a trip to London and Philadelphia, making the segment sound like a tourist guide. - 87 -Illustrations often used are pictures and drawings in which people and scenery are sketched in detail. g) NEW STANDARD ENGLISH I REVISED EDITION The first several units are based upon episodes in which a Japanese schoolboy goes to New York, accompanying his father who is visiting on business. Naturally, school life in the United States is introduced. The foreign locales presented in this textbook are concentrated in large cities, namely London and New York. American heroes -- Superman and Lou Gehrig - are included, too. Women's status in Japan is debated in one of the units, taking into consideration the impact of Western culture on life there. Pictures are either those of London or New York City. There are also maps of both cities which are, somehow, inaccurate. Cartoons and drawings seem to manifest no prejudice against people in terms of ethnicity. h) Sunrise English I A characteristic is that the importance of hard work and the meaning of voluntary work in social life are emphasized by the units which introduced foreign people and their lives. This textbook - 88 -includes various age groups. It also includes units on love and suspense which make the tone of the textbook fresh and vivid. There is an excellent unit on Australia that is described as a multiethnic and multicultural society. As for illustrations, scenes of Britain are more frequently included than any other country. There are no obvious characteristics in the illustrations in general. i) Go, English! I The ways of life in Japan and in the United States (especially West Coast) are strongly emphasized. Through the eyes of an exchange student, a comparison of family life, agriculture, and the school system of both countries is made as a topic of the units. This is the only textbook that mentioned Japanese Americans. No other minorities, no other Europeans, and no British are alluded to. Likewise, illustrations are mainly those of American scenes. The pictures and illustrations are depicted in such a way as to stir in the students' feelings of envy and admiration for the richness and freedom of the country. It seems that the joys and brightness of California are promoted by this textbook. - 89 -j) The Rainbow English Course I The chief concern of the writers is that the textbook should be interesting, readable, and attractive to high school students. It is plain that an effort was made to introduce much information on foreign things and places. In several units, a few countries are cited and explained. Generally speaking, this textbook contains data on a very wide range of foreign countries and carries a great number of specific local names. Another trait is that Ainu in Japan and native Australians were referred to. Every page of this textbook has a few pictures, cartoons, and drawings which might be appealing to students. Scenery from all over the world is scattered here and there and occupies large spaces on the pages, accompanied by explanations in Japanese, not a common feature with English textbooks. In this chapter, facts from the analysis of 10 textbooks have been presented in tables and described in detail. In the next chapter, implications are drawn from those findings and answers to the subproblems are suggested. - 90 -CHAPTER 6 First Purpose One of the purposes of this study is to suggest a process by which the cultural content of English textbooks in Japan can be analyzed. As a framework for this study, Joiner's evaluation form was adopted and revised. Having conducted a thorough study of the framework, the author has something to say about its usefulness. In the first half of this chapter, the items of the framework are discussed. A. Number of units 1. Number of all units in the textbook 2. Number of units which explicitly explain foreign culture 3. Number of units whose settings are abroad 4. Number of units which implicitly require cultural background knowledge This is a very important process which will be a key to the content • analysis of cultural treatment in English textbooks. Processes 1 and 3 were not difficult, though other processes were not straightforward and the analysts needed to discuss them. In Process 2, not only counting the number of cultural units but also identifying such units is necessary, for the convenience of later discussions among analysts. It is also very important that analysts should agree on what "a cultural unit" is, before - 91 -starting' the investigation. Without a consensus on an operational definition, validity and reliability of the study would decrease dramatically. When interpreting collected data, however, it should be recognized that inclusion of a high percentage of cultural units does not necessarily mean that the textbook concerned is highly culture-conscious; it is possible that a textbook could contain many cultural topics which may be severely biased, damaging a student's view of foreign countries. Process 3 - the settings of the units - overlaps somewhat with Items B and C; however, a strength of this process is that, through a simple task, analysts can quickly discern a general tendency concerning the distribution of countries. This process also enables analysts to sense whether a textbook seems to favour English for use outside Japan as a foreign language, or for use in Japan as a tool for international communication. For instance, The New Century subscribes to the latter view, its percentage of units whose settings are abroad being only 33.33%. On the other hand, 88.24% of Senior Swan stories happen abroad, so that students would be much more likely to regard English as a foreign language. In this way, Process 3 may be useful in discovering the textbook writer's attitudes towards English. Process 4 was a laborious work requiring a careful check of every sentence. In this process, required background information necessary for the discussion afterward was identified. This analysis is meaningful, for a) it shows how much background knowledge is taken for granted in high - 92 -school English classes, and b) it tells teachers what is the minimum information they should supply to students. B. Number of times countries are illustrated This item aimed to measure how foreign countries were visually presented in English textbooks. It was useful in revealing that a certain country tended to be depicted in a certain mode of illustration. In particular, colour photographs and cartoons had interesting implications. Colour photographs conveyed the vivid image of objects; their tones were analytical and descriptive, and were scarcely emotional or biased. On the other hand, cartoons usefully implied comical, sarcastic, and exaggerated feelings. It was in cartoons that stereotypes and oversimplification were often found. It can be concluded that Item B is worthwhile conducting. As a practical suggestion of Item B, one thing should be pointed out; analysts have to decide how to deal with a unit which is composed of comic strips. In this study, one frame of comic strip series was counted as one picture, because analysts judged that each picture might have an impact on high school students. As a result, a unit of cartoons influenced the data a great deal. Recent trends indicated that more and more cartoons will be included in English textbooks published in Japan. How to deal with a unit of cartoons should be discussed before analysis according to the situation. - 93 -C. Name and number of foreign places mentioned in the textbook This analysis yielded interesting data, especially in terms of cities and local areas. Names of countries referred to in the textbooks were not much different from the data of Items C and D. Counting the names of cities and local areas was an effective way of getting a more precise insight into aspects of foreign culture represented in the textbooks. For instance, it was found that the city of London was featured more often than the country of the United Kingdom. D. Presentation of nationality and ethnicity 1. Number of main characters in the units 2. Number of all characters in the units 3. Number of characters illustrated in the textbook These items were not included in Joiner's original form but added by the author to solve the third subproblem regarding textbook bias. To tell the conclusion first, Item D was a very useful and powerful method of sensing textbook bias as well as ideology inferred from the textbook. The data of Item D were by and large consistent with findings from Items B and C; therefore, it can be suggested this analysis method has some validity. In carrying out this process, two practical suggestions are made. First, analysts should set up rules of coding procedures firmly, and be - 94 -always ready to explain them clearly to others. Otherwise, tallying tasks lose reliability. Second, Item D can be either simpler or more detailed, according to the need and purpose of the analysts. Identifying the gender of a character may be omitted, if analysts are not interested in sexism at all. However, it is advisable to do so, because it is convenient to know the sex of a character when analysts discuss the data later on or when they have to count characters for the second time according to a new coding rule that is established during the process of analysis. If analysts are satisfied with a rough study of national and racial distribution, Process 1, or with the tallying of the main characters of the units, Processes 2 and 3 can be omitted. There is an overlap between Processes 1 and 2, and also between Item B and Process 3. Scores of Processes 1, 2 and 3 are slightly different, however, each process being exact eno'ugh to reflect the characteristics of a textbook. E. Discourse patterns adopted for the units about foreign culture This process was included in Joiner's original form and was adopted by Kitao as well; however, the author did not find it to be of crucial importance. There seems no strong relationship between cultural units and discourse patterns. - 95 -F. Evaluators1 comments on the characteristics of the society represented in the textbook This item was a qualitative evaluation of each textbook which allowed analysts to comment freely on their impressions. There were findings which could not be pointed out in the previous numerical data. Such findings on characteristics of each textbook were expressed in detail in this item. So far the tentative framework used for this study was reviewed in terms of its validity, reliability, and applicability. As a summary, the framework was proven to be appropriate in analyzing the cultural content of English high school textbooks in Japan. Japanese teachers of English should be able to follow the framework without difficulty. As a practical suggestion, Items D-2, D-3, and E can be omitted, because of the overlapping findings drawn from other items. As a short form for quick analysis, I suggest using Items A-l, A-2, A-3, D-l and F. Second Purpose The latter half of the study dealt with the other purpose of the study, which is to examine the quantity and the quality of cultural information in the English textbooks published in Japan. Based on the collected data displayed in chapter 4, three subproblems are discussed accordingly. - 96 -Subproblem a) How much of the English textbook is devoted to teaching culture? The task of Item A of the framework was to find out the topic of a unit and to judge if it was related to culture or not. In this study, culture was defined as every aspect of life that forms human behaviour in the society. Specifically, in the Analysis A-l, units that described and introduced ways of living and thinking of a certain culture and also units whose chief purpose was to raise cultural awareness of the students were sought out and tallied. As a result of reviewing 10 textbooks, the average percentage of overt cultural units in a textbook was 22.41%. This figure shows that approximately one-fifth of the content was included in the textbooks for the purpose of teaching culture. Covert inclusion of foreign culture was measured by Analysis A-4, which made it clear that, in an average of 10 textbooks, every one out of four units assumed that students would already have knowledge about the cultural background of the unit. The highest score among 10 textbooks was 52.94% of Senior Swan, which means that more than half the units implicitly require students to have an understanding of the .cultural background. Now, do these data indicate that the information on culture in English textbooks is sufficient or insufficient? Since there is no - 97 -established standard set by previous research, it is entirely up to teachers and educational circumstances to judge what the data mean. In the case of the senior high school in Japan, the author would like to consider that English textbooks fail to provide enough cultural topics for two reasons: First, too often knowledge of cultural background is taken for granted by textbook writers. In the case of Senior Swan, if students do not have such knowledge, their interest and comprehension may be severely jeopardized. It is also doubtful that Japanese teachers of English are themselves familiar with some aspects of foreign culture such as American sports, measurement system, and Western religious customs. Therefore, textbooks should offer much more explicit information. The second reason for judging cultural topics to be unsatisfactory lies in the characteristics of Japanese senior high school students: a) In the author's experience, many of them dislike English. They suffer from an inferiority complex that they are poor language learners; b) They are not immune to foreign things and people, although they may accept biased information through mass media. With these tendencies in mind, the Ministry of Education advocates that a major goal of English education at senior high school is to raise an understanding of and interest toward foreign things and people. With this goal in mind, the average of 22.41% of cultural units per textbook is too small. The data of Item E showed that most cultural units were written in essay-type. In order to increase information on foreign culture, units of other discourse patterns like dialogues, songs, and newspaper articles can be employed, and daily and - 98 -practical aspects of foreign life can be introduced. In summary, this study looks at English textbooks published only in Japan, so it is not the author's intention to say that they are worse than textbooks published in other countries; however, there is much room for improvement and expansion of cultural information given to the students. Subproblem b) - What aspects of foreign and Japanese culture are featured? Needless to say, it is important to examine not only the amount of cultural information but also the way it is presented in the textbook. A qualitative approach to analyze cultural information was taken in Items A and F of the framework. According to Item A, the information on foreign countries covered origins and connotation of some English words, travel, customs, aesthetics, school life, and so on. Aspects of foreign culture covertly included in the textbooks were customs, history, geography, social systems of Western culture, religion, nature, measurement, leisure, sports, and others. As implications from Item A, the author would like to point out two things: First, the information on foreign culture is not practical and not theoretical, either. For instance, units on sightseeing in London and New York might be relevant to some students who would visit those cities in the future; however, they did not supply an example of a conversation that might occur when students travel there. There were no serious social problems or contradictions in foreign culture included that would cause meaningful discussion in the classroom, and there were no - 99 -topics on areas of friction between countries such as the trade issue between Japan and another nation. It seems that the textbooks try to stay away from contemporary issues, resorting to superficial and safe topics of foreign culture. Second, in the cultural units, more attention should be paid to enhancing a student's communicative competence or his ability to function in English. There were very few discussions on intercultural communication, including non-verbal communication and conversation styles for various occasions. In Japan, where communication patterns among people are completely different from those in Western countries, the method of intercultural communication itself should be clearly taught in the classroom. In Item F, characteristics of the society represented in the textbooks were scrutinized. First, examination of illustrations showed that some of them, especially cartoons, tended to be oversimplified and stereotyped. Caucasians were always caricatured as open-hearted, intelligent, and well-dressed people who live in modern and spacious houses. By contrast, there were some cartoons of minorities or people in the developing countries where the underlying tone was mocking and contemptuous. There should be no surprise, then, if such biases create the image that English is spoken by wealthy white people and that being able to speak English is one way to be more sophisticated and civilized. Among various modes of illustration, the cartoon is a straightforward and powerful - 100 -medium especially for high school students; therefore, it should be treated with the utmost care. Item B adds a finding on the relationship between nationality and the mode of illustrations: America tended to be depicted in photographs and drawings and, in particular, the number of colour photographs was remarkably higher than for those of other countries. Since a picture is the most descriptive medium and the truest to reality, it will be seen that America is being conveyed to the students with vivid image and with accuracy. On the other hand, Japan and Britain were illustrated in cartoons, which reflect the idiosyncrasy of the authors. Another inference was drawn from Item F, a thorough look at the texts: that is, some textbooks described Western culture as superior to Japanese culture. The information itself is sometimes nothing new, being composed of a cliche, a foreigner's view of Japan, and on a Japanese response in foreign countries. Very few units included interaction between Japanese and foreigners. If any, their conversations just scratched the surface and were about nothing important or controversial. Consequently, it can be said that students are not taught real situations of communication that Japanese might actually confront. - 101 -Subproblem c) - Which country and ethnic groups are most often presented? Subproblem C was approached by examining a few analysis tasks: Item B was about countries illustrated in 10 textbooks. Item C counted references to foreign places. In Item D, the number of main characters of the units, number of all characters of the units, and number of illustrated characters were tallied. Country or nationality which was most often included in 10 textbooks was the United States, and Americans, whose scores were highest in all items except in D-2, the tally of all characters of the units. In particular, Americans rated 30.49% of major characters of the units and every textbook had at least one American around whom a unit was constructed. An extreme case was Go, English! in which all the foreigners who appeared were American. These results might be expected when one considers the economic and political relations between Japan and the United States. The second dominant country or national in high school English textbooks was Great Britain or the British. In some analysis tasks of Item B, C and D, the percentages were less than half of America/Americans. The frequency of total illustrations or characters ranged from 15.15% to 9.20%, that is, about one-tenth of characters or illustrations in the textbooks was British. In Senior Swan and New Light, the heaviest emphasis in all characters was on the British. Aspects of culture - 102 -mentioned were also different between Britain and America. The latter was often discussed in contrast to Japan and various aspects of daily life and events were introduced. On the other hand, there was no comparative view between Britain and Japan. Generally, British culture was treated like a story in a far country that does not have any relevance to or influence on the Japanese. British characters tended to appear in simplified stories and in revised literature. Item C analyzed foreign cities and local places cited in 10 textbooks. There was a concentration on big cities in the United States and the United Kingdom. Small, local places in those two countries were also included; however, it was very rare that their locations were shown clearly to the reader. As a general characteristic seen in the ways of presenting foreign places, the textbooks did not offer appropriate maps or suggest atlases to help students' understandings of the texts. Some city maps of London and New York were even found to be incorrect. Except for America and Britain, many foreign countries shared low frequencies in all analysis tasks. There was an extensive reference to non-English-speaking-countries in Europe. Ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Romans were represented in a few textbooks. In particular, New Light contained many topics related to European nations. On the contrary, neglected areas were Asia, Africa, and South America. The exclusion of nearby nations is contradictory to the present situations involving Japan, which should be strengthening ties with its neighbors instead of ignoring - 103 -them. Eighty percent of foreign students in Japan are from Asian countries such as China, Hong kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, and so on. The underrepresentation of Asians, Africans, and Latin Americans might be explained by the Japanese attitudes that esteem Western (European and American) things high and Eastern things low. It is regrettable that English textbooks, instead of nourishing international awareness, are planting in students prejudice against certain nations. Here, the author would like to emphasize the urgent necessity of amending the biased treatment towards Asians, Africans, and Latin Americans. In Items B, C and D, references to Japanese were found in considerable percentages. For example, one-fifth of the characters in the illustrations was identified as Japanese, who were included in cartoons used as exercises rather than in pictures and drawings accompanying the main texts. The ways in which Japanese were included were different, depending on textbooks. In Go, English!, they were a counterpart of Americans. The New Century contained units on Japanese classical arts and novels. New Light and Senior Swan excluded Japan and Japanese almost completely. To include students' own culture or not to include it may be a matter of philosophy of textbook writers; however, in so far as students hope to attain some communicative competence, their own country should be documented to some extent, because a) learning has to be relevant to students and b) they will face situations in which they must explain their own culture in English, for instance, when they go abroad. In addition, studying only foreign culture might be threatening to students' - 104 -self-concept and self-esteem (Crane, 1978). Foreign culture should not be taught at the cost of respect for students' own tradition. Japanese culture and history ought to be incorporated into the instructions on foreign culture. So far, representation of countries has been discussed. Next, the treatment of ethnic groups is argued from the figures in Item D. In 10 textbooks, the United States, Australia, and Canada were not described as monoethnic countries. All other nations, however, including Britain, France, China, and India were represented as being each composed of a single race. But among Americans, any minority was seriously underrepresented and reference to minorities was seemingly exceptional in the textbooks studied. Percentages of black Americans in three analysis processes were less than 3% of all Americans, and Asian Americans scored less than 1%. Other minorities such as native Americans and Mexican Americans were entirely omitted. Second, natives of Australia and Canada were included in one or two textbooks. Native Australians, the Aborigines, were introduced in a section on Australian history, and there was a unit on the life of a native Canadian. The tone in which they are described is patronizing and pessimistic, and the native people are portrayed as segregated from the mainstream of society. - 105 -These data on Americans, Australians, and Canadians allow one to draw the conclusion that English textbooks in Japan do not introduce multiethnic countries as they are. The society represented in textbooks is not real, being dominated by the majority group. Students are not taught the diversity of such countries at all. Another problem of subproblem C, an enquiry about nationality and ethnicity, was to give answers to an inferential question: "To which country and to what kind of society is English language considered to belong? Whose benefit does English education serve?" Before specu lating on the hidden ideology of English language teaching, the author wishes to confirm the important role of English education in Japan. There is no doubt that English is taught as an international language and/or a foreign language in Japanese high schools. Two of the textbooks adopted for this study consciously mentioned the rationale of studying English. In Unit 3 of Mainstream, there is a statement, "English is a kind of international language these days" (p.18). Why English says in the very first unit, "English has become an international language" (p.3). These statements try to give students solid reasons for studying English in Japan. They also affirm that an international language means a vehicle by which different cultures can communicate with each other. Now, is this rationale and its associated purpose fulfilled in high school English classes? The findings of this study seem to say No. - 106 -A most prominent characteristic in the distribution of nationality and ethnicity was the dominance of Americans and British majorities. In most of the references in the 10 textbooks, models of English-speaking individuals were shown as white Americans, with the British having the next highest profile. The figures of white Americans and British in Item D may not be very big; however, it can be safely stated that the scores of "Caucasian English speakers" can be added to either white Americans or British. To give an example, major characters in New Standard were 12 white Americans, 2 British, 3 other races and 10 Caucasian English speakers. In such a situation, it is quite natural that students assume that 10 Caucasians might be white American, even if there is no specification in the units. As a consequence, students would have an impression that 23 out of 27 major characters are Americans who have fair skin. Therefore, it can be said that students would possibly think that English language is most closely related to white Americans and the British. Now a question might be posed: If English is taught as the language of white Americans and British, what's wrong with it? Isn't it true? Certainly, it is right. English has its origin in England and it is Americans with whom Japanese are most likely to communicate in English these days. However, English educators should be careful about the ideology hidden behind the concentration on those peoples, especially on white Americans. Teachers must be aware that the concept of white American supremacy is not consistent with the goal of intercultural education. Ten English textbooks tended to feature joyful and happy - 107 -aspects of American life by illustrations as well as by main texts. The textbooks seem to say to the students that English speakers, namely white Americans, are wealthy and happy; therefore, English is worth learning. In other words, English is not taught as a way to express oneself and to understand others, but as a tool with which to gain access to a good life, like that lived by Americans. Exclusion of the fact that other people speak English might plant in students' minds the false notion that only wealthy and white people speak English. A common complaint from Asian students in Japan will explain the misconception of Japanese: An Asian who had complete command of English saw an advertisement of a vacancy for an English teacher. When he saw the recruiter, he was told that coloured people would not be accepted. In the recruiter's mind, English speakers equal white people. Now, was the ignorance of the recruiter derived from his English education which excluded colored people as models of English speakers? It is shameful if English classes are producing in students near-sightedness instead of a global view, racism instead of intercultural thinking. Next, the harm of biased distribution of ethnicity throughout English textbooks is discussed from the viewpoint of learning a second language. As mentioned earlier, English was always associated with the image of a neat, wealthy American lifestyle. To believe that English is spoken only by white Americans and British is, in another way, to believe that other peoples, including Japanese, can never attain mastery of English. English is something to be envied and fancied but never to be learned successfully - 108 -by Japanese. This belief is detrimental to students, damaging their motivation to study English. The author would suggest that English textbooks should contain more conversations initiated by Japanese and that they should show models of minorities who speak English. In fact, English is a flexible language which has created various versions all over the world and that is what makes English an international language. Conclusions The first purpose of this study was to present a process by which the cultural content of English textbooks in Japan could be analyzed. A tentative framework was built by combining Joiner's form and a bias-detection scheme used in sociological studies of textbooks. After using the framework with 10 English textbooks, it was concluded that although there were some overlaps among items which could be omitted according to the situation, the framework was sound and effective, having validity, reliability, and applicability. The second purpose was to ask what and how much information on foreign culture was taught in English classes in Japan. A review of ten textbooks revealed that the average percentage of cultural units in a textbook was 22.41%, which was regarded as unsatisfactory. The quality of cultural information should be improved, for the contents were superficial and illustrations were stereotyped. The study found ethnic and national bias: white Americans were a dominant group being presented in a smart, - 109 -bright and wealthy image. This bias might prevent students from mastering English smoothly and from enhancing true international awareness. It can be concluded that the English textbooks examined in this study do not contain sufficient informat-ion-to-mak"e~ students culturally sensitive and international. Treatment of culture in EFL is not a simple matter, because students are not motivated to be integrated into the foreign culture; instead, they learn about it as enrichment. Teaching culture in EFL also involves many ideological and political issues. However, there is much that EFL educators can do. They should start by discussing what they are teaching right now and what they should teach in order to raise an international child. Students should be exposed to various aspects of foreign culture which have been neglected such as paralanguage, measurement, and history. 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Types of illustrations (Check those which apply.) 1. photographs: black and white color 2. maps 3. facsimiles (of tickets, coins, letters, etc.) 4. cartoons and comic strips 5. reproductions of works of art 6. line drawings B. Segments of society represented in illustrations (Check those which apply.) 1. socio-economic levels: upper middle lower 2. age groups: youth middle age old age 3. sex male female 4. life styles: urban rural small town C. Overall impression of culture created by illustrations. (Make a check mark along the line at the point between the two adjectives which best expresses your evaluation. A check halfway between the two would indicate a balance between two opposites.) 118 -Illustrations authentic inauthentic historical contemporary active still quaint, romantic realistic inoffensive controversial representative selective formal informal attractive unattractive positive negative Texts Containing Material of a Cultural Nature: A. Types of texts (Check those which apply.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. dialogues "seeded" with cultural information and/or based on situations typical of the foreign culture special cultural narratives explanatory cultural notes songs poems essays letters newspaper article jokes and anecdotes folk tales and proverbs fiction by reputable writers - 119 -12. other (please specify) 13. other (please specify) Segments of society represented in texts (Check those which apply.) 1. socio-economic levels: upper middle lower 2. age groups: youth middle age old age 3. sex: male female 4. life styles: urban rural small town Overall impression of culture created by texts (make a check mark along the line at the point between the two adjectives which best expresses your evaluation. A cheek halfway between the two would indicate a balance between two opposites.) Texts lively dull antiquated modern • • • _____ •  • • positive negative • • • • • • • genuine falsbalanced biased - 120 -interesting boring • • • • • • • fresh and original stereotyped superficial profounhappy sad work play serious light III. General Questions Relating to Culture: 1. List the foreign countries whose culture is described or illustrated in the book. 2. In your opinion would this book tend to reinforce negative stereotypes of the foreign people? Yes ( ) No ( ) 3. Do the authors of the book seem to consider culture an integral part of language study or incidental to it? Integral ( ) Incidental ( ) 4. Is cultural material presented in a fragmented way (bits and pieces here and there) or is it unified around patterns and themes of culture (patterns of politeness, leisure activities, family relationships, etc.)? Fragmented ( ) Unified ( ) 5. Does this book compare and contrast the foreign culture with American culture? Yes ( ) No ( ) 6. All things considered the presentation of culture in this book is poor ( ) fair ( ) adequate ( ) good ( ) excellent ( ). \ - 121 -IV. Supplementary Material Available from the Publisher: 1. Does the Teacher's Manual contain specific suggestions for the teaching of culture? Yes ( ) No ( ) 2. List supplementary material keyed to the book such as films, filmstrips, flash cards, and the like. 3. Would your school be able to purchase these materials? Yes ( ) No ( ) - 122 -Kawano's Framework Used In This Study A. Number of Units 1. Number of all units in the textbook 2. Number of units which explicitly explain foreign culture 3. Number of units whose settings are abroad 4. Number of units which implicitly require cultural background knowledge B. Number of times countries are illustrated photographs -- colour photographs -- black and white drawings maps cartoons reproductions C. Name and number of foreign places (cities and countries) mentioned in the textbook D. Presentation of nationality and ethnicity 1. Number of main characters in the units 2. Number of all characters in the units 3. Number of characters illustrated in the textbook E. Discourse patterns adopted for the units about foreign culture dialogue narrative essay letter fiction song poem newspaper joke folktale simplified novel biography play F. Evaluators comments on the characteristics of the society represented in the textbook 1. Illustrations 2. Texts 


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