UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A case study of the acquisition of vocabulary by a group of ESL students examined from the perspective… Henry, David Alexander 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A8 H46.pdf [ 12.44MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0078309.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0078309-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0078309-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0078309-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0078309-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0078309-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0078309-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0078309-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0078309.ris

Full Text

A CASE STUDY OF THE ACQUISITION OF VOCABULARY BY A GROUP OF ESL STUDENTS EXAMINED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURES by David Alexander Henry B.A. The University of Western Ontario, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1989 (c) David Alexander Henry, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s c a s e s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e p r o c e s s e s o f v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g i n a s i x t h g r a d e ESL c l a s s r o o m . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s o f v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g , t h e m e t h o d u s e d was a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e . The c l a s s r o o m f o l l o w e d a l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h w h i c h was c o n t e n t b a s e d ( o r t h e m a t i c ) a n d was o r g a n i z e d p r i m a r i l y a r o u n d a f r a m e w o r k o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n . The s t u d y f o c u s s e d on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n a n d made a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f y i n g a n d d e s c r i b i n g a s p e c i f i c t o p i c a n d t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s o f v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g t h e s t u d y made a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n d i r e c t s t r a t e g i e s ( s u c h a s g i v i n g d e f i n i t i o n s ) a n d i n d i r e c t s t r a t e g i e s ( w h i c h c a l l e d f o r c o n t e x t u a l u s e ) . R e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t : 1 . i n d i r e c t s t r a t e g i e s o f t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e a n d v o c a b u l a r y seemed t o be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n d i r e c t s t r a t e g i e s ; 2. t h e t e a c h i n g f o c u s on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e u s e o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n a n d t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; A b s t r a c t - i i -3 . t e a c h e r s u s e d more o f t h e l a n g u a g e a n d m e t a l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s b u t n o t a s w i d e a r a n g e a s o c c u r s i n w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e ; 4. s t u d e n t s seemed t o a c q u i r e and u s e l e s s o f t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a n o f t h e t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n , a n d p r e f e r r e d s y n t a c t i c r a t h e r t h a n l e x i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n s when d i s c u s s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n ; 5. when t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o p i c , t h i s a p p e a r e d t o h e l p t h e l e a r n i n g o f w o r d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t o p i c ; 6. a s s e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f s t u d e n t s ' u s e o f t h e t e r m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e o f a t o p i c seemed t o be u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t o p i c . A b s t r a c t - i i i -T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f t a b l e s v i i i L i s t o f f i g u r e s v i i i C h a p t e r One: I n t r o d u c t i o n and R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y 1 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y 3 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y 4 D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s u s e d 4 1.2 R e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e S t u d i e s i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n 8 F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s 8 C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n r e s e a r c h on v o c a b u l a r y i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n 14 S t u d i e s on i n t e r a c t i o n a n d t a s k 15 S t u d e n t - o r i e n t e d s t u d i e s o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n 17 C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n r e s e a r c h i n c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t d e s i g n 18 T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s - i v -C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n r e s e a r c h i n t o s t u d e n t s t r a t e g i e s 19 S t u d i e s on s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e c o d i n g 20 S t u d i e s on s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e m e m b e r i n g 21 O t h e r r e s e a r c h i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n 22 1.3 Summary 23 C h a p t e r Two: T h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s t u d y 2.1 T h e o r y o f l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n 24 K n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k h y p o t h e s i s 26 K n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s a s a s p e c t s o f human a c t i v i t y 26 V o c a b u l a r y a s a c l a s s i f i a c t i o n a c t i v i t y 28 T h e o r e t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y 29 2.2 S e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n 31 The l e x i c a l s e m a n t i c s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 31 H i e r a r c h i e s 33 Taxonomy 33 Meronomy 34 N o n - b r a n c h i n g h i e r a r c h i e s 36 O t h e r s y s t e m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 37 S e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p 39 2.3 The m e t a l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 42 V o c a b u l a r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 42 T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s - v -The t h e s a u r u s a nd t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 44 A f u n c t i o n a l grammar a n a l y s i s 46 A r h e t o r i c a l grammar a n a l y s i s 46 S e m a n t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s u g g e s t e d t e r m s 47 2.4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m 52 2.5 Summary 53 C h a p t e r T h r e e : D a t a A n a l y s i s 3.1 O v e r v i e w o f c h a p t e r 55 R a t i o n a l e 56 3.2 D a t a c o l l e c t i o n 58 I n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e d a t a 59 3.3 M e t h o d s o f a n a l y s i s 59 F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s 59 F a c t o r s i n l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n c e s 65 S i n g l e w o r d a n a l y s i s 68 E v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y k n o w l e d g e 69 I n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s by t e a c h e r s 75 D i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s 75 Synonyms 76 D e f i n i t i o n s 86 O r t h o g r a p h i c f o r m s 101 A n a l o g y 107 T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s - v i -I n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s 112 A c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s by s t u d e n t s 123 C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f w o r d s t o k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e o f c o n t e n t 133 C a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k 133 A n a l y s i s o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s 135 A s s e s s m e n t o f s t u d e n t s ' i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s k i l l s 138 A n a l y s i s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 143 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e x i c a l t e r m s 166 3.4 Summary 170 C h a p t e r F o u r : D i s c u s s i o n . O b s e r v a t i o n s and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 4.1 F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s 172 4.2 T e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s 173 S t u d e n t e r r o r s a s i n d i c a t o r s o f l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s 176 4.3 A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k t o m e t h o d o l o g y 178 4.5 C o n c l u s i o n 180 4.6 E n v o i 181 T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s - v i i -R e f e r e n c e s 182 A p p e n d i x I : T e a c h e r - s t u d e n t w o r d f r e q u e n c y l i s t 193 A p p e n d i x I I : S e m a n t i c w o r d g r o u p s 209 T a b l e s T a b l e I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n e n t r i e s i n a t h e s a u r u s 44 T a b l e I I S t r u c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 47 T a b l e I I I Summary o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d 51 T a b l e IV C l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s u s e d i n c l a s s s e s s i o n s 64 F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 The K n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k 28 F i g u r e s 2-5 S e m a n t i c and l e x i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 32 F i g u r e 6 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s 39 F i g u r e 7 T y p e - t o k e n r a t i o s f o r e a c h c l a s s s e s s i o n 62 F i g u r e 8 A taxonomy 78 F i g u r e 9 D a t a c o l l e c t i o n m a t r i x 161 o T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s - v i i i -C h a p t e r One: I n t r o d u c t i o n and R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y by s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s and w i l l r e v i e w c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h i s t o p i c . I t w i l l be shown t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e n e e d h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d , t h e r e s e a r c h h a s n o t a n s w e r e d t h e n e e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e c l a s s r o o m l e v e l . I t w i l l a l s o be shown t h a t t h e v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , w h i c h r a n g e f r o m w o r d - f o c u s s e d t o i n t e r a c t i o n a nd t a s k , a r e n o t d i r e c t e d by a c o h e r e n t t h e o r y o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . The n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y T h e r e i s a p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t l e a r n i n g a n o t h e r l a n g u a g e i n v o l v e s m e m o r i z i n g a l o t o f w o r d s (and what t h e y mean i n y o u r own l a n g u a g e ) and a few grammar r u l e s t o h o o k them t o g e t h e r , t h u s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t o u r i s t p h r a s e b o o k s o r m u l t i - l i n g u a l g l o s s a r i e s ("Where i s t h e b o o k s t o r e ? " i n t w e n t y - f i v e l a n g u a g e s ! ) . R e p u t a b l e l i n g u i s t s a nd l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s know t h a t t h e r e a l i t y i s o t h e r w i s e ; t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i s much more c o m p l i c a t e d . The n a t u r e o f l e x i s h a s p l a g u e d l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s a n d l e a r n e r s f o r c e n t u r i e s , a n d t h e r e s t i l l r e m a i n enormous g a p s i n what we c a n h o n e s t l y c l a i m a b o u t i t s p o s i t i o n i n C h a p t e r 1 - 1 -l e a r n i n g l a n g u a g e s . C o r d e r ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 8 7 ) s u m m a r i z e s t h e s i t u a t i o n : As f a r a s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y a n d s e m a n t i c s i s c o n c e r n e d , my own f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n i s t h a t we know v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g ! The a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y ( l e x i s ) seems t o be l a r g e l y c o n t e x t d e p e n d e n t , t h a t i s we l e a r n p r e c i s e l y t h a t v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h a t any p a r t i c u l a r moment we n e e d t o know. One o f t h e m a i n g o a l s o f t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r i n o r g a n i z i n g a c u r r i c u l u m i s " t o p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a s s i s t c h i l d r e n t o p r o g r e s s f r o m p r a c t i c a l ( e x p e r i e n t i a l ) t o t h e o r e t i c a l ( e x p o s i t o r y ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s " (McRae 1 9 8 7 : 6 ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h i s i n c l u d e s t h e c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l a n g u a g e t o be l e a r n e d a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s by w h i c h i t i s t o be t a u g h t . Some v o c a b u l a r y a n d s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s a n d s t r a t e g i e s t o t e a c h them a r e p r o b a b l y more p r o d u c t i v e a n d more u s e f u l t h a n o t h e r s . W h i c h o n e s t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r o r t h e t e a c h e r w i l l s e l e c t d e p e n d s on t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h he o r s h e h o l d s a n d what e v i d e n c e t h e r e i s t o s u p p o r t one a p p r o a c h o v e r a n o t h e r . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n s h a s l o n g b e e n a p o p u l a r a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e x i c a l t e r m s ( v o c a b u l a r y ) a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g l e x i c a l p a t t e r n s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a f i e l d f a r l e s s a d e q u a t e l y e x a m i n e d . What w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e some o f t h e p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h a s m a l l g r o u p o f l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s b e i n g t a u g h t a c c o r d i n g t o one p a r t i c u l a r m o d e l o f k n o w l e d g e o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p e a r t o C h a p t e r 1 - 2 -a c q u i r e v o c a b u l a r y . I t w i l l be model t e a c h e r s c a n a i d s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g , w h i c h may i n t u r n a i d a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s . p r o p o s e d t h a t b y f o l l o w i n g t h i s i n i m p r o v i n g v o c a b u l a r y i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s a n a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g b a s e d on k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s ( t h e l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t ) a n d some o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d l a n g u a g e . The a p p r o a c h we w i l l c o n s i d e r p r o p o s e s t h a t l a n g u a g e i s b e t t e r l e a r n e d t h r o u g h c o n t e n t t h a n i n v a c u o a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e m a j o r d i v i s i o n s w h i c h c a n be made i n l a n g u a g e c o n t e n t w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e c o n t e n t . The p a t t e r n s w h i c h c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e b e i n g t a u g h t h a v e l a n g u a g e p a t t e r n s w h i c h p a r a l l e l t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o n c e p t o f v o c a b u l a r y i t s e l f f a l l s w i t h i n one o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a p o s s i b l e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e f o r o r g a n i z i n g a m e t h o d o l o g y o f v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n . C o n t e n t t a u g h t u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l a n g u a g e t e r m s a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s f r a m e w o r k s h o u l d be more e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d a n d a c q u i r e d . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s t r a t e g i e s u s e d i n t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g v o c a b u l a r y c a n a l s o be c a t e g o r i z e d a n d s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y o f f e r some e v i d e n c e on w h i c h t o b a s e t h e d e s i g n o f C h a p t e r 1 - 3 -c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r l a n g u a g e a nd c o n t e n t i n s t r u c t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y The f i r s t c h a p t e r r e v i e w s r e c e n t w o r k r e l a t e d t o s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g and t o v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t shows t h a t t o d a t e t h e r e i s no c o h e r e n t t h e o r y o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n . C h a p t e r Two p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l a n a l y s e s o f s e m a n t i c s a n d r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s e a n a l y s e s . A s t r o n g a r g u m e n t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h t o v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n i s made. I n C h a p t e r T h r e e d a t a d r a w n f r o m c l a s s r o o m t r a n s c r i p t s a r e e x a m i n e d i n o r d e r t o r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n C h a p t e r Two a n d t o t e s t t h e c l a i m f o r t h e ar g u m e n t f o r t h e a p p r o a c h t o v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n . C h a p t e r F o u r s u m m a r i z e s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made and d r a w s some t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s . D e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s u s e d To s e t t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e s t u d y we must c l a r i f y a few b a s i c t e r m s a nd t h e n e x a m i n e how v o c a b u l a r y a s p a r t o f l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g h a s b e e n t r e a t e d t o d a t e . I t i s n o t c l e a r how many w o r d s a f l u e n t s p e a k e r o f E n g l i s h knows, a n d i t i s e v e n more d i f f i c u l t t o come t o a g r e e m e n t on what t h e t e r m s know and w o r d mean. S m i t h ' s (1987) c o n c e p t o f C h a p t e r 1 - 4 -" k n o w i n g " i s t h a t one r e c o g n i z e s a nd h a s a t l e a s t a n a p p r o x i m a t e i d e a o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e t e r m . B e r g e n (1986) a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s e m a n t i c n e t w o r k s w h i c h f r a m e a s p e c i f i c s e t o f w o r d s . A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , T e r r e l l (1986) c l a i m s t h a t a w o r d i s n o t a c q u i r e d u n t i l t h e l e a r n e r u s e s i t p r o d u c t i v e l y . Crow (1986) t a k e s t h e m i d d l e g r o u n d a nd s u g g e s t s t h a t one may h a v e a r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d f o r r e a d i n g o r l i s t e n i n g , w h i c h h a s a s a s u b s e t t h e p r o d u c t i v e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d i n s p e e c h a n d w r i t i n g . C h a l l ( 1 987:7) d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n r e c o g n i t i o n a n d m e a n i n g , "word r e c o g n i t i o n may be t h o u g h t o f a s t h e medium i n t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , t h e medium t h a t c o n v e y s t h e m e s s a g e , and w o r d m e a n i n g a s t h e message i t s e l f . " I n t h i s s t u d y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p a s s i v e r e a d i n g r e c o g n i t i o n k n o w l e d g e and a c t i v e s p e a k i n g / w r i t i n g p r o d u c t i o n k n o w l e d g e w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d . Word i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a s m e a n i n g " t h e minimum m e a n i n g f u l u n i t o f l a n g u a g e " ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 7 : 5 ) , a l t h o u g h when one e x a m i n e s t h i s more c l o s e l y , a number o f p r o b l e m s a r i s e . A r e b r i n g a n d b r o u g h t t h e same w o r d o r two d i f f e r e n t w o r d s ? C a r t e r ( i b i d : 6 ) p r o p o s e s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o r m BRING a s a 1exeme a n d t h e two w o r d s a s s u r f a c e f o r m s , a k i n t o t h e p h o n e t i c / p h o n e m i c c o n t r a s t i n p h o n o l o g y . Nagy and Herman (1987:20) u s e t h e c o n c e p t o f "word f a m i l y " a s "a s e t o f w o r d s f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s a t r a n s p a r e n t p r e d i c t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n C h a p t e r 1 - 5 -b o t h f o r m and m e a n i n g . " The p r o b l e m s o f homophony ( e . g . , t w o / t o o / t o ) and p o l y s e m y (bow: weapon, f r o n t o f s h i p , k n o t ) a r e a l s o o n e s w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r must r e s o l v e b e f o r e he c a n p r o c e e d . C r u s e ( 1 9 8 6 : 8 0 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s among l e x e m e , l e x i c a l u n i t a n d l e x i c a l form.-A lexeme i s a f a m i l y o f l e x i c a l u n i t s ; a l e x i c a l u n i t i s t h e u n i o n o f a s i n g l e s e n s e w i t h a l e x i c a l f o r m ; a l e x i c a l f o r m i s an a b s t r a c t i o n f r o m a s e t o f w o r d f o r m s ( o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y - i t i s a f a m i l y o f w o r d f o r m s ) w h i c h d i f f e r o n l y i n r e s p e c t o f i n f l e c t i o n s . I t i s commonplace t o d e s c r i b e a lexeme w h i c h h a s a number o f s e n s e s a s p o l y s e m o u s ( o r a s m a n i f e s t i n g t h e p r o p e r t y o f p o l y s e m y ) , a n d a l e x i c a l f o r m w h i c h r e a l i z e s l e x i c a l u n i t s b e l o n g i n g t o more t h a n one lexeme a s homonymous. T h e s e t e r m s , e s p e c i a l l y p o l y s e m o u s and p o l y s e m y a l t h o u g h i n n o c u o u s i f u s e d c i r c u m s p e c t l y , a r e n o t e n t i r e l y i d e a l f o r o u r p u r p o s e s , b e c a u s e t h e y c a r r y w i t h them a v i e w o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o r e g a r d t h e lexeme a s t h e p r i m a r y s e m a n t i c u n i t a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t l e x i c a l u n i t s a s m e r e l y v a r i a n t s . Our a p p r o a c h , h o w e v e r , f o c u s e d on t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e x i c a l u n i t a s t h e p r i m a r y o p e r a t i o n a l s e m a n t i c u n i t , a n d c o n s i g n s t h e lexeme t o a s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n . T h u s C r u s e c o n s i d e r s b r i n g a nd b r o u g h t t o be w o r d f o r m s w h i c h a r e members o f a l e x i c a l u n i t , i d e n t i f i e d p e r h a p s a s s u g g e s t e d by C a r t e r . B e c a u s e o f t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , we w i l l p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f w o r d f o r m s o n l y . D r e s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , may be e i t h e r a g a r m e n t o r an a c t i o n ; any s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e two m e a n i n g s s u c h a s t h o s e d i s c u s s e d b y C a r t e r o r C r u s e a r e b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s w o r k and t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e , a n d we w i l l n o t a t t e m p t t o c o n s i d e r a more c o m p l e x a n a l y s i s . C h a p t e r 1 - 6 -e n t i c i n g a s i t m i g h t be. One d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h may be made i n w o r d f o r m s i s b e t w e e n t h e o p e n a n d c l o s e d c l a s s e s o f w o r d s . The o p e n c l a s s i n c l u d e s t h e n o u n s , v e r b s , a d v e r b s a n d a d j e c t i v e s , w h i c h f o r m t h e b u l k o f t h e E n g l i s h l e x i c o n a n d c a r r y h i g h s e m a n t i c v a l u e . T h e y a r e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g a s n e o l o g i s m s a r e c r e a t e d a n d a r c h a i c t e r m s a r e d r o p p e d . The c l o s e d c l a s s c o m p r i s e s t h e l i m i t e d s e t o f " s y n t a c t i c g l u e " o r " f u n c t i o n " w o r d s s u c h a s d e t e r m i n e r s , p r o n o u n s , p r e p o s i t i o n s a n d c o n j u n c t i o n s a s w e l l a s v e r b a l a u x i l i a r i e s . T h i s c l a s s i s h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t t o c h a n g e . I n f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , a s w i l l be s e e n b e l o w , t h e f u n c t i o n w o r d s a r e t h e most common, w i t h w o r d s s u c h a s t h e , a, i n , I. I s , e t c . a t t h e t o p o f t h e l i s t s . I t w i l l be shown t h a t t h e c l o s e d c l a s s p l a y s a l a r g e r r o l e t h a n one m i g h t s u s p e c t i n e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e p t s . I n t h i s s t u d y w o r d w i l l r e f e r t o a n y w o r d f o r m w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o p o s s i b l y s y n t a c t i c o r s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i l e know w i l l be u s e d t o r e f e r t o e i t h e r p a s s i v e r e c o g n i t i o n k n o w l e d g e o r a c t i v e p r o d u c t i o n k n o w l e d g e . 1.2 R e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s u r v e y s e a r l y a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e a C h a p t e r 1 - 7 -c o r p u s o f i n s t r u c t i o n b a s e d on q u a n t i t a t i v e f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s a n d t h e n e x a m i n e s c u r r e n t t r e n d s t o w a r d s r e s e a r c h on a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s a s s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . I t w i l l be shown t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s f a c e d by s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s l e a r n i n g o r a l s k i l l s a r e n o t b e i n g a d d r e s s e d . The r e s e a r c h i s p r i m a r i l y f i r s t - l a n g u a g e o r i e n t e d a nd i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h w r i t t e n r a t h e r t h a n o r a l l a n g u a g e . T h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be a c o h e r e n t t h e o r y o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n s o t h e r e i s a n e e d t o t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s t o d e v e l o p a v a l i d t h e o r y upon w h i c h a m e t h o d o l o g y may be d e s i g n e d . The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l show t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e x a m i n a t i o n o f two b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , d i r e c t w o r d - f o c u s s e d and i n d i r e c t t o p i c o r c o n t e n t - f o c u s s e d . The s t u d y w i l l e x a m i n e c l a s s r o o m d a t a i n t h e l i g h t o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s and w i l l show t h a t one m e t h o d a p p e a r s t o o f f e r a c o h e r e n t s y s t e m f o r s e l e c t i n g , p r e s e n t i n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . S t u d i e s i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n  F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s T h e r e i s no c o n s e n s u s on t h e number o f w o r d s an a v e r a g e s p e a k e r knows, o r n e e d s t o know. The l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h we w i l l r e v i e w shows t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g b e l i e f t h a t one must h a v e a p e r c e p t i o n o f w h i c h w o r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l a n g u a g e , and t h a t t h e r e must be some s y s t e m f o r s e l e c t i n g v o c a b u l a r y t o be C h a p t e r 1 - 8 -t a u g h t t o l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . The s y s t e m most o f t e n s e l e c t e d i s b a s e d on a q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f l a n g u a g e u s e . I n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , one must s e l e c t a l i m i t e d amount o f v o c a b u l a r y f r o m t h e many w o r d s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l a n g u a g e . I n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g i t i s c r i t i c a l t h a t t h e most u s e f u l w o r d s be t a u g h t e a r l y on i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . R e s e a r c h on t h e s i z e o f t h e E n g l i s h l e x i c o n a nd on some o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g o n e ' s l e x i c o n w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r o r t e a c h e r f a c e s . I t was c l a i m e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t c e n t u r y t h a t i f one knew f i f t y w o r d s o f C h i n o o k (a N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p i d g i n ) one c o u l d e x p r e s s w h a t e v e r one n e e d e d t o s a y . C.K. Ogden (1930) p r o p o s e d a minimum o f 850 w o r d s f o r " B a s i c E n g l i s h " , b u t t h i s l i s t r e q u i r e d s o much p a r a p h r a s i n g t h a t one w o u l d h a v e t o be f l u e n t i n t h e l a n g u a g e t o u s e o n l y t h i s l i s t . A more a d e q u a t e l i s t was t h e 2000 w o r d " G e n e r a l S e r v i c e L i s t o f E n g l i s h Words" (West 1 9 5 3 ) , b u t a g a i n i t was o n l y m o d e r a t e l y l e s s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p r e s s o n e s e l f u s i n g o n l y t h i s l i s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , W e s t ' s l i s t was u s e d a s t h e b a s e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d i n d e f i n i n g a l l t h e e n t r i e s i n P r o c t o r ' s 1978 e d i t i o n o f t h e Longman D i c t i o n a r y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y E n g l i s h ( P r o c t o r : 1 9 7 8 : v i i i ) . C a r t e r ( 1987:127) p o i n t s o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s C h a p t e r 1 - 9 -i n h e r e n t i n a r t i f i c i a l l y r e s t r i c t i n g i n t h i s way t h e v o c a b u l a r y one may u s e . S e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s must a l s o u s e r e s t r i c t e d v o c a b u l a r y , a l t h o u g h t h e i r g o a l i s t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e s e r e s t r i c t i v e b a r r i e r s . How t h e y a c c o m p l i s h t h i s i s t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h t h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s . One o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e l i s t s o f b o t h Ogden and West i s t h a t t h e y w e r e b a s e d more on i n t r o s p e c t i o n t h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f a c t u a l u s e . T h o r n d i k e a n d L o r g e (1944) c o n s t r u c t e d a l i s t o f 30,000 w o r d s f o r t e a c h e r s ' u s e . b u t i t was d e r i v e d e x c l u s i v e l y f r o m w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s , a n d was, a s t h e y a d m i t t e d i n t h e i r p r e f a c e , "a f r e q u e n c y c o u n t o f E n g l i s h r e a d i n g . " C a r r o l l , D a v i e s and R i c h m a n (1971) d e v e l o p e d a w o r d f r e q u e n c y l i s t b a s e d on s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f 86,741 w o r d t y p e s , a l t h o u g h a s F r y and S a k i e y ( 1 9 8 6 : 3 9 7 ) p o i n t o u t , " t h e c o m p u t e r , b e i n g b o t h m a r v e l o u s a n d s t u p i d , c o u n t e d a s d i f f e r e n t w o r d s r u n , r u n s , r u n n i n g . Run, R u ns, RUN. I n o t h e r w o r d s , any o c c u r r e n c e o f a w o r d w i t h a n y c h a n g e i n f o r m was c o u n t e d a s a d i f f e r e n t w o r d and t h e n r a n k e d a s a d i f f e r e n t w o r d . " Nagy and Herman ( 1 9 8 7 : 2 0 ) , r e f e r r i n g t o Nagy and A n d e r s o n (1984) where t h e y a n a l y s e d t h e C a r r o l l , D a v i e s and R i c h m a n l i s t s , c l a i m t h a t p r i n t e d s c h o o l E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l s f o r g r a d e s 3 t h r o u g h 9 c o n t a i n u p w a r d s o f 88,500 d i s t i n c t w o r d f a m i l i e s , a n d s u g g e s t t h a t " i f m a t e r i a l s f o r h i g h e r g r a d e l e v e l s and f o r a d u l t s w e re i n c l u d e d , t h e s e f i g u r e s w o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r . " K u c e r a and C h a p t e r 1 - 1 0 -F r a n c i s (1967) a n a l y s e d s a m p l e s o f a d u l t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and t a l l i e d 50,406 d i f f e r e n t w o r d s , w h i l e R i n s l a n d (1945) c o u n t e d 25,632 d i f f e r e n t w o r d s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g . H i l l e r i c h ( 1 974:359) n o t e s : A d u l t ( K u c e r a / F r a n c i s ) a n d t e x t b o o k ( C a r r o l l ) s o u r c e s p r o d u c e s i m i l a r l i s t s w h i c h v a r y g r e a t l y f r o m t h e l a n g u a g e o f c h i l d r e n , w h e t h e r t h a t l a n g u a g e i s t h e c h i l d ' s w r i t i n g ( H i l l e r i c h a n d R i n s l a n d ) o r h i s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e l a n g u a g e i n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g m a t t e r ( D u r r , H a r r i s , F r y a n d o t h e r s ) v a r i e s f r o m t h e l a n g u a g e t h e y u s e i n w r i t i n g . A p p a r e n t l y what t h e a u t h o r s w r i t e a b o u t f o r c h i l d r e n and what c h i l d r e n w r i t e a b o u t a r e two d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . The m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f some a u t h o r s i s t o p r o d u c e o r e v a l u a t e " b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y l i s t s " w h i c h w i l l p e r m i t s t u d e n t s t o d e a l w i t h t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s o f t h e s c h o o l s . ( T h i s o f c o u r s e c o m p l e t e s a v i c i o u s c i r c l e s i n c e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s a r e o f t e n d e s i g n e d t o m a t c h t h e s e l i s t s . ) D o l c h (1936) p r o d u c e d a p e d a g o g i c a l l i s t o f 220 " s i g h t " w o r d s , and h a s s i n c e b e e n f o l l o w e d by o t h e r s . H i l l e r i c h ( 1 9 7 4 ) , G u n d e r s o n (1984) a nd F r y and S a k i e y (1986) a l l e v a l u a t e e a r l i e r w o r k and p r o p o s e new, r e v i s e d b a s i c w o r d l i s t s i n t h e r a n g e o f 200-500 w o r d s i n l e n g t h . What t h e s e l i s t s show us i s (a) t h a t w o r d s o c c u r a t a p a r t i c u l a r f r e q u e n c y a n d t h a t s t u d e n t s a t a d v a n c i n g r e a d i n g l e v e l s s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h w o r d s o f l o w e r f r e q u e n c i e s , a n d (b) t h a t l a r g e c o r p u s a n a l y s e s o n l y s e r v e t o c a p t u r e t h e uncommon w o r d s , a s G u n d e r s o n ( 1 9 8 4 : 2 6 6 ) o b s e r v e s : C h a p t e r 1 - 1 1 -I t a p p e a r s t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f w o r d s ( a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y f u n c t i o n w o r d s ) r e m a i n s f a i r l y c o n s t a n t f r o m s a m p l e t o s a m p l e , s u p p o r t i n g Z i p f ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w o r d f r e q u e n c i e s o c c u r r i n g i n any a d 1 i b i t u m s a m p l e o f l a n g u a g e a l w a y s h a s t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n . S i c h e l ( 1 9 7 5 ) , w o r k i n g f r o m Z i p f a n d o t h e r w r i t e r s , h a s d e v e l o p e d a m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a o f t h e compound P o i s s o n m o del w h i c h i s c l a i m e d t o r e p r e s e n t w o r d f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s by s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n l a w s . He j u s t i f i e s t h i s f o r m u l a by a p p l y i n g i t t o 20 v a r i o u s t e x t s , w h i c h a r e a l l w r i t t e n t e x t s . I t r e m a i n s t o be s e e n w h e t h e r i t a p p l i e s a s f i r m l y t o o r a l t e x t s a nd i n p a r t i c u l a r t o s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e x t s . S m i t h (1987) c l a i m s t h a t t h e a v e r a g e n a t i v e s p e a k e r o f E n g l i s h w i t h a h i g h - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n "knows" 50,000 t o 300,000 w o r d s . The w o r k by C a r r o l l e t a l . and K u c e r a and F r a n c i s s u p p o r t s t h e l o w e r r a n g e o f t h e s e f i g u r e s . I n c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h t h e o n g o i n g COBUILD l e x i c o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B i r m i n g h a m ( R e n o u f 1983) i s an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d i n s p e e c h as w e l l a s i n w r i t i n g b y u s i n g a m a s s i v e c o m p u t e r i z e d d a t a b a s e o f c o l l e c t e d t e x t s a n d t r a n s c r i p t i o n s b a s e d on a c o n c o r d a n c e o f 7.3 m i l l i o n w o r d s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e o n l y l a r g e - s c a l e e x a m i n a t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y i n n a t u r a l s p e e c h , i t h a s w i d e - s p r e a d i m p l i c a t i o n s . C a r t e r ( 1987:142) s u g g e s t s : C h a p t e r 1 - 1 2 -W i t h s u c h a d a t a - b a s e c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r i n n o v a t i v e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n t o a r e a s s u c h a s : t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l e x i c a l l y g r a d e d s y l l a b u s e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t e x t b o o k s f o r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s ; f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s f o r l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g p u r p o s e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e d e s i g n o f more ' l e x i c a l l y a u t h e n t i c ' m a t e r i a l s ; d i c t i o n a r i e s o f c o l l o c a t i o n s ; l e x i c o n s w i t h f i e l d - s p e c i f i c s e m a n t i c g r o u p i n g s ; f u l l e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f s t y l e l e v e l s (...) a l l - i n - a l l a movement t o w a r d s t h e k i n d o f ' a s s o c i a t i v e l e x i c o n ' a d v o c a t e d by M a k k a i (1980) and a l l o f w h i c h w o u l d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f o r t h c o m i n g d i c t i o n a r y , c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h . A l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s h a v e l o o k e d a t n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s a n d w r i t e r s ; what s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s know o r n e e d t o know i s a s e p a r a t e q u e s t i o n . P o r t e r ( 1 9 8 5 : 2 8 ) o b s e r v e s , " r a t h e r t h a n c o n c e r n i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e s i z e o f n a t i v e - s p e a k e r s ' l e x i c o n s , [ s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ] r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s o u g h t t o d e t e r m i n e on t h e b a s i s o f w o r d f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s and d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s how many w o r d s an i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s . " H e r r e f e r e n c e s s u g g e s t a r a n g e o f a b o u t 7000 w o r d s i s n e e d e d f o r b a s i c r e a d i n g , w h i l e l e s s i s n e e d e d f o r l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g o r wr i t i ng. I n r e v i e w we c a n s e e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h on v o c a b u l a r y i s b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s . The p r i n c i p l e s j u s t i f y i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h a r e n o t c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d n o r a r e t h e y n e c e s s a r i l y v a l i d f o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y i t w i l l be shown t h a t a q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s a p p r o a c h i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l and C h a p t e r 1 - 1 3 -t h a t t h e r e i s a more e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h a v a i l a b l e . B e f o r e we do t h i s , we s h a l l c o m p l e t e t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e b y e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s e a r c h i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d t o v o c a b u l a r y . C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n r e s e a r c h on v o c a b u l a r y i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e  a c q u i s i t i o n The l i n g u i s t i c c o m munity i s aware o f v o c a b u l a r y a s a s p e c i f i c t o p i c i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n ( S L A ) . Among o t h e r s , K r a u s e ( 1 9 7 9 ) , M e a r a ( 1 9 8 2 ) , C o r d e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) , B e h e y d t (1987) and C a m p b e l l (1988) a l l c a l l f o r more w o r k t o be done on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v o c a b u l a r y and t h e o t h e r a r e a s o f l a n g u a g e and l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n b u t t h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e p r o d u c t i v e r e s p o n s e . To d a t e most o f t h e r e s e a r c h on v o c a b u l a r y a p p e a r s i n f i r s t - l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g s t u d i e s . L i n g u i s t s h a v e o n l y r e c e n t l y e x a m i n e d l e x i s i n u s e , a n d t h e b u l k o f t h a t w o r k h a s b e e n on e x a m i n i n g w r i t t e n t e x t s . T h e r e a r e o n l y two r e c e n t t e x t s w h i c h d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h SLA v o c a b u l a r y ( A l l e n 1983, C a r t e r 1 9 8 7 ) , and b o t h o f t h e s e d i s c u s s w r i t t e n v o c a b u l a r y more t h a n o r a l s p e e c h . Some g e n e r a l SLA m e t h o d o l o g y t e x t s i n c l u d e v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g a s a c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y ; among t h e s e a r e R i c h a r d s (1980) and F o x ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C h a u d r o n (1988) r e v i e w s SLA r e s e a r c h and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , b u t d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r v o c a b u l a r y C h a p t e r 1 - 1 4 -a s a s u b j e c t t o be t r e a t e d i n i t s own r i g h t . Brown & Y u l e (1983) move v e r y q u i c k l y f r o m w o r d - l e v e l a n a l y s i s t o h i g h e r - l e v e l p e r s p e c t i v e s . A few d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s h a v e a p p e a r e d w h i c h a t t e m p t t o e x p a n d o u r c o n c e p t o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l e x i s and SLA ( e . g . , M e d i n a 1 9 8 5 ) , b u t h e r e a s w e l l t h e f o c u s h a s b e e n on r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n r a t h e r t h a n o r a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n and s p e e c h p r o d u c t i o n . I n f a c t , a c o u n t o f e n t r i e s i n D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s o v e r a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d f r o m 1984-1986 shows o n l y t e n o u t o f s i x t y - f o u r d i s s e r t a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e v o c a b u l a r y a s a f o c u s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , a nd none o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r o r a l l a n g u a g e a s a p r i m a r y f o c u s . P o r t e r (1985) r e v i e w s f i r s t l a n g u a g e ( L I ) and s e c o n d l a n g u a g e (L2) v o c a b u l a r y r e s e a r c h and comments, " t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g an a d e q u a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l e x i s c a n n o t be u n d e r r a t e d . " (p.3) b u t i n h e r c l o s i n g s t a t e m e n t c o n c l u d e s : So l i t t l e i s c u r r e n t l y known a b o u t v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n i n a d u l t s o r s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s , t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t w h e t h e r we w i l l e v e r h a v e a t h e o r y o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n o r w h e t h e r t h e c o m p l e x n a t u r e o f t h e l e x i c o n a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r s w o u l d make s u c h a t h e o r y more c o m p l e x t h a n t h e phenomenon i t s e e k s t o e x p l a i n . (p.76) I t i s t h e a i m o f t h i s s t u d y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o some d e g r e e t o w a r d s f i l l i n g t h i s g ap. C h a p t e r 1 - 1 5 -S t u d i e s on i n t e r a c t i o n and t a s k The c u r r e n t f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h on s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n (SLA) h a s b e e n on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t e a c h e r and t h e s t u d e n t s ( L o n g 1980, K r a s h e n 1982, H a t c h 1983b, E a r l y 1987) w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e f u n c t i o n s o f what t h e t e a c h e r h a s t o s a y . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a c o n s e n s u s among t h e s e w r i t e r s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t must be p r o v i d e d w i t h a p u r p o s e f u l t a s k i f s h e i s t o r e a c t t o s p e e c h i n p u t a nd t o be m o t i v a t e d t o p r o d u c e l a n g u a g e w h i c h c a n be m a n i p u l a t e d f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . R o b i n s o n (1988) p r o p o s e s a n o t i o n o f " l e x i c a l p r a g m a t i c s " w h e r e i n s t u d e n t s " t r y o u t " w o r d s a s t h e y n e g o t i a t e f o r l e x i c a l m e a n i n g a s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i s c o u r s e . C r o o k s (1986) r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t u d e n t t a s k s and s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , b u t t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f a n y s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t a s k and v o c a b u l a r y . I n d i v i d u a l p a p e r s l o o k a t v e r y n a r r o w a s p e c t s o f v o c a b u l a r y . E l s e w h e r e W o n g - F i 1 l m o r e (1985) o b s e r v e s t h a t c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d t e a c h e r t a l k a i d s t h e s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n , b u t Wesche & Ready (1985) n o t e t h a t u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s make o n l y m i n o r a d a p t a t i o n s i n t h e i r s p e e c h s t y l e t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r l o w s t u d e n t l a n g u a g e l e v e l s . S w a i n (1987) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l c h o s e n f o r u s e i n c l a s s r o o m s must be " c o n t r i v e d " r a t h e r t h a n t r u l y s p o n t a n e o u s , b u t must a l s o be a u t h e n t i c . C h a u d r o n (1982) C h a p t e r 1 - 1 6 -f i n d s t h a t t e a c h e r s ' r e p e t i t i o n s o f s t a t e m e n t s o r e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e a m b i g u o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r a s r e d u n d a n c y o r a s e l a b o r a t i o n , l e a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t i n a s t a t e o f c o n f u s i o n . S t u d e n t - o r i e n t e d s t u d i e s o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n O n l y r e c e n t l y h a s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t b e e n g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s a t o p i c o f c o n c e r n i n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . S a v i 1 l e - T r o i k e ( 1 9 8 4 ) , P r i c e (1986) a nd H o r o w i t z (1986) e x a m i n e t h e a c t u a l l a n g u a g e demands p u t on s t u d e n t s i n a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s . Cummins (1984) f i n d s t h a t E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e (ESL) s t u d e n t s r a p i d l y a c q u i r e b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i v e s k i l l s b u t t a k e up t o f i v e y e a r s t o r e a c h t h e same l e v e l o f c o g n i t i v e / a c a d e m i c l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y a s n a t i v e l a n g u a g e p e e r s . D a v i d s o n e t a l . (1986) f i n d s i m i l a r d e l a y s i n s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g w i t h d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d m a t e r i a l s . Cummins' i n s t r u m e n t s f o r a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s w e r e b a s e d on "a g r o u p P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t (PVT) d e r i v e d f r o m t h e Ammons P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t a nd a s i x p a r t t e s t o f E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e s k i l l s d e v e l o p e d by t h e [ T o r o n t o ] B o a r d [ o f E d u c a t i o n ] f o r t h e s u r v e y . " He g o e s on t o r e m a r k , " s i n c e t h e p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s f o r t h e s i x p a r t t e s t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r t h e PVT (...) o n l y t h e PVT r e s u l t s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . " He a l s o a d d s , "The v e r b a l s k i l l s m e a s u r e d by t h e PVT ( a n d most o f C h a p t e r 1 - 1 7 -t h e o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e W r i g h t a nd Ramsey s t u d y ) a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e m e a s u r e d on v e r b a l IQ t e s t s s u c h a s t h e WISC-R, where t h e v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t i s t y p i c a l l y  t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f o v e r a l l IQ s c o r e . " (Cummins 1 9 8 4 : 1 3 3 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . I t a p p e a r s t h a t s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y l e v e l s c a n be m e a s u r e d by t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f v o c a b u l a r y . One must t h e n c o n s i d e r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i f v o c a b u l a r y k n o w l e d g e i s a m a j o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r b e t w e e n l o w and h i g h l e v e l ESL s p e a k e r s , t h e n s h o u l d n o t t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g v o c a b u l a r y h a v e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y i n SLA r e s e a r c h a nd c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n ? C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n r e s e a r c h i n c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t d e s i g n P r e s e n t t h e o r i e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l e s s o n c o n t e n t be s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s ( D u b i n & O l s h t a i n 1986, Mohan 1986) w h i c h p u t s immense p r e s s u r e on t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . However, what s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e i s t o be u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m h a s n o t b e e n i d e n t i f i e d . The b u l k o f t h e r e s e a r c h h a s l o o k e d a t morpheme a c q u i s i t i o n ( L i g h t b o w n 1983) o r s y n t a x and s e m a n t i c s (Brown & Y u l e 1983) r a t h e r t h a n l e x i s ( C a r t e r 1 9 8 7 ) . E v e n i n r e s e a r c h on l e x i s t h e e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n on v o c a b u l a r y f o r r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g ( e . g . , C a r r e l l 1983, Hadaway 1986, Hughes & C h i n n 1986, L a u f e r & S i m 1985) r a t h e r t h a n f o r l i s t e n i n g and s p e a k i n g ( A l l e n 1983, F o x 1987, J o r g e n s e n 1 9 8 7 ) . A few s t u d i e s h a v e l o o k e d a t s p e c i f i c C h a p t e r 1 - 1 8 -l a n g u a g e demands, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c a r e a s w h i c h r e q u i r e " s u b - t e c h n i c a l " v o c a b u l a r y ( W a l s h 1982, Menges 1982, B y r d , H u r t & C o n s t a n t i n i d e s 1988) a n d i n e c o n o m i c s ( B r a m k i & W i l l i a m s 1 9 8 4 ) . Tamayo (1985) and Shand (1988) b o t h d i s c u s s t h e l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y o f l a n g u a g e t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e e x p o s e d w h i l e Brown (1988) s u g g e s t s t h a t f r e q u e n c y and s a l i e n c y a r e f e a t u r e s w h i c h h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e s t u d e n t n e e d s t o l e a r n . Cameron (1988) o u t l i n e s t h e b a l a n c e n e e d e d b e t w e e n s y n t a x , v o c a b u l a r y and c o n t e n t when d e s i g n i n g m a t e r i a l s . C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n r e s e a r c h i n t o s t u d e n t s t r a t e g i e s I n d e v e l o p i n g a t e a c h i n g m o d el i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s e m p l o y i n l e a r n i n g l a n g u a g e . R e c e n t s t u d i e s h a v e l o o k e d a t a number o f s t u d e n t s t r a t e g i e s f o r v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n ; t h e s e a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . The d a t a e x a m i n e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l show some s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h a r e a c t u a l l y u s e d by a s m a l l g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s ; s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s . N a i m a n e t a l . ( 1 9 7 8 ) , B i a l y s t o k ( 1 9 8 1 a , b ) , a n d O ' M a l l e y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 a , b ) h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r t h e r a n g e a n d v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s u s e d by s t u d e n t s and a l l h a v e f o u n d a c o m p l e x n e t w o r k . Brown (1985:279) r e p o r t s t h a t " y o u n g e r a d u l t l e a r n e r s a s k d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more a b o u t v o c a b u l a r y t h a n o l d e r C h a p t e r 1 - 1 9 -l e a r n e r s " a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h i s f o c u s on w o r d s i s what s p e l l s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e l e a r n e r s . T h i s i d e a w o u l d r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n " . P r e s s l e y , L e v i n and M c D a n i e l ( 1 9 8 7 : 1 0 7 ) r e m i n d us t h a t t h e r e i s a c r i t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n " b e t w e e n r e m e m b e r i n g what a d e f i n e d v o c a b u l a r y i t e m means g i v e n t h e m e a n i n g and i n f e r r i n g t h e m e a n i n g f r o m i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s . " S t u d i e s on s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e c o d i n g A m a j o r s e t o f s t r a t e g i e s i n d e c o d i n g t e x t s i n v o l v e s schema, c o n t e x t and i n f e r e n c i n g . A l t h o u g h B e n s o u s s a n & L a u f e r (1984) c l a i m s t u d e n t s g u e s s most o f t h e t i m e , c o n t e x t a p p e a r s t o be an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( P i c k e r i n g 1982, McKeown 1983, R a i n s b u r y 1988) and schema o r b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e i s e s s e n t i a l t o g o o d r e a d i n g ( C a r r e l 1 1983, K a r b o n 1984, B a r n e s 1 9 8 6 ) . Gabbay & M i r e n s k i (1984) f i n d t h a t c o n t e x t c l u e s a r e i m p o r t a n t b u t m i g h t be m i s l e a d i n g . I n f e r e n c i n g i s a n e c e s s a r y s k i l l ( P a l m b e r g 1 9 8 7 ) ; B a r - L e v (1980) shows t h a t t h e r e i s o f t e n m a s s i v e r e d u n d a n c y i n t e x t s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s i n f e r e n c i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T a k a h a s h i ( 1 9 8 5 ) , Hague ( 1 9 8 7 ) , G i a c o b b e & Cammarote (1986) and I j a z (1986) l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t o f t r a n s f e r f r o m L I t o L 2 , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e c o d i n g s k i l l s . K i e r n a n & Rupp (1988) l o o k a t L I a n d L2 a p p r o a c h e s t o v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g ; B l o c k C h a p t e r 1 - 2 0 -(1986) h a s f o u n d t h a t p o o r L2 r e a d e r s o f t e n d e c o d e on a w o r d - b y - w o r d l e v e l and v o c a b u l a r y w e a k n e s s e s i n t e r f e r e w i t h g1oba1 c o m p r e h e n s i on. S t u d i e s on s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e m e m b e r i n g T h e r e h a s b e e n r e s e a r c h w h i c h shows t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f mnemonics ( P r e s s l e y 1980, 1982; Cohen 1987; Cohen & Ahpek 1980, 1981; and N y i k o s 1 9 8 5 ) , k e y w o r d s ( G o d l e y 1984, Crow & Q u i g l e y 1985) a n d m a p p i n g (Murphy 1983, Novak & G o w i n 1984, A. M a r t i n 1984, K a r b o n 1984, A s p a t o r e 1984 a n d H u c k l i n e t a l . 1 9 8 8 ) . M. M a r t i n (1984) e x a m i n e s t h e e r r o r s s t u d e n t s make i n m a p p i n g and c o l l o c a t i o n . The o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d i n t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h a t a l l o f t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s p l a y some p a r t i n l e a r n i n g v o c a b u l a r y . O t h e r s t r a t e g i e s u s e d by e i t h e r t h e t e a c h e r o r t h e s t u d e n t a r e a l s o u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S t u d e n t s ' w o r d - a t t a c k s k i l l s ( i . e . , m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , s e m a n t i z a t i o n ) a r e e x a m i n e d by O d l i n & N a t a l i c i o ( 1 9 8 2 ) , L u d w i g ( 1 9 8 4 ) , V i z m u l l e r - Z o c c o ( 1 9 8 5 ) , I j a z ( 1 9 8 6 ) , and B e h e y d t ( 1 9 8 7 ) . R o d r i g u e z - B a c h i 1 l e r (1985) a n d Graham & B e l n a p (1986) l o o k a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y s t u d e n t s h a v e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s h a p e o f a w o r d , i . e . , l e x i c a l a n d c o n c e p t u a l b o u n d a r i e s . B a r n e t t (1986) c o n c l u d e s t h a t v o c a b u l a r y i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n s y n t a x i n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . The u s e o f t h e d i c t i o n a r y a nd t r a n s l a t i o n i s a l s o C h a p t e r 1 - 2 1 -e x a m i n e d ( P a r k s 1982, K e l l e r 1987, D a v i s & P o r c h e r o n 1 9 8 8 ) . E u b a n k s & F e r g u s o n (1982) h a v e c o n f i r m e d t h a t g r a p h i c s a i d s h o r t - t e r m r e t e n t i o n b u t t h a t c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r l o n g - t e r m r e t e n t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , N e a s e (1983) f i n d s no b e n e f i t i n u s i n g g r a p h i c s . O t h e r r e s e a r c h i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n T h e r e i s o t h e r r e s e a r c h w h i c h r e l a t e s t o L2 v o c a b u l a r y -a c q u i s i t i o n ( a n d l o s s ) . L e y e n (1984) e x a m i n e s t h e p r o b l e m o f L I a t t r i t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y L2 s p e a k e r s ; s y n t a x e r r o r s c r e e p i n b u t t h e l o s s i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e s p e a k e r ' s v o c a b u l a r y r a n g e . H a r d e r (1984) and U l l o a (1985) b o t h f i n d t h a t v o c a b u l a r y e n r i c h m e n t p r o g r a m s t e n d t o be b e n e f i c i a l . L e v i n e (1984) s u g g e s t s p a i r i n g w e a k e r and s t r o n g e r s t u d e n t s , c r i t i c i z e s most t e x t b o o k s f o r b e i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r ESL l e a r n e r s and o f f e r s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r t h i s w e a k n e s s . L e v i n e l o o k s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ESL s t u d e n t w h i l e Ramsay (1980) c o n s i d e r s how s t u d e n t s c a n be p r e p a r e d f o r d i f f i c u l t c o n t e n t - a r e a v o c a b u l a r y a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . H u t t n e r (1988) p r o p o s e s some c o n t e n t - a r e a v o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g i e s . A l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s r e v e a l l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h h a s d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s i n d e t e r m i n i n g how s t u d e n t s l e a r n v o c a b u l a r y . C h a p t e r 1 - 2 2 -1.3 Summary The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t a l t h o u g h some w o r k i s b e i n g done on v o c a b u l a r y , l i t t l e o f i t a p p e a r s t o d e a l w i t h s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s , a n d e v e n l e s s h a s a n y t h i n g s i g n i f i c a n t t o s a y t o L2 m e t h o d s and m e t h o d o l o g y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s e x p o s e d t o ( i n p u t ) a n d what he u s e s ( o u t p u t ) , a l t h o u g h d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y a t a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , h a s n o t b e e n e x a m i n e d i n c o n c r e t e t e r m s n o r h a s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n o r a l v o c a b u l a r y and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f d i s c o u r s e b e e n t r e a t e d i n any d e p t h . The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o n t e x t - e m b e d d e d v s . c o n t e x t - f r e e v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n ( i . e . , i n d i r e c t a n d d i r e c t t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ) , a l t h o u g h n o t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , h a s n o t b e e n e x a m i n e d i n an L2 c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e s w h i c h we h a v e s e e n a t t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s l e v e l do n o t r i s e t o meet t h e b r o a d t h e o r e t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s a n d c r e a t e a u n i f i e d t h e o r y . What i s s t i l l n e e d e d i n t e r m s o f l e x i s i s a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e a s p e c t s a n d t h e v o c a b u l a r y e m p l o y e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , f o l l o w e d b y a c o h e r e n t and s u p p o r t a b l e t h e o r y o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n upon w h i c h a m e t h o d o l o g y c a n be b u i l t . C o r d e r ' s ( 1986:187) s p e c u l a t i o n on w h e t h e r " t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y ( l e x i s ) seems t o be l a r g e l y c o n t e x t d e p e n d e n t " r e m a i n s u n a n s w e r e d . C h a p t e r 1 - 2 3 -C h a p t e r Two: T h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s t u d y The r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on s e c o n d l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g r e v i e w e d i n c h a p t e r one s a y s l i t t l e a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g o f t h e s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , s e m a n t i c a n a l y s e s o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a nd d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be e x a m i n e d , and a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s e s and a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m l a n g u a g e w i l l be p r o p o s e d . F u r t h e r , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e an a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g , t h e " k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k " , w h i c h i s c l a i m e d t o be s u i t a b l e i n a number o f c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s . I t w i l l be p r o p o s e d t h a t i t c a n be u s e d t o d e v e l o p a u n i f i e d p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t e a c h i n g and t h a t i t c a n be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t h e s e l e c t i o n a nd p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y m a t e r i a l s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t f o r l e a r n i n g t h e s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a nd d e s c r i p t i o n o f a g i v e n t o p i c o r d o m a i n . 2.1 T h e o r y o f l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n One d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h e d u c a t o r s f a c e a t t h i s t i m e i s t h a t , a s we h a v e s e e n , t h e r e i s no s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e upon w h i c h one m i g h t e s t a b l i s h an e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t e a c h i n g L2 v o c a b u l a r y . H a t c h sums up t h e s i t u a t i o n : C h a p t e r 2 - 2 4 -The p s y c h o 1 i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t e d here does not a l l o w us t o make s t r o n g recommendations about t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y i n second language c l a s s r o o m s . (1983a:73) The r e s e a r c h on i n t e r a c t i o n and t a s k - b a s e d l e a r n i n g i s b e g i n n i n g t o produce some r e s u l t s w hich may prove s i g n i f i c a n t , but f o r the most p a r t t h e l e v e l of e x a m i n a t i o n i s so l o w - l e v e l t h a t a major t h e o r y cannot be proposed. C o n s e q u e n t l y d i f f e r e n t approaches a re b e i n g used w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n g grounded i n v a l i d r e s e a r c h - b a s e d t h e o r y . F o r i n s t a n c e , one of t h e problems w h i c h many ESL s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l programs appear t o have t o d e a l w i t h i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f l e a r n i n g a new language a t the same ti m e as t h e y are e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e the co n c e p t s o f the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t a r e a s . T h i s d u a l demand p l a c e s c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s on them. V a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s problem have been attempted, but whic h system works b e s t i s not c l e a r . I n one, the s t u d e n t s a re g i v e n o n l y E n g l i s h language i n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l t h e y r e a c h a s u r v i v a l l e v e l of language competency and t h e n t h e y a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s . I n a n o t h e r , s t u d e n t s a r e p l a c e d i n " s h e l t e r e d " o r immersion c l a s s e s , where t h e language used by the s u b j e c t t e a c h e r i s d e l i b e r a t e l y a d j u s t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' language l e v e l . I n a t h i r d , s t u d e n t s a r e i n submersion programs, where t h e r e i s no a d a p t a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m language t o make i t e a s i e r f o r them, but t h e r e may be an o u t - o f - c l a s s t u t o r i a l t o a s s i s t them i n "kee p i n g up." There i s Chapter 2 -25-a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g some m i x t u r e o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s . E a c h s o l u t i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e i t s a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s b u t none h a s a c l e a r t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e a n d none o f f e r s any i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y . K n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k h y p o t h e s i s The k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k h y p o t h e s i s , d e s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e "Language a n d C o n t e n t " a p p r o a c h , i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g r e s e a r c h e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by B e r n a r d Mohan a n d M a r g a r e t E a r l y and i s d e r i v e d t o some d e g r e e f r o m t a s k - b a s e d l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h . The o p e r a t i n g h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e " k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k " (Mohan 1986, d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) i s t h a t i f t h e l e s s o n m a t e r i a l i n a c o n t e n t ( s u b j e c t ) a r e a i s g i v e n a c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e , ESL s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o c o m p r e h e n d i t more e a s i l y . S i n c e Mohan c l a i m s t h a t t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i s u s e f u l a t any l e v e l o f t e a c h i n g and i n e v e r y s u b j e c t a r e a , t h e n e a c h o f t h e ESL p r o g r a m t y p e s s h o u l d be a b l e t o make u s e o f t h e f r a m e w o r k , on t h e one h a n d t o d e v e l o p l a n g u a g e s k i l l s a n d on t h e o t h e r t o o r g a n i z e t h e c o n t e n t i n a r a t i o n a l f a s h i o n : The l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r w a n t s s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n t h e l a n g u a g e o f a g i v e n t o p i c , b u t a l s o w a n t s s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y t h e i r l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m . The l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r i s n o t o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e o f f o o d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o r i n s u r a n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : t h e w i d e r a i m i s f o r s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . (Mohan 1986:39) C h a p t e r 2 - 2 6 -Knowledge structures as aspects of human a c t i v i t y This approach i s more complex than that indicated by others such as F e r r i s , Klychi & Koway (1988) who also suggest a language through content approach. Mohan mentions s p e c i f i c syntactic and l e x i c a l forms required to express an idea, but does not go into d e t a i l s ; rather he looks at the structure of the idea i t s e l f , and how i t i s related to other information. From t h i s higher view of language as a mental a c t i v i t y we can gain insight into the structures and lexicon which are necessary to give the idea expression. Although Mohan refers to the thinking processes presented in Leech and Svartvik (1975) and in Lawrence (1972), he i s actually discussing thinking at a more abstract level than these writers. He divides the thinking behind human a c t i v i t y into two categories; background and action-oriented: The two aspects of an a c t i v i t y , action and theoretical understanding, match the two sides of the framework. The s p e c i f i c , p r a c t i c a l side we term an action s i t u a t i o n , and the general, theoretical side we term background knowledge. Following our framework, an action s i t u a t i o n i s the s p e c i f i c , p r a c t i c a l part or aspect of an a c t i v i t y and includes the knowledge structures of description, sequence and choice. The background knowledge i s the general, theoretical part or aspect of an a c t i v i t y and includes the knowledge structures of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s , and evaluation. (p. 42) These two categories must be c l e a r l y linked in t h e i r presentation to learners. (This may explain why the students get lost when the teacher discusses abstract concepts and Chapter 2 -27-p r i n c i p l e s , b e c a u s e t h e l i n k i s n o t b e i n g made b e t w e e n t h e c o n c e p t s and t h e c o n c r e t e a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y u n d e r s t a n d . ) K n o w l e d g e c a n a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d a s t h e p a i r s d e s c r i p t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s e q u e n c e / p r i n c i p l e s , o r c h o i c e / e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a s i x - a r e a (two by t h r e e ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w h i c h Mohan c a l l s a " k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k . " F i g u r e 1: The K n o w l e d g e Framework b a c k g r o u n d ! c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s ! e v a l u a t i o n ! a c t i o n ! d e s c r i p t i o n s e q u e n c e s ! c h o i c e ! n a t u r e s t a s i s e v e n t s v a l u e s The m a j o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / d e s c r i p t i o n i s i t s s t a t i c n a t u r e . P r i n c i p l e s / s e q u e n c e s c o n s i d e r s t i m e and m o t i o n , t h e r e f o r e e v e n t s , w h i l e e v a l u a t i o n / c h o i c e i n v o l v e s human p r e f e r e n c e . T h i s may e x p l a i n why t o p i c s w h i c h f a l l u n d e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a nd d e s c r i p t i o n a r e o f t e n t h e f i r s t t o be t a u g h t i n l a n g u a g e c l a s s e s , and a r e most f a v o r e d by t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l , a s e x a m i n a t i o n s o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s w i l l show. ( P a r a d o x i c a l l y , e v a l u a t i o n / c h o i c e i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y p r o m i n e n t i n t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . ) V o c a b u l a r y a s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t y An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o o b s e r v e h e r e i s t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y , when c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e C h a p t e r 2 - 2 8 -f r a m e w o r k , i t s e l f f a l l s i n t o t h e a r e a o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / d e s c r i p t i o n . A l t h o u g h l a n g u a g e o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s c h a n g e s , one o f i t s m a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y w h i c h a l l o w s us t o u s e c e r t a i n a c o u s t i c o r g r a p h i c c o d e s t o c o m m u n i c a t e c o n c e p t s t o o t h e r s . S i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o n c e p t s a r e e n c o d e d and c o m m u n i c a t e d t o o t h e r s . L e a r n i n g l a n g u a g e i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g n o t o n l y t h e c o d e s ( t h e v o c a b u l a r y ) b u t t h e s y s t e m ( t h e c u l t u r a l W e l t a n s c h a u u n g ) w h i c h p r o d u c e s t h e c o d e s . T h i s f e a t u r e s e l e c t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e a c t i v i t y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / d e s c r i p t i o n . The e x p r e s s i o n o f e v e n t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r i n c i p l e s / s e q u e n c e a r e a u s i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f t e n s e o r a s p e c t . A t t h e l e v e l o f t h e w o r d , v o c a b u l a r y c a n a l s o be v i e w e d f r o m t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k p e r s p e c t i v e . The m a j o r f u n c t i o n o f n o m i n a l s i s t o l a b e l t h i n g s ( i . e . , c l a s s i f y t h e m ) . G e n e r i c c l a s s e s o f n ouns a r e i d e n t i f i e d by common nouns w h i l e u n i q u e o b j e c t s a r e l a b e l l e d w i t h p r o p e r n o u n s . The d e i c t i c a nd q u a n t i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f a d j e c t i v e s a r e t y p i c a l o f d e s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e q u a l i t a t i v e m o d i f i e r s and n o m i n a l s a r e r o o t e d i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ( T h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p , o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h H a l l i d a y ( 1 9 8 5 ) , a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . ) The v e r b a l t e r m s , o t h e r t h a n s t a t i v e , a r e i n t h e i r t u r n , more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e q u e n c i n g . The o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f s p e e c h c a n s i m i l a r l y be c a t e g o r i z e d . C h a p t e r 2 - 2 9 -T h e o r e t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s of the study In t h i s study " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / d e s c r i p t i o n " w i l l be i s o l a t e d f o r d e t a i l e d examination of i t s a s s o c i a t e d vocabulary. I t w i l l be shown that the process of l e a r n i n g the concepts of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n i s p a r a l l e l l e d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of vocabulary. In Chapter Three we w i l l examine the language of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n used i n a classroom which f o l l o w s the knowledge framework approach and observe the processes by which vocabulary i s a c q u i r e d . I t w i l l be shown that there i s a s p e c i f i c type of language used i n d i s c u s s i n g and doing these a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e r e f o r e i t w i l l proposed that there are s p e c i f i c language p a t t e r n s f o r the other a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l , which may be r e v e a l e d by f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . There are i m p l i c a t i o n s from these f i n d i n g s f o r the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g of language, which w i l l be considered i n the f i n a l chapter. F i r s t the systems u n d e r l y i n g the concepts of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l be examined more c l o s e l y , f o l l o w e d by some of the vocabulary a s s o c i a t e d with c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . The d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be made between the language of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of a l e x i c a l domain, which i s the language used i n e x p r e s s i n g the ideas w i t h i n the domain, and the metalanguage of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n , which i s the language used to t a l k about Chapter 2 -30-c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a nd d e s c r i p t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , mamma1s i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e members o f a s e t o f b e i n g s , w h i l e t a x o n o m y i s p a r t o f t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n mammals an d o t h e r g r o u p s o f b e i n g s . 2.2 S e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a nd  d e s c r i p t i o n The l e x i c a l s e m a n t i c s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how l a n g u a g e i s u s e d one must t u r n t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f l e x i c a l s e m a n t i c s w h e r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n w o r d s a r e e x a m i n e d . A l t h o u g h i t may seem t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a s i m p l e c o n c e p t , a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t o p i c i n l i g h t o f l e x i c a l s e m a n t i c s r e v e a l s a r a t h e r i n t r i c a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n . We w i l l p r e s e n t a f e w c r i t i c a l c o n c e p t s h e r e , d r a w n m o s t l y f r o m C r u s e (1986) who d e v o t e s t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s w o r k t o t h i s t o p i c . (The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l w o r k f o r e l a b o r a t i o n . ) I t w i l l be shown t h a t t h e r e i s a c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e n o t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a nd an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g how s t u d e n t s l e a r n v o c a b u l a r y . The p r i m a r y n o t i o n i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t o f c l a s s , w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t a number o f i t e m s ( c o n c r e t e o r a b s t r a c t ) a r e C h a p t e r 2 - 3 1 -related in some way. If things can be grouped, they form a class. There are four major semantic or l e x i c a l r e l a t i o n s which can be i d e n t i f i e d , and which can be described in terms of set theory. They are identity, inclusion, overlap and disjunction. The following figures i l l u s t r a t e these r e l a t i o n s . Figures 2-5: Semantic and Lexical Relations Fig. 2. Identity: class A and class B have the same members Fi g . 3. Inclusion: class B i s wholly included in class A, Fig. 4. Overlap: Class A and class B have members in common but each has members not found in the other. : A B : i F i g. 5. Disjunction: class A and class B have no members in common. B If two items or classes share identity, then they hold the rela t i o n s h i p of synonymy; i f they overlap, they may also be Chapter 2 -32-synonyms, d e p e n d i n g on t h e d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y . I f an i t e m o r c l a s s c a n be i n c l u d e d a s a member i n a n o t h e r c l a s s , t h e n t h a t i t e m o r c l a s s i s a hyponym o f t h e h i g h e r o r s u p e r o r d i n a t e c l a s s . T h e s e r e l a t i o n s (R) may be q u a l i f i e d a s hypo-R, s u p e r - R , s e m i - R , p a r t i a l - R , q u a s i - R , pseudo-R o r p a r a - R , w h i c h we w i l l n o t c o n s i d e r h e r e . Non-hyponomous s e t s a r e p r i m a r i l y p r o p o r t i o n a l s e r i e s ( s e e b e l o w ) . H i e r a r c h i e s Hyponomous r e l a t i o n s f o r m a h i e r a r c h y , w h i c h may be b r a n c h i n g , o r n o n - b r a n c h i n g , and a r e o f t e n g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e s " . A b r a n c h i n g h i e r a r c h y must be a s s y m e t r i c a l ( i t g r o w s i n one d i r e c t i o n ) , c a t e n a r y ( i t f o r m s c h a i n s o f s u b - c l a s s e s ) , and i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g o r n o n - c o n v e r g i n g . The r e l a t i o n s may be t r a n s i t i v e o r i n t r a n s i t i v e . I n a t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n , i f A i s g r e a t e r ( o r w h a t e v e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p may be) t h a n B, and B i s g r e a t e r t h a n C, t h e n A must be g r e a t e r t h a n C. I n an i n t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t p a s s e d a l o n g , a l t h o u g h A may s t a n d i n a h i g h e r power t o C. An e x a m p l e i s i f A i s t h e f a t h e r o f B and B i s t h e f a t h e r o f C, t h e n A i s n o t t h e f a t h e r o f C, he i s t h e g r a n d f a t h e r . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s c a s e i s " ( m a l e ) a n c e s t o r o r p r o g e n i t o r " . N o n - b r a n c h i n g h i e r a r c h i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . C h a p t e r 2 - 3 3 -Taxonomy B r a n c h i n g h i e r a r c h i e s may he t a x o n o m i e s o r m e r o n o m i e s . T a x o n o m i e s c l a s s i f y n a t u r a l k i n d t e r m s w h i c h a r e r i g i d  d e s i g n a t o r s ( c a n o n l y be c o m p l e t e l y d e f i n e d e n c y c l o p e d i c a l l y ) , by g r o u p i n g i n t o h i g h e r c l a s s e s . Dogs a r e members o f t h e c a n i n e f a m i l y ("are a k i n d o f c a n i n e " ) , w h i c h i n t u r n i s a member o f t h e c l a s s o f mammals. R o s c h e t a l . ( 1976:428) e x p l a i n why one l e v e l o f a t a x o n o m y seems i n t u i t i v e l y "more n a t u r a l " t h a n t h e o t h e r s . -The b a s i c c a t e g o r y c u t s i n t h e w o r l d s h o u l d be t h o s e w h i c h y i e l d t h e most i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e l e a s t c o g n i t i v e l o a d . C a t e g o r y c u t s s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e m o s t i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h c a n f o l l o w t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s p e r c e i v e d i n t h e w o r l d . B a s i c o b j e c t s a r e t h e c a t e g o r i e s a t t h e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n f o r w h i c h t h e cue v a l i d i t y o f c a t e g o r i e s i s m a x i m i z e d . C a t e g o r i e s a t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n h a v e l o w e r cue v a l i d i t y t h a n t h e b a s i c b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e f e w e r a t t r i b u t e s i n common; c a t e g o r i e s s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e b a s i c h a v e l o w e r cue v a l i d i t y t h a n t h e b a s i c b e c a u s e t h e y s h a r e most a t t r i b u t e s w i t h c o n t r a s t i n g s u b o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s . T h us " b i r d " a n d " f i s h " f o r many p e o p l e c a r r i e s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r most p u r p o s e s . T h i s u s e o f g e n e r i c t e r m s d o e s n o t e x t e n d t o mammals, w h i c h a r e r e g u l a r l y i d e n t i f i e d by s p e c i e s " l i o n , t i g e r " , o r i n t h e c a s e o f d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s , o f t e n by s u b s p e c i e s and v a r i e t i e s , " c o l l i e , s p a n i e l ; H e r e f o r d , J e r s e y " . C h a p t e r 2 - 3 4 -Meronomy A meronomy, whose s u p e r - o r d i n a t e i s a ho1onym, c o n s i d e r s p a r t - w h o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e i t h e r s e g m e n t a l o r s y s t e m i c . An e l b o w i s p a r t o f an arm, b u t one w o u l d n o t c l a i m t h a t i t i s a " k i n d o f arm." A meronomy u s e s n o m i n a l k i n d t e r m s w h i c h c a n be e a s i l y d e f i n e d b y m o d i f y i n g t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e t e r m . The c o n t r a s t i s ( h o p e f u l l y ) r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r : a taxonomy l o o k s f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s t o g r o u p i t e m s t o g e t h e r a t a h i g h e r l e v e l ; a meronomy c o n s i d e r s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f i t e m s . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e m a i n t y p e s o f meronomous r e l a t i o n s h i p : g r o u p -member, c l a s s - member, and c o l l e c t i o n - member. G r o u p members s h a r e a common f u n c t i o n a n d a r e u l t i m a t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t w h o l e s u n d e r a n o t h e r a s p e c t ; c l a s s members h a v e common a t t r i b u t e s ( e . g . c l e r g y : c a r d i n a l , b i s h o p , p r i e s t ) , a n d c o l l e c t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l l y i n a n i m a t e and a r e n o t n o r m a l l y l e x i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d ( f o r e s t : t r e e , l i b r a r y : b o o k ) . A n o t h e r s e r i e s o f r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v e c o m p o s i t i o n : i n g r e d i e n t s o r c o n s t i t u e n t s ; o b j e c t - m a t e r i a l ; s u b s t a n c e - p a r t i c l e . Markham and S i e b e r t ( 1 9 7 6 : 5 6 5 ) r e p o r t t h a t "when i n s t r u c t e d t o 'put t h i n g s t o g e t h e r t h a t go t o g e t h e r o r a r e a l i k e , ' c h i l d r e n f o r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t h a t seem t o move f r o m o b j e c t s t o c o l l e c t i o n s t o c l a s s e s . " T hey p o i n t o u t (574) t h a t c l a s s e s ( i . e . , t a x o n o m i e s ) h a v e l o w e r p e r c e p t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o c h i l d r e n t h a n do c o l l e c t i o n s o f o b j e c t s ( i . e . , m e r o n o m i e s ) : C h a p t e r 2 - 3 5 -I n a l l t h r e e s t u d i e s c h i l d r e n w e r e f o u n d t o be b e t t e r a b l e t o a n s w e r p a r t - w h o l e c o m p a r i s o n q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g c o l l e c t i o n s t h a n t h o s e i n v o l v i n g c l a s s e s . Our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o h e r e n c e o f c o l l e c t i o n s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t f o r c l a s s e s . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h s t a n d a r d c l a s s - i n c l u s i o n q u e s t i o n s i s due t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y i n k e e p i n g t h e w h o l e c l a s s i n m i n d w h i l e a t t e n d i n g t o i t s s u b c l a s s e s , t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d . T hey a r g u e (574) t h a t " f a c i l i t a t i o n w i t h c o l l e c t i o n s i s due t o t h e g r e a t e r a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e them a s w h o l e s " a nd c o n t i n u e : O b j e c t s a n d c o l l e c t i o n s w e r e a r g u e d t o d i f f e r f r o m e a c h o t h e r by a m a t t e r o f d e g r e e o f i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t b o t h w e r e a r g u e d t o d i f f e r q u a l i t a t i v e l y f r o m c l a s s e s w h i c h h a v e no i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t s e n s e . However, p e r f o r m a n c e on p a r t - w h o l e c o m p a r i s o n t a s k s w i t h o b j e c t s was n o t f o u n d t o be s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f c o l l e c t i o n s . C h i l d r e n p e r f o r m e d e q u a l l y w e l l i n b o t h c a s e s . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t a x o n o m i e s and m e r o n o m i e s . We h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n t h a t t h e r e a r e some l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s a s w e l l . N o n - b r a n c h i n g h i e r a r c h i e s T h e r e a r e two m a i n t y p e s o f n o n - b r a n c h i n g h i e r a r c h i e s : d i s c r e t e , s u c h a s m i l i t a r y r a n k i n g s y s t e m s , a nd c o n t i n u o u s , w h i c h may be g r a d a b l e , s u c h a s u n i t s o f m e a s u r e , o r d e g r e e t e r m s , s u c h a s t h e t e r m s f o r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s p e c t r u m ("hot, warm, c o o l , c o l d , f r e e z i n g " ) . N o n - b r a n c h i n g h i e r a r c h i e s must C h a p t e r 2 -36-h a v e a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r i n g w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e t h e t e r m s o f t h e s e t , w h i c h must be i n h e r e n t l y l e x i c a l l y o r d e r e d , t o be a r r a n g e d i n a u n i q u e s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r w i t h a f i r s t i t e m and a l a s t i t e m ( i . e . , n o t i n a c i r c l e ) . T h e y c a n be a s s i g n e d a p o s i t i o n on a s c a l e o f m e a s u r e m e n t . The d i s c i p l i n e o f s t a t i s t i c s ( c f . G l a s s St H o p k i n s 1 9 8 4 ) e m p l o y s a s i m i l a r s y s t e m o f t e r m s : C r u s e G l a s s & H o p k i n s e x a m p l e s d i s c r e t e o r d i n a l ( m i l i t a r y r a n k d e g r e e o r d i n a l p r e f e r e n c e s , warmness g r a d a b l e i n t e r v a l d a t e s , t e m p e r a t u r e , IQ s c o r e g r a d a b l e r a t i o w e i g h t , h e i g h t m e a s u r e s The i n t e r v a l s c a l e i m p l i e s f i x e d d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n u n i t s , and t h e r a t i o s c a l e r e q u i r e s an a b s o l u t e z e r o p o i n t s o t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , d o u b l i n g t h e v a l u e a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a p o i n t t w i c e a s f a r up t h e s c a l e . An IQ s c o r e o f 9 0 d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t someone i s t w i c e a s s m a r t as someone w i t h an IQ o f 4 5 , and h a l f a s s m a r t a s one w i t h a s c o r e o f 1 8 0 , w h i l e w e i g h t s i n t h o s e amounts ( p o u n d s o r k i l o s ) w o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h o s e r a t i o s . T h e s e h i e r a r c h i e s may be h e l i c e s , s u c h a s t h e s e a s o n s o r c h a i n s , s u c h a s p a r t s o f a s t o r y ( " b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e , e n d " ) . A c y c l i c a l s e t s u c h a s t h e c o l o r w h e e l , a l t h o u g h o r g a n i z e d , c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a h i e r a r c h y b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t h a v e d i r e c t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s . C o l o r s h o w e v e r c a n be p l a c e d i n a s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n on t h e e l e c t r o - m a g n e t i c s p e c t r u m w h i c h i s a r a t i o s y s t e m . C h a p t e r 2 -37-O t h e r s y s t e m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n N o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e s i s t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a c l a s s , t h a t i s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i d e n t i t y , o v e r l a p a nd d i s j u n c t i o n . I d e n t i t y a n d o v e r l a p f o r m s e r i e s o f synonyms w h i l e d i s j u n c t i o n s f o r m a n t o n y m s . T h e s e may be o r d e r e d i n p r o p o r t i o n a l s e r i e s , s u c h a s t h e m a l e - f e m a l e s e r i e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s : f a t h e r m o t h e r s o n d a u g h t e r b r o t h e r s i s t e r u n c l e a u n t N o t i c e t h a t t h i s s e r i e s may be e x t e n d e d downward b u t n o t a c r o s s ; t h i s i s a c l o s e d s e r i e s . I f a t h i r d o r f o u r t h c o l u m n c o u l d be a d d e d i t w o u l d be an o p e n s e r i e s . P r o p o r t i o n a l s e r i e s may a l s o be s t r i c t / l a x , c o n s i s t e n t / i n c o n s i s t e n t , a n a l o g o r l e x i c a l s i b l i n g s . N o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s may be g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d as m a t r i c e s , g r a p h s and c h a r t s . O b s e r v e t h a t a l t h o u g h h i e r a r c h i e s may n o t c o n v e r g e , d i f f e r e n t h i e r a r c h i e s may i n t e r s e c t s o t h a t " d o g s " i s a s u b s e t o f " c a n i n e s " b u t i s a l s o a member o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s e t o f " d o m e s t i c / w i l d a n i m a l s " . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e i s t h e " h e a r t " w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h e " c h e s t " ( s e g m e n t a l ) and i s a l s o p a r t o f t h e c i r c u l a t i o n f u n c t i o n ( s y s t e m ) . A l s o k e e p i n m i n d t h a t o b j e c t s c a n h o l d d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o e a c h o t h e r . T hus C h a p t e r 2 - 3 8 -"dog" a n d " c a t " c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s an i n c l u s i o n s e t (members o f a h i e r a r c h y ) s u c h a s " p e t s " o r "mammals"; t h e y c a n a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e o v e r l a p ( s i m i l a r i t y ) o r d i s j u n c t i o n ( d i f f e r e n c e s ) s e t s , a s members o f p r o p o r t i o n a l s e r i e s . The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s u m m a r i z e s t h e a b o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s F i g u r e 6: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s SETS hyponymy non-hyponymy ( h i e r a r c h i e s ) ( p r o p o r t i o n a l s e r i e s ) ( i n c l u s i o n ) ( i d e n t i t y ) ( o v e r l a p ) ( d i s j u n c t i o n ) b r a n c h i n g n o n - b r a n c h i n g t a x o n o m y meronomy d i s c r e t e c o n t i n u o u s s e g m e n t s s y s t e m s g r a d a b l e d e g r e e T h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s s t u d y we w i l l be r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d e x a m i n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s u s e d i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p H a l l i d a y ' s (1985) f u n c t i o n a l grammar a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a s t r u c t u r e d v i e w o f s y n t a x r e l a t e d t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d C h a p t e r 2 - 3 9 -d e s c r i p t i o n , a l t h o u g h a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e p h r a s e r a t h e r t h a n o f Mohan's t o p i c , a n d t h e r e f o r e c l o s e r t o o u r i n t e r e s t i n l e x i s . A l t h o u g h H a l l i d a y d o e s n o t p r o v i d e t h e s p e c i f i c t e r m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , he o f f e r s b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s a s t o w h i c h c l a s s e s o f w o r d s a r e most r e l e v a n t . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m o d i f y i n g c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : d e i c t i c , n u m e r a t i v e , a t t i t u d i n a l e p i t h e t , e x p e r i e n t i a l e p i t h e t a n d c l a s s i f i e r . A l l o f t h e s e m o d i f y t h e t h i n g . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s " t h o s e two s p l e n d i d o l d e l e c t r i c t r a i n s . " H a l l i d a y o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m d e s c r i p t i o n t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s one moves f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t i n t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s : The l i n e b e t w e e n E p i t h e t a n d C l a s s i f i e r i s n o t a v e r y s h a r p o ne, b u t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . C l a s s i f i e r s do n o t a c c e p t d e g r e e s o f c o m p a r i s o n o r i n t e n s i t y - we c a n n o t h a v e a more e l e c t r i c t r a i n o r a v e r y  e l e c t r i c t r a i n ; a n d t h e y t e n d t o be o r g a n i z e d i n m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e a n d e x h a u s t i v e s e t s - a t r a i n i s e i t h e r e l e c t r i c , s t e a m o r d i e s e l . The r a n g e o f s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s t h a t may be e m b o d i e d i n a s e t o f i t e m s f u n c t i o n i n g as C l a s s i f i e r s i s v e r y b r o a d : i t i n c l u d e s m a t e r i a l , s c a l e a n d s c o p e , p u r p o s e a nd f u n c t i o n , s t a t u s a nd r a n k , o r i g i n , mode o f o p e r a t i o n - more o r l e s s any f e a t u r e t h a t may s e r v e t o c l a s s i f y a s e t o f t h i n g s i n t o a s y s t e m o f s m a l l e r s e t s . ( 1 985:164) T h i s d i v i d i n g l i n e i s p r o b a b l y t h e b r e a k p o i n t b e t w e e n Mohan's d e s c r i p t i o n a n d h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a n d w o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n why c o m p a r a t i v e s f a l l u n d e r d e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C h a p t e r 2 - 4 0 -H a l l i d a y a l s o o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e more t r a n s i t i v e ( i . e . , c h a n g e a b l e ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r e c e d e t h e more s t a b l e : So t h e r e i s a p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p f r o m t h e k i n d o f e l e m e n t t h a t h a s t h e g r e a t e s t s p e c i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l t o t h a t w h i c h h a s t h e l e a s t ; a n d t h i s i s a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r i n g t h a t we h a v e a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e c l a u s e . (...) So t h e p r i n c i p l e w h i c h p u t s t h e Theme f i r s t i n t h e c l a u s e i s t h e same a t t h a t w h i c h w h i c h p u t s t h e D e i c t i c f i r s t i n t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p ; s t a r t by r e l a t i n g t o t h e s p e a k e r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s p e e c h e v e n t . F rom t h e r e we p r o c e e d t o e l e m e n t s w h i c h h a v e s u c c e s s i v e l y l e s s i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l - w h i c h , b y t h e same t o k e n , a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r m a n e n t a s a t t r i b u t e s . By a n d l a r g e , t h e more p e r m a n e n t t h e a t t r i b u t e o f a t h i n g , t h e l e s s l i k e l y i t i s t o i d e n t i f y i t i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . So we p r o c e e d w i t h t h e v e r y i m p e r m a n e n t , q u a n t i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , w h i c h i s n e a r e s t t o a D e i c t i c , e . g., t h r e e i n t h r e e b a l l s ; t h r o u g h v a r i o u s q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s s u c h a s new i n new b a i 1 ; a n d end up w i t h t h e most p e r m a n e n t , t h e a s s i g n m e n t t o a c l a s s , e . g., t e n n i s b a i 1 . W i t h i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i f more t h a n one i s s p e c i f i e d , t h e r e i s a g a i n a t e n d e n c y t o move f r o m t h e l e s s p e r m a n e n t t o t h e more p e r m a n e n t ; e . g . , a new r e d b a i 1 r a t h e r t h a n a r e d new b a i 1 . ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 6 6 ) We w i l l s e e i n t h e d a t a t o be a n a l y z e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n i t i a l t e n d e n c y i s t o f o c u s on t h e i m p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e s , w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o H a l l i d a y ' s c o n t e x t - r e l a t e d s p e e c h e v e n t , a n d i t i s o n l y a f t e r w o r k i n g w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l f o r a w h i l e t h a t t h e y c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e more p r o p e r l y c l a s s i f i c a t o r y a n d h e n c e more a b s t r a c t a n d c o n t e x t - r e d u c e d . One f u r t h e r u s e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n w h i c h H a l l i d a y makes i s t h a t t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f n o m i n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h , t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e , r e v e a l e d by t h e a n a l y s i s o f e x p e r i e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e , i n w h i c h t h e b a s i s o f s u b c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s h i f t s a s we e x a m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n t m o d i f i e r p o s i t i o n s , a n d t h e u n i v a r i a t e , C h a p t e r 2 -41-w i t h r e g r e s s i v e b r a c k e t i n g w h i c h i s r e v e a l e d by l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , w h i c h g e n e r a t e s l o n g s t r i n g s o f n ouns s u c h a s " i n v e s t m e n t t r u s t c a s h management a c c o u n t " : We r e f e r t o t h i s a s u n i v a r i a t e s t r u c t u r e , a s t r u c t u r e g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e same f u n c t i o n : a i s m o d i f i e d b y b, w h i c h i s m o d i f i e d by c, w h i c h i s . . . The t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e e x e m p l i f i e d by D e i c t i c + N u m e r a t i v e + E p i t h e t + C l a s s i f i e r + T h i n g + Q u a l i f i e r we c a l l a m u l t i v a r i a t e s t r u c t u r e : a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f e l e m e n t s e a c h h a v i n g a d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e w h o l e . I t i s n o t t h a t one i s r i g h t a n d t h e o t h e r i s w r o n g ; b u t t h a t i n o r d e r t o g e t an a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p , and a c o n c e p t o f what i s meant by a ' g r o u p ' a s t h e g r a m m a t i c a l r e s o u r c e f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i n g s , we n e e d t o i n t e r p r e t i t f r o m b o t h t h e s e p o i n t s o f v i e w [ i . e . , e x p e r i e n t i a l a n d l o g i c a l ] a t o n c e . ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 7 2 ) The u n i v a r i a t e s t r u c t u r e a p p e a r s t o be b a s e d on a r e c u r s i v e e v a l u a t i o n u s i n g r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s w h e r e a s t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e s t r u c t u r e s e l e c t s f e a t u r e s w h i c h d i f f e r n o t o n l y i n t h e i r s y n t a c t i c n a t u r e b u t a l s o i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s e m a n t i c c a t e g o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o H a l l i d a y ' s a n a l y s i s , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s w i l l be e i t h e r nouns ( T h i n g s ) o r C l a s s i f i e r m o d i f i e r s a d j a c e n t t o t h e h e a d o f t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p . U n i v a r i a t e s t r u c t u r e s w i l l t e n d t o be m u l t i p l y embedded C l a s s i f i e r s . O t h e r n o m i n a l m o d i f i e r s w i l l be t e r m s o f d e s c r i p t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s a n a l y s i s d o e s n o t p r o v i d e t h e s p e c i f i c t e r m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f w h i c h t y p e s o f t e r m s a r e more l i k e l y t o be c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s . C h a p t e r 2 - 4 2 -2.3 The m e t a l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n V o c a b u l a r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Mohan ( 1 9 8 6 : 7 9 - 8 6 ) p r o p o s e s t h a t e a c h o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s e m p l o y s i t s own s e m a n t i c s t y l e o f l a n g u a g e . However, i t i s n o t c l e a r what t h e s p e c i f i c v o c a b u l a r y f o r e a c h c e l l a c t u a l l y i s . The c e l l o f s e q u e n c i n g m i g h t u s e w o r d s s u c h a s f i r s t , t h e n , n e x t , a f t e r w a r d s , w h i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s e s g r o u p , 1 i s t , k i n d , p a r t . By f o c u s s i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n on t h e l a n g u a g e i n e a c h a r e a , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o a s s i s t them i n d e v e l o p i n g i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e t o p i c t h e y a r e s t u d y i n g . S i m i l a r l y , b y c o n s c i o u s l y u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l a n g u a g e i n any o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t a r e a s , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o a i d t h e s t u d e n t s i n a c q u i r i n g t h e c o n c e p t s u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n . I f s t u d e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m s , i t s h o u l d become more l e a r n a b l e . Mohan makes s u g g e s t i o n s d r a w n f r o m L e e c h and S v a r t v i k (1975) and L a w r e n c e ( 1 9 7 2 ) , d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t e r m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . We h a v e s e e n t h a t l e x i c a l s e m a n t i c s o f f e r s a way o f c a t e g o r i z i n g p o s s i b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d v o c a b u l a r y t e r m s . What we must do i s i d e n t i f y some o f t h e t e r m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s : t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l i n c l u s i o n C h a p t e r 2 - 4 3 -s e t s o f t a x o n o m i e s , m e r o n o m i e s a n d n o n - b r a n c h i n g h y p o n o m i e s ( d i s c r e t e , g r a d a b l e a nd d e g r e e ) a nd t h e s e r i a l s e t s o f i d e n t i t y , o v e r l a p a nd d i s j u n c t i o n . We w i l l f i r s t e x a m i n e a p o p u l a r t h e s a u r u s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h t e r m s m i g h t be o f f e r e d when d i s c u s s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e n t h e t e r m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u g g e s t e d b y some f u n c t i o n a l a n d r h e t o r i c a l grammars and f i n a l l y c o n s i d e r t h e s u g g e s t i o n s r e s u l t i n g f r o m H a l l i d a y ' s s e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s . However, we w i l l s e e t h a t we must s e a r c h p r i m a r y d a t a f o r t h e s p e c i f i c t e r m s u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t o e x p r e s s t h e s e c o n c e p t s . The t h e s a u r u s a n d t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n The t h e s a u r u s , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d by P.M. R o g e t i n 1852, g r o u p s w o r d s a c c o r d i n g t o s e m a n t i c c l a s s e s . One m i g h t p r o p o s e t h a t t h i s i s an a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e t e r m s u s e d i n w o r k i n g w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . T a b l e I l i s t s some e n t r i e s f r o m a r e c e n t t h e s a u r u s w h i c h a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T a b l e I : C l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d e n t r i e s i n a t h e s a u r u s arrangement: nouns 1: a r r a n g e m e n t ; p l a n , p r e p a r a t i o n , d i s p o s i t i o n , a l l o c a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , s o r t i n g ; g r o u p i n g ; a s s o r t m e n t , a l l o t m e n t , a p p o r t i o n m e n t ; t a x o n o m y , o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 2: d i g e s t , s y n o p s i s , compendium; t a b l e , r e c o r d , r e g i s t e r , r e s u m e ; f i l e , i n d e x C h a p t e r 2 -44-3: o r d e r , a r r a y , s y s t e m ; r e g u l a r i t y , u n i f o r m i t y , s y mmetry 4: s t a n d a r d , f o r m , f o r m u l a , p r i n c i p l e , r u l e v e r b s 1: a r r a n g e , d i s p o s e , p l a c e , f o r m ; p u t , s e t / p l a c e i n o r d e r ; s e t o u t ; c o l l a t e , p a c k , m a r s h a l , r a n g e , s i z e , r a n k , g r o u p ; d i s p o s e o f , a s s i g n p l a c e s t o ; a s s o r t , s o r t ; p u t / s e t t o r i g h t s , p u t i n s h a p e / a r r a y , r e d u c e t o o r d e r 2: c l a s s i f y , d i v i d e , s e g r e g a t e , a l p h a b e t i z e , f i l e , s t r i n g t o g e t h e r , r e g i s t e r , r e c o r d , c a t a l o g , t a b u l a t e , i n d e x , g r a d u a t e , d i g e s t ; h a r m o n i z e , m e t h o d i z e , r e g u l a t e , s y s t e m a t i z e , c o o r d i n a t e , o r g a n i z e . 3; u n r a v e l , d i s e n t a n g l e , d i s e m b r o i l a d j : a r r a n g e d , m e t h o d i c a l , o r d e r l y , t i d y , n e a t , r e g u l a r , s y s t e m a t i c a n t : ( s e e ) d i s o r d e r c l a s s : c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , d i v i s i o n , c a t e g o r y ; o r d e r , f a m i l y , g e n u s , s p e c i e s , v a r i e t y ; r a c e , t r i b e , c a s t e , k i n d , s o r t , t y p e , b r e e d , c l a n ; manner, d e s c r i p t i o n , c h a r a c t e r , s t a m p , ( s e e ) s i m i l a r i t y , p a r t y , a r r a n g e m e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : g r o u p i n g , c a t e g o r y , a l l o c a t i o n ; a r r a n g e m e n t , s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n , t a x o n o m y , o r d e r k i n d : s o r t , s p e c i e s , c l a s s , t y p e , i l k . b r e e d , c h a r a c t e r , n a t u r e s o r t : c l a s s , k i n d , v a r i e t y , g r o u p , c a t e g o r y , d e s c r i p t i o n , s e g r e g a t e , s e p a r a t e , i s o l a t e ; s i z e , g r a d e , g r o u p , m a t c h : a s s o r t , a r r a n g e , c l a s s i f y ; s i f t , s c r e e n . ( s e e ) s i z e , a r r a n g e m e n t (The new A m e r i c a n R o q e t ' s c o l l e g e t h e s a u r u s i n d i c t i o n a r y  f o r m . 1958: p a s s i m ) I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s i s n o t a s u s e f u l a s one m i g h t hope i n d e t e r m i n i n g l e x i c a l t e r m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o be u s e d i n t e a c h i n g . L i k e a d i c t i o n a r y , a t h e s a u r u s d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e how t h e s e w o r d s a r e t o be u s e d . A l s o , t h e s y s t e m o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s n o t o b v i o u s ; w h a t do t h e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f a r r a n g e m e n t s i g n i f y ? T h us a l i s t l i k e t h i s i s n o t o f g r e a t v a l u e i n C h a p t e r 2 - 4 5 -d e t e r m i n i n g a s t r a t e g y o f v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n . We n e x t l o o k t o r e f e r e n c e grammars and m a n u a l s o f s t y l e and r h e t o r i c f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . A f u n c t i o n a l grammar a n a l y s i s L e e c h and S v a r t v i k (1975) o f f e r an o r g a n i z a t i o n "where g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o m e a n i n g s , u s e s and s i t u a t i o n s " ( p . 1 1 ) . The f u n c t i o n a l n o t i o n s ("uses and s i t u a t i o n s " ) a r e d i s c u s s e d ( p a r t t h r e e , s e c t i o n s B-D) i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r t o W i l k i n s (1976) and v a n Ek ( 1 9 7 5 ) , w h i l e t h e c o n c e p t u a l c o n t e n t s ("meanings") a r e a n a l y z e d i n s e c t i o n A. T h ey o f f e r some v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s o n l y a s e x a m p l e s f o r t h e i r n o t i o n s , and do n o t c l a i m t o e x h a u s t t h e l i s t o f p o s s i b l e t e r m s . F o r e x a m p l e , s p e c i e s n o uns i s p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 52: H e r e i s a n o t h e r t y p e o f d i v i s i o n : n o uns l i k e t y p e , k i n d , s o r t , s p e c i e s , c l a s s , v a r i e t y c a n d i v i d e a mass o r s e t o f o b j e c t s i n t o ' t y p e s ' o r ' s p e c i e s ' : T e a k i s a t y p e o f wood. A F o r d i s a make o f c a r . A t i g e r i s a s p e c i e s o f mammal. ( L e e c h and S v a r t v i k : 4 5 ) T hus L e e c h and S v a r t v i k a r e a l s o o f o n l y l i m i t e d u s e i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o r o f t h e o t h e r f r a m e w o r k c a t e g o r i e s . A r h e t o r i c a l grammar a n a l y s i s One m i g h t p r o p o s e t h a t a m a n u a l o f w r i t i n g w h i c h p r e s e n t s a s t r u c t u r e b a s e d on a p p l i e d l a n g u a g e may p r o v e t o be u s e f u l . C h a p t e r 2 - 4 6 -A l t h o u g h L a w r e n c e (1972:71) a c k n o w l e d g e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s a " m a j o r l o g i c a l m e t h o d o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " a n d e n u m e r a t e s "some o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y y o u n e e d when y o u w r i t e a b o u t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " (see.- T a b l e I I , b e l o w ) , h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n l a c k s t h e e l e g a n t s i m p l i c i t y o f Mohan's " b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e " . L a w r e n c e i n d i r e c t l y p o i n t s t o t h i s c o n c e p t , "a s t a t e m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a k i n d o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . N o t a l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . " ( p. 7 6 ) . She d o e s n o t e l a b o r a t e f u r t h e r a n d t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n o r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f h e r s u g g e s t e d t e r m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . TABLE I I : Some s t r u c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : m a i n k i n d s o f m a j o r k i n d s o f b a s i c k i n d s o f f u n d a m e n t a l s i g n i f i c a n t i m p o r t a n t p r i m a r y m i n o r A l s o w o r d s l i k e : k i n d s m e t h o d s p a r t s c a t e g o r i e s c l a s s e s u n i m p o r t a n t i n s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r d i s s i m i l a r c o n t r a d i c t o r y o p p o s i n g s e c o n d a r y c o n t r a s t i n g t y p e s s o u r c e s r e g i o n s b a s e s q u a l i t i e s c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e u n c o n t e s t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s u n c o n t e s t a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s c l a s s i f y d i v i d e o p p o s i t e a t t r i b u t e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a c t o r s t i m e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a s p e c t s C h a p t e r 2 - 4 7 -P h r a s e s l i k e : m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e a c c o r d i n g t o ... w i t h r e s p e c t t o ... ... f a l l s i n t o ... c a t e g o r i e s ... c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o ... c l a s s e s L a w r e n c e (1972:73) S e m a n t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s u g g e s t e d t e r m s S i n c e t h e s e w r i t e r s o f f e r l i s t s o f t e r m s p u r p o r t e d t o r e l a t e t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , b u t a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t h e v a r i o u s t e r m s s u g g e s t e d i n T a b l e s I and I I w i l l be a s s e s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s p r e s e n t e d by C r u s e . L o o k i n g f i r s t a t t h e e n t r i e s f r o m t h e t h e s a u r u s ( T a b l e I ) , we f i n d t h a t u n d e r t h e m a j o r e n t r y a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e n ouns e n t r i e s l i s t p r o c e s s e s (1) a n d f o r m s (2) a s w e l l a s t h e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s ( 3 , 4 ) . The v e r b s e n t r i e s (1,2) l i s t t h e p r o c e d u r e s . The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n c e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c i f y , a l t h o u g h a few w o r d s do s t a n d o u t a s i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h C r u s e ' c a t e g o r i e s . Rank and s e t / p l a c e i n  o r d e r i m p l y a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ; g r a d u a t e i s a c o n t i n u o u s s c a l e and a l p h a b e t i z e i s a d i s c r e t e s c a l e . D i v i d e ,  s o r t a nd s e g r e g a t e i n v o l v e o v e r l a p a n d d i s j u n c t i v e s e t s , a s do u n r a v e 1 . d i s e n t a n g l e , d i s e m b r o i 1 . One i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n i s b e t w e e n t h e v e r b s s o r t a nd g r o u p . S o r t i n g means t o s e p a r a t e a c o l l e c t i o n o f i t e m s i n t o s e v e r a l c l a s s e s w h i c h may o r may n o t be r e l a t e d , a t o p - d o w n p r o c e s s , w h i l e g r o u p i n g c o m b i n e s a number o f i t e m s i n t o one o r C h a p t e r 2 - 4 8 -more c l a s s e s , a b o t t o m - u p p r o c e s s . B o t h o f t h e s e t e r m s a r e t a x o n o m i c ; m e r o n o m i c e q u i v a l e n t s w o u l d be d i v i d e o r s e p a r a t e , w h i c h a p p e a r i n t h e e n t r i e s , a n d u n i t e o r a s s e m b l e , w h i c h do n o t a p p e a r h e r e . T h e r e a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n a t u r e o f w o r d s . We s e e t h a t s o r t i s g i v e n a s a synonym f o r a r r a n g e m e n t , c l a s s a n d k i n d . I n t h e e n t r y f o r s o r t , t h e s e t h r e e t e r m s a r e r e c i p r o c a l l y e n t e r e d . However we s e e t h a t g r o u p and c a t e g o r y a r e a l s o l i s t e d , y e t t h e r e i s a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s o r t and g r o u p . S o r t a n d k i n d a r e a l s o r e l a t e d , b u t n o t i n t h e same way, a n d a l t h o u g h g r o u p a n d c a t e g o r y a p p e a r t o be synonymous f o r some p e o p l e ( a s we s h a l l s e e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m d a t a ) , t h e t h e s a u r u s d o e s n o t make t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . One t h i n g v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e s e w o r d s h a v e i n common i s t h e i r t a x o n o m i c d e n o t a t i o n . The t h e s a u r u s c o l l e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w o r d s t o g e t h e r , b u t d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e what t h e b a s i s o f t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n i s e x c e p t by i n f e r e n c e , n o r d o e s i t i n d i c a t e what t h e d e n o t a t i o n a l o r c o n n o t a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t e r m s m i g h t be. I t i s n o t a t o o l w h i c h c a n be u s e d e a s i l y b y t h o s e who a r e l e s s t h a n f l u e n t i n t h e l a n g u a g e . F rom C r u s e ' a n a l y s i s we c a n s e e t h a t L a w r e n c e ' s s u g g e s t e d C h a p t e r 2 -49-t e r m s i n T a b l e I I a p p e a r r a t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y o r d e r e d , and some a r e n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a t a l l , s u c h a s a c c o r d i n g t o . She h a s c a s t a w i d e r n e t , and i n a d d i t i o n t o t a x o n o m i c t e r m s s u c h a s k i n d s , t y p e s , c l a s s e s we a l s o f i n d t e r m s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e r i a l s e t s a n d r a n k s , s u c h a s o p p o s i t e , p r i m a r y , m i n o r a s w e l l a s p a r t - w h o l e t e r m s p a r t s , r e g i o n s . M o re i m p o r t a n t l y , s h e h a s i n c l u d e d some o f t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a t t r i b u t e s , f a c t o r s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a s p e c t s w h i c h m i g h t be r e q u i r e d i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f c l a s s i f y i n g . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e l i s t s o f f e r s any o f t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h r e l a t e t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . L e e c h and S v a r t v i k s u g g e s t a few, s u c h as a v s . t h e , h a v e , i s ( s e e u n d e r g e n e r i c i n L e e c h & S v a r t v i k 1976: 5 3 - 5 5 ) , b u t t h i s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r o u r p u r p o s e s . T a b l e I I I ( b e l o w ) shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i d e a s w h i c h h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t o t h i s p o i n t a s s e e n f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k . C h a p t e r 2 - 5 0 -TABLE I I I : Summary o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f DESCRIPTION Mohan: ( k n o w l e d g e a c t i v i t y ) t y p e : c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s e x a m p l e : p i c t u r e s H a l 1 iday•• ( t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p ) t y p e : i m p e r m a n e n t e x a m p l e D e i c t i c t h i s N u m e r a t i v e t h r e e E p i t h e t s w o n d e r f u l Cruse.- ( l e x i c a l r e l a t i o n s ) t y p e : ( u n r e l a t e d l e x i s ) T h e s a u r u s t y p e : e x a m p l e ( u n r e l a t e d l e x i s ) L e e c h & S v a r t v i k ( f u n c t i o n a l grammar) t y p e : s p e c i f i c t h e L a w r e n c e ( r h e t o r i c a l grammar) t y p e : (none) e x a m p l e V o c a b u l a r y t y p e : u n i q u e o b j e c t p r o p e r noun e x a m p l e J u d y c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d C L A S S I F I C A T I O N a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s c h a r t s p e r m a n e n t C l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t r i c h i e r a r c h i e s , e t c a s s o r t e d t e r m s p l a n , s o r t , g r o u p g e n e r i c a a s s o r t e d t e r m s c l a s s e s g e n e r i c c l a s s common noun woman Of t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s w h i c h we h a v e c o n s i d e r e d , e a c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o some d e g r e e t o w a r d s a s o l u t i o n , b u t none i s s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f . F u r t h e r m o r e , none o f t h e abo v e a n a l y s e s n o t e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t o p i c - f o c u s s e d l a n g u a g e a n d m e t a l a n g u a g e a n d one i s l e f t t o d r a w h i s own d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e two l a n g u a g e t y p e s . I n sum, t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s w h i c h w i l l i n d i c a t e some o f t h e l a n g u a g e i n v o l v e d i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , b u t t h e r e i s no c l e a r and C h a p t e r 2 -51-s i m p l e v a d e mecum w h i c h w i l l s p e l l o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e s and t e r m s r e q u i r e d u n d e r v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s . 2.4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m The f o r e g o i n g l i s t s p r o p o s e t e r m s r e l a t e d t o t h e t o p i c o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b u t i t h a s n o t b e e n shown t h a t t h e s e t e r m s a r e t h e o n e s a c t u a l l y u s e d i n c l a s s r o o m l a n g u a g e . I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e Mohan's h y p o t h e s i s t h a t e a c h "box" r e a l l y d o e s e m p l o y p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e t e r m s , t h e c l a s s r o o m v o c a b u l a r y r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s u s e d by t e a c h e r s and by s t u d e n t s , as w e l l a s t h e s t r a t e g i e s and p r o c e s s e s u s e d i n a c q u i r i n g v o c a b u l a r y , w i l l be e x a m i n e d . T h i s v o c a b u l a r y o n c e d i s c o v e r e d c a n be c o m p a r e d t o t h e l i s t s a l r e a d y p r o p o s e d ; t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n s may i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r t h e s e l i s t s c a n be u s e f u l i n s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l a n g u a g e f o r t e a c h i n g o t h e r k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s . Terms o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n modes B e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n o r m a l c l a s s r o o m , t h e r e a r e t h r e e s o u r c e s o f d i s c o u r s e p r o d u c t i o n : t e x t b o o k g e n e r a t e d , t e a c h e r g e n e r a t e d and s t u d e n t g e n e r a t e d . I n an e a r l i e r s t u d y ( H e n r y 1987) t h e k i n d o f l a n g u a g e t h a t i s u s e d i n an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e t e x t t o d i s c u s s t h e t o p i c o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was e x a m i n e d and i t was shown t h a t f o r w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s a t l e a s t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g l e x i s - k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k c o r r e l a t i o n . I t C h a p t e r 2 - 5 2 -was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t e r m s w h i c h r e l a t e t o Mohan's " b o x e s " o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n i n a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n . The e x a m i n a t i o n was b a s e d on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s ; c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t s recommended f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r a n d by t h e s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e k i n d s o f v o c a b u l a r y u s e d a nd t h e d i f f e r e n c e s ( i f a ny) among t h e s e t h r e e t e x t t y p e s ( b o o k , t e a c h e r , s t u d e n t ) when d i s c u s s i n g a n d e x p r e s s i n g t h e s p e c i f i c n o t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I f Mohan i s c o r r e c t , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c v o c a b u l a r y e m p l o y e d by e a c h o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n modes s h o u l d show an i n t e r - m o d e r e l a t i o n s h i p , a s w e l l as a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c e l l o f t h e K n o w l e d g e Framework. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n h o w e v e r i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y . What w i l l be done h e r e i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e o r a l l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 2.5 Summary T h e r e i s a n e e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a f r a m e w o r k b a s e d on k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s c a n be u s e d t o d e v e l o p a u n i f i e d p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y . I f i t c a n be shown t h a t t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n on t h e one h a n d a n d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f g e n e r a l v o c a b u l a r y on t h e o t h e r , t h e n we may be C h a p t e r 2 -53-a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t a n a p p r o a c h b a s e d on t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i s an a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d f o r t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y . A c t u a l l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s must be e x a m i n e d and s e v e r a l a s p e c t s n e e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d : c o n t e n t , p r o c e s s , and p r o d u c t . The c o n t e n t must be e x a m i n e d , t h a t i s , t h e g e n e r a l l a n g u a g e and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c o n c e p t s and l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h a r e a c t u a l l y u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a s w e l l a s t h e p r o c e s s , t h a t i s , t h e s t r a t e g i e s u s e d by t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d v o c a b u l a r y . The p r o d u c t c a n be u s e d a s a means o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s o f t h e v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s . As a s i d e i s s u e , i f we f i n d a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c l a s s r o o m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v o c a b u l a r y and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o p o s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v o c a b u l a r y , t h e n i t may be t e n t a t i v e l y a ssumed t h a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o p o s e d t e r m s o f t h e o t h e r c e l l s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k w i l l a l s o be r e f l e c t e d i n a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m u s e . I f t h e m a j o r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n a b o v e i s a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e , t h e n c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s may be a b l e t o r e l y on t h e o r e t i c a l l i s t s o f t e r m s f o r t h e v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e y h a v e b e e n c o n f i r m e d t h r o u g h a c t u a l r e s e a r c h . C h a p t e r 2 - 5 4 -C h a p t e r T h r e e : D a t a a n a l y s i s 3.1 O v e r v i e w o f c h a p t e r I n t h i s c h a p t e r a b ody o f d a t a w i l l be a n a l y s e d i n o r d e r t o r e v e a l what some o f t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n a r e . I t w i l l e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e a c h e r t a l k a nd s t u d e n t t a l k . I n d o i n g s o , i t must be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t we do n o t assume t h a t we c a n show a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e a c h e r t a l k a nd s t u d e n t t a l k i n t h i s d a t a . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e a n a l y s i s o f c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n p r o v i d e s i m p o r t a n t and i 1 l u m i n a t i n n g d a t a on t h e p r o c e s s e s o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n . F i r s t some q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s b a s e d on w o r d c o u n t s and f r e q u e n c i e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d and some q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f t e a c h e r - t a l k and s t u d e n t - t a l k w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . The s p e c i f i c v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h i s u s e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be c o m p a r e d t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o p o s e d v o c a b u l a r y p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r Two. N e x t , t e x t s f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m s e s s i o n s f r o m w h i c h t h e d a t a h a v e b e e n d r a w n w i l l be l o o k e d a t t o d i s c o v e r t h e s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g s i n g l e w o r d s and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e t e x t s w i l l be r e e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n t o t h e k n o w l e d g e •framework. The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s t h e s e a n a l y s e s and C h a p t e r 3 - 5 5 -a t t e m p t t o d r a w some c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m them. B e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , any a t t e m p t s t o g e n e r a l i z e b e y o n d t h e s e d a t a must be a p p r o a c h e d c a u t i o u s l y u n t i l f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e a r e c o n d u c t e d . R a t i o n a l e B e c a u s e o f t h e e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h f o c u s s e s on f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s a n d s i n g l e w o r d a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , t h e d a t a w i l l be a n a l y s e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f s i m i l a r q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s a r e p r o d u c e d i n t h i s c o r p u s . A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l s u g g e s t t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s made f r o m t h e s e d a t a m i g h t be e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e d a t a . A n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w o u l d l i m i t t h e s c o p e o f any c l a i m s w h i c h m i g h t be made. A s e c o n d p u r p o s e i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s a n y o b s e r v a b l e p a t t e r n i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s e s w h i c h m i g h t i n d i c a t e w h i c h i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s a r e more p r o d u c t i v e t h a n o t h e r s . The l i t e r a t u r e d e b a t e s a number o f a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h m i g h t be t a k e n , s u c h a s w h e t h e r v o c a b u l a r y i s b e s t l e a r n e d t h r o u g h d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n s o r w h e t h e r t h e s t r a t e g i e s p r e s e n t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r a r e more i n f l u e n t i a l t h a n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , Mohan's k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i s p r e s e n t e d a s an C h a p t e r 3 -56-a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m o f a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s b a s e d on c o n t e n t s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g f o c u s s e d on i s o l a t e d v o c a b u l a r y . R e c a l l t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o Mohan, l a n g u a g e a s a n a c t i v i t y c a n be e x a m i n e d a t t h e l e v e l o f t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h he d i v i d e s i n t o d e s c r i p t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s e q u e n c i n g , p r i n c i p l e s , c h o i c e a n d e v a l u a t i o n . The l e v e l o f t h i n k i n g a c t i v i t y was s e l e c t e d f o r c l o s e a n a l y s i s i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o Mohan, t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t s u b j e c t - d e p e n d e n t , t h a t i s , t h e l o g i c o f an a c t i v i t y i s g e n e r a l l y v a l i d f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t a r e a s , w h e t h e r i t be b i o l o g y , m a t h e m a t i c s , p h i l o s o p h y o r l i t e r a t u r e . The f r a m e w o r k i s b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f an a c t i v i t y , a n d t h e r e f o r e i t a p p l i e s a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m , b e c a u s e t h e c o n c e p t o f an a c t i v i t y i s common t o a l l c u r r i c u l a . A l l c u r r i c u l a , f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l , h a v e a s t h e i r g o a l t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n e r i n t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s o c i e t y . (Mohan 1986:46) I t i s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t e r m i n o l o g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a c t i v i t y r e f l e c t s t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e l o g i c , t h a t i s , t h e t e r m s o f t h e a c t i v i t y a r e s i m i l a r a c r o s s d i s c i p l i n e s . T h e r e f o r e any f i n d i n g s s h o u l d h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h go b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s o f t h e d a t a i t s e l f . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f a s t u d e n t c a n o p e r a t e on t h e l o g i c o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and u s e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m s i n one d i s c i p l i n e , t h e s e s k i l l s c a n be t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s s i n c e t h e l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o one s u b j e c t a r e a a nd l i k e w i s e much o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s e q u a l l y t r a n s f e r a b l e . C h a p t e r 3 - 5 7 -I t i s n o t c l e a r , h o w e v e r , a s t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r h a s shown, e x a c t l y what t h e t e r m s o f t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a c t u a l l y a r e . T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o r e v e a l some o f t h o s e t e r m s . M o r e o v e r , a s S c h a c h t e r and R u t h e r f o r d ( 1 9 8 3 : 3 0 6 ) p o i n t o u t , I t i s commonly r e c o g n i z e d t h a t many o f t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f a l a n g u a g e s e r v e d e f i n a b l e f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n d i s c o u r s e . I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t a g i v e n s t r u c t u r e may s e r v e a v a r i e t y o f d i s c o u r s e f u n c t i o n s a n d t h a t a g i v e n f u n c t i o n may be i m p l e m e n t e d by more t h a n one s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e we must pay a t t e n t i o n n o t o n l y t o t h e v o c a b u l a r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h i s b e i n g u s e d , b u t a l s o t o t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h c a n r e p l a c e some o f t h o s e v o c a b u l a r y t e r m s i n d i s c o u r s e f u n c t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s w i l l a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e m a i n s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t r a c e t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n a nd show how t h e y m i g h t be r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l f o r m s . 3.2 D a t a c o l l e c t i o n The d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y a u d i o t a p i n g a s e r i e s o f E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e C e n t e r (ELC) s e s s i o n s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s i n s m a l l g r o u p s i n an u r b a n s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o v e r a p e r i o d o f two m o n t h s . T h e r e w ere two t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d , t h e r e g u l a r ELC t e a c h e r a n d a r e s e a r c h e r w i t h e x t e n s i v e ESL c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e . F rom t i m e t o t i m e one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e t e a c h e r s was a b s e n t f r o m t h e g r o u p . The s t u d e n t s w e re i n g r a d e s i x , and C h a p t e r 3 - 5 8 -w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s e s f o r t h e s e s e s s i o n s on a d a i l y b a s i s . T h e s e c l a s s s e s s i o n s w e r e r e c o r d e d as p a r t o f a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , u n r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g . F i f t e e n c l a s s s e s s i o n s w e r e t a p e - r e c o r d e d a n d t r a n s c r i b e d ; c o p i e s o f t h e r e c o r d i n g s a n d t r a n s c r i p t i o n s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y made a v a i l a b l e f o r p o s t f a c t o a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y . A t no t i m e d i d t h e w r i t e r make c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s o r t h e t e a c h e r , and t h e r e s e a r c h e r was a p p r o a c h e d o n l y t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e d a t a a n d t o a n s w e r a few b a s i c q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e d a t a The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n s a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n t o p r e s e n t t h e c o n c e p t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by h a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s g r o u p a nd s o r t v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s s u c h a s t o y c a r s , a n d d e v e l o p c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s f o r j e w e l r y , s p o r t s , e t c . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e t o f o c u s on d e s c r i p t i o n by d e s c r i b i n g a t y p i c a l f i s h , a n d t h e n l e a r n a b o u t s e q u e n c i n g b y s t u d y i n g t h e l i f e c y c l e o f t h e f i s h . 3.3 M e t h o d s o f a n a l y s i s F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s The t r a n s c r i p t s w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o c o m p u t e r a n a l y s i s t o C h a p t e r 3 - 5 9 -p r o d u c e w o r d s l i s t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' a n d t h e t e a c h e r s ' s p e e c h , c o m b i n e d and e x c l u s i v e l y . Words were d e f i n e d s i m p l y a s d i s c r e t e s p e e c h u n i t s , ( C r u s e ' s "word f o r m s " a s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r O n e ) , w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r e v e n b a s i c s y n t a c t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s s u c h a s i n f l e c t i o n s . Out o f a t o t a l o f 45478 w o r d s ( t o k e n s ) , 2228 u n i q u e w o r d s ( t y p e s ) w e re u s e d . T h e r e w e r e 35445 t e a c h e r w o r d s ; t y p e s amounted t o 1977 (a t o k e n - t y p e r a t i o o f 18:1) w h i l e s t u d e n t t o k e n s w e re 10033 a n d t y p e s r e a c h e d 1124 ( t o k e n - t y p e r a t i o = 8 . 9 : 1 ) . The h i g h e r t h e r a t i o , t h e more o f t e n w o r d s h a d b e e n r e p e a t e d , i n d i c a t i n g a r e s t r i c t e d o r c o n t r o l l e d v o c a b u l a r y ( g i v e n e q u a l t e x t l e n g t h s ; t h i s p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r ) . 1104 w o r d s were u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e t e a c h e r s w h i l e 250 w o r d s w e r e u s e d o n l y by t h e s t u d e n t s . The i n t e g r a t e d t e a c h e r a nd s t u d e n t t y p e l i s t , w i t h w o r d c o u n t s , i s a t t a c h e d a s A p p e n d i x I . T e a c h e r t a l k c l e a r l y d o m i n a t e d t h e s e s s i o n s , o c c u r r i n g 78 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e . B e c a u s e t h e t e a c h e r s c o n t r o l l e d a n d d i r e c t e d c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y a n d w e r e t h e l a n g u a g e m o d e l s f o r t h e g r o u p , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t e a c h e r t a l k d o m i n a t e d . A l s o , b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s a n d t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e n o t , i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s t y p e s w o u l d e x c e e d t h o s e o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s was i n f a c t t h e c a s e ( a b o u t d o u b l e ) , b u t t h i s h a s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t , o r m i g h t t h e r e be c o n d i t i o n s w h e r e C h a p t e r 3 - 6 0 -t h e s t u d e n t s ' t a l k becomes more l i k e t h e t e a c h e r s ' t a l k ? T o k e n - t y p e r a t i o s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e s e s s i o n s , a n d i t was f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r r a t i o s a v e r a g e 5.5 w h i l e s t u d e n t r a t i o s a v e r a g e 3.2. One m i g h t c o n c l u d e f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y was i n some way d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r s , b u t when t h e r a t i o s a r e p l o t t e d ( f i g u r e 7, b e l o w ) , a r e a s o n a b l y s m o o t h c u r v e a p p e a r s , a p p a r e n t l y p a r t i a l l y a s a f u n c t i o n o f l e n g t h o f d i s c o u r s e . S i n c e i t was s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be a n e f f e c t due t o amount o f s p e e c h , t h e r a t i o f o r t h e f i r s t 500 w o r d s o f one o f t h e t e a c h e r t e x t s was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d a n d p l o t t e d , a n d i t f e l l i n t h e same a r e a a s t h e s t u d e n t s ' t e x t s ( 2 . 5 : 1 ) . I t a p p e a r s t h a t , a t l e a s t f o r s h o r t e r d i s c o u r s e s e q u e n c e s , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t e a c h e r t a l k a n d s t u d e n t t a l k , a n d t h a t t h e t o t a l t e a c h e r - o n l y l i s t i s l a r g e r p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t e r amount o f t o t a l s p e e c h . H owever, 22% o f t h e s t u d e n t t y p e s w e r e n o t u s e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s , a n d i f a p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount were d e d u c t e d on t h e t e a c h e r s ' s i d e , t h e n t h e r e w o u l d be o n l y 3 7 % more t y p e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s e v e n t h o u g h t h e amount o f t o k e n s was 3.5 t i m e s g r e a t e r . T h e r e f o r e , one c a n n o t c o n c l u d e f r o m t h e s e d a t a t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' v o c a b u l a r i e s w e re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e v e l o p e d t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s ' . However I w i l l s h o r t l y show t h a t t h e C h a p t e r 3 - 6 1 -t e a c h e r s ' v o c a b u l a r i e s w e r e , i n f a c t , p r o b a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' . A s e c o n d q u e s t i o n i s , d i d t h e s t u d e n t s i n f a c t u n d e r s t a n d t h e 1104 w o r d s u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s d i d n o t u s e ? B e c a u s e o f i t s p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n an ESL c l a s s , t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r on. F i g u r e 7: Type-token r a t i o f o r each c l a s s s e s s i o n . 500 1000 1500 2000 tokens per s e s s i o n 2500 3000 3500 C h a p t e r 3 - 6 2 -A p p e n d i x I l i s t s t h e v o c a b u l a r y t y p e s u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s . From t h i s l i s t i s d e r i v e d A p p e n d i x I I , w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o g r o u p some o f t h e t e r m s by s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t . M o s t n o u n s , v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s c a n be p u t i n t o t h e m a t i c g r o u p s w i t h o u t t o o much d i f f i c u l t y . N o t e t h a t b e s i d e s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t names, e. g . , s n a k e , c a t s , a n d t o p i c - s p e c i f i c m o d i f i e r s , e.g., w a r m - b l o o d e d , a n a l , t h e r e w e r e a l s o t a x o n o m i c and m e r o n o m i c l a b e l s ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s ) s u c h a s mamma1, w i l d - 1 i f e , a p p e n d a g e s , 1 i m b s . A d v e r b s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , m o d a l s and a u x i l i a r i e s w h i c h p e r f o r m s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n s h a v e a much l o w e r s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t and a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o c a t e g o r i z e i n t h i s manner. Some o f t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r o n . T h e r e w e r e a number o f s e t s o f v o c a b u l a r y t e r m s w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a s p r o p o s e d by t h e t h e s a u r u s a n d t h e g r a m m a r i a n s a l r e a d y c i t e d . T a b l e I V ( b e l o w ) i d e n t i f i e s t h e m e t a - l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h was u s e d i n t h e s e s s i o n s . I f T a b l e I V i s c o m p a r e d w i t h e i t h e r T a b l e I ( t h e s a u r u s ) o r T a b l e I I ( L a w r e n c e ) , i t w i l l s e e n t h a t t h i s s e t o f t e r m s d r a w n f r o m t h e d a t a c a n be i d e n t i f i e d a s r e l a t i n g t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s s u p p o r t s Mohan's c l a i m t h a t s p e c i f i c v o c a b u l a r y t e r m s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c e l l s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k a t l e a s t i n s o f a r a s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s C h a p t e r 3 - 6 3 -c o n c e r n e d , a l t h o u g h more w o r k n e e d s t o be done t o i d e n t i f y t h e w h o l e l i s t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d t e r m s . We c a n a l s o make two o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v o c a b u l a r y i n t h e s e s e s s i o n s i s much more l i m i t e d t h a n t h a t s u g g e s t e d b y t h e o t h e r t a b l e s , a n d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s u s e more t h a n t w i c e a s many d i f f e r e n t t e r m s a s t h e s t u d e n t s . P o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a s we p r o c e e d . TABLE I V : S e l e c t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d t e r m s u s e d i n c l a s s r o o m s e s s i o n s . 11, - a l i k e 7,7 d e s c r i p t i o n 3,3 p a r t 10, - a p a r t 4,8 d i a g r a m 5,- p a t t e r n 5, 5 b e l o n g 5,- d i f f e r e n c e 1 0 , - p i e c e 7, - c a t a l o g u e 2,1 d i f f e r e n t -,12 p i l e 4, - c a t e g o r i z e 2,4 d i v i d e 6,1 ro w 3, - c a t e g o r y 7,- e n t i r e 1,3 same 5, - c h a r t 4,- examp1e 2,4 s e p a r a t e 4, - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 5,5 f e a t u r e s 3,- s e t 3, - c l a s s i f y 5,1 f o r m 2,2 s h a p e 3, 4 c o l l e c t 2,4 g r o u p 2,4 s i z e 6, - c o m b i n e -,5 i n c l u d e 5,5 s o r t 3, - common 1,1 k i n d 7,- s p e c i m e n 5, - compare 6,- l a b e l 3,- s p l i t 8, - composed 4, 13 l i s t 9,- s u m m a r i z e 8, - compound 5,13 o p p o s i t e 8,- s y s t e m 5, d e f i n i t i o n 5,- o r d e r 3,- t i t l e 3, d e s c r i b e 4,- o r g a n i z e 4,6 3,5 t r e e t y p e The number o f t h e s e s s i o n i n w h i c h t h e t e r m f i r s t a p p e a r e d i s i n t h e f o r m a t T e a c h e r #, S t u d e n t #. "-" i n d i c a t e s t h e t e r m was n o t u s e d by t h a t s p e a k e r g r o u p . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t , b a s e d on t h e d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s a n d by t h e t e a c h e r s , t h e s u g g e s t i o n may be made t h a t t h e r e i s a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s a n d by C h a p t e r 3 - 6 4 -t h e t e a c h e r s , c o n t r a r y t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n made e a r l i e r . Some o f t h e t e r m s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s u s e a r e i n f a c t r e p e t i t i o n s o f t e r m s w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e j u s t u s e d . I t may p o s s i b l y be t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y i s more r e s t r i c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y i n f a c t h a v e l e s s v o c a b u l a r y t o d r a w f r o m ( i . e . , l e s s a c t i v e v o c a b u l a r y ) , a l t h o u g h t h e i r a p p a r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t e a c h e r - t a l k ( a s w i l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e t e x t a n a l y s e s ) seems t o i n d i c a t e t h e y h a v e a l a r g e r p a s s i v e v o c a b u l a r y . I t m i g h t a l s o be b e c a u s e t h e y c h o o s e t o u s e a more r e s t r i c t e d r a n g e o f l a n g u a g e , o r t h a t t h e i r t a s k s do n o t r e q u i r e more c o m p l e x t e r m s . T h i s p r o b l e m o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t e a c h e r - t a l k a n d s t u d e n t - t a l k w i l l be f u r t h e r e v a l u a t e d a s t h e s e s s i o n t e x t s a r e e x a m i n e d . F o r now, i t c a n o n l y be s u g g e s t e d t h a t more r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d a t t h i s p r o b l e m i s n e e d e d t o r e s o l v e t h i s q u e s t i o n . F a c t o r s i n l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n c e s The t o p i c s b e i n g s t u d i e d r e q u i r e t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c v o c a b u l a r y be p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s . L o w - f r e q u e n c y t e r m s s u c h a s d o r s a l and a m p h i b i a n w h i c h a r e h i g h l y t o p i c - s p e c i f i c a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d we s e e t h a t d o r s a l a t l e a s t i s u s e d more o f t e n by t h e s t u d e n t s t h a n by t h e t e a c h e r s . I t seems p o s s i b l e t h e r e f o r e f o r s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n a n d e m p l o y t e r m s w h i c h n o r m a l l y a r e o f v e r y l ow f r e q u e n c y i f t h e t a s k r e q u i r e s i t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , some o f t h e C h a p t e r 3 -65-t e c h n i c a l l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s u s e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s b u t t h e s t u d e n t a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o u s e t h i s k i n d o f l a n g u a g e p r o d u c t i v e l y . B e c a u s e o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' r e d u n d a n c y i n e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d s t u d e n t s ' p o s s i b l e p r e v i o u s k n o w l e d g e , we h a v e no m e a s u r e o f t h e i r r e a l a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d a nd u s e t h e s e t e r m s . The gap b e t w e e n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e t e a c h e r a n d o f t h e s t u d e n t may i n p a r t be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i v e t a s k s , e x p l a i n i n g a p r o c e s s a n d d e v e l o p i n g a p r o d u c t , t h a t i s , t h e o r y and a c t i o n a s d e f i n e d i n t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e t e a c h e r t a l k and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l t e r m s a v a i l a b l e may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y a l i m i t e d r a n g e o f t e r m s i s r e q u i r e d , and t h a t h a d t h e t a s k b e e n more c o m p l e x , more c o m p l e x t e r m s m i g h t h a v e b e e n u s e d . T h i s c a n o n l y be s p e c u l a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t , b u t i t m i g h t be a u s e f u l s u b j e c t t o s t u d y . R e p h r a s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , one m i g h t a s k , "What f a c t o r s i n t h e t a s k a t h a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e r a n g e o f v o c a b u l a r y u s e d i n t h a t t a s k ? " T h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a c a d e m i c l a n g u a g e a nd c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , o r b e t w e e n o r a l a n d w r i t t e n s t y l e s o f l a n g u a g e i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , b u t e x a c t l y what t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i s n o t s o c e r t a i n . The p r e c i s i o n one e m p l o y s i n a c l o s e l y a r g u e d t h e o r e t i c a l p a p e r i s u s u a l l y c a s t a s i d e i n t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l C h a p t e r 3 -66-and h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e a t m o s p h e r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . The l a n g u a g e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e s s i o n s u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n i s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o r a l w h i l e t h e w r i t t e n t e x t s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d a r e b r i e f a n d s i m p l i f i e d , a n d must be e x p a n d e d on by t h e t e a c h e r s . The v o c a b u l a r y p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e e x t e r n a l d o c u m e n t s , ( d i c t i o n a r y a n d r e f e r e n c e book on f i s h ) w h i c h a r e u s e d h a s l i t t l e f o l l o w - t h r o u g h i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s , a nd i s e v e n r e j e c t e d i n one i n s t a n c e ( " I ' l l j u s t c a l l i t a worm"). The t e a c h e r s a p p e a l t o t h e s t u d e n t s t o t r y t o make t h e i r w o r k s o u n d more "grown-up" a n d " s c i e n t i f i c " b u t t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t a p p e a r t o be r e a d y t o make t h i s k i n d o f s h i f t . The w r i t t e n / o r a l c o n t r a s t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s , a s t h e i r w r i t t e n w o r k c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s t h e i r o r a l s p e e c h p a t t e r n s . The w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s p r o d u c e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r o r a l l a n g u a g e , b u t i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r t h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e y i n f a c t do n o t h a v e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l a n g u a g e a v a i l a b l e , o r w h e t h e r i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e n o t become aware o f t h e r e q u i r e d s h i f t i n r e g i s t e r . I n o r d e r t o r e s o l v e t h i s q u e s t i o n one must e x a m i n e a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e t e x t - b o o k p l a y s a much l a r g e r r o l e , a n d e x a m i n e t o what d e g r e e t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e t e x t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e s t u d e n t s . M o r e o v e r , t h e t a s k s s e t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r t h e v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s must a t t e m p t t o o p t i m i z e C h a p t e r 3 -67-r a t h e r t h a n r e s t r i c t t h e q u a l i t y o f l a n g u a g e u s e d . O t h e r f a c t o r s a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . The many d i f f e r e n t a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s s u c h a s t h o s e c i t e d by Cummins (1984) a t t e s t t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y b e t w e e n a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s L o n g (1980) a nd E a r l y (1987) show t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n l a n g u a g e s t y l e when n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s a r e members o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n g r o u p , a l t h o u g h Wesche and Ready (1985) c l a i m t h a t t e a c h e r t a l k i s n o t r a d i c a l l y c h a n g e d f o r s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . O b v i o u s l y t h i s q u e s t i o n n e e d s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A n o t h e r f a c t o r , t h e l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d , c a n n o t be t e s t e d s i n c e t h i s i s a p o s t h o c s t u d y . S i n g l e w o r d a n a l y s i s I n w o r d - f o c u s s e d a n a l y s e s , r a t h e r t h a n c o u n t i n g w o r d s o r e v e n t s , t h e t y p e o f s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d i s c o n s i d e r e d . The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h c a n be t a k e n . I n t h i s s t u d y a m a j o r d i s t i n c t i o n i s made b e t w e e n t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s a n d s t u d e n t - c o n t r o l l e d a c t i v i t i e s . T e a c h e r ( i n s t r u c t i o n a l ) s t r a t e g i e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s and i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s . The d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s i n v o l v e r e f e r e n c e s t o synonyms, p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d e f i n i t i o n s , s t r a t e g i e s b a s e d on o r t h o g r a p h i c f o r m s a nd e x p l a n a t i o n b y a n a l o g y . The i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s make u s e o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e w o r d s C h a p t e r 3 - 6 8 -a r e u s e d , w i t h l e s s e m p h a s i s on i s o l a t i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m t h e c o n t e n t . S t u d e n t ( a c q u i s i t i o n ) s t r a t e g i e s a r e n o t c a t e g o r i z e d s i n c e t h e r e a r e f e w e r o c c u r r e n c e s i n t h e d a t a . E v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y k n o w l e d g e The f i r s t t h i n g w h i c h n e e d s t o be d e t e r m i n e d i s t h e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a l r e a d y c a p a b l e o f u s i n g . Once t h i s i s known t h e n i n c i d e n t s c a n be s e l e c t e d w h i c h p r o b a b l y i n v o l v e l e a r n i n g new v o c a b u l a r y . The s t u d e n t s ' l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e c a n be j u d g e d by p r e s e n t i n g e x a m p l e s o f p r e v i o u s l y known v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e i r s p e e c h i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e s e s s i o n s , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l c a s e s i n t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h s e s s i o n s . The f i r s t s e s s i o n i s p r i m a r i l y an i n t r o d u c t o r y m e e t i n g b e t w e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r and t h e s t u d e n t s , who d i s c u s s s c h o o l a n d f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d s . I t b e i n g t h e f i r s t l e s s o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t w h a t e v e r l a n g u a g e t h e s t u d e n t s u s e h a s n o t b e e n l e a r n e d i n t h e s e s e s s i o n s . The l a n g u a g e u s e d may be d e s c r i b e d a s b a s i c c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , a s may be s e e n i n t h i s s a m p l e : (T = T e a c h e r S = S t u d e n t Ss = s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s ) S: I'm t w e l v e y e a r s o l d . T l : Y o u ' r e t w e l v e a l s o ? Y o u ' r e a b i g g i r l . S: I h a v e f o u r p e o p l e i n my f a m i l y . Y e a h , f i v e I mean, t h r e e . T 2 : And y o u j u s t g o t a new b a b y , d i d n ' t y o u ? S: Y e a h . T l : How o l d i s t h e b a b y ? S: F o u r m o n t h s o l d , b u t s h e ' s weak. C h a p t e r 3 -69-T l : I s s h e ? d o e s s h e c r y ? S: Y e a h , s h e c r i e s a l o t . Tl.- I t k e e p y o u awake? S: No. T l : B u t I b e t i t k e e p s y o u r mom awake, huh? S: Y e a h , b u t s o m e t i m e s my mom s l e e p s v e r y l a t e . S2: S h e ' s t i r e d , p r o b a b l y . S: Y e a h . T l : How many o t h e r k i d s a r e t h e r e i n y o u r f a m i l y ? S: My s i s t e r , and me and my baby s i s t e r a n d my mom's b r o t h e r l i v e s d o w n s t a i r s a nd s h e h a d , s h e h a d a b a b y t o o . And my grandma. I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e a f a i r l y g o o d g r a s p o f b a s i c o r a l E n g l i s h , a l t h o u g h upon l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r e c o r d i n g s t h e i m p r e s s i o n was g i v e n t h a t a t l e a s t one s t u d e n t h a s more t h a n a s l i g h t a c c e n t . The t h i r d s e s s i o n c o n t a i n s two i n s t a n c e s o f p r e v i o u s l y - k n o w n v o c a b u l a r y . I t s t a r t s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s s o r t i n g t o y c a r s b y t h e number o f w i n d o w s , by t y p e o f bumper and by number o f d o o r s . T h e n t h e y b e g i n an a s s i g n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y d r a w a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a t a x o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . One o f t h e s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e s p r e v i o u s l y - l e a r n e d v o c a b u l a r y ; a n d l a t e r t h e s t u d e n t s u s e t h e i r own p h r a s e r a t h e r t h a n one p r e s e n t e d by t h e t e a c h e r . T: What w e ' r e g o i n g t o do i s w e ' r e g o i n g t o t r y t o d r a w a p i c t u r e t h a t w o u l d show somebody e l s e how t h e y c o u l d d i v i d e t h e c a r s up. So a t t h e t o p o f t h e page I ' d l i k e y o u t o w r i t e t h e w o r d c a r s . . . C a r s a t t h e t o p and t h e n w e ' r e g o i n g t o w r i t e a l l t h e w a y s , a l l t h e c o l o r s , r e d . . . We're g o i n g t o d r a w l i n e s . . . A t t h e t o p w h e r e we p u t c a r s , I t h i n k we n e e d a n o t h e r w o r d up t h e r e b e c a u s e t h e s e a r e n ' t a l l c a r s , some o f them a r e t r u c k s . What w o u l d be a w o r d t h a t w o u l d d e s c r i b e . S: V e h i c l e ? C h a p t e r 3 - 7 0 -T: V e h i c l e s , g o o d f o r y o u . You remember t h a t w o r d b e c a u s e we d i d i t l a s t y e a r , d i d n ' t we?... Now what w e ' r e g o i n g t o do i s w e ' r e g o i n g t o t a k e one c o l o r o f c a r s , and I c h o s e r e d b e c a u s e we h a v e t h e most r e d c a r s . And w e ' r e g o i n g t o d i v i d e i t down a g a i n . . . And we c a n d i v i d e r e d c a r s i n t o c a r s and t r u c k s . So y o u p u t c a r s and t r u c k s u n d e r n e a t h r e d and d r a w a l i n e j u s t l i k e y o u d i d w i t h v e h i c l e s . . . OK now how a r e we g o i n g t o d i v i d e t h e s e c a r s b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e a l l r a c e c a r s ? I t h i n k , b u t t h i s i s a s p e c i a l k i n d o f r a c e c a r , t h i s one i s c a l l e d a c r a s h - u p c a r and a l o t o f p e o p l e h a v e b e e n t e l l i n g me t o d a y s o w e ' r e g o i n g t o s e p a r a t e t h e s e i n t o , w hat d i d we c a l l t h e s e ? S: Race c a r s ? T l : C r a s h c a r s and r e g u l a r c a r s ? R e g u l a r i s a h a r d w o r d , i s n ' t i t ? Why d o n ' t we j u s t p u t c a r s and c r a s h - u p  c a r s ? S: C r a s h c a r s and c a r s . T l : C r a s h c a r s and r a c e c a r s , s h a l l we do t h a t ? T2: Do y o u know, do y o u know a b o u t c a r s ? What do y o u c a l l t h o s e o t h e r c a r s ? T l W h a t c a n , d i d we s e p a r a t e i n t o r a c e c a r s and c r a s h - u p c a r s , s o u n d e r c a r s w e ' r e g o i n g t o p u t two l i n e s c o m i n g o u t o f c a r s j u s t l i k e we p u t two l i n e s c o m i n g o u t o f t r u c k s and w e ' r e g o i n g t o p u t c a r s and c r a s h - u p c a r s . T2.- Race c a r s and c r a s h - u p c a r s . T l : D on't w o r r y a b o u t t h e s p e l l i n g , w e ' r e n o t g o i n g t o c h e c k on s p e l l i n g s o l o n g a s y o u know what i t s a y s , i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r . S: C r a s h c a r s and. T l : C r a s h c a r s and r a c e c a r s . A l l r i g h t , I t h i n k w e ' l l p r o b a b l y s t o p h e r e , we c a n p r o b a b l y t h i n k o f some o t h e r ways o f d i v i d i n g them up b u t I t h i n k t h a t ' s e n o u g h . A l l r i g h t t h a t g i v e s y o u an i d e a o f how we c a n d i v i d e up v e h i c l e s . S t a r t w i t h v e h i c l e s and we go t o c a r s o r t r u c k s and u n d e r t r u c k s we c a n h a v e f o u r w h e e l d r i v e o r two w h e e l d r i v e . U n d e r c a r s we c a n h a v e c r a s h - u p c a r s o r r a c e c a r s , t h a t ' s j u s t w i t h t h e c a r s we h a v e h e r e . We h a v e l o t s o f o t h e r c a r s we c o u l d a d d i f we w e re u s i n g a l l t h e c a r s i n t h e w o r l d o r a l l t h e v e h i c l e s i n t h e w o r l d . I n d e v e l o p i n g a t axonomy i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o h a v e l a b e l s f o r e a c h o f t h e l e v e l s ; t h e s e t e r m s n e e d t o be l e a r n e d i f t h e y a r e n o t a l r e a d y known b e c a u s e w i t h o u t them one c a n n o t d i s c u s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h u s t h e r e i s some v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h we c a n C h a p t e r 3 - 7 1 -p r o p o s e a s e s s e n t i a l and o b s e r v e w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e i t . One s t u d e n t p r o v i d e s t h e t e r m w h i c h i s s u p e r o r d i n a t e t o c a r s and t r u c k s ( v e h i c l e s ) w h i c h i s a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t a n y q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s , s o we may s u r m i s e t h a t i t i s a t l e a s t p a s s i v e l y f a m i l i a r t o them a s w e l l . We c a n o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y i n f e r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h most o f t h e o t h e r t e r m s w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e u s e d . E x c e p t f o r t h e t e r m v e h i c l e , a l l o f t h e t e r m s a r e s u p p l i e d by t h e t e a c h e r . I n one c a s e , t h e s t u d e n t s r e j e c t t h e p r o - o f f e r e d t e r m , c r a s h - u p c a r s , w h i c h i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' comments i s r e p l a c e d by c r a s h c a r s . The s t u d e n t s r e j e c t c r a s h - u p c a r s , w h i c h a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h e t e a c h e r w i t h a d i f f e r e n t g r o u p e a r l i e r t h a t d a y ( r e c o r d e d on a d i f f e r e n t t a p e ) , i n f a v o r o f c r a s h c a r s . T h i s r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f what s t i m u l i o r c r i t e r i a a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o a c q u i r e new t e r m s . I t seems t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s u s e o f c r a s h - u p d o e s n o t meet t h e s e c r i t e r i a , e v e n t h o u g h s h e u s e s i t a t l e a s t f i v e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e l e s s o n . T h e r e i s c l e a r l y a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e i n p u t and l a n g u a g e o u t p u t . I t c a n be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t more t h a n f r e q u e n c y o f u s e i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o l e a r n v o c a b u l a r y , b u t i t i s u n c l e a r what t h e i n t e r v e n i n g f a c t o r s m i g h t be. I n s e s s i o n f i v e , a t l e a s t one o f t h e s t u d e n t s a p p e a r s t o C h a p t e r 3 -72-h a v e some p r e v i o u s k n o w l e d g e b e c a u s e h e / s h e i s a b l e t o v o l u n t e e r i n f o r m a t i o n : T: Do y o u know what s o r t o f f a m i l y o f a n i m a l s we b e l o n g t o ? S: MammaIs. Th e y a l s o c a n o f f e r r e p t i l e a n d c l a i m t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t e r m a m p h i b i a n . T h i s i s an e x a m p l e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a c t i v e a nd p a s s i v e v o c a b u l a r y . I n t h e s e c o n d c a s e i t i s n o t r e a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y do h a v e t h i s t e r m i n t h e i r l e x i c o n . T2: V e r t e b r a t e a n i m a l s . Now o v e r h e r e , t h e r e ' s t h r e e k i n d s o f c o l d - b l o o d e d v e r t e b r a t e s . S: R e p t i l e s . T2: Too much! What's t h e o t h e r k i n d ? 5: T i g e r s ? T2: No t h e y ' r e . . . S: F i s h . T2: Now t h i s o n e ' s h a r d . T l : I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y ' l l know t h i s one. S: O c t o p u s ? T l : Does i t s t a r t w i t h an a? T2: Y e a h , I ' l l t e l l y o u b e c a u s e I d o n ' t know i f y o u ' l l g e t i t . I t ' s c a l l e d a m p h i b i a n . Tl.- Have y o u h e a r d o f t h a t b e f o r e ? S: Y e a h . Y e a h . T2: And i t ' s s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n l i v e on t h e w a t e r o r i n t h e w a t e r o r on l a n d . A f t e r t h e t e r m a m p h i b i a n i s p r e s e n t e d a d e f i n i t i o n i s g i v e n , b u t n o t a f t e r r e p t i l e . I t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r f e e l s t h a t t h e y do know r e p t i l e s i n c e t h e y u s e d t h e t e r m f i r s t , w h i l e t h e y h a v e n o t r e a l l y g i v e n a n y p r o o f t h a t t h e y know what a m p h i b i a n means. The n e x t t e r m p r e s e n t e d i s e v i d e n t l y u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e C h a p t e r 3 - 7 3 -s t u d e n t s . T2.- What do t h e s e g u y s b r e a t h e w i t h ? S: L u n g s . T2: L u n g s . How do b i r d s b r e a t h e ? No, t h e y h a v e l u n g s t o o . And t h e s e g u y s h a v e l u n g s t o o . What do t h e s e g u y s h a v e ? t o b r e a t h e ? You do i t h e r e . Y o u know what t h e s e a r e c a l l e d , on t h e s i d e o f a f i s h ? B e g i n s w i t h a g. S: F i n s ? T l : Open on t h e s i d e s o f t h e i r f a c e s ? T2: OK, y o u ' r e g o i n g t o l e a r n t h i s . Tl.- K i n d e r g a r t e n e r s a r e , c a u s e t h e y know. T2: G i l l s . S: G i l l s . T2.- And t h e s e g u y s h a v e b o t h . ( r e f e r r i n g t o a m p h i b i a n s ) S: L u n g s a n d g i l l s . T l : T h ey d o n ' t a l w a y s h a v e b o t h w o r k i n g a t t h e same t i m e . I n t h i s c a s e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a s k e d i f t h e y know t h e t e r m f o r s o m e t h i n g t h e y s e e i n a p i c t u r e ; t h e i r r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y d o n ' t . The t e a c h e r s r e p e a t t h e t e r m , b u t i t i s n o t d e f i n e d , o t h e r t h a n by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r e c e d i n g comment " t h e s e a r e c a l l e d , on t h e s i d e o f a f i s h " . We h a v e s e e n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f l e x i c a l knowledge.-none, p a s s i v e and a c t i v e , a s r e p r e s e n t e d by g i l l s , a m p h i b i a n a n d r e p t i l e . S e s s i o n s i x s t a r t s o f f w i t h t h e c l a s s l o o k i n g a t a d e a d g o l d f i s h ; d i s c u s s i o n l e a d s t o t h e u s e o f decompose.-S: What's t h a t ? T2: B e c a u s e i t ' s s t a r t i n g t o decompose. Do y o u know what t h a t means? S I : Y e a h , r o t t e n . T2: He's s t a r t i n g t o r o t . S2: Oh, r o t . T l : R o t . C h a p t e r 3 -74-T 2 : Rot. He's going bad. he's been f l o a t i n g in the aquarium a l l weekend. And who knows when he died? It would appear that one of the students knows the term because she can o f f e r a synonym, while another appears to be unfamiliar with i t and echoes the teacher's term, rot. It would be reasonable to conclude that the students' vocabularies are at d i f f e r e n t levels, although they a l l have a f a i r amount of passive vocabulary, as i l l u s t r a t e d with amphibian. We s h a l l see that there are other terms, unknown to any of the students, which the teachers must expend considerable e f f o r t to teach. Instructional strategies by teachers Having considered the level of vocabulary which the students bring to the class, we w i l l now examine the various strategies which the teachers use to present new vocabulary. It w i l l be shown that some strategies are more successful than others. Direct Approaches There are two basic ways to introduce vocabulary; d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . It i s important to understand t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n because i t w i l l be c r i t i c a l to some of the conclusions which w i l l be drawn late r . In the t h i r d session i t was seen that the teacher uses a lot of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n terminology without Chapter 3 -75-explaining the terms, which suggests that the students either already know the terms, or are expected to understand them from the context. This would be considered an i n d i r e c t approach. The alternate, d i r e c t , method of presenting vocabulary i s by presenting a word with i t s d e f i n i t i o n s and other si m i l a r word-focussed strategies. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s between a d i r e c t approach which teaches terms in i s o l a t i o n as in a word l i s t or concentrates on some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the word i t s e l f and an indire c t approach which presents the word as a functioning unit of language. We w i l l f i r s t examine the d i r e c t approach; the indire c t approach w i l l be considered later , and w i l l be shown generally to have an apparently higher success rate in helping students learn new vocabulary. Synonyms We have already seen that the attempt to introduce crash-up cars was unsuccessful. There seems to have been a v i s i b l e difference between race cars and crash-up cars, although i t i s never verbally explained. The teacher uses crash-up cars and the students respond with crash cars, which the teacher does not correct. We can in f e r from t h i s that these are acceptable synonyms, determined only by personal preference. We w i l l examine the other instances where synonyms are used to introduce new vocabulary. Chapter 3 - 7 6 -The t e a c h e r b e g i n s t h e f o u r t h s e s s i o n by t a l k i n g a b o u t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : T: T o d a y b e f o r e we d i d , one o t h e r t h i n g i s , i f y o u u n d e r s t a n d why a n y b o d y w o u l d b o t h e r t o p u t t h i n g s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . Y o u g u y s a r e s i t t i n g h e r e a n d y o u ' r e p u t t i n g t h i n g s i n t o g r o u p s a nd p u t t i n g them i n t o c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e n I t h o u g h t , " I w o n d e r i f t h e y u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y do t h a t , why i s i t a g o o d i d e a . Why b o t h e r ? Why n o t j u s t l e a v e ? " a n d I b r o u g h t t h e c a r s t o t r y a n d r e m i n d y o u . Why, why n o t j u s t l e a v e t hem a l l , a l l o v e r t h e p l a c e ? S: T h e n y o u d o n ' t know what y o u d i d b e f o r e . L i k e w h i c h o n e s , l i k e what k i n d . T: OK, s o w o u l d , s o w h a t , why b o t h e r , why w o u l d y o u p u t , why w o u l d y o u p u t a n y t h i n g a t a l l i n t o g r o u p s o r c a t e g o r i e s ? Why w o u l d y o u do i t ? S: So y o u c o u l d make i t e a s i e r ? T: E a s i e r t o w h a t ? S ee, y o u ' r e j u s t s i t t i n g h e r e a nd y o u ' r e p u t t i n g e v e r y t h i n g i n c a t e g o r i e s , and I w o n d e r , c a n we u n d e r s t a n d why? I t ' s a t o u g h q u e s t i o n , I t h i n k y o u know, I'm j u s t t r y i n g t o h e l p y o u f i n d a way t o t e l l me. L e t ' s l o o k a t some o f t h e t h i n g s y o u p u t i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . Y o u p u t , what d i d y o u p u t i n c a t e g o r i e s ? I f o r g e t . The t e a c h e r u s e s g r o u p s a nd c a t e g o r i e s i n p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e s , w i t h o u t e x p l a i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n m e a n i n g b e t w e e n t h e two. (A c a t e g o r y i m p l i e s a common f e a t u r e w h i l e a g r o u p may be u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . ) A few m i n u t e s l a t e r c a t e g o r i e s i s u s e d a g a i n w i t h g r o u p , a n d t h e v e r b f o r m c a t e g o r i z e w i t h c l a s s i f y : T: I n e v e r y d a y l i f e we c l a s s i f y t h i n g s , we c a t e g o r i z e t h i n g s , we p u t them i n t o g r o u p s a n d i t makes i t e a s i e r t o . . . S: F i n d . (...) T: Remember, we j u s t made a l i s t o f t h i n g s , b u t t h e n a f t e r w a r d s we f i g u r e d i t w o u l d be b e t t e r i f we made a g r o u p (...) and t h a t was one way o f o r g a n i z i n g t h i n g s (...) b u t t h e r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h i n g a b o u t c l a s s i f y i n g a n d c a t e g o r i z i n g i s t h a t y o u g e t t h e i d e a o f t h e r i g h t g r o u p s t o p u t t h i n g s i n . (...) What I want y o u t o do i s , e a c h one o f y o u t o t r y t o t e l l me a b o u t y o u r c a t e g o r i e s , y o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . (...) C h a p t e r 3 -77-What y o u ' v e done i s y o u ' v e j u s t l i s t e d t h e s p o r t s . What w o u l d be b e t t e r i s t o f i n d one way t h a t y o u c o u l d o r g a n i z e them, c a u s e now y o u ' v e j u s t g o t a b i g l i s t . I t ' s n o t r e a l l y o r g a n i z e d , s o y o u ' v e g o t t o f i n d a way t o g r o u p them and o r g a n i z e them. The s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o a c c e p t t h e s e t e r m s a s b e i n g synonymous a n d s e l e c t t h e s i m p l e r f o r m , s i n c e t h e y u s e t h e t e r m g r o u p l a t e r o n , b u t n e v e r t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e r m s c a t e g o r y , c a t e g o r i z e , o r g a n i z e o r c l a s s i f y . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t f r o m t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s among t h e t e r m s . I n s e s s i o n f i v e t h e s t u d e n t s r e v i e w p r e v i o u s w o r k where t h e y l o o k e d a t a taxonomy ( F i g u r e 8 ) . F i g u r e 8: A t a x o n o m y e v e r y t h i n g I i i i l i v i n g n o n - l i v i n g i i i i a n i m a l s p l a n t s i i t i i i w i l d l i f e f a r m a n i m a l s p e t s One o f t h e s t u d e n t s d o e s n o t remember one o f t h e p r o p e r t e r m s . and t h e t e a c h e r c o r r e c t s : T: A n i m a l s . And t h e n , what was a f t e r t h a t ? S: W i l d a n i m a l s . T: OK, I t h i n k i t was w i l d l i f e . Remember? T h a t ' s c l o s e and t h e n ? S: F a r m a n i m a l s . F a r m a n i m a l a n d p e t s . The t e a c h e r ' s " T h a t ' s c l o s e " s u g g e s t s t h a t w i l d a n i m a l s a n d w i l d l i f e a r e a c c e p t a b l e synonyms. The s t u d e n t s may l e a r n f r o m C h a p t e r 3 - 7 8 -t h i s t h a t t e r m s do n o t n e e d t o be l e a r n e d e x a c t l y , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f n o n - v e r t e b r a t e s w h i c h f o l l o w s s h o r t l y . The s c i e n t i f i c ( L i n n a e a n ) s y s t e m i s i n t r o d u c e d : v e r t e b r a t e / i n v e r t e b r a t e ; c o l d / warm b l o o d e d ; mammal / b i r d , e t c . The t e a c h e r a p p e a r s u n c e r t a i n a b o u t one t e r m a n d i s c o r r e c t e d by t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r : T2: T h e r e ' s a n o t h e r way t o d i v i d e up a n i m a l s , I j u s t t h o u g h t I ' d s h a r e t h i s w i t h y o u t o d a y . T h e r e a r e , I d o n ' t know e v e n i f I c a n s p e l l i t : v e r t e b r a t e s . T l : Yep, y o u g o t i t . T2 : And n o n - v e r t e b r a t e s . T l : A r e n ' t t h e y i n v e r t e b r a t e s ? T2: See, t e a c h e r s d o n ' t know e v e r y t h i n g . T l : I t h i n k . T2: W e l l e i t h e r way, OK. M r s . H. knows what t h e s e a r e b e t t e r t h a n I do. The d i s t i n c t i o n n e e d s t o be made b e t w e e n p o s s i b l e synonyms s u c h a s w i l d a n i m a l s and w i l d l i f e a n d u n a c c e p t a b l e t e r m s s u c h a s n o n - v e r t e b r a t e . N o n - v e r t e b r a t e i s n o t a synonym f o r i n v e r t e b r a t e b u t r a t h e r a n o n - s e l e c t e d m o r p h o l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y , a k i n t o an e x a m p l e i n a P e a n u t s c a r t o o n s t r i p ( r e p r i n t e d i n F r o m k i n and Rodman 1978:144) w h e r e L u c y p o n d e r s t h e a n t o n y m o f o b v i o u s , t e s t i n g t h e v a r i o u s n e g a t i v e p r e f i x e s d i s - , u n - , i n - , a n t i - , non-, e t c . I n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n s i t w i l l be shown t h a t m o s t c o r r e c t i o n s o c c u r when l e x i c a l r a t h e r t h a n g r a m m a t i c a l e r r o r s a r e made, a n d t h a t t h e r e f o r e t h e n o n - v e r t e b r a t e e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n i s a t y p i c a l . C h a p t e r 3 - 7 9 -As t h e l e s s o n c o n t i n u e s , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o r e a d t h e f o l l o w i n g : " F i s h r e p r o d u c e i n two b a s i c ways. Some s p e c i e s b e a r t h e i r y o u n g a l i v e a n d a r e c a l l e d l i v e - b e a r e r s , a n d some f i s h l a y e g g s . " The t e a c h e r r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t u n d e r s t a n d s p e c i e s , a n d r e s t a t e s t h e s e n t e n c e a nd t h e n e l a b o r a t e s : Tl.- S p e c i e s , what d o e s t h a t mean? S: Make s m a l l b a b i e s ? T l : L e t ' s r e a d t h i s , l e t me r e a d t h e s e n t e n c e f o r y o u and y o u a l l t h i n k a n d s e e i f y o u c a n t h i n k o f a w o r d t h a t y o u c o u l d p u t i n t h e r e i n s t e a d o f s p e c i e s . "Some s p e c i e s b e a r t h e i r y o u n g a l i v e . T h e y a r e c a l l e d l i v e - b e a r e r s a n d some f i s h l a y e g g s . " Some s p e c i e s o f w h a t , f i r s t o f a l l ? S: B e a r e r . T l : OK, o b v i o u s l y y o u d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d what t h i s w o r d r e a l l y means a t a l l . I f I s a i d , "Some k i n d s o f f i s h b e a r t h e i r y o u n g a l i v e a n d a r e c a l l e d l i v e - b e a r e r s a n d some k i n d s o f f i s h l a y e g g s " , t h a t ' s e x a c t l y what i t ' s s a y i n g . S p e c i e s i s a, what t h e y c a l l a g r o u p name t h a t h a s some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e same. T 2 : So y o u t a l k a b o u t e v e r y , h a v e y o u s e e n t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f monkeys? OK, o r y o u ' d s a y t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f monkeys. Some t h a t h a v e t a i l s , some t h a t h a v e no t a i l s , some t h a t a r e o r a n g e , some t h a t a r e b l a c k a n d w h i t e . T h e y ' r e a l l m onkeys, b u t t h e y ' r e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f monkeys, d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f monkeys. Tl.- So t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f f i s h . T h e r e a r e g o l d f i s h , a n d t h e r e a r e p i r a n h a s a n d t h e r e a r e , y o u know, h u n d r e d s a nd t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r k i n d s o f f i s h . T h e y ' r e a l l d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s a n d a l l t h e o n e s t h a t a r e i n a c e r t a i n s p e c i e s w i l l h a v e t h i n g s i n common. OK, d o e s t h a t make i t a l i t t l e c l e a r e r ? A f t e r t h e y h a v e c i t e d e x a m p l e s o f s p e c i e s , t h e t e a c h e r s comment a b o u t s p e c i e s : T l : Y ou s e e t h a t w o r d a l o t i n s c i e n c e . I t j u s t means k i n d s o r g r o u p s b u t t h e y s a y s p e c i e s a n d when t h e y a r e t a l k i n g i n s c i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n b i o l o g y , t h e y s a y t h a t . T2.- Y o u n o t i c e t h a t a l o t i n s c i e n c e . T hey u s e f a n c y C h a p t e r 3 -80-w o r d s f o r t h i n g s t h e y c a n p r o b a b l y u s e s i m p l e w o r d s f o r , j u s t t o s o u n d s c i e n t i f i c . D e s p i t e t h e e l a b o r a t e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g o f s p e c i e s , t h e s t u d e n t s n e v e r u s e t h i s w o r d . I n s e s s i o n s i x , t h e s t u d e n t s l e a r n t h e p a r t s o f a f i s h , l o o k i n g a t a p i c t u r e w i t h t h e names o f t h e p a r t s w r i t t e n a t t h e b o t t o m : T2: T h i s i s a p i c t u r e o f o u r f i s h . T l : Good a r t , huh? T2: I h a v e t h e names o f t e n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e f i s h , and t h e s e a r e p a r t s t h a t I want y o u t o l e a r n . I'm g o i n g t o t e a c h y o u a way t h a t y o u c a n s t u d y t h e s e w o r d s , s o t h a t h o p e f u l l y y o u ' l l be a b l e t o l e a r n them a l l . I'm g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t t h e o n e s f i r s t o f a l l t h a t I t h i n k y o u p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y know and t h e n t h e o n e s I e v e n h a d t o l o o k up i n t h e book a f t e r . I h a d a h a r d t i m e , b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t w r i t e down t h e a n s w e r s . T h e n t h e t e a c h e r g o e s o v e r t h e t e r m s : mouth, e v e s , n o s t r i I s , s c a l e s , g i l l s , w i t h a s p e c i a l comment a b o u t n o s t r i l s . -T2: You p r o b a b l y know t h i s one. S: N o s t r i l s . T2: What's a n o t h e r w o r d f o r n o s t r i l s ? S: Nose. T2: N o s e , OK. A f i s h r e a l l y d o e s n ' t h a v e a n o s e , b u t a l o t o f f i s h do h a v e a n o s t r i l on t h e t o p o f t h e i r , w h e r e t h e i r n o s e w o u l d be. N o t e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t g i v e n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n n o s t r i 1 and n o s e . T h i s l e a d s t o c o n f u s i o n , a n d t h e w o r d i s b r o u g h t up a g a i n i n t h e s e v e n t h s e s s i o n : T l : What a r e t h e n o s t r i l s f o r on a f i s h , M r s . H. ? We d i d n ' t know. T2: You h a d t o a s k me t h a t d i d n ' t y o u ? I h a v e a b s o l u t e l y no i d e a ! T l : No. I d i d n ' t know e i t h e r . I t h o u g h t I was t h e o n l y one. Maybe I ' l l l o o k i t up i n a book. C h a p t e r 3 - 8 1 -T2: P e r h a p s , t h e y h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e l e t t i n g t h e a i r o u t . A i r p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e g i l l s t o come i n t o t h e f i s h a n d t h e n t h e a i r g o e s o u t I g u e s s . I d o n ' t know. The s t u d e n t s a r e n o t g i v e n an a n s w e r , and t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a g a i n : S: L e t ' s s e e . A f i s h h a s a no, a n o s t r i l w h i c h he n e e d s t o b r e a t h e t h r o u g h t h e l u n g s . Tl.- Do t h e y u s e them t o b r e a t h e ? The n o s t r i l s ? S: No, n o t r e a l l y . T l : I'm n o t s u r e r e a l l y what t h e y what t h e y u s e t h e i r n o s t r i l f o r b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e n o t r e a l l y , t h e y d o n ' t h a v e n o s e s l i k e we do. And w h e r e do f i s h b r e a t h e ? S: T h r o u g h t h e i r g i l l c o v e r . T l : T h r o u g h t h e i r g i l l c o v e r s . R i g h t . So, i n h e r e . I'm n o t q u i t e s u r e what t h e y , i t must h a v e a p u r p o s e , b u t I'm n o t s u r e r e a l l y what i t i s . Anyway, we d i d a s e n t e n c e w i t h n o s t r i 1 . L e t ' s j u s t s e e i f we c a n t h i n k o f a n o t h e r one. Do y o u h a v e a n o t h e r s e n t e n c e ? The e x p l a n a t i o n d o e s n o t seem c l e a r y e t t h e t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e s on w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s t o p i c . N e a r t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n one o f t h e s t u d e n t s i s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n a b o u t i t s m e a n i n g : S: What i s f o r t h e , what d o e s a n o s t r i l mean? T l : N o s t r i l ? S: Y e a h . Tl.- I t ' s , y o u know how we h a v e o u r n o s e a n d we g o t two h o l e s i n o u r n o s e , r i g h t ? T h a t ' s y o u r n o s t r i l , t h i s p a r t , t h e h o l e . Now, a f i s h d o e s n ' t h a v e a n o s e , s o i t ' s g o t i t s h e a d , r i g h t ? I m a g i n e i f my n o s e was c h o p p e d o f f and I j u s t h a d two h o l e s r i g h t i n my. S: My h e r e . T l : R i g h t h e r e . T h o s e w o u l d be my, t h a t ' s t h e f i s h ' s n o s t r i I s . S: I t h a s l i t t l e , t e e n y s t u f f h e r e . Tl.- What I'm t r y i n g t o l o o k up, what we d o n ' t know, I'm s o r r y t o t e l l y o u , i s what u s e t h e y a r e t o t h e f i s h b e c a u s e s e e , o f u s , we c a n b r e a t h e t h r o u g h t h e , r i g h t ? I mean i f I , s o t h e y ' r e u s e f u l f o r , f o r a l l k i n d s o f t h i n g s f o r u s . S: We h a v e t o b r e a t h e i n . T l : R i g h t , y e a h . And t h a t ' s why s o m e t i m e s i f y o u ' v e g o t a c o l d a n d y o u u s e , y o u u s e i t a b i t t o make i t s p a r t o f t h e t h i n g t h a t makes s o u n d , s o i t ' s v e r y u s e f u l C h a p t e r 3 - 8 2 -f o r u s , o u r n o s t r i l s . I'm s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g t o f i n d w h a t , w h a t . T2: we may h a v e t o l o o k i n a v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d b ook t o f i n d t h a t o u t , I'm a f r a i d . The t e r m n o s t r i 1 h a d b e e n u s e d a t l e a s t t w e l v e t i m e s i n t h i s s e s s i o n , by b o t h t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s , s o i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t who a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n h a d u s e d t h e t e r m , a l b e i t w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t . What p r o m p t e d t h e s t u d e n t t o a s k t h e q u e s t i o n a t t h i s t i m e i s n o t c l e a r . The s t u d e n t s h a d be e n w o r k i n g on t h e i r own w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e s j u s t b e f o r e t h i s . I t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t was t h i s "open t i m e " w h i c h p e r m i t t e d t h e s t u d e n t t o r e f l e c t on h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y , a s w e l l a s t o n o m i n a t e a t o p i c w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o i n t e r r u p t . I w o u l d l i k e t o s u b m i t t h a t i t may be n e c e s s a r y f o r s t u d e n t s t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h t h i s k i n d o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o i m p r o v e t h e i r l a n g u a g e s k i l l s , a l t h o u g h a g a i n , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e i t s a c t u a l i m p o r t a n c e . A n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f synonomy i s an o f f - t o p i c comment: T2.- P e o p l e e a t f i s h e g g s t o o , y o u know. T l : B u t t h e y d o n ' t c a l l i t f i s h e g g s , t h e y c a l l i t c a v i a r t o make i t s o u n d n i c e . A g a i n , t h e s t u d e n t s n e v e r u s e t h e more c o m p l e x t e r m . The p r o p e r names f o r t h e s t a g e s o f f i s h d e v e l o p m e n t come up f o r d i s c u s s i o n s e v e r a l t i m e s , s t a r t i n g n e a r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s e s s i o n e l e v e n . One s t u d e n t u s e s t h e t e r m worm, and p e r s i s t s i n u s i n g i t , e v e n a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t t o p r e s e n t t h e C h a p t e r 3 - 8 3 -a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m i n o l o g y : S.- And t h e n d a y t h r e e t h e f i s h i s g r o w i n g b i g g e r . T l : Does i t l o o k l i k e a f i s h y e t ? S: The e g g i s g r o w i n g . S: Oh, t h e worm i s g e t t i n g T l : I t l o o k s l i k e a worm, d o e s n ' t i t , b u t i t ' s n o t r e a l l y a worm. S: I t ' s a f i s h . S: I j u s t c a l l i t a worm. The worm i s g e t t i n g b i g g e r . The d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e s , w i t h o u t f u r t h e r c o r r e c t i o n , s i n c e t h e c l a s s seems t o be o f f e r i n g c o m p a r i s o n s , r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g p r e c i s e t e r m i n o l o g y : T2: how w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e what i t l o o k s l i k e i n s i d e ? S: A e g g . T2: W e l l , w h a t ' s how d o e s i t l o o k l i k e i n s i d e t h e egg? S: A worm. T2: T i n y , l i t t l e , t i n y l i t t l e . S: A d o t . T2.- B aby f i s h , i t ' s l i k e a l i t t l e l i n e o r s o m e t h i n g . s o l i k e a l i t t l e h a i r o r l i n e , s o s m a l l . i t ' s j u s t a t i n y l i t t l e l e s s t h a n a worm. T l : You c a n s e e t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i s h . T2: The f i r s t d a y y o u c a n s e e t h e . S: L i n e ? y e a h . T2: T i n y l i n e , t h a t ' s t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i s h . A p p r o a c h i n g t h e end o f t h e l e s s o n , t h e s t u d e n t h a s n o t y e t a c q u i r e d t h e p r o p e r t e r m : S: S h a l l I c a l l a l l t h e s e t h i n g s worm? T2: No, t h e y ' r e n o t r e a l l y worms. You know what w o u l d be t h e p r o p e r name? Tl.- T h e y ' r e c a l l e d l a r v a . T2: Oh, l a r v a e . T l : Want me t o t e l l y o u how t o s p e l l t h a t ? S: Y e a h T l : L . a . . . r . v . a . S: How do y o u s p e l l l a r v a ? T2: You know, t h a t ' s what t h o s e l i t t l e g u y s a r e . S: L a r v a s . C h a p t e r 3 - 8 4 -T2: We 11 . T l : What's t h e p l u r a l ? l a r v l ? T2: You ne e d an a and an e, I t h i n k . What t h i n g s h a v e e m b r y o s ? S: What? Tl.- I t h i n k p e o p l e , e g g s , c h i c k e n s . S: An egg? T 2 : C h i c k e n s , y e a h . S: C h i c k e n s . Tl.- E m b r y o s . T 2 : What e l s e h a s l a r v a e ? Do y o u know? T l : I n s e c t s , I'm p r e t t y s u r e t h e y ' r e l a r v a e . I ' l l l o o k i t up and s e e , j u s t t o make s u r e h e r e . T2: I'm n o t q u e s t i o n i n g y o u , i t ' s j u s t t h a t I h a v e no i d e a . Tl.- I j u s t , t h a t ' s t h e w o r d I j u s t t h o u g h t o f , I h a v e n ' t e v e n c h e c k e d t h a t t o be h o n e s t . (...) (The t e a c h e r l o o k s i n a boo k ) T l : "When f i s h h a t c h , t h e y ' r e c a l l e d l a r v a e . " I t d o e s n ' t s a y what t h e y ' r e c a l l e d b e f o r e t h a t s o w e ' l l j u s t c a l l them l a r v a e . The book w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r c o n s u l t s seems t o c o n t r a d i c t what t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e b e e n t e l l i n g t h e s t u d e n t s : a f t e r a f i s h i s h a t c h e d , i s i t a f r y o r a l a r v a ? B e f o r e i t i s h a t c h e d , i s i t a l a r v a o r an embryo? The t e r m embryo i s n e v e r e x p l a i n e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s t u d e n t s . ( B e f o r e t h e y h a t c h , t h e y a r e e m b r y o s ; a f t e r t h e y a r e h a t c h e d t h e y a r e 1 a r v a e o r f r y , t h e l a t t e r t e r m e x t e n d i n g t o any s m a l l f i s h . ) The t o p i c i s c o n t i n u e d i n t h e n e x t s e s s i o n . Tl.- I t ' s j u s t t h e t i n y b e g i n n i n g s o f a f i s h , a n d i t l o o k s l i k e a l i t t l e l i n e . OK? s o what d i d y o u s a y f o r y o u r s e c o n d d a y ? S: Two d a y s l a t e r , i t s t a r t s t o grow. Tl . - OK, w e l l , i t ' s i t ' s a l w a y s g r o w i n g , b u t w h a t d o e s i t l o o k l i k e two d a y s l a t e r ? S: A worm? a worm. T l : OK, i t ' s b e g i n n i n g t o l o o k l i k e a a worm, what d i d y o u s a y f o r y o u r s e c o n d d a y ? C h a p t e r 3 -85-S: On t h e s e c o n d d a y , t h e f i s h g e t s a l i t t l e b i g g e r . I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e u s i n g worm a s a c o m p a r i s o n t e r m , b u t a l s o a s a s i m p l e r s u b s t i t u t e f o r l a r v a . The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t o be d r a w n i s t h a t p r e s e n t i n g synonyms i s n o t a n e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o s e l e c t t h e s i m p l e r f o r m , e v e n t h o u g h t h e more c o m p l e x t e r m may be more a p p r o p r i a t e . D e f i n i t i o n s We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e r e a r e p r o b l e m s w i t h u s i n g synonyms t o e x p l a i n w o r d s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , w o r d s may be d e f i n e d , t h a t i s , t h e i r m e a n i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i f f e r e n t f o r m a t s . Synonyms a r e a l w a y s i n t h e same g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s ; t h e y o f f e r a noun f o r a noun o r a v e r b f o r a v e r b . On t h e o t h e r h a n d d e f i n i t i o n s p r e s e n t e q u i v a l e n t p h r a s e s o r c l a u s e s a s l o n g e r e x p l a n a t i o n s . We s h a l l e x a m i n e some e x a m p l e s o f t h i s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r g i v i n g d e f i n i t i o n s i s an e f f e c t i v e v o c a b u l a r y - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y . I n t h e s e s s i o n i n t r o d u c i n g v e r t e b r a t e , t h e t e a c h e r s w r i t e t h e w o r d on t h e b o a r d and f o l l o w t h e e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n : T2: M r s . H. knows what t h e s e a r e b e t t e r t h a n I do. Do y o u know, do y o u remember a g o o d d e f i n i t i o n ? T l : W e l l , v e r t e b r a t e s a r e a n i m a l s t h a t h a v e a b a c k b o n e . T2.- OK t h a t ' s t h a t ' s t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e . Some a n i m a l s h a v e a b a c k b o n e and some d o n ' t . Where's y o u r b a c k b o n e ? C h a p t e r 3 -86-S: H e r e . Down h e r e . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e d e f i n i t i o n i s s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h v i s u a l s u p p o r t a n d a p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f y t h e i r own s p i n e , a l t h o u g h b a c k b o n e i s u s e d i n s t e a d o f t h i s t e r m . The w o r d f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s , t h e t e a c h e r s u s e b a c k b o n e ( s ) f i f t e e n t i m e s t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' f o u r , a n d v e r t e b r a t e ( s ) t w e n t y - s i x t i m e s t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' e l e v e n . T h i s i s b e c a u s e v e r t e b r a t e i s a k e y f e a t u r e o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m b e i n g t a u g h t . Terms s u c h a s t h i s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s " c e n t r a l " w h i l e t e r m s w h i c h a r e n o n - e s s e n t i a l w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s " n o n - c e n t r a l . " S h o r t l y t h e t e r m i s u s e d a g a i n a n d t h e s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y u n d e r s t a n d i t : T2: R i g h t g o o d . B i r d s a r e w a r m - b l o o d e d mammals, warm b l o o d e d . S: A n i m a l s . T2: V e r t e b r a t e a n i m a l s . Now o v e r h e r e , t h e r e ' s t h r e e k i n d s o f c o l d - b l o o d e d v e r t e b r a t e s . S: R e p t i l e s . T2: Too much! What's t h e o t h e r k i n d ? A f t e r t h a t , t h e s t u d e n t s a l s o u s e t h e term.-T l : Remember t h e s e n t e n c e s we made f o r t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r t h a t we l o o k e d a t , remember t h e s e n t e n c e s t h a t we made? W h a t . c o u l d y o u s a y ? S: A n i m a l s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s ; v e r t e b r a t e s a n d i n v e r t e b r a t e s . T2.- R e a l l y g o o d ! What c o u l d y o u s a y a b o u t v e r t e b r a t e s ? Y o u ' r e l i s t e n i n g a l o t , y o u ' r e g o i n g t o g e t one. S: V e r t e b r a t e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s , w a r m - b l o o d e d and c o l d - b l o o d e d . T2: P e r f e c t . (. . . ) T2: OK, who c a n t e l l me t h e names o f t h e two t y p e s o f C h a p t e r 3 - 8 7 -a n i m a l s ? S: Mammals and b i r d s . T2: Up h e r e two t y p e s o f a n i m a l s . V e r t e b r a t e s . S: V e r t e b r a t e s a n d i n v e r t e b r a t e s . T2: Good g i r l , t h a t ' s r i g h t . M r s . H., c a n y o u t h i n k o f a q u e s t i o n ? T l : Can y o u t e l l me two g r o u p s t h a t mammals a n d b i r d s b e l o n g t o ? T2: Oh, t h a t ' s a g o o d one. T l : I t ' s a h a r d one. T2: Two g r o u p s . S: Mammals and b i r d s b e l o n g t o v e r t e b r a t e s . Tl.- And one o t h e r one? S: The c o l d . T l : The warm-b1ooded oh. S: V e r t e b r a t e s . Tl.- R i g h t , t h e y ' r e w a r m - b l o o d e d and v e r t e b r a t e s , r i g h t ? T2: Oh! Tl.- T h a t ' s a h a r d q u e s t i o n , g o o d f o r y o u . T h r e e s e s s i o n s l a t e r , t h e s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e k e y t e r m s i s c h e c k e d t h r o u g h r e a d i n g , f o l l o w e d by a w r i t t e n e x e r c i s e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n i s o f i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e t h e t e a c h e r a t t e m p t s t o t e a c h v o c a b u l a r y d i r e c t l y , b y u s i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d d e f i n i t i o n s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n d i r e c t m e t h o d s u s e d up t o t h i s p o i n t : T l : OK, w e ' r e g o i n g on t o s o m e t h i n g new t o d a y a n d t h e n w e ' r e g o i n g t o come b a c k and do some more r e v i e w . So, I'm g o i n g t o g i v e y o u y o u r book. I want y o u t o r e a d w h a t ' s on t h i s page a nd s e e i f y o u c a n f i n d d e f i n i t i o n s f o r c o l d - b l o o d e d a n d v e r t e b r a t e . Now b e f o r e y o u a c t u a l l y h a v e t o do t h a t , w e ' l l go t h r o u g h and t a l k a b o u t some o f t h e w o r d m e a n i n g s a f t e r y o u h a v e a c h a n c e t o l o o k a t i t . The s t u d e n t s h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g t e x t t o r e a d : " F i s h a r e c o l d - b l o o d e d , w h i c h means t h e y c a n n o t r e g u l a t e t h e i r body t e m p e r a t u r e s . I n s t e a d , t h e y assume t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . The b l o o d i n a f i s h ' s s y s t e m i s c i r c u l a t e d by a s i m p l e t w o - c h a m b e r e d h e a r t ; b l o o d i s c o l l e c t e d i n one chamber a nd pumped C h a p t e r 3 - 8 8 -t h r o u g h t h e b o d y by t h e o t h e r . F i s h a r e v e r t e b r a t e s , w h i c h means t h e y h a v e b a c k b o n e s . M o s t f i s h h a v e s k e l e t o n s composed m a i n l y o f bone. B u t some f i s h , s u c h a s s h a r k s a nd r a y s , h a v e s k e l e t o n s composed o f c a r t i l a g e ( K A R - t i h - 1 i h j ) , a t o u g h , e l a s t i c s u b s t a n c e . " T h e y a r e d i r e c t e d t o " r e a d w h a t ' s on t h i s page a n d s e e i f y o u c a n f i n d d e f i n i t i o n s f o r c o l d b l o o d e d a n d v e r t e b r a t e . " I'm g o i n g t o r e a d i t f o r y o u and s t o p a t some o f t h e w o r d s t h a t I t h i n k y o u p r o b a b l y h a d t r o u b l e w i t h . I f y o u , i f I p a s s a w o r d t h a t y o u d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , s t o p me, OK? " F i s h a r e c o l d - b l o o d e d w h i c h means t h e y c a n n o t r e g u l a t e . . . " S: Y e a h , r i g h t t h e r e . T: " t h e i r b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e . " R e g u l a t e , what d o e s t h a t mean? T h a t ' s a t o u g h w o r d . L o o k a t t h e w h o l e s e n t e n c e a nd s e e i f t h e s e n t e n c e g i v e s y o u some c l u e s a s t o what r e g u l a t e m i g h t mean. S: C o l d - b l o o d e d means r e g u l a t e ? S: I t c a n n o t c o n t r o l i t ? T: C o l d - b l o o d e d means t h e y c a n n o t r e g u l a t e t h e i r b ody t e m p e r a t u r e . S: Change i t ? T: What w o r d do y o u t h i n k r e g u l a t e m i g h t come f r o m ? S: R e g u l a r ? T l : R i g h t . T2: What d o e s r e g u l a r mean? S: Norma1. T2: OK. T l : Y o u ' v e g o t i t r i g h t t h e r e . When t h e y when i t s a y s t h e y c a n n o t r e g u l a t e t h e i r body t e m p e r a t u r e i t means t h e y ' r e n o t l i k e u s . Our t e m p e r a t u r e i s a l w a y s t h e same a n d when o u r t e m p e r a t u r e g o e s up we know t h e r e ' s s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h u s . W e l l t h e f i s h d o n ' t a l w a y s h a v e t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e . T h e i r t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e s w i t h t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r t h a t t h e y ' r e l i v i n g i n . T h ey d o n ' t h a v e any c o n t r o l o v e r t h a t . OK? I t s a y s i n s t e a d t h e y assume t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . The t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s t h e s t r a t e g i e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m e a n i n g by m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , a n d f o l l o w s w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s i n t e r r u p t e d when a s t u d e n t a s k s t h e m e a n i n g o f assume. The t e a c h e r p r e s e n t s an e x t e n d e d C h a p t e r 3 - 8 9 -r e s p o n s e w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . The d i s c u s s i o n e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n s t o v e r t e b r a t e : Tl.- A l l r i g h t , n e x t p a r a g r a p h . " F i s h a r e v e r t e b r a t e s w h i c h means t h e y h a v e b a c k b o n e s . M o s t f i s h h a v e s k e l e t o n s composed m a i n l y o f b o n e . " What d o e s t h a t mean, composed m a i n l y o f bone, what d o e s t h a t p h r a s e ? S: T hey h a v e b o n e s i n s i d e them? T 2 : W e l l , b a s i c a l l y t h a t ' s what i t means. I t j u s t means t h a t t h e s k e l e t o n i s m o s t l y bone. I t ' s a l m o s t a l l b o ne. (...) T l : T h a t ' s r i g h t , he h a d a l l s o r t s o f i n t e r e s t i n g i d e a s . A l l r i g h t now, I'm g o i n g t o l e a v e y o u on y o u r own and s e e i f y o u c a n come up w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n f o r c o l d - b l o o d e d and a d e f i n i t i o n f o r v e r t e b r a t e . You c a n c o p y t h e w o r d s s t r a i g h t f r o m t h e t e x t i f y o u c a n f i n d t h e o n e s , i t w i l l g i v e y o u t h e m e a n i n g s . (...) T l : R i g h t , s o w o u l d y o u l i k e t o r e a d w h a t y o u h a v e f o r u s ? S: A b o u t v e r t e b r a t e s ? "They h a v e v e r t e b r a t e . They h a v e b a c k b o n e s . " T l : OK, I f o r g o t t o c o r r e c t one t h i n g on y o u r s , b e c a u s e b a c k b o n e s i s a compound w o r d ; t h e r e s h o u l d n ' t be a s p a c e . S: Oh. ok. The s t u d e n t h a s a t t e m p t e d t o u s e v e r t e b r a t e a s a synonym f o r b a c k b o n e , and s e l f - c o r r e c t s . The s t u d e n t a p p e a r s t o be o p e r a t i n g a t t h e l e v e l o f f e a t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h i s an i n i t i a l a c t i v i t y - l e v e l s t e p i n c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l a b e l l i n g a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l . L a t e r on i n t h e s e s s i o n t h e s t u d e n t s a r e s t i l l o p e r a t i n g a t t h i s l e v e l , a s t h e y make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t f i s h u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a X h a v e Y ( g r o u p f e a t u r e ) r a t h e r t h a n X a r e Y ( c l a s s l a b e l ) : S: A f i s h h a s f i v e k i n d s o f d i f f e r e n t , a f i s h h a s f i v e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f f i n s . T l : Good. T 2 : I t h o u g h t i t was g o i n g t o be my t u r n . S: A some f i s h h a v e b a c k b o n e s ? T l : Good f o r y o u . OK, t h a t ' s r i g h t , y e a h . C h a p t e r 3 -90-S: A f i s h h a s s c a l e s a l l o v e r i t s b o d y ? T l : Good. E v e n i n t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n w h e r e two s t u d e n t s a r e t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e t e r m v e r t e b r a t e , and c a n p r o d u c e i t on demand, t h e y p r e f e r t o u s e t h e c a t e g o r i z i n g s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e X h a v e Y. T2: Um, s o t h a t um, t h e b l o o d i s c o l l e c t e d i n one chamber and pumped t h r o u g h t h e body. Now h e r e 1 s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t h i n g a b o u t f i s h . Can y o u r e a d t h a t ? S: " F i s h a r e v e r t e b r a t e s w h i c h means t h e y h a v e b a c k b o n e s . M o s t f i s h h a v e s k e l e t o n s composed m a i n l y o f bone. B u t some f i s h s u c h a s s h a r k a n d r a y s h a v e s k e l e t o n composed o f c a r t i l a g e , a t o u g h e l a s t i c s u b s t a n c e . " T2.- F a n t a s t i c ! T e l l me t h a t i n y o u r own w o r d s . And A. c o u l d h e l p t o o . What i s i t , what i s i t s a y i n g t o y o u ? S: Some f i s h h a v e b a c k b o n e s . And some h a v e s k e l e t o n s . T2: They h a v e b a c k b o n e s . M o s t , most s k e l e t o n s , b u t some o n e s we t a l k e d a b o u t t h a t , i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g a b a c k b o n e , t h e y h a v e a k i n d o f t o u g h e l a s t i c , i t ' s l i k e b o ne. C a r t i l a g e i s l i k e b o n e , b u t i t ' s a b i t d i f f e r e n t i n t h e way i t ' s made up. OK, s o what do y o u c a l l a n i m a l s t h a t h a v e a b a c k b o n e ? S: V e r t e b r a t e s . T2: V e r t e b r a t e s . And what do y o u c a l l a n i m a l s t h a t d o n ' t h a v e a b a c k b o n e ? S: I n v e r t e b r a t e s . T2: I n v e r t e b r a t e s . So f i s h , how many o f y o u e v e r s e e n a, h a v e e i t h e r o f y o u e v e r s e e n a w h o l e f i s h ? S: Y e s . T2: Y e a h , a n d what h a p p e n s when y o u c u t i t up? What's i t g o t down t h e m i d d l e ? S.- Bone. T2: Bone, y e a h , some f i s h h a v e t o n s o f b o n e s . You g o t t a j u s t t a k e i t s h e a d a nd i t s t a i l a n d i t s g o t t h a t w h o l e b i g l o n g b a c k b o n e t h a t y o u g o t t a t r y and g e t o u t i n one p i e c e s o y o u ' v e g o t a b i g mass o f b o n e s t o c h o k e on. So t h e y ' v e g o t b a c k b o n e s . And s o m e t h i n g w i t h a b a c k b o n e , y o u b o t h know i t ' s c a l l e d , a n i m a l w i t h a b a c k b o n e ? S.- V e r t e b r a t e s . T2: V e r t e b r a t e s , OK. A r e we v e r t e b r a t e s ? S: Y e s . C h a p t e r 3 - 9 1 -R e v i e w i n g t h e u s e o f v e r t e b r a t e , we s e e t h a t i n t r o d u c i n g a w o r d w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a nd t e x t u a l s u p p o r t seems t o a i d i n t h e p a s s i v e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a t e r m , b u t d o e s n o t seem t o be e f f e c t i v e i n l e a d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o u s i n g t h e t e r m a c t i v e l y u n l e s s t h e r e i s a d i r e c t demand f o r i t . The n e x t t e r m , r e p r o d u c t i o n , i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . By g i v i n g e x a m p l e s s u c h a s r e w i n d , r e c e i v e , r e t u r n t h e s t u d e n t s s e e t h a t r e - i n v o l v e s r e p e t i t i o n : T l : Does e v e r y o n e know what t h a t w o r d i s a t t h e t h a t t i t l e a t t h e t o p o f t h e p a g e ? S: R e p r o d u c t i o n ? T l : R e p r o d u c t i o n , do y o u h a v e any i d e a s what t h a t means? S: L i v e ? T2.- What d o e s , what d o e s r e - mean? on a w o r d ? S: To do o v e r a g a i n ? T2: E x a c t l y . What o t h e r w o r d s do y o u know w i t h r e - ? S: R e w i n d . T2: R e w i n d , t h a t means t o . S: Make i t go b a c k a g a i n . T2: Y e a h , w i n d i t o v e r a g a i n . And r e t u r n , t o , t o t u r n b a c k , t o t u r n o v e r . S: R e c e i v e ? T2: R e c e i v e . Tl. - OK, y o u know what t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e w o r d means; what d o e s t h e s e c o n d p a r t mean? p r o d u c t i o n ? S: Company. T l : What's t h e , w h a t ' s t h e r o o t w o r d ? S.- P r o d u c e . T l : OK, p r o d u c e . We're t a l k i n g a b o u t f i s h a n d w e ' r e t a l k i n g a b o u t what t h e y p r o d u c e a n d t h e y ' r e d o i n g i t a g a i n , what c o u l d i t be? S: B a s i c w a y s? T l : We're t a l k i n g a b o u t b a s i c ways. T2: What do y o u t h i n k f i s h c o u l d . What's a n o t h e r w o r d f o r p r o d u c e ? S: I n v e n t ? T2: I n v e n t . N o t r e a l l y . T h a t ' s t h e r i g h t i d e a , a l o n g t h e r i g h t l i n e s , p r o d u c e s o m e t h i n g . A f t e r a few a t t e m p t s a t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r , - p r o d u c e . C h a p t e r 3 - 9 2 -t h e t e a c h e r a s k s one o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o l o o k i t up i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y . E v e n a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e s u g g e s t e d " m a k i n g s o m e t h i n g " , a n d t h e s t u d e n t w i t h t h e d i c t i o n a r y r e a d s o u t t h e d e f i n i t i o n , t h e r e i s s t i l l c o n f u s i o n : T l : Now i n s t e a d o f me j u s t t e l l i n g y o u what t h i s means, maybe we s h o u l d l o o k i t up i n a d i c t i o n a r y . Who'd l i k e t o go t o t h e d i c t i o n a r y ? S: I w o u l d . T l : OK, g e t one o f t h e b l u e o n e s , o r t h e r e d one, t h e W i n s t o n one. T2: The r e s t o f y o u c a n maybe k e e p g u e s s i n g t h o u g h . What do y o u t h i n k p r o d u c e means? I a l m o s t s a i d i t . T l . - Nobody h a s a n y i d e a s . How a b o u t t h i n k i n g o f some t h i n g s t h a t y o u c a n p r o d u c e ? S: C a r s . T l : OK. T2: What do y o u t h i n k , what d o e s i t mean? S: I know. T2: I f a f a c t o r y p r o d u c e s c a r s , w h a t ' s a n o t h e r way t o s a y t h a t ? S: I t makes c a r s ? T2: Y e a h , t h a t ' s one way t o s a y i t . So i f t h e f i s h a r e r e - m a k i n g s o m e t h i n g , what c o u l d t h e y be m a k i n g ? R e - m a k i n g , m a k i n g s o m e t h i n g a g a i n and a g a i n ? S: L i k e . Tl.- OK, w e ' r e l o o k i n g f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n . I t w o u l d be u n d e r R, w o u l d n ' t i t ? S: E g g s . T2: F i s h , w hat c o u l d t h e f i s h make? S: I went p a s t i t . T l : What d i d s h e s a y ? T2: C a k e s . T l : C a k e s . S: No, e g g s ! T2 . E g g s ! S o r r y ! T l : I t h i n k s h e was r i g h t , s h e g o t t h e i d e a f i r s t o f e v e r y b o d y . T2: Yep, y e p . H. g o t t h e i d e a , y o u g u y s . Tl.- T h ey d i d n ' t h e a r , s o w e ' l l j u s t w a i t a n d l e t them. T2.- So r e p r o d u c e means? S.- M a k i n g s o m e t h i n g . T2: Y e a h , t h e y ' r e m a k i n g t h e i r e g g s . What w o u l d y o u g e t f r o m t h e e g g s ? S: I t s a y s " u s e " ( i n a u d i b l e ) " r e p e a t . A l s o r e p r o d u c e . " S: B a b i e s ? T2: F i s h b a b i e s . C h a p t e r 3 - 93 -S: " R e p e a t . a l s o r e p r o d u c e a p l a y , a s o n g , a g e s t u r e , t o b e a r , y i e l d , o r b r i n g f o r t h , t o c o p y , make a n image o f , t o r e p r o d u c e a p e r s o n ' s f e a t u r e s i n m a r b l e . " T2: Now, w h i c h one do y o u t h i n k t h i s w i l l be a b o u t ? Of a l l t h o s e m e a n i n g s ? T l : None o f them a r e r e a l l y g o o d f o r what w e ' r e d o i n g . T2: "To b e a r y o u n g " . T l : Was t h a t one o f them? Oh, OK. S: "Make a n image". T2: Not t o do w i t h f i s h , i t ' s a b o u t f i s h . T l : I n e v e r s e e t h o s e f i s h i n t h e r e m a k i n g i m a g e s o f t h i n g s . S: "To b r i n g f o r t h " ? T l : OK, " t o b r i n g f o r t h " , y e s , b u t what a r e t h e y g o i n g t o b r i n g f o r t h ? T2.- A r e t h e y g o i n g t o b r i n g f o r t h i d e a s ? S: No. T2: They b r i n g i n g f o r t h money? S: No. T2: What do y o u t h i n k f i s h c o u l d b r i n g f o r t h f r o m t h e m s e l v e s ? S: T h e i r e g g s . T2: T h e i r e g g s , r i g h t . T l : T h e y ' r e b r i n g i n g f o r t h e g g s w h i c h t u r n i n t o b a b y f i s h . A l l r i g h t , r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a name f o r how f i s h a n d o t h e r a n i m a l s t o o . T2: Remake t h e m s e l v e s . T l : Remake t h e m s e l v e s o r h a v e b a b i e s , OK. I t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h r a s e " t o b r i n g f o r t h " , a n d t h e d i c t i o n a r y , i n t h i s c a s e a t l e a s t , i s n o t a u s e f u l t o o l . We c a n a l s o n o t e t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n becomes t a u t o l o g i c a l when i t u s e s t h e t e r m t o be d e f i n e d ( r e p r o d u c e ) i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n i t s e l f . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s e s s i o n t e n t h e t e a c h e r s c h e c k how much t h e s t u d e n t s remember f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s d a y . A p p a r e n t l y t h e e x t e n d e d d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t r e p r o d u c t i o n was e f f e c t i v e , a l t h o u g h we c a n n o t d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s e m p l o y e d was t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e m e m b e r i n g : C h a p t e r 3 - 9 4 -T2.- What d o e s r e p r o d u c t i o n mean? S: To do o v e r . T2: And, and when y o u ' r e t a l k i n g a b o u t i t w i t h f i s h o r a n i m a l s , what i s i t t h e n ? What a r e y o u d o i n g o v e r t h e f i s h e s ? S: No, 1 i k e , some... S: G o i n g a g a i n ? T2: G o i n g what a g a i n ? S: M a k i n g b a b i e s , maybe. T2: T h a t ' s r i g h t , a n d why, why w o u l d y o u c a l l i t r e p r o d u c t i o n ? Why d o n ' t y o u j u s t c a l l i t " m a k i n g b a b i e s o r e g g s " o r s o m e t h i n g ? S: I t d o e s n ' t s o u n d t h a t g o o d . T2: " D o e s n ' t s o u n d t h a t g o o d . " T h a t ' s a r e a l g o o d r e a s o n . T l : T h a t w o u l d n ' t l o o k v e r y g o o d i f I p u t t h a t down a s o u r t i t l e , " M a k i n g b a b i e s o r e g g s " o r s o m e t h i n g . T2: Or s o m e t h i n g . So y o u , s o i t s , why do y o u c a l l i t r e p r o d u c t i o n ? Remember i t ' s t h a t , b e c a u s e y o u ' r e m a k i n g a s p e c i e s . Remember what a s p e c i e s was? S: Y e a h S: " D i f f e r e n t k i n d s " . The s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y h a v e r e t a i n e d a g o o d d e a l o f t h e p r e v i o u s d a y ' s d i s c u s s i o n ; h o w e v e r t h e y do n o t u s e t h e new w o r d s a c t i v e l y . I n t h e f i n a l l e s s o n , i n t h e r e v i e w o f f i s h s t r u c t u r e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e q u i z z e d on v o c a b u l a r y a g a i n . As we h a v e s e e n , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n a n s w e r a q u e s t i o n on v e r t e b r a t e s e a s i l y b u t h a v e more d i f f i c u l t y w i t h r e p r o d u c t i o n . T hey a p p e a r t o want t o e x p l a i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n , n o t d e f i n e i t : T 2: What's t h i s n e x t t o p i c a b o u t f i s h ? S: R e p r o d u c t i o n . T2.- Remember what r e p r o d u c t i o n means? S: The t h r e e s t e p s o f . T2: W e l l , what d o e s t h e w o r d mean? R e p r o d u c t i o n ? S: Two w a y s , some, T2: T h e r e a r e two ways t h a t f i s h r e p r o d u c e , b u t what i s , what a r e we t a l k i n g a b o u t ? A r e we t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e way t h e y make t h e i r b e d ? What d o e s r e p r o d u c e mean? S: How a e g g grow. C h a p t e r 3 -95-Tl.- T h i n k a b o u t what t h e w o r d means. Remember we t a l k e d a b o u t what d o e s r e - mean a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w o r d . S: To do s o m e t h i n g . T l : What d o e s p r o d u c e mean? S: O v e r a nd o v e r a g a i n . T2: OK. t o make s o m e t h i n g o v e r a nd o v e r a g a i n , a nd what a r e t h e y m a k i n g o v e r and o v e r ? S: E g g s . T2: E g g s , t h e y ' r e m a k i n g them t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r own s p e c i e s . T h e y ' r e m a k i n g f i s h o v e r a nd o v e r a g a i n , t h a t ' s w h a t . D e s p i t e t h e l e c t u r i n g g i v e n i n an e a r l i e r c l a s s , t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l - a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o w o r d m e a n i n g d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be a s t r a t e g y w h i c h t h e s e s t u d e n t s c a n u s e . G i v e n t h e same w o r d t h e y h a d b e f o r e , t h e y a r e s t i l l u n a b l e t o b r e a k t h e w o r d i n t o i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s t o d i s c o v e r i t s m e a n i n g . T h i s a p p r o a c h seems t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h t h i s l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . O t h e r v o c a b u l a r y t e r m s , a l l i n t r o d u c e d i n s e s s i o n e i g h t , w h i c h a r e e x p l a i n e d d i r e c t l y a r e c i r c u l a t e , composed a nd c a r t i l a q e : T: What d o e s c i r c u l a t e mean? L e t ' s l o o k f o r o u r r o o t w o r d a g a i n , t h a t may h e l p u s . S: C i r c u l a t e . S: C i r c l e . T: C i r c l e . OK, M. g o t i t . T h a t means i t moves i n a c i r c l e t h r o u g h t h e b o d y , f r o m t h e h e a r t t h r o u g h t h e bo d y and b a c k t o t h e h e a r t . (...) T: "Composed m a i n l y o f bo n e " , what d o e s t h a t mean? S: T h e y h a v e b o n e s i n s i d e them? T: W e l l , b a s i c a l l y , t h a t ' s what i t means. I t j u s t means t h a t t h e s k e l e t o n i s m o s t l y bone. I t ' s a l m o s t a l l b o n e . (...) T l : "Some f i s h s u c h a s s h a r k s a nd r a y s h a v e s k e l e t o n s C h a p t e r 3 - 9 6 -composed o f c a r t i l a g e " , a n d c a r t i l a g e i s n ' t t h e same as bone. Y o u r n o s e i s made o f c a r t i l a g e . A l l r i g h t ? I t ' s n o t t h e same a s a bone, i t b r e a k s more e a s i l y a n d i t s o r t o f moves. I t ' s n o t r e a l l y s t r o n g . T2: Y o u r k n e e t o o . T l : You h a v e . . . T2: C a r t i l a g e i n y o u r k n e e s . T l : OK, i t s a y s t h a t " c a r t i l a g e i s a t o u g h e l a s t i c s u b s t a n c e " . So i t ' s n o t h a r d l i k e b o ne, i t ' s more l i k e , y o u know, t h o s e r u b b e r b a l l s t h a t y o u c a n b u y f o r y o u r dog? T h a t a r e r e a l l y h a r d ? B u t t h e y a c t u a l l y , i f y o u p u s h on them r e a l l y h a r d t h e y do move a l i t t l e b i t ? C a r t i l a g e i s more l i k e t h a t , w h e r e a s a bone i f y o u p u s h t h a t h a r d on t h e bone, i t w i l l b r e a k , r i g h t ? S: I n c h i c k e n , i n c h i c k e n t h e y h a v e l o t s o f b o n e s . The f i r s t two t e r m s we may j u d g e t o h a v e b e e n u n d e r s t o o d by t h e s t u d e n t s , b u t t h e o f f - t o p i c comment d u r i n g t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t h i r d t e r m s u g g e s t s t h a t one s t u d e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n i s n o t f o c u s s e d , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e t e a c h e r s a r e b e i n g e i t h e r r e d u n d a n t o r o v e r l y c o m p l i c a t e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e . I n any c a s e none o f t h e t e r m s a r e e v e r u s e d a g a i n by t h e s t u d e n t s e x c e p t i n r e a d i n g t e x t s , a l t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r s u s e c a r t i l a q e n i n e t i m e s i n t o t a l a n d composed f i v e t i m e s . A t one p o i n t , a s t u d e n t a s k s f o r t h e m e a n i n g o f assume, and t h e t e a c h e r s g i v e a l o n g e x p l a n a t i o n , w h i c h i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a s t u d e n t a s k i n g , "What's t h i s w o r d , a s s u m e ? " , and a f u r t h e r d i g r e s s i o n t o e x p l a i n s u r r o u n d i n g s . S: What d o e s assume mean? assume. T l : Assume, t h a t ' s an e x c e l l e n t , y o u ' v e u n d e r l i n e d them a l r e a d y , g o o d f o r y o u . T h a t ' s a r e a l l y g o o d i d e a . T2.- When w e ' r e i n a r e a l l y h o t p l a c e o r i n a r e a l l y c o l d p l a c e , i t m i g h t f e e l h o t o r f e e l c o l d , b u t y o u r b o d y ' s t e m p e r a t u r e d o e s n ' t c h a n g e , t h a t , t h a t ' s s o r t o f , i t t o o k me a l o n g t i m e t o t r y and u n d e r s t a n d C h a p t e r 3 - 9 7 -t h a t . T l : So when i t ' s c o l d o u t we w e a r c o a t s a n d s w e a t e r s a n d when i t ' s h o t o u t , we w e a r s h o r t s a n d t h a t ' s how we a d j u s t t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t ' s warm o r c o l d o u t s i d e . B u t f i s h c a n ' t do t h a t . T h a t ' s why i t ' s g o t a l i t t l e p i c t u r e o f a f i s h w e a r i n g a s c a r f h e r e . T h a t n e v e r h a p p e n s . You d o n ' t s e e f i s h g o i n g a r o u n d w i t h t h e i r m i t t e n s on b e c a u s e t h e w a t e r ' s c o l d e r t h a t d a y . S: Y e a h . T l : The way t h a t t h e y d e a l w i t h i t i s t h a t t h e i r body t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e s t o t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e o r c l o s e t o t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e a s t h e w a t e r a nd t h a t ' s e x a c t l y what t h e n e x t s e n t e n c e means when i t s a y s , t h e y assume t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g . T h a t means t h e y t a k e on o r t h e y g e t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e p l a c e t h a t t h e y ' r e l i v i n g . S: What's t h i s w o r d ? a s s u m e . Tl.- Assume, t h a t ' s what I was j u s t e x p l a i n i n g . S u r r o u n d i n g s . S: Y e a h . T l T h a t ' s what t h i n g s t h a t a r e a r o u n d them, t h e w a t e r t h a t ' s a r o u n d them. S: Oh. Tl.- A l l r i g h t , assume means t h a t t h e y t a k e on t h a t t e m p e r a t u r e o r t h e i r b ody c h a n g e s t o t h a t t e m p e r a t u r e . J u s t l i k e i f I w e r e C l a r k K e n t Superman, I c o u l d s a y , t h a t I assume t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f C l a r k K e n t . T h a t means t h a t I c h a n g e d i n t o C l a r k K e n t . I c h a n g e d my p e r s o n a l i t y t o t h a t . I t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n h a s n o t b e e n m e a n i n g f u l f o r t h e s t u d e n t . The t e a c h e r s c o n t i n u e t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s , a n d f i n a l l y move on i n t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e t e x t , w i t h o u t v e r i f y i n g t h a t t h e s t u d e n t h a s u n d e r s t o o d . I n t h e n e x t s e s s i o n assume i s u s e d a g a i n , b u t s t i l l w i t h o u t c l a r i f i c a t i o n : T l : I h a v e n ' t h e a r d a n y t h i n g y e t a b o u t c o l d - b l o o d e d t h a t we j u s t l e a r n e d t o d a y s o maybe somebody c o u l d t h i n k o f s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h a t . A f i s h i s . S: A f i s h i s c o l d - b l o o d e d a n d c a n c a n n o t r e g u l a t e . T l : C a n n o t r e g u l a t e w h a t ? S: I t s body t e m p e r a t u r e . C h a p t e r 3 - 9 8 -T l : E x c e l l e n t , t h a t was, I w a s n ' t e x p e c t i n g y o u t o g e t t h a t much, t h a t ' s g o o d . S: A r e c o l d - b l o o d e d ? . A f i s h i s , I d o n ' t know. T l : Assumes. S: A f i s h a s sumes. T l : You s t u c k ? Can y o u h e l p h i m o u t ? What d o e s a f i s h assume, do y o u remember t h a t ? S: A f i s h a s s u m e s . I d o n ' t know. A f i s h a ssumes t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s ? T l C l o s e . A f i s h a ssumes t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f i t s . T2 .- S u r r o u n d i ngs . S.- S u r r o u n d i n g s . I n t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n , t h e p r o b l e m i s s t i l l e v i d e n t . I n r e v i e w i n g some m a t e r i a l a f t e r a t e s t t h e r e i s c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e m e a n i n g o f r e g u l a t e a nd t h e t e a c h e r f i n a l l y c h e c k s t h e s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f assume d i r e c t l y : T2: OK now w h a t ' s t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t h a t y o u l e a r n e d t h e r e ? T e l l me any i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t h a t y o u l e a r n e d . S: T h e y c a n ' t r e g u l a t e t h e i r b ody t e m p e r a t u r e ? T 2 : R i g h t . OK, um a n d what do y o u c a l l t h a t ? You c a n ' t what k i n d o f a n i m a l s ? What do y o u c a l l a n i m a l s t h a t c a n ' t . S: B a c k b o n e s . T 2 : No, what do y o u c a l l a n i m a l s t h a t c a n ' t r e g u l a t e t h e i r b o dy t e m p e r a t u r e ? I t ' s r i g h t t h e r e . S: C o l d - b l o o d e d . T 2 : A l l r i g h t . Good. OK, s o what do y o u c a l l a n i m a l s t h a t c a n r e g u l a t e t h e i r b l o o d y t e m p e r a t u r e t h e i r b ody t e m p e r a t u r e ? S: Um, w a r m - b l o o d e d . T2: W a r m - b l o o d e d , r i g h t . What a r e we, w a r m - b l o o d e d o r c o l d - b l o o d e d ? S.- Warm-b 1 o o d e d . T 2 : And f i s h a r e . S: C o l d . T2: C o l d - b l o o d e d , OK. Any a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t ? T h a t ' s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g . T l : W e l l , I w o u l d l i k e them t o t e l l me what t h e f i s h do b e c a u s e t h e y c a n ' t r e g u l a t e t h e i r b ody t e m p e r a t u r e b e c a u s e t h a t ' s t h e one t h i n g a l o t o f p e o p l e m i s s e d on t h e t e s t . What do t h e y do t o , h e r e ' s a b i g w o r d , c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c a n n o t r e g u l a t e C h a p t e r 3 - 9 9 -t h e i r b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e ? How do t h e y a d j u s t t o t h a t , what do t h e y do b e c a u s e o f t h a t ? S: They assume i t . T l : T h ey assume w h a t ? S: T h e y assume t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s o f t h e i r b ody. The t e m p e r a t u r e . T l : T h ey assume t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . Y o u ' r e m i s s i n g one one i m p o r t a n t w o r d i n t h e r e . S: C i r c u l a t e d . T l : What do t h e y assume f r o m t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s ? I f I was s i t t i n g h e r e , do I do I assume t h e c o l o r o f t h a t , u h , c u p b o a r d o v e r t h e r e ? S.- T e m p e r a t u r e . T e m p e r a t u r e . T l : The t e m p e r a t u r e . A l l r i g h t , y o u know what assume means? I t h i n k maybe t h a t w o r d m i g h t be g i v i n g u s some t r o u b l e . S: No. Tl. - OK t h e r e ' s s o m e t h i n g i m p o r t a n t t h a t we d i d n ' t know. I f y o u d o n ' t know what assume means. We t a l k e d a b o u t t h i s b e f o r e . I , c a n y o u t r y a n d g u e s s maybe? What d o e s i t mean f r o m t h e s e n t e n c e ? S: To c h a n g e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e . T l : Do t h e y c h a n g e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s o r do t h e y c h a n g e ? S: The body t e m p e r a t u r e ? T l : OK t h e y c h a n g e t h e i r own body t e m p e r a t u r e . So t h a t i t ' s t h e same a s t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . Um s o m e t h i n g e l s e y o u c o u l d assume. I f y o u w e r e a c r i m i n a l a nd y o u w e r e t r y i n g t o e s c a p e , y o u m i g h t assume t h e i d e n t i t y o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n . T h a t means y o u m i g h t p r e t e n d t h a t y o u w e r e a n o t h e r p e r s o n , t a k e t h e i r name and t r y a n d l o o k l i k e them, r i g h t ? T2: OK a n y t h i n g e l s e i n t h e r e t h a t y o u t h i n k w o u l d be i m p o r t a n t ? So y o u ' v e g o t v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s . T h ey c a n n o t r e g u l a t e t h e i r b ody t e m p e r a t u r e and y o u c a l l t h a t c o l d - b l o o d e d . They c h a n g e t h e i r b ody t e m p e r a t u r e t o w h a t e v e r t e m p e r a t u r e i t ' s s u r r o u n d i n g . B e c a u s e assume i s c e n t r a l t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c o l d - a nd w a r m - b l o o d e d a n i m a l s , t h e s t u d e n t s n e e d t o h a v e a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s t e r m . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n g r a s p i n g t h e c o n c e p t . The d i s t i n c t i o n n o t e d e a r l i e r b e t w e e n c e n t r a l a n d n o n - c e n t r a l t e r m s d o e s n o t seem t o be a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t C h a p t e r 3 - 1 0 0 -s t u d e n t s w i l l a c q u i r e a p a r t i c u l a r t e r m . I t may be t h a t a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i s t h e c o n c r e t e n e s s o f t h e c o n c e p t ; t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . O r t h o g r a p h i c f o r m s One s t r a t e g y u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e s t h e t e x t u a l f o r m o f t h e w o r d s . I n one c a s e a mnemonic i s f o r m e d t o h e l p m e m o r i z a t i o n a n d r e c a l l ; i n a n o t h e r t h e i n i t i a l l e t t e r o f t h e w o r d i n q u e s t i o n i s u s e d t o a s s i s t r e c a l l . R e c a l l t h a t i n s e s s i o n s i x , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e l e a r n i n g t h e p a r t s o f a f i s h , l o o k i n g a t a p i c t u r e w i t h t h e names o f t h e p a r t s w r i t t e n a t t h e b o t t o m . The more f a m i l i a r t e r m s a r e i n t r o d u c e d f i r s t ; r e m a i n i n g t e r m s a r e more d i f f i c u l t : T2: (...) Now what we h a v e l e f t a r e p e c t o r a l f i n , a n a l  f i n , v e n t r a l f i n , c a u d a l f i n , a n d d o r s a l f i n . T l : I h a v e t o t e l l y o u I ' v e h a r d l y h e a r d o f t h o s e names m y s e 1 f . T2: T h a t ' s r i g h t . J u s t l i k e I s a i d , I h a d t o l o o k them up t o o . T h e y ' r e a l l f i n s . (...) and t h i s i s t h e t a i l t h a t i s a l s o c a l l e d a f i n , t h e t a i l f i n a n d t h e r e ' s a w o r d t h e r e t h a t ' s a f a n c y w o r d f o r t a i l . S: I know, () (...) T2: I d o n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k t h a t y o u ' r e g o i n g t o be a b l e t o g u e s s f r o m t h e names. T h i s one, t h e c a u d a l f i n , i s t h e t a i l , OK? c a u d a l i s a f a n c y w o r d f o r b e i n g a t t h e b a c k e nd. OK? s o t h a t ' s y o u r t a i l f i n . S: T h i s i s g o i n g t o be a t t h e t a i l e n d , I t h i n k . T2: Now l e t ' s s e e . We've g o t t h r e e l e f t . T h i s one, ana 1  f i n , a n a l i s a w o r d t h a t comes f r o m t h e w o r d anus w h i c h a l s o means a t t h e b a c k o r a t t h e b o t t o m e n d . See t h i s l i t t l e s t a r a t t h e b a c k . I t g o e s r i g h t t h e r e . S: I t h i n k t h i s one c a n go t h e r e I t h i n k . T2 Now we h a v e two c h o i c e s , p e c t o r a l f i n a n d d o r s a l f i n . C h a p t e r 3 -101-Tl.-N. knows. T2: W h i c h one g o e s w h e r e ? S: The d o r s a l f i n g o e s on t h e end. The l i t t l e f i n up t h e r e . No. No, i t g o e s on t h e t o p . T l : Good t r y t h o u g h . T2: N i c e t r y . OK, t h i s one g o e s up h e r e . 3: S o unds g o o d . T h i s one g o e s down h e r e . The p e c t o r a l  f i n . T2: OK, and t h a t ' s t h e p e c t o r a l f i n . The g r a p h i c i s p r o b a b l y t h e m a j o r i n f l u e n c e i n l e a r n i n g t h e t e r m s h e r e ; t h e w r i t t e n w o r d s t o l o o k a t p r o b a b l y make i t e a s i e r f o r f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e r e i s a b i t o f e t y m o l o g y i n t r o d u c e d ( a n a l a n d c a u d a l ) w h i l e t h e v e n t r a l f i n i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y s a y i n g t h e name, j u s t " t h i s o n e". The g r a p h i c h e l p s t o g i v e t h e m e a n i n g t o t h e w o r d s ; what i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y i s r e t e n t i o n . The s e s s i o n i s d e v o t e d t o d e v e l o p i n g a mnemonic b a s e d on t h e w o r d f o r m s : T2: Know o f some o t h e r ways we c o u l d f i g u r e o u t t h a t we c o u l d remember t h e s e ? I h a v e n ' t t h o u g h t o f any ways. I'm j u s t a s k i n g i f y o u c a n t h i n k o f some ways t h a t m i g h t h e l p u s . S: W r i t e i t down. T2: W e l l , t h a t w o u l d be a r e a l l y g o o d way a n d w e ' r e g o i n g t o do t h a t . We're g o i n g t o c o p y t h o s e w o r d s on t o t h e p i c t u r e t h a t ' s i n y o u b ook. B u t maybe t h e r e a r e some o t h e r ways. T l : What h e l p s y o u remember t h i n g s , u s u a l l y ? T2: W e l l , i f I w e r e t h i n k i n g , y o u know, I want t o remember t h e s e w o r d s and when I g e t t h a t p i c t u r e on my t e s t , I w ant t o know what o r d e r t o p u t them i n . So I w o u l d l o o k a t i t and I w o u l d s a y , w e l l t h e r e ' s o n l y one on t h e t o p s o t h a t ' s t h a t one I c a n p r o b a b l y remember. T h e r e ' s o n l y one on t h e t o p and t h a t ' s t h e d o r s a l  f i n . Remember t h a t t h e d o r s a l f i n i s on t o p . Y o u ' l l p r o b a b l y remember t h a t . And t h e n I ' v e g o t f o u r i n a r o w down h e r e and t h a t ' s r e a l l y h a r d . I'm g o i n g t o show y o u a t r i c k t h a t I u s e d t o u s e when I was a t u n i v e r s i t y . T a k e t h e f i r s t l e t t e r , OK, i t g o e s c a u d a l , a n a l , v e n t r a l , p e c t o r a l . W e l l , t h a t d o e s n ' t s p e l l a n y t h i n g , s o we c a n ' t remember i t t h a t way. So w e ' r e g o i n g t o h a v e t o make up some way o f C h a p t e r 3 - 1 0 2 -r e m e m b e r i n g them, s o I t h i n k I w o u l d s a y S: " A r e n ' t " . T2: " V e r y " w h a t ? " P r e t t y " ? W e l l , " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y " . S: " P r e c i o u s " ? T2: " P r e c i o u s " . W e l l , w e ' l l j u s t p u t " p r e t t y " . T l : " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y " . T2: OK, t h a t ' s j u s t a t r i c k t h a t y o u c a n maybe u s e when y o u ' r e s t u d y i n g . " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y " . So t h a t means c a u d a l , a n a l , v e n t r a l , p e c t o r a l . Do y o u t h i n k y o u w o u l d h a v e remembered t h o s e i f we h a d n ' t l e a r n e d t h a t " c a u d a l " , " c o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y " ? The d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s l e s s o n l i e s i n t h e number o f s i m i l a r p a r t s ( t h e f i n s ) w h i c h must be l e a r n e d . The t e a c h e r h a s a n t i c i p a t e d t h i s d i f f i c u l t y a n d p r o v i d e d f o r i t . A l t h o u g h o t h e r t e r m s p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d must h a v e b e e n d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n , t h e t e a c h e r s h a d made no e f f o r t t o f o c u s on them and p r o v i d e some g u i d e l i n e s on how t o l e a r n new w o r d s . H e r e s h e s p e n d s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t i m e e x p l a i n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g a mnemonic m e t h o d o f l e a r n i n g . By t a k i n g t h e f i r s t l e t t e r o f t h e names o f t h e l o w e r f i n s ( i . e . , e x c l u d i n g t h e d o r s a l ) i n o r d e r f r o m t h e r e a r , one c a n u s e t h e l e t t e r s t o c o n s t r u c t a new s e n t e n c e w h i c h i s r e m a r k a b l e e n o u g h t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l remember i t . T h u s t h e names c a u d a l - a n a l - v e n t r a l - p e c t o r a l a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y " . The t e a c h e r a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r s t h a t i f t h e s t u d e n t s c a n remember w h i c h o r d e r t h e w o r d s come i n , t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o r e c a l l t h e w h o l e t e r m s . T h i s mnemonic i s t h e r e f o r e more a s t r a t e g y o f r e c a l l t h a n o f a c q u i s i t i o n . I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h i s mnemonic i s e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o remember t h e t e r m s . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 0 3 -I n t h e n e x t two s e s s i o n s t h e s t u d e n t s ' m e m o r i e s a r e c h e c k e d Tl.- And t h e n y o u j u s t t r y an and s e e what y o u c a n remember. Now, who c a n t e l l me w h a t ' s t h i s ? S: M o u t h . T l : M o u t h . r i g h t . OK, w e ' l l s t a r t w i t h t h e e a s y o n e s t o g e t y o u g o i n g . S: E y e . E y e s T l : R i g h t . S: N o s t r i l . T l : N o s t r i l s . S: N o s t r i l s . T l : OK. S: G i l l c o v e r . D o r s a l . We d i d t h a t . S c a l e s , d o r s a l f i n , c a u d a l f i n , a n a l f i n , v e n t r a l f i n , p e c t o r a l f i n s , g i l l c o v e r . T l : R i g h t . OK, now do y o u remember? S: Y e a h . T l : The t r i c k M r s . H. t a u g h t y o u ? " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y . " S: " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y . " " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y . " " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y . " Aw no. Now we g o t t o p u t i n l i n e s . T h a t ' s e a s y . I t h i n k s o . I t h i n k I g o t i t . ( . . . ) T2: What was t h e l i t t l e p h r a s e t h a t M r s . H. t a u g h t y o u ? S: " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y . " T2: Good. The s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o h a v e l e a r n e d t h e mnemonic q u i t e w e l l . I n s e s s i o n e l e v e n t h e y u s e i t t o h e l p c o m p l e t e an a s s i g n m e n t : T l : Draw. I'm g o i n g t o a s k y o u t o d r a w a f i s h . I t ' s g o i n g t o be a g r e a t t e s t o f w h a t y o u remember s o f a r b e c a u s e I e x p e c t t h a t f i s h t o h a v e a l l i t s p a r t s . (...) T2: OK, what d o e s t h a t mean? " C o o k i e s a r e , " t h a t ' s r i g h t . Do, what d o e s c o o k i e s s t a n d f o r ? S.- G i l l , I mean. T l : C a u d a l . S: C a u d a l f i n . And t h e n a n a l f i n . V e n t r a l . V e n t r a l f i n . T h e r e . E r a s e d i t a l l . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 0 4 -F i n a l l y , i n t h e l a s t s e s s i o n t h e mnemonic i s u s e d a g a i n : T2: OK, y o u know what I ' d l i k e y o u t o do f o r me now? I want y o u t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h i s i s i n a book a n d t h a t t h e r e ' s g o i n g t o be w r i t i n g b e s i d e i t , OK, t o e x p l a i n i t . So c o u l d y o u do t h e w r i t i n g t h a t w o u l d go a l o n g w i t h t h a t ? S: Umhm. T2: OK, t h e s e g u y s a r e d o i n g i n c r e d i b l y w e l l . Do um t h a t one, t h i s one, y e a h , s o l e t ' s h a v e a l o o k a t t h i s . E v e r y b o d y seemed t o g e t t h i s r i g h t , w e r e t h e r e no p r o b l e m s w i t h t h a t ? S: No. T2: What how come how come y o u managed t o remember t h i s p a r t s o w e l l ? D i d y o u remember M r s . H.'s t r i c k ? S: Unhuh. T2: Do y o u remember t h a t ? Do y o u remember what was i t ? S: " C o o k i e s a r e n ' t v e r y p r e t t y . " T2: S e e , i t w o r k e d . R i g h t , c a u s e um, OK now, w h a t ' s t r i c k i e r i s , c o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t h i s p i c t u r e f o r me? S: A f i s h h a s a c a u d a l f i n . T2: Umhm. S: W h i c h i s a t t h e b a c k , a n d t h e f i s h h a s a a n a l f i n a t t h e b o t t o m t o t h e b a c k o f i t ? And t h e v e n t r a l f i n s a r e u n d e r t h e f i s h b e s i d e i t s p e c t o r a l f i n s . H i s p e c t o r a l f i n i s c l o s e t o t h e g i l l c o v e r . T2: U n b e l i e v a b l e ! S: And t h e g i l l c o v e r i s c l o s e t o t h e e y e and t h e n o s t r i l i s a b o v e t h e mouth a n d t h e mouth i s c l o s e t o t h e e y e and t h e e y e i s c l o s e t o t h e mouth a n d t h e a n d t h e f i s h h a s s c a l e s a l l o v e r i t s body. And t h e d o r s a l f i n i s on i t s b a c k a n d c l o s e t o i t s um on t o p i n t h e m i d d l e ? T2: T h i s i s e x c e l l e n t . A p p a r e n t l y t h e mnemonic s t r a t e g y i s e f f e c t i v e . A r e l a t e d s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e s t h e s p e l l i n g o f a w o r d . We h a v e s e e n i t u s e d i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e t e r m g i l l s : T2.- What do t h e s e g u y s b r e a t h e w i t h ? S: L u n g s . T2: L u n g s . How do b i r d s b r e a t h e ? No, t h e y h a v e l u n g s t o o . And t h e s e g u y s h a v e l u n g s t o o . What do t h e s e g u y s h a v e ? To b r e a t h e ? You do i t h e r e . You know what t h e s e a r e c a l l e d on t h e s i d e o f a f i s h ? B e g i n s w i t h a g. C h a p t e r 3 - 1 0 5 -S: F i n s ? Tl. - Open on t h e s i d e s o f t h e i r f a c e s ? T2: OK, y o u ' r e g o i n g t o l e a r n t h i s . T l : K i n d e r g a r t e n e r s a r e , c a u s e t h e y know. T2: G i l l s . S: G i l l s . T 2 : And t h e s e g u y s h a v e b o t h ( r e f e r r i n g t o a m p h i b i a n s ) . 5: L u n g s and g i l l s . Tl.- T h ey d o n ' t a l w a y s h a v e b o t h w o r k i n g a t t h e same t i m e . The l e t t e r i s u s e d t o h i n t a t t h e d e s i r e d w o r d , b u t i t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s ' a n s w e r s t h a t t h e y do n o t know i t . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s u s e d a g a i n i n s e s s i o n t h i r t e e n f o r a t e r m w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y know b u t seem u n a b l e t o remember: T l : What d o e s a f i s h do w i t h i t s body f o r s p e e d ? H: I t p u s h e s ? S: P u s h e s i t w i t h h i s f i n s . Tl.- The w o r d b e g i n s w i t h f_. S: The f i s h u s e s i t s b o d y t o , t h e f i s h u s e s i t s body t o . T l : T r y t o remember c o r r e c t l y h e r e . What i s t h a t w o r d t h a t s t a r t e d w i t h f ? S: S e u l 1 i n q ? T l : F l i p s . (...) T2: Y o u ' v e g i v e n t h i s s e n t e n c e l o t s o f t i m e s a b o u t i t . S o m e t h i n g a b o u t i t s w h o l e body. S: "And t h e f i s h u s e s i t s w h o l e body t o h a v e more s p e e d . " T2: How d o e s i t do t h a t ? Does i t jump o u t o f t h e w a t e r ? S: No. T2: Does i t f l y ? S: No. T2: You f o r g o t t h a t w o r d a g a i n , t h a t b e g i n s w i t h f. S: F l i p s . The f i r s t t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s g u e s s w i l d l y ( s e u l 1 i n q ! ) b u t t h e n e x t t i m e t h e y remember i t . The t e a c h e r ' s r e c a l l s t r a t e g y seems t o be t o a s s o c i a t e t h e t e r m w i t h i t s o r t h o g r a p h i c f o r m r a t h e r t h a n t o u s e any o t h e r p o s s i b l e mnemonic. I t r e m a i n s t o be s e e n w h e t h e r t h i s a i d s l o n g - t e r m r e t e n t i o n o r n o t . The " c o o k i e s " s t r a t e g y a p p e a r s t o be e f f e c t i v e o v e r an e x t e n d e d C h a p t e r 3 -106-p e r i o d o f t i m e , b u t b o t h t h i s a n d t h e i n i t i a l a r e r e c a l l t e c h n i q u e s , n o t i n i t i a l d e c o d i n g / t e c h n i q u e s . l e t t e r s t r a t e g y u n d e r s t a n d i n g A n a l o g y A s t r a t e g y t h a t i s u s e d a number o f t i m e s i s a n a l o g y , c o m p a r i n g an o b j e c t o r a p r o c e s s t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e p r e s u m a b l y f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t u d e n t s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h i s n o t a l w a y s s u c c e s s f u l . I n s e s s i o n n i n e an a n a l o g y a r e u s e d t o e x p l a i n f e r t i 1 i z e ; a r e l a t e d t e r m , m i l k y f l u i d , i s a l s o d e f i n e d . S ( r e a d i n g ) : " G o l d f i s h a r e e g g - l a y e r s . F i r s t a f e m a l e f i s h l a y s h e r t i n y e g g s on t h e w a t e r . And he t h e n , t h e m a i n f i s h " . T l : " M a l e f i s h " . S: "Then t h e m a l e f i s h " . . . T l : " F e r t i l i z e s " . S: " F e r t i l i z e s t h e e g g s by r e l e a s i n g a m i l k y " . . . T l : " F l u i d " . S: " F l u i d on them. I f he d o e s n o t do t h i s t h e e g g s w i l l n o t h a t c h " . Two t e r m s , f e r t i 1 i z e a n d f l u i d , a r e e x p l a i n e d s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t h e s i t a t e d w h i l e r e a d i n g t h e t e x t . The f i r s t , f e r t i 1 i z e i s e x p l a i n e d by a n a l o g y , c o m p a r i n g p r o c e s s e s ; f l u i d i s p r e s e n t e d a s a s u b t y p e " s o r t o f a l i q u i d . " Tl.- "The m a l e f i s h f e r t i l i z e s t h e e g g s by r e l e a s i n g a m i l k y f l u i d on them". Does y o u r Mom o r Dad e v e r f e r t i l i z e t h e l a w n ? S.- Umhm. T l : I n t h e s p r i n g t i m e , a nd what h a p p e n s t o t h e l a w n a f t e r t h e y f e r t i l i z e i t ? S: They grow. C h a p t e r 3 - 1 0 7 -T l : T h ey grow. W e l l , i t ' s t h e same t h i n g w i t h t h e e g g s . T h e y p u t f e r t i l i z e r on them and t h e n t h e y g r o w i n t o f i s h . S: Umhm. T 2 : What's a n o t h e r name f o r f l u i d ? S: A s o r t o f l i q u i d . T 2 : R i g h t . I n s e s s i o n t e n , t h e s t u d e n t s remember f e r t i 1 i z e r . and f l u i d a l t h o u g h one s t u d e n t , e v e n a f t e r more d i s c u s s i o n , s t i l l d o e s n ' t u n d e r s t a n d what m i l k y f l u i d i s : T l : OK t h i s i s t h e f e m a l e l a y i n g t h e e g g s , i s i t ? OK, t h i s i s t h e m a l e f e r t i l i z i n g them? S: Y e a h . T l : OK, t h e m a l e f e r t i l i z e s t h e e g g s w i t h w h a t ? S: F e r t i l i z e . T 2 : M i l k y . S: F l u i d . Tl.- OK, i t l o o k s l i k e t h e m a l e i s f e r t i l i z i n g t h e e g g s w i t h e g g s . You h a v e t o show somewhere t h a t t h e m i l k y f l u i d i s c o m i n g o u t . (...) T l : I ' d l i k e t o s e e some m i l k y f l u i d c o m i n g down on t h o s e e g g s . S: What's m i l k y f l u i d ? T l : T h a t ' s what t h e m a l e f e r t i l i z e s t h e e g g s w i t h . By t h e e n d o f t h e l e s s o n t h e r e i s s t i l l d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e s e t e r m s : S: The m a l e f i s h comes a l o n g a n d f e r t i l i z e . T 2 : F e r t i l i z e s . S: The f e m a l e ' s e g g s t h e w i t h t h o u s a n d s o f e g g s . T 2 : W i t h w h a t ? S: W i t h h i s m i l k . T 2 : M i l k y f l u i d . S: M i l k y f l u i d . T 2 : Who c o u l d r e p e a t t h a t w h o l e s e n t e n c e ? S: The m a l e f e r t i l i z e s t h e e g g s w i t h m i l k y f l u i d ? T 2 : OK. U s i n g a n a l o g y a s a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be e f f e c t i v e . The t e r m s f e r t i 1 i z e a n d m i l k y f l u i d a r e n o t c l e a r l y C h a p t e r 3 - 1 0 8 -d e f i n e d . One i s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e o t h e r , a n d i f a s t u d e n t w e r e t o u n d e r s t a n d n e i t h e r , t h e n he o r s h e i s n o t e n l i g h t e n e d by t h e e x p r e s s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t m i g h t h a v e b e e n i n s t r u c t i v e t o h a v e h a d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n e x p l a i n e d more c l e a r l y ; i f t h e s t u d e n t t h e n u n d e r s t o o d f e r t i 1 i z e t h e p r o b l e m w i t h m i l k y f l u i d m i g h t a l s o be r e s o l v e d . T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t some t e r m s a r e more c e n t r a l t o a c o n c e p t t h a n o t h e r s a n d t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be a p r e f e r r e d s e q u e n c e i n w h i c h t e r m s s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d f o r optimum c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d a c q u i s i t i o n . I n s e s s i o n t w e l v e a n e x e r c i s e h a s t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g a t e x t w h i c h e m p l o y s an a n a l o g y : " G o l d f i s h swim w i t h t h e i r f i n s , b o dy and t a i l . T h ey u s e t h e i r f i n s l i k e o a r s . B o t h w o r k t o g e t h e r t o s e n d t h e f i s h a h e a d . The g o l d f i s h c a n s t a y i n one s p o t b y m o v i n g i t s f i n s g e n t l y . I t u s e s i t s t a i l a s a r u d d e r t o t u r n l e f t o r r i g h t . The g o l d f i s h c a n go f o r w a r d o r b a c k w a r d , up o r down. The s m a l l f i n s h e l p t h e g o l d f i s h t o b a l a n c e . O t h e r w i s e a s t r o n g f l i p o f i t s t a i l w o u l d make t h e g o l d f i s h s p i n a r o u n d i n s t e a d o f g o i n g f o r w a r d . As t h e g o l d f i s h s w i m s , i t moves i t s f i n s g e n t l y i n s w i n g i n g i t s t a i l l i k e a man s c u l l i n g a b o a t . B u t when t h e r e i s d a n g e r , t h e g o l d f i s h f l i p s t h e w h o l e b a c k o f i t s b ody f r o m s i d e t o s i d e t o g e t more s p e e d . " The s t u d e n t s s a y t h e y d o n ' t h a v e any p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e t e x t , b u t t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o a q u e s t i o n i n v i t e s t h e t e a c h e r t o g i v e a l o n g e r e x p l a n a t i o n : T l : OK, a n y p r o b l e m w o r d s t h e r e ? S: No. T l : A l l know what a r u d d e r i s ? S: Y e a h . Tl. - Where w o u l d y o u f i n d a r u d d e r ? C h a p t e r 3 -109-S: On i t s t a i 1. T l : OK, b u t t h a t ' s , i t s a y s , " i t u s e s i t s t a i l a s a r u d d e r " . S: Oh, y e a h . T l : What do y o u t h i n k t h a t means, t o t u r n r i g h t o r l e f t ? S: To move o r l i k e , T l : OK, s l i p o v e r t o t h e n e x t page. See t h i s . See t h i s p i c t u r e . S: Oh. T l : See. S: I t u s e s t o . Tl.- T h a t ' s , i t g i v e s i t , i t makes t h e d i r e c t i o n s o i f i t moves i t s t a i l one way, S: J u s t l i k e t h e o a r s , r i g h t ? T l : Y e a h . S: I t t u r n s a r o u n d . T l : I t t u r n s t h a t way. I f i t moves i t t h i s way, i t ' l l t u r n t h a t way. So i t u s e s i t t o h e l p i t go i n w h a t e v e r d i r e c t i o n i t want t o go i n . T h a t ' s what a r u d d e r i s . E v e n t h o u g h a s t u d e n t may s a y s h e knows a t e r m , we c a n o n l y be c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h i s i s a f a c t when sh e h a s r e s p o n d e d p r o p e r l y t o i t u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s w h e r e no o t h e r c l u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , o r when t h e s t u d e n t u s e s i t a c t i v e l y i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e manner. The s t r a t e g y u s e d i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e t e r m s i s t o a s s o c i a t e them w i t h a g r a p h i c . A l s o one s t u d e n t c o m p a r e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f a r u d d e r t o t h a t o f o a r s . The n e x t s e s s i o n s p r o v i d e o c c a s i o n s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o u s e some o f t h e s e new t e r m s and we may be a b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s u s e d h e r e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s e s s i o n t h e r e i s an c o m p a r i s o n o f f i s h t o b o a t s . As was o b s e r v e d e a r l i e r , c o m p a r i s o n i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y w h i c h r e l a t e s t e r m s w h i c h h a v e o v e r l a p p i n g f e a t u r e s . The s t u d e n t s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y a s s o c i a t i n g t h e two c o n c e p t s a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n f u s e o r i n v e r t t h e C h a p t e r 3 - 1 1 0 -c o m p a r a t i v e s : S: The f i s h u s e s . T l : So f a r s o goo d . What do t h e y u s e f o r o a r s ? S: I t s t a i l s . T l : A l l r i g h t , y o u ' r e c o n f u s e d . (...) S: A f i s h u s e s i t s o a r s a s . T l : F i n s . S: Oh y e a h , f i n s a s an o a r . (...) 3: The f i s h u s e s i t s f i n s l i k e a r u d d e r . Tl. - OK, y o u ' v e g o t a l l o f them e x c e p t one w o r d a nd i t ' s a p r e t t y i m p o r t a n t w o r d . Y o u s a i d t h a t i t u s e s i t s f i n s l i k e o a r s . The t e a c h e r h a s t h e s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e t h e a n a l o g y , u s i n g t h e more f o r m a l t e r m s : T l : What d i d i t u s e l i k e a r u d d e r ? S: A f i s h u s e s i t s i t s t a i l a s a r u d d e r . T l : OK. H: Or a bo d y ? Tl. - No, t h a t ' s f r o m t h e t h i r d one, t h e bod y . H e r e ' s a t r i c k y one. We c o u l d s a y , we c o u l d a l s o s a y t h e f i s h u s e s i t s what f i n l i k e a r u d d e r ? S: C a u d a l f i n . (...) T 2: So we c o u l d s a y , "The f i s h u s e s i t s f i n s l i k e o a r s . " Now j u s t l i k e we c h a n g e d t a i 1 t o c a u d a l f i n , we c o u l d s a y i n s t e a d o f j u s t s a y i n g f i n s , we c o u l d s a y e x a c t l y w h i c h f i n s i t u s e s l i k e o a r s , OK? So w h i c h f i n s d o e s i t u s e l i k e o a r s ? S: D o r s a l . T 2: The d o r s a l . S: The a n a l . a n d t h e v e n t r a l . T 2: V e n t r a l , OK. So who c o u l d g i v e me a s e n t e n c e w i t h t h o s e t h r e e k i n d s o f f i n s ? The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s s e s s i o n c o n t i n u e s t o compare t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e f i n s on a f i s h t o t h a t o f t h e o a r s a n d r u d d e r on a b o a t . T e x t - o r i g i n a t e d l a n g u a g e a p p e a r s t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t e a c h e r - p r e s e n t e d l a n g u a g e as c a n be s e e n when t h e t e r m s a s and C h a p t e r 3 -111-1 i k e a r e u s e d : S I : "A f i s h u s e s i t s o a r s a s . . . " T l : " f i n s " S I : Oh y e a h . "... f i n s a s a n o a r . " T l : T h a t ' s a l i t t l e b i t m i x e d up b u t y o u ' r e r i g h t . A f i s h u s e s i t s f i n s l i k e o a r s . S2: I ' l l do one. "The f i s h u s e s i t s f i n s l i k e a r u d d e r . . . " T l : You s a i d i t u s e s i t s f i n s l i k e o a r s . What d i d i t u s e l i k e a r u d d e r ? S2: A f i s h u s e s i t s . u s e s i t s t a i l a s a r u d d e r . I n t h e s e two e x c h a n g e s t h e s t u d e n t s u s e a s w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r u s e s 1 i k e , e v e n i n r e p e a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s s e n t e n c e " v e r b a t i m " . I n f a c t , t h e t e a c h e r n e v e r u s e s a s i n t h i s s e s s i o n a s a c o m p a r a t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n . The s t u d e n t s on t h e o t h e r h a n d a p p e a r a b l e t o s w i t c h b e t w e e n them. Why a r e t h e y u s i n g as i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , s i n c e t h e t e a c h e r i s n o t u s i n g i t ? I f t h e t e x t i s e x a m i n e d , we s e e t h a t b o t h w o r d s a r e u s e d : " t h e y u s e t h e i r f i n s l i k e o a r s " a n d " i t u s e s i t s t a i l a s a r u d d e r . " The t e x t a p p e a r s t o be an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f s t y l e a nd v o c a b u l a r y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s , e v e n when, as i n t h i s c a s e , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e t a l k i n g w i t h o u t t h e d i r e c t a i d o f t h e t e x t . A n a l o g y a s a s t r a t e g y d o e s n o t seem t o w o r k f o r e x p l a i n i n g f e r t i 1 i z e , a n d r u d d e r becomes c o n f u s e d w i t h o a r . O t h e r w o r d - f o c u s s e d s t r a t e g i e s h a v e a l s o b e e n shown n o t t o be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e . O v e r a l l , i t a p p e a r s t h a t d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e f o r t e a c h i n g a p a s s i v e r e c o g n i t i o n k n o w l e d g e o f l e x i c a l t e r m s , and i t d o e s n o t seem t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s f o r m i n g an a c t i v e p r o d u c t i v e v o c a b u l a r y . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 1 2 -I n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h we h a v e l o o k e d a t t o t h i s p o i n t a r e t h e i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s i n w h i c h t h e t e r m s t o be t a u g h t a r e n o t t h e f o c u s o f t h e l e s s o n , b u t r a t h e r t h e medium f o r t h e m e s s a g e . T h i s c a n t a k e t h e f o r m o f "Here i s t h e name o f t h e t h i n g , now l e t ' s t a l k a b o u t t h e t h i n g , " o r e v e n more u n o b t r u s i v e l y , i n t r o d u c i n g a t e r m w i t h o u t any e x p l a n a t i o n , l e a v i n g t h e d e c o d i n g e n t i r e l y t o t h e s t u d e n t s who must d e r i v e t h e m e a n i n g f r o m t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t i s p r e s e n t e d . The c o n t e x t t h e r e f o r e becomes e s s e n t i a l , and t h e r i c h e r t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e t e r m i s p r e s e n t e d t h e more p r o b a b l e i t w o u l d seem t o be t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l u n d e r s t a n d and p e r h a p s u s e t h e t e r m . One c a n s p e c u l a t e a s t o what a i d s t h e s t u d e n t s i n l e a r n i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l t e r m s i n t r o d u c e d i n s e s s i o n f i v e . T h e r e a r e two t e r m s u s e d , v e r t e b r a t e and a p p e n d a g e , w h i c h a r e c o m p a r a b l e i n t e r m s o f p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y and o f f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e i n g e n e r a l s p e e c h ( l o w f r e q u e n c y ) , and e a c h o f w h i c h h a s a s i m p l e r e q u i v a l e n t , "has a b a c k b o n e " ; " a t t a c h e d t o t h e body". B o t h t e r m s a r e i n t r o d u c e d o r a l l y . I t i s n o t a q u e s t i o n o f a l r e a d y h a v i n g a s u i t a b l e t e r m a v a i l a b l e , a s was s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r w i t h " c r a s h - u p c a r s " . I t c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e some o f t h e t e r m s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n on t h e b o a r d , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o a c c e s s them e a s i l y , w h i l e o t h e r s w h i c h w e r e n o t C h a p t e r 3 - 1 1 3 -w r i t t e n a r e l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . The s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o h a v e l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y u s i n g v e r t e b r a t e w h i c h i s a node on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e w h i c h i s w r i t t e n on t h e b o a r d , b u t t h e y n e v e r u s e a p p e n d a g e s , w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y i s n o t w r i t t e n on t h e b o a r d . T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e f a c t o r s w h i c h may be i n o p e r a t i o n : w h e t h e r t h e t e r m i s w r i t t e n o r j u s t u s e d o r a l l y , f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n a n d r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e ( c e n t r a l i t y v s . n o n - c e n t r a l i t y ) o f t h e t e r m . T h e s e f a c t o r s a r e c o n f o u n d e d b e c a u s e t e r m s o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e a r e more l i k e l y t o be w r i t t e n on t h e b o a r d . I t c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f one c o n s i d e r s a t e r m t o be i m p o r t a n t a n d w i s h e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n i t , t h e n p r e s e n t i n g i t i n w r i t t e n f o r m w i l l a s s i s t i n i t s a c q u i s i t i o n a n d u s e . V e r t e b r a t e ( s ) i s u s e d o r a l l y t h i r t e e n t i m e s by t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g a f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n , w h i l e a p p e n d a g e i s o n l y u s e d o n c e . I t m i g h t be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e f o r m e r t e r m i s more c e n t r a l t h a n t h e l a t t e r ; we must a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e p e t i t i o n t o be a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g . T h e r e a r e more f a c t o r s w h i c h c l o u d t h e i s s u e t h o u g h . V e r t e b r a t e i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n : T2: T h e r e ' s a n o t h e r way t o d i v i d e up a n i m a l s . I j u s t t h o u g h t I ' d s h a r e t h i s w i t h y o u t o d a y . T h e r e a r e , I d o n ' t know e v e n i f I c a n s p e l l i t : v e r t e b r a t e s . (...) T2: M r s . H. knows what t h e s e a r e b e t t e r t h a n I do. Do y o u know, do y o u remember a good d e f i n i t i o n ? C h a p t e r 3 - 1 1 4 -Tl.- W e l l , v e r t e b r a t e s a r e a n i m a l s t h a t h a v e a b a c k b o n e . T2: OK, t h a t ' s t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e . Some a n i m a l s h a v e a b a c k b o n e a nd some d o n ' t . Where's y o u r b a c k b o n e ? S s : H e r e . Down h e r e . Appendage i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : T: T h e r e a r e t h i n g s t h a t a r e c a l l e d , t h e y c a l l t hem a p p e n d a g e s and t h e y ' r e t h i n g s l i k e e x t r a b i t s f r o m y o u r b o d y a nd t h e s e g u y s h a v e l e g s a n d l i m b s a n d what do t h e s e g u y s h a v e e x t r a b i t s f r o m t h e i r b o d i e s ? S: F e e t . We c a n s e e t h a t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e b y d e f i n i t i o n i s much c l e a r e r t h a n t h a t o f ap p e n d a g e by e n u m e r a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t a p h y s i c a l l e v e l may be a f a c t o r . T hey a r e a s k e d t o show w h e r e t h e i r own b a c k b o n e i s , b u t a r e n o t a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r a p p e n d a g e s . Thus v e r t e b r a t e h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h t h r e e m e d i a , a u r a l , v i s u a l a n d p h y s i c a l . I n s e s s i o n n i n e t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s b e i n g t a u g h t a n d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s h i f t i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m i n o l o g y . F i r s t l y t h e r e i s a s h i f t t o a more t e c h n i c a l s t y l e , r e p l a c i n g k i n d a n d t y p e w i t h s p e c i e s . S e c o n d l y , up t o t h i s p o i n t , t h i n g s h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d b y s t a t i c f e a t u r e s s u c h a s body p a r t s . Now p r o c e s s e s a r e i n v o l v e d , a n d i n s t e a d o f k i n d o r t y p e , way i s u s e d : " F i s h r e p r o d u c e i n two b a s i c w a y s . " S: " G o l d f i s h a r e e g g - l a y e r s . F i r s t a f e m a l e f i s h l a y s h e r t i n y e g g s on t h e w a t e r . And he t h e n , t h e m a i n f i s h . " T l : " M a l e f i s h . " S: "Then t h e m a l e f i s h . " C h a p t e r 3 - 1 1 5 -T l : F e r t i l i z e s . " 3: " F e r t i l i z e s t h e e g g s by r e l e a s i n g a m i l k y . " T l : " F l u i d . " S: " F l u i d on them. I f he d o e s n o t do t h i s t h e e g g s w i l l n o t h a t c h . " T l : OK, go a h e a d . A., y o u c a n r e a d t h e r e s t . 3: "Not a l l t h e e g g s h a t c h . T h o s e t h a t do h a t c h i n l e s s t h a n a week." T l : OK, i s t h e r e a comma t h e r e ? "Those t h a t do, h a t c h i n l e s s t h a n a week." I t ' s i m p o r t a n t t o p u t t h a t p a u s e i n t h e r e , b e c a u s e t h e s o u n d o f t h e s e n t e n c e makes s e n s e . A l l r i g h t , t h e r e ' s q u i t e a few t h i n g s t h a t y o u p r o b a b l y d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d . L e t ' s go b a c k t o t h e b e g i n n i n g . " G o l d f i s h a r e e g g - l a y e r s . " Now, t h e y t o l d y o u t h e r e w e r e two - d o n ' t l o o k a t y o u r b o o k s - two ways t h a t g o l d f i s h r e p r o d u c e . One o f them was w h a t ? S: E g g s ? Tl.- E g g - l a y e r s , OK. And what was a n o t h e r one? S: F e r t i l i z e s ? T l : L i v e - b e a r e r s . Y o u d i d n ' t remember t h e b e a r e r s p a r t . L i v e - b e a r e r s . G u p p i e s a r e l i v e - b e a r e r s a n d when gup-, when f e m a l e g u p p i e s h a v e b a b y f i s h , t h e y g e t r e a l l y f a t i n t h e i r s t o m a c h s j u s t l i k e p e o p l e do when t h e y h a v e b a b i e s a n d a l l o f a s u d d e n a l l s o r t s o f f i s h w i l l be swimming a r o u n d i n s i d e t h e a q u a r i u m . T h e y d o n ' t 1 ay e g g s . I t i s n o t c l e a r how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e c o n c e p t s . S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t m i s r e a d s m a i n f o r m a l e , i t i s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e t e r m m a l e i s u n d e r s t o o d , a l t h o u g h i t m i g h t be f i g u r e d o u t b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o n o m i n a l r e f e r e n t he. As h a s b e e n shown i n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s , many t e r m s p r e s e n t e d a r e n o t u n d e r s t o o d by t h e s t u d e n t s . S e s s i o n t e n c o n t i n u e s t h e same t o p i c , e x a m i n i n g t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e c y c l e . A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s show some c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n e g g - l a y e r s and l i v e - b e a r e r s , t h e t e a c h e r g i v e s a much more e x p l i c i t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n e g g - l a y e r and 1 i v e - b e a r e r : C h a p t e r 3 -116-T2: Do y o u remember t h e two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n t h a t f i s h c o u l d do? S: L a y i n g e g g s and b u r y h e r ? B u r y h e r ? L i v e b e a r b e a r e r s . T2: We h a d t h e f i s h a n d r e p r o d u c t i o n . Then t h e r e was two k i n d s . What was one k i n d ? L i v e - b e a r e r s a n d t h e o t h e r k i n d s ? S: L a y i n g e g g . T2: No, t h e y w e re c a l l e d e g g - l a y e r s . OK, what w e r e l i v e - b e a r e r s ? What d o e s i t mean? You've g o t t h e name, a 1 i v e - b e a r e r , b u t what d o e s t h a t mean? S: Eggs t h a t a r e a l i v e . T2: W e l l , t h e s e e g g s a r e a l i v e . S: Oh. Some a n i m a l s t h a t d o n ' t l a y e g g s , some o f them do l a y e g g s , y o u mean. T2.- OK, t h e s e g u y s l a y e g g s . T h e y ' r e e g g - l a y e r s . Maybe w e ' l l s t a r t w i t h t h e e a s y one. (...) T l : The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e g g - l a y e r s a n d t h e l i v e - b e a r e r s i s t h e e g g - l a y e r s t h e e g g s d e v e l o p a n d t u r n i n t o f i s h o u t s i d e t h e m o t h e r ' s body a n d t h e l i v e - b e a r e r s t h e e g g s t u r n i n t o f i s h i n s i d e t h e m o t h e r ' s b o d y and t h e n s h e l e t s them o u t when t h e y ' r e a l r e a d y f i s h . D e s p i t e t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , i t w i l l be s e e n i n t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f 1 i v e - b e a r e r i s s t i l l n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d : T2: Now l e t ' s s e e i f what y o u c a n remember w i t h o u t l o o k i n g . A. s a i d t h e r e w e re two k i n d s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n . Remember what t h e y w e r e ? S: T h e r e ' s a e g g - l a y e r a n d e g g - b e a r e r . T2: And a ... e g g - b e a r e r a n d a . . . Tl.- E g g - l a y e r . T2: E g g - l a y e r a n d a... T l : What's t h e o t h e r k i n d ? S: Guppy. T2: G u p p i e s . T l : G u p p i e s a r e t h e o t h e r k i n d . T2: Yep. T l : What do t h e y do t h o u g h , what do t h e y c a l l them? T2 .- T h e y don ' t 1 ay e g g s . T l : T h ey h a v e b a b y f i s h , t h e y ' r e , t h e y d o n ' t h a v e e g g s s o what do we c a l l them? S: B e a r e r s . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 1 7 -T l : B e a r e r s i s a p a r t o f i t . What's t h e f i r s t w o r d ? S: E g g - b e a r e r s ? T l : No, c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t h a v e e g g s , t h e y h a v e , w e l l t h e y h a v e e g g s i n s i d e t h e i r body b u t t h e n t h e y , when t h e , when t h e f i s h come o u t o f t h e i r b o d y , t h e y ' r e n o t an e g g any more. T2: How a r e t h e i r b a b i e s b o r n ? T l : S t a r t s w i t h a n 1 T2: i ^ S: L i v e . T2: L i v e ! Tl. - Y e s , y o u ' v e g o t i t . T2: Y e a h , l i v e - b e a r e r s , t h e y a r e b o r n . (...) Y e s t h e y a r e , b u t t h e y ' r e a l s o l i v e . So t h e r e a r e two k i n d s . The s t u d e n t s remember e g g - b e a r e r , b u t c a n n o t r e c a l l 1 i v e - b e a r e r , e v e n w i t h a l l t h e c o a c h i n g by t h e t e a c h e r s . They know t h e c o n c e p t , b e c a u s e t h e y a s s o c i a t e g u p p i e s w i t h i t , b u t t h e y f a i l t o r e c a l l t h e l a b e l . The s t u d e n t s o n l y d e v e l o p t h e c o n c e p t t o t h e p o i n t o f c o n s i d e r i n g i t t h e a n t o n y m o f e g g - l a y e r . T h i s f a i l u r e t o a c q u i r e t h e c o n c e p t may be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f p r a c t i c e t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e w i t h t h e t e r m , s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o u s e i t a g a i n . T h i s may be p u t f o r w a r d a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s t r a t e g y f o r t e a c h i n g t h e t e r m i n s e s s i o n s n i n e and t e n h a s some w e a k n e s s . One s t e p w h i c h d o e s n o t o c c u r i s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e p e a t t h e t e r m a f t e r i t i s d i s c u s s e d . As i s s e e n i n o t h e r c a s e s , t e r m s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t a c t i v e l y u s e , be i t i s a s l i t t l e a s r e p e a t i n g t h e t e r m , do n o t seem t o be l e a r n e d a s w e l l a s t h o s e w h i c h t h e y do u s e . C h a p t e r 3 -118-I n s e s s i o n n i n e t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t r o u b l e w i t h r e p r o d u c t i o n a n d s p e c i e s , a n d t h e t e a c h e r s t a k e c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t t o c l a r i f y t h e t e r m s . T h e y a r e n o t a s e x p l i c i t w i t h e g g - l a y e r , 1 i v e - b e a r e r , f e r t i 1 i z e and m i l k y f l u i d . I n s e s s i o n t e n t h e two modes o f r e p r o d u c t i o n a r e c l e a r l y c o n t r a s t e d , and t h e r e seems t o be no f u r t h e r c o n f u s i o n . T h i s may be e v i d e n c e t h a t c o n t r a s t i n g t e r m s i s an e f f e c t i v e m e t hod o f e s t a b l i s h i n g m e a n i n g , b u t d o e s n o t a i d i n l o n g - t e r m r e t e n t i o n s i n c e by t h e l a s t s e s s i o n one o f t h e t e r m s ( 1 i v e - b e a r e r s ) i s f o r g o t t e n . T h e r e a r e o f c o u r s e a number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o o r h i n d e r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y , i n c l u d i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e y o n d t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o n t r o l . I t h a s b e e n n o t e d t h a t d e s p i t e t h e h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e c o n t e x t - r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e t e r m i s i n t r o d u c e d , c r a s h - u p c a r s i s r e j e c t e d by t h e s t u d e n t s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e y a l r e a d y h a v e a n o t h e r e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e t e r m , c r a s h c a r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , v e n t r a l f i n , w h i c h h a s no e v e r y d a y e q u i v a l e n t , i s a p p a r e n t l y l e a r n e d w i t h a minimum o f t e a c h e r i n v o l v e m e n t . I t i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e mnemonic " C o o k i e s a r e . . . " , and i s o n l y named o n c e by t h e t e a c h e r ; i t s l o c a t i o n on t h e body i s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r f i n s . The g r a p h i c w i t h t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g t e x t seems t o be t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n i t s a c q u i s i t i o n . C h a p t e r 3 -119-S e s s i o n s i x w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s t h e p a r t s o f t h e f i s h p r e s e n t s new v o c a b u l a r y w i t h a p i c t u r e o f a f i s h a s a m a j o r s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . B e c a u s e t h e g r a p h i c i m p o s e s a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e t e r m s , t h e v o c a b u l a r y i s l e a r n e d w i t h i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f r a m e w o r k . T h a t i s t o s a y , r a t h e r t h a n l e a r n i n g t h e t e r m s i n , s a y , a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d a s p a r t o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i s m i t s e l f . T h i s r e s u l t s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d l a n g u a g e b e i n g u s e d by b o t h t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . T h e r e a r e a c e r t a i n number o f t e c h n i c a l t e r m s ( t h e names f o r t h e f i n s ) , as w e l l a s d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s , i . e . , t e r m s o f s h a p e , s i z e , p o s i t i o n , amount. The s t u d e n t s u s e a number o f p o s i t i o n t e r m s ( i . e . , s p a t i a l a d v e r b s and l o c a t i v e p r e p o s i t i o n s ) i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e meronomous t e r m s o f b o d y pa r t s . - a t t h e e n d , t h e r e , up t h e r e , on t h e t o p , down h e r e , on  i t s b a c k , n e a r i t s e y e s , a l l o v e r t h e b o d y , a b o v e t h e mouth, c l o s e t o i t s mouth. B e c a u s e t h e a p p e n d a g e s o f a f i s h a r e a l l i m m e d i a t e l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e b o d y ( u s e d i n t h e s e n s e o f a s u b - p a r t o f t h e w h o l e ) , t h e r e i s no c h a i n o f c o n n e c t i o n s s u c h a s we c a n e s t a b l i s h w i t h n a i 1 - f i n g e r - h a n d - arm. The m a j o r p a r t s o f t h e b ody o f t h e f i s h c a n be i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e h e a d , b a c k and b e l l y , t e r m s w h i c h a r e a l l u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s . The g r a p h i c , w i t h a h i g h i n f o r m a t i o n l o a d , p l a y s a k e y r o l e b e c a u s e i t v i s u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n and C h a p t e r 3 -120-s h a p e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s w i t h o u t t h e n e e d f o r a l o t o f v e r b a l i z i n g , a n d a t t h e same t i m e p r e s e n t s t h e w r i t t e n f o r m o f t h e t e r m s . The s t u d e n t s a p p e a r a b l e t o make t h e l i n k s among t h e d i f f e r e n t modes ( w r i t i n g , speech', g r a p h i c s ) . The g r a p h i c i s e v i d e n t l y e f f e c t i v e , f o r t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g t h e t e r m s , o t h e r t h a n i n m a k i n g a few e r r o r s i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n . An i m p o r t a n t e x a m p l e o f a w o r d - s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g e v e n t i s i n s e s s i o n f o u r t e e n when t h e r e i s a r o l e - r e v e r s a l a n d t h e t e a c h e r l e a r n s s o m e t h i n g f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s a b o u t one o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s : S: Y e s t e r d a y , y o u know, was I n d i a n t r i c k o r t r e a t , H a l l o w e e n . T: Y o u ' r e k i d d i n g me. S: Y e a h . S: Oh, I c a l l i t . S: I n d i a n H a l l o w e e n a nd t h e b r o t h e r h a s t o g i v e o u t s w e e t s . S: Oh y e a h , i n I n d i a , r i g h t ? S: Y e a h . L o h r i . S: Then t h e b r o t h e r h a s t o g i v e money t o t h e s i s t e r s . S: They d o n ' t c a l l i t , t h e y d o n ' t c a l l i t , t h e y d o n ' t c a l l i t H a l l o w e e n , t h e y c a l l i t L o h r i . T: L o l i ? S: L o h r i . S: L o h r i n g . S: L o h r i . T: How w o u l d y o u s p e l l i t ? 1.o. S: L . o . h . r . i . S: L o h r i . T: L o h r i . OK. What's i t ? I s i t a r e l i g i o u s h o l i d a y o r j u s t a f u n h o l i d a y ? S: I t ' s l i k e H a l l o w e e n , l i k e H a l l o w e e n , l i k e t h e b r o t h e r h a s t o g i v e o u t s w e e t s and l a t e r on he h a s t o g i v e t h e s i s t e r s money. T l : B u t a t . B u t a t H a l l o w e e n p e o p l e g e t d r e s s e d up and a l l o f t h a t s t u f f . C h a p t e r 3 -121-S: No, no . No . T l : You d o n ' t do t h a t ? S: No b u t . The s i s t e r s . I t ' s a d i f f e r e n t H a l l o w e e n . T l : B u t y o u d o n ' t go t r i c k o r t r e a t i n g ? S: W e l l , b u t y o u , we go do s o m e t h i n g e l s e . You go t o y o u r b r o t h e r ' s h o u s e . No. You go t o y o u r b r o t h e r ' s h o u s e , y o u r b r o t h e r . B u t d o n ' t y o u r s i s t e r s t i e t h a t , t h e y ' r e s p i t t i n g on a l l t h e t i m e . No, t h a t ' s a n d t h e n t h e y g i v e us money. I g o t f i v e b u c k s , y o u go t o t h e i r h o u s e a n d t h e y g i v e y o u s w e e t s , c a n d i e s a n d money s o m e t i m e s . And s i n g a s o n g . H e r e t h e y s a y , t r i c k o r t r e a t . T h e y h a v e t o s i n g . I g o t f i v e d o l l a r s . T l : D i d y o u ? S: And P u n j a b i f o o d . T h a t ' s i t . T h i s p a s s a g e r e v e r s e s t h e n o r m a l s i t u a t i o n a n d t h e t e a c h e r now l e a r n s a new c u l t u r a l f a c t a n d a v o c a b u l a r y i t e m . The t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e s i n t e r e s t i n t h e comment, and t h e s t u d e n t s e x p a n d on t h e t o p i c . A f t e r m i s p r o n o u n c i n g t h e w o r d L o h r i o n c e , t h e t e a c h e r i m m e d i a t e l y a s k s f o r an o r t h o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a n d t h e n r e p e a t s t h e t e r m , a l t h o u g h s h e d o e s n o t u s e i t a g a i n l a t e r o n . T h i s i s s i m i l a r i n some ways t o t h e p r o c e s s t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n f o l l o w i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e y h a v e n o t t a k e n a s a c t i v e a r o l e i n t h e l e a r n i n g . I n s e s s i o n s i x t h e t e a c h e r p r e s e n t s some t e r m s a nd some e t y m o l o g y : " c a u d a l i s a f a n c y w o r d f o r b e i n g a t t h e b a c k e n d " ; " a n a l i s a w o r d t h a t comes f r o m t h e w o r d a n u s , w h i c h a l s o means a t t h e b a c k o r a t t h e b o t t o m e n d " . I t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t p r e s e n t i n g t h e e t y m o l o g y h a s a n y e f f e c t on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s e t e r m s . C h a p t e r 3 -122-As we h a v e s e e n , r e p e t i t i o n and m u l t i m o d a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e m a j o r s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g v o c a b u l a r y . I t may w e l l be t h a t t h e more e m p h a s i s a t e r m i s g i v e n t h e more i t i s l i k e l y t o be l e a r n e d . T h i s e m p h a s i s may be made by i n d i c a t i n g i t s s e m a n t i c i m p o r t a n c e o r by p r e s e n t i n g i t i n a v a r i e t y o f modes. We h a v e o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s u s e d a s w e l l . D i r e c t w o r d - f o c u s s e d a p p r o a c h e s u s i n g synonyms, d e f i n i t i o n s , t e x t f o r m s and a n a l o g y and i n d i r e c t m e t h o d s h a v e b e e n shown t o be e q u a l l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e i r s u c c e s s i n t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y . I t r e m a i n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o be done t o t e s t w h i c h o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s i s o r a r e t h e most e f f e c t i v e . A t t h e moment, i t a p p e a r s t h a t none o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e o t h e r s . A c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s by s t u d e n t s I f t h e s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s e m p l o y when l e a r n i n g w o r d s a r e e x a m i n e d an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n a p p e a r s . We s h a l l e x a m i n e a number o f i n c i d e n t s w h e r e t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s a r e e v i d e n t , and t h e n comment on t h e a p p a r e n t s y s t e m i n r e l a t i o n t o what we h a v e s e e n t o t h i s p o i n t . The s t u d e n t s s t a r t s e s s i o n s e v e n by d e s c r i b i n g t h e f i s h p i c t u r e w h i c h t h e y h a d l a b e l l e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n . The s t u d e n t s make e r r o r s i n p r o n o u n and a r t i c l e a g r e e m e n t , w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s do n o t c o r r e c t : C h a p t e r 3 - 1 2 3 -S: A f i s h h a s a a f i s h h a s e y e s w h i c h t h e y u s e t o s e e wh e r e t h e y ' r e g o i n g . T l : A f i s h a f i s h h a s e y e s w h i c h t h e y u s e t o s e e w h e r e t h e y ' r e g o i n g . ( . . . ) S: A f i s h h a s a a n a l f i n . T l C a n y o u t e l l me s o m e t h i n g a b o u t i t t h i s t i m e ? Where i s i t ? N e a r i t s e y e ? S: A f i s h h a s a a n a l f i n , a b o v e i t s s c a l e s ? T l : No, n o t a b o v e i t s s c a l e s . Who c a n h e l p ? I t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n i n n o t c o r r e c t i n g t h e s e s y n t a c t i c e r r o r s i s n o t t o d i s t u r b t h e f l o w o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h i s o b v i o u s l y g o i n g on among t h e s t u d e n t s . U s i n g a i n s t e a d o f an o r t h e y i n s t e a d o f i t . d o e s n o t s e r i o u s l y impede c o m m u n i c a t i o n . By c o n t r a s t we s e e t h a t when a l e x i c a l o r s e m a n t i c e r r o r i s made ("above i t s s c a l e s " ) i t i s c o r r e c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y . M o r e o v e r t h e s t u d e n t s a l s o c o r r e c t t h e t e a c h e r when s h e makes l e x i c a l e r r o r s , b u t n e v e r when s h e makes a s y n t a c t i c e r r o r , a s t h e f r e q u e n t i n s t a n c e s o f s e n t e n c e f r a g m e n t s i l l u s t r a t e : Tl.- One. OK w h a t ' s a n o t h e r name f o r t h e d o r s a l f i n ? S: T a i 1 . A t a i 1 . Tl.- A t a i l . OK, now t h e s e n t e n c e s . S: I t ' s a c a u d a l f i n . T l : A c a u d a l f i n , s o r r y , y e a h . (...) Tl.- What a b o u t t h e d o r s a l f i n ? S: C a u d a l . T l : The c a u d a l f i n . I ' v e g o t d o r s a l f i n i n my, s t u c k i n my m i n d t h i s . C a u d a l f i n . What do t h e y do w i t h t h a t ? T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t a c c u r a t e v o c a b u l a r y i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o p e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h e r e a s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , f o r a number o f p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s , do n o t n e e d t o be as p r e c i s e . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 2 4 -I n s e s s i o n t w e l v e t h e t e a c h e r s p e n d s a l o t o f t i m e h e l p i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o i m p r o v e t h e i r w r i t i n g s t y l e by m a k i n g t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y c h o i c e s more v a r i e d . Then t h e y r e a d a t e x t w h i c h a p p e a r s t o h a v e new v o c a b u l a r y t e r m s i n i t ; t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s t o t e a c h t h e s e t e r m s w i l l be e x a m i n e d . The s e s s i o n s t a r t s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r e n c o u r a g i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e t h e i r w r i t i n g , i n c l u d i n g e n h a n c i n g t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y c h o i c e s . I t may be p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e w r i t t e n mode i s s e l e c t e d f o r i m p r o v i n g l a n g u a g e r a t h e r t h a n t h e s p o k e n p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e i t c a n be " f r o z e n " a n d a n a l y z e d a t l e i s u r e a l t h o u g h e a r l i e r comments by t h e t e a c h e r s s u g g e s t t h a t w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y more e l a b o r a t e t h a n i s o r a l l a n g u a g e . The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t t h e f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h on v o c a b u l a r y h a s b e e n on w r i t t e n t e x t s , p o s s i b l y f o r t h e same r e a s o n s . The t e a c h e r b e g i n s by e x p l a i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f e d i t i n g : S: Can we r e a d them i f we want t o ? T l : Y e a h , y o u r e a d them. T h a t w o u l d be b e t t e r . So y o u p r a c t i c e . And t h e n e v e r y b o d y ' 1 1 r e a d t h e i r s t o r y when t h e y ' r e f i n i s h e d . And t h e n w e ' l l go t h r o u g h i t s e n t e n c e by s e n t e n c e , and w e ' l l s e e how we c o u l d make e a c h s e n t e n c e b e t t e r . OK? You c a n a l w a y s make y o u r w r i t i n g b e t t e r . E v e n t h e v e r y , v e r y g o o d w r i t e r s , t h e y w r i t e s o m e t i m e s f o r t y t i m e s . F i n i s h e d ? So y o u p r a c t i c e r e a d i n g i t a n d t h e n w e ' l l g e t y o u t o r e a d i t o u t . And t h e n e a c h one, w e ' l l go t h r o u g h s e n t e n c e by s e n t e n c e and s e e who c a n make them b e t t e r . One o f t h e t h i n g s t o do i s , when y o u r e a d i t a g a i n , c h e c k and s e e , "maybe t h e r e ' s a b e t t e r w o r d I c o u l d u s e . " Maybe i f y o u s a y g o t o r h a s y o u c o u l d t h i n k o f a C h a p t e r 3 -125-b e t t e r w o r d , l i k e d e v e l o p s o r g r o w s o r s o m e t h i n g t h a t w o u l d make i t more m a t u r e w r i t i n g , more grown-up w r i t i n g . (...) T l : Ok. how, l e t ' s w o r k on i t t o g e t h e r t h e n . Anyone l i k e t o go f i r s t ? W i l l y o u go f i r s t ? S: Oh, " f i r s t d a y " . Tl.- So y o u r e a d i t t h r o u g h . S: " F i r s t d a y , t h e f i s h i s i n an e g g . Two d a y s l a t e r , i t s t a r t s t o grow. T h r e e d a y s l a t e r i t h a s two e y e s . F o u r d a y s l a t e r , t h e f i s h h a s some s c a l e s . F i v e d a y s l a t e r , i t h a s b i g g e r e y e s and h a s more s c a l e s . When i t i s a n e w l y - h a t c h e d g o l d f i s h f r y , i t h a s no s c a l e s a nd i s s m a l l , h a s no f i n s . One week l a t e r , i t h a s f i n s a n d s m a l l s c a l e s . Two weeks l a t e r , i t , i t h a s more s c a l e s on i t s body. A f t e r f i v e w e e k s , i t i s s a f e . When i t i s t h r e e months o l d , i t i s f u l l g r o w n and i t i s on i t s own." Tl.- OK. l e t ' s r e a d i t one s e n t e n c e a t a t i m e . S.- She u s e d l a t e r t o o much. T l : T h a t ' s one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t we c o u l d c h a n g e i s , s o m e t i m e s i n y o u r w r i t i n g , i t ' s v e r y g o o d and I I'm n o t a n y , any c r i t i c i s m s I make, do y o u know what a c r i t i c i s m i s ? A n y t h i n g I t e l l y o u t h a t we c o u l d do b e t t e r . D o e s n ' t mean t h a t what y o u ' v e done i s n o t g o o d . I t a l w a y s means t h a t t h e r e a r e t h i n g s , when I w r i t e my own p a p e r s , I g i v e i t t o somebody e l s e a nd t h e y a l w a y s s a y , "Make t h o s e two s e n t e n c e s i n t o one s e n t e n c e " , o r "That s e n t e n c e i s t o o l o n g . Make t h a t i n t o two s e n t e n c e s " . I t c a n , e v e r y b o d y ' s w r i t i n g c a n a l w a y s g e t more w o r k done on i t . So l e t ' s t a k e i t one s e n t e n c e a t a t i m e . and w e ' l l s e e i f i t ' s c o r r e c t a n d w e ' l l a nd t h e n w e ' l l s e e i f t h e r e ' s a n y t h i n g t h a t we c o u l d do t o make i t , a n e a t e r s e n t e n c e . OK, s o l e t ' s r e a d y o u r f i r s t one. S: " F i r s t d a y , t h e f i s h i s i n an e g g . " The t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s a few t e r m s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s m i g h t u s e ( d e v e l o p s , g r o w s ) i n s t e a d o f o t h e r s ( g o t , h a s ) . We s h a l l s e e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a d o p t t h e s e t e r m s . The t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s a t h i r d t e r m , f o r m s : S: "On t h e t h i r d d a y t h e f i s h g r o w s w i t h two e y e s . " T l : OK. on t h e t h i r d d a y , t h e f i s h g r o w s two e y e s . S: I t h a s two e y e s . T l : Or i t h a s two e y e s . Or y o u c a n s a y , d e v e l o p s . S.- E y e s . C h a p t e r 3 -126-T l : D e v e l o p s e y e s . S O r he g r o w s e y e s . Tl.- Or y o u c a n s a y , h e r e ' s a v e r y f a n c y w o r d f o r t h a t . You c a n s a y t h e e y e s f o r m . S: Oh, y e a h . Tl.- Do y o u know t h a t w o r d ? S: Y e a h . T l : Do y o u know t h a t t h e e y e s f o r m ? S: Y e a h . T l : I t means s o m e t h i n g d e v e l o p s o r g r o w s o r , a n d t h o s e a r e t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h a t y o u want t o s t a r t t o t r y t o s n e a k i n t o y o u r w r i t i n g t h a t makes them more grown-up. OK? The s t u d e n t h a s r e p l a c e d "has two e y e s " w i t h "grows two e y e s " , and t h e n s w i t c h e s b a c k t o " h a s " . The t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s d e v e l o p s a n d t h e s t u d e n t r e s p o n d s w i t h g r o w s a g a i n . I t may be t h a t s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t h a s a l r e a d y made one s u b s t i t u t i o n u s i n g a recommended w o r d ( g r o w s f o r h a s ) t h e s e c o n d s u b s t i t u t i o n ( d e v e l o p s ) i s t o o c o n f u s i n g , s i n c e i t w o u l d a p p e a r t o n e g a t e t h e v a l u e o f t h e f i r s t s u b s t i t u t i o n . I t m i g h t be s u g g e s t e d t h a t o n l y one s u b s t i t u t i o n a t a t i m e w o u l d p r o v e more e f f e c t i v e t h a n p r a c t i c i n g a w h o l e s e r i e s o f s u b s t i t u t i o n s . The s k i l l w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r i s f o c u s s i n g on h e r e i s t o be a b l e t o c h o o s e f r o m a s e l e c t i o n o f t e r m s . B e t t e r s t u d e n t s ( i . e . , more s u c c e s s f u l a c a d e m i c a l l y ) a p p e a r t o h a v e a w i d e r v o c a b u l a r y i n v e n t o r y a n d c a n u s e more p r e c i s e t e r m s . However, h e r e , e v e n i n d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t u s e t h e new w o r d d e v e l o p , b u t do u s e grow, w h i c h t h e y a l r e a d y know, i n a new s e n s e . As i n p r e v i o u s i n s t a n c e s , t h e s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o p r e f e r t o u s e a n o l d w o r d i n a new way t h a n a c q u i r e a new w o r d . C h a p t e r 3 -127-The t e a c h e r s c o n t i n u e t o d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y : S: On t h e f o u r t h d a y , t h e f i s h h a s some s c a l e s . On t h e f i f t h d a y , i t h a s b i g g e r e y e s a nd h a s more s c a l e s . T l : T h o s e a r e r e a l l y g o o d s e n t e n c e s . T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g w r o n g w i t h them. T h e y ' r e , um, c o r r e c t E n g l i s h , b u t t h e y w o u l d be b e t t e r i f y o u h a d , i n s t e a d o f h a s , i f y o u s a i d w o r d s l i k e d e v e l o p s , g r o w s , o r f o r m s . OK? I t ' s j u s t , i t ' s j u s t more, i t s o u n d s l i k e a l i t t l e b i t more grown-up E n g l i s h and more s c i e n c e k i n d o f E n g l i s h t o , t o u s e t h o s e w o r d s . The s t u d e n t s a r e aware t h a t w r i t i n g s t y l e h a s a n e f f e c t on t h e r e a d e r and t a k e t h e t e a c h e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n : S: OK. "On on week, t h e f i s h h a s f i n s . " T h a t ' s a l l . T l : OK. y o u know one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t ' s a p r o b l e m i n i n w r i t i n g i s t h a t y o u y o u ' v e g o t , y o u ' v e g o t t o c h a n g e t h i n g s . So y o u c a n s a y , "on t h e f i r s t d a y " , and "on t h e s e c o n d d a y " , and "on t h e t h i r d d a y " , and "on t h e f o u r t h d a y " , and "on t h e f i f t h d a y " , and "on t h e s i x t h d a y , when i t becomes a n e w l y - h a t c h e d f r y and t h e n " , b u t i f y o u k e e p s a y i n g "on one week" a n d "on two w e e k s " and "on t h r e e w e e k s " , S: I t g e t s b o r i n g . T l : R i g h t . Or i f y o u k e e p s a y i n g " l a t e r " a n d " l a t e r " a n d " l a t e r " and " l a t e r " , i t ' s i t m i g h t be c o r r e c t , b u t i t ' s n o t v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , OK? So y o u m i g h t want t o s a y , f o r t h a t i n s t e a d o f "on one week", o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t , y o u s a y , "one week l a t e r " , o r "when i t ' s one week o l d " , s o t h a t y o u ch a n g e i t a l i t t l e b i t , and "when i t ' s two weeks o l d " . So y o u c a n s e t up a new p a t t e r n , OK? and t h e n i t s t o p s i t b e i n g t h e same. J u s t t h e same t h i n g t o o much. So i f y o u c h a n g e t h a t t o s o m e t h i n g l i k e "when i t ' s one week o l d " , what w o u l d t h a t s e n t e n c e be now? S: "One one week l a t e r , t h e f i s h g r o w s f i n s " ? T l : OK. o r "when i t ' s one week o l d " . O K , i t ' s n o t "one week, one week a f t e r t h e e g g ' s l a i d , i t s t a r t s t o g r o w f i n s " . T h i s t i m e t h e s t u d e n t d o e s u s e t h e s u g g e s t e d p h r a s e . N e x t t h e t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s an a l t e r n a t e t e r m f o r c l e a r l y . However we C h a p t e r 3 -128-s e e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e s t i l l n o t r e p l a c i n g g o t o r h a s w i t h more p r e c i s e t e r m s : T l : By week f i v e , what c a n y o u s a y ? What's t h e d i f f e r e n c e now? S: I t ' s g o t b i g g e r . T l : Y e a h , i t ' s i t ' s b i g g e r . S: I t g o t s a l l t h e f i n s . T l : A l l i t s f i n s a r e p r e t t y w e l l t h e r e now r e a l l y c l e a r l y . S: I c a n s e e them. T: What's a n o t h e r w o r d f o r c l e a r l y ? "You c a n s e e them c l e a r l y " . S: B e t t e r ? Tl.- OK. Or d i s - . H e r e ' s a r e a l l y b i g w o r d f o r y o u . You m i g h t n o t remember i t t h i s t i m e , b u t i f - . d i s t i n c t l y . I t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t u s i n g t h e more c o m p l e x t e r m s i n s t e a d o f g o t o r h a s b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t a d d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n m o t i v a t i o n o t h e r t h a n f o r m i n i m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n must somehow be a f a c t o r i n w h e t h e r s t u d e n t s l e a r n new t e r m s o r n o t . S e s s i o n t h i r t e e n i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e one s t u d e n t (H.) who was a b s e n t ("H. m i s s e d t h i s b e c a u s e she was s i c k . " ) f o r t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n i s c o a c h e d by t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n l e a r n i n g t h e new m a t e r i a l . The f o c u s o f t h e l e s s o n i s on t h e p r o c e s s o f l o c o m o t i o n i n f i s h . She d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d what o a r s and r u d d e r mean, as becomes e v i d e n t when she r e a d s . The o t h e r s t u d e n t s t r y t o e x p l a i n i t t o h e r : H: "They u s e t h e i r f i n s l i k e ..." S: " O a r s . " H: " O r b s . B o t h . " T2: Do y o u know what o a r s a r e ? H: No. S: I t means ... ( S t u d e n t d e m o n s t r a t e s . ) C h a p t e r 3 - 1 2 9 -H: Oh! " B o t h w o r k t o g e t h e r t o s e n d t h e f i s h a h e a d . The g o l d f i s h c a n s t a y i n one s p o t by m o v i n g i t s f i n s ... g i l l s ..." S: " G e n t l y " . H: " G e n t l y . I t u s e s i t s t a i l a s a . . . " S: " R u d d e r . " H: I was g o i n g t o s a y t h a t . T2.- Do y o u know what a r u d d e r i s ? H: No. S: I t ' s s o m e t h i n g l i k e when a p e r s o n g o e s l i k e t h i s , s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . H: "To t u r n ..." T2: Who knows what t h e r u d d e r i s ? Don't go o n , H. u n t i l y o u know what a r u d d e r i s . Who c o u l d h e l p ? S: I know! A r u d d e r o f a b o a t . T2.- You c a n show h e r t h e p i c t u r e . S: Y e a h , t h i s i s a r u d d e r o f a b o a t . When y o u , h e l p i t t u r n l e f t o r r i g h t , l i k e t h a t . T2: OK. T l : Do y o u u n d e r s t a n d , H., what i t ' s l i k e ? I t g o e s up t h e b a c k o f t h e b o a t and y o u t u r n i t t o make t h e b o a t go c e r t a i n w a y s . H: Y e a h . T2.- D i d y o u e v e r s e e one? H: No, b u t on m o v i e s . T2: OK. H: "To t u r n l e f t o r r i g h t . The g o l d f i s h c a n go f o r w a r d o r b a c k w a r d s , up and down, up o r down. The s m a l l e r f i n s h e l p t h e g o l d f i s h t o b a l a n c e , o t h e r w i s e a s t r o n g ..." S: " F l i p . " " F l i p . " H: F l i p o f i t s t a i l w o u l d make t h e g o l d f i s h s p i n a r o u n d i n s t e a d o f g o i n g f o r w a r d . As t h e g o l d f i s h swims i t moves i t s f i n s ..." I f o r g o t t h i s w o r d . S: " G e n t l y . " H: " G e n t l y a n d swims i t s t a i l l i k e a man ..." S: " S w i n g s i t s t a i l . " H: S w i n g s i t s t a i l l i k e a man s c u l l ..." S: " S c u l l i n g . " H: " S c u l l s . " T2: " S c u l l i n g . " H: " S c u l l i n g a b o a t . " T2: Who c a n t e l l u s ? T l S t o p t h e r e b e c a u s e I d o n ' t t h i n k y o u know what s c u l l i n g i s , do y o u ? H: No. ( . . . ) T l : You show h e r how y o u s c u l l , f o r e v e r y b o d y . S: L i k e t h i s . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 3 0 -T2: OK. I n t h i s e x c h a n g e t h e t e a c h e r h a s i n t e r r u p t e d t h e s t u d e n t a t p r e s u m a b l y d i f f i c u l t w o r d s ( o a r s , r u d d e r , s e u l 1 i n q ) , i n d i c a t e d by t h e s t u d e n t ' s h e s i t a t i o n a n d s t u m b l i n g o v e r t h e w o r d s . T h i s h e s i t a t i o n may be a v e r y s t r o n g c l u e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t i s i n f a c t h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h may be a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h i s i s t h e c a s e , a n d how u s e f u l t h i s may be i n d i a g n o s i n g l e x i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . We c a n a l s o n o t e t h e s u p p o r t i v e s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s , by a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e y a l s o h a d d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e w o r d . What i s o f g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s . They i n t e r r u p t when t h e s t u d e n t f a l t e r s a n d s u p p l y t h e r i g h t t e r m ( o a r s ) , b u t t h e s t u d e n t m i s p r o n o u n c e s t h e t e r m r e g a r d l e s s , a n d d o e s n o t r e p e a t i t when c o r r e c t e d . When she i s c o r r e c t e d by t h e o t h e r s upon m i s r e a d i n g g i l l s f o r g e n t l y , s h e d o e s r e p e a t t h e t e r m p r o p e r l y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t a c c e p t s c o r r e c t i o n o f o v e r t e r r o r s b u t r e j e c t s c o r r e c t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l e r r o r s . The n e x t i n s t a n c e o f i n t e r r u p t i o n ( r u d d e r ) s u p p o r t s t h i s s u g g e s t i o n ; t h e s t u d e n t o b j e c t s o p e n l y t o t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h s h e a d m i t s t h a t s h e d o e s n o t know what t h e w o r d means. T h e r e i s a gap b e t w e e n t h e w o r d s s h e i s s a y i n g a n d h e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e t e x t . The f a c t t h a t a s t u d e n t may be a b l e t o s a y a w o r d on cue d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t he o r s h e knows i t , e i t h e r p a s s i v e l y o r a c t i v e l y . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 3 1 -When t h e s t u d e n t comes t o g e n t l y a g a i n , s h e a d m i t s t h a t s h e " f o r g e t s " t h e w o r d , f r o m w h i c h we m i g h t s u r m i s e t h a t e i t h e r s h e h a s d i f f i c u l t y i n p r o n o u n c i n g t h e w o r d , o r t h a t s h e d o e s n o t know t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d . B o t h t i m e s , t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s h a v e s a i d t h e w o r d f o r h e r , b u t no one h a s a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n i t f o r h e r . Why s h o u l d t h e r e be e x t e n s i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f o a r s , r u d d e r a nd s e u l 1 i n g b u t n o t o f g e n t l y ? The most o b v i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e o t h e r t e r m s a r e more e s s e n t i a l t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e t e x t ; i f g e n t l y w e re o m i t t e d t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e . B o t h t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d a p p e a r t o h o l d t h i s i m p r e s s i o n s i n c e t h e y a l l s p e n d c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e on t h e o t h e r t e r m s a nd n e v e r d i s c u s s t h e a d v e r b . I n summary, we c a n o b s e r v e t h a t s t u d e n t s may be aware o f s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , b u t p r e f e r t o u s e t h e t e r m s w h i c h a r e c l o s e r t o t h e i r u s u a l s p e e c h p a t t e r n s . T hey a r e o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s when t h e r e i s a l e x i c a l e r r o r , and e v e n t h e n , i f t h e t e r m i s n o t c r u c i a l t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e y t e n d t o d i s r e g a r d t h e e r r o r . T hey o n l y c o r r e c t t h e i r own s p e e c h i f t h e r e i s a p r o d u c t i o n e r r o r ; c o r r e c t i o n s o f i n f e r r e d e r r o r s ( i n d i c a t e d b y h e s i t a t i o n s ) a r e n o t t o l e r a t e d . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 3 2 -C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f w o r d s t o t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s o f c o n t e n t C a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k n o w l e d g e  f r a m e w o r k I n c h a p t e r two t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n r a i s e d a s k e d what v o c a b u l a r y i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a n d w h e t h e r i t c a n be c a t e g o r i z e d . A p p e n d i x I l i s t s t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d and A p p e n d i x I I g r o u p s t h e c l a s s r o o m v o c a b u l a r y i n t o a number o f s e m a n t i c d o m a i n s . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d i n t h e s e s s i o n s shows t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e s e s s i o n and t h a t some o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e . F o l l o w i n g C r u s e ' a n a l y s i s , i t i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d i n t h e s e s s i o n s on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . One c o n c l u s i o n seems t o be t h a t a n e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d o f c a t e g o r i z i n g t h e l a n g u a g e i s by c o n s i d e r i n g i t s s e m a n t i c f u n c t i o n s f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k . The v o c a b u l a r y c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l t y p e s : t o p i c - s p e c i f i c , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l a b e l s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m e t a - l a n g u a g e . T o p i c a l t e r m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f d e s c r i p t i o n . The t o p i c a l t e r m s , s u c h a s d o r s a l and f e r t i 1 i z e seemed t o be l e a r n e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n an o r g a n i z e d c o n t e x t - r i c h s i t u a t i o n , a r e e m p h a s i z e d a s b e i n g C h a p t e r 3 - 1 3 3 -e s s e n t i a l v o c a b u l a r y and a r e n e e d e d i n t h e t a s k s a s s i g n e d . The s e c o n d t y p e o f v o c a b u l a r y i n c l u d e s t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l a b e l s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m , w h e t h e r h i e r a r c h i c a l o r o t h e r w i s e . I t i n c l u d e s u c h t e r m s a s v e r t e b r a t e a n d 1 i v e - b e a r e r . T h e s e t e r m s w h i c h a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e t o p i c a t h a n d , b i o l o g y , a l t h o u g h t h e y h a v e t h e a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f i d e n t i f y i n g s u p e r o r d i n a t e g r o u p s a nd t h u s a r e more c o m p l e x t h a n t e r m s w h i c h i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s o r c o l l e c t i o n s . T h i s l e x i c a l t y p e m e e t s w i t h m i x e d s u c c e s s i n b e i n g l e a r n e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s . I n g e n e r a l t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t u s e a l o t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d l e x i c a l t e r m s , p r e f e r r i n g t o r e s o r t t o s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s s u c h a s X c a n h a v e Y a n d Z. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n m e t a - l a n g u a g e r e f e r s t o t h e t e r m s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n t a l k i n g a b o u t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i t s e l f , s u c h a s l a b e l , c a t e g o r y a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e . T h i s a c t i v i t y d i s c u s s e s t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d i s h i g h l y a b s t r a c t . I n t h e d a t a we h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e o f t h i s l a n g u a g e among t h e s t u d e n t s . One o f them i s a b l e t o name t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e , b u t w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o e n u n c i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i t s e l f . A n o t h e r i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . The o t h e r m e t a - l a n g u a g e i s j u s t n o t u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e C h a p t e r 3 - 1 3 4 -t e a c h e r s u s e t h i s m e t a - l a n g u a g e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y do n o t r e q u i r e t h e s t u d e n t s t o u s e i t a c t i v e l y . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e t e a c h e r a l w a y s u s e t h e t e r m c a t e g o r i e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h g r o u p s , a nd i t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t p e r c e i v e a n e e d t o l e a r n t h e more c o m p l e x t e r m a n d a l w a y s u s e g r o u p s i n s t e a d . T h i s e m p h a s i z e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e t a s k r e q u i r e t h e s t u d e n t s t o a c t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t e a n y v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n . A n a l y s i s o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f  k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s I n s t e a d o f a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s by e x a m i n i n g s p e c i f i c t e r m s , a much c l e a r e r a n a l y s i s i s o b t a i n e d i f we a s s e s s o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s b y e v a l u a t i n g i t f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s . The a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e l e s s o n s f r o m t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s p o i n t o f v i e w shows t h a t t h e r e i s p r o g r e s s i n o v e r a l l l e a r n i n g o f c o n c e p t s , a nd t h a t t h e v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i r e d i n t h e p r o c e s s a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n made more l e a r n a b l e by b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s f r a m e w o r k . The s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y w i l l be shown t o be more s u c c e s s f u l t h e more c l o s e l y t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i r s t s t u d e n t s ' p r o g r e s s i n l e a r n i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a n d t h e n s p e c i f i c C h a p t e r 3 - 1 3 5 -v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s w i l l be r e e x a m i n e d f r o m t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s p o i n t o f v i e w . A l t h o u g h o n l y s e s s i o n s two t h r o u g h f i v e a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e a c h i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e n o t i o n i t s e l f a p p e a r s i n most s e s s i o n s , e i t h e r w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t d i s c u s s i o n o r i n o f f - t o p i c comments. The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a f r o m t h e s e s s i o n s c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s w h e r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was a t o p i c . The s e s s i o n s on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e m p l o y v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h i s s u i t a b l e t o t h a t k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k c e l l , b u t d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s on d e s c r i p t i o n , a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s a l s o a b o u t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s s h o u l d come as no s u r p r i s e , s i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o Mohan, i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e a n y t h i n g ( a n a c t i o n a c t i v i t y ) one must h a v e a t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d f r o m w h i c h t o o p e r a t e , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t o f d e s c r i p t i o n . As we h a v e s e e n f r o m C r u s e ' s a n a l y s i s , g r o u p i n g i t e m s i s a t a x o n o m i c t a s k , w h i l e e x a m i n i n g t h e p a r t s o f an i t e m i s m e r o n o m i c . I n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e a f i s h i n a n o r d e r l y f a s h i o n , one must p r e s e n t t h e d e t a i l s f o l l o w i n g a s e g m e n t a l o r s y s t e m i c a p p r o a c h , t h a t i s , a m e r o n o m i c one. Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e r p l a y among t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k c e l l s i s f u r t h e r c o n f o u n d e d when i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a t a x o n o m i c h i e r a r c h y , we may n e e d t o e x a m i n e some o f t h e m e r o n o m i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e o b j e c t s t o be C h a p t e r 3 - 1 3 6 -c l a s s i f i e d . T r e e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , are c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k i n d o f l e a v e s t h e y have. A l s o , as Markham and S i e b e r t p o i n t o u t , c h i l d r e n f i n d i t e a s i e r t o o p e r a t e on c o l l e c t i o n s w h i c h a r e groups of items t h a n on c l a s s e s w h i c h c o n s i d e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among groups, s i n c e c l a s s e s are a b s t r a c t systems w h i c h t h e y must c o n s t r u c t w h i l e c o l l e c t i o n s can be o r g a n i z e d by p h y s i c a l l y m a n i p u l a t i n g the items i n t o groups. Thus, i n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y a c o l l e c t i o n of v e h i c l e s , t h e p a r t s of t h e v e h i c l e s (wheels, d o o r s , h e a d l i g h t s , e t c . ) must be c o n s i d e r e d c o l l e c t i v e l y , w h i l e amassing a c o l l e c t i o n of v e h i c l e s does not r e q u i r e such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , we can a n t i c i p a t e t h a t d i s c u s s i n g c o l l e c t i o n s w i l l be e a s i e r f o r t h e s t u d e n t s than d i s c u s s i n g c a t e g o r i e s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The l i f e c y c l e of t h e f i s h , the t h i r d i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e , i s a s e q u e n t i a l a c t i v i t y , and we can p r e d i c t t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system f o r t h i s w i l l f o l l o w Cruse's l i n e a r (non-branching) h i e r a r c h i c a l system. The terms i n t h i s a r e a a r e p r i m a r i l y t e m p o r a l r a t h e r t h a n s p a t i a l o r c a t e g o r i c a l and are t h e r e f o r e not c o n s i d e r e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n terms. The a c t i v i t y o f d o i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be compared t o the a c t i v i t y o f l e a r n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v o c a b u l a r y . How s t u d e n t s use t h e v o c a b u l a r y p r e s e n t e d t o them i n t h e i r own a t t e m p t s t o d i s c u s s the t o p i c a t hand w i l l be examined. I t i s C h a pter 3 -137-through t h e i r active speech ( i . e . , output) that i t can be seen whether they have learned the concepts being taught ( i . e . , input). What kind of words the students use during t h e i r tasks w i l l be considered, and whether the terms used r e f l e c t the terms presented by the teachers. The data analysis w i l l show that the students' use of vocabulary is related to t h e i r level of understanding of the topic which they are studying and that of a variety of strategies used by the teachers in presenting vocabulary the ones that appear to be more successful have a common factor which may support the knowledge framework hypothesis. Assessment of students' i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s k i l l s It i s important to determine what i n i t i a l s k i l l s the students have at c l a s s i f y i n g , in order to determine the success of the methodology being used. Session one begins with opening conversational gambits in order to gather some information about the students. T: What do you li k e to do at school? What are you good at? Are you good at P.E., or are you good at math, or good at drawing? S: Yeah, I'm good at drawing. T: And what's tough for you? S: I think s o c i a l s and science. Although there does not appear to be any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n terminology in t h i s segment, in fact the teacher's f i r s t Chapter 3 -138-q u e s t i o n i s r a t h e r open-ended, and i t i s subsequently-r e s t r i c t e d by the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s which focus on p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s of " l i k e to do" and "be good a t " . T h i s i s a d i r e c t i n v i t a t i o n t o the students to l i m i t t h e i r responses to a narrow range of p o s s i b l e comments which are c o n s t r a i n e d not by d e f i n i t i o n but by e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n . T h i s type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may predominate g e n e r a l l y over d e f i n i t i o n i n o r a l speech, which t o l e r a t e s g r e a t e r vagueness and redundancy, although r e s e a r c h remains to be done to determine whether t h i s i s a c t u a l l y the case. I f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s v a l i d a t e d , then there would appear to be a d e f i n i t e need to educate students as to the d i s p a r a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r e x p r e s s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ranges. As can be seen i n a segment c i t e d e a r l i e r , the students have no d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , " f a m i l y " , "brother", " s i s t e r " , "mom", "baby", "mom's br o t h e r " , "grandma", "uncle", e t c . , which are c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d concepts; more p r e c i s e l y , the f a m i l y should be c o n s i d e r e d as a c o l l e c t i o n s i n c e the members are i n t e r - r e l a t e d but are not h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered. The students are able to make simple comparisons such as " i t sounds l i k e a 'k'", and can express the school r a n k i n g system, "I'm i n grade s i x too." In the second s e s s i o n , the students p r a c t i c e s o r t i n g toy c a r s by d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s , and express terms of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Chapter 3 -139-i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h e i r u s a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s i s l i m i t e d , c o m p a r e d t o l a t e r s e s s i o n s . The t e a c h e r r e v i e w s a s e s s i o n f r o m s e v e r a l m onths e a r l i e r a b o u t " p u t t i n g t h i n g s i n t o g r o u p s " and t h e n h a s t h e s t u d e n t s t h i n k o f d i f f e r e n t ways t o p u t a number o f t o y c a r s i n t o g r o u p s . The f i r s t a t t e m p t i s t o s o r t them by c o l o r . The s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y h a v e no d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s i g n i n g t h e t o y s t o d i f f e r e n t c o l o r g r o u p s , s h o w i n g t h a t t h e y h a v e a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l a s s i f y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e . As t h e y s o r t t h e t o y s , t h e y comment on w hat t h e y a r e d o i n g . The t e r m s t h a t t h e y u s e t o a s s i g n them t o c a t e g o r i e s a r e o f i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e o f t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s u s e d .-S: H e r e ' s w h i t e . S: And b l a c k . S: O n l y one o r a n g e . S: T h i s c o l o r ' s r e d . S: L o t s o f r e d s . " W h i t e , b l a c k , o r a n g e and r e d s a r e u s e d a s n o m i n a l s , r a t h e r t h a n a d j e c t i v e s , w h i c h may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y o f c o l o r i s p r e d o m i n a n t i n t h e s p e a k e r s ' m i n d s , r a t h e r t h a n any o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h e c a r s . The s t u d e n t s seem t o be a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p r e s s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d c a t e g o r i e s r a t h e r t h a n i t e m - r e l a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t h a d t h e l a t t e r b e e n t h e c a s e , p h r a s e s s u c h a s "a w h i t e c a r " o r " l o t s o f r e d o n e s " w o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d i n s t e a d , w h ere t h e c o l o r t e r m i s u s e d a s a m o d i f i e r . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o c o m p i l e a l i s t o f s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h h a v e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t , b u t i t m i g h t be C h a p t e r 3 -140-proposed that the modifier-nominal d i s t i n c t i o n may be s i g n i f i c a n t . H a l l i d a y ' s analys is of the nominal group, discussed in Chapter Two, may be used to suggest that th i s i s the students' attempt to c l a s s i f y rather than descr ibe . Next the students (with prompting) suggest another way to d iv ide up the cars: "shapes," using the s p e c i f i c features of "big and smal l , long and short ." After the teacher points out that by separating them into long and short they have also grouped them into trucks and cars , they then attempt to further subdivide them according to features other than length: s i ze of wheels; ou t l ine : "which ones go round, which ones go s tra ight"; and f i n a l l y whether the cars are marked with l e t t e r s or numbers, rac ing-car s t y l e . It can be pointed out that there i s more c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and descr ip t ion language in th i s session than i n the previous one, presumably because the task focuses on t h i s k ind of a c t i v i t y . The students have i d e n t i f i e d the categories , but have not yet attempted to label the categories , which would be the next step in developing a taxonomy. Up to th i s point they have used rather l imited terms of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . It may be suggested that t h i s is because the assigned task d id not require them to do more. As Table IV indicates , there are some c l a s s i f i c a t i o n terms which the teachers use in th i s session but Chapter 3 - 1 4 1 -t h e s t u d e n t s do n o t u s e u n t i l s e s s i o n f o u r ( d i v i d e . g r o u p . s e p a r a t e , s i z e ) , a nd one, d i f f e r e n t , w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e a l r e a d y u s e d i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . I n t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s u s e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l a n g u a g e w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e t h e t e r m s o t h e r t h a n by i l l u s t r a t i o n : u n d e r X i s Y, Y g o e s  u n d e r X, d i v i d e up, c a t e g o r y . common, d e s c r i b e . p a r t , s e t , s p l i t , t i t l e , t y p e , g r o u p , c l a s s i f y , k i n d , s e p a r a t e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l o w s t u d e n t s p e e c h r a t e (T= 2384 w o r d s v s . S= 273 w o r d s ) we c a n n o t be s u r e how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e r m s w h i c h a r e b e i n g u s e d . They h a r d l y e v e r u s e t h e l e x i c a l t e r m s ( s e e T a b l e I V ) ; t h e y u s e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n s t e a d : The o n e s t h a t  h a v e bumpers. The o n e s t h a t a r e g o i n g down t h e y d o n ' t h a r d l y  h a v e bumpers. H e r e ' s a f o u r one (a c a r w i t h f o u r w i n d o w s ) . T h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c a t e g o r i e s t h a n o f c l a s s e s , s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e i d e n t i f y i n g t h e v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c l a s s names w h i c h h a v e n o t b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . T hey a r e f o c u s s i n g on s o r t i n g t h e c a r s i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s i n s t e a d o f g a t h e r i n g c o m m o n - f e a t u r e g r o u p s i n t o c l a s s e s . We s h a l l h a v e t o w a i t f o r a l a t e r a c t i v i t y w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e r e g u i r e d t o u s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s , i n o r d e r t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e y do know how t o u s e them. A t t h i s p o i n t we c a n o n l y o b s e r v e t h a t t h e t e r m s h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n a h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e c o n t e x t , w i t h p h y s i c a l and v i s u a l s t i m u l i . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 4 2 -more r e l a t e d t o Mohan's A c t i o n l e v e l t h a n t o t h e T h e o r y l e v e l . As t h e l e s s o n s p r o g r e s s we s h a l l s e e t h e s t u d e n t s u s i n g more a b s t r a c t l a n g u a g e a n d more c o m p l e x c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s . A n a l y s i s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l show t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t s p e e c h w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e d i v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k . R e c a l l t h a t t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k d i v i d e s a c t i v i t i e s i n t o a c t i o n and t h e o r y , a n d i n t o s t a s i s , p r o c e s s a n d v a l u e . I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e some i n i t i a l s k i l l s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( t h e o r y ) , b u t a c t i o n i s more c o n c r e t e a nd s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be more e a s i l y l e a r n e d . I n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n a l t h o u g h t h e t o p i c w h i c h i s t o be t a u g h t i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( s t a s i s - t h e o r y ) , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e more p r e p a r e d t o d i s c u s s a c t i o n - p r o c e s s , t h a t i s , s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s . The s t u d e n t s w o r k on d r a w i n g a p i c t u r e a b o u t a f i s h a n d t h e n t a l k a b o u t i t . The t e a c h e r t e l l s them t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s a c t i v i t y : T: We want t o know j u s t how much y o u know a b o u t f i s h b e f o r e we e v e n s t a r t d o i n g any more w o r k . I t ' s j u s t t o f i g u r e o u t how much y o u know a l r e a d y . One s t u d e n t s e e k s f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t a s k , " C o u l d we d r a w any f o r m o f f i s h we want t o ? " T h i s i s one o f t h e f e w i n s t a n c e s w h e r e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m ( f o r m ) a p p e a r s i n s t u d e n t s p e e c h ( i n s e s s i o n one) b e f o r e i t a p p e a r s i n t e a c h e r s p e e c h ( i n s e s s i o n f i v e ) . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 4 3 -The students, when t a l k i n g about t h e i r p ic tures , a l l r e la t e narra t ives . (It has been suggested that students are conditioned in school to present narrat ives whenever free composition, e i ther oral or wr i t t en , i s demanded of them (Margaret E a r l y , personal communication)). None of the students presents a descr ip t ion about f i s h , which one might expect from a p i c ture , and there i s l i t t l e vocabulary used which can be considered c l a s s i f i c a t i o n except the meronomical possessives "his hand" and "whale-tai l", and a very vague categor ica l term, "just a k ind of f i sh" , in addi t ion to "any form of f i sh" . One d i f ference between teacher and student t a l k i s the focus of the language, which i s r e f l e c t ed in the terms that are used. In sess ion four, teacher- ta lk i s predominately process-oriented, descr ib ing how to do the exercise or commenting on what the students have done. The teacher t a l k i s more general and theore t i ca l while the student language i s concrete, item s p e c i f i c : T: You're putt ing things into categories . ( . . . ) We just made a l i s t of th ings . ( . . . ) T e l l me what categories you put things i n . ( . . . ) You d iv ided them up. ( . . . ) She took r ings and put i t into go ld . ( . . . ) Could you make any of those into smaller groups? ( . . . ) Separate them into two groups. The verbs are ac t ive , t r a n s i t i v e . On the other hand, the students t a l k about the product, using s t a t i v e , non-action or passive verbs: Chapter 3 -144-S: U n d e r p a p e r s t h e r e c a n be s m e l l i e s . (...) Some j o g g i n g s h o e s a r e f l a t . (...) J e w e l s c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l t h i n g s . (...) S t i c k e r s h a v e many k i n d s o f g r o u p s . The s t u d e n t s a r e n o t y e t p r e p a r e d t o t a l k i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s . However j u s t a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e s s i o n t h e t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e s some c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m e t a - l a n g u a g e and one s t u d e n t r e s p o n d s : T: What's t h i s c a l l e d ? T h i s i s a t r e e d i a g r a m , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e . D i d y o u know t h a t ? Why do y o u t h i n k t h e y c a l l e d i t a t r e e ? S: C a u s e y o u h a v e t o s e p a r a t e i t f i r s t . T h o s e . . . T: T h a t ' s r i g h t , i t ' s g o t , i t ' s g o t b r a n c h e s , y e a h . T h i s s t u d e n t ' s r e s p o n s e i n d i c a t e s t h a t s h e u n d e r s t a n d s t h e a n a l o g y , and h e r u s e o f s e p a r a t e s u g g e s t s t h a t s h e may h a v e an a b i l i t y t o e m p l o y more c o m p l e x t e r m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a n t h e t a s k s w h i c h s h e h a s h a d t o t h i s p o i n t h a v e demanded o f h e r . I n t h i s s e s s i o n t h e s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t t o w r i t e a b o u t a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s y s t e m . The w r i t t e n p a r a g r a p h s p r o d u c e d i n t h i s s e s s i o n show t h a t n o t a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e u n d e r s t o o d p r e c i s e l y w hat t o do. The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n a r e v e r y v a g u e : T: P u t t h e name o f y o u r , o f y o u r t h i n g a t t h e t o p , l i k e " s t i c k e r s " o r w h a t e v e r , and I want y o u t o t r y and w r i t e s o m e t h i n g , OK? S: L i k e s e n t e n c e s ? T: A b s o l u t e l y ! a w h o l e p a r a g r a p h . The w r i t t e n w o r k r e f l e c t s t h e o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n l a n g u a g e s t y l e .-S I : " S t i c k e r s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s C h a p t e r 3 -145-o f g r o u p s . T h e s e a r e some k i n d s o f s t i c k e r s , g o o g l e y e y e s , p u f f i e s , s o f t i e s , s h i n i e s , p a p e r s , a n d s m e l l i e s . P u f f i e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s , t h e y a r e p u f f i e s c a n h a v e g o o g l e y e y e s a nd a r e p u f f e d up. S o f t i e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s , t o t h e y a r e s o f t i e s a r e s o f t a n d a r e p u f f e d up s o m e t i m e s . S h i n e s c a n be s e p a r a t e d i n two g r o u p s t o t h e y a r e s h i n e y a n d a r e made on p a p e r . " S2: " J e w e l I s c a n be d e i v e d i n t o many t h i n g s r i n g s , n e c k l e s , b r a s l e s , e a r i n g s , w a t c h s . R i n g s c a n be d e i v e d i n t o g o l d , s i l v e r , s t o n e s , a n d , no s t o n e s . S t o n e s c a n be d e i v e d i n t o d i a m o n d s , r u b y , p e a r l s . N e c k l e s c a n be d e i v e d i n c o l o r a n d no c o l o r . B r a s I s c a n be d e i v e d i n t o l o n g a n d s h o r t , p e r a l b r a s l s . E a r i n g s c a n be d e i v e d i n t o l o n g e a r i n g s a n d s h o r t e a r i n g s b i g e a r i n g a n d s h o r t e a r i n g . W a t c h s c a n be d i v e d i n t o g o l d s i l v e r . " B e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n w o r k i n g on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h e r e i s p e r h a p s a n i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d " w r i t e s o m e t h i n g " i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y mode. A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s do w r i t e s o m e t h i n g on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r t o p i c s , b u t one o f t h e s t u d e n t s p r o d u c e s a r a t h e r c o n f u s e d p a r a g r a p h w h i c h i s a m i x o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s a n d e v a l u a t i o n , w h i l e a n o t h e r a p p e n d s a p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n on c l o t h i n g s t y l e s : S 3 : " S p o r t s i s a l l a b o u t a c t i v i t i e s a n d c a n be d e v i d e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . S p o r t s c a n be d e v i d e d i n t o g r o u p s t h a t n e e d e q u i p m e n t a nd o t h e r s p o r t s t h a t d o n ' t n e e d e q u i p m e n t . S p o r t s c a n be r e a l l y f u n by r e a l l y e n j o y i n g i t . And s p o r t s i s and a c t i v i t y f o r h a v i n g g o o d h e a l t h a n d g o o d f o r e x e r c i s e . And s o c c e r i s one y o u d o n ' t n e e d an e q u i p m e n t . " S4: "Shoes c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l g r o u p s . F o r e x a m p l e s o c c e r s h o e s a r e h a r d a n d a r e n o t h a r d . Some a r e w a t e r p r o o f a n d a r e n o t . S e v e r a l p a r t y s h o e s make n o i s e s a n d some d o n ' t a nd some h a v e h i g h h e a l s a n d some s m a l l h e a l s . T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t s h o e s i n i s w o r l d . B a l l e t s h o e s , r u n n i n g s h o e s , j o g g i n g , p a r t y , b i g , s m a l l , h i g h h e a l , s m a l l h e a l , w a t e r C h a p t e r 3 - 1 4 6 -proof, not water proof, f l a t and not f l a t . Shoes you can where anywhere you l i k e . Boy and g i r l s can where and same shoes there's nothing wrong with that ." The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - r e l a t e d terms introduced in t h i s session by the teachers include: categorize , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , diagram, 1 i s t , organize, and tree . The students use c o l l e c t , d i v i d e , group, separate, and s ize for the f i r s t time. The major di f ference between these groups of terms appears to be that the teachers are t a l k i n g about c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from a more theore t i ca l point of view than the students, whose tasks involve doing c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . It i s the teachers' object ive to transmit the concept of the dynamic process of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , while the students' object ive i s to create a s t a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - t y p e product. Therefore i t would be reasonable to expect that the language of the two groups w i l l not co inc ide , although there w i l l c e r t a i n l y be overlap. When the teacher asks them to organize t h e i r l i s t s of items they respond by descr ib ing the features of the groups: "Some jogging shoes are f l a t and some aren't f l a t . " This would appear to be evidence in support of Mohan's d i s t i n c t i o n between background knowledge, which is theore t i ca l and based on p r i n c i p l e s , and act ion language, which i s associated with the concrete and s p e c i f i c . Chapter 3 -147-In sess ion f i v e , a f ter introducing a taxonomy, the teacher enumerates various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of the d i f f erent animal types, inc luding of course d i s t i n c t i v e features. Since a taxonomy only requires one set of d i s t i n c t i v e features, the other features are necessar i ly d e s c r i p t i v e , although the teacher seems to be suggesting that enumerating the other features i s extending the taxonomy: T: Now i f you wanted to c l a s s i f y t h i s even more you could do things l ike th i s and th i s i s where i t gets handy. You could say, "what covers t h e i r body?" She then proceeds to ident i fy d i f f erent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features, such as body covering, manner of breathing, and types of appendages. Each of these features i s in fact independent of the others. The consequences of t h i s w i l l be seen in the f i n a l session where one student attempts to present a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n using an assortment of features . The students appear to be making progress in understanding the concept of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Following an already learned sentence pattern, and drawing on information which i s s tructured for them on the board, the students are able to produce several complex statement patterns: T l : Remember the sentences we made for the f i r s t chapter that we looked at remember the sentences that we made? What could you say? S: Animals can be d iv ided into two groups; vertebrates and invertebrates . T 2 : Real ly good! What could you say about vertebrates? You're l i s t e n i n g a l o t , you're going to get one. S: Vertebrates can be d iv ided into two groups. Chapter 3 -148-w a r m - b l o o d e d a nd c o l d - b l o o d e d . T2: P e r f e c t . Tl.- T h a t ' s p r e t t y g o o d . I wonder i f we c a n make up a n o t h e r s e n t e n c e w i t h t h a t one u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n . T2: OK. T l : F o l l o w i n g t h e same p a t t e r n . V e r t e b r a t e s w h a t ? Some o t h e r way o f s a y i n g . Can y o u t h i n k o f a n o t h e r way o f s a y i n g i t ? T h a t was a r e a l l y g o o d s e n t e n c e ; t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g w r o n g w i t h t h e one y o u made b u t I was w o n d e r i n g i f we c o u l d make a n o t h e r one w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n i n i t . V e r t e b r a t e s c a n be w a r m - b l o o d e d . S: Or. T l Or c o l d - b l o o d e d . S: C o l d - b l o o d e d . T2: Or y o u c o u l d s a y , t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o r two k i n d s o f v e r t e b r a t e s , w a r m - b l o o d e d and c o l d - b l o o d e d . So f o r e a c h o f t h e s e t h e r e ' s a number o f d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t y o u c a n s a y i t . How a b o u t w a r m - b l o o d e d , who c o u l d t r y t h a t ? I ' d r e a l l y l i k e o r t o h a v e a t r y a t t h i s . How a b o u t i f I s t a r t y o u o f f . I f I s a y , t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f w a r m - b l o o d e d a n i m a l s . T l : Two t y p e s . T2: T h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f w a r m - b l o o d e d a n i m a l s . You s t a r t o f f and f i n i s h t h a t s e n t e n c e f o r me. S: T h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f w a r m - b l o o d e d a n i m a l s . T2.- Now y o u j u s t h a v e t o s a y mammals. S: Mamma1s. T2: And b i r d s . OK. S: B i r d s . T2: A r e y o u l o s t o r a r e y o u g e t t i n g t h e i d e a ? . OK, and t h e n y o u c a n s a y , t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f c o l d - b l o o d e d animals.- r e p t i l e s , a m p h i b i a n s and f i s h . Or y o u c o u l d s a y t h a t a d i f f e r e n t way. Remember y o u r p a t t e r n ? C o l d - b l o o d e d a n i m a l s , how w o u l d y o u f i n i s h t h a t ? Can be d i v i d e d , remember t h a t p a t t e r n ? S: C o l d - b l o o d e d a n i m a l s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s , r e p t i l e s , a m p h i b i a n s a n d f i s h . T h e s e s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e p r a c t i c i n g c a n be c o d e d a s : 1) X c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s : Y a n d Z. 2) X c a n be Y o r Z. 3) T h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f X: Y and Z. C h a p t e r 3 - 1 4 9 -S h o r t l y a f t e r , a f o u r t h p a t t e r n i s i n t r o d u c e d : T: Can y o u t e l l me two g r o u p s t h a t mammals and b i r d s b e l o n g t o ? (...) S: Mammals a n d b i r d s b e l o n g t o v e r t e b r a t e s , w h i c h c a n be c o d e d a s : 4) Y and Z b e l o n g t o X. As i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o r e p e a t some o f t h e s e f o r m s i n t h e i r own s p e e c h . However, a s was t h e c a s e i n e a r l i e r s e s s i o n s , t e a c h e r t a l k p r e d o m i n a t e s ( T - w o r d s = 1444: S-words = 1 2 8 ) , r e s t r i c t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e y c a n u s e t h e s e f o r m s . The l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e s p e a k i n g may p e r h a p s be one r e a s o n why t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e l e s s o n a t l e a s t one s t u d e n t h a s d i f f i c u l t y p r o n o u n c i n g v e r t e b r a t e s : T2: OK, who c a n t e l l me t h e names o f t h e two t y p e s o f a n i m a l s ? S: Mammals a n d b i r d s ? T2: Up h e r e , (name). Two t y p e s o f a n i m a l s . S: V e r . . . T2: V e r t e b r a t e s . S: V e r t e b r a t e s a n d i n v e r t e b r a t e s . T2: Good g i r l , t h a t ' s r i g h t . I n t h e f i n a l p a r t o f s e s s i o n f i v e , t h e t e a c h e r s e x p l a i n t h e g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f t h e u n i t w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g on. As e a c h s e c t i o n i s m e n t i o n e d i t i s b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d ; t h e s t u d e n t s a r e t h e n g u e s t i o n e d a b o u t t h e t e r m s : T: H e r e a r e t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s we a r e g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t i n What i s a f i s h ? , a n d h e r e ' s t h e f i r s t o ne. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a n d t h a t ' s what we've b e e n d o i n g . We've s t a r t e d i n on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a l l t h a t means C h a p t e r 3 - 1 5 0 -i s we've p u t them i n t o g r o u p s , o r g a n i z i n g them i n t o g r o u p s . The n e x t one t h a t w e ' r e g o i n g t o do S: E d u c a t i o n T l : I s P h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and t h a t ' s j u s t a f a n c y way o f s a y i n g t h a t d o e s t h e f i s h l o o k l i k e ? What a r e a l l t h o s e t h i n g s c a l l e d t h a t t h e f i s h h a s on i t s b o d y ? We're g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t p r o c e s s e s w h i c h i s how a f i s h moves a n d how a f i s h b r e a t h e s . T2: Y o u ' r e g o i n g t o l e a r n a l o t , huh? T l : And t h e l a s t t h i n g w e ' r e g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t i s t h e L i f e c y c l e o f a f i s h , how a f i s h i s made and how i t g r o w s up. (...) Now t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f o u r u n i t , w e ' r e g o i n g t o l e a r n a b o u t s e t t i n g up t h e a q u a r i u m a n d we c a n s a y t h a t ' s l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e f i s h ' s e n v i r o n m e n t b e c a u s e we want t o s e t up a n e n v i r o n m e n t w h e r e t h e f i s h c a n l i v e , a l l r i g h t ? We're g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t what a f i s h n e e d s t o s u r v i v e and w e ' r e g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t F i s h and o t h e r p e t s a n d how t h e y ' r e d i f f e r e n t and how t h e y ' r e t h e same. (...) T l : OK, s a y t h e n e x t t i m e y o u come i n I show y o u t h a t p o s t e r t h a t ' s down t h e r e on t h e b o a r d w h i c h I p r o b a b l y w i l l be d o i n g , we a r e g o i n g t o l e a r n t h e name o f a l l t h o s e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h e l i n e s a r e p o i n t i n g t o . w h i c h g r o u p w o u l d t h a t be i n ? S: U n d e r T l : What i s a f i s h ? S: L i f e c y c l e s ? T l : Y o u ' r e l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e names o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e f i s h . S: L i f e c y c l e ? T l : The l i f e c y c l e t e l l s us how a f i s h i s b o r n and how a f i s h g r o w s up. S: P h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s ? T l : Good f o r y o u . I d i d n ' t know I w a s n ' t s u r e y o u ' d remember t h a t one. P h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s i s a r e a l l y f a n c y way o f s a y i n g what t h e y l o o k l i k e , i s n ' t i t ? We c a n s e e t h a t t h e f i r s t e x p l a n a t i o n s do n o t seem t o be s u f f i c i e n t , s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e u n c l e a r a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l i f e c y c l e a n d p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , and t h e t e a c h e r must r e p e a t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y l i e s n o t i n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t e r m s a s i n d i v i d u a l w o r d s , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t v e r y a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s w h i c h t h e C h a p t e r 3 - 1 5 1 -s t u d e n t s h a v e n o t y e t g r a s p e d b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e n o t y e t a s s o c i a t e d them w i t h c o n c r e t e a c t i v i t i e s . Once t h e c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s o n t h e s e t o p i c s a r e c o m p l e t e d , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e t e r m s . The l a s t t h i n g t h e t e a c h e r d o e s d u r i n g t h e f i f t h s e s s i o n i s a s k a b o u t t h e t e r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w h i c h h a d a l s o b e e n d i s c u s s e d a t t h e e n d o f s e s s i o n f o u r : T2: And y o u know what t h i s i s ? Do y o u know what t h i s a l l o f t h i s i s on t h e b o a r d ? S: A c l a s s i - . A c l a s s i -T 2: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a nd y o u s e e how h e l p f u l a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c a n be c a u s e i t c a n show y o u j u s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t y o u ' r e g o i n g t o c o v e r i n a l o n g t i m e . We c a n s e e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d s t h i s w o r d s i n c e s h e a t t e m p t s t o p r o n o u n c e i t , b u t s h e h a s d i f f i c u l t y a l t h o u g h s h e h a s h e a r d i t more t h a n h a l f a d o z e n t i m e s . T h i s i s most l i k e l y b e c a u s e i t i s a f i v e - s y l l a b l e w o r d w h i c h s h e h a s h a d no r e a s o n t o p r a c t i c e u n t i l now. I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a c t i v e v o c a b u l a r y , s t u d e n t s must be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e i t . I n s e s s i o n s i x , t h e s t u d e n t s l a b e l t h e i r own p i c t u r e s , a nd t h e n a r e a s k e d t o make s e n t e n c e s a b o u t t h e p a r t s . T hey s t a r t w i t h v e r y s h o r t s e n t e n c e s , and a r e a s k e d t o make l o n g e r o n e s . We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e y h a v e p r a c t i c e d a number o f s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n s f o r t a x o n o m i e s i n s e s s i o n f i v e b u t t h e y now h a v e p r o b l e m s w i t h meronomy: C h a p t e r 3 - 1 5 2 -S: A f i s h h a s a d o r s a l d o r s a l f i n . T2: Good. S: A f i s h h a s a a n a l f i n . T2: A n a l f i n . g o o d . S: A f i s h h a s v e n t r a l f i n s . T2: OK. S: F i s h h a s . . . T l : S c a l e s . S: A g i l l c o v e r . T2: A g i l l c o v e r , r i g h t . Now, l e t ' s s e e i f we c a n make t h e s e n t e n c e a l i t t l e more c o m p l i c a t e d . Remember t h e same s e n t e n c e y o u j u s t t o l d me, b u t on t h e end o f t h e s e n t e n c e l e t ' s a d d w h e r e t h a t t h i n g i s . R i g h t . So what d i d y o u s a y ? T h a t a f i s h h a s a . . . S: A d o r s a l f i n . T2: A d o r s a l f i n . Where's t h e d o r s a l f i n ? S: On t o p . T2: On t o p o r on i t s . . . S: On i t s b a c k . T2: OK. c a n y o u make t h a t i n t o one b i g s e n t e n c e ? S: A f i s h h a s a d o r s a l f i n . I t i s on t h e b a c k . T2: OK, y o u made two r e a l l y g o o d s e n t e n c e s . I s t h e r e a way we c o u l d c o m b i n e t h o s e two s e n t e n c e s i n t o one s e n t e n c e ? S: F i s h h a s a d o r s a l f i n , d o r s a l f i n t h a t ' s on t h e b a c k . T2: Good, o r a f i s h h a s a d o r s a l f i n on i t s b a c k . R i g h t . S: A f i s h h a s a a n a l f i n w h i c h i s o n t h e b o t t o m . T2: Good. We c o u l d e v e n a d d t o t h a t . I t h i n k we c o u l d s a y a f i s h h a s an a n a l f i n w h i c h i s on t h e b o t t o m n e a r t h e b a c k . S: A f i s h h a s a a f i s h h a s v e n t r a l f i n s on t h e b o t t o m . T2: OK. S: On i t s b e l l y . T2: On i t s b e l l y o r n e a r t h e f r o n t . S: Y e a h . T l : N e a r i t s p e c t o r a l f i n . S: A f i s h h a s g i l l c o v e r n e a r i t s e y e s . T2: N e a r i t s e y e s . T l : Y e a h . T2: Or b e s i d e t h e p e c t o r a l f i n . ( . . . ) S: F i s h h a s a s c a l e . T l : Where? S: On t h e t o p o f , t h e t o p f r o n t . Tl.- On t h e t o p f r o n t . What's a n o t h e r way? Who c a n h e l p h e r ? A f i s h h a s s c a l e s . S: A f i s h h a s s c a l e s a l l o v e r t h e body. (...) S: A f i s h h a s a e y e , a f i s h h a s e y e s , w h i c h t h e y u s e t o l o o k w here t h e y ' r e g o i n g . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 5 3 -T l : OK, w h i c h t h e y u s e t o l o o k w h ere t h e y ' r e g o i n g . T h a t w o u l d be g o o d . L e t ' s s e e . You r e a d y f o r t h i s one? S t a r t w i t h t h i s one. S: A f i s h h a s c u s t o r . T l : C a u d a l . S: C a u d a l f i n . We c a n s e e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t r o u b l e w i t h a/an a g r e e m e n t , p r o n o u n a g r e e m e n t (a f i s h : t h e y u s e ) and p r o n u n c i a t i o n ( c a u d a l ) . I n l o o k i n g f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s , we f i n d t h e r e a r e no u s e s o f t h e t a x o n o m i c t e r m s o r t , one o f g r o u p ( u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e n e x t c l a s s o f s t u d e n t s ) , and one o f k i n d , a s k i n g "what k i n d o f f i s h i s i t ? " a s w e l l a s a q u a l i f i e r , " k i n d o f s c a r y " . The m e r o n o m y - r e l a t e d t e r m s i n c l u d e t h e w o r d p a r t , r e f e r e n c e s t o b ody p a r t s , a n d t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e "X h a s a Y", c o m p a r e d t o t h e t a x o n o m i c "X i s a ( k i n d o f ) Y" u s e d i n s e s s i o n f i v e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s f o l l o w C r u s e and a l s o s u p p o r t t h e k i n d s o f d i s t i n c t i o n s made by Mohan. I n s e s s i o n s e v e n t h e s t u d e n t s g i v e e v i d e n c e o f a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a s w e l l a s t h e i n f l e c t i o n s o f t h e t e r m s : T l : V e r y g o o d . OK, y o u know what I ' d l i k e y o u t o do. Now I know y o u won't l i k e t h i s b u t I ' d l i k e y o u t o do i t anyway. I ' d l i k e y o u t o w r i t e me a l i t t l e , p a r a g r a p h d e s c r i b i n g a s much a s y o u c a n a b o u t t h e f i s h , OK? So w h a t a r e y o u g o i n g t o w r i t e a t t h e t o p ? S: F i s h . T l : So w h a t w o u l d be a g o o d t i t l e f o r t h i s p a r a g r a p h ? S: F i s h . T l : Y o u c o u l d c a l l i t f i s h . What, what i s i t t h a t y o u ' r e , t h a t y o u ' r e d o i n g w i t h t h e f i s h ? S: D e s c r i b i n g . T l : D e s c r i b i n g . So y o u c o u l d c a l l t h i s a ... S: D e s c r i p t i o n o f a f i s h . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 5 4 -T l : A descr ip t ion of a f i s h . A f i s h d e s c r i p t i o n . S: Yeah. (...) But one student i s s t i l l working at the level of items rather than the genera l i za t ion about the a c t i v i t y of d e s c r i p t i o n : T2: Anybody wr i t ing some sentences here? Can you explain to us what you're doing here? S: I'm going to t e l l a l l about the eyes and a l l about the mouth. The students' comments suggest that t h e i r perceptions of the d i f f i c u l t y of the task vary, but that s e l ec t ing the proper vocabulary as well as remembering the re la t ionsh ips among the parts are major sources of d i f f i c u l t y : T l : What's the hardest part about doing describing? What do you f ind tough? S: Things that we don't know about. T l : The words? S: Yeah. T2: Do you feel as i f you know enough about the f i s h now to write some good sentences or are you r e a l l y f ind ing i t d i f f i c u l t ? Ss: D i f f i c u l t . No, we think i t ' s easy. T2: Everybody's going to have a d i f f eren t opinion about that . That 's not something that everybody's going to agree on though. (...) Tl. - How he lpfu l i s i t to have the pictures? How, how much does i t help you to have the picture? S: It shows where everything i s . Tl .- No, I'm just wondering, do you f ind i t he lpful or could you do i t without the picture? S: No. No. T l : Why not? What would be the di f ference? S: You wouldn't know which which thing goes on where, which part . . . T l : You mean you wouldn't be able to remember very well? Chapter 3 - 1 5 5 -As i n s e s s i o n s i x t h e r e a r e few t a x o n o m i c t e r m s : (T) "A f i s h h a s f i v e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f f i n s " , w h i c h i s r e p e a t e d by a s t u d e n t l a t e r o n : "Many f i s h h a v e f i v e k i n d s o f f i n s . " I n b o t h t h e t e a c h e r s ' a n d t h e s t u d e n t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f i s h , t h e r e i s a l o t o f l a b e l l i n g , b u t l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n o t h e r t h a n s t a t i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p a r t s . I t may be a v a l i d p o i n t t h a t g i v e n t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n f i s h s p e c i e s t h e r e i s l i t t l e w h i c h c a n be g e n e r a l i z e d a b o u t t h e f i n s o r o t h e r p a r t s , and t h a t s h a p e o r c o l o r i s d i s t i n c t i v e o n l y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s o r v a r i e t y . T h u s t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e f i n s , g i l l c o v e r s , e t c . a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d . The f u n c t i o n s , n o t t h e f o r m s , o f t h e s e p a r t s a r e d i s c u s s e d , b u t n o t i n a s y s t e m a t i c o r i n t e g r a t e d manner. The s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s e m p l o y e d h e r e d i f f e r f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s t a x o n o m i c - r e l a t e d "X c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o Y and Z" and "Y a n d Z b e l o n g t o X". The o n l y s t r u c t u r e u s e d h e r e i s b a s e d on a m e r o n o m i c a n a l y s i s o f p a r t s : "X h a s a Y": S: No. A f i s h h a s a p e c t o r a l f i n w h i c h i s c l o s e t o t h e g i l l c o v e r . T l : V e r y g o o d . A f i s h h a s a p e c t o r a l f i n w h i c h i s c l o s e t o t h e g i l l c o v e r . S: The f i s h h a s a v e n t r a l f i n s t h a t a r e c l o s e t o t h e p e c t o r a l f i n . Tl. - OK, t h e f i s h h a s a v e n t r a l f i n o r v e n t r a l f i n s w h i c h a r e c l o s e t o t h e p e c t o r a l f i n s . How many e y e s d o e s a f i s h h a v e ? S: Two. Two. (...) T l : The s e n t e n c e s t h a t y o u ' v e made s o f a r h a v e a l l h a d t h e C h a p t e r 3 - 1 5 6 -same p a t t e r n . I t ' s b e e n a f i s h h a s . L e t ' s t h i n k o f a n o t h e r p a t t e r n t h a t we c o u l d , make up i n s t e a d o f a f i s h h a s . S: Some f i s h h a v e , two d o r s a l f i n s . T l : OK. Y o u c o u l d s a y . f i s h h a v e , some f i s h h a v e two d o r s a l f i n s . Good g i r l . S: Many f i s h h a v e f i v e k i n d s o f f i n s . T l : OK. F i s h h a v e f i v e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f f i n s . E v e n t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r a s k s f o r a d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e , t h e o n l y c h a n g e made i s t o s w i t c h f r o m s i n g u l a r t o p l u r a l . A l t h o u g h t h e r e may be o t h e r s y n t a c t i c f o r m s w h i c h m i g h t be p o s s i b l e , t h i s i s t h e o n l y one w h i c h i s u s e d . The o n l y e l a b o r a t i o n i s t o a d d i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o w h e r e t h e p a r t i s l o c a t e d , o r i t s f u n c t i o n ( i . e . , t h e s t r u c t u r a l a n d s y s t e m i c t y p e s o f meronomy) .-S: A f i s h h a s a mouth. T l : Good g i r l . S: A f i s h h a s a n o s t r i l a b o v e t h e mouth. T l P e r f e c t . A f i s h h a s a, h a s a n o s t r i l a b o v e i t s mouth. (...) T l : OK g o o d . Y o u r s e n t e n c e . S: L e t ' s s e e . A f i s h h a s a no, a n o s t r i l w h i c h he n e e d s t o b r e a t h e t h r o u g h t h e l u n g s . T h i s a p p r o a c h t o a n a l y s i s o f l e a r n i n g shows t h a t i t i s n o t a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e w o r d t h a t most s t u d e n t s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y , b u t a t t h e c o g n i t i v e l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s , t h a t i s , a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , a s r e v e a l e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s y n t a x and a v o i d a n c e o f c o m p l e x t e r m i n o l o g y . By m a i n t a i n i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e a t w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e o p e r a t i n g , t h e t e a c h e r c a n r e s p o n d i n t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e manner t o d e v e l o p t h e c o n c e p t s b e i n g t a u g h t . As we c o n t i n u e t o a n a l y z e t h e s e s s i o n s t h i s p o i n t w i l l become c l e a r e r . C h a p t e r 3 -157-A t t h e end o f s e s s i o n e i g h t t h e t e a c h e r a g a i n q u e s t i o n s t h e s t u d e n t s on t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e d i a g r a m : T: W h i c h i s e a s i e r , u s i n g t h e d i a g r a m t o h e l p y o u s a y s e n t e n c e s o r t r y i n g t o do them o u t o f y o u r h e a d ? Ss.- D i a g r a m . T: How d o e s i t h e l p y o u ? S: 'Cause i t ' s b e e n l a b e l l e d o r i t ' s b e e n s e p a r a t e d i n t o g r o u p s . T h i s s t u d e n t h a s i d e n t i f i e d one o f t h e k e y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m , t h a t o b j e c t s a r e g r o u p e d a n d t h a t t h e g r o u p s a r e a s s i g n e d names o r l a b e l s t o f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l a r g e r u n i t . The t e r m s u s e d h e r e a r e much more c o m p l e x i n c o n c e p t t h a n t h o s e u s e d i n t h e i n i t i a l s e s s i o n s a n d c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e i n i t i a l l y p r o p o s e d a s b e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i s u s e f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a b u l a r y a n d t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i s a u s e f u l a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i n g s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s . By s e s s i o n f o u r t e e n t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e c o m p l e t e d a s u r v e y o f w h i c h s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s h a v e p e t s , a n d w h i c h k i n d t h e y h a v e . T h i s i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e , a n d a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s an a c t i v i t y . I n t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e i r s u r v e y , t h e y do n o t u s e any p u r e l y t a x o n o m i c t e r m s ( k i n d , g r o u p , e t c . ) , b u t e m p l o y t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e "X h a v e Y" w h i c h c a n be u s e d f o r m e m b e r s h i p o r f o r p o s s e s s i o n . -C h a p t e r 3 - 1 5 8 -S: F i v e p e o p l e h a v e f i s h , a n d f i v e p e o p l e h a v e a d o g . And t h r e e p e o p l e h a v e a c a t . And two p e o p l e h a v e a b i r d . F i f t e e n p e t s . The k e y w o r d h e r e i s t h e v e r b " h a v e " w h i c h c a n be u s e d on t h e one h a n d t o i n d i c a t e m e m b e r s h i p i n a g r o u p ( t a x o n o m y ) .-S: I h a v e f o u r b r o t h e r s , f o u r s i s t e r s a n d I g o t (="have") n i n e i n my f a m i l y a l l t o g e t h e r . o r p o s s e s s i o n o f a p a r t (meronomy): S: A f i s h h a s v e n t r a l f i n s . The s t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o be c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p e t s t o be p o s s e s s i o n s o r e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h t h e s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e g r o u p " p e t s " a number o f s u b - t y p e s ; d o g s , c a t s , f i s h a n d b i r d s . The s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o s u m m a r i z e t h e a n i m a l s u n d e r t h e m a i n c a t e g o r y .-Tl.- T hank y o u . How s o how many p e t s d i d t h i s g i r l h a v e ? W e l l , one two t h r e e f o u r f i v e s i x s e v e n . s h e must S: T h r e e . She h a d t h r e e p e t s . No, s h e h a d , s h e h a s two b i r d s , one c a t and one dog. Tl.- Ok, s o s h e ' s g o t f o u r p e t s . (...) T l : G o o d n e s s me. How many p e o p l e d i d y o u a s k ? S: F i f t e e n . No, I h a d s i x p e o p l e . T l : Y o u h a d s i x p e o p l e ? S: Y e a h . F i v e p e o p l e h a v e f i s h , a n d f i v e p e o p l e h a v e a do g . And t h r e e p e o p l e h a v e a c a t . And two p e o p l e h a v e a b i r d . F i f t e e n p e t s . The s t u d e n t s a p p e a r s u c c e s s f u l i n a s s i g n i n g d i f f e r e n t i t e m s t o d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s , b u t one s t u d e n t s t i l l h a s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s : S: M r s . H. c o u n t s s i x p e o p l e s i n c l u d e d u n d e r o u r p a g e , a nd t h e n ... C h a p t e r 3 -159-I t w o u l d seem t h e s t u d e n t i s c o n f o u n d i n g " i n c l u d e d u n d e r " + ( s u p e r - o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r y ) w i t h " i n c l u d e d o n " + ( l o c a t i v e ) , a n d s h e h a s e v e n more d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a l l o w a b l e g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s : S I : I f t h e y h a v e p e t s a nd ... S 2 : And who t h e i r k i n d . T h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t w o u l d be b e t t e r a s "what k i n d t h e y h a v e , " w h i c h h a s some s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s , b u t i s c o r r e c t l y s t r u c t u r e d . The s t u d e n t s a l s o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n mass a n d c o u n t n o u n s : S: I f o u n d one p e r s o n h a d one f i s h , f o u n d o u t t h a t two p e o p l e h a d d o g , a n d f o u n d o u t one p e r s o n h a d a c a t . " F i s h " may be e i t h e r , w h i l e " f i s h e s " a n d "dog" a r e d e f i n i t e l y c o u n t n o u n s . A n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - b a s e d e r r o r o c c u r s e a r l i e r i n s e s s i o n t h i r t e e n . I t i n v o l v e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e g e n e r i c a nd t h e s p e c i f i c a s m a r k e d b y t h e a r t i c l e s : T 2 : How w o u l d y o u s t a r t ? What's a g o o d s t a r t ? S: "A f i s h . " T 2 : OK, "a f i s h . " Y o u ' d s a y "a f i s h " r a t h e r t h a n " t h e f i s h " b e c a u s e i t ' s t r u e f o r e v e r y f i s h . So y o u c o u l d s a y "a f i s h " o r " f i s h . " T h i s i s a c t u a l l y a v e r y d i f f i c u l t d i s t i n c t i o n t o make. The d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s n o t i n s y n t a c t i c c u e s , s i n c e any o f t h e t h r e e a r t i c l e c o n d i t i o n s ( a , t h e , n u l l ) i s p e r m i s s i b l e i n t h e s e n t e n c e a t t h i s p o i n t , b u t i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n two c l a s s e s o f c o n c e p t s w h i c h f o r m s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s i n Mohan's C h a p t e r 3 -160-k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s : one w h i c h i s t h e o r e t i c a l a n d g e n e r i c , i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c e l l ; t h e o t h e r , s p e c i f i c a n d a c t u a l , i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n c e l l . The t e a c h e r ' s a p p r o a c h i s t o p o i n t o u t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t . The manner i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t r e p o r t s h e r d a t a on p e t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a m a t r i x c h a r t ( f i g u r e 9, b e l o w ) w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e b e e n t h e g r a p h i c f o r m a t i n w h i c h t h e d a t a w e r e r e c o r d e d . The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e c l a u s e s t r u c t u r e " f o u n d X h a d Y" and t h e l i s t s t r u c t u r e ("x, y, and z") r e v e a l t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t i s p r o b a b l y o p e r a t i n g . F i g u r e 9: D a t a c o l l e c t i o n m a t r i x c a t docr f i s h ! J o h n X j S a l l y X X ! J u d y X ; I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a n a l y z i n g t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s c a n d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s t h e y a r e o p e r a t i n g w i t h . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t y r e v e a l t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o i d e n t i f y members o f a c a t e g o r y t h a n t o i d e n t i f y t h e c a t e g o r y w h i c h a g r o u p o f i t e m s b e l o n g s t o . E v e n a f t e r a number o f s e s s i o n s o f w o r k i n g w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s s t i l l h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a b u l a r y a n d s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s . By a n a l y z i n g t h e t e r m s w h i c h s t u d e n t s u s e , i t i s C h a p t e r 3 - 1 6 1 -p o s s i b l e t o r e v e a l t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s w h i c h t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y e m p l o y i n g . I f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s p r o v e d t o be a c c u r a t e , t h e n t h i s may a s s i s t t h e t e a c h e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g what e r r o r s o r d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e s t u d e n t s may h a v e , a nd g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f how t o p r o c e e d i n r e s o l v i n g them. E a c h o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t o r s w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r . I n t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n two s t u d e n t s a r e t e s t e d on t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s k i l l s . The f i r s t s t u d e n t i s a b l e t o d i s c u s s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : T2: W i t h l i v i n g t h i n g s , what w e r e t h e two g r o u p s ? S: P l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s . T2: Ok a n d w i t h p e t s , what w e r e t h e a n i m a l s , what w e r e t h e g r o u p s ? S: P e t s , f a r m a n i m a l s a n d w i l d l i f e . T2.- OK now, i f I s a i d t o y o u , c o u l d y o u make me a n o t h e r , um i n f a c t , y o u d i d i t o v e r h e r e , remember? I f I s a i d , c o u l d y o u make me a n o t h e r um way o f d i v i d i n g p e t s , do y o u remember how y o u m i g h t do t h a t ? S: F i r s t y o u l i s t p e t s a t t h e t o p a n d t h e n y o u d i v i d e i t i n t o a l l t h e k i n d s o f p e t s a n d t h e n T2: Now i s t h e r e a way y o u c o u l d g r o u p p e t s t o g e t h e r somehow, s o t h a t t h a t w o u l d n ' t , s o , c a u s e i f y o u , i f y o u d i d n ' t g r o u p them, y o u j u s t h a d a b i g l i s t o f e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d t h a t c o u l d be a p e t , i s t h e r e some way t h a t y o u c o u l d remember g r o u p i n g them? S: P u t t i n g mammals and b i r d s , f i s h a n d r e p t i l e s ? T2: Ok, s o t h a t was one way t o um o r g a n i z e p e t s . t h i s way was j u s t a b i g l i s t o f e v e r y p e t , r i g h t ? b u t t h i s way (...) T2: C o u l d y o u e x p l a i n t h i s t o me i n i n w o r d s ? What c o u l d y o u c l a s s i f y ? T h i s g r o u p o f t h i n g s . S: E v e r y t h i n g . And i t c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o l o t s o f g r o u p s : C h a p t e r 3 - 1 6 2 -l i v i n g a n d n o n - l i v i n g . And l i v i n g c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . A n i m a l s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : p e t s , f a r m a n i m a l s a n d w i l d l i f e . T h i s s t u d e n t h a s u s e d some o f t h e k e y w o r d s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : d i v i d e i n t o , 1 i s t , k i n d s , g r o u p s . The s u p e r - o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s h a v e b e e n c l e a r l y l a b e l l e d , a n d t h e s t u d e n t a p p e a r s t o h a v e a v i s u a l image o f a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e t o c a l l u p o n ("at t h e t o p " ) . The s e c o n d s t u d e n t i s a s k e d a more a b s t r a c t q u e s t i o n : T 2: What d o e s c l a s s i f y mean i n y o u r own w o r d s ? S: D i v i d e . T2: D i v i d e t h i n g s up, l i k e I c o u l d d i v i d e up my d i n n e r , b u t I w a s n ' t c l a s s i f y i n g i t , s o w h a t , i t ' s d i v i d e i n a s p e c i a l way. How do y o u d i v i d e i n - , w h a t d o e s c l a s s i f y mean? Y o u d i v i d e t h i n g s up b u t how do y o u d i v i d e them up? S: O p p o s i t e s . T2: W e l l , s o m e t i m e s y o u c a n do i t by o p p o s i t e s , b u t y o u p u t them i n t o g r o u p s t h a t h a v e t h i n g s i n common, r i g h t ? The s t u d e n t g i v e s a r e s p o n s e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e f i r s t s t u d e n t : S: E v e r y t h i n g c a n be l i v i n g a n d n o n - l i v i n g . L i v i n g t h i n g s c a n be p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s . A n i m a l s c a n be p e t s , w i l d l i f e a n d f a r m a n i m a l s . We c a n s e e t h a t t h i s s t u d e n t i s n o t a s " f l u e n t " i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m i n o l o g y a s t h e f i r s t s t u d e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t s t u d e n t a p p e a r s t o be more f l u e n t i n d i s c u s s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t s h e was a s k e d an e a s i e r q u e s t i o n t h a n t h e s e c o n d s t u d e n t . She was a s k e d t o l i s t members o f c a t e g o r i e s w h e r e a s t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t C h a p t e r 3 - 1 6 3 -was a s k e d t o d e f i n e c l a s s i f y , a more a b s t r a c t , t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l a c t i v i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e f i r s t s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w h i c h t h e s e c o n d was u n a b l e t o do u n d e r d i r e c t r e q u e s t , and showed t h a t s h e d i d i n d e e d h a v e a b e t t e r g r a s p o f t h e t o p i c . E x a m i n a t i o n a t t h e w o r d - l e v e l shows t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s e c o n d s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t e d c l a s s i f y w i t h d i v i d e , s h e u s e d " l i v i n g and n o n - l i v i n g " , r a t h e r t h a n o r . She d o e s n o t u s e any o f t h e k e y t e r m s u s e d by t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t , and u s e s o n l y t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e "X c a n be Y a n d Z". The t e a c h e r p o i n t s o u t t h e w e a k n e s s i n t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n , b u t t h e r e s p o n s e i s n o t r e a l l y an i m p r o v e m e n t : T2: You c a n j u s t s e e t h a t when y o u d i v i d e t h i n g s up, y o u g e t l i k e p a i r s , OK? So s o m e t h i n g c a n ' t , be l i v i n g a n d n o n - l i v i n g a t t h e same t i m e . S o m e t h i n g c a n ' t be a p l a n t a n d a n a n i m a l , r i g h t ? S o m e t h i n g c a n ' t be a g i r l a n d a b o y , o r b l u e a n d , and be r e d a t t h e same t i m e , r i g h t ? So t h a t i t ' s g o t i t s s e t s o r g r o u p s . Now w i t h p e t s , o r w i t h w i l d , o r f a r m l i f e o r w i l d l i f e o r f a r m a n i m a l s , t h e y c o u l d be p u t i n t o g r o u p s t o o . How c o u l d y o u p u t p e t s i n t o g r o u p s , do y o u remember t h a t ? S: F i s h . T2: S u p e r . S: Dogs, c a t s , r a b b i t s ? T2: OK, and t h a t , b u t t h a t w o u l d be m a k i n g a l i s t l i k e d o g s , c a t s , r a b b i t s , g o l d f i s h , b i r d s , a l l o f t h a t . Do y o u remember uh I'm g o i n g t o a s k y o u t o do some more i n a m i n u t e . S: OK T2: Do y o u remember t h a t t h e r e was a way t h a t we c o u l d t a k e one o f t h e s e ? S: Mammals a n d . . . T2.- Mammals, b i r d s , f i s h a n d r e p t i l e s , r i g h t , s o y o u d i d y o u r l i s t , b u t y o u s e e t h e d i f f e r e n c e ? I f y o u j u s t make a l i s t w e l l i f we k e p t g o i n g y o u c o u l d h a v e C h a p t e r 3 -164-s n a k e s and l i z a r d s and y o u know a l l p e o p l e h a v e a l l k i n d s o f f u n n y p e t s . T h a t c o u l d go () s o y o u want t o g r o u p t h e s e c a n do y o u s e e why y o u do i t t h i s way? As many t h i n g s a s y o u c a n p u t i n one g r o u p . Now c o u l d y o u e x p l a i n t h i s one t o me? S: A n i m a l s c a n be mammals, b i r d s , f i s h a nd r e p t i l e s . Mammals c a n be b i g a n d s m a l l . B i r d s c a n t a l k a n d t h e y c a n ' t t a l k . F i s h c a n be t r o p i c a l f i s h a n d f r e s h w a t e r f i s h . R e p t i l e s c a n h a v e l e g s a n d no l e g s . E v e n a f t e r a l e n g t h y e x p l a n a t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r t h e s t u d e n t s t i l l d o e s n o t u s e o r a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f s e p a r a t i o n o f g r o u p s , and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s e l e c t e d a s d i s t i n c t i v e w i t h i n t h e s u b g r o u p s a r e t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d ( s i z e , s p e e c h , h a b i t a t , l i m b s ) . T h i s may be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n s e s s i o n f i v e , w h e r e some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s , w e r e a d d e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e on t h e b o a r d . The s t u d e n t h a s u s e d a n o t h e r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e , "X c a n h a v e Y and Z" i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d "X c a n be Y and Z". The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n i s l e f t t h a t t h i s s t u d e n t h a s a v e r y p o o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w h o l e c o n c e p t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a nd c e r t a i n l y i s n o t a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e i t . S i n c e we c a n o n l y m e a s u r e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s by t h e i r a c t i o n s , i t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t i f t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f a p r o b l e m a r e weak, i t must be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m i s weak, o r a t l e a s t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t l a c k s t h e l a n g u a g e t o e x p r e s s h i s o r h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g C h a p t e r 3 - 1 6 5 -o f t h e p r o b l e m . T h e r e a p p e a r t o be a number o f l e v e l s o f l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y w h i c h we c a n i d e n t i f y , s u c h a s t h e s e q u e n c e s o f s y n t a c t i c a n d l e x i c a l t e r m s w h i c h h a v e b e e n n o t e d i n t h i s p a p e r , w h i c h may be v a l i d i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e t o p i c . S i n c e t h e s e t e r m s a r e n o t s u b j e c t s p e c i f i c , i . e . , r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f b i o l o g y , t h e y may p e r h a p s be u s e d a s i d e n t i f i e r s o f s t u d e n t a b i l i t y i n o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i o n may p r o v e t o be a p o w e r f u l a s s e s s m e n t t o o l . We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t t a l k w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e d i v i s i o n s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k , a n d t h a t a n a l y s i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e i s u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t o p i c . The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l show t h a t t h e r e i s a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t y p e o f t e a c h e r l a n g u a g e u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g t h e c o n t e n t p r e s e n t e d . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f  l e x i c a l t e r m s We h a v e j u s t s e e n t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o p e r f o r m t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t y t h a n t o d e f i n e i t , t h a t i s , t o s t a t e C h a p t e r 3 - 1 6 6 -t h e p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h i t i s b a s e d . R e t u r n i n g now t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y , we s h a l l s e e t h a t t h o s e l e x i c a l t e r m s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o p i c a r e more s u c c e s s f u l l y l e a r n e d t h a n t h o s e t e r m s w h i c h a r e more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s . Terms w h i c h we h a v e s e e n t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e n o t a b l y s u c c e s s f u l a t l e a r n i n g i n c l u d e v e r t e b r a t e , r u d d e r , e g g - l a y e r and v e n t r a l , w h i l e t h o s e w i t h w h i c h t h e y h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n c l u d e l a r v a , assume, r e p r o d u c t i o n , f e r t i 1 i z e a nd 1 i v e - b e a r e r . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n a c q u i r i n g t h e s e t e r m s . I t h a d b e e n s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r t h a t c e n t r a l i t y may be a f a c t o r , b u t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a m a j o r t o p i c e x t e n d i n g o v e r s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s , y e t s t u d e n t s f a i l t o a c q u i r e t h i s t e r m . I f we e v a l u a t e t h e s e t e r m s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k , a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n a p p e a r s . The f o u r t e r m s w h i c h a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y l e a r n e d a r e a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / d e s c r i p t i o n t e r m s . V e r t e b r a t e i s a m a j o r node i n t h e t a x o n o m y w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s l e a r n ; v e n t r a l i s a m a j o r i t e m i n t h e meronomy o f f i s h p a r t s , w h i l e r u d d e r ( a n d o a r ) a r e c o m p a r e d t o t h e s e p a r t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l o f t h e s e t e r m s a r e g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d , e i t h e r i n a t a x o n o m i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t r e e o r a s l a b e l l e d p a r t s o f a d i a g r a m . C h a p t e r 3 - 1 6 7 -E g g - l a y e r i s p r o b l e m a t i c i n t h a t i t i s a node on a t a x o n o m i c t r e e , b u t s o i s i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t e r m , 1 i v e - b e a r e r , w h i c h i s n o t w e l l - l e a r n e d . T h e s e a r e b o t h l a b e l s f o r c l a s s e s d e f i n e d by a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s . I t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t e g g - l a y e r i s a c t u a l l y a t e r m w i t h w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s w e re p r e v i o u s l y f a m i l i a r , s i n c e i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f eg g s b e i n g l a i d , a common c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e t o p i c ( e . g . , "The g o o s e t h a t l a i d t h e g o l d e n egg.") L i v e - b e a r e r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , u s e a t e r m ( b e a r ) w i t h w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e p r o b a b l y n o t a s f a m i l i a r e x c e p t a s t h e p a s t p a r t i c i p l e f o r m , b o r n . The page on r e p r o d u c t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d i s d e v o t e d t o d e s c r i b i n g e g g - l a y e r s , e x c e p t f o r h a l f o f one s e n t e n c e , "Some s p e c i e s b e a r t h e i r y o u n g a l i v e a n d a r e c a l l e d " l i v e - b e a r e r s a n d t h e e x e r c i s e w h i c h t h e y c o m p l e t e on t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n c y c l e a d d r e s s e s e g g - l a y e r s e x c l u s i v e l y . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e g r a p h i c a n d t e x t s u p p o r t f o r e g g - l a y e r i s much h i g h e r t h a n f o r 1 i v e - b e a r e r a n d t h e r e f o r e i t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f f o c u s o r i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t o a t e r m i s i n d e e d a f a c t o r i n l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n . Of t h e f i v e u n s u c c e s s f u l l y l e a r n e d t e r m s , l a r v a , assume, r e p r o d u c t i o n , f e r t i 1 i z e a n d 1 i v e - b e a r e r , f o u r o f them r e f e r t o p r o c e s s e s ; o n l y l a r v a w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n n o m i n a l , a n d i t d o e s n o t a p p e a r a s a t e r m i n any s t r u c t u r e d C h a p t e r 3 - 1 6 8 -g r a p h i c . I t a p p e a r s i n d i s c u s s i o n o n l y a n d t h e n o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y i n an a t t e m p t t o s u p p l a n t a t e r m w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t h a s a l r e a d y c h o s e n , w i t h r e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r c r a s h - u p  c a r s . Of t h e o t h e r t e r m s , assume, r e p r o d u c t i o n a n d f e r t i 1 i z e a l l r e f e r t o p r o c e s s e s a n d a r e n o t a s e a s i l y s u p p o r t e d g r a p h i c a l l y a s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s . The a b s t r a c t e x p l a n a t i o n s a n a l y z i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y a p p e a r t o be b e y o n d t h e c o g n i t i v e g r a s p o f t h e s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e t e x t - b a s e d e x e r c i s e i s t i t l e d R e p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e t e a c h e r s p e n d s c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e e x p l a i n i n g t h e t e r m , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t a n d i n l a t e r l e s s o n s show t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t y by a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e p r o c e s s , n o t d e f i n e i t . T h i s i s an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e i n t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n r e f e r s t o a p r o c e s s a c t i v i t y , n o t a s t a t i c one. I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s m i g h t h a v e b e e n more s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e i r g i v e n t a s k h a d b e e n more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . F e r t i 1 i z e i s a p r o c e s s w i t h c a u s e a nd e f f e c t b u t t h e c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s do n o t f o c u s on t h i s f e a t u r e , a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s l e s s e n e d when t h e s t u d e n t s l e a r n t h a t n o t a l l t h e e g g s h a t c h . The " m i l k y f l u i d " e x p l a n a t i o n o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s a l s o u n c l e a r i n t h a t t h e r e i s no l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e l i n k w i t h f e r t i l i z a t i o n . I t w o u l d seem t h a t C h a p t e r 3 -169-t h i s i s a c r u c i a l s t e p i n r e p r o d u c t i o n b u t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t t o l d why t h i s " m i l k y f l u i d " i s n e c e s s a r y . The e x e r c i s e w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e g g - l a y i n g c y c l e , a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e o f S e q u e n c i n g , b u t t h e f e r t i l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , i t w o u l d seem, r e q u i r e s an a c t i v i t y f o c u s s i n g o n P r i n c i p l e s . I t may be, t h e n , t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e t e r m s r e p r o d u c t i o n a n d f e r t i 1 i z e b e c a u s e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w e r e n o t c u e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h assume ("They assume t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . " " ) a g a i n l i e s i n t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . A p r i n c i p l e i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e f e a t u r e w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c l a s s o f warm- and c o l d -b l o o d e d a n i m a l s . The s t u d e n t s do n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y i n p l a c i n g i t e m s i n t o t h e c o r r e c t c a t e g o r i e s ; t h e y a r e a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e , b u t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t e m p e r a t u r e r e g u l a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be t o o a b s t r a c t f o r them t o u n d e r s t a n d . An a c t i v i t y f o c u s s i n g on t h i s p r i n c i p l e m i g h t h a v e b e e n u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g them u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e r m . 3.4 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r h a s e x a m i n e d c l a s s r o o m t e x t s i n o r d e r t o r e v e a l some o f t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f C h a p t e r 3 -170-v o c a b u l a r y . Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d i s o l a t e d w o r d a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g y a n a l y s e s do n o t a p p e a r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n v o c a b u l a r y a n d k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s . The k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i s shown t o be a u s e f u l t o o l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e t o be u s e d i n p r e s e n t i n g a t o p i c and i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' p r o g r e s s . I t c a n be u s e d t o p r e d i c t w h i c h l a n g u a g e w i l l p r o b a b l y be u s e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s a n d by t h e s t u d e n t s a n d i t s u g g e s t s why t e a c h e r l a n g u a g e o f t e n a p p e a r s t o be one l e v e l more a b s t r a c t t h a n t h a t o f t h e s t u d e n t s . I t o f f e r s a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f why c e r t a i n t e r m s a r e more e a s i l y l e a r n e d t h a n o t h e r s . O v e r a l l , i t o f f e r s an a n a l y s i s o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n t h e r e s u l t s o f w h i c h a r e more c o h e r e n t t h a n t h o s e f r o m t h e f r e q u e n c y c o u n t o r s i n g l e w o r d a n a l y s i s a p p r o a c h . The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l d r a w some c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e s e f i n d i n g s , s u g g e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s a n d t e a c h e r s a n d i n d i c a t e some a r e a s w h e r e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h may be u s e f u l . C h a p t e r 3 -171-C h a p t e r F o u r : D i s c u s s i o n , O b s e r v a t i o n s and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s T h i s s t u d y b e g a n by r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e on l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h d e v o t e d t o d i s c o v e r i n g how v o c a b u l a r y i s d e v e l o p e d . Mohan's " k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k " h a s p r o v i d e d one way t o a p p r o a c h t h i s p r o b l e m and o f f e r s some s t r a t e g i e s t o t h e l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r and l e a r n e r . A s e r i e s o f l a n g u a g e l e s s o n s h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a number o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m t h e s e t h e o r i e s a n d a n a l y s e s . T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t h e f i n d i n g s on t h o s e q u e s t i o n s and make some o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s . 4.1 F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t v o c a b u l a r y u s a g e . The t e a c h e r s t a l k more, b u t a l s o u s e a w i d e r r a n g e o f v o c a b u l a r y t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a number o f f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i v e t a s k s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y , t h e y must be g i v e n t a s k s w h i c h p l a c e h i g h e r demands on t h e i r s k i l l s . C u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s t h i s a w a r e n e s s i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s on t a s k - b a s e d r e s e a r c h , b u t t o d a t e no t h e o r e t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s i n t h i s a r e a h a v e b e e n d r a w n C h a p t e r 4 - 1 7 2 -w h i c h p r o p o s e a c o n s o l i d a t e d h y p o t h e s i s o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . 4.2 T e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s The v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s e m p l o y e d i n t h e c l a s s s e s s i o n s a r e r e v i e w e d and a s e r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e p r o c e s s o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n a r e made; as w e l l , s e v e r a l c a v e a t s a r e o b s e r v e d . The numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n d i c a t e t h e s e s s i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e l e v a n t e x a m p l e o c c u r r e d . The t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t w o m a j o r g r o u p s , d i r e c t a n d i n d i r e c t . The d i r e c t s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y f o c u s on s p e c i f i c t e r m s a n d t e a c h d i r e c t l y t o them. The s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e e t y m o l o g y ( 6 : a n a l ) , e x p l a n a t i o n ( 8 : a s s u m e ) , d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n ( 9 : r e p r o d u c e ) , e l a b o r a t i o n ( 9 : s p e c i e s ) and m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s ( 1 5 : r e p r o d u c e ) . I t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s a r e n o t v e r y e f f e c t i v e w i t h t h i s g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s , s i n c e t h e t e r m s a r e n o t u s e d by t h e m a n d i n some c a s e s a r e m i s u n d e r s t o o d . I t may be t h a t a b s t r a c t t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s t h e s e may be o f u s e w i t h more m a t u r e s t u d e n t s , b u t t h e y a r e n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e s e s s i o n s o b s e r v e d . I n d i r e c t s t r a t e g i e s f o c u s on t h e m e s s a g e , n o t t h e medium. C h a p t e r 4 - 1 7 3 -a n d t h e n e c e s s a r y v o c a b u l a r y i s p r e s e n t e d a s p a r t o f a l a r g e r s i t u a t i o n . The i n d i r e c t s t r a t e g i e s met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y more s u c c e s s t h a n t h e d i r e c t a p p r o a c h e s . The m a j o r f a c t o r a p p e a r s t o be t h e c o n t e x t - r i c h s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d . The m u l t i - m o d a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e t h e most e f f e c t i v e . Key g r a p h i c s a r e c e n t r a l t o much o f t h e l e a r n i n g t h a t g o e s on. I t c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r s u c c e s s l i e s i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n an a l t e r n a t e l e a r n i n g s t y l e , s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t h a s a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t a v e n u e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . I n f a c t , m a t e r i a l i s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h a number o f s e n s e s : g r a p h i c ( 6 : p i c t u r e o f f i s h ) , t e x t u a l ( 8 : r e a d i n g a b o u t f i s h ) , a u r a l ( p r i m a r y mode o f t e a c h i n g ) , t a c t i l e ( 5 : b a c k b o n e ) and k i n e t i c ( 1 2 : s e u l 1 ) . L e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n , and t h e r e t e n t i v e d e v i c e o f a mnemonic k e y ( 6 : " c o o k i e s a r e n ' t . . . ) a p p e a r s t o be e f f e c t i v e . R e p e t i t i o n o f t e r m s i s a l s o u s e f u l ( 5 : v e r t e b r a t e s v s a p p e n d a g e ) . T h e r e a r e many i n c i d e n c e s o f t h e u s e o f a n a l o g y , p a r a p h r a s i n g , synonymy, a n d c o n t r a s t i n g . R a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t i n g a d e f i n i t i o n , t h e t e r m s a r e o f t e n e x p l a i n e d by e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , a n d i f a d e f i n i t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d , i t i s f o l l o w i n g t h e t e r m , n o t p r e c e d i n g i t . The t e a c h e r s s o m e t i m e s c o n s c i o u s l y a i d l e a r n i n g by a n t i c i p a t i n g p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m a r e a s ( 1 1 : s c a l e ) o r r e c o g n i z i n g C h a p t e r 4 - 1 7 4 -t h e s i g n s o f d i f f i c u l t y s u c h a s h e s i t a t i o n ( 1 3 ) , b u t s o m e t i m e s t h e y make i t more d i f f i c u l t by c o n f u s i n g t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s c a n h a p p e n by g i v i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n p u t ( 1 2 : embryo / l a r v a / f r y ) , u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s ( 1 2 : d i s t i n c t l y ) o r u s i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e - g r a p h i c c o m b i n a t i o n s ( 5 ) . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o v e r i f y t h a t a l e a r n i n g u n i t h a s a c t u a l l y b e e n l e a r n e d ( 8 : a s s u m e ) . The s t u d e n t s a r e n o t p a s s i v e c o n s u m e r s o f t e a c h i n g , b u t t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ( H a r l o w 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e y r e a c t t o t h e v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s t r a t e g i e s and g i v e i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e k i n d o f s t r a t e g i e s t h e y u s e i n v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n . B e s i d e s a s k i n g d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s when a t e r m i s n o t u n d e r s t o o d ( 8 : assume) t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t a t e r m i s n o t u s e f u l t o them by r e p l a c i n g i t w i t h a n o t h e r ( 3 : c r a s h - u p ; 12: l a r v a - worm; 13: 1 i k e - a s ) . H e s i t a t i o n s i g n a l s t h a t t e r m s a r e n o t u n d e r s t o o d ( 1 3 : s e u l 1 i n q , r u d d e r ) . A l l o w i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e e r s t o a s s i s t i s a l s o a p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g mode ( 1 3 : r u d d e r ) . H e r e t h e y u s e t h e s t r a t e g i e s o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n a n d a s s o c i a t i o n . We c a n a l s o n o t e t h a t i f someone, be i t t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t , makes a m i s t a k e , s t u d e n t s c o r r e c t i t o n l y i f i t i s a l e x i c a l e r r o r a n d n o t a s y n t a c t i c e r r o r . M o r e o v e r , i t i s t h e t e r m s c e n t r a l t o a t o p i c w h i c h a r e most l i k e l y t o be c o r r e c t e d i f a n e r r o r i s c o m m i t t e d C h a p t e r 4 - 1 7 5 -( 7 : c a u d a l - d o r s a l ) . One a r e a w h i c h i s r i p e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h e e f f e c t o f a l l o w i n g t h e l e a r n e r t o t a k e g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s a s o c c u r s when t h e t e a c h e r l e a r n s a new t e r m ( 1 4: L o h r i ) . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e t e x t a s a s o u r c e o f l a n g u a g e i s n o t c l e a r , b u t one i n c i d e n t ( 1 3 : 1 i k e / a s ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s c a n be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e , s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s r e p l a c e t h e t e a c h e r ' s o r a l t e r m w i t h t h e t e r m u s e d i n t h e t e x t . I n a n o t h e r c a s e , a t e r m i s l e a r n e d by t h e s t u d e n t s b e f o r e i t i s s p o k e n by t h e t e a c h e r ( 6 : v e n t r a l ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s t u d e n t s make comments ( 1 2 : f r y ) n o t when t h e y r e a d i t i n t h e i r t e x t b u t l a t e r when t h e t e a c h e r u s e s i t o r a l l y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h may be a b l e t o show w h e t h e r o r a l o r w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e i s more p r o d u c t i v e i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s . S t u d e n t e r r o r s a s i n d i c a t o r s o f l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s The o b s e r v e d e r r o r s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s make a r e l a r g e l y o f c o m m i s s i o n , a n d a r e p r i m a r i l y s y n t a c t i c i n n a t u r e . We n e e d t o n o t e t h a t e r r o r s o f o m i s s i o n a r e much h a r d e r t o d e t e c t , a n d i t i s o n l y by c o m p a r i n g what s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s s a y u n d e r t h e same c o n d i t i o n s t h a t we d i s c o v e r t h e g a p s i n t h e s t u d e n t ' s l a n g u a g e , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e a r e a o f l e x i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . C h a p t e r 4 - 1 7 6 -It i s suggested that the weaker student uses less precise terms and more paraphrasing while attempting to keep the response as b r i e f , and therefore as e r r o r - f r e e , as poss ib le . It i s a moot point whether a student has a greater vocabulary-base because he or she has a better understanding of the topic or v ice versa. What i s important to note i s that there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n , and that the teacher can only af fect one of these factors , the q u a l i t y of the student's vocabulary. One can scarce ly improve the students' comprehension without using the vocabulary appropriate for the top ic , and i t i s the student's responsive use of t h i s vocabulary which indicates comprehension. Many of the errors in d i s t ingu i sh ing between c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and descr ip t ion are syntact ic e r r o r s , that i s , errors in syntax rather than l e x i s . We can therefore make the observation that in order to express the concepts of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or descr ip t ion there i s more required than just a set of vocabulary terms such as are proposed by Roget or Lawrence. Had the other c e l l s of the framework been explored, the f indings would probably have been s i m i l a r . It i s suggested that both l ex i s and syntax must receive at tent ion i n classroom teaching. To summarize, the analyses of the data examining the Chapter 4 -177-various i n s t r u c t i o n a l s trateg ies shows that the i n d i r e c t , context-based s trateg ies appear to be more e f fec t ive than the d i r e c t word-focused s tra teg ie s . This supports the suggestions made in the l i t e r a t u r e by Cummins and others that language must be learned in an integrated manner. What the l i t e r a t u r e does not propose is a system for se l ec t ing the appropriate language to be used with a p a r t i c u l a r content t o p i c . 4.3 Appl i ca t ion of the knowledge framework to methodology The major question ra i sed in the theore t i ca l considerations i s whether one s p e c i f i c approach to language teaching might prove s a t i s f a c t o r y . Mohan's knowledge framework predicts that an approach to language learning based on the knowledge s tructures can be use fu l . Because there i s no control in th i s inves t iga t ion , we can only observe whether the students appear to have developed any language s k i l l s and suggest which areas may have been aided by the knowledge framework approach. It i s suggested that some of the main factors in success are whether the term is c l e a r l y presented, whether i t corresponds to the knowledge s tructure and whether i t i s required to be a c t i v e l y used by the students. The knowledge s tructures organizat ion helps to ensure that the topic remains Chapter 4 -178-c l e a r a n d n o t c o m p l i c a t e d b y o t h e r t y p e s o f l a n g u a g e , s u c h a s e v a l u a t i o n o r p r i n c i p l e s . I n c a s e s w h e r e i t i s n o t m a t c h e d p r o p e r l y , l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s r e s u l t . W h e t h e r t h e t e a c h i n g w o u l d h a v e b e e n more o r l e s s e f f e c t i v e u s i n g a n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k i s n o t c l e a r , b u t E a r l y ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r , who h a d t a u g h t t h i s m a t e r i a l i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s u s i n g a more t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m a t , c l a i m e d t o be p l e a s e d w i t h t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s a p p r o a c h . T h i s c a n o n l y be c o n f i r m e d i n t u i t i v e l y f r o m t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l i n a c q u i r i n g some o f t h e c o n c e p t s b e i n g t a u g h t d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s a n d t h a t i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e y h a v e a c q u i r e d some new v o c a b u l a r y . One u s e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o u r c e o f a s e r i e s o f s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s . Once t h e y h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d , a s t r a t e g y f o r c o r r e c t i n g t h i s s e t o f e r r o r s c a n be d e v e l o p e d . I t was a l s o shown t h a t s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c a n be e v a l u a t e d b y a s s e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e t e r m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h t h e y u s e . The f i n a l s e s s i o n i n t h e d a t a i l l u s t r a t e s some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s one c a n o b s e r v e b e t w e e n two s t u d e n t s . One o f t h e s t u d e n t s i s more a b l e t h a n t h e o t h e r t o e x p r e s s i d e a s r e l a t e d t o a b s t r a c t c l a s s e s , and t o s t r u c t u r e h e r s p e e c h u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l a n g u a g e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u c h a s d i v i d e up, g r o u p s a nd 1 i s t . C h a p t e r 4 -179-Using the knowledge framework to check correspondences between the topic and the language appears to be a useful strategy i n evaluating the learner 's progress. 4.4 Conelusion The fol lowing conclusions are suggested. There are a wide var i e ty of s trateg ies which can be used in teaching vocabulary, and the more avenues employed the greater the p r o b a b i l i t y that successful learning w i l l occur. Indirect (context-based) s trateg ies are more useful than d i r e c t , word-focussed e f f o r t s . The overa l l s tructure of the teaching unit has a major ef fect on the success of learning concepts and the re la ted vocabulary, and we have seen that drawing on the knowledge framework to develop the s tructure appears to be e f f e c t i v e . The design s trateg ies based on the concept of the knowledge s tructures appear p a r t i c u l a r l y use fu l . It i s important to employ the appropriate language and v i sua l s tructures which are indicated by the framework. The framework can also be used as a perspective for evaluat ing the students' progress. An approach which i s based on the knowledge framework appears to r e s u l t in a coherent methodology which can be used for development, presentation and evaluat ion . Chapter 4 -180-4.5 E n v o i I f l e x i s h a s h a d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h , one must c o n c l u d e t h a t s y n t a x a nd o t h e r a r e a s h a v e h a d more e m p h a s i s t h a n t h e y a r e due, and t h a t a more e q u i t a b l e b a l a n c e s h o u l d be r e s t o r e d . I t i s h o p e d t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o some o f t h e a r e a s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y may p r o v i d e v a l i d a t i o n o f some o f t h e c u r r e n t m e t h o d o l o g y o f l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y o f new and more e f f e c t i v e ways t o p r e s e n t what we h a v e s e e n i s a r i c h a n d c h a l l e n g i n g a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . C h a p t e r 4 -181-References A l l e n , V i r g i n i a F r e n c h . 1983. T e c h n i q u e s i n t e a c h i n g  v o c a b u l a r y . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . A s p a t o r e , J.V. 1984. B u t I d o n ' t know a l l t h e w o r d s ! ! F o r e i g n  L a n g u a g e A n n a l s 17.4: 297-299. B a r - L e v , Zev. 1980. E x o l e x i a . ERIC Document 231217. B a r n e s , J u d y Ann. 1986. R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e r o l e o f schema and p u r p o s e i n l e a r n i n g f r o m c o n t e x t . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . E a s t T e x a s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . B a r n e t t , M a r v a A. 1986. S y n t a c t i c and l e x i c a l / s e m a n t i c s k i l l i n f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g . - i m p o r t a n c e and i n t e r a c t i o n . M o d e r n L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l 70.4: 343-349 B e h e y d t , L u d o . 1987. The s e m a n t i z a t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y i n f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . S y s t e m 15.1:55-67 B e n s o u s s a n , M a r s h a & L a u f e r , B a t i a . 1984. L e x i c a l g u e s s i n g i n c o n t e x t i n E F L r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h  i n R e a d i n g 7.1:15-32 B e r g e n , M e r l y n n R o s e l l . 1986. A s s e s s i n g l e x i c a l k n o w l e d g e . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . B i a l y s t o k , E l l e n . 1981a. The r o l e o f l i n g u i s t i c k n o w l e d g e i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e u s e . S t u d i e s i n S e c o n d L a n g u a g e  A c q u i s i t i o n 4.1: 31-45 B i a l y s t o k , E l l e n . 1981b. The r o l e o f c o n s c i o u s s t r a t e g i e s i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y . M o d e r n L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l 6 5 . 1 : 24-35 B l o c k , E l l e n . 1986. The c o m p r e h e n s i o n s t r a t e g i e s o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e a d e r s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 20.3: 463-494 B r a m k i , D o u d j a & W i l l i a m s , Ray. 1984. L e x i c a l f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n i n e c o n o m i c t e x t and i t s p e d a g o g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . R e a d i n g i n a F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e 2.1:169-181. Brown, C h e r y l . 1985. R e q u e s t s f o r s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e i n p u t : d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n o l d e r and y o u n g e r a d u l t l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . I n S.M. G a s s & C.G. Madden ( E d s . ) , I n p u t i n  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . - 2 3 5-281. R o w l e y , MA: Newbury House. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 2 -Brown, C h e r y l . 1988. F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f w o r d s . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 101 Brown, G i l l i a n & Y u l e , G e o r g e . 1983. D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s . C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B y r d , P a t r i c i a ; H u r t , P h y l l i s & C o n s t a n t i n i d e s , J a n e t . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . S a y i n g i t r i g h t : Key v o c a b u l a r y and FTA l e c t u r i n g . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 104 Cameron, Penny. 1988. Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s when w r i t i n g a g u i d e d r e a d e r . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 104 C a m p b e l l , D o n a l d . 1988. V o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t : t h e u n r e c o g n i z e d p r i o r i t y . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 104 C a r r e l 1, P a t r i c i a L. 1983. T h r e e c o m p o n e n t s o f b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g 33.2: 183-207. C a r r o l l , J o h n B., D a v i e s , P e t e r & R i c h m a n , B a r r y . 1971. The  A m e r i c a n h e r i t a g e w o r d f r e q u e n c y book. B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n . C a r t e r , R o n a l d . 1987. V o c a b u l a r y : A p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c s  p e r s p e c t i v e s . London.- A l l e n & U n w i n . C h a l l , J e a n n e S. 1987. Two v o c a b u l a r i e s f o r r e a d i n g . -r e c o g n i t i o n and m e a n i n g . I n M.G. McKeown & M.E. C u r t i s ( E d s . ) , The n a t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n : 7-17. H i l l s d a l e N J.- L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s . C h a u d r o n , C r a i g . 1982. V o c a b u l a r y e l a b o r a t i o n i n t e a c h e r s ' s p e e c h t o L2 l e a r n e r s . S t u d i e s i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e  a c q u i s i t i o n 4.2: 170-180. C h a u d r o n , C r a i g . 1988. S e c o n d l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m r e s e a r c h . C a m b r i d g e : CUP. Cohen, Andrew D. 1987. The u s e o f v e r b a l and i m a g e r y mnemonics i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g . S t u d i e s i n s e c o n d  l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n 9.1: 4 3 - 6 1 . Cohen, Andrew D. & Aphek, Edna. 1980. R e t e n t i o n o f s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y o v e r t i m e : i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r o l e o f mnemonic a s s o c i a t i o n s . S y s t e m 8.3: 221-235. Cohen, Andrew D. & Aphek, Edna. 1981. E a s i f y i n g s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . S t u d i e s i n S e c o n d Language A c q u i s i t i o n 3.2: 221-236. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 3 -C o r d e r , S.P. 1986. P i t C o r d e r on l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g and a p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c s . E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e T e a c h e r 4 0 . 3 : 185-190 C r o o k s , Graham. 1986. T a s k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . - a c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y r e v i e w . T e c h n i c a l r e p o r t o f t h e C e n t e r f o r S e c o n d L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m R e s e a r c h . Manoa.- U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i . Crow, J o h n T. 1986. R e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . M o d e r n L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l 7 0 . 3 : 242. Crow, J o h n T. &. Q u i g l e y , J u n e R. 1985 A s e m a n t i c a p p r o a c h t o p o s i t i v e v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 19.3: 4 9 7 - 5 1 3 C r u s e , D.A. 1986. L e x i c a l s e m a n t i c s . C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Cummins, James. 1984. B i l i n g u a l i s m and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n :  i s s u e s i n a s s e s m e n t and p e d a g o g y . C l e v e d o n , E n g l a n d : M u l t i l i n g u a l M a t t e r s . D a v i d s o n , R o s a l i n d G., K l i n e , S u s a n B. & Snow, C a t h e r i n e E. 1986. D e f i n i t i o n s and d e f i n i t e noun p h r a s e s : i n d i c a t o r s o f c h i l d r e n ' s d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d l a n g u a g e s k i l l s . J o u r n a l o f  R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n 1.1: 37-48. D a v i s , James & P o r c h e r o n , A g n e s . 1988. M a r g i n a l g l o s s e s and t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f f o r e i g n - l a n g u a g e r e a d e r s . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 115 D o l c h , E d w a r d W. 1936. A b a s i c s i g h t v o c a b u l a r y . E l e m e n t a r y  S c h o o l J o u r n a l 36: 4 5 6 - 4 6 0 . D u b i n , F r a i d a & O l s h t a i n , E l i t e . 1986. C o u r s e d e s i g n : d e v e l o p i n g p r o g r a m s a a n d m a t e r i a l s f o r l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . E a r l y , M a r g a r e t M. 1987. L i n g u i s t i c i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e c o n t e n t c l a s s r o o m . TESL Canada 4.2: 4 1 - 5 8 . v a n Ek, J.A. 1975. The t h r e s h o l d l e v e l . I n C . J . B r u m f i t & K. J o h n s o n ( E d s . ) , The c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e  t e a c h i n g . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . E u b a n k s , A u d r e y C o c h r a n & F e r g u s o n , W i l l i a m F. 1982. L e a r n i n g o f nouns u n d e r t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s w i t h s t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . ERIC Document 236914. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 4 -F e r r i s , Dana R.; K l y c h i , E m i k o & K o w a i , K r i s t o p h e r . 1988. ESL v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n t h r o u g h r e a d i n g n a t u r a l t e x t s . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 123 F o x , James. 1983. V o c a b u l a r y b u i l d i n g . T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h a s a  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t o a d u l t s : m e t h o d o l o g y . TESL T a l k 14: 112-117. F o x , J e r e m y . 1984. C o m p u t e r a s s i s t e d v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g . E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g 3 8 . 1 : 27-33. F o x , L e n . 1987. On a c q u i r i n g an a d e q u a t e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y . I n M.H. L o n g & J.C. R i c h a r d s ( E d s . ) , M e t h o d o l o g y i n TESOL: a book o f r e a d i n g s : 3 0 7 - 3 1 1 . R o w l e y , MA: Newbury House. F r o m k i n , V i c t o r i a & Rodman, R o b e r t . 1978. An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  L a n g u a g e , s e c o n d e d i t i o n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . F r y , E d w a r d &. S a k i e y , E l i z a b e t h . 1986. Common w o r d s n o t t a u g h t i n b a s a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s . The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r : 395-398. Gabbay, A n i t a & M i r e n s k y , D e b i . 1984. C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f v o c a b u l a r y r e c o g n i t i o n . E RIC Document 250908. G i a c o b b e , J o r g e & Cammarote, M a r i e - A n g e . 1986. L e a r n e r ' s h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e x i s . S t u d i e s i n s e c o n d  l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n 8.3: 327-342. G o d l e y , M i c h a e l R o b e r t . 1984. The e f f e c t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t r e a t m e n t , and p a c i n g f a c t o r s on t h e k e y w o r d m ethod o f f o r e i g n v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . E a s t T e x a s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . G l a s s , G.V. & H o p k i n s , K.D. 1984. S t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s i n  e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a 1 1 . Graham, C. Ray & B e l n a p , R. K i r k . 1986. The a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e x i c a l b o u n d a r i e s i n E n g l i s h by n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f S p a n i s h . IRAL 24.4: 275-286. G u n d e r s o n , L e e . 1984. One l a s t w o r d l i s t . The A l b e r t a J o u r n a l  o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 30.4: 259-269. Hadaway, Na n c y L. 1986. T e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y i n ESL c l a s s e s : a r a t i o n a l e a nd i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t . ERIC Document 271950. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 5 -Hague, S a l l y A. 1987. V o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n : what L2 c a n l e a r n f r o m L I . F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e A n n a l s 20.3: 2 17-225. H a l l i d a y , M.A.K. 1985. An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o f u n c t i o n a l grammar. L o n d o n : E d w a r d A r n o l d . H a r d e r , J o h n S t u a r t . 1984. A f i f t y - w o r d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s u r v i v a l v o c a b u l a r y f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by c a r d r e a d e r s . Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . H a r l o w , L i n d a L. 1988. The e f f e c t s o f t h e y e l l o w h i g h l i g h t e r -s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s : a r e s e a r c h u p d a t e . C a n a d i a n M o d e r n L a n g u a g e  R e v i e w 4 5 . 1 : 91-118. H a t c h , E v e l y n . 1983a. P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i e s : a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e  p e r s p e c t i v e . R o w l e y , MA: Newbury House. H a t c h , E v e l y n . 1983b. S i m p l i f i e d i n p u t and s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , i n R. A n d e r s o n ( E d . ) , P i d q i n i z a t i o n ,  C r e o l i z a t i o n a s L a n g u a g e A c q u i s i t i o n . R o w l e y , MA: Newbury House. H e n r y , D a v i d A. 1987. The K n o w l e d g e Framework and a s c i e n c e t e x t . ENED 508 t e r m p a p e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i l l e r i c h , R o b e r t L. 1974. Word l i s t s - g e t t i n g i t a l l t o g e t h e r . The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r 2 7 . 1 : 3 53-360. H o r o w i t z , D a n i e l M. 1986. What p r o f e s s o r s a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e : a c a d e m i c t a s k s f o r t h e ESL c l a s s r o o m . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 20.3: 4 4 5 - 4 6 2 . H u c k l i n , Thomas; Coady, James; S t e i n , M ark; H a y n e s , M a r g o t ; B a k e r , I l a ; P a r r y , K a t e & D u b i n , F r a i d a . 1988. A c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e l e x i c o n . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 141 Hughes, G e o r g e & C h i n n , C l a r k . 1986. B u i l d i n g r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h i n f e r e n c e : a b e t t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o n t e x t c l u e s . I n S e c o n d L a n g u a g e A c q u i s i t i o n : p r e p a r i n g  f o r t o m o r r o w . M i l w a u k e e : C e n t r a l S t a t e C o n f e r e n c e on t h e T e a c h i n g o f F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s . ERIC Document 267634. H u t t n e r , R u t h K. 1988. S t r a t e g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g c o n t e n t a r e a v o c a b u l a r y . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 142 I j a z , I . H e l e n e . 1986. L i n g u i s t i c a nd c o g n i t i v e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i n a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . L a n g u a g e  L e a r n i n g 36.4: 4 0 1-549. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 6 -J o r g e n s e n , J . Normann. 1987. M i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s ' f i r s t and s e c o n d l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y . J o u r n a l o f  m u l t i l i n g u a l and m u l t i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t 8.1-2: 103-109. K a r b o n , J a c q u e l i n e C. 1984. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p r i o r k n o w l e d g e and v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t u s i n g s e m a n t i c m a p p i n g w i t h c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e s t u d e n t s . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , M a d i s o n . K e l l e r , Howard H. 1987. P e d a g o g i c a l w i s h e s f o r a m a c h i n e d i c t i o n a r y : an e x a m p l e f r o m R u s s i a n . M o d e r n L a n g u a g e  J o u r n a l 7 1 . 1 : 12-17. K i e r n a n , B a r b a r a & Rupp, K a t h y . 1988. C o m p a r i n g m o n o l i n g u a l and b i l i n g u a l a p p r o a c h e s t o E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 150 K r a s h e n , S.D. 1980. The i n p u t h y p o t h e s i s . I n . J . E . A l a t i s ( E d . ) , C u r r e n t i s s u e s i n b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n DC: G e o r g e t o w n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . K r a u s e , Anna F. 1979. V o c a b u l a r y i n c o n t e x t . E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e  T e a c h i n g 3 3 . 3 : 207-213. K u c e r a , H. & F r a n c i s , W.N. 1967. C o m p u t a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f  p r e s e n t - d a y A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h . P r o v i d e n c e R I : Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . L a u f e r , B a t i a & S i m , D o n a l d D. 1985. M e a s u r i n g and e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e a d i n g t h r e s h o l d n e e d e d f o r E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e s t e x t s . F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e A n n a l s 18.5: 4 0 5 - 4 1 1 . L a w r e n c e , M a r y S. 1972. W r i t i n g a s a t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s . Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s . L e e c h , G. & S v a r t v i k , J . 1975. A c o m m u n i c a t i v e grammar o f  E n g l i s h . L o n d o n : Longman. L e v i n e , L i n d a N. 1984. C o n t e n t a r e a i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ESL s t u d e n t . On TESOL '84: 233-240. W a s h i n g t o n : TESOL. L e y e n , I n a A n g e l i k a . 1984. N a t i v e l a n g u a g e a t t r i t i o n : a s t u d y o f v o c a b u l a r y d e c l i n e . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s a t A u s t i n . R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 7 -L i g h t b o w n , P a t s y . 1983. E x p l o r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d e v e l o p m e n t a l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n , i n H.W. S e l i g e r & M.H. L o n g , C l a s s r o o m  o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n : 2 1 7 - 2 4 5 . R o w l e y , MA: Newbury House. L o n g , M i c h a e l H. 1980. I n s i d e t h e " b l a c k b o x " : m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s i n c l a s s r o o m r e s e a r c h on l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g 30: 1-42. L u d w i g , J e a n n e t t e . 1984. V o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n a s a f u n c t i o n o f w o r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C a n a d i a n M o d e r n L a n g u a g e R e v i e w 40.4: 5 52-562. Markman, E l l e n - & S e i b e r t , J e f f e r y . 1976. C l a s s e s and c o l l e c t i o n s : i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s u l t i n g h o l i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y 8.4: 561-577. M a r t i n , Anne. V. 1984. C o n c e p t r e l a t i o n s h i p s : h e l p i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t r e a d E n g l i s h . On TESOL 84: 97-104. M a r t i n , M a r i l y n . 1984. A d v a n c e d v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g . - t h e p r o b l e m o f synonyms. M o d e r n L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l 68.2: 130-137. McKeown, M a r g a r e t G e n t i l e . 1983. The a c q u i s i t i o n o f w o r d m e a n i n g f r o m c o n t e x t by c h i l d r e n o f h i g h and l o w v o c a b u l a r y a b i l i t y . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g . McRae, V i c k i . 1987 O u t p u t , I n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n f o r m a l / i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s and i n NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s . MA t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M e a r a , P a u l . 1982. V o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n : a n e g l e c t e d a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . I n S. K i n s e l l a ( E d . ) , S u r v e y s 1 .- E i g h t s t a t e o f t h e a r t a r t i c l e s on k e y a r e a s i n l a n g u a g e  t e a c h i n g : 100-126. C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . M e d i n a , L y d i a M a r i a . 1985. A s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e grammar t r a n s l a t i o n v s . t h e e x p e r i e n c e c o g n i t i v e m e t h o d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y by a d u l t s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l a r n e r s . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y . R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 8 -Menges, P a t r i c i a A. & K e l l y , M i c h a e l G. 1982. E f f e c t i v e u s e o f l a n g u a g e w i t h E n g l i s h i n v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n f o r l i m i t e d E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y s t u d e n t s . I n S e l e c t e d p a p e r s f r o m t h e  I l l i n o i s TESOL/BE a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n . C h i c a g o : TESOL. ERIC Document 225360. Mohan, B e r n a r d A. 1986. L a n g u a g e and C o n t e n t . R e a d i n g , MA: Add i son-Wes1ey. M u r p h y , J o s e p h A. 1983. Words: what g o e s w i t h w h a t ? P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t 1 7 t h A n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n o f TESOL, T o r o n t o . E RIC Document 228872. Nagy, W i l l i a m & A n d e r s o n , R. 1984. The number o f w o r d s i n p r i n t e d s c h o o l E n g l i s h . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 19: 304-330. Nagy, W i l l i a m E. & Herman, P a t r i c i a A. 1987. B r e a d t h and d e p t h o f v o c a b u l a r y k n o w l e d g e : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a c q u i s i t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n . I n M.G. McKeown & M.E. C u r t i s ( E d s . ) , The  n a t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n : 19-35. H i l l s d a l e N J .-L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s . Naiman, N i e l , F r o h l i c h , M a r i a , S t e r n , H.H. & T o d e s c o , A. 1978. The g o o d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r T o r o n t o : OISE M o d e r n L a n g u a g e C e n t e r . N e a s e , C h a r l e s D e a s e . 1983. The e f f e c t s o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s on a c o n t e x t m e t h o d o f l e a r n i n g r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y f o r f o u r t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , N o r t h T e x a s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . The new A m e r i c a n R o g e t ' s c o l l e g e t h e s a u r u s i n d i c t i o n a r y f o r m . 1958. New Y o r k : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y . Novak, J.D. & G o w i n , D.B. 1984. C o n c e p t m a p p i n g f o r m e a n i n g f u l l e a r n i n g . I n L e a r n i n g how t o l e a r n . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . N y i k o s , M a r s h a . 1985. Memory h o o k s and o t h e r mnemonic d e v i c e s . I n M e e t i n g t h e c a l l f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n t h e f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e  c l a s s r o o m . C h i c a g o . ERIC Document 262642. O d l i n , T e r e n c e & N a t a l i c i o , D i a n a . 1982. Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f w o r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . M o d e r n  L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l 6 6 . 1 : 34-38. Ogden, C.K. 1930. B a s i c E n g l i s h : a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n . London.- K e g a n P a u l , T r e n c h & T r u b n e r . R e f e r e n c e s - 1 8 9 -0 ' M a i l e y , J . M i c h a e l ; Chamot, Anna U.; S t e w n e r - M a n a n a r e s , G l o r i a ; K u p p e r , L i s a & R u s s o , R o c c o P. 1985a. L e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s u s e d by b e g i n n i n g and i n t e r m e d i a t e ESL s t u d e n t s . L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g 3 5 . 1 : 21-46. 0'Mai l e y , J . M i c h a e l ; Chamot, Anna U; S t e w n e r - M a n z a n a r e s , G; R u s s o , R o c c o P. & K u p p e r , L i s a . 1985b. L e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y 19: 557-584. P a l m b e r g , R o l f . 1987. On l e x i c a l i n f e r e n c i n g a nd t h e y o u n g F L l e a r n e r . S y s t e m 1 5 . 1 : 69-76. P a r k s , G e r a l d . 1982. N o t e s on t h e u s e o f t r a n s l a t i o n i n l a n g u a g e c l a s s e s . S y s t e m 10.3: 241-245. P i c k e r i n g , M i c h a e l . 1982. C o n t e x t - f r e e a nd c o n t e x t d e p e n d e n t v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g : a n e x p e r i m e n t . S y s t e m 1 0 . 1 : 7 9 - 8 3 . P o r t e r , Rhondda. 1985. V o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n i n a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e : a c o m p a r i s o n o f L I a n d L2 r e s e a r c h a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n i n E.S.L. M a j o r p a p e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e s s l e y , M i c h a e l , L e v i n , J.R., Nakamura, G.V., Hope. D.J., B i s b o , J.G. & T o y e , A.R. 1980. The k e y w o r d m e t h o d o f f o r e i g n v o c a b u l a r y l e a r n i n g : an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i t s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y 65.6: 635-642. P r e s s l e y , M i c h a e l , a nd o t h e r s . 1982. R e - e x a m i n i n g t h e " l i m i t a t i o n s " o f t h e mnemonic k e y w o r d method. W o r k i n g p a p e r No. 329. ERIC Document 269732. P r i c e , V i c t o r i a . 1986. T e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f ESL s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y . E R I C Document 27 7 2 8 1 . P r o c t o r , P. 1978. (Ed.) Longman D i c t i o n a r y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y  E n g l i s h . L o n d o n : Longman. R a i n s b u r y , R o b e r t . 1988. D e c o d i n g v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h c o n t e n t . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 183 Ramsay, James W. 1980. V o c a b u l a r y p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e a d i n g i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a . On TESOL '80: 214-225. R e n o u f , A. 1983. C o r p u s d e v e l o p m e n t a t B i r m i n g h a m U n i v e r s i t y . Ms., E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e R e s e a r c h , U n i v e r s i t y o f B i r m i n g h a m . C i t e d i n C a r t e r 1987. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 9 0 -R i c h a r d s , J a c k C. 1980. The r o l e o f v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g . I n K. C r o f t , ( E d . ) , R e a d i n g s on E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e : 4 2 4 - 4 3 7 . C a m b r i d g e , MA: W i n t h r o p . R i n s l a n d , H.D. 1947. A b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n . R o b i n s o n , P e t e r J . 1988. L e x i c a l p r a g m a t i c s and v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t i n ESL. TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 187 R o d r i g u e z - B a c h i 1 I e r , B e t s y . 1985. L e a r n i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l b o u n d a r i e s o f d i f f i c u l t l e x i c a l p a i r s : CAI f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e ESL v o c a b u l a r y . Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , R u t g e r s , t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New J e r s e y - New B r u n s w i c k . R o s c h , E l i z a b e t h , M e r v i s , C a r o l y n B., G r a y , Wayne D., J o h n s o n , D a v i d M. & B o y e s - B r a e m , Penny. 1976. B a s i c o b j e c t s i n n a t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y 8.3: 382-439. S a v i 1 l e - T r o i k e , M u r i e l . 1984. What r e a l l y m a t t e r s i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g f o r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t ? TESOL  Q u a r t e r l y 18.2: 199-218. S c h a c h t e r , J . a n d R u t h e r f o r d , W. 1983. D i s c o u r s e f u n c t i o n and l a n g u a g e t r a n s f e r . I n B. W. R o b i n e t t e and J . S c h a c h t e r ( E d s . ) , S e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g : 3 0 3-315. Ann A r b o r , MI: U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s . S h a n d , M i c h a e l A. 1988. V o c a b u l a r y a c q u i s i t i o n : p r o v o c a t i v e new d i r e c t i o n s . TESOL '88 p r o g r a m a b s t r a c t p. 196 S i c h e l , H.S. 1975. On a d i s t r i b u t i o n l a w f o r w o r d f r e q u e n c i e s . J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 70 .-542-547. S m i t h , F r a n k . 1987. Words, w o r d s , w o r d s . K e y n o t e s p e e c h a t C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d L a n g u a g e T e a c h e r s c o n v e n t i o n , R e g i n a . S w a i n , M e r r i l l . 1987. The c a s e f o r f o c u s s e d i n p u t : c o n t r i v e d b u t • a u t h e n t i c - o r , how c o n t e n t t e a c h i n g n e e d s t o be m a n i p u l a t e d and compemented t o m a x i m i z e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t TESL Canada '87, V a n c o u v e r . T a k a h a s h i , Tomoko. 1985. L a n g u a g e t r a n s f e r and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p a t t e r n s o f l e x i c o - s e m a n t i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . R e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e L o s A n g e l e s S e c o n d L a n g u a g e R e s e a r c h Forum, L o s A n g e l e s . ERIC Document 259590. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 9 1 -Tamayo, J o s e M i g u e l . 1985. F r e q u e n c y o f u s e as a m e a s u r e o f w o r d d i f f i c u l t y i n b i l i n g u a l v o c a b u l a r y t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , L o y o l a U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o . T e r r e l , T r a c y D. 1986. A c q u i s i t i o n i n t h e N a t u r a l A p p r o a c h : t h e b i n d i n g / a c c e s s f r a m e w o r k . M o d e r n L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l 7 0 . 3 : 213-227. T h o r n d i k e , E d w a r d L. & L o r g e , I r v i n g . 1944. The t e a c h e r ' s book  o f 30,000 w o r d s . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e P r e s s . U l l o a , Y o l a n d a M i c h e l l e . 1985. E f f e c t s o f a n u r b a n s c h o o l v o c a b u l a r y e n r i c h m e n t p r o g r a m upon t h e t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s f r o m S p a n i s h i n t o E n g l i s h . Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s s e t t s . V i z m u l l e r - Z o c c o , J a n a . 1985. L i n g u i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y a n d w o r d f o r m a t i o n . I t a l i c a 62.4: 305-310. W a l s h , V. 1982. R e a d i n g s c i e n t i f i c t e x t s i n E n g l i s h . S y s t e m 10.3: 231-239. Wesche, M a r j o r i e B. &. Ready, D o r e e n . 1985. F o r e i g n e r t a l k i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s r o o m . I n S. G a s s & C. Madden ( E d s . ) , I n p u t a n d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n : 89-114. R o w l e y , MA: Newbury House. West, M i c h a e l . 1953. A g e n e r a l s e r v i c e l i s t o f E n g l i s h w o r d s . L o n d o n : Longman. W i l k i n s , D.A. 1976. N o t i o n a l s y l l a b u s e s . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . W o n g - F i 1 l m o r e , L i l y . 1985. When d o e s t e a c h e r t a l k w o r k a s i n p u t ? I n S. G a s s & C. Madden ( E d s . ) , I n p u t a nd s e c o n d  l a n g u a g e a c g u i s i t i o n •  17-50. R o w l e y , MA: Newbury House. R e f e r e n c e s - 1 9 2 -A p p e n d i x I: T e a c h e r - S t u d e n t Word F r e q u e n c y L i s t T S T S T s 1 1 1979 19 9 always 3 3 assumes 1 1984 7 am 156 18 at 1 2wd 1 amazed 3 aunt 1 4wd 1 amazing 1 aunt's 1 60th 2 amphibian 2 a u r i c l e 1 7-up 7 1 amphibians 1 2 aw 758 241 a 8 1 amrit 8 awake 1 a b i 1 i t y 43 13 an 5 1 away 13 able 16 14 anal 3 awful 249 21 about 902 304 and 2 awful l y 4 5 above 9 1 animal 1 a x i s 3 a b s o l u t e l y 37 22 animals 1 3 b 1 accident 58 6 another 7 3 babies 1 2 a c t i v i t i e s 12 answer 12 7 baby 1 a c t i v i t y 1 answered 46 16 back 1 a c t u a l 7 2 answers 9 backbone 16 a c t u a l l y 2 ant 6 4 backbones 1 ad 1 ants 1 1 backward 1 adapts 1 anus 1 backwards 11 add 81 6 any 2 bacon 2 adj u s t 13 anybody 6 1 bad 1 advantage 6 anyone 3 bag 1 a f f e c t 40 anything 2 2 bags 2 a f r a i d 1 anytime 1 baking 44 10 a f t e r 4 anyway 2 2 balance 2 afternoon 1 anyways 7 b a l l 1 afterwards 1 apart 1 1 b a l l e t 27 4 again 2 apparently 2 2 b a l l s 1 against 1 appendages 2 band 2 1 age 6 3 aquarium 2 banks 1 ago 7 4 arches 1 barging 1 agree 241 41 are 1 4 b a s e b a l l 1 ah 1 area 2 basement 13 2 ahead 20 7 aren't 2 bash 1 a i n ' t 1 armor 1 b a s i c a l l y 6 1 a i r 1 arms 1 b a s k e t b a l l 2 a i r ' s 12 7 around 1 baskets 1 a i r s 2 arrangements 1 bat 1 alarm 1 arrows 1 b a t t e r i e s 2 a l i k e 1 a r t 1 b a t t e r y 2 4 a l i v e 1 a r t i s t 195 40 be 220 44 a l l 78 5 as 1 beans 1 a l l ' s 36 1 ask 1 bear 1 a l l o w 10 2 asked 4 2 bearers 1 1 allowed 3 a s k i n g 4 1 b e a u t i f u l 6 5 almost 1 asleep 64 15 because 7 4 along 1 assessment 1 become 15 5 al r e a d y 15 6 assume 1 1 becomes 12 a l s o 1 assumed 1 bed A p p e n d i x I - 1 9 3 -T S T S T S 2 bedroom 1 blown 1 broke 2 2 beef 1 blows 5 broken 27 7 been 4 blue 3 12 b r o t h e r 34 5 before 14 3 board 2 brot h e r ' s 1 beg 7 3 boat 8 1 br o t h e r s 1 began 3 bodies 1 7 brought 10 beginning 45 17 body 1 brown 1 beginnings 2 body's 2 bubble 1 begins 13 1 bone 2 3 bubbles 2 behind 5 2 bones 1 bucks 8 being 23 1 book 1 bug 1 1 b e l l y 1 book's 1 bugging 7 1 belong 3 1 books 1 b u i l d 2 1 below 2 bored 1 bumper 1 bend 1 boring 4 bumpers 1 beople 10 3 born 1 bumpy 8 5 beside 1 bosses 1 bunch 1 besides 14 6 both 1 b u r s t 3 best 8 bother 2 bury 14 bet 12 7 bottom 1 busy 36 5 b e t t e r 3 2 bought 169 26 but 7 1 between 1 1 bowls 1 button 36 24 b i g 5 box 2 3 buy 30 30 bi g g e r 2 boxes 1 buying 1 big g e s t 2 boxing 1 buzzer 1 b i k e 10 1 boy 28 7 by 2 bi11 i o n 1 boy's 2 1 bye 1 b i o l o g y 2 1 boys 6 c 1 3 b i r d 1 1 b r a c e l e t 4 cake 19 15 b i r d s 3 2 b r a c e l e t s 1 cakes 2 5 b i r t h d a y 1 braided 1 calendar 1 birthdays 1 braids 1 C a l i f o r n i a 24 2 b i t 4 brains 30 9 c a l l 1 1 b i t e 2 brake 30 c a l l e d 1 b i t i n g 1 branch 9 3 came 2 b i t s 1 branches 307 63 can 2 5 bla c k 1 brand 42 12 can't 1 blank 1 bread's 5 canada 3 blanks 2 break 1 candies 1 bleed 1 1 b r e a k f a s t 1 candy 1 bleeds 1 breaking 1 cane 2 b l i n d 1 breaks 6 3 cannot 1 b l o c k 1 breath 1 c a p i t a l 1 b l o c k s 21 14 breathe 1 caps 11 n blood 19 11 breathes 6 2 car 1 blooded 10 10 br e a t h i n g 1 2 card 1 bloody 1 b r i g h t 3 2 cards 1 blouses 4 brinder 3 care 2 blowhole 2 bring 5 c a r e f u l A p p e n d i x I - 1 9 4 -T S T S T S 2 carefully 1 chopped 1 compare 1 c a r r i e d 1 chopsticks 2 compared 1 c a r r i e s 2 chose 2 comparing 1 carry 20 5 Christmas 1 compensate 58 2 cars 2 chugging 1 complain 9 cartilage 4 1 c i r c l e 7 complicated 1 cartilaginous 2 1 circulate 5 composed 1 case 1 1 circulated 1 compound 4 7 cat 3 clark 3 computer 1 catalogued 10 6 c l a s s 2 computers 3 catch 2 classes 1 concentrate 1 catches 2 c l a s s i - 1 concert 11 categories 10 c lass i f icat ion 1 condition 1 categorize 9 class i fy 3 confusing 1 categorizing 5 classifying 1 considerate 2 category 3 claus 1 1 contain 1 1 catfish 1 clean 1 continue 4 7 cats 4 8 cleaner 1 1 control 20 20 caudal 1 cleaning 9 5 cookies 28 8 cause 1 cleans 1 cooking 1 causes 3 clearly 2 copied 1 certainly 4 clever 4 1 copy 1 cetera 1 c l i p 2 cornflakes 1 chalk 16 10 close 8 correct 2 chamber 2 closed 1 correctly 1 chambered 5 closet 1 cougar 7 chance 2 clothes 1 cougars 20 4 change 1 clothing 179 12 could 3 changed 5 c l u e 4 couldn't 3 changes 2 clues 2 2 count 2 2 changing 1 coat 2 country 1 chaos 1 coat's 1 counts 1 chapter 2 coats 6 couple 13 chart 2 cola 1 coupon 1 chat 6 3 cold 5 1 course 1 chatting 28 14 cold-blooded 2 cousin 1 cheater 1 colder 1 5 cousin's 2 cheating 3 1 collect 3 cousins 17 1 check 2 collected 5 17 cover 2 checked 1 collects 1 cover' s 2 checkers 9 3 color 3 covering 6 chicken 1 color's 11 4 covers 2 3 chickens 1 colored 1 cows 3 Chinese 9 2 colors 2 cozy 1 chocolate 1 combine 1 1 crab 2 choice 28 4 come 1 crack 1 choices 7 9 comes 3 crash 1 choke 12 2 coming 6 crash-up 3 choose 3 common 1 1 crayon A p p e n d i x I - 1 9 5 -T S 3 crazy 1 creature 1 c r i e s 1 c r i m i n a l 1 c r i t i c i s m 1 c r i t i c i s m s 1 crowded 2 c r y 2 2 c r y i n g 2 cup 5 cupboard 2 1 cups 1 c u r r y 1 c u s t o r 11 8 cut 3 cuts 3 2 c y c l e 1 c y c l e s 2 d 1 1 dad 1 2 dad's 3 2 danger 1 dangers 2 daughter 66 25 day 2 8 days 1 de 3 dead 1 deal 1 d e c e n t l y 3 1 decide 1 decided 1 decompose 2 decorate 3 d e f i n i t i o n 1 d e f i n i t i o n s 20 d e s c r i b e 1 d e s c r i b e d 1 d e s c r i b e s 6 1 d e s c r i b i n g 4 1 d e s c r i p t i o n 1 d e s c r i p t i o n s 1 designs 2 de t a i 1 1 d e t e r i o r a t e s 3 develop 2 developed 6 development 9 1 develops T S 4 2 diagram 1 1 diamond 6 2 diamonds 1 d i c t i o n a r y 120 20 d i d 30 9 d i d n ' t 2 1 d i e 3 d i e d 10 d i f f e r e n c e 52 18 d i f f e r e n t 1 1 d i f f i c u l t 3 1 dinner 4 d i r e c t i o n 1 di s c u s s e d 1 d i s k 1 d i s p l a y 1 d i s t i n c t 2 1 d i s t i n c t l y 30 2 d i v i d e 14 21 d i v i d e d 6 d i v i d i n g 438 57 do 2 doc t o r 1 1 doctors 100 15 does 34 6 doesn't 12 10 dog 1 dog's 3 8 dogs 49 2 doing 2 1 d o l l a r 2 4 d o l l a r s 177 52 don't 28 8 done 2 door 4 doors 21 22 d o r s a l 1 2 dot 1 double 1 doubt 50 13 down 1 downstairs 1 downtown 24 6 draw 3 drawer 10 3 drawing 1 drawings 1 3 drawn 3 3 draws T S 1 2 dress 1 dressed 1 dresses 2 1 drew 7 d r i n k 1 d r i n k i n g 10 1 d r i v e 1 d r i v e s 1 drop 2 drown 1 drug 1 dryness 1 duty 1 dye 11 8 e 28 each 1 ear 2 e a r l y 4 3 e a r r i n g s 3 1 ears 19 5 e a s i e r 2 e a s i l y 1 east 17 15 easy 9 6 eat 1 1 eaten 4 3 e a t i n g 1 eats 1 education 1 e e l s 1 e f f e c t 16 20 egg 1 egg's 1 1 egg-bearer 1 egg-bearers 3 1 egg-layer 8 1 egg-layers 47 21 eggs 8 3 e i g h t 1 eighteen 1 2 e i g h t y 9 1 e i t h e r 2 e l a s t i c 2 e l c 1 e l d e r l y 7 3 eleven 39 1 e l s e 3 e l s e ' s 2 embryos A p p e n d i x I - 1 9 6 -T S 1 empty-12 3 end 1 ends 3 england 14 1 e n g l i s h 4 2 enlarge 10 enough 2 e n t i r e 2 e n t i r e l y 4 environment 5 4 equipment 4 2 erase 2 erased 2 e r a s e r 2 e r a s e r s 1 e r a s i n g 1 e r r o r 4 escape 1 e s l 2 e s p e c i a l l y 1 et 1 e t c e t e r a 24 2 even 17 ever 10 3 every 18 everybody 1 everybody'11 5 1 everybody's 1 everyday 5 1 everyone 26 10 e v e r y t h i n g 1 everything's 1 everywhere 1 evidence 1 exact 6 e x a c t l y 3 example 5 excel l e n t 1 2 except 1 e x e r c i s e 1 e x e r c i s e s 5 1 expect 1 e x p ecting 1 expects 5 expensive 4 2 experiment 1 e x p i r e d 14 e x p l a i n 1 e x p l a i n e d T S 1 e x p l a i n i n g 1 e x p l a i n s 5 1 e x t r a 7 11 eye 1 eyelashes 23 36 eyes 1 eyesight 4 f 1 face 4 faces 3 f a c t 1 f a c t o r y 3 2 f a i n t 1 1 f a i n t e d 3 f a i r 1 f a i r l y 3 f a l l 1 f a l l i n g 10 5 f a m i l y 8 fancy 2 f a n t a s t i c 11 f a r 2 6 farm 2 3 f a s t 1 f a s t e r 1 2 f a t h e r 1 f a u l t 1 f a v o r 3 f a v o r i t e 2 3 f e a t h e r s 2 1 f e a t u r e s 12 3 f e e l 1 f e e l e r s 2 f e e l i n g 1 3 f e e t 1 f e l t 6 10 female 1 female's 1 f e r r a r i 2 f e r t i l i z e 1 2 f e r t i l i z e r 5 2 f e r t i l i z e s 2 f e r t i l i z i n g 1 few 6 f i f t e e n 3 5 f i f t h 2 1 f i g h t i n g 10 f i g u r e 3 f i g u r e d T S 2 3 f i l a m e n t s 6 3 f i l i p i n o 5 f i l l 1 f i l m 1 f i l t e r 67 60 f i n 3 2 f i n a l l y 39 1 f i n d 2 f i n d i n g 1 1 f i n d s 10 3 f i n e 1 f i n g e r 6 1 f i n g e r s 24 3 f i n i s h 20 19 f i n i s h e d 43 39 f i n s 1 f i r e 81 25 f i r s t 292 159 f i s h 10 1 f i s h ' s 4 4 f i s h e s 2 5 f i s h i n g 1 f i s h y 2 f i t 30 23 f i v e 1 f i x e d 1 f l a p 2 f l a p s 2 4 f l a t 1 f l a t s 1 f l a t s 1 f l a v o r 1 f l e a s 2 1 f l e w 1 1 f l i p 2 f l i p s 1 f l o a t i n g 1 f l o o r 2 1 f l o u r 1 f l o w e r 7 7 f l u i d 1 f l y 1 f l y i n g 1 f o i l s 1 f o l d e r s 1 f o l l o w 2 f o l l o w i n g 2 1 food 3 4 f o o t b a l l A p p e n d i x I - 1 9 7 -T 5 T S T S 201 42 f o r 6 1 gave 20 1 great 2 fo r c e 1 general 3 green 5 f o r g e t 1 3 g e n t l y 1 ground 1 f o r g e t s 92 32 get 1 grounds 6 5 f o r g o t 23 18 gets 30 group 1 f o r g o t t e n 18 7 g e t t i n g 1 group's 2 f o r k s 1 g i 1igan 1 grouped 3 1 form 22 34 g i l l 2 grouping 1 formed 18 11 g i l l s 47 15 groups 3 1 forms 26 5 g i r l 2 5 grow 2 f o r t y 2 1 g i r l s 4 3 growing 1 f o r t y - n i n e 44 6 give- 9 5 grown 1 2 forward 4 1 g i v e s 3 grown-up 1 forwards 2 g i v i n g 9 6 grows 6 5 found 2 g l a d 1 guarantee 35 13 fou r 6 3 g l a s s e s 13 2 guess 1 four-chambered 2 glove 2 guests 1 fou r s 1 1 gloves 1 guide 5 2 f o u r t h 5 3 glue 1 g u i 1 f o r d 1 f o u r t h s 1 g l u e i n g 1 1 guinea 2 french 95 38 go 7 5 guppies 1 f r e s h 1 goal 1 guppy 3 2 f r i d a y 1 god 2 2 guy 1 f r i d a y s 16 9 goes 3 guy's 1 f r i e d 207 36 going 70 guys 3 f r i e n d 13 7 g o l d 1 gym 2 f r o g 1 golden 9 6 h 1 frog' s 19 30 g o l d f i s h 1 h a b i t 1 frog-eye 3 2 gone 80 25 had 42 9 from 199 13 good 1 hadn't 6 3 f r o n t 1 gcodbye 9 13 h a i r 1 frowns 7 goodness 7 2 h a l f 1 f r u i t s 1 1 gooey 1 h a l l 13 12 f r y 1 4 googly 1 7 halloween 2 fudge 3 gosh 1 hamburger 2 2 f u l l 141 38 got 1 hamster 5 3 f u l l y 1 got's 1 2 hamsters 2 5 fun 1 2 gots 6 4 hand 6 4 funny 2 g o t t a 1 3 hands 2 2 f u r 3 g o t t e n 6 handwriting 4 f u r n i t u r e 1 g r a c i o u s 5 handy 2 f u r t h e r 24 8 grade 1 handy-dandy 1 f u t u r e 2 grades 2 hanging 2 g 1 1 grandma 4 happen 2 1 game 1 grandma's 2 2 happened 2 garage 1 grandpa 5 1 happening 1 garbage 1 grandpa's 37 1 happens 1 1 gas 1 grandparents' 1 h a p p i l y 3 gases 2 grass 37 8 hard A p p e n d i x I - 1 9 8 -T S T S T S 5 harder 1 hole 12 2 inside 1 hardest 3 2 holes 12 3 instead 4 1 hardly 2 holiday 9 interesting 73 109 has 2 holidays 1 interrupt 2 hasn't 19 5 home 57 24 into 10 5 hatch 1 honest 3 3 invertebrates 6 4 hatched 2 honey 1 invited 1 hatching 1 hook 4 2 iqbal 2 2 hate 5 hope 317 108 is 384 95 have 1 hopefully 2 1 island 14 3 haven't 1 horrible 21 1 isn't 8 2 having 1 horses 675 183 i t 54 30 he 6 hot 3 it'd 1 he'll 1 hour 4 i t ' l l 20 27 he's 4 14 house 250 55 it's 10 1 head 195 20 how 1 it7s 2 headlights 1 huge 81 43 its 1 healthy 6 2 huh 1 itself 13 2 hear 1 human 1 January 4 1 heard 3 6 hundred 1 jars 1 hearing 1 hungry 1 jawless 11 2 heart 1 2 hurt 1 jealous 1 hearts 3 hurts 12 jewelry 1 hello 1 husband 3 jewels 61 2 help 1 hydrogen 4 job 1 helper 548 250 I 2 4 jogging 4 helpful 23 I ' d ' 2 John 1 helping 47 11 I ' l l 1 join 8 1 helps 112 47 I'm 1 jump 2 henry 28 8 11 ve 285 25 just 16 10 her 1 ice 2 1 k 1 her's 24 1 idea 23 3 keep 109 20 here 11 ideas 1 1 keeping 17 9 here' s 1 identity 7 3 keeps 1 1 hers 229 10 if 3 kent 2 hey 1 illegal 3 2 kept 1 hi 7 imagine 1 key 1 hide 18 important 1 kickball 1 hiding 1 impressed 2 2 kid 1 3 high 306 69 in 5 kidding 1 higher 1 incentive 10 1 kids 17 6 him 1 included 50 6 kind 2 hindi 1 including 2 1 kindergarten 31 22 his 1 incredibly 1 k i ndergarteners 2 1 hit 1 india 3 1 kindergartens 1 hobby 2 indian 1 k i ndergartners 5 6 hockey 7 information 37 10 kinds 8 2 hold 1 inner 7 kitchen 1 holds 1 insects 2 kitten Appendix I -199-T S T S 1 k i t t e n s 1 1 k i t t y 19 1 knee 74 1 1 knees 1 1 1 knew 2 3 knives 4 1 2 knock 4 189 44 know 4 1 knowing 2 1 known 1 9 knows 6 6 10 2 1 2 3 l a b e l 248 87 1 l a b e l l e d 1 1 l a g 1 3 1 l a i d 1 8 1 lamb 1 1 land 17 4 9 language 1 2 languages 1 1 l a r g e r 1 2 1 l a r v a 9 1 4 larv a e 1 1 l a r v a s 1 1 1 l a r v i 2 30 2 l a s t 9 1 3 1 l a t e 1 18 16 l a t e r 2 1 laughed 1 2 laughing 55 12 1 law 2 10 4 l a y 10 3 1 l a y e r 2 1 l a y e r s 6 1 2 3 l a y i n g 1 4 7 la y s 3 1 lean 11 10 14 9 l e a r n 3 8 learned 1 8 l e a r n i n g 2 3 l e a s t 1 1 8 2 leave 2 5 2 leaves 44 22 9 7 l e f t 1 4 2 left-handed 1 2 1 l e g 1 7 2 legs 83 13 1 l e k e t 7 1 2 2 l e s s 14 5 T S lesson 25 8 looks l e t 1 l o r i n g l e t ' s 1 lose l e t s 3 l o s t l e t t e r 32 6 l o t l e t t e r s 22 10 l o t s l e t t i n g 1 loud l e v e l 1 love l i a r 8 l o v e l y l i c k e d 2 1 low l i f e 2 luck 1ights 6 3 lucky l i k e 1 lunch l i k e d 9 6 lungs l i k e l y 11 m l i k e s 1 m's limbs 1 ma l i n e 1 ma'am 1ine-up 22 made 1ine-ups 1 magnets l i n e d 1 main l i n e s 4 mainly 1 ion's 4 1 major l i p 75 10 make l i q u i d 14 3 makes l i s t 15 3 making l i s t e d 4 5 male 1 i s t e n i n g 7 mammal l i t 20 11 mammals l i t t l e 4 12 man l i t t l e s 3 man's l i v e 2 manage 1ive-bearer 1 managed 1ive-bearers 1 maniac l i v e l i e r 57 7 many l i v e s 2 map l i v i n g 7 1 marbles 1ivingroom 2 mark l i z a r d s 2 married lo c a t e d 1 mart lock s 1 mass l o h r i 1 match long 1 matches long's 3 2 math longer 1 matter longest 1 matters look 3 mature looked 4 2 may loo k i n g 40 3 maybe A p p e n d i x I - 2 0 0 -T S T S T S 156 25 me 1 mouse 14 6 n i c e 1 meals 37 35 mouth 1 n i c e l y 27 9 mean 1 1 mouths 6 n i c e r 2 1 meanings 6 2 move 1 n i c e s t 30 2 means 2 moved 3 2 nigh t 4 meant 6 1 moves 1 3 nine 1 1 meat 1 movie 1 1 nineteen 3 medium 1 2 moving 105 158 no 4 messy 10 mrs 1 no's 1 met 33 5 much 1 no-no 2 1 microscope 1 muddle 1 noise 7 3 middle 1 m u l t i - 2 n o i s y 46 might 1 music 6 7 non-1iving 1 might've 13 must 1 non-smellies 1 3 mi l k 2 mustache 1 non-vertebrates 2 m i l k ' s 61 78 my 1 2 none 7 8 mil k y 12 1 myron 1 nonsense 1 m i l l i o n 3 myself 1 3 nope 1 mime 1 1 n a i l s 1 normal 11 1 mind 23 5 name 1 normally 3 6 mine 3 name's 14 2 nose 1 mine's 1 named 1 noses 1 1 mini 12 names 8 14 n o s t r i 1 1 minnows 1 n a t u r a l l y 1 ' n o s t r i 1 ' s 9 minute 8 4 near 12 4 n o s t r i l s 9 1 minutes 3 nearer 111 28 not 3 miss 3 n e a r l y 1 notebook 7 missed 2 1 neat 2 notes 7 miss i n g 1 neater 4 1 nothing 3 mistake 1 necessary 2 n o t i c e 1 mittens 3 2 necklace 1 n o t i c e d 6 1 mixed 2 3 necklaces 183 10 now 7 moberly 1 necks 1 now/what 4 5 mom 33 9 need 13 6 number 2 mom's 3 needed 2 2 numbers 1 mommy 2 needles 1 nurse 5 monday 1 2 needs 2 o 3 5 money 2 neighbors 1 o'clock 1 monitor 1 n e i t h e r 3 6 oars 1 1 month 1 nest 1 ob v i o u s l y 8 8 months 2 2 net 1 ocean 69 18 more 1 netherlands 1 octopus 2 1 morning 3 5 nets 4 odd 1 mornings 12 8 never 532 77 of 9 1 most 8 1 new 26 3 o f f 2 2 mostly 6 2 newly 1 o f f e r 1 mother 3 5 newly-hatched 3 o f t e n 2 1 mother's 1 news 64 57 oh 1 1 motorcycle 36 6 next 2 o i l A p p e n d i x I - 2 0 1 -T S T S T S 489 27 ok 3 1 paragraphs 54 1 p i c t u r e 15 8 o l d 1 2 pardon 16 6 p i c t u r e s 3 o l d ' s 5 1 park 3 p i e c e 1 o l d e r 1 p a r r o t 2 3 p i g s 1 2 o l d e s t 14 2 p a r t 1 p i l e 1 o l d s 1 1 p a r t i a l l y 1 1 pipes 212 80 on 1 p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 p i t c h 6 1 once 1 p a r t i e s 15 p l a c e 323 117 one 2 p a r t l y 2 p l a n 6 4 one's 25 2 p a r t s 7 p l a n t 2 one-week 6 2 p a r t y 1 5 p l a n t s 38 15 ones 5 1 pass 3 1 p l a s t i c 25 8 o n l y 3 1 passes 2 2 p l a t e s 2 1 O ntario 1 passing 5 3 p l a y 9 5 open 1 paste 1 2 played 1 opening 1 p a s t e l 2 2 p l a y i n g 1 opens 11 p a t t e r n 1 1 p l a y s 1 o p i n i o n 1 p a t t e r n s 3 please 1 opposite 2 pe 1 pleased 1 1 o pposites 2 3 p e a r l s 1 p l u r a l 233 31 o r , 13 11 p e c t o r a l 1 pocket 1 1 orange 2 peeking 1 p o i n t 5 o r d er 1 pen 2 p o i n t i n g 10 organize 4 p e n c i l 2 p o l i c e 6 organized 1 p e n c i l ' s 2 poor 1 organizes 2 p e n c i l s 1 pop-up 2 o r g a n i z i n g 30 19 people 1 popular 100 9 o t h e r 1 people's 2 pork 8 others 1 peoples 1 p o s s i b l e 1 otherwise 2 pepper 1 p o s t e r 22 11 our 1 percent 1 pot 3 ours 11 p e r f e c t 1 pour 96 33 out 1 p e r f e c t l y 2 power 4 o u t s i d e 1 1 perhaps 7 p r a c t i c e 36 17 over 1 permeates 1 p r a c t i c e d 1 overpowering 8 6 person 2 p r a c t i c i n g 18 3 own 2 p e r s o n a l i t y 2 1 precious 17 7 oxygen 9 pet 1 prepare 1 oxygen's 1 p e t o r a l 1 p r e s c r i p t i o n 2 pack 27 22 pets 2 present 14 2 page 1 pharmacists 1 press 1 1 p a i n t 1 phew 2 pressure 1 p a i r 4 p h i l l i p i n e s 1 pretend 1 p a i r s 3 phone 22 6 p r e t t y 4 pants 2 phrase 2 1 p r i n t 15 4 paper 2 1 p h y s i c a l 1 p r i n t i n g 6 4 papers 4 2 p i c k 1 p r i v a t e 1 parade 1 p i c k e d 32 2 probably 12 paragraph 2 p i c k i n g 17 problem A p p e n d i x I - 2 0 2 -T S 2 problems 3 process 2 1 processes 1 produce 2 p r o j e c t 1 pronounce 1 proper 1 p r o p e r l y 1 property 1 p r o t e c t 2 p r o t e c t s 5 proud 1 proved 1 prunes 1 1 puff 2 8 p u f f i e s 1 p u f f s 1 1 p u f f y 2 pumped 1 punch 7 4 Punjabi 1 puppies 1 2 puppy 2 purple 3 purpose 3 1 push 2 pushes 2 2 pushing 74 16 put 2 2 puts 11 2 p u t t i n g 2 1 q 21 q u e s t i o n 1 q u e s t i o n i n g 6 questions 2 quick 3 q u i c k l y 3 1 q u i e t 2 q u i e t l y 7 2 q u i t e 5 10 r 1 r a b b i t 2 3 r a b b i t s 8 race 1 r a c k e t 1 r a d i o 1 rainbow 1 r a i n i n g 1 random T S T S 4 r a t h e r 1 r o o t 2 rays 3 1 r o t 1 r e - 1 r o t t e n 44 4 read 4 1 rough 4 readi n g 4 round 26 2 ready 8 row 4 3 r e a l 1 row's 1 r e a l - l i f e 2 rowboat 3 r e a l i s t i c 1 rows 106 9 r e a l l y 2 rubber 1 r e a r 1 r u b i e s 6 reason 1 2 ruby 1 reasons 6 2 rudder 1 r e c e n t l y 1 4 rugby 1 r e c u r r i n g 2 1 r u l e r 15 6 r e d 3 r u l e r s 1 reds 2 r u l e s 4 1 r e g u l a r 3 2 ru n 12 5 r e g u l a t e 4 2 running 1 r e l i e f 1 runs 1 r e l i g i o u s 1 rush 137 2 remember 4 4 s 1 remembered 1 s a f e 3 remembering 39 2 s a i d 5 remind 1' s a l e 1 remove 1 s a l t 2 r e n t 41 6 same 1 repeat 1 1 sand 1 representat i on 3 santa 2 reproduce 3 Saturday 15 2 repr o d u c t i o n 1 1 save 3 1 r e p t i l e 5 5 saw 11 7 r e p t i l e s 100 2 say 3 r e s t 19 s a y i n g 2 r e s t e d 23 1 says 1 r e t u r n s 3 3 s c a l e 3 review 26 39 s c a l e s 1 r e w r i t e 1 s c a l p 2 r i c e 1 s c a l y 2 1 richmond 1 scared 1 r i d 1 s c a r f 5 r i d e 1 s c a r y 241 28 r i g h t 15 2 school 1 right-handed 1 schools 3 r i n g 6 1 science 8 6 r i n g s 2 sc i e n c e s 1 r i p 1 s c i s s o r s 2 1 r o a s t 1 S c o t l a n d 7 room 1 screaming A p p e n d i x I - 2 0 3 -T S T S T S 2 screen 28 12 shoes 1 1 s l e e p i n g 1 s c r i b b l e 6 shopping 1 slee p s 5 1 s c u l l i n g 5 3 sho r t 1 s l i p 2 sears 1 s h o r t s 1 slop e 1 seat 32 5 should 1 slop e s 22 13 second 2 shouldn't 20 22 small 1 seconds 18 1 show 8 6 s m a l l e r 2 s e c t i o n 3 showed 1 s m a l l e s t 150 14 see 2 showing 5 smart 1 seei n g 1 1 shows 1 smarter 1 seek 8 5 shut 2 smashed 1 seem 4 3 shuts 6 3 smell 1 seemed 1 s h u t t i n g 6 3 s m e l l i e s 2 seems 1 shy 1 2 sm e l l s 12 seen 1 3 s i c k 1 1 smelly 1 s e l l 14 5 s i d e 1 s m i l e s 1 s e l l i n g 1 s i d e s 4 2 smooth 1 send 1 s i g n 2 1 snake 1 sends 1 s i k h 2 1 snakes 7 sense 9 4 s i l v e r 1 sneak 1 senses 5 1 simple 335 34 so 1 sent 1 simply 3 6 soccer 76 1 sentence 10 2 s i n c e 1 soccershoes 47 2 sentences 2 s i n g 1 s o c i a l 6 1 separate 1 s i n g s 2 1 s o c i a l s 3 1 separated 1 s i n k 1 soda 1 September 1 s i r 1 s o f t 3 s e t 8 10 s i s t e r 1 s o f t i e s 1 s e t s 1 s i s t e r - i n - l a w 116 58 some 1 1 s e t t i n g 9 9 s i s t e r s 11 2 somebody 8 8 seven 2 s i t 1 somebody's 3 sevens 1 s i t t e r 1 someday 1 7 s e v e r a l 4 s i t t i n g 1 somehow 6 1 s h a l l 15 8 s i x 7 1 someone 2 shape 2 s i x e s 1 someone's 1 1 shapes 2 s i x t h 2 someplace 6 share 9 1 s i z e 81 17 something 1 3 shark 1 s k a t e r s 1 something's 5 1 sharks 1 skates 2 sometime 3 sharp 1 3 s k a t i n g 25 10 sometimes 1 sharpened 1 s k e l e t o n 5 1 somewhere 1 shave 7 1 skel e t o n s 3 1 son 51 27 she 12 2 s k i n 1 song 1 she'd 1 1 s k i p 6 soon 1 s h e ' l l 1 1 s k i p p i n g 1 sore 7 7 she's 1 s l a p 14 5 s o r r y 3 1 shiney 1 slapped 10. 3 s o r t 2 shineys 1 s l a p p i n g 1 s o r t s 1 s h i n i n g 1 s l e e p 3 1 sound A p p e n d i x I - 2 0 4 -T S 1 sounded 10 5 sounds 1 soup 1 space 1 spark l y 20 3 speak 1 spears 2 s p e c i a l 5 s p e c i e s 1 specimens 3 speed 2 speedy 10 7 s p e l l 8 s p e l l e d 4 1 s p e l l i n g 5 spend 1 spending 1 1 spent 2 s p i c e s 1 s p i d e r s 1 s p i n 1 s p i t t i n g 2 s p l i t 2 s p l i t s 1 s p l i t t i n g 1 1 spoons 1 s p o r t 20 6 s p o r t s 1 2 spot 1 sprayed 1 squished 1 s t a f f 2 stage 1 1 stamps 2 stand 1 s t a n d i n g 3 S t a n l e y 1 s t a r 2 s t a r f i s h 1 s t a r s 58 2 s t a r t 7 4 s t a r t e d 7 s t a r t i n g 4 5 s t a r t s 5 6 s t a y 1 s t a y i n g 1 s t a y s 22 step 15 2 steps T S 1 s t i c k 6 s t i c k e r 13 5 s t i c k e r s 1 s t i c k i n g 2 2 s t i c k s 2 s t i c k y 5 5 s t i l l 1 s t i n k s 1 stomach 1 2 stone 13 8 stones 6 1 stop 1 stopped 3 stops 1 s t o r e 4 3 s t o r i e s 25 2 s t o r y 2 2 s t r a i g h t 1 straw 3 s t r e e t 1 s t r e n g t h s 1 s t r e t c h 2 s t r i n g 5 4 s t r o n g 1 s t r o n g e r 1 s t r u g g l i n g 1 s t r u n g 21 1 stuck 2 students 2 s t u d i e d 1 s t u d i e s 7 2 study 6 s t u d y i n g 11 9 s t u f f 1 s t y l e 1 1 s u b j e c t 1 substance 5 such 1 suddenly 1 sugar 2 1 s u i t 1 s u i t s 1 summarize 2 summer 1 sundae 1 Sunday 3 super 1 superman 4 4 supposed T S 37 sure 2 surrounding 7 4 surroundings 3 1 s u r v i v e 1 s u s p i c i o n 1 swallow 1 swap 1 sweat 1 sweaters 1 sweats 3 sweets 4 6 swim 6 2 swimming 2 swims 1 swinging 1 swings 2 system 1 systems 7 5 t 3 t l 2 t l ' s 7 t2 7 1 t a b l e 1 tadpole 18 16 t a i l 4 3 t a i l s 47 6 take 1 taken 2 takes 4 4 t a k i n g 36 3 t a l k 17 t a l k e d 26 3 t a l k i n g 1 t a l k s 1 t a l l 1 tame 1 1 tape 1 1 t a s t e 2 taught 2 teach 6 2 teacher 1 teacher's 1 2 teachers 1 t e a c h i n g 1 team 1 3 teeny 10 6 t e e t h 91 1 t e l l 5 1 t e l l i n g Appendix I -205-T S 4 1 t e l l s 29 10 temperature 1 temple 9 2 ten 3 6 t e n n i s 9 t e s t 1 t e s t ' s 2 t e s t e d 3 t e x t 1 t e x t u r e 22 4 than 15 thank 5 thanks 743 81 t h a t 3 t h a t ' l l 226 52 t h a t ' s 1115 342 the 94 15 t h e i r 2 t h e i r s 174 35 them 2 themselves 163 43 then 135 31 there 42 13 there's 1 the r e s 89 24 these 243 67 they 4 they'd 8 t h e y ' l l 87 15 they're 10 they've 3 t h i c k 57 12 t h i n g 130 12 t h i n g s 179 25 t h i n k 14 1 t h i n k i n g 1 t h i n k s 8 7 t h i r d 2 t h i r t i e t h 2 1 t h i r t y 253 107 t h i s 1 thong 1 thorough 66 11 those 12 though 25 3 thought 1 2 thousand 1 4 thousands 63 36 three T S 1 t h r i l l e d 14 10 t h r o a t 1 t h r o a t ' s 44 10 through 1 throughout 1 throw 1 thursday 1 t i c - t a c - t o e 2 t i c k 1 t i d i l y 1 1 t i e 1 t i g e r s 3 t i g h t l y 72 2 time 1 1 times 1 t i n f o i l s 16 3 t i n y 1 t i p 4 2 t i r e d 4 t i t l e 1 t i t l e s 895 162 t o 32 5 today 1 toes 18 3 together 10 4 t o l d 26 2 tomorrow 1 1 tomorrow's 3 t o n i g h t 7 tons 57 35 too 5 3 took 27 6 top 2 t o p i c 1 t o s s e d 1 1 touch 22 tough 3 tougher 1 t r a c e 7 2 t r a i n 1 t r a i n e d 1 t r a n s 1 transforming 2 t r a v e l l e d 2 t r e a t 1 t r e a t i n g 10 2 t r e e 8 2 t r i c k 2 t r i c k i e r T S 9 t r i c k y 4 t r i e d 1 t r i e s 1 1 t r i p 1 t r o l l 1 t r o p i c a l 7 t r o u b l e 19 1 t r u c k s 2 t r u e 47 2 t r y 13 5 t r y i n g 1 tucked 3 tuesday 1 t u l i p s 1 turban 19 5 t u r n 1 turned 1 1 t u r n s 6 4 twelve 3 twenty 1 t w e n t y - f i v e 1 1 t w i c e 133 60 two 2 1 two-chambered 2 type 14 1 types 17 3 u 2 uh 24 6 um 4 3 umhm 1 umm 1 u n b e l i e v a b l e 2 8 uncle 1 uncle's 1 unconscious 21 10 under 2 1 u n d e r l i n e 4 u n d e r l i n e d 1 u n d e r l i n i n g 5 underneath 19 understand 1 understanding 1 understood 1 u n f o r t u n a t e l y 8 1 u n i t 1 u n i v e r s i t y 2 u n l e s s 1 unscramble 10 u n t i l A p p e n d i x I - 2 0 6 -T S 3 unusual 141 16 up 1 upon 46 2 us 60 10 use 10 7 used 3 useful 7 11 uses 6 using 11 usually 6 V 8 7 vacuum 2 val 1 value 3 1 Vancouver 4 var 4 1 varinder 1 vary 1 vegetables 1 vehicle 6 vehicles 9 15 ventral 2 ventricle 1 verbs 1 vern 6 3 vertebrate 20 8 vertebrates 76 9 very 3 1 vessels 2 video 1 v i i 1 visit 1 volleyball 1 volunteers 4 w 6 wait 1 waiting 1 wake 1 1 walk 2 walking 1 wand 84 9 want 5 3 wanted 3 wants 2 warm 19 8 warm-blooded 1 warn 146 23 was 1 3 wash T S 1 washed 1 washing 9 1 wasn't 1 watch 3 3 watches 1 1 watching 59 30 water 3 2 water's 1 waved 99 10 way 26 1 ways 270 75 we 3 we'd 57 we'll 70 6 we're 14 we've 1 weak 7 wear 4 wearing 1 Wednesdays 24 11 week 7 weekend 10 8 weeks 80 9 well 1 we11-rested 12 10 went 86 4 were 2 weren't 1 wet 9 5 whale 3 whale's 2 0 whale-ta 1 whale-tail 2 whales 548 34 what 86 7 what's 8 1 whatever 9 wheel 3 3 wheels 94 25 when 2 whenever 51 14 where 7 4 where's 1 whereas 5 whether 49 21 which 1 whichever 11 while 1 whiskers T S 4 white 25 6 who 14 2 who's 9 3 whole 1 2 whose 72 7 why 1 why's 1 wick 1 5 wild 2 1 wildlife 18 1 will 4 wind 11 windows 2 windy 1 1 wings 2 1 winter 1 wish 118 26 with 7 without 1 woke 11 2 won't 6 wonder 3 1 wonderful 2 wondering 2 woodwards 1 woops 43 1 word 1 word's 47 5 words 2 wore 44 2 work 6 worked 12 1 working 2 works 6 world 7 8 worm 1 worms 4 1 worry 1 worrying 1 worse 1 worst 1 worth 146 6 would 15 1 wouldn't 10 1 wow 2 wrap 1 wrestling 1 wriggling 1 wrinkled Appendix I - 2 0 7 -T S T S 77 13 w r i t e 1 1 1 w r i t e r s 105 177 1 w r i t e s 6 5 30 2 w r i t i n g 3 5 1 w r i t i n g ' s 1 2 w r i t t e n 1 14 wrong 2 1 wrote 8 3 1 X 23 20 1 x's 14 7 1 y 1 A p p e n d i x I T S yamaha 12 3 y e t yeah 1621 102 you year 17 you'd years 13 y o u ' l l yeh 129 1 you're y e l l e d 54 you' ve y e l l o w 1 younger yep 229 17 your yes 12 yours yesterday 12 y o u r s e l f yesterday's - 2 0 8 -A p p e n d i x I I : S e m a n t i c w o r d g r o u p s Date & Time .-1979 1984 a f t e r n o o n a n y t i m e b i r t h d a y C h r i s t m a s d a y f r i d a y h a l l o w e e n h o l i d a y h o u r J a n u a r y l o h r i m i n u t e monday month m o r n i n g n i g h t o ' c l o c k one-week S a t u r d a y s e c o n d September summer s u n d a y t h u r s d a y t o d a y tomorrow t o n i g h t t u e s d a y Wednesdays week weekend w i n t e r y e a r y e s t e r d a y Animals .-a n i m a l a n t b i r d c a t f i s h c a t s c h i c k e n c o u g a r cows c r a b c r e a t u r e d o g e e l s egg e g g - b e a r e r e g g - l a y e r embryos f i s h f l e a s f r o g f r y g o l d f i s h g o l d e n - f i s h g u i n e a - p i g s guppy h a m s t e r h o r s e s i n s e c t s i n v e r t e b r a t e s k i t t e n k i t t y l a r v a l i o n ' s l i z a r d s minnows mouse o c t o p u s p a r r o t p e t puppy r a b b i t r a y s h a r k s n a k e s p i d e r s s t a r f i s h t a d p o l e t i g e r s w h a l e w i l d l i f e worm a m p h i b i a n w a r m - b l o o d e d c o l d - b l o o d e d l i v e - b e a r e r mammal r e p t i l e v e r t e b r a t e m a l e f e m a l e t w o - c h a m b e r e d f o u r - c h a m b e r e d P a r t s of t h i n g s a n u s a p p e n d a g e s arms a u r i c l e b a c k b a c k b o n e b e l l y b l o w h o l e b o d y bone book b o t t o m b r a i n s b r a k e b r a n c h bumper c a p s c a r t i l a g e c h a p t e r d o o r e a r e y e e y e l a s h e s f a c e f e a t h e r s f e e l e r s f e e t f i n g e r f i n s f l o w e r f l u i d f u r g i l l g i l l - a r c h e s h a i r h a n d h e a d h e a d l i g h t s h e a r t k n e e l e g l e s s o n l i m b s l u n g s mouth m u s t a c h e A p p e n d i x I I - 2 0 9 -n a i l s n e c k s n e e d l e s n o s e n o s t r i l o a r s page p a r a g r a p h p a r t p i e c e p l a n t p h r a s e r o o t r u d d e r s c a l e s c a l p s e c t i o n s e n t e n c e s k e l e t o n s l o p e s t a g e s t e p s t o m a c h s t o r y t a i l t e e t h t h r o a t t o e s t o p t r e e t u l i p s u n i t v e n t r i c l e v e s s e l s w h a l e - t a i l w h e e l w h i s k e r s w i n d o w s w i n g s w o r d Kitchen & food 7-up b a c o n b a g b a k i n g - s o d a b e a n s b e e f b o w l s b o x b r e a d ' s b r e a k f a s t c a k e c a n d y c a n d y - c a n e c h i c k e n c h o c o l a t e c h o p s t i c k s c o l a c o o k i e s c o o k i n g c o r n f l a k e s c u p c u p b o a r d c u r r y d i n n e r e g g f i s h f l o u r f o o d f o r k s f r i e d f r u i t s h o t - f u d g e s u n d a e g a r b a g e h a m b u r g e r j a r s k n i v e s lamb l u n c h m e a l s meat m i l k p e p p e r p l a t e s p o r k p o t p r u n e s r i c e r o a s t s a l t s i n k s o u p s p i c e s s p o o n s s u g a r s w e e t s t i n f o i l s v e g e t a b l e s Jewelry & clothing a r m o r b a g b l o u s e s b r a c e l e t b u t t o n c l o t h e s c l o t h i n g c o a t d i a m o n d d r e s s e a r r i n g s g l a s s e s g l o v e g o l d j e w e l r y j e w e l s m i t t e n s n e c k l a c e p a n t s p e a r l s p o c k e t r i n g r u b y s c a r f s h o e s s h o r t s s i l v e r s t o n e s w e a t e r s t u r b a n w a t c h Amounts, ranks & numbers 6 0 t h a l l a n o t h e r a n y b i l l i o n b u n c h c o u p l e e i g h t e i g h t y e l e v e n e n o u g h e n t i r e e v e r y e v e r y e x t r a few f i f t e e n f i f t h f i r s t f i v e f o r t y f o r t y - n i n e f o u r f o u r t h s h a l f h u n d r e d l i t t l e l o t many A p p e n d i x I I - 2 1 0 -m i l l i o n much n i n e n i n e t e e n number one p a i r s e c o n d s e v e n s e v e r a l s i x s i x t h some some t e n t h i r d t h i r t i e t h t h i r t y t h o u s a n d t h r e e t o n s t w e l v e t w e n t y t w e n t y - f i v e t w i c e two Sports & a c t i v i t i e s a c t i v i t i e s b a l l e t b a l l b a s e b a l l b a s k e t b a l l b a s k e t s b a t b o x i n g c h e c k e r s e x e r c i s e f i s h i n g f o o t b a l l game g o a l g r a s s - h o c k e y h o b b y h o c k e y i c e - s k a t i n g j o g g i n g jump k i c k b a l l m a r b l e s p i t c h p l a y p u n c h r u g b y r u n r u n n i n g s k a t e s s k a t e r s s k a t i n g s k i p s o c c e r s p o r t s w i m swimming s w i n g t a b l e - t e n n i s t e a m t h r o w t i c - t a c - t o e v o l l e y b a l l w r e s t l i n g People a r t i s t a u n t b a b y b o s s e s b o y b r o t h e r c h e a t e r C h i n e s e c l a r k - k e n t c o u s i n c r i m i n a l d a d d a u g h t e r d o c t o r e n g l i s h f a m i l y f a t h e r f i l i p i n o f r e n c h f r i e n d g i r l g o d grandma g r a n d p a g r a n d p a r e n t s grown-up g u e s t s guy h e l p e r h i n d i h o n e y human h u s b a n d i n d i a n k i d k i n d e r g a r t e n s ma ma'am man m a n i a c mom mommy m o n i t o r m o t h e r m r s . n e i g h b o r s n u r s e p e o p l e p e r s o n p h a r m a c i s t s p o l i c e p u n j a b i s a n t a - c l a u s s i k h s i r s i s t e r s i s t e r - i n - l a w b a b y - s i t t e r s k a t e r s s t u d e n t s s u p e r m a n t e a c h e r u n c l e v o l u n t e e r s w r i t e r s Places a q u a r i u m b a nk basement b e d b e d r o o m C a l i f o r n i a c a n a d a c a p i t a l chamber c l a s s c l o s e t c o u n t r y c u p b o a r d d o o r d o w n s t a i r s downtown A p p e n d i x I I -211-e n g l a n d f a c t o r y f l o o r g a r a g e g u i 1 f o r d gym h a l l h o l e s home h o u s e i n d i a i s l a n d k i t c h e n l a n d l i v i n g r o o m m o b e r l y n e s t n e t h e r l a n d s o c e a n O n t a r i o P h i l i p p i n e s r i c h m o n d room s c h o o l s c h o o l - g r o u n d S c o t l a n d s e a r s s t a g e s t a n l e y - p a r k s t o r e s t r e e t t a b l e t e m p l e u n i v e r s i t y Vancouver woodwards w o r l d Vehic les 2wd 4wd b i k e b o a t c a r m o t o r c y c l e r o w b o a t t r a i n t r u c k v e h i c l e Colors b l a c k b l u e b r o w n c o l o r s g o l d g r e e n m i l k y o r a n g e p u r p l e r e d s i l v e r w h i t e y e l l o w Classroom s tu f f a l a r m a r r o w a r t b a t t e r y b i o l o g y b o a r d b u z z e r c a l e n d a r c a r d s c h a l k c h a r t c o m p u t e r c o m p u t e r - d i s k c r a y o n d i a g r a m d i c t i o n a r y d i s k - d r i v e d o t d r a w e r d r a w i n g e l c e r a s e r e r r o r e s l f o l d e r s g l u e g r a d e k e y k i n d e r g a r t e n l o c k m ath m i c r o s c o p e m u s i c n o t e b o o k p a p e r pen p e n c i l p i c t u r e s p o s t e r r u l e r s c i e n c e s c i s s o r s s e a t s o c i a l - s c i e n c e s s o c i a l s s t a f f s u b j e c t t a b l e t a b l e t a p e t h i n k i n g - c a p s Natural phenomena a i r f i r e g a s h y d r o g e n o x y g e n r a i n b o w s t a r w a t e r w i n d A p p e n d i x I I - 2 1 2 -Pronouns & anaphora a n y e a c h he h e r h i m h i s I i t i t s e l f me m i n e my m y s e l f o t h e r o u r o u r s s h e t h a t t h e i r them t h e m s e l v e s t h e s e t h e s e t h e y t h i s u s we w hat w h a t e v e r when w h e n e v e r w h e r e w h i c h w h i c h e v e r who whose y o u y o u r s y o u r s e 1 f P r e p o s i t i o n s a b o u t a b o v e a f t e r a g a i n s t a h e a d a l o n g a r o u n d a t away b e f o r e b e h i n d b e l o w b e s i d e b e t w e e n by down e x c e p t f o r f r o m f r o n t i n i n s i d e i n t o n e a r o f on o u t s i d e o v e r t h r o u g h t h r o u g h o u t t o u n d e r up upon w i t h w i t h o u t Adverbs a c t u a l l y a g a i n ago a l m o s t a l r e a d y a l s o a l w a y s a p a r t a p p a r e n t l y a w f u l l y b a c k w a r d b a s i c a l l y b e s i d e s c a r e f u l l y c e r t a i n l y c l e a r l y c o r r e c t l y d e c e n t l y d e c e n t l y d i s t i n c t l y e a r l y e a s i l y e n t i r e l y e s p e c i a l l y e v e n e v e r e x a c t l y f a i r l y f a r f i n a l l y f o r w a r d f u l l y g e n t l y h a p p i l y h a r d l y h e r e h o p e f u l l y i n c r e d i b l y i n s t e a d j u s t l a t e r l i k e l y m a i n l y maybe m o s t l y n a t u r a l l y n e a r l y n e v e r n e w l y n e x t n i c e l y no n o r m a l l y n o t now o b v i o u s l y o f - c o u r s e o f f o f t e n o n c e o n l y o t h e r w i s e o u t p a r t i a l l y p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r t l y p e r f e c t l y p e r h a p s p r o b a b l y p r o p e r l y q u i c k l y q u i e t l y q u i t e r e a l l y r e c e n t l y s i m p l y s o s o o n s t i l l s u d d e n l y t h e n t h e r e t h e r e t i d i l y t i g h t l y t o o u n f o r t u n a t e l y u s u a l l y v e r y y e t A p p e n d i x I I - 2 1 3 -Conjunctions a n d b e c a u s e ( b e ) c a u s e b u t i f o r s i n c e t h o u g h u n l e s s u n t i l w h e r e a s w h e t h e r w h i l e why-A p p e n d i x I I - 2 1 4 -

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0078309/manifest

Comment

Related Items