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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of cultural contents of high school English textbooks in Japan Kawano, Madoka 1987

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AN ANALYSIS OF C U L T U R A L  C O N T E N T S OF  HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH T E X T B O O K S  IN J A P A N  By MADOKA KAWANO B.A.,  Tsuda College,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  1981  IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE  M A S T E R OF  OF  ARTS  in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  ( D e p a r t m e n t of L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as to the  required  THE UNIVERSITY  OF  conforming  standard  BRITISH COLUMBIA  SEPTEMBER,  1987  © Madoka Kawano,  1987  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  ^eptUnh&r-  ^^j•  ^9^7  ABSTRACT  This create  and  study test  was a  conducted process  by  for  the  which  following cultural  two p u r p o s e s : information  in  1) to English  t e x t b o o k s in J a p a n c a n be a n a l y z e d , a n d 2) to examine what a n d how much i n f o r m a t i o n about f o r e i g n c u l t u r e is t a u g h t  in E n g l i s h c l a s s e s i n J a p a n .  F i r s t , a p r o c e s s was d e v e l o p e d from J o i n e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n form to g a u g e the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E F L t e x t b o o k s .  A c t i o n was t a k e n to e n s u r e  the p r o c e s s i n c l u d e d b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e s t e p s . process  entailed  an  analysis  of the  c u l t u r a l content  that  S e c o n d , the  of 10 s e n i o r  high  school English textbooks p u b l i s h e d in J a p a n .  T h e p r o c e s s was f o u n d to be f u n c t i o n a l a n d the a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t the t e x t b o o k s w e r e i n a d e q u a t e for the p u r p o s e of r a i s i n g s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r a l awareness.  The results  of this s t u d y may be u t i l i z e d not o n l y for  the  i m p r o v e m e n t of t e x t b o o k s , b u t also for f u t u r e s t u d i e s w h i c h m i g h t examine junior high school and college English  textbooks.  - iii -  T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S  Page N o .  I.  C H A P T E R 1:  INTRODUCTION  1  II.  C H A P T E R 2:  R E V I E W OF L I T E R A T U R E  T e x t b o o k S e l e c t i o n / E v a l u a t i o n Methods G u i d e l i n e s a n d R e s e a r c h on C u l t u r a l C o n t e n t s of E F L T e x t b o o k s S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s on T e x t b o o k s Summary  III.  C H A P T E R 3:  C H A P T E R 4:  15 15 20 22  METHODOLOGY  24  Samples F r a m e w o r k of the S t u d y Coding Procedures  25 26 31  V.  C H A P T E R 5:  PRESENTATION  VI.  C H A P T E R 6:  INTERPRETATIONS  F i r s t Purpose Second Purpose Conclusions VII. VIII.  5 7 12  R A T I O N A L E OF S T U D Y  T h e P u r p o s e s of the S t u d y J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the S t u d y Subproblems Assumptions IV.  3  OF D A T A  40  AND CONCLUSIONS 90 95 108  BIBLIOGRAPHY  110  APPENDICES  117  - iv -  LIST OF T A B L E S  Page N o .  Table A - l :  Number of a l l U n i t s a n d N u m b e r of U n i t s Which Explicitly Explain Foreign Culture  Table A - 2 :  Table A - 3 :  Table A - 4 :  C a t e g o r y of U n i t s Which E x p l i c i t l y Foreign Culture  41 Explain 42  N u m b e r of U n i t s Whose S e t t i n g s are A b r o a d a n d N u m b e r of U n i t s I m p l i c i t l y R e q u i r e C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d Information  43  C a t e g o r y of U n i t s Which I m p l i c i t l y R e q u i r e C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d Information  44  Table B :  Countries  Illustrated  49  Table C - l :  Countries  M e n t i o n e d in the T e x t b o o k s  Table C - 2 :  C i t i e s M e n t i o n e d i n the T e x t b o o k s  53  Table C - 3 :  Places M e n t i o n e d i n the T e x t b o o k s  5'4  Table D - l - A :  N u m b e r of Main C h a r a c t e r s  - Nationality  57  Table D - l - B :  N u m b e r of Main C h a r a c t e r s  - Ethnicity  58  Table D - 2 - A :  Number of A I L C h a r a c t e r s  - Nationality  60  Table D - 2 - B :  N u m b e r of A l l C h a r a c t e r s  - Ethnicity  61  Table D - 3 - A :  Number of C h a r a c t e r s  Illustrated  - Nationality  63  Table D - 3 - B :  N u m b e r of C h a r a c t e r s  Illustrated  - Ethnicity  64  Table D - 4 :  Raw S c o r e s of E a c h T e x t b o o k on N a t i o n a l i t y  i n the T e x t b o o k s  52  and E t h n i c i t y  66  Table D - 5 :  Frequency  of Male a n d Female C h a r a c t e r s  80  Table E :  D i s c o u r s e P a t t e r n s of the C u l t u r a l U n i t s  81  - v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  G r a t e f u l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t is made to P r o f e s s o r Bernard  Mohan  Department, advice and  and  Dr.  Margaret  Early  of  the  Mary A s h w o r t h , D r . Language  Education  F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , for  the  encouragement.  I am also g r a t e f u l to my h u s b a n d T e t s u y a for h i s help a n d  support.  - 1 -  CHAPTER 1  Learning a foreign language involves learning a foreign culture and vice v e r s a .  In J a p a n , a c c o r d i n g to the C o u r s e of S t u d y s u g g e s t e d b y the  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , one of the goals of E n g l i s h for S e c o n d a r y Schools is to d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of ways of l i v i n g a n d t h i n k i n g i n f o r e i g n countries.  In o t h e r w o r d s , to s t u d y f o r e i g n c u l t u r e is a main o b j e c t i v e of  E n g l i s h c o u r s e s in the u p p e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .  'To study foreign culture'  is a v a g u e  with  statement w h i c h  what s h o u l d be t a u g h t  provides teachers  no g u i d e l i n e s as  or w h e n a n d how it s h o u l d be t a u g h t .  to  Teachers  a n d t e x t b o o k p u b l i s h e r s make d e c i s i o n s about the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of t h e i r c o u r s e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own ideas a n d p h i l o s o p h i e s .  While the t e a c h i n g  of grammar in E n g l i s h c l a s s e s has been s t u d i e d a n d a r g u e d about for more t h a n a h u n d r e d y e a r s , the c u l t u r a l domain has o n l y r e c e n t l y become a p a r t of  the  English  curriculum.  The  subject  t e a c h e r s a n d t e x t b o o k p u b l i s h e r s in J a p a n ; done  on  textbook  content  and  an  has  r a r e l y been  discussed  very little research  analytical  process  has  has  not  by  been been  developed.  R e c e n t l y , J a p a n e s e e d u c a t o r s h a v e been a d v o c a t i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n J a p a n has to be i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d a n d t h a t E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d help s t u d e n t s to raise c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s . what the term ' c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s ' it i n v o l v e s t h r e e f a c t o r s ;  first,  A l t h o u g h t h e r e is no c o n s e n s u s as to  m e a n s , the a u t h o r w o u l d i n t e r p r e t students  must have a t t a i n e d  a  l e v e l of E n g l i s h a n d be able to communicate w i t h f o r e i g n p e o p l e .  that  survival Second,  - 2 -  t h e y must i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e s p e c t for f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s .  L a s t l y , t h e y must be  k n o w l e d g e a b l e about J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e a n d be p r e p a r e d to e x p l a i n i t . study  w i l l examine w h e t h e r  those  needs.  English  classes  at h i g h s c h o o l s are  This  serving  In t h i s s t u d y , the a u t h o r attempts f i r s t to d e v i s e a p r o c e s s b y w h i c h to a n a l y z e the c u l t u r a l domain of E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s i n J a p a n , a n d t h e n to employ  that  process  to  investigate  what  and  how  much  is  learnt  J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s about f o r e i g n c u l t u r e i n t h e i r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . presentation  of a t e n t a t i v e  school English  textbooks  framework  for  analysis,  p u b l i s h e d in J a p a n  ten  series  After of h i g h  w i l l be s t u d i e d i n terms of  the q u a l i t y a n d q u a n t i t y of the c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y c o n t a i n . study,  it is  hoped,  will  assist  high school educators  method of a n a l y s i s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s  by  by  This  suggesting  d i s c u s s i o n among e d u c a t o r s .  a  A t the  same time, the r e s u l t s w i l l r e v e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i n J a p a n as well as p r o v i d i n g some h i n t s on how to i m p r o v e s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n in the  future.  - 3 -  CHAPTER 2  The  p u r p o s e of this c h a p t e r is to examine l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the  p r o c e s s b y w h i c h E F L t e x t b o o k s c a n be a n a l y z e d i n terms of the t r e a t m e n t of  culture  matter  and  to  review  of t e x t b o o k s .  related  Formats  studies  to  select  which or  to  deal  with  evaluate  the  subject  textbooks  are  d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d b y g u i d e l i n e s a n d r e s e a r c h on the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of EFL textbooks.  T h e n s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s w h i c h are m a i n l y a b o u t h i s t o r y  t e x t b o o k s a n d b a s a l r e a d e r s are c i t e d w i t h an emphasis on the a n a l y s i s of their methodology.  T e x t b o o k S e l e c t i o n / E v a l u a t i o n Methods  The through  literature textbooks  survey  at  the  first  selection/evaluation  stage  was  methods.  conducted Systems  by  going  particularly  i n t e n d e d to e v a l u a t e E S L / E F L m a t e r i a l s were a d v o c a t e d b y C o w l e s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , T u c k e r (1978), and Stelglitz (1982).  William (1983) s u g g e s t e d a scheme i n  w h i c h f o u r a s s u m p t i o n s are made; g u i d e l i n e s for n o n - n a t i v e t e a c h e r s , to-date  methodology,  setting.  needs  of  students,  and  relevant  H o w e v e r , on a c c o u n t of the t e n d e n c y of E S L / E F L  up-  socio-cultural s p e c i a l i s t s to  c e n t e r a t t e n t i o n on the l i n g u i s t i c domain of t e x t b o o k s , t h e i r r a t i n g s y s t e m s are not s u i t a b l e for c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t .  When ESL/EFL  the  author  widened  to g e n e r a l s u b j e c t  areas,  the  range  of  some s y s t e m s  literature  search  from  concerned with c u l t u r a l  - 4 -  a n d s o c i a l a s p e c t s of the t e x t b o o k s were f o u n d .  Z e n d e r a n d Z e n d e r ( 1976)  wrote a h a n d b o o k for an o v e r a l l c r i t e r i a scheme for t e x t b o o k a d o p t i o n a n d selection.  Their  appropriate  i n t r e a t m e n t of r a c e ,  image.  checklists  i n c l u d e items religion,  which sex,  ask  if a  textbook  social g r o u p ,  and  is  self-  R e g r e t t a b l y , these items are too g e n e r a l a n d are h a r d to j u d g e at  a glance.  E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e ( E R S ) r e p o r t s a p r o c e d u r e of the C a r r o l l County,  Maryland  p e r s p e c t i v e of the  Board rights  of  Education  which  has  criteria  from  the  of women a n d m i n o r i t i e s ( K u n d e r , 1976).  In  o r d e r to s e n s e b i a s e s , it s u g g e s t s c o u n t i n g the n u m b e r of times g e n d e r a n d ethnic group part  of  are m e n t i o n e d i n the t e x t b o o k .  cultural  content  underrepresentation  A  systematic  analysis  of  a  T h i s c a n be an textbook,  for  omission  is c o n s i d e r e d to be a c h i e f form of t e x t b o o k  and  comprehensive  scheme  of t e x t b o o k  1977).  The  main  purpose  of E P I E  analysis  or  bias.  evaluation  o f f e r e d b y the E d u c a t i o n a l P r o d u c t s I n f o r m a t i o n E x c h a n g e ( E P I E ) (Thiagarajan,  important  is  Institute  is to  match  materials a n d s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a b y i n - d e p t h s t u d y of the m a t e r i a l .  T h e tone  of t h i s s y s t e m  enabling  is more a n a l y t i c a l r a t h e r  than judgmental,  thus  a n a l y s t s to o b s e r v e a n d e x p r e s s f u l l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  textbook.  T h i s scheme also t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the c a p a c i t y of the t e a c h e r s a n d educational  environment,  e v a l u a t i o n a n d bias  which  detection.  are  indispensable  factors  for  textbook  - 5 -  G u i d e l i n e s a n d R e s e a r c h on C u l t u r a l C o n t e n t s of E F L T e x t b o o k s  T h e s e c o n d s t a g e of the l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y l o o k e d at g u i d e l i n e s a n d research  w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E S L / E F L t e x t b o o k s .  rationale  to examine  the  textbook  content  in  terms  of c u l t u r e ,  As a Joiner  (1974) maintains t h a t e d u c a t o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e for e v a l u a t i n g the v a r i o u s segments  of  the  society  represented  by  the  economic l e v e l , age g r o u p , s e x , a n d life s t y l e s . the  p o t e n t i a l impact of the  textbook  on the  textbook  such  as  socio-  She e x p l a i n s , " B e c a u s e of  s t u d e n t ' s c o n c e p t i o n of  the  f o r e i g n c u l t u r e , it is i m p o r t a n t t h a t l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s look b e y o n d e y e c a t c h i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s a n d i n v e s t i g a t e the ' h i d d e n ' c u l t u r a l - c o n t e n t of the material which they content  is  use"  composed  of  (p.  242).  four  major  Her form of e v a l u a t i n g the c u l t u r a l sections;  c o n t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l of a c u l t u r a l n a t u r e , culture,  a n d 4) s u p p l e m e n t a r y  1) i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  3) g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s  m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e from  2)  text  r e l a t i n g to  the p u b l i s h e r .  A  s t r e n g t h of this form is t h a t e v a l u a t o r s are f o r c e d to look i n t o the h i d d e n color of a t e x t b o o k  a n d to s p e c u l a t e  i f it is a c t u a l l y p r o m o t i n g p o s i t i v e  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s people a n d t o w a r d s the l a n g u a g e s w h i c h t h e y s p e a k . a weakness,  As  the r a t i n g may v a r y more or less a c c o r d i n g to i n v e s t i g a t o r s  b e c a u s e some r a t i n g methods are d e p e n d e n t on t h e i r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s a n d subjective views. l i v e l y or d u l l ,  E x a m p l e s are the q u e s t i o n s  if the t e x t s  i l l u s t r a t i o n s are p o s i t i v e or  w h i c h a s k i f the t e x t s  are f r e s h a n d o r i g i n a l or s t e r e o t y p e d , negative.  are  a n d if  - 6 -  Willcott  (1974)  unsubstantial,  reported  c o m p a r e d to  native s p e a k e r s .  that  regular  advanced freshman  EFL  textbooks  were  composition textbooks  for  He i l l u s t r a t e d the t r i v i a l i t y , i m m o r a l i t y , i n a c c u r a c y , a n d  m i s t a k e s of E F L t e x t b o o k s  by citations.  Willcott does not seem to  have  followed a n y p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s w h i c h has l e d him to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t E F L t e x t b o o k s are u n r e a l a n d f a u l t y ; t h e r e f o r e , h i s s t u d y is not r e p l i c a b l e , especially probably  for  non-native  resulted  from  educators.  his  Nevertheless,  considerable  experience  his as  finding  an  which  E F L teacher  r a i s e s an e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e .  In J a p a n , used  in  H a t o r i (1975) a n a l y z e d s i x E n g l i s h c o n v e r s a t i o n  senior  high  schools  and  found  that  they  textbooks  contained  practical  i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h as u s i n g the t e l e p h o n e , t r a v e l i n g , s h o p p i n g , e t c .  He went  t h r o u g h i n s i d e c o v e r s , a p p e n d i c e s , n u m b e r of u n i t s , a n d theme of the u n i t s in the  textbooks.  K i t a o (1978) a t t e m p t e d American  culture  to f i n d  in English  scheme p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . textbooks American  of  English  culture  accurate. rather  than  things  and  was  readers  what a n d how much is p r e s e n t e d  courses  in J a p a n  and  concluded and  that  He p r o v e d t h a t most E n g l i s h  ways  of life  and,  using Joiner's  rating  K i t a o r e v i e w e d s e v e r a l s e r i e s of h i g h s c h o o l  presented  culture-oriented,  by  on  that  that  what  little there  r e a d e r s were  teachers  consequently,  rarely  information was  not  on  always  language-oriented  referred  to  foreign  very  l i t t l e of i n t e r c u l t u r a l  u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d be n o u r i s h e d in E n g l i s h c l a s s e s .  His s t u d y also p r o v e d  - 7 -  that Joiner's textbooks  e v a l u a t i o n form  except  some  items  is b a s i c a l l y u s e f u l a n d a p p l i c a b l e for E F L which  d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n the c h a p t e r  After 1981,  may  be  improved.  This  will  on M e t h o d o l o g y .  K i t a o , the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i n J a p a n was l a r g e l y r e f o r m e d in  a n d t h e r e are no more E n g l i s h r e a d e r s or c o n v e r s a t i o n c o u r s e s i n  high schools.  Instead, comprehensive courses called English I and E n g l i s h  II h a v e become the s u b j e c t s u s u a l l y p u r s u e d i n s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . a  be  historical standpoint,  it is  therefore  being taught c u r r e n t l y in English  So  far  I have  interesting  to  examine  From  what  is  classes.  reviewed four  studies  on  cultural content  t e x t b o o k s , one g u i d e l i n e a n d t h r e e pieces of r e s e a r c h .  of E F L  A s for the m e t h o d  of a n a l y s i s , J o i n e r ' s g u i d e l i n e seems f u n c t i o n a l ; h o w e v e r , b e s i d e s the f i e l d of E S L / E F L where the examples of c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s are s c a r c e , o t h e r areas of  studies  on t e x t b o o k s  from  sociological  perspectives  w i l l be  reviewed  next.  S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s on T e x t b o o k s  Procedures  of t e x t b o o k  analysis  are  also f o u n d  i n the  studies  of  s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s a n d b a s a l r e a d e r s w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e bias or r a c i s m in  content.  It s h o u l d be  noted  here  that  general  textbook  formats p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d are d i f f e r e n t in e s s e n c e from p r o c e s s e s  evaluation to d e t e c t  t e x t b o o k bias or r a c i s m ; the p u r p o s e of the former is to s e l e c t or to adopt  - 8 -  a textbook,  so whole a s p e c t s of t e x t b o o k s  are i n s p e c t e d i n c l u d i n g  their  b i a s , c u l t u r a l m e a n i n g , l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d , a n d so o n . Analysts  may  not  have  a c t u a l l y face t e x t b o o k s .  any  preoccupations  or  hypotheses  before  they  O n the o t h e r h a n d , the bias d e t e c t i o n is c h i e f l y  c o n d u c t e d for the s a k e of s o c i a l j u s t i c e a n d for the p u r p o s e of a s k i n g if the t e x t b o o k r e f l e c t s i d e a l p i c t u r e s of the d e m o c r a t i c a n d d i v e r s e s o c i e t y . I n v e s t i g a t o r s may h a v e s u s p i c i o n s or h y p o t h e s e s i n t h e i r m i n d s a n d t r y to substantiate  them b y c e r t a i n p r o c e s s e s .  the t e x t b o o k i t s e l f  is not the  purpose  In t h e i r r e s e a r c h , the a n a l y s i s of but  simply a vehicle b y which  to  g a i n access to c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s a n d the q u a l i t y of the c u r r i c u l u m .  T h e e d u c a t i o n a l a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e areas;  quantitative  research,  qualitative research.  qualitative  evaluation  checklists,  and  F i r s t , the a u t h o r r e v i e w s q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h , w h i c h  can be d e f i n e d as r e s e a r c h t h a t y i e l d s some s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a as a c o n c l u s i o n of e n q u i r y .  To m e a s u r e  the  t r e a t m e n t of m i n o r i t i e s i n the t e x t b o o k s ,  a  scheme  c a l l e d E v a l u a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t ( E C O ) a n a l y s i s was d e v e l o p e d b y P r a t t ( 1 9 7 2 ) . According  to  this  analysis  system,  words  or  terms  in  the  texts  c o n n e c t e d to p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e images of a m a j o r i t y g r o u p a n d scored by a formula.  T h i s method in w h i c h r e s e a r c h e r s  h a v e a r e l a t i o n to c e r t a i n a b s t r a c t  when  researchers  have  confidence  in j u d g i n g w h i c h  then  s c o r e w o r d s that  notions is sometimes u s e d w i t h  a n a l y s i s r e s e a r c h ( A b e r c r o m b i e , 1976; C r o g h a n , 1979).  are  content  It is v e r y e f f e c t i v e w o r d is r e l a t e d  to  - 9 -  which notion.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n E F L t e a c h i n g w h e r e the t e x t b o o k  content  c o v e r s an i n f i n i t e r a n g e of t o p i c s a n d w h e r e t h e r e are no e s t a b l i s h e d l i s t s of w o r d s r e l a t e d to notions of c u l t u r e , E C O a n a l y s i s is d i f f i c u l t  to c a r r y  out.  C o u n t i n g the number of m i n o r i t i e s as p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s w o u l d be a more r e l i a b l e method of f i n d i n g The  in stories  race bias i n b a s a l  readers.  r a t i o n a l e of t h i s method is t h a t i n c l u s i o n a n d o m i s s i o n of an  group  is a form of t e x t b o o k  considered  to  be  r e a d i n g materials  one  of  bias.  the  Klein  most  (1985) claims t h a t o m i s s i o n is  widespread  need s c r u t i n y , b e c a u s e  omission is that b o o k s may  forms  of bias  "the most d a n g e r o u s  and  a s p e c t of  A c c o r d i n g to the  B a l t i m o r e F e m i n i s t G r o u p (1976) a n d B u t t e r f i e l d ( 1 9 7 9 ) , e x t e n s i v e basal readers  was  extremely  characters.  p r o v e d that the small  that  v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y c o n c e a l what is left out of  t h e m , or e v e n t h a t a n y t h i n g has been left o u t " ( p . 3 0 ) .  of  ethnic  compared  number to  the  of s t o r i e s number  of  studies  featuring minorities stories  with  white  B r i t t o n a n d L u m p k i n (1977) also r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s b y a  p r o c e s s c a l l e d S e x i s m a n d R a c i s m P r o f i l e w h i c h c o n s i s t s of e x a m i n a t i o n s of 1) m i n o r i t y major c h a r a c t e r  role a s s i g n m e n t s  b y s e x / r a c e a n d 2) m i n o r i t y  d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r role a s s i g n m e n t s b y s e x / r a c e .  T h e p r o f i l e is an o b j e c t i v e  method w h i c h w o u l d be u s e f u l a n d a p p l i c a b l e for n o n - n a t i v e e v a l u a t o r s of EFL  textbooks.  Kyle studying  (1978) basal  and  B u t t e r f i e l d ( 1979)  readers:  stories  in  the  presented textbook  another are  process  reviewed  of and  - 10 -  c a t e g o r i z e d as to those  r e l a t e d to a s i n g l e e t h n i c g r o u p or those  to a r a c i a l l y m i x e d g r o u p .  related  T h e r a t i o n a l e is t h a t s u c h a n a l y s i s w i l l r e v e a l  w h e t h e r or not a b a s a l r e a d e r  sees the s o c i e t y c o n s i s t i n g of one majority  g r o u p or to be a m i x t u r e of d i v e r s e r a c e s .  A s a r e s u l t , it was f o u n d t h a t  v e r y few s t o r i e s d i s p l a y e d the a c t i v i t i e s b y a s i n g l e m i n o r i t y g r o u p or b y a multiethnic  group,  while  majority  males  had  dominant  roles  in  basal  readers.  A  common  process  with  e x a m i n a t i o n of p i c t u r e s . and  Glazer  textbook. hispanics,  (1983)  orientals,  social studies  analysis  of  textbooks  is  the  T o name a f e w , Weitzman ( 1 9 7 2 ) , V u k e l i c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) ,  studied  Hawkins  content  pictures  (1978) and  textbooks.  to detect  inspected  American  to  sexism and  what  Indians  were  extent  racism in  whites,  p i c t u r e d in  T h e impact t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s  the  blacks,  elementary  and illustrations  h a v e on c h i l d r e n is enormous b e c a u s e i n r e c e n t times c h i l d r e n h a v e become more familiar w i t h v i d e o s a n d t e l e v i s i o n r a t h e r  than with p r i n t e d  letters.  In J a p a n , if a s t u d e n t f i n d s o n l y p i c t u r e s of A f r i c a n t r i b e s w i t h s p e a r s a n d arrows  in the  primitive.  textbook,  Therefore,  he it  might  is  be  advisable  c o n v i n c e d that that  the  way  every the  African  pictures  is are  d e p i c t e d s h o u l d be l o o k e d at as a s u p p l e m e n t a r y a n a l y s i s after s c o r i n g the n u m b e r of p i c t u r e s .  So far q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s of c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s h a v e been r e v i e w e d . Lastly,  qualitative approaches  States,  a considerable  number  of e n q u i r y are d i s c u s s e d .  In the  of g u i d e l i n e s were a d v o c a t e d  by  United states,  - 11 -  publishers,  institutions,  and  individual  educators  in  the  1970 s. 1  R e s e a r c h e r s s u c h as R o s e n b e r g ( 1976) a n d B r a g a w (1979) s u g g e s t e d a set of c r i t e r i a to e v a l u a t e but  textbook content  also s e x i s m , a g e i s m ,  and  other  and illustrations. social prejudices  Not o n l y r a c i s m were t a r g e t e d  for  d e l e t i o n from s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y from A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y t e x t b o o k s . A m o n g v a r i o u s s t u d i e s , the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e was p r e s e n t e d b y the C o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l B o o k s for C h i l d r e n ( C I B C ) w h i c h c a r r i e d on a l o n g i t u d i n a l s u r v e y on h i s t o r y t e x t b o o k s in the U n i t e d States (1977, 1980).  T h e C I B C s u g g e s t s t h a t , b e s i d e s a q u a n t i t a t i v e s e a r c h of  o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d or u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d p e o p l e s , the f o l l o w i n g f i v e areas o u g h t to  be  probed;  terminology  -  3) h i s t o r i c a l  1)  characterization  obvious  bigotry,  accuracy  -  -  color  stereotypes,  2) l a n g u a g e  symbolism and  omissions,  distortions,  "loaded"  and  and  words,  Eurocentrism,  4) c u l t u r a l a u t h e n t i c i t y - white p e r s p e c t i v e s , d i s t o r t i o n s a n d t r i v i a l i z a t i o n s , and  5)  illustrations  settings.  This  -  facial  characters,  clothing,  and  socio-economic  qualitative method would provide researchers  with  deep  i n s i g h t s a n d c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t e x t b o o k i n q u e s t i o n .  S u c h q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h was seen i n many s t u d i e s c l a s s i c a l examples Marcus materials balance  is an e x a m i n a t i o n of h i s t o r y t e x t b o o k s  (1961). are of  Seven  inclusion the  and  criteria  of  used  constantly  of m i n o r i t y g r o u p s ,  negative  comprehensiveness information,  a n d one of the  the  and  positive  content,  r e a l i s m of the  in  conducted  assessing  by  textbook  validity  of the  information,  information  about  a  concreteness  treatment  and  of m i n o r i t i e s .  unity  minority, of  Findings  the are  - 12 -  reported in citations and arguments.  T h e s e s e v e n c r i t e r i a were u s e d b y  K a n e (1970) whose m o t i v a t i o n was to d e t e r m i n e of  minorities had  though  changed  some i m p r o v e m e n t s  minority  groups  must  a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the  over  decade.  had occurred,  still  seven  the  be  how t e x t b o o k  H i s c o n c l u s i o n was  textbook  considered  treatments  materials  inadequate.  c r i t e r i a to E F L t e x t b o o k  that,  concerning As  for  the  e v a l u a t i o n , the  first  two c r i t e r i a , i n c l u s i o n of m i n o r i t y g r o u p a n d v a l i d i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n , s h o u l d be u s e f u l . the c o n t e n t "  H o w e v e r , o t h e r c r i t e r i a s u c h as " c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s of  w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t  to j u d g e a n d to d i s c u s s , for t h e r e is no  norm as to what is a c o m p r e h e n s i v e E F L t e x t b o o k .  A difficulty  of E F L  t e x t b o o k e v a l u a t i o n lies i n the fact that e v a l u a t i o n has not y e t d i s c u s s e d "how the c o n t e n t  should be".  Without c o n c r e t e ideas a n d  considerations  on what s h o u l d be t a u g h t t h r o u g h E n g l i s h , a n a l y s t s c a n n o t t e l l if a c e r t a i n t e x t b o o k is s a t i s f a c t o r y or n o t .  In s u m m a r y , among e x i s t i n g q u a l i t a t i v e  methods to d e t e c t t e x t b o o k b i a s , a s c r e e n i n g scheme s u g g e s t e d w o u l d be the most a p p r o p r i a t e  by C I B C  in E F L t e x t b o o k e v a l u a t i o n .  Summary In this c h a p t e r , EFL  textbooks,  on methods for a n a l y z i n g the c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n  three  types  of  studies  were  discussed:  1)  textbook  s e l e c t i o n / e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d , 2) g u i d e l i n e s a n d r e s e a r c h on c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E F L t e x t b o o k s , a n d 3) s o c i o l o g i c a l g u i d e l i n e s a n d r e s e a r c h of t e x t b o o k s . In  the  methods of  first  place,  e x i s t i n g g u i d e l i n e s for  textbook  selection/evaluation  were a l l f o u n d to be i n s u f f i c i e n t for the n a r r o w l y f o c u s e d  cultural treatment.  This  insufficiency  is q u i t e  natural  study  because  the  - 13 -  p u r p o s e of c h e c k l i s t s a n d an e v a l u a t i n g scheme is to see a t e x t b o o k as a whole a n d not to e x t r a c t one a s p e c t of i t . parts  of  the  textbook  might  be  necessary  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c u l t u r e p r e s e n t e d  Next,  very  textbooks  could  guideline  by  Willcott  (1975)  be  guidelines  located.  Joiner  (1974)  contents.  few  and  i n the  and  A s far  three  said advanced  H o w e v e r , a g r a s p of v a r i o u s in  order  other  the  about  author's  pieces  E F L texts  find  out  the  textbook.  research as  to  were  of  culture survey  research  in E F L  goes,  were  unsubstantial  one  found.  in c u l t u r a l  T h e r e s u l t s of two s t u d i e s i n J a p a n were c o n t r o v e r s i a l ; H a t o r i  reported  that  English  conversation  textbooks  contained  foreign  customs of d a i l y l i f e .  K i t a o ( 1 9 7 8 ) , h o w e v e r , who f o l l o w e d J o i n e r ' s  form,  maintained  school English  about  American though  that  high  culture.  The latter  readers  limited himself  lacked to o n l y  information American  his f i n d i n g s can be c o n s i d e r e d to be c l o s e r to the  E n g l i s h classes in Japan than  v e r y few c o n v e r s a t i o n c l a s s e s  for  held  at  C o n c e r n i n g m e t h o d o l o g y , J o i n e r ' s f r a m e w o r k seems to be  v a l i d a n d a p p l i c a b l e to a n y E F L s i t u a t i o n s b e c a u s e feasibility  r e a l s t a t e of  H a t o r i , for r e a d i n g was a main a c t i v i t y i n  the c u r r i c u l u m , while t h e r e were high schools.  culture,  non-native  evaluators.  of its o b j e c t i v i t y a n d  Nevertheless,  it  still  needs  changing.  T h i r d , the s t u d i e s on t e x t b o o k s from a s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  were  r e v i e w e d for the p u r p o s e of f a c i l i t a t i n g m e t h o d o l o g y of t e x t b o o k a n a l y s i s . P r o c e s s e s to examine b a s a l r e a d e r s a n d A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y t e x t b o o k s c a n be  - 14 -  d i v i d e d i n t o two t y p e s ;  one is q u a l i t a t i v e a n d the o t h e r  is q u a n t i t a t i v e .  T h e r e are some q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s r e l e v a n t for c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of E F L textbooks:  1) c o u n t p e r c e n t a g e  of m i n o r i t y g r o u p s as major  characters,  2) c a t e g o r i z e s t o r i e s i n the t e x t b o o k as e i t h e r r e l a t e d to a majority g r o u p or as m u l t i e t h n i c s t o r i e s , a n d 3) c h e c k p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n groups.  of e t h n i c  S t r e n g t h s of t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e , n e e d l e s s to s a y , o b j e c t i v i t y a n d  applicability.  A s a l i m i t a t i o n , t h e y c a n n o t a l w a y s m a n i f e s t i m p l i c i t tone of  bias i n the t e x t b o o k ;  a close e x a m i n a t i o n b y h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h e s  should  follow.  Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h w h e r e a n a l y s t s go t h r o u g h a l i s t of c r i t e r i a also has some i m p l i c a t i o n for E F L t e x t b o o k a n a l y s i s . be  scrutinized  authenticity,  for  and  terminology,  i l l u s t r a t i o n as  accuracy, suggested  The textbook content can characterizations,  by  CIBC.  c o m b i n a t i o n of q u a l i t a t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s  In  cultural  summary,  s h o u l d be the  a  most  s u i t a b l e m e t h o d for a s t u d y of the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E F L t e x t b o o k s .  - 15 -  CHAPTER 3  T h e P u r p o s e s of the S t u d y  T h e aim of t h i s s t u d y is t w o f o l d :  1) to c r e a t e a n d t e s t a p r o c e s s b y  w h i c h the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s i n J a p a n c a n be a n a l y z e d , a n d 2) to examine what a n d how much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f o r e i g n c u l t u r e is t a u g h t in E n g l i s h c l a s s e s in J a p a n .  J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the S t u d y  T h e f i r s t p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y is to p r o p o s e a m e t h o d to a n a l y z e the t r e a t m e n t of c u l t u r e i n E n g l i s h  textbooks in J a p a n .  First,  a  tentative  p r o c e d u r e , an a d a p t a t i o n of J o i n e r ' s form is d e v e l o p e d , a p p l i e d to r e s e a r c h on  ten  textbooks,  significance.  and  discussed  in  terms  of  its  practicality  and  T h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e s s of c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , the p r o c e d u r e is  c o n s t a n t l y remade a n d r e f o r m e d .  A t t e n t i o n is p a i d to c o d i n g the d a t a in  o r d e r to i n c r e a s e i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y .  T h e p r o c e s s must also take i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n n o n - n a t i v e e v a l u a t o r s as well as n a t i v e s p e a k e r s of E n g l i s h ; b o t h g r o u p s m u s t be able to follow the p r o c e s s w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . often  the  case  with  Japanese  teachers  of E n g l i s h  that  because  It is of  the  a b s e n c e of e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s , t e a c h e r s c a n n o t g r a s p the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t e x t b o o k ; t h e y m i g h t h a v e a v a g u e f e e l i n g  that s o m e t h i n g is w r o n g  w i t h the t e x t b o o k , b u t t h e y c a n n o t t e l l w h e r e a n d h o w . c o n t e n t of E F L t e x t b o o k s is a c o m p l i c a t e d m a t t e r ,  Discussing  involving  the  idiosyncracy  - 16 -  of  language  and  culture.  There  is  no norm of c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t s  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n E F L t e x t b o o k s .  T h e q u e s t i o n of what a s p e c t s of  w h i c h c o u n t r y s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d i n E n g l i s h raised in J a p a n . intercultural  In s u c h a s t a t e ,  communication  analyze textbook  need  educators  a  that  classes who are  well-founded  r a r e l y has concerned  method  by  been about  which  to  content.  In c h a p t e r 2 , the s c a r c i t y of r e s e a r c h t h a t s t u d i e d c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E F L t e x t b o o k s was p o i n t e d o u t . Japan  seems  to  be  manipulation  presented  methodology  used  T h e most s u i t a b l e form for e v a l u a t o r s in  Joiner's by  i n this  framework  sociological study  combined  studies  of the  with  statistical  textbooks.  The  w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l i n the  next  chapter.  The other of  ten  p u r p o s e of this s t u d y is to r e v i e w the c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t  English  textbooks  used  at  high  schools in J a p a n ,  according  J o i n e r ' s f r a m e w o r k as r e f o r m e d to s u i t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r piece of  One  of  education,  the  which  educational  recent  trends  of  education  in  is a p o p u l a r term f r e q u e n t l y  renovation.  An  increasing  Japan  is  to  research.  international  m e n t i o n e d as a s l o g a n of  number  of  English-speaking  f o r e i g n e r s is d o m i c i l e d in J a p a n ; c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , n e a r l y 500,000 J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l s r e s i d e o u t s i d e of J a p a n .  Not o n l y e d u c a t o r s  b u t also  business  people e m p h a s i z e the n e c e s s i t y to r a i s e K o k u s a i j i n ( i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y m i n d e d children)  who k n o w m a n n e r s  and  skills  for  getting  along with  foreign  - 17 -  people. of the  H o w e v e r , it seems t h a t v e r y l i t t l e p r o g r e s s has been made i n s p i t e h i g h d e m a n d for the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n .  concerning roughly  the  divided  Japanese  people  between  Japan  i n t o two t y p e s :  who c a n n o t  foreign land. with  friction  adjust  the  themselves  and  foreign  first to  is the the  Problems  countries  can  problem with  unfamiliar  be  those  culture  of a  T h i s is the case not o n l y w i t h J a p a n e s e , of c o u r s e , b u t also from  other  countries.  However,  by  mass  media s u c h  as  t e l e v i s i o n , n e w s p a p e r , a n d m a g a z i n e s , it was r e p e a t e d l y r e p o r t e d t h a t some Japanese  students  who  recently  arrived  at  American  confrontation with other students and teachers.  schools  caused  T h e o t h e r p r o b l e m is the  conflict between Japanese and foreigners in J a p a n ; Japanese people cannot a c c e p t f o r e i g n e r s or J a p a n e s e who h a v e s p e n t s e v e r a l y e a r s a b r o a d . only  institutionally  (Japanese  but  also  emotionally, foreigners  and  Not  Kikokushijyo  who h a v e j u s t come b a c k from a b r o a d ) are sometimes e x c l u d e d  from e d u c a t i o n a l a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Why do t h e s e maladjustments a n d c o n f l i c t s o c c u r ? they  stem  from  1)  the  lack  of d i s c u s s i o n a n d / o r  The author thinks research  about  the  c o n c r e t e m e a n i n g of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a n d 2) the i n s u l a r i t y of J a p a n . F i r s t , i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n is a f a v o r i t e term o c c a s i o n a l l y m e n t i o n e d b y politicians,  school administrators, and teachers.  T h e term is sometimes  r e p l a c e d b y s y n o n y m s s u c h as g l o b a l e d u c a t i o n a n d i n t e r c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . Nevertheless,  educators  do not seem to h a v e c o n c r e t e ideas as  those terms a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e .  to what  T h e r e is no c o n s e n s u s or e v e n d i s c u s s i o n  a b o u t " w h a t does i t mean to be an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h i l d ? " or " w h a t must a  - 18 -  s c h o o l do to r a i s e an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h i l d ? " of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n is a d v o c a t e d , a c t i v i t i e s of the quite  natural  apparent  c u r r i c u l u m are  that  the  effect  In o t h e r w o r d s , w h i l e the g o a l  learning objectives and classroom  still vague.  In s u c h a s i t u a t i o n ,  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n  has  not  it is  become  yet.  Second, foreigners  the  root  of  the  confrontation  between  e x i s t s i n the h i s t o r y a n d s o c i e t y of J a p a n .  Japanese nationals in foreign countries Japanese society  that  the  results  u n i t y of a g r o u p  Japanese  and  Maladjustment of  from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of takes  precedence  over  the  i n t e r e s t s a n d h a p p i n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l s . T o be i n d e p e n d e n t of o t h e r s a n d to be d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s is not r e c o m m e n d e d , so s t u d e n t s are from p r o j e c t i n g t h e i r own o p i n i o n s .  In s p i t e of t h i s t r a d i t i o n , when  go a b r o a d , t h e y are r e q u i r e d to s t a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s c l e a r l y . the  J a p a n e s e from  smooth  discouraged  a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o the  new c u l t u r e  they  What b l o c k s is not  just  l a n g u a g e , b u t also t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a n d v i e w s t o w a r d s the s o c i e t y a n d human life.  A n o t h e r t r a i t of J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y , h o m o g e n e i t y , is also d e t r i m e n t a l to the r a i s i n g of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . are  reluctant  to embrace  foreign  customs  I n s i d e the c o u n t r y , J a p a n e s e and  practices.  They  cannot  imagine that a c o u n t r y can be m u l t i e t h n i c , m u l t i l i n g u a l , a n d m u l t i c u l t u r a l . Instead, society.  t h e y are i n c l i n e d to view each f o r e i g n c o u n t r y as a This tendency  is s t r e n g t h e n e d  b y mass media a n d  homogeneous education.  - 19 -  Heretofore,  r e a s o n s c a u s i n g c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s between J a p a n e s e a n d  f o r e i g n e r s h a v e been d i s c u s s e d . drawn:  Some p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s c a n , h o w e v e r , be  f i r s t , e d u c a t o r s m u s t d i s c u s s , e v e n i f t h e y do not r e a c h  objectives,  student's  education.  In the domain of E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g , t e a c h e r s who h a v e d e v o t e d  themselves  almost  attention  entirely  to  and  learning  grammatical  to the c o n t e n t of the materials  Second, other  activities,  outcomes  targets  of  consensus,  will  international  have  to  pay  u s e d in c l a s s .  s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d to the d i v e r s i t y e x i s t i n g i n  countries.  When a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y is a t o p i c i n an E n g l i s h  class,  s t u d e n t s h a v e to be t a u g h t t h a t it m i g h t be a d i v e r s e s o c i e t y c o m p o s e d of peoples tie,  of many  races and ethnic o r i g i n s .  On a c c o u n t of the  economic  many J a p a n e s e h a v e h a d a n d w i l l h a v e the o p p o r t u n i t y to go to  United States,  w h e r e t h e y t h e m s e l v e s are a m i n o r i t y g r o u p .  most J a p a n e s e n e v e r u n t i l t h e y l a n d at the  the  Nevertheless,  imagine the d e g r e e of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m of the  States  airport.  T h i r d , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d l e a r n about f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s i n s u c h a way as to  enhance  describe  equal  the  respect  English  for  language  a l l nations and  those  and who  people. have  Japanese some  often  command  E n g l i s h as "Kakkoii" ( g o o d l o o k i n g , n e a t , a n d often w e s t e r n - l o o k i n g ) .  of The  a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n is r e s p o n s i b l e for h a v i n g c r e a t e d  the  image t h a t b e i n g f l u e n t in E n g l i s h is m o d e r n , a d v a n c e d , s o p h i s t i c a t e d , a n d western. considered  C o n v e r s e l y , other languages of  secondary  importance  and peoples, especially Asian, and  less  prestigious.  With  are  those  - 20 -  p r e j u d i c e s , E n g l i s h c a n n e v e r be a d e q u a t e l y l e a r n e d , nor can i n t e r c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s be a c h i e v e d .  T h i s paper f o c u s e s on the s e c o n d a n d t h i r d i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n , n a m e l y , do E n g l i s h c l a s s e s c o n v e y an a w a r e n e s s of the d i v e r s i t y of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s order  to  answer  a n d do t h e y these  p r o v i d e b i a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n or not?  questions,  the  following  subproblems  In were  established.  Subproblems  a)  How much of the E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k is d e v o t e d to t e a c h i n g  culture?  What is  Does  the  percentage  of  cultural  topics  in  a  text?  the  t e x t b o o k offer e n o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n on f o r e i g n c u l t u r e to s t u d e n t s ?  b)  What a s p e c t s of f o r e i g n a n d J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e are  In this s t u d y ,  the term ' c u l t u r e ' means not j u s t an i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d  artistic a c t i v i t y , but  also  "the  totality  of s o c i a l l y  p a t t e r n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p e o p l e " (American English  Language).  featured?  Therefore,  various  transmitted  behavior  Heritage Dictionary of  phases of life  - family,  the  human  r e l a t i o n s h i p , s c h o o l s y s t e m , s p o r t s a n d games, n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o n c e p t i o n of t i m e , e t c . ,  are a l l r e g a r d e d as c u l t u r a l t o p i c s .  The quality  of c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n of a t e x t b o o k is e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t as the amount of  - 21 -  information.  Students  will  react  d i f f e r e n t l y when  b r i g h t s i d e a n d the d a r k s i d e of a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y .  they  learn both  Willcott (1974) p o i n t e d  out t h a t E F L t e x t b o o k s f a i l e d to put f o r t h a h u m a n i s t i c a n d l i b e r a l education and that they avoided argumentative t o p i c s r e g a r d i n g the s o c i e t y .  essays  H a y a s h i n o (1981) c r i t i c i z e d E n g l i s h " e x t b o o k s This study  attempt to d e t e r m i n e if t h e i r statements a p p l y to the c u r r e n t  presented?  By  to  this  question,  the  author  tries  will  textbooks.  Which c o u n t r y a n d e t h n i c g r o u p s are most often  answering  view  and controversial  in J a p a n as b e i n g b o r i n g , m o n o t o n o u s , a n d m e a n i n g l e s s .  c)  the  refer  to  more  i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s about the i d e o l o g y of E n g l i s h a n d about t e x t b o o k b i a s . C o n c e r n i n g the i d e o l o g y of E n g l i s h , the q u e s t i o n s h o u l d be a s k e d  which  c o u n t r y a n d what k i n d of s o c i e t y the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e is c o n s i d e r e d to b e l o n g to? other  A r e E n g l i s h lessons  nations?  Whose  benefit  h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s to d e v e l o p r e s p e c t do  they  serve?  A r e they  s t u d e n t s to t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e ?  for  influencing  Those concepts,  ideas,  a n d n o t i o n s h i d d e n in the t e x t b o o k w i l l be d i s c u s s e d .  Subproblem among  various  considered.  C also leads kinds  of  i n t o bias  biases,  ethnic  bias  textbook; or  i n this  racism  bias  study, will  be  Of c o u r s e , e t h n i c bias often goes h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h s e x i s m  bias a n d ageism b i a s ,  so the o t h e r  biases  R a c i s m i n the t e x t b o o k sometimes takes blatant.  i n the  The  bias  can  be  proved  are  the by  referred  to i f  necessary.  form of o m i s s i o n , s u b t l e  statistical  analysis  and  or  close  - 22 -  e x a m i n a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s i n the t e x t b o o k .  Klein r e p o r t e d that E F L  t e x t b o o k s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d in G e r m a n y were t a k i n g c a r e i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to r e f l e c t d i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h c i t i e s (1985, p . 7 8 ) . also s t a r t e d to t h i n k about d i v e r s i t y of the  It is h i g h time J a p a n  world.  Here t h r e e c o n c r e t e a n d p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s were p o s e d :  a) how much  of the t e x t b o o k is d e v o t e d to t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e ? b) what a s p e c t s of f o r e i g n c u l t u r e are often  featured?  presented?  a n d c)  which  country and ethnic group  are  In c h a p t e r  4 the  process  to these  which corresponds  most  q u e s t i o n s is p r e s e n t e d a n d an e f f o r t is made to e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y a n d the v a l i d i t y of t h a t  process.  Assumptions  This granted  study that  culture.  is b a s e d  upon  E F L education  two a s s u m p t i o n s ;  has  C u l t u r e "establishes  to  contain  first,  some  it is t a k e n  teaching  of  p . 123).  and  It is a m a z i n g how many c u l t u r a l e v e n t s , p h r a s e s from  pieces  of  Shakespeare  commonly u s e d in d a i l y l i f e . language, culture  there  i n the  (Brown,  M a s t e r i n g a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e is i n s e p a r a b l e from k n o w i n g a  foreign culture. Bible,  foreign  for each p e r s o n a c o n t e x t of c o g n i t i v e a n d  a f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r , a b l u e p r i n t for p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e " 1981,  for  is  a  are  in  English  language  In the a r e a of t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g i n a s e c o n d  prevailing theory  learner,  embedded  the  which  is c a l l e d  that  existing knowledge  schema  or  schemata,  about  promotes  - 23 -  c o m p r e h e n s i o n of a g i v e n p a s s a g e ( J o h n s o n , 1982; C a r r e l l , 1983; A n d e r s o n , 1984).  The enhance  second  assumption  c u l t u r a l awareness  in does  this affect  paper  is  students'  that  the  curriculum  attitudes.  r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n is y e t to be d o n e . America,  t h e r e are  studies  that h a v e  p r o v e d the effect  In  to  Japan,  In N o r t h  of m u l t i c u l t u r a l  r e a d e r s on s t u d e n t s ( S i n g e r , 1967; L i t c h e r & J o h n s o n , 1969; K e h o e & S t o n e , 1978;  Izaz,  1982).  multiethnic textbooks  In  this  paper,  assuming  multicultural  and  w o u l d make J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e ,  the a u t h o r attempts to a n a l y z e the p r e s e n t Japan.  that  s t a t u s of E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s in  - 24 -  CHAPTER 4  T h e major p u r p o s e s of t h i s paper are to f i n d a p r o c e s s b y w h i c h  the  t r e a t m e n t of c u l t u r e i n E F L c l a s s e s can be a n a l y z e d a n d to examine  the  c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E n g l i s h classes i n J a p a n .  T h i s c h a p t e r f i r s t looks at  r e a s o n s w h y c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s c a n be a n a l y z e d b y the c o n t e n t of  textbooks.  procedures  Then  the  author  describes  the  samples  analysis  of the  study,  of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a n d p r o c e s s of d a t a a n a l y s i s .  T h e t e x t b o o k is r e g a r d e d as the b e s t s o u r c e for i n v e s t i g a t i n g what is actually  t a u g h t i n the  c l a s s r o o m for  the  following  reasons.  First,  t e x t b o o k p l a y s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t role in J a p a n e s e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . not  m e r e l y a tool or  a supplement,  students' activities. itself.  but  weighs  It is  heavily in determining  In t h a t s e n s e , the t e x t b o o k is the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m  To explain f u r t h e r ,  in Japan  all textbooks  for  elementary  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s are s c r e e n e d b y the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n before are p u b l i s h e d .  the  and they  A s c r e e n i n g committee meeting is h e l d b y the members of  the T e x t b o o k A u t h o r i z a t i o n a n d R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , t e x t b o o k p u b l i s h e r s , a n d writers.  If a t e x t b o o k is not s a t i s f a c t o r y or not i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h  n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of e d u c a t i o n , committee a g a i n .  to be r e v i s e d a n d s u b m i t t e d to  the  T h i s u n i q u e s y s t e m of t e x t b o o k a d o p t i o n also makes  the  textbook  the  central  selecting  textbooks  factor  are  not  it has  the  of just  political and nation-wide concern.  education  in  Japan.  pedagogical  issues  Publishing but  also  and  raise  a  - 25 -  S e c o n d , t h e r e is a belief i n J a p a n t h a t t e x t b o o k s are h o l y , p r e c i o u s , a n d h o l d the essence  of a l l k n o w l e d g e .  In many f a m i l i e s ,  children  are  t a u g h t to h a n d l e t e x t b o o k s with care a n d to t r e a s u r e them for many y e a r s . Teenagers Letters  regard  the  textbook  as  a n d p r i n t e d m a t t e r s are  a bible that  credited highly  c o n s i d e r e d to be an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of l e a r n i n g .  has  to be  in J a p a n .  Close  textbooks  means  to  probe  e x a m i n a t i o n of c o n t e n t s  the  learning  of t e x t b o o k s  R e a d i n g is  T h e r e is a s a y i n g :  it one h u n d r e d t i m e s , a n d the m e a n i n g w i l l come to y o u . " analyze  memorized.  will  "Read  Therefore,  a c t i v i t i e s of r e v e a l the  to  students.  quality  q u a n t i t y of the c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n s t u d e n t s w o u l d o b t a i n from  and  English  classes.  Samples  Ten  textbooks  of S e n i o r  o b j e c t i v e of E n g l i s h reading  and  High  School  English  I is to d e v e l o p b a s i c s k i l l s  writing.  As mentioned  in  the  were  chosen.  The  of l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g ,  previous  chapter,  school  c u r r i c u l u m was d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d in 1981, when a l l s e r i e s of t e x t b o o k s were  rewritten  Accordingly,  to  most of the  e d i t e d at t h a t t i m e . 1984,  fulfill  requirements  content  of E n g l i s h  of  the  new  textbooks  curriculum.  was c h a n g e d  or  T h e samples u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y were a l l p u b l i s h e d i n  t h r e e y e a r s after  different  the  the c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m a t i o n .  p u b l i s h i n g companies  T e n t e x t b o o k s of ten  were a v a i l a b l e to the  author;  a  number  w h i c h w o u l d be l a r g e e n o u g h to g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s g a i n e d b y the s t u d y . Title,  p u b l i s h e r , a n d e d i t o r of each t e x t b o o k are as f o l l o w s :  -~  - 26 -  Title  Publisher  Editor(s)  MAINSTREAM I T h e New Comprehensive English Course  Zoshindo  Shoichi Ando D a v i d Hale  WHY E N G L I S H I  Gakko Tosho  Katsumata Ikenaga Eiichi Kobayashi  T H E NEW C E N T U R Y ENGLISH SERIES I New E d i t i o n  Sanseido  Shunsuke Wakabayashi Ichiro Yasuda  F R E S H English I  Daiichi  NEW L I G H T ENGLISH I  Kairyudo  Ichiro Tanaka  S E N I O R SWAN English Course I  Kaitakusha  Sakae S e r i z a w a  NEW S T A N D A R D ENGLISH I REVISED EDITION  Hitotsubashi  Kenzo  Sunrise English I  Obunsha  Yoshio Ogawa  Go,  Tokyo Shoseki  Shigeo  Bun-Eido  Kuniaki  English! I  The Rainbow English Course I  F r a m e w o r k of the  Gakushusha  Eiji Hato  Kihara  Imamura Suenaga  Study  A framework to i n v e s t i g a t e these ten t e x t b o o k s was d e v e l o p e d , upon J o i n e r ' s form for e v a l u a t i n g the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t It  was  chosen  consistent  because  the  w i t h the p u r p o s e  rationale  of t h i s  of  study:  her  based  of E F L t e x t b o o k s .  coding  form  was  most  - 27 -  While s e l e c t i n g a n d c r e a t i n g c u l t u r a l l y s o u n d t e x t s a n d m a t e r i a l s may not e r a d i c a t e a l l s t e r e o t y p e s a n d u s h e r i n an u n p r e c e d e n t e d of c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  we c a n n o t  afford  to do less  f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s an o b j e c t i v e a n d a c c u r a t e c o u n t r y whose l a n g u a g e  t h e y are s t u d y i n g .  than  era give  p i c t u r e of the  It is h o p e d t h a t  this  i n s t r u m e n t , i n its p r e s e n t form or modified to c o n f o r m to i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n s , w i l l be u s e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways b y a v a r i e t y of people with one common aim - to promote p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d the l a n g u a g e s w h i c h t h e y  t o w a r d peoples  and  speak.  ( J o i n e r , 1974, p 243)  In  this  effectively between  study,  Joiner's  form  was  r e v i s e d so  that  i n r e v i e w i n g E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s in J a p a n .  the  original  form  and  the  adaptation  lies  it s h o u l d w o r k  A major in data  J o i n e r ' s o r i g i n a l , q u e s t i o n s are a s k e d in y e s / n o a l t e r n a t i v e s .  difference s c o r i n g ; in  In t h i s s t u d y ,  i n s t e a d , "how m a n y " a n d " w h a t " q u e s t i o n s are r a i s e d in o r d e r to seek more exact and detailed data.  Chapter  2 suggested  that a method which  is  composed of q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d q u a l i t a t i v e phases w o u l d be most a p p r o p r i a t e for c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of E F L t e x t b o o k s .  A w e a k n e s s of the o r i g i n a l form is  the l a c k of o b j e c t i v i t y a n d p r e c i s e n e s s , t h e r e f o r e , a m e t h o d w i d e l y u s e d in the  sociological  reliability.  studies  of  textbooks  was  adopted  to  increase  the  - 28 -  T h e new r e v i s e d form i n c l u d e s q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g what c o u n t r y a n d e t h n i c g r o u p are most often p r e s e n t e d i n the t e x t b o o k .  This  perspective  is often t a k e n to f i n d out about i n c l u s i o n a n d e x c l u s i o n of e t h n i c  groups  in b a s a l r e a d e r s (the B a l t i m o r e F e m i n i s t G r o u p , 1976; B u t t e r f i e l d , 1979; Britton  and Lumpskin,  1977; K l e i n ,  1985).  This  approach  was  because of a) its p r e v a l e n c e i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t e x t b o o k r e s e a r c h , b) a n d r e l i a b i l i t y , a n d c) o b j e c t i v i t y of the d a t a . as  well as  the  written  text  are  chosen validity  In t h i s s t u d y , i l l u s t r a t i o n s  r e v i e w e d a c c o r d i n g to  nationality  and  ethnicity depicted.  T h e r e are also items n e w l y a d d e d b y the a u t h o r t h a t were d e v e l o p e d from the implementation of the pilot s t u d y .  B y c o n d u c t i n g the p i l o t s t u d y ,  it was f o u n d t h a t t h r e e t y p e s of u n i t s need to be r e c o g n i z e d .  T h e y are 1)  u n i t s w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y i n t r o d u c e a n d d i s c u s s c u l t u r a l t o p i c s , 2) u n i t s whose settings  are f o r e i g n p l a c e s , a n d 3) u n i t s i n w h i c h themes are not  about  i  c u l t u r e b u t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e is i m p l i c i t l y r e q u i r e d .  The last  category  of  to  that  category  require  Teachers  who  units  was the  established,  for  special attention  the  of  the  units  belonging  teacher.  p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h s u p p l e m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the b a c k g r o u n d s of those  units would ensure  c o m p r e h e n s i o n b y the s t u d e n t s a n d g r o w t h i n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g towards foreign c o u n t r i e s .  O n the c o n t r a r y , if t e a c h e r s f a i l  to s u p p l y a d e q u a t e c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n ,  they  will jeopardize  i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as t h e i r t r u e m a s t e r y of the u n i t s . about  the o r i g i n of j a z z m u s i c b e l o n g s  students'  To exemplify, a unit  to t h i s t y p e of u n i t ; it  requires  s t u d e n t s to h a v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y ,  and  - 29 -  society.  The  textbook  editor  may  assume  that  k n o w l e d g e a n d t h a t t h e r e is no n e c e s s i t y to r e f e r In  that  case,  if  students  do  not  actually  students to it in the  know  the a u t h o r  came to s u s p e c t  w i l l s e r v e to c l a r i f y w h e t h e r  Here  the  framework  the s u s p i c i o n is j u s t i f i e d , or  of the  method,  the  about  the  During  the  t h a t those  u n i t s w o u l d be seen q u i t e often i n E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s in J a p a n .  such  textbook.  enough  b a c k g r o u n d , the u n i t w o u l d be d u l l a n d i r r e l e v a n t to t h e m . c o u r s e of the p i l o t s t u d y ,  have  tricky  This study  not.  revised Joiner's  form  of  e v a l u a t i n g the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t s of E F L t e x t b o o k s is p r e s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d b y detailed coding  procedures.  FRAMEWORK  A.  N u m b e r of u n i t s 1.  N u m b e r of a l l u n i t s i n the  2.  N u m b e r of u n i t s w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y e x p l a i n f o r e i g n c u l t u r e  3.  N u m b e r of u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s  4.  N u m b e r of u n i t s  which  textbook  are  implicitly  require  knowledge  B.  N u m b e r of times c o u n t r i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d photographs  - colour  photographs  - black and white  abroad cultural background  - 30 -  drawings maps cartoons reproductions  Name a n d n u m b e r of f o r e i g n places ( c i t i e s a n d c o u n t r i e s ) in the  mentioned  textbook  P r e s e n t a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y 1.  N u m b e r of main c h a r a c t e r s  2.  N u m b e r of a l l c h a r a c t e r s  3.  N u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r s  i n the  in the  units  units  i l l u s t r a t e d i n the  textbook  D i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s a d o p t e d for the u n i t s about f o r e i g n c u l t u r e Dialogue Narrative Essay Letter Fiction Song Poem Newspaper Joke Folktale  - 31 -  Simplified novel Biography Play  F.  Evaluators' represented  comments i n the  1.  Illustrations  2.  Texts  Coding  on  the  characteristics  of  the  society  textbook  Procedures  F o r the c o n s i s t e n c y of t h i s s t u d y , the term " u n i t " is u s e d to e x p r e s s a g r o u p of pages on the same t o p i c , w h i c h is sometimes c a l l e d a u n i t , a l e s s o n , a s t o r y or a s e c t i o n , d e p e n d i n g on the p u b l i s h e r s . of  the  framework  procedures  on  a  is  discussed  in  practical level,  terms which  of had  its  Here each item  rationale  been  constantly  t h r o u g h o u t the a n a l y s i s for the p u r p o s e of i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r r a t e r Consequently,  as far as 10 t e x t b o o k s  r e l i a b i l i t y of the c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s  reviewed in this paper,  F r e n c h w o r k e d as a r a t e r .  N u m b e r of u n i t s 1.  N u m b e r of a l l u n i t s in the  textbook  coding changed  reliability. interrater  was k e p t to more t h a n 85%.  s t u d y , - i n a d d i t i o n to the a u t h o r , an u n d e r g r a d u a t e  A.  and  In t h i s  s t u d e n t who majored i n  - 32 -  -  Supplemental  notes,  summary  of  grammar,  the  list  of  v o c a b u l a r y , a n d p h o n e t i c s y s t e m tables are not c o u n t e d .  N u m b e r of u n i t s w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y e x p l a i n f o r e i g n c u l t u r e -  T h e f o l l o w i n g u n i t s s h o u l d be c o u n t e d ; a)  Units which describe h i s t o r y , nature,  people,  language,  c u s t o m s , a n d a r t s of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s b)  Units  which  foreign c)  introduce  ways of l i v i n g  and  t h i n k i n g in  countries  U n i t s w h i c h compare a n d c o n t r a s t  Japanese and foreign  culture d)  U n i t s whose c h i e f p u r p o s e is to raise c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s of the  students  N u m b e r of u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s  are  abroad  U n i t s i n w h i c h c o n v e r s a t i o n s , episodes or e v e n t s take o u t s i d e J a p a n are If  one  unit  numbers about  is  are  place  counted.  related  u s e d for  to more scoring.  than  one  country,  For instance,  decimal  i f a u n i t is  B r i t a i n a n d F r a n c e a n d b o t h of the c o u n t r i e s o c c u p y  approximately  the  same w e i g h t i n the  a d d e d to them r e s p e c t i v e l y .  story,  0.5  point  are  - 33 -  4.  N u m b e r of u n i t s  which  implicitly  require cultural background  knowledge A n a l y s t s s h o u l d look for u n i t s w h i c h do not p r e s e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n b u t assume that t e a c h e r s w o u l d offer it or s t u d e n t s w o u l d be a l r e a d y familiar w i t h i t .  N u m b e r of times c o u n t r i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d The  meaning  illustrations  of  this  such  as  analysis  is  pictures,  straightforward;  cartoons,  and  the  maps  are  e s s e n t i a l elements of the t e x t b o o k not o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y help s t u d e n t s c o m p r e h e n d the t e x t s b y v i s u a l i z i n g the c o n t e x t b u t also  because  they  act  cultural  information.  foreign  countries  is  as  an  important  In J a p a n  medium  where  extremely  direct  limited,  the  to  convey  contact  with  influence  of  i l l u s t r a t i o n s c a n n o t be o v e r e m p h a s i z e d . Illustrations countries  are  c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to 1)  presented  photographs,  and  2)  modes  The  aim of  foreign English  of  of i l l u s t r a t i o n s s u c h  the as  maps a n d so o n .  C o u n t r i e s a n d c i t i e s m e n t i o n e d in the -  names  this  names  of  places that s t u d e n t s are most l i k e l y to e n c o u n t e r  in  classes.  tallying  This  task  textbook  item  is  is  to  also  clarify  the  concerned  with  q u e s t i o n "to w h i c h c o u n t r y does the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e  the  appear  - 34 -  to b e l o n g ? "  It is n a t u r a l that s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d  b y a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y r e p e a t e d l y m e n t i o n e d i n the t e x t b o o k a n d be l e d to relate the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e to t h a t c o u n t r y . T h e t a s k is to c o u n t names of c o u n t r i e s , c i t i e s , a n d  places  that  texts,  appear  in  English  supplemental notes,  sentences,  including  main  and exercises.  A c o u n t r y is t a l l i e d w h e t h e r or b y an i n f o r m a l name.  it is c a l l e d b y an o f f i c i a l  name  F o r i n s t a n c e , it does not matter i f  the S o v i e t U n i o n is c a l l e d the U . S . S . R .  or R u s s i a .  Names of s t a t e s , p r o v i n c e s , m o u n t a i n s , r i v e r s , a n d v a l l e y s are counted.  Small areas i n a c i t y  s u c h as  Central Park  and  B u c k i n g h a m Palace are not i n c l u d e d . When the same place is m e n t i o n e d t w i c e in a s i n g l e in so far  as the  name i t s e l f  sentence,  is u s e d i n s t e a d of a p r o n o u n ,  t a l l y n u m b e r w i l l be " 2 " . Tally  is  increased  when  the  nationals  of  a  country  are  r e f e r r e d t o ; for e x a m p l e , people of F r a n c e or F r e n c h people s h o u l d be b o t h t a l l i e d u n d e r the c a t e g o r y of F r a n c e , for b o t h are c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d to the notion of the c o u n t r y F r a n c e .  P r e s e n t a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y T h e aim of t h i s t a s k is to i n v e s t i g a t e i n c l u s i o n a n d o m i s s i o n of  nationals  and  ethnicities  in  the  textbook.  From  this  - 35 -  information,  a judgement  can be made as to w h e t h e r  or  not  the t e x t b o o k is b i a s e d . N a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y of a c h a r a c t e r units  is  judged  categories:  and  counted  who a p p e a r s in the  according  to  the  following  a) male, b) female, c) g r o u p , a n d d) i n d i v i d u a l ,  (a) is a male c h a r a c t e r a n d (b) is a female c h a r a c t e r . a  character's  gender  cannot  be  identified  When  from  the  i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n the u n i t , the c h a r a c t e r is c a t e g o r i z e d as (d) i n d i v i d u a l ,  ( c ) is a g r o u p of people who are the same  nationality and e t h n i c i t y . illustrated meaningless  in to  E s p e c i a l l y in c o u n t i n g  textbooks, count  p e o p l e ; in s u c h a c a s e ,  every  it  is  sometimes  single  person  White A m e r i c a n s Black Americans Hispanic Americans Native Americans Asian Americans Unidentified Americans British French Italians Greeks Canadians  difficult of  t a l l y is i n c r e a s e d in (c)  T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y  characters and  a c r o w d of group.  are:  - 36 -  Australians Chinese Japanese C a u c a s i a n s who s p e a k E n g l i s h - n a t i o n a l i t y is not c l e a r but  the  fact  that h e / s h e is a C a u c a s i a n a n d  he/she speaks English speakers  that  E n g l i s h is c l e a r .  - nationality and ethnicity cannot  be  r e c o g n i z e d , b u t the fact that h e / s h e is a n a t i v e or native-like speaker  of E n g l i s h is c l e a r .  Unidentified - even whether h e / s h e speaks unknown.  There  ethnicity and  is  no  information  E n g l i s h is on  his/her  language.  Others  In  this  study  this  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is s u f f i c i e n t l y  c a t e g o r i z e c h a r a c t e r s i n the t e x t b o o k . ethnicity  such  s h o u l d not be  as  Jewish  American  detailed  to  F u r t h e r b r e a k d o w n of and  Chinese  American  a p p e a r s in many u n i t s ,  a t a l l y is  needed.  When the same c h a r a c t e r a d d e d each time.  H i s t o r i c a l c o u n t r i e s l i k e Roman E m p i r e a n d B a b y l o n i a are also listed.  - 37 -  1.  N u m b e r of main c h a r a c t e r s Major  characters  who  of the play  units  important  roles  in a  unit  are  in  the  counted. -  In  a  unit  of  conversation,  the  chief  characters  d i a l o g u e s a n d also the p e r s o n s d i s c u s s e d b y them are t a l l i e d . For  example,  when A a n d B are t a l k i n g about  C , t h r e e of  t h e m , namely A , B , a n d C are c o n s i d e r e d as major of the  2.  unit.  N u m b e r of a l l c h a r a c t e r s A l l the c h a r a c t e r s are  characters  of the  units  who a p p e a r or are r e f e r r e d to i n the  units  counted.  Characters  who a p p e a r  i n the e x e r c i s e at the e n d of a u n i t  are also c o u n t e d .  3.  N u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r s  i l l u s t r a t e d in the  textbook  I l l u s t r a t i o n s of a l l p a r t s of the t e x t b o o k i n c l u d i n g the c o v e r and appendices Analysts  can  are l o o k e d a t . judge  the  nationality  and  i l l u s t r a t e d p e r s o n w i t h help of the main  E.  ethnicity  of  an  texts.  D i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s a d o p t e d for the u n i t s about f o r e i g n c u l t u r e T h e p u r p o s e of this q u e s t i o n is to f i n d out if t h e r e are  any  p a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s e m p l o y e d to c o n v e y the c u l t u r a l  - 38 -  information.  Previous  (1979)  to  seem  studies  indicated  by  H a t o r i (1975)  that  dialogue  is  and  Kitao  more  often  c o n n e c t e d to c u l t u r a l t o p i c s than a n y o t h e r d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n . The  task  is  to  classify  identified  in  Analysis  cultural  A,  topics  according  that  to  have  their  been  discourse  patterns. It may be p o s s i b l e that the form of a u n i t can be p u t more  than  one  category.  For  instance,  a  c o n s i d e r e d as a joke a n d also as a d i a l o g u e . should  try  to  characteristic one  F.  Evaluators'  figure  of the  out  unit.  which  may  Then  category  be  analysts is  more  One u n i t can be t a l l i e d in o n l y  category.  comments  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  on  the  characteristics  of  the  society  their impressions and  personal  textbook  Here e v a l u a t o r s  may e x p r e s s  o p i n i o n s about i l l u s t r a t i o n s a n d t e x t s . the  unit  into  information  in  the  textbook  from  T h e y s h o u l d look at the  v i e w p o i n t of  its  value and ideology. Analysts society  may  point  described  out  in the  the  socio-economic  textbook,  the  level  tone of the  of  the  editor,  the s t e r e o t y p e s seen t h e r e , the a c c u r a c y or i n a c c u r a c y of the information,  a n d a u t h e n t i c i t y of the  information.  - 39 -  Any  comment  that  cannot  be  expressed  q u a n t i t a t i v e s t e p s s h o u l d be made  in  the  here.  T h e m e t h o d o l o g y of this s t u d y has been d e s c r i b e d i n this A n emphasis was p u t on the c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s r e l i a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s .  chapter.  of each item to e s t a b l i s h  While the a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d , p r o c e d u r e s  e d i t e d many times a n d f i n a l l y d e c i d e d on as p r e s e n t e d a n a l y s i s steps is n e c e s s a r y be e f f e c t i v e .  previous  here.  were  Improving  if the c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of E F L t e x t b o o k s is to  - 40 -  CHAPTER 5  This chapter  p r e s e n t s the d a t a c o l l e c t e d from c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of 10  E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s for J a p a n e s e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s .  The  process  of a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of s i x i t e m s : A ) N u m b e r of c u l t u r a l u n i t s , B ) N u m b e r of i l l u s t r a t i o n s , C ) N u m b e r of f o r e i g n places i n the t e x t s ,  D) N a t i o n a l i t y  a n d e t h n i c i t y , E) D i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s a n d c u l t u r a l u n i t s , a n d  F) Evaluators'  comments.  A.  In this o r d e r , f i n d i n g s are d e s c r i b e d , a c c o m p a n i e d b y  tables.  N u m b e r of U n i t s  1.  Number of a l l u n i t s  T h e number  of a l l u n i t s  in a t e x t b o o k  T h e a v e r a g e of 10 t e x t b o o k s was 17.4 u n i t s . 173 p a g e s ,  2.  v a r i e d from  22 to 1 1 .  T h e t h i c k e s t one h a d  while the t h i n n e s t one was 112 p a g e s .  N u m b e r of u n i t s w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y e x p l a i n f o r e i g n c u l t u r e  T h e p r o p o r t i o n s of u n i t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to f o r e i g n c u l t u r e all  units  Century  i n the English  textbook  v a r i e d from  38.89% to 9.09%.  The  to  New  Series c o n t a i n e d 7 c u l t u r a l u n i t s out of 18 u n i t s ,  while S u n r i s e E n g l i s h  c o n t a i n e d o n l y one  i n t r o d u c t i o n to A u s t r a l i a .  A s an a v e r a g e ,  unit,  which  is a  general  22.41% of a t e x t b o o k d e a l t  w i t h c u l t u r e d i r e c t l y , a n d in 10 t e x t b o o k s t h e r e were 39 s u c h c u l t u r a l  Table A I Hu«ber of Units  Title  (full)  Publisher  Editor(s)  MAINSTREAM 1 The New Comprehensive English Course  Zoshindo  Shoichi Ando David Hale  WHY ENGLISH I  Gakko-Tosho  Katsumasa Ikenaga Eichi Kobayashi  THE NEW CENTURY ENGLISH SERIES I New Edition  Sanseido  Shunsuke Wakabayashi Ichiro Yasuda  FRESH English 1  Daiichi Gakushusha  E i j i Hato  NEW LIGHT ENGLISH I  Kalryudo  Ichiro Tanaka  SENIOR SWAN English Course I  Kaitakusha  NEW STANDARD ENGLISH I REVISED EDITION  1. Number of a l l Units  Number  16  Percent  2. Units Which E x p l i c i t l y Explain Foreign Culture Content  31.25  Big Ben, countries English spoken, gestures, proverbs, American and Japanese customs.  17.66  Japanese and Western doors, some English words and their origins, difference between Britain and United States.  38.89  Foreign customs, the origin of jazz, some English words and their nuance, Japanese and Greek tales about Milky Way, letters of a Japanologist, Japanese and American customs, history of hair style in the West.  12.90  Customs of clothing, images of English words, Halloween, roots of English names.  13  12.50  Language and gender, history and use of g a r l i c in the world.  Sakae Serizawa  17  29.41  School l i f e in America, o r i g i n of English names, things in London, a t r i p to Philadelphia.  Hitotsubashi  Kenzo Kihara  19  10.53  Sightseeing of New York and London.  Sunrise English I  Obunsha  Yoshio Ogawa  Go. English! I  Tokyo Syoseki  Shigeo Imamura  The Rainbow English Course 1  Bun-Eido  Kuniaki Suenaga  18  9.09  Introduction of Australia.  22  36.36  School in Japan and United States, introduction of Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , berbeque and p i c n i c , f l i p p i n g of a coin, manners of greeting, foreign meal manners, language and nation.  JO  22.00  A day in four countries, bath tub race in Canada.  171 (Total)  39 (Total)  - 41 -  22.41 (Average)  Table A-2 Category of Units Which E x p l i c i t l y E x p l a i n Foreign C u l t u r e  Territorial Social Language  Title MAINSTREAM  Travel  Customs  CereAesthetics  Education  monies  1  WHY ENGLISH THE NEW CENTURY FRESH  English  NEW LIGHT SENIOR SWAN NEW STANDARD Sunrise  English  Go, E n g l i s h ! The Rainbuw  - 42 -  Leisure  Organi-  Para-  Commu-  zational  language  nication  1  1  Myths  Food  Familj;  Table A-3 Huaber of Units  Title MAINSTREAM  Total (Percent)  U.S.  10 (62.50)  3  WHY ENGLISH  10 (58.82)  5  THE NEW CENTURY  6 (33.33)  1  FRESH English  17 (54.84)  4  NEW EIGHT  9 (69.23)  SENIOR SWAN  15 (88.24)  NEW STANDARD  14 (73.68)  Sunrise English  9 (81.82)  2  Go, English!  9 (40.91)  9  The Rainbow  5.25 (52.50)  3.25  U.K.  Canada  3. Units Whose Settings are Abroad Some Country English Some Foreign 1s Country Australia Spoken  4. Units Which Implicitly Require Cultural Background Information  Japan 1  Others A European country 1  Number (Percent) ? (12.50) 3  A European country 1, various countries 1 India 1, (unknown 4)  France 0.5, Haiti 0.5, Greece 1, various countries 1  1  An Arabic country 1  (17.65) 5 (27.78) 6 (19.35) 5 (38.46)  1.25  - 43 -  Greece 0.25, Peru 0.25  Party, thank you note.  Party, the South of America, class in B r i t a i n , Greek myth, history of B r i t a i n . Christmas, schools in the United States Fahrenheit, party, mailbox in the United States. History of B r i t a i n , native Indians, Catholic r e l i g i o n . Pope, English meals, French culture, l i f e of Napoleon. L a d y - f i r s t , American history, Christmas, birthday custom, meal manner, schools in the United states, climate of America and Britain.  8 (42.11)  American sports, native Australians, taking a shower, measurement system, New York State and N.Y.C., things in N.Y.C.  3  0.25  Christmas as a custom, social structure in the United States.  9 (52.94)  (27.27)  0.25  Nomination (Knowledge Required)  3 (13.64) 2 (20.00)  Public schools in England, gallon, climate in England. Measurement system (mile), American food, American geography. Measurement system (yard), industry of Canada.  Table A-4 Category o f Units Which I m p l i c i t l y Require C u l t u r a l Background Knowledge  Social Title  Customs  MAINSTREAM  1  WHY ENGLISH  1  THE NEW CENTURY  1  FRESH English  1  History  Geo-  Edu-  Measure-  graphy  cation  ment  2  NEW STANDARD  1  1  sure  Social Sports  Food  Class  TransporTravel  tation  1  1 1  2  Natural Myths  Resource  1  1 1  1  1 1  1  2  3 1 1  1  1  1  Sunrise English  The Rainbow  Lei-  2  4  SENIOR SWAN  Religion  1  NEW LIGHT  Go, E n g l i s h !  Nature  1  2 1  1  1  1  1  '  - 44 -  - 45 -  units  altogether.  Among  them,  8  units  introduced  customs  d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s s u c h as g r e e t i n g s , meal m a n n e r s , s o c i a l l i f e , so f o r t h .  and  A c o m p a r a t i v e view of d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s was t a k e n i n a  few u n i t s .  T h e r e were 7 u n i t s about the b a c k g r o u n d a n d o r i g i n of  some E n g l i s h half  in  the  student's  w o r d s in 6 t e x t b o o k s .  It can be s a i d that more  textbooks  contained  at  least  one  interests  in E n g l i s h  language.  unit  which  There  than  fostered  a  were 3 t e x t b o o k s  w h i c h c o n t a i n e d 5 s i g h t s e e i n g t o p i c s ; 3 of them d e s c r i b e d a t r i p to L o n d o n , E n g l a n d , 1 to New Y o r k , a n d 1 to P h i l a d e l p h i a .  Only 3 units  were f o u n d to i n t r o d u c e s c h o o l life of t e e n a g e r s a b r o a d . events  in  foreign  countries  were  introduced,  either;  Not many 1  textbook  d e s c r i b e d Halloween a n d 1 wrote about a b a t h tub race in V a n c o u v e r , Canada.  T h e r e was o n l y 1 u n i t w h i c h d i s c u s s e d p a r a l a n g u a g e in the  e n t i r e 10 t e x t b o o k s .  3.  N u m b e r of u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s  In  Senior  Swan,  88.24% of  were a b r o a d  a l l the  units  were  those  whose  s e t t i n g s were a b r o a d ; on the o t h e r h a n d , 33.33% of T h e New C e n t u r y h a p p e n e d in f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . were  abroad  was  59.91%  T h e a v e r a g e of u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s  per  textbook,  which  means  events,  c o n v e r s a t i o n s , a n d s t o r i e s were t a k i n g place a b r o a d in 6 u n i t s out of 10  units  different, involved  of  an  English  textbook.  d e p e n d i n g on t e x t b o o k s . 6 countries  which  were  Countries For instance, r e l a t i v e l y well  of  location  were  Sunrise English balanced.  Go,  - 46 -  English! h a d 9 u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  This means,  were a b r o a d , a l l of w h i c h  in Go, English! w h a t e v e r  o u t s i d e J a p a n , the b a c k g r o u n d is a l w a y s A m e r i c a .  were  happens  In Fresh E n g l i s h ,  as many as 11 u n i t s were r e g a r d e d as h a p p e n i n g i n f o r e i g n places w h e r e E n g l i s h was s p o k e n , a l t h o u g h the names of the places were not specified.  It is d o u b t f u l t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d see the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e  to be r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l w h e n t h e y s t u d y the u n i t s whose are  settings  obscure.  In s u m m a r y , as a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y of 10 t e x t b o o k s , 26.58% of a l l the u n i t s h a d t h e i r l o c a t i o n s in the U n i t e d States a n d 11.06% i n the United Kingdom.  V e r y few o t h e r c o u n t r i e s were m e n t i o n e d .  textbook  had  different  settings,  which  a  would  type  of  contribute  in  distribution  of  developing  the  Every  countries tone  of  of the  textbook.  4.  N u m b e r of u n i t s  which  implicitly  require cultural background  knowledge  In 10 t e x t b o o k s , 46 u n i t s or 26.44% of a l l the u n i t s r e q u i r e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b a c k g r o u n d . one-fourth familiar  with  required events  of  all  the  units  it  P u t in a n o t h e r w a y , in more t h a n was  assumed  that  the b a c k g r o u n d of t a r g e t s e n t e n c e s .  can be  r o u g h l y c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o the  students  were  The information  following  types:  a)  a n d customs of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s - - C h r i s t m a s , p a r t i e s ,  and  - 47 -  greetings,  b ) h i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , A m e r i c a , F r a n c e a n d the w o r l d , c)  e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m of B r i t a i n , A m e r i c a , a n d o t h e r Western  countries,  d) m e a s u r e m e n t scale - - m i l e , y a r d , g a l l o n , a n d p o u n d , e)  geography  of other  which will  countries,  a n d f) o t h e r s .  s e r v e as an example of the f i r s t  H e r e is a p a r a g r a p h  type:  It is F r i d a y e v e n i n g at the West h o u s e . room.  He is r e a d i n g a n e w s p a p e r .  the f l o o r .  r u s h e s to the  Mother is in the k i t c h e n .  Just a minute,  young lady.  Where are y o u g o i n g ?  Gloria. p.9)  In  situation  Friday  order  to  understand  first  have  to k n o w  the that  the  e s p e c i a l l y in N o r t h A m e r i c a .  nights  mean  and  I'm l a t e .  ( T h e New C e n t u r y E n g l i s h I ,  countries,  age 10, is l y i n g on  door.  N a n c y : A b i r t h d a y p a r t y for  readers  living  N a n c y , age 15, r u n s d o w n the s t a i r s  Nancy: B y e - b y e , everyone. Father:  Peter,  He is w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n .  A car horn s o u n d s .  F a t h e r is i n the  to Western p e o p l e .  party  of  this  passage,  is common i n  the  Western  T h e y also s h o u l d k n o w what It may be u n b e l i e v a b l e  for  some J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s that a g i r l in the same g e n e r a t i o n may go out at e i g h t i n the e v e n i n g . many  students.  Western c o u n t r i e s , Father  T h e p r e v a l e n c e of c a r s m i g h t be f o r e i g n to  Without  such  knowledge  about  the  lifestyle  e x e r c i s e s a n d role p l a y s of c o n v e r s a t i o n  a n d N a n c y w o u l d be m e a n i n g l e s s  to s t u d e n t s .  in  between  - 48 -  A n o t h e r example of p a s s a g e s that r e q u i r e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d i s :  The  f a s t e s t time e v e r r e c o r d e d for 1 0 0 - y a r d t h r e e - l e g g e d race is  11.0  seconds.  T h e r e c o r d was made b y two A m e r i c a n  on A p r i l 24, 1909. run  brothers  Y o u k n o w it is i m p o s s i b l e for most people to  100 y a r d s i n 11.0 s e c o n d s .  (The  The  R a i n b o w E n g l i s h C o u r s e I , p . 56)  p r o b l e m of t h i s  passage  w o u l d h a v e no i d e a of " y a r d " . passage  vaguely, but  conveyed  by  this  they  passage,  is t h a t most J a p a n e s e  students  T h e y may be able to c o m p r e h e n d the  will never for  they  appreciate are  the  true  u s u a l l y familiar  message with  the  metric system.  It was f o u n d  that  in some t e x t b o o k s ,  the  percentages  of  the  u n i t s w h i c h h a d s u c h r i s k y passages a m o u n t e d to 40% a n d 50%.  B.  N u m b e r of times c o u n t r i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d  In  a l l 10 t e x t b o o k s ,  t h e r e were 845 i l l u s t r a t i o n s , w h i c h  c a t e g o r i z e d b y c o u n t r y a n d t y p e of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . of  illustrations, cartoons  types,  consisting  of  were  40.12% of  most  often  were  F i r s t , as for t y p e s  drawn  all illustrations.  than  any  Cartoons  other were  e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y to be u s e d for d i a l o g u e s a n d e x e r c i s e s at the e n d of  Table B Countries  Illustrated  i n The Textbooks  PhotoRepro-  graphs Colour 38  U.S.  1  Japan  Maps  D r a w i ngs 72 31  Cartoons  21  51  2  17  ductions  Total  %  28  4  214  72  12  135  25.33 15.98  130  15.38  U.K.  8  34  29  5  54  0  Greece-  0  4  13  0  0  2  19  2.25  2  0  15  1.78  0  0  15  1.78  0  0  9  1.07  8  0.95  2  Canada  3  Australia  1  Italy  7 5 7  1  3 5  11  1  0  France  2  4  1  0  0  1  China  4  0  0  1  2  0  7  0.83  2  0  3  0.36  0  0  3  0.36  0  0  3  0.36  1  0  2  0.24  112  140  16.57  0  India  1  Nepal  0  Yugoslav ia  1  Egypt A Country English An E a s t e r n  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  21  Spoken  Others Identifiable  (%)  2  0  European  Country  Total  2  0  Where Is  World Not  1  1  0  4  0  0  6  0.71  0  0  0  6  0  6  0.71  19  4  0  1  2  26  3.08  J.  16  24  _0  63  104  12.31  82  196  169  39  339  20  9.70  23.20  20.00  .62  40.12  2.37  -  49  845 (100%)  - 50 -  the  unit.  which  Some t e x t b o o k s  included  l a r g e l y i n c r e a s e d the  comic s t r i p s  total number  in a whole u n i t ,  of c a r t o o n s .  Black  and  white p h o t o g r a p h s o c c u p i e d 23. 20% a n d d r a w i n g s o c c u p i e d 20.00% of illustrations.  Maps a n d r e p r o d u c t i o n s were not common i n E n g l i s h  textbooks.  It is s u r p r i s i n g t h a t o n l y 4 w o r l d maps were f o u n d i n 10  textbooks.  Maps of the U n i t e d States a n d B r i t a i n were also r e g i o n a l ,  f o c u s i n g on p a r t i c u l a r small l o c a l a r e a s .  N e x t , 14 c o u n t r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d in a l l . more often  d e p i c t e d than o t h e r  illustrations. illustrated  There  countries,  was a t e n d e n c y  in photographs  rather  than  for  T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was  o c c u p y i n g 25.33% of 845 the  United  in c a r t o o n s  which  most p o p u l a r mode of i l l u s t r a t i o n for o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . famous  sightseeing  spots  like  Disneyland,  States  to  was  the  P h o t o g r a p h s of  San F r a n c i s c o , a n d  S t a t u e of L i b e r t y were i n c l u d e d i n many t e x t b o o k s .  be  the  15.98% of a l l the  i l l u s t r a t i o n s were r e l a t e d to J a p a n a n d more t h a n half of them were cartoons.  B r i t a i n was the s u b j e c t of 15.38% of a l l the i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  V e r y few A s i a n , A f r i c a n , a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s were i n c l u d e d . 12.31% c o u l d  not  be  identified.  The  sum of the  countries  where  E n g l i s h is s p o k e n as an o f f i c i a l or a n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , namely A m e r i c a , Britain, Canada, Australia, India, and unidentified English-speaking countries,  amounted  to  61.2%  of  the  total.  The  rest  of  the  i l l u s t r a t i o n s were e i t h e r those w h i c h d e p i c t e d n o n - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g countries  or  those  Generally  speaking,  which  were  not  the  results  of  related Analysis  to a n y  country  B were  by and  at a l l . large  - 51 -  consistent  with  the  data  resulting  from  Analysis  A;  the  more  f r e q u e n t l y a c o u n t r y was d i s c u s s e d , the more often it was i l l u s t r a t e d .  C.  Nomination a n d n u m b e r of f o r e i g n places m e n t i o n e d i n the  textbook  T h e aim of A n a l y s i s C was to nominate a n d to c o u n t the names of c o u n t r i e s , s t a t e s , p r o v i n c e s , c i t i e s , p l a i n s , a n d r i v e r s e v e r y time t h e y were m e n t i o n e d i n the t e x t b o o k . were 31 c o u n t r i e s textbook the  m e n t i o n e d in 10 t e x t b o o k s .  c o n t a i n e d 9.5 c o u n t r i e s .  United  The result revealed that there  States  (26.48%),  The countries  Japan  (19.44%),  (11.83%), F r a n c e (7.04%) a n d C h i n a (6.48%). States,  As an a v e r a g e ,  the  often  cited  United  one were  Kingdom  T h e sum of the U n i t e d  the U n i t e d K i n g d o m , A u s t r a l i a , a n d C a n a d a w h e r e E n g l i s h is  s p o k e n as a n a t i v e t o n g u e came to 45.92%, b e i n g less t h a n half of the total  score.  The  frequency  with  which  non-English-speaking  c o u n t r i e s were m e n t i o n e d was h i g h e r t h a n the a u t h o r h a d e x p e c t e d ; J a p a n took o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l , a n d F r a n c e a n d C h i n a were named at  least  once  in  most  textbooks.  About  half  of  10  textbooks  m e n t i o n e d G r e e c e ( m a i n l y in G r e e k m y t h s ) a n d E g y p t a l s o .  C o n c e r n i n g c i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t t e x t b o o k s h a d d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s in cities  m e n t i o n e d a c c o r d i n g to t o p i c s t h a t  the  textbooks  contained.  Among v a r i o u s c i t i e s , L o n d o n was most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d (42 t i m e s ) , followed b y 37 r e f e r e n c e s a n d 11 to San F r a n c i s c o .  to New Y o r k ,  14 to K y o t o ,  12 to  Tokyo,  Table C I Countries Mentioned i n the Textbooks  Title  U.S.  Jaj jan  Mainstream  1?  6  8  Why English  10  4  2  The New Century  U.K.  France  China  Australia  11  8  Fresh English  6  1  2  4  New Light  3  3  3  Senior Swan  8  1  8  5  9 2  12  17  3  2  4  3  6  3  3  1  7  Go, English!  20  18  1  1  1  The  _7  _7  _5  _4  94 26.48  69 19 .44  42 11.83  25 7.04  English  Rainbow Total (*)  Greece  Spain  Germany 1  Italy  Switzerland  Korea  Turkey  U.S.S.,R.  Others  1  1  13  Sunrise  Egypt  1  1  2  New Standard  Canada  3  1  1  1  5  4  4  2  4  1  2  1  1  4  1  1  1  1  Finland 3, Sweden 2, Norway 1 1  1  1  Holland 1 Mexico 1, Brazil 1, Phillipines 1  1  J  J  23 6.48  15 4.23  12 3.38  _2  J 12 3.38  9 2.54  - 52 -  Yugoslavia  Belgium 4, Crete 5, Vatican 1  1  J  Rumania 2, Burneo 1  4  1  1  6 1.69  6 1.69  5 1.41  Persia 2, Peru 1 3 0.85  3 0.85  2 0.56  2 0.56  27 7.61  Table C-2 Cities Mentioned in the Textbooks  Title  London  New York  Kyoto  Tokyo  Mainstream  1  3  1  Why English  1  7  1  The New Century  2  San Francisco  Los Angeles  Rome  Paris  Osaka  Nagoya  1  1  Atlanta 4, C i n c i n n a t i , Seto 1 Liverpool 1, Cambridge 1 New Orleans 1, Hirosaki 1, Belgrade 1 Hiroshima 3  Fresh English New Light Senior Swan  3  1  Florence 2  3  Philadelphia 4, Houston 1, Lincoln 1, Birmingham 1, Brighton 1  20  1  18  New Standard  1  Sunrise English  Katmandu 1  1  Boston, Tuscumbia 1  1  Sacramento 7, Nara 1, Nikko 1, Detroit 1  Go, English!  The  Rainbow  Total (*)  Others Montogomery 1, Memphis 1  42 20.49  37 18.04  14 6.83  12 5.86  11 5.37  6 2.93  - 53 -  1  1  1  6 2.93  5 2.44  3 1.46  York 4, Peking 4, Venice 4, Athens 3, Vancouver 3, Nanaimo 3, Sapporo 2, Wimbledon 2, Hiaeji 1,  2 0.98  67 32.68  Table C-3 Places  Title  (States. Counties. Provinces, Prefectures, Rivers. Valleys) Mentioned In the Textbooks  U.S.  U.K.  Japan  Area Names, etc.  Mainstream  Georgia, Alabama, Massachusettes, Hawaii  Clevedon, Bromley, Chippenham, Queensborough, Watford, Winkfield Plain  Why English  C a l i f o r n i a , Vermont, Georgia, Massachusettes  Shikoku (2), Kyushu, Kanagawa Mt. Fuji  The New Century  Louisiana, the Southland  Wakasa, Aomori, Asakusa  A f r i c a , Southeast Asia, Babylonia, Carpathian Mts. Europe, Middle East, Transylvania, Mt. Olympus  Hokkaido (3)  Asia, A f r i c a , Guiana, B a l i , Europe, North America, South America  English Channel, Atlantic Ocean  Fresh English  New Light  Hollywood, Horton Bay  North America, H a i t i , Europe  Senior Swan  California (2), Memphis, Oxford (2), Alabama (2), Arkansas, Manhattan, Hudson River  Europe (9), Scandinavia  New Standard  Long Island, Manhattan, East River, Lake Michigan  Sunrise English California (4), Michigan, Grand Canyon, Vermont (3) Texas (3)  The  Ohio (2), North Carolina, Grand Lake, Lake Huron, Grand Canyon, Death Valley  The Thames  Mt. F u j i , Shikoku  Africa (2), Central America, Middle East, South America  Hokkaido (4) Yuzawa, Akanko, Masyuko Suwako, Mt. Hotaka, Mt. F u j i , Mt. Y a r i , Nikko, Arashiyama, Kanagawa, the Toyohashi River  Mediterranean countries. North America, Asia, Yangtze  References more than twice are numbered in parentheses.  - 54 -  Arabia, A f r i c a , Mt. Everest, Europe  A f r i c a (3), Europe  Winchester, Hampshire  Go, English!  Rainbow  Kyushu, Sakai, Yamagata, The Sumida  The Thames  - 55 -  Local  places  Japan  were  plural  textbooks  i n the  scattered  United  i n a wide r a n g e .  are;  Grand Canyon,  G e o r g i a i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; in two t e x t b o o k s ; i n J a p a n , respectively.  States,  the  United  The  Kingdom,  places  Manhattan,  and  mentioned in  California,  and  i n B r i t a i n , the Thames was m e n t i o n e d Hokkaido and Mt. Fuji appeared  twice,  Names to i n d i c a t e l a r g e r areas i n the w o r l d s u c h  as  E u r o p e , A s i a , N o r t h A m e r i c a , a n d A f r i c a were commonly seen in a l l textbooks.  So far the f i n d i n g s h a v e been d e s c r i b e d as to w h i c h c o u n t r i e s , c i t i e s , r e g i o n a l names were often c i t e d i n E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s in J a p a n . B e s i d e s s u c h f i n d i n g s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each t e x t b o o k w i l l be a d d e d here  briefly.  Mainstream  c i t a t i o n of f o r e i g n p l a c e s . in  the  entire  textbook  located in America, mentioned  in  The  was  and  cities  and  or J a p a n .  Century,  English  o n l y 16 t i m e s .  which,  regions  in  in  its  exotic  were  places  names  all  were  such  as  T h e r e were few places s p e c i f i e d  for i n s t a n c e ,  s p e c i f i e d names  of c o u n t r i e s  New Light seems to be well b a l a n c e d in c i t i n g f o r e i g n  p l a c e s , t h o u g h it e x c l u d e d J a p a n c o m p l e t e l y . seen  mentioned  Many f o r e i g n  including  Carpathian Mountains and Babylonia. in Fresh  detailed  Why English r e f e r r e d to o n l y 4 c o u n t r i e s  Britain, New  well-balanced and  Senior  Swan,  which  instead  L o n d o n was m e n t i o n e d 20 t i m e s . J a p a n was s t a t e d  T h e same fact was also  emphasized  In New S t a n d a r d ,  Britain.  There  the c o u n t r y of  17 times a n d the c i t y of New Y o r k was c o u n t e d 18  - 56 -  times,  which  were  very  notable  numbers  i n the  tables.  Sunrise  English p u t a s l i g h t emphasis on A u s t r a l i a w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d s t u d e n t s to its h i s t o r y , s o c i e t y , a n d c u l t u r e i n a u n i t . show that  Go, English!  California. Japan  focused  on J a p a n  F i g u r e s of the  and  America,  tables  especially  T h i s t r a i t maybe d u e to the c o m p a r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e of  and  America  that  can  be  frequently  seen  i n a few  units.  F i n a l l y , The Rainbow English o f f e r e d the most d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n of cities and regional places.  It i n c l u d e d many l o c a l places in J a p a n  w h i c h m i g h t be u s e f u l i n m o t i v a t i n g s t u d e n t s .  D.  Presentation  1.  of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y  N u m b e r of main c h a r a c t e r s  i n the  units  C h a r a c t e r s who p l a y major roles were i d e n t i f i e d , c a t e g o r i z e d b y n a t i o n a l i t y or e t h n i c i t y ,  and  tallied.  c o u n t r i e s were n o m i n a t e d i n a l l . 30.49% of a l l major c h a r a c t e r s a n d 13.90% were J a p a n e s e . any  other  characters however,  national could  be  nationality,  68 out of 223 c h a r a c t e r s  - w h i c h is  - were A m e r i c a n s , 14.80% were B r i t i s h ,  less  than  2%.  About  c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d in terms  35% of of  s e c o n d , or f o r e i g n  to be those who s p e a k  language.  major  nationality;  19.28% were i n f e r r e d to be white people who s p e a k  a n d 11.21% were t h o u g h t  11  T h o s e 3 nationals a m o u n t e d to 59.19% a n d  occupied  not  F i r s t , as for  English  E n g l i s h as a f i r s t ,  Table  D-l-A  Number o f Main C h a r a c t e r s -  Nationality  Why  The New  Fresh  New  Senior  S u n r i se  Go,  The  Mainstream  English  Century  English  Light  Swan  Standard  English  English!  Rainbow  American  4  5  1  3  4  7  13  4  16  British  2  1  4  4  4  13  2  1  Japanese  1  2  7  1  1  2  Nationality  Greek French  1  New  14  Total  %  11  68  30 49  2  33  14 .80  3  31  13 9 0  3  3  1 35  1  2  0 90  Australian  1  0 45  Canadian  1  1  0 45  Belgiam  1  1  0 45  1talian  1  1  0 45  1  0 45  1  0 45  1  43  19 28  5  25  11 21  1  Indian  1  Yugoslav ian Caucasian  1  English  Speaker English  14 Speaker  Westerner  5 2  3 1  2  13 11  3  2  European  1  Arabic Unidenti fiable Total  10  1  —  —  14  24  _2  _3  20  37  _1  — 15  -  57 -  26  —  —  27  13  — 30  17  4  1 80  1  0 45  1  0 45  6  2 69  223  Table  D-l-B  Number o f Main C h a r a c t e r s -  Ethnicity Title  American White  Mainstream  1  Why E n g l i s h  5  The New C e n t u r y  1  Fresh  Ethnicity  Black  Canadian Unidentifiable  2  1  English  3  New L i g h t  1  3  Senior  4  3  12  1  Swan  New S t a n d a r d Sunrise  English  Go, E n g l i s h ! The R a i n b o w Total (*)  Native  1  A 14  2  6  _5  48  2  18  1  70.59  2.94  26.47  100.00  -  58  -  - 59 -  From  a view of e t h n i c i t y , among 68 A m e r i c a n s who were  main c h a r a c t e r s Americans, traced  of the u n i t s , 48 were white A m e r i c a n s , 2 were b l a c k  and  from  the  18 were  the  those  context.  whose  ethnic  Except  for  2  origin  could  not  be  black  Americans  of  Mainstream I , t h e r e were no m i n o r i t y g r o u p s w h i c h p l a y e d i m p o r t a n t roles i n the  2.  units.  N u m b e r of a l l c h a r a c t e r s  Altogether  967  in the  characters  Except Go, English!  were  were  similar  in  a r o u n d 96.7 c h a r a c t e r s could  not  be  counted  in  that h a d an e x t r e m e l y l a r g e  L i g h t t h a t h a d a v e r y small n u m b e r textbooks  units  per  specified  as  total  textbook. to  their  of  textbooks.  number  of c h a r a c t e r s ,  number  10  the  a n d New  r e s t of  characters,  the  gathering  N e a r l y 45% of a l l c h a r a c t e r s nationality;  however,  it  was  i n f e r r e d t h a t 11.58% w o u l d be C a u c a s i a n s who s p e a k E n g l i s h a n d t h a t 28.44% w o u l d be any  n a t i o n a l who has  command of E n g l i s h .  Such  i n f e r e n c e was made b y g o i n g t h r o u g h the c o n t e x t a n d i l l u s t r a t i o n s of a unit.  There Compared characters,  were to  the  20  results  percentages  19.96% a n d 9.20%.  nationals from  found the  in  all  previous  textbooks analysis  studied. of  main  of A m e r i c a n s a n d B r i t i s h were s m a l l e r , b e i n g  In o t h e r w o r d s , one fifth of c h a r a c t e r s i n E n g l i s h  t e x t b o o k s is A m e r i c a n a n d less t h a n a t e n t h is B r i t i s h .  T h e rate of  Table Number o f A l l  N a t i o n a l i ty  Ma i n s t r e a m  D-2-A  Characters -  Nationality  Why  The New  Fresh  Senior  English  Century  English  Swan  Sunrise  Go,  The  Standard  English  English!  Rainbow  32  12  41  18  193  19.96  19  5  59  14  175  18.10  8  12  13  89  20  2  10  13  34  American  18  16  17  13  Japanese  9  12  28  27  2  British  7  4  11  4  11  18  Canadian  19  New  Total  Greek  6  3  3  1  13  34  French  3  1  6  1  12  1.24  2  8  0.83  4  7  0.72  2  0.20  A u s t r a l i an Italian  3  Belgian  2 1  Indian English  Speaker  Caucasian  1  29  16  12  45  7 3  27  8  33  1  14  3  2  6  2  0.20  23  25  32  63  25  275  28.44  2  17  6  7  5  112  11.58  4  4  1  1  33  3.41  33  3.41  English  Speaker Others Un i d e n t i f i a b l e  14  _2  Total  89  78  2 J  1  _3  _2 101  136  47  69  107  72  172  967 96  -  60  -  Table Number o f  E t h n i c i ty Title  all  Characters -  Black  6  Why E n g l i s h  9  The New C e n t u r y  8  Fresh  3  English  Asian  3  Canadian Unidentifiable  5 12  22  10  9  3  Go, E n g l i s h ! Rainbow Total {%)  25 _  1 _  98 50.78  Unidentifiable 1  8  3  English  Native  10  6  New S t a n d a r d  Australian  Unidentifiable  7 1  New L i g h t Swan  Native  9  Senior  Ihe  Ethnicity  American White  Mainstream  Sunrise  0-2-B  Z  _  _ 4  2.07  2 2 1  15 JUL  1 0.52  2  1 _  '  _  _J?  90  2  11  3  5  46.63  15.38  84.62  37.5  62.5  -  61  -  - 62 -  J a p a n e s e was h i g h e r than i n the main c h a r a c t e r 18.10% of a l l  characters.  As for e t h n i c i t y , White  Americans,  Americans. presented found.  analysis, composing  In i n the  4 total,  out as  of 193 A m e r i c a n s , 98 were Black  only  5  10 t e x t b o o k s  Americans, minority and  and  1  Americans  other  minorities  specified as  as  Japanese  (2.59%)  were  c o u l d not  be  A m o n g the 10 t e x t b o o k s , M a i n s t r e a m , T h e New C e n t u r y , a n d  Go, English! included minority Americans. 1 A b o r i g i n a l was m e n t i o n e d .  In case of A u s t r a l i a n s o n l y  L i k e w i s e , only 2 native Canadians and 1  A i n u (a J a p a n e s e m i n o r i t y ) a p p e a r e d i n 10 t e x t b o o k s .  Consequently,  it can be s a i d that t h e r e are v e r y few m i n o r i t y g r o u p s of a c o u n t r y p r e s e n t e d to s t u d e n t s . to  suggest  that  they  T h e way the m i n o r i t i e s are d e s c r i b e d is not are  integrated  society, but rather that they  into  the  mainstream  are i s o l a t e d from the m a j o r i t y  of  the  group,  p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r own l i v e s .  3.  N u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r s i l l u s t r a t e d in the  In t h i s a n a l y s i s ,  the  highest  C a u c a s i a n s who s p e a k E n g l i s h .  score  textbook  was 25.64% m a r k e d  by  the  A l l the t e x t b o o k s b u t one c o n t a i n e d a  g r e a t number of p i c t u r e s of t y p i c a l C a u c a s i a n s w i t h l o n g n o s e s , b i g eyes, and blonde h a i r .  T h e s e c o n d s c o r e was 21.68% b y J a p a n e s e .  A  reason of t h i s h i g h p e r c e n t a g e may be due to T h e New C e n t u r y w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a u n i t of J a p a n e s e c a r t o o n s .  A m e r i c a n s s c o r e d 18.18% a n d  Table Number o f C h a r a c t e r s  Why Nationality  Mainstream . English  D-3-A  Illustrated  The New  Fresh  New  Senior  Century  English  Light  Swan  -  Nationality  New Standard  Sunrise  Go,  The  English  English!  Rainbow  Total  Japanese  21  5  126  25  4  14  3  45  36  279  21.68  American  16  20  14  12  18  20  49  9  49  27  234  18.18  British  11  8  23  4  18  16  10  54  51  195  15.15  21  25  1.94  Canadian  4  Greek  5  21  1.63  French  2  11  0.85  Italian  7  0.54  Indian  3  0.23  Belgian  3  0.23  2  0.16  330  25.64  34  2.64  2  Australian Caucasian  English  Speaker  20  E n g l i s h Speaker-  3  Others  4  Unidentifiable Total  50  22  12  132 22  1  16  5  1  _4  14  30  _6  87  222  233  76  37  16  13  28  8 3  4  3  2  38  2.95 8.16  28  J.  3  3  105  150  93  113  169  1,287  J 6 51  93  -  63 -  Table Number o f  Characters  D-3-B  Illustrated -  Ethnicity  American  Canadian Unidenti-  Ethnicit. Title  White  Black  Mainstream  10  5  Why  English  19  1  The New C e n t u r y  13  1  Fresh New  English  Light  Senior New  Swan  Standard  Sunrise  English  Go,  English!  The  Rainbow Total  W  Asian  fiable  UnidentiNative  fiable  1  1  11  18  4  18  2  34  15  9 49 _18 189 80.77  •  _  _2 7  3.00  _7  _  21  2  36  4  21  0.85  15.38  16.00  84.00  - 64  -  - 65 -  B r i t i s h were 15.15%. small  percentages  E x c e p t for A m e r i c a n s , B r i t i s h , a n d  were  obtained  by  15  other  Japanese,  countries  such  as  Canada, Greece, and F r a n c e .  Concerning  the  e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of A m e r i c a n s ,  80.77% were  White A m e r i c a n s , 3.00% were B l a c k A m e r i c a n s , a n d 15.38% c o u l d not be c a t e g o r i z e d .  T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on White A m e r i c a n s was h e a v i e r  t h a n i n two p r e v i o u s items of a n a l y s i s .  In o t h e r  countries,  were o n l y 4 n a t i v e C a n a d i a n s d e p i c t e d in New L i g h t . this a n a l y s i s ,  10 t e x t b o o k s  In s u m m a r y of  d e p i c t e d 11 m i n o r i t i e s in i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  w h i c h was 0.85% of a l l 1,287  So far  there  characters.  the f i n d i n g s of A n a l y s i s D h a v e been d e s c r i b e d w i t h a  r e f e r e n c e to T a b l e s D - l , D - 2 , a n d D - 3 .  N e x t f i n d i n g s from T a b l e D -  4, which p r e s e n t s d e t a i l e d d a t a on i n d i v i d u a l t e x t b o o k s are d i s c u s s e d . First,  23 c o u n t r i e s or n a t i o n a l s were e i t h e r m e n t i o n e d or i l l u s t r a t e d  in 10 t e x t b o o k s s t u d i e d i n this p a p e r . where  English  is  spoken  as  a  A m o n g t h e m , 5 were c o u n t r i e s  native  tongue  or  as  an  official  l a n g u a g e ; t h e y were the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the U n i t e d K i n g d o m , A u s t r a l i a , Canada, and India.  11 E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s or nationals were i n c l u d e d ,  though  was s m a l l .  each  score  nationals of A s i a ,  There  South America, and  were Africa.  v e r y few c o u n t r i e s  or  Table  D-4  Raw S c o r e s o f Each Textbook on N a t i o n a l i t y  Note:  and E t h n i c i t y  in = M a l e f  = Female  g = Group i  =  Individual  M = Number o f M a i n A = Number o f A l l I  Characters Characters  = Number o f C h a r a c t e r s  T a b l e 0-4 c o n s i s t s  Illustrated  o f 10 t a b l e s on r a w s c o r e s  -  66  -  o f each  textbook.  Mainstream  Nationality American  (ethnicity) (White)  Gender m  M  1  A  I  Subtotal  4  8  13  2  2  (Black)  m  1  1  2  4 4  f  1  2  3  6  (Unidentifiable)  m  f  f  1  1  English Speaker  4  19  f  1  2 3  9 i Japanese  Caucasian English Speaker  British  2  4 4  3  1  4 5  5 9 3  5  i  3  9  12  m  6  17  23  f  1  3  4  5  11  m  2  f  2  Westerner  m  German  f  1  Indian  9  1  Australian  ID  Portuguese  m  37  18.88  31  15.82  27  13.78  20  10.20  14  4 2  1  38  25  f  in  19.39  2 1  4  m  %  1  1 3  9 i  Total  2 1  3  3  1.53  1  0.51  1  1 1  1  0.51  1  1  1  0.51  Italian  f  1  1  1  0.51  Chinese  f  1  1  1  0.51  Arabic  m  1  1  1  0.51  African  m  1  1  1  0.51  Unidentifiable  m  Total  10  10  0.51  f  1  4  5  15.31  9  13  2  15  89  93  14 - 67 -  30 196  Why  Nationality Caucasian  (ethnicity)  English  Speaker  Gender m  Subtotal 12  16  33  61  2  11  15  28  9.  2  2  m  f  American  (White)  11  19  f  8  14  (Black)  f  1  (Unidentifiable)  m  Japanese  English  English  Total  91  18.15  41  21.69  19  10.05  16  8.47  1 2  f  1  9 i  2  m  11  2  f  3  g i  4 1  Speaker  10  10  5  5  1  1 11  British  1 1  6.88  Westerner 1.59  Unidentifiable  m 3.17  f Total  24  -  78  68  -  87  189  The New Century  Nationality  (ethnicity)  Japanese  Gender  M  Caucasian  Speaker  I  Subtotal  4  15  88  107  f  3  10  38  51  m  English  A  m  g i British  (1)  4  2  2  1  1  3  (White)  3  3  g i  4  4  1  1  m  2  4  15  21  f  1  4  6  11  1  1  (Black) (Unidentifiable)  6  11  18  f  2  2  4  g m  1  1  2  1  1  f  3  3  g i  2  2  2  2  m  m  European  1  2  1  g English  Greek  Speaker  1  1  6  7  6  6  m  4  2  6  f  2  2  4  1  1  m  1  9  -  69  -  46.94  38  11.08  33  9.62  32  9.33  15  4.37  13  3.79  11  3.21  5  1.46  2  2  f  161  14  f  m  g French  11  1  %  30  f  9 American  23  Total  1  1  1  2  The New Century  Nationality (Ancient)  (ethnicity)  Gender  M  A  I 1  m  Roman  (2)  Subtotal 1  1 Yugoslavian  ,  f  Dutch  m  Egyptian  m  1  1  2 1 1  9  1  m  Chinese  g  1  Rumanian  m  1  Babylonian  g  1  African  m  1  Asian  m  Southeast  Asian  Unidentifiable  1 2  2  9 i  Total  101  20  -  70  -  2 1  3  0.87  3  3  0.87  2  2  0.58  ;  2  0.58  ;  2  0.58  j  1  g m  1  Total  !  0.29  l  !  0.29  !  !  0.29  l  !  0.29  18  5.25  11  15  2  2  1  1  222  0.29  343  Fresh English Nationality  (ethnicity)  Caucasian E n g l i s h Speaker  Gender  M  Japanese  8  16  85  109  5  16  46  67  1  1  1  7  24  11  42  f  4  21  11  36  18  13  31  6  8  15  3  4  7  1  g  (Unidentifiable)  m  Total  %  178  43.84  78  19.21  53  13.05  1  ID  ID  (White)  Subtotal  f  f  American  I  m 9 i  E n g l i s h Speaker  A  3  1  4  f  2  5  4  11  f  1  2  3  6  3  2  5  2  2  28  6.90  4  12  12  2.96  9 i British  m  4  4  Indian  m  1  1  1  3  1  1  4  0.99  1  3  4  4  0.99  1  1  3  3  0.74  3  3  0.74  9 Asian  g  French  m  Greek  m  African  m  1  1  g  1  1  2  0.49  1  3  European  g  1  1  1  0.25  South American  g  1  1  1  0.25  Unidentifiable  m  39  9.61  Total  17  26  f  8  8  9 i  2  2  3  3  3  37  6  136  233  406  Hew Light  Nationality (ethnicity) British  American  Gender m  (White)  M 4  I  Subtotal  10  21  f  7  11  g  1  1  10  13  8  9  m  1  f (Unidentifiable)  A  m  2  f  1  •  m  33  23.91  3D  21.74  1  15  10.87  14  10.14  9  6.5?  7  5.07  6  4.35  1  6  4.35  3 3  6  4.35  3 1  1  f  7  12  1  2  g Greek  m  3  B  14  Italian  m  1  5  8  g Canadian  (Native)  m  1 1  f Belgian  f  1  3  5  1  ?  3  g Japanese  m  4  •  ID  f Egyptian  5 1  f English Speaker  *  4  1 French  Total  m  1 1  5  1  g  1  2  1.45  German  m  1  1  n.7?  Unidentifiable  n  6 3  9  6.52  3  Total  3 3  f 15 - 72 -  47  76  138  S e n i o r Swan  Nationality  (ethnicity)  British  Gender  M  m f  A  (White) (Unidentifiable)  14  15  38  4  4  1  9  1  Speaker  2  2  7  11  f  2  4  11  17  5  2  7  m 2  5  7  9 i  1  1  2  1  1  m  3  11  14  12  12  f Caucasian  English  Speaker  m f  African  1  m  f  English  Subtotal  9  9 American  I  1  1  7  1  1  5  m  1  f  2  Total  %  48  32.88  45  30.82  26  17.81  16  10.96  3  2.05  9  >  German  f  1  l  1  0.68  Egyptian  9  1  1  1  0.68  Chinese  g  1  l  1  0.68  European  g  1  ]  1  0.68  Unidentifiable  m  1  2  2  2  4  2.74  1  f Total  26  -  69  73  -  51  146  New  Nationality  (ethnicity)  American  (white) (Unidentifiable)  Caucasian  English  Speaker  Japanese  English  Speaker  British  Unidentifiable  Total  M  I  Subtotal  7  11  18  36  f  5  11  16  32  m  1  7  4  12  f  1  7  8  9 i  1  4  5  1  1  m  8  14  27  49  f  2  3  10  15  m  1  21  13  7  f  2  3  5  9  4  4  8  m  18  6  24  f  6  2  8  i  1 2  1  Total  %  94  33.09  64  22.54  34  11.97  33  11.62  20  7.04  5  5  12  f  2  1  3  9  1  4  5  2  3  6  9  2  1  3  9  3.17  9  2  2  2  0.70  28  9.86  m  (Native)  A  m  m  Arabic  Australian  Gender  Standard  1  m  18  18  f  10  10  27  -  107  74  -  150  284  Sunrise  Nationality  (ethnicity)  British  English  Gender  M  m  Speaker  English  A 1  (White)  (Unidentifiable) Caucasian  English  Speaker  6  40  47  4  14  18  9 i  1  1  1  1  m  4  19  23  f  1  11  12  2  2  m  1  4  4  9  f  3  4  5  12  i  1  1  f  3  3  m f  1  2  6  8  4  9  14  1  1  g Japanese  Greek  Australian  (Native)  Subtotal  f  i American  I  m  1  3  1  5  f  1  2  1  4  g  1  1  m  7  7  f  1  1  2  2  Total  %  67  37.64  37  20.79  25  14.04  23  12.92  10  5.62  8  4.49  g f  1  g  2  2  5  2.80  French  f  1  1  1  0.56  Spanish  f  1  1  1  0.56  Unident i f i a b l e  f  1  1  0.56  (Unidentifiable)  Total  1  1 13 -  72 75" -  93  178  Go,  Nationality  (ethnicity)  Japanese  American  (white)  (Asian) (Unidentifiable)  Gender  English!  M  Caucasian  English  Speaker  Subtotal  8  33  28  69  f  4  18  16  38  9  2  8  1  11  m  12  20  42  74  f  1  5  6  12  g  1  1  2  9 m  1  1  4  4  3  3  8  10  m  33  33  f  30  30  g Speaker  I  m  f  English  A  2  Total  %  118  37.46  106  33.65  63  20.00  m  2  9  11  f  5  4  9  20  6.35  Canadian  9  1  1  1  0.32  Chinese  9  1  1  1  1  0.32  Mexican  m  1  1  1  0.32  T u r k i sh  m  1  1  1  0.32  Unidentifiable  m  3  3 4  1.27  f Total  1  1 30  -  172  76  -  113  315  The Rainbow  Nationality  (ethnicity)  British  American  Gender m  (White) (Asian)  M 2  (1)  A  I  8  30  40  f  4  20  24  9  1  1  2  ro  3  4  7  14  f  3  3  11  17  1  1  m f  (Unidentifiable)  (Majority)  m  3  4  3  10  f  2  3  1  6  2  3  m  2 2  f 9 (Ainu) Caucasian English Speaker  Canadian  English Speaker  Italian Australian  French  Total  %  66  23.40  56  19.86  53  18.79  33  11.70  31  10.99  11  9 i Japanese  Subtotal  1  5 2  7  21  30  4  11  15  2  4  7  1  9 m  3  17  20  f  2  11  13  ra  4  15  19  f  1  6  9 i  4  4  1  1  m  14  14  f  11  11  25  8.87  5  5  8.87  3  1.06  1  0.35  m (Native)  i  (Unidentifiable)  f  4  1  m  !  1  1  2  1 - 77 -  1  7  The  Nationality  (ethnicity)  Gender  Rainbow  M  (2)  A  I  Subtotal  Total  %  Greek  m  1  1  0.35  Spanish  m  1  1  0.35  Chinese  f  1  1  0.35  Iranian  f  1  1  0.35  Unidentifiable  m  1  f  1  5  1.77  Total  96  17  -  78  -  3  4 1  169  282  - 79 -  Regional  names  to i n d i c a t e  a larger  area  than  country  seen i n a l l t e x t b o o k s ; t h e y were the West, E u r o p e , A s i a , Asia, Arab,  Africa,  and South  as often the  characters  are  The result  are m e n t i o n e d a n d d e p i c t e d more t h a n t w i c e  as female c h a r a c t e r s .  units  Southeast  America.  L a s t l y , T a b l e D - 5 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of g e n d e r s . is that male c h a r a c t e r s  were  dominated  by  Of note is t h a t main c h a r a c t e r s male  characters  b y the rate of t h r e e to o n e .  which  exceed  of  female  T h e r e are 53 women p l a y i n g  i m p o r t a n t r o l e s in the t e x t b o o k s ,  w h i l e t h e r e are  157 men of major  characters.  its own p a t t e r n  of d i s t r i b u t i o n of  male  and  E a c h n a t i o n a l i t y has female;  however,  it  is  notable  that  British  women  are  s c a r c e l y d e s c r i b e d i n the t e x t b o o k s i n q u e s t i o n ; o n l y 4 B r i t i s h ladies p l a y major roles of the u n i t s , w h i l e t h e r e are 29 B r i t i s h g e n t l e m e n as main c h a r a c t e r s .  A c l o s e r look at T a b l e D - 4 r e v e a l s t h a t  Mainstream  a n d The New Century h a v e u n e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n of male a n d female. . On the o t h e r h a n d , b o o k s w i t h a more e q u a l t r e a t m e n t of b o t h  sexes  are Sunrise a n d Senior Swan.  E.  T y p e of W r i t i n g  This  analysis  made  it  clear  that  c u l t u r a l content  often c o n n e c t e d w i t h e s s a y - t y p e form t h a n with any o t h e r patterns.  Most t e x t b o o k s c o n t a i n e d e s s a y s  was  most  discourse  which d i s c u s s e d foreign  customs a n d l i f e s t y l e s i n one way or a n o t h e r .  T h e r e w e r e as many  Table Frequency o f  Male and  D-5 Female C h a r a c t e r s  Mai n Characters Male American Bri tish Caucasian English  English Speaker  Japanese Total  Speaker  Female  40  24  29  4  31  12  All  Characters  Characters  Illustrated  Male  Female  Male  Female  Total Male  Femali 171  62  135  85  268  54  24  146  43  229  71  64  47  216  130  311  189  93  19  6  157  106  19  14  195  126  18  _9  101  46  174  82  293  137  158  53  524  296  834  384  1,516  733  -  80  -  Table E Discourse Patterns o f the C u l t u r a l Units  Title Type o f Units  Mainstream A B C  Why  The New  Fresh  New  Senior  English  Century  English  Light  Swan  A B C  A B C  A B C  A B C  A B C  Sunrise  Go,  The  Total of 10  Standard  New  English  English!  Rainbow  Textbooks  A B C  A B C  A B C  A B C  A B C  A+B+C  Discourse Patterns 1 1 1  Dialogue 4  Essay  3  1  5 4 3  3  12 2 3  Narrative  2  4 6 2  3  4  2 3 1  13  1  1  1  4  4  5  1 4  2  5 5  1  1  1  1  Newspaper  1  1  1  1  Joke Myth  1  Fiction  1  Biography  3  4  15  40 18  84  26  37  1 1  2  1  5 4  1  S i m p l i f i e d Novels  5  10  10  1  1 1  2  26  1  1  1  Poem Letter  1 4  6  1  1  Song  1 1  1  1 1  3  2  3  2  1  1  12  1  1  1  1  1  1  11  2 1  1  Play  (A)  Units which e x p l i c i t l y explain f o r e i g n c u l t u r e .  (6)  Units whose settings are abroad.  (C)  Units which i m p l i c i t l y require c u l t u r e background information.  - 81 -  - 82 -  as  40 e s s a y s  essays  whose s e t t i n g s  were  would have  seen  as  were  abroad.  being based  A t the  on the  assumption  certain background knowledge.  S t a n d a r d , t h e r e were 7 e s s a y s a l t o g e t h e r ,  same  time,  18  that  readers  For instance,  in New  5 of w h i c h r e q u i r e d some  c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r to f u l l y  understand  those  units.  D i a l o g u e came s e c o n d as cultural  content.  In  discourse  particular,  8  patterns connected of  10  textbooks  d i a l o g u e s w h i c h were t a k i n g place in f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . e m p l o y e d d i a l o g u e s to d e a l w i t h  to  the  contained 4 textbooks  f o r e i g n c u l t u r e as a theme  of  the  unit.  Letter  form  was m o s t l y u s e d  to i n t r o d u c e f o r e i g n t h i n g s  into  the s e t t i n g , u s u a l l y i n the format of a p e r s o n a b r o a d w r i t i n g a l e t t e r to family a n d  friends.  R a r e l y u s e d i n the c u l t u r a l u n i t s were s o n g s , poems, p l a y s , a n d newspaper  F.  Evaluators' represented  articles.  comments in the  on  the  characteristics  of  the  society  textbook  A n a l y s e s A , B , C , D , a n d E were q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s  which  y i e l d e d s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a c o n c e r n i n g the c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t in E n g l i s h  - 83 -  textbooks  in Japan.  In  Analysis  F,  qualitative  c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n is u n d e r t a k e n .  Comments  evaluation  are  of  the  made on  every  s e x i s m is o b v i o u s r a t h e r t h a n r a c i s m .  Table  textbook.  a)  Mainstream I  In t h i s t e x t b o o k ,  D - 4 shows t h a t the n u m b e r s 11 a n d  3 respectively.  ethnicities  which  are  G r e a t B r i t a i n seem play  important  paralanguage  of male a n d female major c h a r a c t e r s  are  It i n c l u d e s a wide r a n g e of c o u n t r i e s comparatively  well  balanced.  and  America  and  to be e q u a l l y w e i g h e d a n d two b l a c k A m e r i c a n s  roles. which  Mainstream is  a  I  crucial  also  includes  element  of  a  unit  on  intercultural  communication.  S t e r e o t y p e s can be seen i n some p i c t u r e s ; E n g l i s h m e n c a n n o t chop sticks and cannot  eat raw f i s h ,  kimonos  men  and  Japanese  rimmed g l a s s e s . Hawaii,  San  positive  towards  in  J a p a n e s e women  business  suits,  wearing  wear black  F o r e i g n places p i c t u r e d are famous t o u r i s t s p o t s l i k e  Francisco,  Japanese c u l t u r e .  are  either.  use  and  A m e r i c a n or  Los  Angeles.  foreign  Writers  ways  A n example is that the  and  appear  negative  to  be  towards  r e l a t i o n s h i p of family i n  the States is d e s c r i b e d as n a t u r a l a n d that J a p a n e s e families need to be  restructured.  - 84 -  b)  WHY ENGLISH I  In t h i s t e x t b o o k , the w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t i o n to m o t i v a t e s t u d e n t s is manifested.  With t h a t i n t e n t i o n , a s p e c t s of s c h o o l life i n the  States s u c h as f r i e n d s h i p , l o v e , a n d s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s The  United  are e m p h a s i z e d .  pop c u l t u r e of the B e a t l e s , R o l l i n g ' S t o n e s , a n d r o c k m u s i c are  also i n t r o d u c e d as a theme of a u n i t .  Some u n i t s are c o m p a r i s o n s of  two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s a n d the tone is fair to b o t h  As  for  the  illustrations,  the  cartoons  are  cultures.  stereotyped  and  dominantly depict only Caucasian people.  c)  T H E NEW C E N T U R Y E N G L I S H S E R I E S I , T h e New E d i t i o n  This textbook refers textbooks.  to the w i d e s t v a r i e t y of c o u n t r i e s i n a l l 10  It c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on a n c i e n t R o m e , a n c i e n t G r e e c e ,  and Babylonia,  t h u s r e q u i r i n g s t u d e n t s to h a v e some k n o w l e d g e of  world history.  A s t r e n g t h of m e n t i o n i n g many c o u n t r i e s a n d places is  that it m i g h t motivate the  interest  c h a l l e n g i n g to t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e .  of some s t u d e n t s ,  because  it is  H o w e v e r , one d r a w b a c k h e r e is that  some s t u d e n t s w i l l f i n d the u n f a m i l i a r names of places c o n f u s i n g a n d i r r i t a t i n g a n d may lose i n t e r e s t  In  the  treatment  c u l t u r e s is s h o w n .  of  in the whole u n i t .  cultural  differences,  respect  for  other  In a c o m p a r i s o n of two c u s t o m s , the w r i t e r s a y s :  - 85 -  " T h e custom has a v e r y l o n g h i s t o r y a n d t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r way is  much b e t t e r "  (p.  17).  c o u n t r i e s are d i f f e r e n t " b e t t e r customs  d)  "It o n l y means that customs  (p.  two  It is e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r e are no  nor worse customs i n the  world.  FRESH English I  R e g i o n a l names s u c h countries  are  as  labeled by  characters Green.  Asia and Europe rather  u s e d to i n d i c a t e f o r e i g n p l a c e s .  B r i t i s h c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d . be  18).  i n the  their  ethnicities.  In the  texts  and  the  cannot  exercises,  are g i v e n o n l y simple names s u c h as K e n , T o m , a n d M r . The  the c o n t e n t  average  age  of c h a r a c t e r s  of w h i c h  are  textbooks,  caricatures  oversimplified and stereotyped. t h a t has p r e t t y white man  is  l o w , for  Therefore,  the  l i v e s of  the i m p r e s s i o n that  is a c c e s s i b l e b u t c h i l d i s h is i n e v i t a b l e .  C o m p a r e d to o t h e r  turban  specific  Only Americans and  A m o n g A m e r i c a n s , most of them  c h i l d r e n are often d e s c r i b e d t h e r e .  most  than  this t e x t b o o k is f u l l of c a r t o o n s ,  of.white people.  suit  are  E v e r y white woman has a similar face  eyes a n d l o n g , c u r l y b l o n d h a i r .  in a b u s i n e s s  The cartoons  In one c a r t o o n , a  is t a l k i n g to a n a k e d  Indian  who is p r a c t i c i n g Y o g a in f r o n t of the Taj M a h a l .  with, a  - 86 -  e)  NEW L I G H T E N G L I S H I  In  this  textbook,  European  people  and  countries  described, including Belgium and Ancient Greece, which  are  related  characters.  to J a p a n e s e t h i n g s  and  no J a p a n e s e  play  major  T h e r e are few u n i t s about the same g e n e r a t i o n of h i g h  of the  textbook  is l i t e r a t u r e - o r i e n t e d ,  works by Hemingway, Mansfield,  There  often  t h e r e are no u n i t s  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a n d few themes about e v e r y d a y l i f e . content  are  seems  to  be  no  Instead,  being derived  the from  a n d so f o r t h .  pictorial  bias;  pictures  and  minute  d r a w i n g s are u s e d i n s t e a d of c a r t o o n s , a n d t h e i r tone is v e r y s e r i o u s .  f)  SENIOR SWAN English Course I  It  puts  textbooks.  the  second  heaviest  A m e r i c a is also f e a t u r e d  besides Americans and B r i t o n s . here.  emphasis  Accordingly,  a  on  Britain  in  the  10  a n d t h e r e are o n l y 3 n a t i o n a l s  Not a s i n g l e J a p a n e s e is to be f o u n d  perspective  of  comparing  and  contrasting  J a p a n e s e a n d f o r e i g n c u l t u r e is not t a k e n at a l l .  As for c o n t e n t ,  A m e r i c a n schools a n d t e e n a g e r s are  in p l u r a l u n i t s w h i c h r e f e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  discussed  to the m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e of a class in  T h e r e are also u n i t s a b o u t a t r i p to L o n d o n a n d  P h i l a d e l p h i a , m a k i n g the segment  sound like a tourist g u i d e .  - 87 -  Illustrations  often  used  are  pictures  and  drawings  in  which  people a n d s c e n e r y are s k e t c h e d in d e t a i l .  g)  NEW S T A N D A R D E N G L I S H I R E V I S E D E D I T I O N  The  first  several  units  are  based  upon  episodes  in which  J a p a n e s e s c h o o l b o y goes to New Y o r k , a c c o m p a n y i n g his f a t h e r is v i s i t i n g on b u s i n e s s . introduced.  The  a  who  N a t u r a l l y , s c h o o l life in the U n i t e d States is  foreign  locales  presented  in  this  textbook  are  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n l a r g e c i t i e s , namely L o n d o n a n d New Y o r k .  American  h e r o e s - - S u p e r m a n a n d L o u G e h r i g - are i n c l u d e d , t o o .  Women's  status  in  Japan  is  debated  in  one  of  the  units,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the impact of W e s t e r n c u l t u r e on life  taking  there.  P i c t u r e s are e i t h e r t h o s e of L o n d o n or New Y o r k C i t y . are  also  maps  of  both  cities  which  are,  into  somehow,  There  inaccurate.  C a r t o o n s a n d d r a w i n g s seem to manifest no p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t  people  in terms of e t h n i c i t y .  h)  Sunrise English I  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is t h a t the  i m p o r t a n c e of h a r d  work and  m e a n i n g of v o l u n t a r y w o r k i n s o c i a l life are e m p h a s i z e d b y the which  introduced  foreign  people  and  their  lives.  This  the units  textbook  - 88 -  includes  various  age  suspense  which  make  There  an  is  groups. the  excellent  It also i n c l u d e s  tone  unit  of  on  the  units  textbook  Australia  that  on  fresh is  love  and  and  vivid.  described  as  a  multiethnic and m u l t i c u l t u r a l society.  As included  for  illustrations,  than  characteristics  i)  any  scenes  other  Britain  country.  are  There  more are  frequently no  obvious  in the i l l u s t r a t i o n s in g e n e r a l .  Go, English! I  T h e ways of life in J a p a n West  of  Coast)  exchange  are  strongly  a n d i n the U n i t e d States  emphasized.  Through  the  (especially eyes  s t u d e n t , a c o m p a r i s o n of family l i f e , a g r i c u l t u r e ,  school system T h i s is the  of both  countries  only textbook  is  a t o p i c of the  and  illustrations  are  an the  units.  that mentioned Japanese A m e r i c a n s .  o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s , no o t h e r E u r o p e a n s ,  Likewise,  made as  of  No  a n d no B r i t i s h are a l l u d e d t o .  mainly  those  of  American  scenes.  T h e p i c t u r e s a n d i l l u s t r a t i o n s are d e p i c t e d in s u c h a way as to s t i r in the s t u d e n t s ' f e e l i n g s of e n v y a n d a d m i r a t i o n freedom  of the c o u n t r y .  for the r i c h n e s s  It seems t h a t the joys a n d b r i g h t n e s s  C a l i f o r n i a are p r o m o t e d b y this  textbook.  and of  - 89 -  j)  The Rainbow English Course I  T h e c h i e f c o n c e r n of the w r i t e r s is that the t e x t b o o k s h o u l d be interesting, plain  that  r e a d a b l e , a n d a t t r a c t i v e to h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . an  effort  was  made  foreign things and places. and explained.  to  introduce  much  i n f o r m a t i o n on  In s e v e r a l u n i t s , a few c o u n t r i e s a r e c i t e d  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h i s t e x t b o o k c o n t a i n s d a t a on a  v e r y wide r a n g e of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s a n d c a r r i e s a g r e a t s p e c i f i c l o c a l names.  cartoons,  and  students.  S c e n e r y from  there  occupies  and  explanations  in  n u m b e r of  A n o t h e r t r a i t is that A i n u i n J a p a n a n d n a t i v e  A u s t r a l i a n s were r e f e r r e d t o . pictures,  It is  E v e r y page of this t e x t b o o k has a few  drawings  which  might  be  appealing  all over  the  w o r l d is s c a t t e r e d  spaces  on  the  large  Japanese,  not  a  pages,  common  here  and  accompanied  feature  with  to  by  English  textbooks.  In t h i s c h a p t e r , been  presented  chapter,  in  facts  tables  from and  the a n a l y s i s of 10 t e x t b o o k s described  in d e t a i l .  In  the  have next  i m p l i c a t i o n s are d r a w n from those f i n d i n g s a n d a n s w e r s  the s u b p r o b l e m s are  suggested.  to  - 90 -  CHAPTER 6  First  Purpose  One of the p u r p o s e s  of t h i s s t u d y is to s u g g e s t a p r o c e s s b y w h i c h  the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s in J a p a n c a n be a n a l y z e d . framework revised. has  this  study,  Joiner's  evaluation  form  was  adopted  and  H a v i n g c o n d u c t e d a t h o r o u g h s t u d y of the f r a m e w o r k , the a u t h o r  something  chapter,  A.  for  As a  to  say  about  its  usefulness.  the items of the f r a m e w o r k are  In  the  first  half  of  this  discussed.  N u m b e r of u n i t s 1.  N u m b e r of a l l u n i t s i n the  2.  N u m b e r of u n i t s w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y e x p l a i n f o r e i g n c u l t u r e  3.  N u m b e r of u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s  4.  N u m b e r of u n i t s  which  textbook  are  implicitly  abroad  require  cultural background  knowledge  T h i s is a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s w h i c h w i l l be a k e y to the • a n a l y s i s of c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t in E n g l i s h were not d i f f i c u l t ,  though other  processes  the a n a l y s t s n e e d e d to d i s c u s s t h e m .  textbooks.  Processes  content 1 and 3  were not s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  In P r o c e s s 2 , not o n l y c o u n t i n g the  n u m b e r of c u l t u r a l u n i t s b u t also i d e n t i f y i n g s u c h u n i t s is n e c e s s a r y , the  convenience  of l a t e r  discussions  and  among  analysts.  It is also  i m p o r t a n t t h a t a n a l y s t s s h o u l d a g r e e on what "a c u l t u r a l u n i t " i s ,  for very  before  - 91 -  starting'  the  investigation.  Without  a  consensus  on  an  operational  d e f i n i t i o n , v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y of the s t u d y w o u l d d e c r e a s e d r a m a t i c a l l y . When i n t e r p r e t i n g c o l l e c t e d d a t a , i n c l u s i o n of a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e  h o w e v e r , it s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d that  of c u l t u r a l u n i t s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean  t h a t the t e x t b o o k c o n c e r n e d is h i g h l y c u l t u r e - c o n s c i o u s ; it is p o s s i b l e t h a t a  textbook  could  contain  many  c u l t u r a l topics  which  may  be  severely  b i a s e d , d a m a g i n g a s t u d e n t ' s view of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s .  P r o c e s s 3 - the s e t t i n g s of the u n i t s - o v e r l a p s somewhat w i t h B and C ; however, a strength task,  analysts  distribution  can  quickly  of c o u n t r i e s .  whether  a textbook  foreign  language,  communication.  Items  of this p r o c e s s is t h a t , t h r o u g h a simple  discern This  a general  process  tendency  also enables  concerning  analysts  to  sense  seems to f a v o u r E n g l i s h for use o u t s i d e J a p a n or  for  use  For instance,  in  Japan  as  a  tool  for  the  as a  international  T h e New C e n t u r y s u b s c r i b e s to the  latter  v i e w , its p e r c e n t a g e of u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s are a b r o a d b e i n g o n l y 33.33%. On the o t h e r h a n d , 88.24% of S e n i o r S w a n s t o r i e s h a p p e n a b r o a d , so t h a t students language.  would In  be  much  more  this  way,  Process  3 may  towards  English.  textbook writer's attitudes  likely  to  regard be  English  useful  as  a  foreign  in d i s c o v e r i n g  the  P r o c e s s 4 was a l a b o r i o u s w o r k r e q u i r i n g a c a r e f u l c h e c k of e v e r y sentence.  In t h i s p r o c e s s , r e q u i r e d b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y for  the d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r w a r d was i d e n t i f i e d .  T h i s a n a l y s i s is m e a n i n g f u l , for  a) it shows how much b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e is t a k e n for g r a n t e d i n h i g h  - 92 -  school  English  classes,  and  b)  it  i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y s h o u l d s u p p l y to  B.  tells  teachers  what  is  the minimum  students.  N u m b e r of times c o u n t r i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d  This  item  aimed  to  measure  how  foreign  countries  were  visually  presented in English textbooks.  It was u s e f u l i n r e v e a l i n g t h a t a c e r t a i n  country  in a certain  tended  to  be  depicted  p a r t i c u l a r , colour photographs  mode  of i l l u s t r a t i o n .  In  and cartoons had i n t e r e s t i n g implications.  C o l o u r p h o t o g r a p h s c o n v e y e d the v i v i d image of o b j e c t s ; t h e i r tones w e r e a n a l y t i c a l a n d d e s c r i p t i v e , a n d were s c a r c e l y emotional or b i a s e d . other h a n d , cartoons usefully implied comical, s a r c a s t i c , and feelings.  It was i n c a r t o o n s  often f o u n d .  that stereotypes  O n the  exaggerated  a n d o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n were  It can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t Item B is w o r t h w h i l e c o n d u c t i n g .  A s a p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n of Item B , one t h i n g s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t ; analysts  have  comic s t r i p s .  to d e c i d e  how to d e a l w i t h  a unit which  is c o m p o s e d of  In this s t u d y , one frame of comic s t r i p s e r i e s was c o u n t e d  as one p i c t u r e , b e c a u s e a n a l y s t s j u d g e d that each p i c t u r e m i g h t h a v e an impact on h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . the  data  a great  deal.  A s a r e s u l t , a u n i t of c a r t o o n s i n f l u e n c e d  Recent  trends  indicated  that  more  and  c a r t o o n s w i l l be i n c l u d e d in E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s p u b l i s h e d in J a p a n .  more  How to  d e a l w i t h a u n i t of c a r t o o n s s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d before a n a l y s i s a c c o r d i n g to the s i t u a t i o n .  - 93 -  C.  Name a n d number of f o r e i g n places m e n t i o n e d in the  This analysis yielded interesting data, a n d local a r e a s .  e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of c i t i e s  Names of c o u n t r i e s r e f e r r e d to i n the t e x t b o o k s were not  much d i f f e r e n t from the d a t a of Items C a n d D . cities  and  local  areas  was  an  effective  a more  precise  i n the t e x t b o o k s .  it was f o u n d that the c i t y of L o n d o n was f e a t u r e d  t h a n the c o u n t r y of the U n i t e d  D.  C o u n t i n g the names of  way of g e t t i n g  i n s i g h t i n t o a s p e c t s of f o r e i g n c u l t u r e r e p r e s e n t e d instance,  textbook  more  For often  Kingdom.  P r e s e n t a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y 1.  N u m b e r of main c h a r a c t e r s  2.  N u m b e r of a l l c h a r a c t e r s  3.  N u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r s  i n the  in the  units  units  i l l u s t r a t e d in the  textbook  T h e s e items were not i n c l u d e d i n J o i n e r ' s o r i g i n a l form b u t a d d e d b y the a u t h o r to s o l v e the t h i r d s u b p r o b l e m r e g a r d i n g t e x t b o o k b i a s . the  conclusion first,  To tell  Item D was a v e r y u s e f u l a n d p o w e r f u l method of  s e n s i n g t e x t b o o k bias as well as i d e o l o g y i n f e r r e d from the t e x t b o o k . d a t a of Item D were b y a n d l a r g e c o n s i s t e n t with f i n d i n g s from and  C;  therefore,  it can  be  suggested  this  a n a l y s i s method  The  Items B has  some  validity.  In c a r r y i n g out t h i s First,  analysts  s h o u l d set  process,  two p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s  up r u l e s of c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s  are  firmly,  made. and  be  - 94 -  always r e a d y to e x p l a i n them c l e a r l y to o t h e r s .  Otherwise, tallying tasks  lose r e l i a b i l i t y .  S e c o n d , Item D can be e i t h e r s i m p l e r or more d e t a i l e d , a c c o r d i n g to the  need  and  purpose  of  the  analysts.  I d e n t i f y i n g the  gender  of a  c h a r a c t e r may be o m i t t e d , i f a n a l y s t s are not i n t e r e s t e d in s e x i s m at a l l . H o w e v e r , it is a d v i s a b l e to do s o , b e c a u s e it is c o n v e n i e n t to k n o w the sex of a c h a r a c t e r  when a n a l y s t s d i s c u s s the d a t a l a t e r on or w h e n t h e y  h a v e to c o u n t c h a r a c t e r s  for the s e c o n d time a c c o r d i n g to a new c o d i n g  r u l e that is e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of a n a l y s i s .  If a n a l y s t s  are  s a t i s f i e d w i t h a r o u g h s t u d y of n a t i o n a l a n d  racial  d i s t r i b u t i o n , P r o c e s s 1, or w i t h the t a l l y i n g of the main c h a r a c t e r s of the units,  Processes  Processes  2 a n d 3 c a n be o m i t t e d .  1 a n d 2, a n d also between  T h e r e is an o v e r l a p  Item B a n d P r o c e s s 3.  between  S c o r e s of  P r o c e s s e s 1, 2 a n d 3 are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , h o w e v e r , each p r o c e s s b e i n g e x a c t eno'ugh to r e f l e c t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t e x t b o o k .  E.  D i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s a d o p t e d for the u n i t s about f o r e i g n c u l t u r e  T h i s p r o c e s s was i n c l u d e d in J o i n e r ' s o r i g i n a l form a n d was a d o p t e d by  K i t a o as  importance. discourse  well;  however,  the  author  d i d not f i n d  it to be of c r u c i a l  T h e r e seems no s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l u n i t s a n d  patterns.  - 95 -  F.  Evaluators  comments  1  represented  in the  on  the  characteristics  of  the  society  textbook  T h i s item was a q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of each t e x t b o o k w h i c h a l l o w e d analysts which  to comment f r e e l y  could  findings  not be  on t h e i r  impressions.  p o i n t e d out i n the  on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  There  previous  were  findings  numerical data.  of each t e x t b o o k were e x p r e s s e d  Such  in d e t a i l in  this item.  So far the t e n t a t i v e f r a m e w o r k u s e d for t h i s s t u d y was r e v i e w e d i n terms  of its v a l i d i t y ,  reliability,  and applicability.  As a summary,  the  f r a m e w o r k was p r o v e n to be a p p r o p r i a t e i n a n a l y z i n g the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E n g l i s h h i g h s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s in J a p a n .  J a p a n e s e t e a c h e r s of E n g l i s h  s h o u l d be able to follow the f r a m e w o r k w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . suggestion,  Items  D-2,  D-3,  and  E can  be  o v e r l a p p i n g f i n d i n g s d r a w n from o t h e r i t e m s . analysis,  Second  because  of  the  A s a s h o r t form for q u i c k  u s i n g Items A - l , A - 2 , A - 3 , D - l a n d F .  Purpose  The study,  I suggest  omitted,  As a practical  latter  which  information  half is  to  of the  study  examine  in the E n g l i s h  the  with  quantity  textbooks  c o l l e c t e d d a t a d i s p l a y e d in c h a p t e r accordingly.  dealt  the  and  other  the  quality  p u b l i s h e d in J a p a n . 4,  purpose  three subproblems  of  of  cultural  B a s e d on are  the  the  discussed  - 96 -  S u b p r o b l e m a)  How much of the E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k is d e v o t e d to t e a c h i n g  culture?  T h e task of Item A of the f r a m e w o r k was to f i n d out the t o p i c of a u n i t a n d to j u d g e  if it was  related  to c u l t u r e or  not.  In t h i s  study,  c u l t u r e was d e f i n e d as e v e r y a s p e c t of life t h a t forms human b e h a v i o u r i n the s o c i e t y .  Specifically,  i n the A n a l y s i s A - l , u n i t s that d e s c r i b e d a n d  i n t r o d u c e d ways of l i v i n g a n d t h i n k i n g of a c e r t a i n c u l t u r e a n d also u n i t s whose c h i e f p u r p o s e was to r a i s e c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s s o u g h t out a n d t a l l i e d . percentage shows  of the s t u d e n t s w e r e  As a r e s u l t of r e v i e w i n g 10 t e x t b o o k s , the  of o v e r t c u l t u r a l u n i t s in a t e x t b o o k was 22.41%.  that  approximately one-fifth  of the  content  was  average  This figure  i n c l u d e d in  the  t e x t b o o k s for the p u r p o s e of t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e .  C o v e r t i n c l u s i o n of f o r e i g n c u l t u r e was m e a s u r e d b y A n a l y s i s A - 4 , w h i c h made it c l e a r t h a t , in an a v e r a g e of 10 t e x t b o o k s , e v e r y one out of four u n i t s a s s u m e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d a l r e a d y h a v e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d of the u n i t . was  T h e h i g h e s t s c o r e among 10 t e x t b o o k s  52.94% of S e n i o r S w a n , w h i c h means  implicitly  require  students  to  the  have  an  t h a t more than understanding  half of  the  units  the . c u l t u r a l  background.  Now, English  do  these  textbooks  is  data  indicate  sufficient  or  that  the  information  insufficient?  Since  on  culture  there  is  in no  - 97 -  e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d set b y p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , it is e n t i r e l y up to t e a c h e r s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s to j u d g e what the d a t a m e a n .  In the  case  of the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n J a p a n , the a u t h o r w o u l d l i k e to c o n s i d e r t h a t E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s f a i l to p r o v i d e e n o u g h c u l t u r a l t o p i c s for two  reasons:  F i r s t , too often k n o w l e d g e of c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d is t a k e n for g r a n t e d b y textbook such  writers.  knowledge,  jeopardized.  In the case of Senior Swan, i f s t u d e n t s do not their  interest  and  comprehension  may  be  have  severely  It is also d o u b t f u l t h a t J a p a n e s e t e a c h e r s of E n g l i s h  are  themselves familiar w i t h some a s p e c t s of f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s u c h as A m e r i c a n s p o r t s , measurement  s y s t e m , a n d Western r e l i g i o u s c u s t o m s .  Therefore,  t e x t b o o k s s h o u l d offer much more e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n .  T h e s e c o n d r e a s o n for j u d g i n g c u l t u r a l t o p i c s to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y lies in the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of J a p a n e s e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s : author's  e x p e r i e n c e , many of them d i s l i k e E n g l i s h .  a) In the  T h e y s u f f e r from an  i n f e r i o r i t y complex t h a t t h e y are poor l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s ; b) T h e y are immune to f o r e i g n t h i n g s  and  information  media.  through  mass  people,  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n a d v o c a t e s senior  of c u l t u r a l u n i t s  per  With  these  they  tendencies  understanding  on  the at  toward  With t h i s g o a l i n m i n d , the a v e r a g e of 22.41%  t e x t b o o k is too s m a l l .  foreign  biased  in m i n d ,  of a n d i n t e r e s t  T h e d a t a of Item E s h o w e d  that most c u l t u r a l u n i t s were w r i t t e n i n e s s a y - t y p e . information  may a c c e p t  t h a t a major g o a l of E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n  h i g h s c h o o l is to r a i s e an  foreign things and people.  although  not  culture,  dialogues, songs, and newspaper  units  of o t h e r  In o r d e r to i n c r e a s e  discourse  patterns  like  a r t i c l e s c a n be e m p l o y e d , a n d d a i l y a n d  - 98 -  p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s of f o r e i g n life can be i n t r o d u c e d . looks  at  English  textbooks  published only  In s u m m a r y , t h i s s t u d y  in J a p a n ,  so  it is  not  the  a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n to s a y t h a t t h e y are w o r s e t h a n t e x t b o o k s p u b l i s h e d in other  countries;  however,  there  is  much  room  e x p a n s i o n of c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n to the  S u b p r o b l e m b)  for  improvement  and  students.  - What a s p e c t s of f o r e i g n a n d J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e  are  featured?  N e e d l e s s to s a y ,  it is i m p o r t a n t to examine not o n l y the amount of  c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n b u t also the way it is p r e s e n t e d  i n the t e x t b o o k .  A  q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h to a n a l y z e c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n was t a k e n i n Items A a n d F of the f r a m e w o r k .  A c c o r d i n g to Item A , the i n f o r m a t i o n on f o r e i g n  c o u n t r i e s c o v e r e d o r i g i n s a n d c o n n o t a t i o n of some E n g l i s h w o r d s , t r a v e l , customs,  aesthetics,  school life,  a n d so o n .  A s p e c t s of f o r e i g n  culture  c o v e r t l y i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t b o o k s were c u s t o m s , h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , s o c i a l s y s t e m s of W e s t e r n c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n , n a t u r e , m e a s u r e m e n t , l e i s u r e , s p o r t s , and others.  A s i m p l i c a t i o n s from Item A , the a u t h o r  out two t h i n g s :  w o u l d l i k e to p o i n t  F i r s t , the i n f o r m a t i o n on f o r e i g n c u l t u r e is not p r a c t i c a l  a n d not t h e o r e t i c a l , e i t h e r .  F o r i n s t a n c e , u n i t s on s i g h t s e e i n g i n L o n d o n  a n d New Y o r k m i g h t be r e l e v a n t to some s t u d e n t s who w o u l d v i s i t  those  cities  of  in  the  future;  however,  they  did  not  supply  an  c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t m i g h t o c c u r when s t u d e n t s t r a v e l t h e r e .  example  a  T h e r e were no  s e r i o u s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s or c o n t r a d i c t i o n s in f o r e i g n c u l t u r e i n c l u d e d that w o u l d c a u s e m e a n i n g f u l d i s c u s s i o n in the c l a s s r o o m , a n d t h e r e w e r e  no  - 99 -  topics  on  between stay  areas  Japan  away  of f r i c t i o n and another  from  countries  nation.  It seems t h a t the  contemporary  topics of f o r e i g n  Second,  between  issues,  such  resorting  as  the  trade  textbooks  issue try  to s u p e r f i c i a l a n d  to  safe  culture.  in  the  cultural  units,  more  attention  should  be  paid  to  e n h a n c i n g a s t u d e n t ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e competence or his a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n in  English.  There  were  very  few  discussions  on  intercultural  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g n o n - v e r b a l communication a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n s t y l e s for  various  people  are  occasions. completely  In J a p a n , different  where  from  communication  those  method of i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i t s e l f the  in  Western  patterns  among  countries,  the  s h o u l d be c l e a r l y t a u g h t i n  classroom.  In Item F , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t e d in the were s c r u t i n i z e d . them,  F i r s t , e x a m i n a t i o n of i l l u s t r a t i o n s s h o w e d t h a t some of  especially cartoons,  tended  to be o v e r s i m p l i f i e d a n d  C a u c a s i a n s were a l w a y s c a r i c a t u r e d as o p e n - h e a r t e d , dressed there  people  were  countries  who l i v e in m o d e r n  some  where  textbooks  cartoons the  of  minorities  underlying  T h e r e s h o u l d be no s u r p r i s e ,  and spacious  tone  then,  was  or  intelligent, and well-  houses.  people mocking  if s u c h biases  stereotyped.  in and  By the  contrast, developing  contemptuous.  c r e a t e the image t h a t  E n g l i s h is s p o k e n b y w e a l t h y w h i t e people a n d t h a t b e i n g able to s p e a k E n g l i s h is one way to be more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d c i v i l i z e d . modes  of  illustration,  the  cartoon  is  a  straightforward  Among various and  powerful  - 100 -  medium e s p e c i a l l y for h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ; t h e r e f o r e , w i t h the utmost  it s h o u l d be t r e a t e d  care.  Item B adds a f i n d i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n a t i o n a l i t y a n d the mode of i l l u s t r a t i o n s : drawings  and,  in  A m e r i c a t e n d e d to be d e p i c t e d i n p h o t o g r a p h s  particular,  the  number  of  colour  r e m a r k a b l y h i g h e r t h a n for t h o s e of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  and  photographs  was  S i n c e a p i c t u r e is  the most d e s c r i p t i v e medium a n d the t r u e s t to r e a l i t y , it w i l l be seen t h a t America  is b e i n g c o n v e y e d  accuracy. cartoons,  On the  hand,  students  Japan  and  with  inference  was d r a w n  vivid  Britain  w h i c h r e f l e c t the i d i o s y n c r a s y of the  Another texts:  other  to the  were  composed  with  i l l u s t r a t e d in  authors.  from Item F , a t h o r o u g h  look at  T h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t s e l f is sometimes n o t h i n g n e w ,  of a c l i c h e ,  a foreigner's  r e s p o n s e in f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . Japanese and foreigners.  view of J a p a n ,  and  be  said  that  on a  the to  being  Japanese  V e r y few u n i t s i n c l u d e d i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n  If a n y ,  their conversations just scratched  s u r f a c e a n d were about n o t h i n g i m p o r t a n t or c o n t r o v e r s i a l . can  and  that i s , some t e x t b o o k s d e s c r i b e d Western c u l t u r e as s u p e r i o r  Japanese c u l t u r e .  it  image  students  are  not  communication that Japanese might actually  taught confront.  real  the  Consequently, situations  of  - 101 -  Subproblem  c)  -  Which c o u n t r y a n d e t h n i c g r o u p s  are most  often  presented?  Subproblem  C was a p p r o a c h e d b y e x a m i n i n g a few a n a l y s i s  Item B was about c o u n t r i e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n 10 t e x t b o o k s . r e f e r e n c e s to f o r e i g n p l a c e s .  tasks:  Item C c o u n t e d  In Item D , the n u m b e r of main c h a r a c t e r s of  the u n i t s , n u m b e r of a l l c h a r a c t e r s of the u n i t s , a n d n u m b e r of i l l u s t r a t e d characters  were t a l l i e d .  C o u n t r y or n a t i o n a l i t y w h i c h was most often i n c l u d e d i n 10 t e x t b o o k s was the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  a n d A m e r i c a n s , whose s c o r e s were h i g h e s t i n a l l  items e x c e p t in D - 2 , the t a l l y of a l l c h a r a c t e r s of the u n i t s . Americans  rated  30.49%  of  major  characters  of  the  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  units  and  every  t e x t b o o k h a d at least one A m e r i c a n a r o u n d whom a u n i t was c o n s t r u c t e d . A n e x t r e m e case was G o , E n g l i s h ! in w h i c h a l l the f o r e i g n e r s who a p p e a r e d were A m e r i c a n .  T h e s e r e s u l t s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d w h e n one c o n s i d e r s the  economic a n d p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s between J a p a n a n d the U n i t e d  The  second  dominant  country  or  national in  t e x t b o o k s was G r e a t B r i t a i n or the B r i t i s h . B,  C a n d D , the p e r c e n t a g e s  that  textbooks emphasis  is,  was in  about British.  all characters  English  were less than half of A m e r i c a / A m e r i c a n s .  one-tenth In  school  In some a n a l y s i s t a s k s of Item  T h e f r e q u e n c y of t o t a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s or c h a r a c t e r s 9.20%,  high  States.  of  characters  Senior Swan and was  on  the  r a n g e d from or  illustrations  New L i g h t ,  British.  15.15% to  Aspects  the of  in  the  heaviest culture  - 102 -  mentioned  were also d i f f e r e n t between  Britain and America.  The latter  was often d i s c u s s e d i n c o n t r a s t to J a p a n a n d v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of d a i l y life a n d e v e n t s were i n t r o d u c e d . v i e w between like  Britain and Japan.  a story  influence  O n the o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e was no c o m p a r a t i v e  i n a far  on  the  country  Japanese.  G e n e r a l l y , B r i t i s h c u l t u r e was  that does British  not  have  characters  any  treated  relevance  tended  to  to or  appear  in  s i m p l i f i e d s t o r i e s a n d in r e v i s e d l i t e r a t u r e .  Item C a n a l y z e d f o r e i g n c i t i e s a n d l o c a l places c i t e d i n 10 t e x t b o o k s . There United  was  a concentration  Kingdom.  Small,  on b i g c i t i e s in the  l o c a l places  in those  United  States  two c o u n t r i e s  and were  the also  i n c l u d e d ; h o w e v e r , it was v e r y r a r e that t h e i r l o c a t i o n s were s h o w n c l e a r l y to the r e a d e r .  A s a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seen in the w a y s of p r e s e n t i n g  foreign  the t e x t b o o k s  places,  atlases to help s t u d e n t s '  d i d not offer a p p r o p r i a t e  understandings  of the t e x t s .  maps or  suggest  Some c i t y maps of  L o n d o n a n d New Y o r k were e v e n f o u n d to be i n c o r r e c t .  E x c e p t for A m e r i c a a n d B r i t a i n , frequencies  in a l l a n a l y s i s t a s k s .  many f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s s h a r e d low  T h e r e was an e x t e n s i v e r e f e r e n c e  to  non-English-speaking-countries in Europe. Ancient G r e e k s , Egyptians, and Romans were r e p r e s e n t e d contained  many  topics  in a few t e x t b o o k s .  related  n e g l e c t e d areas were A s i a ,  to E u r o p e a n  Africa,  In p a r t i c u l a r , New L i g h t  nations.  and South America.  O n the  contrary,  T h e e x c l u s i o n of  n e a r b y nations is c o n t r a d i c t o r y to the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g J a p a n , w h i c h s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n i n g ties w i t h its n e i g h b o r s i n s t e a d of i g n o r i n g  - 103 -  them.  Eighty  percent  of  foreign  students  in  Japan  are  from  Asian  c o u n t r i e s s u c h as C h i n a , H o n g k o n g , M a l a y s i a , the P h i l i p p i n e s , a n d so o n . T h e u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of A s i a n s , A f r i c a n s , a n d L a t i n A m e r i c a n s m i g h t be e x p l a i n e d b y the J a p a n e s e a t t i t u d e s  t h a t esteem  American)  things  English  things  high and  textbooks,  Eastern  instead  of  nourishing  low.  Western ( E u r o p e a n  and  It is r e g r e t t a b l e  that  international  planting in students prejudice against certain nations. would  like  to  emphasize  the  treatment towards A s i a n s ,  In  Items  B,  C  and  considerable percentages. illustrations  was  D,  H e r e , the  of a m e n d i n g  author  the  biased  and Latin Americans.  references  to  Japanese  were  found  in  F o r e x a m p l e , o n e - f i f t h of the c h a r a c t e r s in the who were i n c l u d e d i n  T h e w a y s in w h i c h J a p a n e s e were i n c l u d e d were  Americans.  are  cartoons  t h a n in p i c t u r e s a n d d r a w i n g s a c c o m p a n y i n g the  d e p e n d i n g on t e x t b o o k s .  and  Africans,  necessity  i d e n t i f i e d as J a p a n e s e ,  u s e d as e x e r c i s e s r a t h e r main t e x t s .  urgent  awareness,  In G o , E n g l i s h ! ,  they  different,  were a c o u n t e r p a r t  of  T h e New C e n t u r y c o n t a i n e d u n i t s on J a p a n e s e c l a s s i c a l a r t s  novels.  New L i g h t a n d S e n i o r S w a n e x c l u d e d J a p a n  almost c o m p l e t e l y .  To include students'  and  Japanese  own c u l t u r e or not to i n c l u d e it  may be a matter of p h i l o s o p h y of t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s ; h o w e v e r , i n so far  as  s t u d e n t s hope to a t t a i n some c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e , t h e i r own c o u n t r y should  be  documented  to some  extent,  because  a)  learning  has  r e l e v a n t to s t u d e n t s a n d b) t h e y w i l l face s i t u a t i o n s in w h i c h t h e y  to  be  must  e x p l a i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e i n E n g l i s h , for i n s t a n c e , when t h e y go a b r o a d . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d y i n g o n l y f o r e i g n c u l t u r e m i g h t be t h r e a t e n i n g to s t u d e n t s '  - 104 -  s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d s e l f - e s t e e m ( C r a n e , 1978).  F o r e i g n c u l t u r e s h o u l d not be  t a u g h t at the c o s t of r e s p e c t for s t u d e n t s ' own t r a d i t i o n . and  history  ought  to  be  incorporated  into  the  Japanese culture  instructions  on  foreign  culture.  So f a r ,  representation  t r e a t m e n t of e t h n i c g r o u p s  of c o u n t r i e s has b e e n d i s c u s s e d .  is a r g u e d from the f i g u r e s i n Item D .  t e x t b o o k s , the U n i t e d S t a t e s , monoethnic France, single  countries.  China, race.  underrepresented  nations,  a n d I n d i a were r e p r e s e n t e d among  the  In 10  A u s t r a l i a , a n d C a n a d a were not d e s c r i b e d as  A l l other  But  Next,  Americans,  however,  including  Britain,  as b e i n g each c o m p o s e d of a any  minority  was  seriously  a n d r e f e r e n c e to m i n o r i t i e s was s e e m i n g l y e x c e p t i o n a l i n  the t e x t b o o k s s t u d i e d .  Percentages  of b l a c k A m e r i c a n s i n t h r e e a n a l y s i s  processes  were less t h a n 3% of a l l A m e r i c a n s , a n d A s i a n A m e r i c a n s s c o r e d  less  1%.  than  Other  minorities such  as  native  Americans and  Mexican  A m e r i c a n s were e n t i r e l y o m i t t e d .  S e c o n d , n a t i v e s of A u s t r a l i a a n d C a n a d a were i n c l u d e d i n one or two textbooks.  Native  Australians,  the  A b o r i g i n e s , were  introduced  in a  s e c t i o n on A u s t r a l i a n h i s t o r y , a n d t h e r e was a u n i t on the life of a n a t i v e Canadian.  The  tone  pessimistic,  a n d the  in w h i c h  they  are  described  is  patronizing  n a t i v e people are p o r t r a y e d as s e g r e g a t e d  m a i n s t r e a m of s o c i e t y .  from  and the  - 105 -  T h e s e d a t a on A m e r i c a n s , A u s t r a l i a n s , a n d C a n a d i a n s allow one draw  the  conclusion that  English  m u l t i e t h n i c c o u n t r i e s as t h e y a r e .  textbooks  in Japan  do not  The society represented  is not r e a l , b e i n g d o m i n a t e d b y the majority g r o u p . taught  to  introduce  in t e x t b o o k s  Students  are  not  the d i v e r s i t y of s u c h c o u n t r i e s at a l l .  A n o t h e r p r o b l e m of s u b p r o b l e m C , an e n q u i r y a b o u t n a t i o n a l i t y a n d ethnicity,  was  country and belong?  to g i v e a n s w e r s  to what k i n d  Whose b e n e f i t  l a t i n g on the  hidden  to an i n f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n :  of s o c i e t y is E n g l i s h  does  English  education  language serve?"  i d e o l o g y of E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e  "To which  considered Before  teaching,  the  to  specuauthor  wishes to c o n f i r m the i m p o r t a n t role of E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n i n J a p a n .  T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t E n g l i s h is t a u g h t as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e and/or a foreign language in Japanese high schools. adopted  for  English.  this  study  c o n s c i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d the  T w o of the t e x t b o o k s r a t i o n a l e of s t u d y i n g  In U n i t 3 of M a i n s t r e a m , t h e r e is a s t a t e m e n t , " E n g l i s h is a k i n d  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e t h e s e d a y s " ( p . 1 8 ) .  Why E n g l i s h s a y s in the v e r y  f i r s t u n i t , " E n g l i s h has become an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e " statements Japan.  try  to g i v e s t u d e n t s  solid  reasons  for  (p.3).  studying  These  English  in  T h e y also affirm that an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e means a v e h i c l e b y  w h i c h d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s c a n communicate with each o t h e r . rationale  and  its  associated  purpose  fulfilled  in  high  classes?  T h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y seem to say N o .  N o w , is t h i s school  English  - 106 -  A most p r o m i n e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y was the d o m i n a n c e of A m e r i c a n s a n d B r i t i s h m a j o r i t i e s . of  the  references  in  the  10  textbooks,  models  of  In most  English-speaking  i n d i v i d u a l s were s h o w n as white A m e r i c a n s , w i t h the B r i t i s h h a v i n g next highest profile.  the  T h e f i g u r e s of w h i t e A m e r i c a n s a n d B r i t i s h i n Item  D may not be v e r y b i g ; h o w e v e r , it c a n be s a f e l y s t a t e d t h a t the s c o r e s of "Caucasian English speakers" British. white  T o g i v e an e x a m p l e , major c h a r a c t e r s  Americans,  speakers.  can be a d d e d to e i t h e r w h i t e A m e r i c a n s or  2  British,  3 other  races  i n New S t a n d a r d were 12 and  10  Caucasian  English  In s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , it is q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t s t u d e n t s assume t h a t  10 C a u c a s i a n s m i g h t be w h i t e A m e r i c a n , e v e n i f t h e r e is no s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n the u n i t s .  As a consequence,  out of 27 major c h a r a c t e r s  s t u d e n t s w o u l d h a v e an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t 23  are A m e r i c a n s who h a v e fair s k i n .  Therefore,  it c a n be s a i d t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d p o s s i b l y t h i n k t h a t E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e is most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to w h i t e A m e r i c a n s a n d the  Now a q u e s t i o n m i g h t be p o s e d : of  white  Americans and  Certainly,  it  is  right.  British,  If E n g l i s h is t a u g h t as the  what's  English  British.  has  w r o n g with its  origin  in  it?  language  Isn't  it  true?  England and  it  is  A m e r i c a n s w i t h whom J a p a n e s e are most l i k e l y to communicate i n E n g l i s h these d a y s .  However,  English  educators  s h o u l d be  careful  i d e o l o g y h i d d e n b e h i n d the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on those p e o p l e s , white  Americans.  American education.  Teachers  supremacy Ten  is  English  not  must  be  consistent  textbooks  aware  that  with  tended  the  the goal  about  the  e s p e c i a l l y on  concept of  to f e a t u r e j o y f u l  of  white  intercultural and  happy  - 107 -  aspects of A m e r i c a n life b y i l l u s t r a t i o n s as well as b y main t e x t s . t e x t b o o k s seem to s a y to the s t u d e n t s t h a t E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , A m e r i c a n s , are w e a l t h y a n d h a p p y ; t h e r e f o r e ,  The  namely w h i t e  E n g l i s h is w o r t h l e a r n i n g .  In o t h e r w o r d s , E n g l i s h is not t a u g h t as a way to e x p r e s s o n e s e l f a n d to understand others,  b u t as a tool w i t h w h i c h to g a i n access to a g o o d l i f e ,  l i k e that l i v e d b y A m e r i c a n s . speak  E x c l u s i o n of the  fact  t h a t other  E n g l i s h m i g h t p l a n t i n s t u d e n t s ' minds the false  wealthy a n d w h i t e people s p e a k E n g l i s h . students in Japan  notion that o n l y  A common c o m p l a i n t from A s i a n  w i l l e x p l a i n the m i s c o n c e p t i o n of J a p a n e s e :  who h a d complete command of E n g l i s h saw an a d v e r t i s e m e n t for  an E n g l i s h  teacher.  When he saw the  c o l o u r e d people w o u l d not be a c c e p t e d . speakers derived models  equal from of  white people. his  English  English  recruiter,  An Asian  of a v a c a n c y  he was t o l d  speakers?  It  which is  producing in students near-sightedness  that  In the r e c r u i t e r ' s m i n d , E n g l i s h  N o w , was the i g n o r a n c e of the  education  people  excluded  shameful  if  colored  English  recruiter people  classes  i n s t e a d of a g l o b a l v i e w ,  as are  racism  i n s t e a d of i n t e r c u l t u r a l t h i n k i n g .  N e x t , the h a r m of b i a s e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c i t y t h r o u g h o u t t e x t b o o k s is d i s c u s s e d from the v i e w p o i n t of l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ,  E n g l i s h was a l w a y s a s s o c i a t e d  neat, w e a l t h y A m e r i c a n l i f e s t y l e .  English  language.  w i t h the image of a  T o b e l i e v e that E n g l i s h is s p o k e n o n l y  b y white A m e r i c a n s a n d B r i t i s h i s , i n a n o t h e r  w a y , to b e l i e v e t h a t  p e o p l e s , i n c l u d i n g J a p a n e s e , can n e v e r a t t a i n m a s t e r y of E n g l i s h .  other  English  is s o m e t h i n g to be e n v i e d a n d f a n c i e d b u t n e v e r to be l e a r n e d s u c c e s s f u l l y  - 108 -  by  Japanese.  motivation  to  This study  belief  is  English.  detrimental The  author  to  students,  would  damaging  suggest  that  their  English  t e x t b o o k s s h o u l d c o n t a i n more c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d b y J a p a n e s e a n d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d show models of m i n o r i t i e s who speak E n g l i s h . is a f l e x i b l e  language  which  has  created  various  In f a c t ,  versions  English  all over  the  w o r l d a n d t h a t is what makes E n g l i s h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e .  Conclusions  T h e f i r s t p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was to p r e s e n t  a process by  which  the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t of E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s i n J a p a n c o u l d be a n a l y z e d . tentative  framework  d e t e c t i o n scheme  was  built by  combining Joiner's  form  u s e d i n s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of t e x t b o o k s .  and  a  After  A  biasusing  the f r a m e w o r k w i t h 10 E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s , it was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e were some o v e r l a p s among items w h i c h c o u l d be o m i t t e d a c c o r d i n g to the  situation,  the  framework  was s o u n d a n d e f f e c t i v e ,  having  validity,  reliability, and applicability.  The second purpose  was to ask what a n d how m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n on  f o r e i g n c u l t u r e was t a u g h t textbooks  revealed  that  in E n g l i s h c l a s s e s in J a p a n .  the  average  percentage  of c u l t u r a l u n i t s  t e x t b o o k was 22.41%, w h i c h was r e g a r d e d as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be i m p r o v e d , for the c o n t e n t s a n d i l l u s t r a t i o n s were s t e r e o t y p e d . bias:  A r e v i e w of ten in a  T h e q u a l i t y of were s u p e r f i c i a l  The study found ethnic and national  white A m e r i c a n s were a d o m i n a n t g r o u p b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n a s m a r t ,  - 109 -  bright  and  wealthy  mastering  English  awareness.  image. smoothly  This and  bias from  might  prevent  enhancing  students  true  from  international  It can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s e x a m i n e d i n  t h i s s t u d y do not c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t informat-ion-to-mak"e~ s t u d e n t s c u l t u r a l l y sensitive and international.  T r e a t m e n t of c u l t u r e in E F L is not a simple m a t t e r , b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s are not m o t i v a t e d to be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e ; i n s t e a d , l e a r n about it as e n r i c h m e n t . ideological  and  political  educators can do.  T e a c h i n g c u l t u r e i n E F L also i n v o l v e s m a n y  issues.  However,  there  Students  is  much  that  EFL  T h e y s h o u l d s t a r t b y d i s c u s s i n g what t h e y are t e a c h i n g  r i g h t now a n d what t h e y s h o u l d teach i n o r d e r child.  they  to r a i s e an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  s h o u l d be e x p o s e d to v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of f o r e i g n  culture  w h i c h h a v e been n e g l e c t e d s u c h as p a r a l a n g u a g e , m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d h i s t o r y . B y learning foreign and Japanese culture t h r o u g h a comprehensive p r o g r a m , s t u d e n t s w o u l d be a f f o r d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to e n h a n c e t h e i r  understanding  of  against  other  countries,  own/foreign  countries.  instead  of  developing  prejudices  their  - 110 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Abercrombie, Charlotte M . (1974). A Content Analysis of Reading Textbooks in Terms of Moral Value. D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , T e a c h e r s College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . A l s p e k t o r , Rose A n n . (1980). Washington, DC: United Clearinghouse Publication.  Fair Textbooks: A Resource States C o m m i s s i o n on C i v i l  Guide. Rights  A n d e r s o n , Billie & B a r n i t z , J o h n . (1984). C r o s s - c u l t u r a l schemata a n d r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n . Journal of Reading, 3 3 ( 2 ) , 183202. A n d e r s o n , R . C . (1984). 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A r a t i n g scale for e v a l u a t i n g E n g l i s h as a s e c o n d l a n g a u g e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . J o u r n a l of R e a d i n g , 2 6 ( 3 ) , 222-228. Takanashi, Kenkichi. ( 1985). Nihontosho L a i b u .  E i g o no S e n s e i Ima to M u k a s h i .  Talmage, Harriet. (1985). Part I. C u r r i c u l u m R e v i e w , 2 4 ( 6 ) , 18-26.  The  antecedents  of  Tokyo: selection.  Thiagarajan, S. & Dormant, Diane. (1977). T h e E P I E S e l e c t i o n M o d e l for M a t c h i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s a n d I n d i v i d u a l L e a r n e r s . Water M i l l , NY: EPIE Institute. T u c k e r , C . A . (1978). Evaluating beginning textbooks. In H . M a d s e n ( E d s . ) , Adaptation in Language Teaching. Rowley, MA: Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c .  - 116 -  V u k e l i c h , C a r o l , M c C a r t y , Charlotte, Nanis, C l a i r e . (1976). children's books. Childhood Education, 52, 220-222.  Sex bias i n  Weitzman, L e n o r e , et a l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Sex role s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n p i c t u r e books for p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . American Journal of Sociology, 77, 11251150. Willcott, P a u l . (1974). Advanced E F L and Traditional Goals of Freshman Composition. E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e N o . E D 094 575. Willaims, D a v i d . (1983). D e v e l o p i n g c r i t e r i a for E L T Journal, 251-261. Zender, W . F . & Zender, S . K . (1976). Selecting Textbooks. Belmont, C A : Zimet, S a r a G o o d m a n , Stoughton.  (1976).  Zimet, Sara Goodman, (1972). Grune and Stratton.  textbook  evaluation.  Handbook for Evaluating Fearon P u b l i s h e r s , Inc.  Print and Prejudice.  London:  What Children Read in School.  and  Hodder and New Y o r k :  - 117 -  APPENDIX A  Joiner's Texts  F o r m for  E v a l u a t i n g the  C u l t u r a l Content  T i t l e of T e x t : Author: Publisher and C o p y r i g h t Date: Language and L e v e l : T h i s t e x t is ( 1 , 2, 3, 4, ) i n a s e r i e s of  I.  of F o r e i g n  Language  .  Illustrations: A.  T y p e s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s ( C h e c k those w h i c h a p p l y . ) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  B.  Segments of s o c i e t y which a p p l y . ) 1.  2.  3. 4.  C.  photographs: b l a c k a n d white maps facsimiles (of t i c k e t s , c o i n s , l e t t e r s , c a r t o o n s a n d comic s t r i p s r e p r o d u c t i o n s of w o r k s of a r t line drawings  color etc.)  r e p r e s e n t e d in illustrations  (Check  those  socio-economic l e v e l s : upper middle lower age g r o u p s : youth middle age o l d age sex male female life s t y l e s : urban rural small town  O v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n of c u l t u r e c r e a t e d b y i l l u s t r a t i o n s . ( M a k e a c h e c k m a r k a l o n g the l i n e at the p o i n t between the two adjectives which best expresses your evaluation. A check h a l f w a y b e t w e e n the two w o u l d i n d i c a t e a b a l a n c e between two opposites.)  118 -  Illustrations authentic  inauthentic  historical  contemporary  still  active  quaint,  romantic  inoffensive  realistic  controversial  representative  selective  formal  informal  attractive  unattractive  positive  negative  T e x t s C o n t a i n i n g M a t e r i a l of a C u l t u r a l N a t u r e : A.  T y p e s of t e x t s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  ( C h e c k those w h i c h a p p l y . )  dialogues "seeded" with c u l t u r a l information a n d / o r on s i t u a t i o n s t y p i c a l of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e special cultural narratives e x p l a n a t o r y c u l t u r a l notes songs poems essays letters newspaper article jokes and anecdotes folk tales a n d p r o v e r b s fiction by reputable writers  based  - 119 -  12.  other  (please  specify)  13.  other  (please  specify)  Segments apply.) 1.  2.  3. 4.  of s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t e d  in texts  ( C h e c k those  which  socio-economic levels: upper middle lower age g r o u p s : youth m i d d l e age o l d age sex: male female life s t y l e s : urban rural small town  O v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n of c u l t u r e c r e a t e d b y t e x t s (make a c h e c k m a r k a l o n g the l i n e at the p o i n t b e t w e e n the two a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h b e s t e x p r e s s e s y o u r e v a l u a t i o n . A c h e e k halfway b e t w e e n the two w o u l d i n d i c a t e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n two o p p o s i t e s . ) Texts lively  dull  antiquated •  modern •  •  _____ •  •  •  •  positive  negative •  genuine  balanced  •  •  •  •  •  • false  biased  - 120 -  interesting •  fresh  boring •  •  •  •  •  •  and original  stereotyped  superficial  profound  happy  sad  work  play  serious  III.  light  G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n s R e l a t i n g to C u l t u r e : 1. 2. 3. 4.  5. 6.  L i s t the f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s whose c u l t u r e is d e s c r i b e d or i l l u s t r a t e d in the b o o k . In y o u r o p i n i o n w o u l d this book t e n d to r e i n f o r c e n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e s of the f o r e i g n people? Yes ( ) No ( ) Do the a u t h o r s of the book seem to c o n s i d e r c u l t u r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t of l a n g u a g e s t u d y or i n c i d e n t a l to it? Integral ( ) Incidental ( ) Is c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d in a f r a g m e n t e d way ( b i t s a n d pieces h e r e a n d t h e r e ) or is it u n i f i e d a r o u n d p a t t e r n s a n d themes of c u l t u r e ( p a t t e r n s of p o l i t e n e s s , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e t c . ) ? Fragmented ( ) Unified ( ) Does t h i s book compare a n d c o n t r a s t the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e with American culture? Yes ( ) No ( ) A l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u l t u r e i n t h i s b o o k is poor ( ) fair ( ) adequate ( ) good ( ) excellent ( ).  \  - 121 -  IV.  S u p p l e m e n t a r y M a t e r i a l A v a i l a b l e from the P u b l i s h e r : 1. 2. 3.  Does the T e a c h e r ' s M a n u a l c o n t a i n s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s for the t e a c h i n g of c u l t u r e ? Yes ( ) No ( ) L i s t s u p p l e m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l k e y e d to the book s u c h as f i l m s , f i l m s t r i p s , f l a s h c a r d s , a n d the l i k e . Would y o u r s c h o o l be able to p u r c h a s e t h e s e m a t e r i a l s ? Yes ( ) No ( )  - 122 -  K a w a n o ' s F r a m e w o r k U s e d In T h i s S t u d y A.  N u m b e r of U n i t s 1. 2. 3. 4.  B.  N u m b e r of N u m b e r of Number of Number of knowledge  a l l u n i t s i n the t e x t b o o k units which explicitly explain foreign culture u n i t s whose s e t t i n g s are a b r o a d units which implicitly require c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d  N u m b e r of times c o u n t r i e s  are  photographs - - colour photographs - - black and drawings maps cartoons reproductions C.  Name a n d number in the t e x t b o o k  D.  Presentation 1. 2. 3.  E.  illustrated white  of f o r e i g n places ( c i t i e s a n d c o u n t r i e s )  mentioned  of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y  N u m b e r of main c h a r a c t e r s i n the u n i t s N u m b e r of a l l c h a r a c t e r s in the u n i t s N u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the t e x t b o o k  Discourse patterns adopted  for the u n i t s a b o u t f o r e i g n  culture  dialogue narrative essay letter fiction song poem newspaper joke folktale simplified novel biography play F.  E v a l u a t o r s comments on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t e d in the t e x t b o o k 1. 2.  Illustrations Texts  

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