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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of cultural contents of high school English textbooks in Japan 1987

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AN ANALYSIS OF C U L T U R A L CONTENTS OF HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH T E X T B O O K S IN JAPAN B y M A D O K A K A W A N O B . A . , T s u d a C o l l e g e , 1981 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Depar tment of Language Educa t ion) We accept this thesis as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d C O L U M B I A T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H S E P T E M B E R , 1987 © Madoka Kawano , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ^eptUnh&r- ^^j• ^9^7 DE-6(3/81) A B S T R A C T Th i s s t udy was conduc t ed for the fo l lowing two p u r p o s e s : 1) to create and test a process b y which c u l t u r a l informat ion in E n g l i s h tex tbooks in Japan can be a n a l y z e d , and 2) to examine what and how much information about fo re ign c u l t u r e is t aught in E n g l i s h classes in J a p a n . F i r s t , a process was deve loped from Jo ine r ' s eva lua t ion form to gauge the c u l t u r a l content of E F L t e x t b o o k s . A c t i o n was taken to ensu re that the process i n c l u d e d both qua l i t a t ive and quan t i t a t ive s t eps . S e c o n d , the process enta i led an ana lys i s of the c u l t u r a l content of 10 senior h i g h school E n g l i s h t ex tbooks p u b l i s h e d in J a p a n . The process was found to be func t iona l and the ana lys i s r evea led that the tex tbooks were inadequate for the purpose of r a i s i n g s tuden t s ' c u l t u r a l awareness . The resu l t s of this s t u d y may be u t i l i z ed not on ly for the improvement of t e x t b o o k s , bu t also for fu tu re s tudies which might examine jun io r h igh school and col lege E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s . - i i i - T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page N o . I . C H A P T E R 1: I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 II. C H A P T E R 2: REVIEW OF L I T E R A T U R E Tex tbook Se l ec t i on /Eva lua t i on Methods 3 Guide l ines and Resea rch on C u l t u r a l Contents of E F L T e x t b o o k s 5 Soc io logica l Studies on T e x t b o o k s 7 Summary 12 I I I . C H A P T E R 3: R A T I O N A L E OF S T U D Y The Purposes of the S t u d y 15 Jus t i f i ca t ion of the S t u d y 15 Subproblems 20 Assumpt ions 22 I V . C H A P T E R 4: M E T H O D O L O G Y 24 Samples 25 Framework of the S t u d y 26 C o d i n g Procedures 31 V . C H A P T E R 5: P R E S E N T A T I O N OF D A T A 40 V I . C H A P T E R 6: I N T E R P R E T A T I O N S A N D C O N C L U S I O N S F i r s t Purpose 90 Second Purpose 95 Conc lus ions 108 V I I . B I B L I O G R A P H Y 110 V I I I . A P P E N D I C E S 117 - iv - LIST OF T A B L E S Page N o . Table A - l : Number of a l l Un i t s and Number of Uni t s Which E x p l i c i t l y E x p l a i n F o r e i g n C u l t u r e 41 Table A - 2 : Ca t ego ry of Un i t s Which E x p l i c i t l y E x p l a i n F o r e i g n C u l t u r e 42 Table A - 3 : Number of Un i t s Whose Se t t ings are A b r o a d and Number of Uni t s Impl ic i t ly R e q u i r e C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d Information 43 Table A - 4 : Ca t ego ry of Uni ts Which Impl ic i t ly R e q u i r e C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d Information 44 Table B : Coun t r i e s I l l u s t r a t e d in the Tex tbooks 49 Table C - l : Coun t r i e s Ment ioned in the Tex tbooks 52 Table C - 2 : Ci t ies Ment ioned in the Tex tbooks 53 Table C - 3 : Places Ment ioned in the Tex tbooks 5'4 Table D - l - A : Number of Main C h a r a c t e r s - Na t iona l i ty 57 Table D - l - B : Number of Main C h a r a c t e r s - E t h n i c i t y 58 Table D - 2 - A : Number of A I L C h a r a c t e r s - Na t iona l i ty 60 Table D - 2 - B : Number of A l l C h a r a c t e r s - E t h n i c i t y 61 Table D - 3 - A : Number of C h a r a c t e r s I l l u s t r a t e d - Na t iona l i ty 63 Table D - 3 - B : Number of C h a r a c t e r s I l l u s t r a t ed - E t h n i c i t y 64 Table D - 4 : Raw Scores of Each Tex tbook on Na t iona l i ty and E t h n i c i t y 66 Tab le D - 5 : F r e q u e n c y of Male and Female C h a r a c t e r s 80 Table E : Di scourse Pa t t e rns of the C u l t u r a l Uni t s 81 - v - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Gra te fu l acknowledgement is made to Professor Mary A s h w o r t h , D r . B e r n a r d Mohan and D r . Margare t E a r l y of the Language Educa t ion Depar tment , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , for the adv ice and encouragement . I am also g r a t e fu l to my h u s b a n d T e t s u y a for his help and s u p p o r t . - 1 - CHAPTER 1 L e a r n i n g a fo re ign language invo lves l e a r n i n g a fo re ign c u l t u r e and vice v e r s a . In J a p a n , a c c o r d i n g to the Cour se of S t u d y sugges t ed b y the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , one of the goals of E n g l i s h for Seconda ry Schools is to develop an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of ways of l i v i n g and t h i n k i n g in fo re ign c o u n t r i e s . In other w o r d s , to s t u d y fore ign c u l t u r e is a main object ive of E n g l i s h courses in the upper s econda ry schoo l s . 'To s t u d y fo re ign c u l t u r e ' is a vague statement which p r o v i d e s teachers wi th no gu ide l ines as to what shou ld be taught or when and how it shou ld be t augh t . Teachers and textbook pub l i she r s make dec i s ions about the c u l t u r a l content of the i r courses a c c o r d i n g to thei r own ideas and ph i lo soph ie s . While the t each ing of grammar in E n g l i s h classes has been s tud ied and a r g u e d about for more than a h u n d r e d y e a r s , the c u l t u r a l domain has only r ecen t ly become a par t of the E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m . The subject has r a r e ly been d i s c u s s e d by teachers and textbook p u b l i s h e r s in J a p a n ; v e r y l i t t l e r e sea rch has been done on textbook content and an ana ly t i ca l process has not been d e v e l o p e d . R e c e n t l y , Japanese educa tors have been advoca t ing that educa t ion in Japan has to be i n t e rna t i ona l i z ed and that E n g l i s h educa t ion s h o u l d help s tudents to raise c u l t u r a l awareness . A l t h o u g h there is no consensus as to what the term ' c u l t u r a l awareness ' means, the author would i n t e r p r e t that i t i nvo lves three f ac to r s ; f i r s t , s tudents must have a t t a ined a s u r v i v a l l e v e l of E n g l i s h and be able to communicate with fore ign people . S e c o n d , - 2 - they must increase the i r respec t for fore ign c u l t u r e s . L a s t l y , they must be knowledgeable about Japanese cu l tu re and be p r e p a r e d to exp la in i t . T h i s s t udy wi l l examine whether E n g l i s h classes at h igh schools are s e r v i n g those needs. In this s t u d y , the author attempts f i r s t to dev i se a process by which to analyze the c u l t u r a l domain of E n g l i s h tex tbooks in J a p a n , and then to employ that process to inves t iga te what and how much is l ea rn t by Japanese s tudents about fo re ign cu l tu re in thei r E n g l i s h c l a s se s . Af te r presenta t ion of a ten ta t ive framework for a n a l y s i s , ten ser ies of h igh school E n g l i s h tex tbooks p u b l i s h e d in Japan wi l l be s t u d i e d in terms of the qua l i ty and quan t i ty of the c u l t u r a l information they c o n t a i n . T h i s s t u d y , i t is hoped , w i l l ass is t h igh school educa tors by s u g g e s t i n g a method of analys is which encourages d i s cus s ion among educa to r s . A t the same time, the resu l t s w i l l r evea l cha rac t e r i s t i c s of E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n in Japan as well as p r o v i d i n g some hints on how to improve such i n s t r u c t i o n in the f u t u r e . - 3 - CHAPTER 2 The purpose of this chapter is to examine l i t e r a tu re dea l ing wi th the process b y which E F L textbooks can be ana lyzed in terms of the treatment of c u l t u r e and to rev iew re la ted s tudies which deal wi th the subject matter of t e x t b o o k s . Formats to select or to evaluate t ex tbooks are d i s c u s s e d , fol lowed by gu ide l ines and r e sea rch on the c u l t u r a l content of E F L t e x t b o o k s . T h e n soc io logica l s tud ies which are mainly about h i s t o r y tex tbooks and basa l readers are c i t ed wi th an emphasis on the ana lys i s of the i r methodology. Tex tbook S e l e c t i o n / E v a l u a t i o n Methods The l i t e r a tu re s u r v e y at the f i r s t stage was c o n d u c t e d by go ing t h r o u g h tex tbooks se l ec t ion /eva lua t ion methods . Systems p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t ended to evaluate E S L / E F L mater ials were advoca ted by Cowles (1976) , T u c k e r (1978) , and S t e lg l i t z (1982) . William (1983) sugges t ed a scheme in which four assumptions are made; gu ide l ines for non-na t ive t e ache r s , up - to-date methodology , needs of s t u d e n t s , and re levan t s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . H o w e v e r , on account of the t endency of E S L / E F L spec ia l i s t s to center a t tent ion on the l i n g u i s t i c domain of t e x t b o o k s , the i r r a t i n g systems are not su i tab le for content ana lys i s of c u l t u r a l t rea tment . When the author widened the range of l i t e r a tu re sea rch from E S L / E F L to gene ra l subject a reas , some systems conce rned wi th c u l t u r a l - 4 - and social aspects of the tex tbooks were f o u n d . Zender and Zender ( 1976) wrote a handbook for an o v e r a l l c r i t e r i a scheme for tex tbook adopt ion and se lec t ion . T h e i r c h e c k l i s t s i nc lude items which ask i f a textbook is appropr ia te in t reatment of r ace , r e l i g i o n , s e x , soc ia l g r o u p , and self- image. R e g r e t t a b l y , these items are too gene ra l and are h a r d to judge at a g lance . Educa t iona l Resea r ch S e r v i c e ( E R S ) repor t s a p rocedure of the C a r r o l l C o u n t y , M a r y l a n d B o a r d of Educa t ion which has c r i t e r i a from the pe r spec t ive of the r i gh t s of women and minor i t ies ( K u n d e r , 1976). In order to sense b i a se s , it sugges t s c o u n t i n g the number of times gender and e thnic g roup are ment ioned in the t ex tbook . T h i s can be an impor tan t par t of c u l t u r a l content ana lys i s of a t ex tbook , for omission or unde r r ep re sen t a t i on is c o n s i d e r e d to be a ch ie f form of tex tbook b i a s . A sys temat ic and comprehens ive scheme of tex tbook eva lua t ion is of fered by the Educa t i ona l P roduc t s Information Exchange ( E P I E ) Ins t i tu te ( T h i a g a r a j a n , 1977). The main purpose of EPIE ana lys i s is to match materials and school c u r r i c u l a b y i n - d e p t h s t u d y of the mate r ia l . The tone of this system is more ana ly t i c a l r a ther than judgmen ta l , thus enab l ing ana lys ts to obse rve and express fu l l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t ex tbook . T h i s scheme also takes into cons ide ra t ion the capac i ty of the teachers and educa t iona l e n v i r o n m e n t , which are i nd i spensab le factors for t ex tbook evaluat ion and bias d e t e c t i o n . - 5 - Guide l ines and Resea rch on C u l t u r a l Contents of E F L Tex tbooks The second stage of the l i t e r a tu re s u r v e y looked at gu ide l ines and resea rch which inves t iga te c u l t u r a l content of E S L / E F L t e x t b o o k s . As a rat ionale to examine the textbook content in terms of c u l t u r e , Jo iner (1974) maintains that educators are respons ib le for eva lua t ing the var ious segments of the socie ty r ep resen ted by the tex tbook such as soc io- economic l e v e l , age g r o u p , s e x , and life s t y l e s . She e x p l a i n s , "Because of the potent ia l impact of the textbook on the s tudent ' s concept ion of the fo re ign c u l t u r e , i t is impor tant that language teachers look b e y o n d eye- ca t ch ing i l l u s t r a t i ons and inves t iga te the ' h i d d e n ' c u l t u r a l - c o n t e n t of the mater ia l which they use" ( p . 242) . Her form of eva lua t i ng the c u l t u r a l content is composed of four major sec t ions ; 1) i l l u s t r a t i o n s , 2) text con ta in ing mater ia l of a c u l t u r a l na tu re , 3) gene ra l quest ions r e l a t i ng to c u l t u r e , and 4) supp lemen ta ry mater ial avai lable from the p u b l i s h e r . A s t r e n g t h of this form is that evaluators are fo rced to look into the h idden color of a tex tbook and to speculate i f it is ac tua l ly promot ing pos i t ive a t t i tudes towards people and towards the languages which they speak . As a weakness , the r a t i n g may v a r y more or less a c c o r d i n g to i nves t i ga to r s because some r a t i n g methods are dependent on thei r f i r s t impress ions and sub jec t ive v i e w s . Examples are the quest ions which ask i f the texts are l i v e l y or d u l l , if the texts are f resh and o r i g i n a l or s t e r e o t y p e d , and if i l l u s t r a t i ons are pos i t ive or nega t ive . - 6 - Wi l l co t t (1974) r e p o r t e d tha t a d v a n c e d E F L t e x t b o o k s were u n s u b s t a n t i a l , compared to r egu la r freshman composi t ion tex tbooks for nat ive s p e a k e r s . He i l l u s t r a t e d the t r i v i a l i t y , immora l i ty , i n a c c u r a c y , and mistakes of E F L textbooks by c i t a t i o n s . Willcott does not seem to have fol lowed any pa r t i cu l a r process wh ich has led him to the conc lus ion that E F L t ex tbooks are unrea l and f a u l t y ; the re fo re , his s t u d y is not r e p l i c a b l e , espec ia l ly for non-na t ive educa to r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , his f i n d i n g which p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d from his cons ide rab le expe r i ence as an E F L teacher raises an educa t iona l ly s ign i f i can t i s s u e . In J a p a n , Ha tor i (1975) ana lyzed s ix E n g l i s h conve r sa t i on tex tbooks used in senior h igh schools and found that they con ta ined p r a c t i c a l informat ion such as u s i n g the te lephone , t r a v e l i n g , s h o p p i n g , e t c . He went t h r o u g h ins ide c o v e r s , append ices , number of u n i t s , and theme of the uni ts in the t e x t b o o k s . Ki t ao (1978) at tempted to f i n d what and how much is p r e sen t ed on Amer ican c u l t u r e in E n g l i s h courses in Japan b y u s i n g Jo ine r ' s r a t i n g scheme p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned . Ki tao r ev i ewed s e v e r a l ser ies of h igh school t ex tbooks of E n g l i s h readers and c o n c l u d e d that l i t t l e informat ion on Amer ican c u l t u r e was p resen ted and that what there was not a lways accu ra t e . He p r o v e d that most E n g l i s h readers were l a n g u a g e - o r i e n t e d ra ther than c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d , that teachers r a r e l y r e f e r r e d to fo re ign th ings and ways of life a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , v e r y l i t t le of i n t e r c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g cou ld be n o u r i s h e d in E n g l i s h c l a s ses . His s t udy also p r o v e d - 7 - that Jo ine r ' s evaluat ion form is bas i ca l ly useful and app l icab le for E F L tex tbooks except some items which may be i m p r o v e d . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in de ta i l in the chapter on Methodo logy . Af te r K i t a o , the school c u r r i c u l u m in Japan was l a r g e l y reformed in 1981, and there are no more E n g l i s h readers or conve r sa t i on courses in h i g h schoo l s . Ins tead , comprehens ive courses ca l led E n g l i s h I and E n g l i s h II have become the subjects usua l ly p u r s u e d in senior h i g h s choo l s . From a h i s t o r i c a l s t andpo in t , it is therefore i n t e r e s t i n g to examine what is b e i n g taught c u r r e n t l y in E n g l i s h c l a s ses . So far I have r ev i ewed four s tudies on c u l t u r a l content of E F L t e x t b o o k s , one gu ide l ine and three pieces of r e s e a r c h . As for the method of a n a l y s i s , Jo ine r ' s gu ide l ine seems f u n c t i o n a l ; however , bes ides the f i e ld of E S L / E F L where the examples of content ana lys i s are s c a r c e , o ther areas of s tudies on tex tbooks from soc io log ica l pe r spec t ives w i l l be r e v i e w e d n e x t . Soc io log ica l Studies on Tex tbooks P rocedures of tex tbook ana lys i s are also found in the s tudies of soc ia l s tudies tex tbooks and basa l readers which inves t iga te bias or rac ism in con ten t . It s h o u l d be noted here that genera l tex tbook eva lua t ion formats p r e v i o u s l y c i t ed are d i f fe ren t in essence from processes to detect t ex tbook bias or r ac i sm; the purpose of the former is to select or to adopt - 8 - a t ex tbook , so whole aspects of tex tbooks are i n s p e c t e d i n c l u d i n g thei r b i a s , c u l t u r a l mean ing , l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , eva lua t ion me thod , and so o n . A n a l y s t s may not have any preoccupat ions or hypotheses before they ac tua l ly face t e x t b o o k s . On the other h a n d , the bias de tec t ion is ch ie f ly conduc ted for the sake of socia l jus t ice and for the purpose of a s k i n g if the textbook ref lects idea l p i c tu res of the democrat ic and d i v e r s e soc i e ty . Inves t iga tors may have susp ic ions or hypotheses in the i r minds and t r y to subs tant ia te them b y ce r t a in p rocesses . In the i r r e s e a r c h , the ana lys i s of the textbook i t se l f is not the purpose bu t s imply a veh ic le b y which to gain access to c lassroom ac t iv i t i es and the qua l i ty of the c u r r i c u l u m . The educa t iona l and soc io logica l approaches can be d i v i d e d into three areas ; quan t i t a t ive r e s e a r c h , qua l i t a t ive evalua t ion c h e c k l i s t s , and qual i ta t ive r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , the author rev iews quan t i t a t ive r e s e a r c h , wh ich can be def ined as r e sea rch that y ie lds some s t a t i s t i ca l da ta as a conc lus ion of e n q u i r y . To measure the t reatment of minor i t ies in the t e x t b o o k s , a scheme ca l l ed Eva lua t ion Coef f ic ien t ( E C O ) ana lys i s was deve loped by P ra t t (1972) . A c c o r d i n g to th is ana lys i s sy s t em , words or terms in the texts are connected to pos i t ive and negat ive images of a majori ty g r o u p and then scored by a fo rmula . T h i s method in which r e sea rche r s score words that have a re la t ion to ce r t a in abs t rac t notions is sometimes used with content analys is r esea rch ( A b e r c r o m b i e , 1976; C r o g h a n , 1979). It is v e r y effect ive when re sea rche r s have conf idence in j u d g i n g which w o r d is r e la ted to - 9 - which no t ion . N e v e r t h e l e s s , in E F L teach ing where the tex tbook content covers an in f in i te range of topics and where there are no e s t ab l i shed l i s t s of words re la ted to notions of c u l t u r e , E C O ana lys i s is d i f f i c u l t to c a r r y ou t . C o u n t i n g the number of minor i t ies as p r i n c i p a l cha rac te r s i n s tor ies would be a more re l iable method of f i n d i n g race bias in basa l r e a d e r s . The rat ionale of this method is that i n c l u s i o n and omission of an e thn ic g roup is a form of textbook b i a s . K l e i n (1985) claims that omission is cons ide red to be one of the most w idesp read forms of bias and that r ead ing materials need s c r u t i n y , because "the most dangerous aspect of omission is that books may v e r y e f fec t ive ly conceal what is left out of them, or even that a n y t h i n g has been left out" ( p . 30) . A c c o r d i n g to the Bal t imore Feminis t Group (1976) and B u t t e r f i e l d (1979) , ex t ens ive s tudies of basal readers p r o v e d that the number of s tor ies f e a t u r i n g minor i t ies was ext remely small compared to the number of s tor ies wi th white c h a r a c t e r s . B r i t t o n and L u m p k i n (1977) also r epo r t ed s imilar f i n d i n g s b y a process ca l led Sexism and Racism Prof i l e wh ich cons is t s of examinat ions of 1) minor i ty major cha rac te r role ass ignments by s e x / r a c e and 2) m i n o r i t y d i f fe ren t career role assignments by s e x / r a c e . The prof i le is an object ive method which would be useful and app l icab le for non -na t i ve eva lua tors of E F L t e x t b o o k s . K y l e (1978) and B u t t e r f i e l d ( 1979) p resen ted another process of s t u d y i n g basal r e a d e r s : s tor ies in the textbook are r e v i e w e d and - 10 - ca tegor ized as to those re la ted to a s ingle e thnic g roup or those re la ted to a rac ia l ly mixed g r o u p . The ra t ionale is that such ana lys i s w i l l r evea l whether or not a basal reader sees the society c o n s i s t i n g of one majority g roup or to be a mix tu re of d i v e r s e r ace s . As a r e s u l t , it was found that v e r y few stories d i s p l a y e d the ac t iv i t i e s by a s ingle mino r i t y g roup or by a mul t i e thn ic g r o u p , while majori ty males had dominant roles in basa l r e a d e r s . A common process wi th content ana lys i s of t ex tbooks is the examination of p i c t u r e s . To name a few, Weitzman (1972), V u k e l i c h (1976) , and Glazer (1983) s tud i ed p i c tu r e s to detect sexism and rac ism in the t ex tbook . Hawkins (1978) i n s p e c t e d to what ex tent w h i t e s , b l a c k s , h i s p a n i c s , o r i en t a l s , and Amer ican Indians were p i c t u r e d in e lementary socia l s tudies t e x t b o o k s . The impact that photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s have on c h i l d r e n is enormous because in recent times c h i l d r e n have become more familiar with videos and t e l ev i s ion ra ther than with p r i n t e d l e t t e r s . In J a p a n , if a s tudent f inds on ly p i c tu r e s of A f r i c a n t r ibes wi th spears and a r rows in the t ex tbook , he might be c o n v i n c e d that e v e r y A f r i c a n is p r i m i t i v e . T h e r e f o r e , it is adv i sab le that the way the p i c tu r e s are d e p i c t e d shou ld be looked at as a supp lementa ry ana lys i s after s c o r i n g the number of p i c t u r e s . So far quan t i t a t ive processes of content ana lys is have been r e v i e w e d . L a s t l y , qua l i ta t ive approaches of e n q u i r y are d i s c u s s e d . In the U n i t e d S ta tes , a cons iderab le number of gu ide l ines were advoca ted by s ta tes , - 11 - p u b l i s h e r s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d i n d i v i d u a l educa tors in the 19701 s. Researchers such as R o s e n b e r g ( 1976) and Bragaw (1979) s u g g e s t e d a set of c r i t e r i a to evaluate textbook content and i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Not on ly rac ism but also s ex i sm, ageism, and other socia l pre judices were t a rge ted for delet ion from school mate r ia l s , espec ia l ly from Amer ican h i s t o r y t e x t b o o k s . Among var ious s t u d i e s , the most comprehens ive and r a t iona l gu ide l ine was p resen ted b y the C o u n c i l on In te rna t iona l Books for C h i l d r e n ( C I B C ) which c a r r i e d on a l o n g i t u d i n a l s u r v e y on h i s t o r y tex tbooks in the U n i t e d States (1977, 1980). The C I B C sugges t s tha t , besides a quan t i t a t ive sea rch of o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d or u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d peoples , the fo l lowing f ive areas ought to be p r o b e d ; 1) cha rac t e r i za t i on - s t e r eo types , 2) language and terminology - obvious b i g o t r y , color symbolism and " loaded" w o r d s , 3) h i s t o r i c a l a c c u r a c y - omiss ions , d i s t o r t i o n s , and E u r o c e n t r i s m , 4) c u l t u r a l au then t i c i ty - white pe r spec t ives , d i s to r t i ons and t r i v i a l i z a t i o n s , and 5) i l l u s t r a t i ons - fac ia l c h a r a c t e r s , c l o t h i n g , and socio-economic s e t t i n g s . T h i s qua l i t a t ive method would p rov ide r e sea rche r s wi th deep ins igh t s and co r r ec t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the textbook in q u e s t i o n . Such qua l i t a t ive approach was seen in many s tud ies and one of the c l a s s i ca l examples is an examinat ion of h i s t o r y t ex tbooks c o n d u c t e d by Marcus (1961) . Seven c r i t e r i a used cons tan t ly in a s se s s ing tex tbook materials are i nc lu s ion of mino r i t y g r o u p s , v a l i d i t y of the in fo rma t ion , balance of the negat ive and pos i t ive informat ion about a m i n o r i t y , comprehens iveness of the con ten t , concre teness and un i t y of the in fo rmat ion , and real ism of the treatment of m i n o r i t i e s . F i n d i n g s are - 12 - r epo r t ed in c i ta t ions and a rgumen t s . These seven c r i t e r i a were used by Kane (1970) whose mot ivat ion was to determine how textbook treatments of minori t ies had c h a n g e d over the decade . His conc lus ion was tha t , though some improvements had o c c u r r e d , t ex tbook materials c o n c e r n i n g minor i t y g roups must s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d inadequa te . As for the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the seven c r i t e r i a to E F L tex tbook eva lua t i on , the f i r s t two c r i t e r i a , i n c l u s i o n of minor i ty g roup and v a l i d i t y of the in fo rma t ion , shou ld be u se fu l . H o w e v e r , other c r i t e r i a such as "comprehens iveness of the content" wou ld be d i f f i c u l t to judge and to d i s c u s s , for there is no norm as to what is a comprehens ive E F L t e x t b o o k . A d i f f i c u l t y of E F L textbook evalua t ion lies in the fact that eva lua t ion has not yet d i s c u s s e d "how the content s h o u l d be" . Without concre te ideas and cons ide ra t ions on what shou ld be t augh t t h r o u g h E n g l i s h , ana lys t s cannot te l l if a ce r t a in textbook is sa t i s fac to ry or not . In summary , among e x i s t i n g qua l i t a t ive methods to detect tex tbook b i a s , a s c r e e n i n g scheme sugges t ed by C I B C would be the most app rop r i a t e in E F L textbook e v a l u a t i o n . Summary In this c h a p t e r , on methods for a n a l y z i n g the c u l t u r a l informat ion in E F L t e x t b o o k s , three types of s tudies were d i s c u s s e d : 1) tex tbook se lec t ion /eva lua t ion method , 2) gu ide l ines and r e sea rch on c u l t u r a l content of E F L t e x t b o o k s , and 3) soc io log ica l gu ide l ines and re sea rch of t e x t b o o k s . In the f i r s t p l ace , e x i s t i n g gu ide l ines for tex tbook se l ec t ion / eva lua t ion methods were a l l f ound to be in su f f i c i en t for the n a r r o w l y focused s t u d y of c u l t u r a l t rea tment . T h i s i n s u f f i c i e n c y is qui te n a t u r a l because the - 13 - purpose of check l i s t s and an eva lua t ing scheme is to see a tex tbook as a whole and not to ex t r ac t one aspect of i t . However , a g ra sp of va r ious par ts of the tex tbook might be necessa ry in o rder to f i n d out the cha rac t e r i s t i c s of c u l t u r e p resen ted in the t ex tbook . N e x t , v e r y few gu ide l ines and re sea rch about c u l t u r e in E F L tex tbooks cou ld be loca ted . As far as the au thor ' s s u r v e y goes , one gu ide l ine by Jo iner and three other pieces of r esea rch were f o u n d . Willcott (1974) sa id advanced E F L texts were unsubs t an t i a l in c u l t u r a l con t en t s . The resu l t s of two s tudies in Japan were c o n t r o v e r s i a l ; Ha to r i (1975) r e p o r t e d that E n g l i s h conve r sa t i on tex tbooks con ta ined fo re ign customs of da i ly l i f e . Ki tao (1978) , h o w e v e r , who fol lowed Jo ine r ' s fo rm, mainta ined that h igh school E n g l i s h readers l a cked informat ion about Amer ican c u l t u r e . The lat ter l imi ted himself to only Amer ican c u l t u r e , t hough his f ind ings can be c o n s i d e r e d to be closer to the rea l state of E n g l i s h classes in Japan than H a t o r i , for r ead ing was a main a c t i v i t y in the c u r r i c u l u m , while there were v e r y few conver sa t ion c lasses h e l d at h i g h schoo l s . C o n c e r n i n g methodology , Jo ine r ' s framework seems to be v a l i d and appl icable to any E F L s i tua t ions because of its ob j ec t i v i t y and f ea s ib i l i t y for non-na t ive e v a l u a t o r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , it s t i l l needs c h a n g i n g . T h i r d , the s tudies on tex tbooks from a soc io logica l p e r s p e c t i v e were r e v i e w e d for the purpose of f ac i l i t a t i ng methodology of tex tbook a n a l y s i s . Processes to examine basa l readers and Amer ican h i s t o r y t ex tbooks can be - 14 - d i v i d e d into two t y p e s ; one is qua l i t a t ive and the other is quan t i t a t i ve . T h e r e are some quan t i t a t ive processes re levan t for content ana lys i s of E F L t ex tbooks : 1) count percentage of minor i ty g roups as major c h a r a c t e r s , 2) ca tegor ize s tor ies in the textbook as e i ther re la ted to a majority g roup or as mul t ie thn ic s t o r i e s , and 3) check p i c t o r i a l r ep resen ta t ion of e thn ic g r o u p s . S t r e n g t h s of these processes a r e , needless to s a y , ob jec t iv i ty and a p p l i c a b i l i t y . As a l im i t a t i on , they cannot a lways manifest impl ic i t tone of bias in the t e x t b o o k ; a close examination by ho l i s t i c approaches s h o u l d fo l low. Qua l i t a t ive r e sea rch where ana lys t s go t h r o u g h a l i s t of c r i t e r i a also has some impl ica t ion for E F L textbook a n a l y s i s . The tex tbook content can be s c r u t i n i z e d for t e rmino logy , a c c u r a c y , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s , c u l t u r a l a u t h e n t i c i t y , and i l l u s t r a t i o n as sugges t ed b y C I B C . In summary , a combination of qua l i t a t ive and quan t i t a t ive processes s h o u l d be the most su i tab le method for a s t u d y of the c u l t u r a l content of E F L t e x t b o o k s . - 15 - CHAPTER 3 The Purposes of the S t u d y The aim of this s t u d y is twofo ld : 1) to create and test a process by which the c u l t u r a l content of E n g l i s h tex tbooks in Japan can be a n a l y z e d , and 2) to examine what and how much informat ion about fo re ign c u l t u r e is taught in E n g l i s h c lasses in J a p a n . Jus t i f i ca t ion of the S t u d y The f i r s t pu rpose of this s t udy is to propose a method to ana lyze the treatment of c u l t u r e in E n g l i s h t ex tbooks in J a p a n . F i r s t , a tenta t ive p r o c e d u r e , an adapta t ion of Jo ine r ' s form is d e v e l o p e d , app l i ed to resea rch on ten t e x t b o o k s , and d i s c u s s e d in terms of i ts p r a c t i c a l i t y and s ign i f i cance . T h r o u g h o u t the process of content a n a l y s i s , the p rocedure is cons tan t ly remade and re fo rmed . A t t en t ion is pa id to c o d i n g the data in o rder to increase i n t e r code r r e l i a b i l i t y . The process must also take into cons idera t ion n o n - n a t i v e evaluators as well as nat ive speakers of E n g l i s h ; both g roups must be able to follow the process wi thout d i f f i c u l t y . It is often the case wi th Japanese teachers of E n g l i s h that because of the absence of eva lua t ion p roces se s , teachers cannot g ra sp the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t ex tbook ; they might have a vague fee l ing that something is wrong with the t ex tbook , but they cannot te l l where and how. D i s c u s s i n g the content of E F L tex tbooks is a compl icated mat te r , i n v o l v i n g i d i o s y n c r a c y - 16 - of language and c u l t u r e . The re is no norm of c u l t u r a l contents that s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d in E F L t e x t b o o k s . The ques t ion of what aspects of which c o u n t r y s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d in E n g l i s h classes r a r e l y has been ra i sed in J a p a n . In such a s ta te , educators who are c o n c e r n e d about i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication need a w e l l - f o u n d e d method by which to ana lyze tex tbook con ten t . In chapter 2, the s c a r c i t y of r e sea rch that s t u d i e d c u l t u r a l content of E F L tex tbooks was po in ted ou t . The most su i tab le form for eva lua tors in J apan seems to be J o i n e r ' s f r amework combined wi th s t a t i s t i c a l manipula t ion p r e sen t ed by soc io logica l s tud ies of the t e x t b o o k s . The methodology used in this s t u d y w i l l be e x p l a i n e d in de ta i l in the next c h a p t e r . The other purpose of this s t u d y is to rev iew the c u l t u r a l t reatment of ten E n g l i s h tex tbooks used at h igh schools in J a p a n , a c c o r d i n g to Jo ine r ' s f ramework as reformed to su i t this p a r t i c u l a r piece of r e s e a r c h . One of the recent t rends of educat ion in Japan is i n t e r n a t i o n a l educa t i on , wh ich is a popular term f r e q u e n t l y ment ioned as a s logan of educa t iona l r e n o v a t i o n . A n i n c r e a s i n g number of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g fo re igner s is domic i led in J a p a n ; c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , near ly 500,000 Japanese nationals res ide outs ide of J a p a n . Not on ly educators but also bus iness people emphasize the necess i ty to ra ise K o k u s a i j i n ( i n t e rna t i ona l l y minded c h i l d r e n ) who know manners and s k i l l s for g e t t i n g along wi th fo re ign - 17 - people . Howeve r , it seems that v e r y l i t t l e p rog res s has been made in spi te of the h igh demand for the in t e rna t iona l i za t ion of educa t i on . Problems c o n c e r n i n g the f r i c t i on between Japan and fo re ign coun t r i e s can be r o u g h l y d i v i d e d into two t y p e s : the f i r s t is the problem with those Japanese who cannot adjust themselves to the unfamil iar c u l t u r e of a fo re ign l a n d . Th i s is the case not on ly wi th Japanese , of c o u r s e , bu t also wi th people from other c o u n t r i e s . H o w e v e r , b y mass media such as t e l e v i s i o n , newspaper , and magazines , it was repea ted ly r e p o r t e d that some Japanese s tudents who recen t ly a r r i v e d at Amer ican schools caused confronta t ion wi th other s tudents and t eache r s . The other problem is the conf l ic t between Japanese and fo re igner s in J a p a n ; Japanese people cannot accept fo re igner s or Japanese who have spent s eve ra l years a b r o a d . Not on ly i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y but also emot ional ly , fo re igners and K i k o k u s h i j y o (Japanese who have jus t come back from abroad) are sometimes e x c l u d e d from educa t iona l and occupa t iona l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Why do these maladjustments and conf l ic t s occur? The au thor t h i n k s they stem from 1) the lack of d i s c u s s i o n a n d / o r r esea rch about the concre te meaning of i n t e rna t iona l educat ion and 2) the i n s u l a r i t y of J a p a n . F i r s t , i n t e r n a t i o n a l educat ion is a f avor i t e term occas ional ly ment ioned b y p o l i t i c i a n s , school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and t e ache r s . The term is sometimes r ep laced by synonyms such as g loba l educa t ion and i n t e r c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , educators do not seem to have concre te ideas as to what those terms ac tua l ly i n d i c a t e . T h e r e is no consensus or even d i s c u s s i o n about "what does i t mean to be an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h i l d ? " or "what must a - 18 - school do to ra ise an in t e rna t iona l c h i l d ? " In other w o r d s , while the goal of i n t e rna t iona l educat ion is advoca t ed , l e a r n i n g object ives and classroom ac t iv i t i es of the c u r r i c u l u m are s t i l l v a g u e . In such a s i t u a t i o n , it is qui te na tu ra l that the effect of i n t e r n a t i o n a l educat ion has not become apparent y e t . Second , the root of the conf ron ta t ion between Japanese and fore igners ex is t s in the h i s t o r y and socie ty of J a p a n . Maladjustment of Japanese nationals in fo re ign coun t r i e s resu l t s from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Japanese socie ty that the un i ty of a g roup takes precedence over the in teres ts and happiness of i n d i v i d u a l s . To be independen t of o thers and to be d i f fe rent from others is not recommended, so s tudents are d i s c o u r a g e d from pro jec t ing the i r own op in ions . In spi te of this t r a d i t i o n , when they go ab road , they are r e q u i r e d to state the i r opinions c l e a r l y . What b locks the Japanese from smooth ass imila t ion into the new c u l t u r e is not jus t l anguage , bu t also the i r a t t i tudes and views towards the socie ty and human l i f e . Ano the r t r a i t of Japanese s o c i e t y , homogenei ty , is also de t r imenta l to the r a i s i n g of an i n t e rna t iona l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Ins ide the c o u n t r y , Japanese are re luc tan t to embrace fore ign customs and p r a c t i c e s . T h e y cannot imagine that a c o u n t r y can be m u l t i e t h n i c , m u l t i l i n g u a l , and m u l t i c u l t u r a l . Ins tead , they are i n c l i n e d to view each fo re ign c o u n t r y as a homogeneous soc i e ty . T h i s t endency is s t r e n g t h e n e d by mass media and e d u c a t i o n . - 19 - Here to fore , reasons c a u s i n g c u l t u r a l conf l i c t s between Japanese and fore igners have been d i s c u s s e d . Some p r a c t i c a l so lu t ions c a n , however , be d r a w n : f i r s t , educators must d i s c u s s , even i f they do not reach c o n s e n s u s , ob jec t ives , s tuden t ' s a c t i v i t i e s , and l e a r n i n g outcomes of i n t e rna t iona l educa t ion . In the domain of E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g , teachers who have devo ted themselves almost en t i r e ly to grammatical ta rgets w i l l have to pay at tent ion to the content of the materials used in c l a s s . S e c o n d , s tudents shou ld be i n t r o d u c e d to the d i v e r s i t y e x i s t i n g in other c o u n t r i e s . When a fore ign c o u n t r y is a topic in an E n g l i s h c l a s s , s tudents have to be taught that it might be a d i v e r s e soc ie ty composed of peoples of many races and e thn ic o r i g i n s . On account of the economic t ie , many Japanese have had and w i l l have the o p p o r t u n i t y to go to the Un i t ed S ta tes , where they themselves are a mino r i t y g r o u p . N e v e r t h e l e s s , most Japanese never imagine the degree of mu l t i cu l t u r a l i sm of the States u n t i l they l a n d at the a i r p o r t . T h i r d , s tuden t s shou ld lea rn about fo re ign cu l tu r e s in such a way as to enhance equa l respect for a l l nations and people . Japanese often desc r ibe the E n g l i s h language and those who have some command of E n g l i s h as "Kakkoii" (good l o o k i n g , neat , and often w e s t e r n - l o o k i n g ) . The author be l ieves that E n g l i s h educat ion is r e spons ib l e for h a v i n g c rea ted the image that b e i n g f luent in E n g l i s h is m o d e r n , a d v a n c e d , soph i s t i c a t ed , and w e s t e r n . C o n v e r s e l y , other languages and peoples , espec ia l ly A s i a n , are c o n s i d e r e d of s econda ry importance and less p r e s t i g i o u s . With those - 20 - p re jud ices , E n g l i s h can never be adequate ly l e a r n e d , nor can i n t e r c u l t u r a l awareness be a c h i e v e d . Th i s paper focuses on the second and t h i r d issues r e l a t i n g to E n g l i s h educa t ion , namely, do E n g l i s h classes convey an awareness of the d i v e r s i t y of fo re ign coun t r i es and do they p r o v i d e b iased informat ion or not? In o rde r to answer these ques t i ons , the fo l lowing subproblems were e s t ab l i shed . Subproblems a) How much of the E n g l i s h tex tbook is devoted to t each ing cu l tu re? What is the percentage of c u l t u r a l topics in a text? Does the tex tbook offer enough informat ion on fore ign c u l t u r e to s tuden ts? b) What aspects of fo re ign and Japanese cu l tu re are fea tured? In this s t u d y , the term ' c u l t u r e ' means not jus t an in t e l l ec tua l and a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y , bu t also "the to ta l i ty of soc ia l ly t r ansmi t t ed behavior pa t te rns c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a people" (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language). T h e r e f o r e , var ious phases of life - f ami ly , human r e l a t i o n s h i p , school sy s t em, spor t s and games, n o n - v e r b a l communica t ion , concept ion of t ime, e t c . , are a l l r e g a r d e d as c u l t u r a l t o p i c s . The qua l i ty of c u l t u r a l informat ion of a tex tbook is equal ly impor tant as the amount of - 21 - in format ion . S tudents w i l l react d i f f e r en t ly when they learn both the b r i g h t s ide and the da rk side of a fo re ign c o u n t r y . Willcott (1974) po in ted out that E F L textbooks fa i led to put fo r th a humanis t ic and l i b e r a l view educat ion and that they avo ided argumenta t ive essays and c o n t r o v e r s i a l topics r e g a r d i n g the soc i e ty . Hayashino (1981) c r i t i c i z e d E n g l i s h "extbooks in Japan as be ing b o r i n g , monotonous, and meaningless . T h i s s t u d y w i l l attempt to determine if the i r statements app ly to the c u r r e n t t e x t b o o k s . c) Which c o u n t r y and e thnic g roups are most often presented? B y a n s w e r i n g this q u e s t i o n , the author t r ies to refer to more in fe ren t i a l quest ions about the ideology of E n g l i s h and about textbook b i a s . C o n c e r n i n g the ideology of E n g l i s h , the quest ion shou ld be a sked which c o u n t r y and what k i n d of socie ty the E n g l i s h language is c o n s i d e r e d to belong to? A r e E n g l i s h lessons he lp ing s tudents to develop respec t for other nat ions? Whose benefi t do they se rve? A r e they i n f l u e n c i n g s tudents to take an in te res t in thei r own cu l t u r e? Those concep t s , i deas , and notions h idden in the tex tbook w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Subprob lem C also leads into bias in the t ex tbook ; in this s t u d y , among va r ious k inds of b ia ses , e thnic bias or racism bias w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . Of c o u r s e , e thnic bias often goes h a n d - i n - h a n d wi th sex ism bias and ageism b i a s , so the other biases are r e f e r r e d to i f n e c e s s a r y . Racism in the textbook sometimes takes the form of omiss ion , sub t l e or b la tan t . The bias can be p r o v e d by s t a t i s t i ca l analys is and close - 22 - examination of i n d i v i d u a l uni ts in the t ex tbook . K l e i n r e p o r t e d that E F L textbooks be ing deve loped in Germany were t a k i n g care in the i l l u s t r a t i o n s to ref lect d i v e r s i t y in B r i t i s h ci t ies (1985, p . 78) . It is h i g h time Japan also s t a r t ed to t h ink about d i v e r s i t y of the w o r l d . Here three concre te and p r a c t i c a l problems were posed : a) how much of the textbook is devo ted to t each ing cu l t u r e? b) what aspects of fo re ign c u l t u r e are fea tured? and c) wh ich c o u n t r y and e thnic g roup are most often presented? In chap te r 4 the process which co r r e sponds to these quest ions is p resen ted and an effort is made to es tab l i sh the r e l i a b i l i t y and the v a l i d i t y of that p r o c e s s . Assumpt ions Th i s s t udy is based upon two as sumpt ions ; f i r s t , it is taken for g r a n t e d that E F L educat ion has to conta in some teach ing of fo re ign c u l t u r e . C u l t u r e "es tabl i shes for each person a con tex t of cogn i t i ve and affect ive b e h a v i o r , a b l u e p r i n t for pe r sona l and socia l ex i s t ence" ( B r o w n , 1981, p . 123) . M a s t e r i n g a fo re ign language is inseparab le from k n o w i n g a fo re ign c u l t u r e . It is amazing how many c u l t u r a l e v e n t s , phrases from the B i b l e , and pieces of Shakespeare are embedded in E n g l i s h language commonly used in da i l y l i f e . In the area of t each ing r ead ing in a second l anguage , there is a p r e v a i l i n g theory that e x i s t i n g knowledge about c u l t u r e in the l e a r n e r , which is ca l l ed schema or schemata , promotes - 23 - comprehension of a g i v e n passage ( J o h n s o n , 1982; C a r r e l l , 1983; A n d e r s o n , 1984). The second assumpt ion in this paper is that the c u r r i c u l u m to enhance c u l t u r a l awareness does affect s tuden t s ' a t t i t udes . In J a p a n , r e sea rch c o n c e r n i n g in t e rna t iona l educat ion is yet to be done . In N o r t h A m e r i c a , there are s tudies that have p r o v e d the effect of m u l t i c u l t u r a l readers on s tudents ( S i n g e r , 1967; L i t c h e r & J o h n s o n , 1969; Kehoe & Stone , 1978; Izaz , 1982). In this pape r , assuming that m u l t i c u l t u r a l and mul t ie thn ic tex tbooks would make Japanese s tudents c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e , the author attempts to ana lyze the presen t s tatus of E n g l i s h t ex tbooks in J a p a n . - 24 - CHAPTER 4 The major purposes of this paper are to f i n d a process by which the treatment of c u l t u r e in E F L classes can be ana lyzed and to examine the c u l t u r a l content of E n g l i s h classes in J a p a n . T h i s chapter f i r s t looks at reasons why classroom ac t iv i t i e s can be ana lyzed by the content ana lys i s of t e x t b o o k s . T h e n the author desc r ibes the samples of the s t u d y , p rocedures of da ta co l l e c t i on , and process of da ta a n a l y s i s . The tex tbook is r e g a r d e d as the best source for i n v e s t i g a t i n g what is ac tua l ly t aught in the classroom for the fo l lowing r easons . F i r s t , the textbook plays a v e r y impor tant role in Japanese school c u r r i c u l a . It is not merely a tool or a supplement , but weighs heav i ly in de t e rmin ing s tuden t s ' a c t i v i t i e s . In that sense , the textbook is the school c u r r i c u l u m i t se l f . To exp la in f u r t h e r , in Japan a l l t ex tbooks for elementary and secondary schools are sc reened by the M i n i s t r y of Educa t ion before they are p u b l i s h e d . A s c r e e n i n g committee meeting is he ld b y the members of the Tex tbook A u t h o r i z a t i o n and Resea rch C o u n c i l , textbook p u b l i s h e r s , and w r i t e r s . If a t ex tbook is not sa t i s fac tory or not in accordance wi th the nat ional po l i cy of e d u c a t i o n , it has to be r e v i s e d and submi t t ed to the committee a g a i n . Th i s un ique system of tex tbook adopt ion also makes the tex tbook the c e n t r a l factor of educat ion in J a p a n . P u b l i s h i n g and se lec t ing t ex tbooks are not jus t pedagogica l i ssues but also ra ise a po l i t i ca l and na t ion-wide c o n c e r n . - 25 - Second , there is a bel ief in Japan that tex tbooks are h o l y , p r e c i o u s , and ho ld the essence of a l l knowledge . In many famil ies , c h i l d r e n are taught to handle tex tbooks with care and to t r easure them for many y e a r s . Teenagers r e g a r d the textbook as a b ib le that has to be memor ized . Le t t e r s and p r i n t e d matters are c r ed i t ed h i g h l y in J a p a n . R e a d i n g is cons ide red to be an essent ia l par t of l e a r n i n g . The re is a s a y i n g : " R e a d it one h u n d r e d t imes, and the meaning w i l l come to y o u . " T h e r e f o r e , to analyze tex tbooks means to probe the l e a r n i n g ac t iv i t i es of s t u d e n t s . Close examination of contents of tex tbooks wi l l r evea l the qua l i t y and quan t i ty of the c u l t u r a l information s tudents would obtain from E n g l i s h c l a s ses . Samples Ten tex tbooks of Senior High School E n g l i s h were chosen . The object ive of E n g l i s h I is to develop bas ic s k i l l s of l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g , r ead ing and w r i t i n g . As mentioned in the p rev ious c h a p t e r , s choo l c u r r i c u l u m was d r a s t i c a l l y changed in 1981, when al l ser ies of t ex tbooks were r ewr i t t en to f u l f i l l the requi rements of the new c u r r i c u l u m . A c c o r d i n g l y , most of the content of E n g l i s h textbooks was c h a n g e d or ed i ted at that t ime. The samples used in this s t u d y were a l l p u b l i s h e d in 1984, three years after the c u r r i c u l u m re format ion . Ten tex tbooks of ten d i f fe ren t p u b l i s h i n g companies were avai lab le to the au thor ; a number wh ich would be la rge enough to genera l ize the resu l t s ga ined by the s t u d y . T i t l e , p u b l i s h e r , and edi tor of each textbook are as fo l lows: - ~ - 26 - T i t l e P u b l i s h e r E d i t o r ( s ) M A I N S T R E A M I The New Comprehens ive E n g l i s h Course WHY E N G L I S H I T H E NEW C E N T U R Y E N G L I S H S E R I E S I New Ed i t ion F R E S H E n g l i s h I NEW L I G H T E N G L I S H I S E N I O R SWAN E n g l i s h Cour se I Zoshindo Gakko Tosho Sanseido Da i i ch i G a k u s h u s h a K a i r y u d o K a i t a k u s h a Sho i ch i A n d o D a v i d Hale Katsumata Ikenaga E i i c h i K o b a y a s h i S h u n s u k e Wakabayashi I ch i ro Y a s u d a Ei j i Hato I ch i ro T a n a k a Sakae Ser izawa NEW S T A N D A R D E N G L I S H I R E V I S E D E D I T I O N Hi to t subash i Kenzo K i h a r a Sun r i s e E n g l i s h I O b u n s h a Y o s h i o Ogawa G o , E n g l i s h ! I The Rainbow E n g l i s h Cour se I T o k y o Shosek i B u n - E i d o Shigeo Imamura K u n i a k i Suenaga Framework of the S t u d y A framework to inves t iga te these ten tex tbooks was d e v e l o p e d , based upon Jo ine r ' s form for eva lua t ing the c u l t u r a l content of E F L t e x t b o o k s . It was chosen because the rat ionale of her c o d i n g form was most cons is ten t with the purpose of this s t u d y : - 27 - While se lec t ing and c r e a t i n g c u l t u r a l l y sound texts and materials may not eradicate a l l s te reo types and usher in an unp receden ted era of c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , we cannot af ford to do less than g ive fore ign language s tudents an object ive and accura te p i c tu r e of the coun t ry whose language they are s t u d y i n g . It is hoped that this in s t rument , in its present form or modified to conform to i n d i v i d u a l conce rns , w i l l be used in d i f fe ren t ways by a v a r i e t y of people with one common aim - to promote pos i t ive a t t i tudes toward peoples and toward the languages wh ich they speak . ( J o i n e r , 1974, p 243) In this s t u d y , Jo ine r ' s form was r e v i s e d so that it s h o u l d work effec t ive ly in r e v i e w i n g E n g l i s h tex tbooks in J a p a n . A major d i f fe rence between the o r i g i n a l form and the adaptat ion lies in da ta s c o r i n g ; in Jo ine r ' s o r i g i n a l , quest ions are a sked in y e s / n o a l t e r n a t i v e s . In this s t u d y , i n s t ead , "how many" and "what" quest ions are r a i sed in o rde r to seek more exact and de ta i led da ta . Chap te r 2 sugges t ed that a method which is composed of quan t i t a t ive and qua l i t a t ive phases would be most appropr i a t e for content ana lys i s of E F L t e x t b o o k s . A weakness of the o r i g i n a l form is the lack of ob jec t iv i ty and p r e c i s e n e s s , the re fore , a method wide ly used in the socio logica l s tudies of tex tbooks was adopted to increase the r e l i a b i l i t y . - 28 - The new r e v i s e d form inc ludes quest ions c o n c e r n i n g what c o u n t r y and e thnic g roup are most often p resen ted in the t e x t b o o k . Th i s p e r s p e c t i v e is often taken to f i n d out about inc lus ion and exc lus ion of e thnic g r o u p s in basa l readers (the Bal t imore Feminis t G r o u p , 1976; B u t t e r f i e l d , 1979; B r i t t o n and L u m p s k i n , 1977; K l e i n , 1985). T h i s approach was chosen because of a) i ts p reva lence in soc io logica l tex tbook r e s e a r c h , b) v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , and c) ob jec t iv i ty of the da t a . In this s t u d y , i l l u s t r a t i o n s as well as the wr i t t en text are r ev i ewed a c c o r d i n g to na t ional i ty and e thn ic i ty d e p i c t e d . T h e r e are also items newly added by the author that were deve loped from the implementation of the pilot s t u d y . B y c o n d u c t i n g the pi lot s t u d y , it was found that three types of uni ts need to be r e c o g n i z e d . T h e y are 1) uni ts which e x p l i c i t l y i n t roduce and d i scuss c u l t u r a l t o p i c s , 2) uni ts whose se t t ings are fo re ign p laces , and 3) units in which themes are not about i cu l tu re bu t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d knowledge is i m p l i c i t l y r e q u i r e d . The las t ca tegory of uni ts was e s t a b l i s h e d , for the uni ts be long ing to that ca tegory r equ i r e the spec ia l a t tent ion of the t eacher . Teachers who p rov ide s tudents wi th supplementa l informat ion about the b a c k g r o u n d s of those uni ts would ensure comprehens ion b y the s tudents and g rowth in u n d e r s t a n d i n g towards fore ign c o u n t r i e s . On the c o n t r a r y , if teachers fa i l to s u p p l y adequate c u l t u r a l in fo rmat ion , they wi l l j eopardize s tuden t s ' in te res ts as wel l as the i r t rue mastery of the u n i t s . To exempl i fy , a uni t about the o r i g i n of jazz music belongs to this type of un i t ; it r e q u i r e s s tudents to have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Amer ican h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , and - 29 - soc i e ty . The textbook edi tor may assume that s tudents have such knowledge and that there is no necess i ty to refer to it in the t ex tbook . In that case , i f s tudents do not ac tua l ly know enough about the b a c k g r o u n d , the un i t would be d u l l and i r r e l e v a n t to them. D u r i n g the course of the pi lot s t u d y , the author came to suspec t that those t r i c k y uni ts would be seen qui te often in E n g l i s h tex tbooks in J a p a n . Th i s s t u d y wi l l s e rve to c l a r i f y whether the su sp i c ion is j u s t i f i e d , or no t . Here the framework of the method , the r e v i s e d J o i n e r ' s form of eva lua t ing the c u l t u r a l contents of E F L textbooks is p r e s e n t e d , fo l lowed by de ta i led cod ing p r o c e d u r e s . F R A M E W O R K A . Number of uni ts 1. Number of a l l uni ts in the tex tbook 2. Number of uni ts wh ich e x p l i c i t l y exp la in fo re ign c u l t u r e 3. Number of uni ts whose se t t ings are abroad 4. Number of uni ts which imp l i c i t l y r equ i r e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d knowledge B . Number of times coun t r i es are i l l u s t r a t e d pho tographs - colour pho tographs - b lack and white - 30 - d rawings maps car toons r ep roduc t ions Name and number of fo re ign places (c i t ies and coun t r i e s ) ment ioned in the textbook Presenta t ion of na t ional i ty and e t h n i c i t y 1. Number of main charac te r s in the units 2. Number of a l l charac te r s in the units 3. Number of charac te r s i l l u s t r a t e d in the textbook Di scour se pa t te rns adopted for the uni ts about fo re ign c u l t u r e Dialogue N a r r a t i v e Essay Le t te r F i c t i o n Song Poem Newspaper Joke Fo lk ta l e - 31 - S impl i f i ed nove l B i o g r a p h y Play F . E v a l u a t o r s ' comments on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i e t y r ep re sen t ed in the tex tbook 1. I l lus t r a t ions 2. Tex t s C o d i n g P rocedures For the cons i s t ency of this s t u d y , the term " u n i t " is used to exp re s s a g roup of pages on the same top i c , which is sometimes ca l led a u n i t , a l e s son , a s to ry or a s e c t i o n , d e p e n d i n g on the p u b l i s h e r s . Here each item of the framework is d i s c u s s e d in terms of i ts ra t ionale and c o d i n g p rocedures on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , which had been cons tan t ly c h a n g e d th roughou t the ana lys i s for the purpose of i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , as far as 10 tex tbooks r ev iewed in this pape r , i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of the c o d i n g p rocedures was kep t to more than 85%. In this s tudy, - in add i t ion to the a u t h o r , an unde rg radua t e s tuden t who majored in F r e n c h w o r k e d as a r a t e r . A . Number of uni ts 1. Number of a l l uni ts in the textbook - 32 - - Supplementa l notes , summary of grammar, the l i s t of v o c a b u l a r y , and phonet ic system tables are not c o u n t e d . Number of uni ts which e x p l i c i t l y exp la in fore ign c u l t u r e - The fo l lowing units s h o u l d be coun ted ; a) Uni t s which desc r ibe h i s t o r y , na tu re , people , l anguage , cus toms , and ar ts of fore ign count r ies b) Uni t s which i n t roduce ways of l i v i n g and t h i n k i n g in fo re ign count r ies c) Uni ts which compare and cont ras t Japanese and fo re ign c u l t u r e d) Uni t s whose chief purpose is to raise c u l t u r a l awareness of the s tudents Number of units whose se t t ings are abroad Uni t s in which c o n v e r s a t i o n s , episodes or events take place ou ts ide Japan are c o u n t e d . If one unit is re la ted to more than one c o u n t r y , decimal numbers are used for s c o r i n g . For i n s t ance , i f a uni t is about B r i t a i n and F r a n c e and both of the coun t r i e s o c c u p y approx imate ly the same weight in the s t o r y , 0.5 point are added to them r e s p e c t i v e l y . - 33 - 4. Number of uni ts which imp l i c i t l y r equ i r e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d knowledge A n a l y s t s shou ld look for uni ts which do not present c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d information bu t assume that teachers would offer it or s tudents would be a l ready familiar wi th i t . Number of times count r ies are i l l u s t r a t e d The meaning of this ana lys i s is s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ; the i l l u s t r a t i ons such as p i c t u r e s , ca r toons , and maps are essen t ia l elements of the textbook not on ly because they help s tudents comprehend the texts by v i s u a l i z i n g the contex t bu t also because they act as an important medium to convey c u l t u r a l in format ion . In Japan where d i r ec t contact wi th fo re ign count r ies is ex t remely l imi t ed , the inf luence of i l l u s t r a t i o n s cannot be ove remphas i zed . I l l u s t r a t ions are ca tegor ized a c c o r d i n g to 1) names of the coun t r i e s p resen ted and 2) modes of i l l u s t r a t ions such as p h o t o g r a p h s , maps and so o n . C o u n t r i e s and ci t ies mentioned in the textbook - The aim of this t a l l y i n g task is to c l a r i fy the names of fo re ign places that s tudents are most l i k e l y to encounter in E n g l i s h c l a s ses . T h i s item is also conce rned wi th the ques t ion "to which c o u n t r y does the E n g l i s h language appear - 34 - to be long?" It is na tu ra l that s tudents shou ld be in f luenced by a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y repea ted ly ment ioned in the tex tbook and be led to relate the E n g l i s h language to that c o u n t r y . The task is to count names of c o u n t r i e s , c i t i e s , and places that appear in E n g l i s h sen tences , i n c l u d i n g main t e x t s , supplementa l notes , and e x e r c i s e s . A c o u n t r y is t a l l i ed whether it is ca l l ed by an o f f i c ia l name or by an informal name. For i n s t a n c e , it does not matter i f the Sovie t Union is ca l led the U . S . S . R . or R u s s i a . Names of s ta tes , p r o v i n c e s , mounta ins , r i v e r s , and va l l eys are c o u n t e d . Small areas in a c i t y such as C e n t r a l P a r k and B u c k i n g h a m Palace are not i n c l u d e d . When the same place is mentioned twice in a s ing le sen tence , in so far as the name i t se l f is used ins t ead of a p r o n o u n , ta l ly number w i l l be " 2 " . T a l l y is i n c r e a s e d when the nationals of a c o u n t r y are r e f e r r e d to; for example , people of F r a n c e or F r e n c h people shou ld be both ta l l i ed under the ca t egory of F r a n c e , for both are c lose ly connec ted to the notion of the c o u n t r y F r a n c e . P resen ta t ion of na t iona l i ty and e thn i c i t y The aim of this task is to inves t iga te i nc lu s ion a n d omission of nat ionals and e thn ic i t i es in the t ex tbook . F rom this - 35 - in format ion , a judgement can be made as to whether or not the textbook is b i a s e d . Nat ional i ty and e thn i c i t y of a charac ter who appears in the units is j u d g e d and counted a c c o r d i n g to the fo l lowing ca tegor ies : a) male, b) female, c) g r o u p , and d) i n d i v i d u a l , (a) is a male cha rac te r and (b) is a female c h a r a c t e r . When a c h a r a c t e r ' s g e n d e r cannot be i d e n t i f i e d from the information g i v e n in the u n i t , the cha rac te r is c a t ego r i zed as (d) i n d i v i d u a l , (c) is a group of people who are the same nat ional i ty and e t h n i c i t y . Espec ia l ly in c o u n t i n g c h a r a c t e r s i l l u s t r a t ed in t e x t b o o k s , it is sometimes d i f f i c u l t and meaningless to count eve ry s ingle person of a c r o w d of people; in such a case , ta l ly is inc reased in (c) g r o u p . The c lass i f ica t ion of nat ional i ty and e thn i c i t y a re : White Amer icans B lack Amer icans Hispan ic Amer icans Nat ive Amer icans As ian Amer icans U n i d e n t i f i e d Amer icans B r i t i s h F r e n c h Italians Greeks Canadians - 36 - Aus t r a l i ans Chinese Japanese Caucasians who speak E n g l i s h - na t iona l i ty is not clear but the fact that he /she is a Caucas ian and that he /she speaks E n g l i s h is c l e a r . E n g l i s h speakers - na t ional i ty and e thn i c i t y cannot be r e c o g n i z e d , bu t the fact that he / she is a nat ive or n a t i v e - l i k e speaker of E n g l i s h is c l e a r . Un iden t i f i ed - even whether he / she speaks E n g l i s h is u n k n o w n . T h e r e is no informat ion on h i s / h e r e thn ic i ty and l anguage . Others In this s t udy this c lass i f i ca t ion is su f f i c i en t l y de ta i led to ca tegor ize charac te r s in the t ex tbook . F u r t h e r b r eakdown of e thn i c i t y such as J ewi sh American and Ch inese Amer ican s h o u l d not be needed . When the same charac te r appears in many u n i t s , a ta l ly is added each time. H i s t o r i c a l count r ies l ike Roman Empire and B a b y l o n i a are also l i s t e d . - 37 - 1. Number of main charac te r s of the units Major charac te r s who play important roles in a uni t are c o u n t e d . - In a uni t of c o n v e r s a t i o n , the chief cha rac te r s in the dia logues and also the persons d i s c u s s e d by them are t a l l i e d . Fo r example , when A and B are t a l k i n g about C , three of them, namely A , B , and C are cons ide red as major cha rac te r s of the u n i t . 2. Number of a l l charac te r s of the units A l l the charac te rs who appear or are r e f e r r e d to in the uni ts are c o u n t e d . C h a r a c t e r s who appear in the exerc i se at the end of a unit are also c o u n t e d . 3. Number of charac te r s i l l u s t r a t e d in the textbook I l l u s t r a t ions of a l l par ts of the textbook i n c l u d i n g the cover and appendices are looked at . A n a l y s t s can judge the na t ional i ty and e thn ic i ty of an i l l u s t r a t e d person with help of the main t e x t s . E . D i scour se pa t te rns adopted for the units about fore ign c u l t u r e The purpose of this ques t ion is to f i n d out if there are any p a r t i c u l a r d i scour se pa t te rns employed to convey the c u l t u r a l - 38 - in fo rmat ion . P r ev ious s tudies b y Hator i (1975) and Ki tao (1979) seem to i nd i ca t ed that d ia logue is more often connec ted to c u l t u r a l topics than any other d i scour se p a t t e r n . The task is to c lass i fy c u l t u r a l topics that have been iden t i f i ed in A n a l y s i s A , a c c o r d i n g to the i r d i scour se p a t t e r n s . It may be poss ib le that the form of a uni t can be put into more than one c a t e g o r y . For i n s t ance , a uni t may be c o n s i d e r e d as a joke and also as a d i a logue . Then ana lys t s s h o u l d t r y to f i g u r e ou t w h i c h c a t e g o r y is more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the un i t . One uni t can be ta l l i ed in on ly one c a t e g o r y . F . E v a l u a t o r s ' comments on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i e t y r ep re sen t ed in the tex tbook Here eva lua tors may express the i r impress ions and pe r sona l opinions about i l l u s t r a t i ons and t e x t s . T h e y shou ld look at the informat ion in the tex tbook from the v iewpoin t of its va lue and i d e o l o g y . A n a l y s t s may point out the socio-economic l eve l of the socie ty d e s c r i b e d in the t ex tbook , the tone of the e d i t o r , the s te reo types seen the re , the accu racy or i n a c c u r a c y of the in fo rmat ion , and au then t i c i t y of the in fo rmat ion . - 39 - A n y comment that cannot be e x p r e s s e d in the p rev ious quan t i t a t ive steps shou ld be made h e r e . The methodology of this s t u d y has been d e s c r i b e d in this c h a p t e r . A n emphasis was put on the cod ing procedures of each item to es tab l i sh r e l i a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s . While the ana lys i s was c o n d u c t e d , p rocedures were edi ted many times and f ina l ly dec ided on as p r e sen t ed h e r e . Improv ing analys is steps is necessa ry if the content ana lys i s of E F L textbooks is to be e f fec t ive . - 40 - CHAPTER 5 T h i s chapter presents the data col lec ted from content ana lys i s of 10 E n g l i s h textbooks for Japanese senior h igh school s t u d e n t s . The process of ana lys i s cons i s ted of s ix i tems: A) Number of c u l t u r a l u n i t s , B ) Number of i l l u s t r a t i o n s , C) Number of fo re ign places in the t e x t s , D) Na t iona l i ty and e t h n i c i t y , E) D i scou r se pat terns and c u l t u r a l u n i t s , and F) E v a l u a t o r s ' comments. In this o r d e r , f i nd ings are d e s c r i b e d , accompanied by tab les . A . Number of Uni t s 1. Number of a l l uni ts The number of a l l uni ts in a textbook v a r i e d from 22 to 11. The average of 10 tex tbooks was 17.4 u n i t s . The t h i c k e s t one had 173 pages , while the th innes t one was 112 pages . 2. Number of uni ts which e x p l i c i t l y exp la in fore ign c u l t u r e The p ropor t ions of uni ts d i r e c t l y re la ted to fo re ign c u l t u r e to a l l uni ts in the tex tbook va r i ed from 38.89% to 9.09%. The New Century English Series conta ined 7 c u l t u r a l units out of 18 u n i t s , while S u n r i s e E n g l i s h conta ined only one u n i t , which is a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to A u s t r a l i a . As an ave rage , 22.41% of a tex tbook dealt with c u l t u r e d i r e c t l y , and in 10 tex tbooks there were 39 such c u l t u r a l Tit le ( fu l l ) MAINSTREAM 1 The New Comprehensive English Course WHY ENGLISH I Publisher Zoshindo Gakko-Tosho Editor(s) Shoichi Ando David Hale Katsumasa Ikenaga Eichi Kobayashi 1. Number of al l Units 16 THE NEW CENTURY ENGLISH SERIES I New Edition Sanseido Shunsuke Wakabayashi Ichiro Yasuda 18 FRESH English 1 Daiichi Gakushusha E i j i Hato NEW LIGHT ENGLISH I Kalryudo Ichiro Tanaka 13 SENIOR SWAN English Course I Kaitakusha Sakae Serizawa 17 NEW STANDARD ENGLISH I REVISED EDITION Hitotsubashi Kenzo Kihara 19 Sunrise English I Go. English! I Obunsha Tokyo Syoseki Yoshio Ogawa Shigeo Imamura 22 The Rainbow English Course 1 Bun-Eido Kuniaki Suenaga J O 171 (Total) Table A I Hu«ber of Units 2. Units Which Expl ic it ly Explain Foreign Culture Number Percent 31.25 Content Big Ben, countries English spoken, gestures, proverbs, American and Japanese customs. 17.66 Japanese and Western doors, some English words and their origins, difference between Britain and United States. 38.89 Foreign customs, the origin of jazz, some English words and their nuance, Japanese and Greek tales about Milky Way, letters of a Japanologist, Japanese and American customs, history of hair style in the West. 12.90 Customs of clothing, images of English words, Halloween, roots of English names. 12.50 Language and gender, history and use of garlic in the world. 29.41 School l i fe in America, origin of English names, things in London, a t r ip to Philadelphia. 10.53 Sightseeing of New York and London. 9.09 Introduction of Australia. 36.36 School in Japan and United States, introduction of Sacramento, California, berbeque and picnic, f l ipping of a coin, manners of greeting, foreign meal manners, language and nation. 22.00 A day in four countries, bath tub race in Canada. 39 (Total) 22.41 (Average) - 41 - Table A-2 Category of Units Which E x p l i c i t l y Explain Foreign Culture T i t l e MAINSTREAM WHY ENGLISH THE NEW CENTURY FRESH English NEW LIGHT SENIOR SWAN NEW STANDARD Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbuw T e r r i - t o r i a l Social Cere- Organi- Para- Commu- Language Travel Customs Aesthetics Education monies Leisure zational language nicat ion Myths Food Familj; 1 1 1 - 42 - Table A-3 Huaber of Units 3. Units Whose Settings are Abroad Ti t le MAINSTREAM WHY ENGLISH THE NEW CENTURY FRESH English NEW EIGHT SENIOR SWAN NEW STANDARD Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbow Total (Percent) U.S. 10 3 (62.50) 10 5 (58.82) 6 1 (33.33) 17 4 (54.84) 9 (69.23) 15 (88.24) 14 (73.68) 9 2 (81.82) 9 9 (40.91) 5.25 3.25 (52.50) U.K. Canada Australia Some Country English 1s Spoken 4. Units Which Implicitly Require Cultural Background Information Some Foreign Country Japan 1 Others A European country 1 A European country 1, various countries 1 India 1, (unknown 4) 1 An Arabic country 1 Number (Percent) ? (12.50) 3 (17.65) 5 (27.78) 6 (19.35) France 0.5, Haiti 0.5, Greece 1, various (38.46) countries 1 9 (52.94) 0.25 0.25 1.25 Greece 0.25, Peru 0.25 8 (42.11) 3 (27.27) 3 (13.64) 2 (20.00) Nomination (Knowledge Required) Christmas as a custom, social structure in the United States. Party, thank you note. Party, the South of America, class in Britain, Greek myth, history of Britain. Christmas, schools in the United States Fahrenheit, party, mailbox in the United States. History of Br itain, native Indians, Catholic rel ig ion. Pope, English meals, French culture, l i f e of Napoleon. Lady-first, American history, Christmas, birthday custom, meal manner, schools in the United states, climate of America and Britain. American sports, native Australians, taking a shower, measurement system, New York State and N.Y.C., things in N.Y.C. Public schools in England, gallon, climate in England. Measurement system (mile), American food, American geography. Measurement system (yard), industry of Canada. - 43 - Table A-4 Category of Units Which Impl ic i t ly Require Cultural Background Knowledge Social Geo- Edu- Measure- Re- L e i - Social Transpor- Natural T i t l e Customs History graphy cation ment Nature l i g ion sure Sports Food Class Travel ta t ion Myths Resource MAINSTREAM 1 1 WHY ENGLISH 1 2 THE NEW CENTURY 1 1 1 1 1 FRESH English 1 2 1 1 1 NEW LIGHT 4 1 SENIOR SWAN 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 NEW STANDARD 1 1 3 1 2 Sunrise English 1 1 1 Go, English! 1 1 1 The Rainbow 1 ' - 44 - - 45 - uni ts a l toge the r . Among them, 8 uni ts i n t r o d u c e d customs in d i f fe ren t coun t r i e s such as g r e e t i n g s , meal manners , soc ia l l i f e , and so f o r t h . A comparat ive view of d i f fe ren t count r ies was taken in a few u n i t s . T h e r e were 7 units about the b a c k g r o u n d and o r i g i n of some E n g l i s h words in 6 t ex tbooks . It can be sa id that more than half the tex tbooks conta ined at least one uni t which fos te red a s tudent ' s in te res t s in E n g l i s h l anguage . There were 3 tex tbooks which con ta ined 5 s igh t see ing top ic s ; 3 of them d e s c r i b e d a t r i p to L o n d o n , E n g l a n d , 1 to New Y o r k , and 1 to P h i l a d e l p h i a . O n l y 3 uni ts were found to in t roduce school life of teenagers ab road . Not many events in fo re ign count r ies were i n t r o d u c e d , e i the r ; 1 tex tbook d e s c r i b e d Halloween and 1 wrote about a bath tub race in V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a . T h e r e was only 1 uni t wh ich d i s c u s s e d para language in the ent i re 10 t e x t b o o k s . 3. Number of uni ts whose se t t ings were abroad In Senior Swan , 88.24% of a l l the units were those whose se t t ings were a b r o a d ; on the other h a n d , 33.33% of The New C e n t u r y happened in fo re ign c o u n t r i e s . The average of uni ts whose se t t ings were abroad was 59.91% per t ex tbook , which means e v e n t s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and stories were t a k i n g place abroad in 6 uni ts out of 10 units of an E n g l i s h t ex tbook . Coun t r i e s of locat ion were d i f f e r e n t , d e p e n d i n g on t e x t b o o k s . For ins tance , S u n r i s e E n g l i s h i n v o l v e d 6 coun t r i e s which were r e l a t i ve ly well ba l anced . G o , - 46 - English! had 9 units whose se t t ings were ab road , a l l of which were the Un i t ed S ta tes . T h i s means, in Go, English! whatever happens outs ide J a p a n , the b a c k g r o u n d is always A m e r i c a . In Fresh English, as many as 11 uni ts were r e g a r d e d as happen ing in fo re ign places where E n g l i s h was s p o k e n , a l though the names of the places were not s p e c i f i e d . It is doub t fu l that s tudents would see the E n g l i s h language to be real and s u b s t a n t i a l when they s t u d y the uni ts whose se t t ings are o b s c u r e . In summary, as a gene ra l t endency of 10 t e x t b o o k s , 26.58% of a l l the units had their locat ions in the U n i t e d States and 11.06% in the U n i t e d K i n g d o m . V e r y few other count r ies were ment ioned . E v e r y textbook had a d i f fe ren t type of d i s t r i b u t i o n of coun t r i e s of s e t t i n g s , which would c o n t r i b u t e in deve lop ing the tone of the t ex tbook . 4. Number of uni ts wh ich imp l i c i t l y r equ i r e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d knowledge In 10 t e x t b o o k s , 46 uni ts or 26.44% of a l l the uni ts r e q u i r e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b a c k g r o u n d . Put in another way , in more than one - four th of a l l the uni ts it was assumed that s tuden t s were familiar with the b a c k g r o u n d of ta rge t sen tences . The informat ion r e q u i r e d can be r o u g h l y ca t ego r i zed into the fo l lowing t y p e s : a) events and customs of fo re ign coun t r i es - - C h r i s t m a s , p a r t i e s , and - 47 - g r e e t i n g s , b) h i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , A m e r i c a , F r a n c e and the w o r l d , c) educat ional sys tem of B r i t a i n , A m e r i c a , and other Western c o u n t r i e s , d) measurement scale - - mile , y a r d , g a l l o n , and p o u n d , e) geography of other c o u n t r i e s , and f) o t h e r s . Here is a pa rag raph which wi l l se rve as an example of the f i r s t t y p e : It is F r i d a y e v e n i n g at the West house . Fa ther is in the l i v i n g room. He is r ead ing a newspaper . P e t e r , age 10, is l y i n g on the f l oo r . He is wa tch ing t e l e v i s i o n . Mother is in the k i t c h e n . A car ho rn s o u n d s . N a n c y , age 15, runs down the s ta i r s and rushes to the doo r . N a n c y : B y e - b y e , e v e r y o n e . I'm l a te . F a t h e r : Ju s t a minute , y o u n g l a d y . Where are you going? N a n c y : A b i r t h d a y par ty for G l o r i a . ( T h e New C e n t u r y E n g l i s h I , p . 9 ) In o rde r to u n d e r s t a n d the s i tua t ion of this passage , the readers f i r s t have to know that the p a r t y is common in Western c o u n t r i e s , e spec ia l ly in Nor th A m e r i c a . T h e y also shou ld know what F r i d a y n ights mean to Western people . It may be unbe l ievable for some Japanese s tudents that a g i r l in the same genera t ion may go out at e ight in the e v e n i n g . The p reva lence of cars might be fo re ign to many s t u d e n t s . Without such knowledge about the l i f e s ty le in Western c o u n t r i e s , exerc i ses and role p lays of conver sa t ion between Fa ther and Nancy would be meaningless to s t u d e n t s . - 48 - Another example of passages that r equ i r e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d i s : The fastest time ever r eco rded for 100-ya rd t h r e e - l e g g e d race is 11.0 s econds . The r e c o r d was made by two Amer ican b ro the r s on A p r i l 24, 1909. Y o u know it is impossible for most people to run 100 y a r d s in 11.0 seconds . ( T h e Ra inbow E n g l i s h C o u r s e I , p . 56) The problem of this passage is that most Japanese s tudents would have no idea of " y a r d " . They may be able to comprehend the passage v a g u e l y , bu t they wi l l never apprec ia te the t rue message conveyed by this passage , for they are usua l ly familiar wi th the metr ic sys t em. It was found that in some t ex tbooks , the percentages of the uni ts which had such r i s k y passages amounted to 40% and 50%. B . Number of times coun t r i e s are i l l u s t r a t ed In a l l 10 t e x t b o o k s , there were 845 i l l u s t r a t i o n s , which were ca t egor i zed by c o u n t r y and type of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . F i r s t , as for types of i l l u s t r a t i o n s , car toons were most often d r awn than any other t y p e s , c o n s i s t i n g of 40.12% of a l l i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Car toons were especia l ly l i k e l y to be used for dialogues and exerc i ses at the end of Table B Countr ies I l l u s t r a t e d in The Textbooks U.S. J a p a n U.K. G reece - Canada A u s t r a l i a I t a l y F r a n c e C h i n a I n d i a Nepa l Y u g o s l a v i a Egypt A C o u n t r y Where E n g l i s h I s Spoken An E a s t e r n Eu ropean C o u n t r y W o r l d O t h e r s Not I d e n t i f i a b l e T o t a l (%) P h o t o - g r a p h s C o l o u r 38 1 8 0 2 3 1 2 4 0 1 0 1 1 0 19 J. 82 9 .70 72 31 34 4 7 5 7 4 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 4 16 196 2 3 . 20 Drawi ngs 51 17 29 13 3 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 21 4 0 0 24 169 20 .00 Maps 21 2 5 0 1 11 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 _0 39 .62 C a r t o o n s 28 72 54 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 112 0 0 2 63 339 4 0 . 1 2 R e p r o - d u c t i o n s 4 12 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 20 2 .37 T o t a l 214 135 130 19 15 15 9 8 7 3 3 3 2 140 6 6 26 104 845 (100%) % 2 5 . 3 3 15 .98 15 . 38 2 . 25 1.78 1.78 1.07 0 . 95 0 . 83 0 . 3 6 0 . 3 6 0 . 36 0.24 16 .57 0.71 0.71 3 .08 12.31 - 49 - 50 - the u n i t . Some textbooks i n c l u d e d comic s t r i p s in a whole u n i t , which l a r g e l y inc reased the total number of ca r toons . B l a c k and white pho tographs occup ied 23. 20% and d rawings occup ied 20.00% of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Maps and r ep roduc t ions were not common in E n g l i s h t ex tbooks . It is s u r p r i s i n g that on ly 4 w o r l d maps were found in 10 t e x t b o o k s . Maps of the U n i t e d States and B r i t a i n were also r e g i o n a l , focus ing on pa r t i cu l a r small local a reas . N e x t , 14 count r ies were iden t i f i ed in a l l . The U n i t e d States was more often dep ic t ed than other c o u n t r i e s , o c c u p y i n g 25.33% of 845 i l l u s t r a t i o n s . T h e r e was a t endency for the U n i t e d States to be i l l u s t r a t e d in photographs ra ther than in car toons wh ich was the most popular mode of i l l u s t r a t i on for other c o u n t r i e s . Pho tog raphs of famous s i g h t s e e i n g spots l ike D i s n e y l a n d , San F r a n c i s c o , and the Statue of L i b e r t y were i n c l u d e d in many t e x t b o o k s . 15.98% of a l l the i l l u s t r a t ions were re la ted to Japan and more than half of them were ca r toons . B r i t a i n was the subject of 15.38% of a l l the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . V e r y few A s i a n , A f r i c a n , and South Amer ican coun t r i es were i n c l u d e d . 12.31% c o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d . The sum of the coun t r i e s where E n g l i s h is spoken as an off ic ia l or a nat ive l anguage , namely A m e r i c a , B r i t a i n , C a n a d a , A u s t r a l i a , I nd i a , and un iden t i f i ed E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s , amounted to 61.2% of the to ta l . The res t of the i l l u s t r a t i ons were ei ther those wh ich d e p i c t e d n o n - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g count r ies or those which were not re la ted to any c o u n t r y at a l l . Genera l ly s p e a k i n g , the resu l t s of A n a l y s i s B were by and la rge - 51 - cons is tent wi th the data r e s u l t i n g from A n a l y s i s A ; the more f requen t ly a c o u n t r y was d i s c u s s e d , the more often it was i l l u s t r a t e d . C . Nomination and number of fore ign places mentioned in the textbook The aim of A n a l y s i s C was to nominate and to count the names of c o u n t r i e s , s ta tes , p r o v i n c e s , c i t i e s , p l a i n s , and r i v e r s e v e r y time they were ment ioned in the t ex tbook . The resu l t revea led that there were 31 coun t r i es mentioned in 10 t e x t b o o k s . As an ave rage , one textbook con ta ined 9.5 c o u n t r i e s . The coun t r i e s often c i t ed were the Un i t ed States (26.48%), Japan (19.44%), the U n i t e d K ingdom (11.83%), F r a n c e (7.04%) and C h i n a (6.48%). The sum of the U n i t e d Sta tes , the U n i t e d K i n g d o m , A u s t r a l i a , and Canada where E n g l i s h is spoken as a nat ive tongue came to 45.92%, be ing less than half of the total s co re . The f requency with wh ich n o n - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g count r ies were ment ioned was h igher than the author had e x p e c t e d ; Japan took one- f i f th of the to ta l , and F r a n c e and C h i n a were named at least once in most t ex tbooks . A b o u t half of 10 t ex tbooks mentioned Greece (mainly in Greek myths) and E g y p t a lso . C o n c e r n i n g c i t i e s , d i f fe rent tex tbooks had d i f fe ren t pa t te rns in ci t ies ment ioned a c c o r d i n g to topics that the tex tbooks c o n t a i n e d . Among var ious c i t i e s , London was most f r e q u e n t l y c i t ed (42 t imes ) , fol lowed by 37 references to New Y o r k , 14 to K y o t o , 12 to T o k y o , and 11 to San F r a n c i s c o . Table C I Countries Mentioned in the Textbooks Tit le U.S. Jaj jan U.K. France China Australia Canada Egypt Greece Spain Germany Italy Switzerland Korea Turkey U.S.S. ,R. Others Mainstream 1? 6 8 1 1 1 1 Why English 10 4 2 1 The New Century 13 11 8 2 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 Rumania 2, Yugoslavia Fresh English 6 1 2 4 1 1 Burneo 1 New Light 3 3 3 5 4 4 1 Belgium 4, Crete 5, Vatican 1 Senior Swan New Standard 8 12 17 8 3 5 2 9 4 2 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 Finland 3, Sweden 2, Norway 1 Sunrise English 3 6 3 3 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 Holland 1 Go, English! 20 18 1 1 1 1 Mexico 1, Brazil 1, Phill ipines 1 The Rainbow _7 _7 _5 _4 J J J J _2 Persia 2, Peru 1 Total (*) 94 26.48 19 69 .44 42 11.83 25 7.04 23 6.48 15 4.23 12 3.38 12 3.38 9 2.54 6 1.69 6 1.69 5 1.41 3 0.85 3 0.85 2 0.56 2 0.56 27 7.61 - 52 - Table C-2 Cities Mentioned in the Textbooks Tit le Mainstream Why English The New Century Fresh English New Light Senior Swan New Standard Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbow London 1 1 2 1 20 New York 3 7 Kyoto 18 1 Tokyo 1 1 San Francisco Los Angeles 1 Rome Paris Osaka 1 Nagoya Others 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 Montogomery 1, Memphis 1 Atlanta 4, Cincinnati, Seto 1 Liverpool 1, Cambridge 1 New Orleans 1, Hirosaki 1, Belgrade 1 Hiroshima 3 Florence 2 Philadelphia 4, Houston 1, Lincoln 1, Birmingham 1, Brighton 1 Katmandu 1 Boston, Tuscumbia 1 Sacramento 7, Nara 1, Nikko 1, Detroit 1 York 4, Peking 4, Venice 4, Athens 3, Vancouver 3, Nanaimo 3, Sapporo 2, Wimbledon 2, Hiaeji 1, Total (*) 42 20.49 37 18.04 14 12 6.83 5.86 11 5.37 6 2.93 6 5 3 2.93 2.44 1.46 2 0.98 67 32.68 - 53 - Table C-3 Places (States. Counties. Provinces, Prefectures, Rivers. Valleys) Mentioned In the Textbooks Tit le Mainstream U.S. Georgia, Alabama, Massachusettes, Hawaii U.K. Clevedon, Bromley, Chippenham, Queensborough, Watford, Winkfield Plain Japan Area Names, etc. Why English The New Century Fresh English New Light Senior Swan New Standard Cal ifornia, Vermont, Georgia, Massachusettes Louisiana, the Southland Hollywood, Horton Bay California (2), Memphis, Oxford (2), Alabama (2), Arkansas, Manhattan, Hudson River Long Island, Manhattan, East River, Lake Michigan English Channel, Atlantic Ocean Shikoku (2), Kyushu, Kanagawa Mt. Fuji Wakasa, Aomori, Asakusa Hokkaido (3) The Thames Kyushu, Sakai, Yamagata, The Sumida Africa, Southeast Asia, Babylonia, Carpathian Mts. Europe, Middle East, Transylvania, Mt. Olympus Asia, Afr ica, Guiana, Bal i, Europe, North America, South America North America, Hait i , Europe Europe (9), Scandinavia Arabia, Afr ica, Mt. Everest, Europe Sunrise English Go, English! The Rainbow California (4), Michigan, Grand Canyon, Vermont (3) Texas (3) Ohio (2), North Carolina, Grand Lake, Lake Huron, Grand Canyon, Death Valley Winchester, Hampshire The Thames Mt. Fuj i , Shikoku Hokkaido (4) Yuzawa, Akanko, Masyuko Suwako, Mt. Hotaka, Mt. Fuj i , Mt. Yari, Nikko, Arashiyama, Kanagawa, the Toyohashi River Africa (3), Europe Africa (2), Central America, Middle East, South America Mediterranean countries. North America, Asia, Yangtze References more than twice are numbered in parentheses. - 54 - - 55 - Loca l places in the U n i t e d S ta tes , the U n i t e d K i n g d o m , and Japan were s ca t t e r ed in a wide r a n g e . The places mentioned in p l u r a l t ex tbooks a re ; G r a n d C a n y o n , Manhat tan , C a l i f o r n i a , and Georg ia in the U n i t e d Sta tes ; in B r i t a i n , the Thames was mentioned in two t e x t b o o k s ; in J a p a n , Hokka ido and Mt . Fu j i appeared twice , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Names to indicate l a rge r areas in the w o r l d such as E u r o p e , A s i a , N o r t h A m e r i c a , and A f r i c a were commonly seen in a l l t ex tbooks . So far the f i nd ings have been d e s c r i b e d as to wh ich c o u n t r i e s , c i t i e s , r eg iona l names were often c i t ed in E n g l i s h t ex tbooks in J a p a n . Besides such f i n d i n g s , cha rac t e r i s t i c s of each textbook wi l l be added here b r i e f l y . Mainstream was we l l -ba lanced and de ta i l ed in its c i ta t ion of fo re ign p laces . Why English r e f e r r e d to on ly 4 coun t r i es in the ent i re tex tbook and ci t ies and regions mentioned were a l l located in A m e r i c a , B r i t a i n , or J a p a n . Many fo re ign places were mentioned in The New C e n t u r y , i n c l u d i n g exot ic names such as Ca rpa th i an Mounta ins and B a b y l o n i a . T h e r e were few places spec i f i ed in Fresh English w h i c h , for i n s t ance , spec i f i ed names of coun t r i es only 16 t imes. New Light seems to be well ba lanced in c i t i n g fore ign p laces , though it e x c l u d e d Japan comple te ly . The same fact was also seen in Senior Swan, which ins tead emphasized B r i t a i n . The re London was ment ioned 20 t imes. In New S t a n d a r d , the c o u n t r y of Japan was s ta ted 17 times and the c i t y of New Y o r k was coun ted 18 - 56 - times, wh ich were v e r y notable numbers in the t ab le s . Sunrise English put a s l i gh t emphasis on A u s t r a l i a which i n t r o d u c e d s tudents to its h i s t o r y , soc i e ty , and c u l t u r e in a un i t . F i g u r e s of the tables show that Go, English! focused on Japan and A m e r i c a , especia l ly C a l i f o r n i a . Th i s t ra i t maybe due to the compara t ive pe r spec t ive of Japan and Amer ica that can be f r equen t ly seen in a few u n i t s . F i n a l l y , The Rainbow English of fered the most de ta i l ed information of ci t ies and reg iona l p l aces . It i n c l u d e d many loca l places in Japan which might be usefu l in mot iva t ing s t uden t s . D . Presen ta t ion of na t iona l i ty and e thn ic i ty 1. Number of main cha rac t e r s in the units C h a r a c t e r s who p lay major roles were i d e n t i f i e d , ca tegor ized by na t ional i ty or e t h n i c i t y , and t a l l i e d . F i r s t , as for na t iona l i t y , 11 coun t r i es were nominated in a l l . 68 out of 223 cha rac t e r s - which is 30.49% of a l l major cha rac t e r s - were A m e r i c a n s , 14.80% were B r i t i s h , and 13.90% were Japanese . Those 3 nationals amounted to 59.19% and any other nat ional occup i ed less than 2%. A b o u t 35% of major cha rac te r s cou ld not be c l e a r l y iden t i f i ed in terms of na t iona l i ty ; howeve r , 19.28% were i n f e r r e d to be white people who speak E n g l i s h and 11.21% were though t to be those who speak E n g l i s h as a f i r s t , s e c o n d , or fo re ign l anguage . Table D- l -A Number of Main Characters - N a t i o n a l i t y Why The New F r e s h New S e n i o r New S u n r i se Go , The N a t i o n a l i t y M a i n s t r e a m E n g l i s h C e n t u r y E n g l i s h L i g h t Swan S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h E n g l i s h ! Ra inbow T o t a l % A m e r i c a n 4 5 1 3 4 7 13 4 16 11 68 30 49 B r i t i s h 2 1 4 4 4 13 2 1 2 33 14 .80 J a p a n e s e 1 2 7 1 1 2 14 3 31 13 90 G reek 3 3 1 35 F r e n c h 1 1 2 0 90 A u s t r a l i a n 1 1 0 45 C a n a d i a n 1 1 0 45 B e l g i a m 1 1 0 45 1 t a l i a n 1 1 0 45 I n d i a n 1 1 0 45 Y u g o s l a v i a n 1 1 0 45 C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r 14 3 13 2 10 1 43 19 28 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r 5 1 11 3 5 25 11 21 W e s t e r n e r 2 2 4 1 80 Eu r opean 1 1 0 45 A r a b i c 1 1 0 45 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e — — _2 _3 — _1 — — — 6 2 69 T o t a l 14 24 20 37 15 26 27 13 30 17 223 - 57 - Table D-l-B Number of Main Characters - E t h n i c i t y E t h n i c i t y A m e r i c a n C a n a d i a n T i t l e W h i t e B l a c k U n i d e n t i f i a b l e N a t i v e M a i n s t r e a m 1 2 1 Why E n g l i s h 5 The New C e n t u r y 1 F r e s h E n g l i s h 3 New L i g h t 1 3 1 S e n i o r Swan 4 3 New S t a n d a r d 12 1 S u n r i s e E n g l i s h A Go, E n g l i s h ! 14 2 The Ra inbow 6 _5 T o t a l 48 2 18 1 (*) 70 .59 2.94 26 .47 100 . 00 - 58 - - 59 - From a view of e t h n i c i t y , among 68 Americans who were the main cha rac te r s of the u n i t s , 48 were white A m e r i c a n s , 2 were b lack Amer i cans , and 18 were those whose e thnic o r i g i n c o u l d not be t raced from the c o n t e x t . E x c e p t for 2 b lack Amer icans of Mainstream I , there were no mino r i t y g roups wh ich p l a y e d important roles in the u n i t s . 2. Number of a l l cha rac te r s in the uni ts Al toge ther 967 cha rac te r s were counted in 10 t e x t b o o k s . Excep t G o , E n g l i s h ! that had an ext remely la rge number and New L i g h t that had a v e r y small number of c h a r a c t e r s , the res t of the textbooks were similar in total number of c h a r a c t e r s , g a t h e r i n g a round 96.7 charac te rs per t ex tbook . Near ly 45% of a l l cha rac te r s cou ld not be spec i f i ed as to the i r na t iona l i ty ; h o w e v e r , it was i n f e r r e d that 11.58% would be Caucas ians who speak E n g l i s h and that 28.44% would be any nat ional who has command of E n g l i s h . Such inference was made by go ing t h r o u g h the context and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of a un i t . The re were 20 nat ionals found in a l l t ex tbooks s t u d i e d . Compared to the resul t s from the p rev ious ana lys i s of main c h a r a c t e r s , percentages of Amer icans and B r i t i s h were smal l e r , b e i n g 19.96% and 9.20%. In other w o r d s , one f i f th of cha rac t e r s in E n g l i s h textbooks is Amer ican and less than a tenth is B r i t i s h . The rate of Table D-2-A Number of A l l Characters - N a t i o n a l i t y N a t i o n a l i t y A m e r i c a n J a p a n e s e B r i t i s h C a n a d i a n G reek F r e n c h A u s t r a l i an I t a l i a n B e l g i a n I n d i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r O t h e r s Un i d e n t i f i a b l e T o t a l Ma i n s t r e a m 18 9 7 1 29 7 3 14 89 Why E n g l i s h 16 12 4 16 27 1 _2 78 The New C e n t u r y 17 28 11 6 3 12 8 14 2 101 F r e s h E n g l i s h 13 27 4 3 1 1 45 33 3 6 136 2 11 2 3 6 3 2 2 J 47 S e n i o r Swan 18 19 New S u n r i s e G o , S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h E n g l i s h ! 23 2 4 _3 69 32 19 8 25 17 4 107 12 5 12 32 6 1 72 41 59 63 7 1 172 The Ra inbow 18 14 13 10 1 1 2 4 25 5 1 _2 96 T o t a l 193 175 89 13 13 12 8 7 2 2 275 112 33 33 967 19 .96 18 .10 20 34 34 1.24 0 .83 0 .72 0 .20 0 .20 28 .44 11 .58 3.41 3.41 - 60 - Table 0-2-B Number of a l l Characters - E t h n i c i t y E t h n i c i t y A m e r i c a n C a n a d i a n A u s t r a l i a n T i t l e W h i t e B l a c k A s i a n U n i d e n t i f i a b l e N a t i v e U n i d e n t i f i a b l e N a t i v e U n i d e n t i f i a b l e M a i n s t r e a m 6 3 9 1 Why E n g l i s h 9 7 The New C e n t u r y 8 1 8 F r e s h E n g l i s h 3 10 New L i g h t 3 5 2 S e n i o r Swan 6 12 New S t a n d a r d 22 10 2 S u n r i s e E n g l i s h 9 3 1 2 Go, E n g l i s h ! 25 1 15 1 I h e Ra inbow _ _ Z _ _ JUL _ ' _ _J? T o t a l 98 4 1 90 2 11 3 5 {%) 50.78 2.07 0 .52 46 .63 15.38 8 4 . 6 2 37 . 5 6 2 . 5 - 61 - - 62 - Japanese was h igher than in the main charac te r a n a l y s i s , composing 18.10% of a l l c h a r a c t e r s . As for e t h n i c i t y , out of 193 A m e r i c a n s , 98 were spec i f i ed as White Amer i cans , 4 as B l a c k A m e r i c a n s , and 1 as Japanese A m e r i c a n s . In to ta l , on ly 5 minor i ty Amer icans (2.59%) were p resen ted in the 10 tex tbooks and other minor i t ies c o u l d not be f o u n d . Among the 10 t e x t b o o k s , Mains t ream, The New C e n t u r y , and G o , E n g l i s h ! i n c l u d e d minor i ty A m e r i c a n s . In case of A u s t r a l i a n s on ly 1 A b o r i g i n a l was ment ioned . L i k e w i s e , only 2 nat ive Canad ians and 1 A i n u (a Japanese minor i ty ) appeared in 10 t e x t b o o k s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , it can be sa id that there are v e r y few minor i ty g roups of a c o u n t r y p resen ted to s t u d e n t s . The way the minori t ies are d e s c r i b e d is not to sugges t that they are in t eg ra t ed into the mainstream of the soc ie ty , but ra ther that they are isola ted from the majori ty g r o u p , p r e s e r v i n g thei r own l i v e s . 3. Number of cha rac te r s i l l u s t r a t e d in the tex tbook In this a n a l y s i s , the h ighes t score was 25.64% marked by the Caucas ians who speak E n g l i s h . A l l the textbooks but one con ta ined a grea t number of p ic tu res of t y p i c a l Caucas ians with long noses , b i g eyes , and blonde h a i r . The second score was 21.68% by Japanese . A reason of this h igh percentage may be due to T h e New C e n t u r y which conta ined a uni t of Japanese ca r toons . Americans s co red 18.18% and Table D-3-A Number of Characters I l l u s t r a t e d - N a t i o n a l i t y N a t i o n a l i t y Why The New F r e s h New S e n i o r M a i n s t r e a m . E n g l i s h C e n t u r y E n g l i s h L i g h t Swan New S u n r i s e Go , The S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h E n g l i s h ! Ra i nbow T o t a l J a p a n e s e A m e r i c a n B r i t i s h C a n a d i a n G reek F r e n c h I t a l i a n I n d i a n B e l g i a n A u s t r a l i a n C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r Eng l i s h Speaker- O t h e r s U n i d e n t i f i a b l e T o t a l 21 16 11 20 3 4 J 6 93 5 20 8 50 _4 87 126 14 23 5 2 22 16 14 222 25 12 4 132 22 5 30 233 4 18 18 4 1 1 _6 76 20 16 12 3 51 14 49 10 37 8 4 28 150 3 9 54 45 49 2 16 J . 93 13 3 3 113 36 27 51 21 28 2 3 169 279 234 195 25 21 11 7 3 3 2 330 34 38 105 1,287 21 . 68 18 .18 15 .15 1.94 1.63 0 .85 0 .54 0 .23 0 . 23 0 . 16 25 .64 2 .64 2 .95 8 .16 - 63 - E t h n i c i t . T i t l e M a i n s t r e a m Why E n g l i s h The New C e n t u r y F r e s h E n g l i s h New L i g h t S e n i o r Swan New S t a n d a r d S u n r i s e E n g l i s h Go, E n g l i s h ! The Ra inbow T o t a l W Table D-3-B Number of Characters I l l u s t r a t e d - E t h n i c i t y A m e r i c a n C a n a d i a n U n i d e n t i - U n i d e n t i - Wh i te B l a c k A s i a n f i a b l e N a t i v e f i a b l e 10 5 1 19 1 13 1 1 11 18 4 18 2 34 15 9 49 _18 • _ _2 _7 _ 21 189 7 2 36 4 21 80 .77 3.00 0 .85 15 .38 16 .00 8 4 . 0 0 - 64 - - 65 - B r i t i s h were 15.15%. E x c e p t for A m e r i c a n s , B r i t i s h , and Japanese , small percentages were ob ta ined by 15 other coun t r i e s such as Canada , Greece , and F r a n c e . C o n c e r n i n g the e thnic d i s t r i b u t i o n of A m e r i c a n s , 80.77% were White A m e r i c a n s , 3.00% were B l a c k A m e r i c a n s , and 15.38% c o u l d not be ca t ego r i zed . The concen t ra t ion on White Americans was heavier than in two p rev ious items of a n a l y s i s . In other c o u n t r i e s , there were only 4 nat ive Canadians dep ic t ed in New L i g h t . In summary of this ana ly s i s , 10 tex tbooks dep ic t ed 11 minori t ies in i l l u s t r a t i o n s , which was 0.85% of a l l 1,287 c h a r a c t e r s . So far the f ind ings of A n a l y s i s D have been d e s c r i b e d wi th a reference to Tables D - l , D - 2 , and D - 3 . Next f ind ings from Table D - 4, which presents de ta i led data on i n d i v i d u a l tex tbooks are d i s c u s s e d . F i r s t , 23 count r ies or nat ionals were ei ther mentioned or i l l u s t r a t e d in 10 textbooks s t ud i ed in this pape r . Among them, 5 were coun t r i e s where E n g l i s h is spoken as a nat ive tongue or as an of f ic ia l l anguage ; they were the U n i t e d S ta tes , the Un i t ed K i n g d o m , A u s t r a l i a , C a n a d a , and I n d i a . 11 European coun t r i es or nationals were i n c l u d e d , though each score was sma l l . T h e r e were v e r y few coun t r i e s or nationals of A s i a , South A m e r i c a , and A f r i c a . Table D-4 Raw Scores of Each Textbook on N a t i o n a l i t y and E t h n i c i t y N o t e : in = Ma l e f = Female g = Group i = I n d i v i d u a l M = Number o f Ma i n C h a r a c t e r s A = Number o f A l l C h a r a c t e r s I = Number o f C h a r a c t e r s I l l u s t r a t e d T a b l e 0 -4 c o n s i s t s o f 10 t a b l e s on raw s c o r e s o f each t e x t b o o k . - 66 - Mainstream National ity (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % American (White) m 1 4 8 13 f 2 2 4 (Black) m 1 1 2 4 f 1 2 3 6 19.39 (Unidentif iable) m 1 1 f 1 1 2 9 3 1 4 i 4 4 38 English Speaker m 4 19 2 25 f 1 2 3 9 3 1 4 i 5 5 37 18.88 Japanese in 1 4 9 14 f 2 3 5 i 3 9 12 31 15.82 Caucasian English Speaker m 6 17 23 f 1 3 4 27 13.78 Br i t i sh m 2 5 11 f 2 20 10.20 Westerner m 2 German f 1 1 3 3 1.53 Indian 9 1 1 1 0.51 Austral ian ID 1 1 1 0.51 Portuguese m 1 1 1 0.51 Ital ian f 1 1 1 0.51 Chinese f 1 1 1 0.51 Arabic m 1 1 1 0.51 Afr ican m 1 1 1 0.51 Unidentif iable m 10 10 0.51 f 1 4 5 15.31 9 13 2 15 30 Total 14 89 93 196 - 67 - Why Eng l i sh N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r Gender m f 9. 12 2 16 11 33 15 2 S u b t o t a l 61 28 2 T o t a l 91 1 8 . 1 5 A m e r i c a n ( W h i t e ) ( B l a c k ) ( U n i d e n t i f i a b l e ) m f f m f 9 i 11 8 1 19 14 1 2 1 2 2 41 2 1 . 6 9 J a p a n e s e m f g i 11 3 4 1 19 10 .05 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r 10 5 1 10 5 1 16 8 . 47 B r i t i s h 11 1 1 6 . 88 W e s t e r n e r U n i d e n t i f i a b l e m f 1.59 3.17 T o t a l 24 78 87 189 - 68 - The New Century (1) N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) Gender M A I S u b t o t a l T o t a l % J a p a n e s e m 4 15 88 107 f 3 10 38 51 g 2 2 i 1 1 161 4 6 . 9 4 B r i t i s h m 4 3 23 30 f 3 3 g 4 4 i 1 1 38 11 . 08 C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 2 4 15 21 f 1 4 6 11 9 1 1 33 9 . 6 2 A m e r i c a n ( W h i t e ) m 1 6 11 18 f 2 2 4 ( B l a c k ) g 1 1 2 ( U n i d e n t i f i a b l e ) m 1 1 f 3 3 g 2 2 i 2 2 32 9 . 3 3 Eu ropean m 1 2 11 14 g 1 1 15 4 .37 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 1 6 7 f 6 6 13 3.79 G reek m 4 2 6 f 2 2 4 g 1 1 11 3.21 F r e n c h m 2 2 f 1 1 9 1 1 2 5 1.46 - 69 - The New Century (2) N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) Gender M A I S u b t o t a l T o t a l ( A n c i e n t ) Roman m 1 1 1 2 1 3 0 .87 Y u g o s l a v i a n , f 1 1 1 3 3 0 .87 Du t ch m 2 2 2 0 . 58 E g y p t i a n m 9 1 1 ; 2 0 .58 C h i n e s e m g 1 1 ; 2 0 . 58 Rumanian m 1 j 0 .29 B a b y l o n i a n g 1 ! 0 .29 A f r i c a n m 1 l ! 0 .29 A s i a n m 1 ! ! 0 .29 S o u t h e a s t A s i a n g 1 l ! 0 .29 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e m 9 i 2 2 11 2 1 15 2 1 18 5.25 T o t a l 20 101 222 343 - 70 - Fresh English Nat ional i ty (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % Caucasian English Speaker m f 9 i 8 5 16 16 1 85 46 1 109 67 1 1 178 43.84 English Speaker ID f 7 4 24 21 11 11 42 36 78 19.21 Japanese ID f g 1 18 6 3 13 8 4 31 15 7 53 13.05 American (White) (Unidentif iable) m f f 9 i 2 1 3 5 2 3 1 4 3 2 2 4 11 6 5 2 28 6.90 B r i t i s h m 4 4 4 12 12 2.96 Indian m 9 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 0.99 Asian g 1 3 4 4 0.99 French m 1 1 1 3 3 0.74 Greek m 3 3 3 0.74 Afr ican m g 1 1 1 1 2 0.49 European g 1 1 1 0.25 South American g 1 1 1 0.25 Unident i f iable m f 9 i 3 6 17 8 2 3 26 8 2 3 39 9.61 Total 37 136 233 406 Hew Light Nationality (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total * B r i t i sh m f g 4 10 7 1 21 11 1 33 23.91 American (White) (Unidentifiable) m f m f 1 1 2 1 • 10 8 13 9 4 3 1 3D 21.74 French m f g 1 7 1 12 2 1 15 10.87 Greek m 3 B 14 14 10.14 Ital ian m g 1 5 8 1 9 6.5? Canadian (Native) m f 1 3 1 5 ? 7 5.07 Belgian f g 1 3 5 1 6 4.35 Japanese m f 4 5 1 6 4.35 English Speaker ID f • 1 3 3 6 4.35 Egyptian m g 1 1 1 2 1.45 German m 1 1 n.7? Unidentifiable n f 3 3 3 6 3 9 6.52 Total 15 47 76 138 - 72 - Senior Swan N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) Gender M A I S u b t o t a l T o t a l % B r i t i s h m 9 f 4 9 14 4 1 15 1 38 9 1 48 32 . 88 A m e r i c a n ( W h i t e ) ( U n i d e n t i f i a b l e ) m 2 f 2 m f 2 9 1 i 2 4 5 5 1 1 7 11 2 11 17 7 7 2 1 45 3 0 . 82 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 3 f 11 12 14 12 26 17.81 C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 1 f 1 1 1 7 5 9 16 10 .96 A f r i c a n m f 1 2 > 3 2 .05 German f 1 l 1 0 . 68 E g y p t i a n 9 1 1 1 0 .68 C h i n e s e g 1 l 1 0 .68 Eu ropean g 1 ] 1 0 .68 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e m 1 f 1 2 2 2 4 2 .74 T o t a l 26 69 51 146 - 73 - New Standard N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) Gende r M A I S u b t o t a l T o t a l % A m e r i c a n ( w h i t e ) m 7 11 18 36 f 5 11 16 32 ( U n i d e n t i f i a b l e ) m 1 7 4 12 f 1 7 8 9 1 4 5 i 1 1 94 3 3 . 09 C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 8 14 27 49 f 2 3 10 15 64 2 2 . 5 4 J a p a n e s e m 1 13 7 21 f 2 3 5 9 4 4 8 34 11.97 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 18 6 24 f 6 2 8 i 1 1 33 11 .62 B r i t i s h m 2 5 5 12 f 2 1 3 9 1 4 5 20 7.04 A r a b i c m 1 2 3 6 9 2 1 3 9 3.17 A u s t r a l i a n ( N a t i v e ) 9 2 2 2 0 .70 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e m 18 18 f 10 10 28 9 . 86 T o t a l 27 107 150 284 - 74 - Sunr ise Eng l i sh N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) Gender M A I S u b t o t a l T o t a l % B r i t i s h m 1 6 40 47 f 4 14 18 9 1 1 i 1 1 67 37 .64 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 4 19 23 f 1 11 12 i 2 2 37 20 .79 A m e r i c a n ( W h i t e ) m 1 4 4 9 f 3 4 5 12 i 1 1 ( U n i d e n t i f i a b l e ) f 3 3 25 14 .04 C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 2 6 8 f 1 4 9 14 g 1 1 23 12 .92 J a p a n e s e m 1 3 1 5 f 1 2 1 4 g 1 1 10 5.62 Greek m 7 7 f 1 1 8 4 . 4 9 A u s t r a l i a n ( N a t i v e ) g 1 1 ( U n i d e n t i f i a b l e ) f 2 2 g 2 2 5 2 .80 F r e n c h f 1 1 1 0 .56 S p a n i s h f 1 1 1 0 .56 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e f 1 1 1 0 . 56 T o t a l 13 72 93 178 - 75" - Go, Eng l i sh ! N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) Gender M A I S u b t o t a l T o t a l % J a p a n e s e m 8 33 28 69 f 4 18 16 38 9 2 8 1 11 118 37 . 46 A m e r i c a n ( w h i t e ) m 12 20 42 74 f 1 5 6 12 g 1 1 2 ( A s i a n ) 9 1 1 ( U n i d e n t i f i a b l e ) m 4 4 f 3 3 g 2 8 10 106 33 .65 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 33 33 f 30 30 63 2 0 . 00 C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r m 2 9 11 f 5 4 9 20 6 . 35 C a n a d i a n 9 1 1 1 0 . 3 2 C h i n e s e 9 1 1 1 1 0 . 32 M e x i c a n m 1 1 1 0 . 32 T u r k i sh m 1 1 1 0 .32 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e m 3 3 f 1 1 4 1.27 T o t a l 30 172 113 315 - 76 - The Rainbow (1) National i ty (ethnicity) Gender M A I Subtotal Total % Br i t i sh m 2 8 30 40 f 4 20 24 9 1 1 2 66 23.40 American (White) ro 3 4 7 14 f 3 3 11 17 (Asian) m 1 1 f 11 (Unidentifiable) m 3 4 3 10 f 2 3 1 6 9 2 3 5 i 2 2 56 19.86 Japanese (Majority) m 2 7 21 30 f 4 11 15 9 1 2 4 7 (Ainu) 9 1 53 18.79 Caucasian English Speaker m 3 17 20 f 2 11 13 33 11.70 Canadian ra 4 15 19 f 1 6 7 9 4 4 i 1 1 31 10.99 English Speaker m 14 14 f 11 11 25 8.87 I ta l ian m 4 1 5 5 8.87 Austral ian (Native) i ! 1 (Unidentifiable) f 1 1 2 3 1.06 French m 1 1 0.35 - 77 - The Rainbow (2) N a t i o n a l i t y ( e t h n i c i t y ) Gender M A I S u b t o t a l T o t a l % Greek m 1 1 0 . 3 5 S p a n i s h m 1 1 0 . 3 5 C h i n e s e f 1 1 0 . 3 5 I r a n i a n f 1 1 0 . 35 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e m f 1 1 3 4 1 5 1.77 T o t a l 17 96 169 282 - 78 - - 79 - Reg iona l names to indica te a l a rge r area than c o u n t r y were seen in a l l t e x t b o o k s ; they were the West, E u r o p e , A s i a , Southeast A s i a , A r a b , A f r i c a , and South A m e r i c a . L a s t l y , Table D-5 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of g e n d e r s . The r e su l t is that male cha rac te r s are ment ioned and dep ic t ed more than twice as often as female c h a r a c t e r s . Of note is that main cha rac t e r s of the uni ts are dominated by male cha rac te r s which exceed female charac te rs by the rate of three to one . The re are 53 women p l a y i n g important roles in the t e x t b o o k s , while there are 157 men of major c h a r a c t e r s . Each na t ional i ty has its own pa t te rn of d i s t r i b u t i o n of male and female; howeve r , it is notable that B r i t i s h women are sca rce ly d e s c r i b e d in the tex tbooks in ques t i on ; only 4 B r i t i s h ladies play major roles of the u n i t s , while there are 29 B r i t i s h gentlemen as main c h a r a c t e r s . A closer look at Tab le D-4 reveals that Mainstream and The New Century have uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of male and female. . On the other h a n d , books wi th a more equal t reatment of both sexes are Sunrise and Senior Swan. E . T y p e of Wr i t i ng T h i s ana lys i s made it c lear that c u l t u r a l content was most often connec ted with e s s a y - t y p e form than with any other d i s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s . Most t ex tbooks con ta ined essays which d i s c u s s e d fo re ign customs and l i f es ty les in one way or ano the r . T h e r e were as many Table D-5 Frequency of Male and Female Characters Mai n C h a r a c t e r s A l l C h a r a c t e r s C h a r a c t e r s I l l u s t r a t e d T o t a l Ma le Female Ma le Fema le M a l e Fema le Ma l e Femal i A m e r i c a n 40 24 93 62 135 85 268 171 B r i t i s h 29 4 54 24 146 43 229 71 C a u c a s i a n E n g l i s h S p e a k e r 31 12 64 47 216 130 311 189 E n g l i s h S p e a k e r 19 6 157 106 19 14 195 126 J a p a n e s e 18 _9 101 46 174 82 293 137 T o t a l 158 53 524 296 834 384 1,516 733 - 80 - Table E Discourse Patterns of the Cultural Units T i t l e Type of Units Discourse Patterns Dialogue Narrative Essay Song Poem Letter Newspaper Joke Myth Simplif ied Novels F ict ion Biography Play Why The New Fresh New Mainstream English Century English Light Senior New Sunrise Go, The Total of 10 Swan Standard English English! Rainbow Textbooks A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A+B+C 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 12 2 3 2 1 1 5 4 3 4 6 2 2 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 4 5 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 4 2 1 1 37 15 6 26 5 1 10 4 26 40 18 84 1 1 10 1 5 4 12 2 11 1 (A) Units which exp l i c i t l y explain foreign culture. (6) Units whose settings are abroad. (C) Units which imp l i c i t l y require culture background information. - 81 - - 82 - as 40 essays whose se t t ings were a b r o a d . At the same time, 18 essays were seen as b e i n g based on the assumption that readers would have ce r t a in b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e . For in s t ance , in New S t a n d a r d , there were 7 essays a l toge the r , 5 of which r e q u i r e d some c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d information in o rde r to fu l ly u n d e r s t a n d those u n i t s . Dialogue came second as d i s c o u r s e pat terns connec ted to the c u l t u r a l con ten t . In p a r t i c u l a r , 8 of 10 tex tbooks con ta ined dialogues which were t a k i n g place in fore ign c o u n t r i e s . 4 tex tbooks employed dia logues to deal wi th fo re ign cu l tu re as a theme of the u n i t . Le t t e r form was mostly used to in t roduce fore ign th ings into the s e t t i n g , usua l ly in the format of a person abroad w r i t i n g a le t ter to family and f r i e n d s . R a r e l y used in the c u l t u r a l uni ts were s o n g s , poems, p l a y s , and newspaper a r t i c l e s . F . E v a l u a t o r s ' comments on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i e t y r ep re sen t ed in the textbook Ana lyse s A , B , C , D , and E were quant i t a t ive approaches which y i e l d e d s t a t i s t i ca l data c o n c e r n i n g the c u l t u r a l t reatment in E n g l i s h - 83 - tex tbooks in J a p a n . In A n a l y s i s F , qua l i t a t ive evaluat ion of the c u l t u r a l informat ion is u n d e r t a k e n . Comments are made on e v e r y t ex tbook . a) Mainstream I In this t ex tbook , sexism is obvious ra ther than r ac i sm. Tab le D-4 shows that the numbers of male and female major cha rac te r s are 11 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . It inc ludes a wide range of count r ies and e thnic i t ies wh ich are compara t ive ly wel l b a l anced . Amer ica and Grea t B r i t a i n seem to be equal ly weighed and two b lack Amer icans play important ro l e s . Mainstream I also inc ludes a uni t on p a r a l a n g u a g e w h i c h is a c r u c i a l e lement of i n t e r c u l t u r a l communica t ion . S te reo types can be seen in some p i c t u r e s ; Engl i shmen cannot use chop s t i cks and cannot eat raw f i s h , e i t he r . Japanese women wear kimonos and Japanese men are in bus iness s u i t s , wear ing b lack rimmed g l a s se s . F o r e i g n places p i c t u r e d are famous tour i s t spots l i ke Hawa i i , San F r a n c i s c o , and Los A n g e l e s . Writers appear to be pos i t ive towards Amer ican or fore ign ways and negat ive towards Japanese c u l t u r e . An example is that the re la t ionsh ip of family in the States is d e s c r i b e d as na tu ra l and that Japanese families need to be r e s t r u c t u r e d . - 84 - b) WHY ENGLISH I In this t ex tbook , the w r i t e r ' s in ten t ion to motivate s tudents is manifested. With that i n t e n t i o n , aspects of school l ife in the U n i t e d States such as f r i e n d s h i p , l o v e , and socia l ac t iv i t i es are emphas ized . The pop c u l t u r e of the Bea t l e s , Rol l ing ' S tones , and rock music are also i n t r o d u c e d as a theme of a u n i t . Some uni ts are compar isons of two d i f fe rent cu l tu re s and the tone is fair to both c u l t u r e s . As for the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , the car toons are s t e r e o t y p e d and dominant ly dep ic t on ly Caucas ian people . c) T H E NEW C E N T U R Y E N G L I S H S E R I E S I , The New E d i t i o n Th i s textbook refers to the widest va r i e ty of coun t r i e s in a l l 10 t ex tbooks . It contains informat ion on ancient Rome, anc ien t G r e e c e , and B a b y l o n i a , thus r e q u i r i n g s tudents to have some knowledge of wor ld h i s t o r y . A s t r e n g t h of ment ion ing many coun t r i e s and places is that it might motivate the in te res t of some s t u d e n t s , because it is cha l l eng ing to the i r i n t e l l i g e n c e . However , one d r a w b a c k here is that some s tudents w i l l f i n d the unfamil iar names of places c o n f u s i n g and i r r i t a t i n g and may lose in te res t in the whole u n i t . In the t reatment of c u l t u r a l d i f f e rences , r e spec t for other cu l tu res is s h o w n . In a compar ison of two cus toms , the w r i t e r s a y s : - 85 - "The custom has a v e r y long h i s t o r y and they bel ieve that thei r way is much be t te r" ( p . 17) . "It only means that customs in the two coun t r i es are d i f fe ren t" ( p . 18) . It is emphasized that there are no bet ter customs nor worse customs in the w o r l d . d) F R E S H E n g l i s h I Reg iona l names such as A s i a and Europe ra ther than spec i f ic coun t r i es are used to ind ica te fore ign p laces . On ly Amer icans and B r i t i s h cou ld be i d e n t i f i e d . Among A m e r i c a n s , most of them cannot be labeled by thei r e t h n i c i t i e s . In the texts and the e x e r c i s e s , cha rac te r s are g i v e n only simple names such as K e n , T o m , and M r . G r e e n . The average age of charac te r s is low, for the l ives of c h i l d r e n are often d e s c r i b e d the re . T h e r e f o r e , the impress ion that the content is access ib le but c h i l d i s h is i n e v i t a b l e . Compared to other t e x t b o o k s , this textbook is f u l l of c a r t oons , most of which are ca r i ca tu res o f . w h i t e people . The car toons are o v e r s i m p l i f i e d and s t e r e o t y p e d . E v e r y white woman has a s imilar face that has p r e t t y eyes and l o n g , c u r l y b lond h a i r . In one c a r t o o n , a white man in a bus iness sui t is t a l k i n g to a naked Indian with, a t u r b a n who is p r a c t i c i n g Y o g a in f ront of the Taj Maha l . - 86 - e) NEW L I G H T E N G L I S H I In this t ex tbook , European people and coun t r i e s are often d e s c r i b e d , i n c l u d i n g Be lg ium and A n c i e n t Greece , there are no uni ts which are re la ted to Japanese th ings and no Japanese play major c h a r a c t e r s . T h e r e are few uni ts about the same genera t ion of h igh school s tudents and few themes about e v e r y d a y l i f e . Ins tead , the content of the tex tbook is l i t e r a t u r e - o r i e n t e d , be ing d e r i v e d from works by Hemingway , Mans f i e ld , and so f o r t h . T h e r e seems to be no p i c t o r i a l b i a s ; p i c tu re s and minute d rawings are used ins t ead of ca r toons , and the i r tone is v e r y s e r i o u s . f) S E N I O R S W A N E n g l i s h C o u r s e I It puts the second heavies t emphasis on B r i t a i n in the 10 t e x t b o o k s . Amer ica is also fea tured and there are only 3 nationals besides Amer icans and B r i t o n s . Not a s ing le Japanese is to be found h e r e . A c c o r d i n g l y , a pe r spec t ive of compar ing and c o n t r a s t i n g Japanese and fo re ign c u l t u r e is not taken at a l l . As for con ten t , Amer ican schools and teenagers are d i s c u s s e d in p l u r a l uni ts which refer to the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of a class in the U n i t e d S ta tes . T h e r e are also units about a t r i p to London and P h i l a d e l p h i a , making the segment sound l ike a t o u r i s t g u i d e . - 87 - I l lus t ra t ions often used are p ic tu res and d r a w i n g s in which people and scenery are s k e t c h e d in de t a i l . g) NEW S T A N D A R D E N G L I S H I R E V I S E D E D I T I O N The f i r s t s eve ra l uni ts are based upon episodes in which a Japanese schoolboy goes to New Y o r k , accompanying his father who is v i s i t i n g on b u s i n e s s . N a t u r a l l y , school life in the U n i t e d States is i n t r o d u c e d . The fo re ign locales p resen ted in this tex tbook are concen t ra ted in large c i t i e s , namely London and New Y o r k . Amer ican heroes - - Superman and L o u G e h r i g - are i n c l u d e d , too. Women's s tatus in Japan is deba ted in one of the u n i t s , t a k i n g into cons idera t ion the impact of Western cu l tu re on life t he r e . P i c tu r e s are e i ther those of London or New Y o r k C i t y . T h e r e are also maps of both c i t ies which a re , somehow, i n a c c u r a t e . Car toons and d rawings seem to manifest no pre judice aga ins t people in terms of e t h n i c i t y . h) S u n r i s e E n g l i s h I A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is that the importance of h a r d work and the meaning of v o l u n t a r y work in soc ia l l ife are emphasized by the uni ts which i n t r o d u c e d fo re ign people and their l i v e s . T h i s tex tbook - 88 - inc ludes var ious age g r o u p s . It also inc ludes units on love and suspense which make the tone of the textbook f resh and v i v i d . The re is an exce l len t uni t on A u s t r a l i a that is d e s c r i b e d as a mul t i e thn ic and m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . As for i l l u s t r a t i o n s , scenes of B r i t a i n are more f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d than any o ther c o u n t r y . T h e r e are no obv ious cha rac t e r i s t i c s in the i l l u s t r a t ions in g e n e r a l . i) Go, English! I The ways of life in Japan and in the U n i t e d States (espec ia l ly West Coast ) are s t r o n g l y emphas ized . T h r o u g h the eyes of an exchange s tuden t , a comparison of family l i f e , a g r i c u l t u r e , and the school sys tem of both coun t r i es is made as a topic of the u n i t s . T h i s is the only tex tbook that ment ioned Japanese A m e r i c a n s . No other mino r i t i e s , no other E u r o p e a n s , and no B r i t i s h are a l l u d e d to . L i k e w i s e , i l l u s t r a t i ons are mainly those of Amer ican scenes . The p i c tu re s and i l l u s t r a t ions are d e p i c t e d in such a way as to s t i r in the s tuden t s ' feel ings of envy and admira t ion for the r i chness and freedom of the c o u n t r y . It seems that the joys and b r i g h t n e s s of C a l i f o r n i a are promoted by this t e x t b o o k . - 89 - j) The Ra inbow E n g l i s h C o u r s e I The chief concern of the w r i t e r s is that the tex tbook s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g , readable , and a t t r ac t ive to h igh school s t u d e n t s . It is p la in that an effort was made to in t roduce much informat ion on fore ign th ings and p laces . In s e v e r a l u n i t s , a few coun t r i e s are c i t ed and e x p l a i n e d . Genera l ly s p e a k i n g , this textbook contains data on a v e r y wide range of fore ign coun t r i es and ca r r i es a grea t number of speci f ic local names. Ano the r t ra i t is that A i n u in Japan and nat ive A u s t r a l i a n s were r e f e r r e d to . E v e r y page of this tex tbook has a few p i c t u r e s , ca r toons , and d r a w i n g s which might be appea l ing to s t u d e n t s . Scene ry from a l l over the wor ld is sca t t e red here and there and occupies large spaces on the pages , accompanied by explanat ions in Japanese , not a common feature wi th E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s . In this c h a p t e r , facts from the analys is of 10 tex tbooks have been p resen ted in tables and d e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l . In the next c h a p t e r , impl ica t ions are d r a w n from those f ind ings and answers to the subproblems are s u g g e s t e d . - 90 - C H A P T E R 6 F i r s t Purpose One of the purposes of this s t udy is to sugges t a process by which the c u l t u r a l content of E n g l i s h tex tbooks in Japan can be a n a l y z e d . As a framework for this s t u d y , Jo ine r ' s eva lua t ion form was adopted and r e v i s e d . H a v i n g c o n d u c t e d a tho rough s tudy of the f ramework , the author has something to say about i ts use fu lness . In the f i r s t half of this c h a p t e r , the items of the framework are d i s c u s s e d . A . Number of uni ts 1. Number of a l l uni ts in the tex tbook 2. Number of uni ts which e x p l i c i t l y exp la in fo re ign c u l t u r e 3. Number of uni ts whose se t t ings are ab road 4. Number of uni ts which imp l i c i t l y r e q u i r e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d knowledge Th i s is a v e r y impor tant process which w i l l be a key to the content • ana lys i s of c u l t u r a l t reatment in E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s . Processes 1 and 3 were not d i f f i c u l t , t hough other processes were not s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and the ana lys t s needed to d i s c u s s them. In Process 2, not on ly c o u n t i n g the number of c u l t u r a l uni ts but also i d e n t i f y i n g such uni ts is n e c e s s a r y , for the convenience of later d i scuss ions among a n a l y s t s . It is also v e r y important that ana lys t s s h o u l d agree on what "a c u l t u r a l un i t " i s , before - 91 - s tar t ing ' the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Without a consensus on an opera t iona l d e f i n i t i o n , v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the s t udy would decrease d r a m a t i c a l l y . When i n t e r p r e t i n g co l lec ted d a t a , however , it s h o u l d be r ecogn ized that i nc lus ion of a h igh percentage of c u l t u r a l uni ts does not necessa r i ly mean that the textbook c o n c e r n e d is h i g h l y c u l t u r e - c o n s c i o u s ; i t is poss ible that a textbook cou ld conta in many c u l t u r a l topics wh ich may be seve re ly b i a s e d , damaging a s tuden t ' s view of fore ign c o u n t r i e s . Process 3 - the se t t ings of the uni ts - over laps somewhat wi th Items B and C ; however , a s t r e n g t h of this process is tha t , t h r o u g h a simple t a sk , analys ts can q u i c k l y d i s c e r n a genera l t endency c o n c e r n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o u n t r i e s . T h i s process also enables ana lys t s to sense whether a textbook seems to favour E n g l i s h for use outs ide Japan as a fore ign l anguage , or for use in Japan as a tool for i n t e rna t iona l communicat ion. For i n s t ance , T h e New C e n t u r y s u b s c r i b e s to the la t ter v i e w , its percentage of un i t s whose se t t ings are ab road be ing only 33.33%. On the other h a n d , 88.24% of Senior Swan s tor ies happen a b r o a d , so that s tudents would be much more l i k e l y to r e g a r d E n g l i s h as a fo re ign l anguage . In this way , Process 3 may be usefu l in d i s c o v e r i n g the tex tbook w r i t e r ' s a t t i tudes towards E n g l i s h . Process 4 was a labor ious work r e q u i r i n g a c a r e fu l check of e v e r y sen tence . In this p r o c e s s , r e q u i r e d b a c k g r o u n d informat ion necessa ry for the d i s c u s s i o n a f t e rward was i d e n t i f i e d . Th i s ana lys i s is mean ing fu l , for a) i t shows how much b a c k g r o u n d knowledge is taken for g r a n t e d in h igh - 92 - school E n g l i s h c lasses , and b) it tells teachers what is the minimum information they shou ld s u p p l y to s t u d e n t s . B . Number of times coun t r i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d T h i s item aimed to measure how fore ign count r ies were v i s u a l l y p resen ted in E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s . It was useful in r e v e a l i n g that a ce r t a in c o u n t r y tended to be dep ic t ed in a ce r ta in mode of i l l u s t r a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , colour photographs and cartoons had i n t e r e s t i n g impl i ca t ions . Co lour pho tographs c o n v e y e d the v i v i d image of objects ; the i r tones were ana ly t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e , and were sca rce ly emotional or b i a s e d . On the other h a n d , car toons usefu l ly impl ied comica l , s a r c a s t i c , and exagge ra t ed f ee l i ngs . It was in car toons that s tereotypes and ove r s impl i f i ca t ion were often f o u n d . It can be c o n c l u d e d that Item B is wor thwhi le c o n d u c t i n g . As a p r a c t i c a l sugges t ion of Item B , one t h i n g shou ld be po in ted ou t ; ana lys t s have to decide how to deal wi th a uni t which is composed of comic s t r i p s . In this s t u d y , one frame of comic s t r i p ser ies was coun ted as one p i c t u r e , because ana lys t s j u d g e d that each p i c tu r e might have an impact on h i g h school s t u d e n t s . As a r e s u l t , a uni t of car toons i n f l uenced the data a grea t dea l . Recent t r ends ind ica ted that more and more car toons w i l l be i n c l u d e d in E n g l i s h tex tbooks p u b l i s h e d in J a p a n . How to dea l wi th a uni t of car toons s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d before ana lys i s a c c o r d i n g to the s i t u a t i o n . - 93 - C . Name and number of fo re ign places mentioned in the textbook T h i s ana lys i s y i e lded i n t e r e s t i n g da ta , especia l ly in terms of c i t ies and local a reas . Names of count r ies r e f e r r e d to in the tex tbooks were not much d i f fe ren t from the data of Items C and D . C o u n t i n g the names of ci t ies and local areas was an effect ive way of ge t t i ng a more p rec i se i n s i g h t in to aspects of fore ign c u l t u r e r ep re sen t ed in the t e x t b o o k s . Fo r in s t ance , i t was found that the c i t y of London was fea tured more often than the c o u n t r y of the Un i t ed K i n g d o m . D . P resen ta t ion of na t ional i ty and e thn i c i t y 1. Number of main charac te r s in the units 2. Number of a l l charac te rs in the units 3. Number of charac te r s i l l u s t r a t e d in the textbook These items were not i n c l u d e d in Jo ine r ' s o r i g i n a l form but added b y the author to solve the t h i r d subprob lem r e g a r d i n g textbook b i a s . To t e l l the conc lus ion f i r s t , Item D was a v e r y useful and powerfu l method of s ens ing tex tbook bias as well as ideology i n f e r r e d from the t ex tbook . The data of Item D were by and large cons i s ten t with f ind ings from Items B and C ; t he re fo re , it can be sugges t ed this ana lys i s method has some v a l i d i t y . In c a r r y i n g out this p roces s , two p r a c t i c a l sugges t ions are made. F i r s t , ana lys t s shou ld set up rules of cod ing p rocedures f i r m l y , and be - 94 - always ready to exp la in them c l ea r ly to o t h e r s . O t h e r w i s e , t a l l y i n g tasks lose r e l i a b i l i t y . S e c o n d , Item D can be ei ther s impler or more de ta i l ed , a c c o r d i n g to the need and purpose of the a n a l y s t s . I d e n t i f y i n g the gender of a charac te r may be omi t ted , i f ana lys ts are not i n t e re s t ed in sexism at a l l . However , it is adv isab le to do so , because i t is convenien t to know the sex of a cha rac te r when ana lys ts d i scuss the data later on or when they have to count cha rac te r s for the second time a c c o r d i n g to a new c o d i n g rule that is e s t ab l i shed d u r i n g the process of a n a l y s i s . If ana lys t s are sa t i s f i ed with a rough s t u d y of nat ional and r ac i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , Process 1, or wi th the t a l l y i n g of the main charac te rs of the u n i t s , Processes 2 and 3 can be omi t ted . T h e r e is an over lap between Processes 1 and 2, and also between Item B and Process 3. Scores of Processes 1, 2 and 3 are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r en t , h o w e v e r , each process be ing exact eno'ugh to ref lect the cha rac t e r i s t i c s of a t ex tbook . E . D i s c o u r s e pa t te rns adopted for the uni ts about fore ign c u l t u r e T h i s process was i n c l u d e d in Jo ine r ' s o r i g i n a l form and was adopted by Ki tao as w e l l ; howeve r , the author d i d not f i n d i t to be of c r u c i a l impor tance . T h e r e seems no s t r o n g re la t ionsh ip between c u l t u r a l uni ts and d i s cou r se p a t t e r n s . - 95 - F . E v a l u a t o r s 1 comments on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the soc i e ty represen ted in the tex tbook Th i s item was a qua l i t a t ive evaluat ion of each tex tbook which al lowed analys ts to comment f ree ly on thei r impres s ions . T h e r e were f ind ings which cou ld not be po in ted out in the p rev ious numer ica l da ta . S u c h f i nd ings on cha rac t e r i s t i c s of each textbook were e x p r e s s e d in de ta i l in this i tem. So far the tenta t ive f ramework used for this s t u d y was r ev i ewed in terms of its v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and a p p l i c a b i l i t y . As a summary , the framework was p roven to be appropr i a t e in a n a l y z i n g the c u l t u r a l content of E n g l i s h h igh school t ex tbooks in J a p a n . Japanese teachers of E n g l i s h shou ld be able to follow the framework wi thout d i f f i c u l t y . As a p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n , Items D - 2 , D - 3 , and E can be omi t ted , because of the o v e r l a p p i n g f ind ings d r a w n from other i tems. As a shor t form for q u i c k a n a l y s i s , I sugges t u s i n g Items A - l , A - 2 , A - 3 , D - l and F . Second Purpose The lat ter half of the s t udy dealt wi th the other purpose of the s t u d y , wh ich is to examine the quan t i ty and the qua l i t y of c u l t u r a l informat ion in the E n g l i s h tex tbooks p u b l i s h e d in J a p a n . Based on the co l lec ted data d i s p l a y e d in chap te r 4, three subproblems are d i s c u s s e d a c c o r d i n g l y . - 96 - Subproblem a) How much of the E n g l i s h textbook is devo ted to teach ing cu l tu re? The task of Item A of the framework was to f i n d out the topic of a uni t and to judge if it was re la ted to c u l t u r e or not . In this s t u d y , c u l t u r e was def ined as e v e r y aspect of life that forms human behav iour in the soc ie ty . S p e c i f i c a l l y , in the A n a l y s i s A - l , units that d e s c r i b e d and i n t r o d u c e d ways of l i v i n g and t h i n k i n g of a ce r ta in c u l t u r e and also uni ts whose chief purpose was to raise c u l t u r a l awareness of the s tuden t s were sought out and t a l l i e d . As a r e su l t of r e v i e w i n g 10 t e x t b o o k s , the average percentage of over t c u l t u r a l uni ts in a textbook was 22.41%. T h i s f i g u r e shows that approx imate ly one- f i f th of the content was i n c l u d e d in the textbooks for the purpose of t each ing c u l t u r e . C o v e r t i nc lu s ion of fo re ign c u l t u r e was measured by A n a l y s i s A - 4 , which made it c lear tha t , in an average of 10 t ex tbooks , e v e r y one out of four units assumed that s tudents would a l ready have knowledge about the c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d of the u n i t . The h ighes t score among 10 t ex tbooks was 52.94% of Senior S w a n , which means that more than half the uni ts i m p l i c i t l y r equ i r e s tudents to have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the . c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d . Now, do these data ind ica te that the information on c u l t u r e in E n g l i s h textbooks is su f f i c ien t or insu f f i c i en t? Since there is no - 97 - es tabl i shed s t a n d a r d set by p rev ious r e s e a r c h , it is e n t i r e l y up to teachers and educat ional c i rcumstances to judge what the data mean. In the case of the senior h i g h school in J a p a n , the author would l ike to cons ide r that E n g l i s h tex tbooks fa i l to p rov ide enough c u l t u r a l topics for two reasons : F i r s t , too often knowledge of c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d is taken for g r a n t e d by textbook w r i t e r s . In the case of Senior Swan, i f s tudents do not have such k n o w l e d g e , the i r in te res t and comprehens ion may be s eve re ly j eopa rd i zed . It is also d o u b t f u l that Japanese teachers of E n g l i s h are themselves familiar wi th some aspects of fo re ign c u l t u r e such as Amer ican s p o r t s , measurement sy s t em, and Western re l ig ious cus toms . T h e r e f o r e , textbooks s h o u l d offer much more e x p l i c i t i n fo rmat ion . The second reason for j u d g i n g c u l t u r a l topics to be unsa t i s f ac to ry lies in the cha rac t e r i s t i c s of Japanese senior h igh school s t u d e n t s : a) In the author ' s e x p e r i e n c e , many of them d i s l i k e E n g l i s h . T h e y suffer from an i n f e r i o r i t y complex that they are poor language l e a r n e r s ; b) T h e y are not immune to fo re ign th ings and people , a l though they may accept b i a sed information t h r o u g h mass media . With these tendencies in m i n d , the M i n i s t r y of Educa t ion advocates that a major goal of E n g l i s h educat ion at senior h igh school is to raise an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of and in te res t t oward fo re ign th ings and people . With this goal in m i n d , the average of 22.41% of c u l t u r a l uni ts per textbook is too smal l . The data of Item E showed that most c u l t u r a l uni ts were wr i t t en in e s s a y - t y p e . In o rder to increase information on fo re ign c u l t u r e , uni ts of other d i s cou r se pa t t e rns l ike d ia logues , songs , and newspaper a r t ic les can be employed , and d a i l y and - 98 - p rac t i ca l aspects of fo re ign life can be i n t r o d u c e d . In summary , this s t u d y looks at E n g l i s h tex tbooks p u b l i s h e d only in J a p a n , so it is not the author ' s in ten t ion to say that they are worse than tex tbooks p u b l i s h e d in other c o u n t r i e s ; h o w e v e r , there is much room for improvement and expans ion of c u l t u r a l informat ion g i v e n to the s t u d e n t s . Subprob lem b) - What aspects of fore ign and Japanese c u l t u r e are featured? Needless to s a y , it is important to examine not on ly the amount of c u l t u r a l informat ion bu t also the way it is p re sen ted in the t ex tbook . A qual i ta t ive approach to ana lyze c u l t u r a l informat ion was taken in Items A and F of the f ramework . A c c o r d i n g to Item A , the informat ion on fo re ign count r ies cove red o r i g i n s and connotat ion of some E n g l i s h w o r d s , t r a v e l , cus toms, aes the t i cs , school l i f e , and so o n . A s p e c t s of fo re ign c u l t u r e c o v e r t l y i n c l u d e d in the t ex tbooks were cus toms , h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , soc ia l systems of Western c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n , na tu re , measurement , l e i s u r e , s p o r t s , and o t h e r s . As impl ica t ions from Item A , the au thor would l i ke to point out two t h i n g s : F i r s t , the information on fo re ign c u l t u r e is not p r a c t i c a l and not t heo re t i c a l , e i t h e r . For in s t ance , uni ts on s i gh t s ee ing in London and New Y o r k might be re levan t to some s tudents who would v i s i t those ci t ies in the f u t u r e ; h o w e v e r , they d i d not s u p p l y an example of a conver sa t ion that might occur when s tudents t r a v e l t he re . T h e r e were no ser ious socia l problems or con t rad ic t ions in fo re ign c u l t u r e i n c l u d e d that would cause meaningful d i s c u s s i o n in the c l a s s room, and there were no - 99 - topics on areas of f r i c t i o n between count r ies such as the t rade i ssue between Japan and another na t ion . It seems that the tex tbooks t r y to stay away from contemporary i s s u e s , r e s o r t i n g to s u p e r f i c i a l and safe topics of fo re ign c u l t u r e . Second , in the c u l t u r a l u n i t s , more a t tent ion s h o u l d be pa id to enhanc ing a s tudent ' s communicat ive competence or his a b i l i t y to func t ion in E n g l i s h . T h e r e were v e r y few d i s c u s s i o n s on i n t e r c u l t u r a l communicat ion, i n c l u d i n g n o n - v e r b a l communication and conve r sa t i on s ty les for var ious occas ions . In J a p a n , where communicat ion pa t te rns among people are completely d i f fe ren t from those in Western c o u n t r i e s , the method of i n t e r c u l t u r a l communicat ion i t se l f s h o u l d be c l e a r l y taught in the c lass room. In Item F , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the society r e p r e s e n t e d in the tex tbooks were s c r u t i n i z e d . F i r s t , examinat ion of i l l u s t r a t i ons showed that some of them, espec ia l ly ca r t oons , t ended to be o v e r s i m p l i f i e d and s t e r e o t y p e d . Caucas ians were always c a r i c a t u r e d as o p e n - h e a r t e d , i n t e l l i g e n t , and w e l l - d r e s s e d people who l ive in modern and spacious houses . B y c o n t r a s t , there were some car toons of minor i t ies or people in the d e v e l o p i n g count r ies where the u n d e r l y i n g tone was mock ing and con temptuous . There s h o u l d be no s u r p r i s e , t h e n , if such biases create the image that E n g l i s h is spoken by weal thy white people and that b e i n g able to speak E n g l i s h is one way to be more soph i s t i ca t ed and c i v i l i z e d . Among va r ious modes of i l l u s t r a t i o n , the car toon is a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and power fu l - 100 - medium especia l ly for h igh school s tuden t s ; the re fo re , it s h o u l d be t rea ted wi th the utmost c a r e . Item B adds a f i n d i n g on the re la t ionship between na t ional i ty and the mode of i l l u s t r a t i o n s : A m e r i c a tended to be d e p i c t e d in photographs and d rawings a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , the number of colour pho tographs was remarkab ly h ighe r than for those of other c o u n t r i e s . S ince a p i c tu r e is the most d e s c r i p t i v e medium and the t rues t to r e a l i t y , it w i l l be seen that Amer ica is be ing c o n v e y e d to the s tudents wi th v i v i d image and with a c c u r a c y . On the other h a n d , Japan and B r i t a i n were i l l u s t r a t e d in ca r toons , which ref lect the i d i o s y n c r a s y of the a u t h o r s . Ano the r inference was d r a w n from Item F , a t ho rough look at the t e x t s : that i s , some tex tbooks d e s c r i b e d Western c u l t u r e as s u p e r i o r to Japanese c u l t u r e . The informat ion i t se l f is sometimes n o t h i n g new, be ing composed of a c l iche, a fo r e igne r ' s view of J a p a n , and on a Japanese response in fo re ign c o u n t r i e s . V e r y few units i n c l u d e d in te rac t ion between Japanese and f o r e i g n e r s . If a n y , thei r conversa t ions jus t s c r a t c h e d the surface and were about n o t h i n g important or c o n t r o v e r s i a l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t can be sa id that s tuden t s are not taught rea l s i tua t ions of communication that Japanese might ac tua l ly con f ron t . - 101 - Subproblem c) - Which c o u n t r y and e thnic g roups are most often presented? Subproblem C was approached b y examin ing a few ana lys i s t a s k s : Item B was about coun t r i e s i l l u s t r a t e d in 10 t e x t b o o k s . Item C counted references to fo re ign p laces . In Item D , the number of main charac te r s of the u n i t s , number of a l l cha rac te r s of the u n i t s , and number of i l l u s t r a t e d charac te r s were t a l l i e d . C o u n t r y or na t iona l i ty which was most often i n c l u d e d in 10 tex tbooks was the Un i t ed S ta tes , and A m e r i c a n s , whose scores were h ighes t in a l l items except in D - 2 , the ta l ly of a l l charac te rs of the u n i t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , Amer icans ra ted 30.49% of major charac te rs of the uni ts and eve ry textbook had at least one Amer ican a round whom a uni t was c o n s t r u c t e d . A n extreme case was G o , E n g l i s h ! in which a l l the fo re igner s who appeared were A m e r i c a n . These resu l t s might be expec ted when one cons ide r s the economic and po l i t i ca l re la t ions between Japan and the U n i t e d S ta tes . The second dominant c o u n t r y or nat ional in h igh school E n g l i s h tex tbooks was Grea t B r i t a i n or the B r i t i s h . In some ana lys i s tasks of Item B , C and D , the percentages were less than half of A m e r i c a / A m e r i c a n s . The f r equency of total i l l u s t r a t i o n s or cha rac te r s r anged from 15.15% to 9.20%, that i s , about one- ten th of cha rac te r s or i l l u s t r a t i ons in the tex tbooks was B r i t i s h . In Senior Swan and New L i g h t , the heavies t emphasis in a l l c h a r a c t e r s was on the B r i t i s h . Aspec t s of c u l t u r e - 102 - mentioned were also d i f fe ren t between B r i t a i n and A m e r i c a . The lat ter was often d i s c u s s e d in con t ra s t to Japan and var ious aspects of da i ly life and events were i n t r o d u c e d . On the other h a n d , there was no comparat ive view between B r i t a i n and J a p a n . G e n e r a l l y , B r i t i s h c u l t u r e was t rea ted l ike a s t o ry in a far c o u n t r y that does not have any re levance to or inf luence on the Japanese . B r i t i s h charac te rs tended to appear in s impl i f ied s tor ies and in r e v i s e d l i t e r a t u r e . Item C ana lyzed fo re ign c i t ies and local places c i t ed in 10 t e x t b o o k s . T h e r e was a concen t ra t ion on b i g ci t ies in the U n i t e d States and the U n i t e d K i n g d o m . Smal l , loca l places in those two coun t r i e s were also i n c l u d e d ; howeve r , it was v e r y ra re that thei r locat ions were shown c l ea r ly to the r eade r . As a gene ra l cha r ac t e r i s t i c seen in the ways of p r e s e n t i n g fore ign p laces , the tex tbooks d i d not offer appropr i a t e maps or sugges t atlases to help s tuden t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of the t e x t s . Some c i t y maps of London and New Y o r k were even found to be i n c o r r e c t . E x c e p t for A m e r i c a and B r i t a i n , many fore ign coun t r i e s s h a r e d low f requencies in a l l ana lys i s t a s k s . T h e r e was an ex tens ive reference to n o n - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g - c o u n t r i e s in E u r o p e . Anc ien t G r e e k s , E g y p t i a n s , and Romans were r e p r e s e n t e d in a few t ex tbooks . In p a r t i c u l a r , New L i g h t con ta ined many topics re la ted to European na t ions . On the c o n t r a r y , neglec ted areas were A s i a , A f r i c a , and South A m e r i c a . The exc lu s ion of nearby nations is c o n t r a d i c t o r y to the present s i tua t ions i n v o l v i n g J a p a n , which shou ld be s t r e n g t h e n i n g ties wi th its ne ighbors ins tead of i g n o r i n g - 103 - them. E i g h t y percen t of fo re ign s tudents in Japan are from A s i a n coun t r i e s such as C h i n a , Hong k o n g , Ma lays i a , the P h i l i p p i n e s , and so o n . The unde r r ep re sen t a t i on of A s i a n s , A f r i c a n s , and La t in Amer icans might be e x p l a i n e d by the Japanese a t t i tudes that esteem Western (European and Amer ican) th ings h igh and Eas te rn th ings low. It is r egre t t ab le that E n g l i s h t ex tbooks , ins tead of n o u r i s h i n g in te rna t iona l awareness , are p l a n t i n g in s tudents pre judice agains t ce r t a in na t ions . H e r e , the author would l ike to emphasize the u rgen t necess i ty of amending the b iased t reatment towards A s i a n s , A f r i c a n s , and La t in A m e r i c a n s . In Items B , C and D , references to Japanese were found in cons ide rab le pe rcen tages . For example , one- f i f th of the cha rac t e r s in the i l l u s t r a t i o n s was iden t i f i ed as Japanese , who were i n c l u d e d in car toons used as exerc i ses ra ther than in p ic tu res and d rawings accompany ing the main t e x t s . The ways in which Japanese were i n c l u d e d were d i f f e r e n t , d e p e n d i n g on t e x t b o o k s . In G o , E n g l i s h ! , they were a c o u n t e r p a r t of A m e r i c a n s . The New C e n t u r y con ta ined units on Japanese c l a s s i ca l a r ts and n o v e l s . New L i g h t and Senior Swan exc luded Japan and Japanese almost comple te ly . To inc lude s tuden t s ' own cu l tu re or not to i nc lude it may be a matter of ph i losophy of tex tbook w r i t e r s ; howeve r , in so far as s tudents hope to at ta in some communicat ive competence, the i r own c o u n t r y s h o u l d be documented to some ex ten t , because a) l e a r n i n g has to be re levan t to s tudents and b) they w i l l face s i tuat ions in which they must exp la in the i r own c u l t u r e in E n g l i s h , for ins t ance , when they go a b r o a d . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d y i n g on ly fore ign c u l t u r e might be th rea t en ing to s t u d e n t s ' - 104 - se l f -concept and self-esteem ( C r a n e , 1978). F o r e i g n cu l tu re shou ld not be taught at the cost of respect for s tuden t s ' own t r a d i t i o n . Japanese c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y ought to be i nco rpo ra t ed in to the i n s t ruc t i ons on fo re ign c u l t u r e . So f a r , r ep resen ta t ion of coun t r i es has been d i s c u s s e d . N e x t , the treatment of e thn ic g roups is a r g u e d from the f igures in Item D . In 10 t ex tbooks , the U n i t e d S ta tes , A u s t r a l i a , and Canada were not d e s c r i b e d as monoethnic c o u n t r i e s . A l l other na t ions , howeve r , i n c l u d i n g B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , C h i n a , and Ind ia were r ep re sen t ed as be ing each composed of a s ing le r ace . B u t among A m e r i c a n s , any minor i ty was s e r i o u s l y u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d and reference to minor i t ies was seemingly excep t iona l in the tex tbooks s t u d i e d . Percentages of b lack Amer icans in three ana lys i s processes were less than 3% of a l l A m e r i c a n s , and As i an Americans s c o r e d less than 1%. Othe r minor i t ies such as nat ive Amer icans and Mexican Americans were en t i r e ly omi t ted . Second , nat ives of A u s t r a l i a and C a n a d a were i n c l u d e d in one or two t e x t b o o k s . Na t ive A u s t r a l i a n s , the A b o r i g i n e s , were i n t r o d u c e d in a sect ion on A u s t r a l i a n h i s t o r y , and there was a uni t on the life of a nat ive C a n a d i a n . The tone in which they are d e s c r i b e d is p a t r o n i z i n g and pess imis t i c , and the nat ive people are p o r t r a y e d as segrega ted from the mainstream of s o c i e t y . - 105 - These data on A m e r i c a n s , A u s t r a l i a n s , and Canadians allow one to d raw the conc lus ion that E n g l i s h textbooks in Japan do not in t roduce mul t ie thn ic coun t r i e s as they a re . The society r ep re sen t ed in tex tbooks is not r e a l , be ing dominated b y the majority g r o u p . S tudents are not t aught the d i v e r s i t y of such count r ies at a l l . Another problem of subprob lem C , an e n q u i r y about na t ional i ty and e t h n i c i t y , was to g ive answers to an in fe ren t i a l q u e s t i o n : " T o which c o u n t r y and to what k i n d of society is E n g l i s h language c o n s i d e r e d to belong? Whose benefi t does E n g l i s h educat ion s e r v e ? " Before s p e c u - l a t ing on the h idden ideology of E n g l i s h language t e a c h i n g , the author wishes to conf i rm the important role of E n g l i s h educat ion in J a p a n . There is no doubt that E n g l i s h is taught as an i n t e rna t i ona l language a n d / o r a fo re ign language in Japanese h igh schoo l s . Two of the tex tbooks adopted for this s t u d y consc ious ly mentioned the ra t ionale of s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h . In Uni t 3 of Mains t ream, there is a s tatement, " E n g l i s h is a k i n d of i n t e rna t iona l language these d a y s " ( p . 1 8 ) . Why E n g l i s h says in the v e r y f i r s t u n i t , " E n g l i s h has become an in te rna t iona l l anguage" ( p . 3 ) . These statements t r y to g ive s tudents so l id reasons for s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h in J a p a n . T h e y also aff irm that an in te rna t iona l language means a vehic le by which d i f fe ren t c u l t u r e s can communicate with each o t h e r . Now, is this ra t ionale and its assoc ia ted purpose fu l f i l l ed in h igh school E n g l i s h c lasses? The f i nd ings of this s t u d y seem to say N o . - 106 - A most prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of na t iona l i ty and e thn i c i t y was the dominance of Amer icans and B r i t i s h major i t ies . In most of the references in the 10 t e x t b o o k s , models of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s were shown as white A m e r i c a n s , wi th the B r i t i s h h a v i n g the next h ighes t p ro f i l e . The f igures of white Amer icans and B r i t i s h in Item D may not be v e r y b i g ; h o w e v e r , i t can be safely s ta ted that the scores of "Caucas i an E n g l i s h speake r s " can be added to e i ther white Amer i cans or B r i t i s h . To g ive an example , major cha rac t e r s in New S t a n d a r d were 12 white A m e r i c a n s , 2 B r i t i s h , 3 other races and 10 Caucas i an E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . In such a s i t u a t i o n , i t is qui te n a t u r a l that s tudents assume that 10 Caucas ians might be white A m e r i c a n , even i f there is no spec i f i ca t ion in the u n i t s . As a consequence , s tudents would have an impress ion that 23 out of 27 major cha rac te r s are Amer icans who have fair s k i n . T h e r e f o r e , it can be sa id that s tudents would pos s ib ly th ink that E n g l i s h language is most c lose ly re la ted to white Amer icans and the B r i t i s h . Now a ques t ion might be posed : If E n g l i s h is t aught as the l anguage of white Amer icans and B r i t i s h , what 's w r o n g wi th it? I sn ' t it t rue? C e r t a i n l y , i t is r i g h t . E n g l i s h has its o r i g i n in E n g l a n d a n d i t is Amer icans wi th whom Japanese are most l i k e l y to communicate in E n g l i s h these d a y s . H o w e v e r , E n g l i s h educators s h o u l d be ca re fu l about the ideology h idden b e h i n d the concen t ra t ion on those peoples , e spec ia l ly on white A m e r i c a n s . Teacher s must be aware that the concept of whi te Amer ican supremacy is not cons i s t en t wi th the goal of i n t e r c u l t u r a l educa t i on . Ten E n g l i s h tex tbooks t ended to feature j o y f u l and happy - 107 - aspects of Amer ican life by i l l u s t r a t i ons as well as by main t e x t s . The textbooks seem to say to the s tudents that E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , namely white A m e r i c a n s , are weal thy and h a p p y ; the re fo re , E n g l i s h is wor th l e a r n i n g . In other w o r d s , E n g l i s h is not t aught as a way to e x p r e s s oneself and to unde r s t and o t h e r s , but as a tool with which to ga in access to a good l i f e , l ike that l i v e d b y A m e r i c a n s . E x c l u s i o n of the fact that other people speak E n g l i s h might plant in s tuden t s ' minds the false notion that on ly wealthy and white people speak E n g l i s h . A common complaint from A s i a n s tudents in Japan wi l l exp la in the misconcept ion of Japanese : A n A s i a n who had complete command of E n g l i s h saw an adver t i sement of a vacancy for an E n g l i s h t eacher . When he saw the r e c r u i t e r , he was to ld that co loured people would not be accep ted . In the r e c r u i t e r ' s m i n d , E n g l i s h speakers equa l white people . Now, was the ignorance of the r e c r u i t e r d e r i v e d from his E n g l i s h educat ion which e x c l u d e d co lored people as models of E n g l i s h speakers? It is shameful i f E n g l i s h classes are p r o d u c i n g in s tuden t s nea r - s igh tedness ins t ead of a g loba l v i e w , rac ism ins tead of i n t e r c u l t u r a l t h i n k i n g . N e x t , the harm of b iased d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c i t y t h roughou t E n g l i s h textbooks is d i s c u s s e d from the v iewpoin t of l e a r n i n g a second l a n g u a g e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , E n g l i s h was always associa ted with the image of a neat, weal thy Amer ican l i f e s t y l e . To bel ieve that E n g l i s h is spoken only by white Amer icans and B r i t i s h i s , in another way , to be l ieve that o ther peoples , i n c l u d i n g Japanese , can never at tain mastery of E n g l i s h . E n g l i s h is something to be e n v i e d and fanc ied but never to be l ea rned succes s fu l l y - 108 - by Japanese . T h i s bel ief is de t r imenta l to s t u d e n t s , damaging thei r motivat ion to s t u d y E n g l i s h . The author would sugges t that E n g l i s h t ex tbooks shou ld conta in more conversa t ions in i t i a t ed b y Japanese and that they shou ld show models of minor i t ies who speak E n g l i s h . In fac t , E n g l i s h is a f lex ib le language which has c rea ted var ious ve r s ions a l l over the w o r l d and that is what makes E n g l i s h an i n t e rna t iona l l a n g u a g e . Conc lus ions The f i r s t purpose of this s t u d y was to present a process b y which the c u l t u r a l content of E n g l i s h tex tbooks in Japan c o u l d be a n a l y z e d . A ten ta t ive framework was bu i l t by combin ing Jo ine r ' s form and a b i a s - detec t ion scheme used in soc io log ica l s tudies of t e x t b o o k s . Af te r u s i n g the framework wi th 10 E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s , it was c o n c l u d e d that a l t hough there were some over laps among items which cou ld be omitted a c c o r d i n g to the s i t u a t i o n , the framework was sound and e f fec t ive , h a v i n g v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and a p p l i c a b i l i t y . The second purpose was to ask what and how much informat ion on fo re ign c u l t u r e was taught in E n g l i s h classes in J a p a n . A rev iew of ten tex tbooks revea led that the average percentage of c u l t u r a l uni ts in a tex tbook was 22.41%, which was r e g a r d e d as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The qua l i t y of c u l t u r a l informat ion shou ld be i m p r o v e d , for the contents were s u p e r f i c i a l and i l l u s t r a t ions were s t e r e o t y p e d . The s t u d y found e thn ic and nat ional b i a s : white Amer icans were a dominant g roup b e i n g p re sen t ed in a smar t , - 109 - b r i g h t and weal thy image. T h i s bias might p r even t s tudents from mas te r ing E n g l i s h smoothly and from enhanc ing t rue in t e rna t iona l awareness . It can be conc luded that the E n g l i s h tex tbooks examined in this s t udy do not contain suf f ic ient informat-ion-to-mak"e~ s tudents c u l t u r a l l y sens i t ive and i n t e rna t i ona l . Treatment of cu l tu r e in E F L is not a simple mat ter , because s tudents are not mot iva ted to be in t eg ra t ed into the fo re ign c u l t u r e ; i n s t e a d , they learn about i t as enr ichment . T e a c h i n g c u l t u r e in E F L also i nvo lves many ideological and po l i t i ca l i s sue s . Howeve r , there is much that E F L educators can do . They shou ld s ta r t b y d i s c u s s i n g what they are t each ing r i g h t now and what they shou ld teach in o rde r to ra ise an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h i l d . S tuden ts shou ld be exposed to va r ious aspects of fo re ign c u l t u r e which have been neglected such as pa ra l anguage , measurement , and h i s t o r y . B y l e a rn ing fo re ign and Japanese c u l t u r e t h r o u g h a comprehens ive p r o g r a m , s tudents wou ld be af forded the o p p o r t u n i t y to enhance thei r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of other c o u n t r i e s , ins tead of d e v e l o p i n g pre judices agains t the i r o w n / f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . - 110 - BIBLIOGRAPHY A b e r c r o m b i e , Cha r lo t t e M . (1974) . A Content Analysis of Reading Textbooks in Terms of Moral Value. Doc to ra l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Teachers C o l l e g e , Co lumbia U n i v e r s i t y . A l s p e k t o r , Rose A n n . (1980) . Fair Textbooks: A Resource Guide. 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What Children Read in School. New Y o r k : Grune and S t r a t t o n . - 117 - A P P E N D I X A Jo ine r ' s Form for E v a l u a t i n g the C u l t u r a l Conten t of F o r e i g n Language Tex t s T i t l e of T e x t : A u t h o r : P u b l i s h e r and C o p y r i g h t Date : Language and L e v e l : Th i s text is ( 1 , 2, 3, 4, ) in a ser ies of . I . I l l u s t r a t i o n s : A . T y p e s of i l l u s t r a t ions ( C h e c k those which a p p l y . ) 1. p h o t o g r a p h s : b lack and white color 2. maps 3. facsimiles (of t i c k e t s , c o i n s , l e t t e r s , e t c . ) 4. car toons and comic s t r i p s 5. r ep roduc t ions of works of ar t 6. l ine d r awings B . Segments of socie ty r ep re sen t ed in i l l u s t r a t i ons ( C h e c k those which a p p l y . ) 1. socio-economic l e v e l s : upper middle lower 2. age g r o u p s : you th middle age o ld age 3. sex male female 4. l ife s t y l e s : u rban r u r a l small town C . O v e r a l l impress ion of c u l t u r e c rea ted by i l l u s t r a t i o n s . (Make a check mark a long the l ine at the point between the two adject ives which best expresses your eva lua t i on . A check halfway between the two would indica te a balance between two o p p o s i t e s . ) 118 - I l lu s t r a t ions au thent ic i nau then t i c h i s t o r i c a l con temporary ac t ive s t i l l qua in t , romantic rea l i s t i c inof fens ive c o n t r o v e r s i a l r ep re sen ta t ive se lec t ive formal informal a t t r ac t ive una t t r ac t ive pos i t ive negat ive T e x t s C o n t a i n i n g Mater ia l of a C u l t u r a l N a t u r e : A . T y p e s of texts ( C h e c k those which a p p l y . ) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. d ia logues "seeded" wi th c u l t u r a l informat ion a n d / o r based on s i tua t ions t y p i c a l of the fore ign c u l t u r e spec ia l c u l t u r a l n a r r a t i v e s exp l ana to ry c u l t u r a l notes songs poems essays le t ters newspaper a r t i c l e jokes and anecdotes folk tales and p r o v e r b s f ic t ion by repu tab le w r i t e r s - 119 - 12. o ther (please spec i fy) 13. other (please spec i fy) Segments of socie ty r ep re sen t ed in texts ( C h e c k those which a p p l y . ) 1. socio-economic l e v e l s : upper middle lower 2. age g r o u p s : you th middle age o ld age 3. s e x : male female 4. l i fe s t y l e s : u rban r u r a l small town O v e r a l l impress ion of c u l t u r e c rea ted b y texts (make a check mark a long the l ine at the point between the two adject ives which best expresses your e v a l u a t i o n . A cheek halfway between the two would ind ica te a balance between two oppos i t e s . ) T e x t s l i v e l y d u l l an t iqua t ed modern • • • _____ • • • • pos i t ive negat ive • • • • • • • genu ine false ba lanced b iased - 120 - i n t e r e s t i n g b o r i n g • • • • • • • f resh and o r i g i n a l s t e r eo typed s u p e r f i c i a l p ro found happy sad work play ser ious l i g h t I I I . Gene ra l Ques t ions R e l a t i n g to C u l t u r e : 1. L i s t the fore ign coun t r i e s whose c u l t u r e is d e s c r i b e d or i l l u s t r a t e d in the book . 2. In y o u r opin ion would this book tend to re in force negat ive s te reo types of the fo re ign people? Yes ( ) No ( ) 3. Do the authors of the book seem to cons ide r c u l t u r e an i n t e g r a l par t of language s t u d y or i n c i d e n t a l to it? I n t e g r a l ( ) Inc iden ta l ( ) 4. Is c u l t u r a l mater ia l p r e sen t ed in a f ragmented way (b i t s and pieces here and there) or is i t un i f i ed a r o u n d pa t te rns and themes of c u l t u r e (pa t t e rns of po l i t eness , l e i su re a c t i v i t i e s , family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e t c . ) ? F ragmen ted ( ) U n i f i e d ( ) 5. Does this book compare and con t ras t the fo re ign c u l t u r e wi th Amer ican cu l t u r e? Yes ( ) No ( ) 6. A l l th ings c o n s i d e r e d the p resen ta t ion of c u l t u r e in this book is poor ( ) fair ( ) adequate ( ) good ( ) exce l len t ( ) . \ - 121 - I V . Supplementary Mate r ia l Ava i l ab l e from the P u b l i s h e r : 1. Does the Teache r ' s Manual contain spec i f ic sugges t ions for the t each ing of cu l tu re? Yes ( ) No ( ) 2. L i s t supp lementa ry mater ia l k e y e d to the book such as f i lms , f i l m s t r i p s , f lash c a r d s , and the l i k e . 3. Would y o u r school be able to purchase these mater ials? Yes ( ) No ( ) - 122 - Kawano 's F ramework Used In T h i s S tudy A . Number of Uni t s 1. Number of a l l uni ts in the tex tbook 2. Number of uni ts which e x p l i c i t l y exp la in fo re ign c u l t u r e 3. Number of uni ts whose se t t ings are abroad 4. Number of uni ts which imp l i c i t l y r equ i r e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d knowledge B . Number of times coun t r i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d photographs - - colour pho tographs - - b l ack and white d rawings maps cartoons r ep roduc t ions C . Name and number of fo re ign places (c i t ies and coun t r i e s ) ment ioned in the textbook D . Presen ta t ion of na t iona l i ty and e t h n i c i t y 1. Number of main cha rac te r s in the uni ts 2. Number of a l l cha rac te r s in the uni ts 3. Number of cha rac te r s i l l u s t r a t e d in the tex tbook E . D i scourse pa t te rns adopted for the uni ts about fo re ign c u l t u r e dialogue na r r a t i ve essay let ter f ic t ion song poem newspaper joke folktale s impl i f i ed novel b i o g r a p h y play F . Eva lua to r s comments on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the socie ty r e p r e s e n t e d in the textbook 1. I l lus t r a t ions 2. Tex t s

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