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Parental involvement in an experimental reading program, grades 2-7 Giffin, Ray 1987

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PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN AN EXPERIMENTAL READING PROGRAM GRADES 2-7 by RAY G I F F I N -I B.Ed. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978 D i p . E d u c . Q u e e n s l a n d T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1962 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA M a r c h 1987 © Ray G i f f i n , 1987 3 2 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada Department V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l involvement i n the r e a d i n g program at home, w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g the e f f e c t s of teacher i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m content w i t h i n the school r e a d i n g program. A major d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s study and o t h e r s reviewed h e r e i n i s that comparisons of r e a d i n g g a i n s were made w i t h i n c l a s s groups f o r c h i l d r e n who were i n v o l v e d in a home r e a d i n g program and c h i l d r e n who were not Involved in a home r e a d i n g program, thus c o n t r o l 1Ing teacher and school c u r r i c u l u m v a r i a b l e s . The study addressed two q u e s t i o n s : (1) Would c h i l d r e n who r e g u l a r l y r e a d to t h e i r p a r e n t s at home and r e c e i v e d c o a c h i n g demonstrate b e t t e r achievement on a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t than c h i l d r e n who d i d not? <2> Can the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g achievement be used to e x p l a i n the g a i n s i n r e a d i n g achievement which may be r e g i s t e r e d by c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d in a home r e a d i n g program? E i g h t c l a s s groups r e p r e s e n t i n g grades two to seven and c o n s i s t i n g of a t o t a l of 190 s t u d e n t s were used in the r e s e a r c h . The s t u d e n t s in each c l a s s group were arranged in order of performance u s i n g pre-treatment s c o r e s from a Gates-MacGi n i t i e Reading T e s t (1965). Then s t u d e n t s in each c l a s s group were i i a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r the e x p e r i m e n t a l (home r e a d i n g ) group or the c o n t r o l (non home r e a d i n g ) group, u s i n g a method of c o n t r o l l e d a l t e r n a t e a s s i g n m e n t . The O t l s - L e n n o n Mental A b i l i t y T e s t (1967) was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d , w i t h p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n , t o the s t u d e n t s i n the e i g h t c l a s s g roups so t h a t the r e s u l t s c o u l d be used as a c o v a r i a t e measure w i t h p o s t - t r e a t m e n t r e a d i n g s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from a n o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t 1 e R e a d i n g T e s t ( 1 9 6 5 ) . P r e - t e s t i n g of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y was c a r r i e d out l n F e b r u a r y of 1985. S t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d as d e s c r i b e d above t o e x p e r i m e n t a l or c o n t r o l g roups and the O t i s - L e n n o n T e s t of Mental A b l 1 i t v ( 1 9 6 7 ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n September of 1985. E x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n began, w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l group c h i l d r e n r e a d i n g t o p a r e n t s a t home, i n October of 1985 and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l F e b r u a r y of 1986. C o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n were i n v o l v e d i n math and s p e l l i n g t a s k s a t home d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . P o s t - t e s t i n g of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y was c a r r i e d out at the end of F e b r u a r y 1986. A n a l y s e s of d a t a f o l l o w e d . The e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t had made a d i f f e r e n c e . T h i s was i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s : 1. Q u e s t i o n one was answered by the f a c t t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n mean T - s c o r e s of the Gates-MacGin1 t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s (1965) f o r t he e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g roups was g r e a t e r a f t e r the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t had been a p p l i e d than b e f o r e ; 2.92 T - s c a l e p o i n t s d i f f e r e n c e a f t e r t r e a t m e n t compared t o 1.27 T - s c a l e p o i n t s d i f f e r e n c e b e f o r e t r e a t m e n t . 2. Q u e s t i o n one was a l s o a d d r e s s e d by the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e i i i which was conducted u s i n g Gates M a c G i n i t i e and Otis-Lennon t e s t s c o r e s to answer q u e s t i o n two of t h i s r e s e a r c h . An examination of t a b l e s 4 and 5 wl11 show that a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e s c o r e s f o r the experimental and c o n t r o l groups on the p o s t - t e s t measure which had not e x i s t e d between the groups on the p r e - t e s t measure . <P<0.05) 3. An a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was conducted u s i n g G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and Otis-Lennon t e s t s c o r e s . As expected there was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s and Otis-Lennon s c o r e s . (Pearson's r = .6145) Question two was answered in the a f f i r m a t i v e by the f a c t that when the e f f e c t s of I.Q. were s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between p o s t - t e s t experimental and c o n t r o l group r e a d i n g s c o r e s (p < 0.05) which had not e x i s t e d at the b e g i n n i n g of the study. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n s that i n v o l v i n g p a r e n t s at home i n l i s t e n i n g t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e a d and g i v i n g them support and encouragement does make a d i f f e r e n c e in the s t u d e n t ' s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . T h i s study s u p p o r t s the c o n c l u s i o n of s i m i l a r e a r l i e r s t u d i e s that I.Q. d i f f e r e n c e s amongst s u b j e c t s cannot e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g achievement g a i n s that r e s u l t from such a home r e a d i n g program. Another important c o n c l u s i o n to be drawn from t h i s study i s that teacher and c u r r i c u l u m v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the school cannot be used to e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s in r e a d i n g performance g a i n s f o r experimental group s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study a l s o generated some recommendations f o r i v p a r e n t a l involvement i n r e a d i n g programs and some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . E d u c a t o r s who are i n t e r e s t e d i n the t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g may wish to pursue these recommendations and s u g g e s t i o n s f u r t h e r . v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s t h a n k s t o t h e s e n i o r s u p e r v i s o r o f t h i s s t u d y , D r . K e n n e t h S l a d e , f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a d v i c e t h r o u g h o u t e a c h s t a g e o f t h i s s t u d y . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o D r . L e e G u n d e r s o n f o r h i s a d v i c e on m a t t e r s o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . To t h e s t a f f , s t u d e n t s a n d p a r e n t s o f M a c k e n z i e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l I e x t e n d my t h a n k s f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n l n t h i s p r o j e c t . L a s t l y a s p e c i a l t h a n k y o u g o e s t o my w i f e , M a u r e e n , a n d s o n , J a m i e , f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e a n d s u p p o r t o f my i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h i s s t u d y . vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i TABLE OF CONTENTS v i i L I S T OF TABLES i x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 1 P r e a m b l e 1 Why Have P a r e n t P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e R e a d i n g P r o g r a m ? 3 How Have P a r e n t s Been I n v o l v e d i n R e a d i n g P r o g r a m s ? 5 The G e n e r a l P r o b l e m 14 Q u e s t i o n s t o be A n s w e r e d by t h e S t u d y . 15 D e f i n i t i o n s o f T e r m s 15 I I METHOD AND PROCEDURE 17 S e t t i n g 17 S u b j e c t s 17 M a t e r i a l s 19 R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t 19 I n t e l l i g e n c e 20 R e a d i n g M a t e r i a l s 21 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 21 P r o c e d u r e s — I n C h r o n o l o g i c a l O r d e r 23 T a b u l a t i n g R e s u l t s 27 V e r i f i c a t i o n o f S c o r e s 28 I I I RESULTS 29 T e s t o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 29 T e s t o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 31 IV CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 39 C o n c l u s i o n s R e l a t i n g t o t h e R e s u l t s o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 40 Ca) D u r a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y 41 <b) N o v e l t y o f t h e S t u d y 41 ( c ) E n e r g y a n d Commitment o f S c h o o l S t a f f 42 v i i <d> Comparing the Vocabulary and Comprehensive Gains on the Gates-MacGin1tie Reading Test Between the Experimental Group and the Control Group 43 (e) The Effe c t of Teacher Variables Upon the Results of Previous Studies ln This Subject Area 45 Conclusions Relating to the Results of Research Question 2 46 Suggestions for Further Research 47 Concluding Statement to the Study 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY .- 50 APPENDICES 54 1. Letter to Parents 55: 2. Suggested Parent Support Group A c t i v i t i e s 58: 3. Monthly Reading Newsletter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4. Reading Record Form 65 v i i i LIST OF TABLES 1. Suggestions Most F r e q u e n t l y Made f o r Parent Reading Involvement 10 2. C e l l S i z e s in Experimental and Co n t r o l Groups at the C o n c l u s i o n of the Research 19 3. P o p u l a t i o n and Group Means f o r G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e P r e - T e s t and Post Test Scores 30 4. ANCOVA T o t a l Read!ng P r e - T e s t . Gates-MacGin1t1e Scores as the C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e with Otls-Lennon I.Q. Scores as the C o v a r i a t e 33 5. ANCOVA T o t a l Reading. G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Post Test Scores as the C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e with Otls-Lennon I.Q. Scores as the C o v a r i a t e 33 6. P o p u l a t i o n and Group Means f o r Gates-MacGinit1e P r e - T e s t and P o s t - T e s t Vocabulary Scores 35 7. P o p u l a t i o n and Group Means f o r G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e P r e - T e s t and P o s t - T e s t Comprehension Scores 36 i x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Preamble A r e c e n t t r e n d i n North American e d u c a t i o n has been f o r e d u c a t o r s to t r y and get p a r e n t s more i n v o l v e d i n the formal school based e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Leaders in e d u c a t i o n have taken s t e p s to accomplish t h i s by s u g g e s t i n g that s c h o o l s host such t h i n g s as "open houses", parent teacher i n t e r v i e w s , and p a r e n t - t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . School boards have pursued t h i s end by a d o p t i n g p o l i c y that school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of o r g a n i z i n g these events and a c t i v i t i e s . The u n d e r l y i n g assumption that communication and involvement w i t h p a r e n t s w i l l b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g in c h i l d r e n i s seldom q u e s t i o n e d . The o f t e n s t a t e d c l i c h e s t h a t , "the school i s a product of the s o c i e t y " , and t h a t , " t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s must form a p a r t n e r s h i p i n the e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n " , l e a d p a r e n t s to g e n e r a l l y accept the n o t i o n that they have a duty to take an i n t e r e s t in t h e i r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n . For most p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , however, the involvement s t o p s t h e r e . P a r e n t s have always been a cheap source of manpower f o r noneducational endeavours w i t h i n the school program. A wide v a r i e t y 1 2 of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s would be no n e x i s t e n t without p a r e n t a l h e l p and l i m i t i n g p a r e n t s t o t h i s type of involvement i n s c h o o l s i s a c c e p t a b l e to most p a r e n t s and a l a r g e number of e d u c a t o r s . Richek, L i s t and Lerner (1983) made t h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r when they s t a t e d t h a t , "... p a r e n t s s h o u l d not be expected to teach t h e i r own c h i l d to read" (p. 30). The idea that t e a c h i n g s h o u l d be l e f t to t e a c h e r s can probably be a t t r i b u t e d to the i n c r e a s i n g demands of teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n and a f e e l i n g on the p a r t of t e a c h e r s that p a r e n t s are laymen e n c r o a c h i n g on a s p e c i a l i s t ' s t e r r i t o r y . The demands of time and money in teacher t r a i n i n g are r e a l enough but the idea that some magical s k i l l i s a c q u i r e d in the teacher t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s cannot be supported. T h i s study I n v e s t i g a t e d the premise that p a r e n t s can be e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n at home. Other s t u d i e s which w i l l be reviewed here have shown that c h i l d r e n who read to t h e i r p a r e n t s at home w i l l demonstrate g r e a t e r g a i n s in vocabulary and comprehension a b i l i t y over a given p e r i o d than c h i l d r e n who do not. T h i s study was designed to r e t e s t that h y p o t h e s i s w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g the teacher v a r i a b l e , the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s t e a c h e r s might produce i n student l e a r n i n g and achievement i n any classroom e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s has not been attempted in the r e s e a r c h reviewed to date. A l s o , t h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the h y p o t h e s i s that the i n f l u e n c e of the c h i l d ' s I.Q. cannot completely e x p l a i n the g r e a t e r r e a d i n g g a i n s made by c h i l d r e n who r e g u l a r l y r e a d to t h e i r p a r e n t s at home. 3 Why Have Parent P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Reading Program? Why do some ed u c a t o r s want p a r e n t s to become i n v o l v e d in the s c h o o l ' s r e a d i n g program? Bauch, V i e t z e and M o r r i s ( 1 9 7 3 ) c a t e g o r i z e d parent involvement in r e a d i n g program i n t o three general a r e a s : 1 . For the s o l e purpose of a s s i s t i n g p a r e n t s in t h e i r r o l e as e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 2 . For mutual b e n e f i t to p a r e n t s and to the e d u c a t i o n a l program. 3 . To support the e d u c a t i o n a l program. U n t i l r e c e n t times e d u c a t o r s were mainly concerned with the t h i r d c a t e g o r y , that of g a i n i n g support f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l program. Behavioural c o n t r o l and attendance at school are major p r e r e q u i s i t e s to l e a r n i n g . Teachers need d i r e c t p a r e n t a l h e l p in these m a t t e r s and in so d o i n g they are g e t t i n g p a r e n t s c l o s e r to involvement in r e a l e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . Perhaps the great m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s have yet to take the next s t e p — d i r e c t parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n in i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs. For many years t e a c h e r s have r e c o g n i z e d the e f f e c t of home environment and preschool e x p e r i e n c e s on the a c q u i s i t i o n of language. Bi n g ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and Brown and Deutsch ( 1 9 6 5 ) i d e n t i f i e d a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s and language a b i l i t y in c h i l d r e n . Gordon ( 1 9 7 2 ) , K l e i n ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and I r v i n e ( 1 9 7 9 ) supported the n o t i o n that p a r e n t s ' a c t i o n s d u r i n g p r e s c h o o l y e a r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t c h i l d r e n ' s language a c q u i s i t i o n and school performance. Chomsky ( 1 9 7 2 ) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e 4 s p e c i f i c s t a g e s of e a r l y language development and observed that the r a p i d i t y with which c h i l d r e n move through these s t a g e s i s determined by the socioeconomic s t a t u s and the r e a d i n g I n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s . Anselmo (1978) r e p o r t e d on a number of s t u d i e s which showed a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r a l language a b i l i t y and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . She t h e o r i z e d that c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to use r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e language i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r l e a r n i n g to r e a d . In a landmark study in 1963 Loban concluded that c h i l d r e n who were d e f i c i e n t in o r a l language development almost i n v a r i a b l y were r e t a r d e d in r e a d i n g development. The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s were seen by some as evidence that c h i l d r e n came to school with an e s t a b l i s h e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to r e a d i n g s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e . Teachers o f t e n f e l t that t h i s mould c o u l d not be broken. However, a small but growing body of r e s e a r c h p o i n t s to the f a c t that p a r e n t s can p l a y a very s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n to become b e t t e r r e a d e r s by becoming i n v o l v e d in r e a d i n g programs at home in an o r g a n i z e d way. McDonald (1976) concluded that no more than t h i r t y - s i x percent of l e a r n i n g can be a t t r i b u t e d to school t e a c h i n g e f f o r t s . He a n a l y z e d the c o r r e l a t i o n s of p u p i l achievement s c o r e s with academic a p t i t u d e e s t i m a t e s , socioeconomic f a c t o r s and I n s t r u c t i o n a l f a c t o r s in r e a c h i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . If almost t w o - t h i r d s of a c h i l d ' s knowledge i s gained from the home and community i t would seem e s s e n t i a l f o r e d u c a t o r s to c a p i t a l i z e on f a m i l y r e s o u r c e s to support school r e a d i n g programs. 5 School personnel are a l s o b e g i n n i n g to q u e s t i o n the n o t i o n that the school i s the c e n t r e of l e a r n i n g . Research in the B r i t i s h I s l e s and North America i s p r o d u c i n g some s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s which have caused some r e s e a r c h e r s to q u e s t i o n long h e l d b e l i e f s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between student r e a d i n g achievement and I.Q., and the e f f e c t s of involvement and i n s t r u c t i o n s by non-teachers i n the r e a d i n g program. How Have Pa r e n t s Been I n v o l v e d in Reading Programs? Vast amounts of money, time and energy have been spent t r y i n g to improve the r e a d i n g s c o r e s of c h i l d r e n in i n n e r - c i t y s c h o o l s in North America, o f t e n with l i m i t e d s u c c e s s (Grimmett & McCoy, 1980). One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s has been that c h i l d r e n in these areas do not have the same l e v e l of r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e at home as do c h i l d r e n in suburban s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g areas (McKinney, 1975). Some p a r e n t s lack the knowledge and d i r e c t i o n to h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n at home in a c q u i r i n g academic s k i l l s . While t h i s may be true to some extent i t i s not an insurmountable o b s t a c l e , as other s t u d i e s c i t e d here w i l l c l e a r l y demonstrate. E a r l y r e s e a r c h on parent involvement i n the r e a d i n g program showed that the p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s and t h e i r r e i n f o r c e m ent of school l e a r n i n g d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d academic achievement (Bloom, 1965; L a v i n , 1965). Recent r e s e a r c h has s i m i l a r l y shown that parent involvement i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s achievement at school (Evans, 1971; She 1 ton, 1973; Bronfenbrenner, 1974; Cassidy & V u k e l i c h , 1978). C h i l d r e n who become s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r s u s u a l l y come 6 to school with a v a r i e d background of ex p e r i e n c e and a vocabulary which has developed to match t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . C h i l d r e n l e a r n these b a s i c language p a t t e r n s from t h e i r f a m i l i e s , u s u a l l y in an u n s t r u c t u r e d way. Few p a r e n t s embark upon a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d p l a n of i n s t r u c t i o n d e s i g n e d to teach t h e i r c h i l d r e n to speak, yet most c h i l d r e n l e a r n to speak very adequately b e f o r e they enter s c h o l . For r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , however, some r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the value of t r a i n i n g p a r e n t s to operate home r e a d i n g p r o j e c t s . S u l l i v a n and La Beaune, 1970; C r o s s e t , 1972; Woods et a l . , 1974, and McKinney, 1975 found that home r e a d i n g p r o j e c t s are more e f f e c t i v e when p a r e n t s have been t r a i n e d to use s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s than when they have not. These authors a l l p o i n t out that p a r e n t s can, with t r a i n i n g , h e l p to improve t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g performance. Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s of p a r e n t a l involvement in r e a d i n g programs (Ketcham, 1967; Hubbard & S a l t , 1975; R e v i c k i , 1982) f e e l that the c h i l d ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t and soc1al-emotiona1 comfort with the f a m i l y are c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n the s u c c e s s of home r e a d i n g programs. Ketcham (1967) o u t l i n e d the f o l l o w i n g n e g a t i v e views that low r e a d i n g a c h i e v e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s t y p i c a l l y h e l d : 1. Only eggheads l i k e t o r e a d . 2. Reading i s a feminine o c c u p a t i o n . 3. C o l l e g e i s o n l y f o r those who can a f f o r d i t . 4. G i r l s do not need a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . A d m i t t e d l y these views have been m o d i f i e d somewhat over the past 7 n i n e t e e n years but the need f o r a s t r o n g s e l f - c o n c e p t and emotional s e c u r i t y to f a c i l i t a t e e f f i c i e n t l e a r n i n g remains. Ketcham (1967) contends that p a r e n t s are in a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to nu r t u r e these q u a l i t i e s in t h e i r c h i l d r e n than are t e a c h e r s . Coons and Sugarman (1978) support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n and f e e l that p a r e n t s have a g r e a t e r r i g h t than school personnel to make e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . However, one would have to b r i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n the nature and scope of the d e c i s i o n s to be made and the degree of involvement of school p e r s o n n e l . Indeed, C a l i g u r i (1970) found evidence to support the view that many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s d i d not wish to g i v e p a r e n t s any f u r t h e r d e c i s i o n making powers i n r e g a r d to "head s t a r t " programs in the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America. Given such warnings the p o i n t has been made that p a r e n t s g e n e r a l l y have c l o s e r s o c i a l and emotional t i e s with t h e i r c h i l d r e n than t e a c h e r s do, and that these r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be used to advantage in home r e a d i n g programs. C o n c e n t r a t i o n and memory are the prime p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r l e a r n i n g and Gilmore (undated) found that both of these mental a c t i v i t i e s are i n h i b i t e d by low s e l f - c o n c e p t and s o c i a 1-emotiona1 i n s e c u r i t y . Gilmore noted that u n d e r a c h i e v e r s s u f f e r e d from weak ego s t r e n g t h , w h i l e h i g h a c h i e v e r s had s t r o n g egos, p o s i t i v e s e l f images, f e e l i n g s of personal worth, and high degrees of m o t i v a t i o n . P a r e n t a l involvement in home r e a d i n g programs, even i f p a r e n t s have l i t t l e or not t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n , tends to focus a t t e n t i o n on the c h i l d , p r o v i d e s f o r p r a c t i c e and p o s i t i v e feedback 8 and b u i l d s involvement and communication between parent and c h i l d . Gllmore f e e l s t h a t changes in p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n can t r a n s f o r m u n d e r a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s i n t o h i g h l y motivated, p r o d u c t i v e s t u d e n t s . Chan (1981) found t h i s to be true in h i s study of a d o l e s c e n t s i n Hong Kong. There, the p a r e n t s ' behaviour towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n a f f e c t e d the c h i l d r e n ' s achievement in r e a d i n g and other v e r b a l s k i l l s . Wilby (1981) f u r t h e r supported t h i s p o i n t in an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The B e l f i e l d Experiment", which appeared in the Sunday Times Weekly, in March of 1981. While the r e p o r t l a c k s hard experimental data i t does p o i n t to the o b s e r v a t i o n by p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s that p a r e n t s -- not j u s t m i d d l e - c l a s s , c o l l e g e - e d u c a t e d p a r e n t s , but p a r e n t s from a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s — can be more e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s of t h e i r own c h i l d r e n than q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s . In the B e l f i e l d Primary School in Rochdale, England, s i x to e i g h t year o l d s had been t a k i n g home r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l and r e c o r d c a r d s f o r p a r e n t s to s i g n and make notes on f o r three years p r i o r to the r e p o r t b e i n g w r i t t e n . C h i l d r e n read the m a t e r i a l to a parent and p a r e n t s r e c e i v e d s u g g e s t i o n s from the t e a c h e r s as to how they c o u l d h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h i s r e a d i n g . Wilby r e p o r t s on the r e a c t i o n s of some mothers with c h i l d r e n at the s c h o o l . They were s u r p r i s e d when they were asked to h e l p at home with r e a d i n g because, "keeping p a r e n t s at arms length i s a t r a d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n " . Wilby noted that i t i s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d that e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be l e f t to the e x p e r t s . The B e l f i e l d and other experiments c h a l l e n g e that 9 n o t i o n . The p a r e n t i s e m e r g i n g a s t h e new h e r o a l t h o u g h p a r e n t s a r e n o t b e i n g t r a i n e d t o r e p l a c e t e a c h e r s . A number o f e d u c a t o r s h a v e s u r v e y e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . G r o b e r g ( 1 9 6 9 ) , G o o d s o n a n d H e s s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , A n s e l m o ( 1 9 7 7 ) , G o r d o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) , B e c k e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , a n d B e c k e r a n d E p s t e i n ( 1 9 8 2 ) a l l f o u n d p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s t o s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g p a r e n t s a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e i r f i n d i n g s c o u l d be s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : 1. P a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l p r o g r a m s c a n h a v e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n ' s a c h i e v e m e n t . 2. P a r e n t I n v o l v e m e n t t h a t i s o r g a n i z e d , s u s t a i n e d , a n d w i d e s p r e a d w i l l h a v e an e f f e c t i n I n c r e a s e d a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f c h i 1 d r e n . V u k e l l c h ( 1 9 8 4 ) r e p o r t s t h a t , "A s e a r c h o f 'the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e f r o m 1973 t o 1983 r e v e a l e d 37 a u t h o r s who s u g g e s t e d 24 d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s p a r e n t s c o u l d p r o v i d e o r b e h a v i o u r s t h e y c o u l d m o d e l f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n " ( p . 4 7 2 ) . She l i s t s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y made s u g g e s t i o n s a n d n o t e s t h a t " ' R e a d t o y o u r c h i l d , " was n a t u r a l l y r ecommended m o s t o f t e n " ( p . 4 7 2 ) ( T a b l e 1 ) . 10 T a b l e 1 Sug g e s t i o n s Most F r e q u e n t l y Made f o r Parent Reading Involvement No. of times A c t i v i t y or Behaviour suggested, out of 24 Read to your c h i l d 22 Be a good l i t e r a t e model 14 P r o v i d e books, magazines, e t c . , f o r the c h i l d to read 13 B u i l d a r e a d i n g atmosphere at home ( p l a c e , time, 1 i b r a r y area) 11 Ta l k and l i s t e n to your c h i l d 7 Exemplify a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g , i n c l u d i n g p r a i s i n g your c h i l d f o r r e a d i n g 7 P r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s f o r c h i l d r e n that are r e a d i n g r e l a t e d , e.g., l i b r a r y t r i p s , or that can be used to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g 7 Read environmental s i g n s ; c a pture r e a d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s in the environment 5 P r o v i d e c o n t a c t w i t h paper and p e n c i l 4 Be aware of your c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s 4 P o i n t out s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e s in o b j e c t s in the environment 4 11 These s u g g e s t i o n s are l a r g e l y based on I n t u i t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e s of t e a c h e r s and w h i l e they can be observed to cause changes in r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and a t t i t u d e they may be only i n d i c a t o r s of o t h e r a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s which e x i s t i n home environments and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Indeed, V u k e l i c h (1984) f u r t h e r comments that T o b i n ' s (1981) r e s e a r c h suggests that b e i n g r e a d to i s not a p r e d i c t o r of s u c c e s s in r e a d i n g when d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n such as socio-economic s t a t u s , k i n d e r g a r t e n attendance, IQ, sex, e t c . , are s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . More s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e these v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e s can be understood. R e c e n t l y the work of T i z a r d , S c h o l f i e l d and Hewison (1980, 1982) has produced some i n s i g h t s i n t o the nature of parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the r e a d i n g program. T h e i r 1980 r e s e a r c h began wit h a p i l o t study conducted by Hewison in 1979 which i n v o l v e d s t r u c t u r e d open i n t e r v i e w s with the p a r e n t s of s i x t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n who were in t h e i r f i n a l year of i n f a n t school at two i n n e r - c i t y s c h o o l s in London, England. The i n t e r v i e w s covered t o p i c s such as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y , d i s c i p l i n e , l e i s u r e , r e a d i n g to the c h i l d , and l i s t e n i n g to r e a d i n g . The r e a d i n g attainment of the c h i l d r e n was a s s e s s e d u s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t . From t h i s p i l o t study one q u e s t i o n e l i c i t e d r e p l i e s which c o r r e l a t e d very s t r o n g l y with the c h i l d ' s r e a d i n g attainment. T h i s was whether or not the mother r e g u l a r l y heard the c h i l d read. A t t i t u d e s of p a r e n t s which c o r r e l a t e d with "coaching" ( h e a r i n g a c h i l d read) produced b e t t e r 12 r e a d e r s . A second study was d e v i s e d by Hewison, et a l . (1980) to f u r t h e r t e s t t h i s s e r e n d i p i t o u s f i n d i n g . T h i r t y c h i l d r e n from each of four j u n i o r s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study, which was s i m i l a r in format to the p i l o t study though more r e f i n e d in that a s p e c t s of the mother's language behaviour were as s e s s e d . Scores on a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t and an I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t were o b t a i n e d f o r sample c h i l d r e n . S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were again o b t a i n e d between a number of d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of home environment and r e a d i n g achievement. As i n the p i l o t study, the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g s u c c e s s was whether or not the mother r e g u l a r l y heard the c h i l d read, not whether she read to the c h i l d . Hewison, e t . a l . (1980) r e p o r t e d , "As expected, a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o e x i s t e d between r e a d i n g s c o r e s and I.Q. in t h i s study (Pearson's r = 0.54, P < 0.001). A l s o , c o a c h i n g and I.Q. were s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d . The p o i n t b l s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between the two was 0.37, P < 0.001. Yet i t was e s t a b l i s h e d that the I.Q. d i f f e r e n c e s were i n s u f f i c i e n t to account f o r the s u p e r i o r r e a d i n g attainment of c h i l d r e n who had r e a d to t h e i r p a r e n t s and r e c e i v e d some c o a c h i n g from them". An i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t ! To f u r t h e r t e s t these f i n d i n g s T l z a r d , S c h o l f i e l d and Hewison conducted another study in 1982 which was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i v e p a r e n t a l h e l p and r e a d i n g performance. T h i s study was conducted in s i x Infant and j u n i o r s c h o o l s in the London borough of H a r r i n g a y . Planned i n t e r v e n t i o n in 13 r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n was b u i l t i n t o t h i s study by ha v i n g groups ( c l a s s e s ) of c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e parent h e l p at home and other groups r e c e i v e e x t r a teacher h e l p , with these groups b e i n g matched with c o n t r o l groups. T h i s study once again p r o v i d e d experimental f i n d i n g s showing a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t s h e a r i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e a d at home and improved r e a d i n g achievement as measured by a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t . The r e s e a r c h e r s were quick to p o i n t out that they had no c o n t r o l over such v a r i a b l e s as the q u a l i t y of cla s s r o o m t e a c h i n g in r e a d i n g and w i t h i n - c l a s s comparisons of c h i l d r e n who read and d i d not read to p a r e n t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed i f the v a r i a b l e s that u n d e r l i e the r e l a t i o n s h i p are to be understood but t h i s lack of u n d e r s t a n d i n g may not be important f o r most p r a c t i c a l purposes. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t i s that t h i s type of i n t e r v e n t i o n produces r e s u l t s and i t does so without the p a r e n t s h a v i n g r e c e i v e d any e l a b o r a t e t u t o r i n g in tec h n i q u e s to be used when l i s t e n i n g to t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e a d . T i z a r d , S c h o f i e l d and Hewison (1982) summarized t h e i r f i n d i n g s in the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : 14 1. Nearly a l l p a r e n t s In I n n e r c l t y m u l t i - r a c i a l s c h o o l s can be i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s even i f they are n o n - l i t e r a t e or l a r g e l y n on-English speaking. 2. C h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e p a r e n t a l h e l p are s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n r e a d i n g attainment than c h i l d r e n who do not. 3. Most p a r e n t s express great s a t i s f a c t i o n In be i n g i n v o l v e d In t h i s way. 4. Teachers r e p o r t e d that they found the c o n t a c t with p a r e n t s worth- w h i l e . 5. Small group i n s t r u c t i o n in r e a d i n g by s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s d i d not produce r e a d i n g improvement comparable w i t h that produced by c o l l a b o r a t i o n with p a r e n t s . 6. C o l l a b o r a t i o n with p a r e n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c h i l d r e n at a l l i n i t i a l l e v e l s of r e a d i n g attainment. 7. The f a c t that some p a r e n t s c o u l d not read E n g l i s h , or not read at a l l , d i d not prevent Improvement ln the r e a d i n g s k i l l s of the i r ch i 1 d r e n . The General Problem The p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d s t u d i e s leave unanswered many q u e s t i o n s . The e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l involvement in home r e a d i n g programs have been c l e a r l y documented. The causes of observed changes in student r e a d i n g performance have not been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The e f f e c t s of I.Q., home environment, p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , d e v e l o p i n g b e t t e r s e l f c oncepts, and language development on r e a d i n g achievement have a l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n with r e a d i n g achievement, 15 in a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s , has been d e s c r i b e d . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h sought to r e p l i c a t e p a r t s of s t u d i e s c i t e d above, n o t a b l y the works of T i z a r d , S c h o f i e l d and Hewison (1980, 1982) with one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . In the r e s e a r c h that has been reviewed to date comparisons of the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l involvement on student achievement have been made between c l a s s groups and s c h o o l s . Comparisons have not been made w i t h i n c l a s s groups. T h e r e f o r e the teacher v a r i a b l e has not been c o n t r o l l e d and t h i s c o u l d be a major source of i n t e r f e r e n c e i n r e l a t i o n to the comparison of academic t e s t r e s u l t s f o r experimental and c o n t r o l groups. The presen t r e s e a r c h sought t o c o n t r o l the teacher v a r i a b l e by comparing c h i l d r e n w i t h i n c l a s s groups. Questions to be Answered by the Study 1. W i l l c h i l d r e n who read to t h e i r p a r e n t s at home on a r e g u l a r b a s i s (5 - 15 minutes d a l l y ) and r e c e i v e c o a c h i n g demonstrate b e t t e r achievement on a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t than c h i l d r e n who do not read to p a r e n t s at home? 2. Can the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g achievement be used to e x p l a i n the g a i n s in r e a d i n g achievement which may be r e g i s t e r e d by c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d in a home r e a d i n g program? D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Pa r e n t a l Involvement--hav1ng p a r e n t s l i s t e n to t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e a d at home and monitor r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y through a home/school r e c o r d form. 16 Regular Home Reading Having c h i l d r e n r e a d o r a l l y to t h e i r p a r e n t s , at home, f o r 5 to 15 minutes a day, every day of the week. Reading A c h i e v e m e n t — a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s c o r e from the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . P a r e n t a l C o a c h i n g — h a v i n g p a r e n t s p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t to c h i l d r e n as they read, h e l p i n g with vocabulary and r e a d i n g concepts and g e n e r a l l y d i s c u s s i n g the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . Suggested procedures f o r co a c h i n g were made at the i n i t i a l parent meeting and subsequent parent meetings. N e w s l e t t e r s a l s o p r o v i d e d s u g g e s t i o n s as to tec h n i q u e s that might be used (See Appendix 3 ) . Suggestions were made as to the f o l l o w i n g : 1. C o r r e c t i n g word r e c o g n i t i o n e r r o s . 2. Looking f o r s i g n s of d i f f i c u l t y the c h i l d might have with the m a t e r i a l chosen. 3. D i s c u s s i o n of the s t o r y as a v o l u n t e e r e d a c t i v i t y by the ch i 1 d. 4. P r o v i s i o n of p o s i t i v e feedback to the c h i l d . 5. D i s c u s s i o n of the c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s with the teacher r a t h e r than the c h i l d . I.Q.— the d e r i v e d i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s c o r e o b t a i n e d from the Otls-Lennon Test of Mental A b i l i t y . CHAPTER II METHOD AND PROCEDURE T h i s study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l involvement at home i n the r e a d i n g program w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g the d i f f e r i n g e f f e c t s of teacher i n s t r u c t i o n and currculum content w i t h i n the s c h o o l ' s r e a d i n g program. P a r e n t s f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s of time heard t h e i r c h i l d r e n read to them at home. Comparisons were made u s i n g G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g t e s t s c o r e s between experimental and c o n t r o l groups w i t h i n c l a s s groups. Comparisons were a l s o made between experimental and c o n t r o l group performance :on the Ga t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g t e s t s in r e l a t i o n to the c h i l d r e n ' s mental a b i l i t y as measured by the Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y T e s t . S e t t i n g The study took p l a c e in Mackenzie Elementary School which i s l o c a t e d i n the townsite of Mackenzie 120 m i l e s north of P r i n c e George. The school i s p a r t of the P r i n c e George School D i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The township has a p o p u l a t i o n of 7,000 and i s based on the lumber and pulp p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s . S u b j e c t s A t o t a l of 190 s u b j e c t s was used in the r e s e a r c h . With the e x c e p t i o n of c h i l d r e n who were r e p e a t i n g a year a l l c h i l d r e n in 17 18 grades 2 to 7 in the school were e l i g i b l e to take p a r t in the study. Of the 190 s u b j e c t s whose p a r e n t s s i g n e d p e r m i s s i o n forms in September of 1985 to have them take p a r t In the r e s e a r c h , 156 were i n c l u d e d in the f i n a l a n a l y s i s of data i n February of 1986. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an a t t r i t i o n r a t e of approximately 18% or 34 of the i n t i a l 190 s u b j e c t s . The causes of t h i s a t t r i t i o n w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d in Chapter IV but the main cause of a t t r i t i o n was due to the c o n t i n u e d non-return of r e a d i n g r e c o r d forms. Whenever an experimental group s u b j e c t was l o s t , f o r any reason, the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u b j e c t in the c o n t r o l group was e l i m i n a t e d . In t h i s way the c e l l s i z e s always remained e q u a l . A breakdown of c e l l s i z e s in the experimental and c o n t r o l groups at the c o n c l u s i o n of the r e s e a r c h i s p r e s e n t e d in Table 2 below. 19 T a b l e 2 C e l l S i z e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l a n d C o n t r o l G r o u p s a t t h e C o n c l u s i o n o f t h e R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n G r a d e E x p t . G r p . C o n t r o l G r p . T o t a l 1 7 8 8 16 2 6/7 11 11 22 3 5/6 8 8 16 4 4/5 11 11 22 5 4 10 10 20 6 3 10 10 20 7 2/3 12 12 24 8 2 8 8 16 T o t a l 78 78 156 M a t e r i a 1s R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g a v a r i a t e a n d c o v a r i a t e m e a s u r e o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e a r e a s o f v o c a b u l a r y a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n , p r e - t e s t i n g a n d p o s t - t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s ( 1 9 6 5 ) a t t h e f o 1 1 o w i n g 1 e v e 1 s : 20 P r i m a r y B - G r a d e 2 P r i m a r y C - G r a d e 3 L e v e l D - G r a d e 4, 5, a n d 6 L e v e l E - G r a d e 7 The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. N o r m a t i v e d a t a e x i s t e d f o r C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . 2. Van R o e k e l , r e p o r t i n g i n t h e S e v e n t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k . v o l . I ( 1 9 7 2 ) commented t h a t , " . . . t h e s e t e s t s p r o b a b l y f u n c t i o n b e s t a s s u r v e y t e s t s " ( p . 1 0 8 2 ) . P o w e l l , r e p o r t i n g i n t h e J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t ( 1 9 6 9 ) commented t h a t , "As c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r g e n e r a l r e a d i n g t e s t s , t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s w o u l d p r o v i d e u s a b l e d a t a on a c h i e v e m e n t i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n , v o c a b u l a r y a n d s p e e d " ( p p . 3 - 1 0 ) . 3. The t e s t i s u s e d r e g u l a r l y by S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #57, P r i n c e G e o r g e , a n d t e a c h e r s a r e v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d s c o r i n g . I n t e l 1 i g e n c e . The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y c a l l e d f o r a m e a s u r e m e n t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t o be u s e d a s a c o n t r o l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t g a i n s w h i c h w e r e made by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The O t i s - L e n n o n M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t ( 1 9 6 7 ) was s e l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e t h a t m e a s u r e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. I t was r e v i e w e d i n B u r o s / S e v e n t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k . V o l . I ( 1 9 7 2 ) by M i l h o l l a n d , who s t a t e d t h e n t h a t , 21 "The c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d n o r m i n g o f t h i s t e s t b e s p e a k a d h e r e n c e t o t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d s " ( p . 3 7 0 ) . A l s o , M i l h o l l a n d commented t h a t , "The t e s t c o r r e l a t e s a d e q u a t e l y w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a a n d w i t h o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f g e n e r a l s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e " < p . 3 7 1 ) . 2. The t e s t i s s u i t a b l e f o r g r o u p a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 3. T e a c h e r s n e e d e d o n l y a s h o r t o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n t o make them f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g a n d s c o r i n g t h e t e s t . R e a d i n g M a t e r i a l s . R e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n t h e p r o j e c t i n c l u d e d a w i d e r a n g e o f t e x t s f r o m b a s a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a u t h o r i z e d a n d a p p r o v e d by M i n i s t r i e s o f E d u c t i o n f o r u s e i n s c h o o l s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . R e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f r o m home, s c h o o l , a n d p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s w e r e a l s o u s e d a t t h e r e a d e r ' s a n d p a r e n t ' s d i s c r e t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n The d e s i g n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s " q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l " ( C a m p b e l l a n d S t a n l e y , 1 9 6 3 ) . To a c c o u n t f o r p r i o r d i f f e r e n c e s among members o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s due t o t h e l a c k o f random a s s i g n m e n t o f s u b j e c t s t o t h e s e g r o u p s , p r e - t e s t s c o r e s on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t ( 1 9 6 5 ) w e r e u s e d a s a v a r i a t e m e a s u r e o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n s u b s e q u e n t d a t a a n a l y s i s . A g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . 22 The I n f l u e n c e o f P a r e n t a l I n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e R e a d i n g P r o g r a m , Q u a s i - E x p e r i m e n t a 1 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 190 s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e s 2-7 C o n t r o l l e d a l t e r n a t e a s s i g n m e n t o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h c l a s s t o e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l g r o u p u s i n g a c l a s s l i s t o f G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s , a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r o f p e r f o r m a n c e . ( H i g h t o L o w - - F e b r u a r y 1985 s c o r e s . ) T i me 1 i n e S e p t e m b e r 1985 S e p t e m b e r 1985 O c t o b e r 1985 F e b r u a r y 1986 E x p . g r o u p 95 s t u d e n t s totes 95 s t u d e n t s Ot i s - L e n n o n M e n t a l Abi.l i t y T e s t C o n t r o l g r o u p 95 s t u d e n t s 95 s t u d e n t s Ot i s - L e n n o n M e n t a l A b l 1 1 t y T e s t 95 s t u d e n t s 95 s t u d e n t s I n t r o . P a r e n t I n v o 1 v e m e n t a n d R e c o r d Keep i n g r No i n v o l v e m e n t o f p a r e n t s I 78 s t u d e n t s 78 s t u d e n t s G a t e s - G a t e s - M a cGi n i t i e M a c G i n i t i e T e s t T e s t G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e s t s o f r e a d i n g a r e g i v e n a t t h e t h e r e q u e s t o f S c h o o l B o a r d O t i s - L e n n o n t e s t o f Menta1 A b i 1 i t y w i l l be g i v e n t o a l l s t u d e n t s wi t h a p p r o v a l o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d / P a r e n t C o n s e n t T h e r e i s no e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l . P a r e n t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p c h i 1 d r e n w i l l p r o v i d e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n a t home A d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d Draw c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g q u e s t i o n s 23 P r o c e d u r e s - - I n C h r o n o l o g i c a l O r d e r 1. F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 5 . D a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d i n F e b r u a r y o f 1985 when G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n t h e s c h o o l ( g r a d e s 1 t o 7) a s p a r t o f t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ' s a n n u a l t e s t i n g p r o g r a m . T e a c h e r s w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s t e s t . D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g w e r e f o l l o w e d a n d a n s w e r s w e r e r e c o r d e d on m a c h i n e s c o r a b l e a n s w e r s h e e t s . When t h e a n s w e r s h e e t s h a d b e e n m a c h i n e s c o r e d a n d t h e r e s u l t s r e t u r n e d t o t h e s c h o o l t h e y w e r e u s e d t o a s s i g n s u b j e c t s i n e a c h o f e i g h t c l a s s e s ( g r a d e s 2 t o 7) t o e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l g r o u p s . T h i s was done by a r r a n g i n g t h e s u b j e c t s i n e a c h c l a s s i n o r d e r o f p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t o t a l t e s t ( h i g h t o l o w ) a n d a l t e r n a t e l y a s s i g n i n g them t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l g r o u p . C h i l d r e n who w e r e r e p e a t i n g a y e a r w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a s s i g n m e n t , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e a b l e t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e p r o j e c t . 2. S e p t e m b e r 1985. I n S e p t e m b e r o f 1985 a l e t t e r was s e n t t o p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n s o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( s e e A p p e n d i x #1) o u t l i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t a n d t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t . P a r e n t s who d i d n o t r e t u r n t h e c o n s e n t f o r m w h i c h was c o n t a i n e d i n t h e l e t t e r w e r e c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e by a t e a c h e r o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d m a t c h i n g c o n t r o l g r o u p was c o n f i r m e d f o r e a c h c l a s s . I n t h e few c a s e s w h e r e p a r e n t s d i d n o t g i v e p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n t r o l g r o u p s u b j e c t was a l s o r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c l a s s l i s t . 3. L a t e S e p t e m b e r 1985. I n t h e l a s t week o f S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 85, 24 t h e O t i s - L e n n o n M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e s two t o s e v e n , w i t h S c h o o l D i s t r i c t a n d p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n . M o s t t e a c h e r s h a d n o t a d m i n i s t e r e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m e n t a l a b i l i t y t e s t b e f o r e a n d c a r e was t a k e n i n a s t a f f m e e t i n g t o r e v i e w t h e t e s t h a n d b o o k ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a n d t o e n s u r e t h a t t e a c h e r s c o u l d f o l l o w them c o r r e c t l y . T h e s e t e s t s w e r e s c o r e d by t e a c h e r s a n d l a t e r c h e c k e d f o r a c c u r a c y o f s c o r i n g by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . 4. E a r l y O c t o b e r 1985. On O c t o b e r 2 n d 1985 p a r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d i n t h e s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e a f t e r n o o n a n d e v e n i n g , t o f u r t h e r e x p l a i n t h e p r o j e c t t o p a r e n t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p c h i l d r e n a n d t o e n l i s t t h e h e l p o f p a r e n t s i n f o r m i n g a P a r e n t S u p p o r t G r o u p . T h i s g r o u p was t o s e r v e a s a l i a i s o n g r o u p b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n i t y t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t , i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d i d e a s f o r t h e p r o j e c t . The g r o u p h a d r e g u l a r m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s i n t h e s c h o o l , t o w h i c h a l l r e a d i n g g r o u p p a r e n t s w e r e i n v i t e d by n e w s l e t t e r , a n d became i n v o l v e d i n a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o j e c t ( s e e A p p e n d i x # 2 ) . The g r o u p ' s m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d : 1. I d e n t i f y i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e n e x t p a r e n t n e w s l e t t e r — " R e a d i n g T o g e t h e r , P a r e n t s — C h i 1 d r e n - - T e a c h e r s " ( s e e A p p e n d i x # 3 ) . 2. A p r e s e n t a t i o n by a t e a c h e r o r c o m m u n i t y member on some a s p e c t o f r e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n . 3. A d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w e d t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 4. S h a r i n g o f p a r e n t s ' comments f r o m home r e a d i n g r e c o r d s h e e t s 25 a n d o t h e r c o n t a c t s w i t h P a r e n t S u p p o r t G r o u p Members. 5. O c t o b e r 1 9 8 5 - - E x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n b e g i n s . By t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t week I n O c t o b e r , 1 9 8 5 , a l l n e c e s s a r y d a t a h a d b e e n c o l l e c t e d . P a r e n t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t 1 g r o u p c h i l d r e n h a d b e e n n o t i f i e d t h r o u g h n e w s l e t t e r s a n d m e e t i n g s o f t h e p u r p o s e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e p r o j e c t . T e a c h e r s h a d o u t l i n e d p r o c e d u r e s t o c h i l d r e n a n d h a d p r e p a r e d r e c o r d k e e p i n g d e v i c e s a n d c o l l e c t e d s u i t a b l e b a s a l r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s t o be s e n t home. The p r o j e c t was t h e n r e a d y t o b e g i n . 6. M i d - O c t o b e r 1985. I n t h e s e c o n d week o f O c t o b e r , 1 9 8 5 , t e a c h e r s s e n t home r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s ( b a s a l r e a d e r s a t t h e c h i l d ' s r e a d i n g l e v e l ) a n d r e a d i n g r e c o r d f o r m s ( s e e A p p e n d i x #4) t o be c o m p l e t e d by p a r e n t s a n d r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l on F r i d a y o f t h e same week. T e a c h e r s c o l l e c t e d t h e f o r m s w h i c h w e r e r e t u r n e d a n d i s s u e d new f o r m s f o r t h e c o m i n g week t o e v e r y c h i l d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . O v e r t h e w e e k e n d t e a c h e r s w o u l d c h e c k t h e r e t u r n e d f o r m s a n d r e s p o n d t o p a r e n t s i n any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y s : 1. T e a c h e r s w o u l d s i g n t h e f o r m . 2. T e a c h e r s w o u l d a n s w e r s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s a s k e d by p a r e n t s . 3. T e a c h e r s w o u l d a d d s t a m p s , s t i c k e r s , o r e n c o u r a g i n g comments. 4. T e a c h e r s w o u l d c o n t a c t p a r e n t s d i r e c t l y when n e c e s s a r y . W i t h c h i l d r e n who h a d n o t r e t u r n e d a f o r m t e a c h e r s w o u l d t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n . P u n i s h m e n t was n e v e r a p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t . C h i l d r e n w e r e a l w a y s e n c o u r a g e d a n d r e w a r d e d f o r t h e r e t u r n o f c o m p l e t e d r e a d i n g r e c o r d f o r m s ; t h e y w e r e n e v e r p u n i s h e d f o r n o t r e t u r n i n g f o r m s . E a c h Monday, r e a d i n g r e c o r d f o r m s f r o m t h e 26 p r e v i o u s week w e r e g i v e n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r who a l s o s i g n e d them a n d a d d e d a p p r o p r i a t e comments, s t a m p s , a n d s t i c k e r s . T h e n t h e f o r m s w e r e r e t u r n e d t o c h i l d r e n t o be t a k e n home t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . A p a r t f r o m c h a r t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f f o r m s i n e a c h c l a s s f o r e a c h week, c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s w e r e n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s . S u b j e c t s i n c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n math o r s p e l l i n g p r o j e c t s w h i c h a l s o r e q u i r e d t h e r e t u r n a n d c h a r t i n g o f r e c o r d f o r m s . W h i l e t h e i s a c t i v i t y c o u l d h a v e h a d a p o s s i b l e c o n t a m i n a t i n g e f f e c t by i n c r e a s i n g p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t a n d i n v o l v e m e n t i n s c h o o l p r o g r a m s i n t h e s e a r e a s w i t h a c a r r y o v e r i n t o r e a d i n g f o r t h e s e p u p i l s , i t was f e l t by t h e s c h o o l s t a f f t h a t i t w o u l d be u n e t h i c a l t o i n v o l v e o n l y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s u b j e c t s i n t h e home i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m . A l s o , many f a m i l i e s h a d c h i l d r e n i n b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s a t d i f f e r e n t g r a d e l e v e l s a n d t h e r e was a s t r o n g l i k e l i h o o d t h a t p a r e n t s w o u l d q u e s t i o n e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h o n l y one o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . U n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s p a r e n t s may h a v e u s e d t h e home r e a d i n g p r o c e d u r e w i t h a l l o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h e r e f o r e , i t was d e c i d e d amongst t h e s t a f f t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e home a s s i g n m e n t s i n v o l v i n g p a r e n t s . 7. O c t o b e r 1985 t o November 1985. A s t h e p r o j e c t p r o g r e s s e d a h i g h l e v e l o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t was m a i n t a i n e d f o r b o t h r e a d i n g s u b j e c t s a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s . I n c e n t i v e s t o c h i l d r e n f o r t h e r e t u r n o f r e c o r d f o r m s i n c l u d e d w r i t t e n comments by t h e t e a c h e r s , s t i c k e r s , s t a m p s , b o o k m a r k s , b o o k b a g s , r e c o g n i t i o n a t m o n t h l y s t u d e n t 27 a s s e m b l i e s , s p e c i a l c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s ( f r e e r e a d i n g t i m e , e t c . F o r p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r comments on r e a d i n g r e c o r d f o r m s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m o n t h l y s t u d e n t a s s e m b l i e s , m o n t h l y p a r e n t m e e t i n g s , c o n t a c t w i t h t h e P a r e n t S u p p o r t G r o u p , b e i n g m e n t i o n e d i n t h e m o n t h l y r e a d i n g n e w s l e t t e r a n d b e i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t r i n s i c r e w a r d s . 8. November 1985 t o F e b r u a r y 1986. A s p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n became more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e home r e a d i n g t a s k c h i l d r e n w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o s w i t c h t o s e 1 f - s e 1 e c t e d r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . The m o n t h l y r e a d i n g n e w s l e t t e r h a d s u m m a r i z e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n by t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r i a n w h i c h was made a t a m o n t h l y p a r e n t s ' m e e t i n g e n t i t l e d , " S e l e c t i n g R e a d i n g M a t e r i a l f o r Y o u r C h i l d " . By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f November 1985 t e a c h e r s w e r e n o t s e n d i n g home b a s a l r e a d e r s w i t h c h i l d r e n e x c e p t w h e r e p a r e n t s r e q u e s t e d them. 9. M i d - F e b r u a r y 1986. The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d a s t h e v a r i a t e m e a s u r e t o a l l s u b j e c t s . A g a i n , t h i s was g i v e n a s p a r t o f t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ' s a s s e s s m e n t p r o g r a m . M a c h i n e s c o r a b l e a n s w e r s h e e t s w e r e h a n d - s c o r e d b e f o r e b e i n g s e n t away f o r m a c h i n e s c o r i n g a n d l a t e r c r o s s c h e c k i n g by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T a b u l a t i n g R e s u l t s F o r e a c h s u b e c t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d m a t c h i n g c o n t r o l g r o u p t h e f o l l o w i n g s c o r e s w e r e r e c o r d e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . 1. G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t o t a l T - s c o r e a n d g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s i n v o c a b u l a r y a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n f o r t h e F e b r u a r y 1985 a n d F e b r u a r y 1986 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e t e s t . T h e s e s e r v e d a s v a r i a t e a n d c o v a r i a t e 28 measures of r e a d i n g achievement. 2. A " d e r i v e d I.Q." from the l a t e September 1985 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the O t i s Lennon Mental A b i l i t y T e s t . T h i s s e r v e d as a c o n t r o l f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of eading achievement g a i n s made by the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. V e r i f i c a t i o n of Scores Scores were v e r i f i e d to e s t a b l i s h the accuracy with which they were o b t a i n e d and e n t e r e d on student r e c o r d s . Machine s c o r e d answer s h e e t s f o r both the February 1985 and February 1986 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test were used to enter r e s u l t s to a computer f i l e which checked the o r i g i n a l hand s c r e e n i n g of the t e s t . R e s u l t s from the O t i s Lennon Test of Mental A b i l i t y were compiled i n i t i a l 11y by t e a c h e r s and l a t e r checked by the r e s e a r c h e r . These r e s u l t s were a l s o e n t e r e d i n t o a computer f i l e to be used in the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s of the data. CHAPTER I I I RESULTS The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d t o t e s t t h e two q u e s t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d 156 s t u d e n t s l o c a t e d i n e i g h t c l a s s g r o u p s ( T a b l e 2 ) . C h i l d r e n w e r e a s s i g n e d by c o n t r o l l e d a l t e r n a t e a s s i g n m e n t t o a t r e a t m e n t g r o u p o r a c o n t r o l g r o u p w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e e i g h t c l a s s g r o u p s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o r e a d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s a t home on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , 5 t o 15 m i n u t e s d a i l y , f o r a f i v e m onth p e r i o d a n d t o r e t u r n r e a d i n g r e c o r d f o r m s t o t h e s c h o o l e a c h week. The c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o r e v i e w s p e l l i n g a n d b a s i c number f a c t s d r i l l s w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s a t home a n d t o r e t u r n s p e l l i n g o r math r e c o r d f o r m s t o t h e s c h o o l e a c h week. F o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s d a t a w e r e c o l 1 e c t e d u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t p r o c e d u r e s a n d a s t a n d a r d i z e d m e n t a l a b i l i t y t e s t . T e s t o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 Q u e s t i o n 1 f o c u s s e d on r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f s u b j e c t s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g t e s t . The q u e s t i o n s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e who r e g u l a r l y r e a d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s a t home w o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e g r e a t e r r e a d i n g g a i n s 29 30 t h a n c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t . P o p u l a t i o n a n d g r o u p means f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s a r e shown i n t a b l e 3. T a b l e 3 P o p u l a t i o n a n d G r o u p Means f o r G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e P r e - T e s t a n d P o s t - T e s t S c o r e s S t a n d a r d Y e a r G r o u p No. Mean T - S c o r e D e v i a t i o n 1985 T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 156 5 2 . 5 3 8.25 1985 E x p e r i m e n t a l 78 53.17 8.39 1985 C o n t r o l 78 51.90 8.11 1986 T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 156 52.01 8.48 1986 E x p e r i m e n t a l 78 5 3 .47 8.55 1986 C o n t r o l 78 5 0 . 5 5 8.41 F i v e d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t w e r e u s e d t o g a t h e r r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s f o r G r a d e s 2 t o 7. I t w o u l d n o t be p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e t h e t e s t raw s c o r e s a c r o s s d i f f e r e n c e g r a d e l e v e l s s o T - s c o r e s w e r e u s e d f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d e r i v e d f r o m raw s c o r e s a n d h a v e t h e same 31 mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s at each grade l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , they can be used to make a c r o s s grade comparisons. T a b l e 3 shows that the d i f f e r e n c e in mean T - s c o r e s f o r the experimental and c o n t r o l groups was g r e a t e r a f t e r the experimental treatment had been a p p l i e d than b e f o r e , 2.92 T - s c a l e p o i n t s a f t e r treatment compared to 1.27 T - s c a l e p o i n t s b e f o r e treatment. In r e l a t i o n to I t s p r e - t e s t p o s i t i o n on the T - s c a l e the experimental group moved 0.3 T - s c a l e p o i n t s . In r e l a t i o n to i t s p r e - t e s t p o s i t i o n on the T - s c a l e the c o n t r o l group moved -1.35 T - s c a l e p o i n t s . T h i s change in r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s on the T - s c a l e f o r the experimental and c o n t r o l groups would i n d i c a t e that the experimental group r e c o r d e d a g r e a t e r g a i n i n r e a d i n g achievement, d u r i n g the study p e r i o d , than the c o n t r o l group. F u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s addressed the i s s u e of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e a d i n g g a i n s . An a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was conducted u s i n g p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading s c o r e s as the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e with Otis-Lennon I.Q. s c o r e s as the v a r i a t e measure. T a b l e s 4 and 5 i n d i c a t e that a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between experimental and c o n t r o l group s u b j e c t s on the p o s t - t e s t measure of r e a d i n g <p <0.014) which d i d not e x i s t on the p r e - t e s t measure (p <0.357>. Test of Research Question 2 Question 2 f o c u s s e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g g a i n s and I.Q. s c o r e s f o r the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. The q u e s t i o n asked whether the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and 32 r e a d i n g achievement c o u l d be used to e x p l a i n the g a i n s in r e a d i n g achievement which may be r e g i s t e r e d by c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n a home r e a d i n g program? Pearson's r f o r G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and Otis-Lennon Pearson's r was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t o t a l Gates-MacGinit1e r e a d i n g s c o r e s and an Otis-Lennon I.Q. s c o r e f o r a l l experimental and c o n t r o l group s u b j e c t s . T h i s was found to be .6145, which was a l e v e l where one c o u l d f e e l a measure of c o n f i d e n c e in u s i n g these data s o u r c e s f o r an a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e . To c o n t r o l f o r the e f f e c t s of I.Q. an a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e u s i n g Gates-MacGinit1es t e s t s c o r e s as the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e and Otis-Lennon t e s t s c o r e s as the c o v a r i a t e was conducted. These r e s u l t s are shown in T a b l e s 4 and 5 below. 33 T a b l e 4 ANCOVA T o t a l R e a d i n g P r e - T e s t . S o u r c e Sum o f S q u a r e s DF MS F S i g . G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e 3984.020 1 3984.020 93.341 0 .0000 c o v a r i a t e O t i s M a i n E f f e c t s G r o u p 36.420 1 36.420 0.853 0 .357 E x p l a i n e d 4020.440 2 2010.220 47.097 0 .000 R e s i d u a l 6 530.400 153 4 2 . 6 8 2 p <0.05 T a b l e 5 ANCOVA T o t a l R e a d i n g P o s t - T e s t . S o u r c e Sum o f S q u a r e s DF MS F S i g . G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e c o v a r i a t e O t i s M a i n E f f e c t s Exp 1 a i n e d R e s i dua1 p <0.05 4 6 1 8 . 8 9 3 1 4 6 1 8 . 8 9 3 108.290 0.000 2 6 3 . 1 6 6 1 2 6 3 . 1 6 6 6.170 0.014 48 8 2 . 0 5 6 1 2441.030 57.230 0.000 6 5 2 5 . 9 1 5 153 4 2 . 6 5 3 34 An examination of T a b l e s 4 and 5 shows that as expected there was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s and Otis-Lennon I.Q. s c o r e s . The s u r p r i s e was i n the main e f f e c t s group between these s c o r e s . When the e f f e c t s of I.Q. were s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between p o s t - t e s t experimental and c o n t r o l group r e a d i n g s c o r e s , which d i d not e x i s t in the p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . With the s i g n i f i c a n c e of f set at the .05 l e v e l T a b l e 5 shows that the e f f e c t of the experimental treatment on r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , when the e f f e c t s of I.Q. were s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s at the .014 l e v e l . A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of data to be used p u r e l y as a d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c was conducted by c o n v e r t i n g raw s c o r e s in vocabulary and comprehension to grade s c o r e s u s i n g the t a b l e s p r o v i d e d in the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e c h n i c a l manual. These grade e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s were then a n a l y z e d f o r the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , experimental and c o n t r o l groups, to see what changes had o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the length of the study. P o p u l a t i o n and group means are shown in T a b l e s 6 and 7. 35 T a b l e 6 P o p u l a t i o n a n d G r o u p Means f o r G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e P r e - T e s t a n d P o s t - T e s t V o c a b u l a r y S c o r e s V o c a b u l a r y Mean S t a n d a r d Y e a r G r o u p No. G r a d e S c o r e Dev i a t i on 1985 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 156 4.1 1.9 1985 E x p e r i m e n t a l 78 4.2 2.0 1985 C o n t r o l 78 4.0 1.8 D i f f e r e n c e .2 1986 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 156 5.3 4.4 1986 E x p e r i m e n t a l 78 5.8 5.8 1986 C o n t r o l 78 4.8 2.3 Di f f e r e n c e 1 .0 S c o r e s r o u n d e d o f f t o n e a r e s t t e n t h 36 Table 7 P o p u l a t i o n and Group Means f o r G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Pre-Test and P o s t - T e s t Comprehension Scores Comprehension Mean Standard Year Group No. Grade Score Dev i at 1 on 1985 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 156 4.1 3.9 1985 Exper imental 78 4.5 5.4 1985 C o n t r o l 78 3.7 1.2 Di f f e r e n c e .8 1986 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 156 4.8 5.5 1986 Exper imental 78 5.3 7.6 1986 C o n t r o l 78 4.3 1 .2 Di f ference 1.0 Scores rounded o f f to the nearest t e n t h . While the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the use of grade s c o r e s are well understood they can serve a purpose here because they are b e i n g used to d e s c r i b e vocabulary and comprehension t e s t performance s e p a r a t e l y . A l s o , the r e s e a r c h e r i s not s e e k i n g to a s s i g n any s i g n i f i c a n c e to the s c o r e s r e p o r t e d in T a b l e s 6 and 7 but r a t h e r to p o i n t out that a d i f f e r e n c e in average grade sco r e performance e x i s t s i n the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s f o r the experimental and 37 c o n t r o l g r o u p s . On t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n 1 t i e s u b - t e s t o f v o c a b u l a r y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c o r d e d an i n c r e a s e o f 1.6 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t s b e t w e e n t h e i r p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . The c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c o r d e d an i n c r e a s e o f 0.8 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t s b e t w e e n t h e i r p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . The p r e - t e s t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on t h e v o c a b u l a r y s u b - t e s t was 0.2 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t s w h i l e t h e p o s t - t e s t d i f f e r e n c e was 1.0 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t s . The f a c t t h a t f o r m a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p was by c o n t r o l l e d a l t e r n a t e a s s i g n m e n t o f c l a s s members b a s e d on t h e 1985 G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s c o r e s makes t h e s e r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e s more m e a n i n g f u l . A p p a r e n t l y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t h e l p e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t o d e v e l o p b e t t e r v o c a b u l a r y s k i l l t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . On t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e s u b - t e s t o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c o r d e d an i n c r e a s e o f 0.8 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t s b e t w e e n t h e i r p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . The c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c o r d e d an i n c r e a s e o f 0.6 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t s b e t w e e n t h e i r p r e - t e s t a n d p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s . The p r e - t e s t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b - t e s t was 0.8 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t w h i l e t h e p o s t - t e s t d i f f e r e n c e was 1.0 g r a d e s c o r e p o i n t s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t d i d p r o d u c e some g a i n i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p when c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y b u t t h e g a i n was n o t a s g r e a t a s t h a t p r o d u c e d i n v o c a b u l a r y . 38 From the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made. 1. The experimental group r e c o r d e d a g r e a t e r gain in t o t a l r e a d i n g achievement as measured by G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e T - s c o r e s than the c o n t r o l group d i d ( T a b l e 3 ) . 2. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p o s t - t e s t G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g s c o r e s f o r the experimental and c o n t r o l groups which d i d not e x i s t i n the p r e - t e s t s c o r e s ( T a b l e s 4 and 5 ) . 3. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in p o s t - t e s t i n g r e a d i n g s c o r e s f o r the experimental and c o n t r o l group cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to I.Q. d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups (Table A and 5 ) . CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The present study was conducted to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of parent involvement at home on the r e a d i n g p r o g r e s s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . It was designed t o r e p l i c a t e s t u d i e s conducted i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s by T i z a r d et a l . (1980, 1982) with an added dimension which c a l l e d f o r the c o n t r o l of teacher v a r i a b l e s and classroom c u r r i c u l u m content in r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . No r e s e a r c h reviewed to date i n t h i s area had all o w e d f o r the c o n t r o l of teacher v a r i a b l e s and classroom c u r r i c u l u m v a r i a b l e s when making comparisons between experimental and c o n t r o l groups. V a r i a n c e In teacher a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n of classroom c u r r i c u l u m s in r e a d i n g c o u l d have a confounding e f f e c t on the comparison of whole c l a s s groups in a study such as t h i s . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h i n c l a s s comparison, p o o l e d a c r o s s grades, were made in ways d e s c r i b e d in the experimental design (Chapter 2 ) . T h i s study addressed the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . They were: 1. Would c h i l d r e n who read to t h e i r p a r e n t s at home and r e c e i v e c o a c h i n g demonstrate b e t t e r achievement on a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t than c h i l d r e n who do not? 2. Can the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g 39 40 achievement be used to e x p l a i n the g a i n s in r e a d i n g achievement which may be r e g i s t e r e d by c h i l d r e n Involved in a home r e a d i n g program? C o n c l u s i o n s R e l a t i n g to the R e s u l t s of Research Questions 1 Would c h i l d r e n who re a d to t h e i r p a r e n t s at home and r e c i e v e c o a c h i n g demonstrate b e t t e r achievement on a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t than c h i l d r e n who do not. E v i d e n t l y the treatment p r o v i d e d f o r the experimental groups, i . e . , r e a d i n g to p a r e n t s at home and r e c e i v i n g c o a c h i n g from them, produced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r average gain in r e a d i n g performance as measused by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , f o r the experimental group when compared to the c o n t r o l group. While the f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was confirmed, the r e s u l t s suggest some d i s c u s s i o n around i s s u e s such as the d u r a t i o n of the study, the n o v e l t y of the study, and the energy and commitment of the school s t a f f to the experiment. Inherent i n the f i r s t q u e s t i o n , was a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d to i n c r e a s e s in the vocabulary and comprehension components of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y f o r the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. The de s i g n of the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g ( G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t ) used in t h i s r e s e a r c h , enabled the r e s e a r c h e r to draw some c o n c l u s i o n s about the e f f e c t s of parent involvement i n the r e a d i n g program on s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s t e s t e d , namely Vocabulary and Comprehension s k i l l s . An attempt was a l s o made to determine i f the d i f f e r e n c e s in r e a d i n g performance which had been c i t e d in p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to teacher v a r i a b l e s ? Would d i f f e r e n c e s 41 in r e a d i n g performance s t i l l e x i s t in a r e p l i c a t i v e study where w i t h i n c l a s s comparisons were made. Di s c u s s i on (a) D u r a t i o n of study. The study was l i m i t e d to a p e r i o d of f i v e months and ran from October 1985 to February 1986. The main determinants of t h i s time frame were the placement and promotion of s t u d e n t s i n t o new c l a s s groups in September of 1985 and the school d i s t r i c t ' s annual assessment of r e a d i n g which was conducted at the end of February 1986. Given that the r e s u l t s of the study were o b t a i n e d in a f i v e month p e r i o d i s i t p o s s i b l e that the experimental treatment c o u l d have produced even g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s betwen experimental and c o n t r o l groups i f the treatment had been a p p l i e d f o r a f u l l school year of ten motnhs? C o n s i d e r i n g that the s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d in t h i s study were s t u d e n t s in an elementary s c h o o l , few i f any would have r e a l i z e d t h e i r maximum p o t e n t i a l of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . It c o u l d be argued that c o n t i n u e d Involvement of p a r e n t s , at home, in the r e a d i n g program c o u l d produce even g r e a t e r g a i n s f o r the experimental group over the c o n t r o l group. (b) N o v e l t y of the study. Many p a r e n t s had never been i n v o l v e d with t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g in t h i s way b e f o r e and they found i t a novel e x p e r i e n c e . Would t h i s f e e l i n g and t h e i r involvement with the program be s t r e n g t h e n e d or weakened over a longer p e r i o d of time? When the p r o j e c t began p a r e n t s demonstrated a high degree of i n t e r e s t in the study. At the October 2nd 1985 meeting of p a r e n t s to i n t r o d u c e and e x p l a i n the p r o j e c t , 48 p a r e n t s of experimental 42 group c h i l d r e n were in attendance. T h i s l e v e l of attendance f o r a student body which r e p r e s e n t e d j u s t under h a l f of the s c h o o l ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was Impressive when compared to the average of ten p a r e n t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the t o t a l school p o p u l a t i o n , who attended r e g u l a r monthly parent a s s o c i a t i o n meetings. However, a l l p a r e n t s of experimental group c h i l d r e n were c o n t a c t e d by l e t t e r (see appendix) or phone and a l l g i v e t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n to have t h e i r c h i l d r e n take p a r t in the study. Of these, one o f f i c i a l l y n o t i f i e d the school of withdrawal at a l a t e r date, s a y i n g that i t was the s c h o o l ' s j o b to teach r e a d i n g , not the p a r e n t s ' . T h i s meant s i x t e e n s t u d e n t s (an a t t r i t i o n r a t e of approximately 18%) were not i n c l u d e d in the f i n a l a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s because of the nonreturn of r e c o r d forms. Teachers made many c o n t a c t s with these homes to encourage p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n to con t i n u e with the home r e a d i n g program. In some homes the l i f e s t y l e , which r e v o l v e d round s h i f t w o r k and two working p a r e n t s , was a problem. In o t h e r s , s i n g l e working p a r e n t s who saw l i t t l e of t h e i r c h i l d r e n had no time to c a t e r to the s c h o o l ' s r e q u e s t . The p e r i o d j u s t b e f o r e Christmas was the worst f o r a t t r i t i o n . A f t e r Christmas the p o p u l a t i o n of home r e a d e r s remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and they c o u l d have c o n t i n u e d with the p r o j e c t , in my o p i n i o n , throughout the remainder of the year. (c)Energy and commitment of school s t a f f . In the school s e t t i n g t e a c h e r s c e r t a i n l y f e l t an e x t r a burden a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s r e s e a r c h . The weekly task of d i s t r i b u t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g r e a d i n g 43 r e c o r d f o r m s , c h a r t i n g t h e s e r e t u r n s on a w a l l c h a r t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , r e s p o n d i n g t o p a r e n t s ' comments a n d q u e s t i o n s on r e a d i n g r e c o r d f o r m s , l o c a t i n g a n d k e e p i n g t r a c k o f s u i t a b l e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r c h i l d r e n , a n d i n many way s a c t i n g a s p r o m o t e r s o f t h e p r o j e c t I n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s , w e r e a l l t i m e c o n s u m i n g a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g t h e p r o j e c t t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e o b v i o u s b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t home a n d i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t b e t w e e n p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s , b u t many t e a c h e r s w e r e g l a d t o s e e t h e p r o j e c t e n d . A h i g h d e g r e e o f s t a f f c ommitment a n d l e a d e r s h i p d r i v e w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n t h e l e v e l o f s t u d e n t , p a r e n t , a n d s t a f f i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t c a l l e d f o r , i f a f u l l y e a r ' s p r o g r a m h a d b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d . A s i n g l e p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r i s p e r h a p s r e q u i r e d t o o r g a n i z e s u c h a p r o j e c t i n a s c h o o l o r g r o u p o f s c h o o l s . I t s h o u l d n o t be l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s t e a c h e r s . ( d ) C o m p a r i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e g a i n s on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . W h i l e a f o r m a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g v o c a b u l a r y a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n g a i n s by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t was n o t made, c o m p a r i s o n s i n f a c t w e r e made. I t w o u l d be l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n t h i s 44 r e s e a r c h would be l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to the vocabulary component of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y because p a r e n t a l c o a c h i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d l a r g e l y on word r e c o g n i t i o n . While t h i s was true there was a l s o a d i f f e r e n c e in comprehension performance which was somewhat s u r p r i s i n g because p a r e n t s were given i n s t r u c t i o n (see Appendix) to a s s i s t c h i l d r e n m i n i m a l l y with word a t t a c k s k i l l s and no emphasis was p l a c e d on q u e s t i o n i n g or other s t r a t e g i e s to develop comprehension. In Chapter 3 the d i f f e r e n c e s between pr e - and p o s t - t e s t Vocabulary and Comprehension s c o r e s on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test were d e s c r i b e d . For Vocabulary the experimental group r e c o r d e d an average i n c r e a s e of 1.6 grade sco r e p o i n t s which was twice the i n c r e a s e of 0.8 grade sco r e p o i n t s r e c o r d e d by the c o n t r o l group. O b v i o u s l y the experimental group had developed b e t t e r vocabulary s k i l l s as a r e s u l t of the experimental treatment. In Comprehension the experimental group r e c o r d e d an average gain of 0.8 grade sco r e p o i n t s compared to an i n c r e a s e of 0.6 grade sco r e p o i n t s f o r the c o n t r o l group. A p p a r e n t l y the experimental treatment d i d produce some g a i n in comprehension a b i l i t y f o r the experimental group over the c o n t r o l group, even though i t was not s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to do so. It i s p o s s i b l e that the home r e a d i n g program a c t i v i t y produced g a i n s in comprehension a b i l i t y s i m i l a r to the g a i n s r e p o r t e d in Heckleman's (1969) study i n v o l v i n g unison r e a d i n g ? In Heckleman's study unison r e a d i n g by a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n who were c l a s s i f i e d as r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s produced s u r p r i s i n g i n c r e a s e s in vocabulary and 45 comprehension a b i l i t y even though there was no d i s c u s s i o n of vocabulary or s t o r y content d u r i n g the r e a d i n g s e s s i o n s . Reading i s a h o l i s t i c a c t i v i t y which i n v o l v e s a number of component s k i l l s ; and o r a l r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e in the ways used in t h i s study a p p a r e n t l y develops the component s k i l l s of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y other than word r e c o g n i t i o n . The p r a c t i c e that c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d must have improved t h e i r r e a d i n g to some degree. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s has shown that I.Q. d i f f e r e n c e s cannot account f o r the improvement r e g i s t e r e d so we must look to r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e and p a r e n t a l involvement that produces a s t r o n g e r s e l f - c o n c e p t and a d r i v e or d e s i r e in s t u d e n t s to perform b e t t e r i n r e a d i n g , to e x p l a i n these r e s u l t s . The c o n t e n t i o n s made by r e s e a r c h e r s such as Ketcham, 1967; Hubbard and S a l t , 1975; Coons and Sugarman, 1978; and R e v i c k i , 1982 that the c h i l d ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t and emotional s e c u r i t y are determinants of r e a d i n g s u c c e s s are supported by t h i s r e s e a r c h . The exact nature and extent of these i n f l u e n c e s can only be determined by f u r t h e r c o n t r o l l e d r e s e a r c h . (e)The e f f e c t of teacher v a r i a b l e s upon the r e s u l t s of p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s in t h i s s u b j e c t a r e a . Again a formal r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was not posed but i n the present study i t was c l e a r that teacher v a r i a b l e s were not a f a c t o r which c o n t r i b u t e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e d average r e a d i n g g a i n s f o r the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group. In s t u d i e s c i t e d e a r l i e r that had been a key f a c t o r of concern in a comparative a n a l y s i s of t e s t r e s u l t s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the c o n t r o l of the teacher v a r i a b l e and 46 t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e r e a d i n g c u r r i c u l u m w e r e o b v i o u s a n d some e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s w e r e a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s . I n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e e x p l a i n e d t o p a r e n t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p c h i l d r e n a n d an a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t y was o r g a n i z e d f o r c o n t r o l g r o u p c h i l d r e n . The r e s e a r c h e r was r e l u c t a n t t o do t h i s b e c a u s e o f p o s s i b l e c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f r e s u l t s by h a v i n g c o n t r o l g r o u p c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t f r o m p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s e a r e a s by i m p r o v i n g s e l f c o n c e p t w i t h a p o s s i b l e c a r r y - o v e r i n t o r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . H o w e v e r , t h e s c h o o l s t a f f t h o u g h t i t w o u l d be u n e t h i c a l a n d d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y t o p a r e n t s t h a t h a l f o f a c l a s s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n a home r e a d i n g p r o j e c t a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f o f t h e c l a s s s h o u l d be i g n o r e d , s o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e was a c c e p t e d . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s w e r e c o n f i r m e d u n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a d d s more s t r e n g t h t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t was t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t w h i c h made t h e d i f f e r e n c e . By c o n t r o l l i n g t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r v a r i a b l e s i n r e a d i n g t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h h a s a n s w e r e d one more q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t a t home i n r e a d i n g a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e a d i n g g a i n s . C o n c l u s i o n s R e l a t i n g t o t h e R e s u l t s o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 Can t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t be u s e d t o e x p l a i n t h e g a i n s i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t w h i c h may be r e g i s t e r e d by c h i l d r e n i n a home r e a d i n g p r o g r a m ? The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 4 47 and 5 in Chapter 3 i n d i c a t e d that when the e f f e c t s of I.Q. were s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between p o s t - t e s t experimental and c o n t r o l group r e a d i n g s c o r e s . T h i s f i n d i n g answered q u e s t i o n 2 i n a ne g a t i v e way. T h i s p r o v i d e d more meaningful data than p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s c i t e d had done because the experimental and c o n t r o l group comparisons were made w i t h i n c l a s s groups. The c o n c l u s i o n that the experimental i n t e r v e n t i o n had made the d i f f e r e n c e i s more d e f e n s i b l e in t h i s i n s t a n c e because experimental and c o n t r o l group s u b j e c t s were s e a t e d in the same c l a s s with the same teacher t e a c h i n g the same r e a d i n g program in the same way. The home r e a d i n g program was the only d i f f e r e n c e . S uggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research T h i s present r e s e a r c h study l e d to some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h in the area of p a r e n t a l Involvement at home with the r e a d i n g programs of t h e i r elementary school c h i l d r e n . (a) The e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l involvement at home in the r e a d i n g program over a longer p e r i o d of time c o u l d be e x p l o r e d . A study, w i t h s i m i l a l r c o n t r o l s to the present study, designed to t r a c k p u p i l p r o g r e s s in r e a d i n g over a one year p e r i o d , or longer, would be i n t e r e s t i n g . (b) P a r t i c u l a r w e i g h t i n g s to the e f f e c t s of home r e a d i n g programs at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s c o u l d be made. A study i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e r number of c l a s s groups at primary and i n t e r m e d i a t e grade l e v e l s would enable comparative a n a l y s e s to be made to determine i f g a i n s 48 are more l i k e l y to occur at c e r t a i n grade l e v e l s . (c) T h i s present r e s e a r c h suggests f u r t h e r study might be made of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and the s t u d e n t s ' s e l f concept, ego s t r e n g t h , and s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l comfort. Are these f a c t o r s p r e d i c t o r s of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and i s i t only p a r e n t s who can s u b s t a n t i a l l y I n f l u e n c e them? (d) No attempt was made in the present study to compare the g a i n s in r e a d i n g a b i l i t y which were made by s t u d e n t s in experimental and c o n t r o l groups who had been r e c e i v i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e in the s c h o o l . How would such a home r e a d i n g program a f f e c t such c h i l d r e n with r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ? Would they be b e t t e r s e r v e d by spending e x t r a time w i t h a t r a i n e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher? (e) Attempts might be made to determine i f there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e of r e a d i n g g a i n s r e g i s t e r e d in these types of programs and the amount of time that c h i l d r e n spend r e a d i n g to t h e i r p a r e n t s at home. A study u s i n g a l a r g e r sampling of c l a s s groups c o u l d address t h i s q u e s t i o n . Optimum times and frequency of home p r a c t i c e r e a d i n g c o u l d perhaps be more a c c u r a t e l y determined. C o n c l u d i n g Statement to the Study The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h . (a) Under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e at home with a parent w i l l produce s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s in r e a d i n g a b i l i t y f o r c h i l d r e n . These g a i n s cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to i n t e l l i g e n c e a l o n e . (b) The Vocabulary component of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured on a 49 s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i s most a f f e c t e d by a home r e a d i n g program of t h i s n a t u r e . The experimental group r e g i s t e r e d twice the ga i n in Vocabulary that the c o n t r o l group d i d . However, the experimental group a l s o r e g i s t e r e d a small gain over the c o n t r o l group in Comprehension a b i l i t y . ( c) The n o t i o n that the t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g s h o u l d be e n t r u s t e d only to t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s cannot be t o t a l l y supported. when the teacher v a r i a b l e was c o n t r o l l e d in t h i s r e s e a r c h , p a r e n t a l involvement in r e a d i n g at home s t i l l produced s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in r e a d i n g a b i l i t y between experimental and c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n when the e f f e c t s of I.Q. were s t a t i s t i c a l l y con t r o l i e d . (d) P a r e n t s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d with t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g not only because they are an untapped source of support f o r teacher i n s t r u c t i o n but because p a r e n t s have a v i t a l i n t e r e s t in and a s s o c i a t i o n with t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l i n g and s e l f - c o n c e p t which no one e l s e can have. (e) Involvement of p a r e n t s at home in the r e a d i n g program i s a goal which s h o u l d be pursued f u r t h e r by e d u c t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n North America. F l u c t u a t i o n s in p u p i l numbers and teacher supply c o u p l e d with s h i f t i n g emphasis in the a l l o c a t i o n of monetary r e s o u r c e s by government p o i n t s to the need f o r g r e a t e r involvelment of p a r e n t s and the community at l a r g e i n the e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . BIBLIOGRAPHY A n s e l m o , S a n d r a . " P a r e n t I n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e S c h o o l s . " CI e a r i n g H o u s e . 50 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 2 9 7 - 2 9 9 . A n s e l m o , S a n d r a . " I m p r o v i n g Home an d P r e s c h o o l I n f l u e n c e s on E a r l y L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t . " The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r . 32 (November 1 9 7 8 ) , 1 3 9 - 1 4 3 . B a u c h , J . P . , P.M. V i e t z e & V.D. M o r r i s . "What Makes t h e D i f f e r e n c e i n P a r e n t a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n ? " C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . 50 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 4 7 - 5 3 . B e c k e r , H e n r y J a y , 8. J o y c e L. E p s t e i n . " P a r e n t I n v o l v e m e n t : A S u r v e y o f T e a c h e r P r a c t i c e s . " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 83 (November 1 9 8 2 ) , 8 5 - 1 0 2 . B i n g , E l i z a b e t h . " E f f e c t o f C h i l d R e a r i n g P r a c t i c e s on D e v e l o p m e n t o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s . " C h i I d D e v e l o p m e n t . 34 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 6 3 1 - 6 4 8 . B l o o m , B e n j a m i n S a m u e l . C o n t e m p o r a r y E d u c a t i o n f o r C u l t u r a l D e p r i v a t i o n . New Y o r k , NY: H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , 1965. B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U r l e . "A R e p o r t on L o n g i t u d i n a l E v a l u a t i o n s o f P r e s c h o o l P r o g r a m s . " R e p o r t No. (OHD) 7 6 - 3 0 0 2 5 . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n a n d W e l f a r e , 1974. B r o w n , B.R., 8. M a r t i n D e u t s c h . "Some E f f e c t s o f S o c i a l C l a s s a n d R a c e on C h i l d r e n ' s L a n g u a g e a n d I n t e l l e c t u a l A b i l i t i e s : A New Look a t an O l d P r o b l e m . " P a p e r R e a d a t S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , M i n n e a p o l i s , M a r c h 1965. B u r o s , O s c a r , e d . The S e v e n t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k . V o l . I . The G r y p h o n P r e s s , H i g h l a n d P a r k , N . J . 1972. C a l i g u r i , J . P . " W i l l P a r e n t s T a k e O v e r Head S t a r t P r o g r a m s ? " U r b a n E d u c a t i o n . 6 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 5 3 - 6 4 . C a m p b e l l , D.T., 8. J . C . S t a n l e y . E x p e r i m e n t a l a n d Q u a s l - E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n s f o r R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o : R a n d M c N a l l y , 1 9 6 3 . C a s s i d y , J a c k & C a r o l V u k e l i c h . " S u r v i v a l R e a d i n g f o r P a r e n t s a n d K i d s . " The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , v o l . 31 ( M a r c h 1978, 6 3 8 - 6 4 1 . C h a n , Jimmy. " P a r e n t i n g S t y l e s a n d C h i l d r e n ' s R e a d i n g A b i l i t i e s : A Hong Kong S t u d y . " J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g 24 (May 1981) 6 6 7 - 6 7 5 . 50 Chomsky, C a r o l . " S t a g e s i n L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t a n d R e a d i n g E x p o s u r e " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w . 4 2 , 1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 1.-33. ( E R I C Document E J 0 5 5 6 5 0 ) . C o o n s , J o h n E., & S t e p h e n D. S u g a r m a n . E d u c a t i o n by C h o i c e : The C a s e f o r F a m i l y C o n t r o l . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978. C r o s s e t , R o b e r t J . , J r . "The E x t e n t a n d E f f e c t o f P a r e n t s ' P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n T h e i r C h i l d r e n ' s B e g i n n i n g R e a d i n g P r o g r a m : An I n n e r c l t y P r o j e c t . " D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i , 1972. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , No. 7 2 - 3 1 , 9 2 2 . ( E R I C Document ED076946.) E p s t e i n , J o y c e L., 8, H e n r y J a y B e c k e r . " T e a c h e r s ' R e p o r t e d P r a c t i c e s o f P a r e n t a l I n v o l v e m e n t : P r o b l e m s a n d P o s s i b i l i t i e s . " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 83 (November 1 9 8 2 ) , 1 0 3 - 1 1 3 . E v a n s , D a l e . "An I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o g r a m t o E n h a n c e P a r e n t - P u p i l S c h o o l I n t e r a c t i o n s . " E D ) 4 8 3 4 2 . A r l i n g t o n VA: E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n s S e r v i c e , 1 9 7 1 . G a t e s , A r t h u r J . , & W a l t e r H. M a c G l n i t i e . G a t e s - M a c G i n i t 1 e . R e a d i n g T e s t s . C a n a d i a n E d . , T e a c h e r ' s M a n u a l , F o r m s A-E, Thomas N e l s o n 8. S o n s L t d . , 1979. G i l m o r e, J o h n . P a r e n t a l I n f l u e n c e on A c a d e m i c A c h i e v e m e n t . N o r m l l n e , 2. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , n.d. G o o d s o n , B a r b a r a D., 8, R o b e r t D. H e s s . P a r e n t s a s T e a c h e r s o f Y o u n g C h i l d r e n : An E v a l u a t i v e R e v i e w o f Some C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e p t s a n d P r o g r a m s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n a l P e r s o n n e l D e v e l o p m e n t , D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n a n d W e l f a r e , 1975. G o r d o n , I r a J . "What Do We Know A b o u t P a r e n t s a s T e a c h e r s ? " T h e o r y i n t o P r a c t i c e . 11 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 146-149. G o r d o n , I r a . "What Does R e s e a r c h Say A b o u t t h e E f f e c t s o f P a r e n t a l I n v o l v e m e n t on S c h o o l i n g ? " P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n a n d C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t , 1978. G r i m m e t , S a d i e , 8, May McCoy. " E f f e c t s o f P a r e n t a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n on R e a d i n g P e r f o r m a n c e o f T h i r d G r a d e C h i l d r e n . " The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r . v o l . 33 ( D ecember 1 9 8 0 ) , 3 0 3 - 3 0 8 . G r o b e r g , E.H. R e v i e w o f R e s e a r c h : 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 6 9 . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1969. 52 H e c k l e m a n , R.G. "A N e u r o l o g i c a l I m p r e s s M e t h o d o f R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n . " A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y . 4:4 (Summer 1 9 6 9 ) , 2 7 7 - 2 8 2 . H e w i s o n , J . Home E n v i r o n m e n t a n d R e a d i n g A t t a i n m e n t : A S t u d y o f C h i l d r e n l n a W o r k i n g C l a s s Community. U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , 1979. H e w i s o n , J e n n y , e t a l . " P a r e n t a l I n v o l v e m e n t a n d R e a d i n g A t t a i n m e n t . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , v o l . 50 (November 1 9 8 0 ) , 2 0 9 - 2 1 5 . H u b b a r d , D o u g l a s , & J o h n S a l t . " F a m i l y S u p p o r t a n d t h e Y o u n g R e a d e r . " Forum f o r t h e D i s c u s s i o n o f New T r e n d s i n E d u c a t i o n . ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 5 ) , 6 3 - 6 4 . I r v i n e , D a v i d J . P a r e n t I n v o l v m e n t A f f e c t s C h i l d r e n ' s C o g n i t i v e G r o w t h . A l b a n y : S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k , D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h , 1979. K e t c h a m , C l a y A. "The Home B a c k g r o u n d a n d R e a d e r S e l f - C o n c e p t w h i c h R e l a t e t o R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t . " D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , L e h i g h U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 28 ( 2 - A ) ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 4 9 9 . ( E R I C Document P 4 2 0 0 4 4 8 5 ) K l e i n , Ann E. " P a r e n t a l I n v o l v e m e n t In C h i l d r e n ' s R e a d i n g R e a d - i n e s s D e v e l o p m e n t . " R e a d i n g H o r i z o n s . 18 (Summer 1 9 7 8 ) , 2 7 2 - 2 7 6 . L a v i n , D a v i d E. "The P r e d i c t i o n o f A c a d e m i c P e r f o r m a n c e : A T h e o r e t - i c a l A n a l y s i s i n R e v i e w o f R e s e a r c h . " New Y o r k , NY: R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1965. L o b a n , W a l t e r D. The L a n g u a g e o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . U r b a n a , I L : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , 1 963. M a t u s z e k , P a u l a . " R e v i e w o f R e s e a r c h i n P a r e n t I n v o l v e m e n t i n E d u c a t i o n , I n t e r i m R e p o r t : Low S o c i o e c o n o m i c S t a t u s a n d M i n o r i t y S t u d e n t A c h i e v e m e n t S t u d y . " A u s t i n I n d e p e n d e n t S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , T e x a s , J u l y 1977. ( E D 1 6 1 9 8 0 ) . M c D o n a l d , F r e d e r i c k M. " R e p o r t on P h a s e I I o f t h e B e g i n n i n g T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n S t u d y . " J o u r n a l o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n . 27 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 3 9 - 4 2 . M c K i n n e y , J o h n A. "The D e v e l o p m e n t a n d I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a T u t o r i a l P r o g r a m f o r P a r e n t s t o I m p r o v e t h e R e a d i n g a n d M a t h e m a t i c s A c h i e v e m e n t o f T h e i r C h i l d r e n . " ED113703. A r l i n g t o n , VA: ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , 1975. O t i s , A r t h u r S., & R o g e r T. L e n n o n . O t i s - L e n n o n M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t . H a r c o u r t , B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , 1970. Powe11, W i 1 1 i am R. i n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t , Summer 1969 , 6 ( 2 ) , 3-10. R e v i c k i , D e n n i s A. The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S e l f C o n c e p t a n d A c h i e v e m e n t : An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f R e c i p r o c a l E f f e c t s New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c ! a t l o , 1982. R i c h e k , M a r g a r e t Ann, e t a l . R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1983. S h e l t o n , J u d i t h . "An A n a l y s i s o f a F a m i l y I n v o l v e m e n t C o m m u n i c a t i o n S y s t e m i n a T i t l e 1 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l : F i n a l R e p o r t . " E D082091, A r l i n g t o n , VA: E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , 1973. S u l l i v a n , Howard J . , & C a r o l L e B e a u n e . " E f f e c t s o f P a r e n t A d m i n i s t e r e d Summer R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n . " P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e AERA M e e t i n g , M i n n e a p o l i s , M a r c h 1970. E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e E D 0 4 2 8 3 1 . T i z a r d , J a c k , e t a l . " C o l l a b o r a t i o n B e t w een T e a c h e r s a n d P a r e n t s i n A s s i s t i n g C h i l d r e n ' s R e a d i n g . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s v c h o 1 o g y . v o l . 52 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 2 ) , 1-15. T o b i n , A i l e e n . "A L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d y o f t h e S o c i a l , P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l C o r r e l a t e s o f E a r l y R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t . " U n p u b l i s h e d d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e , N e w a r d , DE, 1 9 8 1 . Van R o e k e l , B y r o n H. "A R e v i e w o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n 1 t 1 e R e a d i n g T e s t . " The S e v e n t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t Y e a r b o o k . V o l . 1. O s c a r B u r o s ( e d . ) The G r y p h o n P r e s s , H i g h l a n d P a r k , N J , 1972. V u k e l i c h , C a r o l . " P a r e n t s ' R o l e i n t h e R e a d i n g P r o c e s s . " The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , v o l . 3 7 , ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 4 ) , 4 7 2 - 4 7 7 . W i l b y , P e t e r . "The B e l f i e l d E x p e r i m e n t . " Sunday T i m e s W e e k l y . ( M a r c h 2 9 t h , 1 9 8 1 ) . Woods, C a r o l , e t a l . "The E f f e c t o f t h e P a r e n t I n v o l v e m e n t P r o g r a m on R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s S c o r e s . " M e s a , AZ: Mesa P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1974. ( E R I C Document E D 1 0 4 5 2 7 ) . APPENDIX 1 LETTER TO PARENTS BOX 160. 32 HEATHER CRESCENT. M.'C^'-^E. B.C. - PHONE 997-3230 September 23, 1985 Dear Mr. and Mrs. , Your son/daughter , has been chosen to take part in some research that I am conducting into the influence of Parental Involvement in the Reading Program. I am trying to determine to what extent parental involvement, at home, in l istening to children read and "coaching" them in certain ways, wi l l help to improve their chi ld's reading scores on tests that the school d i s t r i c t gives in schools each year. The project involves the following: 1) Parents wi l l be required to attend monthly planning and instructional meetings at the school, to learn methods of "coaching" their children. These methods are very simple, require no special training and are not time consuming. 2) Parents wi l l be required to keeD a record of time spent in listening to their children read and in "coaching" them. 3) Parental consent is required to have their chi ld take a group pencil and paper test of mental abil i ty—the Otis Lennon test of Mental A b i l i t y . {kS minutes). Results wi l l be available to individual parents only. In reports that I write, . ' students wi l l be identified by numbers and only I w i l l have the master l i s t which w i l l be destroyed at the conclusion of the research. Your participation in this research wi l l be helpful in that it could identify better ways for parents to help their children at home. Also, your chi ld should benefit from your interest and inovlvement in their reading program. The results of this experiment for your chi ld *i11 be communicated to you at the conclusion of the research. Participation in this research is voluntary and you may withdraw at any time by notifying me. 2 5 6 - Page 2 S e p t . 23, 1985 I am s e e k i n g your c o - o p e r a t i o n in w c r k i n j w i t h your c h i l d t o h e l p i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . You w i l l f i n d i t an i n t e r e s t i n g and r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e in t h a t you w i l l know t h a t you have h e l p e d y o u r c h i l d t o become'a b e t t e r r e a d e r . P l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e form below and r e t u r n i t t o your c h i l d ' s t e a c h e r . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e c a l l me a t t h e s c h o o l . Yours s i n c e r e l y , • Ray G i f f i n , P r i n c i p a l . RG/sml I 1 [ g i v e my c o n s e n t do not g i v e my c o n s e n t f o r my c h i l d , t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h o u t l i n e d above. I ( C h i l d ' s name) have re a d and u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h and a l s o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t my c h i l d may be withdrawn f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h a t any t i m e . Such w i t h d r a w a l w i l l n o t a f f e c t , i n any way, my c h i l d ' s r i g h t t o f u r t h e r t e a c h i n g , t h e c l a s s s t a n d i n g , o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . S i gned ( P a r e n t o r Le g a l G u a r d i a n ) APPENDIX 2 SUGGESTED PARENT SUPPORT GROUP ACTIVITIES PARENT SUPPORT GROUP I terns f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the r e a d i n g p r o j e c t r e l a t i n g t o : 1) News 1 e t t e r N e w s l e t t e r t o go home once a month. Comments on s o l v i n g s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s . Sample p a r e n t comments. Sample c h i l d r e n ' s comments. Books t h a t c h i 1 d r e n / p a r e n t s recommend. Number o f r e t u r n s f o r groups - b e s t i n s c h o o l . How t o choose the " r i g h t " book. V a r i e t y i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . C h i l d r e n i l l u s t r a t e a f a v o u r i t e s t o r y . S u g g e s t e d book l i s t s - by age - by s u b j e c t . S u g g e s t i o n on when and where to r e a d . I n c l u d e book r e p o r t s from c h i l d r e n . M e n t i o n names o f c h i l d r e n who have improved c o n s i d e r a b l y . Inform p a r e n t s o f n e x t m e e t i n g d a t e . Record the i d e a s t h a t p a r e n t s get as a r e s u l t o f t h e r e a d i n g , p r o g r a m . L i s t t h e names o f p a r e n t s u p p o r t group members who can a c t as c o n t a c t p e o p l e . 2) O t h e r A c t i o n s One day a week, read t h e newspaper. Summarize a s t o r y read i n w r i t i n g . Have p a r e n t r e a d t o t h e c h i l d w i t h t h e c h i l d f o l l o w i n g i n t h e book. C u l t i v a t e an i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g p o e t r y . I f t h e p r o j e c t i s s u c c e s s f u l , get o t h e r s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d . Have a m e e t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . Have someone t a k e y o u r p l a c e when you c a n ' t hear y o u r c h i l d r e a d . Use c a b l e c h a n n e l t o a d v e r t i s e m e e t i n g s - r a d i o - M a c k e n z i e Times. P h o n i n g Committee. P o s t O f f i c e B u l l e t i n Board - m e e t i n g p l a c e and t i m e s . Encourage c h i l d r e n to g e t and use l i b r a r y c a r d s . R e g u l a r m e e t i n g s f o r p a r e n t s . I n c e n t i v e s f o r b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . I n c e n t i v e s f o r c h i l d r e n who b r i n g back r e a d i n g s h e e t s on t i m e . Acknowledge c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h a s s e m b l i e s , n e w s l e t t e r s , e t c . Have c h i l d r e n r e a d t o p a r e n t group i f t h e y f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e . P a r e n t s c o u l d i n i t i a t e a c h a r t a t home t o keep t r a c k o f t i m e s r e a d . Make note o f words c h i l d r e n have t r o u b l e w i t h and make f l a s h c a r d s . APPENDIX 3 MONTHLY READING NEWSLETTER RECORD CARDS Your c h i l d w i l l b r i n g home a rec o r d card because we need to know how much time they spend r e a d i n g at home each week and how you f e e l about your c h i l d ' s r eading. — o r w 3 <® — 1 ̂ r / ' s l i n q Fur l o t ' : P l e a s e complete the record card each time you hear your c h i l d read and have them r e t u r n i t to the school on time. Reading Together - V o l . 1, No. 1 Oct. A, 1985 WHY? Children who read at home with a car i n g adult w i l l become b e t t e r readers. They need l o t s of praise and encouragement. They need to know that you're proud of t h e i r reading. They need your s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . They need to enjoy reading with you. WHEN? whenever you both want to. 5 to 15 minutes a day i s f i n e . Find a comfortable, quiet place. S i t close to your c h i l d , and pay atte n t i o n to the i r reading. You may l i k e to discuss the story afterwards, but only i f you both want to. WHAT? We w i l l send home material that i s at the r i g h t l e v e l , or your c h i l d can choose something from home, the school l i b r a r y , or the public l i b r a r y . The l i b r a r i a n s w i l l help them to f i n d a book that's r i g h t f o r them. Parent meetings and more of these newsletters are planned to t e l l you more about reading. You w i l l learn how to pick a suitable book f o r your c h i l d and how to hlep them while they read. READING MATERIALS Your c h i l d can choose reading m a t e r i a l s from the school l i r a r y , the p u b l i c l i b r a r y , or hooks and magazines t h a t they have a t home. Parents are i n v i t e d to drop i n to the school l i b r a r y to choose a book w i t h t h e i r c hild—12:30-1:00 p.m. or 3:00-3:30 p.m. For grade one c h i l d r e n parents should read to the c h i l d and t a l k about s t o r y books and nursery rhymes t h a t are s u i t a b l e f o r that age. Once again the school l i b r a r i a n can help you w i t h suggestions f o r reading m a t e r i a l s , As a general r u l e i f a c h i l d makes more than f i v e mistakes on a page the m a t e r i a l i s too d i f f i c u l t . YOUR PUBLIC LIBRARY AND THE SCHOOL READING PROGRAM HOW can the p u b l i c l i b r a r y a s s i s t you i n hel p i n g your c h i l d i n the reading program? By p r o v i d i n g a wide range of resources f o r your and your c h i l d . WHAT k i n d of resources are a v a i l a b l e ? Resource books f o r a d u l t s w i t h ideas, games, and b o o k l i s t s , a complete range of books f o r c h i l d r e n of a l l ages and at a l l reading l e v e l s , a r e l a x i n g reading atmosphere, h e l p f u l l i b r a r y s t a f f . WHO can I contact at the p u b l i c l i b r a r y ? Any of the l i b r a r y s t a f f — J a n i c e , Doreen, or L i s a . WHEN i s help a v a i l a b l e ? Any time during r e g u l a r l i b r a r y h o u r s — Tuesday to Thursday 12-9 p.m., Fr i d a y and Saturday 12-5 p.m. I f a morning would be more convenient, or i f you wish to research some resource books, e t c . , you may c a l l J a n i c e H a l l at the l i b r a r y (997-6343) a f t e r 9 a.m. Tuesday to F r i d a y . APPENDIX 4 READING RECORD FORM C l a s s Record Sheet S u b j e c t - • C h i l d ' s Name D i v i s i o n ' Dates • t o Work Cov e r e d P a r e n t ' s Comments/Signature Te a c h e r ' 5 Comments/ S i o n a t u r e FRIDAY Time - WEEKEND Time - MONDAY Time - TUESDAY Time - WEDNESDAY Time - THURSDAY Time -

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