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Storytelling : a classification of the elements identified in the oral storytexts of three- and four-year-old… Filipenko, Margot Jessica 1989

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STORYTELLING: A CLASSIFICATION OF THE IDENTIFIED IN THE ORAL STORYTEXTS OF AND FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN by Margot J e s s i c a F i l i p e n k o U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d ELEMENTS THREE-B.Ed., The A THESIS THE THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1989 ©Margot J e s s i c a F i l i p e n k o , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada •ate oak A^k „ flsq . DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Although r e s e a r c h has probed the l i n g u i s t i c elements of the s t o r y t e x t s produced by c h i l d r e n , i t appears to have ignored the c h i l d ' s use of the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements of s t o r y t e l l i n g as a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t o r of the c h i l d ' s developing sense of s t o r y . The purpose of t h i s study has been to i d e n t i f y what l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements are employed by t h r e e -and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n episodes of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g . In order to develop a p r a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e which adequately d e s c r i b e d the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements embedded i n c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l s t o r y t e x t s , the design of the study has i n v o l v e d the f o l l o w i n g procedure: c o l l e c t i n g spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g s from t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n ; a n a l y s i n g and d e s c r i b i n g r e c u r r e n t l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements embedded i n the data; o r g a n i z i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system t h a t c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of th r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . In the process of develop-ing the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l observa-t i o n s were made: 1. Three- and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n use a broad range of l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements i n episodes of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g . 2. D e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s emerged i n i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e . Once developed, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was used to i d e n t i f y whether there i s a developmental p a t t e r n i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l i n the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c area and, whether context a f f e c t s the s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y of t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . The f i n d i n g s showed 1. There appears to be a developmental p a t t e r n i n a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l i n the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c area, however, i t does not appear to be t i g h t l y l i n k e d to age. 2. The context i n which a c h i l d i s asked to t e l l s t o r y i n f l u e n c e s the outcome. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT i i 1. CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM 3 1.2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 1.2.2 C o n c e p t o f S t o r y 5 1.2.3 S t o r y t e l l i n g 8 1.2.4 I m p o r t a n c e o f S t o r y t o L i t e r a c y . . . . 10 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 12 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 13 1.5 D E F I N I T I O N OF TERMS 15 .1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 18 1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.. 19 2. CHAPTER TWO: . REVIEW OF THE -LITERATURE 20 2.1 INTRODUCTION . . 20 2.2 CONCEPT OF STORY.. . . .... 20 2.3 STORYTELLING..... 30 2.3.1 O r i g i n s and D e f i n i t i o n o f S t o r y t e l l i n g . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.3.2 The S t o r y t e l l e r . . . . . . . . . . . ..." ... 3 2.4 SUMMARY. ........ 41 3. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY. ...... 43 3.1. INTRODUCTION..... 43 . 3.2 C R I T E R I A FOR THE SELECTION OF SUBJECTS 44 3 . 3 SUBJECTS . . . . . -. , . 4 V 3.4 DATA COLLECTION 46 3.5 METHOD: PART ONE 46 3.5.1 The O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d s 46 3.5.2 R e c o r d i n g E q u i p m e n t 48 3.5.3 G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e s 48 3.5.4 G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a 49 3.6 METHOD: PART TWO 50 3.6-1 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n f o r t h e C o m p a r i s o n S t u d y . 50 3.6.2 R e c o r d i n g E q u i p m e n t . . . . 51 3.6.3 G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e s 51 3.6.4. G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . . 53 3.7 / INTER-RATER R E L I A B I L I I T Y 53 4. CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF THE DATA " 55 4.1- INTRODUCTION.. 55 4.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE C L A S S I F I C A T I O N SYSTEM.. 56 4.2.1 C l a s s i f y i n g t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e o r a l s t o r y t e x t s . . . . . . . .. 56 4.2.2 An o u t l i n e o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m , .. .58 4.2.3.. An e x a m p l e o f a f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d ' s o r a l s t o r y t e x t - 61 . 4 . 2 . 4 G e n e r a l comments.... 66 4.2.5 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . . . . . . . . . . 67 v i 4.2.6 An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 8 f o u r - y e a r o l d s . . 84 4.3 A P P L I C A T I O N OF THE C L A S S I F I C A T I O N SYSTEM.. 93 4.3.1 An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 5 t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s . 93 4.3.2 An a n a l y s i s o f 8 s t o r y t e l l i n g s u s i n g P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t 98 5. CHAPTER F I V E : DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.. 104 5.1 INTRODUCTION 104 5.2 DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS 105 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 120 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 122 APPENDIX 127 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t A.... 127 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t B 128 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t C 129 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t D .131. O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t E 133 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t F... 135 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t G... 139 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t H. . 141 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t I 143 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t J . . . 143 . O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t K..... 143 O r a l S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t L 144 O r a l . S t o r y t e x t s o f S u b j e c t M 144 v i i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I S t o r y E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n 85 I I L i t e r a r y L a n g uage E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n 87 I I I A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n 89 IV U n a r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n 91 V S t o r y E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 5 T h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . 94 V I L i t e r a r y L a n g u a g e E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 5 T h r e e - y e a r - -o l d C h i l d r e n . . . . . . . "95 V I I A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 5 T h r e e - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n 96 V I I I U n a r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c - E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d . i n - t h e S p o n t a n e o u s S t o r y t e l l i n g s o f 5 T h r e e - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n .. 97 v i i i I X S t o r y E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S t o r y R e t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n u s i n g t h e w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t 99 X L i t e r a r y L a n g u a g e E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S t o r y R e t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n u s i n g t h e w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e b o ok P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t 100 X I A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S t o r y R e t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n u s i n g t h e w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t 101 X I I U n a r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c E l e m e n t s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e S t o r y R e t e l l i n g s o f 8 F o u r - y e a r - o l d C h i l d r e n u s i n g t h e w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t "" 102 1. CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1.1 INTRODUCTION For we dream i n n a r r a t i v e , daydream i n n a r r a t i v e , remember, a n t i c i p a t e , hope, d e s p a i r , b e l i e v e , doubt, p l a n , r e v i s e , c r i t i c i z e , c o n s t r u c t , g o s s i p , l e a r n , hate, and love by n a r r a t i v e . In order r e a l l y to l i v e , we make up s t o r i e s about o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s , about the pe r s o n a l as w e l l as the s o c i a l past and fu t u r e (Hardy, 1977 p. 13). S t o r y t e l l i n g , the o r i g i n a l form of n a r r a t i v e a r t , goes back to the beginnings of human e x i s t e n c e . I t can be found i n a l l c u l t u r e s , at a l l h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s and, i n s p i t e of heavy competition from other forms of n a r r a t i v e a r t , s t o r y t e l l i n g i s s t i l l a v i g o r o u s a r t form (Sherman, 1979). However, the importance of the s t o r y goes f a r beyond that of c a s u a l entertainment: i t r e f l e c t s a b a s i c and powerful form through which we make sense of the world and experience (Egan, 1986; Sutton-Smith, 1981; Rosen, 1980; B r i t t o n , 1970). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of s t o r y , t h e r e f o r e , l i e s i n i t s importance as a means of o r g a n i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e . From t h i s standpoint the most b a s i c human mind i s a s t o r y t e l l i n g one, which views l i f e as episodes of excitement and drama. I t dreams of the r i s e and f a l l of heroes, i d e o l o g i e s , marriage, war, m o r t a l i t y and biography. Onto t h i s more b a s i c mind s t u f f , the i n c r e a s i n g l y r a t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n s of p r o b a b i l i s m , s t r a t e g y and pla n n i n g are subsequently g r a f t e d (Sutton-Smith, 1981 p.37). Hardy (1977) proposes that narrative i s "a primary act of mind" (p.12). She challenges the widespread b e l i e f that narrative i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of childhood that adults outgrow. Rather, Hardy believes that narrative: Lends imagination to the otherwise motions of f a i t h f u l memory and rat i o n a l planning. It acts on future, joining i t with past. It creates, maintains, and transforms our relationships: we come to know each other by t e l l i n g , u n t e l l i n g , believing, and disb e l i e v i n g stories about each other's pasts, futures and i d e n t i t i e s (p. 1.3). Hardy believes that narrative i s the major strategy employed by both children and adults to organize themselves and their world. Working upon the notion that narrative i s "a primary act of mind," Applebee (1978) and Sutton-Smith (1981) attempted to document the ch i l d ' s developing sense of story. The research revealed that the stories children t e l l grow more complex with age on v i r t u a l l y any dimension you wish to measure; grammatical complexity, number of words, characters, events, settings, subplots and distance from the ch i l d ' s world of immediate experience (Applebee, 1979 p.642). However, the research appears to have concentrated on the spoken and content aspects of s t o r y t e l l i n g . A v i t a l aspect of s t o r y t e l l i n g , that i s the dramatic elements of presentation, appears to have been given very l i t t l e attention. The oral story i s infused with many eff e c t s that are not language but that are done in concert with i t to enhance a narrative: noisemaking, body language, movement, shape making, characterization, and voice (Livo & Rietz, 1986 p.119). The manner in which a story i s presented, therefore, i s an i n t r i n s i c part of the message being communicated from the s t o r y t e l l e r to the audience. F a c i a l expression, gesture, a quick intake of breath or a sudden a r t i c u l a t e d noise can make the communication between s t o r y t e l l e r and audience c r y s t a l c l e a r . Clearly, then, any oral storytext i s composed of both spoken or l i n g u i s t i c and dramatic or p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements. A thorough description of the c h i l d ' s concept of story, therefore, should include both the l i n g u i s t i c and pa r a l i n g u i s t i c elements employed by the c h i l d in his/her oral storytexts. It i s the intention of thi s study to iden t i f y what l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements are used by three- and four-year-old children in episodes of s t o r y t e l l i n g . 1 . 2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM 1 . 2 . 1 INTRODUCTION Children hear stories constantly not only through books, movies and t e l e v i s i o n but also in the i r parents' and si b l i n g s ' descriptions of what happened during their day; sources of story are endless. The subject matter of children's own sto r i e s comes, in part, from l i s t e n i n g and r e t e l l i n g aspects of their day-to-day experiences and, in part, from l i s t e n i n g to stories either t o l d or read by others (Galda, 1984). In his book From Two to Five, Chukovsky examined what happened to storying in a culture which t r i e d to eliminate myths, legends and f a i r y tales and replace them with s o c i a l realism. He found that fantastic stories simply reappeared in other forms: It makes no difference whether or not the c h i l d i s offered f a i r y tales for, i f he i s not, he becomes his own Anderson, Grimm, Ershov. Moreover, a l l his playing i s a dramatization of a f a i r y t a l e , which he creates on the spot, animating according to his fancy a l l objects converting any stool into a t r a i n into a house into an airplane or into a camel (Chukovsky, 1963, p.118). Meek (1977) suggests that creating s t o r i e s i s the ch i l d ' s way of making meaning from experience. Through storying children can draw a boundary between themselves and what i s outside. Creating stories enables children to make sense of the world and to fee l at home in i t . Research has i d e n t i f i e d many aspects of the child' s developing sense of story (Sutton-Smith, 1981; Applebee, 1978; Pitcher and Prelinger, 1963). For example, Applebee (1978) looked at whether children t i t l e d t h e i r s t o r i e s ; had a formal opening; gave a setting; i d e n t i f i e d a main character; gave a time frame; consistently used the past tense; i d e n t i f i e d a problem; gave a solution to the problem, and so for t h . The research indicated that there i s a developmental trend in both the form and content of children's s t o r y t e l l i n g . Applebee theorizes that t h i s i s not necessarily age related because many children maintain less developed t r a i t s in their s t o r y t e l l i n g while others, of the same age, use more complicated structures. The research of Wells (1985) centered upon what l i t e r a c y - r e l a t e d events within the home lead to la t e r academic success. The sharing of sto r i e s within the home emerged as the single most important feature to la t e r success in school. In general, the research has looked at the ch i l d ' s developing concept of story and i t s importance to later academic success. The research has been descriptive and observational in nature but has been limited to the l i n g u i s t i c or spoken aspects of children's s t o r i e s . 1.2.2 CONCEPT OF STORY Research on the concept of story has been mainly concerned with documenting the l i t e r a r y and conceptual development observed in children's oral narratives (Pitcher and Prelinger, 1969; Applebee, 1978; Sutton-Smith, 1981). This research i s based on the notion that the most basic human mind i s a s t o r y t e l l i n g one, and that narrative i s "a primary act of mind" (Hardy, 1977). It i s through storying that the c h i l d i s able to make sense from experience and to order the world (Meek, 1977). Bettelheim (1977) suggests s t o r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a i r y tales and myths are close to the ch i l d ' s own inner story. Reading such s t o r i e s to children, therefore, helps them bring order and understanding to their world -- the stories offer a simple morality which i s right and meaningful to the c h i l d . Even into adulthood story remains the fundamental process by which we order our l i v e s ; we dream^ daydream, fantasize, gossip, construct, learn and plan in narrative (Hardy, 1977). Wells (1985b) states that story is also the means by which we enter a shared world as we create our own stories and l i s t e n to the stories of others. In t h i s way children learn about themselves: where they come from; th e i r culture; and their place in society. Through story, members of a culture create a shared interpretation of experience. Each member confirms, modifies and elaborates on the story of the other. Through these exchanges each of us i s inducted into our culture and comes to take on and shape i t s b e l i e f s and values. Thus the process of storying allows sharing and bonding within and across cultures and from one generation to another (Wells, 1.985b). Applebee (1978) notes that children as young as two years are beginning to bring together the elements necessary for t e l l i n g story. At f i r s t , the c h i l d simply 'heaps' up events in a way that seems to conform to a story context. However, the c h i l d rapidly learns two organizational devices for ordering the 'heap': centering and chaining. 'Centering' i s a device whereby a l l the elements in a story are attached to a central theme. With 'chaining' one element in a story leads to another event. These two organizational devices are at the heart of even the great l i t e r a r y works which are "bound i n complex c h a i n s and have an o v e r a l l p o i n t as w e l l " (Applebee, 1980). The c h i l d ' s mastery of the formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s t o r y i s p a r a l l e l e d by a gradual development i n t h e i r understanding of the conventions r e l a t e d to s t o r y c o n t e n t . At f i r s t , the p e r s o n a l experiences of the c h i l d form the sub j e c t matter of t h e i r s t o r i e s . Applebee (1978) analyzed a c o l l e c t i o n of 360 s t o r i e s t o l d by two- to f i v e - y e a r - o l d s . He found that 97% of the s t o r i e s t o l d by the c h i l d r e n were set in the immediate world of home and f a m i l y and concerned s i t u a t i o n s with which the c h i l d was f a m i l i a r , f o r example, e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g and even spanking (Applebee, 1980). Applebee suggests that these s t o r i e s are c l o s e to r e p o r t s of r e a l experiences and that many of them may indeed have begun as r e p o r t s . He suggests that the c h i l d ' s r e p o r t of a r e a l event may g r a d u a l l y d r i f t i n t o a new arena where the ' s t o r y ' r a t h e r than the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the r e p o r t becomes the focus of t e l l i n g . As c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r they g r a d u a l l y become able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between fanta s y and r e a l i t y . Older c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , are ab l e to set t h e i r s t o r i e s i n imaginary worlds peopled by 'make-believe' c h a r a c t e r s and animals r a t h e r than d r i f t i n g i n t o ' s t o r y ' through the r e p o r t i n g of l i v e d - t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e s . G r a d u a l l y , then, the s t o r i e s c h i l d r e n t e l l grow more complex both i n form and i n content (Applebee, 1979). 1.2.3 STORYTELLING Several descriptions of the elements of a mature story have been proposed. Galda (1984) suggests that basic narrative competence includes: the a b i l i t y to construct a story that combines an appropriate setting with characters who react to a central problem through a sequence of events that move to a l o g i c a l conclusion (p.105). The research of Mandler and Johnson (1977) and Rumelhart (1975) involved i d e n t i f y i n g a story grammar. The story grammar describes stori e s as being predictable and rule governed independent of their respective content. The underlying i m p l i c i t knowledge of how stories are organized i s c a l l e d story schema. Story schema represents people's perceptions of how a t y p i c a l story i s organized. It is hypothesized that people use t h i s schema to understand the stories they read, l i s t e n to or t e l l . The schema also helps them predict what might take place in other stories of a similar nature (McConaughy, 1981). Rosen (1986) suggests that although schema i s an essential feature of story there i s a danger in stopping there. He suggests that the construction of a story i s a highly complex set of interactions which take place between the s t o r y t e l l e r and story l i s t e n e r which defy s i m p l i s t i c and formulated answers. To t e l l a story i s to formulate an interlocking set of meanings; to l i s t e n to one i s in i t s turn an active search for the t e l l e r ' s meaning via one's own; to r e t e l l a s t o r y i s a l s o to do j u s t t h a t because l i s t e n i n g i s a kind of r e t e l l i n g (Rosen, 1986 p.231) Rosen (1984) i d e n t i f i e s the m u l t i p l i c i t y or l a y e r s of meaning c a r r i e d w i t h i n each s t o r y as i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y . Every s t o r y t e l l i n g between s t o r y t e l l e r and audience i s a communicative event (Georges, 1969; Hymes, 1972). Georges (1969) w r i t e s that i n every s t o r y t e l l i n g event there i s at l e a s t one encoder and at l e a s t one decoder who are i n d i r e c t communication. During every s t o r y t e l l i n g event, the encoder and decoder communicate through a coded message. The codes used are l i n g u i s t i c , p a r a l i n g u i s t i c and k i n e s i c (Georges, 1969). L i v o and R i e t z (1986) suggest that the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements of s t o r y t e l l i n g are a l l the encoder's behaviours d u r i n g the t e l l i n g that are not governed by language r u l e s (phonology, semantics and s y n t a x ) . These elements are used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with language d u r i n g s t o r y d e l i v e r y and add e x t r a depth to s t o r y imagery as w e l l as s p e c i f i c i t y of meaning to the language of the s t o r y ( L i v o and R i e t z , 1986 p.119). P a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements, t h e r e f o r e are an i n t r i n s i c p a r t of the s t o r y t e l l i n g . Every s t o r y t e l l i n g event i s t r a n s m i t t e d through a combination of audio and v i s u a l channels (Georges, 1969). Although Georges (1969) i d e n t i f i e s the k i n e s i c code as separate from the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes, i t can be argued that the k i n e s i c code - i d e n t i f i e d as the flow of responses between the s t o r y t e l l e r and audience which i s interpreted as 'feedback' — i s , in fact, also manifested through audio and visual channels, e.g. gaze convergence, body posture, laughter, f a c i a l expression and so fo r t h . Rather than being a separate code, then, the kinesic elements of a s t o r y t e l l i n g event are an integral part of the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes. Thus, a story i s b u i l t and shared between the t e l l e r and l i s t e n e r s through a combination of audio and v i s u a l codes which flow back and forth between them. 1.2.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STORY TO LITERACY Wells (1985) suggests a number of reasons why the sharing of stories i s b e n e f i c i a l to later academic achievement. F i r s t , through stories children are able to extend the range of their experience beyond the l i m i t s of their immediate surroundings. Further, they develop the vocabulary to talk about their vicarious experiences. Research i d e n t i f i e s a broad vocabulary as a factor which appears to be related to educational achievement (Wells, 1985b). Second, l i s t e n i n g to stories read aloud f a m i l i a r i z e s children with the l i t e r a r y language and structure of books. As discussed e a r l i e r , t h i s underlying knowledge of how a ty p i c a l story i s organized i s c a l l e d story schema. Listening to stories read aloud, then, gives the c h i l d experience with what to expect i n l i t e r a t u r e . T h i r d , i n l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s c h i l d r e n begin to experience the symbolic p o t e n t i a l of language. Wells (1985b) suggests t h i s i s a c r u c i a l step s i n c e more than anything e l s e our schools are concerned with d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s i n symbol m a n i p u l a t i o n . To understand the problems posed i n the c u r r i c u l a r tasks that c h i l d r e n are given, and to succeed i n f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s to them, c h i l d r e n are more and more going to need to be a b l e to 'disembed' t h e i r t h i n k i n g from the context of t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r , t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d experience and to handle ideas of a more a b s t r a c t kind (Wells, 1985b p.157). Through s t o r y the c h i l d i s f r e e d from the l i m i t a t i o n s of f i r s t - h a n d experience and begins the journey toward a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g . B r i t t o n (1970) w r i t e s that not a l l forms of speech are e q u a l l y u s e f u l as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r w r i t i n g (p.165). The kind of language most u s e f u l i n the process of l e a r n i n g to w r i t e i s the i n t e r n a l i z e d 'speech f o r o n e s e l f . ' T h i s kind of speech i s d i f f e r e n t because i t does not r e q u i r e any feedback from a l i s t e n e r . When t h i s kind of language/thought i s given e x t e r n a l form ( e i t h e r spoken or w r i t t e n ) , B r i t t o n (1970) c a l l s i t 'expressive.' 'Expressive' language i s e x t e r n a l i z e d language ( e i t h e r spoken or w r i t t e n ) which makes communication as e x p l i c i t as p o s s i b l e . 'Expressive' language i s composed of l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements. B r i t t o n (1970) w r i t e s : the more e x p r e s s i v e my u t t e r a n c e s about the world are the more l i a b l e they are to mean d i f f e r e n t things in d i f f e r e n t situations; and in t h i s case i t is l i k e l y that the differences w i l l be heightened by the way the words are spoken - the tone of voice, gesture, f a c i a l expression. 'So, you're home then!' could be an affectionate and excited welcome to a returned e x i l e or the sarcastic opening of a family brawl (Britton, 1970, p.168). Clearly, 'expressive' language i s i n t r i n s i c to any s t o r y t e l l i n g event. Children who have had many experiences with story, therefore, w i l l have had exposure to the kind of language Britton (1970) i d e n t i f i e s as helpful to the process of learning to write. 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Research has i d e n t i f i e d many aspects of the c h i l d ' s developing sense of story (Sutton-Smith, 1981; Applebee, 1979; Pitcher and Prelinger, 1963). It has revealed that the stories children t e l l grow more complex with age on v i r t u a l l y any dimension you wish to measure (Applebee, 1979). Research, however, appears to have concentrated on the spoken or l i n g u i s t i c aspects of children's s t o r y t e l l i n g . The p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements of s t o r y t e l l i n g which accompany the l i n g u i s t i c elements appear to have received very l i t t l e attention. It i s the intention of t h i s study, therefore, to identify the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by three- and four-year-old children in episodes of oral s t o r y t e l l i n g . The task w i l l be accomplished in two stages: 13 1. The development of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. An i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n episodes of o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g w i l l be developed from an a n a l y s i s of s t o r i e s t o l d by c h i l d r e n from t h i s age group. 2. The a p p l i c a t i o n of the instrument The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system developed w i l l be used as a framework to expl o r e the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : a. What are the range and d i v e r s i t y of s t r a t e g i e s l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c — employed by t h r e e -and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n episodes of o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g ? b. Does context i n f l u e n c e the s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s of t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n ? c. Do s t o r y t e l l e r s , as young as th r e e - and f o u r - y e a r s of age, have t h e i r own unique s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e ? 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Research has looked at the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p i n g concept of s t o r y and i t s importance to l a t e r academic success. In p a r t i c u l a r , Wells (1985a) e s t a b l i s h e d the importance of l i s t e n i n g to s t o r y to l a t e r academic success. In a ten year l o n g i t u d i n a l study, Wells (1985a) c o l l e c t e d data from a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of 128 c h i l d r e n i n B r i s t o l , England. The study attempted to determine "whether d i f f e r e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l attainment does indeed have s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n g u i s t i c antecedents" (Wells, 1985a p.228). The c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d to wear a ve s t c o n t a i n i n g e l e c t r o n i c a l l y timed r e c o r d i n g equipment. In t h i s manner Wells was able to c o l l e c t completely n a t u r a l language samples. The study r e v e a l e d that when h i s s u b j e c t s e n t e r e d school they had achieved a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l of o r a l language development. However, once i n s c h o o l , d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance were observed along socio-economic l i n e s . A reexamination of the data r e v e a l e d that c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c i n g more academic success came from homes deemed to be more ' l i t e r a t e . * Wells reviewed the r e c o r d i n g s made i n the home and coded four d i f f e r e n t kinds of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the c h i l d r e n engaged i n : l o o k i n g at books or other p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s l i s t e n i n g to a a s t o r y being read or t o l d from a book drawing and c o l o r i n g w r i t i n g The four a c t i v i t i e s became the independent v a r i a b l e s i n determining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a c t i v i t y and subsequent progress i n l i t e r a c y . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were the outcomes on Knowledge of L i t e r a c y scores and Reading Comprehension s c o r e s . Wells (1985a) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t of a l l the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s d i d prove to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with both measures. Wells (1985b) suggests, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t c h i l d r e n who have had a wide experience with s t o r y , i n the years p r i o r to the commencement of formal s c h o o l i n g , are g e n e r a l l y , more ac a d e m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l than those c h i l d r e n who have had l i t t l e or no experience with s t o r y . Given the importance of s t o r y i n the development of l i t e r a c y , i t i s important f o r teachers of young c h i l d r e n to be a b l e to assess what young c h i l d r e n know about s t o r i e s and t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . S t u d i e s which d e s c r i b e how c h i l d r e n c o n s t r u c t s t o r i e s can a s s i s t teachers i n p l a n n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g experiences aimed at b u i l d i n g upon and i n c r e a s i n g the c h i l d ' s s t o r y - t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s . T h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l i d e n t i f y what l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements are employed by t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n episodes of t h e i r own s t o r y t e l l i n g . 1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l c l a r i f y the frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r these terms as they are used i n t h i s study. 1. S t o r y i n g ; i s an a c t i n which i n f o r m a t i o n i s transformed i n t o a s t o r y . L i v o & R i e t z (1986) suggest t h a t we s t o r y events because the r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the memory of an event i n t o the shape of a " s t o r y " allows us to remember the event b e t t e r . S t o r y i n g i s not a conscious and d e l i b e r a t e a c t i v i t y but the way i n which the mind works (Wells, 1985). Narrative: i s the 'object' formed by storying. Narratives are, most often, unconsciously shaped as we gossip, dream, plan and so forth. Story/Story Retellings: are 'objects' which have been consciously shaped by the t e l l e r . To t e l l story necessarily involves a selecting and ordering of the elements to be brought together. The awareness of how a story i s b u i l t i s a gradual developmental process. S t o r y t e l l i n g event: i s a complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t o r y t e l l e r , the audience, the context and the storytext. Every s t o r y t e l l i n g event, therefore, i s a complex communicative event in which there i s at least one encoder ( s t o r y t e l l e r ) and at least one decoder ( l i s t e n e r ) who communicate d i r e c t l y through l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes. The message of every s t o r y t e l l i n g event i s transmitted by audio and v i s u a l means, and during the communication constant perceptual responses are generated between the p a r t i c i p a n t s . These responses are also communicated through the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes. L i n g u i s t i c Code: includes a l l the spoken aspects of a s t o r y t e l l i n g which are governed by language rules phonology, semantics and syntax. The l i n g u i s t i c code i s transmitted through audio channels. Story Elements: are the basic s t r u c t u r a l components found within most s t o r i e s . For example, formal opening, formal c l o s u r e , main c h a r a c t e r , secondary c h a r a c t e r s , s e t t i n g e t c . (Nurss, Hough, Goodson, 1981; Sutton-Smith, 1980; Applebee, 1978). 7. L i t e r a r y Language: l i t e r a r y technique that expose the drama, emotion, mood or images i n a s t o r y . For example, r e p e t i t i o n of words, d i a l o g u e s , i n t e r j e c t i o n s and onomatopoeia (Doiron, 1986). 8. P a r a l i n g u i s t i c Elements: those elements used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with language d u r i n g s t o r y d e l i v e r y . For example, movement, c h a r a c t e r p o s t u r i n g , c h a r a c t e r v o i c e and gaze convergence ( L i v o & R e i t z , 1986). The p a r a l i n g u i s t i c code i s t r a n s m i t t e d through the audio and v i s u a l channels. 9. S t y l e : r e f e r s to the tone, mood or s p i r i t i n which a s t o r y i s t o l d . The s t y l i s t i c elements of a s t o r y t e l l i n g are i n c l u d e d i n the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c code. They i n c l u d e both a r t i c u l a t e d and u n a r t i c u l a t e d elements. I n t o n a t i o n , v o i c e rhythm, c o n t i n u i t y , speaking r a t e , p i t c h , v o i c e i n t e n s i t y and pauses are examples of a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements, while f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , gestures and pantomime are examples of u n a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements ( B a l l , 1954). 10. A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c Elements: are a l l the sounds used duri n g a s t o r y t e l l i n g which are not governed by language r u l e s . These elements i n c l u d e c h a r a c t e r v o i c e , v o i c e p i t c h , noise-making and so f o r t h . The a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements are t r a n s m i t t e d through the audio channel. 1 1. Unarticulated S t y l i s t i c Elements: are a l l the elements used in conjunction with language and a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements which add to the story imagery. For example, f a c i a l expression, character posturing, gaze convergence, etc. The unarticulated s t y l i s t i c elements are received and transmitted through the vi s u a l channel. 1 . 6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study w i l l attempt to answer the following questions: 1. Can the data c o l l e c t e d be organized into a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system that c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of three- and four-year-old children in episodes of s t o r y t e l l i n g ? 2. What i s the range and d i v e r s i t y of l i n g u i s t i c elements employed by three- and four-year-old children in episodes of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g ? 3. What i s the range and d i v e r s i t y of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements employed by three- and four-year-old children in episodes of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g ? 4. Do d i f f e r e n t contexts influence the ch i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s ? 5. Do individual children have their own p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y t e l l i n g style? 1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The l i m i t a t i o n s in the scope of t h i s study are as follows: 1. The study was confined to an intact group drawn from a preschool which may be an environment a t y p i c a l of other preschools. 2. The population of the Child Study Centre may not be representative of the population at large because of factors l i k e the high expectation placed upon parents to take part in Centre a c t i v i t i e s , the overwhelming number of two-parent families, and the generally high education and socio-economic status of the parents. This chapter has presented a statement of the problem and the research questions undertaken by t h i s study. Chapter Two reviews the related l i t e r a t u r e and provides further d e t a i l on the background to t h i s study. Chapter Three outlines the methodology and procedures used in the c o l l e c t i o n and analysis of the data. Chapter Four presents the results of the data analysis. A discussion of the major findings of the study i s presented in Chapter Five, along with suggestions for future research. 2. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION The present chapter o f f e r s a review of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the framework of t h i s study. The i n t e n t of t h i s review i s to acquaint the reader with the major s t u d i e s and t h e o r e t i c a l works r e l e v a n t to t h i s area, as w e l l as f u r n i s h background f o r the con c e p t u a l framework w i t h i n which t h i s study operated. The review i s organized under two major headings. The f i r s t heading o u t l i n e s r e s e a r c h which attempts to d e s c r i b e c h i l d r e n ' s e v o l v i n g Concept of Story as demonstrated by t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . The second heading i n c l u d e s r e s e a r c h and theory concerning S t o r y t e l l i n g . 2.2 CONCEPT OF STORY The r e s e a r c h on the concept of s t o r y , as mentioned e a r l i e r , has been mainly concerned with documenting the development observed i n c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l n a r r a t i v e s ( P r e l i n g e r & P i t c h e r , 1969; Applebee, 1978; Sutton-Smith, 1981). T h i s r e s e a r c h i s based on the n o t i o n that the most b a s i c human mind i s a s t o r y t e l l i n g one and that n a r r a t i v e i s "a primary a c t of mind" (Hardy, 1977 p. 13). O r i g i n a l l y , the words ' n a r r a t i v e ' and ' s t o r y ' meant 'to know' ( P r a d l , 1985 p. 3). V a n d e r g r i f t (1980) w r i t e s that 21 through story individuals are able to confirm, illuminate and extend their l i f e experiences in ways that give them power over their l i v e s . That i s , story provides the means for exploring the world, coming to know the world and, f i n a l l y , predicting and manipulating one's world. The psychologist James Hillman (1970) believes that individuals who have had story b u i l t into childhood have a healthy and balanced view of the world. One integrates l i f e as story because one has stories in the back of the mind (unconscious) as containers for organizing events into meaningful experiences. The s t o r i e s are means of finding oneself in events that might not otherwise make psychological sense at a l l (p.43). Further, Hillman (1970) suggests that individuals who have had extensive experience with story are more able to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with images of the grotesque and c r u e l . This is because in story the nameless fears of childhood are often recognized and given form. Bettelheim (1977) writes, a c h i l d needs to understand what i s going on within his conscious self so that he can also cope with that which goes on in his unconscious s e l f so that he can also cope with that which goes on in his unconscious. He can achieve t h i s understanding, and with i t the a b i l i t y to cope, not through rat i o n a l comprehension of the nature and content of his unconscious, but by becoming familiar with i t through spinning out daydreams, ruminating, rearranging and fantasizing about suitable story elements in response to unconscious pressure. By doing t h i s , the c h i l d f i t s unconscious content into conscious fantasies which enable him to deal with that content (p.7). Through story, then, the individual learns to make sense of the world and to feel at home in i t . Story i s a l s o the means by which we enter a shared world. V a n d e r g r i f t (1980) w r i t e s that s t o r y g i v e s p u b l i c form to p r i v a t e meanings and a l l o w s each person to reach out to other human beings. Story p r o v i d e s the v e h i c l e by which we enter a shared world as we c r e a t e our own s t o r i e s and l i s t e n to the s t o r i e s of o t h e r s . Wells (1985b) s t a t e s that i t i s l a r g e l y through such exchanges that each of us i s inducted i n t o our c u l t u r e and comes to take on i t s b e l i e f s and v a l u e s as our own. Thus, the process of s t o r y i n g i s both the fundamental means by which each of us orders our l i f e and a l s o the primary means by which we enter a shared world. Applebee (1978) notes that c h i l d r e n as young as two years are beginning to b r i n g together the elements necessary fo r t e l l i n g s t o r y . However, although young c h i l d r e n are c l e a r l y i n a s t o r y t e l l i n g mode, t h e i r method of o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r s t o r y m a t e r i a l i s p r i m i t i v e . Applebee(1978) i d e n t i f i e s the f i r s t mode of o r g a n i z a t i o n as 'heaping' and suggests that i t i s " s y n c r e t i s t i c , rooted i n the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n and e s s e n t i a l l y u n r e l a t e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the m a t e r i a l to be o r g a n i z e d " (pp. 57-58). For example, S t a n l e y , aged two years and e i g h t months t o l d the f o l l o w i n g s t o r y : A camel and he went down the mountain, and he f e l l down. Then he f e l l down i n a h o l e . Then a bear came and saw, but he shoot the bear. Then he jumps on the bear. Then he r i d e on the horse and go, "Giddy up, Giddy up" up the mountain ( P i t c h e r and P r e l i n g e r , 1963, p.33). Although t h i s s t o r y i n d i c a t e s that S t a n l e y has only 'heaped' up events i n a way that seems to conform to a s t o r y context he has, nonetheless, moved i n t o what B r i t t o n (1970) i d e n t i f i e s as the ' s p e c t a t o r ' stance. B r i t t o n (1970) proposes that language has two r o l e s : the p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e and the s p e c t a t o r r o l e . In the p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e we judge p r i m a r i l y on the c r i t e r i a of o b j e c t i v e t r u t h . Darwin's The  O r i g i n of Species and s p o r t s broadcasts are examples of the p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e of language. In the s p e c t a t o r stance, on the other hand, we judge p r i m a r i l y on s u b j e c t i v e t r u t h . I t i s the r o l e i n which we savour experience and judge i t ag a i n s t i n t e r n a l i z e d t r u t h s . Bruner (1986) i d e n t i f i e s two modes of thought which appear to resemble the two r o l e s of language i d e n t i f i e d by B r i t t o n (1970). Bruner (1986) w r i t e s : There are two modes of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , two modes of thought, each p r o v i d i n g d i s t i n c t i v e ways of o r d e r i n g experience of c o n s t r u c t i n g r e a l i t y . The two (though complementary) are i r r e d u c i b l e to one another (p.11). The f i r s t mode of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g can be seen as c o i n c i d i n g with B r i t t o n ' s p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e of language and i s i d e n t i f i e d by Bruner (1986) as the paradigmatic or l o g i c o - s c i e n t i f i c mode of thought. The second mode of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g can be seen as c o i n c i d i n g with B r i t t o n ' s s p e c t a t o r r o l e of language and i s i d e n t i f i e d by Bruner (1986) as the n a r r a t i v e mode of thought. Bruner (1986) s t a t e s that i m a g i n a t i v e use of the paradigmatic mode of thought leads to "good theory, t i g h t a n a l y s i s , l o g i c a l proof, sound argument and e m p i r i c a l discovery guided by reasoned hypothesis" (p.13), whereas an imaginative use of the narrative mode of thought leads to "good s t o r i e s , gripping drama, believable (though not necessarily "true") h i s t o r i c a l accounts" (p.13). The d i s t i n c t i o n between the participant and spectator roles of language form the basis of Applebee's (1978) theories on the c h i l d ' s developing concept of story. Applebee re-analyzed 360 children's s t o r i e s , o r i g i n a l l y c o l l e c t e d by Pitcher and Prelinger (1963), (from middle-class American two- to five-year-olds) to see what they would reveal about children's expectation about s t o r i e s . He discovered that, although children around two-years 'heap' up events in a way that seems to them to conform to a story context, they rapidly learn two devices for ordering the 'heap'. These two devices are centering and chaining. Centering i s a device whereby a l l the elements in a story are attached to a central theme. For example, in a story t o l d by Larry aged four years and two months, everything i s eaten; the central character eats a monster, a car-seat, some brushes, some s t a i r s and, f i n a l l y , himself (Applebee, 1978 p.61). Chaining i s a more elaborate device in which one element in a story leads to another event. For example, 'John murdered Mary' implies either 'John was l a t e r caught' or 'He has escaped forever.' If the murder, escape or capture occur in the same story, then there i s a link between them in the sense discussed here (Applebee, 1 9 8 0 ) . Applebee ( 1 9 7 8 ) states that these two organizational devices are at the heart of even the great l i t e r a r y works which are bound together in complex chains and have a 'central' theme. In a l l , Applebee (1978) i d e n t i f i e d six basic types of structures used by children to order the elements of story. Applebee suggests that these structures bear a remarkable resemblance to Vygotsky's stages of concept development. He suggests, therefore, that these structures indicate a developmental progression from simple to complex. The six major stages of narrative form are: heaps, sequences, primitive narratives, unfocused chains, focused chains and true narratives. 'Heaps,' as discussed e a r l i e r , are the least complex of these structures. Each structure, thereafter, represents a progressively more complex combination of the two basic structuring p r i n c i p l e s discussed above, centering and chaining. Applebee ( 1 9 7 8 ) also found that "as children mature they are able to explore in their s t o r i e s patterns of behavior which are further and further removed from their immediate experience" (p.8 5 ) . This indicates that there are developmental changes in the content of children's s t o r i e s as well as in the form. Applebee reports that, of the stories he analyzed, 97% of those t o l d by two-year-olds were set in the immediate world of home and family and concerned situations with which the c h i l d was most f a m i l i a r . However, 26 by age f i v e only one t h i r d of the c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s remained s i t u a t e d i n or near the home. Applebee suggests t h a t the road from the f a m i l i a r world of home and f a m i l y to the f a n t a s t i c world of witches and f a i r i e s i s a long and complex one -- each s t e p g r a d u a l l y s h i f t s the content from completely r e a l i s t i c to i n t e r m e d i a t e l y d i s t a n c e d u n t i l , f i n a l l y , the content e n t e r s the world of the f a n t a s t i c . Witches and f a i r i e s , Santa Claus and C i n d e r e l l a - a c h i l d ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with such c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t s a widening view of the world, an ext e n s i o n of the boundaries away from the s e l f toward an unknown h o r i z o n . . . . Each step along t h i s continuum i n c r e a s e s the complexity of the c h i l d ' s world by adm i t t i n g new elements i n t o i t ; and as we might expect, these elements are only g r a d u a l l y accepted and mastered (Applebee, 1978 p.74). Although Applebee (1978) i d e n t i f i e d a developmental t r e n d i n both the form and content of c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s , he does not suggest that t h i s i s a step-by-step p r o g r e s s i o n . He noted that many c h i l d r e n maintain l e s s developed t r a i t s i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g while others used more complex s t r u c t u r e s than d i d the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r age group. Applebee suggests that there i s a p a t t e r n i n the development of the c h i l d ' s concept of s t o r y ; however, t h i s p a t t e r n should not be construed as having any h i e r a r c h i c a l o rder. L i k e Applebee (1978) Sutton-Smith (1981) a l s o proposes n a r r a t i v e as the b a s i c model of a human mind. He w r i t e s , I t can be argued that s i n c e s t o r y t e l l i n g i s as o l d as human h i s t o r y i n every group about which there i s knowledge, n a r r a t i v e i s a f a i r candidate f o r being such a b a s i c model. From t h i s p o i n t of view, the most b a s i c human mind i s a s t o r y t e l l i n g one (p.37). In an attempt to extend the range of P i t c h e r and P r e l i n g e r ' s (1963) work, Sutton-Smith (1981) c o l l e c t e d s t o r i e s from c h i l d r e n aged from two years up to ten y e a r s . The c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d s t o r i e s t o l d by 16 p r e s c h o o l e r s between two and f i v e years of age. The c h i l d r e n attended a p r e s c h o o l i n Greenwich V i l l a g e , New York and tended to be the c h i l d r e n of "young and ambitious parents who p a i d to have t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d the s c h o o l " (p.33). The sampling w i t h i n t h i s group, t h e r e f o r e , i s from amongst the most v e r b a l of c h i l d r e n and may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l groups. The s t o r i e s were d i c t a t e d by the c h i l d r e n to ' s t o r y t a k e r s ' (graduate students) over a two-year p e r i o d . The ' s t o r y t a k e r s ' were i n t r o d u c e d to the c h i l d r e n as "people who l i k e t o c o l l e c t s t o r i e s from c h i l d r e n , and someone to whom you may t e l l a s t o r y at any time you wish." In t h i s manner spontaneous s t o r i e s i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g were c o l l e c t e d . L i k e Applebee (1978) Sutton-Smith observed that as c h i l d r e n mature t h e i r s t o r i e s grow more complex. Sutton-Smith (1981) argues that young c h i l d r e n have a p a r t i c u l a r k i nd of c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n t e r n a l 'grammar' that i s c e n t r a l to the way i n which they put t h e i r s t o r i e s t o g e t h e r . He suggests t h i s grammar p a r a l l e l s P i a g e t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of i n f a n t s ' sensory-motor c i r c u l a r r e a c t i o n s i n which there i s an endless r e p e t i t i o n and v a r i a t i o n of c e n t r a l l y focused behaviours. For example, i n the dramatic p l a y of young c h i l d r e n they may feed a d o l l (baby), wash i t , burp i t and put i t to bed. T h i s simple schema may be repeated over and over again with only s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s . L i k e w i s e , i n the s t o r y i n g of young c h i l d r e n the same themes may p e r s i s t over long p e r i o d s of time. Sutton-Smith suggests that these s t o r i e s have more i n common with prosody than prose. The str o n g rhythms, a l l i t e r a t i o n and repeated sounds have a l y r i c q u a l i t y . Sutton-Smith c a l l s them "verse s t o r i e s " to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from the prose s t r u c t u r e employed by o l d e r c h i l d r e n . Sutton-Smith e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e f o r e , that the s t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d from the two- to f o u r - y e a r - o l d group d i d not r e a d i l y lend themselves to the ki n d of p l o t a n a l y s i s with which he had p r e v i o u s l y been concerned. Consequently, a mo d i f i e d v e r s i o n of Vladmir Propp's (1976) a n a l y s i s of Russian f o l k t a l e s was developed by G i l b e r t B otvin f o r Sutton-Smith's use. The instrument i d e n t i f i e d ninety-one elements which c o u l d d e s c r i b e the youngest c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s . These elements were s u b c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o beginning ( i n t r o d u c t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n , c o m p l i c a t i o n ) , middle (development), and ending ( r e s o l u t i o n ) . I t was d i s c o v e r e d that the s t o r i e s t o l d by the youngest c h i l d r e n were mainly concerned with beginnings and endings. For example, Adam, aged two years and ten months, t o l d the f o l l o w i n g s t o r y : monkey f i s h my daddy a boat a man in the boat (Sutton-Smith, 1981 p. 48). Although Sutton-Smith d id not consider p lot ana lys i s to be the most useful way to approach the s tor i e s of the youngest c h i l d r e n , he d id allow that c e r t a i n features of c h i l d r e n ' s s tor ies can be i d e n t i f i e d by using plot a n a l y s i s . For example, the s tor ie s are usual ly in the past tense, and are often about impersonal characters who experience some kind of problem. However, in the s tor ie s of the youngest ch i ldren there i s no example of a problem being resolved. Sutton-Smith noticed that not only was there no development in the s tor ie s of the youngest ch i ldren but a lso there was very l i t t l e sense of time. In Adam's s tory , for example, he introduces four characters (monkey, f i s h , daddy and a man in a boat) , he t i e s these characters together through a kind of sequencing in which each character i s t i e d to the one before i t — t h i s kind of sequencing seems to resemble "stream of consciousness" w r i t i n g . Sutton-Smith i d e n t i f i e s th i s type of sequencing as "chron ic i ty ." He suggests that c h r o n i c i t y gives a sense of movement or time to the s tor i e s of young c h i l d r e n . Like Applebee (1978) Sutton-Smith (1981) i d e n t i f i e d a developmental trend in the s tor ie s ch i ldren t e l l . While the s tor ie s of the youngest ch i ldren are mainly concerned with the beginning and ending elements i d e n t i f i e d by Botv in's instrument and r e l y h e a v i l y on the rhythmic c h a r a c t e r of language, the s t o r i e s of c h i l d r e n aged f i v e - to ten-years show a gradual i n c r e a s e i n p l o t complexity. However, while the s t o r i e s of o l d e r c h i l d r e n do not g e n e r a l l y have v e r s e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s , Sutton-Smith suggests that the d e s i r e to v e r s i f y i s always present and some of the c h i l d r e n b u r s t i n t o verse d u r i n g a s t o r y t e l l i n g . T h i s suggests a p a t t e r n of development i n the c h i l d ' s concept of s t o r y r a t h e r than a step-by-step p r o g r e s s i o n through h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered stages. C l e a r l y , c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y u t i l i z e more complex elements i n t h e i r s t o r i e s but, at the same time, they may a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e or maintain l e s s developed t r a i t s i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . Both Applebee (1978) and Sutton-Smith (1981) o f f e r i n depth s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s d e veloping sense of s t o r y . They conclude that our concept of s t o r y operates whenever we attempt to t e l l s t o r i e s and as we respond to new s t o r i e s . 2.3 STORYTELLING 2.3.1 ORIGINS AND DEFINITION OF STORYTELLING Anne P e l l o w s k i (1977) s t a t e s that many t h e o r i e s e x i s t as to the e a r l i e s t o r i g i n s of s t o r y t e l l i n g . For example, Arthur Ransome (1909) proposes t h a t s t o r y t e l l i n g began i n two ways; f i r s t , the warning examples t o l d by a mother to her c h i l d r e n : The e a r l y woman would persuade her c h i l d from the f i r e with a t a l e of how j u s t such another as he had touched the yellow dancer, and had had h i s h a i r burned and h i s eyelashes singed so t h a t he c o u l d not look i n the face of the sun (Ransome, 1909 p.6). Second, i n the b o a s t i n g of hunters r e t u r n i n g from the hunt: The e a r l y man, f r e s h from an encounter with some beast of the woods, would not be so l i t t l e of an a r t i s t as to t e l l the a c t u a l f a c t s ; how he heard a n o i s e , the c r e a k i n g of boughs and c r a c k l i n g i n the undergrowth and ran. No; he would d e s c r i b e the monster, sketch h i s panic moments, the s h o r t , f i e r c e s t r u g g l e , h i s stratagem, and h i s escape (Ransome, 1909 p.6). Ransome (1909) suggests that there i s no s t o r y which cannot be t r a c e d to these two types of n a r r a t i v e , "generated by the v a n i t y of man and the e x i g e n c i e s of l i f e " (p.6). P e l l o w s k i (1977) t r a c e s the h i s t o r y of s t o r y t e l l i n g through extant w r i t i n g s . The e a r l i e s t of these w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s of a s t o r y t e l l i n g event i s probably that found in an Egyptian papyrus dated somewhere between 2000 and 1300 B.C. ( P e l l o w s k i , 1979 p.44). However, there i s no widespread w r i t t e n evidence of s t o r y t e l l i n g i n i t s many forms u n t i l the p e r i o d from 500 B.C. to 50 A.D. The m a j o r i t y of t h i s evidence i s found i n the sacred s c r i p t u r e s of the E a s t , and from Greek and Roman w r i t i n g . For example, S a n s k r i t S c r i p t u r e (c. 500 B.C.) i n d i c a t e s s t o r y t e l l i n g was p r a c t i s e d f o r r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r purposes. E a r l y Greek w r i t i n g makes frequent r e f e r e n c e to s t o r y t e l l i n g . In A r i s t o p h a n e s ' L y s i s t r a t a (c. 411 B.C.), f o r example, the chorus of o l d men say: "I want to t e l l you a f a b l e they used to r e l a t e to me when I was a l i t t l e boy" ( i n P e l l o w s k i , 1977 p.5). L a t e r R o m a n w r i t i n g s a l s o i n c l u d e e x a m p l e s o f s t o r y t e l l i n g o c c a s i o n s i n c l u d i n g o n e o f t h e e a r l i e s t m e n t i o n s o f a f a i r y t a l e : a s f o r y o u r s c h o o l ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e m a t t e r , i t i s t h e m e r e s t f a i r y - s t o r y , h a r d l y w o r t h y o f o l d w i v e s a t w o r k b y l a m p l i g h t ( D e n a t u r a D e o r u m , I , 3 4 ( c . 4 5 B . C . ) i n P e l l o w s k i , 1 9 7 7 p . 7 ) . A l o n g s i d e t h e m a n y r e f e r e n c e s t o i n f o r m a l s t o r y t e l l i n g e v e n t s a r e r e f e r e n c e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r y t e l l e r s . T h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r y t e l l e r s i n c l u d e b a r d s , m i n s t r e l s a n d r h a p s o d e s ( r e c i t e r s o f E p i c p o e m s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f H o m e r ) . P l a t o ' s I o n ( c . 4 0 0 B . C . ) c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r h a p s o d e : I o f t e n e n v y t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f a r h a p s o d e , I o n , f o r y o u h a v e a l w a y s t o w e a r f i n e c l o t h e s , a n d l o o k a s b e a u t i f u l a s y o u c a n i s a p a r t o f y o u r a r t . . . y o u a r e o b l i g e d t o b e c o n t i n u a l l y i n t h e c o m p a n y o f m a n y g o o d p o e t s ( i n P e l l o w s k i , 1 9 7 7 p . 8 ) . A q u e s t i o n w h i c h p e r p l e x e s s c h o l a r s i s w h e t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r y t e l l e r s p r e c e d e o r f o l l o w t h e i n f o r m a l t e l l i n g o f t a l e s . O n e t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r y t e l l e r s d e v e l o p e d a s a s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f a n o r i g i n a l l y p r i e s t l y o r r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n . A s e c o n d t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t t h e f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r y t e l l e r s i n t h e i r s o c i a l g r o u p w h o , r e a l i z i n g t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t , s o u g h t t o p r o t e c t t h e i r s p e c i a l g i f t b y i n s t i g a t i n g t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s a n d r e g u l a t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e p r a c t i c e s . P e l l o w s k i ( 1 9 7 7 ) w r i t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h s c h o l a r s f r o m a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t o l i n g u i s t s h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t o n e t h e o r y o r a n o t h e r t h e d e b a t e s t i l l c o n t i n u e s . P e l l o w s k i ( 1 9 7 9 ) 33 b e l i e v e s the best t h a t can be c l a i m e d i s t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o support many t h e o r i e s about the e a r l i e s t o r i g i n s of s t o r y t e l l i n g : 1. That i t grew out of the p l a y f u l , s e l f - e n t e r t a i n m e n t needs of humans. 2. That i t s a t i s f i e d the need t o e x p l a i n the s u r r o u n d i n g p h y s i c a l w o r l d . 3. That i t came about because of an i n t r i n s i c r e l i g i o u s need i n humans t o honor or p r o p i t i a t e the s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e ( s ) b e l i e v e d t o be p r e s e n t i n the w o r l d . 4. That i t e v o l v e d from the human need t o communicate e x p e r i e n c e t o o t h e r humans. 5. That i t f u l f i l l e d an a e s t h e t i c need f o r b e a u t y , r e g u l a r i t y and form t h r o u g h e x p r e s s i v e language and music. 6. That i t stemmed from the d e s i r e t o r e c o r d the a c t i o n s or q u a l i t i e s of one's a n c e s t o r s , i n the hope t h a t t h i s would g i v e them a k i n d of i m m o r t a l i t y ( P e l l o w s k i , 1979 p. 10). P e l l o w s k i (1977) d e f i n e s s t o r y t e l l i n g a s : the a r t or c r a f t of n a r r a t i o n of s t o r i e s i n v e r s e and/or p r o s e , as performed or l e d by one p e r s o n b e f o r e a l i v e a u d i e n c e ; the s t o r i e s n a r r a t e d may be spoken, c h a n t e d , or sung, w i t h or w i t h o u t m u s i c a l , p i c t o r i a l , and/or o t h e r accompaniment, and may be l e a r n e d from o r a l , p r i n t e d , or m e c h a n i c a l l y r e c o r d e d s o u r c e s ; one of i t s purposes must be t h a t of e n t e r t a i n m e n t ( p . 1 5 ) . P e l l o w s k i ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s thorough i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of a s t o r y t e l l e r ' s r o l e but i t o m i t s e n t i r e l y t h e r o l e p l a y e d by the a u d i e n c e i n a s t o r y t e l l i n g e v e n t . Robert Georges (1969) b e l i e v e s t h a t no s i n g l e a s p e c t of a s t o r y t e l l i n g event can be r e g a r d e d as p r i m a r y . He w r i t e s t h a t e v e r y s t o r y t e l l i n g event i s a complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t o r y t e l l e r , the a u d i e n c e , the c o n t e x t arid the s t o r y t e x t . The s t o r y t e l l i n g e v e n t , t h e r e f o r e , i s a complex communicative event i n which t h e r e i s a t l e a s t one encoder ( s t o r y t e l l e r ) and at l e a s t one decoder ( l i s t e n e r ) who communicate d i r e c t l y through l i n g u i s t i c , p a r a l i n g u i s t i c and k i n e s i c codes. The message of every s t o r y t e l l i n g event i s t r a n s m i t t e d by audio and v i s u a l means, and d u r i n g the communication constant p e r c e p t u a l responses are generated between the s t o r y t e l l e r and the l i s t e n e r ( s ) . These responses are i n t e r p r e t e d by the decoder and encoder as feedback. Georges (1969) goes on to p o s t u l a t e that every s t o r y t e l l i n g event i s a s o c i a l experience i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t s e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i f i c set of i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( i . e . s t o r y t e l l e r and s t o r y l i s t e n e r ) which c o n s t i t u t e a matched s e t . O bviously, t h i s matched set i s c r u c i a l to the success of the s t o r y t e l l i n g event. These r o l e s c a r r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which Georges (1969) d e s c r i b e s as s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For example, the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s d u t i e s are to formulate, encode and t ransmit a message in a form a c c e p t a b l e to the other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g event. The s t o r y t e l l e r ' s r i g h t s are to expect the s t o r y l i s t e n e r to decode and respond to the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s message. The s t o r y l i s t e n e r ' s d u t i e s , on the other hand, are to r e c e i v e , decode and respond to the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s message, while the s t o r y l i s t e n e r ' s r i g h t s are to expect the s t o r y t e l l e r to formulate, encode and t r a n s m i t a message i n an a c c e p t a b l e form. These r i g h t s and d u t i e s determine the s t a t u s e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g event. The ensuing s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s form r e c i p r o c a l s e t s . Georges (1969) a l s o proposes that every s t o r y t e l l i n g event has s o c i a l uses; f o r example, i t may teach a l e s s o n or d e s c r i b e some p h y s i c a l phenomenon. The s t o r y t e l l i n g event a l s o has a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n which may, f o r example, j u s t i f y or r e i n f o r c e k i n s h i p groupings. Georges (1969) s t a t e s that every s t o r y t e l l i n g event i s unique i n that the f o r c e s which come together at that p a r t i c u l a r time can never again be e x a c t l y d u p l i c a t e d . On the other hand, s t o r y t e l l i n g events e x h i b i t degrees and kinds of s i m i l a r i t i e s . These s i m i l a r i t i e s permit the s t o r y t e l l e r and audience t o a n t i c i p a t e what w i l l occur i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g event and f a c i l i t a t e communication. As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i t can be argued that s i n c e the k i n e s i c code — i d e n t i f i e d by Georges (1969) as the flow of responses between the s t o r y t e l l e r and audience — i s , i n f a c t , manifested through audio and v i s u a l channels r a t h e r than being a separate code, the k i n e s i c elements of a s t o r y t e l l i n g event are an i n t r i n s i c element w i t h i n the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes. For the purposes of t h i s study, Georges' (1969) d e f i n i t i o n of a s t o r y t e l l i n g event w i l l be adopted; however, i t w i l l be a d j u s t e d i n that the k i n e s i c elements of a s t o r y t e l l i n g event, r a t h e r than being separate, w i l l be viewed as an i n t r i n s i c p a r t of the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes. 2.3.2 THE STORYTELLER Georges (1969) i d e n t i f i e d every s t o r y t e l l i n g event as a complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t o r y t e l l e r , the audience, the context and the s t o r y t e x t . However, i t appears that r e s e a r c h i n t o the c h i l d ' s d e veloping sense of s t o r y has concentrated on only one aspect of the s t o r y t e l l i n g event, that i s , the spoken s t o r y t e x t produced by the c h i l d (Applebee, 1978; Sutton-Smith, 1981). T h i s r e s e a r c h has, i n f a c t , r e v e a l e d much about the c h i l d ' s concept of s t o r y . However, c o n c e n t r a t i n g on only the spoken s t o r y t e x t ignores the other three components of the s t o r y t e l l i n g event — the s t o r y t e l l e r , the audience and the c o n t e x t . A thorough d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p i n g sense of s t o r y , t h e r e f o r e , ought to i n c l u d e o b s e r v a t i o n s of the c h i l d as s t o r y t e l l e r whose s t o r y t e x t ( i d e n t i f i e d as being composed of l i n g u i s t i c / s p o k e n and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements) i s i n f l u e n c e d by both the audience and the context i n which the s t o r y i s t o l d . O bservations of the c h i l d as s t o r y t e l l e r should i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n s of both the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes used. C o n c e n t r a t i n g on only the l i n g u i s t i c codes (spoken s t o r y t e x t ) ignores a v i t a l aspect of o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g t h a t i s the manner i n which the s t o r y t e l l e r p resents the s t o r y t e x t . Rosen (1980) w r i t e s : gesture and body language and i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y are o f t e n so i n t i m a t e l y o r c h e s t r a t e d i n t o the speech •score that they must be c o n s i d e r e d as e s s e n t i a l components embedded i n i t r a t h e r than embellishments. Hymes (1972) r e f e r s to the tone, mood or s p i r i t i n which a s t o r y i s t o l d as the 'key.' He suggests that the key may be s i g n a l l e d by a wink, gesture, posture, s t y l e of dress or musical accompaniment. Hymes w r i t e s that these f e a t u r e s are o f t e n termed 'expressive' but, he suggests, a b e t t e r word i s ' s t y l i s t i c ' s i n c e they need not depend at a l l on the mood of the user. B a l l (1954) a l s o r e f e r s t o s t y l e and uses the term to i n c l u d e : i n t o n a t i o n , v o i c e rhythm, c o n t i n u i t y , speaking r a t e , p i t c h , v o i c e i n t e n s i t y , pauses, f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , g e s t u r e s , pantomime or re-enactment by the speaker, v o i c e i m i t a t i o n (even of the opposite sex or of an i m a l s ) , methods of r e a c t i n g to audience response -in f a c t the whole d e l i c a t e and complex process of p a r t i c i p a t i n g with the audience i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . In s h o r t , B a l l (1954) suggests that there i s a way to t e l l a s t o r y and that a s k i l l f u l s t o r y t e l l e r can be i d e n t i f i e d by h i s s t y l e . The s t y l i s t i c elements of s t o r y t e l l i n g are i n c l u d e d i n the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c code. L i v o and R i e t z (1986) i d e n t i f y nine such elements i n the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c code: 1. Movement and shaping. L i v o and R i e t z (1986) w r i t e that language giv e s shape to an image by d e s c r i b i n g and t e l l i n g ; however, the body can a l s o shape the image by adding a v i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n -"the p e r s o n a l i t y of a c h a r a c t e r can sometimes be p o r t r a y e d more c o n v i n c i n g l y through movement than through o r a l n a r r a t i v e " (p.119). 2. Convergence of Gaze. Eye c o n t a c t between the s t o r y t e l l e r a n d a u d i e n c e e s t a b l i s h e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d c a n be u s e d t o a d d d r a m a . F o r e x a m p l e , a l o n g p a u s e w h e r e e y e c o n t a c t i s h e l d w i t h o n e member o f t h e a u d i e n c e c a n e s t a b l i s h t e n s i o n . C h a r a c t e r p o s t u r i n g . C h a r a c t e r p o s t u r i n g e n t a i l s u s i n g t h e b o d y t o e x p o s e a c h a r a c t e r more f u l l y . F o r e x a m p l e , a m i s e r m i g h t be r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h s m a l l , mean m o v e m e n t s w h i c h p a n t o m i m e t h e c h a r a c t e r c o u n t i n g g o l d c o i n s . C h a r a c t e r V o i c e . T h i s e n t a i l s d e v e l o p i n g c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e v o i c e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e g i a n t i n J a c k a n d t h e B e a n s t a l k c a n be d e v e l o p e d by u s i n g a l o u d , d e e p , s l o w v o i c e w h e n e v e r t h e g i a n t s p e a k s . T h i s c o m b i n e d w i t h l a r g e m o v e m e n t s s h o u l d e v o k e a s e n s e o f t h e g i a n t ' s e n o r m o u s s i z e . N o i s e . U s i n g n o i s e s t o e v o k e t h e mood o r t o n e o f a s t o r y . F o r e x a m p l e , i m i t a t i n g t h e s q u e a k i n g o f a d o o r t o a d d t e n s i o n d u r i n g t h e t e l l i n g o f a g h o s t s t o r y . Mood a n d t o n e . S t o r y mood a n d t o n e c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f many p a r a l i n g u i s t i c e l e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , e y e c o n t a c t , c h a r a c t e r p o s t u r i n g a n d v o i c e , r a t e o f t e l l i n g a n d c o n t r o l o f b r e a t h i n g . R a t e / S p e e d . The r a t e a t w h i c h p a r t s o f t h e s t o r y a r e n a r r a t e d o r a t w h i c h c h a r a c t e r s s p e a k i s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e mood o r t o n e o f t h e s t o r y . B r e a t h i n g . S i g h s , d e e p a n d l o n g b r e a t h s a s w e l l a s h u f f i n g a n d p u f f i n g a r e e x a m p l e s o f b r e a t h i n g w h i c h c a n a d d m e a n i n g a n d d r a m a t o a s t o r y t e l l i n g . 9. Props. Props, f o r example, mus i c a l instruments, s t y l e of dress or an a r t i f a c t which c e n t e r s the audience's a t t e n t i o n (e.g. a broomstick f o r the t e l l i n g of a f a i r y t a l e i n v o l v i n g a f l y i n g witch) can h e l p make communication of the s t o r y more complete. G o l d s t e i n (1964) suggests that the important aspects of a s t o r y t e l l e r ' s s t y l e are the v o c a l v a r i a t i o n s (e.g. i n t o n a t i o n v o i c e rhythm, c o n t i n u i t y , p i t c h , pauses and so f o r t h ) , p h y s i c a l v a r i a t i o n s (e.g. f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e of the body and gestures) and, f i n a l l y , supplemental equipment (props) used by the s t o r y t e l l e r (p.92). Only when the s t y l e of the s t o r y t e l l e r i s i n t e g r a t e d with the spoken s t o r y t e x t can a complete p i c t u r e of both the s t o r y and the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s n a r r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s be understood. An example i s the work of Jacobs (1959). He noted that the s t o r y t e l l e r s of the Clackamus Chinook t r i b e never v e r b a l i z e d emotions or f e e l i n g s . I f Jacobs (1959) had only c o l l e c t e d and analyzed the spoken elements of the t r i b e ' s s t o r y t e l l e r s , i t would have l e d to the mistaken b e l i e f that the lac k of emotion i n the words of the s t o r y t e x t extended to the s t y l e of t e l l i n g . T h i s , however, was not the case and i n r e p o r t i n g e x t e n s i v e l y on the s t y l e of the s t o r y t e l l e r s , Jacobs (1959) was a b l e to e s t a b l i s h t h a t : although the c h o i c e s of what the n a r r a t o r was to say r e s u l t e d i n a r e p o r t of e x t e r n a l behaviour, almost never of feelings . . . voice, gesture, and other devices for dramatic expression permitted a raconteur to act out the emotions of characters (p.5). Jacobs' (1959) reporting of both the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements of the s t o r y t e l l i n g s revealed the true storytext which incorporates both the reporting of external behaviour and the feelings and emotions of characters. Mark Azadovsky (reported in Pellowski, 1977 p.117) studied a group of adult s t o r y t e l l e r s in Europe and i d e n t i f i e d three d i s t i n c t types of s t o r y t e l l e r s : 1. One who used a rambling, episodic s t y l e . This type of s t o r y t e l l e r often lost track of the story in a l l the d e t a i l and then had to fi n d i t again. 2. The exact repeater who passed on the story with every d e t a i l intact. This s t o r y t e l l e r narrated slowly and calmly. 3. The s t o r y t e l l e r who used poetic and inventive patterns and in the process of s t o r y t e l l i n g showed personality and character. This p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y t e l l e r attempted to get across the psychology of the story and the characters. Clearly, Mark Azadovsky used the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s p a r t i c u l a r style of narrating in order to c l a s s i f y them. Both research and theory support the notion that a s t o r y - t e l l e r ' s style i s an i n t r i n s i c part of the storytext. A thorough description of a storytext, therefore, must i d e n t i f y both the l i n g u i s t i c and s t y l i s t i c or p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used. 2.3.3 SUMMARY A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s (Jacobs, 1959; G o l d s t e i n , 1964), s o c i o l i n g u i s t s (Hymes, 1972) and f o l k l o r i s t s ( B a l l , 1954; Georges, 1969; L i v o and R i e t z , 1986) agree that any s t o r y - t e l l i n g i s a h i g h l y complex communicative event. The r o l e of the s t o r y t e l l e r as d e f i n e d by Georges (1969) i s to formulate, encode and transmit a message i n a form a c c e p t a b l e to the audience. The s t o r y t e l l e r u t i l i z e s the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes to t r a n s m i t the message. Although rese a r c h has probed the l i n g u i s t i c elements of the s t o r y t e x t s produced by c h i l d r e n (Applebee, 1978; Sutton-Smith, 1981), they appear to have ignored the c h i l d ' s s t y l e ( p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements) as a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t o r of the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p i n g sense of s t o r y . Indeed, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the work of Jacobs (1959) i n a n a l y z i n g only the l i n g u i s t i c elements of the s t o r y t e x t , r e s e a r c h e r s may have only a p a r t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of a c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y . The l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the methods developed by Applebee (1978) and Sutton-Smith (1981) f o r a n a l y z i n g the l i n g u i s t i c elements of s t o r i e s t o l d by c h i l d r e n . The work of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and f o l k l o r i s t s , on the other hand (besides l o o k i n g at a wide range of l i n g u i s t i c elements), exposes an e x t e n s i v e range of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by mature s t o r y t e l l e r s . C l e a r l y , what i s needed i s an instrument which can adequately r e f l e c t both the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements apparent i n s t o r i e s t o l d by c h i l d r e n . I t i s hoped a framework which d e s c r i b e s the range of l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s t o r y - t e l l i n g s w i l l permit a more comprehensive understanding of the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p i n g sense of s t o r y . 3. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION Since the study i s concerned with i d e n t i f y i n g a spects of c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g which had not p r e v i o u s l y r e c e i v e d any i n depth a n a l y s i s , the r e s e a r c h was n e c e s s a r i l y of an e x p l o r a t o r y nature. Dunkin and B i d d l e (1974) recommend the use of e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h i n dev e l o p i n g "simple instruments f o r l i v e o b s e r v a t i o n " ( r e p o r t e d i n C h i z i k , 1985 p.29). G o l d s t e i n ( 1964) notes t h a t , i d e a l l y , i f a c o l l e c t o r wants to pro v i d e the g r e a t e s t amount of r e l i a b l e data to the l a r g e s t number of p o t e n t i a l users of such data, he must observe and re p o r t on every d e t a i l which occurs i n the p a r t i c u l a r context upon which he i s r e p o r t i n g . C l e a r l y , t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e . G o l d s t e i n (1964) suggests, t h e r e f o r e , the development of instruments to guide p a r t i c u l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s (p.93). C h i z i k (1985) suggests t h a t , once v a l i d a t e d , these systems promote the development of a s t a n d a r d i z e d vocabulary through which educators can d e s c r i b e t h e i r c r a f t (p.29). Although s e v e r a l instruments d e s c r i b i n g one aspect or another of the s t o r y t e l l i n g event (Sutton-Smith, 1981; Propp, 1968; P i t c h e r and P r e l i n g e r , 1963; MacDonald, 1982) are a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e i t was f e l t that none e x i s t e d which adequately d e s c r i b e d the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c codes (used by t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s ) . For the purposes of t h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , i t appeared that observation and analysis of children's s t o r y t e l l i n g s would y i e l d information on what l i n g u i s t i c and pa r a l i n g u i s t i c elements are used by three- and four-year-old children in episodes of oral s t o r y t e l l i n g . Once t h i s information was structured into a workable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i t would provide the necessary instrument for observing the range and d i v e r s i t y of strategies l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c -- employed by three- and four-year-old children in episodes of oral s t o r y t e l l i n g ; i d e n t i f y i n g how the context in which the story i s t o l d may influence the c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s , and iden t i f y i n g whether three- and four-year-old children have their own individual s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e . 3.2 CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF SUBJECTS During the summer of 1986 the investigator conducted a p i l o t study. Data c o l l e c t e d then suggested that researchers wanting to assess children's a b i l i t i e s to t e l l s t o r i e s should be prepared to spend a considerable period of time observing children in a variety of si t u a t i o n s . Jensen (1985) writes: Young children's language tends to be espe c i a l l y sensitive to situ a t i o n s . For example, children who are usually quite relaxed and tal k a t i v e may s i t s t i f f l y and give perfunctory responses when in an uncomfortable s i t u a t i o n (p.21). In order to obtain s t o r y t e l l i n g s which accurately re f l e c t e d the a b i l i t i e s of three- and four-year-old children, i t was necessary for the children to fe e l relaxed and comfortable with the researcher. For t h i s reason an intact group of sixteen three- and four-year-old children enrolled in the afternoon Preschool Program at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Child Study Center, who were well known to the researcher, were i d e n t i f i e d as the subjects for the study. This ensured, as nearly as possible, that the st o r i e s c o l l e c t e d were representative of the children's s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s . 3.3 SUBJECTS The subjects were fourteen three- and four-year-old children attending the afternoon Preschool Program at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Child Study Center. The class consisted of seven girls,and nine boys whose ages ranged from 42 months to 60 months and who attended the Center four half-days a week. A l l the children were healthy preschoolers with no apparent physical or emotional problems. However, one c h i l d spoke English as a second language and at the time of the study spoke only a few words of English. This c h i l d did not take part in the study. A second c h i l d who was 72 months of age at the time of the study was also rejected as a subject because he was a f u l l year older than the other children. The population of The Child Study Center can best be described as average to above-average in socio-economic status. The parents of the subjects represent a wide range of professional occupations. A l l of the parents agree on the importance of education in their children's l i v e s . They are eager to be involved in their children's education and are encouraged to parti c i p a t e in the Child Study Center. A l l subjects are from two-parent families. 3.4 DATA COLLECTION The data c o l l e c t i o n f e l l into two parts. F i r s t , data was c o l l e c t e d by the investigator for the development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. Second, additional data — c o l l e c t e d by another researcher — was i d e n t i f i e d which could be used to discuss how the context in which a story i s t o l d may influence a child' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s . The methods of c o l l e c t i o n of both sets of data are described, separately, below. 3.5 METHOD: PART ONE 3.5.1 THE OBSERVATION PERIODS The researcher spent several months as a Graduate Teaching Assistant at the Child Study Center, so a l l the subjects were very comfortable with her. O r i g i n a l l y , i t had been the intention of the investigator to follow the methods of Sutton-Smith (1981) in c o l l e c t i n g stories from the subjects, that i s , to approach individual children and ask them to t e l l a story or suggest a time when they could come to the researcher with a story. However, th i s method of c o l l e c t i o n was dismissed because i t did not lend i t s e l f to the cooperative atmosphere of the classroom. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the children played hard together at the various a c t i v i t i e s and taking children aside one at a time to t e l l the researcher a story did not f i t naturally and comfortably into the atmosphere of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r classroom. It was decided, therefore, that what was needed was a set time during the afternoon when the children could share story with the group; in other words, the children's s t o r y t e l l i n g would be incorporated as a natural part of the afternoon's a c t i v i t i e s . The big question of how to do t h i s in a natural and non-threatening manner was solved by the children themselves. Five of the subjects had been working hard at the Writing Center creating books. The subjects were praised for their hard work and asked i f they would l i k e to share their s t o r i e s with the group during storytime normally, the teacher would have read or t o l d story during t h i s period. The children agreed. This p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y became popular with a l l the children and they e f f e c t i v e l y took over storytime for the following two months. The sample for t h i s study consisted of the audio-recordings of subjects t e l l i n g their s t o r i e s over a six week period from the t h i r d week in January, 1987 to the f i r s t week in March, 1987. A l l but one of the subjects t o l d a story at least once during t h i s period. 3.5.2 RECORDING EQUIPMENT The audio equipment used d u r i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d of a p o r t a b l e c a s s e t t e recorder which was set up on a t a b l e c l o s e to the s t o r y t e l l e r i n the Book Center where sto r y t i m e took p l a c e . The recorder was l e f t t h ere at a l l times so that c h i l d r e n would become used to i t s presence. The i n v e s t i g a t o r monitored the r e c o r d i n g l e v e l as w e l l as made notes on the proceedings. 3.5.3 GENERAL PROCEDURES Before each s e s s i o n began, the teacher would ask the c h i l d r e n who wished to t e l l s t o r y to i d e n t i f y themselves. The c h i l d r e n were then reminded to speak l o u d l y so that t h e i r audience c o u l d hear them c l e a r l y . Since the i n v e s t i g a t o r was a r e g u l a r member of the c l a s s s t a f f the c h i l d r e n were not d i s t r a c t e d by her. For the purposes of t h i s study i t was necessary to capture the v i s u a l as w e l l as the audio aspects of the c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g s . In a d d i t i o n to the au d i o - r e c o r d i n g s of the s t o r y t e l l i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r made w r i t t e n notes of the v i s u a l a spects of the c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e x t . The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was noted: 1. Gaze convergence 2. Gestures 3. Body posture 4. F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n 3.5.4 GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 1. The a u d i o - r e c o r d i n g s of the s t o r y t e l l i n g s e s s i o n s were t r a n s c r i b e d . These t r a n s c r i p t i o n s along with the o bserver's notes formed the data. 2. Using Georges (1969) d e f i n i t i o n of a s t o r y — an event in which an encoder ( s t o r y t e l l e r ) and decoder (audience) communicate d i r e c t l y through a coded message — the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s o l a t e d the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements f o r each s t o r y t e l l i n g . 3. The next part of the procedure was to l a b e l and c a t e g o r i z e the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by c h i l d r e n i n the d e l i v e r y of t h e i r s t o r i e s . As a p r e l i m i n a r y step, the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements i d e n t i f i e d i n a number of s t u d i e s and t h e o r e t i c a l works were examined to a s c e r t a i n t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y in i d e n t i f y i n g the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements i n s t o r i e s t o l d by c h i l d r e n ( L i v o & R i e t z , 1986; Doiron, 1986; Hough & Goodson, 1981; Sutton-Smith, 1981; Applebee, 1978; P e l l o w s k i , 1977; Georges, 1969; G o l d s t e i n , 1964; Jacobs, 1959; B a l l , 1954). 4. The subsequent step i n determining how the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements would be c a t e g o r i z e d was to draw up a l i s t of those elements r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e o r i s t s i n the f i e l d c o n s i d e r to be i n t e g r a l to t e l l i n g s t o r y . T h i s i n i t i a l l i s t was used (as an i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r e from which) to begin c l a s s i f y i n g the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by c h i l d r e n i n episodes of s t o r y t e l l i n g . 5. C a t e g o r i e s were r e f i n e d and supplemented to ensure that each element had a p l a c e i n the emerging c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. 3.6 METHOD: PART TWO 3.6.1 DATA COLLECTION FOR THE COMPARISON STUDY In order to complete the second part of the study that i s to determine what e f f e c t , i f any, does the context have on the c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y — i t was necessary to f i n d examples of s t o r i e s t o l d by c h i l d r e n i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . The s t o r y t e x t s ( i n c l u d i n g both the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements) c o l l e c t e d f o r the development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system p r o v i d e d data on how c h i l d r e n t e l l s t o r i e s i n one p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t ; however, i t was s t i l l necessary to have access to s t o r i e s t o l d by t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . Dr. John Shapiro, from the Department of Cu r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n i n the F a c u l t y of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i s the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r f o r a SSHRCC funded r e s e a r c h study: The Emergence of Language and L i t e r a c y . One aspect of t h i s r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d c o l l e c t i n g s t o r i e s and s t o r y r e t e l l i n g s from c h i l d r e n at the C h i l d Study Centre. The i n i t i a l data c o l l e c t i o n was done i n the s p r i n g of 1986 with a follow-up study completed i n A p r i l 1987. Included i n the follow-up study were nine s t o r i e s t o l d by s u b j e c t s a l s o included in this investigator's study. Video-taped recordings of these nine children's story r e t e l l i n g s were made available to this investigator and form the second part of the data for studying the effect context may have on s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y . The following i s a description of how the data were col l e c t e d for the follow-up study completed in A p r i l , 1987. 3.6.2 RECORDING EQUIPMENT A l l the research sessions took place in an unoccupied room at the Child Study Center. The subjects were comfortable in t h i s room since i t was known to them. The video equipment remained set-up in thi s room and was not conspicuous to the subjects. The small table used to do the task was also part of the room's environment. The research sessions were video-taped for tr a n s c r i p t i o n . 3.6.3 GENERAL PROCEDURES The researcher spent several weeks at the Child Study Center observing and interacting with the children, so at the time of the s t o r y t e l l i n g sessions a l l the subjects were quite familiar and comfortable with her. Subjects showed no apprehension about leaving their classrooms to complete the task. However, i f a subject was heavily involved in a play a c t i v i t y and did not wish to leave, the researcher made a contract with the c h i l d to complete the task at a p a r t i c u l a r time at a la t e r date. The s u b j e c t s were asked to t e l l a s t o r y from a wordless picture-book to a s t u f f e d toy ( i t was thought that a toy would provide an audience and, thus, a focus f o r the s t o r y t e l l i n g ) . Each s u b j e c t was asked to "Use t h i s book to t e l l the best s t o r y you can t h i n k o f . " S u b j e c t s were not taken through the book f i r s t by the r e s e a r c h e r ; however, i f they chose to go through i t f i r s t they were allowed. When su b j e c t s seemed r e l u c t a n t or h e s i t a n t they were prompted by the r e s e a r c h e r with q u e s t i o n s l i k e , "What's going to happen next?" However, the researcher never made suggestions to the s u b j e c t which might h e l p with the content of the s t o r y t e x t . Comments of acceptance (Yes, Good) and those of encouragement (Good job. You're doing f i n e . Keep going.) were made by the r e s e a r c h e r when a p p r o p r i a t e . In order to r e p l i c a t e the e a r l i e r study a l l s u b j e c t s used the same wordless p i c t u r e - b o o k , Pancakes f o r B r e a k f a s t by Tomie dePaola (1978). I t i s r e p o r t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r of the o r i g i n a l study conducted i n A p r i l 1986 that the book was chosen because i t was judged to have a c l e a r t i t l e page and an obvious opening page that e s t a b l i s h e s the s e t t i n g f o r the s t o r y . I t a l s o has a main c h a r a c t e r , s e v e r a l secondary c h a r a c t e r s and r e p e t i t i v e s t o r y a c t i o n s that move the s t o r y to a c l i m a x . A main problem i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s t o r y and an amusing and s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n f o r the problem i s e v i d e n t . The l a s t page allows f o r the e x p r e s s i n g of a formal c l o s i n g (Doiron, 1986). A l l s t o r y t e l l i n g sessions were conducted over a three week period in A p r i l , 1987. 3.6.4 GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF DATA Careful t r a n s c r i t i o n s of the st o r i e s were made for t h i s study by t h i s investigator from the video-recordings. Both the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements were noted. Transcriptions included a l l the verbalizations of the children and any questions or comments made by the researcher during the s t o r y t e l l i n g sessions. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system developed during t h i s study was used to identif y the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements children used in a l l of their s t o r y t e l l i n g s — both the stories the children t o l d during storytime and the stories they t o l d using Pancakes for Breakfast. The findings from t h i s analysis provided the material for a discussion of the effect of context upon children's s t o r y t e l l i n g . 3.7 INTER-RATER RELIABILITY A graduate student with experience at transcribing audio- and video-tapes went through the transcriptions of both the spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g s and the s t o r y t e l l i n g s using Pancakes for Breakfast to v e r i f y their accuracy with the audio- and video-tapes. After an i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g session another graduate student, with an extensive background experience in children's language development, randomly coded 8 of the 36 oral storytexts c o l l e c t e d (22%). The rater coded 7 of the 8 o r a l s torytexts exact ly as the invest igator had, g iv ing an o v e r a l l i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of 87.5%. 4. CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 4.1 INTRODUCTION Thirteen of the fourteen children involved in t h i s study t o l d at least one story. The youngest c h i l d in the group, who was 40 months at the time of the study, did not t e l l story. In a l l 28 st o r i e s were c o l l e c t e d . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was developed from the spontaneous oral s t o r i es t o l d by the 8 four-year-old children who t o l d stories in two contexts (spontaneously and using the wordless picture book Pancakes for Breakfast ) These children ranged in age from 47 months to 59 months at the time of the study and were the most p r o l i f i c s t o r y t e l l e r s in the group. They told 21 of the 28 st o r i e s c o l l e c t e d . The contents of t h i s chapter f a l l into two parts. Part one deals with the development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and includes: a description of how the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, which i d e n t i f i e d the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by three- and four-year-old children in episodes of s t o r y t e l l i n g , evolved; an outline of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system; an analysis of a four-year-old chil d ' s o r a l storytext put forward as an example of how the storytexts were explored for the l i n g u i s t i c and pa r a l i n g u i s t i c elements embedded in them; a det a i l e d description of the components of the system; a series of four tables which provide a summary of the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements i d e n t i f i e d in each of the 21 sto r i e s c o l l e c t e d for the development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system; an account of the general findings r e s u l t i n g from the analysis. In part two the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i s used to identify the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements embedded in : a. the spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g s of 5 three-year-old children; b. the s t o r y t e l l i n g s of 8 four-year-old children using a wordless picture book. This data i s summarized in table form. 4.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 4.2.1 CLASSIFYING THE COMPONENTS OF THE ORAL STORYTEXTS The data c o l l e c t e d from the 21 spontaneous oral s t o r y t e l l i n g s yielded a broad range of elements used by four-year-old children in episodes of s t o r y t e l l i n g . The f i r s t step in organizing the data was to ide n t i f y and separate the l i n g u i s t i c elements from the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements. These categories — l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c — form the two major sections of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. The next step was to create a l i s t of the elements generally accepted by experts as being integral to the process of oral s t o r y t e l l i n g (for example see A. Applebee, B. Sutton-Smith, M. Jacobs, K.S. Goldstein, D. Hymes, J . B a l l , R.A. Georges, N.J. Livo & S.A. Rietz and A. Pellowski). Using the investigator's own knowledge and experience in the f i e l d , t h i s i n i t i a l l i s t was condensed into four components. Two of the components f a l l under the major heading of L i n g u i s t i c Elements. They are: 1. Story Elements: the basic s t r u c t u r a l components found within a l l s t o r i e s . These conventions of s t o r y t e l l i n g include setting, main character, secondary characters, time frame and so forth. 2. L i t e r a r y Language Elements: these are the techniques for exposing the drama or mood/tone of the story through language. For example, words repeated or rhymed can communicate much to the audience about the mood or tone of a story (e.g. urgency, humour and so on). The other two components f a l l under the major heading of P a r a l i n g u i s t i c Elements. They are: 1. A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c Elements: these are the sounds formed during s t o r y t e l l i n g but which are not governed by language rules; that i s , phonology, semantics and syntax. They include voice intensity, pauses, voice rhythm, noise-making and so on. The a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements help create the mood and tone of the story. 2. Unarticulated S t y l i s t i c Elements: these are a l l the elements used in conjunction with language and ar t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements, which add to the story imagery and i t s meaning. These elements include f a c i a l expression, gesture, body language, eye-contact and so forth. Having c l a s s i f i e d the components of the oral storytexts into two main sections -- l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c and, second, into four categories i t was necessary to identify the s p e c i f i c elements within each of the categories. Although the data at f i r s t appeared very diverse — each o r a l storytext was quite d i f f e r e n t in subject, content and length -- the analysis began to reveal commonalities in the elements used in the construction of the storytexts. The following outline of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i l l u s t r a t e s the broad range of elements used by four-year-old children in their o r a l storytexts. 4.2.2 AN OUTLINE OF THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM The results of the analysis of 21 oral storytexts yielded the following system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The system i s divided into two main sections, four categories and 29 subcategories -- a l l r e f l e c t the major components observed in the oral storytexts produced by four-year-old children during the course of th i s study. 59 I. LINGUISTIC CODE 1 A. Story Elements IA1. Formal opening IA2. P r o v i d e s a s e t t i n g . IA3. Introduces a main c h a r a c t e r . 1A4. Introduces a secondary c h a r a c t e r ( s ) . IA5. P r o v i d e s a time frame. IA6. C o n s i s t e n t l y uses the past tense. IA7. Creates a problem to be r e s o l v e d . IA8. P r o v i d e s a r e s o l u t i o n to the problem. 4A9. Formal c l o s u r e . IA10. Tag Ending. IB. L i t e r a r y Language Elements IB1. Words repeated as a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e . IB2. Words or phrases used as a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e . IB3. Dialogue amongst the c h a r a c t e r s . IB4. D e s c r i p t i v e language used to add d e t a i l . 60 IB5. Descriptive language used to create mood or tone. IB6. Use of i n t e r j e c t i o n s . I I . PARALINGUISTIC CODE IIA. A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c Elements IIA1. Shift in intonation to signal s t o r y t e l l i n g . IIA2. Use of vocal variety - rate/speed of delivery. IIA3. Emphasis given to a word or phrase to give dramatic e f f e c t . IIA4. Character voice. IIA5. Vocal creation of mood/tone. IIA6. Noise-making. IIA7. Pitch. IIB. UNARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IIB1. Gaze convergence to signal s t o r y t e l l i n g . 4IB2. Gaze convergence for dramatic e f f e c t . IIB3. F a c i a l expression to evoke character. IIB4. Character posturing. IIB5. F a c i a l expression to evoke mood or tone. IIB6. Body language to communicate mood/tone. 4.2.3 AN EXAMPLE OF A FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILD'S ORAL STORYTEXT Each of the 21 oral s t o r i e s , which make up the data for t h i s study, was analyzed to expose the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements embedded in i t . The following detailed analysis of one p a r t i c u l a r oral s t o r y t e l l i n g i s offered as an example of th i s procedure. An analysis of the other 20 stories are summarized in Tables I to IV.. Story Elements L i t e r a r y Language Elements Formal o p e n i n g - ^ ONCE UPON A TIME THERE WASA^T.TTTLE Main character=d—BOY WHO'D LIKE TO CATCH A FISH BUT HE P r o b l e m DIDN'T CATCH A FISH. HE NEVER CAUGHT Secondary^ Character A FISH. BUT ONE DAY HE SAW A BUNNY De s c r i p t i v e language adds d e t a i l JUMPING AROUND AND THEN HE SAID, L "NO I WANNA CATCH YOU! I WANNA CATCH YOU! COME HERE, COME HERE, COME HERE!" 'NO! "COME HERE BUNNY. DON'T GO AWAY Words repeated as a l i t e r a r y device. Dialogue between characters Resolution FROM ME. COME TO ME!" Consistent use THEN THE LITTLE BOY JUMPED INTO THE of the past tense to Story Elements L i t e r a r y Language Elements Setting WATER TO HAVE A LITTLE SWIM IN THE WATER AND THEN HE SAW A FISH SWIMMING IN THE WATER BUT HE WAS AFRATD TO TOUCH TT BECAUSE HE WAS SCARED OF FISH. THEN AFTER HE SAW A PLANT AND THEN SOME SEAWEED. Tag ending [] THE END. R e s c r i p t l v e language c r e a t i n g mood D e s c r i p t i v e language adds d e t a i l A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c  Elements S h i f t i n i n t o n a t i o n ONCE UPON A TIME THERE WAS A LITTLE s i g n a l s s t o r y t e l l i n g BOY WHO'D LIKE TO CATCH A FISH BUT HE DIDN'T CATCH A FISH. HE NEVER CAUGHT A FISH. BUT ONE DAY HE SAW A BUNNY JUMPING AROUND AND THEN HE SAID, Unarticulated S t y l i s t i c  Elements Gaze convergence s i g n a l s s t o r y t e l l i n g Vocal v a r i e t y — r a t e / speed of d e l i v e r y Character voice Second Character voice P i t c h — High/rapi d e l i v e r y creates a sense of urgency — slowing down defeat "NO I WANNA CATCH YOU! I WANNA CATCH YOU! COME HERE, COME HERE, COME HERE!" " NO ! " "COME HERE BUNNY. DON'T GO AWAY FROM ME. COME TO ME!" Fa c i a l expression evokes character Character posturing/beckoning to bunny F a c i a l expression evokes second character Body language/body i s erect tense and arms pump communicating urgency THEN THE LITTLE BOY JUMPED INTO THE 4^  A r t i c u l a t e d S t y l i s t i c Elements Unarticulated S t y l i s t i c Elements WATER TO HAVE A LITTLE SWIM IN THE Emphasis given to WATER AND THEN HE SAW A FISH SWIMMING Eye-contact held with word to add drama -—. — j — audience IN THE WATER BUT HE WAS AFRAID TO TOUCH IT BECAUSE HE WAS SCARED OF FISH. Z J THEN AFTER HE SAW THE FISH HE SAW A PLANT IN THE WATER AND THEN SOME SEAWEED. THE END. 4.2.4 GENERAL COMMENTS Subject E was 54 months at the time of t h i s s t o r y t e l l i n g . The subject normally chose a c t i v i t i e s which stressed strong physical movements and rejected art a c t i v i t i e s and those tasks requiring fine motor s k i l l s . He tol d t h i s story v o l u n t a r i l y and he appeared confident and seemed to enjoy his role as s t o r y t e l l e r . Much of the analysis of Subject E's storytext is self-evident. There i s , c l e a r l y , a formal opening, main character, secondary character, dialogue between the characters, character posturing and so forth. The question of whether the story contains a problem which i s resolved i s less c l e a r . It i s the opinion of the investigator that the story does contain a problem which i s resolved. This conclusion i s based on Applebee's (1978) notion that i f A murders B then there are two possible outcomes — A escapes or A i s caught. If the murder, escape or capture occur in the same story there i s cause and eff e c t or problem and resolution. In his story Subject E raises the problem of a l i t t l e boy who would l i k e to catch a f i s h but has f a i l e d to do so. On seeing a bunny the l i t t l e boy decides that perhaps he could catch a bunny instead. He c a l l s out to the bunny, "I wanna catch you! Come here! Come here!" Given that the l i t t l e boy wants to catch the bunny, the resolution, therefore, must be either the bunny's capture or escape. The fact that the bunny shouts, "NO!" to which the l i t t l e boy p l a i n t i v e l y responds, "Don't go away from me. Come to me!" c l e a r l y indicates that the bunny has escaped. Thus, the problem i s resolved. 4.2.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE CLASSIFICATION  SYSTEM I. LINGUISTIC CODE The elements which f a l l within t h i s section are a l l the spoken aspects of an oral s t o r y t e l l i n g which are governed by language rules — phonetic, semantic and syntax. The l i n g u i s t i c code i s transmitted and received through audio channels. IA. STORY ELEMENTS As discussed e a r l i e r , these are the basic structural components found within a l l st o r i e s and which give them form. IA1. Formal Opening The formal opening of a story i s a way of informing the audience that the story i s about to begin. Pellowski (1977) notes that most known cultures have formal ways of opening a s t o r y t e l l i n g session. For example, the Mandan-Hidatsa Indians begin a s t o r y t e l l i n g by opening a tobacco pouch, f i l l i n g a pipe with tobacco and of f e r i n g a smoke to a l l present. The smoking continues throughout the entire s t o r y t e l l i n g . It i s more common, however, for a story to begin with a stock phrase which sets the story in the vague and distant past. For example, the Japanese often begin a story with "Mukashi, mukashi (long, long ago);" the Apache begin with "Long, long ago, they say ...;" and the Navajo begin a story with "In the beginning, when the world was new ..." (Pellowski, 1977 p.105). The most common formal opening used by the subjects in t h i s study was, "Once upon a time." However, there are other examples of formal openings "Once there was a l i t t l e boy ...;" "Once a l i t t l e g i r l ...;" "One time there were two l i t t l e g i r l s ...;" "There was a town ...;" and "One day a l i t t l e g i r l ... ." These are a l l formal openings marking the beginning of a story set in the past. IA2. Setting The setting provides a physical description of the environment in which the action of the story takes place. Although the setting provided by the s t o r y t e l l e r may be sketchy, i t can have great meaning for the audience i f there is a shared prior knowledge of certain fa c t s . For example, Subject G provided the following setting d e t a i l s in her story, "Once upon a time there was a Queen s i t t i n g in a chair ... then she went back in her Queen's c a s t l e . " The audience of thi s story were experienced with folk and f a i r y t a l e s , and could, probably, picture the Queen s i t t i n g on her chair (throne) in her c a s t l e . Subject E gave a f u l l e r account of the setting with his description of the water in which f i s h swam through plants and seaweed: Then the l i t t l e boy jumped in the water and then he saw a f i s h swimming in the water but he was a f r a i d to touch i t because he was scared of f i s h . Then after he saw a plant and then some seaweed. IA3. Main Character A l l the stories c o l l e c t e d for t h i s study contained a main character (see Appendix). The main character was usually "a l i t t l e g i r l " or "a l i t t l e boy." However, one c h i l d , Subject H, named her main characters. She introduced them in the following manner: "Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and her name was Amy," and "Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and her name was S a l l y . " In her other story, however, she did not name her main character. The only other main character who f e l l outside the " l i t t l e g i r l " or " l i t t l e boy" category was found in Subject G's story which i d e n t i f i e d a Queen as the main character. IA4. Secondary Characters Seven of the eight children whose sto r i e s were analyzed for the development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system introduced secondary character(s) into t h e i r oral storytexts (see the Appendix). The secondary character(s) usually provide the interest in the story. For example, in Subject E's story in which the l i t t l e boy wishes to catch the bunny, i t i s the interaction between the main character (the l i t t l e boy) and the secondary character (the bunny) which provides the story's tension. In Subject D's story there are two secondary characters -- the l i t t l e g i r l ' s (the main character) mother and father. Once a l i t t l e g i r l wanted to go fi s h i n g and she caught a shark and the shark ate her up and the l i t t l e g i r l was inside the shark and then her mother came and she went in the same shark as the l i t t l e c h i l d did and then the father came and he went fi s h i n g and he threw the shark in the dump and then the others could get out of the mouth and then they went and got a l l the fishes and they ate them for dinner and that's the end. In t h i s story the father (a secondary character) inadvertently becomes the hero when his act of catching the shark and casting i t in the dump permits the l i t t l e g i r l (the main character) and her mother (a secondary character) to escape through the shark's mouth. IA5. Time Frame Although a l l of the stories c o l l e c t e d for thi s study sequence events in a way which offers a sort of time frame, there i s only one example where the subject a c t u a l l y provides e x p l i c i t d e t a i l s about the time elements involved in the story — i . e . what time of day the events actually took place and d e t a i l s of the passage of time. In fact, the story t o l d by Subject F was a f a i t h f u l and detailed 71 r e t e l l i n g of Robert Munsch's c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y I Have To Go! IA6. C o n s i s t e n t Use of the Past Tense A l l 8 of the c h i l d r e n whose s t o r i e s were analyzed f o r the development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system c o n s i s t e n t l y used the past tense when t e l l i n g s t o r y (see Appendix). IA7. Problem Galda (1984), as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i d e n t i f i e d a b a s i c n a r r a t i v e as: an a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g with c h a r a c t e r s who r e a c t to a c e n t r a l problem through a sequence of events that moves to a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n (p.105). Nine of the s t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d i n c l u d e d a c e n t r a l problem to be r e s o l v e d . In a l l , 6 of the 8 s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d a problem i n at l e a s t one of t h e i r o r a l s t o r y t e x t s . IA8. R e s o l u t i o n A l l 9 of the s t o r i e s which i n c l u d e d a problem a l s o i n c l u d e d a r e s o l u t i o n . For example Subject H t o l d the f o l l o w i n g s t o r y : Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and she saw some rainbows up i n the sky and then a f r o s t y wind came and i t blew the rainbows r i g h t away. And then the wolf ate up the l i t t l e g i r l . The l i t t l e g i r l thought she was i n bed and she was s c a r e d so she jumped out the wolf's mouth and then she went home and shutted the door good i n t h e i r home. And t h a t ' s the end. The c e n t r a l problem of the s t o r y i s the dilemma of the l i t t l e g i r l who i s eaten by the wolf. The problem i s r e s o l v e d , however, when the l i t t l e g i r l jumps out of the wolf's mouth and r e t u r n s to the s e c u r i t y of her home. IA9. Formal C l o s u r e P e l l o w s k i (1977) w r i t e s that c l o s i n g s to s t o r y t e l l i n g s are o f t e n determined by the type of s t o r y t o l d . A humorous f o l k t a l e , f o r example, may end with a catchy rhyme: And then I l e a p t i n t o a saddle and rode h i g h and low To t e l l o thers t h i s s t o r y of wonder and woe. (from: F a i r y T a l e s and legends from Romania i n P e l l o w s k i , 1977 p.151). The formal s t o r y c l o s i n g most f a m i l i a r to the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study i s the phrase "they l i v e d h a p p i l y ever a f t e r . " P e l l o w s k i (1977) suggests that t h i s phrase i n d i c a t e s that the c o n f l i c t s i n the s t o r y have been r e s o l v e d and that balance has been r e s t o r e d to the world of the s t o r y . I t was necessary, t h e r e f o r e , f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r to a s c e r t a i n which s t o r i e s ended by r e e s t a b l i s h i n g a sense of o r d e r . In a c t u a l i t y only 1 of the 20 s t o r i e s analyzed concluded with the phrase "they l i v e d h a p p i l y ever a f t e r . " However, 8 of the 20 s t o r i e s (although they concluded with the tag ending "the end") were deemed to have formal endings because the s t o r y t e l l e r had, i n f a c t , r e s t o r e d a sense of harmony to the s t o r y world. For example, although Subject H ended her s t o r y with the words "the end," the whole of the f i n a l sentence 73 reads: And she got stew a l l over herself and then she taked a bath and that's the end. It i s argued here that the ending of the story included a l l those actions in the f i n a l sentence which help to restore a sense of equilibrium to the world of the story — eating, bathing and so forth mark that the adventure/ordeal i s over and that l i f e can go on. In attempting to ascertain whether there i s , a) formal closure to a story or, b) a tag ending i t i s necessary to go beyond merely noting that the subject has used the words "the end." The investigator must es t a b l i s h whether the s t o r y t e l l e r has, in fact, restored equilibrium to the world of the story and then closed the s t o r y t e l l i n g . IA10. Tag Ending Seven of the twenty st o r i e s were abruptly closed with the words "the end." For example, Subject A t o l d the following story: Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l . She wanted to go to the beach with her daddy and she wanted to swim in the white sea where the sun was. Then they found a cat and a doggie. And that's the end. In t h i s story there i s no disequilibrium which needs to be righted. The story creates a scene for the audience and the words "the end" come abruptly and as a surprise to the l i s t e n e r ( s ) who might well expect more information about the cat and doggie. A tag ending, therefore, cuts short the s t o r y t e l l i n g . IB. LITERARY LANGUAGE ELEMENTS As discussed e a r l i e r , t h i s i s a technique for exposing the drama or mood/tone of the story through language. These techniques include words repeated or rhymed, dialogue between characters and so forth. IB1. Words repeated as a l i t e r a r y device Words or phrases repeated can help expose the mood or tone of a story. For example, in her f i r s t story, Subject H created the following scene: Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and her name was Amy. And the clouds growed bigger and bigger and l i t t l e r and l i t t l e r and l i t t l e r and she growed bigger and bigger. The repetition of the opposite words 'bigger' and ' l i t t l e r ' gives the story a s u r r e a l i s t i c and mythic q u a l i t y . In Subject G's story about a l i t t l e g i r l who hops over the rainbow, the repetition of the words "hippity-hop, hippity-hop, hippity-hop," creates a humorous and l i g h t tone. Subject E, on the other hand, creates a mood of urgency with his rep e t i t i o n of the words, "I wanna catch you! I wanna catch you! Come here! Come here! Come here!" in his story of the l i t t l e boy who wants to catch a bunny. IB2. Words or phrases used as a l i t e r a r y device Words or phrases used as a l i t e r a r y device also help set the mood or tone of the story. For example, in his second s t o r y t e l l i n g Subject D added a serious and d i g n i f i e d tone to his subject matter when he gave his characters their formal t i t l e s , ... the l i t t l e g i r l was inside the shark and then the mother came and she went inside the same shark as the l i t t l e c h i l d did and then the father came ... In her f i f t h s t o r y t e l l i n g Subject F also gave one of her secondary characters the formal t i t l e of 'mother,' however, in a l l the other stories c o l l e c t e d in which there i s a father or mother character they are c a l l e d by the informal t i t l e s of 'mummy' or 'daddy.' IB3. Dialogue Only 4 of the 20 stories c o l l e c t e d contained any dialogue between characters. However, the sto r i e s which have dialogue are among the l i v l i e s t of the stories c o l l e c t e d . The technique of having characters spontaneously interact with one another — without the intervention of the narrator -- reveals much about the characters' relationships. In Subject F's fourth story, for example, the dialogue between 'ballet g i r l ' and 'Carebear' exposes the gentle nature of their r e l a t i o n s h i p and, indeed, the gentle nature of the story i t s e l f : Once upon a time there was a ba l l e t g i r l . B a l l e t g i r l does dancing in the road. She said, "I have a heart in my hand," said b a l l e t g i r l . The Carebear said, "I gave i t to you because I thought you want some care." Subject H's f i r s t story, on the other hand, explores the relationship between a mother and her c h i l d : Then she walked home and t e l l e d her mummy, "Look at me!" And the mummy said, "You look yucky!" In Subject E's story, about the l i t t l e boy who wanted to catch the bunny, the dialogue between the l i t t l e boy and the bunny has an urgent, r o l l i c k i n g and good-humored quality. The audience senses from the dialogue the teasing nature of the bunny's relationship with the boy — the bunny can escape from the chase whenever he wishes. IB4. Descriptive language which adds d e t a i l One of the fin e s t examples of descriptive language occurred in Subject A's story in which the main character wanted to go to the beach with her daddy, "to swim in the white sea where the sun was." Subject A's descriptive language paints a clear poetic picture of the warm sun on the ocean. In a l l , 13 of the 20 stories c o l l e c t e d used descriptive language to add d e t a i l (see Appendix). IB5. Descriptive language which helps create mood or tone This subcategory i s somewhat harder to i d e n t i f y because the mood or tone of a story i s often heightened by descriptive language in combination with the manner of delivery. However, i f the language in i s o l a t i o n described a p a r t i c u l a r l y intense emotion or si t u a t i o n , i t was considered an example of descriptive language in the manner set forth here. Subject H in her t h i r d story, for example, described 'bad guys' coming to Rainbow land to capture Rainbow b r i t e and her frie n d -- "They wanted Rainbow land to get a l l spooky." Clearly, the descriptive language of thi s story creates a very s i n i s t e r mood or tone. IB6. Use of Interjection Only Subject F's r e t e l l i n g of Robert Munsch's I Have To  Go! contained an example of an i n t e r j e c t i o n . I I . PARALINGUISTIC CODE The components which f a l l within t h i s section are a l l those elements which are used in conjunction with language during story delivery and which are not governed by language rules. Character voice, gesture, noise-making and f a c i a l expression are examples of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements. The pa r a l i n g u i s t i c code i s transmitted through audio and vi s u a l channels. IIA. ARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS As discussed e a r l i e r , the a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements are the sounds used during a s t o r y t e l l i n g which are not governed by language rules. These elements include not only voice intensity, voice pitch and rate but also pauses and use of breath (for example, a sharp intake of breath). The a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements are transmitted through the audio channel. IIA1. S h i f t in intonation to signal s t o r y t e l l i n g A l l of the subjects involved in this study began an episode of s t o r y t e l l i n g with a s h i f t in intonation to signal that the story was beginning. IIA2. Use of vocal variety Livo & Reitz (1986) suggest that the rate or speed at which parts of a story are narrated or at which characters speak i s an important part of creating the mood or tone of a story. For example, Subject E, in his story about the l i t t l e boy and the bunny, delivered the l i n e s : "No I wanna catch you! I wanna catch you! Come here! Come here! Come here!" very quickly. This created a strong sense of urgency. However, the l i n e s : "Come here bunny. Don't go away from me. Come to me! " were delivered gradually more slowly. Obviously, the l i t t l e boy was becoming aware of the f u t i l i t y of the chase and thi s feeling was communicated by the rate at which the words were spoken. Subject H heightened the s i n i s t e r atmosphere of her t h i r d story by speaking the words, "They wanted Rainbow land to get a l l spooky," very slowly. Indeed, the word "spooky" was said so slowly and with such intensity that the a i r crackled with a sense of impending doom! IIA3. Emphasis given to a word or phrase for dramatic  effect Six of the eight subjects emphasized a pa r t i c u l a r word or phrase for dramatic e f f e c t . In several cases the word or phrase stressed was p a r t i c u l a r l y descriptive — t h i s heightened the dramatic e f f e c t . For example, in Subject D's f i r s t s t o r y t e l l i n g a l i t t l e g i r l wanted to catch a shark, ... And she bought a new fi s h i n g rod and she caught a shark but i t was too scarey so she threw i t in the dump. Subject D's pa r t i c u l a r emphasis of the words, "but i t was too scarey," helped to expose the l i t t l e g i r l ' s fear and build a mood of anxiety. On the other hand, Subject G's cheerful emphasis of the words 'right over,' in her story about a l i t t l e g i r l who "hopped right over a rainbow," exposed the humorous and pl a y f u l mood of the story. IIA4. Character voice Livo & Rietz (1986) write that story characters have their own pa r t i c u l a r voices which: ... reveal their feelings and reactions within the story and provide clues to their p e r s o n a l i t i e s and motivations (p.122). The 4 subjects who included dialogue in their stories used appropriate character voices. As discussed e a r l i e r (see IB3. Dialogue used between characters), the sto r i e s which included dialogue were among the l i v e l i e s t of the stories c o l l e c t e d . In a l l cases, the dialogue was delivered in an appropriate character voice which revealed much about the character and about the relationships ex i s t i n g between characters. IIA5. Vocal creation of mood or tone In 2 of the stories c o l l e c t e d , although the s t o r y t e l l e r did not s p e c i f i c a l l y emphasis words or phrases for dramatic effect or use vocal variety, the children (as s t o r y t e l l e r s ) created a calm and d i g n i f i e d mood by using a ' s t o r y t e l l i n g voice.' For example, Subject C t o l d the following story in a very strong, clear but f l a t voice: Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l throwing a b a l l . Her mother caught the b a l l and she threw i t back to the l i t t l e g i r l . Then they stopped playing b a l l and went into the house and then they went out to the shops. The end. Although Subject C used very l i t t l e expression in his voice he was, nonetheless, obviously t e l l i n g his story in a ' s t o r y t e l l i n g voice.' This subcategory, therefore, i d e n t i f i e s stories t o l d in a manner which creates a s t o r y t e l l i n g mood or tone yet does not employ the use of vocal variety, emphasis of a word or phrase for dramatic e f f e c t , character voice or pi t c h . IIA6. Noise-making During s t o r y t e l l i n g the s t o r y t e l l e r can insert noises which help develop the mood or tone of the story. Noise-making can be a r t i c u l a t e d or unarticulated. This subcategory i d e n t i f i e s a r t i c u l a t e d noises for example, imitations of bird or animal c a l l s , squeaking doors or blowing wind. (Unarticulated noises include clapping hands, snapping fingers or foot stamping and would be included under the category of unarticualted s t y l i s t i c elements). Only Subject F in her r e t e l l i n g of Robert Munsch's I Have To  Go! included an example of a r t i c u l a t e d noise-making. IIA7. Pitch Pitch/intonation are important in revealing the meaning of a story. For example, as discussed in Chapter 1, the words, "So, you're home then!" could be an affectionate and excited welcome or the sarcastic opening of a family brawl (p.1 1 ) . The pit c h or intonation with which the words are spoken — together with dramatic emphasis — help to c l a r i f y the meaning. Six of the eight subjects used pitch to help convey the meaning of their s t o r i e s . The other two subjects gave ' f l a t ' s t o r y t e l l i n g s . I IB. UNARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS As discussed e a r l i e r , these are a l l the elements used in conjunction with language and a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements which add to the story imagery and meaning. The unarticulated s t y l i s t i c elements are received and transmitted through the v i s u a l channel. IIB1. Gaze convergence to signal a s t o r y t e l l i n g A l l of the subjects began their s t o r y t e l l i n g ( s ) by making eye-contact with the audience. As soon as eye-contact was made the audience, by and large, became quiet and expetant. In a number- of cases, when a member of the audience did not f a l l s i l e n t , the s t o r y t e l l e r waited before beginning. It was observed in a l l 21 s t o r y t e l l i n g s that the s t o r y t e l l e r assumed an authority role. This authority role appeared to be announced through the gaze convergence which marked that s t o r y t e l l i n g was about to begin. IIB2. Gaze convergence for dramatic ef f e c t Three of the subjects used gaze-convergence for dramatic e f f e c t . The best example occurred in Subject F's r e t e l l i n g of Robert Munsch's I Have To Go! The story concerns a family's car t r i p to v i s i t grandparents. The humour of the story i s based, in part, upon the parents' repeated question to the boy, "Do you have to go pee?" and the boy's abrupt response of, "No! " A short time l a t e r , when i t i s most inconvenient, the boy has to go 'pee.' The scenario i s repeated many times u n t i l the audience begins to anticipate the sequence of events. Once the pattern was firmly established, Subject F paused before a r t i c u l a t i n g the anticipated question and answer; she met the eyes of her audience with a knowing look and, in response, the audience laughed uproariously. I I B 3 . F a c i a l expression to evoke character A l l four s t o r y t e l l i n g s which included dialogue and character voice also included f a c i a l expression to indicate character. The combination of these three elements together with 'character posturing' added depth to the characters represented. IIB4. F a c i a l expression to evoke mood or tone Sixteen of the 21 stories c o l l e c t e d used the element of f a c i a l expression to evoke or inte n s i f y the mood or tone. For example, in Subject H's t h i r d story in which she describes the 'bad guys' wanting to make Rainbow land "get a l l spooky," her face r e f l e c t e d how frightening t h i s was her eyes were wide open and her mouth pulled-down at the corners. Subject G, on the other hand, used f a c i a l expression to help expose the humorous quality of her story about the l i t t l e g i r l who "hopped r i g h t over a rainbow;" she smiled b r o a d l y and her eyes s p a r k l e d . IIB5. Character P o s t u r i n g The four s t o r y t e l l i n g s which i n c l u d e d d i a l o g u e a l s o i n c l u d e d c h a r a c t e r posturing'. In p a r t i c u l a r , Subject E became the l i t t l e boy g e s t u r i n g to the bunny to "Come here!" and, i n a quick switch, he became the bunny — arms pumping -- i n v o l v e d i n the chase. IIB6. Body language to communicate mood or tone Subject H's t h i r d s t o r y p r o v i d e s a f i n e example of body language used to heighten the mood or tone of a s t o r y . During the p a r t of her s t o r y which d e s c r i b e d the 'bad . guys' wanting to make Rainbow land "get a l l spooky," Subject H d r a m a t i c a l l y slumped forward i n d i c a t i n g the t e r r o r and hopelessness of the s i t u a t i o n . A l t o g e t h e r , 4 of the s u b j e c t s used body language to communicate mood or tone. 4.2.6 AN ANALYSIS OF THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8  FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN The f o l l o w i n g four t a b l e s provide a breakdown of the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements observed i n the o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g s of 8 f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . The i n t e n t of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to v i s u a l l y present the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g each of the c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g s . 85 TABLE I STORY ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN B CHILD No. spont. stories 1/2 Formal Opening Setting Main Character Secondary Characters Time Frame Consistent Past Tense Problem Resolution Formal Closure Tag Ending 1 . 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 86 TABLE I (cont . ) STORY ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD F G H TOTAL No. spont. s tor ie s 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 21 Formal Opening 1/2/4/5/6/7 2/4/5 1/2/3 17 Set t ing 2/3/4/5 1/2/3/4/5 2/3 16 Main Character 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/4/5 1/2/3 20 Secondary Characters 2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3 15 Time Frame 3 1 Consistent Past Tense 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 21 Problem 3 2/5 2/3 9 Resolution 3 2/5 2/3 9 Formal Closure 3/5 5 1/2/3 8 Tag Ending 6/7 1/4 7 TABLE II LITERARY LANGUAGE ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD A B C No. spont. stories 1 1 1 Words repeated as a l i t e r a r y device Words/phrases used as l i t e r a r y device Dialogue Descriptive language to add d e t a i l Descriptive language to create mood/tone Use of i n t e r j e c t i o n s 1 1 TABLE I I ( c o n t . ) LITERARY LANGUAGE ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD 88 No. spont. s t o r i e s H TOTAL 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 21 Words repeated as a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e 3 Words/phrases used as a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e 3 Dialogue 3/4 D e s c r i p t i v e language to add d e t a i l 1/3/4/6/7 D e s c r i p t i v e language to c r e a t e mood/tone 3/4/5/6/7 Use of i n t e r j e c t i o n s 3 1/2/3 7 1 4 2/5 1/2/3 13 1/2/3 11 1 TABLE I I I ARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD A B C No. spont. s t o r i e s S h i f t i n i n t o n a t i o n to s i g n a l s t o r y V o c a l v a r i e t y Emphasis given to word/ phrase f o r e f f e c t Character v o i c e V o c a l c r e a t i o n of mood/tone \ Noise-making P i t c h 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TABLE I I I ( c o n t . ) ARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD H 90 TOTAL No. spont. s t o r i e s 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 21 S h i f t i n i n t o n a t i o n to s i g n a l s t o r y V o c a l v a r i e t y Emphasis on word/ phrase f o r e f f e c t Character v o i c e V o c a l c r e a t i o n of mood/tone Noise-making P i t c h 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 3/4 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 21 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 19 2/3/4/5 1/2/3 18 1 4 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 1 19 TABLE IV UNARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD A B C No. spont. s t o r i e s 1 1 1 1 Gaze convergence to s i g n a l s t o r y t e l l i n g Gaze convergence f o r e f f e c t F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n to evoke c h a r a c t e r F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n to evoke mood/tone Character p o s t u r i n g Body language t o i n d i c a t e mood/tone 1 1 1 1 1 1 92 TABLE IV(cont.) UNARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD H TOTAL No. spont. s t o r i e s 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 21 Gase convergence to s i g n a l s t o r y Gaze convergence f o r e f f e c t \ F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n to evoke c h a r a c t e r F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n to evoke mood/tone Character p o s t u r i n g Body language to i n d i c a t e mood/tone 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 1/2/3/4/5 1/2/3 21 3/4 3/4 2/3/4/5/6/7 2/3/4/5 3/4 3/4/5 1/2/3 1 2/3 16 4 4.3 APPLICATION OF THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Once the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was developed the instrument was used to i d e n t i f y the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements i n : 1. the spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g s of 5 t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n ; 2. the s t o r y t e l l i n g s of 8 f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n using the wordless p i c t u r e book Pancakes f o r B r e a k f a s t . 4.3.1 AN ANALYSIS OF THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 5  THREE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN A l t o g e t h e r 7 s t o r i e s were c o l l e c t e d from t h i s group of c h i l d r e n . At the time of the study, the c h i l d r e n ' s ages ranged from 43 months to 47 months. Using the instrument developed, the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by t h i s group of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r spontaneous o r a l s t o r y t e x t s were i d e n t i f i e d . The i n t e n t of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n i s to v i s u a l l y present the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements that were used by each c h i l d d u r i n g episodes of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g . TABLE V STORY ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 5 THREE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN No. spont. st o r i e s Formal Opening Setting Main character Secondary Characters Time Frame Consistent Past Tense Problem Resolution Formal Closure Tag Ending CHILD I J K L 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 2 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 95 TABLE VI LITERARY LANGUAGE ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 5 THREE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN CHILD I J K L M No. spont. s t o r i e s 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 Words repeated as a l i t e r a r y device Words/phrases used as l i t e r a r y device Dialogue 1 Descriptive language to add d e t a i l 1 1 2 Descriptive language to create mood/tone 1 1 1/2 Use of Interjections TOTAL 96 T A B L E V I I A R T I C U L A T E D S T Y L I S T I C E L E M E N T S I D E N T I F I E D I N T H E S P O N T A N E O U S S T O R Y T E L L I N G S O F 5 T H R E E - Y E A R - O L D C H I L D R E N I J C H I L D K M T O T A L N o . s p o n t . s t o r i e s 1 1 1 /2- 1 /2 S h i f t i n i n t o n a t i o n t o s i g n a l s t o r y V o c a l v a r i e t y E m p h a s i s g i v e n t o w o r d / p h r a s e f o r e f f e c t C h a r a c t e r v o i c e V o c a l c r e a t i o n o f m o o d / t o n e N o i s e - m a k i n g P i t c h 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 7 1 1 1/2 1/2 6 1 1 1 1 1 1/2 1/2 4 1 1 1 6 97 TABLE VIII UNARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE SPONTANEOUS STORYTELLINGS OF 5 THREE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN I J CHILD K M TOTAL No. spont. st o r i e s 1 1 1/2 1/2 Gaze convergence to signal s t o r y t e l l i n g Gaze convergence for dramatic ef f e c t F a c i a l expression to evoke character F a c i a l expression to evoke mood/tone Character posturing Body language to communicate mood/tone 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 6 1 1/2 4.3.2 AN ANALYSIS OF 8 STORYTELLINGS USING "PANCAKES FOR  BREAKFAST" Each of the 8 f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n t o l d one s t o r y u s i n g the wordless p i c t u r e book Pancakes f o r B r e a k f a s t . The instrument developed d u r i n g t h i s study was used to i d e n t i f y the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements used by t h i s group of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . The i n t e n t of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n i s to v i s u a l l y present the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements that were used by each c h i l d i n episodes of s t o r y t e l l i n g using the wordless p i c t u r e book. 99 TABLE IX STORY ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE STORY RETELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN USING THE WORDLESS PICTURE BOOK PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST CHILD A B C D E F G H TOTAL Formal Opening 1 1 1 1 4 S e t t i n g 1 1 1 1 1 5 Main Character 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Secondary C h a r a c t e r s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 Time Frame C o n s i s t e n t Past Tense 1 1 2 Problem 1 1 2 R e s o l u t i o n 1 1 2 Formal C l o s u r e 1 1 1 1 4 Tag Ending 1 1 2 100 TABLE X LITERARY LANGUAGE ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE STORY RETELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN USING THE WORDLESS PICTURE BOOK PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST CHILD B H Words repeated as a l i t e r a r y device Words/Phrases used as a l i t e r a r y device Dialogue Descriptive language to add d e t a i l Descriptive language to create mood/tone Use of Interjections 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TOTAL 3 1 101 TABLE XI ARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE STORY RETELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN USING THE WORDLESS PICTURE BOOK PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST CHILD B C D E F G H TOTAL S h i f t i n i n t o n a t i o n to s i g n a l s t o r y 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 V o c a l v a r i e t y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 Emphasis g i v e n to word/ phrase f o r e f f e c t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 Character v o i c e 1 1 V o c a l c r e a t i o n of mood/tone 1 1 Noise-making 1 1 1 3 P i t c h . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 102 TABLE XII UNARTICULATED STYLISTIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED IN THE STORY RETELLINGS OF 8 FOUR-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN USING THE WORDLESS PICTURE BOOK PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST CHILD A B C D E F G H TOTAL Gaze convergence to s i g n a l s t o r y Gaze convergence f o r e f f e c t F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n to evoke c h a r a c t e r F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n to evoke mood/tone Character P o s t u r i n g Body language to communicate i n d i c a t e mood/tone 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 103 The data summarized in Tables I to IV; Tables V to IIX and Tables IX to XII are discussed in Chapter 5. 5. CHAPTER F I V E : D I S C U S S I O N AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 INTRODUCTION The c o n t e n t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r f a l l i n t o two p a r t s . I n p a r t one t h e d a t a w i l l be u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. C a n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d be o r g a n i z e d i n t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m t h a t c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e l i n g u i s t i c a n d p a r a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s o f t h r e e - a n d f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n e p i s o d e s o f s t o r y t e l l i n g ? 2. What i s t h e r a n g e a n d d i v e r s i t y o f l i n g u i s t i c e l e m e n t s e m p l o y e d by t h r e e - a n d f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n e p i s o d e s o f s p o n t a n e o u s s t o r y t e l l i n g ? 3. What i s t h e r a n g e a n d d i v e r s i t y o f p a r a l i n g u i s t i c e l e m e n t s e m p l o y e d by t h r e e - a n d f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n c h i l d r e n i n e p i s o d e s o f s p o n t a n e o u s s t o r y t e l l i n g ? 4. Do d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s i n f l u e n c e t h e c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s ? 5. Do i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n h a v e t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e ? P a r t two o f t h e c h a p t e r o f f e r s a l i s t o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . 105 5.2 DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Can the data c o l l e c t e d be organized into a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  system that c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c and  p a r a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of three- and four-year-old  children in episodes of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g ? A l i s t of the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements accepted by experts as being integral to the process of s t o r y t e l l i n g was assembled. This l i s t was used as a guide in the analysis of the 21 oral storytexts gathered for the development of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. As p a r t i c u l a r elements -- l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c — were i d e n t i f i e d in an o ral storytext, that element was given a place in the emerging c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. When each of the oral storytexts had been thoroughly analyzed i t became evident that these p a r t i c u l a r four-year-old children do not, as yet, include some elements — l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c — in their o r al storytexts. For example, there was no example of 'breathing* used as an a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c element in any of the o r a l storytexts analyzed. Livo & Ritz (1986) write: The use of breath with language - huffing and puffing, controlled diaphragmatic release of a steady stream of a i r , a deep sigh, the sharp intake of breath are a l l part of the story (p.124). Further, after c a r e f u l l y reviewing the audio- recordings of the 21 o r a l storytexts, the investigator could not ident i f y an example of a four-year-old c h i l d using unarticulated noise-making. The subcategory includes, for example, hand 106 c l a p p i n g , f i n g e r snapping and tapping f e e t . I t a l s o became c l e a r t h a t the assembled l i s t d i d not i d e n t i f y an element which was apparent i n at l e a s t 3 of the o r a l s t o r y t e x t s . The c h i l d r e n who t o l d these s t o r i e s d i d so i n a very ' f l a t * s t y l e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d not i d e n t i f y any use of v o c a l v a r i e t y , nor was there an example of a word or phrase emphasized f o r dramatic e f f e c t or any example of a r t i c u l a t e d noisemaking. Instead the s t o r i e s were t o l d at a slow even pace with no r i s i n g or f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n . Nonetheless, i t was c l e a r that the s t o r i e s were being t o l d i n what can only be d e s c r i b e d as a ' s t o r y t e l l i n g v o i c e . x I t was necessary, t h e r e f o r e , to l a b e l t h i s element. I t was decided that the term 'vocal c r e a t i o n of mood/tone* best d e s c r i b e d t h i s element by which c h i l d r e n used t h e i r v o i c e s to c r e a t e the mood of a s t o r y t e l l i n g . G r a d u a l l y , the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements were c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and p l a c e d i n the emerging c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system which r e s u l t e d from t h i s c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s (see Chapter 4) c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g these p a r t i c u l a r episodes of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g . 107 2. What i s the range and d i v e r s i t y of l i n g u i s t i c elements  employed by 3- and 4-year-old children in episodes of  spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g ? In general, i t can be stated that the s t o r i e s t o l d by both the three- and four-year-old children included the following story and l i t e r a r y language elements: a. Formal Introduction: 12 of the 13 subjects opened thei r s t o r y t e l l i n g with a formal introduction. The only c h i l d who did not was Subject J who was 44 months at the time of her s t o r y t e l l i n g . This c h i l d introduced her s t o r y t e l l i n g with the formal t i t l e Peter and the Wolf. b. Consistent use of the past tense: 12 of the 13 subjects consistently used the past tense while t e l l i n g their s t o r i e s . Subject I, the c h i l d who did not, was the youngest c h i l d to t e l l story — 43 months. She had spent a considerable part of the afternoon creating a book which she decided to share with the group during storytime. Her story was as follows: Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l ... rainbows, c i r c l e s , l i n e s and c i r c l e s and here i s legs, pink and purple l i n e s and c i r c l e s . The end. Clearly, Subject I had introduced a story but then became involved in describing the i l l u s t r a t i o n s she had worked so hard to produce. c. Main Character: A l l 13 of the subjects introduced a 108 main c h a r a c t e r i n t o each of t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . A comparison of Tables I and II with Tables V and VI i n d i c a t e s that the f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d more of the s t o r y and l i t e r a r y language elements than d i d the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . For example, none of the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e d a s e t t i n g f o r t h e i r s t o r y while 7 of the 8 f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n d i d ; none of the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n concluded a s t o r y t e l l i n g with a formal c l o s u r e while 4 of the f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n d i d ; f i n a l l y , none of the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n introduced a problem to be r e s o l v e d while 6 of the f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n d i d . At f i r s t glance, t h e r e f o r e , the data appeared to i n d i c a t e an age r e l a t e d developmental p a t t e r n i n the c h i l d ' s emerging a b i l i t y to use s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c elements of s t o r y t e l l i n g . However, the data a l s o i n d i c a t e d that the o l d e r c h i l d r e n sometimes maintained l e s s complex l i n g u i s t i c elements i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . For example, 5 of the f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n used a tag ending to a b r u p t l y shut-down t h e i r s t o r y r a t h e r than b r i n g i n g the s t o r y to a n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n with a formal c l o s u r e . The data a l s o i n d i c a t e d that the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n sometimes in c l u d e d more complex l i n g u i s t i c elements in t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g . For example, 3 of the 5 t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n used r i c h d e s c r i p t i v e language to add d e t a i l to t h e i r s t o r y . The same 3 c h i l d r e n a l s o used d e s c r i p t i v e language to c r e a t e the mood of t h e i r s t o r y . The data, t h e r e f o r e , i n d i c a t e a developmental p a t t e r n i n the c h i l d ' s 109 mastery of the l i n g u i s t i c elements of s t o r y t e l l i n g which i s not necessarily t i g h t l y linked to the age of the c h i l d . 3. What i s the range and d i v e r s i t y of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c  elements employed by 3- and 4-year-old children in episodes  of spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g ? The data indicate that a l l the subjects added interest and meaning to their stories through the use of a broad range of a r t i c u l a t e d and unarticulated s t y l i s t i c elements. The stories told by both three- and four-year-old children included: a. S h i f t in intonation to signal s t o r y t e l l i n g : A l l the subjects indicated s t o r y t e l l i n g by a s h i f t in intonation. b. Gaze convergence to signal s t o r y t e l l i n g : A l l the subjects made eye-contact with the audience to indicate s t o r y t e l l i n g was about to begin. Although the data indicate that three- and four-year-old children are competent users of a variety of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements in their s t o r y t e l l i n g s , the data do not c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y any age related developmental pattern in the acq u i s i t i o n of s k i l l in the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c area. A comparison of Tables III and IV with Tables VII and IIX shows that children from the older four-year-old group and the younger three-year-old group used vocal variety (6 four-year-olds and 4 three-year-olds); emphasized words or phrases (6 four-year-olds and 3 three-year-olds); used a 110 character voice (3 four-year-olds and 1 three-year-old); used noise-making (1 four-year-old and 1 three-year-old); used pitch (6 four-year-olds and 4 three-year-olds); used f a c i a l expression to evoke character (3 four-year-olds and 1 three-year-old); used f a c i a l expression to create the mood or tone of a story (5 four-year-olds and 4 three-year-olds); used gaze convergence for dramatic effect (3 four-year-olds and 1 three-year-old); used character posturing (3 four-year-olds and 1 three-year-old); used body language to communicate the mood or tone of the story (4 four-year-olds and 3 three-year-olds). The fact that some children used pa r t i c u l a r p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements while others did not indicates a developmental pattern. However, because there are examples of children from both the younger and older groups s k i l l f u l l y using p a r t i c u l a r p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements, i t does not appear that the developmental pattern i s t i g h t l y linked to the age of the c h i l d . Conclusions Generally, four-year-old children tend to use more l i n g u i s t i c elements in the i r oral storytexts than do the three-year-old children. Three- and four-year-old children are both competent users of a broad range of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements although, again, the four-year-old children tend to use more of the p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements than do the three-year-old children. This would appear to indicate that there i s a developmental pattern in the acq u i s i t i o n of 111 s t o r y t e l l i n g s k i l l s which i s age related. However, a close scrutiny of individual children's oral storytexts reveals that older children often maintain less complex elements in their s t o r i e s while younger children may include more complex elements. It appears, therefore, that there i s a d e f i n i t e developmental pattern in the a c q u i s i t i o n of both the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements of s t o r y t e l l i n g , however, the development of these s k i l l s may not be closely linked with age. 4. Do d i f f e r e n t contexts influence the c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g  a b i l i t i e s ? The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system developed as a part of this study was also used to i d e n t i f y the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements embedded in the oral storytexts c o l l e c t e d from 8 four-year-old children using the wordless picture book Pancakes for Breakfast. This data were presented in table form (see Tables IX to XII). A comparison with the data presented in Tables I to IV (which i d e n t i f i e s the l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements employed by the same children but in a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y t e l l i n g context) i s used to answer the question of whether context influences the s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y of 8 four-year-old c h i l d r e n . The most apparent difference in the two sets of oral storytexts was observed in the children's use of the past tense. In the spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g s the children c o n s i s t e n t l y t o l d s t o r y i n t h e p a s t t e n s e — i n a l l , 21 s t o r i e s w e r e t o l d i n t h e p a s t t e n s e ( s e e T a b l e I ) . H o w e v e r , i n t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g s , c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e same c h i l d r e n , u s i n g t h e w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e b o o k , o n l y 2 o f t h e c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e n t l y u s e d t h e p a s t t e n s e . Why 6 c h i l d r e n , who h a d u s e d t h e p a s t t e n s e when s p o n t a n e o u s l y t e l l i n g s t o r y , d i d n o t when a s k e d t o t e l l s t o r y u s i n g t h e w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e b o o k , i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y c l e a r . A r e v i e w o f t h e v i d e o - t a p e s made o f t h e c h i l d r e n t e l l i n g s t o r y u s i n g P a n c a k e s f o r  B r e a k f a s t r e v e a l e d t h a t : a . A l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a n d l e d t h e b o o k i n a v e r y ' r e a d e r l y ' m a n n e r . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e book was h e l d t h e c o r r e c t way u p ; t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e y e s moved f r o m t h e l e f t p a g e t o t h e r i g h t p a g e ; t h e y t u r n e d t h e p a g e s f r o m r i g h t t o l e f t ; a n d , by c h e c k i n g t o s e e how many p a g e s w e r e l e f t t o be l o o k e d a t , t h e y c o u l d e s t i m a t e how much more o f t h e s t o r y was l e f t t o be t o l d . b . A l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d t o be c o n f u s e d a b o u t w h a t t h e y w e r e b e i n g a s k e d t o do w i t h t h e b o o k . I n g e n e r a l , t h e c o n f u s i o n was a p p a r e n t i n t h e way i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n l o o k e d a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s i f f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . I n two c a s e s t h e c h i l d r e n a r t i c u l a t e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s . On b e i n g a s k e d t o t e l l a s t o r y u s i n g t h e b o o k S u b j e c t D r e s p o n d e d : "I c a n ' t r e a d ! " S u b j e c t E s t a t e d : 113 "I don't know how I should do i t ! " I t can be argued that the above c o n f u s i o n arose f o r two reasons: a. These p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n have had a great d e a l of experience with books and probably understand that every book has a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y encoded i n i t . F u r t h e r , i t seems l i k e l y that these c h i l d r e n understand that i n order to decode the s t o r y c o n t a i n e d i n a book, r e q u i r e s the a b i l i t y to 'read' — as witnessed by Subject D's comment that he c o u l d not read. b. These p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n had had v i r t u a l l y no experience with wordless p i c t u r e books and the task of a c t u a l l y t e l l i n g s t o r y u sing a wordless p i c t u r e book as a prop was new and unknown. The c h i l d r e n were, t h e r e f o r e , understandably nervous and unsure of what was expected from them. As a r e s u l t 6 of the c h i l d r e n responded to the task by d e s c r i b i n g what they observed i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the book r a t h e r than 'making-up' a s t o r y u s i n g the book as a prop. I t was t h i s group of c h i l d r e n who used the present tense i n t h e i r o r a l t e x t s . The d e s c r i p t i v e passages produced by these c h i l d r e n , however, are f a r from d u l l . The data shows that the passages are r i c h i n both l i n g u i s t i c and p a r a l i n g u i s t i c elements. For t h i s reason, t h e r e f o r e , the o r a l t e x t s produced by t h i s group of c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r as 1 14 ' d e s c r i p t i v e s t o r i e s . ' For example, Subject G t o l d the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i v e - s t o r y : Once upon a time she was dreaming that she wants to have some pancakes. But she a c c i d e n t l y puts s a l t i t s not supposed to go i n — and puts pancake mix and she put an egg on top of i t and she got an egg from the chicken and she went out to the farm before she got the egg she went back and got home and made pancakes. Then she poured i t a l l over. F i r s t she puts i t i n there then she mixes i t and now she's l o o k i n g kind of scared 'cos i t ' s a l l brown. Then she puts some pancakes i n there and then she goes and the milkman leaves her some milk and she bakes and she dreams she's making l o t s and l o t s and l o t s of pancakes. And then she got home she make — i t happened to be that e v e r y t h i n g was s p i l t so she had to go back and s t a r t i t a l l over and then she i n v i t e d her f r i e n d s f o r dinner — I mean b r e a k f a s t — and then she ate a l l the pancakes on her p l a t e . C l e a r l y , Subject G i s attempting to decode what she observes i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Pancakes f o r Bre a k f a s t and, at the same time, g i v e her o r a l t e x t some v i t a l i t y . The data c o n f i r m t h a t Subject G used 8 s t o r y elements; repeated words as a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e ; used d e s c r i p t i v e language to add d e t a i l and to c r e a t e the mood/tone of the d e s c r i p t i v e - s t o r y ; she used v o c a l v a r i e t y and emphasized words f o r dramatic e f f e c t ; she used f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n and body language to b u i l d the mood/tone of the d e s c r i p t i v e - s t o r y and, she used c h a r a c t e r p o s t u r i n g to expose her c h a r a c t e r s (see Tables IX and X I I ) . The s t o r y t o l d by Subject G u s i n g Pancakes f o r  Brea k f a s t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y longer — 191 words — than the spontaneous s t o r i e s she t o l d — 43 words, 53 words, 69 words, 43 words and 46 words r e s p e c t i v e l y . Indeed, the length of the book Pancakes f o r Br e a k f a s t appeared to overwhelm some of the children. For example, Subject E had the following discussion with the researcher: Subject E: I can't do the rest i t s too hard. Anyway I just want to see which page I was on. Researcher I think you were on the cows weren't you? Subject E: No! I was with the chickens. Here i t i s ! Researcher: Oh, okay! And what happens afte r that? Subject E: I don't know how to do the rest of t h i s picture - i t ' s too hard! Researcher: Do you want to go onto the next one then? Subject E: No! I can't do t h i s book i t ' s too hard! Researcher: Too hard! You were doing such a good job. Let's see what can you t e l l me that i s going on in that one. What i s she doing in the story? Subject E: It takes too long! At t h i s point Subject E's story was already 206 words in length, almost double the length of his 117 word spontaneous story. It seems l i k e l y , therefore, that the subject was overwhelmed by the enormity of the task which he/she could see was s t i l l only half completed. Subject D was also impressed with the length of the task but went on to f i n i s h the book. After 194 words he made the comment, "This i s quite a long story — right?" and after 277 words he commented (with obvious r e l i e f ) , "We only have three more," meaning pages in the book. When completed 116 Subject D's s t o r y was 340 words i n l e n g t h while h i s spontaneous s t o r i e s were 152 and 93 words i n l e n g t h . C o n c l u s i o n s I t appears t h a t , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , the context d i d have an i n f l u e n c e on the c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , c h i l d r e n whose spontaneous s t o r y t e l l i n g s had always been t o l d i n the past tense responded to the task of t e l l i n g a s t o r y u s i n g the wordless p i c t u r e book Pancakes f o r B r e a k f a s t by d e s c r i b i n g the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the book i n the present tense. I t appears that the c h i l d r e n were confused about what they were being asked to do and, i n some cases, i n t i m i d a t e d by the l e n g t h of the task. F u r t h e r , i t can be s p e c u l a t e d that the c h i l d r e n were uncomfortable because the s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r e d from t h e i r n a t u r a l s t o r y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . 5. Do i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n have t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r  s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e ? The data appear to i n d i c a t e that each c h i l d has t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e of o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . The data show that the c h i l d r e n who t o l d more than one s t o r y used a s i m i l a r s t o r y t e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e / s t y l e i n each of t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . For example, Subject H used the same 8 s t o r y elements i n 2 of her 3 s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table I ) ; the same 3 l i t e r a r y language elements i n 2 of her 3 s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table II) the same 4 a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements in a l l 3 of her s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table I I I ) ; and the same unarticulated s t y l i s t i c elements in 2 of her 3 s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table IV). Subject G t o l d 5 s t o r i e s . She used the same 4 story elements in 3 of her 5 s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table I ) ; she used v i r t u a l l y no l i t e r a r y language elements in any of her s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table I I ) ; she used the same 4 ar t i c u l a t e d s t y l i s t i c elements in 3 of her 5 s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table I I I ) ; and the same 2 unarticulated s t y l i s t i c elements in 4 of her 5 s t o r y t e l l i n g s (see Table IV). The data suggest, therefore, that s t o r y t e l l e r s (even as young as three- and four-years of age) have their own unique s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e . Further the part i c u l a r s t y l e of each c h i l d appears to f a l l into one of the three categories i d e n t i f i e d by Mark Azadovsky (Pellowski, 1977 p.117): a) rambling and episodic; b) careful and meticulous; c) poetic and inventive. For example, Subject F (58 months) always t o l d stories in a disordered and episodic s t y l e : Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l . She was walking through the forest and then a dragon came. He ate the g i r l up and then she runned away. She was only two. U n t i l she saw her mother walk by she was very mad at the dragon because he had eaten her a l l up. And then a l i t t l e g i r l walked by and she wanted to see the elephants so she ride on a horse. And then a boy came and smiled at the g i r l and then the dragon came again and ate the boy a l l up and then he was very nice and he went to the forest again and sicked the l i t t l e g i r l so he can marry her and then they got married and they l i v e d together and l i v e d happy ever a f t e r . Clearly, Subject F often l o s t track of the plot of her story, which appears to be an adventure involving a l i t t l e g i r l , a l i t t l e boy and a dragon. Subject F's sto r i e s were always 'long-winded,' (see Appendix) in fact, t h i s i s example of one of her shorter s t o r i e s . Subject L, one of the three-year-old children (47 months), also t o l d s t o r i e s in th i s disordered and episodic s t y l e : Once upon a time there was a g i r l and she smelled the smoke and she went down the chimney and into the rainbow. So then she ate the rainbow up 'cos she smelled the rainbow so she ate i t up. And then when she got to ate i t up i t was raining and then they smelled the drops. And then there was a bed for a baby and then there was a shark and the shark i s going to get the baby but the baby runned away from i t . And then there was a helicopter and the helicopter caught the baby and put him in the garbage. Subjects A, B, C and K appear to f a l l into the second type of s t o r y t e l l e r , careful and meticulous (see Appendix). They narrated their stories slowly, calmly and very precisely there were no ' f r i l l s ' in their s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e . Subject B, aged 55 months, for example, t o l d the following story: Once there was a l i t t l e boy and his name was John and the l i t t l e g i r l came to the l i t t l e boy and that's the end. Subject K, aged 44 months, to l d the following story: Once upon a time there was a mousie who was c a l l e d Rick. He didn't know about such things 'cos he didn't know what colour i t was and that's the end. Subjects D, E, G, H, I and J f a l l into the t h i r d type of s t o r y t e l l e r , poetic and inventive (see Appendix). These children provided enough d e t a i l so that their stories moved smoothly without being 'long-winded.' Subject G, for example, t o l d the following story: Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and she couldn't walk so she had to go, hippity-hop, hippity-hop, hippity-hop. But then she hopped right over a rainbow and she could see everything except her house. But soon i t started to rai n . The end. The story has an abrupt ending but i t i s humorous, playful and the images are c l e a r l y expressed. Subject E, aged 54 months, whose story i s analyzed on pages 7 to 10, i s also a fine example of this type of s t o r y t e l l e r . Conclusions It appears that each c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g style f a l l s into one of the three categories of s t o r y t e l l e r s i d e n t i f i e d by Mark Azadovsky (Pellowski, 1977 p.117): rambling and episodic; c a r e f u l and meticulous and poetic and inventive. Since there are examples of three- and four-year-old children using each of the styles i t does not appear that p a r t i c u l a r styles of s t o r y t e l l i n g are age related. 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1. Because t h i s study has been an i n i t i a l exploration into the s t o r y t e l l i n g elements employed by children in episodes of s t o r y t e l l i n g , further research should be d i r e c t e d to r e f i n i n g the c a t e g o r i e s of a n a l y s i s which have been d e f i n e d thus f a r . A n a l y s i n g the s t o r i e s of o l d e r c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as t h r e e - and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n , would determine whether c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be added to the system and i f e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be made more d e t a i l e d . Any r e s e a r c h aimed at r e f i n i n g the e x i s t i n g c l a s s f i c i a t i o n system should make use of v i d e o - r e c o r d i n g equipment. T h i s would allow f o r a completely accurate r e c o r d i n g of the s t o r y t e l l i n g event. T r a n s c r i p t i o n s of v i d e o - r e c o r d i n g s of s t o r y t e l l i n g events may r e v e a l nuances of behaviour which were missed by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r who r e l i e d upon o b s e r v a t i o n a l notes and a u d i o - r e c o r d i n g s . A f t e r formal v a l i d a t i o n , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system c o u l d be employed to examine s t o r y t e l l i n g s recorded i n a v a r i e t y of contexts i n order to explore more f u l l y the e f f e c t context has upon s t o r y t e l l i n g . The present study found i n d i c a t i o n s that c h i l d r e n have t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e of s t o r y t e l l i n g . A f u r t h e r study, t h e r e f o r e , might look at i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n ' s s t y l e s of s t o r y t e l l i n g . The study might be designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether there i s any c o r r e l a t i o n between an i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g s t y l e and t h e i r l e a r n i n g s t y l e . The study c o u l d a l s o look at whether c h i l d r e n maintain the same s t y l e of s t o r y t e l l i n g over time. Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h would be to examine how c h i l d r e n as audience members respond to s t o r y t e l l i n g s . For example: a. what t y p e s of b e h a v i o u r s a r e e x h i b i t e d by c h i l d a u d i e n c e members d u r i n g s t o r y t e l l i n g s ; b. whether c h i l d a u d i e n c e members respond d i f f e r e n t l y t o s t o r i e s t o l d i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . A f u r t h e r a r e a of r e s e a r c h would be t o c l o s e l y examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d s t o r y t e l l e r and t h e c h i l d a u d i e n c e member(s). Such a study c o u l d f o c u s on the r o l e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g e v e n t . A f u r t h e r study c o u l d f o c u s on the metalanguage c h i l d r e n use t o t a l k about t h e i r s t o r i e s . BIBLIOGRAPHY 122 Applebee, A.N. 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Wells, Gordon (1985) Preschool l i t e r a c y - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s and success in school. In D. Olson i t a l (eds.) Literacy  Language and Learning. Cambridge University Press. Wells, Gordon (1985b) The Meaning Makers. London: Oxford University Press. APPENDIX Subject A b i r t h d a t e : September 22nd 1982 bruary 3rd 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l . She wanted to go to the beach with her daddy and she wanted to swim i n the white sea where the sun was. They found a swimming dog. Then they found a c a t and a doggie. And t h a t ' s the end. , 1987 R: Are you going to s t a r t there? Okay! What type of t h i n g s are going on i n the p i c t u r e that you can t e l l Paddington? A: SHE'S SLEEPING. R: She's s l e e p i n g — good! What other t h i n g s are happening i n that s t o r y ? A: THE DOG'S SCRATCHING ... MMMM ... YAWNING! R: He's yawning — good! And what's happening i n that s t o r y ? A: SHE'S DREAMING ABOUT PANCAKES. R: She's dreaming about pancakes — good! A: SHE'S ... SHE'S MAKING PANCAKES AND SHE'S TAKING OFF HER BIB AND SHE'S TAKING OUT HER BOOK AND I DON'T KNOW ... AND SHE'S COOKING THE STUFF IN HERE ... AND SHE'S PUTTING HER ... R: What i s she doing there? A: SHE'S PUTTING EGGS! R: Aah! she's p u t t i n g eggs. A: SHE'S WALKING OUTSIDE TO GET SOME MORE MILK ...AND MAKING LOTS OF PANCAKES. SHE'S MIXING IT ... SHE'S TAKING A BOTTLE OF MILK HOME. R: She's taking a bottle of milk home. A: AND SHE'S BRINGING HOME AND THE CAT SPILLS IT. R: Oh! Oh! A: AND SHE ... THEN SHE SMELLED SOMETHING. SHE SMELLED SOME PANCAKES. IS THAT THE ... UM ... GRANDMOTHER? R: It might be. A: IT CAN'T BE BECAUSE THESE ARE ... I THINK, MAYBE, THIS IS THE KID. LOTS OF PANCAKES. SHE'S EATING ALL THE PANCAKES! THEN SHE'S SLEEPING. Subject B birthdate: July 7th 1982 March 4th 1987 Once there was a l i t t l e boy and his name was John and the l i t t l e g i r l came to the l i t t l e boy and that's the end. May 1987 R: How does a story start? B: IT'S A ONE WINTER DAY. R: Pardon me? B: ONE WINTER DAY. R: One winter day ... mmm ... that sounds good. B: BED SLEEP TIGHT. WAKE UP IN THE MORNING EAT TIGHT. GET A BOOK AND READ, READ, READ. MAKE PANCAKES. MAKE DOG FOOD. GET EGGS FROM THE CHICKEN. GOING TO THE CHICKEN BARN GET THE EGGS. OUT SHE GOES GOING OFF TO THE SHOPS ... THEN SHE'S GOING TO THE COWS. SHE'S MAKING SOMETHING AND THEN SHE'S MAKING PANCAKES AND THEY WENT TO WALK ON THE STREET AGAIN ... WALKING ... AND THE CAT SPILLED THE MILK AND THEN MOTHER WAS SAD, AND SHE WALKED. AND JUST AS THEY HAD PANCAKES AND THE KID TOOK ALL THE PANCAKES AND THAT IS THE END. Subject C birthdate: November 19th 1982 March 4th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l throwing a b a l l . Her mother caught the b a l l and she threw i t back to the l i t t l e g i r l . Then they stopped playing b a l l and went into the house and then they went out to the shops. The end. May 1987 R: Can you t e l l Paddington a story from that page? What about the next? C: PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST. R: Pancakes for breakfast — that's right — that's the t i t l e . What's happening in t h i s picture? C: SHE'S WASHING THE DISHES. R: She's washing the dishes -- good! C: PANCAKES. R: Pancakes — that's right. What do you think she's going to do? C: MAKE PANCAKES. R: Make pancakes — mmm! C: SALT. R: What's that? C: SALT. R: Oh! s a l t . C: FLOUR. R: Flour — right! C: WHAT'S THAT? R: I don't know. What might i t be do you think? C: PANCAKE MIX. R: Pancake mix — that's a good guess. What's happening there? C: GETTING EGGS. R: She's getting eggs. C: FEEDING THE COW ... FEEDING THE COW ... GIVING MILK TO THE CAT ... MAKING THE BUTTER ... WHAT'S THAT? R: What i s what? C: THAT! R: I'm not sure what does i t look lik e ? What might i t be do you think? Could i t be something for the pancakes? Let's turn the page and see what happens. C: WHAT'S THAT? R: I'm riot sure. C: I DON'T KNOW WHAT'S ON THIS PAGE! R: You don't know about t h i s page l e t ' s see what's on the next? PANCAKES. THAT WAS SYRUP. That was syrup — that's ri g h t . I bet you i t was. PANCAKES -- THAT'S BUTTER. That's butter that's what's happening — right? THE CAT SPILT THE MILK. The cat s p i l t the milk. Oh! Oh! WHAT'S THAT? That might be her coat. PANCAKES. What are they doing? C: THE END. Subject D birthdate: September 9th 1982 January 28th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and she wanted to catch a shark. And she got .. she bought a new f i s h i n g rod and she caught a shark but i t was too scarey so she threw i t in the dump. And then she caught a whale and he ate her up. And then she her mother went fi s h i n g and she got eaten up by the same what the l i t t l e g i r l d i d . And then his daddy went f i s h i n g and he caught the whale and he threw i t in the dump. And then the others got out. And then they caught a Yellow-de-tellowdy-diddy ... and t h i s i s the Yellow-de-tellowdy-diddy right here see that yellow and here's the orange and other colors and there's l o t s of them ... and then they caught a orange one and a l l the f i s h that we can eat so, they ate them a l l up for dinner and that's the end. January 29th 1987 Once a l i t t l e g i r l wanted to go f i s h i n g and she caught a shark and the shark ate her up and the l i t t l e g i r l was inside the shark and then her mother came and she went in the same shark as the l i t t l e c h i l d did and then the father came and he came and he went f i s h i n g and he threw the shark in the dump and then the others could get out of the mouth and then they went and got a l l the fishes and they ate them for dinner and that's the end. May 1987 D: I CAN'T READ! R: There's no words so you can just make i t up out of your head ... from the pictures. How does a story start sometimes? D: ONCE UPON A TIME. R: Right! Maybe you could start with that. D: OH! OH! WHAT SHALL I START WITH? R: Well look at the pictures and maybe you can get some ideas .. then you can start your story o f f . D: I KNOW — ONCE THERE WAS A LITTLE HOUSE AND THERE WAS A LITTLE BOY AND YOU KNOW HE REALLY DIDN'T HAVE A CAR SO THEY HAD TO HAVE A HORSE PULLING A SLEIGH 'COS IT WAS ALWAYS SNOWING ... IT KEPT SNOWING EVERY DAY AND EVERY NIGHT SO THEY HAD TO HAVE A SLEIGH TO GET EVERYWHERE AND THAT'S THE END OF THAT ONE ... R: Okay, l e t ' s turn the page and see i f we can go on — that's great! C: AND HIS MOTHER MADE SOME PANCAKES AND SHE MADE SO MUCH IT WAS OVER ... OVERFLOWING AND THEN SHE GOT HER RECIPE AND IT TOLD HER HOW MUCH SHE SHOULD GET, ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, FIVE SO THEN SHE MADE THEM AND THEY WERE JUST PERFECT ~ AND THEN ON TO THE NEXT PAGE -- AND THEN SHE GOT EVERYTHING SHE NEEDED POURED IT IN AND SHE GOT SOME EGGS AND THEN SHE WENT TO THE GROCERY STORE BECAUSE SHE RAN OUT OF THE FOOD AND SHE HAD TO GET ... GO TO THE GROCERY STORE AND — TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE — AND THEN SHE GOT SOME MILK FROM THE COW THEN SHE CAME BACK INTO THE HOUSE MADE THEM AND THEY WERE JUST PERFECT AND THEN SHE JUST PUT A FROWN ON BECAUSE SHE FORGOT HIS FATHER NEEDED DINNER SO SHE MADE THE DINNER QUICK AS SHE COULD AND THAT"S THE END OF THAT PAGE ... THIS IS QUITE A LONG STORY -RIGHT? R: Just a l i t t l e b i t l e f t , but you're doing a great job ... I l i k e your story! D: AND THEN SHE MADE ... MADE HIS DINNER AND THEN HE CAME HOME AND THERE THEY GO. WHO COULD THAT BE I WONDER? R: I don't know. What's happening here? D: I DON'T KNOW. DO YOU KNOW WHAT'S HAPPENING? R: No, why don't you t e l l me? D: SHE BAKED PANCAKES, AND THEY STARTED OVERFLOWING ONES AND SHE MADE THEM PANCAKES AND IT DIDN'T WORK AND SHE MADE THEM AND THEY CRUMPLED-UP BUT SHE MADE THEM AND THEY WORKED FINE ... BUT ... 'CEPT SHE HAD TO STIR THEM — THAT'S THE END OF THOSE PICTURES -AND EVEN SHE HAD TO GO TO THE STORE AFTER ALL FOR HER SON AND THEN SHE SAW THEIR CAT DUMPED EVERYTHING AND --WE ONLY HAVE THREE MORE -- AND THEN SHE HAD TO CLEAN UP EVERYTHING — THAT'S THE END OF THAT PAGE -- AND SHE WENT OUT IN THE NICE WARM SUN THEN GOES TO THE NEXT HOUSE TO VISIT SOMEBODY AND THEN WHEN THE FATHER CAME HOME HE WAS SO SURPRISED OF HIS SON -- 'COS LOOK -- AND THEN THEY GOT EVERYTHING OUT AND THEN THEY ATE PANCAKES FOR DINNER AND SO AFTERALL EVERY NIGHT THEY GOT PANCAKES FOR DINNER. Subject E birthdate: July 25th 1982 January 19th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e boy who'd l i k e to catch a f i s h but he didn't catch a f i s h . He never caught a f i s h . But one day he saw a bunny jumping around and then he said, "No I wanna catch you! I wanna catch you! Come here, come here, come here!" "No! " "Come here bunny. Don't go away from me. Come to me!" Then the l i t t l e boy jumped into the water to have a l i t t l e swim in the water and then he saw a f i s h swimming in the water but he was a f r a i d to touch i t because he was scared of f i s h ... scared of f i s h and then one day ... then after he saw the f i s h he went ... he saw some ... a plant in the water and then there's some seaweed. The end. May 1987 E: CAN I JUST LOOK AT THE PICTURES? R: Sure. E: I DON'T KNOW HOW I SHOULD DO IT? R: Can you t e l l us what's going on in that picture? E: THE SUN'S COMING UP! R: Good! E: AND THE SNOW IS FALLING OFF THE TREES AND ... AND THE SNOW ... AND THE HOUSE IS COVERED WITH SNOW AND THE CHIMNEY IS AND A WHOLE BUNCH OF SNOW GOES FALLING INTO THEIR FIREPLACE AND THEN THERE IS SOME IN TOP OF THE LOG HOUSE. R: Right! E: AND THEN THE GATE . . . FENCE IS TOO AND SO IS THE OTHER HOUSE AND SO ARE THE SIGNS AND THE ROCKS ... THE PILE OF ROCKS ARE. AND THAT'S IT! R: Something else i s happening in t h i s story. E: THE CAT AND DOG ARE SITTING BESIDE EACH OTHER AND THEN THE CAT GOES SLEEPING ON THE BED AND THEN SHE SLEEPS AND WHILE SHE'S SLEEPING ON THE BED THE DOG GOES ... AAUUURRRRRR! ON THE CARPET AND THEN HE'S JUST ABOUT TO POUR SOME MILK IN THE CEREAL BOWL AND THEN HE'S THINKING OF PANCAKES AND THEN THERE'S A COAT HANGING ON THE HANGER AND THAT'S IT. SHE'S THINKING OF PANCAKES AND THE CAT AND DOG ARE SITTING BESIDE HER AND THEN SHE STARTS TO READ A BOOK AND THEN ... I ... THIS ... R: You're doing a good story — I l i k e i t ! Let's see what's going on in thi s one — What's happening here? E: SHE'S MAKING SOME CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIES ... COOKIES ... BECAUSE I CAN SEE THOSE LOOK SORT OF LOOK LIKE CHOCOLATE CHIPS. I CAN'T THINK OF ANYTHING ELSE. R: T e l l me what's happening here? E: OKAY! THE DOG'S LOOKING THROUGH THE WINDOW AND SHE'S FEEDING THE CHICKENS AND SHE'S GIVING THEM EGGS. R: What else i s happening in t h i s ... in your story? E: I CAN'T DO THE REST IT'S TOO HARD. ANYWAY I JUST WANT TO SEE WHICH PAGE I WAS ON. R: I think you were on the cows weren't you? E: NO! I WAS WITH THE CHICKENS ... CHICKENS. R: Okay! E: HERE IT IS! R: Oh, okay! And what happens after that? E: I DON'T KNOW HOW TO DO THE REST OF THIS PICTURE ... IT'S TOO HARD! R: Do you want to go onto the next one then? E: NO! I CAN'T DO THIS BOOK IT'S TOO HARD! R: Too hard! You were doing such a good job. Let's see ... what can you t e l l me that i s going on in that one. What i s she doing in the story? E: IT TAKES TOO LONG! Subject F birthdate: A p r i l 29th 1982 January 14th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l catching ... she found a b u t t e r f l y in her room and i t turned ... i t was a worm and i t turned into a b u t t e r f l y in her box. Then Wonder Woman came and she saw her in bed and she saw some peanuts on the f l o o r . Then some p r i c k l y urchins came and she ate them a l l up. And then a octapus ate the l i t t l e g i r l up with a l i t t l e baby and she swim in the water and the octapus ate her a l l up. January 27th 1987 One time there were two l i t t l e g i r l s . One went in the water and a whale came and ate them a l l up. And then they were both together down in the whale an they went up into the water and then a whale came and ate the l i t t l e octapus a l l up. February 5th 1987 When they're going to Grandma's they said to the boy they said, "Do you need to go pee?" He said, "No!" and his dad said to make sure, "Do you need to go Pee?" "No! I decided I'm never going to go pee!" And as soon as they're in the car he said, "I need to go pee!" And he said, "Yikes, Oh! No." Then he was going to the gas station and he said, "I need to go pee, now!" So he peed behind a tree. And when he was going to Grandma's — t h i s i s r e a l l y s i l l y -when he was going to Grandma's he said, "Do you need to go pee?" "No!" and his dad said, "Do you need to go pee, pee, pee, pee!" and he said, "No! I'm never going to go pee again!" And then they were outside and the one boy said, "I need to go pee-ee! I need to go pee-ee!" And he y e l l e d "I need to go pee!" And then dad said, "Yikes!" and then they were having dinner — that's i t -- and then they kissed him goodnight and said, "Do you need to go pee?" and they gived him a kiss . His mother gave a kiss and his dad gave a kiss, his grandma gave a kiss and his grandpa and they a l l said, "Do you need to go pee?" and he said, "No! I decided I'm never going to go pee." They waited for 15 minutes and 10 minutes and they said, "I think he's asleep." "Me too, I think he's asleep." "I think he's asleep." "Me too, I think he's asleep." And then he said, "I've wet my bed. February 10th 1987 Once upon a time there was a ba l l e t g i r l . B allet g i r l does dancing on the road. She said, "I have a heart in my hand," said b a l l e t g i r l . The carebear said, "I gave i t to you because I thought you want some care. It's a lovalot bear and then the other carebear came and said, "Well, I got balloons heart balloons." Then he said, "Well, I l i k e my doggy the best." "Rouff, Rouff!" then he said. Then rabbit came and said, "Woow! look what I found I have a butte r f l y in my hand." "Well don't be careless." "Okay!" Then he said, "Oh! that's my l i t t l e g i r l coming by." Then he said, "Oh, no don't be s i l l y . There's some sky up there. Look behind the clouds." So F a l l a l o t came on the clouds and then there was a lovely monster but he was scared. But i t opened up and he said, "Oh! that's a boy," and then he said, "I came to bring me so we can bring you swimming." So the doggy said, "Rouff, Rouff!" Then 137 the other carebear came and s a i d , "Oh! I t h i n k I'm going go and get my doggy." So F a l l a l o t came and he s a i d , "Whoopsi, doggy I love you!" February 18th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l . She was walking through the f o r e s t and then a dragon came. He ate the g i r l up and then she runned away. She was only two because she was l i t t l e . He mum was saying she was two. She fo r g o t 'cos she was another number and i t was one. She was one. She saw her mother walk by and she was very mad at the dragon 'cos she ... he had eaten her a l l up. And then a l i t t l e g i r l walked by and she wanted to see the elephants so she r i d e on a horse. And then a boy came and smiled at the g i r l and then the dragon came again and ate the boy a l l up and then he was very n i c e and he went to the f o r e s t again and s i c k e d the l i t t l e g i r l so he can marry her and then they got married and they l i v e d together and l i v e d happy ever a f t e r . February 25th 1987 Once upon a time there was one, two, thr e e , f o u r , f i v e l i t t l e r a b b i t s . They were jumping up and down and one was named Bootsy and they were jumping up and down so f a s t they even bonked a l i t t l e '0.' And then a l i t t l e p r i n c e s s came down with l i t t l e t u l i p s and they were f l y i n g to t h e i r house and then one was on the top of the t r e e and the l i t t l e g i r l came by and there was l o t s of t u l i p s and there was a ghost and then a rainbow, a couple of b a l l o o n s and then a l l of the r a b b i t s came out and then a sun came out and a t r e e came out and there were oranges and apples on the t r e e . He came out of her house. February 25th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e r a b b i t . H i s name was Bootsy. He almost runned i n t o a t r e e but a g i r l came out and maked a f i r e and then she went to bed. A witch came out and put her i n the garbage and the dump came and taked her away. The end. 1987 ONCE UPON A TIME THERE WAS A L I T T L E GIRL SHE WAS SLEEPING IN HER BED. SHE WOKE UP AND A RAINBOW WAS ON THE NIGHT SHE WENT OUTSIDE. SHE WAS IN THE FOREST. SHE GOT MORE LOST AND GOT MORE LOST UNTIL A TIGER CAME. SHE WENT TO HER GRANNY. HER GRANNY WAS SLEEPING. THE ELEPHANT CAME IN HER HOUSE AND THEN A DOG. THE DOG WAS SLEEPING ON THE RUG AND SCRATCHING. THE CAT WAS MEOWING AND SLEEPING ON THE BED AND THE BED COULDN'T HOLD THEM - - TWO OF THEM. SO, GRANNY PUT THEM OUT AND MADE SOME DINNER AND IT WAS PANCAKES.'SHE GOT OUTSIDE AND THE GIRL WAS KNOCKING AT THE DOOR FOR TWO HOURS. SHE DID TWO HOURS, ONE HOUR AND THEN ANOTHER HOUR T I L L IT WAS NIGHT T I M E . SHE KNOCKED ON THE DOOR AND THEN SHE OPENED THE DOOR BUT GRANNY WAS SLEEPING SO SHE TAKED AWAY THE PANCAKES. ATE THEM ALL UP AND THEN GRANNY WAKED UP AND THE PANCAKES WAS GONE. R: Oh! s h a l l we see what ' s on the next page? S h a l l I t u r n the page. F : SHE TAKED OUT THE BOOK AN MADE SOME MORE PANCAKES AND DID THE ONE PANCAKE AND THEN SHE WAS . . . AND THEN THE NEXT MORNING THE PANCAKES WERE GONE. SHE DID SOME MORE PANCAKES. GAME SOME FOOD TO THE DOG AND THEN WENT OUT FOR THE MORNING. SHE MADE SOME PANCAKES AND THEN WENT OUT TO A MOVIE. THE PANCAKE WAS GONE WHEN SHE MADE THEM SO SHE WENT TO HER PUPPY AND WENT OUT FOR THE MORNING. HER DOG WENT AND IN THE MORNING SHE BRINGED THE PANCAKE AND BRINGED SOME EGGS. AND WHAT DO YOU THINK SHE SAW? A DOG JUST LOOKING AT HER. SHE TAKED THE DOG HOME AND GIVED IT CHICKENS AND TWO L I T T L E CHICKENS GOT OUT OF THEIR BARN. THE CAT WENT OUT WITH THEM. SHE WAS SO MAD BECAUSE THE PANCAKES WERE GONE. SHE TAKED OFF HER SLIPPERS BRINGED THE CHAIR TO SEE WHAT'S ON HER ROOF. SO SHE BRINGED THE CAT AND THE CAT JUMPED OVER THE MOON. SHE BORROWED SOME MILK AND WENT OFF AND GET SOME BARN FOR THE COW AND GETS THE MILK AND POURED IT IN THERE. AND THEN SHE MIXED IT AROUND AND IT GOT MORE HOT AND GETS SOME MORE MILK AND IT GOT MORE HOT; MORE MILK AND MORE MILK — POUR IT IN AND THEN IT GOT MORE SALTIER AND THEN SHE MADE SOME MORE MILK PANCAKES. THE FOOD AND THE DOG WENT UNDER THE T A B L E . THE CAT WENT EVERYWHERE AND THE GRANDMA DIDN'T KNOW WHAT HAPPENED. SO THE MAN NEXT DOOR BRINGED SOMETHING TO THE WOMAN AND SHE WENT HOME. THE MAN WENT BACK IN AND SHE GOT SOME MILK. SHE GOT THE BIGGEST PANCAKES SHE EVER SAW AND THE NEXT MORNING SHE WENT UP ATE HER PANCAKES AND SHE WENT TO THE L I T T L E . . . AND THINGS F E L L DOWN AND THE CAT WAS DRINKING IT. AND THEN SHE GOT SO MAD THAT THE CAT DRINKED ALL OF IT. THEN SHE GOT PUKED WHEN THE EGGS GOT INTO HER CUP AND GOT SOME MORE FROM NEXT DOOR. AND THEN THE LITTLE BOY ... THE GRANNY CAME IN AND SAID, "HELLO!" SHE HAD PANCAKES FOR DINNER THEN SHE WENT TO SLEEP! Subject G birthdate: March 16th 1987 January 22nd 1987 One day a l i t t l e g i r l went to school and she picked some apples and after she picked some apples she went home and then she saw a rainbow and then she saw a rocket going to the rainbow. That's the end of January 29th 1987 Once upon a time there was a Queen s i t t i n g in a chair. And she was going to go to a wedding but she had to stop because she had to go up onto a rainbow. And then she went back in her Queen's ca s t l e but someone had made hopscotch so she did hopscotch. February 16th 1987 There was a town and one day a f i r e came. A lady sat and she sat down and waited t i l l the moon. Then she found a rainbow and she climbed to the very end and found the pot-of-gold. And so she went to the Heart-fairy and she gave the pot-of-gold to her and then there was f i r e . February 18th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and she wanted to go on top of a rainbow so she walked on top but she didn't f i n d any rainbow so she walked and pick some flowers and saw some hearts. The end. February 25th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and she couldn't walk so she had to go hippity-hop, hippity-hop. But then she hopped right over a rainbow and she could see everything except her house. But soon i t started to rai n . The end. May 1987 G: OH! LOTS OF PANCAKES. I GUESS THEY WANT PANCAKES BECAUSE IT'S COLD. BUT TODAY I BET THE SNOW WOULD ALL MELT. R: Shall we start the story from that page? A l r i g h t ... how do stories usually start? G: ONCE UPON A TIME. R: Yea! G: SHE WAS DREAMING THAT SHE WANTS TO HAVE SOME PANCAKES. R: Uh huh! she's dreaming she wants to have some pancakes. G: BUT SHE ACCIDENTLY PUTS SALT ... IT'S NOT SUPPOSED TO GO IN AND PUTS PANCAKE MIX AND SHE PUT AN EGG ON TOP OF IT AND SHE GOT AN EGG FROM THE CHICKEN AND SHE WENT OUT TO THE FARM BEFORE SHE GOT THE EGG SHE WENT BACK AND GOT HOME AND MADE PANCAKES. THEN SHE POURED IT ALL OVER . . . R: What happened there? G: SHE'S DOING IT BACKWARDS. SHE'S GOING BUMP! BUMP! BUMP! AND THEN SHE GOES AND TIPS IT OVER. FIRST SHE PUTS IT IN THERE THEN SHE MIXES IT AND NOW SHE'S LOOKING KIND OF SCARED 'COS IT'S ALL BROWN. THEN SHE PUTS SOME PANCAKES IN THERE AND THEN SHE GOES AND THE MILKMAN LEAVES HER SOME MILK AND SHE BAKES AND SHE DREAMS SHE'S MAKING LOTS AND LOTS AND LOTS OF PANCAKES. AND THEN SHE GOT HOME SHE MADE ... IT HAPPENED TO BE THAT EVERYTHING WAS SPILT SO SHE HAD TO GO BACK AND START IT ALL OVER AND THEN SHE INVITED HER FRIENDS FOR DINNER AND THEN SHE ~ I MEAN BREAKFAST — AND THEN SHE ATE ALL THE PANCAKES ON HER PLATE. Subject H birthdate: March 31st 1983 January 28th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and her name was Amy. And the clouds growed bigger and bigger and l i t t l e r and l i t t l e r and l i t t l e r and she growed bigger and bigger and bigger. Then she walked home and t e l l e d her mummy, "Look at me!" And the mummy said, "You look yucky!" And she got stew a l l over herself and then she takes a bath and that's the end. February 17th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and she saw some rainbows up in the sky and then frosty wind came and i t blew the rainbows right away. And then the wolf ate up the l i t t l e g i r l . The l i t t l e g i r l thought she was in bed and she was scared so she jumped out the wolf's mouth and then she went home and shutted the door good in their home. And that's the end. 142 February 18th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l and her name was Sa l l y . There was gray clouds up in the sky and then some gray clouds grewed up in the sky. Some bad guys came. They wanted the rainbow land to get a l l spooky. And Murkey and Lurkey wanted to capture Rainbow Brite and her frie n d . There was shooting at Murkey and Lurkey — i t was their daddy. It was a l i t t l e g i r l ' s daddy and they were dead and that's the end. May 1987 R: How does the story start? H: I DON'T KNOW YET! R: You don't know yet. Let's look at some pictures. Are you getting some ideas from the pictures? Okay Ashleigh now you've had a chance to see some of the pictures and you know some of the things that are going on in the story l e t ' s see i f you can make-up a story to t e l l Paddington from the pictures. Can you t e l l him what's going on in that one? H: THE SNOW IS FALLING. R: The snow i s f a l l i n g — good! What can you t e l l us about that one? H: MAKING SOME PANCAKES. R: Great! What's happening in that one, Ashleigh? H: GETTING A BOOK AND SHE'S MAKING SOME PANCAKES. PICKING-UP EGGS; GETTING SOME MILK. SHE'S MILKING THE COW PUTTING A BUCKET OF MILK INTO THE MILK CUP. WHAT'S THAT? R: It's c a l l e d a butter-churner. It makes butter. H: OH! SHE'S PUTTING IT INTO A BOWL AND SHE'S WALKING IN THE SNOW AND GIVING THAT TO THE MAN. SHE'S THINKING ABOUT MAKING PANCAKES AND WHEN SHE GOT IN THE DOG AND CAT WERE GETTING INTO BIG TROUBLE AND THEN SHE WENT HOME TO HER MOTHER AND FATHER. AND SHE HAD PANCAKES. Subject I birthdate: A p r i l 3rd 1983 January 14th 1987 Once upon a time there be a octapus. A octapus i s a ... and one time there be an octapus. It has big legs to catch with and i t says, "Oh yes!" One time i t give me a hug and one time i t was going away. There's big whales out there and that's the end. Subject J birthdate: June 10th 1983 February 17th 1987 You did hear the wolf one ...Peter and the Wolf. That's Peter and the wolf right there. The bird came on his nose -- l i k e t h i s ! He pinched him on the nose 'cos Peter and the wolf i s pretty bad, so he pulled the wolf's nose. Subject K birthdate: June 30th 1983 February 25th 1987 Once upon a time there was a mousie who was c a l l e d Rick. He didn't know about such thngs 'cos he didn't know what colour i t was and that's the end. February 25th 1987 Once upon a time there was a mousie c a l l e d Fred and that's the end. Subject L b i r t h d a t e : March 29th 1983 January 29th 1987 This i s something and then when the spider catched the f i s h he t r i e d to k i l l i t . Then i t climbed under water and then he caught a shark. February 18 1987 Once upon a time there was a g i r l and she smelled the smoke and she went down the chimney and into the rainbow. So then she ate the rainbow up 'cos she smelled the rainbow so she ate i t up. And then when she got to ate i t up i t was raining and then they smelled drops. And then there was a bed for a baby and then there was a shark. And t h i s i s the shark and i t ' s going to get the baby but the baby's running away from i t ... swinging the shark around — i t ' s going "Swish, Swish!" and then there was a helicopter. And the helicopter caught the baby and put him in the garbage. Subject M birthdate: August 10th 1983 March 4th 1987 Once upon a time there was a l i t t l e g i r l -- rainbow, 145 c i r c l e s , l i n e s and c i r c l e s and here i s legs, pink and purple lines and c i r c l e s . The end. 

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