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Writing instruction and its influence on the reading abilities of selected grade eleven students : an… Ferris, Judith Ann 1984

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WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE READING A B I L I T I E S OF SELECTED GRADE ELEVEN STUDENTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  by JUDITH ANN FERRIS B.A., B i s h o p ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  6b THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1984 ©  J u d i t h Ann F e r r i s , 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her understood t h a t  be  granted by  representatives.  s h a l l not be  Language E d u c a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  August 31, 1984  my  It i s thesis  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  the head o f  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  thesis  written  Abstract  This exploratory study examined the e f f e c t of a process-oriented w r i t i n g programme on reading s k i l l s during one semester i n which students were given w r i t i n g , but not formal reading i n s t r u c t i o n . Twenty-five students enrolled i n English 11 during the f i r s t semester served as the experimental group, while twenty-five students not taking English 11 f i r s t semester served as a c o n t r o l group.  The  experimental group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a process-oriented w r i t i n g programme, Writing 44, for nineteen weeks. Both groups were pre-and posttested with the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2 and the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D, the l a t t e r a locally-developed c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t of writing s k i l l s . Independent t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance were used to compare pre-and posttest scores of reading comprehension and vocabulary on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 o  and 2, and pre-and posttest scores of w r i t i n g on the Writing 44 Diagn o s t i c Test.  A Pearson R C o r r e l a t i o n was also c a r r i e d out to examine  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reading comprehension, vocabulary, and w r i t i n g . T-tests f o r independent samples showed a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence favouring the experimental group i n the vocabulary subtest.  The  Repeated Measures of Analysis of Variance showed no group d i f f e r e n c e s on the vocabulary subtest, but there was a s i g n i f i c a n t time e f f e c t  ii  (p^.01).  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  i n t h e comprehension s u b t e s t  on e i t h e r t - t e s t s o r Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s  of Variance.  Both t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s  o f V a r i a n c e showed  the e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n w r i t i n g a f t e r pating  i n the Writing  44 Programme f o r one semester.  In t h e c o n t r o l group, t h e w r i t i n g p r e t e s t comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y p o s t t e s t , posttest  correlated  posttests  correlated  w i t h both  s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05; t h e w r i t i n g  w i t h both comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and  a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  In t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, t h e w r i t i n g p r e t e s t both comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t t e s t s Writing  partici-  posttest  correlations  were  correlated  with  a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  non-significant.  A p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d w r i t i n g programme d i d n o t improve r e a d i n g comprehension f o r t h i s s e l e c t e d  group o f Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s d u r i n g  one semester, but i t d i d improve w r i t i n g  ability.  The d i s t i n c t i o n i s made t h a t w h i l e two a r e a s o f language p r o cessing are related  t o each o t h e r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  a c a u s a l one. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a r e r e l a t e d , improvement necessarily  i n one a r e a o f language p r o c e s s i n g does n o t  r e s u l t i n improvement  i n another.  I t i s recommended t h a t r e s e a r c h be c a r r i e d out i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : !) a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g ; 2) a s t u d y i n syntactic  growth i n w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g comprehension; 3) a s t u d y o f  the e f f e c t o f s e n t e n c e combining and r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g ;  iv  4) a comparison of the w r i t i n g s u b s k i l l s scores and reading comprehension scores; 5) a study.,of the t r a i t s of good readers/poor w r i t e r s and poor readers/good  w r i t e r s ; 6) use of other evaluative instruments, such as  c l o z e , to measure reading achievement; 7) a study on how the readingw r i t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s affected by d i f f e r e n t kinds of prose and d i f f e r e n t modes of w r i t i n g ; 8) a study of the e f f e c t of o r a l language on w r i t i n g .  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ' i i  LIST OF TABLES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  Chapter I  THE PROBLEM  1  Background o f t h e Study Statement o f t h e Problem Design o f t h e Study Questions f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n N u l l Hypotheses S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Paper II  2 4 4 6 6 7 7 9 9  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  11  C o r r e l a t i o n a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t u d i e s Teaching Reading t o Improve W r i t i n g S k i l l s . . . Teaching W r i t i n g t o Improve Reading S k i l l s . . . G e n e r a l C o m p o s i t i o n and Reading Sentence Combining and Reading Comprehension • . Chapter Summary III  RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES Research Design N u l l Hypotheses Sample Instrumentation Treatment Data C o l l e c t i o n Data P r o c e s s i n g and A n a l y s i s  '.  11 16 19 20 25 31 .  33 33 34 35 35 37 41 41  vi  Chapter IV  ANALYSIS OF DATA Reading Results Reading Pretest Results Reading Pretest Results - Vocabulary . . . Differences - Vocabulary Reading Posttest Results - Comprehension . . Differences - Comprehension Writing Results Writing Pretest Results Writing Posttest Results Differences - Writing Reading, Comprehension, Vocabulary and Writing Relationships . . . . Relationships of Reading and Writing i n Control Group Relationships of Reading and Writing i n Experimental Group Summary  V  RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . Results Reading Changes - Vocabulary Measure . . . Reading Changes - Comprehension Measure . . Writing Changes Changes i n the Relationships between Reading and Writing Control Group Findings Experimental Group Findings Implications and Recommendations Suggestions f o r Research  43 44 44 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 54 54 56 58 60 60 60 62 63 63 64 64 65 68  REFERENCES  72  APPENDIX A  7$  vii LIST OF TABLES  TABLE 1  2  Page G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , F o r m l , Vocabulary S u b t e s t  L e v e l F, 45  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , Form 1, L e v e l F, Comprehension S u b t e s t  46  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , Form 2, L e v e l F, Vocabulary S u b t e s t . . . .  47  Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f GatesM a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, Vocabulary S u b t e s t Scores .  48  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , Form 2, L e v e l F, Comprehension S u b t e s t  49  Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f GatesM a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, Comprehension S u b t e s t Scores  50  7  W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form C  51  8  W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D  9  Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D  53  Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s between Reading and W r i t i n g Scores o f t h e C o n t r o l Group on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D  55  Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s between Reading and W r i t i n g Scores o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D  57  3  4  5  6  10  11  . . . . .  52  viii  Acknowledgements  I t i s with pleasure that the writer acknowledges her g r a t i t u d e to those who have contributed i n so many ways to t h i s study: To my advisor, Dr. Geraldine Snyder, f o r her patience, assistance, and encouragement, making t h i s an invaluable learning experience. To Dr. Jane Catterson f o r her i n t e r e s t , substantive comments, and guidance. To Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f f o r h i s c l e a r explanations of the f i n e points of research design and s t a t i s t i c s . To Mr. Bob Prosser f o r h i s assistance i n computer programming and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the study. To Dr. Leo Marshall, Superintendent of the School D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, and Mr. Howard Cross, Language Arts Consultant f o r the School D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, f o r t h e i r support and encouragement i n making i t p o s s i b l e f o r me to conduct the study, and f o r permission to r e p r i n t Writing 44 m a t e r i a l . To Mr. Ed C o l l i n s , P r i n c i p a l of Carson Graham Secondary School, and the English teachers of the school, f o r t h e i r co-operation i n the study. To Mrs. Marjory P e l l s , who typed not only t h i s t h e s i s , but also much of the o r i g i n a l Writing 44 m a t e r i a l . To my mother, my four c h i l d r e n , and above a l l , my husband, B i l l , who encouraged me and often put my needs before t h e i r own.  CHAPTER I  The Problem  The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of reading and w r i t i n g have been the focus of a great deal of research (Armstrong, 1976; Dechant, 1970; Loban, 1966; Moffett, 1968; Robinson, 1963; Robinson and Burrows, 1974; Smith, 1971; Spache and Spache, 1969).  Many studies indicated that achievement i n  one language s k i l l c o r r e l a t e s with achievement i n another language  skill  (Applebee, 1977; Chomsky, 1973; Crews, 1971; Obenchain, 1971; Reed, 1967). Notwithstanding the c o r r e l a t i o n s between language s k i l l s found i n many studies (as Belanger (1978) pointed o u t ) , a c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n ship i s not the same as a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p .  In h i s study, a programme  that improved reading, f o r example, did not produce an improvement i n writing s k i l l . An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e bears out Belanger's conclusion. With the exception of a few studies the evidence shows that attempts to improve w r i t i n g by teaching reading or to improve reading by teaching w r i t i n g have been f r u i t l e s s .  Stotsky (1975), i n f a c t , i n her review of  l i t e r a t u r e on reading and w r i t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , concluded that although the assumption that improvement i n one area would n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t i n improvement i n another had had great influence on teaching p r a c t i c e s ,  1  2  the  assumption had l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l b a s i s .  In a s i m i l a r r e v i e w o f  l i t e r a t u r e , Shanahan (1980) s t a t e d t h a t most o f t h e s t u d i e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g had been done i n a g l o b a l , c o r r e l a t i o n a l manner and d i d not warrant t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n on one p r o c e s s would r e s u l t i n improvement  i n another.  D e s p i t e t h i s e x p e r t agreement about the l a c k o f c l e a r e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n one language p r o c e s s w i l l produce b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s i n a n o t h e r , s c h o o l systems c o n t i n u e t o produce c u r r i c u l a based on t h a t i d e a and seldom seek t o t e s t i t s v a l i d i t y .  I t i s suggested  here t h a t s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h i s needed by a l l s c h o o l boards whose t e a c h e r s use c u r r i c u l a based on an assumption t h a t language p r o c e s s e s i n t e r a c t to  t h e i r mutual b e n e f i t .  U n t i l such r e s e a r c h i s done, t e a c h i n g w i l l  be  based on i n v a l i d assumptions.  Background o f the Study In  1978 r e s u l t s o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment o f W r i t t e n  E x p r e s s i o n showed t h a t o f t h e 31 w r i t i n g s k i l l s a s s e s s e d , Grade s t u d e n t s were r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r y on o n l y t h r e e .  Twelve  E n g l i s h placement t e s t s  such as t h o s e used by B r i t i s h Columbia u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r e n t r a n c e showed poor r e s u l t s .  As a r e s u l t , i n a d e s i r e t o improve w r i t i n g , t h e N o r t h  Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t d e c i d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o d u c i n g a p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d w r i t i n g programme modelled on " P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y " o f t h e H u n t i n g t o n Beach Union High S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ,  California,  3  a programme t h a t had been based, i t was c l a i m e d , on r e s e a r c h i n t h e composing p r o c e s s (Beach, 1976; B r i d w e l l , 1980; Emig, 1971; M a t s u h a s h i , 1979;  P e r l , 1979; P i a n k o , 1979; S q u i r e and Applebee,  1968).  In A p r i l , 1980, t h e Programme and Development D i v i s i o n o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o r g a n i z e d workshops f o r E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s t o l e a r n about Project Literacy.  A f t e r t h e E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s had expressed  s u p p o r t f o r a programme o f t h i s type s i x t e e n t e a c h e r s worked  overwhelming fulltime  over one summer t o adapt P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y f o r North Vancouver s c h o o l s . The r e s u l t was t h e l o c a l l y - d e v e l o p e d w r i t i n g programme, W r i t i n g 44. W r i t i n g 44 was d e s i g n e d , i t was c l a i m e d , t o address and expand on t h e f o l l o w i n g g o a l s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n as d e l i n e a t e d i n t h e Secondary Guide t o t h e Teaching o f E n g l i s h 8-12 (1978) o f t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n : Develop i n s t u d e n t s a range o f reading.and ( u n d e r l i n i n g added). Help s t u d e n t s develop a p p r o p r i a t e s k i l l s s e n t e n c e s , paragraphs, and e s s a y s .  study  skills  for writing  Provide students with o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w r i t i n g various types of prose. Help s t u d e n t s develop wide s p e a k i n g , l i s t e n i n g , r e a d i n g , and w r i t i n g v o c a b u l a r i e s ( u n d e r l i n i n g added). Encourage s t u d e n t s t o e x p r e s s themselves of genres.  i n a variety  The W r i t i n g 44 Teachers' Manual s t a t e s as w e l l , " W r i t i n g 44 w i l l a l s o improve s t u d e n t s ' s p e a k i n g , l i s t e n i n g , and r e a d i n g s k i l l s "  (p.12).  As no r e s e a r c h was a v a i l a b l e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m , i t must  4  be thought  to have been based on the assumption from the  r e l a t i n g r e a d i n g and language w i l l  w r i t i n g s k i l l s , t h a t improvement i n one  produce improvement i n  W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t and  types of t e s t i n g were proposed:  an impromptu w r i t i n g sample.  The D i a g n o s t i c Test i n c l u d e s the s u b s e c t i o n s c a p i t a l i z a t i o n and  apostrophes,  s p e l l i n g ; commas, q u o t a t i o n marks and  p u n c t u a t i o n , semi-colons,  c o l o n s and  The  Thesaurus, v o c a b u l a r y .  impromptu w r i t i n g sample  related  dashes; s u b j e c t - p r e d i c a t e agreement,  verb usage, pronoun usage, p r e p o s i t i o n usage, misplaced d i c t i o n a r i e s and  area o f  another.  As an a d j u n c t to the c u r r i c u l u m two The  literature  m o d i f i e r s , and  Marking i s o b j e c t i v e .  i s on a g i v e n t o p i c , marked  holisti-  c a l l y by a t r a i n e d group of E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s .  Statement o f the  The  Problem  study examines the e f f e c t of the W r i t i n g 44 programme on  r e a d i n g s k i l l s d u r i n g one but not f o r m a l r e a d i n g  semester i n which s t u d e n t s were g i v e n  writing,  instruction.  Design  o f the Study  The study examined the i n f l u e n c e o f w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on reading a b i l i t y North  Vancouver.  of Grade 11  s t u d e n t s a t Carson  Twenty-five  Graham Secondary  students e n r o l l e d  the f i r s t semester served as the e x p e r i m e n t a l  i n E n g l i s h 11  group, w h i l e  the  School,  during  twenty-five  5  s t u d e n t s not t a k i n g E n g l i s h 11 f i r s t semester s e r v e d as a c o n t r o l group. Both groups'were p r e t e s t e d i n May,  1982,  w i t h the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 1 and the W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form C, the l a t t e r a l o c a l l y developed writing  c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d test to t e s t  skill. The e x p e r i m e n t a l group engaged i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme f o r  19 weeks, from September, 1982  t o January, 1983.  As Carson Graham  Secondary School i s on the semester system, Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s a r e e n r o l l e d i n W r i t i n g 44 f o r o n l y one semester. e x p e r i m e n t a l group was  In January,  1983,  the  p o s t - t e s t e d w i t h the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading  T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2 and the W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D. week l a t e r , i n February, 1983, c o n t r o l group was  the b e g i n n i n g o f second semester,  One the  p o s t - t e s t e d , u s i n g the same measures.  Independent t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e were used t o compare pre-and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s o f r e a d i n g comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and  2. The same measures were computed on the pre-and p o s t t e s t o f the  W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c Test.  A Pearson  R C o r r e l a t i o n was  also carried  out t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a d i n g comprehension, v o c a b u l a r y , and  writing. P e r m i s s i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y was  g r a n t e d by the A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n -  tendent o f the North Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , the Language A r t s C o n s u l t a n t , and by the P r i n c i p a l o f Carson Graham Secondary S c h o o l .  6  Questions  Specifically, 1.  Was  for Investigation  the f o l l o w i n g  there a d i f f e r e n c e  s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d  q u e s t i o n s were a d d r e s s e d :  i n the r e a d i n g in the W r i t i n g  ability  44 programme  and  t h o s e who d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t  2.  Was  t h e r e any d i f f e r e n c e  participated  i n the Writing  o f Grade E l e v e n  o f s t u d e n t s who  f o r one s e m e s t e r  did  not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r that  3.  Were t h e r e any c o r r e l a t i o n s among r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s  abilities  and t h o s e who d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t  Specifically  between c o n t r o l  and e x p e r i m e n t a l  There  semester?  groups'  . writing pretest  b-  writing pretest  c.  writing post-test  and v o c a b u l a r y p r e - a n d  id.  writing post-test  and c o m p r e h e n s i o n  Null  1.  and w r i t i n g  a.  will  null  and v o c a b u l a r y p r e - a n d and c o m p r e h e n s i o n  post-tests  pre-and  post-tests post-tests  pre-and  post-tests.  Hypotheses  hypotheses  were t e s t e d  be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  m e a s u r e d by t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g b e t w e e n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d one s e m e s t e r  who  44 programme f o r  one s e m e s t e r  The f o l l o w i n g  and t h o s e  semester?  o f s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g  :  semester  semester?  i n the w r i t i n g a b i l i t y 44 programme  f o r one  f o r the study:  i n reading  ability  as  T e s t , Forms 1 a n d 2, L e v e l i n the Writing  and t h o s e who d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t  F,  44 programme f o r semester.  7  2.  There w i l l  be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as  measured on the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D, between those students who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Writing 44 programme for one semester and those who have not p a r t i c i p a t e d for that semester. 3.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between reading  comprehension  as measured on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Forms 1 and 2, Level F and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D.  S p e c i f i c a l l y ."between c o n t r o l and experimental groups'  a.  w r i t i n g pretest and vocabulary pre-and post-tests  b.  w r i t i n g pretest and comprehension pre-and post-tests  c.  w r i t i n g post-test and vocabulary pre-and post-tests  d. .  w r i t i n g post-test and comprehension pre-and p o s t - t e s t s .  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study The r e s u l t s of a study on any perceived e f f e c t of the Writing 44 Programme on students' reading a b i l i t y should prove valuable For future planning and assessment of process-oriented w r i t i n g programmes i n the community involved, contribute to the growing body of research on the influence of w r i t i n g on reading achievement, and suggest further factors to explore with reference to w r i t i n g growth and concommitant growth i n reading. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study There are three l i m i t a t i o n s to the study:  8  1.  The s t u d y , c o n f i n e d t o a randomly s e l e c t e d group o f Grade Eleven  s t u d e n t s a t Carson Graham Secondary School i n North Vancouver, took p l a c e over o n l y one semester.  While a semester may not be s u f f i c i e n t  to show d e f i n i t i v e r e s u l t s , t r e n d s i n t h e data may be h e l p f u l t o educators.  2.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e study a p p l y t o t h e North Vancouver  p o p u l a t i o n f o r whom t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme was developed.  School Only  i n s o f a r as t h e sample r e f l e c t s t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n can t h e r e s u l t s be generalized t o other 3.  groups.  The s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e use o f two measures, t h e Gates-  M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, r e a d i n g comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s , and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D. While h o l i s t i c s c o r e s on s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g samples ( r a n g i n g from 1 t o 6) were f e l t t o be t o o g r o s s a measure f o r s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis,  the r e s e a r c h e r had hoped t o examine t h e c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l  groups'  w r i t i n g samples i n o r d e r t o measure growth i n s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y .  How-  e v e r , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s became u n a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e course o f t h e study.  The s c o r e d w r i t i n g samples were not r e t a i n e d by t h e D i s t r i c t . The s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o measuring r e a d i n g a b i l i t y by t h e  s u b t e s t s o f v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test, L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, g e n e r a l l y used by the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver, and t o measuring w r i t i n g a b i l i t y on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c  9  Test, Forms C and D, a criterion-referenced test developed by the District.  Thus, the findings can be generalized only to these particular  tests. Definition of Terms Vocabulary scores are defined as those scores obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2. Comprehension scores are defined as those scores obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2. Writing scores are definedas those scores obtained on the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D.  Organization of the Paper The report i s organized into five chapters as follows: 1. Chapter One provides an introduction and overview of the study. This chapter discusses the nature of the problem, provides the background of the study, the rationale, problems and hypotheses, states the significance and limitations of the study, defines terms, and gives an overview of the organization of the study. 2.  Chapter Two contains the review of literature.  This chapter outlines  research on the relationship of reading and writing and examines i n detail correlational and descriptive studies i n reading and writing, studies which attempt to teach reading i n order to improve writing  10 s k i l l s , and the converse, those teaching w r i t i n g to improve reading skills.  The chapter ends with a s e c t i o n on the e f f e c t s on sentence  combining on reading comprehension. 3*  Chapter Three,describes the experimental procedures.  This chapter  describes the research design, states the hypotheses, d e t a i l s the sample, instrumentation, treatment, and data c o l l e c t i o n , and explains the data processing and a n a l y s i s of the data.  The chapter ends with a  discussion of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. 4.  Chapter Four describes the a n a l y s i s and evaluation.  This chapter  reports the reading pre-and post-test r e s u l t s , w r i t i n g pre-and post-test r e s u l t s , and c o r r e l a t i o n s between reading and w r i t i n g r e s u l t s . chapter also includes appropriate charts and tables i l l u s t r a t i n g  This the  data. 5.  Chapter Five includes the r e s u l t s , i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations.  This chapter discusses the r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on reading a b i l i t y and makes recommendations for further research i n t o the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading and writing.  CHAPTER I I  Review o f the  The  purpose o f the chapter  s h i p o f r e a d i n g and correlational  and  writing.  The  descriptive  Literature  i s to present chapter  skills..  The  begins  review  summaries o f s t u d i e s t h a t attempted  relation-  w i t h summaries  s t u d i e s o f r e a d i n g and  a r e summaries o f s t u d i e s t h a t attempted improve w r i t i n g  r e s e a r c h on t h e  to teach  writing.  of Following  reading i n order  of l i t e r a t u r e concludes to teach w r i t i n g  to  with  to improve  reading  skills. The  review  i s intended  to establish  the q u e s t i o n of whether r e a d i n g a b i l i t y process-oriented writing  the r e s e a r c h base f o r  will  programme i n u s e  i m p r o v e as  i n a suburban  examining  a r e s u l t of  a  Vancouver  community.  Correlational  Although granted,  r e a d i n g and  and  writing  relationships  there i s c o n f l i c t i n g evidence  examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p In h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l ;  a b o v e G r a d e Two.  California,  are o f t e n taken  i n the data.  Researchers  for have  f r o m many a s p e c t s . study  development, Loban (1966) found writing  Descriptive Studies  on t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s high c o r r e l a t i o n s  H i s s u b j e c t s w e r e 338  f o l l o w e d from K i n d e r g a r t e n  11  of  language  between r e a d i n g  children  t o Grade S i x .  A  and  i n Oakland, cumulative  12  record of reading Fishco t h e r e was in  (1966) e x a m i n e d  He  Seven s t u d e n t s  creativity  used.  t o see  i n writing  and  whether  comprehension  u s i n g the Gates B a s i c Reading Test as t h e r e a d i n g  and a C r e a t i v i t y  Scale especially  found r e a d i n g  c o r r e l a t e d beyond Evanechko, students  95 G r a d e  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  reading,  writing.  a s w e l l a s t h e S t a n f o r d R e a d i n g T e s t was  t h e .05  constructed  for scoring  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and c r e a t i v i t y  measure  students'  i n writing  level.  Ollilia,  and A r m s t r o n g  (1974) s t u d i e d Grade S i x  to determine the combination of i n d i c e s of w r i t i n g  which might p r e d i c t reading  a c h i e v e m e n t and t o i d e n t i f y  performance  and a p p l y  valid  i n d i c e s o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e b e h a v i o u r b a s e d upon t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l . g r a m m a r theory.  The  c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s showed a l l m e a s u r e s  related,  reinforcing  skills.  Of t h e 13 i n d i c e s u s e d a s p r e d i c t o r s o f r e a d i n g  t h e c o n c e p t o f a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p among l a n g u a g e  f o u r were s i g n i f i c a n t tion  units,  a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  Lazdowski  who  T h e s e w e r e number o f c o m m u n i c a -  thought u n i t , samples  had r e a d i n g  unit.  (1977) c o n s t r u c t e d a f o r m u l a  from such f e a t u r e s o f student  writing  achievement,  t w o - c o u n t s t r u c t u r e s , s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n s , and t h e a v e r a g e  number o f w o r d s p e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n  per  were h i g h l y  writing  to p r e d i c t reading  a s mean s e n t e n c e l e n g t h ,  and p o l y s y l l a b i c w o r d s p e r s e n t e n c e .  from h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s l e v e l s ranging  syllables  Studying  as w e l l as c o l l e g e  level  338  students  f r o m G r a d e s 2 t o 14, L a z d o w s k i p r e d i c t e d  r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t o w i t h i n one g r a d e l e v e l o f a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t a realiability  of  .88.  with  13  D'Angelo at  (1977) r e p o r t e d r e a d i n g  t h e .01 l e v e l  concluded  i n h i s study  that listening  effective predictors Bippus  o f 245 G r a d e N i n e s t u d e n t s .  of reading  ability  than  was w r i t i n g  tested  of written  by  raters with c r i t e r i a  Service Composition  and  reading  wording, flavour,  Each c o m p o s i t i o n  Partial  comprehension.  usage,  evaluated  Testing  comprehension subtest o f the  Stepwise indices  language, p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g ,  multiple  regression analysis  of students'  was  quality of written  language and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g t o p r e d i c t  reading  comprehension.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between c e r t a i n a s p e c t s  quality of written  She  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed  of quality of written  used t o i d e n t i f y t h e best  Significant  was  s e t by t h e E d u c a t i o n a l  r e a d i n g m e a s u r e was t h e r e a d i n g  a l l aspects  comprehension.  Scale.  SRA A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t . over  indices of students'  The m e a s u r e s u s e d f o r q u a l i t i e s  s p e l l i n g and h a n d w r i t i n g .  two t r a i n e d  The  i n G r a d e s 4 a n d 6.  reading  l a n g u a g e were i d e a s , o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  punctuation,  ability.  l a n g u a g e , p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g  language performance t o p r e d i c t 57 s t u d e n t s  However, he  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures o f  comprehension and attempted t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t written  correlated  c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d l i s t e n i n g memory w e r e more  (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d  quality of written  and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y  of students'  l a n g u a g e , p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g  comprehension. Thomas ( 1 9 7 6 ) e x a m i n e d t h e e x t e n t r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g o f 405 c o l l e g e  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between -  freshmen.  Subtests  f o r reading  14  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and v o c a b u l a r y t o measure r e a d i n g  of the Scholastic Aptitude  achievement.  T e s t were used  Sentence m a t u r i t y and o v e r a l l  writing  q u a l i t y w e r e e x a m i n e d i n a 500 w o r d w r i t i n g s a m p l e done by e a c h Thomas f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f . 1 2 8 , s i g n i f i c a n t between r e a d i n g  comprehension and w r i t i n g  a t t h e .028  student.  level,  achievement.  G r o b e and.rG.robe/ ( 1 9 7 7 ) a l s o e x a m i n e d c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e r e was a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y The  data  showed t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d  levels of writing a b i l i t y . highest scores  reading  and w r i t i n g .  t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e d among  C o r r e l a t i o n s showed t h a t t h o s e  t e n d e d t o be c l a s s i f i e d  with the  into the highest writing  level  group. Bebensee city  ( 1 9 7 7 ) s t u d i e d 300 G r a d e F i v e s t u d e n t s  from t h e i n n e r  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and  achievement i n w r i t t e n composition.  He c o n c l u d e d  t h a t r e a d i n g and  w r i t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t w e r e n o t s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d when w r i t i n g a b i l i t y measured i n c o m p o s i t i o n  content.  Bebensee suggested  that differences  i n purpose and p r o c e d u r e o f v a r i o u s measures o f w r i t i n g conflicting  t h e Iowa S i l e n t  Reading Test  ences e x i s t e d i n w r i t i n g and  ability  caused  conclusions.  Simmons ( 1 9 7 7 ) s e l e c t e d 100 s t u d e n t s on  was  revealed s i g n i f i c a n t  to reading  t o d i s c o v e r whether s i g n i f i c a n t  abilities  low i n r e a d i n g achievement.  according  among s t u d e n t s  Analysis of total  scores differ-  who a r e h i g h , medium, w r i t i n g scores  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l o w a n d medium r e a d i n g  ment g r o u p s , medium a n d h i g h g r o u p s , a n d b e t w e e n l o w a n d h i g h  data  achieve-  groups.  15  A c o r r e l a t i o n o f .61 was o b t a i n e d total  reading scores  between w r i t i n g mechanics s c o r e s and  o f t h e 100 s t u d e n t s .  H a m i l l and McNutt (1980) s u r v e y e d abilities linking  the l i t e r a t u r e  and r e a d i n g as a b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g  the language processes.  on l a n g u a g e  the constructs f o r  They e x a m i n e d 20 j o u r n a l s o n  r e a d i n g , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , a n d s p e e c h b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1 9 7 8 . stringent criteria  forselecting  correlational studies.  psychology, They h a d  Each had t o  have a t l e a s t  20 s u b j e c t s ; r e s e a r c h e r s h a d t o h a v e u s e d some t y p e o f  correlational  procedure  listening, criteria,  speaking, a total  t o r e l a t e measures o f r e a d i n g t o measures o f  or writing.  They l o c a t e d 89 s t u d i e s w h i c h met t h e  o f 992 c o n c u r r e n t  the dependent v a r i a b l e .  c o e f f i c i e n t s w h i c h had r e a d i n g as  The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e  comprehension, meaningful  speaking, meaningful  examining  the constructs f o r meaningful  satisfied  the investigators'  structs of spelling  writing,  requirements  and mechanics.  writing.  listening However, i n  sufficient  was f o u n d  data  which  f o r only t h e con-  These r e s u l t s c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e  many s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s i n o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s o f  meaningful  writing. Summary o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . instruments  used-Gates B a s i c Reading Test,  Reading T e s t - and t h e d i v e r s e a s p e c t s communication u n i t s ,  sentence  c o r r e l a t i o n s were found study.  Despite  SAT, SRA, a n d t h e Iowa  of writing  were found  Silent  tested- creativity,  p a t t e r n s , usage, p u n c t u a t i o n ,  among r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g  Reading and w r i t i n g  the d i v e r s i t y of  skills  t o be r e l a t e d .  spelling-  i n a l l b u t one  16 Teaching Reading to Improve Writing S k i l l s Researchers have been attempting since 1931 to teach reading to improve w r i t i n g s k i l l s , using as t h e i r r a t i o n a l e the assumed r e l a t i o n ship between reading and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . As early as f i f t y years ago, Eurich (1931) conducted a two-year study attempting to enhance s k i l l i n w r i t t e n composition by improving reading at the c o l l e g e l e v e l .  Eurich performed four twelve-week  experiments i n which the 83 experimental group- students were taught vocabulary and paragraph reading s k i l l s while the 87 c o n t r o l group students studied the normal freshman composition course.  The e x p e r i -  mental groups showed s i g n i f i c a n t gains on two out of eleven measures, the two vocabulary measures.  Both groups made equal gains on four other  measures, one of which was reading comprehension.  No conclusions could  be drawn about reading-writing r e l a t i o n s h i p s . More r e c e n t l y , Schneider (1971) did a fifteen-week study of remedial students at a j u n i o r c o l l e g e .  The experimental group had 20 hours  out of a t o t a l of 75 hours of reading i n s t r u c t i o n . had no reading i n s t r u c t i o n .  The c o n t r o l group  The three measures used were a standardized  reading t e s t , a w r i t i n g mechanics t e s t , and an essay t e s t .  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference was found on growth i n e i t h e r reading or w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . No conclusion could be drawn on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between growth i n reading  and growth i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . O'Donnell (1974) used two d i f f e r e n t methods of teaching reading  to 42 black remedial c o l l e g e freshmen i n a one-month i n t e n s i v e course, a  17  t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d a n d a. p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c method r e s u l t e d quality,  on a s t a n d a r d i z e d  test.  ( 1 9 7 6 ) t a u g h t an i n t e g r a t e d r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g  two s e c t i o n s o f f r e s h m a n c o m p o s i t i o n f o r 12 w e e k s .  studied writing  Neither  gains i n syntactic maturity, composition  o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n as measured  Campbell to  in significant  t u t o r i a l method.  skills  only.  A slight,  non-significant  Two  control  c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d  groups  difference  f a v o u r e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p on t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n Campbell found t h a t reading a b i l i t y  course  measure.  from a  writing  sample. Maat (1977) a s k e d w h e t h e r  improvement  i n comprehension  e x p o s i t o r y and a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o s e w o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d in  writing  such prose.  He s t u d i e d  h a v i n g 40 s u b j e c t s i n e a c h g r o u p . did  two g r o u p s o f G r a d e  by  of  improvement  Twelve  students,  F o r n i n e weeks t h e t r e a t m e n t group  n o t w r i t e any c o m p o s i t i o n s , b u t had  instruction  i n reading.  c o n t r o l g r o u p w r o t e c o m p o s i t i o n s and had r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . of  raters'  s c o r e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t  of  a l l students.  in  the t o t a l  improvement  i n the t o t a l  s c o r e s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p and a  cant g a i n or l o s s i n comprehension scores f o r the c o n t r o l (1978) asked whether  p r o d u c e a c o n s e q u e n t change  of  writing  significant  g a i n i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p , b u t no  literature  Analysis  S m a l l , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n g a i n were f o u n d  writing  Belanger  The  a change  i n writing  skill.  signifi-  group.  i n reading s k i l l In reviewing  would  the  i n t h i s area, Belanger expressed s u r p r i s e at the s m a l l  e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s examining t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  aspect.  He n o t e d  number that  18  most o f t h e s t u d i e s were i n c o n c l u s i v e b e c a u s e o f t h e i n a b i l i t y investigators t o a l t e r reading s k i l l . he c o n f i r m e d  significant  of t h e w r i t i n g  changes on t h e r e a d i n g measure b e f o r e  The  The D a v i s  S e r i e s 2 Reading  reading treatment  fluency. sentence  i n November, F e b r u a r y , a n d  - pre-mid,  was t h e S.O.S. R e a d i n g  and g a i n s were c o n f i r m e d  were a n a l y s e d  analysis  T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d a n d w r i t i n g  p r o v i d i n g three t e s t comparisons  1974),  (1978),  u s e d 8 i n t a c t c l a s s e s o f G r a d e s 9 a n d 1 0 , 194 s t u d e n t s  s a m p l e s on a s s i g n e d t o p i c s were c o l l e c t e d May,  own s t u d y  s a m p l e s was d o n e .  Belanger in a l l .  In Belanger's  o fthe  mid-post,  Technique  and p r e - p o s t .  ( M a r t i n and M a r t i n ,  a t t h e end o f t r e a t m e n t .  W r i t i n g samples  for overall quality, syntactic density, t-unit  A sub-sample o f t h e compositions errors:  run-on sentences,  was a n a l y s e d  fragments,  agreement, and e r r o r s i n pronoun agreement.  l e n g t h , and  f o r 4 major  errors i n subject-verb Analysis of the reading  m e a s u r e showed t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s w e r e s u p e r i o r t o t h e c o n t r o l on b o t h p r e t e s t - m i d t e s t c o m p a r i s o n  groups  and p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t .  A n a l y s i s o f t h e 4 m a j o r w r i t i n g m e a s u r e s showed d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h were o n l y r a n d o m l y s i g n i f i c a n t  between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l  S u b s i d i a r y a n a l y s i s o f m a j o r e r r o r s was t h e o n l y w r i t i n g promise.  m e a s u r e t o show  The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e a d i n g a n d q u a l i t y m e a s u r e s f o r  t h e sample were above and  groups.  writing  .47 ( p ^ . 0 0 0 1 ) .  f l u e n c y measures ranged  from  The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n r e a d i n g .19 t o .27  (p.008).  C o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g and s y n t a c t i c d e n s i t y and r e a d i n g and t - u n i t l e n g t h measures were v e r y s l i g h t  and o f t e n n e g a t i v e .  When t h e mean  19  reading and w r i t i n g scores of experimental and c o n t r o l boys and  girls  were compared, no consistent r e l a t i o n s h i p was evident. Belanger concluded that the study produced no evidence to suggest a causative r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading s k i l l and w r i t i n g s k i l l or that s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the reading measure produced s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y .  One p o s s i b l e  explanation suggested by Belanger i s that one-half year's growth i n reading i s not s u f f i c i e n t to produce a change i n w r i t i n g . Summary of studies teaching reading to improve_writinq[ sj<ills_. Teaching reading i n order to improve w r i t i n g has f r u s t r a t e d many researchers because of the d i f f i c u l t y of s i g n i f i c a n t l y improving reading. In s p i t e of overcoming that p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y , Belanger was unable to show that improvement i n reading resulted i n improvement i n w r i t i n g . Of the researchers c i t e d here, only Maat (1977) found d i f f e r e n c e s i n the w r i t i n g scores of the treatment group, but the gains were small and nons i g n i f i c a n t , despite the s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n comprehension scores for the treatment group.  Teaching Writing to Improve Reading S k i l l s The studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t on reading s k i l l s of teaching w r i t i n g are subdivided into three categories: general composition reading, syntax and reading, and sentence combining and reading.  and  20  General Composition and Reading Nagle (1972) examined the e f f e c t s of a d i r e c t e d w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y i n Grade 8 s o c i a l studies i n s t r u c t i o n on general reading achievement and on s o c i a l studies reading achievement. students a s e r i e s of w r i t i n g assignments, significantly  A f t e r g i v i n g the 371 he found that reading improved  (p^_.05).  Oehlkers (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n of c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g to reading achievement i n a language experience approach with Grade One pupils.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on a reading measure  between the c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g group and the c o n t r o l group a f t e r one year.  He concluded, however, that students who receive e a r l y t r a i n i n g  i n c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g achieve equally as w e l l i n word r e c o g n i t i o n as those who engage mainly i n reading a c t i v i t i e s i n the e a r l y part of Grade One, evidence that w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n may at times be s u b s t i t u t e d for d i r e c t reading i n s t r u c t i o n . In examining the e f f e c t of w r i t i n g i n the expressive mode on the general and s p e c i f i c reading comprehension of underprepared, c o l l e g e l e v e l readers, DeLuca (1980) worked with two groups of remedial reading students.  The experimental group of 25 did expressive w r i t i n g exercises  as both pre-and post-reading a c t i v i t i e s , while the c o n t r o l group of 25 took part i n discussions as pre-and post-reading a c t i v i t i e s .  The  Nelson-  Denny Reading Test was used to measure reading improvement i n general reading a b i l i t y during the 15-week semester.  S p e c i f i c reading compre-  hension was measured by s p e c i a l l y designed cloze t e s t s .  While both  21  groups improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n reading comprehension, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between groups.  The recommendation was made  that studies should be conducted to see whether there were any  facili-  t a t i n g e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t kinds of w r i t i n g , t r a n s a c t i o n a l and persuasive, and longer expressive w r i t i n g on the general and s p e c i f i c reading comprehension of c o l l e g e - l e v e l readers. Weiner (1979) evaluated the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a w r i t i n g programme on the accuracy of o r a l reading i n Grades 4-12.  The average number of  major e r r o r s dropped from s i x to one a f t e r treatment, evidence  again  that w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n may be s u b s t i t u t e d for d i r e c t reading instruction. Summary of studies teaching general composition to improve reading.  The studies reviewed covered a l l l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n from  Grade One to College.  While a d i r e c t e d w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y i n s o c i a l studies  had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on reading, attempts to teach c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g appeared to have no e f f e c t on reading comprehension. Syntax and Reading Studies teaching syntax i n w r i t t e n composition i n an e f f e c t to improve reading have yielded more p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . In examining reading and w r i t i n g from the aspect of i n s t r u c t i o n i n syntax and paragraph s t r u c t u r e and i t s e f f e c t on reading, Reed (1967) found that a f t e r 15 weeks, the Grade Seven experimental group showed gains i n comprehension superior to the c o n t r o l group (p £. .01).  22  Kuntz any  .80  transformations.  She  syntactic  i f there  the a b i l i t y  attainment  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Sentence C o n s t r u c t i o n Test.  t o see  and  the  a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and  from  total  Reading Test  These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t  was  t o make  reported c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging  ( p f l . 0 0 1 ) between t o t a l  a c h i e v e m e n t a s m e a s u r e d on  is  Grade Seven s t u d e n t s  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and  sentence to  ( 1 9 7 5 ) s t u d i e d 96  .68  reading  and  the  view t h a t  there  written syntactic  attainment. Heller university their  (1980) s i m i l a r l y  i n v e s t i g a t e d reading comprehension of  freshmen i n r e l a t i o n  expository writing.  His study  known  possible relationship with  indicated  language are s i g n i f i c a n t l y number o f w o r d s p e r  elements appearing  H e l l e r chose elements f o r t h e i r  b u t i o n t o s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y and comprehension.  t o 21 s y n t a c t i c  related  at least  34  in contri-  reading  11 e l e m e n t s o f w r i t t e n  to reading comprehension.  T-unit, T-units per sentence,  words per  These  are  subordinate  c l a u s e , words per main c l a u s e , p a s s i v e v e r b s , p r e p o s i t i o n a l  phrases,  gerunds, p a r t i c i p l e s ,  intra-T-unit co-ordinators, free final modifiers,  w o r d s p e r c l a u s e , and  Syntactic Density  reflecting  total  syntactic  Score,  n o n c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e s such  coordination of d e t a i l , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s than  and  score  complexity.  Good r e a d e r s ' w r i t i n g , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by through  a composite  expanded  as p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s ,  passive verb  the w r i t i n g  long T-units  phrases,  c o n t a i n e d more  o f the poor r e a d e r s .  groups produced s h o r t e r T - u n i t s expanded p r i m a r i l y  intra-T-unit  The  through  low  deletion  reading  the a d d i t i o n  23  of subordinate clauses.  Their writing  c l a u s e s and r u n - o n s e n t e n c e s p o s s i b l e reasons  accounting  than.the  ledge 149  (1982) designed  about syntax  good r e a d e r s .  a study  language  to investigate  item teacher-made c l o z e passages,  holistic  (TORC).  syntactic  1.  Writing ability  maturity.  Scores  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p by a g l o b a l  2.  was a n a l y z e d  4.  on t h e b a s i s o f a of a writing  from t h e P r e c i s i o n competence.  indicated  a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p  a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p  Results of a  t h a t t h e r e was:  ability.  between r e a d i n g comprehension as measured ability.  between r e a d i n g comprehension as measured  similarities  a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p  t e s t and w r i t i n g  ability.  among t h e v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g  comprehension. 5.  a low t o moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p ability.  sample  Transformations  t e s t o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and w r i t i n g  by a s e n t e n c e  of  between r e a d i n g comprehension as measured  by a c l o z e t e s t a n d w r i t i n g 3.  ability  and a s u b - t e s t o f t h e T e s t o f R e a d i n g  T e s t were used a s a measure o f s y n t a c t i c Pearson  o f know-  Reading Test, twenty 50-  e v a l u a t i o n f o r q u a l i t y and a T - u n i t a n a l y s i s  to assess  the role  R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n was m e a s u r e d by t h e  Comprehension s u b - t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Comprehension  centered  processes.  i n t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and w r i t i n g  Grade Seven s t u d e n t s .  main  Discussion of  f o r the reading-writing connection  a r o u n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common t o b o t h Stilley  a l s o u s e d more c o o r d i n a t e d  among t h e m e a s u r e s o f w r i t i n g  24  S t i l l e y concluded that a r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading comprehension and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y ; e x i s t s , but not a strong one.  These f i n d i n g s suggest  that knowledge of syntax i s only one aspect of the reading process. The r e s u l t s did not support the hypothesis that a cloze t e s t of reading comprehension may be more s e n s i t i v e than a standardized test i n measuring s y n t a c t i c maturity.  While a l l poor readers i n the study were also poor  w r i t e r s , a l l good readers were not good w r i t e r s .  S t i l l e y suggested  that  while reading and w r i t i n g seem to have underlying processes i n common, there are a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s which must be kept i n mind. Johnson (1981) did a s i m i l a r study to d i s t i n g u i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s y n t a c t i c w r i t i n g maturity and reading achievement. was chosen from 283 students i n Grades 3, 4, 5 and 6.  The sample  At each grade  l e v e l , two Black females, ten White females, two Black males, and ten White males were selected f o r a t o t a l population of 96.  The SRA  ment Series (1978) was used to measure reading achievement.  Achieve-  Syntactic  w r i t i n g maturity was measured by a w r i t i n g sample of at l e a s t 100 words from each student with each sample analyzed for number of words per T-unit, number of words per clause, and number of clauses per T-unit. For the t o t a l group, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found for three s y n t a c t i c measures.  The s y n t a c t i c measure that was  s i g n i f i c a n t for each of the three reading scores was words per T-unit. Words per clause c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with reading vocabulary with t o t a l reading.  and  Clauses per T-unit c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with  reading comprehension.  Results for i n d i v i d u a l grades v a r i e d , with the  following conclusions being drawn: 1.  A l l three s y n t a c t i c w r i t i n g measures c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  25  2.  T h e r e w e r e more s t a t i s t i c a l l y between  correlations  found  t h e w r i t i n g measure and v o c a b u l a r y t h a n between  w r i t i n g measure and 3.  significant  The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t  the  comprehension. syntactic  writing  w o r d s p e r T - u n i t and w o r d s p e r  clause.  measures appeared t o  Summary o f s t u d i e s t e a c h i n g s y n t a x t o i m p r o v e w r i t i n g . syntax i n w r i t i n g  Teaching  a p p e a r e d t o h a v e more c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s i n i m p r o v i n g  reading achievement.  R e s e a r c h e r s have been a b l e t o i s o l a t e  w r i t t e n language which are r e l a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  certain  and r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . improve s y n t a c t i c A writing  The  f l u e n c y may  elements  to reading comprehension.  syntactic  elements i n expository  l e a d t o improvement instruction  i n reading  i n syntactic  writing to  skill.  fluency,  through sentence m a n i p u l a t i o n or sentence combining, might produce T h i s a p p e a r s t o be a p r o m i s i n g a r e a o f  Sentence Combining  and R e a d i n g  improving writing.  such  research.  Comprehension  S e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g a s a p r a c t i c e was of  of  There i s  research suggests that e f f o r t s  programme i n c o r p o r a t i n g  an i m p r o v e m e n t .  be  developed i n i t i a l l y  as a  way  H o w e v e r , some r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t  such p r a c t i c e , g i v e n c e r t a i n assumptions about the mental p r o c e s s e s r e q u i r e d , s h o u l d r e s u l t i n improved r e a d i n g comprehension  and  h y p o t h e s i s h a s b e e n t e s t e d by K l e i n  (1980).  K l e i n and  ( 1 9 8 0 ) and  Sternglass  S t e r n g l a s s h a v e d i s c u s s e d s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g a s an  t e c h n i q u e and h a v e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r  that Both  instructional  views about the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d .  26  Klein of  (1980)  d e s c r i b e d sentence combining  s e v e r a l s h o r t s e n t e n c e s w h i c h have been d e r i v e d  analysis.  by t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  P o i n t i n g put that students are expected t o eliminate  words and p h r a s e s w h i l e r e t a i n i n g  c e n t r a l t o both language  redundant  key i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e passages,  K l e i n suggested that the mental a c t i v i t y is  as the p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r  involved i n sentence  p r o d u c t i o n andrianguage  combining  a n a l y s i s and t h a t  m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e and s e n t e n c e c o n t e n t engages t h e student i n comprehension. Sternglass  (1980)  sentence combining  has suggested t h e t y p e o f language  i s consistent with  reading that claims  t h e p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model o f  f l u e n c y develops as r e a d e r s l e a r n t o process  u n i t s o f language.  S t u d e n t s l e a r n t h a t t h e word g r o u p s  c o m b i n i n g must be t r e a t e d a s m e a n i n g - b e a r i n g select a relationship for  t h a t meaning.  used i n  units.  larger  i n sentence  The s t u d e n t must  among t h e u n i t s o f r e a d i n g a n d a l s o c r e a t e s y n t a x  S t e r n g l a s s suggested the p r a c t i c e o f chunking  verbal  patterns develops fluency i n reading. Levine  (1976)  bining exercises. reading test  tested  112 G r a d e T h r e e  The e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s showed g a i n s o n t h e S.A.T.  (p •<£ . 0 0 1 ) , b u t n o t o n a c l o z e t e s t .  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l sentence combining upon w r i t t e n c o m p o s i t i o n a n d r e a d i n g McAfee  (1981)  investigated  The  She h a d 25 c h i l d r e n  treatment lasted  Levine concluded  e x e r c i s e s have a p o s i t i v e  effect  comprehension.  the e f f e c t s o f sentence  i n s t r u c t i o n on r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n children.  s t u d e n t s on s e n t e n c e com-  and w r i t i n g  combining  maturity of Fifth  Grade  i n b o t h c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups.  s i x weeks a n d a t t e m p t e d  t o examine q u e s t i o n s about  27  whether sentence combining i n s t r u c t i o n and  w r i t t e n language.  Results indicated that students  sentence combining i n s t r u c t i o n writing  had  significantly  Combs ( 1 9 7 7 ) f o u n d t h a t a f t e r  sentence combining, experimental  reading comprehension  r e g u l a r and  E a c h o f two treatment  teachers  week s t u d y  significant  taught  an  T h e r e w e r e no  mean T - u n i t  ability  exposition.  students  experimental  and  and  reading  The  students  reading  significant  in  ability.  control class. t h e o p e n and  The closed  sentence  Two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed or l i s t e n i n g  c h a n g e s among r e a d i n g ,  no com-  listening,  The  study  t h e e f f e c t o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g on  level  o f Grade Nine s t u d e n t s .  constructed  composition  participating  significant  o f 87  l e n g t h c o r r e l a t i o n s from p r e - t o p o s t - t e s t .  a c l o z e instrument  Reading Test.  instruction  test.  o r a l s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s and  Howie (1979) e v a l u a t e d  and  and  c o n t r o l groups d i v i d e d  d i f f e r e n c e s between groups f o r r e a d i n g  prehension.  t e s t was  and  c o n s i s t e d o f 1% h o u r s p e r week o f b o t h  o f w r i t t e n and  writing  e i g h t weeks o f  a d v a n c e d l a n g u a g e a r t s c l a s s e s by  combining c l o z e a c t i v i t i e s .  and  received  improved reading  (p £ . 0 0 1 ) on a s t a n d a r d i z e d  f o u r Grade Seven c l a s s e s , w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l  types  who  G r a d e S e v e n c l a s s e s showed a g a i n i n  Simmons ( 1 9 8 1 ) c o n d u c t e d a t w e l v e  into  comprehension,,  scores. Similarly,  in  improved reading  on  i n four d i f f e r e n t classes. ability  Oral  modes, d e s c r i p t i o n  f o r f i f t e e n w e e k s w i t h 91  difference in syntactic writing  reading  s i x passages o f the Gray  a s s i g n m e n t s w e r e i n two  lasted  The  the  Grade Nine  R e s u l t s showed between the  a  groups  28 i n d e s c r i p t i v e composition, favouring the experimental group  (p^.001).  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two groups i n reading level.  Howie suggests the t r a n s f e r of combining s k i l l s i n w r i t i n g to  de-combining s k i l l s i n reading should be gtudied f u r t h e r . Straw (1978) hypothesized that i n s t r u c t i o n which a f f e c t s growth i n one area of language processing a b i l i t y w i l l a f f e c t growth i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension and reading comprehension because of the high p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s found among tasks i n v o l v i n g these three language processing abilities.  One hundred and twenty-four students from a suburban high  school were assigned one of two i n s t r u c t o r s and to one of three treatment groups.  Treatment was for a five-week period, c o n s i s t i n g of one group  r e c e i v i n g sentence combining i n s t r u c t i o n , one sentence reduction i n s t r u c t i o n , and one i n s t r u c t i o n i n w r i t t e n composition from a language arts text. Three-way a n a l y s i s of variance on post-test scores indicated that sentence combining had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t over the textbook approach on the four measures of s y n t a c t i c fluency, the measure of l i s t e n i n g comprehension, and an experimenter-designed  cloze t e s t .  Analysis of  post-test scores on the standardized reading measure showed no s i g n i f i c a n t effect. Menendez (1979) examined the e f f e c t s of sentence combining  on  remedial c o l l e g e students' s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y , punctuation s k i l l s , and reading a b i l i t y .  While the experimental group showed gains i n s y n t a c t i c  a b i l i t y On two measures, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n w r i t i n g  29  quality  or reading  comprehension.  The p u r p o s e o f L e d e s m a ' s s t u d y  ( 1 9 8 1 ) was  to determine  whether  sentence combining p r a c t i c e c o n t r i b u t e s to reading comprehension literal,  r e a s o n i n g , and e v a l u a t i v e l e v e l s ,  and t o a c c u r a c y  i n compre-  hending m a t e r i a l at v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s y n t a c t i c complexity. were freshmen English  a t West V i r g i n i a  1 during the f a l l  semester.  r e s e a r c h groups designated (gl).  The  s c o r e s on t h e Iowa S i l e n t and t o t a l ) ;  The  2) c o m p r e h e n s i o n  levels,  complexity  scores  and  ( s c ) and grammar  the treatment:  sentence  Test  (literal,  the t o t a l  subject  to  lessons  combining comprehensio  reasoning, evaluative,  s c o r e s on t h e C o n s t r u c t e d  and a v e r a g e a d u l t s y n t a c t i c  reasoning  assigned  14 d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e 1)  Reading  The  i n Developmental  They w e r e r a n d o m l y  sentence combining  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was  v e r s u s grammar l e s s o n s .  10th,  University enrolled  a t the  Passages ( 6 t h ,  c o m p l e x i t i e s , and a t l i t e r a l  on t h e p a s s a g e s ) ;  and  3)  and  syntactic  i n f r e e a n d c o n t r o l l e d w r i t i n g m e a s u r e d by mean c l a u s e  l e n g t h a n d mean T - u n i t l e n g t h . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e Iowa S i l e n t significant  d i f f e r e n c e at the reasoning  c o m b i n i n g g r o u p s and literal Passages  and  no s i g n i f i c a n t  evaluative levels.  revealed a significant  i n favour  Test  revealed a  of the  sentence  d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups f o r  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e d i f f e r e n c e at the l i t e r a l  f a v o u r o f t h e grammar l e s s o n s g r o u p . c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e was  level  Reading  Constructed  level in  When p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t s w e r e  a s p e c i f i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h showed t h a t among  t h e s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g g r o u p , t h e more c l a u s e s and  T-units the  student  30 wrote i n c o n t r o l l e d composition, the higher the reading comprehension scores on the Iowa S i l e n t Reading Test.  When pretests f o r w r i t i n g and  post-tests f o r reading were examined, the sentence combining group had more s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reading and w r i t i n g than the grammar lessons group.  Also, more s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found  between w r i t i n g and reading on the Constructed Passages than reading on the Iowa S i l e n t Reading Test and more r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between c o n t r o l l e d w r i t i n g than on free w r i t i n g and reading on the Constructed Passages. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a p o s s i b i l i t y that sentence combining may a i d reasoning comprehension.  On the Constructed Passages, the r e s u l t s  seem to j u s t i f y a t e n t a t i v e conclusion that sentence combining aided students with the s y n t a c t i c complexity element of reading comprehension. Tentative conclusions on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of w r i t i n g and reading are as follows: 1. Sentence combining may have contributed to more r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r the sentence combining than f o r the grammar lessons group. 2. Reading and w r i t i n g scores are more c l o s e l y related when more reading i s required to complete the w r i t i n g task. 3. The s y n t a c t i c complexity element may be an important factor i n reading and w r i t i n g . Summary o f evidence on sentence combining p r a c t i c e and reading comprehension.  With such equivocal r e s u l t s , d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between sentence combining p r a c t i c e and reading improvement cannot be  31 stated c o n c l u s i v e l y .  The research leads to examination of other  components of a w r i t i n g programme to determine the e f f e c t of w r i t i n g on reading. Chapter Summary To provide a t h e o r e t i c a l framework for the study, t h i s chapter reviewed studies i n three areas r e l a t e d to reading-writing  relationships.  The f i r s t section reviewed c o r r e l a t i o n a l and d e s c r i p t i v e  studies.  Many d i f f e r e n t aspects of reading and w r i t i n g were examined, with sample populations ranging from Kindergarten to c o l l e g e . were found to e x i s t between reading and w r i t i n g . continue to interest-educators reasons.  Overall  relationships  Correlational  studies  for both t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l  I t i s useful to investigate the inherent r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  the language a r t s so that c u r r i c u l a based on sound educational theory can be developed. The second section of the review of l i t e r a t u r e dealt with e f f o r t s to improve w r i t i n g s k i l l s through the teaching of reading.  The d i f f i c u l t y  of s i g n i f i c a n t l y improving reading i n r e l a t i o n t o w r i t i n g has resulted i n few studies reporting the teaching of reading to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . The  f i n a l section of the l i t e r a t u r e review examined studies which  were the converse of those reviewed i n the preceding s e c t i o n : those tesching w r i t i n g to improve reading s k i l l s .  There has been l i t t l e  research i n t o the e f f e c t of creative w r i t i n g on reading.  Studies  teaching syntax i n w r i t i n g yielded more s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s when reading  32 achievement was measured.  Certain elements of w r i t t e n language have been  i d e n t i f i e d as being r e l a t e d to reading comprehension.  The research  suggests improved s y n t a c t i c fluency may improve reading comprehension. Studies i n the p r a c t i c e of sentence combining and i t s e f f e c t on w r i t t e n composition yielded varying r e s u l t s ; d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between sentence combining p r a c t i c e and reading comprehension cannot be conclusively stated. The research suggests that there may be elements i n a w r i t i n g programme which may havet-an e f f e c t on reading s k i l l s .  The chapters  which f o l l o w i n the study examine a process-oriented w r i t i n g programme and i t s e f f e c t on reading s k i l l s .  CHAPTER I I I  R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and  After detailing  Procedures  the research design, t h i s chapter explains the  population of the study, instrumentation, treatment, procedures.  I t concludes  r e c o r d i n g , and d a t a  Research  and c l a s s r o o m  w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and  treatment.  Design The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l , t h e s e t t i n g  many d i f f e r e n t c l a s s r o o m s relevant variables. was u s e d a s shown  refers  w h e r e i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l a l l t h e  A randomized c o n t r o l - g r o u p p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t design  below:  to the pretest  the p o s t t e s t the experimental the c o n t r o l random  group  group  selection  33  34 The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was dependent v a r i a b l e , Reading  r e a d i n g a s m e a s u r e d by t h e  January,  was c o n d u c t e d  d u r i n g one 19-week s e m e s t e r ,  September  1982-83.  Null  The f o l l o w i n g 1.  Gates-MacGinitie  Test. The s t u d y  to  t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme; t h e  There w i l l  Hypotheses  n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d f o r t h i s  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  study:  difference i n reading  ability  2,  a s m e a s u r e d by t h e G a t e s - M c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t ,  Forms 1 and  L e v e l F, b e t w e e n t h o s e  i n t h e W r i t i n g 44  Programme and t h o s e one  semester.  2.  There w i l l  s t u d e n t s who  who  participated  d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t h e Programme f o r  difference i n writing  a s m e a s u r e d on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms between t h o s e  s t u d e n t s who  Programme and t h o s e 3.  There w i l l  who  have not p a r t i c i p a t e d  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  comprehension as measured Forms  have p a r t i c i p a t e d  W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms  C and  f o r one  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  ability C and  D,  i n t h e W r i t i n g 44  on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  1 and 2, L e v e l F and w r i t i n g  ability  semester. reading  Reading  Test,  a s m e a s u r e d on t h e  D.  Specifically: a.  between w r i t i n g  p r e t e s t and v o c a b u l a r y  b.  between w r i t i n g  p r e t e s t and c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t s .  c. . between w r i t i n g  p o s t t e s t and v o c a b u l a r y  pre-and p o s t t e s t s .  pre-and p o s t t e s t s .  35 d.  between w r i t i n g  p o s t t e s t and c o m p r e h e n s i o n pre-and  posttests.  Sample  An six  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o f 25 s t u d e n t s was r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m  Grade E l e v e n  E n g l i s h c l a s s e s a t Carson  Graham S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l .  c o n t r o l g r o u p o f 25 s t u d e n t s was r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m Eleven students not enrolled  i n E n g l i s h 11 i n f i r s t  Graham, s t u d e n t s a r e p l a c e d o n c l a s s l i s t s  among t h o s e  semester.  by c o m p u t e r .  Grade  s t u d e n t s i n Band who a r e t i m e t a b l e d a s a g r o u p , w i t h Band with E n g l i s h throughout remedial  Grade Carson  Eleven  alternating  the year, are not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study, nor a r e  students. Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s  of  At  A  f o r t h e sample were s e l e c t e d from  a table  random n u m b e r s , a f t e r b e i n g r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o E n g l i s h c l a s s e s b y  computer. The  students  socioeconomic  from  Carson  Graham come f r o m  a wide v a r i e t y o f  backgrounds.  Instrumentation  The  instruments selected f o r t h i s  M a c G i n i t i e Reading  Test which  study  i s g e n e r a l l y favoured  t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C a n d D. to  use t h e h o l i s t i c a l l y  marked w r i t i n g  the s t u d e n t s ' impromptu w r i t i n g compositions  i n c l u d e d the Gatesby t h e D i s t r i c t ,  and  The r e s e a r c h e r h a d h o p e d  samples as a second  samples were n o t a v a i l a b l e .  measure, but The  would have been used t o measure g a i n s i n s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y .  36  As a r e s u l t ,  t h e a n a l y s i s was  restricted  to the o b j e c t i v e  test.  Reading The  v o c a b u l a r y and c o m p r e h e n s i o n  F o r m s 1 and  2, o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g  K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n F o r m u l a 20 r e l i a b i l i t y v o c a b u l a r y and  .85  - .92  Reading passages published  s u b t e s t s f r o m L e v e l F,  for  The  - .94 f o r  comprehension.  i n the t e s t are s a i d  The  T e s t were used.  c o e f f i c i e n t i s .85  s o u r c e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t the wide  encounter i n reading.  parallel  t o have been s e l e c t e d  from  range o f m a t e r i a l s t u d e n t s  percentages of comprehension  passages  from  various content areas are Narrative-Descriptive  -  32.5  Social  -  32.5  Natural Sciences  -  25  The  -  10  Sciences  Arts  R e a d i n g t e s t s w e r e m a r k e d by  ( G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test M a n u a l , 1979, p. 59) hand.  Writing The parallel  W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c  The  A) c o n s i s t s o f  f o r m s , e a c h h a v i n g 100 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i t e m s .  w e r e w r i t t e n by D i s t r i c t 44 to  Test (see Appendix  ensure v a l i d i t y . Diagnostic The  A l l test  two  items  E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s and r e v i s e d where n e c e s s a r y  Reliability  of the p a r a l l e l  T e s t s w e r e s c o r e d by  criterion-referenced  test  f o r m s a r e .88  -  .93.  computer. i s designed to i d e n t i f y  s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n r e a d i n g and  the  writing-related  37  skills The  such as p u n c t u a t i o n s y s t e m , usage, d i c t i o n ,  students are pre-tested  nesses i n w r i t i n g for  skills  at the beginning of the semester;  are i d e n t i f i e d ;  specific  t h e s t u d e n t s t o work on i n t h e w r i t i n g  t e s t e d a t t h e end skills.  and v o c a b u l a r y .  o f the semester  skills  writing  are  prescribed  l a b ; the students are post-  t o measure improvement i n w r i t i n g  P o s t t e s t s c o r e s a r e used as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l  subsequent  weak-  f o r the students'  course.  Treatment  The  W r i t i n g 44 programme i s d e s c r i b e d  s c h o o l week i s d i v i d e d  l a b d a y s , when t h e y i m p r o v e  i n the mechanics  writing. In  the  The  i n t o w o r k s h o p d a y s , on w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e t a u g h t  c o m p o s i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and of  as p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d .  the workshop, s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e  writing In  process: pre-writing, writing,  i n the following  revising,  and  stages of  presenting.  t h e l a b , s t u d e n t s w o r k on m a t e r i a l d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n  weaknesses i n w r i t i n g  w h i c h were p r e v i o u s l y d i a g n o s e d : b y  testing.  Workshop Stage approach  I - pre-writing.  i s used  t o d e v e l o p and  shows e m p h a s i z i n g p r e - w r i t i n g writing  (Emig, 1971;  improve  thinking processes.  s t r a t e g i e s has s i g n i f i c a n t  O d e l l , 1974;  neglected i n t r a d i t i o n a l strategies:  During t h i s stage a language e x p e r i e n c e  Graves, 1975).  English classes,  Research  effect  Pre-writing,  includes the  on often  following  38 Brainstorming and. Clustering^: generating ideas through free association. Analogy:  developing metaphors  Free A s s o c i a t i o n : responding to cues on a given t o p i c . Meditation/Introspection: v i s u a l i z i n g Games: playing simulation games to encourage d i s c u s s i o n . Models: examining the works of l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s for s t y l e . Role-Playing: engaging i n r o l e - p l a y to f a c i l i t a t e seeing another point of view or d e p i c t i n g character t r a i t s . Films, Recordings: viewing m a t e r i a l to provide background for a topic or to provoke controversy. H e u r i s t i c s : using problem s o l v i n g to generate ideas. Journals: w r i t i n g i n f o r m a l l y to explore thoughts and ideas. Stage I I - w r i t i n g .  Stage I I i n the w r i t i n g process i s when the  w r i t e r commits to paper the thoughts developed  i n the p r e - w r i t i n g stage.  A rough d r a f t i s produced by the student to which peers or teachers respond. In t h i s stage, students learn to organize ideas by w r i t i n g passages of d i f f e r e n t lengths, using appropriate formats for varying purposes and adjusting s t y l e and tone for d i f f e r e n t Stage I I I - r e v i s i n g .  audiences.  Revising i s an on-going process, using  s t r a t e g i e s of a d d i t i o n , d e l e t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i o n , and rearrangement. 1. Addition and Deletion: words, phrases, and sentences may be added to or deleted from the student's w r i t i n g .  39  2. S u b s t i t u t i o n : words, phrases, sentences or longer units of discourse may be substituted f o r what has been written i n the f i r s t d r a f t . 3. Rearrangement: sequence of words may be changed to make w r i t i n g more f l u e n t .  Sentence combining, an i n t e g r a l part  of the Writing 44 programme, i s practised both o r a l l y and i n w r i t t e n form at t h i s stage of the w r i t i n g process i n order to develop s t y l e , v a r i e t y , and sentence sense. These r e v i s i o n s t r a t e g i e s are p r a c t i s e d i n the workshop i n partners or small groups.  Revision i s seen as a reformulation of ideas  for c l a r i t y , tone, or s t y l e , with a s p e c i f i c audience i n mind. Proof-reading also occurs at t h i s stage when students apply e d i t i n g s k i l l s to t h e i r own and to t h e i r partners' papers before presentation. Stage IV - presenting. Papers are presented to the teacher or to peers f o r evaluation.  Writing 44 encourages p u b l i c a t i o n of students'  work i n c l a s s newspapers, school magazines, on b u l l e t i n boards so that the student may experience the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t audiences. Writing Lab I n s t r u c t i o n i n the lab i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d .  During one  semester,  a student may s e l e c t three or four s k i l l packages on which to work, applying s k i l l s and information learned i n the lab to papers presented i n the workshop.  40  In t h e l a b t h e r e a r e n i n e t e e n packages o f s k i l l s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t may c h o o s e t o w o r k .  difficulty.  There i s a l s o  games, a n d r e s o u r c e s t h a t Pre-and p o s t t e s t s  from  Each l a b package c o n t a i n s an  i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t and a s e t o f p r a c t i c e in  material  a list  exercises  which are graduated  o f A-V m a t e r i a l ,  educational  apply to the topic. are available  f o r each i n d i v i d u a l  S t u d e n t s m u s t a c h i e v e m a s t e r y on one t o p i c  topic.  before proceeding t o another.  Tests are machine-scored i n the l a b .  A Week's  Programme  A t y p i c a l week i n t h e W r i t i n g ing  44 programme w o u l d h a v e t h e f o l l o w -  outline: Day 1 - P r e - w r i t i n g related  - writing  i n the journal,  clustering  ideas  t o t h e t o p i c , b r a i n s t o r m i n g , o r a l s e n t e n c e combjining  activities.  Day 2 - W r i t i n g  - discussing  about t h e t o p i c ;  first  Day 3 - R e v i s i n g  - writing  practising  revision  Day 4 - E d i t i n g  the rubric  draft  f o r the topic,  b e g u n , c o m p l e t e d f o r homework.  sentence combining  strategies,  peer c r i t i q u i n g  exercises, of f i r s t  - w o r k i n g i n t h e l a b on a p p r o p r i a t e  packages as i d e n t i f i e d  writing  by t h e D i a g n o s t i c  draft.  skill  Test.  Day 3 - P r e s e n t i n g - r e a d i n g o f t h e p a p e r by p e e r s o r t e a c h e r for  evaluation.  41  Data  The  following  Collection  t i m e t a b l e was  used i n c o l l e c t i n g  data  f o r the  study: May, in  1982:  A l l G r a d e 10 s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g C a r s o n Graham  S e p t e m b e r , 1982,  Diagnostic  Test,  T e s t , L e v e l F,  Form C,  Form  S e p t e m b e r , 1982:  the c o n t r o l  January,  1983:  and  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  group, t w e n t y - f i v e randomly s e l e c t e d  group. A l l students completing  L e v e l F,  Form 2,  February,  1983:  and  t h e W r i t i n g 44  Students  September to January  T e s t , Form  not  E n g l i s h 11 a t  are administered  L e v e l F,  Form 2,  and  W r i t i n g 44 1.  Carson  Reading  Test,  D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form  enrolled  D.  i n E n g l i s h 11 the  Gates-MacGinitie  t h e W r i t i n g 44  Diagnostic  D.  D a t a P r o c e s s i n g and  The  Reading  s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d  Graham w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Reading Test,  44  1.  Twenty-five  f o r the experimental for  were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e W r i t i n g  following  procedures  Analysis  were used t o examine t h e e f f e c t o f  Programme on r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y  and  comprehension:  Independent t - t e s t s were used t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s o f means b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  c o n t r o l groups  pre-and  the  42  p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on t h e s u b t e s t s o f v o c a b u l a r y hension  on  the Gates-MacGinitie  Forms 1 and  2.  Reading Test, L e v e l  P:2V  ( D i x o n , 1983)  was  p e r f o r m e d on  Forms 1 and  2,  r e a d i n g between the e x p e r i m e n t a l  The  f o l l o w i n g procedures  Gates-MacGinitie and  compare growth i n control  groups.  were used t o measure d i f f e r e n c e s i n  between the e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  control  groups:  Independent t - t e s t s were used t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s o f means b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on t h e W r i t i n g 44 and  c o n t r o l groups'  pre-and  D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C  D.  A R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e , c o m p u t e r programme BMD  P:2V  ( D i x o n , 1983)  Diagnostic and  vocabulary,  was  p e r f o r m e d on t h e W r i t i n g  T e s t , Forms C and  44  D t o examine group d i f f e r e n c e s  time d i f f e r e n c e s .  In order and  t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a d i n g writing  ( N i e e t a l , 1975) Gates-MacGinitie 44  and  the  Vocabulary  C o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t s t o e x a m i n e and  2.  F,  2.  R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l F,  1.  compre-  A R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e , c o m p u t e r programme BMD  writing  and  was  s c o r e s , an  SS  Pearson  C o r r e l a t i o n procedure  c o m p u t e d on p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s on  R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l F,  Diagnostic Test,  comprehension,  Forms C and  D.  Forms 1 and  2,  and  the  the W r i t i n g  CHAPTER IV  A n a l y s i s o f Data  This chapter  r e p o r t s the f i n d i n g s of the study  t h e e f f e c t o f t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme reading a b i l i t y Both  a f t e r one  experimental  Diagnostic  Form C.  L e v e l F, Form 1 a n d t h e W r i t i n g 44  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  group r e c e i v e d  t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d W r i t i n g 44 Programme  g r o u p was n o t e n r o l l e d  was g i v e n t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  later,  as w e l l  control  instruction  They d i d n o t r e c e i v e d i r e c t  January,  1983, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  group  R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2 a s a p o s t -  a s t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t ,  February,  b u t had  The  instruction.  A t t h e end o f t h e s e m e s t e r ,  test,  instruction  f o r 19 w e e k s .  i n E n g l i s h 11 t h a t s e m e s t e r ,  i n o t h e r academic and e l e c t i v e a r e a s . reading or w r i t i n g  students'  and c o n t r o l g r o u p s were p r e t e s t e d w i t h t h e  Reading Test,  in  on s e l e c t e d G r a d e E l e v e n  semester.  Gates-MacGinitie Test,  which i n v e s t i g a t e d  Form D.  One  week  1 9 8 3 , t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e same  posttests. I n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t s and R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s o f A n a l y s i s o f were used t o compare p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V o c a b u l a r y Comprehension s u b t e s t s o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  and  R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l F,  Forms 1 a n d 2, a n d t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t ,  43  Variance  Forms C and  D.  44 Pearson  Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed t o examine r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s between p r e t e s t s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g comprehension, v o c a b u l a r y , and w r i t i n g and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p o s t t e s t s c o r e s .  Reading R e s u l t s  Independent t - t e s t s were used w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e GatesM a c G i n i t i e Reading Test L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension s u b t e s t s t o t e s t the f i r s t hypothesis o f t h i s  study:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g  ability  as measured by t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, between those s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme and those who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e for  one semester.  Reading P r e t e s t R e s u l t s Table 1 shows t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on t - t e s t s o f independent samples on the Vocabulary Form 1.  measure o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test, L e v e l F,  The mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was 30.32; t h e c o n t r o l  group's 30.12.  As both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were e q u a l i n  a b i l i t y on t h e p r e t e s t measure, no f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l 'procedure was necessary. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t when both groups were p r e t e s t e d a t t h e end o f Grade Ten, i n May, 1982, t h e Grade E q u i v a l e n t i n t h e Vocabulary  45  subtest f o r both  e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p was 1 1 . 4 . T h i s w o u l d  a p p e a r t o be a n a b o v e a v e r a g e g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s a s t h e p r e t e s t mean ranked  on t h e 62nd  percentile.  I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , 44?o s c o r e d a b o v e t h e p r e t e s t mean, 52?o a b o v e t h e p o s t t e s t mean.  In. the c o n t r o l group, 48% scored  above  t h e p r e t e s t mean, 60?o a b o v e t h e p o s t t e s t mean. In t h e Comprehension s u b t e s t , both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s s c o r e d a t t h e G r a d e E g u i v a l e n t o f 11.8 a t t h e e n d o f G r a d e T e n . T h e s e s c o r e s r a n k on t h e 6 6 t h p e r c e n t i l e a n d on S t a n i n e 6.  In t h e  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , 5 2 % s c o r e d a b o v e t h e mean on t h e p r e t e s t , 64?o on the p o s t t e s t .  I n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , 68% s c o r e d a b o v e t h e p r e t e s t mean,  w h i l e 6 4 % s c o r e d a b o v e t h e p o s t t e s t mean.  TABLE 1 G A T E S - M a c G I N I T I E READING TEST, FORM 1, LEVEL F VOCABULARY SUBTEST  t-test  Group  f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on p r e t e s t s c o r e s  Mean  S.D.  Control  30.12  4.6  Experimental  30.32  8 8  p  <«05  t-value  .09  (N.S.)  d.f.  48  46  Table  2 shows t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t  experimental  d i f f e r e n c e between  a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s on t - t e s t s o f i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on  the Comprehension s u b t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e L e v e l F, Form 1, a s shown i n T a b l e  2.  Reading  Test,  As t h e r e was e q u i v a l e n c e o f  g r o u p s on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r e t e s t , no f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l was  treatment  necessary.  TABLE 2 G A T E S - M a c G I N I T I E READING TEST, FORM 1, LEVEL F COMPREHENSION SUBTEST  t-test  f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on p r e t e s t  Group  Mean  S.D.  Control  34.60  3.8  Experimental  35.04  4.7  p <  scores  t-value  d.f. .  .35(N.S.)  48  .05  Reading P o s t t e s t R e s u l t s On t h e t - t e s t s  f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on t h e V o c a b u l a r y  of the Gates-MacGinitie Table  Vocabulary  R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2 ( a s shown on  3 ) t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n mean raw s c o r e s  mental group. Both  subtest  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  groups improved over  favouring the e x p e r i a t t h e .01  time, but the experimental  a p p e a r s t o show g r e a t e r g r o w t h i n v o c a b u l a r y  level.  group  after participating  i n the  47  Writing the  44 Programme.  The mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  mean f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p  g r o u p was 3 4 . 0 0 ;  32.76.  TABLE 3  G A T E S - M a c G I N I T I E READING TEST, FORM 2, LEVEL F VOCABULARY SUBTEST  t-test  f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on p o s t t e s t  Group  scores  Mean  S.D.  t-value  d.f.  Control  32.76  5.74  -.75 (N.S.)  48  Experimental  34.00  5.73  p  £  .05  Differences:  Vocabulary  R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e was u s e d on t h e G a t e s MacGinitie, result  Level  F, Forms 1 a n d 2 V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t  shows no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  However, on t h e V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t , a t t h e .01 l e v e l , greater  showing that  than p r e t e s t  scores.  there  d i f f e r e n c e between i s a trials effect,  the posttest See T a b l e 4.  scores.  scores  The groups. significant  o f both groups a r e  The mean f o r t h e e x p e r i -  48 m e n t a l g r o u p was 34.00; t h e mean f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was  32.76.  TABLE 4  REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 AND 2, VOCABULARY SUBTESTS SCORES  Source  SS  df  MS  F  0.19  Between  group  12.96  1  12.96  Within  group  3287.04  48  68.48  3300.00  49  249.64  1  249.64  32.60  time x group  6.76  1  6.76  0.88  W i t h i n group  367.60  48  7.66  Total  Between t i m e s  Prob.  0.67  0.0000 0.35  Reading P o s t t e s t r e s u l t s - Comprehension P o s t t e s t s c o r e s on t h e C o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2, showed no s i g n i f i c a n t e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s on t h e t - t e s t s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s .  differ-  As shown  on T a b l e 5, t h e mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i s 34.56 and 35.24 f o r  49  for  t h e c o n t r o l group, a s l i g h t , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  the experimental  decrease  i n mean f o r  group.  TABLE 5  G A T E S - M a c G i N I T I E READING TEST, FORM 2, LEVEL F COMPREHENSION SUBTEST  t-test  Group  f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on p o s t t e s t  scores  Mean  S.D.  t-value  Control  35.24  4.59  .46 (N.S.)  Experimental  34.56  5.49  P £  48  .05  Differences: The on  d.f.  Comprehension  Test  o f Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s  o f V a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d  t h e Comprehension s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  T e s t , Form F, L e v e l s 1 a n d 2, a n d showed no s i g n i f i c a n t either within  o r between groups.  The p r e t e s t  The p o s t t e s t  mean f o r  g r o u p was 3 4 . 5 6 ; f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p 3 5 . 2 4 .  t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p showed s l i g h t i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r group, the d i f f e r e n c e experimental  differences  mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  g r o u p was 3 5 . 0 4 ; f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , 3 4 . 6 0 . the experimental  Reading  i s non-significant.  g r o u p showed a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e  the experimental  The p o s t t e s t over  While  time.  mean o f t h e See T a b l e  6.  50  The W r i t i n g 44- Programme a p p e a r s t o h a v e had no e f f e c t comprehension scores a f t e r  on r e a d i n g  one s e m e s t e r .  TABLE 6  REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF G A T E S - M a c G I N I T I E READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 a n d 2, COMPREHENSION SUBTEST SCORES  Source  SS  Between group  0.36  1  0.36  W i t h i n group  1680.68  48  35.01  Total  1681.04  49  0.16  1  0.16  0.02  0.92  7.84  1  7.84  0.75  0.38  499.00  48  10.40  Between  times  Time x g r o u p Within  df  Writing  MS  F  0.01  0.92  Results  Independent t - t e s t s were used t o a n a l y z e  the results  W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C a n d D t o t e s t of t h i s  Prob.  the second  of the hypothesis  study. There w i l l  be no d i f f e r e n c e i n w r i t i n g  on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t ,  ability  as measured  Forms C a n d D, b e t w e e n  51 those s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme and those who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t semester.  Writing pretest results Although t h e mean o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was g r e a t e r than t h a t o f t h e c o n t r o l group on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form C, u s i n g t h e t - t e s t f o r independent was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . e q u a l f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes.  samples as t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t ,  this  T h e r e f o r e t h e groups a r e c o n s i d e r e d As shown i n Table 7, the mean f o r t h e s  c o n t r o l group i s 55.56 and 59.88 f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, r e s u l t i n g i n a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t - v a l u e o f 1.3. .  ;  TABLE 7 WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORM C t - t e s t f o r independent  Group  samples on w r i t i n g p r e t e s t s c o r e s  Mean  S.D.  Control  55.56  10.2  Experimental  59.88  13.3  t-value  1.3 (N.S.)  d.f.  48  52  Writing posttest results Writing in  Table  8.  44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D, p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s a r e shown  On t h e i n d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t ,  ence between e x p e r i m e n t a l experimental o f one  t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  and c o n t r o l groups  (p -<C  group had g r e a t e r g r o w t h i n w r i t i n g  differ-  .05), showing t h e  skill  over  the period  semester.  TABLE 8 WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORM D t-test  Group  f o r i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on w r i t i n g  Mean  S.D.  Control  64.76  8.3  Experimental  73.00  posttest scores  t-value  -2.62  d.f.  (S)  48  13.0  p <C .05  Differences: Writing R e s u l t s o f t h e R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C a n d D s c o r e s show t h a t when f r o m t h e t w o g r o u p s were c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l writing time  scores signifi-  b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s i n t h e mean  s c o r e a t t i m e one a n d t h e mean w r i t i n g  two mean s c o r e was h i g h e r t h a n  the time  score a t time  two.  The  one mean s c o r e , 6 8 . 9 v s 5 7 . 7 .  53  Table  9 shows t h a t when p r e t e s t s c o r e s a n d p o s t t e s t s c o r e s  t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C a n d D w e r e c o n s i d e r e d g r o u p , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y b e t w e e n t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e writing  score  f o r each  d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01  f o r the experimental  f o r t h e c o n t r o l group.  m e n t a l g r o u p was l a r g e r  The mean s c o r e  g r o u p and t h e mean f o r the e x p e r i -  a p p e a r s t o h a v e h a d an e f f e c t on t h e  of the experimental  group o f Grade E l e v e n  students.  TABLE 9 REPEATED MEASURES A N A L Y S I S OF VARIANCE OF THE WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORMS C AND D df  SS  Source  MS  F  Between  group  985.96  1  985.96  Within  group  9341.04  48  194.61  10327.00  49  time  3113.64  1  3113.64  40.94  group  96.04  1  96.04  1.26  48  76.05  Total  Between time  x  Within  3650.32  level  t h a n t h a t o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , 66.4 v s 6 0 . 2 .  The W r i t i n g 44 Programme writing s k i l l s  significant  on  •  5.07  Prob. .03  .0000 .27  54 Reading Comprehension, V o c a b u l a r y , Writing Relationships  and  A Pearson P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n Test was and  p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of experimental  Gates-MacGinitie 44 D i a g n o s t i c  c o n t r o l group s c o r e s o f  Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and  T e s t , Forms C and  between r e a d i n g  and  and  performed on  2, and the  prethe  Writing  D t o examine p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w r i t i n g , t e s t i n g the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s  of the s t u d y :  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on the W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c Test, Forms C and D. S p e c i f i c a l l y between c o n t r o l and  experimental  vocabulary  groups'  a.  w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and  pre-and p o s t t e s t s .  b.  w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and comprehension pre-and p o s t t e s t s .  c.  w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t and  vocabulary  d.  w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t and  comprehension pre-and p o s t t e s t s .  pre-and p o s t t e s t s .  R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f Reading and W r i t i n g i n C o n t r o l Group, Table 10 shows the f o l l o w i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the c o n t r o l group s c o r e s between the W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c Gates-MacGinitie The  T e s t , Forms C and  Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and  l e v e l , w i t h the  p r e t e s t ( r = .26), w i t h the comprehension p r e t e s t and  w i t h the comprehension p o s t t e s t ( r = .16).  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the v o c a b u l a r y  p o s t t e s t was  the  2:  w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the v o c a b u l a r y  (r = .34), s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05  D, and  posttest vocabulary (r =  .23)  Only the  significant.  TABLE 10 PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN READING AND WRITING SCORES OF THE CONTROL GROUP ON THE G A T E S - M a c G I N I T I E READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 a n d 2, AND THE WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORMS C AND D.  Prewriting  Prewriting  Precomprehension  Pre- • vocabulary  Postwriting  Postcomprehension  Postvocabulary  1.00  Precomprehension  .23  Prevocabulary  .26  Postwriting  .64**  .36**  .47**  Postcomprehension  .16  .39**  .26  .37*  Post vocabulary  .34*  .79**  .61**  *  p <.05  **  p < .01  1.00  ..62**  .51**  1.00 1.00  1.00  .37*  1.00  The w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h pretest  ( r = .36), s i g n i f i c a n t  the comprehension  a t .05; w i t h  prehension posttest  ( r = .37), s i g n i f i c a n t  with  pretest  the vocabulary  at  .01; w i t h  at  .01.  Relationships Scores  the vocabulary  between  t h e com-  at  .05;  ( r = .47), s i g n i f i c a n t posttest  R e a d i n g and W r i t i n g  ( r = .61)  significant  of the Experimental  T a b l e 11 shows t h e f o l l o w i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e group scores  between  t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c  and t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Reading Test,  The w r i t i n g p r e t e s t pretest  and w i t h  correlated with  (r = .76); with  (r = .69); with  Level  the  pretest  posttest  c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t  Forms C and  posttest  ( r = .65);  ( r = .46). A l l  a t t h e .01  level.  p o s t t e s t and t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r e - a n d  t e s t and t h e v o c a b u l a r y c o r r e l a t i o n between by t h e t e a c h i n g the  w r i t i n g scores  reading  scores  e x i s t e d between  pre-and p o s t t e s t .  w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g  of writing,  2:  comprehension  There were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between writing  experimental  F, Forms 1 and  the comprehension  the vocabulary  the vocabulary  Test,  the post-  The  was  I t would appear  reduced that  i m p r o v e d s o much more t h a n t h e  that s i g n i f i c a n t w r i t i n g and  c o r r e l a t i o n s no  reading.  Group  longer  D,  TABLE 11 PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN READING AND WRITING SCORES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP ON THE GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 AND 2, AND THE WRITING 4 4 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORMS C AND D.  Prewriting  Prewriting Precomprehension  Precomprehension  Prevocabulary  ,16**  .82**  Postwriting  .34*  .08  .08  .69**  ,66**  .65**  .46**  .69**  .87**  *  p < .05  **  p < .01  Postvocabulary  1.00  .65**  Postvocabulary  Postcomprehension  1.00  Prevocabulary  Postcomprehension  Postwriting  1.00  1.00  ,16  -.05  1.00  .67**  1.00 -^1  58  Summary  In t e s t i n g t h e f i r s t  hypothesis,  There i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured by t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, between those s t u d e n t s who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme and those who have not p a r t i c i pated f o r one semester t - t e s t s f o r independent samples showed a d i f f e r e n c e i n mean raw s c o r e s f a v o u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t . d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t .  This  The Repeated Measures o f A n a l y s i s o f  V a r i a n c e showed no group d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t , but t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t time e f f e c t ( p £ . 0 1 ) , showing p o s t t e s t s c o r e s g r e a t e r than p r e t e s t s c o r e s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t growth i n t h e comprehension s u b t e s t on e i t h e r t - t e s t s o r Repeated Measures o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e .  The p o s t -  t e s t mean o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed a s l i g h t , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t decrease over  time.  In t h i s s t u d y , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s not r e j e c t e d . In t e s t i n g t h e second h y p o t h e s i s , There i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D, between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme and those who have not p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r one semester both t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e showed t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e  59 W r i t i n g 44 Programme f o r one semester. In t e s t i n g t h e t h i r d  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d .  hypothesis,  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D, f o r e i t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l groups. Pearson  Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n T e s t s showed v a r y i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s  between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g pre-and p o s t t e s t s o f t h e c o n t r o l group and e x p e r i m e n t a l group. In t h e c o n t r o l group s c o r e s , t h e w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the v o c a b u l a r y p o s t t e s t , s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05; t h e w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h both comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t t e s t s a t the .01 l e v e l . In t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, t h e w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h both comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t t e s t s a t t h e .01 l e v e l . However, t h e w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t .  The  t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g appeared t o reduce t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n t h e p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. I t would appear t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between some but not a l l the s u b t e s t s o f r e a d i n g comprehension, v o c a b u l a r y , and w r i t i n g as measured on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2 and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D. t h e r e f o r e , not t o t a l l y r e j e c t e d .  The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s i s ,  CHAPTER V  R e s u l t s , I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations  The study examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between measured changes i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s o f s e l e c t e d Grade Eleven s t u d e n t s ,  half  o f whom were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a nineteen-week semester w r i t i n g programme and h a l f o f whom were e n r o l l e d i n o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n .  A standardized  r e a d i n g t e s t and a c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d o b j e c t i v e w r i t i n g t e s t were administered p r i o r t o the w r i t i n g treatment. w r i t i n g t e s t s were g i v e n t o t h e treatment o f t h e semester.  P a r a l l e l r e a d i n g and  and c o n t r o l group a t t h e end  T - t e s t s f o r independent samples, t h e Test o f Repeated  Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e , and Pearon product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were used i n a n a l y s i n g t h e d a t a .  Results Reading Changes r- V o c a b u l a r y  Measure  On t h e t - t e s t s f o r independent samples, u s i n g t h e Vocabulary s u b t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, t h e r e was a s l i g h t and s t a t i s t i c a l l y ing  n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e favour-  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group on t h e p o s t t e s t . On t h e V o c a b u l a r y  s u b t e s t , t h e Test o f Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s  o f V a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  groups, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a t r i a l s e f f e c t , s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01.  60  61  P o s t t e s t scores obtained i n January, s c o r e s o f May,  1983,  were g r e a t e r than p r e t e s t  1902.  W h i l e b o t h g r o u p s .unproved d u r i n g the s e m e s t e r , group appeared  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  to show g r e a t e r g a i n s i n v o c a b u l a r y a f t e r  i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p made a g a i n i n  v o c a b u l a r y g r o w t h e q u i v a l e n t t o 1.4 M a c G i n i t i e norms.  y e a r s , a c c o r d i n g to the  Gates-  The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e  w r i t i n g t r e a t m e n t , had a G r a d e E q u i v a l e n t s c o r e o f 12.8. g r o u p ' s was  participating  The c o n t r o l  12.5.  As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r  IV (Page 4 4 ) , when b o t h g r o u p s  were  p r e t e s t e d , t h e G r a d e E q u i v a l e n t s c o r e f o r b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s was  11.4,  a b o v e average" f o r a g r o u p o f G r a d e ' T e n s t u d e n t s .  F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , r e m e d i a l s t u d e n t s were e x c l u d e d the sample p o p u l a t i o n , thus p o s s i b l y skewing h i g h end o f t h e s c a l e . E q u i v a l e n t o f 11.4  the r e s u l t s towards  from  the  When t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a l r e a d y s c o r i n g a Grade  a t the end o f G r a d e 10, t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y not as  g r e a t an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s t u d e n t s a r e above a v e r a g e  s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s as t h e  to begin with.  B o t h c o n t r o l and  p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t s c o r e s a r e on t h e s i x t h s t a n i n e .  The  experimental  experimental  g r o u p ' s p o s t t e s t s c o r e s r a n k e d on t h e 6 6 t h p e r c e n t i l e , w h i l e the c o n t r o l group's  r a n k e d on t h e 62nd p e r c e n t i l e .  62  Reading Changes - Comprehension Measure On the t - t e s t s f o r independent samples on the Comprehension subt e s t of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups, although there was a s l i g h t , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n mean for the experimental group. The Test of Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n or between groups on the Comprehension subtest. As noted i n Chapter IV (Page 45), the sample for the study was w e l l above average i n reading a b i l i t y before the w r i t i n g treatment was administered during the 1982-1983 school year.  P o s s i b l y there was not  as much opportunity for growth as there would have been had the sample been average or s l i g h t l y below average.  Both groups showed a .9 year  increase i n growth i n reading comprehension.  Although there was a  s l i g h t , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n mean f o r the experimental group on the p o s t t e s t , the Grade Equivalent f o r both groups was 12.7 on the p o s t t e s t , ranking at the 62nd p e r c e n t i l e and on Stahine,6. • Thus, i n answer to the research question posed i n Chapter I , the Writing 44 Programme, a process-oriented w r i t i n g programme, d i d not improve reading a b i l i t y as measured by a standardized group t e s t f o r the selected group o f Grade Eleven students during one semester. I t would appear the Writing Programme had no e f f e c t on reading a b i l i t y i n t h i s study.  63  Writing  Changes On t h e t - t e s t s  f o r I n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s on t h e W r i t i n g 44  Diagnostic  T e s t , Forms C a n d D t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  difference  (p f i r . 0 5 ) f a v o u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  significant  group.  R e s u l t s o f t h e R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C a n d D, show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y nificant  d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l  b e t w e e n t h e mean w r i t i n g  t i m e o n e a n d t i m e t w o , t h e t i m e two mean b e i n g T h e r e was a l s o a s t a t i s t i c a l l y b e t w e e n t h e mean w r i t i n g writing  score at  higher.  significant  difference  (p.£..01)  s c o r e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d t h e mean  score f o r t h e c o n t r o l group, f a v o u r i n g t h e experimental As  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p made s i g n i f i c a n t  d u r i n g one s e m e s t e r , e f f e c t on t h e w r i t i n g  sig-  group.  gains i n writing  t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme a p p e a r s t o h a v e h a d an skills  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o f Grade 11  students. These r e s u l t s c o n c u r W r i t i n g 44 t e s t d a t a  f o rthe District  Eleven p o p u l a t i o n o f North during  with those o f J e r o s k i  significant  Vancouver.  V a n c o u v e r made s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e 1982-1983 s c h o o l y e a r .  statistically  o f North  ( 1 9 8 3 ) who a n a l y z e d  Jeroski  found  The G r a d e  gains i n writing  a l l grades  showed  ( p . 5^.001) i n c r e a s e s i n s t u d e n t s c o r e s when  t h e d a t a was e x a m i n e d by r e p e a t e d  measures a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e ,  controlling  level.  f o r s c h o o l and g r a d e  Changes i n t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Reading  and W r i t i n g  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g using  Pearson  product  moment c o r r e l a t i o n s .  s c o r e s were examined  The c o r r e l a t i o n a l  data,  64  w i t h one i m p o r t a n t  exception, supports  t h a t r e p o r t e d by  previous  r e s e a r c h e r s , t h a t i s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s do e x i s t between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g .  C o n t r o l group f i n d i n g s .  The w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  w i t h o n l y the v o c a b u l a r y  p o s t t e s t ( r = .34), s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05.  d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y  It  p r e t e s t o r compre-  h e n s i o n pre-and p o s t t e s t s . The w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e comprehension p r e t e s t ( r = .36), s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05; t h e comprehension p o s t t e s t ( r = .37), s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05; the v o c a b u l a r y .01, and t h e v o c a b u l a r y Apparently  p r e t e s t ( r = .47), s i g n i f i c a n t a t  p o s t t e s t ( r = .61), s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01.  more c o r r e l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a t t h e  end o f the semester than a t t h e b e g i n n i n g . Experimental  group f i n d i n g s .  The w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i -  c a n t l y w i t h t h e comprehension p r e t e s t ( r = .76); t h e comprehension p o s t t e s t ( r = .69); the v o c a b u l a r y p o s t t e s t ( r = .46).  p r e t e s t (r = .65); the  vocabulary  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l .  The w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t had no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h any o f the measures o f r e a d i n g comprehension and  vocabulary.  The r e s u l t s o f the w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f the w r i t i n g p r e t e s t .  The c o r r e l a t i o n s between w r i t i n g and  reading  were reduced by t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g . One e x p l a n a t i o n may  be the f a c t t h a t w r i t i n g s c o r e s improved  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f t e r the w r i t i n g t r e a t m e n t .  Reading s c o r e s ,  already  65  showing a c e i l i n g e f f e c t a t the p r e t e s t , f o r showing growth.  d i d not have as much  opportunity  The r e s t r i c t e d range o f r e a d i n g s c o r e s i n the  s t u d y may have l e d t o a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s an u n d e r e s t i m a t e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two v a r i a b l e s .  For t h e experimental group, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the w r i t i n g t e s t w i t h the comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s r a n g e d .76,  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l .  In c o n t r a s t ,  from  the w r i t i n g  pre-  .46 to  posttest  had no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the comprehension  and  vocabulary subtests. This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n view o f the r e s e a r c h which s u p p o r t s the view t h a t r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g are r e l a t e d . the W r i t i n g  44 Programme w i t h t h i s s e l e c t e d  The s u c c e s s o f  group o f Grade  Eleven  s t u d e n t s r u l e d out the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s c o r e s b e i n g r e l a t e d a t the end o f the s t u d y as the w r i t i n g s c o r e s improved so s i g n i f i c a n t l y compared t o the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  Implications  change i n r e a d i n g s c o r e s .  and Recommendations  While w r i t i n g improved a f t e r one semester f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, a c o n c u r r e n t g r o w t h i n r e a d i n g d i d not o c c u r .  Improvement i n  66  one  area  o f language d i d not  In t h i s study,  a p p e a r t o h a v e an  teaching writing  d i d not  reading  a s m e a s u r e d by a s t a n d a r d i z e d  writing  scores  taught,  t h e r e were fewer c o r r e l a t i o n s  was  showed c o r r e l a t i o n s  effect  on t h e  a p p e a r t o h a v e any  reading  before  test.  other.  effect  on  Where r e a d i n g  t h e W r i t i n g 44  and  Programme  between s c o r e s a f t e r  the  was  Programme  taught. Findings of the study  relate  to previous  research  i n the  following  areas: 1.  Teaching reading  to improve w r i t i n g  Where E u r i c h ' s s t u d y order but  to improve w r i t i n g ,  ( 1 9 3 1 ) was  t h i s study  unsuccessful i n attempting  of writing. (1971),  who  conclusively  t h a t t h e r e was  growth i n w r i t i n g statistically  ability.  changes i n r e a d i n g  t h e two  was  successful i n teaching  reading  of  teaching  Schneider  f o r f i f t e e n weeks c o u l d n o t  state  a relationship  between growth i n r e a d i n g  Where B e l a n g e r  (1978) f a i l e d  failed  to  no  simple  cause-and-effeet  Results of t h i s study  support  and  produce  i n s p i t e o f change i n  to produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y  in  writing,  the  significant  i n s p i t e o f change i n the w r i t i n g measure.  t h a t t h e r e was  skills.  through the  were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e  s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n w r i t i n g  r e a d i n g measure, t h i s study  concluded  unsuccessful teaching reading  to improve reading  Results of the study after teaching  skills  relationship  his conclusion.  Belanger between  67  2.  C o r r e l a t i o n a l and d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s Reading and w r i t i n g p r e t e s t r e s u l t s showed g e n e r a l l y t h a t r e a d i n g  and w r i t i n g were c o r r e l a t e d .  These r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r t o p r e v i o u s  c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s (Loban,  1963,  Evanecho e t a l , 1974;  Lazdowski,  Grobe and Grobe, 1977;  1966;  1976;  Simmons, 1977,  F i s h c o , 1966;  D'Angelo, 1977;  Harris, Bippus,  1975; 1977;  and H a m i l l and MacNutt, 1980).  In t h i s s t u d y r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group d i d not show any s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s , c o n t r a r y t o the r e s e a r c h c i t e d above.  While t h e r e were f a c t o r s i n r e a d i n g  and  w r i t i n g which showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p r e t e s t s , because o f t h e g r e a t improvement i n w r i t i n g a f t e r the t r e a t m e n t , compared to no improvement i n r e a d i n g , those f a c t o r s no l o n g e r bore any t o each o t h e r .  Had  the r e a d i n g improved, the r e a d i n g and  relationship writing  p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l group might have shown c o r r e l a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o those o f the p r e t e s t s . The data r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n r e a d i n g f o r the s e l e c t e d Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme.  The  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the W r i t i n g Programme d i d l i t t l e t o improve s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e Programme l e d t o improved./writing r e s u l t s , as i t was  designed  t o do.  Programmes which suggest  t h a t improvement i n one  area o f language w i l l l e a d to improvement i n a n o t h e r , as W r i t i n g 44 does, s h o u l d be monitored  t o determine  i f they are p r o d u c i n g the d e s i r e d  effect. C o r r e l a t i o n a l p r e t e s t data revealed s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n  68  r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g as measured on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 1 and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form C.  There were  no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g as measured on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2, and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s made t h a t w h i l e two areas o f language p r o c e s s i n g are r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a c a u s a l one..  The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a r e r e l a t e d ,  improvement i n one area o f language p r o c e s s i n g does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n improvement i n a n o t h e r .  Suggestions  for  Research  T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study i n d i c a t e s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be conducted  t o determine  i f t h e c l a i m s made i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 Teachers'  Manual (page 12) a r e r e a l i s t i c .  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study  i n d i c a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations be c o n s i d e r e d : 1.  A l o n g i t u d i n a l study o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g development s h o u l d be  undertaken  as t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme i s now i n use i n t h e elementary  s c h o o l s , as w e l l  as t h e secondary  s c h o o l s i n North Vancouver.  While  d e t a i l e d w r i t i n g data a r e c o l l e c t e d a t t h e s c h o o l and D i s t r i c t  level,  cumulative records o f reading are not maintained.  Standardized  testing  o f r e a d i n g i s done on a s p o r a d i c b a s i s , except f o r s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g Grade E i g h t i n September.  69  2.  I n v i e w o f t h e g r e a t amount o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g r e a d i n g  comprehension to s y n t a c t i c Heller, in  1980;  writing  Stilley,  and  fluency i n writing  1982;  Johnson,  1981),  (Reed,  1967;  t h e . D i s t r i c t would have t o r e t a i n s t u d e n t w r i t i n g  To do  samples.  marked f o r c o n t e n t a t t h e D i s t r i c t f l u e n c y a t t h e same t i m e .  3.  an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f W r i t i n g  i s such  r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n It  w o u l d be  elementary  interesting level  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and  4.  t o compare t h e r e s u l t s  with those of Levine  Simmons ( 1 9 8 1 ) and  H o w i e ( 1 9 7 9 ) and  Straw  A comparison  t h e W r i t i n g 44  5. and  poor  traits  r e a d i n g and  at the secondary  D i a g n o s t i c T e s t and which  with reading  writers.  l e v e l with those  skills  i n writing  writing. the  of  in  sample  appear to  skills.  o f good r e a d e r s / p o o r  I t w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e  i n order to develop  writing.  44,  ( 1 9 8 1 ) , Combs  the reading scores of t h i s  i s n e e d e d on t h e t r a i t s  readers/good  o f each  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , McAfee  level.  a study at  o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s on t h e s u b - s k i l l s t e s t e d  most h i g h l y  Research  on r e a d i n g and  o f such  this,  (1978).  s h o u l d be made t o i n v e s t i g a t e correlate  to study i t s e f f e c t  growth  Student  They c o u l d be e x a m i n e d f o r s y n t a c t i c  As s e n t e n c e - c o m b i n i n g  1975;  a study of s y n t a c t i c  r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e .  compositions are h o l i s t i c a l l y  Kuntz,  writers  t o examine  the  good r e m e d i a l programmes i n b o t h  70  6.  Other e v a l u a t i v e r e a d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , such  used t o measure r e a d i n g achievement. in  scores of the experimental  One r e a s o n  as c l o z e , s h o u l d  f o r the s l i g h t decline  g r o u p on t h e r e a d i n g c d m p r e h e n s i o n  m i g h t be o v e r - f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Studies i n sentence-combining  (see Chapter  be  Reading  test  Test.  2) h a d i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s  when s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s were u s e d , b u t more d e f i n i t e  results  when c l o z e was u s e d .  7.  A study  different  o n how t h e r e a d i n g - w r i t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  kinds o f prose  valuable to teachers of a monitoring  8.  A study  a n d d i f f e r e n t modes o f w r i t i n g  i n designing writing  in  of the effect of oral  l a n g u a g e o n t h e W r i t i n g 44  a s s o much o f t h e p r e - w r i t i n g s t a g e i s  I t w o u l d be w o r t h n o t i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t , a s i s s u g g e s t e d  o f t h e Programme.  whether those w r i t e r s than  9. it  T h i s s h o u l d be p a r t  t h e W r i t i n g 44 T e a c h e r ' s M a n u a l ( p a g e 1 2 ) , o r a l  as a r e s u l t  students those  who p o s s e s s  improved  to ascertain  good d i s c u s s i o n s k i l l s  are better  s t u d e n t s who a r e l e s s v e r b a l .  would appear t h a t planned  the secondary  language  I t w o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t  As r e a d i n g d i d n o t i m p r o v e a s a r e s u l t  level.  of the writing  reading instruction  i sstill  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis being courses  w o u l d be  system f o r r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g .  Programme w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e done o r a l l y .  topics.  i s a f f e c t e d by  programme,  necessary  i n the content  at  area,  p l a c e d on r e a d i n g i n a c a d e m i c  a s p r o p o s e d i n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s made by t h e M i n i s t r y  71  of education.  While t h i s exploratory study of reading and w r i t i n g d i d not show that w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on reading a b i l i t y , i t d i d r a i s e worthwhile research questions.  As reading and  w r i t i n g are so c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n the curriculum, i t i s imperative that teachers be made aware of the r e l a t i o n s h i p i f they are to develop better methods of i n s t r u c t i o n .  72 References  A p p l e b e e , A.N. Writing 534-537. A r m s t r o n g , R.D.  and  reading.  L a n g u a g e : The  Journal  of  R e a d i n g , 1977,  essence of readiness.  20,  E d u c a t i o n , 1967,  B e a c h , R. S e l f e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s o f e x t e n s i v e r e v i s e r s and r e v i s e r s . C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n and C o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1976, 160-164.  6.  non27,  B e b e n s e e , E.L. The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n n e r c i t y f i f t h g r a d e r s ' r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and w r i t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Duke U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 7 . ) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1978, 39, 166 A. B e l a n g e r , J . F . R e a d i n g s k i l l a s an i n f l u e n c e on w r i t i n g s k i l l . (Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Alberta, ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 163 409.  1978.)  B i p p u s , A.C. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e q u a l i t y o f s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n g r a d e s 4 and 6. ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a , 1977.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, 38, 3993 A. B r i d w e l l , L. R e v i s i n g s t r a t e g i e s w r i t i n g . Research i n the  i n t w e l f t h grade s t u d e n t s ' t r a n s a c t i o n a l T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , 1980, 14, 1 9 7 - 2 2 2 .  C a m p b e l l , D.E. A s t u d y o f two m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h i n a c o m m u n i t y college s e t t i n g . 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V o c a b u l a r y : S p e a k i n g , l i s t e n i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . I n H. A l a n R o b i n s o n ( E d . ) , R e a d i n g and t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1963. S c h n e i d e r , V.L. A study o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f emphasizing the t e a c h ing of reading s k i l l s to improve composition s k i l l s i n remedial E n g l i s h c l a s s e s a t K a n s a s C i t y Community J u n i o r College. ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, 1971.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1971, 3 1 , 6369 A. S e d o n d a r y G u i d e t o t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h 8-12. P u b l i c a t i o n Services Branch, M i n i s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978.  Victoria, B.C.: Education, Province  of  S h a n a h a n , T. A c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the reading-writing r e l a t i o n s h i p : an e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e , 1980.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 198\L, 4 1 , 1007 A. Simmons, R . J . An a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y of tenth grade s t u d e n t s . West V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y , n a t i o n a l ^ 1978, 38^ 7127  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e a d i n g abilities (Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1977.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s InterA.  Simmons, S.S. S e l e c t e d e f f e c t s o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s on t h e r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and a t t i t u d e s o f s e v e n t h grade s t u d e n t s . (Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1981.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1981, 4 2 , 2545 A.  77.  S m i t h , F. U n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a d i n g . Inc., 1971.  Toronto: Holt,  S p a c h e , G.D. and S p a c h e , E.B. Reading i n the B o s t o n : A l l y n and B a c o n , 1969.  R i n e h a r t and  Winston,  elementary school  (2nd  ed.)  S q u i r e , J.R. and A p p l e b e e , R.K. High s c h o o l E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n today. The N a t i o n a l s t u d y o f h i g h s c h o o l E n g l i s h p r o g r a m s , New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968. S t e r n g l a s s , M. S e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g and t h e r e a d i n g o f s e n t e n c e s . C o m p o s i t i o n and C o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1980, 3 1 , 3 2 5 - 2 9 .  College  Stilley,  M.J. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1981.) D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1982, 42_, 3529 A.  Stotsky,  S.L. S e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g a s a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y : i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p on w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . R e s e a r c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , 1975, _9_, 3 0 - 7 1 .  S t r a w , S.B. The e f f e c t o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g and s e n t e n c e r e d u c t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n on m e a s u r e s o f s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y , r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , and l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s . (Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Minnesota, 1978. ) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1979, 4CL, 720 A. T e a c h e r s ' M a n u a l t o W r i t i n g 44, N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B.C: Programme and D e v e l o p m e n t , S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #44 ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) , 1980. Thomas, F.L. The e x t e n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and w r i t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t among c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a , 1976.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1976, 37, 6320 A. W e i n e r , E.5. I m p r o v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g t h r o u g h w r i t i n g . A c a d e m i c 1979, 14, 5 8 9 - 5 9 5 .  Therapy,  WRITING 44 IS UNIQUE  The writing workshop will be a centre of action. Many words come to mind to describe its atmosphere: highly charged, noisy, messy, purposive, variable. Students will be busy exchanging ideas, sharing their efforts, experimenting with words, and, most important, writing — lots! As for us, we'll be madly changing hats — at one moment we'll be facilitator and manager, at another mentor and consultant, and sometimes even writer and participant. Obviously, pacing and careful planning will be our keys to orchestrating and making meaningful what goes on:  Clearly, the writing workshop differs from the traditional English classroom. It's more like an artist's studio or the Guild Hail in which apprentices learned their craft from a master. Although at the outset of Writing 44, we may feel more like amateurs than masters, workshop teaching offers us an exciting opportunity to at last make writing a craft.  LAB MATERIALS Nineteen packets and related skills to  of materials students:  have been prepared  to teach  80  editing  1. APOSTROPHES 2.  CAPITALIZATION  3. COMMAS TO SEPARATE 4. COMMAS TO ENCLOSE 5. SEMI-COLON 6. COLON 7. DASHES, PARENTHESES, BRACKETS, THREE DOTS 8. QUOTATIONS AND RELATED PUNCTUATION 9. SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT 10. VERB USAGE 11. PRONOUN USAGE 12. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT USAGE 13. PREPOSITION USAGE 14. DICTION AND VOCABULARY 15. SPELLING 16. USE OF DICTIONARIES AND THESAURUS 17. ENRICHMENT RESEARCH 18. VERBALS USAGE 19. MISPLACED MODIFIERS  These nineteen topics were selected because they deal with "coherent systems," and, as such, are to be taught "as systems, not randomly. In other words, if a student can't punctuate, he or she needs to grasp the system of punctuation as a whole, not to correct random errors on this paper and that." (Winterowd)  LEARNING OUTCOMES  81  TO GENERATE IDEAS The  students  will:  * learn that individual, tage  there is a writing process, that it is unique to the and that each writer can practise using it to advan-  * learn  and  apply  * learn  and  seek new  * increase  prewriting  their  strategies  words from  the  dictionary  and  thesaurus  vocabularies  * develop  and  improve  their  * develop  their  powers  * develop  depth  and  thinking  of  processes  observation  imagination  TO WRITE The  students  will:  * understand writer  the  concept  * learn  that  writing  * learn  and  apply  has  of  various  formats  * learn to adjust and vary and writing purposes * learn  audience  appropriate style  into  * learn to organize modes  ideas  according  * develop * learn  and  practice  sentence  apply  for  the  of  purpose  different  various  to a variety  in  and  different  audiences  lengths of patterns  and  genres  sense  to manipulate  and  tone for  passages  writing  sentences  * learn to choose effective purpose of writing * learn  implications  to audience  and  ideas  about  its  purposes  to organize  * learn  and  transitional  (expand, contract,  words to suit  devices  the  tone,  and style,  restructure) and  82 * learn sions  and  * develop TO REVISE AND The  apply  strategies  a sense  of  style  for  and  writing  voice  introductions  in  and  conclu-  writing  CRITICIZE  students  will:  * learn and apply the four revision substitution, and rearrangement * learn to read objectivity * develop  and  their  expand  own  writing  their  operations:  with  powers  addition,  a sense  of  of  inconsistencies  and  strengths  * learn  voice  in  writing  * learn criteria both their own  for and  and  style  detachment  and  discrimination  * learn to recognize writing to recognize  deletion  determining quality that of others  and  in a piece  aesthetics  in  of  writing,  TO EDIT The  students  * understand  will: the  purpose  * apply appropriate to the demands of  * use  rules correct  and  learn  the  rules  usage and punctuation audience and form  * become effective * learn  and  of  to  punctuation  their  writing  accordin  proofreaders strategies  spelling  in  for their  spelling final  correctly drafts  ABOUT ATTITUDE The  students  will:  * develop writing  a tolerance  * develop  self-confidence  * learn to reduce expression * learn forms  for  concerns  to be adventuresome of writing  the  views  through  of  others  expression  about mechanics  in  trying  out  as expressed  in  their  writing  in order  new  in  styles,  to permit  methods,  free  and  83 * develop appreciation of getting in touch * develop * learn  for writing as a reflective with themselves  an appreciation that  writing  of writing  can provide  as a creative  pleasure  and  act and  act satisfaction  a means  OVERVIEW OF WRITING 44:  TEACHER - STUDENT TASKS DURING THE WRITING PROCESS  THE WRITING PROCESS:  THE TEACHER PROVIDES:  THE STUDENTS LEARN TO:  * PREWRITING  * STRATEGIES IDEAS  * GET IDEAS  * WRITING  * COMPOSING STRATEGIES  * WORK OUT, SHAPE, AND RECORD IDEAS  * FORMATS  * ADJUST FOR AUDIENCE AND PURPOSE  * REVISING STRATEGIES  * REWORK A PIECE OF WRITING FOR STYLE, TONE, STRUCTURE, AND CONTENT  REFORMULATING * REVISING EDITING AND PROOFREADING  FOR GENERATING  * IDENTIFICATION FOR THE STUDENT OF SPECIFIC SKILL AREAS WHICH NEED ATTENTION  * APPLY EDITING * GUIDANCE IN LAB  * PRESENTING (as writer)  * ACHIEVE A MASTERY LEVEL  * AVENUES FOR PUBLICATION  SKILLS  * GAIN CONFIDENCE AS A WRITER  * DESIRE  * CRITICAL  SKILL  ACTIVITIES  * EXPERIENCE  * RESPONDING (as reader)  IN A  TOOLS FOR EVALUATION  THE EFFECTS OF AUDIENCE  EXCELLENCE  * APPRECIATE  AND DISCRIMINATE  W R I T I N G  DIAGNOSTIC TEST  (GRADES  TEST  44  II —  FORM D  10 § 1 1 )  DIRECTIONS: TO  STUDENTS:  1.  C h o o s e t h e a n s w e r w h i c h makes sentence.  2.  Darken t h e l e t t e r o f the c o r r e c t answer i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p a c e on t h e a n s w e r s h e e t .  3.  Use b l a c k ballpoint  lead pencil only. or f e l t pens.  4. - Make h e a v y b l a c k marks completely.  that  a  Do  correct  NOT  fill  the  use i n k ,  circle  t  5.  Erase  cleanly  6.  Make no  P L E A S E  any  answer  stray  marks  DO  NOT  on  you wish  the answer  W R I T E  B O O K L E T .  to change.  sheet.  IN  T H I S  B6  DIAGNOSTIC SECTION  II  (FORM D)  Choose  2.  t h e answer  §_ SPELLING  w h i c h makes a c o r r e c t  Its not t h e i r s ; i t s somebody e l s e s .  Wouldnt you say h e l l  succeed?  4.  5.  This computer i s t h e i r s , not ours.  Your essay has more i f s and buts than Sams.  My s i s t e r s boyfriends a superb soccer player.  sentence.  (a)  (first) It's, (second) i t ' s , else's  (b)  (first) I t ' s , theirs  (c)  (first) It's, (second) i t ' s  (d)  T h e i r s ' , else's  (a)  Would'nt,  (b)  he'll  (c)  Wouldn't, h e ' l l  .(d)  3.  10 $ 11  I.  APOSTROPHES, C A P I T A L I Z A T I O N  1.  GRADES  he'll  no apostrophes required  (a)  their's  (b)  our's  (c)  their's,  (d)  no apostrophes required  (a)'  if's,  but's  (b)  if's,  but's,  (c)  Sam's  (d)  no apostrophes required  (a)  sister's  (b)  sister's,  boyfriends'  (c)  sister's,  boyfriend's  (d)  no apostrophes required  our's  Sam's  APOSTROPHES / C A P I T A L I Z A T I O N  6.  7  8.  Somebodys s i n g i n the blues Im  feelin.  The merchants o f gastown have p l a n t e d maple t r e e square w i t h s m a l l f l o w e r i n g azaleas.  A f t e r a t t e n d i n g the rod Stewart c o n c e r t , don went home to work on h i s arrangement of " g a s o l i n e a l l e y . "  '  • 9.  10.  A f t e r the attempted a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f the pope, the Vatican announced an i n c r e a s e in s e c u r i t y measures.  " L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y , " bellowed the t e a c h e r , "to smokey the bear's warnings about forest fires."  87  §_ S P E L L I N G  (a)  somebody's, s i n g i n ' ,  feelin'  (b)  somebody's, s i n g i n ' ,  I'm,  (c)  singin',  (d)  no apostrophes  (a)  Gastown,  (b)  Maple, T r e e , A z a l e a s  (c)  Merchants, Gastown, Maple, T r e e , Square  (d)  Gastown, Square  (a)  Rod,  (b)  Rod, Stewart, C o n c e r t , Gasoline, A l l e y  (c)  Rod, Stewart , Don, G a s o l i n e , Alley  (d)  Rod,  (a)  Pope, S e c u r i t y , Measures  (b)  Pope, V a t i c a n  (c)  Pope, V a t i c a n , S e c u r i t y , Measures  (d)  V a t i c a n , S e c u r i t y , Measures  (a)  Smokey, Bear's  (b)  Teacher, Smokey, The, Bear's, To  (c)  Smokey's, The, Bear's, F o r e s t , Fires  (d)  Smokey, Bear's, To  I'm,  feelin  feelin' required  Maple, T r e e ,  Square  Stewart, C o n c e r t , Don  Stewart,  Don  Don  88 APOSTROPHES,  11.  12.  13.  15.  16.  §  SPELLING  "How i s i t , " screamed the understudy; " t h a t i ' v e never been i n c l u d e d i n your tours o f the south?"  L a s t summer the p r i n c e was  Tom  married i n s t . paul's.  found a  i n the r a m  14.  CAPITALIZATION  (a)  Understudy, That  (b)  Understudy, South  (c)  Understudy, Tours  (d)  That, South  (e)  I've, South  (a)  Sumner, S t .  (b)  Summer, P r i n c e  (cj  Prince, St.  (d)  St.  (a)  measureable  00 (c)  measurible measurable  (d)  measerable  (a)  independant  (b)  indipendent  (c)  indipendant  (d)  independent  (a)  convertable  (b)  convirtible  (c)  convertible  (d)  convirtable  (a)  provincial  (b)  provinsial  (c)  provinciale  (d)  provintial  Paul's  amount o f water fuiglT  I i n t e n d t o become c o m p l e t e l y  H i s p o p u l a r i t y depended upon h i s new  The taxes a g a i n /  .  .  government has r a i s e d the  .  Paul's  Paul's  89 APOSTROPHES,  17.  18.  19.  That  P l e a s e v i s i t the class.  CAPITALIZATION  §  SPELLING  d i s t u r b e d me more than I can say.  at the end o f t h i s  I f you wish t o win the s c h o l a r s h i p you w i l l need to review t h i s m a t e r i a l .  (a)  ocurrence  (b)  occurence  (c)  occurrance  (d)  occurrence  (a)  counsellor  (b)  councillor  (c)  counsillor  (d)  councellor  (a)  , after  (b) , . (c)  , after "scholarship" ... ,, , , , . ,, , after scholarship" and "need"  (d)  , a f t e r "wish" and "scholarship"  . (e)  "wish"  no commas r e q u i r e d  SECTION  I_I_.  9  COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS SEMI-COLONS,  COLONS  §_ R E L A T E D P U N C T U A T I O N , 5 DASHES  Choose the answer which punctuated sentence.  20.  0  makes  One o f the best r e s t a u r a n t s i n Vancouver i s the Teahouse but The W i l l i a m T e l l La Cachette and Darios a r e a l s o superb.  a  correctly  U)  , after  "Cachette'  (b  , after  "but"  (c  , a f t e r "Teahouse" and , a f t e r "but" , a f t e r " T e l l " and , a f t e r "Cachette"  21.  22.  23.  C l a s s you must use your time e f f i c i e n t l y i f you a r e t o complete t h i s assignment on time.  Once we had eaten the c a t demanded h e r own food.  Some c r i t i c s t h i n k Mozart's operas a r e the greatest; others V e r d i ' s .  Ce  no commas r e q u i r e d  (a  , after  (b  , a f t e r " C l a s s " and , after " i f "  (c  , after  (d;  , a f t e r " c l a s s " and , a f t e r "assignment"  fe  no commas r e q u i r e d  (a  , after  (b  , a f t e r "once" and , a f t e r "demanded"  (c  , after "cat"  (d  , a f t e r "once" and , a f t e r "eaten"  (e  no commas r e q u i r e d  (a  , after  "think"  (b  , after  "others"  (c  , a f t e r " t h i n k " and , a f t e r "others"  (d  , a f t e r . " o p e r a s " and , after "Verdi's"  Ce  no commas r e q u i r e d  "Class"  "assignment"  "eaten"  9.1 COMMAS,  QUOTATION  MARKS  SEMI -COLONS , COLONS  24.  25.  26.  17.  A f t e r I watched the news I watched "Nova" " D a l l a s " "Mork and Mindy."  Beethoven's T h i r d c a l l e d The E r o i c a Symphony.  Symphony i s now not The Napoleonic  Frank thought M e r y l S t r e e p s h o u l d win best a c t r e s s award; J i l l Diane Keaton.  I don't know Mom i f I w i l l be f i n i s h e d work by e l e v e n o r twelve.  § RELATED  PUNCTUATION,  d, DASHES  (a)  , a f t e r "Nova" and" D a l l a s "  f.b)  , a f t e r "news" and "Nova" and " D a l l a s " and "Mork"  (c)  , a f t e r "Nova" and" D a l l a s " and "Mork"  (d)  , a f t e r "news" and "Nova" and "Dallas"  Ce)  no  (a)  , after  (b)  , a f t e r "Beethovin's" and "Symphony"  (c)  , after  (d)  , after "Eroica"  Ce)  no  (a)  , after  (b) , s  , a f t e r "thought" and " J i l l " _ ,, .  (.cj  , arter  (d)  , a f t e r " S t r e e p " and ' / J i l l "  fe)  no commas r e q u i r e d  (a)  , after  (b) , .  , a f t e r "work" ,-„. ,„, ,,  commas r e q u i r e d  "Beethoven''s"  "Eroica" and " n o t "  commas r e q u i r e d  e  "thought"  T  Jill  "know"  Mom  , ,, ,  (c)  , after  (d)  , a f t e r "know" and "Mom"  and "eleven  Ce)  no commas r e q u i r e d  COMMAS,  QUOTATION  SEMI-COLONS,  28.  29.  30.  51.  MARKS §  COLONS  The team e x c i t e d and happy pushed the coach i n t o the p o o l .  Mohammed A l i a former w o r l d champion • has become a t r a g i c f i g u r e .  Be q u i e t Robert o r you'11 have t o go to bed.  The woman who wishes t o v i s i t the moon must know h e r b a s i c p h y s i c s .  5  RELATED PUNCTIATION DASHES  (a)  , after  "happy"  (b)  , a f t e r "team" and "happy"  (c)  , a f t e r "happy" and "coach"  (d)  , a f t e r "team" and "coach"  (e)  no commas  (a)  , after  (b)  , a f t e r "become"  (c)  , a f t e r " A l i " and "become"  (d)  , a f t e r " A l i " and "champion"  (e)  no commas r e q u i r e d  (a)  , a f t e r " q u i e t " and "Robert"  (b)  , after  (c)  , after "or"  (d)  , a f t e r "Robert" and "have"  (e)  no commas  (a)  , a f t e r "woman"  (b) (c)  , a f t e r "woman" and "moon"  (d)  , a f t e r "know"  (e)  no commas  required  "champion"  "Robert"  required  , a f t e r "moon"  required  93 COMMAS,  QUOTATION  SEMI-COLONS,  32.  35.  MARKS  COLONS  §_ R E L A T E D §  DASHES  Freedom i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d the o p p o s i t e o f tyranny; i n f a c t both concepts have given mankind t r o u b l e e s p e c i a l l y during revolutions.  E x i s t e n t i a l i s m which i s a term a p p l i e d to a 20th c e n t u r y p h i l o s o p h y was p o p u l a r i z e d by Jean Paul S a r t r e and A l b e r t Camus.  PUNCTUATION,  (a)  , after  "fact"  (b)  , after  " f a c t " and "mankind"  (c)  , a f t e r " c o n s i d e r e d " and " t r o u b l e '  (d)  , a f t e r " f a c t " and " t r o u b l e "  (e)  no commas r e q u i r e d  (a)  , after  (b)  , after  (c)  , after "Existentialism" and."philosophy"  (d)  , after "Existentialism" and " p h i l o s o p h y " and " S a r t r e "  "philosophy" "Existentialism"  (e) ) no commas r e q u i r e d  34.  The Crux o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i s found i n the f i r s t four books o f the New Testament.  (a)  , after  "Christianity"  (b) , , (c)  , after . , after  "books" • . • .. ,, , C h r i s t i a n i t y " and  (d)  , after  (e)  no commas r e q u i r e d  r  books "crux"  94 COMMAS,  QUOTATION  SEMI-COLONS ,  35.  MARKS  COLONS  § R E L A T E D PUNCTUATION §_ DASHES  Danny r e p l i e d , I don't own a Honda. a Honda. I hate Hondas.. Danny r e p l i e d , "I don't own a Honda." owned a Honda," I hate Hondas." Danny r e p l i e d , " I don't own a Honda. owned a Honda. I hate Hondas." Danny r e p l i e d " , owned a Honda.  56.  I've never owned (a) "I've never (b) I've never (c)  I don't own a Honda, I've never I hate Hondas."  (d)  To Lucy from Wordsworth's L y r i c a l B a l l a d s i s a h e a r t b r e a k i n g poem  (a)  "To Lucy" from Wordsworth's L y r i c a l B a l l a d s i s a h e a r t b r e a k i n g poem.  ... (b)  To Lucy from Wordsworth's " L y r i c a l B a l l a d s " i s a h e a r t b r e a k i n g poem.  ... (c)  'To Lucy" from Wordsworth's L y r i c a l B a l l a d s i s a h e a r t b r e a k i n g poem.  ... (d)  'To Lucy" from Wordsworth's " L y r i c a l B a l l a d s " i s a h e a r t b r e a k i n g poem. .. (e)  37.  The h e a r t i s a l o n e l y h u n t e r i s a q u o t a t i o n used as a t i t l e f o r a n o v e l by Carson M c C u l l e r s , who a l s o wrote t h e p l a y The Member o f the Wedding.  (a)  The h e a r t i s a l o n e l y h u n t e r i s a q u o t a t i o n used as a t i t l e a n o v e l by Carson M c C u l l e r s who a l s o wrote the p l a y 'The Member o f the Wedding".  (b)  for.  The h e a r t i s a l o n e l y hunter i s a q u o t a t i o n used as a t i t l e f o r a n o v e l by Carson M c C u l l e r s , who a l s o wrote t h e p l a y The Member o f the Wedding. '  (c)  'The h e a r t i s a l o n e l y h u n t e r " i s a q u o t a t i o n used as a t i t l e f o r a n o v e l by Carson M c C u l l e r s , who a l s o wrote the p l a y The Member o f the Wedding.  (d)  "The h e a r t i s a l o n e l y h u n t e r " i s a q u o t a t i o n used as a t i t l e f o r a n o v e l by Carson M c C u l l e r s , who a l s o wrote the p l a y The Member o f the Wedding.  (e)  95 COMMAS , Q U O T A T I O N MARKS SEMI-COLONS,  38.  39.  40.  COLONS  § R E L A T E D PUNCTUATION  § DASHES  He's a reasonable f e l l o w , Andy e x p l a i n e d . That's what the s h e r i f f s a i d I t ' s us who a i n ' t r e a s o n a b l e .  (a)  "He's a reasonable f e l l o w , " Andy e x p l a i n e d . "That's what the s h e r i f f s a i d . " " i t ' s us who a i n ' t r e a s o n a b l e . "  (b)  "He's a reasonable f e l l o w " Andy e x p l a i n e d . "That's what the s h e r i f f s a i d , " i t ' s us who a i n ' t r e a s o n a b l e . "  (c)  "He's a reasonable f e l l o w , " Andy e x p l a i n e d . "That's what the s h e r i f f s a i d . I t ' s us who a i n ' t r e a s o n a b l e . "  (d)  When asked, f o r her f a v o u r i t e q u o t a t i o n , M o i r a r e p l i e d : Peanut's l i n e , "Drop dead." "  (a)  When asked f o r h e r f a v o u r i t e q u o t a t i o n Moira r e p l i e d , "Peanut's l i n e "Drop dead."  (b)  When asked f o r her f a v o u r i t e q u o t a t i o n , Moira r e p l i e d , "Peanut's l i n e : Drop dead."  (c)  When asked f o r her f a v o u r i t e q u o t a t i o n , M o i r a r e p l i e d , "Peanut's l i n e : 'Drop dead.'."  (d)  When asked f o r her f a v o u r i t e q u o t a t i o n , M o i r a r e p l i e d , Peanut's l i n e "Drop dead."  (e)  The husband asked. marriage vows?  D i d P r i n c e s s Diana use "obey" i n her (a)  The husband asked, " D i d P r i n c e s s Dianna use obey i n h e r marriage vows?  (b)  The husband asked, "Did P r i n c e s s Diana use "obey" i n h e r marriage vows?"  (c)  The husband asked, " D i d P r i n c e s s Diana use 'obey' i n her marriage vows"?  (d)  The husband asked, "Did P r i n c e s s Diana use 'obey' i n her marriage vows?"  (e)  COMMAS,  QUOTATION  SEMI-COLONS,  41.  MARKS 5 R E L A T E D  COLONS  $  The r e s u l t s o f h e r exam came y e s t e r d a y she hadn't expected them.  Much to h i s f r u s t r a t i o n , he l o s t another lure furthermore, he knew he c o u l d n o t get more.  43.  The f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t i o n s w i l l be p l a y e d "Dance o f the Sugar Plum F a i r y , " "The Dance o f the Toy S o l d i e r s , " and "The L i t t l e Drummer Bov."  45.  46.  Shakespeare t e l l s us " F r a i l t y , t h y name i s woman."  Fred was spending Christmas i n Hawaii J o d i , a t W h i s t l e r C h r i s , a t B i g White.  Her p l a n s are as f o l l o w s to graduate from h i g h s c h o o l , t o work f o r s i x months, and to t r a v e l t o South .America.  96  DASHES  la  , after  "yesterday"  (b  ; after  "yesterday"  (c  : after  "yesterday"  (d  no f u r t h e r  (a  ; after  "lure"  (b  , after  "lure"  (c  - after  "lure"  (d:  no  (a  ; after  "played"  (b  : after  "played"  (c  (j'Dance o f the Sugar Plum F a i r y , ' "The Dance o f the Toy S o l d i e r s , ' and "The L i t t l e Drummer Boy , r J  (d  no  .0 44.  PUNCTUATION,  further  further  punctuation  punctuation  punctuation  required  required  required  ( " F r a i l t y , thy name i s woman.")  (b  : a f t e r "us"  (c  ; a f t e r "us"  (d  no  (a  , a f t e r "Hawaii" and " W h i s t l e r "  (b  ; a f t e r "Hawaii" and " W h i s t l e r "  further  punctuation  required  (c  : a f t e r "Hawaii" and " W h i s t l e r "  (d  no  (a  — after  "follows"  (b  ; after  "follows"  (c  : after  "follows"  (d  no  further  further  punctuation required  punctuation required  97 COMMAS,  QUOTATION  SEMI-COLONS,  47.  48.  MARKS  COLONS  5  5 RELATED  PUNCTUATION,  DASHES  D i d you know t h a t Sea A t t l e s i c was named a f t e r a wonderful Indian c h i e f .  The wind howled a t over 80 kph t r e e s f e l l down, power l i n e s broke, creeks o v e r f l o w e d t h e i r banks.  (a)  (sic)  (b)  Qsicl  (c)  (Sea A t t l e )  (d)  no f u r t h e r . p u n c t u a t i o n  (a)  ; a f t e r "kph"  (b) , ^ l  c  J  (d)  : a f t e r "kph" ^ ,„ , „ ' no f u r t h e r p u n c t u a t i o n a  t  t  e  r  K  p  required  R  required  (a) (her) 49.  50.  51.  52.  In h e r Jane Fonda's performance I f e l t r e a l pathos.  One o f your purposes i n s t u d y i n g i n Quebec i s t o improve your f l u e n c y i n French i n a d d i t i o n , you should expand your awareness o f French c u l t u r e .  Skiing he had s k i i e d s i n c e he was t h r e e was h i s f a v o u r i t e s p o r t .  The sum o f e i g h t y d o l l a r s $80 was p a i d to the Scouts f o r the wood.  (b) (  c  )  ^  ,j  (Jane Fonda's)  Fonda  s  (d)  no f u r t h e r p u n c t u a t i o n  required  (a)  : a f t e r "French"  (b)  (in addition,)  (c)  ; a f t e r "French"  (d)  no f u r t h e r p u n c t u a t i o n  (a)  — he had s k i i e d s i n c e he was three —  required  (b)  ; he had s k i i e d s i n c e he was three  (c)  , he had s k i i e d s i n c e he was t h r e e  (d)  no f u r t h e r p u n c t u a t i o n  (a)  .... $80  required  (b) C$80 1 ^ ($gQ ) (d)  no f u r t h e r p u n c t u a t i o n  required  SECTION  III:  9  SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN Choose  53.  54.  55.  56.  57.  58.  AGREEMENT,  VERB  which  makes a  Betsy i s one o f those p a r r o t s who too much.  Weather a n a l y s e s new i c e age.  Each o f us who beautiful.  suggested  a coming  P a r i s f i n d s something  N e i t h e r the employees n o r the employer p l e a s e d w i t h the wage s e t t l e m e n t .  John, a l o n g w i t h h i s twenty f r i e n d s , to spend the summer w i t h us.  None o f the passengers t r a i n derailment.  USAGE,  USAGE, P R E P O S I T I O N USAGE, t h e answer  i n j u r e d i n the  8  MISPLACED  correct  MODIFIERS  sentence.  (a)  talk  (b)  have  (c)  to t a l k  (d)  talks  (a)  has  (b) (c)  did  (d)  have  (a)  visit  (b")  visiting  (c)  visits  Cd)  do v i s i t  (a)  are  (b)  were  (c)  is  (d)  being  (a)  hope  (b)  hoping  (c)  hopes  (d)  hopefully  (a)  were  (b)  are  (c)  was  (d)  wasn't  talked  are  99 SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN  59.  60.  61.  62.  There my bac k~~ porch.  USAGE, MISPLACED  an elephant and a c r o c o d i l e on  The young g i r l  i n the  i n bed a l l day Sunday.  For the past week I have house with n o t h i n g t o do.  the  She devious d e v i c e s .  VERB  PREPOSITION USAGE,  The c o n v i c t knew he would be morning.  63.  64.  USAGE,  AGREEMENT,  about the  stewpot on the s t o v e , M a i s i e .  the t r u t h from me by v a r i o u s  MODIFIERS  (a)  is  (b)  be  (c)  has been  (d)  are  (a)  hanged  (b)  hunged  Cc)  hung  (d)  hunging  (a)  lied  (b)  laved  (c)  lay  (d)  laid  (a)  lain  (b)  laid  (c)  laved  (d)  lied  (a)  Set  (b)  Sit  (c)  Sat'  (d)  Setted  (a)  rung  (b)  rang  (c)  wrunged  (d)  wrung  100 SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN  65.  66.  M i c h a e l and each day.  USAGE,  AGREEMENT,  VERB  USAGE,  P R E P O S I T I O N USAGE,  MISPLACED  p l a n t o run f i v e m i l e s .  Why a r e n ' t the coaches i n favour o f changing my t r a i n i n g regime?  •  67.  68.  69.  70.  Both P e t e r and N a t a l i e p l a y very w e l l , but she p l a y s . more b e a u t i f u l l y than  The person me i n the l i b r a r y .  I d e s p i s e s i t s next t o  (a)  him  (b)  I  Cc)  us  Cd)  me  (a)  me  (b)  us  (c)  mine  Cd)  my  (a)  himself  (b)  him  Cc)  his  Cd)  he  (a)  who  (b)  that  Cc) whom  The s c h o o l p r e s e n t e d Fonz and Nerd Award f o r 1982.  Everyone must b r i n g tomorrow.  MODIFIERS  the  donations  to school  Cd)  which  (a)  he  (b) me Cc) I Cd)  we  (a)  their  (b)  its  Cc)  his  Cd)  they're  101 SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN  71.  72.  USAGE,  AGREEMENT,  VERB  USAGE,  P R E P O S I T I O N USAGE,  I admire t h a t policeman  The team won the f i n a l  league game  because h e r j o b i s so t a x i n g .  (b)  because i t i s such a taxing job.  (c)  because t h e i r job i s so t a x i n g .  (d)  because you have such a taxing job.  (a)  .  (b)  which  (c)  That i d e a i s c e r t a i n l y i n f e r i o r the l a s t one I heard.  I t i s unwise  i  n  t  e  r  e  s  t  s  t  h  e  r  s  w  h  0  h  a  v  e  different  (d)  .  (a)  from  similarity  That  my t a s t e s  to  (b) (  -  75. There i s l i t t l e and y o u r s .  This  (b) t o ,, (c) as (d) between  f o r the student t o compare h e r s e l f o  .This  .  (a) 74.  c  MODIFIERS  (a)  meant i t would p l a y i n the f i n a l s .  73.  MISPLACED  )  besides h  e  t  w  e  e  n  (d)  with  (a)  among  (b)  between  (c)  from  (d)  as t o  v  victory  SUBJECT-PREDUCATE PRONOUN  7  6.  77.  78.  79.  Most c o u n s e l l o r s agree study.  USAGE,  AGREEMENT,  VERB  PREPOSITION  convince t h e i r students t o a r e g u l a r r o u t i n e o f home  Your o p i n i o n o f the Premier's performance d i f f e r s quite r a d i c a l l y mine.  USAGE,  102  USAGE, MISPLACED  (a)  on  (b) , ,  with f  Cd)  to  (a)  to  (b) ^ Cc)  with f from  Cd)  than  r  o  MODIFIERS  m  r o m  In my pocket I looked for the keys I had l o s t .  (a)  I looked f o r the keys I had lost i n my pocket.  Cb)  I looked i n my pocket f o r the keys I had l o s t .  Cc)  I looked f o r the keys i n my pocket I had l o s t .  Cd)  S t r i d i n g a g g r e s s i v e l y i n t o the room, my eyes f e l l f i g u r e cowering i n the c o r n e r .  upon the (a)  My eyes, s t r i d i n g a g g r e s s i v e l y i n t o the room, f e l l upon the f i g u r e cowering i n the c o r n e r .  (b)  S t r i d i n g a g g r e s s i v e l y i n t o the room, I gazed upon the f i g u r e cowering i n the c o r n e r .  Cc)  S t r i d i n g , my eyes f e l l i n the c o r n e r .  Cd)  a g g e s s i v e l y upon the f i g u r e  cowering  103 SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN  80.  The Cheshire  USAGE, P R E P O S I T I O N  c a t h i d h i m s e l f behind  With cunning behind  81.  AGREEMENT,  The  cunning Cheshire  The  Cheshire  VERB  USAGE,  MISPLACED MODIFIERS  the T.V. w i t h cunning.  the T.V. the C h e s h i r e  cat h i d himself.  c a t h i d h i m s e l f behind  c a t behind  USAGE,  the T.V  the T.V. with cunning h i d h i m s e l f .  84.  (b)  (d)  Romeo r e c e i v e d news that J u l i e t  was dead from another messenger  (a)  Romeo r e c e i v e d news that J u l i e t  from another messenger was dead  (b)  Romeo r e c e i v e d news from another messenger t h a t J u l i e t  83.  •..  (c)  From another messenger, Romeo r e c e i v e d news that J u l i e t  82.  ' (a)  was dead was dead  (c) (d)  I o n l y caught one salmon on t h a t f i s h i n g t r i p  (a)  I caught one salmon o n l y on t h a t f i s h i n g t r i p  (b)  I caught o n l y one salmon on that f i s h i n g t r i p  (c)  I caught one salmon on that f i s h i n g t r i p o n l y  (d)  The o l d gardener was o n l y a b l e t o do p a r t o f the yardwork  (a)  The  old" gardener was a b l e o n l y t o do p a r t o f the yardwork  (b)  The  o l d gardener was a b l e to o n l y do p a r t o f the yardwork  (c)  The  o l d gardener was a b l e t o do o n l y p a r t o f the yardwork  (d)  Ten years ago g i r l s used t o come t o s c h o o l where I was a teacher i n b a r e f e e t . Ten  (a)  years ago g i r l s used t o come i n b a r e f e e t t o the s c h o o l  where I was a teacher Where I was a teacher In bare f e e t came.  (b) i n b a r e f e e t , g i r l s used t o come to s c h o o l  I used t o be a t e a c h e r  (c)  i n a s c h o o l where g i r l s (d)  104 SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN  85.  They had almost got back.  USAGE,  AGREEMENT,  VERB  PREPOSITION  USAGE,  raked a l l o f the l e a v e s b e f o r e t h e i r  They had raked almost got back.  folks (b) almost  a l l o f the leaves b e f o r e t h e i r  (c) folks (d)  Seeing V i v i e n L e i g h , a f a i n t i n g s p e l l overcame me.  (a)  Seeing V i v i e n L e i g h , I f a i n t e d .  (b)  Me  s e e i n g V i v i e n L e i g h caused a f a i n t i n g s p e l l .  ,  •  (d)  The  a c t o r was  asked  t o o n l y repeat the l a s t l i n e .  (a)  The  a c t o r was  asked t o repeat o n l y the l a s t l i n e .  (b)  The  a c t o r r e p e a t i n g o n l y the l a s t l i n e was  effective.  (c) was (d)  The coach c h o o s i n g Wayne Gretszky s u r p r i s e d me.  (a)  The coach's c h o o s i n g Wayne G r e t s z k y s u r p r i s e d me. Choosing  Wayne G r e t s z k y , everyone was  Chosen by the coach, everyone was  89.  (c)  Seeing V i v i e n L e i g h , the vapours o c c u r r e d .  Repeating o n l y the l a s t l i n e , an e f f e c t i v e performance given by the a c t o r .  88.  MODIFIERS  (a)  They had raked a l l o f the leaves b e f o r e t h e i r f o l k s got back.  87.  MISPLACED  folks  They had raked a l l o f the leaves almost b e f o r e t h e i r got back.  86.  USAGE  (b)  s u r p r i s e d by the coach.  s u r p r i s e d by Wayne G r e t s z k y .  C o n s i d e r i n g a l l the s u g g e s t i o n s , Handsworth should win All  i n d i c a t i o n s suggest Handsworth winning  All  i n d i c a t i o n s suggest Handsworth's winning  All  s u g g e s t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d , Handsworth should win  the pennant  the pennant. the t r o p h y the pennant  • .(c) (d)  (a) (b) (c) (d)  105 SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN  90.  USAGE,  AGREEMENT,  VERB  USAGE,  P R E P O S I T I O N USAGE,  MISPLACED  MODIFIERS  S t a r r i n g i n French L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Meryl Streep gives a superb performance. •  (a)  S t a r r i n g i n French L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, a superb performance i s given by M e r y l Streep  (b)  S t a r r i n g i n French L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, everyone Meryl S t r e e p ' s performance.  admired (c)  S t a r r i n g i n French L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, everyone Meryl S t r e e p .  praised (dj  106 SECTION  IV.  DICTIONARIES  91.  92.  93.  A standard Thesaurus  The c o r r e c t  AND  THESAURUS,  contains  syllabication of "acquisition" i s  In the d i c t i o n a r y the word "costume" i s f o l l o w e d by the a b b r e v i a t i o n s "n." and "v." These a b b r e v i a t i o n s  The L a t i n  (a)  pronunciation  (b)  word  •(c)  syllabication  id)  correct  (e)  a list  (a)  ac  (b)  ac - q u i - s i t i o n  (c)  acqui  (d)  acquis  (a)  p a r t s o f speech  (b)  "new" and  (c)  the o r i g i n s  (d)  the f a c t t h a t the word i s a proper noun  (e)  none o f the above  (a)  l e f t handed  (b)  w r i t t e n by hand  (c)  medieval s c r i p t  (d)  carbon copy  (e)  none o f the above  r e f e r to  •  94.  VOCABULARY  r o o t "manu" means "hand." " M a n u s c r i p t " means  origins  usage o f synonyms  - qui - s i - tion  - s i - tion - i - tion  "variable" o f the word  DICTIONARIES  . 95.  AND  THESAURUS,  A dictionary contains  VOCABULARY  107  (a.)  p r o n u n c i a t i o n , synonyms, h i s t o r y o f the language  (b)  word meanings, p r o n u n c i a t i o n , and s y l l a b i c a t i o n  (c)  word meanings, autobiography word o r i g i n g s  (d) word o r i g i n s , b i o g r a p h i e s , p a r t s o f speech  96.  97.  (e)  all  (a)  like  T r a i n your dog  (b)  how  Barbara Wodehouse does.  (c)  as  (d)  by  (a)  exsept  (b)  assept  (c)  accept  (d)  except  (a)  implication  (b)  implying  (c)  inference  Cd)  inferring  (a)  aggravates  (b)  irritates  (c)  e i t h e r "aggravates" or  (d)  n e i t h e r " a g g r a v a t e s " nor "irritates"  (a)  effects  (b)  affects  (c)  effections  Cd)  effectations  I cannot for  98.  99.  100.  h i s explanation  being away from c l a s s a g a i n .  Y'our statement leads me t o the that the economy i s worse than I thought.  Your c o n s t a n t c o m p l a i n i n g me.  The v i s u a l stunning.  were  o f the above  "irritates"  

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