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Toward an understanding of academically successful English as a second language students Gentry, Lorna Edith 1988

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TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING  OF ACADEMICALLY SUCCESSFUL  ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE  STUDENTS  by LORN A E. GENTRY B. Ed. (Elem), U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 19 76  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Language E d u c a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s  STUDIES  Department  t h e s i s a s conforming  to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1988. (c) L o r n a  E. Gentry, 19 88.  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  ABSTRACT  TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF ACADEMICALLY SUCCESSFUL ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE STUDENTS Twenty-five  ESL s t u d e n t s who were i d e n t i f i e d by  t e a c h e r s a s "academically s u c c e s s f u l " , i.e. with a t l e a s t a C average  i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s , were i n t e r v i e w e d , using  an openended c o n v e r s a t i o n a l approach. their  shared  own p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e i r ESL and r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m  e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about and  Informants  their strategies  f o r success.  themselves  as students  They compared  experiences  in Canada and t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r i e s , and t a l k e d about home background.  They were encouraged  t o identify  their  both  s t r e n g t h s and problems i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s , and to  suggest  changes in t h e s c h o o l s t o help themselves  as l e s s s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s .  Data  concluded t h a t  showed a d d i t i v e billngualism, many use L l t o l e a r n academic work, and overwhelmingly  informants their  t h e y s u p p o r t ESL c l a s s e s  which t h e y c r e d i t  with f u l f i l l i n g both academic and  affective  Academic work i n t h e home c o u n t r y  needs.  t r a n s f e r s t o s u b j e c t s such a s Math, but t h e y f r u s t r a t i o n with w r i t t e n assignments s u b j e c t s with h e a v y language is l i t t l e  involvement  Informants future  a s well  express  and e s s a y q u e s t i o n s i n  requirements.  In g e n e r a l t h e r e  with n a t i v e - s p e a k i n g p e e r s .  were found t o be highly d i s c i p l i n e d , with high  aspirations.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii:  L I S T OF TABLES Vii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Chapter  1  1. OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY A.  The  Problem  B.  Background  t o the Problem  1.  The  2.  Historic  2. REVIEW OF  Vancouver  Setting  Background 11  THE RELATED LITERATURE  A.  Academic  S u c c e s s and Language  B.  Characteristics  C.  Affective  D.  Differences  E.  The "Ask t h e L e a r n e r "  of B i l i n g u a l  Learning Education  Factors Between E t h n i c  Groups  Approach  3. THE STUDY  27  A.  The Method  B.  The S e t t i n g  C.  The I n f o r m a n t s  D.  Data  Collection  4. DIMENSIONS OF STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES A.  I n f o r m a n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n s About Countries  B.  P e r c e p t i o n s About  Their  38 Native  Themselves as Students  Chapter 4  (con't) C.  I n t h e ESL C l a s s r o o m  D.  The ESL S t u d e n t  E.  Student  F.  Home E f f e c t  i n the Regular  Classroom  Strategies on S c h o o l i n g  5. CONCLUSION A.  88  Relevant  Issues from t h e L i t e r a t u r e  1.  Use o f L l f o r A c a d e m i c L e a r n i n g In t h e Home C o u n t r y  2.  I n t e r a c t i o n With  Native  Speakers  3. V o c a b u l a r y a s t h e Language S k i l l R e l a t e d t o Academic Success 4.  "Additive" Qualities B i l i n g u a l Programs  5. D i f f e r e n c e s B.  Other 1.  3. A Second  C.  Student  Country  and Time t o A c h i e v e  Look a t A c a d e m i c  Academic  "Success"  Strategies  Implications t h e Data 1. A R o l e  Group  from t h e Data  E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Home  2. D i s c i p l i n e Success  4.  for Assessing  According to Ethnic  Issues A r i s i n g  Most  forInstruction  Arising  f o r ESL Support  2. C o m m u n i c a t i o n  i n the Classroom  ;iv  from  Chapter 5 (con't) 3. C o o p e r a t i o n Between ESL and S u b j e c t Teachers 4. I n t e r a c t i o n Between ESL and N a t i v e Speaking Students D. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r E. C l o s i n g  Research  Comments  CHAPTER NOTES  118  SELECTED  122  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Appendix A: ESL STUDENT QUESTIONAIRE  v  125  L I S T OF I. II. III.  Informant  Background  Information  P a r e n t s ' E d u c a t i o n and C o u n t r y and i n Canada Comparison Children  TABLES  Occupation  34 i n Native 41  of P a r e n t a l E x p e c t a t i o n s  With  Informants'  IV:  Informants'  Subject  V.  Informants'  Use  Own  vi  Their  Expectations  Preferences  of U n s c h e d u l e d  For  44 61  Time  76  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  There a r e many people who have helped t o b r i n g t h i s work t o i t s f i n a l s t a g e . F i r s t , I am indebted t o P r o f e s s o r B e r n a r d Mohan, who a s s i s t e d as my s u p e r v i s o r and has o v e r s e e n t h i s p r o j e c t throughout. I thank him f o r h i s i n s i g h t s and s u g g e s t i o n s , h i s c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t and p a t i e n c e . In a d d i t i o n I want t o acknowledge o t h e r f a c u l t y members in t h e Language E d u c a t i o n Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia who have helped in many ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y P r o f e s s o r Mary Ashworth and A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r Margaret E a r l y . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o the t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s who were i n v o l v e d in t h i s study, in p a r t i c u l a r V a n c o u v e r ESL t e a c h e r , Hugh Hooper. I thank them a l l . F i n a l l y I want t o give s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n t o many s p e c i a l f r i e n d s and family members f o r t h e i r help, t h e i r c o n s t a n t l o v e and encouragement.  vii  Chapter I TOWARD AN  UNDERSTANDING OF  AS A: The  A  ACADEMICALLY SUCCESSFUL ENGLISH  SECOND LANGUAGE STUDENTS: AN  OVERVIEW  Problem  L a r g e numbers o£ ESL school system  in Canada.  s t u d e n t s go t h r o u g h t h e public Educators  (Cummins 1984)  tell  us  t h a t such students are over r e p r e s e n t e d in s p e c i a l education and  remedial c l a s s r o o m s , and many drop  without completing t h e i r e d u c a t i o n .  out of the  This f a c t  system  s h o u l d make  i t i m p e r a t i v e t o examine p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s f o r s u c c e s s in t h o s e ESL  s t u d e n t s who  appear t o s u c c e e d .  e d u c a t o r s l e a r n from t h e s e  What can we  as  students?  Where s t u d e n t s must l e a r n t h r o u g h t h e medium of a second  language  (L2)  1  they will get v e r y l i t t l e  out of t h e i r  c o n t e n t c l a s s e s i f t h e y lack adequate understanding L2.  In t h i s e d u c a t i o n model t h e y depend upon  of  ESL  support c l a s s e s t o provide the n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u c t i o n in the t a r g e t language It  t o p r e p a r e them f o r t h e i r academic c l a s s e s .  i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t ESL  c l a s s e s be  as e f f e c t i v e  and  e f f i c i e n t a s p o s s i b l e t o s h o r t e n the l e n g t h of time where t h e ESL  s t u d e n t s ' academic e d u c a t i o n i s p l a c e d on hold while  t h e y m a s t e r the language It of  of i n s t r u c t i o n .  i s becoming more and more apparent  time i s l o n g e r than p r e v i o u s l y expected. -1-  that this length There i s  recognition that  f l u e n c y in o r a l communication i s not  n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o the academic s u c c e s s .  language p r o f i c i e n c y r e q u i r e d  Where s t u d e n t s may  m a s t e r e d English within  one  or two  appear t o  have Is  years, there  for  evidence  t o show t h a t t h i s i s an  inadequate amount of time f o r most  t o a c h i e v e the  language p r o f i c i e n c y t o s u c c e e d in  required  academic t a s k s . (Cummins 1981,  Wong-Fillmore 1983,  Collier  1987)  With the  recognition  of a t l e a s t two  p r o f i c i e n c y , i.e. communicative required  f l u e n c y and  f o r academic t a s k s , t h e r e  has  kinds of language the  proficiency  been a s h i f t in f o c u s  from language f o r communication (narrowly i n t e r p r e t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n ) t o language as i.e. "the  i n t e r a c t i o n between l e a r n i n g t o t a l k and  t o learn". (Mohan 19 81, We  a f a c t o r in academic  research  on t h e s e i s s u e s .  e d u c a t i o n have looked a t the  necessity  or by  second language.  Studies  quantitative  i s s u e , such as which programs a r e academic s u c c e s s  success, talking  11)  should d i s t i n g u i s h between q u a n t i t a t i v e  qualitative  as  apt  of b i l i n g u a l  aspect  t o enhance  of n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s who, choice, a r e  and  of  the  the  through  g e t t i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n in t h e i r  Such s t u d i e s , f o r example, have  t o explain apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , s u c h as  attempted  marked  s u c c e s s e s in Canadian F r e n c h immersion programs in c o n t r a s t t o below norm achievement of m i n o r i t y noting  in c o n c l u s i o n  that  language  a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s such  -  2  -  students, as  r e c o g n i t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' (Ll), socioeconomic and p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s  s t a t u s (SES),  of billnguallsm, I.e. an " a d d i t i v e "  r a t h e r than " s u b t r a c t i v e " outcome, appear t o be s a l i e n t f a c t o r s f o r academic s u c c e s s  in bilingual students.  u s e f u l a s g l o b a l i n d i c a t o r s , such q u a n t i t a t i v e not illuminate w e l l t h e e x p e r i e n c e s succeed  s t u d i e s do  of i n d i v i d u a l s a s t h e y  o r f a i l in t h e i r academic c o u r s e s .  From a q u a l i t a t i v e p o i n t of view, a c a s e academically s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s first  While  3  s t u d y of  from m i n o r i t y groups whose  language e n j o y s no p a r t i c u l a r r e c o g n i t i o n or s t a t u s  within t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and who r e c e i v e no i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e i r f i r s t  language,  should s e r v e t o illuminate  those  e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s which a r e p o s i t i v e , and i d e n t i f y effective  e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , some p o s s i b l e a r e a s f o r  change, and some f r u i t f u l d i r e c t i o n s  While q u a l i t a t i v e success  f o r further research.  s t u d i e s have looked a t t h e q u e s t i o n of  i n language l e a r n i n g , (Naiman e t a l . 1978, Rubin  197 5) t o my knowledge no s t u d i e s have attempted ESL  l e a r n e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h i s i s s u e of academic  with t h e p u r p o s e of gaining a s e n s e  of t h e c o n c r e t e  within which he/she has s u c c e s s f u l l y f u n c t i o n e d . case  t o get the  s t u d y we w i l l take i n t o account  the i n t e r a c t i o n  success context  In t h i s  t h e wider c o n t e x t , i.e.  of t h e s t u d e n t within a c e r t a i n academic and  home environment. We might expect, given t h e i r s u c c e s s , t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s , who enjoy l i t t l e  " o f f i c i a l " r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e  - 3 -  importance  of t h e i r f i r s t  language, must r e c e i v e  " u n o f f i c i a l " r e c o g n i t i o n o r some compensatory e i t h e r from t h e i r  some  experiences  own background o r from t h e s c h o o l .  We  might a l s o expect t h a t t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s f o r s t u d y i n g and completing t h e i r assignments c o u l d p o s s i b l y provide  models  of e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o be s h a r e d with t h o s e who a r e l e s s successful.  We would presume t h a t t h e r e  w i l l be many  i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s within t h i s c a t e g o r y of " s u c c e s s f u l " s t u d e n t , and t h a t t h e r e  may be d i f f e r e n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o  ethnic background.  The  g o a l h e r e i s n o t t o f i n d a " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " ESL  student as subject  t o be g e n e r a l i z e d  population, but t o r e f l e c t  on t h e o r i e s  t o the whole ESL o f language and  c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g by looking f o r p a t t e r n s students themselves perceive  as their  in s u c c e s s ,  own s t r e n g t h s  a t what and  weaknesses, and a t what t h e y p e r c e i v e  as positive in their  home, s c h o o l , and c u l t u r a l background.  I t cannot be assumed  t h a t ESL s t u d e n t s a r e a monolithic expect d i v e r s i t y a c c o r d i n g  group.  While one c a n  t o c u l t u r a l o r language  background, d i f f e r e n c e s among t h o s e who s h a r e t h e same  first  language a r e a l s o l i k e l y . B.  Background t o t h e Problem This d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n two p a r t s .  First,  the  s i t u a t i o n in Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, the l o c a t i o n  for  t h i s s t u d y , w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d ,  general  followed  by a more  d i s c u s s i o n of Canadian h i s t o r y a s i t r e l a t e s t o  education  of m i n o r i t y  s t u d e n t s and b i l i n g u a l -  4 -  education.  1.  The V a n c o u v e r  Setting  In V a n c o u v e r j u s t o v e r h a l f of t h e s c h o o l representing background.  population,  85 d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups, comes from an ESL This l a r g e number  2  of s t u d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e s  of a l l ESL s t u d e n t s i n t h e province  of B.C.  In V a n c o u v e r  10,437 of t h e s e s t u d e n t s of ESL background r e c e i v e of ESL  60%  some kind  assistance.  This a s s i s t a n c e may t a k e t h e form of " r e c e p t i o n " o r r e g u l a r ESL c l a s s e s , where s t u d e n t s newly a r r i v e d with little  o r no E n g l i s h a r e i n t r o d u c e d  system.  The p r o c e d u r e f o r p a r t  r e g u l a r c l a s s e s may  i n t o t h e Canadian  school  or f u l l i n t e g r a t i o n into  d i f f e r within s c h o o l s , but g e n e r a l l y  s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d by ESL t e a c h e r s  as "ready" a r e , in  c o n s u l t a t i o n With t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , a s s e s s e d using standardized reading  and t e a c h e r  and grammar  w r i t t e n work.  prepared t e s t s .  These may  t e s t s a s well as samples of  In some s c h o o l s  modified  to serve  include  students'  transitional courses,  i n s t r u c t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e r e q u i r e d c o u r s e  both  where  of s t u d y , i s  t h e s p e c i a l needs of ESL s t u d e n t s .  While  t r a n s i t i o n a l c o u r s e s do n o t e a r n " o f f i c i a l " c r e d i t , i.e. toward meeting requirements f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l completion c a n perhaps allow a t a higher  grade l e v e l -- t h a t  grade nine l e v e l c o u r s e .  Learning  students  course, bypassing  Ongoing s u p p o r t in English  C e n t r e s (ELC's) i s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l  t u t o r i n g and small group i n s t r u c t i o n .  -  5 -  entry  i s t h e y may, f o r example, go  d i r e c t l y i n t o a grade t e n S o c i a l S t u d i e s the  graduation,  This s t u d y looks a t t w e n t y - f i v e  of t h e s e  students  have a c h i e v e d a degree of s u c c e s s  following t h e i r  mainstreaming i n t o r e g u l a r c o n t e n t  classes.  who  We w i l l attempt  t o gauge t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and d a i l y f r u s t r a t i o n s ,  those  elements o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n which t h e y p e r c e i v e as s u c c e s s f u l and p o s i t i v e , and t h o s e which t h e y wish c o u l d be changed.  2. H i s t o r i c The  Background  h i s t o r i c q u e s t i o n of l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g  an important  dimension  in our more immediate q u e s t i o n of  bilingualism, ESL s t u d e n t s a country  i n Canada i s  and academic s u c c e s s .  Canada i s  of one million o r more N a t i v e Indian people and  millions of new Canadians of e v e r y background.  e t h n i c and r a c i a l  We have t h e mingling of two g r e a t  s o c i e t i e s , the French  and English.  Native people, t h e r i g h t s  European  The s p e c i a l place of  of t h e E n g l i s h and French  language, and of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , i s e n t r e n c h e d  i n our  Constitution.  However, m i n o r i t y languages have been a c c o r d e d  little  importance by t h e m a j o r i t y group, a p p a r e n t l y with t h e view t h a t a s s i m i l a t i o n would be advantageous b o t h indigenous  f o r the  n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n and f o r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s .  While millions of new Canadians have l o s t t h e i r mother tongue and have a n g l i c i z e d t h e i r names, (Ashworth 19 88) t h e e x i s t e n c e o f h e r i t a g e language c l a s s e s a t t e s t t o t h e w i l l of o t h e r immigrants who, determined  - 6 -  that their  children  should not native  lose t h e i r heritage  as  exemplified  language, have a c t e d t o p r e v e n t the  minority  languages.  Given the  c r e a t i v i t y , problem s o l v i n g , and acceptance." (Fishman 19 8 2, 1)  a treasure  "the  trove  we  must view the  as  an  that  success  benefit  And  world's l i t t l e  l o s s of n a t i v e travesty.  their native target  of pan-human  i f we  b e l i e v e , as  languages and  The apparent.  peoples  language t o the  by  the  process  definition, a failure  suggests  a d i s s e r v i c e t o the  p e c u l i a r i t i e s t o the  the  humanities  or  lose the  the  student.  Canadian s i t u a t i o n  Thomas Berger, speaking on the  the  student.  of l e a r n i n g of  9)  individual  Indeed Cummins (19 8 4)  language while in the  s y s t e m and  are  refinement" (Fishman 1982,  bilingualism, where s t u d e n t s r e p l a c e  c o n s t i t u t i o n and  does  of a b i l i n g u a l program i s measured by  language i s , by  educational  i t s borders,  "champion  degree of " a d d i t i v e " bilingualism a t t a i n e d "Subtractive"  of  mutual c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  of wisdom and  unforgivable the  within  advantageous p o s i t i o n to  e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y f o r the  Fishman, t h a t  withering  3  d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r e s  Canada i s in an  in t h e i r  are  t o p i c of  the  states,  ...though the F r e n c h and English languages a r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d , and t h u s s t a n d on a d i f f e r e n t f o o t i n g from the language of o t h e r ethnic groups in Canada, t h e y a r e in a s e n s e a bulwark f o r t h o s e languages... C o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n of F r e n c h and English makes the way e a s i e r f o r o t h e r languages, b e c a u s e i t n e g a t e s the idea of a monolithic c u l t u r e . In the same way the g u a r a n t e e s t o the Indians, the Inuit and the Metis exemplify the Canadian b e l i e f in d i v e r s i t y . In t h i s way the i n t e r e s t s of the l i n g u i s t i c communities, and of the a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , merge with the idea of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . 4  - 7 -  Much p r o g r e s s since the time  in b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n has  of r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s f o r Native  (Ashworth 1979)  and  lack of French  p r o v i n c e s o t h e r than Quebec. has  Indians  language r i g h t s in  In English  Canada bilingualism  become a popular e d u c a t i o n a l goal.  While Spanish  f o r some time F r e n c h  and  German) has  requirement was  taken place  been o f f e r e d t o meet the  f o r secondary  not the  outcome.  (or o t h e r languages  such  language  s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , bilingualism  Immersion s t u d e n t s  a t t a i n l e v e l s of  achievement f a r beyond s t u d e n t s i n c o r e F r e n c h  programs.  (Cummins and  Experiment  Swain, 1986)  With the  St. Lambert  (19 7 2), i n i t i a t e d by anglophone p a r e n t s area  of Montreal, (Lambert and  effect  in the  Tucker, 19 7 2) a  St. Lambert snowballing  a t t e s t s t o t h i s s h i f t in awareness of bilingualism  a desired  learning  outcome.  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of F r e n c h  With the evidence  skills, that  bilingualism appears  b e n e f i t s , and languages  that  accrue  of the  l o s s of f i r s t  t o promote some  in Canada f l u e n c y  language  cognitive  in both m a j o r i t y  economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s ,  Anglophone p a r e n t s throughout French  as  immersion programs, i.e. t h a t  s t u d e n t s can become b i l i n g u a l without  lists  as  Canada i n c r e a s i n g l y  immersion programs f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  and c o n t i n u i n g r e q u e s t s by p a r e n t s  immersion programs a t t e s t t o the s u c c e s s t h i s b i l i n g u a l program.  ESL  - 8 -  The waiting  f o r more  French  and p o p u l a r i t y  3  What of bilingualism and  request  programs?  of  It a p p e a r s t o be taking much l o n g e r t o i d e n t i f y "additive bilingualism" a s t h e optimal e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e for  m i n o r i t y language s t u d e n t s , and t o recognize t h a t  bilingualism f o r ESL s t u d e n t s t h e accomplishment  i s a learning f e a t equal t o  of s u c c e s s f u l F r e n c h  Immersion  students.  Cummins and Swain point o u t t h a t Although immersion s t u d e n t s appear t o a t t a i n n a t i v e - l i k e r e c e p t i v e s k i l l s , t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e s k i l l s continue t o remain n o n - n a t i v e - l i k e . They a r e , however, q u i t e capable of communicating t h e i r ideas in s p i t e of t h e i r grammatical weaknesses. I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s same l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v e s k i l l s in t h e second language among m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s would n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system. That i t i s p r a i s e d within t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e when a t t a i n e d by m a j o r i t y language s t u d e n t s and d e n i g r a t e d when a t t a i n e d by m i n o r i t y language s t u d e n t s , i s i n d i c a t i v e of a l i n g u i s t i c double s t a n d a r d . (Cummins and Swain 19 86, 49) Perhaps b e c a u s e ESL programs have had t h e c o n n o t a t i o n of  being remedial o r s p e c i a l needs programs t h e r e has n o t  been a s i m i l a r emphasis on t h e i r importance,  n o r a body of  e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h s i m i l a r t o t h a t in t h e French situation.  immersion  E x t r a f e d e r a l funding, a v a i l a b l e f o r F r e n c h  immersion programs, i s u n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h o s e  of h e r i t a g e  language immersion programs or f o r ESL programs.  While some  Indian bands, again with f e d e r a l funding, have i n r e c e n t years to  i n i t i a t e d and s u p e r v i s e d t h e i r  i n c o r p o r a t e some i n s t r u c t i o n  own s c h o o l s , i n o r d e r  of the a b o r i g i n a l language  and c u l t u r e , t h e r e a r e few examples of m i n o r i t y language b i l i n g u a l immersion programs in Canada. toward immersion programs, o t h e r than growing.  6  - 9 -  However, t h e t r e n d French, a p p e a r s t o be  As  Ashworth p o i n t s out,  The time has come t o p u t some time, money, and e f f o r t i n t o eliminating t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t s t a n d between men. Of a l l c o u n t r i e s Canada has t h e g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o show t h a t t h i s c a n be done. This land c o n t a i n s people of many c u l t u r e s and many r a c e s ; i t i s a land of g r e a t economic p o t e n t i a l : b u t a mosaic i s a f r a g i l e thing held t o g e t h e r by balance and harmony and e a s i l y shattered. The q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n given t o Canadian born and f o r e i g n - b o r n s t u d e n t s i n our s c h o o l s w i l l a f f e c t t h e balance and harmony both now and i n t h e days t o come. (Ashworth 19 75, 19 2)  Following Ashworth's view of t h i s p o s i t i v e r o l e f o r bilingual education  i n Canada I w i l l now a d d r e s s t h e  particular issues f o r this  study.  - 10 -  C h a p t e r II REVIEW OF  THE  RELATED LITERATURE  In t h i s c h a p t e r I d i s c u s s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n s r e l a t e d t o academic s u c c e s s  of ESL  l e a r n e r s , bearing  informants f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e model whereby the r e g u l a r ESL  in mind t h a t  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  immigrant s t u d e n t i s f i r s t  c l a s s , and  educational  e n r o l l e d in a  following h i s / h e r achievement of what  i s deemed a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y , p r o c e e d s t o r e g u l a r c l a s s where i n s t r u c t i o n i s o f f e r e d through the  medium of the  C e n t r a l t o the which w i l l be  work of t h i s s t u d y a r e  discussed  t h e o r e t i c a l work.  second language.  i n t u r n in the  These a r e  shift  in emphasis i n ESL  t a r g e t language as a means t o an the  an  end  context  of  This approach  education  distinct  reflects  from l e a r n i n g  In i t s e l f , t o using the  end, i.e. t o l e a r n academic c o n t e n t .  issues  relevant  (1) academic s u c c e s s as  from s u c c e s s in language l e a r n i n g . the  f o u r main  the  language  as  Following  d i s c u s s i o n on "academic p r o f i c i e n c y " v i s - a - v i s "language  proficiency", I will in t u r n discuss bilingual education,  (2) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  (3) a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t t o  l e a r n e r s i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s , and  (4) d i f f e r e n c e s i n  academic s u c c e s s between ethnic groups. t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s w i l l be case studies  in the  followed by  literature  d a t a g a t h e r i n g , i.e. an  "ask  the  - 11  using  This d i s c u s s i o n  of  a d i s c u s s i o n of some  a s i m i l a r approach f o r  l e a r n e r " approach.  -  ESL  A: Academic S u c c e s s and Language The  major t h e o r e t i c a l work on academic s u c c e s s  b i l i n g u a l ESL s t u d e n t s Past  Learning  i s contained  of  i n t h e work of Cummins.  p r a c t i c e has l a r g e l y been b a s e d on t h e p r e c e p t  that  l e a r n i n g t o speak t h e t a r g e t language must p r e c e d e i n s t r u c t i o n i n academic c o u r s e s , and t h i s tended t o ignore the  importance of p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d academic c o n c e p t s  a l r e a d y i n t e r n a l i z e d by t h e s t u d e n t  Cummins  i n h i s / h e r LI.  (1979, 1981, 1984) r e c o g n i z e s  argues t h a t there  t h i s when he  i s more t o language competence  p r o f i c i e n c y i n o r a l communication.  than  He p r o p o s e s t h a t  fluency  in c o n v e r s a t i o n a l language o r "basic i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication s t r a t e g i e s " (BICS) i s only one m a n i f e s t a t i o n of language p r o f i c i e n c y — necessary  t o study  academic c o u r s e s  and p r o c e s s  more a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s in  o r CALP ("cognitive academic language  proficiency") i s a separate concept  t h a t t h e language p r o f i c i e n c y  construct.  He exemplifies the  of two p a r a l l e l language p r o f i c i e n c i e s with a "dual  iceberg" representation; the iceberg tips  representing  s u r f a c e language f l u e n c y i n both L I and L2, with t h e common base of t h e i c e b e r g r e p r e s e n t i n g a "common underlying p r o f i c i e n c y " (CUP). (Cummins 19 8 4, 143)  This model  i l l u s t r a t e s the "interdependence of c o n c e p t u a l across  knowledge  languages", which a p p e a r s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e more  rapid progress  of o l d e r l e a r n e r s t o a c q u i r e v o c a b u l a r y  compared with t h a t of younger l e a r n e r s .  - 12 -  when  It may appear s u r p r i s i n g t h a t o l d e r l e a r n e r s make more r a p i d p r o g r e s s in a c q u i r i n g L2 in view o£ the p o p u l a r myth t h a t t h e r e i s an optimal p r e - p u b e r t a l age f o r L2 acquisition. However, a major r e a s o n f o r the advantage i s obvious when the d a t a a r e viewed from within the c o n t e x t of the CUP model. F o r example, in l e a r n i n g the t e r m 'democracy' the t a s k f o r a f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d immigrant c h i l d c o n s i s t s of a c q u i r i n g a new l a b e l f o r a c o n c e p t a l r e a d y developed in L l ; f o r a s i x - y e a r - o l d immigrant c h i l d the term w i l l not be a c q u i r e d u n t i l the c o n c e p t has been developed. The advantage of older l e a r n e r s l i e s in the interdependence of c o n c e p t u a l knowledge a c r o s s languages. (Cummins and Swain 19 86, 83)  S a v l l l e - T r o i k e , (1984) looking c l o s e l y a t s u c c e s s a t the  elementary school l e v e l , appears t o  Cummins' idea of the in her  academic  BICS / CALP d i s t i n c t i o n .  She  a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y t h a t v o c a b u l a r y i s the  s k i l l most r e l a t e d t o academic s u c c e s s and  support concludes  language  t h a t the  one  f a c t o r which did make a d i f f e r e n c e f o r academic achievement was  the  opportunity  for students to discuss  t h e i r L l with p e e r s or a d u l t s . the at  l o w e s t academic a c h i e v e r s  Cummins.  For  example, Edelsky  They argue t h a t  c o n s t r u c t s , but  most  that  successful  are  the  question  justification  CALP a r e  i n t e r a c t i v e , on the c i t e d by  p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r developing and  e t a l . (1983) challenge  BICS and  speaking s k i l l s (BICS) a r e  reading the  were a l s o the  found  a l l e d u c a t o r s a g r e e with Cummins's BICS / CALP  distinction.  as  I r o n i c a l l y she  i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication.  Not  and  c o n c e p t s in  w r i t i n g (CALP).  the  not  basis that reading  specialists  -  of  et a l r a i s e  of academic achievement, q u e s t i o n i n g  - 13  listening  literacy skill  In a d d i t i o n E d e l s k y  of Cummins's r e l i a n c e on  separate  standardized  the test  s c o r e s , arguing t h a t t h e s e  do not t r u l y measure  students'  academic achievement but merely "the a b i l i t y t o do the of t a s k s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with d i t t o s h e e t test-like  exercises in a  s e t t i n g " . (Edelsky e t a l . 19 83, 11)  While reading s p e c i a l i s t s (Goodman, 1986; appear t o a c c e p t  May,  1986)  many i l l i t e r a t e s , but  (the exception being t h o s e with p h y s i c a l or mental  ( d i s a b i l i t i e s ) who  lack the a b i l i t y t o speak a language.  This would l e a d us t o s u s p e c t  that different cognitive  a b i l i t i e s a r e a t work in the two  activities.  A l s o i t would appear t h a t t h e added dimension b i l i n g u a l s e t t i n g , where i n s t r u c t i o n i s in the  language i n s t r u c t i o n .  has  a l r e a d y developed  h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d the  reading  same p r o c e s s  f i r s t l e a r n i n g t o r e a d in e i t h e r L l or L2.  One  skills  as t h a t of  should  d i f f e r e n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o the age, development , and experiences  in f i r s t  F o r example, l e a r n i n g the w r i t t e n word  (where a s t u d e n t  in Ll) can  of a  second  language, p r e s e n t s complicating f a c t o r s not p r e s e n t  in L2  do  t h a t o r a l language i s t h e the b a s i s f o r  t e a c h i n g reading t h e r e a r e n o n e t h e l e s s v e r y few  kinds  expect  past  of t h e l e a r n e r .  To c r i t i c i s m s such  as  E d e l s k y e t a l , Cummins  responds... However, any dichotomy i n e v i t a b l y o v e r s i m p l i f i e s the r e a l i t y and i t became c l e a r t h a t the terms "BICS" and "CALP" had the p o t e n t i a l t o be misinterpreted... Consequently, the t h e o r e t i c a l framework was e l a b o r a t e d in terms of t h e c o n t e x t u a l and c o g n i t i v e dimensions underlying language performance while s t i l l maintaining t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of the BICS / CALP d i s t i n c t i o n . (Cummins 19 8 4, 138)  - 14  -  This i s s u e of time, t h a t i s l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e and  age  concern  (LOR)  of a r r i v a l t o the h o s t c o u n t r y (AOA), a r e a l s o in t h i s q u e s t i o n of academic s u c c e s s .  The  of  arbitrary  d e c i s i o n t o o f f e r ESL  c l a s s e s f o r up t o two  be  o r a l language p r o f i c i e n c y a c q u i r e d by  a response  t o the  most s t u d e n t s account argues  y e a r s appears  in t h a t time, i.e. BICS, without  the l o n g e r time  r e q u i r e d t o develop  taking into CALP.  not  no b a s i s  an e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , when the r e s e a r c h findings  show t h a t " i t t a k e s a t l e a s t immigrant c h i l d r e n who age  Cummins  t h a t t h i s a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n l e n g t h of time may  r e f l e c t the needs of immigrant c h i l d r e n and has from  f i v e y e a r s , on the a v e r a g e , f o r  a r r i v e in t h e h o s t c o u n t r y a f t e r  of s i x t o approach grade norms in L2  (Cummins 19 81,  In her  study  on t h i s t o p i c of age  CALP".  English p r o f i c i e n t  and  language f o r academic  C o l l i e r (1987) a n a l y z e d d a t a f o r 1,548 (LEP) s t u d e n t s who  i n s t r u c t i o n i n English. as age  the  148)  a c q u i s i t i o n of second  r a t e of purposes,  "advantaged" l i m i t e d received a l l  Taking i n t o account  variables  on a r r i v a l , E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l on  such  arrival,  b a s i c l i t e r a c y and math s k i l l s in L l , and number of y e a r s schooling in English, Collier's c o n c l u s i o n s were t h a t s t u d e n t s who fastest  e n t e r e d the ESL  program a t ages 8-11  a c h i e v e r s , r e q u i r i n g two  50th p e r c e n t i l e  were one  group when both groups had  - 15  LEP  were the the  students entering  t o t h r e e y e a r s behind  the same l e n g t h of  -  of  LEP  t o five years to reach  on n a t i o n a l norms.  the program a t ages 5-7 8-11  to  the  residence.  A r r i v a l s a t ages 12-15  d i f f i c u l t y , and years  experienced  the  greatest  were p r o j e c t e d t o r e q u i r e from s i x t o eight  t o r e a c h grade l e v e l norms i n academic achievement. It i s a p p a r e n t t h a t reaching  (in the wider c o n t e x t t o the  students  L2  communicative  of both BICS and  CALP) i s of importance  in m i n o r i t y language b i l i n g u a l immersion  programs, given t h a t a l l i n s t r u c t i o n i s in L2 education  i s "put  competence  on hold" u n t i l t h e y can  and  their  function  s u f f i c i e n t l y i n academic c l a s s e s . Wong-Fillmore a l s o concludes  t h a t two  years  i s an  inadequate l e n g t h of time t o d e v e l o p the language necessary t h a t the longer the  for success  in academic c l a s s r o o m s ,  r e q u i r e d time may  be  of ESL  students  concluding  up t o s i x y e a r s , or  f o r poor language l e a r n e r s .  education  skills  even  Whether p l a c i n g on  (until they master  hold  the  language of i n s t r u c t i o n ) amounts t o , in Wong-Fillmore's words, a "minor inconvenience" b a r r i e r " depends a g r e a t can  be  or a "major  educational  d e a l on whether academic c o n c e p t s  i n c o r p o r a t e d with t e a c h i n g the  language.  s u g g e s t s t h a t "what i s needed t o meet the of educating  (Wong-Fillmore 1983,  challenge  schools  is a  ESL.  171)  Timing of e n t r y would appear t o be a l s o when "meaningful input" becomes an the  special  l i m i t e d - E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s i n our  combination of b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and  She  e a r l i e r grades that teachers - 16  -  use  an  important  factor  i s s u e , s i n c e i t i s in  concrete  and  v i s u a l aids  to  assist  concepts  s t u d e n t s t o develop (CALP).  construct  and I n t e r n a l i z e a b s t r a c t  Cummins (1984, 139-42) c o n c e p t u a l i z e s the  of language p r o f i c i e n c y along two  "context embedded" and  continuums,  "context reduced" c o n t e n t , and  " c o g n i t i v e l y undemanding" / " c o g n i t i v e l y demanding" language s i t u a t i o n s . C o g n i t i v e l y undemanding, c o n t e x t  embedded  language i s p r e s e n t in c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s which p a r a l i n g u i s t i c and negotiated.  c o n t e x t u a l c u e s , and where meaning can  At the  o p p o s i t e pole i n t h i s continuum a r e  more a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s those  beyond t h e  offer  taught  e a r l y grades  in the c l a s s r o o m , i n elementary  a r e c o g n i t i v e l y demanding with reduced  be  the  particularly  s c h o o l , which  c o n t e x t u a l cues.  Mohan (19 86) c a r r i e s t h i s d i s c u s s i o n f u r t h e r in h i s work on the c o n t e x t u a l and c o g n i t i v e dimensions  of language  as a medium f o r academic l e a r n i n g , i n both c o n t e x t (action s i t u a t i o n s ) and c o n t e x t reduced knowledge) s i t u a t i o n s . "comprehensible  He  cites  (theoretical  some d i f f i c u l t i e s  input" which ESL  embedded  with  s t u d e n t s might e n c o u n t e r  in  the d i s c o u r s e of academic s u b j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where t h e r e may  be no  "shared background of experience" between l e a r n e r  and c o n t e n t .  He  suggests  i n t e r a c t i o n of c o n t e n t  for  the  c o n s i d e r the  and language (where language  takes place in the context aware of t e c h n i q u e s  that educators  learning  of a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y ) and t o  be  t o overcome the lack of L l i n s t r u c t i o n  student.  - 17  -  To c l o s e t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o£ academic s u c c e s s chosen t o c o n s i d e r some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s successful students  I have  of academically  a s d e s c r i b e d in t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  example, M a r s h a l l and Sokol (1969) compared  For  students  i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s a s "independent, s e l f - d i r e c t i n g s t u d e n t s " with l e s s  s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s , finding t h a t t h e  independent s t u d e n t s  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean I.Q.,  higher mean GPA, lower of  unscheduled  mean c l a s s rank, lower mean modules  time, higher mean c l a s s l o a d , higher  p r o p o r t i o n of c o l l e g e bound s t u d e n t s , lower students of  proportion of  known a s d i s c i p l i n a r y problems, lower mean number  a b s e n c e s , and higher p r o p o r t i o n of females  than males.  While norm b a s e d IQ and GPA a r e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h i s i n t e r v i e w case istics  s t u d y , i t w i l l be of i n t e r e s t t o compare c h a r a c t e r of t h e informants  f o r t h i s s t u d y with t h o s e  by M a r s h a l l and Sokol, who were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r as "independent, s e l f - d i r e c t i n g  To  described teachers  students".  summarize, t h i s s e c t i o n has d i s c u s s e d t h e BICS/CALP  d i s t i n c t i o n , which r a i s e s t h e importance of use of L l f o r academic l e a r n i n g . u s e f u l l y taught  Vocabulary  a s t h e language s k i l l most  f o r academic s u c c e s s , t h e evidence  that  academic achievement i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o c o n v e r s a t i o n a l f l u e n c y , and the f a c t o r which i s deemed important a l s o d i s c u s s e d in t h i s  of time  and timing  f o r developing CALP i n L2 were  context.  - 18 -  B: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o£ B i l i n g u a l  That b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n  Education  i s a reasonable  o b j e c t i v e i s documented in the c l a s s e s i n Canada.  research  educational  on French  In a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s t h e  immersion  evidence  that  monolinguals a r e a m i n o r i t y group compared with the the world's p o p u l a t i o n .  With awareness of the c o g n i t i v e  a f f e c t i v e a d v a n t a g e s of b i l i n g u a l i s m (Swain and one  would expect  encourage ESL  students  criterion  for success  failed a student  mother tongue. an  By d e f i n i t i o n t h e i f in gaining L2  Retention  of L l and  to  language.  the  student  system l o s e s his  a d d i t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m as would be  enhanced  dominant s o c i e t y of the  of the m i n o r i t y language.  Cummins (19 84) p r o v i d e s  a u s e f u l framework f o r  d i s c u s s i o n of b i l i n g u a l programs which he  categorizes  a c c o r d i n g t o the " a d d i t i v e " or " s u b t r a c t i v e " q u a l i t i e s These  of  are:  (1) Submersion, the "sink-or-swim" s i t u a t i o n where s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r ESL education  provided  students  no  getting their  in t h e m a j o r i t y language  (2) Monolingual  Immersion,  of which ESL  f o r ethnic minority students  - 19  We  informants.  education  students  where t h e r e i s r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e  each.  and  of a b i l i n g u a l program i s  e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e f o r ESL  importance  their first  of t h i s awareness i n our  "additive bilingualism". has  t o maintain  of  Lapkin 19 8 2)  a continuing i n t e r e s t by e d u c a t o r s  look f o r evidence One  rest  -  programs  in Vancouver  schools  are  an  example  (3) M a j o r i t y Language B i l i n g u a l Immersion, of which French immersion  i s the  example  (4) M i n o r i t y Language B i l i n g u a l Immersion, which i s descriptive  of programs such as the U k r a i n i a n - E n g l i s h  Immersion program i n Edmonton. Features absent  of b i l i n g u a l immersion  i n monolingual immersion  t e a c h e r s (fluent  programs which a r e  programs a r e b i l i n g u a l  in both L l and t h e t a r g e t language); use  of  p a r a l i n g u i s t i c c l u e s , redundancy and c o n c r e t e c o n t e x t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a s s u r e meaningful input; and  increasing  of L l with an u l t i m a t e balance between L l and the language  target  as the medium f o r i n s t r u c t i o n .  Informants immersion  use  in our s t u d y a r e in the  monolingual  model where c o u r s e work i n v o l v e s m a s t e r i n g  a b s t r a c t , c o n t e x t r e d u c e d c o n c e p t s without p r o v i s i o n f o r instruction  in L l . Will t h e s e s t u d e n t s , like  d e s c r i b e d by S a v i l l e - T r o i k e  those  (1984) i n t r i n s i c a l l y know the  n e c e s s i t y t o compensate f o r t h e i r lack of understanding seeking out e x p l a n a t i o n s in t h e i r L l ? we  might  by  If t h i s i s t h e c a s e ,  expect t h i s s t r a t e g y t o change as t h e y become more  and more c o m f o r t a b l e with using E n g l i s h t o u n d e r s t a n d  the  a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s in t h e i r academic c o u r s e s . C: A f f e c t i v e  F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Academic  Choice of a language b i l i n g u a l immersion  Success  f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes  programs) i s an i n d i c a t i o n  - 20  -  (as in  of a c c e p t a n c e  of  t h a t language b y t h e dominant g r o u p i n s o c i e t y ,  t h i s " f o r m a l " r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e importance lacking i n the case  while  of t h e i r L l i s  of t h e i n f o r m a n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y , we  w i l l n e v e r t h e l e s s look f o r " i n f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n " o f L l and of  i n s t a n c e s where t h e i r L l i s a f a c t o r i n t h e i r academic  success.  F o r example, a r e t h e s t u d e n t s e n c o u r a g e d t o  m a i n t a i n t h e i r L l ? Do t h e y f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e speaking L l a t school?  their  Do o t h e r s t u d e n t s show a n y i n t e r e s t i n  l e a r n i n g a b o u t them and t h e i r l a n g u a g e ? I t h a s been n o t e d t h a t f o r t h e ESL s t u d e n t t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s c a n be e x t r e m e l y t h r e a t e n i n g . (Cohen and Swain 19 76, Cummins and Swain, 1987)  Here he/she i s always  p o s s i b l e r i d i c u l e and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  from o t h e r  open t o students  and even t e a c h e r s . The  s t r e s s f e l t b y such s t u d e n t s i s a l s o documented b y  M c C o l l (1976).  A p a n e l o f s i x ESL s t u d e n t s who "have made  t h e t r a n s i t i o n a c r o s s language and c u l t u r e  successfully"  d i s c u s s e d t h e i r f i r s t Canadian s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e u s e f u l n e s s of ESL programs, some h u m i l i a t i o n s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d a t s c h o o l and t h e s t r e s s e s f e l t b y t h e i r f a m i l i e s a t home. The importance  kind o f r e c o g n i t i o n b y t h e dominant community of t h e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' L l a p p e a r s t o be an i m p o r t a n t  a s p e c t o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h and w e l l being.  Cummins and Swain summarize p o s s i b l e d e s t r u c t i v e  r e s u l t s when a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s a r e n e g a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n  - 21 -  positive. To be t o l d , whether d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y , t h a t y o u r language and t h e language of y o u r p a r e n t s , of y o u r home and of y o u r f r i e n d s i s n o n - f u n c t i o n a l in s c h o o l i s t o negate y o u r s e n s e o f s e l f . One c a n imagine any number o f r e s p o n s e s on t h e p a r t of t h e c h i l d r e n who h e a r t h i s message. They c o u l d a c c e p t t h e school's dictum and r e j e c t t h e i r families; t h e y c o u l d f e e l anger and f r u s t r a t i o n towards t h e i r t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l , which c o u l d l e a d t o h o s t i l i t y and a g g r e s s i o n and e v e n t u a l l y dropping-out o f s c h o o l , o r t o a d e n i a l of the v a l u e of school. And s o on. N e e d l e s s t o s a y , none of t h e s e a r e h e a l t h y r e s p o n s e s , but each of them has been observed. (Cummins and Swain 1987, 101)  The above n e g a t i v e s i t u a t i o n  w i l l be compared t o t h a t  of t h e informants f o r t h i s s t u d y in an e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y t h e affective  climate i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a t s c h o o l .  D: D i f f e r e n c e s Between Ethnic  Groups  Evidence of v a r i a b i l i t y i n academic different the  between  language groups in the U.S., n o t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o  socio-economic s t a t u s  borne  achievement  (SES) of t h e s t u d e n t s , i s a l s o  o u t i n Canadian r e s u l t s  (with t h e exception of F r e n c h  L l s t u d e n t s ) . (Cummins 1984, 98) exerts a significant  effect  I t was found t h a t  f o r m a j o r i t y language  SES  groups,  i.e. F r e n c h L l born i n Canada, but n o t f o r immigrant students.  S t u d e n t s with Chinese background, both Canadian-  b o r n and immigrant, show an extremely high l e v e l of placement  i n academic  streams a t a l l SES l e v e l s .  In an attempt t o explain such a p p a r e n t  inconsistencies  Cummins c i t e s work by Ogbu (Cummins 19 8 4, 12 0) and F e u e r s t e i n (Cummins 1984, 123). Ogbu d i s t i n g u i s h e s between  - 22 -  three types  o£ m i n o r i t y groups, i.e. "autonomous",  "immigrant", and not  "caste" minorities.  subordinated  c u l t u r e , and linguistic  economically  Autonomous groups  or p o l i t i c a l l y t o the  possess a distinct  are  dominant  racial, religious,  or c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y .  Jews a r e  an  example of  an  autonomous minority.  Caste minorities are i n h e r e n t l y i n f e r i o r , and poor.  Native  Indians  regarded  by the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e  t h e i r socio-economic p r o s p e c t s  are  an  example of t h i s t y p e  as  are  of m i n o r i t y  group.  Immigrant m i n o r i t i e s d i f f e r from c a s t e m i n o r i t i e s in t h a t t h e y have come more or l e s s  v o l u n t a r i l y t o the  s o c i e t y , with i n s t r u m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . a f f e c t e d by the  i d e o l o g y of the  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e y c a s t e minority.  immigrant m i n o r i t i e s . The change.  They may  They t e n d t o be  less  dominant group, and, in s p i t e  appear t o be  Chinese and  host  b e t t e r off than  Japanese a r e  the  examples of  s t a t u s of immigrant m i n o r i t i e s  develop i n t o e i t h e r autonomous or  may  caste  minorities. F e u e r s t e i n ' s c o n c e p t t o explain d i f f e r e n c e s i n academic success  between d i f f e r e n t  ethnic groups, " c u l t u r a l  deprivation", r e f e r s to a disrupted process t r a n s m i s s i o n between g e n e r a t i o n s . of the  of c u l t u r a l  Ashworth's (19 79)  B.C. government p o l i c y f o r N a t i v e  Indian e d u c a t i o n  the p a s t , where c h i l d r e n were removed from t h e i r placed in r e s i d e n t i a l schools  and  - 23  -  account of  villages,  f o r b i d d e n t o speak t h e i r  language, r e s u l t e d i n the t h e i r language and  l o s s t o a whole g e n e r a t i o n  many of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s .  s i t u a t i o n comes t o mind as deprivation" according Cummins t a k e s pains  "cultural  description.  to elaborate, there  between F e u e r s t e i n ' s  Their  a t r a g i c example of  t o Feuerstein's  are  of  As  similarities  " c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n " and  Ogbu's  "caste minorities".  From the and  above t h e o r e t i c a l work on immigrant m i n o r i t i e s  academic s u c c e s s i t a p p e a r s t h a t  c u l t u r a l autonomy may Here we  be  f o r immigrant  a more s i g n i f i c a n t  f a c t o r than  w i l l seek evidence of autonomy in the  c u l t u r e , i.e. with i n s t r u m e n t a l  students  minority  a t t i t u d e s toward the  host  s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n a d e s i r e t o a s s i m i l a t e , expecting strong  s u p p o r t from the  b e n e f i t s f o r our E: The  "Ask  To my ESL  the  SES.  that  c u l t u r e would a c c r u e a f f e c t i v e  informants'  academic  success.  L e a r n e r " Approach  knowledge t h e r e  i s no  formal  l e a r n e r t o analyze his or her  own  s t u d y which asks academic  the  success.  However t o analyze s u c c e s s f u l language l e a r n i n g Naiman et a l . (19 79) i n t e r v i e w e d  s u c c e s s f u l a d u l t language  ("successful" i d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e who languages) i n a p i l o t  learned  several  study for a l a t e r controlled study  looking a t F r e n c h language c l a s s e s students.  had  learners  f o r English  speaking  They found t h a t t h i s c a s e s t u d y technique  a number of u s e f u l a v e n u e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , and approach i s t h e r e f o r e  of i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s c a s e  -  24  -  provided their  study.  S i m i l a r l y Rubin (1975), while again f o c u s i n g learning rates  rather  language  than academic achievement (noting  of s u c c e s s  r e s e a r c h on  on  the  of ESL  different  language l e a r n e r s ) , a d v o c a t e s  t o p i c of l e a r n e r  e f f i c a c y of d i r e c t l y asking the  strategies  learner.  and  We  notes  w i l l expect  similar approach used in t h i s s t u d y t o p r o v i d e r i c h varied  mainly c o n c e r n e d with the  learning  work of O'Malley e t a l . (1985)  premise of the  of the  acquisition, storage  or  target  and  a learner  to  facilitate  was  F i r s t , s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d in o r d e r  were then c l a s s i f i e d as and  The  socioaffective strategies. are  and  self-evaluation.  repetition, resourcing  Examples  (using  vocabulary).  Cognitive target  (working with one  factors  or more p e e r s ) and  c l a r i f i c a t i o n (asking  a t e a c h e r or  -  25  -  i.e.  strategies  language  keyword ( f o r l e a r n i n g  Socioaffective  of  self-management,  r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s ) , t r a n s l a t i o n , grouping, note d e d u c t i o n , imagery, and  cognitive  advance o r g a n i z e r s ,  attention, selective attention,  self-monitoring,  to  r e s u l t i n g examples  metacognitive s t r a t e g i e s ,  metacognitive s t r a t e g i e s directed  the  r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n " in o r d e r  i d e n t i f y a number of s t r a t e g i e s .  strategies  the  s t r a t e g i e s , i.e. "the  t o promote academic l e a r n i n g , a t w o - f o l d s t u d y undertaken.  still  language, i s  Beginning with  importance of l e a r n i n g  o p e r a t i o n s or s t e p s used by  include  the  data.  More r e l a t e d t o academic achievement, though  the  the  include  taking,  L2 cooperation  question  other native  for speaker).  The  controlled  s t u d y in the  second phase t e s t e d  e f f i c a c y of t e a c h i n g such s t r a t e g i e s result that  varied  depending on  the  strategy  t r a i n i n g can  be  language  that  own  present  effective for  strategies.  Here the  O'Malley s t u d y , i.e. t h a t  once i d e n t i f i e d , c o u l d competent l e a r n e r s  intent  salient aspects  be  to  Summary of C h a p t e r  The  asked t o i d e n t i f y  goal is similar  learning  strategies, less  Two  of t h e o r e t i c a l work which r e l a t e t o  the  the  I have r e l i e d h e a v i l y  most comprehensive in scope t o  of academic s u c c e s s in ESL  p a t h s t o be  gathering process.  are  We  a means of s e c u r i n g  students.  "comprehensible input" where L2  i d e n t i f y examples of a d d i t i v e factors  explored in the  in the  has data  c a u t i o n e d t o look f o r use  understand a b s t r a c t  on address  t h e o r e t i c a l work mentioned in t h i s c h a p t e r  insufficient to  to  enhance t h e i r academic development.  i d e n t i f i e d some of the  affective  concluded  in t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review i s t o i d e n t i f y  Cummins' work as issue  The  integrative  s u c c e s s f u l l y taught to  r e s e a r c h problem in t h i s study.  the  i t was  s t u d y informants w i l l be  learning  of the  The  t a s k , but  students.  tasks.  In the their  to  the  of L l is  academic c o n c e p t s ; t o  bilingualism and  other  positive  informants' s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n ; and  explore e f f e c t i v e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g  -  26  -  strategies.  to  as  c h a p t e r III: THE  STUDY  This c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , explaining the approach and  interview techniques  d a t a g a t h e r i n g , a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s e t t i n g , and a t i o n about the A: The  used f o r inform-  informants.  Method The  intent  s u c c e s s f u l ESL experience.  of t h i s s t u d y was  t o g e t the  academically  l e a r n e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l  To my  knowledge t h i s has  not y e t been done i n  earlier research. While  u s e f u l as g l o b a l i n d i c a t o r s , s t a t i s t i c s do  illuminate w e l l the succeed reason  experiences  or f a i l i n t h e i r academic c o u r s e s i t was  f e l t t o be  q u a l i t a t i v e p o i n t of view. appears  of i n d i v i d u a l s as  important  place of c a s e approaches,  little  study  asked  o v e r which the  or no c o n t r o l " .  In determining  s t u d y r e s e a r c h in comparison with  such a s a s u r v e y  a  by Yin (19 86) of "a  q u e s t i o n i s being  about a c o n t e m p o r a r y s e t of e v e n t s i n v e s t i g a t o r has  t o approach t h i s from  suggested  or 'why'  they  for this  This e x p l o r a t o r y c a s e  t o f i t the c r i t e r i o n  s i t u a t i o n where a 'how'  and  not  the  other  or experimental s t u d y , Yin  o f f e r s t h a t the c a s e  s t u d y i s p r e f e r r e d where the following  c r i t e r i a are present:  c a u s a l l i n k s t o o complex f o r s u r v e y  or  experimental r e s e a r c h ; the o p p o r t u n i t y or need t o  describe events  i n a r e a l l i f e c o n t e x t where t h e r e i s  p o t e n t i a l f o r e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h ; and an e x p l o r a t i o n of those  s i t u a t i o n s where no c l e a r s i n g l e s e t of outcomes  should be  expected.  This s t u d y i s n o t an ethnography o f t h e l i f e o f academically s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s , b u t an e x p l o r a t o r y c a s e study The  using some ethnographic  data gathering  techniques.  end r e s u l t does n o t assume c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t e d t o c a u s e -  effect  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and here we do n o t attempt t o make  claims, i.e. t h a t academic s u c c e s s p o s s i b l e by such  and such  factor.  i s caused Rather  of s u c c e s s  in these  students  s i t u a t i o n s in Canadian s e c o n d a r y  o r made  we hope t o  c o n t r i b u t e toward a g r e a t e r understanding, aspects  illuminating  and t h e i r  school  such  particular  classrooms.  Here our i n t e r e s t i s t o i d e n t i f y p a t t e r n s which appear to  promote o r i n h i b i t academic s u c c e s s .  dealing with t h e s e  Of c o u r s e  we a r e  p a t t e r n s as they a r e perceived by the  s t u d e n t s , n o t a s t h e y might be in r e a l i t y . q u e s t i o n s being asked  The main  a r e : What i s i t l i k e being a s t u d e n t  who happens t o be g e t t i n g h i s / h e r e d u c a t i o n through language?  How does he/she cope and manage t o a c h i e v e  successful results? ESL  What i n s i g h t s c a n be o f f e r e d t o o t h e r  s t u d e n t s , ESL t e a c h e r s and s u b j e c t  teachers?  in d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w a s a d a t a technique  a second  gathering  Lewin (1979) e l a b o r a t e s on d i f f e r e n c e s between  f a c e t o f a c e c o n v e r s a t i o n and a w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . -  28 -  With  the i n t e r v i e w i s the length, and  the  opportunity to pursue a topic at  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r both t h e  respondent t o c l a r i f y r e s p o n s e s and unclear t o  On  questions  and  which may  be  either.  c o n s i d e r i n g how  t o ask t h e q u e s t i o n s , a  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w format as  suggested  e l i c i t "openended" r e s p o n s e s which a r e a structured survey questionnaire the records  interviewer  Burgess  there  r e s e a r c h e r and  i s "no the  can  outside the limits  In a s t r u c t u r e d  long-term  of  survey  interviewer merely poses questions  answers, and  between the  questionnaire.  by  and  relationship  r e s e a r c h e d " , but  rather  one  where ...it i s assumed t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r can manipulate the s i t u a t i o n and has c o n t r o l o v e r a s e t l i s t of q u e s t i o n s t h a t have been f o r m u l a t e d b e f o r e the i n t e r v i e w and which a r e t o be answered r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r e d , r e p h r a s e d , r e - o r d e r e d , d i s c u s s e d and analysed. In s h o r t , the i n t e r v i e w e r i s assumed t o have power o v e r the respondent who i s g i v e n a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e in t h i s c o n t e x t . (Burgess 19 8 4, 101)  In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e d approach B u r g e s s  offers  an approach used in a long t r a d i t i o n of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h an " u n s t r u c t u r e d  or s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d  which employs a s e t of themes and in the c o u r s e unstructured  of c o n v e r s a t i o n . "  style  of  of i n t e r v i e w i n g  t o p i c s t o form  questions  B u r g e s s terms s u c h  interviews "conversations  with a purpose".  It i s t h i s " u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w " which i s employed f o r t h i s study. s t r u c t u r e , we  While our  schedule  avail ourselves  -  29  -  of q u e s t i o n s  of the  indicates a  opportunity t o  explore  any  promising  a v e n u e s which a r i s e during the i n t e r v i e w .  There i s a d d i t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y with the the  order  of q u e s t i o n s and t h e  o p t i o n of a l t e r i n g  opportunity for future  c o n t a c t i f t h e r e i s need f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n or c l a r i f i c a t i o n a t a l a t e r date. schedule  of  (See Appendix I f o r t h e  full  questions.)  Questions An  attempt t o formulate  q u e s t i o n s within c e r t a i n  domains r e l a t e d t o the l i t e r a t u r e l i k e l y t o y i e l d meaningful academic s u c c e s s  information.  the l i t e r a t u r e  the s t u d e n t s ' use  i s the approach most  of L l and  L2  F o r the t o p i c  of  i n d i c a t e s a need t o examine as i t r e l a t e s t o  their  s t u d i e s , in o r d e r t o determine t h e i r approach t o understanding courses.  a b s t r a c t concepts  Affective  which w i l l be  r e l a t e d t o t h e i r academic  f a c t o r s which may  examined a r e a c c e p t a n c e  dominant c u l t u r e (in t h i s c a s e  relate to success of t h e i r L l by  n a t i v e speaking  and  the  teachers  and  s t u d e n t s ) , " a d d i t i v e " or " s u b t r a c t i v e " q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r bilingualism, and environment.  how  comfortable  t h e y f e e l in the  school  In a d d i t i o n t h e i r home environment and  informants' own  coping and  l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s may  the  provide  i n s i g h t i n t o i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h s which a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r academic  success.  P r e p a r a t i o n of I n t e r v i e w e r s I n t e r v i e w e r s were p r e p a r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the  reasons -  30  in advance with  f o r the -  s t u d y and t h e  detailed importance  of t h e i r r o l e i n e l i c i t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i n a c o n v e r sational interview setting. p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s , and p r o j e c t , the interview  schedule  They were shown v i d e o s  were given the  overview of  of q u e s t i o n s , and  an  of  the  the  o u t l i n e of  the  process.  Data A n a l y s i s Spradley  (1979) s u g g e s t s a scheme i n h i s c h a p t e r  "Componential A n a l y s i s " whereby a number of themes "domains" emerging from the  data  are  identified.  attempt t o d i s c o v e r a  r e a l i t y " a r i s i n g from the  informants' p e r c e p t i o n s .  researcher's  reported  r e s p o n s e s emerging from the  o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n s , though the vary.  The  and  discussed  The  Pilot  This  order  a r i s i n g themes a r e  data  format of  of r e p o r t i n g  the questions Four  f u r t h e r in C h a p t e r F i v e .  Interviews  Italian  Indicated t h a t such c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w s a r e a of d a t a  t o i n c r e a s e our  understanding  within h i s / h e r e d u c a t i o n a l context. i n t e r v i e w s the in an  are  i d e n t i f i e d in Chapter  P i l o t i n t e r v i e w s with a Vietnamese and  source  the  conclusions will arise.  under the headings u s e d in the  may  "structural  i n f o r m a t i o n base from which  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  In t h i s s t u d y  or  The  r e s u l t i n g a n a l y s i s i s the  " s t r u c t u r a l r e a l i t y " i s the  titled  schedule  audiotaped  of q u e s t i o n s  i n t e r v i e w , which was  - 31  -  rich  of the  Following t h e s e was  student  student pilot  extended and  arranged  through  tested the  ESL  t e a c h e r and c o n d u c t e d  a t t h e student's s c h o o l .  This  f i n a l p i l o t i n t e r v i e w took l o n g e r than t h e following Interviews where q u e s t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n advance with t h e informants.  B: The S e t t i n g The  t w e n t y - f i v e informants were e n r o l l e d i n 19 87 i n f o u r  Vancouver secondary  schools.  took p l a c e i n June 1987.  Twenty-three  Informants  p r i v a t e l y i n an unoccupied  classroom.  of t h e i n t e r v i e w s  were i n t e r v i e w e d S u f f i c i e n t time was  allowed a t each i n t e r v i e w f o r t h e f u l l schedule and t o probe f u r t h e r information.  of questions  f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and a d d i t i o n a l  These i n t e r v i e w s were b o t h v i d e o and audio  recorded.  I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  by ESL and r e g u l a r c o u r s e  t e a c h e r s who had i n d i c a t e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t in t h i s study.  i n being i n v o l v e d  Interview times were a r r a n g e d i n advance, and  took place t o s u i t t h e s c h e d u l e s of t h e s t u d e n t during s c h o o l hours.  informants  Two i n t e r v i e w s (both a r r a n g e d t o  accomodate t h e s t u d e n t s ' schedules) were c o n d u c t e d the s c h o o l s e t t i n g another  outside  -- one a t t h e student's workplace and  during a telephone  i n t e r v i e w l a t e r in t h e summer  when t h e informant had r e t u r n e d from v i s i t i n g r e l a t i v e s i n the U.S. but  These two f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s were n o t tape  e x t e n s i v e n o t e s were taken.  Where r e s p o n s e s  recorded, were  u n c l e a r o r of i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l informants were c o n t a c t e d f u r t h e r b y telephone. -  32  -  C: The  Informants  For t h i s  e x p l o r a t o r y case  s t u d e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d secondary  s t u d y , t w e n t y - f i v e ESL  as a c a d e m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l  from  four  s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r t o meet t h e f o l l o w i n g  criteria: 1.  Informants  selected  r e a s o n a b l e amount o f t i m e language  skills  sufficient  in their  schools.  f r o m two y e a r s t o j u s t  "Academic s u c c e s s " average  to develop  English  and / o r who were d i s p l a y i n g a c a d e m i c  in content area courses Canada v a r i e d  were s t u d e n t s who had had a  over  Time s p e n t i n five  i s d e f i n e d as achievement  i n content courses  success  years.  of a t l e a s t  s u c h a s Math, S c i e n c e ,  a C  Social  S t u d i e s , and E n g l i s h . 2. no ESL  Students  English.  must have a r r i v e d  Such s t u d e n t s would  s u p p o r t , whether  other  form.  Philippines Canada.  likely  in a traditional  One i n f o r m a n t after  l i t t l e or  have r e c e i v e d some  ESL c l a s s  o r i n some  had r e c e i v e d ESL t r a i n i n g  l e a v i n g Vietnam  Time s p e n t  i n Canada w i t h  i n the  and b e f o r e c o m i n g t o  i n ESL c l a s s r o o m s  varied  between  eight  months and f o u r y e a r s , s i x months. 3. for  Length  o f r e s i d e n c e i n Canada was a r b i t r a r i l y s e t  approximately  five  i n keeping  suggests  that  required  f o r academic s u c c e s s .  the  i t takes  years  informants  5-7 y e a r s  have been h e r e  shorter period.  - 33 -  with r e s e a r c h which  to develop  language  (See p . 15 a b o v e . )  skills Three o f  l o n g e r , and many f o r a much  Table  I : Informant Background I n f o r m a t i o n  AOA  M/F  Age  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  M M F F F M M F M M F F F M F M F M F M F M F F  17 19 19 19 14 15 18 16 17 17 17 16 20 16 18 18 19 14 16 19 16 18 19 17  15 17 17 15 13 13 13 11 14 12 14 11 16 12 15 12 13 10 12 15 14 13 15 12  Spain Vietnam Guatemala India Taiwan Thailand China China Korea China Afghan China Hong Kong China Afghan Taiwan China Vietnam China Korea Korea Italy Colombia Vietnam  Spanish Vietnamese Spanish Punjabi Mandarin Thai Chinese Chinese Korean Cantonese Persian Cantonese Cantonese Cantonese Persian Mandar i n Chinese Vietnamese Chinese Korean Korean Italian Spanish Cantonese  25  F  18  11  China  Cantonese  AOA = age on a r r i v a l NC = n a t i v e c o u n t r y  NC  Other  I#  Ll  Other  = other  French  Hindi  -  Hindi Mand,French  -  Hindi Taiwanese  -  -  French  -  Viet/Mand/ Trieuchan —  languages  spoken  I n f o r m a n t s 7 and 8 a r e s i b l i n g s . I n f o r m a n t s 11 and 15 a r e s i b l i n g s . I n f o r m a n t s 16, 17, and 25 have been h e r e some months longer than the suggested f i v e y e a r s .  - 34  -  4.  Students  from a range of c u l t u r e s were c h o s e n i n  o r d e r t o g e t some s e n s e of p o s s i b l e v a r i a n c e between language g r o u p s (with t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e a l s o l i k e l y t o be i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h o s e  speaking t h e  same mother tongue).  D: Data  Collection  Following a r e q u e s t  f o r participation, data  was  c o l l e c t e d from f o u r V a n c o u v e r S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y Schools. an  At  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting i n t e r e s t e d t e a c h e r s who had  responded were brought t o g e t h e r and more f u l l y about t h e aims o f t h e study. w r i t t e n overview  informed  They were p r o v i d e d with a  of t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s  and t h e schedule  of q u e s t i o n s . These t e a c h e r s were shown v i d e o s  of t h e p i l o t  i n t e r v i e w s , and were made cognizant of t h e d e s i r e d " c o n v e r s a t i o n a l " and openended i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s , i n o r d e r t h a t i n t e r e s t i n g l e a d s and t h e d i r e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w (i.e. t o n o t be c o n c e r n e d q u e s t i o n s , etc.) would  with t h e o r d e r o f  allow f u l l scope f o r t h e informants'  answers. The  informants  who were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e ESL t e a c h e r s  (according t o t h e n e c e s s a r y  c r i t e r i a ) were g i v e n advance  p r e p a r a t i o n , o u t l i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y and t h e reason  t h e y were c h o s e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  A l l were g i v e n t h e  o p t i o n of withdrawing a t any time during t h e p r o c e d u r e , and  -  35 -  informed  t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e f u s e t o r e s p o n d t o any o f t h e  questions.  They had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  t o read  o v e r and  d i s c u s s i n advance any d i f f i c u l t o r u n c l e a r p o i n t s . was a u s e f u l p r e p a r a t o r y  s t e p , s i n c e many o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  r e q u i r e i n t r o s p e c t i v e answers and memory r e c a l l . preparation lessened  This  Advanced  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of informants*  a p p r e h e n s i o n o r l a c k o f comprehension o f q u e s t i o n s , and l i k e l y r e s u l t e d i n time s a v e d and with i n c r e a s e d  informant  input during t h e a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w .  Written background  forms f i l l e d i n by s t u d e n t s  information.  Interviews two  collected pertinent  were c o n d u c t e d b y t h r e e  subject area  teachers.  The d e c i s i o n t o u s e a number o f  d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v i e w e r s was t o t a k e  into account t h e  informants' needs, s i n c e t h e t e a c h e r s established a rapport  and informants had  and t r u s t with each o t h e r .  i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm f o r t h e s t u d y involved teachers  E S L t e a c h e r s , and  The  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  was g r a t i f y i n g .  Two of t h e informants  who c o u l d n o t be accomodated  during t h i s time were i n t e r v i e w e d a t a l a t e r  date.  Otherwise t h e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s took p l a c e i n June, 1987 o v e r a two week p e r i o d .  In a l l c a s e s  available f o r further contact  t h e informants  were  and t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  c l a r i f i c a t i o n and / o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n where r e q u i r e d was h e l p f u l .  - 36 -  During the Interviews none  o v e r t l y r e f u s e d t o answer  any o f t h e q u e s t i o n s , but t h e r e i s of c o u r s e no way  of  knowing whether t h e y gave f u l l answers t o a l l the q u e s t i o n s . The informants a p p e a r e d t o be c o m f o r t a b l e , and a number of them r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y welcomed  t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be  and t o p o s s i b l y b e n e f i t f u t u r e ESL s t u d e n t s .  - 37 -  heard  Chapter  IV  DIMENSIONS OF STUDENT PERCEPTIONS THEIR EDUCATIONAL  OF  EXPERIENCES  Introduction:  This to  chapter  the c e n t r a l  important  presents  the informants'  q u e s t i o n of t h i s  factors  in their  study,  edited  responses  i . e . o f what may  s c h o o l and home e x p e r i e n c e s  promote  ( o r make p o s s i b l e ) t h e i r  academic s u c c e s s .  dealing  with  of t h i s  Two),  a number  interaction use  theoretical  aspects  i n L2 need n o t a f f e c t  may  be i m p o r t a n t ;  minority student's factors  of b i l i n g u a l  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  L l by t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ;  look  affective  between e t h n i c  t o the informants'  personal experiences  literature.  An a t t e m p t  with s a l i e n t  will  particularly strategies  helpful,  responses  that they  measure o f s u c c e s s .  -  38 -  felt  whether  played a role  o r whether t h e s t u d e n t s  for learning  t o compare  from the  be made t o d e t e r m i n e  s c h o o l programs were  and  groups.  factors  perceived that p a r e n t a l support  s u c c e s s , whether c e r t a i n  this  i n p u t and d i s c u s s a b s t r a c t  of p o s i t i v e  i n academic success  Here we w i l l  students  social  r e l e v a n t t o ESL l e a r n e r s i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s ;  differences  their  (Chapter  academic s u c c e s s , but t h a t  characteristics  e d u c a t i o n and t h e i m p o r t a n c e  which  In  o f i s s u e s were d i s c u s s e d , i . e . , t h a t  of L l t o p r o v i d e m e a n i n g f u l  concepts  problem  be  In t h e i r  deemed had  developed  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  I have c h o s e n t o p r e s e n t the  headings of the  schedule  the  informants'  of q u e s t i o n s  t h o u g h a l l o w i n g some f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e questions  are  t o be  listed  order  with  under  below, which  discussed.  A:  Perceptions  About Canada and  B:  Perceptions  About T h e m s e l v e s as  C:  ESL  D:  Experience  E:  Student  F:  Home E f f e c t  Native  Country  Students  Experience i n Regular  Classes  Strategies on  Schooling  F o l l o w i n g each s e c t i o n I w i l l salient  i s s u e s which w i l l  Chapter  Five.  A:  as  responses  then  summarize what a p p e a r t o be  be  d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y  I n f o r m a n t s P e r c e p t i o n s About Canada and  Their  in  Native  Country Here  informants  immigrating leaving  speak o f t h e i r  t o Canada and  their  were n e c e s s a r y  clarify  native land.  families'  their  reasons  feelings  about  They d e s c r i b e a d j u s t m e n t s  since their  arrival  t o Canada, and  I t i s assumed t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f  emotional  i n a new  their  academic  The  that  their  future aspirations. well-being  for  their  l a n d would u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t  success.  m a j o r i t y of the of determined  informants  the  efforts  parents  and  economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r  -  39  -  arrived  seeking  i n Canada  greater  s o n s and  through  educational  daughters.  Seven o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s a l r e a d y had f a m i l y t i e s being sponsored expressed  happiness  grandparents Int:  by r e l a t i v e s  presently living  i n Canada,  h e r e , and  a t being r e u n i t e d with a parent,  or s i b l i n g s .  Why d i d y o u and y o u r  f a m i l y move t o Canada?  I#14: Probably f o r a better l i f e . Canada i s a b i g , u n d e r p o p u l a t e d c o u n t r y , and i f y o u work h a r d y o u w i l l be successful. I#9: My f a t h e r s a y s "my e d u c a t i o n " b u t I t h i n k f i n a n c i a l problems. My f a t h e r was unemployed f o r n e a r l y t e n y e a r s and t h o u g h t t h a t e d u c a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t i e s were b e t t e r here. I n K o r e a t h e r e i s t o o much c o m p e t i t i o n . Canada is a land of opportunity. I# 2 2: My f a t h e r t h o u g h t t h e r e was a b e t t e r f u t u r e f o r us here than i n I t a l y . He came f o r h i s s o n s , n o t f o r h i m s e l f . I#25: F o r a b e t t e r l i f e f o r u s . T h e r e i s an u n c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n China. R e l a t i v e s h e r e and i n t h e U.S. c o u l d s p o n s o r u s . We were f i r s t a c c e p t e d by Canada, so we came h e r e . My p a r e n t s s t i l l want t o move t o t h e U.S. T h e y t h i n k t h a t t h e s c h o o l s ( i n t h e U.S.) a r e much b e t t e r (than Canadian ones). Others in  their  came a s r e f u g e e s , t o e s c a p e  native  the p o l i t i c a l  turmoil  countries.  I#2: We were e s c a p i n g — l o o k i n g f o r j u s t i c e and f r e e d o m . We were r e l i e v e d a t e s c a p i n g and b e i n g a l i v e . I#3: The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n n o t good. I c a n ' t t a l k about country.  i n my c o u n t r y ( G u a t e m a l a ) i s t h e t h i n g s t h a t happened i n my  I#15: The R u s s i a n s came t o A f g h a n i s t a n and wanted us t o change our r e l i g i o n . I#24: Communists t o o k o v e r my f a t h e r ' s b u s i n e s s and s e n t him t o work i n a work camp. He e s c a p e d and came h e r e , t h e n sent f o rus.  - 40 -  Table  I I : P a r e n t s ' E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n i n N a t i v e C o u n t r y and i n Canada  I# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  NC Spain Vietnam Guat India Taiwan Thai China China Korea China Afghan China HngKng China Afghan Ta iwan China Vietnam China Korea Korea Italy Colomb Vietnam China  OccNC(F)  OccNC(M)  baker dr i v e r machinist professor business bus i n e s s engineer mech eng govt o f f farmer director farmer varied dr i v e r director c i v i l eng carpenter  housewife manager housewife teacher chem eng bus i n e s s teacher teacher  -  farmer housewife farmer sewer housewi f e housewi f e clerk govtwrkr bookkeeper farmer housewi f e comp emp housewi f e minister housewi f e c a r i n s p t r housewi f e mechanic maid bus i n e s s housewife engineer teacher  FE = F a t h e r ' s E d u c a t i o n a l ME =Mother's E d u c a t i o n a l ES SS TT PS AD  = = = = =  OccCan(F)  janitor millwrkr business student repairman repairman janitor clerk  OccCan(M) housewife  -  cook h e l p r nurse housewife supervsor  -  clerk housewi f e clerk clerk cook sewer laundrywrk housewife pension housewi f e cook factorywrk N/A N/A k itchwrkr laundrywrk housewi f e bus i n e s s minister housewi f e accntnt housewi f e N/A comp emp housewi f e labasst lab asst  Background Background  elementary school secondary school technical training post-secondary advanced degree  - 41 -  FE  ME  ES TT  ES TT  PS PS PS PS PS AD PS SS SS ES  PS PS PS ss ss  -  -  -  SS PS ss  PS ss ss ES SS SS TT PS  ss PS AD ss  ES SS PS TT  PS  PS  -  -  -  -  -  The  informants  opportunity, potential an  p r o v i d i n g upward m o b i l i t y  who  are w i l l i n g  e d u c a t i o n , an  faith only  a p p e a r t o v i e w Canada as a l a n d o f  important  f o u r of t h e  informants  c o u n t r i e s (though  change  i n the p o l i t i c a l  would r e t u r n t o d e f e n d threat  o f an  invasion  age  40)  than  families  intolerable avail living  and  situation.)  and  ethnic country that  factors  was  invited  living  to Canadian  set-up  life  a r e now  instrumental  but  economic  prompted  escape /or  problem  likely  they  - 42  to survive own  t h e y now  remain.  with returning:  -  have  to r e t u r n to  that  would have t o r e a d j u s t . "  of  a m i n i s t e r i n the  while maintaining t h e i r  i t i s obvious  to  opportunities.  attempting  a desire  at  country.  n a t i v e c o u n t r i e s and  whose f a t h e r ,  i s where t h e y w i l l  and  i n each  T h e y came t o  Many e x p r e s s e d  a potential  here  (when w e l l  t o come t o work h e r e ,  and  he was  of t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h e r s t a n d a r d  for a v i s i t ,  expressed  a  I#22 e n v i s i o n s as  which o r i g i n a l l y  g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l and  Canada  in their  (Vietnam) i f t h e r e  Vietnam.  conditions in their  identity.  that  reported that  informants are the  everything behind, adapt  I#9  the p o s s i b i l i t y  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f I#21,  left  plan to r e t u r n to l i v e  t o move t o Canada.  Korean church,  fact  This  t h r e e more would r e t u r n w i t h  integrative)  themselves  informants. by t h e  s i x months o£ t h e y e a r  Common t o a l l t h e (rather  i s confirmed  by N o r t h  best of both worlds of l i v i n g  of the  his country  the  with  "Work" i n c l u d e s g e t t i n g  pursuit  i n a f u t u r e i n Canada  native  the  t o work.  f o r those  their  feel  I#20 "I'm  used  to  Informants decision  expressed  t o move t o t h i s  mixed r e a c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e country.  I#9: I was e x c i t e d . I t h o u g h t Canada was f a r m s and buffaloes. I was p a r t l y s a d , b u t m o s t l y e x c i t e d . I#18: No one t o l d me. I j u s t went b e c a u s e i t was l i k e g o i n g on,a t r i p o r s o m e t h i n g . I went w i t h my a u n t and f o u r c o u s i n s ( t h e same a u n t he now l i v e s w i t h . ) I#24: I was s a d t o l e a v e my f r i e n d s , b u t happy t o be s e e i n g my f a t h e r a g a i n . I was n e r v o u s a b o u t s c h o o l . In  spite  of the f a c t  are underemployed positions  held  informants II  imply  former  occupations  occupations  here  t h a t our i n f o r m a n t s  case  the informants  following) either  cases,  native c o u n t r i e s , the student  with  their  life.  in their  i n Canada.)  a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s s u r e and s t r e s s ; the  i n many  t o have a d j u s t e d t o C a n a d i a n  compares p a r e n t s '  with present  parents,  a c c o r d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d and  in their  appear  that their  This  parents  home  country  i s not t o  may n o t be under  only that i f this  ( w i t h one e x c e p t i o n a s n o t e d  d i d not recognize  (Table  were  i n the  i t or chose not t o  discuss i t . I#17: The l a s t two y e a r s I've r e a l l y s l o w e d down on t h e homework. L a t e l y I'm under s t r e s s and c a n ' t concentrate. N o r m a l l y I j u s t do my E n g l i s h homework and o t h e r w i s e I c r a m a t exam t i m e s . I know t h a t t h i s i s n o t a good way, b u t I j u s t c a n ' t h e l p i t . T h e r e ' s so much p r e s s u r e . Most  found  some a s p e c t  of Canadian  life  to enjoy.  I#8: I l i k e t h e f r e e d o m h e r e . I would change some p e o p l e , n o t a l l , who s t a r e a t p e o p l e who d o n ' t speak E n g l i s h . I#2: Here t h e r e i s good g o v e r n m e n t , good f a i r l y treated.  -  43 -  law.  People are  Table  I I I : Comparison C h i l d r e n With  lit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  NC Spain Vietnam Guatemala India Taiwan Thailand China China Korea China Afghan China Hong Kong China Afghan Taiwan China Vietnam China Korea Korea Italy Colombia Vietnam China  of P a r e n t a l E x p e c t a t i o n s For Informants'  Own  Their  Expectations  Parent Expectation  Informant  University Informants Choice Univers i t y Be s u c c e s s f u l M e d i c a l Doctor Medical Doctor Post G r a d u a t e / S c i e n t i s t Post Graduate No p r e f e r e n c e D o c t o r or Lawyer M e d i c a l Doctor Informant's Choice Informant's Choice University Policewoman Informant's Choice University No p r e f e r e n c e M e d i c a l Doctor Lawyer Informant's Choice Informant's Choice Informant's Choice Informant's Choice Medical Doctor  Electronics/university Engineering/university University R e g i s t e r e d Nurse Medical Doctor University/Film-maker E l e c t r i c a l Engineer Computer S c i e n c e Military College U n i v e r s i t y or Mechanic Medical Doctor A c c o u n t i n g Degree D o c t o r or B i o l o g i s t A c c o u n t i n g Degree Computer S c i e n c e Computer S c i e n c e Medical Doctor Accountant/Histor ian Doctor/Fashion Design University/Pol Sci. Univ. i n Korea/Writer R e a l E s t a t e Agent Nuclear Control Asst. Commerce Degree Chartered Accountant  - 44  -  Aspirations  I#9: I n Canada y o u c a n t r y f o r a n y t h i n g . T h e r e ' s n o t much p r e s s u r e and y o u c a n swim and p l a y b a s k e t b a l l . I n K o r e a people a r e so c o m p e t i t i v e they wouldn't p l a y w i t h you. T h e r e i s l o t s o f p o l l u t i o n i n K o r e a , and no time f o r a c t i v i t i e s such a s - s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n government. 187: C h i n a has a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n . f r e s h w a t e r , and n a t u r a l b e a u t y .  Canada has fewer  people,  I#16: I l i k e the people. They're r e a l l y f r i e n d l y . People s a i d " h i " r i g h t away, and t h a t was t h e o n l y word I knew. I#22: I t a l y i s more o f a f u n t y p e o f c o u n t r y , b u t h e r e i f you want y o u c a n have t h e same e n j o y m e n t a s i n I t a l y . I t ' s e a s i e r f o r my p a r e n t s t o buy a h o u s e , b e c a u s e t h e y c a n g e t a l o a n f r o m t h e bank. Whether t h e p a r e n t s secondary  institutions  significance  Table  aspirations  for their  which appear exceptions,  appeared  on t h e i r  daughters.  had t h e m s e l v e s a t t e n d e d t o have  little  aspirations for their  I I I (p.44)  post-  s o n s and  compares t h e p a r e n t s '  children  with  those  t o c o i n c i d e , and w h i c h , w i t h include post-secondary  of the informants, o n l y a few  education.  Summary In g e n e r a l opportunities their  the informants  available  here  other  "independent  percentage  of t h e i r  an o p p o r t u n i t y  education  parents'  self  directing  puts  to their  parents for their  students"  s o n s and  expectations. - 45 -  1  here.  a high  Perhaps the  t o come h e r e  a great d e a l of pressure  parents'  (though i n  d e c i s i o n t o come  o f them a r e " c o l l e g e bound".  determination assure  f r e e d o m , and e c o n o m i c  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a c c e p t a n c e  v a r y i n g degrees) of t h e i r  up  w h i c h were n o t open t o them i n  own c o u n t r i e s , i . e . e d u c a t i o n ,  opportunity.  Like  a p p e a r t o be aware o f  i n order to  daughters on them t o l i v e  B: P e r c e p t i o n s About T h e m s e l v e s As s t u d e n t s The  informants  have been  academically successful. students attentive  —  identified  T h e y would a p p e a r  h i g h l y motivated  and r e l i a b l e .  If positive  self-image  s u c c e s s , does t h e i r  self-image r e f l e c t  do  they see themselves  as "winners"?  are c o m f o r t a b l y a p a r t of Canadian  bilingualism evaluate Int: think  results  own  is a  their  Do t h e y  factor  achievements,  feel  s c h o o l system?  regarding cognitive  ( d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  their  t o be model  and r e s p o n s i b l e , p o l i t e ,  in  the encouraging  by teachers as  that  they  And g i v e n  advantages of  I I ) how do t h e i n f o r m a n t s  bilingualism?  You seem t o be a s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t . a r e the r e a s o n s f o r your s u c c e s s ?  What do y o u  I#10: To t e l l y o u t h e t r u t h I t h i n k t h a t . . . t h e r e i s n o t so many r e a s o n s . You j u s t go home and do y o u r homework and s t u d y h a r d . T h a t ' s b a s i c a l l y what I do. I#22: You have t o l i k e s c h o o l . I l i k e t o s t u d y and a l w a y s l i k e d t o s t u d y u n t i l grade e l e v e n . But i n grade twelve I hated i t because of s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Some e x t r a t i m e w i t h t h e t e a c h e r a f t e r s c h o o l w i l l h e l p y o u v e r y much. I#4:  I study v e r y hard  —  late  a t n i g h t and e a r l y  morning.  I#13: I d o n ' t f e e l a l l t h a t s u c c e s s f u l b u t t r y my b e s t t o study. Now ( i n Canada) I have t o work d o u b l e h a r d e r . A C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t m i g h t s t u d y one h o u r . I have t o s t u d y two h o u r s j u s t t o f i n i s h i t up. I#17: You must s t u d y c o n t i n u o u s l y and n o t t r y t o c r a m t h i n g s i n t o a s h o r t p e r i o d of time. I f you don't u n d e r s t a n d s o m e t h i n g y o u must go and a s k t h e t e a c h e r . Don't l e t e v e r y t h i n g p i l e up. G e t h e l p i f y o u d o n ' t understand. I#16: S t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s i n Canada has t o change a b i t . T h e y s a y , "What c a n I do? I'm dumb." I t ' s n o t a good attitude. They s h o u l d be a b l e t o do i t ( s u c c e e d i n school). I've n e v e r f a i l e d a c o u r s e . The l o w e s t I g o t was a C. I f t h e y go t o c l a s s e s e v e r y d a y , and l i s t e n t o t h e t e a c h e r i n c l a s s , t h e y s h o u l d be a b l e t o g e t a t l e a s t 50%. When p e o p l e f a i l I'm s u r p r i s e d .  - 46 -  Though i n f o r m a n t s may n o t speak o u t participants for  extra  studying their  or  interact  in their  appear  in class,  work.  Their  review, Only  willingness  to l i v e  within  suggests a comfortable adjustment Canadian  doing  asking  extra  they are keeping  reported f i n i s h i n g  and  ahead i n  homework a t s c h o o l .  Canadian  customs  understanding  of  the  situation.  Int: Should Canadian native country?  s c h o o l s be more l i k e  those  i n your  I#15: In Canada t h e r e i s a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h p e o p l e f r o m many d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . So t h i n g s c a n ' t be changed f o r everybody. I t ' s okay how i t i s h e r e . I#22: Here most exams a r e w r i t t e n . In I t a l y o r a l t e s t s a r e u s e d f o r H i s t o r y and G e o g r a p h y . I would be more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h o r a l t e s t s as I e n j o y t a l k i n g t o a person. Maybe t h a t ' s n o t d e s i r a b l e f o r h e r e w i t h written traditions. Schools shouldn't n e c e s s a r i l y change t o s u i t immigrants. I#16: Maybe C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s s h o u l d n ' t change b e c a u s e t h e y (Canada and T a i w a n ) a r e two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . E a c h has a d v a n t a g e s . The (and/or  s t u d e n t s appear their  t o have a d o p t e d  countries') aspirations  as  their their  parents' own.  I#25: My mother s t a r t e d me o f f a t a young age t o ' l e a r n ahead' b e f o r e everyone e l s e . E v e r y d a y we worked ahead a t my l e s s o n s . When I g o t ahead my mother j u s t l e t me do i t on my own. P r i d e i s i n s t i l l e d i n me and I want t o do w e l l . I#16: People time.  I n T a i w a n s t u d y i n g i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g . don't p l a y around. I work h a r d and d o n ' t waste  - 47  -  do  active  the scenes",  understand,  making c e r t a i n  one  p a s s i v e , i . e . some  they are  e d u c a t i o n "behind  h e l p when t h e y d o n ' t and  t o be  They d i s p l a y about  this  school also,  adult  showing  with mainstream Canadian t h e most p a r t t o a l l y view the b e h a v i o u r immature and  themselves  like  changed  Indeed  with t h e i r  o£  comments  identifying  they appear f o r t e a c h e r s and  native speaking  Questions  about  native countries, i n Canadian  in their  evidence  students.  unacceptable. in their  following  little  of some of t h e i r  the s c h o o l s t o see  orientation  and  peers  differences what t h e y  s c h o o l s prompted  to as  in  would  the  responses:  I#24: S t u d e n t s s h o u l d t a k e c a r e o f t h e s c h o o l . When I see t h e p r i n c i p a l p i c k i n g up g a r b a g e . . . ( s h a k e s her head.) In V i e t n a m i t was t h e s t u d e n t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o l o o k a f t e r the s c h o o l . I#13: T h e r e i s t o o much f r e e d o m i n s c h o o l s t h a t i s u s e d u n w i s e l y by s t u d e n t s . T h e r e s h o u l d be c l a s s e s -- n o t brainwashing — t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s n o t t o damage s c h o o l property. S t u d e n t s smoke i n t h e washrooms even t h o u g h t h e r e are smoking a r e a s . The s c h o o l d o e s n ' t do a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t . In h a l l w a y s t h e r e i s f i g h t i n g . And t h e r e i s a l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r people's f e e l i n g s . I n Hong Kong s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s a r e t o o t o u g h and h e r e t h e r e i s t o o much f r e e d o m . I f t h e y combined t h e two i t would be better.  It  i s not  sympathize Canadian countries students  surprising  that  with native speaking  school experience l e a d s the  the  i n f o r m a n t s do  students.  with that  informants  i n Canada have a r a t h e r s o f t  Comparing  in their  to conclude time  not  entirely the  native  that  i n many ways  of i t .  Int: How a r e s c h o o l s h e r e s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l you a t t e n d e d i n y o u r n a t i v e c o u n t r y ?  from  the  Ittl: S c h o o l s a r e much h a r d e r i n S p a i n . T e a c h e r s make you s t u d y h a r d e r and more. Over t h e r e t h e t e a c h e r t a l k s r e a l fast. I f you d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d you have t o go t o t h e blackboard. In Canada t e a c h e r s a r e a l o t more c o m f o r t a b l e and e a s y g o i n g . They t r e a t you l i k e a f r i e n d . Over t h e r e y o u ' r e M i s t e r and I'm M i s t e r . No f i r s t names.  - 48  -  I#9: School days are t h r e e e x t r a hours l o n g e r . Most s t u d e n t s d i d v o l u n t e e r s t u d y a f t e r s c h o o l and a g a i n i n t h e e v e n i n g and b e f o r e s c h o o l . We used s c h o o l s f o r s t u d y due to crowded homes. T h e r e i s more c o m p e t i t i o n , l e s s s p o r t s and PE i n K o r e a . C l a s s e s a r e l a r g e r w i t h 45 t o 50 s t u d e n t s . Once t h e r e were 100 s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s . The t e a c h e r d i d n ' t know t h e s t u d e n t s ' names. Discipline is different. Here i f s t u d e n t s d o n ' t work t e a c h e r s t a l k t o them, t h e n g i v e up. In Korea the t e a c h e r f o r c e s the s t u d e n t t o s t u d y . (When q u e s t i o n e d f u r t h e r he m e n t i o n e d c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t as t h e means t o f o r c e s t u d e n t s . ) I t t l 5 : Here we g e t two d a y s o f f . m o r n i n g t o noon i s a h o l i d a y .  In A f g h a n i s t a n  only Friday  I24: T h e r e i s l o t s of m e m o r i z a t i o n f o r homework. Homework e x e r c i s e s a r e v a r i e d amounts, b u t l e s s t h a n h e r e . School was one h a l f d a y f r o m 7:00 t o 11:00, w i t h one f i f t e e n minute break. S u b j e c t s are changed each hour, w i t h the t e a c h e r moving and s t u d e n t s r e m a i n i n g i n t h e same c l a s s room. S t u d e n t s c l e a n c l a s s e s and t h e h a l l w a y . I liked this l e a d e r s h i p r o l e where t h e s t u d e n t s t a k e c a r e o f t h e c l a s s . S t u d e n t l e a d e r s t a k e a t t e n d a n c e , c o p y a s s i g n m e n t s on t h e b o a r d , and mark t h e work. T h e r e i s c o m p e t i t i o n between c l a s s e s , b u t c o o p e r a t i o n and h e l p i n g o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n our own c l a s s r o o m . You f e e l c l o s e t o y o u r c l a s s m a t e s . Here s t u d e n t s d o n ' t t r y v e r y much t o h e l p o t h e r s t u d e n t s . In Canada we j u s t work f o r o u r s e l v e s as i n d i v i d u a l s . I#25: I n C h i n a s t u d e n t s l o v e t o l e a r n and s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l and p o p u l a r i t y a r e l i n k e d . Here marks a r e n ' t i m p o r t a n t and s t u d e n t s who s k i p out c a n s t i l l be p o p u l a r . People aren't judged a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r performance. In C h i n a s t u d e n t s s k i p p i n g out w o u l d n ' t be a l l o w e d . (When a s k e d what would h a p p e n . . . ) T h e t e a c h e r would v i s i t t h e p a r e n t s . Teachers and p a r e n t s c o o p e r a t e . You c o u l d n ' t g e t away w i t h i t . Here s o c i e t y g i v e s t o o much s p a c e . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g the p r i n c i p a l c a n do. I#23: Schools here are e a s i e r . I f you f a i l one or two c o u r s e s you c a n s t i l l go on, and t a k e t h e s e c o u r s e s a t summer s c h o o l . I n C o l o m b i a i f you f a i l you a r e a l l o w e d to t r y t h e t e s t a g a i n , but i f you f a i l i t a s e c o n d t i m e you must r e p e a t t h e whole y e a r . I#19: T e a c h e r s a r e s t r i c t e r and use p u n i s h m e n t , w h i l e h e r e t e a c h e r s a r e n o t s t r i c t enough. Students don't l i s t e n . Given  the  positive  as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r whether  the  informants  c o g n i t i v e b e n e f i t s with  bilingualism  Two,  to discover  had  i t was  of  interest  p e r c e i v e d such - 49  -  b e n e f i t s as  part the  o£  their  case.  benefits  To to  own  experiences.  the  i n t e r v i e w e r ' s q u e s t i o n , "Are  l e a r n i n g another  T h i s d i d not  language?"  indicated  i n s t r u m e n t a l b e n e f i t s and  makes you  a better  I#6:  It helps  I#22: Expo)  I#23:  I t ' s b e t t e r to  You  can  to  be  there  responses  none r e s p o n d e d  that i t  student.  for getting  However, t h i r t e e n  six  appear  find  cited  a j o b , and a job.  integrative  communicate w i t h  for  (Used  travel. example of  jobs at  benefits:  so many  people.  I#20: The p e r s o n who knows two l a n g u a g e s a r e w o r t h two men. You can communicate w i t h two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of p e o p l e and l e a r n (about) d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , t o o . I#13: You g e t t o know more a b o u t p e o p l e , b e c a u s e b e f o r e you o n l y know one l a n g u a g e . In V a n c o u v e r i t i s a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e , you go i n t o s o m e t h i n g new, but i t i s n o t t h a t new. The way p e o p l e see t h i n g s a r e d i f f e r e n t , but i n some ways s i m i l a r t o o . I j u s t f e e l k i n d of a m a z i n g l i k e how s i m i l a r t h e y a r e sometimes and how d i f f e r e n t t h e y a r e i n another way. The by  almost  total  the dominant c u l t u r e  question  "Have you  language  to other  positive  responses  the  l a c k of  ever  interest  i s apparent taught  students  i n the  from  vocabulary  or t e a c h e r s ? "  i n d i c a t e d " t h a t the  the  informants' L l response  from your  to first  However, t h e  experience  had  the  few  pleased  informant.  I# 16: Sometimes I s a y "Happy New Y e a r " or "How a r e y o u ? " I t ' s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o walk down t h e h a l l and t h e E n g l i s h (ESL) t e a c h e r s a y s , "How a r e y o u ? " i n C h i n e s e . I think i t ' s fun. I#10: No, you a r e t h e same ESL t e a c h e r )  o n l y one  - 50  who  -  speaks Chinese,  (to the  I#9: Yes, t o f r i e n d s and t o t h e ESL t e a c h e r . They c o u l d n ' t f o l l o w i t . I t h i n k K o r e a n i s t h e most d i f f i c u l t l a n g u a g e . Ittl8: I taught a friend Vietnamese. That f r i e n d  i n grade nine to count i n t a u g h t me t o c o u n t i n C h i n e s e .  I#22: M o s t l y to say h i . I teach I t a l i a n to Canadians I t a l i a n o r i g i n ) who c a n ' t speak I t a l i a n anymore.  (of  I#21: Not r e a l l y . K o r e a n s who have been b o r n h e r e d o n ' t speak t h a t w e l l . I f t h e y want t o (have him speak i n K o r e a n ) I would be g l a d t o . Summary  These appear  data demonstrate  to think  they appeared of  that  the  i n f o r m a n t s d i d not  the c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d change,  to d i s l i k e  some o f t h e r e g u l a r  s t u d e n t s who,  that  t h e most was  Canadian  t h e l*ack o f  students.  Those  Very c l e a r l y  the issue a r i s e s  longer  present success i n Canadian s c h o o l s .  concentration  hours  strategies  formalities  between t e a c h e r and  experiences  i n the n a t i v e  Canadian  academic  in general  schools  discipline  and  i n t h e home c o u n t r y  and  objectives,  on m e m o r i z a t i o n , c o r p o r a l  discipline  high  earlier  influences  educational  school  as t o how  and  imposed  Canadian  mentioned.  discipline  emphasized  discipline  l i k e t h e m s e l v e s , a r e h a r d w o r k i n g and  a c h i e v e r s were n o t  differing  b u t what  pupil  life  i.e. a  punishment,  i n the  c o u n t r i e s a r e no  school  The  earlier  longer  strongly  i n North America.  a p p e a r s t o t h e i n f o r m a n t s t o be  i n comparison  to t h e i r  own  and  While slack  countries,  in  self-  consistency are undoubtedly necessary f o r  achievement,  and may  - 51  be e v e n more n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e  -  r  students  who  learn  in their  second  than  the  need t o change  i n order  to adjust to  schools,  i t i s a matter  of a p p l y i n g t h e i r  discipline education willing  must  in their (which  t o prove  successful motivated  and  present  themselves)  satisfying  However, I d e t e c t e d  little  or of t h e  bilingual  importance  C:  of t h e i r  Convinced  that  provide  to  those  economically  informants  are  awareness t h a t  learning  t h e y would  either  in their  feel  language  One  more c o n f i d e n t ,  e v e n more s u c c e s s f u l l y ,  bilingualism  in their  second  education.  the  were o v e r t l y  and  i f the  recognized  in  schools. In The  ESL  Classroom  This section ESL  support  these  c l a s s e s are  bilingualism will "additive  for well  the  success  r e p o r t the the  considered  informants'  o b j e c t i v e of d e t e r m i n i n g important  Then an a s s e s s m e n t determine  experiences  to t h e i r of the  whether t h e y a r e  academic s u c c e s s  It is also  of the  education  - 52  -  whether  future  i n the to  category be-important  as w e l l as h i s / h e r s e n s e  considered a c r i t e r i o n program.  in  informants'  b i l i n g u a l i s m " deemed by e d u c a t o r s  student's  being.  will  c l a s s e s with  academic s u c c e s s .  of  self-directed  remarkable  outcome of t h e i r  perhaps achieve  Canadian  r o u t e t o an  or no  p e r c e i v e of a n y t h i n g  m i g h t ponder whether  Rather  success.  good marks w h i l e  the  i s the  f u t u r e , the  achieving  therefore  situation.  t h e y b e l i e v e Canada c a n  toward academic  informants  language.  for judging  of the  This section recommendations  will  conclude  with the informants'  f o r ESL c l a s s e s .  Overwhelmingly the informants are  necessary  expressed and  role.  factors  These w i l l  Affective  The  be d i s c u s s e d  and C u l t u r a l  ESL c l a s s r o o m  the  their  t o t h e presumed  appears  t o be v i e w e d a s a  former  academic  risk-free  ESL t e a c h e r s  F o r some  to replace the c l a s s where t h e c l a s s  over  room t o room.  into regular classes,  affective  p r e p a r a t o r y s t e p toward r e g u l a r  native country,  t e a c h e r s move f r o m  Int:  i n c l u d e both  they  i n turn.  same p r o g r a m s t a y s t o g e t h e r  help  What  Factors  ESL c l a s s e s a p p e a r  from  bond w i t h  t h a t ESL c l a s s e s  and one where f r i e n d s h i p s a r e made.  informants missed  important  in addition  e n v i r o n m e n t , an e s s e n t i a l classes,  agreed  f o r f u t u r e academic s u c c e s s .  as p a r t i c u l a r l y  cultural  own  studying  s e v e r a l years  Many c o n t i n u e d  even a f t e r  being  solidarity  and t h e  to feel a  mainstreamed  knowing t h a t t h e y c o u l d go t o them f o r  i f necessary.  How d o / d i d  you f e e l  i n your  ESL  classroom?  I#8: I t f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e where p e o p l e have t h e same problem. A l s o t h e ESL t e a c h e r was e x t r a n i c e . 1#2: V e r y good. ESL p e o p l e a r e v e r y f o r t u n a t e . You c a n g e t used t o s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h . You c a n speak s l o w and w o u l d n ' t be so ashamed b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e i s i n t h e same situation. I#24: I t was c o m f o r t a b l e b e c a u s e o f m e e t i n g f r i e n d s o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . I t was e a s i e r t o make f r i e n d s . I#19:  Great.  I met a l o t o f f r i e n d s -  53 -  from  from  other c o u n t r i e s .  I#25: I t i s necessary t o a d j u s t t o the d i f f e r e n t school system. Maybe ESL c l a s s e s a r e n ' t n e c e s s a r y f o r a l l students. I would have l i k e d t o be i n o t h e r c l a s s e s s o o n e r , b u t maybe f o r some s h y s t u d e n t s t h i s w o u l d n ' t be s o g o o d . They w o u l d n ' t i n t e r a c t . A t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t s t u d e n t s i n t e r a c t i n ESL c l a s s e s . I#3: here  Moral support. you f e e l a f r a i d .  It  appears  then  introductory role comfortable The  f o r new  are smaller  i n G u a t e m a l a , and . . <  t h a t ESL c l a s s e s have an  important  i n helping minority students  and s e c u r e  ESL c l a s s r o o m  culture  Schools  in their  new s c h o o l  i s a l s o an i n t r o d u c t i o n  to feel  environment. t o Canadian  students.  Ittl3: I n ESL y o u g e t more c h a n c e t o speak and You c a n a s k a b o u t c u l t u r e .  listen.  I#22: I n e v e r saw anyone f r o m I n d i a b e f o r e . They're v e r y n i c e guys. ( B e f o r e I met o t h e r p e o p l e ) I t h o u g h t o n l y I t a l i a n s were n i c e . Academic The  Role important  role  success  was e x p r e s s e d  classes  necessary  o f t h e ESL c l a s s r o o m  unequivocally.  for later  nineteen a f f i r m a t i v e  success  responses.  f o r academic  The q u e s t i o n , " A r e ESL i n s c h o o l ? " prompted  Here t h e i n f o r m a n t s  speak:  l#7: Y e s , b u t a t f i r s t I d i d n ' t t h i n k s o . L o o k i n g back I r e a l i z e i t was n e c e s s a r y . I t was q u i t e v a l u a b l e . I just now r e a l i z e d i t when t a k i n g t h e E n g l i s h 12 government exam. I#4: Yes, because the language i s n e c e s s a r y . I t would been d i f f i c u l t t o go r i g h t i n t o c o n t e n t c l a s s e s . ^  have  I#16: Y e s , b e c a u s e when you go i n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s e s t h e t e a c h e r s d o n ' t p a y much a t t e n t i o n t o y o u . T h e r e i s h a r d l y any d i s c u s s i o n . You j u s t l i s t e n t o t h e t e a c h e r and hand in assignments. I#10: Yes, because i t gets you s t a r t e d t h i n g s , l i k e l e a r n i n g the alphabet. - 54 -  on v e r y b a s i c  Itt17:  Yes,  because  i t p r e p a r e s you  Itt20: I t h i n k i f ESL it this far. ESL was  Given the programs, the c l a s s work had Int:  How  general  very  wasn't t h e r e I c o u l d n ' t r e a l l y the f a c t o r .  f e e l i n g s about the  i n f o r m a n t s were a s k e d contributed  d i d / d o e s ESL  f r o m the  help  you  most  have made  value  to c o n s i d e r  to regular  basics.  of  ESL  what  ESL  c l a s s r o o m work.  i n your  subject  classes?  Itt21: I t gave a b a s i c s t a n d i n g i n E n g l i s h , and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what was g o i n g t o happen i n r e g u l a r  class.  I#16: I t was u s e f u l not j u s t f o r E n g l i s h , but E n g l i s h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s l i k e Math. You l e a r n b a s i c o t h e r t h i n g s , n o t as d i f f i c u l t as r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , b u t h e l p i n g you l e a r n i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . I#3: P r i m a r i l y i t helps with E n g l i s h l i k e S c i e n c e , w i t h w r i t i n g e s s a y s and ( l i t e r a t u r e ) and S o c i a l S t u d i e s .  and some s u b j e c t s reading English  Ittl7: At the b e g i n n i n g I d i d n ' t know how t o r e a d a map. ESL c l a s s e s t e a c h map r e a d i n g s k i l l s b e f o r e g r a d e t e n geography. Ittl3: T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t meanings f o r t h e same word. Like Math. What d o e s t h a t v o c a b u l a r y mean w i t h Math p r o b l e m s ? What i s t h e q u e s t i o n r e a l l y a s k i n g — by s o m e t h i n g , f r o m something. And I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t s u r e a b o u t words t h a t have t o go t o g e t h e r ( v e r b s and p r e p o s i t i o n s ) . ESL h e l p e d by (my) l e a r n i n g how t o g i v e an o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n and how to write p r o j e c t s . Ittl5: I d i d n ' t know enough E n g l i s h i n c o n t e n t c o u r s e s . ESL h e l p s w i t h v o c a b u l a r y m a i n l y . I t teaches about S o c i a l s and Math. The learning  i n f o r m a n t s h e r e have s t r e s s e d language  to prepare  None s a i d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t important, academic  but  rather  importance  them f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g the  stressed  55  regular  past  tense  vocabulary r e l a t e d to  subjects.  -  the  -  of  classes. is their  "Additive  All lives an  Bilingualism"  informants  here  alone  "additive  maintain target  and  L l while  language.  Int:  When do  by  read  effort you  category,  becoming  However, t h i s  somewhat m o d i f i e d t h o u g h most do  p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of  s e l d o m s p e a k s her  bilingualism"  their  conscious  (with the  in their  n a t i v e Spanish)  that i s they  increasingly bilingual  the apparent  loss  L l , and  I#22  fluent  i n the  of L l w r i t i n g cases  skills, a  written fluency.  read  language?  I#10: C h i n e s e p a p e r s a t home. u n l e s s my f a t h e r a s k s me t o .  I don't  in  fluency is  i n a few  native  are  will-*""  i s made t o m a i n t a i n i n your  who  read  in  Chinese  I#7: F o r P h y s i c s p r o b l e m s ( f o r example) I r e a d t h e E n g l i s h textbook. I f i t ' s not c l e a r then I read the Chinese textbook. R e a d i n g i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s makes i t c l e a r e r ^ 1  I#19: I w r i t e l e t t e r s losing i t a l i t t l e . In the  no  but  seldom read  i n s t a n c e s d i d t h e r e appear  p a r t of t h e  informants  but  the  informants  also  speak  others besides parents seeing the of  few  skills.  informant.  their and  language who Only  i n the of  and  movies.  effort  the  56  -  friends  effort  or  mentioned  Written the  to p r a c t i c e  mentioned a c o n s c i o u s  with  home by a l l  nineteen  i s , however, n e g l e c t e d w i t h  on  into  n a t i v e language  Fourteen  siblings,  -  motivation  n a t i v e language with  make a c o n s c i o u s I#16  any  I'm  assimilate  i s spoken  n a t i v e l a n g u a g e v i d e o s and  first a  their  T h e i r n a t i v e language above m e n t i o n e d  t o be  to e n t i r e l y  C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y by r e p l a c i n g English.  i n Chinese.  fluency in exception  the  literacy  t o seek  out  as his  friends  n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers  own l a n g u a g e  group.  A further indication "additive" their  bilingualism  responses  happy a t home?" those  occasions  i n a d d i t i o n t o those of  that  informants  show e l e m e n t s o f  (vs. a s s i m i l a t i o n ) i s apparent i n  to the question, Most c i t e d  "When do y o u f e e l  their  happiest  when t h e immediate  times  or extended  really  as being  f a m i l y was a l l  together.  I#25: When my whole f a m i l y , my g r a n d p a r e n t s , and u n c l e s g e t t o g e t h e r . I#5: A t d i n n e r t i m e b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e can t a l k t o g e t h e r i n Mandarin.  cousins,  i s together  aunts  and we  I#14: When we a r e a l l t o g e t h e r . I t d o e s n ' t happen v e r y o f t e n b e c a u s e my mother works two s h i f t s i n a l a u n d r y j o b . (She i s t h e s o l e s u p p o r t f o r h e r f a m i l y . ) I#19: When we a r e t a l k i n g d o n ' t have t h a t much t i m e  and j o k i n g w i t h together.  Two e x c e p t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s I#6: When I'm a l o n e eat a snack. I#23:  When I'm a l o n e Given  that, not  Canadian p o l i c y  f o r our i n f o r m a n t s ,  demand  We  were:  and c a n l i s t e n or with  the f a m i l y .  my  t o m u s i c , watch TV and  friends.  on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , i t i s f i t t i n g a d j u s t m e n t t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y does  assimilation.  I#13: A t s c h o o l I speak C a n t o n e s e sometimes t o f r i e n d s who p r e f e r t o speak C a n t o n e s e w i t h me. I t makes a f e e l i n g o f being c l o s e r , s p e c i a l . I t ' s t h e same a s i n Hong Kong where a l o t o f w h i t e p e o p l e who c a n speak C a n t o n e s e c h o o s e t o speak E n g l i s h when t h e y a r e t o g e t h e r .  -  57 -  It  is clear  importance one's f i r s t  also,  t o them of  from  and  t h e ESL students  of  ties.  speak  t e a c h e r , what would you their  the  Programs  informants  with  of  i n c o r p o r a t e s the maintenance  family  Recommendations F o r ESL Here t h e  expressions  family gatherings, that maintaining  language a l s o  one's c u l t u r a l  their  t o the change  q u e s t i o n , I f you i n order  were  to help  your  subject classes?  I#l: Spend more t i m e , l i k e a f t e r s c h o o l , t o h e l p s t u d e n t s w i t h a s s i g n m e n t s and t o e x p l a i n v o c a b u l a r y and language. Give r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . I#7: Put more work on f a s t e r improvement. I#9: day.  the s t u d e n t s  b e c a u s e work means  We s h o u l d memorize more v o c a b u l a r y , maybe t e n words a Take more d i c t a t i o n s . Push s t u d e n t s a l i t t l e more.  I#16: H a v i n g s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n s m a l l g r o u p s would h e l p . H e l p us t o u n d e r s t a n d a b o u t C a n a d i a n l i f e , how do p e o p l e do t h i n g s h e r e ? Why do t h e y go on s t r i k e ? It's really d i f f i c u l t because s t u f f i n r e g u l a r c l a s s i s n ' t r e a l l y simple s t u f f . But i t ' s h e l p f u l t o have p e o p l e s t u d y r e g u l a r c l a s s work i n a g r o u p . I#22: Make i t l a s t l o n g e r . The b e g i n n i n g y e a r c a n be e a s y , but i n s e c o n d y e a r i t c o u l d be more of a r e g u l a r c l a s s . T h e y ' r e d o i n g t h a t now ( i n t r a n s i t i o n a l c l a s s e s ) . That's v e r y good. I'm t a l k i n g a b o u t b e f o r e t h e y had t h o s e c l a s s e s . T r a n s i t i o n a l c l a s s e s g i v e a l o t of h e l p i n E n g l i s h . I#24: A s s i g n more e s s a y s . P r a c t i c e speaking s c h o o l w o r k , l i k e S o c i a l S t u d i e s and S c i e n c e .  more^  Do  real  I#25: Teach the v o c a b u l a r y from academic c o u r s e s . Spend more t i m e on v o c a b u l a r y e v e r y d a y . I used t o s t u d y v o c a b u l a r y and i t r e a l l y h e l p e d . I#20: Nothing. They a r e d o i n g w e l l . They always c o n s i d e r w a n t i n g t o change t h i n g s , e v a l u a t e t h e ESL p r o g r a m . I#3: The p r o g r a m i s good, b u t more s p e a k i n g would h e l p . T e a c h e r s d o n ' t make t h e s t u d e n t s to d e v e l o p spoken E n g l i s h .  L  - 58  -  and r e a d i n g t a l k enough  When a s k e d  what was u s e l e s s and  responded with  informants  unnecessary, the  the f o l l o w i n g :  I#24: One b l o c k where s t u d e n t s c o u l d r e a d i n d i v i d u a l l y and s t u d y n o v e l s . We c o u l d do t h i s a t home. I#23:  Cut out a l l the s i n g i n g .  I t ' s kind of s t u p i d .  I#13: We d o n ' t have t o spend s o much t i m e When we g e t t h e i d e a we c o u l d move a l o n g .  on one t h i n g .  I#16: Not a n y t h i n g , r e a l l y , on l o o k i n g b a c k . When I went i n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s I r e a l i z e d t h a t ESL had been u s e f u l . But a t t h e t i m e I had f e e l i n g s , "Why am I d o i n g t h i s ? I t won't h e l p me i n r e g u l a r c l a s s . " I#19: proper  Nothing. Everything language.  i s t o t e a c h you t o use the  Summary While  informants  had a few c o m p l a i n t s  and s u g g e s t i o n s ,  t h e r e was o v e r w h e l m i n g a c c e p t a n c e  of the importance  support  success.  to assure  Five Where  felt  t h a t changes  i n ESL c l a s s e s were  c h a n g e s were s u g g e s t e d  more... More t i m e their  f u t u r e academic  class  reading  According  practice  As  with  t o e x p l a i n v o c a b u l a r y and improve  (In other  words, o n g o i n g  ESL s u p p o r t . ) teach  more  and r e a d i n g , and p r o v i d e more s p e a k i n g and  i n oral presentations.  f o r content,  classroom specific  i n v o l v e d more, more,  t o o u r i n f o r m a n t s , ESL c l a s s e s s h o u l d  vocabulary  unnecessary.  o u t s i d e s c h o o l hours t o h e l p s t u d e n t s  assignments,  skills.  they  o f ESL  a role  as a v e h i c l e subjects.  was i d e n t i f i e d  to learn vocabulary  A cultural  -  role  59 -  f o r t h e ESL related to  i s to provide  background  i n Canadian  h i s t o r y and  background t o h e l p i.e.  "Why  do  they  Affective learning  about  famous C a n a d i a n s ,  informants  understand  ( u n i o n members) go  factors  environment,  s u c h as m o r a l and  an  adjustment  u l t i m a t e l y be Additive beneficial this  to Canadian  a possible  their  administrators.  The  the academic s u c c e s s  D:  The  into  is  intended to determine communication  difficult,  and  how  to  problems  and  comfortable  description  of t h e e x p e r i e n c e  of  on t h e p a r t of s c h o o l  may  be  an  important  factor  students. Classroom  will  relate  their  identifying  experiences  positive  in particular  i n the c l a s s r o o m , assignments  comfortable  This section  informant  elements  indication  and  they  feel  of q u e s t i o n s  - 60 -  aspects, subject  how  or  w i t h i n the  i s meant t o p r o v i d e a  i n order to b e t t e r  within his/her school  Such  exams, what  exam q u e s t i o n s a r e e a s y  classroom.  the  success.  assumed t o have a  students are  difficulties  for their  of assignments  in  the r e g u l a r academic c l a s s r o o m .  in addition  prepare  be  academic  a t s c h o o l i s an  informants  exploration,  kinds  that  of t h e s e  an  informants  fact  i n the Regular  section  when m a i n s t r e a m e d  areas,  in their  humane a t t i t u d e  in  In t h i s  factor  Such a c c e p t a n c e  Student  factors  s c h o o l s , might t h e r e f o r e  n a t i v e language  a more a c c e p t i n g and  ESL  important  free  friends,  t h o u g h as w i t h o t h e r a f f e c t i v e  is speculative.  speaking  been  life,  strike?"  support, a r i s k  b i l i n g u a l i s m might a l s o  result,  Canadian  o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet  w h i c h were m e n t i o n e d as h a v i n g their  on  about  and  environment.  understand  Table  IV: Informants' S u b j e c t P r e f e r e n c e s  I#  M/F  GA*  Ll  1 3 23  M F F  3 2.5 4  Span Span Span  Spain Guatemala Colombia  Span Eng —  -  2 18  M M  2 1  Viet Viet  Vietnam Vietnam  Ch/Ph Math  Eng -  6  M  2  Thai  Thailand  SS  -  Art  Math  4  F  3.5  Pun j  India  -  Math  Chem  Phys  11 15  F F  2 2.5  Pers Pers  Afghan Afghan  SS  SS Chem  Math Comp  Eng SS  22  M  4  Ital  Italy  Geog  -  -  -  9 20 21  M M F  2 2.5 1.5  Kor Kor Kor  Korea Korea Korea  Hist Math  Draft Phys  Alge PE Math  SS Eng SS  5 16 7 8 17 19 10 12 14 25 24 13  F M M F F F M F F F F F  2 2 2.5 1.5 2 2 3.5 2.5 3 2.5 3 2.5  Mand Mand Mand Mand Chin Chin Cant Cant Cant Cant Cant Cant  Taiwan Taiwan China China China China China China China China Vietnam HongKong  Math SS  Math Alge Acct Math Alge Math  Eng Eng Eng Eng Eng Eng Eng SS Eng Eng Alge Math  FS  NC  Chem Geog Math  -  Math Math  -  Math Math  -  Chem Biol  LFS  ES  MDS  Math -  SS Text  Math Biol  -  -  —  PE  -  -  PE  -  Hist Eng SS Biol ConsEd Eng Phys  -  -  Math Math  -  Acct Comp  -  *GA d e n o t e s g r a d e a v e r a g e , d e t e r m i n e d by a s s i g n i n g a number t o , t h e n a v e r a g i n g t h e l e t t e r g r a d e s , i . e . A ( 1 ) , B ( 2 ) , C+ ( 3 ) , C ( 4 ) , C- ( 5 ) . The l o w e r number d e n o t e s h i g h e r g r a d e average. Gen = g e n d e r FS = f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t ES = e a s i e s t s u b j e c t  NC = n a t i v e c o u n t r y LFS = l e a s t f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t MDS = most d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t  - 61 -  R e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s on s u b j e c t p r e f e r e n c e s subject  difficulties  are presented  i n Table  IV,  p  and 61.  I n t : I s d i f f i c u l t y more o f t e n w i t h l a n g u a g e or w i t h understanding content? (Specify i f different for different c o u r s e s , i . e . Math v s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s ) .  To barrier  this  q u e s t i o n ten responded  to t h e i r  understanding language  and  different  understanding,  of the c o n c e p t s , concepts  cause  that  s i x that and  eight  language  i s the  main  i t i s the  lack  of  expressed  that  both  them d i f f i c u l t y .  This varied  with  subjects:  I#13: T h e r e i s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h b o t h t h e c o n c e p t s and t h e language w i t h P h y s i c s . But maybe i f I u n d e r s t a n d E n g l i s h b e t t e r i t would h e l p . But i n P h y s i c s e v e n i f t h e t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s t h e words I s t i l l m i g h t n o t u n d e r s t a n d . In S o c i a l Studies i t ' s d i f f e r e n t . I f I l o o k up a word I c a n understand i t . I#14: In B i o l o g y t h e l a n g u a g e language i s not d i f f i c u l t .  i s the  problem.  In Math  I#21: I t v a r i e s between s u b j e c t s . The l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s t h a n i n Math.  i s more  I#9: I t d e p e n d s on t h e s u b j e c t . In S c i e n c e c o n t e n t difficult. i n Geography the c o n t e n t i s easHer than language. I#25: By now i t ' s t h e c o n c e p t s for a l l subjects.  and  content.  the  i s most the  I t ' s the  same  I#17: P r o b a b l y t h e l a n g u a g e . Sometimes you u n d e r s t a n d one meaning o f a word, b u t some words have so many d i f f e r e n t meanings. It likes  i s apparent  and  that  d i s l i k e s , and  the  informants  encounter  certain  s u b j e c t s than with o t h e r s .  of  i s expected  what  some o f t h e i r  oral  have a number  more d i f f i c u l t i e s  and  w r i t t e n assignments  - 62  -  with  In o r d e r t o g e t a  o f s t u d e n t s t h e y were a s k e d and  to how  of  sense  relate they  prepared Oral  f o r them.  Some e x a m p l e s a r e  as ' f o l l o w s :  Assignments:  ( H i s t o r y ) on (Social  "Heritage  Studies)  on  current  (English) a presented (English)  on  an  Buildings  events.  t o p i c a t o p i c c h o s e n by  the  student.  author.  (French) a group p r e s e n t a t i o n : Written  i n Vancouver".  "A  Trip  In The  Jungle".  Assignments:  (Socials  Studies)  "Sundays  i n the  1920's compared w i t h  the  present." (Science)  a report  on a  Cockroaches.  (English) essay  on  famous  (English) essay  to c r i t i q u e  person. a  novel.  (Geography) u n s p e c i f i e d w r i t t e n  assignment.  (Science)  on  A B i o g r a p h i c a l Report  (Economics) u n s p e c i f i e d  were f a i r l y  for oral  standard  a s s i g n m e n t s most planning friend,  and  followed  and  or  one  assignments.  w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s and  straightforward. the  then p r a c t i c i n g  partner  nervous, with  and  Scientist.  essay.  (Consumer E d u c a t i o n ) w e e k l y s h o r t Preparation  a  procedure the  f a m i l y member. exception,  the  For  of  oral  researching,  presentation  i n f r o n t of  Most r e p o r t e d Italian  exams  feeling  s p e a k e r who  "enjoys  t a l k i n g to a person". I#22: I j u s t use a p a p e r f o r n o t e s , b u t when I speak I p u t i t i n my own words. I c a n make i t f u n n y and more interesting. Some s t u d e n t s a r e j u s t t a l k i n g t o t h e a i r or t o the t e a c h e r . I had a l o t of q u e s t i o n s (audience r e s p o n s e ) a f t e r my a s s i g n m e n t .  - 63 -  a  On  preparing for written  assignments:  I#17: I t r y t o a p p l y what I've l e a r n e d i n t o my w r i t i n g . I t r y t o make an o u t l i n e , do b r a i n s t o r m i n g and d e v e l o p i n t o paragraph form. I p r o o f r e a d and t h e n make a good c o p y . Sometimes I r e w r i t e . F o r v o c a b u l a r y I use a d i c t i o n a r y and t h e s a u r u s , and t r y t o use a v a r i e t y . I use a C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h dictionary.  As  f o r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r exams, e i g h t e e n o f t h o s e  responded a  friend  studying  always  or s i b l i n g  for certain  r e g u l a r l y with another  clarification points  s t u d y a l o n e and  that  t h r e e s t u d y sometimes subjects. person,  f r o m a t e a c h e r or a n o t h e r  are not  who with  None r e p o r t e d  though student  t h e y may  seek  f o r those  understood.  Int: How do you p r e p a r e f o r exams? (study alone / with f r i e n d s / memorize i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . ) I#5: than  S t u d y a l o t a t home. t o memorize.  Understanding  i s more  important  I#l: L e a v e t h e e a s i e s t f o r l a s t and s t a r t w i t h t h e h a r d ones. In Math I spend 1 or 2 ^ o u r s d o i n g t h e e x e r c i s e s , t r y i n g t o do them by m y s e l f . F o r language heavy s u b j e c t s I go t h r o u g h t h e book, r e a d i n g and t r y i n g t o g e t t h e main ideas. I h i g h l i g h t t h e s e and t r y t o memorize them. I»4:  I don't  memorize, b u t go  by  logic.  I#8: Do i t d a y by day, u s u a l l y a f t e r s c h o o l , so t h a t when exams come up t h e r e i s no need t o s t u d y f o r them. I can review only. Some t h i n g s I m e m o r i z e . IIJ16: F o r p r o v i n c i a l exams I s t u d i e d an o l d t e s t p a p e r . I p i c k out t h e t h i n g s I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d and go o v e r them. I j u s t d r o p t h e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y know. I d o n ' t memorize. The q u e s t i o n s g i v e you q u e s t i o n s i n y o u r mind. You have t o f i n d a n s w e r s t o them. I#20: H a v i n g t o w r i t e and e x p r e s s i d e a s i s new t o me. In K o r e a exams a r e m o s t l y m u l t i p l e c h o i c e . I give myself a q u e s t i o n and t r y t o w r i t e . I don't b e l i e v e i n memorizing. IU25: Make c h a p t e r n o t e s and memorize t h e n o t e s . I mostly s t u d y a l o n e , but i t i s d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . For F r e n c h I need t o p r a c t i c e w i t h a f r i e n d . - 64  -  I#12: I study alone. I t a k e t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s and look o v e r n o t e s , t h e n I t e s t m y s e l f by a s k i n g m y s e l f q u e s t i o n s and w r i t i n g down a n s w e r s . O t h e r w i s e I would f o r g e t a b o u t them. Essay questions  were m e n t i o n e d as  t y p e of exam q u e s t i o n s  f o r r e a s o n s as  the  most  difficult  follows:  I#21: P a r a g r a p h s a s k i n g me t o " e x p l a i n i n d e t a i l " . If I memorize ( i n a d v a n c e ) I c a n f o r g e t one s e n t e n c e and i t ' s a l l o f f . The t h o u g h t o f t h i s k i n d o f p r o c e s s i s psychologically scary. I#20: Q u e s t i o n s l i k e " e x p l a i n " or " d e s c r i b e " . Questions t h a t demand y o u r E n g l i s h a b i l i t y , t h a t you have t o w r i t e . I#2: A l g e b r a word p r o b l e m s . i t i s h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d the  When v o c a b u l a r y question.  is  uncertain  I#17: W r i t t e n e s s a y s because of the E n g l i s h problem. Sometimes I g e t the i d e a but what I w r i t e i s n o t t h a t good. I t p u l l s my mark down q u i t e a b i t . I#3: E s s a y q u e s t i o n s b e c a u s e you r e w r i t e what you've w r i t t e n .  don't  In a d d i t i o n t o e s s a y q u e s t i o n s solving  in Physics  mentioned m u l t i p l e are  tricky",  and  and  C h e m i s t r y as  choice  I#9  questions  reported  have t h e  I#24 added  chance  problem  also d i f f i c u l t , because  to  I#25  "sometimes  c l o z e e x e r c i s e s as  most  c a l c u l a t i o n s , one  word  they  difficult.  As and  t r u e and  choice Two if  for easiest questions,  was  false  multiple  were m e n t i o n e d , but choice  mentioned m u l t i p l e you  didn't  —  "multiple  choice  know f o r s u r e ,  as you  the  overwhelming  g u e s s " as  g i v i n g you could  an  I#7  extra  usually pick  answer.  I n t : Do y o u r c o u r s e t e a c h e r s speakers?  give  - 65  -  extra  answers  help  to  ESL  put i t . chance;  the  right  I # l : Y e s , i f y o u d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d y o u c a n go and a s k . He (a c e r t a i n t e a c h e r ) d o e s n ' t mind e x p l a i n i n g t h r e e o r f o u r times. A l l the teachers are h e l p f u l . I#13: Some d o , some d o n ' t . Most a r e t o o b u s y . Classes a r e l a r g e , and t h e r e i s n ' t t h a t much t i m e f o r i n d i v i d u a l help. Sometimes t e a c h e r s a l l o w e x t r a t i m e , b u t I c a n be on t i m e i n my a s s i g n m e n t s ( s o does n o t need s p e c i a l concessions). I#15:  I f you ask f o r help a f t e r  school.  I#19: Sometimes, b u t some a s k o t h e r s t u d e n t s t o h e l p you. I t ' s n o t l i k e ESL t e a c h e r s who a s k y o u where y o u a r e and h e l p y o u i n d i v i d u a l l y . I#2: Sometimes t h e y d o n ' t e v e n n o t i c e I'm an ESL so t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e .  speaker,  I#16: Most t e a c h e r s g i v e e x t r a h e l p , n o t j u s t t o ESL s t u d e n t s b u t t o anyone who wants h e l p , ESL or r e g u l a r . I#17: Not r e a l l y . E v e r y o n e i s t r e a t e d t h e same. You s h o u l d n ' t expect t h e t e a c h e r s t o t r e a t you d i f f e r e n t l y b e c a u s e i n u n i v e r s i t y e v e r y o n e s h o u l d be t h e same. Some o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s certain  course  mentioned a s p e c i a l  rapport  with  teachers.  I#24: I l i k e C h e m i s t r y , P h y s i c s and A c c o u n t i n g b e c a u s e of the t e a c h e r s . I t ' s f u n , no p r e s s u r e and e a s y g o i n g t e a c h e r s who a r e a l w a y s i n a good mood. I#16: My G e o g r a p h y t e a c h e r had t h e a b i l i t y t o g e t t h i n g s i n t o your mind. When q u e s t i o n s came o u t he would p u t t h a t answer on t h e b o a r d . He g e t s y o u r e a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s u b j e c t and r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d . The classes the  informants than  different  overall  feel  i n ESL c l a s s e s .  less  comfortable  i n content  -This i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ,  given  f o c u s and s t r u c t u r e o f r e g u l a r and E S L  classrooms.  What makes t h e i n f o r m a n t s  uncomfortable  classes? - 66 -  i n regular  I&19: I sometimes f e e l t h a t some s t u d e n t s a r e p r e j u d i c e d . I f e e l l e f t ( a l o n e ) and u n l i k e d . Maybe i t ' s b e c a u s e I d o n ' t speak t h a t much. But t h i s i s c h a n g i n g . I f you l i k e t o speak w i t h o t h e r s y o u need t o know t h e l a n g u a g e s o y o u ' r e n o t a f r a i d t o speak t o o t h e r s . I#13: T e a c h e r s sometimes u s e C a n a d i a n e x p r e s s i o n s and I'm n o t s u r e what t h e t e a c h e r i s t r y i n g t o s a y . Sometimes y o u c a n e x p l a i n , " I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d " and t h e y t h i n k y o u a r e daydreaming. Sometimes t h e y a r e so b u s y -- u p s e t w i t h n o i s y members o f t h e c l a s s — and d o n ' t welcome s t u d e n t questions. I n Canada i f y o u d o n ' t s a y a n y t h i n g y o u a r e chicken. I n our c u l t u r e i t d o e s n ' t mean t h e same. Not s a y i n g something i s p o l i t e . Sometimes s t u d e n t s keep p u s h i n g d a y by d a y . When y o u ( f i n a l l y b e c a u s e o f b e i n g p u s h e d t o o f a r ) s a y s o m e t h i n g back t h e s t u d e n t s a r e so s h o c k e d and s u r p r i s e d , and a f t e r t h a t t h e y a r e s o n i c e and p o l i t e t o me. I&2: My a c c e n t help.  and my name.  But p r a c t i c e  I#16: S i t t i n g i n t h e back o f t h e c l a s s r o o m i n f r o n t o f me a r e d i s t u r b i n g me.  and t i m e when  will  people  I#9: My p r o n u n c i a t i o n . O t h e r s t u d e n t s i m i t a t e my wrong p r o n u n c i a t i o n and t e a s e by t e l l i n g j o k e s i n s l a n g ( w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a n t has t r o u b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) . I#4: Not a n y more, b u t a t f i r s t make f u n o f me.  Canadian students  would  I#24: I n some c l a s s e s t h e t e a c h e r d o e s n ' t c a r e a b o u t a l l t h e s t u d e n t s -- j u s t t h o s e who a r e good i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . I#7: I get along with problem. Volunteering  the students  answers  i n class  and t e a c h e r s .  and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s was an u n c o m f o r t a b l e (It  c o u l d be n o t e d ,  feel  this  volunteer their  No  experience  f o r most.  however, t h a t many n a t i v e s p e a k e r s  reticence.)  Of t h o s e  to participate,  who r e s p o n d e d ,  f o u r do n o t .  also  five  Thirteen  qualified  responses:  I#24: I w i l l answer q u e s t i o n s i f I fcnow t h e a n s w e r , b u t I don't j o i n i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . - 67 -  I&25: I p r e p a r e i n advance f o r d i s c u s s i o n s . my f r i e n d s , "Do y o u know what I'm s a y i n g ? " o t h e r c o u r s e s , b u t n o t s o much i n E n g l i s h .  I check w i t h I volunteer i n  I#19: Y e s , b u t I'm k i n d o f s h y t o answer i n whole c l a s s . It i s improving. I n e v e r answered a t f i r s t . But i t would h e l p i f I t a l k e d more. I#17: don't  I f t h e group i s s m a l l I w i l l ask q u e s t i o n s . l i k e t o v o l u n t e e r t o t h e whole c l a s s .  I#8: I g r a d u a l l y f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e . S t i l l as much a s I s h o u l d and l e a v e i t up t o o t h e r s .  But I  I don't  talk  I n t : How do y o u f e e l a b o u t b e i n g a s k e d when y o u have n o t v o l u n t e e r e d t o answer? I s i t t h e same f o r ESL c l a s s ? I#12: I f I d o n ' t know ( t h e a n s w e r ) I g e t n e r v o u s . I get l o s t sometimes and d o n ' t know t h e a n s w e r . I n ESL a l l t h e p e o p l e a r e t h e same and t h e t e a c h e r a l w a y s t a l k e d s l o w l y s o we u n d e r s t o o d . I#3: L i k e any s t u d e n t I don't them a s w e l l a s I c a n .  like  i t , b u t I answer a s  I#17: At f i r s t quite nervous. I t r y t o answer i f I know. I f I d o n ' t know I j u s t s a y , " I d o n ' t know." I n ESL c l a s s I am more w i l l i n g t o a s k q u e s t i o n s . E v e r y o n e a r o u n d y o u i s the same. T h e y won't l a u g h a t me. I#25: A t f i r s t i t made me r e a l l y n e r v o u s . Now i t d o e s n ' t b o t h e r me. I n ESL i t wasn't t h e same where e v e r y o n e i s a t t h e same l e v e l and y o u won't g e t l a u g h e d a t . Now I ' l l t r y not t o make a f o o l o f m y s e l f and o n l y answer i f I'm s u r e . I#20: I am a n n o y e d . I d o n ' t l i k e t e a c h e r s who j u s t go a r o u n d s a y i n g , "You. You. You." I f e e l n e r v o u s , and more n e r v o u s i f I d o n ' t know t h e a n s w e r . I t h i n k t h a t ' s what e v e r y ESL s t u d e n t f e e l s . So when I g e t a t e a c h e r who a s k s a l o t o f q u e s t i o n s i t ' s r e a l l y b a d . Sometimes I s i t a t the back o f t h e room. I#21: I f e e l s c a r e d and s a y , " I d o n ' t know." I t was different i n ESL c l a s s b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e knows y o u a r e n ' t a good s p e a k e r and u n d e r s t a n d s when y o u make m i s t a k e s . T h e r e a r e t h i n g s I m i g h t u n d e r s t a n d b u t I'm k i n d o f a f r a i d of i t when I h a v e n ' t t r i e d i t ( t o e x p r e s s them o r a l l y ) . I#15: I t ' s okay. I f I d o n ' t know, t h a t ' s okay t o o . Because f o r most o t h e r s t u d e n t s i t ' s t h e same. They d o n ' t know some t h i n g s . I t ' s t h e same f o r ESL c l a s s .  - 68 -  It  i s obvious  discomfort However,  w h i c h c o u l d be  i n the  appears  t o be  and  fear  the  t h a t the  case  informants  found  i n the wider  of t h e ESL  exacerbated of r i d i c u l e  show v a r i a t i o n s  informants  because  of t h e  of  population.  the  nervousness  language  with mispronouncing  difficulty  a word.  I#14: Sometimes I know t h e answer b u t i t j u s t won't come out. When I'm a s k e d I g e t n e r v o u s , e v e n now. It's s t i l l t h e same. I'd r a t h e r v o l u n t e e r t h e a n s w e r . In ESL i t was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t b e c a u s e u s u a l l y i n ESL c l a s s you t e n d t o be more c o m f o r t a b l e . Sometimes you d o n ' t know how t o p r o n o u n c e a word and you can j u s t ask y o u r neighbour. L a c k of a c t i v e success oral  participation  i n some c l a s s r o o m s  participation.  students  who  perceive  this  Content information  lack confidence as a d i s t i n c t  course  on  places a heavier penalty  on  task  as c o n c e p t s  further  of p r o v i d i n g  removed  t o be from  t e a c h e r s a r e aware of t h e  speakers.  the  You  i t . " (I#3)  presented  informant  is difficult  to understand  "shared  is offered  of  a  of  the m a t e r i a l b e i n g  in their  background  of e x p e r i e n c e "  presented.  - 69  -  modifying that,  i t two  added h a n d i c a p  second  context.  even f o r n a t i v e  have t o r e a d An  become  realizes  students, already at a greater disadvantage instruction  i n p u t becomes  p r o b l e m of  l a n g u a g e used reading.  meaningful  the p r e s e n t  "Sometimes t h e And  informants  liability.  l a n g u a g e t o e x p l a i n c o n t e n t . One  times  The  f o r a l l students;^ comprehensible  more a b s t r a c t and  school  are evaluated  in speaking.  f a c e the  increasingly d i f f i c u l t  Of  where s t u d e n t s  This fact  teachers  i s detrimental to  or  for  three  ESL  given that  language,  i s the  for understanding  lack much  I»17: T h e r e i s so much m i s s i n g b a c k g r o u n d l i k e a n c i e n t G r e e c e and h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s t h a t I have no i d e a what's g o i n g on. I g e t t h e l i t e r a l meaning o n l y . R e a d i n g between the l i n e s i s d i f f i c u l t . But i n S c i e n c e i t ' s okay, b e c a u s e it's straightforward.  Informants classroom dwelt  r e p o r t e d some p e r c e i v e d p r o b l e m s  l e c t u r e s and  offered  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  clarity  on  of p r e s e n t a t i o n .  the For  with  a number of s u g g e s t i o n s classroom  teachers*  style  example, many s u g g e s t e d  would h e l p them t o u n d e r s t a n d . , l e c t u r e s and  to take  teachers  words and  and  would s t r e s s  and  w r i t e them on t h e  notes  a t the  difficulty enough t i m e  to  those of  examples where t h i s  novel  Inability  cited  j o t down i m p o r t a n t  s l a n g or use  phrases  was  important  by  to l i s t e n  in Algebra  "Huckleberry  i d e a s and  informants  who  i d i o m were u n a b l e had  occurred.  without  ideas  and  mentioned i d i o m a t i c Another  example o f  cited  that  more p r o b l e m a t i c  for informal  subject subject,  such  definitions according  Specialized  as d e t e r m i n i n g  w h i c h of a number of  t o s u b j e c t a r e a , was problem  than  vocabulary according  t o c h o o s e when v o c a b u l a r y  communication  another  where "a p i e c e of c a k e means e a s y " ,  courses.  in class  - 70  becomes  -  use  felt  for  to dictionary  specialized  more o f t e n c i t e d than  the  i d i o m a t i c usage Still  conversation,  a  specific  very d i f f i c u l t .  i d i o m was  as  difficulties  w h i c h made u n d e r s t a n d i n g s l a n g and  take  students  reported  specifying.  F i n n " as an  notes i f  vocabulary.  to c i t e  One  and  that i t  s e v e r a l informants  t h e y a p p r e c i a t e when t e a c h e r s g i v e  In most c a s e s with  board.  same t i m e  —  repeat  which  as  o f s l a n g or  a idiom.  summary  While  the  would a p p e a r population,  informants  t o be  have a number  similar  to those  i.e. difficulty i n speaking  are almost  s u r e l y exacerbated  t h e y had  The  difficult. difficult  when t h e  of  of t h e s e .  background  find  what  Finally,  i n western  due  incidents  to the  too quick  the teacher  and  p o i n t s and  problems  where  to  this.  teacher's  or  too  i s speaking full  is  attention  time  left  t o make a a lack  which n a t i v e speakers  T h i s appears  t o be a p a r t i c u l a r  s t u d y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (p 61)  indicates  that  and  Social  E n g l i s h and  overwhelmingly  t h e most d i f f i c u l t  the  of A s i a n  informants  On  the p o s i t i v e  deficit  Studies.  Social  of  would  have l e a r n e d f r o m e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s t h r o u g h present.  in  t h e y would a p p r e c i a t e  some i n f o r m a n t s e x p r e s s  thought  of  in receptive situations  a t times  important  lack  non-English  accents a t t e s t s  result  is said,  these  of t h e i r  i n f o r m a n t must d e v o t e  order to understand  note  for their  Notetaking while  repetition  because  i n understanding  which they  c o n t e n t and  of t h e c l a s s ,  many m e n t i o n e d  problems a l s o  as d i f f i c u l t y  delivery,  the  that  been r i d i c u l e d  Communication such  fact  in front  which  o f "'the g e n e r a l  understanding  confidence  background.  of d i f f i c u l t i e s  to  the  f o r the Table  IV  Studies are  subjects, particularly  for  background.  side and  s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o have worked  number of  interesting  useful  commented  on e n j o y i n g t h e c l a s s e s  - 71  -  assignments,  and  on  several  of a p a r t i c u l a r l y  gifted  a  and/or is,  understanding  no d o u b t , a b e n e f i c i a l  success E:  teacher.  Such s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r  factor  Strategies  A major reduced,  i s s u e a s ESL l e a r n e r s go a b o u t  abstract  material i s that  When t h e y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d language  of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  discussion  this  also  i t was n o t e d  English  define  the concepts  This section q u e s t i o n s about contribute consider  their  i n f o r m a n t s , or w i l l  explore the informants own l e a r n i n g  w i t h t h e language  responded  initial  introduction  I t i s always  t h e y r e l y on  responses t o which  might  what t h e y  would  the concepts  of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  succeed. due t o t h e i r many o f t h e  by making u s e o f L l , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t into  I#20: I used a K o r e a n B i b l e English literature. I#25:  strategies  changes t o h e l p s t u d e n t s  When t h e y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  informants  of these  s t u d e n t s or t e a c h e r s , t o f u r t h e r  s u c c e s s and t o r e l a t e  t o be u s e f u l  difficulties  who had t h e  i n L2?  will  to their  the students  L l . (Saville-Troike  be one o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s  speakers,  input".  In t h e e a r l i e r that  i n their  context-  with the  a c a d e m i c a l l y were t h o s e  "academically successful" native  of "meaningful  how do t h e y ^ c o p e ?  opportunity t o d i s c u s s concepts Will  learning  due t o d i f f i c u l t i e s  of the l i t e r a t u r e  who were most s u c c e s s f u l  their  the academic  of students.  Student  1984)  influencing  rapport  regular classes.  t o h e l p me  i n Chinese  understand  when my b r o t h e r h e l p s  - 72 -  me.  I#7: I have c o r r e s p o n d e n c e books f r o m my u n c l e i n C h i n a f o r A l g e b r a , P h y s i c s and C h e m i s t r y . I n A l g e b r a and P h y s i c s I used Chinese so I d i d w e l l . I d i d n ' t r e a d many c h e m i s t r y p r o b l e m s ( i n C h i n e s e ) s o I d i d n ' t do a s w e l l . F o r me i t ' s good, ( i . e . a good method) b u t i t depends on t i m e . I#11: A t f i r s t my u n c l e Persian. B u t n o t now. I#5:  My p a r e n t s  helped  h e l p me s t u d y  me w i t h my s c h o o l work i n (in  Mandarin).  I#21: I t h i n k i n Korean. F o r w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s I go t o my b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s f o r h e l p . Notetaking i s also i n Korean. ( T r a n s l a t e n o t e s a t home and w r i t e s i n E n g l i s h . ) Six  of the informants  encyclopaedias said  use ( o r have u s e d ) t e x t b o o k s and  written in their  n a t i v e language.  t h a t t h e y would use them i f t h e y were  T h i r t e e n do n o t u s e them b e c a u s e t h e y method.  As f o r d i c t i o n a r i e s ,  dictionary use  both  for  specific  their to  kinds.  this  s i x informants  s c h o o l work t h e y  the b i l i n g u a l  i s n o t a good  use an E n g l i s h  d i c t i o n a r y and n i n e  Those who make use o f b o t h  occasions,  i . e . when w r i t i n g  kinds  use them  i n Chinese.  t r y t h e E n g l i s h one f i r s t ,  one when t h e y d o n ' t  others  available.  feel  o n l y ; t h r e e use a b i l i n g u a l  Four  understand  For  then  resort  the E n g l i s h  def i n i t i o n . Eleven work.  b u t no l o n g e r do s o v e r y o f t e n .  asks  her t o t r a n s l a t e  language  i n order  school.  While  for  One  informants'  h e r s c h o o l work t o t h e n a t i v e  t o e x p l a i n t o h i m what she i s d o i n g a t  some i n f o r m a n t s  indicated  that  translating  n o t e t a k i n g , e t c . would be a v e r y t i m e - c o n s u m i n g and  inefficient Ll  do n o t u s e L l f o r a c a d e m i c  N i n e use t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e and two d i d i n t h e  beginning father  of the informants  method, o t h e r s a p p e a r  to provide  "meaningful  t o depend  input" i n their  upon t h e use o f  content  courses.  In r e s p o n s e with  question,  y o u r s c h o o l work t o whom do  responses -course -ask  to the  were as  teacher  course  after  teacher  school  --  go  difficulty  for help?",  the  7  during class  teacher  and  -course  teacher  or a f r i e n d  o n l y --  you  have  follows:  -course  -friends  "When you  ESL  teacher  — --  0 5  —1  1  -ESL  teacher  or t e a c h e r  -ESL  teacher  or  friend  librarian  - 1  ^  - 1  - f a m i l y members or t e a c h e r s  - 5  -books - 1 -tries -native -ESL The  t o work  i t out a l o n e  speaking  friend,  i.e. friend  d e c i s i o n on  I#7: The friends.  student  who  t o go  subject teacher  - 1  - 1 f r o m same l a n g . g r o u p - 6 to  i s based  on  the f o l l o w i n g :  because t e a c h e r s ^  are  smarter  than  I#10: A t s c h o o l t o t h e ESL t e a c h e r b e c a u s e I know them b e t t e r (than the s u b j e c t t e a c h e r ) At home I w i l l ask my uncle. I#25: I ask my b r o t h e r f o r a l l o t h e r s u b j e c t s , and my friends for English. I don't choose t e a c h e r s because i t i s a l w a y s a t homework when t h e p r o b l e m s a r i s e . I#15: I ask f r i e n d s f i r s t i f t h e y know how t o do i t . (Among h i s f r i e n d s he i s t h e one who u s u a l l y goes t o a t e a c h e r f o r h e l p , t h e n e x p l a i n s t o f r i e n d s . ) I d o n ' t mind b e i n g s e e n a s t h e dumb p e r s o n . So much I l e a r n . I#12: I ask t h e t e a c h e r a f t e r s c h o o l . q u e s t i o n i n c l a s s i f I r e a l l y have t o . family to help.  - 74  -  I w i l l ask a T h e r e ' s noone  in  my  Itt20: Maybe sometimes I ask g o i n g t o seem r e a l l y s i l l y .  When a s k e d the  informants  a friend  i f f r i e n d s are  when t h e q u e s t i o n i s  important  for school success,  responded:  I#7: F o r some s m a r t p e o p l e t h e y c a n do b o t h (make f r i e n d s and s u c c e e d i n s c h o o l ) . But f o r me f r i e n d s d i s t r a c t . I w i l l go out w i t h f r i e n d s when I am grown up. Ittl3: Yes, b e c a u s e you c a n ask and g e t h e l p i f you d o n ' t know s o m e t h i n g . They c a n p r o o f r e a d y o u r w r i t t e n work. Also for support. S c h o o l i s a p l a c e f o r you t o l e a r n how t o l i v e w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and l e a r n s o c i a l s k i l l s . I#16: Yes, b e c a u s e you t e n d t o f o l l o w what y o u r f r i e n d s a r e doing. B r a i n y f r i e n d s who g e t s t r a i g h t A's t a u g h t me t o s e p a r a t e f u n t i m e and s t u d y t i m e -- t o s a y no. Athletic f r i e n d s c a n t e a c h you t o t a k e t h i n g s e a s y . I g e t t o know e a c h t y p e and l e a r n f r o m e a c h t y p e . I t ' s n o t a good i d e a t o hang a r o u n d c e r t a i n g r o u p s , l i k e * p r i v i l e g e d g r o u p s who tempt you t o do t h i n g s j u s t t o f i t i n . I d o n ' t do t h a t . I#25: Yes, because f r i e n d s i n f l u e n c e you. I t depends on what k i n d o f f r i e n d s . I t i s important t o choose c a r e f u l l y . I#8: your  Yes, v e r y . Sometimes f r i e n d s parents don't. It  would a p p e a r  considered but t h a t  In be  t h e y meet s t r o n g a f f e c t i v e  that  p r o b l e m s when  friends  f o r academic needs,  are  success,  i . e . emotional  belonging.  many c a s e s t h e  i n f o r m a n t s ' grade  achievements  would  acceptable for high achieving native speaking students.  Given the  fact  (up t o 20  hours  in  from these responses  o n l y m a r g i n a l l y important  s u p p o r t and  understand  their  second  remarkable. hours  spent  that  several  o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s work p a r t - t i m e  p e r week o u t o f n e c e s s i t y ) and language,  (See  T a b l e V,  their p76,  achievements showing hours  i n o u t s i d e employment.)  - 75  -  are  appear  learning e v e n more  o f homework  and  Table  Iff  V: I n f o r m a n t s Use o f Time O u t s i d e  NC  1 2 3 4 5 6  Spain Vietnam Guatemala India Taiwan Thailand  7 8  China China  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  Korea China Afghanistan China Hong Kong China Afghanistan Taiwan China Vietnam China Korea Korea Italy Colombia Vietnam China  Hrs/HW 2 2-3 1 3 2-3 finishes at school 6-8 at school & l h r home 3 1-2 4-5 1-2 4-5 2 3 4-5 1/2 - 1 * * 2-3 2 2-3 2-3 2 up t o 7 3  Hrs/Emp  School  Study  none 16 16 none none  alone* alone alone alone alone  8-10 12  alone  none none none none 5 none none 20 none 8 none none none none 20 none  -  alone alone alone alone* alone alone friends friends alone alone alone* alone alone alone*  *denotes u s u a l s t u d y time i s a l o n e , but w i t h f o r s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s or o c c a s i o n s .  friends  * * T h i s i s t h e s t u d e n t who has s l o w e d down b e c a u s e o f stress. She d o e s m i n i m a l homework, t h e n crams a t exam t i m e . Hrs/HW = h o u r s o f homework p e r d a y . Hrs/Emp = h o u r s o f employment p e r week.  - 76 -  Int: What s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s h e l p e d y o u h e r e i n Canada? I#2: harsh  from your  native country  have  The r u l e s i n my c o u n t r y a r e s t r i c t and I u s e d t o have tests. Here i t i s e a s i e r , s o I d o n ' t have p r o b l e m s .  I#13: The way o f t h e c u l t u r e and t h e s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s a r e r e a l l y t o u g h ( i n Hong K o n g ) . I t was t o o s t r i c t . I learned t o work h a r d e r , s o h e r e i t i s a u t o m a t i c t o c o m p l e t e a s s i g n m e n t s on t i m e and o t h e r t h i n g s . I#14: You have t o do more i n my n a t i v e c o u n t r y . used t o w o r k i n g r e a l l y h a r d .  I got  I#22: S c h o o l s i n I t a l y r e q u i r e d more homework. I n Grade 7 I was s t u d y i n g f o u r h o u r s a day. Here I s t u d y t h r e e h o u r s a day. And t h e r e y o u go t o s c h o o l on S a t u r d a y . Here y o u g e t e x t r a t i m e on t h e weekends t o s t u d y . I#25: My a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c h o o l . Earlier l o n g e r h o u r s h e l p me i n Canada. I am u s e d t i m e f o r s c h o o l work. I#6: Math and S c i e n c e me f o r h e r e .  d i s c i p l i n e and to using extra  i n my n a t i v e c o u n t r y h e l p e d  Int: What a r e i m p o r t a n t school?  prepare  t h i n g s t o do t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n  I#25: S t u d y and r e v i e w . L o t s o f r e p e t i t i o n h e l p s . Ask q u e s t i o n s when y o u d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d . To l e a r n a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e y o u s h o u l d n ' t be s h y . I#22: Get a l o t of e x t r a h e l p from t e a c h e r s . Make b e t t e r friends with teachers. I ' v e had l o t s o f " f r i e n d " t e a c h e r s ( i . e . t e a c h e r s w i t h whom he has e s t a b l i s h e d a r a p p o r t ) . T h e y ' l l h e l p you — g i v e you t h a t e x t r a h e l p t h a t you need. (He u s e s t h e example o f h i s g e o g r a p h y t e a c h e r . ) I was t h e r e e v e r y day. A t t h e end he gave me a n o l d exam t o h e l p w i t h the f i n a l . I was t h e o n l y one ( t o whom he gave o l d exam p a p e r s ) b e c a u s e I was t h e r e e v e r y d a y . He saw t h a t I r e a l l y wanted t o g e t t h r o u g h . I f you see a t e a c h e r r e a l l y c a r e s f o r y o u , y o u w i l l s t u d y more t o show t h e t e a c h e r how much y o u a p p r e c i a t e what he has done f o r y o u .  I#16: Your a t t i t u d e . A c c e p t t h i n g s and f r i e n d s t h e way they are. I f o u n d t h a t I c a n make f r i e n d s i n d i v i d u a l l y , n o t w i t h j u s t one g r o u p . I#17: You have t o r e a d more v a r i e t y , w i t h d i f f e r e n t writers. Don't r e s t r i c t y o u r s e l f . Sometimes go o u t w i t h friends. You p i c k up d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s .  - 77 -  I#ll: You have t o s t u d y . t o have a c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e on y o u r w o r k .  And have good p a r e n t s . You need o r o t h e r w i s e y o u r mind won't be  I#24: Keep a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s and go f o r h e l p w i t h Do y o u r homework. R e a d i n g i s good f o r e s s a y s . I#l: time I#7:  S t u d y h a r d and in class.  take everything s e r i o u s l y .  Don't make t o o many f r i e n d s .  Work  problems. Don't w a s t e  hard.  Int: I f you were t h e t e a c h e r what w o u l d y o u to help students l e a r n b e t t e r ?  change i n o r d e r  I#12: T r e a t e v e r y o n e t h e same. Don't p l a y f a v o u r i t e s . T e a c h e r s f a v o u r t h e s m a r t s t u d e n t s who t a l k a l o t i n c l a s s . I#16: F i n d o u t what p r o b l e m s t h e s t u d e n t s a r e h a v i n g . t h e m u n d e r s t a n d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , b e c a u s e u s u a l l y t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y won't have p r o b l e m s a t a l l .  Help after  I#17: T e a c h a b o u t h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s and ( p r o m o t e ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c o u n t r y . T e a c h more v o c a b u l a r y . I#22: Spend more o u t o f c l a s s t i m e w i t h t h e B u t most t e a c h e r s do t h a t now. I#8: Know t h e s t u d e n t s p e r s o n a l l y . t h e y need h e l p .  Go  students.  t o t h e m and  ask i f  I#2: I w o u l d n ' t p u t t o o much p r e s s u r e on s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d have t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y a r e s u c c e s s f u l . I#4:  P u t more r e s t r i c t i o n s , more homework, e x t r a w o r k .  I#24: E x p l a i n c a r e f u l l y and make s u r e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d . Give time t o copy n o t e s , not w h i l e e x p l a i n i n g . A c c e p t good r e a s o n s f o r n o t d o i n g homework. ( E x p l a i n s t h a t she had f e l t u n f a i r l y p e n a l i z e d f o r a l a t e a s s i g n m e n t when she had b e e n ill. B e c a u s e o f h e r p a r t - t i m e j o b she had been u n a b l e t o remain a f t e r s c h o o l t o e x p l a i n t o the t e a c h e r t h a t her i l l n e s s was t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e l a t e a s s i g n m e n t . Summary  H e r e an a t t e m p t e m p l o y e d by t h e  has  been made t o a s s e s s  informants which  academic success.  Use  o f L l was  - 78  may  be r e l e v a n t t o  found  -  strategies their  t o be n e c e s s a r y  for  many o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s , and i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . L2  was u s u a l l y s o u g h t  teachers  —  r a t h e r than  informants help.  from  felt  Only  t e a c h e r s -- m a i n l y  native speaking  more c o m f o r t a b l e  student.  affective  reasons  such as moral  i s obvious  that  necessary  f o r success  some w i l l  spend  of former  at their  "independent unscheduled  In  of  find  homework assignments,  i n one n i g h t t o a c c o m p l i s h their  v i e w s on t h e  i t i s apparent  i t unusual  I t i s apparent  that  they  work i n t h e i r t o spend a l o t o f  that,  like  s t u d e n t s " t h e y have  hours  other  little  o f work and homework i t i s  some a r e p a y i n g a h i g h p r i c e I n one c a s e  symptoms o f s t r e s s  interviews  important f o r  and h a r d e r  so d i d not f i n d  homework.  from  time.  professional  outside  hours  When o u t l i n i n g  self-directing  that  suffering  ESL t e a c h e r f o r  D e p e n d i n g upon  school experiences  academic s u c c e s s .  pressure  informants  in school.  looking at their  apparent  Some  support.  t o l o n g e r s c h o o l hours  home c o u n t r i e s , time  most  up t o s e v e n  school tasks.  were used  course  F r i e n d s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be  f o r s c h o o l success, but mainly  effects  peers.  asking their  important  their  their  through  one o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s m e n t i o n e d s e e k i n g h e l p  a native speaking  It  Help  counseling.  that  certain  t o succeed  for their  an i n f o r m a n t  informants  during the  t o h o l d i n g an  j o b t o p r o v i d e , i n some s i t u a t i o n s ,  financial assistance for their 79  families. -  from  a r e under i n o r d i n a t e  at school i n addition  -  appears  which might b e n e f i t  I t was o b v i o u s  measure  necessary  t o be  E:  Home E f f e c t  On S c h o o l i n g  Having a r r i v e d for  this  country  study  after  t e n years  had a l r e a d y a t t e n d e d  f o r a number o f y e a r s .  a l r e a d y have d e v e l o p e d proficiency"  which  a degree  of age, the informants school  in their  native  I n Cummins' t e r m s t h e y o f CALP, a "common  i s t r a n s f e r a b l e t o L2.  would  underlying  A t t i t u d e s toward  s c h o o l a n d l e a r n i n g would a l r e a d y have been  substantially  formed.  Discussed  above a r e t h e m o t i v a t i o n s  have moved t o Canada. greater  childrens' their  Int:  explore  might  the parents'  education,  own d i r e c t  informants' that  i n most c a s e s  future opportunities f o r their  Here we w i l l  of  The p a r e n t s  sons or  concerns  were  seeking  daughters.  about  their  about C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s , and t h e e x t e n t  involvement  perceptions relate  f o r the family to  i n the schools.  of those  aspects  t o academic success  What do y o u r p a r e n t s  feel  about  of t h e i r  will  The home  a l s o be  presented.  education?  I#l: E d u c a t i o n i s t h e main t h i n g i n y o u r e d u c a t i o n you a r e n o t h i n g .  life.  W i t h o u t an  I#3: They a r e happy t h a t I'm g e t t i n g a good e d u c a t i o n . i s i m p o r t a n t t o them t h a t I c o n t i n u e . I#9: They t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t c o m i n g her<e ( t o C a n a d a ) .  It  and t h a t ' s t h e r e a s o n f o r  I#22: They f e e l t h e same way I do, t h a t w i t h o u t e d u c a t i o n y o u ' r e a nobody.  an  I#20: T h e y f e e l s t r o n g l y a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f an education. They r e a l l y want me t o go t o p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n e v e n i f I d o n ' t want t o .  -  life  80 -  Above  (see T a b l e  I I , p41)  i s a comparison  expectations  for their  children  themselves.  In most c a s e s p a r e n t s w i s h e d  complete  post-secondary  specific  profession.  to u n i v e r s i t y ,  Int:  The  p l a n s do  of the their  e d u c a t i o n , though  few  own  your  c h o i c e about  informants  children  had  u s u a l message a p p e a r s  b u t make y o u r  What f u t u r e  with those  of p a r e n t a l  chosen  t o be,  what t o  to a  "Go  on  study."  p a r e n t s have f o r you?  I#8: Go i n t o p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g and be s o m e t h i n g b i g like a scientist. T h a t ' s my i n t e r e s t and my p a r e n t s a r e happy w i t h 'ehis a l s o . I#24: Go t o u n i v e r s i t y and g e t a good j o b i f t h a t ' s what I choose. O t h e r w i s e f i n d a j o b i t you c a n ' t do i t . I d o n ' t get p r e s s u r e (from p a r e n t s ) but l o t s of encouragement. I#25: T h e y wanted me t o become a d o c t o r , b u t a c c e p t e d my c h o i c e t o be a c h a r t e r e d a c c o u n t a n t . They a c c e p t my c h o i c e as l o n g as I go t o u n i v e r s i t y . I#17: myself  T h e y want me t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y , what I want t o do.  I#21: I t o l d them I would be T h e y j u s t a g r e e d w i t h me.  a writer  but  and  to decide for  go back t o  I#13: In my f a m i l y we p l a n our own f u t u r e . a l l o w us t o make our own d e c i s i o n s .  My  Korea.  parents  I#20: My f a t h e r wants me t o be a l a w y e r , b u t i n t h e end would s a y "Do what you want t o do". I t h i n k the r e a s o n i s t h a t l a w y e r s e a r n a l o t o f money. I t ' s not too hard a j o b , a l o t e a s i e r t h a n j a n i t o r or l a n d s c a p e work. I#22: They t o l d me i t ' s my l i f e . I f I make a m i s t a k e I c a n ' t go back and s a y "You t o l d me t o do t h i s . It'sa l l your f a u l t . " I s h o u l d be my own man. Take my own responsibility. Int:  How  do y o u r  p a r e n t s h e l p you  i n your  s c h o o l work?  I#11: My mother wants me t o become a d o c t o r . She d o e s n ' t a l l o w me t o do any housework, s o t h a t I have more t i m e t o study. I#25: Their attitude for success.  has  instilled  - 81  -  i n me  the  desire  I&21: T h e y d o n ' t f o r c e me t o s t u d y . I think i t ' s r e a l l y g r e a t . L o t s o f s t u d e n t s g e t t o o much p r e s s u r e f r o m p a r e n t s and my p a r e n t s d o n ' t do t h a t . When I f e e l f r e e I c a n do t h e t h i n g s I want. I#24: My p a r e n t s have c o n f i d e n c e t h a t I ' l l do my work. T h e y d o n ' t h e l p w i t h t h e a c t u a l work. Sometimes t h e y g i v e p r i z e s f o r s u c c e s s , b u t when I do bad t h e y j u s t e n c o u r a g e me f o r n e x t t i m e . I#16: T h e y l e t me know t h a t It's not a b i g d e a l . I#4: My p a r e n t s about s c h o o l .  don't  i fI fail  help d i r e c t l y ,  I can t r y again. but are encouraging  I#15: T h e y d o n ' t know t h a t much E n g l i s h . But sometimes i f I need t o w r i t e a s t o r y my f a t h e r t e l l s a s t o r y i n P e r s i a n and I t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o E n g l i s h . In  many o f t h e above r e s p o n s e s  parents  empowering t h e i r  v a l u e s and s u p p o r t about t h e i r While  many o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s  this  q u e s t i o n t o mean d i r e c t  speak  p r o v i d i n g them w i t h  mentioned  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t , e l e v e n  "indirect"  interpreted  These e l e v e n r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y g e t no h e l p  because t h e i r  help,  h e l p w i t h assignments or  parents  parents  have v e r y  from  a r e u n e d u c a t e d a n d / o r do n o t  little  t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s a t t e n d e d f o r mainstream students  direct  by t h e i r  parent  contact with the  s o n s and  / teacher  daughters,  interaction i s  g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d a s b e i n g d e s i r a b l e t o promote Int:  strong  English.  The  yet  of the  own f u t u r e s .  moral support  parents  i s a sense  a l l o w i n g them t o make r e a l d e c i s i o n s  i.e.  homework.  t  while  children,  there  Do y o u r  parents  meet w i t h y o u r  - 82 -  teachers?  success.  When?  I#8: In grade s i x , but not s i n c e then. T h e y ' r e b u s y and n o t w o r r i e d a b o u t me i n s c h o o l . They know I'm d o i n g w e l l . I#2: My g u a r d i a n s have n o t , b u t my c o u s i n v i s i t e d . My g u a r d i a n s d o n ' t e v e n r e a l i z e t h a t I'm d o i n g w e l l . They t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t h a t I go t o s c h o o l , b u t o t h e r w i s e t h e y d o n ' t have a n y c o n t a c t . I#l: T h e y ' v e v i s i t e d a few t i m e s . T h e y l i k e i t . My b r o t h e r would come ( t o v i s i t t e a c h e r s ) i f t h e r e were problems. I#10: No, t h e y d o n ' t have t i m e f o r t h a t . They b o t h work. T h e y know t h a t I'm t r y i n g my h a r d e s t and t h a t ' s a l l anyone can do. I#25: No, b e c a u s e o f t h e l a n g u a g e c o n f i d e n t t h a t I am d o i n g f i n e .  problem.  They a r e  I#15: My p a r e n t s have met t e a c h e r s , b u t n o t a t s c h o o l . My mother i n v i t e d t h e ESL t e a c h e r t o come t o our h o u s e . She l i k e d t h e t e a c h e r v e r y much. I#23: My b r o t h e r l i v e s w i t h my f a t h e r , and he came one y e a r ago. I d o u b t t h a t my f a t h e r e v e r had c o n t a c t w i t h t h e school. I#16: My f a t h e r has t o go f o r d i a l y s i s e v e r y U s u a l l y t e a c h e r n i g h t s a r e on T h u r s d a y s .  Thursday.  I#17: My s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r s (and I ) l o o k a t e a c h o t h e r s ' r e p o r t c a r d s and e n c o u r a g e e a c h o t h e r . My p a r e n t s d o n ' t go to Parents Night. I#20: My f a t h e r v i s i t e d t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f o r p o s t secondary education planning. I was r e a l l y w o r r i e d and d i d n ' t want h i m t o meet t h e t e a c h e r . B u t y o u know I t h i n k i t showed me t h a t he r e a l l y c a r e d a b o u t my e d u c a t i o n . I#13:  My o l d e s t When a s k e d  Canadian like  both  came t o t h e s c h o o l l a s t  what t h e i r  schools, five  Canadian  indicated  sister  parents  or d i s l i k e  about  p a r e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o g e n e r a l l y  schools, eight likes  like  year.  as d i s l i k i n g  and d i s l i k e s  and f i v e  some a s p e c t s , offered  seven  no  comments. I#15: They l i k e i t , b u t t h e y d o n ' t l i k e t o o much f r e e d o m which i s here i n the s c h o o l s . They d o n ' t l i k e t h e mix o f b o y s and g i r l s . - 83 -  I#5: They l i k e i t because t e a c h e r s a r e not too But t h e y t h i n k s c h o o l d a y s s h o u l d be l o n g e r and in s e s s i o n ) s i x days.  strict. (school  I#13: T h e y d o n ' t know much a b o u t C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . p r o b a b l y have no comment a t a l l .  They  I#8: I n C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s you c a n have y o u r own i d e a and e x p r e s s more. Sometimes t e a c h e r s a r e n o t s t r i c t enough and d o n ' t g i v e enough d i s c i p l i n e , t o o much f r e e d o m . I#2: T h e y w o u l d n ' t want programs s u c h as sex (But---*he s t u d e n t f e e l s t h a t s u c h p r o g r a m s a r e  education. necessary.)  I#l: They l i k e i t . Soccer f i e l d s a r e b i g g e r . They l i k e t h e a s p e c t t h a t i t ' s e a s y t o change f r o m one s u b j e c t t o a n o t h e r one. I c a n ' t t h i n k of a n y t h i n g t h e y would l i k e t o change. I#23: My mother has n e v e r been h e r e . My f a t h e r d i s l i k e s t h e way t e a c h e r s a r e t r e a t e d by s t u d e n t s . Here a s t u d e n t can t e l l a t e a c h e r where t o go and n o t h i n g happens — the s t u d e n t i s j u s t k i c k e d out o f c l a s s . In C o l o m b i a t h e s t u d e n t would be s u s p e n d e d and t h e p a r e n t s would have t o come t o s c h o o l . I#24: T h e y d o n ' t l i k e t h e i d e a of h a v i n g b o y f r i e n d s and dating. In V i e t n a m s t u d e n t s do not p a i r o f f . T h e y w i s h s t u d e n t s would keep t h e s c h o o l c l e a n and t h a t t h e y were more p o l i t e . I#16: T h e y t h i n k C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s a r e t o o f r e e and t h e y ( h i s p a r e n t s ) have s t e r e o t y p i n g of p e o p l e who d o n ' t s t u d y or who smoke as b e i n g bad. But I t h i n k i t ' s b e c a u s e p e o p l e have had d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s . I#25: You a r e t r a i n i n g w i t h C a u c a s i a n s . You s h o u l d a c t a c c o r d i n g to your c u l t u r e , not t r y t o i m i t a t e C a u c a s i a n culture. T h e y t h i n k t h e r e a r e b e t t e r programs i n t h e U.S. where t h e r e a r e more p r e s t i g i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s . Also i t ' s s o f t e r h e r e t h a n i n C h i n a where s c h o o l i s s i x d a y s a week, s o , "Do b e t t e r " . Summary Education cornerstone perception having  appears  t o be  for building shared  instilled  by t h e such  p e r c e i v e d by t h e  a secure  and  informants.  values  into  - 84  -  parents  as  the  successful future — I t a l s o appears  their  children,  they  that, (the  a  parents)  allow their  responsibility confidence students  children  for their  in their  a degree  of p e r s o n a l  future plans.  They a p p e a r  childrens' abilities  appear t o a c c e p t  parents  with  that  become i n v o l v e d i n s c h o o l v i s i t s ,  However, t h e  of t h e  informant  not  comfortable  about h i s f a t h e r ' s v i s i t  was  nonetheless  pleased  that  his father r e a l l y  question^of  for  interpreters  consideration, those  a t the cared  whether s u c h  e n c o u r a g e d more.  do  have The  pleased not  who  originally  to the  school,  i n f o r m and  are  profitably  Board p o l i c y  parents  unaware of  question teachers  him  the  (at  be  allows  f o r p a r e n t a l i n t e r v i e w s when l a n g u a g e  study)  was  but  i t showed  might not  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the  and  require  about h i s f u t u r e , r a i s e s  interaction  and  etc.  outcome b e c a u s e  While Vancouver School  r e l e v a n t to t h i s  opportunity to  are  s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e , and  account  to  to succeed.  confident they  their  that their  choice  is a  least  the about  their  concerns.  Some p a r e n t s values etc.  found  parents.  some of t h e From t h e  informants  and  pressures, support  her  support,  i . e . the  upon t h e  responses  though t h e r e are  children.  two  Such s i t u a t i o n s  - 85  -  dating,  informants, yet defer  who  to  may  their  i t i s nevertheless  family ties  mother w o r k i n g  cultural  i . e . coeducation,  C a n a d i a n ways and  t h a t s t r o n g p a r e n t a l and  belonging  about d i f f e r e n t  i n Canadian s c h o o l s ,  This could place c o n f l i c t  agree with  clear  have c o n c e r n s  provide  a sense  of  examples o f home shifts would  in a laundry likely  put  a  to  g r e a t d e a l of p r e s s u r e that  lacking  many ESL  such  on s t u d e n t s t o s u c c e e d .  support  from  students to f a i l  Summary o f C h a p t e r  their  or d r o p  out  bilingual  the  lives  was  of ESL  understanding  quantitative  approach,  cause-effect  relationships.  made.  examining  involvement meaningful no  identified  or  and  III a  Here no  a number o f  such  issues,  L2  " p r o o f " can  be  the  has  the s u c c e s s  about  difficult  presented  because of t h e i r  students.  for  ESL  and  students,  nature  t h e r e been any  Here t h e  oral  work  abstract  I believe fears.  attempt  informants informants  - 86  that  as  mainstream  i n the  classroom Though  are  exacerbated  the  data  In c o l l e c t i n g  failure  have e x p r e s s e d  -  have  realizing  t o examine and  with  We  concepts.  that d i f f i c u l t i e s  informants' real  of t h e s e  bilingualism,  or t h e o t h e r i s  f a c e d by ESL  i . e . nervousness  be  i . e . parental  o f L l and  one  A  prove  i n f o r m a n t s ' academic s u c c e s s .  difficulties  understanding  neither  research.  c l a i m s can  t h e s e a r e many o f t h e same d i f f i c u l t i e s  indicates  distinction  f o r example, m i g h t seek t o  be made t h a t  f o r the  of a l l o w i n g  i s involved in their  qualitative  t h e s c h o o l s , use  c l a i m can  students,  to  particular  i n p u t , amount o f homework, a d d i t i v e  responsible  that  with  of what  In C h a p t e r  made between q u a n t i t a t i v e  etc.,  i s an a t t e m p t  students within a  of academic s u c c e s s .  While  cause  of s c h o o l .  e d u c a t i o n a l framework w i t h t h e p u r p o s e  teachers a clearer pursuit  might  be  IV  T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e d a t a illuminate  families  I t may  data  compare  of o t h e r their  ESL  no  e x p e r i e n c e s and provide These  aspirations  insights  issues  will  for be  i n the  hope t h a t  i n s t r u c t i o n and discussed  - 87  further  further  -  they  will  research.  i n Chapter  V.  Chapter  Five  CONCLUSION In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l f i r s t  attempt t o a d d r e s s  c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n f o r t h i s study, i.e. what t h e s e informants  can t e l l us about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s  the  twenty-five of  s u c c e s s f u l l y g e t t i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n in t h e i r L2,  by  comparing the. d a t a with r e l e v a n t i s s u e s which have p r e v i o u s l y a r i s e n in the l i t e r a t u r e .  Following t h i s w i l l  a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n on p o i n t s which, t o my not y e t been t o u c h e d will address  instruction arising future  knowledge, have  upon in p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e .  t h e q u e s t i o n of what might be from the d a t a , and  be  Then I  implications f o r  possible areas  for  research.  A: Relevant  Issues  Returning  From the  Literature  t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r our  q u e s t i o n s , d i s c u s s e d in Chapter  2, I w i l l now  p r a c t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s in t h e which appear t o be literature alerts  experience  look f o r  of the  r e l a t e d t o academic s u c c e s s .  informants The  us t o c o n s i d e r the following:  1.  Use  of L l f o r academic l e a r n i n g  2.  I n t e r a c t i o n with n a t i v e  3.  V o c a b u l a r y as the language s k i l l most r e l a t e d academic s u c c e s s  4.  "Additive" q u a l i t i e s f o r a s s e s s i n g bilingual programs  5.  D i f f e r e n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o e t h n i c groups  -  88  speakers  -  to  I w i l l d i s c u s s each in t u r n . 1.  Use o f L l F o r Academic  Learning  In t h i s s e c t i o n I w i l l f i r s t the p r e s e n t  d i s c u s s t h e use of L l in  school situation in the host country  of Canada,  followed by t h e informants' p e r c e p t i o n s of how e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y might i n f l u e n c e p r e s e n t  academic  success.  In Canadian  Schools  S a v i l l e - T r o i k e s t a t e s t h a t what r e a l l y made a d i f f e r e n c e f o r academic s u c c e s s concepts  was t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e  t h e y were l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r n a t i v e language with  other children or adults.  She adds,  We need t o recognize t h a t t h e r e i s a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e communicative t a c t i c s and s k i l l s t h a t c h i l d r e n find e f f e c t i v e f o r meeting t h e i r s o c i a l needs and g o a l s and t h o s e t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l academic a c h i e v e ment i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The lowest academic a c h i e v e r s i n o u r sample were among t h e most s u c c e s s f u l a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication, e s p e c i a l l y with o t h e r children...The few s t u d e n t s i n o u r sample who c o u l d cope with independent i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s in regular classrooms possessed s k i l l s t h a t a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y t a u g h t i n ESL c l a s s e s a t the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l b u t c o u l d be, such a s how t o make good u s e of a b i l i n g u a l dictionary... Developing s o c i a l language s k i l l s i s a d e s i r a b l e b u t i n s u f f i c i e n t g o a l f o r E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g and ( i r o n i c a l l y ) may even i n t e r f e r e with academic achievement. ( S a v i l l e - T r o i k e 1984, 216)  She  a r g u e s t h a t i n t e a c h i n g ESL we must f o r e g o t h e s h o r t  t e r m g o a l o f t e a c h i n g language f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n emphasizing  only,  t h a t academic competence should be t h e d e s i r e d  outcome i f we a r e t o f u l f i l l o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o o u r students  and t o j u s t i f y t h e time  -  spent  89 -  i n ESL c l a s s r o o m s .  As  with Sa v i l l e - T r o i k e ' s experience, and  support  in what appears  to  the BICS/CALP d i s t i n c t i o n r a i s e d by Cummins, t h e  of L l a l s o p r o v e d  t o be  important  f o r many of the  use  informants  in t h i s s t u d y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e beginning of r e g u l a r c o u r s e s , i n n o t e t a k i n g , independent As  r e p o r t e d i n Chapter  s i b l i n g s , ESL parent.  f r i e n d s who  s t u d y and g e t t i n g help.  IV, some mentioned the help of o l d e r had  taken the c o u r s e , an  They a l s o mentioned the p r a c t i c e  uncle or a  of d i s c u s s i n g  homework, e t c . a t noon h o u r s with f r i e n d s from  their native  language group.  As proved  f o r written L l material, bilingual dictionaries h e l p f u l f o r some informants.  Some used  r e f e r e n c e bobks from t h e i r n a t i v e language, expressed available.  t h a t t h e y would have used I#2,  a Vietnamese speaker  text  and  others  them i f t h e y were here  f o r two  r e p o r t e d only r e c e n t l y finding some m a t e r i a l about s o c i e t y , w r i t t e n i n Vietnamese. and  He  and  s a i d i t was  years, Canadian  very  helpful  f e l t t h a t t r a n s l a t i o n s of Canadian h i s t o r y t e x t s , e t c .  would a l s o be  u s e f u l t o new  beginning of t h e i r time  The  most dramatic  a r r i v a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the  in r e g u l a r c l a s s e s .  example of use  l e a r n i n g c i t e d above, i s t h a t of I#7 s e n t him Chinese Chemistry  whose uncle in China  language c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  and Algebra.  y e a r s : f o r him use appear t o be  of L l f o r academic  This s t u d e n t has  courses been here  for Physics, for five  of L l f o r academic l e a r n i n g does not  diminishing with time.  However, he himself  i n d i c a t e d t h a t , though e f f e c t i v e , i t i s a time - 90  -  consuming  method.  He  s t a t e d t h a t lack of time p r e v e n t e d h i s s t u d y i n g  Chemistry i n both Chinese  and English, and t h i s was  in h i s lower mark f o r Chemistry compared t o t h a t and P h y s i c s (which he had method.)  reflected  f o r Algebra  s t u d i e d using h i s "dual language"  His f i n a l mark f o r t h e s e t h r e e c o u r s e s a r e B, A, A  respectively.  (At the same time he  e x p r e s s e d the same  c o n c e r n r a i s e d * b y P a v e l i c h 19 78, t o be d i s c u s s e d in f u r t h e r d e t a i l below, with h i s s t a t e m e n t at  that  E n g l i s h "will k i l l  me  university".)  The  method of using L l t o u n d e r s t a n d c o n c e p t s was  i n i t i a t e d as s c h o o l s t r a t e g y (though i t might response  In  t o t h e i r need f o r meaningful input an uncle, f a t h e r ,  older s i b l i n g and n a t i v e language resources  be).  not  reference material, a l l  o u t s i d e s c h o o l , were i n s t i n c t i v e l y sought  the s t u d e n t s  In the Home  out  by  themselves.  Country  If d i s c u s s i o n of academic c o n c e p t s i n L l i s important in the h o s t c o u n t r y , then we  might  expect p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n  experience i n the home c o u n t r y t o be important a l s o ,  because  i t p r o v i d e s i n d i v i d u a l s with the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s c u s s i n g academic c o n c e p t s i n t h e i r L l and would be  expected t o make a  major c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the u n d e r l y i n g p r o f i c i e n c y (CALP) d e s c r i b e d by Cummins (1984, 136).  S e v e r a l of the informants (who t e n y e a r s of age when t h e y had had  - 91 -  a l l arrived later  than  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p  CALP i n L l ) e q u a t e t h e i r s u c c e s s e a r l i e r s c h o l a s t i c experiences  i n Math and Sciences  with  in t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r i e s .  What a p p e a r s t o have happened i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i s t h a t Math and some S c i e n c e s  were p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d in t h e home  c o u n t r y , and t h e r e f o r e t h e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s i n t h e p r e s e n t Canadian c o n t e x t to  the students  concepts.  o f f e r e d l i t t l e challenge.  I t was only  left  t o f i n d t h e L2 l a b e l s t o apply t o t h e  To p a r a p h r a s e Cummins (see p.13 above) i f you  a l r e a d y know t h e c o n c e p t i n L l , t h e n s u b s t i t u t i n g a new l a b e l f o r i t in L2 i s a simpler p r o c e s s both t h e c o n c e p t and l a b e l t h r o u g h L2. informants  than having  to learn  In c e r t a i n c a s e s t h e  here a r e s a y i n g t h a t Math, a l r e a d y l e a r n e d  before  coming here, may even be a b i t boring.  I#5: Math i s my l e a s t f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t b e c a u s e i t ' s t o o easy. I a l r e a d y l e a r n e d i t i n my c o u n t r y . I#6: Math and Science me f o r here.  in my n a t i v e c o u n t r y  It i s obvious t h a t t h e informants native countries other  important  helped  prepare  brought from  educational tools  their besides  academic p r o f i c i e n c y a l r e a d y l e a r n e d i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s . These include t h e d i s c i p l i n e t o s t u d y  long h o u r s t o s u c c e e d ,  and  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t II, S e c t i o n B.  not  bring and must take  a r e t o broaden e d u c a t i o n  What t h e y  could  t h e time t o i n t e r n a l i z e here i f t h e y h o r i z o n s , i s t h e f l u e n c y t o enable  them t o meet requirements in o t h e r , i.e. humanities (This i s s u e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t II, S e c t i o n C.)  - 92 -  courses.  2. I n t e r a c t i o n With N a t i v e  Speakers  S a v i l l e - T r o i k e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t developing language skills* may 1  appears  social  even i n t e r f e r e with academic achievement  t o be borne out i n the d a t a  the h i g h e s t a c h i e v e r i s I#7, who  f o r t h i s study.  won  Perhaps  a p r o v i n c i a l Math  c o m p e t i t i o n and t h e t o p P h y s i c s p r i z e f o r h i s g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s , was  a l s o was  the most u n e q u i v o c a l about the lack of  importance  of f r i e n d s f o r academic  success.  I#7: F o r some smart people t h e y can do both (have f r i e n d s and a c h i e v e high marks). But f o r me f r i e n d s d i s t r a c t . I w i l l go out with f r i e n d s when I grow up.  While the informants  f o r t h i s s t u d y appeared  to  display  competent s o c i a l s k i l l s , many did not appear t o seek maximum exposure t o L2, and to  have had  overwhelmingly  academic s u c c e s s  p r i o r i t y o v e r s o c i a l and l e i s u r e  appears  activities.  Most r e p o r t e d s t u d y i n g alone, maintaining b u s y s c h e d u l e s  of  homework, and many a l s o worked a t a p a r t - t i m e  job, l e a v i n g  l i t t l e time  out  f o r socializing.  When t h e y do  i n t e r a c t i o n with n a t i v e s p e a k e r s  i t i s most o f t e n t o t h e i r  t e a c h e r s f o r help with t h e i r c o u r s e s . t h a t t h e i r n a t i v e speaking p e e r s their  seek  It does not  appear  occupy a major r o l e in  lives.  Where s o c i a l and d e s i r a b l e , informants academic s u c c e s s . between ESL  affective  f a c t o r s are considered  offer reasons  I#16, who  that are  as  unrelated to  wished f o r more i n t e r a c t i o n  and n a t i v e speaking  students  f r i e n d s f o r o t h e r than academic  reasons:  - 93  -  is referring  to  Int: I f y o u c o u l d make changes i n t h e running of t h e s c h o o l , o r in t h e way y o u r c l a s s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d , what would y o u l i k e t o change? I#16: I would l i k e t o have ESL s t u d e n t s a s s o c i a t e more with o t h e r s t u d e n t s , enjoy doing t h i n g s (together) with a group. Have people who have been t o ESL c l a s s e s and r e g u l a r c l a s s e s do a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h e r and help new ESL s t u d e n t s . I engoyed t u t o r i n g o t h e r ESL s t u d e n t s , and games l i k e v o l l e y b a l l . But doing i t c a s u a l l y i s b e t t e r . I&16, in wishing more i n t e r a c t i o n with n a t i v e speaking s t u d e n t s , i s i n c o n t r a s t with many of t h e informants who expressed  s u r p r i s e and d i s l i k e f o r what t h e y p e r c e i v e d a s t h e  lack of r e s p e c t shown by t h e i r n a t i v e speaking c o u n t e r p a r t s . They, t h e m s e l v e s , d e f e r t o t h e i r p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s r a t h e r t h a n i d e n t i f y i n g with Canadian b o r n s t u d e n t s . 3. V o c a b u l a r y a s t h e Language S k i l l Most R e l a t e d t o Academic Success V o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g i s c i t e d a s an e x p r e s s e d need by s e v e r a l informants, again appearing t o c o n f i r m t h e findings of S a v i l l e - T r o i k e  (1984), who a d v o c a t e s more emphasis on  v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g and l e s s  on c o n v e r s a t i o n .  The  s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y f o r academic s u b j e c t s was i d e n t i f i e d by t h e informants f o r t h i s s t u d y a s one of t h e communication blocks i n c o n t e n t c o u r s e s .  Idiomatic e x p r e s s i o n s , p e r c e i v e d  by informants a s more r e l a t e d t o c o n v e r s a t i o n a l needs, were not c o n s i d e r e d a s a problem f o r academic s i t u a t i o n s  except  f o r t h e example of H u c k l e b e r r y Finn which r e q u i r e s an understanding  of English c o n v e r s a t i o n a s an academic  subject.  - 94 -  This finding tends t o confirm t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n model of c o n c e n t r a t i n g on c o n t e n t i n ESL c l a s s e s i s a p o s i t i v e one f o r academic s u c c e s s .  Informants  appreciated the  t r a n s i t i o n a l c o u r s e s , designed f o r t h i s purpose, and t h e ongoing  t u t o r i n g and s u p p o r t i n English language  centres.  However, while a c c e p t i n g t h a t v o c a b u l a r y r e l a t e d t o content courses  i s l i k e l y more important  than, f o r example, t h e p a s t t e n s e  t o t h e informants  o r some o t h e r  grammatical  f o c u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t v o c a b u l a r y c o n t e n t might be  chosen  by t h e informants a s most h e l p f u l b e c a u s e t h i s i s a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y common i n ESL s u p p o r t c l a s s e s .  Had t h e r e been  emphasis on o t h e r a s p e c t s , i.e. t r a i n i n g i n s t u d y s k i l l s  such  as previewing and advance o r g a n i z e r s , finding t h e main idea, etc., informants may have made o t h e r c h o i c e s .  4. "Additive" Q u a l i t i e s  f o r A s s e s s i n g B i l i n g u a l Programs  T h e o r e t i c a l concerns criterion  f o r success  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  f o r " a d d i t i v e " bilingualism a s a  in b i l i n g u a l programs has been II.  In a d d i t i o n , i t i s compelling t o  compare "then" and "now" when f a c e d with evidence  of p a s t  education policies directed against minority students (Ashworth  1979).  While bilingualism (the c o n s c i o u s attempt  t o p r e s e r v e and  n u r t u r e the L l of t h e s t u d e n t while L2 i s added) may n o t be a s p e c i f i c academic o b j e c t i v e i n monolingual  immersion  programs, t h e model f o r t h e informants f o r t h i s study, t h e p r e s e n t d a t a , n o n t h e l e s s , i n d i c a t e s an encouraging - 95 -  change i n  the  s c h o o l environment from the  s t u d e n t s were not  days when ethnic  allowed t o speak t h e i r n a t i v e  minority languages a t  s c h o o l , s u f f e r i n g p o l i c i e s which were a t w o r s t r a c i s t , a t best  an  ethnocentric  would diminish  The  belief that  students'  fact that  use  present  day  speaking t h e i r L l both a t home and u s e d L l t e x t b o o k s , etc., i s an  a t s c h o o l , and  importance  longer  o f f i c i a l l y discouraged  maintaining  (and t h e r e f o r e  their  i n our  a strong  However, t h e r e  informants of the  bilingualism which a r e  recognition  society.  was  little  awareness on  cognitive benefits and  native  speaking s t u d e n t s who  the  Some  language as  t h e s e ESL  of c r e d i t and not  one  informants,  p o s i t i v e feedback.  become as  to  accomplishments.  above) comes t o mind. had  for  of  research.  make them more c o g n i t i v e of t h e i r remarkable p.9  such  a f f e c t i v e reinforcement  based in t h e o r y  "double s t a n d a r d " (see  no  I believe  " o f f i c i a l " r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r bilingualism might s e r v e  The  first  of " a d d i t i v e bilingualism") i s a t l e a s t  a c c e p t a n c e l i k e l y t o be  of the  they  i n d i c a t i o n of p o s i t i v e changes  L l use  of the  part  that  in pedagogical p r a c t i c e s .  languages i n d i c a t e s t h a t  students.  language  informants r e a d i l y r e p o r t  That a l l informants appear t o be  the  native  p r o g r e s s i n English.  our  which have o c c u r r e d  of the  Surely  fluent in a  target  would r e c e i v e a g r e a t This s t r a t e g y i s  deal  obviously  with which t h e s e informants a r e f a m i l i a r .  Some informants' a c c e p t a n c e by  indicated that there  some English Canadians who - 96  -  i s s t i l l a lack resent  people  of  who  don't speak English.  A l s o t h e r e i s t h e o v e r a l l f e a r of  speaking o u t i n c l a s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s of introduction into regular c l a s s e s .  So t h e r e remains  some  " u n o f f i c i a l " lack o f a c c e p t a n c e . A l s o , when examining  t h e ESL experience we w i l l s e e  t h a t t h e r e a r e some i n e q u i t i e s . languages  secondary  schools as a subject f o r credit.  Spanish s p e a k e r s  the extent t h a t credit.  European  have been r e c o g n i z e d f o r s t u d y and c r e d i t i n  Canadian three  F o r some time  a r e able t o b e n e f i t  The  from t h e i r L l t o  Spanish i s a s u b j e c t which c a n be t a k e n f o r  They c a n e n r o l l i n Spanish f o r an e a s y  credit.  This y e a r Mandarin and J a p a n e s e have been i n t r o d u c e d i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t a k i n g p a r t in t h e P a c i f i c Rim i n i t i a t i v e s program. those  7.  However t h i s o p t i o n i s s o f a r u n a v a i l a b l e t o  i n t h e o t h e r language  groups.  If bilingualism i s  t r u l y an a c c e p t e d e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e (as i t appears  t o be  f o r F r e n c h Immersion, f o r example) t h e n a l l b i l i n g u a l students should deserve based  c r e d i t towards high s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n  upon t h e i r knowledge of t h e i r n a t i v e language.  It  would c o s t nothing t o implement such a p o l i c y , which would s e r v e t o acknowledge t h e achievement of bilingualism f o r ESL l e a r n e r s a s with n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , and would p o s i t i v e acceptance could also free  of m i n o r i t y languages.  up a block o f c o u r s e time  English s k i l l s i n a n o n - c r e d i t (since c r e d i t  demonstrate Practically i t  f o r improvement o f i s deserved  f o r t h e i r knowledge of L l ) , and t h e r e f o r e n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g , program.  Students  would, of c o u r s e , have t o  demonstrate  mastery  of t h e i r L l , both spoken and w r i t t e n .  t h e y might be  For  asked t o w r i t e i n L l a major e s s a y  suitable topic.  Native speakers  example on a  of t h e s e languages  mark them t o a s s u r e a s t a n d a r d comparable t o t h a t  could attained  by s t u d e n t s in F r e n c h Immersion programs.  5. D i f f e r e n c e s A c c o r d i n g £ o  E t h n i c Group  With the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n of informants the was  t o a c h i e v e a balance  ethnic background.  to  of many f a c t o r s , including home and  What we  a t i o n of A s i a n s t u d e n t s .  First  be  overrepresent  a t l e a s t two  reasons  t h e r e i s a higher  of A s i a n speaking s t u d e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r than  groups such as Afghani and in Chapter  ended with i s an  There may  explain t h i s imbalance.  percentage  intention  Hindi.  Secondly as t o u c h e d  other  upon  II, A s i a n s t u d e n t s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y shown t o  be  more a c a d e m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l than o t h e r g r o u p s r e g a r d l e s s of SES  (see p22  t h i s study.  above). There  i t i s apparent range  It a p p e a r s  was  from  no  t h a t t h i s i s borne out in  attempt  t o c o n t r o l f o r SES,  and  Table II (p41) t h a t t h e r e i s a wide  as i n d i c a t e d in p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n and work in t h e i r  home c o u n t r y .  While i t i s beyond the scope examine the i s s u e  of t h i s s t u d y t o c l o s e l y  of e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s , i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note c o n t r a s t s which emerged i n the F o r example, comparing L#7, the Chinese a t t r i b u t e s h i s s u c c e s s i n Math and correspondence  student  who  Chemistry t o h i s  c o u r s e s in Chinese, with I#22, the  - 98  -  data.  Italian  speaker  who  spent  a g r e a t d e a l of time g e t t i n g help  i n f o r m a t i o n from h i s Geography t e a c h e r , s e r v e s t o t h a t whatever we f o r g e t t o take  I#7  and  think we  know as t e a c h e r s we  i n t o account  1822  e s t a t e agent, "enjoys u n t i l he  must  I#22, who  has  real  Itt7 w i l l wait  much time  His c a r e e r plan i s t o become an the  a  plans t o become a  t a l k i n g t o a p e r s o n " and  engineer, t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h  not  individual differences.  i s f i n i s h e d s c h o o l b e f o r e he  friends.  illustrate  a r e both bound f o r s u c c e s s , but  d i f f e r e n t kind of s u c c e s s .  and  for  electrical  Canadian armed f o r c e s .  In t h i s kind of e x e r c i s e t h e r e i s a f e a r of promoting stereotypes  of the " d i s c i p l i n e d A s i a n " and  I t a l i a n " , and  t h e r e f o r e prompts one  d i f f e r e n c e s within e t h n i c groups.  of o r i g i n of I#7) who  a t UBC,  was  "affable  t o look f o r i n d i v i d u a l A n o t h e r Mandarin  though from Taiwan i n s t e a d of People's country  the  speaker,  Republic of China  (the  plans t o s t u d y computer s c i e n c e  c i t e d e a r l i e r f o r h i s e x c e p t i o n a l i n t e r e s t in  making a v a r i e t y of f r i e n d s , f o r h i s f l e x i b i l i t y i n seeking to understand  n a t i v e speaking  s t u d e n t s , and  suggestion  f o r more c o n t a c t between ESL  students.  He  and  native  speaking  a p p e a r e d i n t e r e s t e d in gaining more background  on c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s , i.e. t o u n d e r s t a n d s t r i k e s in Canada.  He  why  i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t he  g e t t i n g t o know and t o know about  I#13,  f o r his  a Cantonese speaker  t o be h e r most d i f f i c u l t  there are also  enjoys  people.  from Hong Kong who  s u b j e c t remarked, "People - 99  so many  -  found always  Math  think i f you  a r e Chinese  you  Such d i f f e r e n c e s may  a r e good a t Math."  r e l a t e t o circumstance  or  background more than some i n h e r e n t a f f i n i t y f o r c e r t a i n subjects attributable to ethnicity.  If t h e y remained  t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r i e s o t h e r i n t e r e s t s and emerge — wizards.  in  a b i l i t i e s might  s u r e l y t h e y do not a l l become Math or Computer They o b v i o u s l y have narrower  where humanities  o p t i o n s in Canada  s u b j e c t s with h e a v y language  requirements  and  an unfamiliar background of experience a r e  The  I t a l i a n and  Spanish s p e a k e r s  intimidating.  s h a r e more of t h e same  world view and l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s of n a t i v e s p e a k e r s English than those alphabet.  of A s i a n c u l t u r e s , as w e l l as a  of  similar  It i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the A s i a n s t u d e n t s in  p a r t i c u l a r g r a s p a t math r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s where t h e y  feel  t h e y have a chance a t academic s u c c e s s and were the  ones  most l i k e l y t o r e l y on L l f o r "comprehensible  input".  Summary of R e l e v a n t I s s u e s A r i s i n g From the  Literature  It would appear t h a t f o r some informants the use  of L l  i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r s u c c e s s in r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , though o t h e r s did not e x p r e s s t h i s need, c i t i n g t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e i t would be an i n e f f i c i e n t method.  Such d i f f e r e n c e s  the, need f o r e d u c a t o r s t o look a t s t u d e n t s as Where informants sought  "comprehensible  individuals.  input" in L2, the  t e a c h e r r a t h e r t h a n a n a t i v e speaking s t u d e n t was approached.  highlight  most o f t e n  A l s o , informants confirmed the importance  dealing with c o u r s e  of  related vocabulary v i s - a - v i s conversation. - 100  -  A l s o , while t h e r e i s s t i l l evidence  of t h e "double  s t a n d a r d " of m i n o r i t y language bilingualism and m a j o r i t y language bilingualism, i.e. l i t t l e  self-recognition or  r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e of t h e achievements of the informants, t h e r e has been a p o s i t i v e acceptance  o f m i n o r i t y languages in t h e s o c i e t y (as  exemplified by t h e informants etc.)  shift in  freedom t o speak i t a t s c h o o l ,  R e c o g n i t i o n should go beyond n e u t r a l  however, i f we a r e t o a v o i d t h i s double  acceptance,  standard.  F i n a l l y , an attempt t o look a t d i f f e r e n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o e t h n i c o r i g i n attempted t o explain t h e o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Asian students category  compared with o t h e r language g r o u p s i n t h i s  of academically s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s .  B: Other I s s u e s A r i s i n g From t h e Data In t h i s p a r t i s s u e s which do n o t appear t o be f o r m a l l y r a i s e d in p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , including p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e s from e a r l i e r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e home c o u n t r y , which include both p a r e n t a l and s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ; d i s c i p l i n e and time achieve  academic s u c c e s s ; and a second look a t academic  "success".  Each w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n .  1. E d u c a t i o n  The  r e q u i r e d f o r ESL t o  in t h e Home  aspect  Country  of e a r l i e r academic l e a r n i n g i n t h e home  c o u n t r y , i.e. Math, which give such  students  an advantage i n  t h i s s u b j e c t i n Canadian s c h o o l s , has been d i s c u s s e d above. - 101 -  In  a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s the d i s c i p l i n a r y a s p e c t , the work  h a b i t s and developed  a t t i t u d e towards s c h o o l which informants e a r l y in t h e i r school l i f e  have  and b r i n g with them t o  Canada. I#2: The r u l e s i n my c o u n t r y a r e s t r i c t and I u s e d t o have harsh t e s t s . Here i t i s e a s i e r so I don't have problems. I#13: The way of t h e c u l t u r e and the s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s a r e r e a l l y tough (in Hong Kong). It was t o o s t r i c t . I learned t o work h a r d e r , s o here i t i s automatic t o complete a s s i g n ments on time and o t h e r things. I#7: You have t o do more i n my to working r e a l l y hard. ^  n a t i v e c o u n t r y . I got  used  I#22: Schools i n I t a l y r e q u i r e d more homework. In Grade 7 I was s t u d y i n g f o u r h o u r s a day. Here I s t u d y t h r e e h o u r s a day. And t h e r e you go t o s c h o o l on Saturday. Here you g e t e x t r a time on the weekends t o study. I#25: My a t t i t u d e toward s c h o o l . E a r l i e r d i s c i p l i n e and longer h o u r s help me in Canada. I am u s e d t o using e x t r a time f o r s c h o o l work. In to  Chapter  Four  a d i s c u s s i o n of informants'  Canadian s c h o o l s r e l a t e d how  used  s t u d e n t s who  adjustment  are obviously  t o d i f f e r e n t kinds of s c h o o l s a d j u s t t o doing s c h o o l i n  Canada.  It was  suggested  t h a t while much of the  d i s c i p l i n e of e a r l i e r days has s c h o o l s by f r e e r and  now  harsher  been r e p l a c e d i n Canadian  l e s s formal rules, there i s s t i l l  no  s h o r t c u t f o r s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and hard work when the g o a l i s for  academic s u c c e s s .  Most t e a c h e r s would welcome  d i l i g e n c e and  d e s i r e t o l e a r n in t h e i r students, both  Canadian and  foreign  born.  However, what appears experiences  such  t o be lacking i n the  of the informants, and - 102  earlier  does t h e r e f o r e appear t o -  r e q u i r e adjustment, and problem  i s an approach  solving.  different  from memorizing  F o r example, many r e p o r t e d t h a t  a v o i d e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g in d i s c u s s i o n s . c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o language be c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  While  this  they  reticence  d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e r e may a l s o  Most d i s l i k e d i n t e g r a t i v e  tasks  such as e s s a y type questions, p r e f e r r i n g d i s c r e t e type  tasks  (though t h i s might well r e f l e c t t h e p r e f e r e n c e s of most Canadian  born s t u d e n t s also).  d i f f i c u l t y accepting that discipline themselves  Some appeared  t o have  students are required t o  ( r a t h e r than have t h i s imposed by t h e  t e a c h e r ) and found i t d i f f i c u l t  t o work i n a c l a s s r o o m where  t h e r e was t a l k i n g , e t c . by o t h e r s t u d e n t s .  (Again t h e s e  c o u l d well be problematic f o r Canadian  s t u d e n t s a s well.)  born  In summary, t h e informants appear t o have brought  with  them t h e v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g t o o l s , d i s c i p l i n e and d e s i r e t o learn.  These q u a l i t i e s a r e high p r i o r i t i e s within t h e i r  c u l t u r a l and home backgrounds, and s e r v e them in good s t e a d in t h e h o s t  country.  2. D i s c i p l i n e and Time t o Achieve Academic  Success  It i s f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e informants appear t o have an abundance of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e t o s t i c k with t h e job, b e c a u s e what becomes apparent  from t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r  experience i s t h a t i t t a k e s an i n o r d i n a t e amount of time t o l e a r n in a second  language:  I#13: Now (in Canada) I have t o work double h a r d e r (sic). A Canadian s t u d e n t might s t u d y one hour. I have t o s t u d y two h o u r s j u s t t o f i n i s h i t up. - 103 -  Of c o u r s e t h e i s s u e literature.  In Chapter  of time a r i s e s a l s o i n the  II i t i s c i t e d t h a t i t t a k e s  f i v e t o s e v e n y e a r s or perhaps p r o f i c i e n c y in L2  longer t o achieve  as r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r  abstract  However, t h e s e informants a r e not measuring y e a r s , but in h o u r s  per  from  concepts.  t h e i r time in  day.  In Table V (p7 6) the homework schedule of i n f o r m a n t s displays that p e r day.  some of t h e s e s t u d e n t s s t u d y up t o s e v e n  Time and d i s c i p l i n e appear  t o be  essential for  keeping on t r a c k with t h e i r academic work. time or d i s c i p l i n e may d i s a d v a n t a g e t o be 3. A  p l a c e an ESL  Lacking t h i s  l e a r n e r a t t o o much of a  successful.  Second Look a t Academic Except  f o r the use  "Success"  of f i r s t  language  c o n t e n t , s t r a t e g i e s f o r homework and informants r e p o r t e d may  differ  born, h i g h - a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s .  to  understand  s t u d y which  only in degree  our  from  Canadian  While t h e y a r e l i k e l y under  more p r e s s u r e than n a t i v e speaking s t u d e n t s , like any s t u d e n t t h e y go  f o r help when t h e y don't understand,  good do  t h e i r homework, review work c o n t i n u o u s l y and p r e p a r e f o r exams.  Such m o t i v a t i o n and  c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r toward  e f f o r t must be  a major  their success.  It i s worth n o t i n g , however, t h a t i n t h i s  study  " s u c c e s s " i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d within c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s , i.e. Math and  hours  S c i e n c e s , and f o r t h e most p a r t - 104  -  excludes  Social  S t u d i e s and  Literature.  The  informants, whose "academic  success" is largely concentrated  in Math and  the  Sciences,  acknowledged as a problem t h e i r lack of w r i t i n g s k i l l s background in the humanities  s u b j e c t s as well as in  fundamental knowledge about Canadian c u l t u r e and Canadian  aspects  of  life.  In responding  t o the q u e s t i o n of t h e i r f a v o u r i t e  s u b j e c t t h e y mentioned a s courses  and  which t h e y had  Typical responses  f a v o u r i t e s Math and  learned i t in t h e i r  own  Science countries.  were as follows:  I#17: I l i k e Math b e c a u s e you and most Science c o u r s e s .  don't need t h a t much E n g l i s h ,  I#2: Chemistry and P h y s i c s b e c a u s e I a l r e a d y l e a r n e d them in my c o u n t r y . E n g l i s h i s the l e a s t f a v o u r i t e b e c a u s e I only l e a r n e d i t two y e a r s ago. I#25: Math, b e c a u s e I do well. Math was e a s i e r in the beginning, but A l g e b r a 12 got harder. I can't r e a d ahead so I won't be as good a t i t (won't g e t as high a mark) as b e f o r e . I#20: Sometimes i t g e t s h a r d i f t h e y (the s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s ) ask something about a Canadian c e l e b r i t y -- something you can't r e a l l y f i n d i n a book. I u n d e r s t a n d t h e E n g l i s h , but I don't u n d e r s t a n d what they're t a l k i n g about. S e c t i o n A above was the informants benefits.  a d i s c u s s i o n of academic  have brought with them as  It i s a l s o important  when t h e y attempt t o use example, I#7 university".  t o note  educational  h e r e what i s lacking  L l f o r academic l e a r n i n g .  s t a t e d t h a t "English w i l l k i l l me He  essay questions  continues  concepts  at  t o lack c o n f i d e n c e  i n t e s t s and  assignments.  in w r i t i n g  Informants a l s o  mentioned a lack of background in w e s t e r n thought  - 105  -  For  which  would e n a b l e current  them t o u n d e r s t a n d  topics  The  m a j o r i t y of t h e  marks, w i l l  most  when t h e y go for  grounded  i n Canadian  be d i r e c t e d  perpetuates  then a v o i d the p r a c t i c e  history.  toward  to achieve  S c i e n c e s and  where t h e y have t h e most  Ignoring humanities  requirements  r e f e r e n c e s and  informants, oriented  to university,  success.  language  likely  literary  necessary  courses with  good Math  chance  heavy  the problem, as  students  f o r s u c c e s s and  enjoyment  of such s u b j e c t s .  Pavelich  (1978) d i s c u s s e d a t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g  i n t r o d u c e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h v e r y problem perceived  occurred with  by t h e i r  students.  f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who  Math and  their  spoken E n g l i s h .  testing  of a l l f i r s t - y e a r  streaming  result  that  of the  first  While  English year  model  in  100  has  This led to  become a two  s t u d e n t s and year  course  the for  25%  students.  were r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s  I n d i a , the s i t u a t i o n  appears  study also,  of t h e i r  in spite  immersed  licenses the  t h e s t u d e n t s d e s c r i b e d by P a v e l i c h were  s t u d e n t s who  time  degrees  this  were  S c i e n c e t h e y were r e f u s e d p r a c t i c i n g  because of inadequate and  when  S c i e n c e p r o f e s s o r s as  However, on c o m p l e t i n g  Pharmaceutical  Columbia  course  to f i t the having  i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  Saville-Troike's  from  had  Hong Kong  and  informants  for  a somewhat  - 106  -  i s applicable  this  longer  environment.  (1984) c a u t i o n t o c o n s i d e r  s t u d e n t ' s u l t i m a t e academic success  foreign  the here,  if  f o r many t h e h u m a n i t i e s  of  Math and  grounding like  Science  i n the  courses w i l l  oriented  language  careers.  and  cultural  t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by P a v e l i c h ,  functioning addition study  adequately  they are  in their  likely  i n humanities  be a v o i d e d Without  i n favour  solid  context they  have d i f f i c u l t y  in  f u t u r e work e n v i r o n m e n t .  t o pass  subjects.  over  I think i t reasonable  some would p u r s u e  c a r e e r s i n the realms  literature,  history  sciences i f learning  Ll,  and,  i f this  i s true,  c o n s i d e r a b l y narrowed second  their  to of  in  their  been  need t o l e a r n  in a  language.  As  educators  i t i s important  answers t o a l l e v i a t e  this  s t u d e n t s t o pursue  Summary o f  I s s u e s Not  This discussion highlighted discipline order  Raised of  and  i n the  and  t o a p p r e c i a t e more f u l l y  s t r o n g backgrounds  home c o u n t r i e s .  their  home c o u n t r y ,  the e f f e c t  (CALP i n  of home  informants  rely  Sciences learned i n  s u b j e c t s not literature  -  included  informants'  The  Numbers of h o u r s  - 107  has  a c a d e m i c work  i n Math and  In o t h e r  been  discussion  schools.  i.e. English  are at a disadvantage.  Literature  c o n t r i b u t e s to the  i n Canadian  their  subjects.  i s s u e s w h i c h have n o t  informants' e a r l i e r  academic success  looking for  to encourage  humanities  in previous theoretical  background which l i k e l y  upon t h e i r  to continue  problem  interested  Ll)  c h o i c e s have  because of t h e i r  In  opportunities for  assume t h a t  or s o c i a l  may,  introduced in and  spent  history  they  i n homework  by  some i n f o r m a n t s  success  was  are  especially  high.  considered  i n a wider  context  a c h i e v i n g a h i g h mark this of  i s not  the  to undervalue  Informants,  deficit,  and  education  in a limited  the  in a  but  rather to  difficult  For,  will  ESL  informants'  informants This w i l l  raise be  suggestions  and  Canadian born  has  f o r ESL fact  by a l l s t u d e n t s .  immigrant  to  on  to  the  communication On  both  these  and  topics  needs.  interaction  interaction  students.  Our  a b o u t ESL  most h e l p f u l ,  threatening  that relate  Instructional  teachers  c l a s s e s had  students  environment  played  informants  support  a central  role  have a s s e s s e d  classes.  What  i n the  - 108  first  s m a l l e r ESL  -  arrival. class  what  i s the  o p p o r t u n i t y t o make f r i e n d s  upon t h e i r  was  has  i n a d d i t i o n to academic needs,  s u p p o r t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t and other  Data  Support  t h a t ESL  been p o s i t i v e  appeared  From the  followed with d i s c u s s i o n regarding  between ESL  reported  Arising  t o meet  subject area  The  expressed  than L l .  regular classroom.  and  A Role  achievement  i d e n t i f y an  programs and  between ESL  1.  r a n g e of s u b j e c t s , t h o u g h  issues already presented  i n the  of  academic c h o i c e s , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n  v i e w s on ESL  difficulties  that  above m e n t i o n e d d e s i r a b i l i t y  students'  summarize  academic  c o n s t r a i n t s i n g e t t i n g an  instruction  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e  than  considerable  language other  c: implications  widen the  the  Finally,  The  where  with less  immigrant and  students are  culture,  written  and  learn  language,  informants. addressed  appears  more b a c k g r o u n d  tutoring  t o have been  and  i n t o Canadian  into  tutoring  regular classes.  In t h i s  by t h o s e  benefitting  monolingual  of  2.  i n the  Communication Several  if  was  teacher  is talking,  t e a c h e r s who  a l l o w some c l a s s  had  difficulty  adequately the  culture.  i s b e i n g met after  i n some  the student i s  ELC's and  special  regular class from  for  these  hours  was  programs.  t o be  ESL  necessary for  Classroom expressed  a l s o about and  time  following  that  repeat copying  i t would be important notes  and  important  for copying  helpful  points.  while  informants appreciated  w r i t e notes  and  t o have been  our  students.  informants  a concern  indispensable to  informants  t e a c h e r s would e m p h a s i z e and  There  and  i m m e r s i o n model of e d u c a t i o n ,  c l a s s e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by t h e academic s u c c e s s  of t h e s p o k e n  h i s t o r y and  s e s s i o n s b e f o r e or a f t e r  appreciated  schools  more v o c a b u l a r y , and  i t appears  of ongoing  American  written practice,  c o n t e n t and  need, which  i s that  mainstreamed  fundamentals  f o r more o r a l  o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n  cases,  the  Needs w h i c h a p p e a r n o t  are  Another  introduced to North  the  those  p o i n t s on t h e them.  Also  i f t h e t e a c h e r spoke t o o  board  informants quickly.  I#22: At f i r s t i f I m i s s e d j u s t one word I c o u l d n ' t g e t the meaning. I t would be h e l p f u l i f t e a c h e r s r e p e a t e d important p o i n t s .  - 109  -  It  i s apparent  t h a t L l use i s i m p o r t a n t  f o r some  s t u d e n t s ' a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s , and t e a c h e r s m i g h t this  s t r a t e g y with students.  presently available responses  history, useful  from t h e i n f o r m a n t s '  t h a t some b a s i c r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l  A need  l a n g u a g e g r o u p s was e x p r e s s e d  informants,  f o r t u t o r s of  stages of  i n t o a c a d e m i c c l a s s e s would a p p e a r  helpful,  particularly  sibling,  parent  Finally  would be  by some o f t h e  p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the beginning  mainstreaming  such as  works, math and s c i e n c e t e x t s ,  additions to school l i b r a r i e s .  f o r those  or o t h e r  students  relative  there appears  aware o f c u l t u r a l  t o be a need  differences,  shows r e s p e c t .  Course  the  larger  3. C o o p e r a t i o n Informants  an o l d e r them.  f o r t e a c h e r s t o be  where  fearful  out i n c l a s s  i n China  t e a c h e r s might a l s o  l e a r n e r s who a r e i n o r d i n a t e l y classroom  without  i . e . speaking  ESL  t o be  who c a n a s s i s t  was m e n t i o n e d a s a C a n a d i a n t r a i t ,  silence  empathize of speaking  with out i n  setting.  Between ESL and S u b j e c t have s u g g e s t e d  extra tutoring  Teachers  that t r a n s i t i o n a l  ( g i v e n b y ESL t e a c h e r s )  course  assignments are h e l p f u l .  demand  increasing  teachers.  materials are  of the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups,  literary  different  ongoing  such  t o some s t u d e n t s ,  i t would a p p e a r  i n the languages  While  encourage  Such  c o u r s e s and  for preparing  initiatives  would  c o o p e r a t i o n between ESL and s u b j e c t  I t i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s  study  what may be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e two s p e c i a l i s t s  - 110 -  to detail  t o work  together. required, teachers and  I n g e n e r a l t h o u g h , a needs a s s e s s m e n t would be and c o n s u l t a t i o n time  made a v a i l a b l e .  would be r e q u i r e d t o know t h e t y p e s  the o b j e c t i v e s of the c o n t e n t  provided  by t h e ESL t e a c h e r ,  teacher.  ESL  of assignments, From  information  the academic s p e c i a l i s t  would  come t o a p p r e c i a t e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n d i v i d u a l ESL students,  such  as t h e i r  c l a s s e s and c u l t u r a l  fear of speaking  differences according  backgrounds.  F o r example, t e a c h e r s  participation  might r e a s s e s s  concessions  this  when t h e y a r e f i r s t  to student  who g i v e marks f o r c l a s s  practice  about a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s  particularly  out i n t h e i r  and make some  o f ESL s t u d e n t s ,  mainstreamed  into  regular  courses.  This  i n t e r a c t i o n with  content  teachers  i s w i t h i n the  o f t h e ESL t e a c h e r ,  who s e e s  h i s / h e r r o l e as  perceived  role  advocate,  and c u l t u r a l  1988). be  There  arbiter  i s no a p p a r e n t  f o r t h e ESL s t u d e n t .  good r e a s o n  f o r ESL s t u d e n t s t o  t h e o n l y ones l e a r n i n g a b o u t a new c u l t u r e :  o p t i m a l l y be t h e c a s e students  f o r teachers  and n a t i v e  who a r e a b l e  necessary  would  speaking  be p a i d t o t h o s e  t e a c h e r s , e x a m p l e s o f whom were m e n t i o n e d  For  this  also.  In a d d i t i o n , a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d  students  (Defoe  to e x p l a i n content  to delve such  deeper  cooperation  to provide  into  gifted  by t h e i n f o r m a n t s ,  m a s t e r f u l l y and i n s p i r e t h e  the s u b j e c t .  t o be r e a l i z e d  c o n s u l t a t i o n time  - I l l -  i t would be  f o r ESL and c o n t e n t  teachers, and  as  well  i n s e r v i c e workshops and  Interaction  teacher  One  was  and  a multicultural society,  for  a member o f  ethnic  a  educational  But  bilingualism",  of  the  "mosaic" to  multiculturalism of to  T h e r e must be all  loss  i s both a  portray  to  F r e n c h and represent equality  English  each  majority  Equality  of  world Native  But  of  the  was  language,  travesty  who  speakers  of  and  because  of  the  to a u n i f i e d  English  to  or  may  "two  more  respect  for  Canada's  and  French  address  enjoy majority status  considered use  i n the  for  the  deficit  status larger  multilingual. to of  have their  r e m a i n m o n o l i n g u a l when b i l i n g u a l i s m  -  the  minority.  equal  finally  widespread  - 112  whole.  flourish.  b i l i n g u a l or are  effective  cannot s u b s t i t u t e  have m i n o r i t y  English  and  framework of  l a n g u a g e s of  where most p e o p l e a r e  i f we  aspirations  desirability  with eighty  o p p o r t u n i t y must  Canada but  privileged  of a  o p p o r t u n i t y and  m o n o l i n g u a l a n g l o p h o n e s , who  within  The  individual ethnic  Canada's m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y  of  Canada's  a strong  s u c c e e d we  language groups w i t h i n  recognized  Students  to maintain L l  message, e a c h segment must c o n t r i b u t e  solitudes  resource  failure.  for a  solitudes"  Speaking  "mosaic".  minority  expressed, understanding that "subtractive  Native  a discussion  for  an  and  emphasis  t r a i n i n g programs.  Between ESL  In C h a p t e r  For  more  t r a i n i n g f o r c o o p e r a t i o n between r e g u l a r  teachers during 4.  as  is  been language. considered  a desirable  educational goal,  monolingual  anglophones  all  s t u d e n t s , ESL  languages.  today.  available  t o be  And  awareness about  language  the  e x t e n d and  pride  could  importance fluency  capitalize  Canadians  which  D:  Suggestions For F u r t h e r  c a n be  t a k i n g much l o n g e r t h a n  of  i n both o f f i c i a l on  this  helping  be  global  a  new within  languages.  enthusiasm  i n language  teaching.  to  In Canada  technology.  an  We  by w o r k i n g  other languages.  We  This  official  would policy  proud.  Research  informants are saying that  p e r c e p t i o n might  t o be  "multiculturalism",  of  The  programs  of b i l i n g u a l i s m  to learn  become l e a d e r s e m p h a s i s on  are  o f o t h e r s becomes  there appears  o u r s e l v e s on our c o m m u n i c a t i o n  p u t a new  i n the past are i n  of v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s  Understanding  other  between p e o p l e s o f many c o u n t r i e s .  opportunities  also  that  to l e a r n  t e a c h e r s i n immersion  earlier,  Canada, e m p h a s i z i n g  we  are e n t i t l e d  Native speakers  interaction  establish  anglophone,  that  I believe  i m p o r t a n t g i v e n p r e s e n t e m p h a s i s on  as m e n t i o n e d  could  are disadvantaged.  the s c h o o l s .  increasingly t r a d e and  i t c a n be a r g u e d  O p p o r t u n i t i e s not a v a i l a b l e  our m i d s t  throughout  and  then  for native  looked at  f o r them s t u d i e s speaking students.  i n more d e t a i l .  students get through  their  quickly?  - 113  -  Are  are This  t h e r e ways  course material  more  This links  i s an a d d i t i o n  language p r o f i c i e n c y  determined results  at a general  t o academic  level  t o academic s u c c e s s .  the s p e c i f i c a  to the r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t  letter  by c o m p a r i n g  and t o l o o k  f o r a response  raised.  F o r example homework  response  i s t o put i n longer hours.  us more a b o u t  in  their  this.  also  effect ESL  this  area  less  to content  meaningful. ethnic  minority  from  approach  are  Can i t  i n order  specific  that students i n  tasks", i . e . tasks Central to concepts  s c h o o l s , w i t h some e i g h t y t o expect  that  different  bilingual  It i s therefore  important  ways f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n t e n t  t h e medium o f t h e s e c o n d  language  (along  f o r L l i n p u t when r e q u i r e d ) .  ( f o r example Mohan 1986) p r o v i d e a m o d e l ,  few s p e c i f i c  ways t o  programs a r e p o s s i b l e f o r a l l s t u d e n t s o f  t h e above s u g g e s t i o n educators  c a n be t a u g h t and  ways o f making a b s t r a c t  i t is unrealistic  through  student  concluded  research i s to find  e t h n i c m i n o r i t y language groups.  classes  What  the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m .  In V a n c o u v e r  immersion  to determine  Why?  strategies  upon " r e a l  i s to find  groups,  We need r e s e a r c h t o t e l l  the time?  for qualitative  c l a s s e s are focussed  approach  to the issues  time-consuming?  a more i n t e g r a t i v e  related  must c o m p l e t e f o r  making l e a r n i n g more e f f e c t i v e .  make l e a r n i n g  Another  i s t o examine  O ' M a l l e y e t a l . (1985)  research that learning  improved, t h e r e b y  test  i s an i s s u e -- t h e s t u d e n t ' s  What t a k e s  h e l p or h i n d e r ?  language  An a l t e r n a t i v e  academic t a s k s which s t u d e n t s  grade,  strategies  achievement,  examples  f o r teachers  - 114 -  to follow.  While there  with  An light  additional  upon t h i s  students who  such  research topic  i s s u e of a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s  as  the  informants  a r e u n s u c c e s s f u l and  studies  could  between ESL t o be  w h i c h m i g h t shed  identify  and  for this  i n danger  strategies  i n teacher  i s a comparison study with  of d r o p p i n g  of  those  out.  Other  for successful interaction  s u b j e c t a r e a t e a c h e r s , an  sadly neglected  more  training  area  that  appears  courses.  E: C l o s i n g Comments  Chapter  One  on b i l i n g u a l successful of t h e  briefly  education  Vancouver.  warrant  An  such  bilingualism,  T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of remained w i t h i n the  program,  i t now  i . e . the  deserves  to probable  Ashworth  at a loss  f o r meaning, t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t i n g  mark t i m e  while  students  learning number  the  of s u c h  will  not  programs  take  i n c l u d e the  seriously and  of d i f f e r e n t  languages  spoken the  to run.  -  of  not  being  need  to  possibility task  of  t h a t where t h e r e a r e  Also there  - 115  numbers  language.  enough t h e  language,  unwieldy  the  the second  second  c o s t l y and  introduction  e d u c a t i o n model t h e i r  g a i n i n g mastery over  disadvantages  in  as a d v a n t a g e o u s f o r  students  that  exists  c o g n i t i v e advantages  (1988) l i s t s  in this  context  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  immersion  The  perspective  i m m e r s i o n programs where s t u d e n t  initiatives  In a d d i t i o n  has  historic  i m m e r s i o n " p r o g r a m as  alternative  language  an  i n Canada.  academic students  "monolingual  heritage  outlined  a  programs would i s the danger  be  that  of  it  may  promote e v e n more p r e j u d i c e where members o f a  visible  m i n o r i t y group are segregated  However, i t i s c l e a r potential  educators  fill  the  necessary  Also  there appears  that there are  positions t o be  no  benefit  language  immersion  programs.  years  /or  of could  tutors.  anglophone i n such  future scenario for bilingual be  day.  minority  teaching, i t  equally challenged  i n the  ahead.  the  e x e r c i s e of  potential  with a purpose". recognize  the  with t h e i r others.  "asking the  to l e a r n  informants  lives  and  and  p r o g r a m s , can  preclude  McColl discussion  (1976) has  and  I heartily  informal study,  the a l l too  offered  s t u d y as  to  empathize  to evaluate  within school  situation  model f o r a  native speaking  where  of ESL  willing  panel  students  I t h i n k of  "survivors",  -  to  in a strategy plan.  of s t u d e n t s  - 116  I came t o  conducted  w i t h some c o n c e r n s  panel  aware  recommend t h i s  familiar  a useful  t o a l l o w t e a c h e r s and  for this  the data  students  made me  i n "a c o n v e r s a t i o n  individuals,  i s t h e m i s s i n g component  with McColl's  informants  through  encouraging  o p p o r t u n i t y to empathize As  as  s t u d e n t s " has  students  problems.  Even a s h o r t and  student  from  In s o r t i n g  the c l a s s r o o m  the  why  by p a r t i c i p a t i n g  that teachers w i l l  This of  a number  as t e a c h e r s and good r e a s o n  c o u l d not  appears  now  of e t h n i c m i n o r i t y b a c k g r o u n d who  students  Whatever t h e  f o r p a r t of each  an  students. the to  tell  their  s t o r y because  their  p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s  thank  them a l l .  of  they  I trust  a l l twenty-five  felt  that  students  t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y t o share h e l d some i m p o r t a n c e .  I#2 e x p r e s s e s  the  I  sentiments  who were i n v o l v e d when he  states: I t h i n k i t ' s a good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r me t o h e l p t h e p r o g r a m . To h e l p t h e o t h e r s who a r e coming a f t e r .  - 117 -  CHAPTER NOTES 1  Eight of t h e t w e n t y - f o u r i n f o r m a n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y were a l r e a d y b i l i n g u a l or m u l t i l i n g u a l upon a r r i v a l , s o f o r them E n g l i s h i s not a second, but a t h i r d or f o u r t h language. But f o r our p u r p o s e s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h e y a r e a l l i d e n t i f i e d as ESL l e a r n e r s , t h a t i s , l e a r n e r s of English as a "second" language.  2  V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l Board s t a t i s t i c s , published V a n e Q U y e r S u n , June 18, 1988.  3  H e r i t a g e language c l a s s e s include language c l a s s e s c o n d u c t e d o u t s i d e r e g u l a r s c h o o l h o u r s f o r c h i l d r e n of e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , as w e l l as m i n o r i t y language b i l i n g u a l immersion programs such a s the Ukrainian B i l i n g u a l Program i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of such programs s e e Cummins 1981, 1984.  4  B e r g e r , Thomas R., "Toward t h e Regime of Tolerance", an a d d r e s s p r e s e n t e d a t the N a t i o n a l Symposium on the Humanities s p o n s o r e d by Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario, a t Holiday Inn H a r b o u r s i d e , Vancouver, B.C., Feb. 12, 1983.  in  The  r  5  F o r example see " B i l i n g u a l Boom: F r e n c h Is Taking Off", The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e June 23, 1985. r  6  Immersion programs in J a p a n e s e and Mandarin w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d i n 15 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s by September 1989. This i s e x p e c t e d t o double t o 30 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s within f i v e y e a r s . See " P a c i f i c Rim program c a t c h i n g on", The V a n c o u v e r Sun, June 21, 1988.  7  Ibid. There i s i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s . By 1989 immersion programs w i l l be o f f e r e d in s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s taking p a r t in I n i t i a t i v e s program.  -  118  -  in A s i a n languages i n J a p a n e s e and Mandarin f o r g r a d e s 6 t o 12, the P a c i f i c Rim  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashworth, Mary. 1975. Immigrant Children and Canadian Schools. T o r o n t o : McClelland and Stewart. . 1979. The F o r c e s Which Shaped Them: A H i s t o r y of t h e E d u c a t i o n of M i n o r i t y Children in B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: New S t a r Books. . 1988. B l e s s e d With B i l i n g u a l B r a i n s : E d u c a t i o n of Immigrant Children With E n g l i s h a s a Second Language. U n i v e r s i t y of B.C.: P a c i f i c Educational Press. B u r g e s s , Robert. 1984. In The F i e l d : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o F i e l d R e s e a r c h . London: A l l a n and Unwin. C o l l i e r , V i r g i n i a . 1987. Age and Rate o f A c q u i s i t i o n of Second Language f o r Academic P u r p o s e s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 21(4): 617-39. Cummins, Jim. 1979. L i n g u i s t i c Interdependence and t h e E d u c a t i o n a l Development of B i l i n g u a l Children. Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 49 (2): 222-51. . 1980. Bilingualism and t h e ESL Student. TESL Talk 11: 8-12. . 1981. Age on A r r i v a l and Immigrant Second ' L e a r n i n g i n Canada: A Reassessment. Applied L i n g u i s t i c s 11(2): 132-49.  Language  . 1984. BiUngualism and Special Education; I s s u e s i n A s s e s s m e n t and Pedagogy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Cummins, Jim and M e r r i l l Swain. 1986. Bilingualism i n E d u c a t i o n : A s p e c t s of T h e o r y . R e s e a r c h and P r a c t i c e . London: Longman House. Day, E l a i n e and S t a n Shapson. 1983. B.C. F r e n c h Study, E x e c u t i v e Summary. Burnaby, B.C.: Simon F r a s e r University. Defoe, T r a c y . 1986. E n g l i s h a s a Second Language T e a c h e r s and C u l t u r e : An Interview S t u d y of Role P e r c e p t i o n s . Master's T h e s i s : U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. E d e l s k y C , S. Hudleston, B. F l o r e s , F. Barking, B. A l t w e r g e r and K. J i l b e r t . 1983. Semilingualism and Language D e f i c i t . Applied L i n g u i s t i c s 4 (1): 1-22.  - 119 -  Fishman, J o s h u a . 19 82. Whorfianism of the T h i r d Kind: E t h n o - l i n g u i s t i c D i v e r s i t y as a Worldwide S o c i e t a l A s s e t . Language In S o c i e t y 11(1): 1-14. Lambert, W.E. and G.R. Tucker. 1972. B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n of Children: The St. Lambert Experiment. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. Lewin, Miriam. 1979. Understanding P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h : The Student Researcher's Handbook New York: Wiley. M a r s h a l l , J o n and A l v i n Sokol. 1969. G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Independent S t u d e n t s . R e s e a r c h Paper. McColl, Rod. 1976. The S u r v i v o r s A r e Heard TESL Talk 7 (4): 3-7.  From.  Mohan, Bernard. 19 81. Language, Content and t h e I n t e r a c t i v e P r i n c i p l e . TESL Canada: C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s , TEAL 19 81. . 1986. Language and Content. Reading, Mass.: Addis on-Wesley, Naiman, N., M. F r o h l i c k , H.H. S t e r n , and A. Tadesco. 19 78. The Good Language L e a r n e r . T o r o n t o , Ont.: Modern Language C e n t r e , OISE. O'Malley, M., A. Chamot, G. Strewner-Manzanares, R. Russo, L. Kupper. 19 85. L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g y A p p l i c a t i o n s with S t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h as a Second Language. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 18(2): 557-86. P a v e l i c h , Joan. 1978. Organizing S p e c i a l C l a s s e s f o r F o r e i g n S t u d e n t s in the T e c h n i c a l Writing C o u r s e . T e c h n i c a l Writing T e a c h e r 5 (2): 55-58. Rubin, J . 1975. What the "Good Language L e a r n e r " Can Us. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 9(1): 41-51  Teach  Sa v i l l e - T r o i k e , Muriel. 1984. What R e a l l y M a t t e r s in Second Language L e a r n i n g f o r Academic Achievement? TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 18(2): 199-219. Spradley, James. 1979. The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, R i n e h a r t and Winston. Swain, M e r r i l l . 1981. Time and Timing i n B i l i n g u a l Education. Language L e a r n i n g 31(1): 1-15. and Sharon Lapkin. 1982. E v a l u a t i n g B i l i n g u a l Education: A Canadian Case Study. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. - 120  -  W o n g - F i l l m o r e , L i l y . 1979. i n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n s e c o n d Language A c q u i s i t i o n , i n Individual Differences In Language A b i l i t y and Language B e h a v i o r , e d . C. F i l l m o r e , D. Kempler and W.S.Y. Wang. 203-28. New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s . . 1983. The Language L e a r n e r a s a n I n d i v i d u a l : I m p l i c a t i o n s o f R e s e a r c h on I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s f o r the ESL T e a c h e r . I n On TESOL '82. e d . M.A. C l a r k e and J . Handscombe. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : TESOL Yin,  R o b e r t . 1984. Case S t u d y R e s e a r c h : D e s i g n and M e t h o d s . B e v e r l e y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s  - 121  -  APPENDIX A: ESL STUDENT QUESTIONAIRE  I:  Student  Narrative  T e l l t h e s t o r y o f y o u r e d u c a t i o n s t a r t i n g with y o u r in y o u r home c o u n t r y . II: A.  B.  Student  school  Perceptions  P e r c e p t i o n s about Canada and N a t i v e  Country  1.  Why d i d y o u and y o u r family move t o Canada?  2.  How d i d y o u f e e l then about moving?  3.  How do y o u f e e l about l i v i n g h e r e  4.  How do y o u compare Canada with y o u r n a t i v e  5.  What do y o u l i k e most about  6.  What do y o u wish c o u l d be changed?  7.  Do y o u plan t o go back someday t o l i v e i n y o u r native country?  8.  What a r e y o u r plans f o r t h e f u t u r e ?  P e r c e p t i o n s about S e l f a s . 1.  now? country?  Canada?  Student  You seem t o be a s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t . What do y o u think a r e t h e r e a s o n s f o r y o u r s u c c e s s in s c h o o l ?  2.  What i s t h e p u r p o s e f o r g e t t i n g an  3.  What a d v i c e would y o u g i v e a younger b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r t o help him o r h e r s u c c e e d i n s c h o o l ?  4.  If y o u c o u l d make changes i n t h e running o f the s c h o o l , o r t h e way y o u r c l a s s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d , what would y o u like t o change?  5.  What s h o u l d t e a c h e r s do t o help s t u d e n t s  6.  How a r e s c h o o l s here s i m i l a r t o o r d i f f e r e n t from the s c h o o l y o u a t t e n d e d i n y o u r n a t i v e c o u n t r y ?  7.  Should Canadian s c h o o l s be more like t h o s e native country. (Explain)  - 122 -  education?  succeed?  in y o u r  iii:  IV:  8.  A r e t h e r e any b e n e f i t s t o learning language? (Explain)  another  9.  Have y o u t a u g h t a n y v o c a b u l a r y from y o u r n a t i v e language t o a n a t i v e speaking f r i e n d o r t e a c h e r ? (Specify)  E;SL Expedience 1.  When do y o u u s e E n g l i s h o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l ? ( T V / r a d i o / m o v i e s / c o n v e r s a t i o n with family members and f r i e n d s )  2.  What do y o u r e a d i n E n g l i s h b e s i d e s s c h o o l assignments? (newspapers/magazines/novels/other)  3.  How do y o u c h o o s e t h i s m a t e r i a l ?  4.  When and t o whom do y o u speak y o u r n a t i v e language? (a) a t home: always/only sometimes ( s p e c i f y ) (b) a t s c h o o l : when/to whom  5.  When do y o u r e a d i n y o u r n a t i v e language? (Specify how m a t e r i a l c h o s e n and t y p e s o f reading, i.e. r e c r e a t i o n / s p e c i f i c t o p i c s , etc.)  6.  Do y o u go t o n a t i v e language movies?  7.  How do/did y o u f e e l i n y o u r  8.  How does/did E S L help y o u most i n y o u r classes?  9.  A r e ESL c l a s s e s necessary school?  ESL classrooms? subject  for later success in  10.  I f y o u were t h e E S L t e a c h e r what would y o u change in o r d e r t o help y o u r s t u d e n t s with t h e i r s u b j e c t classes?  11.  Was anything i n y o u r unnecessary?  Content 1.  ESL c l a s s useless or  Classes  Which s u b j e c t s do y o u e n j o y most?  Least?  reasons) 2.  Which s u b j e c t s a r e e a s i e s t ?  3.  Which s u b j e c t s a r e most d i f f i c u l t ?  - 123 -  Why? Why?  (Elicit  4.  Is d i f f i c u l t y more o f t e n with the language or with understanding c o n t e n t ? (Specify i f t h i s i s d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s , I.e. Math vs. S o c i a l Studies)  5.  What assignments have you term? ( o r a l / w r i t t e n )  6.  How  did you  prepare  f o r your  7.  How  did you  prepare  f o r the w r i t t e n  8.  How do you p r e p a r e f o r exams? (Specify, i.e. s t u d y alone/with f r i e n d , memorize i n f o r m a t i o n , etc.)  9.  Which t y p e difficult?  had  in your  oral  of exam q u e s t i o n s do you Easiest?  courses  this  assignments? assignments?  f i n d most  10.  Do y o u r c o u r s e t e a c h e r s g i v e e x t r a help t o ESL s p e a k e r s ? ( e x t r a time t o f i n i s h assignments? other?)  11.  Is t h e r e anything t h a t makes you able i n any  f e e l uncomfort-  of y o u r c l a s s e s ?  12.  What d i f f i c u l t i e s do you  13.  In l e c t u r e s and c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s do you g e t the meaning behind them? What would help you u n d e r s t a n d meaning more e a s i l y ?  14.  Should Should Should Should  the the the the  teacher teacher teacher teacher  have with c o n t e n t c l a s s e s ?  speak more slowly? speak l o u d e r ? s t r e s s important words or i d e a s ? r e p e a t important p o i n t s ? Other?  15.  Does t h e use of idiom or s l a n g make i t d i f f i c u l t u n d e r s t a n d the s p e a k e r ? (Give example)  16.  Do you have communication problems i n c l a s s ? do you do?  17.  Do you v o l u n t e e r t o answer q u e s t i o n s and class discussions?  18.  How do you f e e l about being asked when you have not v o l u n t e e r e d t o answer? Is i t the same f o r ESL class?  - 124  -  to  What  join in  V:  Student  1.  Strategies  When y o u have d i f f i c u l t y with y o u r  s c h o o l work t o  whom do y o u go f o r help? 2.  Do y o u u s e a d i c t i o n a r y ?  Monolingual?  Bilingual?  3. 4.  Do y o u u s e r e f e r e n c e books In y o u r n a t i v e language? Do y o u s t u d y with a f r i e n d ? ( S p e c i f y when and with n a t i v e s p e a k e r o r ESL speaker)  5.  Do y o u r e a d about o r d i s c u s s c o n t e n t being s t u d i e d in y o u r n a t i v e language and t h e n t r a n s l a t e i n t o English?  6.  When do y o u t a k e n o t e s i n c l a s s ? In E n g l i s h o r i n n a t i v e language? Why do y o u u s e t h i s language? (speed/to improve command o f t h e language)  7.  A r e f r i e n d s important  f o r school success?  8.  Do y o u do homework?  How much?  9.  What s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s from y o u r n a t i v e c o u n t r y have helped y o u here i n Canada?  When?  10.  How have y o u r s t r a t e g i e s changed? What a r e t h e y now?  What were  they?  11.  What a r e important t h i n g s t o be s u c c e s s f u l in school?  12.  I f y o u were t h e t e a c h e r what would y o u change In o r d e r t o help s t u d e n t s l e a r n b e t t e r ?  VI: Home E f f e c t s on Schooling 1.  How do y o u r p a r e n t s help y o u i n y o u r  2.  What do y o u r p a r e n t s f e e l about  3.  What f u t u r e plans do y o u r p a r e n t s have f o r you?  4.  When do y o u f e e l r e a l l y happy a t home?  5.  What do y o u r p a r e n t s like o r n o t like Canadian s c h o o l s ?  6.  Do y o u r p a r e n t s speak and u s e E n g l i s h ? the home/at home)  7.  Do y o u r p a r e n t s meet with y o u r t e a c h e r s ? - 125 -  s c h o o l work?  education?  about (outside When?  

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