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Writing instruction and its influence on the reading abilities of selected grade eleven students : an.. 1984

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WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE READING A B I L I T I E S OF SELECTED GRADE ELEVEN STUDENTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY by JUDITH ANN FERRIS B.A., B i s h o p ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d 6b THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1984 © J u d i t h Ann F e r r i s , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Language Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date August 31, 1984 Abstract This exploratory study examined the effect of a process-oriented writing programme on reading s k i l l s during one semester i n which students were given writing, but not formal reading ins t r u c t i o n . Twenty-five students enrolled i n English 11 during the f i r s t semester served as the experimental group, while twenty-five students not taking English 11 f i r s t semester served as a control group. The experimental group participated i n a process-oriented writing programme, Writing 44, for nineteen weeks. Both groups were pre-and posttested with the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2 and the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D, the l a t t e r a locally-developed criterion-referenced test o f writing s k i l l s . Independent t-tests and Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance were used to compare pre-and posttest scores of reading comprehension and vocabulary on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 o and 2, and pre-and posttest scores of writing on the Writing 44 Diag- nostic Test. A Pearson R Correlation was also carried out to examine relationships between reading comprehension, vocabulary, and writing. T-tests for independent samples showed a non-significant d i f f e r - ence favouring the experimental group i n the vocabulary subtest. The Repeated Measures of Analysis of Variance showed no group differences on the vocabulary subtest, but there was a s i g n i f i c a n t time effect ( p ^ . 0 1 ) . i i There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the comprehension subtest on e i t h e r t - t e s t s or Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance. Both t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance showed the experimental group made s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n w r i t i n g a f t e r p a r t i c i - p ating i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme f o r one semester. In the c o n t r o l group, the w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with both comprehension and vocabulary p o s t t e s t , s i g n i f i c a n t at .05; the w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with both comprehension and vocabulary pre-and p o s t t e s t s at the .01 l e v e l . In the experimental group, the w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with both comprehension and vocabulary pre-and p o s t t e s t s at the .01 l e v e l . W r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . A process-oriented w r i t i n g programme d i d not improve reading comprehension f o r t h i s s e l e c t e d group of Grade Eleven students during one semester, but i t d i d improve w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s made that while two areas of language pro- cessing are r e l a t e d to each other, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a causal one. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that while reading and w r i t i n g are r e l a t e d , improvement i n one area of language processing does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n improvement i n another. I t i s recommended that research be c a r r i e d out i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: !) a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of reading and w r i t i n g ; 2) a study i n s y n t a c t i c growth i n w r i t i n g and reading comprehension; 3) a study of the e f f e c t of sentence combining and reading and w r i t i n g ; i v 4) a comparison of the writing s u b s k i l l s scores and reading comprehension scores; 5) a study.,of the t r a i t s of good readers/poor writers and poor readers/good writers; 6) use of other evaluative instruments, such as cloze, to measure reading achievement; 7) a study on how the reading- writing relationship i s affected by different kinds of prose and different modes of writing; 8) a study of the effect of oral language on writing. V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ' i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i Chapter I THE PROBLEM 1 Background of the Study 2 Statement of the Problem 4 Design of the Study 4 Questions f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n 6 N u l l Hypotheses 6 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 7 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 9 Organization of the Paper 9 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 C o r r e l a t i o n a l and D e s c r i p t i v e Studies 11 Teaching Reading to Improve W r i t i n g S k i l l s . . . 16 Teaching W r i t i n g to Improve Reading S k i l l s . . . 19 General Composition and Reading 20 Sentence Combining and Reading Comprehension • . 25 Chapter Summary 31 I I I RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES ' . . 33 Research Design 33 N u l l Hypotheses 34 Sample 35 Instrumentation 35 Treatment 37 Data C o l l e c t i o n 41 Data Processing and A n a l y s i s 41 v i Chapter IV ANALYSIS OF DATA 43 Reading Results 44 Reading Pretest Results 44 Reading Pretest Results - Vocabulary . . . 46 Differences - Vocabulary 47 Reading Posttest Results - Comprehension . . 48 Differences - Comprehension 49 Writing Results 50 Writing Pretest Results 51 Writing Posttest Results 52 Differences - Writing 52 Reading, Comprehension, Vocabulary and Writing Relationships . . . . 54 Relationships of Reading and Writing i n Control Group 54 Relationships of Reading and Writing i n Experimental Group 56 Summary 58 V RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . 60 Results 60 Reading Changes - Vocabulary Measure . . . 60 Reading Changes - Comprehension Measure . . 62 Writing Changes 63 Changes i n the Relationships between Reading and Writing 63 Control Group Findings 64 Experimental Group Findings 64 Implications and Recommendations 65 Suggestions for Research 68 REFERENCES 72 APPENDIX A 7$ v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, F o r m l , Level F, Vocabulary Subtest 45 2 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Form 1, Level F, Comprehension Subtest 46 3 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Form 2, Level F, Vocabulary Subtest . . . . 47 4 Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance of Gates- M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, Vocabulary Subtest Scores . 48 5 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Form 2, Level F, Comprehension Subtest 49 6 Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance of Gates- M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, Comprehension Subtest Scores 50 7 W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Form C 51 8 W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Form D . . . . . 52 9 Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance of the Wr i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D 53 10 Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s between Reading and W r i t i n g Scores of the Cont r o l Group on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D 55 11 Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s between Reading and W r i t i n g Scores of the Experimental Group on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D 57 v i i i Acknowledgements It i s with pleasure that the writer acknowledges her gratitude to those who have contributed i n so many ways to th i s study: To my advisor, Dr. Geraldine Snyder, for her patience, assistance, and encouragement, making th i s an invaluable learning experience. To Dr. Jane Catterson for her interest, substantive comments, and guidance. To Dr. Harold Ratzlaff for his clear explanations of the fine points of research design and s t a t i s t i c s . To Mr. Bob Prosser for his assistance i n computer programming and i n t e r - pretation of the results of the study. To Dr. Leo Marshall, Superintendent of the School D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, and Mr. Howard Cross, Language Arts Consultant for the School D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, for their support and encouragement i n making i t possible for me to conduct the study, and for permission to reprint Writing 44 material. To Mr. Ed C o l l i n s , P r i n c i p a l of Carson Graham Secondary School, and the English teachers of the school, for their co-operation i n the study. To Mrs. Marjory P e l l s , who typed not only t h i s thesis, but also much of the o r i g i n a l Writing 44 material. To my mother, my four children, and above a l l , my husband, B i l l , who encouraged me and often put my needs before their own. CHAPTER I The Problem The interrelationships of reading and writing have been the focus of a great deal of research (Armstrong, 1976; Dechant, 1970; Loban, 1966; Moffett, 1968; Robinson, 1963; Robinson and Burrows, 1974; Smith, 1971; Spache and Spache, 1969). Many studies indicated that achievement i n one language s k i l l correlates with achievement i n another language s k i l l (Applebee, 1977; Chomsky, 1973; Crews, 1971; Obenchain, 1971; Reed, 1967). Notwithstanding the correlations between language s k i l l s found i n many studies (as Belanger (1978) pointed out), a corre l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n - ship i s not the same as a causal relationship. In his study, a programme that improved reading, for example, did not produce an improvement i n writing s k i l l . An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e bears out Belanger's conclusion. With the exception of a few studies the evidence shows that attempts to improve writing by teaching reading or to improve reading by teaching writing have been f r u i t l e s s . Stotsky (1975), i n fact, i n her review of l i t e r a t u r e on reading and writing relationships, concluded that although the assumption that improvement i n one area would naturally result i n improvement i n another had had great influence on teaching practices, 1 2 the assumption had l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l b a s i s . In a s i m i l a r review of l i t e r a t u r e , Shanahan (1980) s t a t e d that most of the s t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of reading and w r i t i n g had been done i n a g l o b a l , c o r - r e l a t i o n a l manner and d i d not warrant the c o n c l u s i o n that a focus of a t t e n t i o n on one process would r e s u l t i n improvement i n another. Despite t h i s expert agreement about the lack of c l e a r evidence to show that i n s t r u c t i o n i n one language process w i l l produce b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s i n another, school systems continue to produce c u r r i c u l a based on that idea and seldom seek to t e s t i t s v a l i d i t y . I t i s suggested here that s p e c i f i c research i s needed by a l l school boards whose teachers use c u r r i c u l a based on an assumption that language processes i n t e r a c t to t h e i r mutual b e n e f i t . U n t i l such research i s done, teaching w i l l be based on i n v a l i d assumptions. Background of the Study In 1978 r e s u l t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of Written Expression showed th a t of the 31 w r i t i n g s k i l l s assessed, Grade Twelve students were rated s a t i s f a c t o r y on only three. E n g l i s h placement t e s t s such as those used by B r i t i s h Columbia u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r entrance showed poor r e s u l t s . As a r e s u l t , i n a d e s i r e to improve w r i t i n g , the North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t decided to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of producing a process-oriented w r i t i n g programme modelled on " P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y " of the Huntington Beach Union High School D i s t r i c t , C a l i f o r n i a , 3 a programme that had been based, i t was claimed, on research i n the composing process (Beach, 1976; B r i d w e l l , 1980; Emig, 1971; Matsuhashi, 1979; P e r l , 1979; Pianko, 1979; Squire and Applebee, 1968). In A p r i l , 1980, the Programme and Development D i v i s i o n of the school d i s t r i c t organized workshops f o r E n g l i s h teachers to l e a r n about P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y . A f t e r the E n g l i s h teachers had expressed overwhelming support f o r a programme of t h i s type s i x t e e n teachers worked f u l l t i m e over one summer to adapt P r o j e c t L i t e r a c y f o r North Vancouver schools. The r e s u l t was the l o c a l l y - d e v e l o p e d w r i t i n g programme, Wr i t i n g 44. W r i t i n g 44 was designed, i t was claimed, to address and expand on the f o l l o w i n g goals of reading and w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n as d e l i n e a t e d i n the Secondary Guide to the Teaching of E n g l i s h 8-12 (1978) of the B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education: Develop i n students a range of reading.and study s k i l l s ( u n d e r l i n i n g added). Help students develop appropriate s k i l l s f o r w r i t i n g sentences, paragraphs, and essays. Provide students with o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w r i t i n g various types of prose. Help students develop wide speaking, l i s t e n i n g , reading, and w r i t i n g v o c a b u l a r i e s ( u n d e r l i n i n g added). Encourage students to express themselves i n a v a r i e t y of genres. The W r i t i n g 44 Teachers' Manual s t a t e s as w e l l , " Writing 44 w i l l a l s o improve students' speaking, l i s t e n i n g , and reading s k i l l s " (p.12). As no research was a v a i l a b l e to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m , i t must 4 be thought to have been based on the assumption from the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g reading and writing s k i l l s , that improvement i n one area of language w i l l produce improvement i n another. As an adjunct to the curriculum two types of testing were proposed: The Writing 44 Diagnostic Test and an impromptu writing sample. The Diagnostic Test includes the subsections apostrophes, c a p i t a l i z a t i o n and s p e l l i n g ; commas, quotation marks and related punctuation, semi-colons, colons and dashes; subject-predicate agreement, verb usage, pronoun usage, preposition usage, misplaced modifiers, and d i c t i o n a r i e s and Thesaurus, vocabulary. Marking i s objective. The impromptu writing sample i s on a given t o p i c , marked h o l i s t i - c a l l y by a trained group of English teachers. Statement of the Problem The study examines the e f f e c t of the Writing 44 programme on reading s k i l l s during one semester i n which students were given writing, but not formal reading i n s t r u c t i o n . Design of the Study The study examined the influence of writing i n s t r u c t i o n on the reading a b i l i t y of Grade 11 students at Carson Graham Secondary School, North Vancouver. Twenty-five students enrolled i n English 11 during the f i r s t semester served as the experimental group, while twenty-five 5 students not t a k i n g English 11 f i r s t semester served as a c o n t r o l group. Both groups'were pretested i n May, 1982, with the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Form 1 and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Form C, the l a t t e r a l o c a l l y developed c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t to t e s t w r i t i n g s k i l l . The experimental group engaged i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme f o r 19 weeks, from September, 1982 to January, 1983. As Carson Graham Secondary School i s on the semester system, Grade Eleven students are e n r o l l e d i n W r i t i n g 44 f o r only one semester. In January, 1983, the experimental group was post-tested with the Gates Ma c G i n i t i e Reading Test, Level F, Form 2 and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Form D. One week l a t e r , i n February, 1983, the beginning of second semester, the c o n t r o l group was p o s t - t e s t e d , using the same measures. Independent t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance were used to compare pre-and p o s t - t e s t scores of reading comprehension and vocabulary on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2. The same measures were computed on the pre-and p o s t t e s t of the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test. A Pearson R C o r r e l a t i o n was a l s o c a r r i e d out to examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reading comprehension, vocabulary, and w r i t i n g . Permission f o r t h i s study was granted by the A s s i s t a n t Superin- tendent of the North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , the Language Arts Consultant, and by the P r i n c i p a l of Carson Graham Secondary School. 6 Q u e s t i o n s f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n S p e c i f i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were a d d r e s s e d : 1. Was t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d in the W r i t i n g 44 programme f o r one se m e s t e r and t h o s e who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t s e m e s t e r ? 2. Was t h e r e any d i f f e r e n c e i n the w r i t i n g a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 programme f o r one semester and t h o s e who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t s e m e s t e r ? 3. Were t h e r e any c o r r e l a t i o n s among r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s o f s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 programme f o r one semester and t h o s e who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t s e m e s t e r ? S p e c i f i c a l l y between c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s ' a:. . w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t - t e s t s b- w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and comprehension pre-and p o s t - t e s t s c. w r i t i n g p o s t - t e s t and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t - t e s t s id. w r i t i n g p o s t - t e s t and comprehension pre-and p o s t - t e s t s . N u l l Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g n u l l h y p otheses were t e s t e d f o r the s t u d y : 1. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured by the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , Forms 1 and 2, L e v e l F, between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the W r i t i n g 44 programme f o r one semester and t h o s e who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h a t s e m e s t e r . 7 2. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n writing a b i l i t y as measured on the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D, between those students who have participated in the Writing 44 programme for one semester and those who have not participated for that semester. 3. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t correlations between reading comprehension as measured on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Forms 1 and 2, Level F and writing a b i l i t y as measured on the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D. S p e c i f i c a l l y ."between control and experimental groups' a. writing pretest and vocabulary pre-and post-tests b. writing pretest and comprehension pre-and post-tests c. writing post-test and vocabulary pre-and post-tests d. . writing post-test and comprehension pre-and post-tests. Significance of the Study The results of a study on any perceived effect of the Writing 44 Programme on students' reading a b i l i t y should prove valuable For future planning and assessment of process-oriented writing programmes i n the community involved, contribute to the growing body of research on the influence of writing on reading achievement, and suggest further factors to explore with reference to writing growth and concommitant growth i n reading. Limitations of the Study There are three l i m i t a t i o n s to the study: 8 1. The study, confined to a randomly s e l e c t e d group of Grade Eleven students at Carson Graham Secondary School i n North Vancouver, took place over only one semester. While a semester may not be s u f f i c i e n t to show d e f i n i t i v e r e s u l t s , trends i n the data may be h e l p f u l to educators. 2. The r e s u l t s of the study apply to the North Vancouver School population f o r whom the Wr i t i n g 44 Programme was developed. Only i n s o f a r as the sample r e f l e c t s the l a r g e r population can the r e s u l t s be gen e r a l i z e d to other groups. 3. The study i s l i m i t e d to the use of two measures, the Gates- Ma c G i n i t i e Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, reading comprehension and vocabulary s u b t e s t s , and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D. While h o l i s t i c scores on students' w r i t i n g samples (ranging from 1 to 6) were f e l t to be too gross a measure for s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , the researcher had hoped to examine the c o n t r o l and experimental groups' w r i t i n g samples i n order to measure growth i n s y n t a c t i c fluency. How- ever, the i n d i v i d u a l scores became u n a v a i l a b l e during the course of the study. The scored w r i t i n g samples were not re t a i n e d by the D i s t r i c t . The study was l i m i t e d to measuring reading a b i l i t y by the subtests of vocabulary and comprehension of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, g e n e r a l l y used by the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, and to measuring w r i t i n g a b i l i t y on the Writing 44 Diagnostic 9 Test, Forms C and D, a criterion-referenced test developed by the District. Thus, the findings can be generalized only to these particular tests. Definition of Terms Vocabulary scores are defined as those scores obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2. Comprehension scores are defined as those scores obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2. Writing scores are definedas those scores obtained on the Writing 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D. Organization of the Paper The report i s organized into five chapters as follows: 1. Chapter One provides an introduction and overview of the study. This chapter discusses the nature of the problem, provides the back- ground of the study, the rationale, problems and hypotheses, states the significance and limitations of the study, defines terms, and gives an overview of the organization of the study. 2. Chapter Two contains the review of literature. This chapter outlines research on the relationship of reading and writing and examines in detail correlational and descriptive studies in reading and writing, studies which attempt to teach reading in order to improve writing 10 s k i l l s , and the converse, those teaching writing to improve reading s k i l l s . The chapter ends with a section on the effects on sentence combining on reading comprehension. 3* Chapter Three,describes the experimental procedures. This chapter describes the research design, states the hypotheses, de t a i l s the sample, instrumentation, treatment, and data c o l l e c t i o n , and explains the data processing and analysis of the data. The chapter ends with a discussion of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. 4. Chapter Four describes the analysis and evaluation. This chapter reports the reading pre-and post-test r e s u l t s , writing pre-and post-test r e s u l t s , and correlations between reading and writing results. This chapter also includes appropriate charts and tables i l l u s t r a t i n g the data. 5. Chapter Five includes the r e s u l t s , implications and recommendations. This chapter discusses the results of the investigation of the effect of writing i n s t r u c t i o n on reading a b i l i t y and makes recommendations for further research into the nature of the relationship between reading and writing. CHAPTER I I Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e The purpose o f t h e c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e r e l a t i o n - s h i p o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . The c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h summaries o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l and d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . F o l l o w i n g a r e summaries o f s t u d i e s t h a t a t t e m p t e d t o t e a c h r e a d i n g i n o r d e r t o improve w r i t i n g s k i l l s . . The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n c l u d e s w i t h summaries o f s t u d i e s t h a t a t t e m p t e d t o t e a c h w r i t i n g t o improve r e a d i n g s k i l l s . The r e v i e w i s i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e s e a r c h base f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether r e a d i n g a b i l i t y w i l l i mprove as a r e s u l t o f a p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d w r i t i n g programme i n use i n a suburban Vancouver community. C o r r e l a t i o n a l and D e s c r i p t i v e S t u d i e s A l t h o u g h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e o f t e n t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e i n t h e d a t a . R e s e a r c h e r s have examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p from many a s p e c t s . In h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y on t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f language development, L o b a n ; ( 1 9 6 6 ) found h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g above Grade Two. H i s s u b j e c t s were 338 c h i l d r e n i n O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , f o l l o w e d from K i n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade S i x . A c u m u l a t i v e 11 12 r e c o r d o f r e a d i n g as w e l l as t h e S t a n f o r d Reading T e s t was used. F i s h c o (1966) examined 95 Grade Seven s t u d e n t s t o see whether t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r e a t i v i t y i n w r i t i n g and comprehension i n r e a d i n g , u s i n g t h e Gates B a s i c Reading T e s t as t h e r e a d i n g measure and a C r e a t i v i t y S c a l e e s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r s c o r i n g s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g . He found r e a d i n g comprehension and c r e a t i v i t y i n w r i t i n g c o r r e l a t e d beyond t h e .05 l e v e l . Evanechko, O l l i l i a , and A rmstrong (1974) s t u d i e d Grade S i x s t u d e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n d i c e s o f w r i t i n g p erformance which might p r e d i c t r e a d i n g achievement and t o i d e n t i f y and a p p l y v a l i d i n d i c e s o f w r i t t e n language b e h a v i o u r based upon t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l . g r a m m a r t h e o r y . The c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s showed a l l measures were h i g h l y r e l a t e d , r e i n f o r c i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p among language s k i l l s . Of t h e 13 i n d i c e s used as p r e d i c t o r s o f r e a d i n g achievement, f o u r were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . These were number o f communica- t i o n u n i t s , two-count s t r u c t u r e s , s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n s , and t h e average number o f words p e r communication u n i t . L a z d o w s k i (1977) c o n s t r u c t e d a f o r m u l a t o p r e d i c t r e a d i n g l e v e l from such f e a t u r e s o f s t u d e n t w r i t i n g as mean s e n t e n c e l e n g t h , s y l l a b l e s p er t h o u g h t u n i t , and p o l y s y l l a b i c words per s e n t e n c e . S t u d y i n g 338 w r i t i n g samples from h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s as w e l l as c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who had r e a d i n g l e v e l s r a n g i n g from Grades 2 t o 14, L a z d o w s k i p r e d i c t e d r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t o w i t h i n one grade l e v e l o f a c t u a l achievement w i t h a r e a l i a b i l i t y o f .88. 13 D'Angelo (1977) r e p o r t e d r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t e d a t t h e .01 l e v e l i n h i s s t u d y o f 245 Grade Nine s t u d e n t s . However, he c o n c l u d e d t h a t l i s t e n i n g comprehension and l i s t e n i n g memory were more e f f e c t i v e p r e d i c t o r s o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y t h a n was w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . B i p p u s (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures o f q u a l i t y o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g comprehension and a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t i n d i c e s o f s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n l anguage p e r f o r m ance t o p r e d i c t r e a d i n g comprehension. She t e s t e d 57 s t u d e n t s i n Grades 4 and 6. The measures used f o r q u a l i t i e s o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e were i d e a s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , w o r d i n g , f l a v o u r , usage, p u n c t u a t i o n , s p e l l i n g and h a n d w r i t i n g . Each c o m p o s i t i o n was e v a l u a t e d by two t r a i n e d r a t e r s w i t h c r i t e r i a s e t by t h e E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e C o m p o s i t i o n S c a l e . The r e a d i n g measure was t h e r e a d i n g comprehension s u b t e s t o f t h e SRA Achievement T e s t . P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed o v e r a l l a s p e c t s o f q u a l i t y o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g c o mprehension. S t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o i d e n t i f y t h e b e s t i n d i c e s o f s t u d e n t s ' q u a l i t y o f w r i t t e n l a nguage and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g t o p r e d i c t r e a d i n g comprehension. S i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f s t u d e n t s ' q u a l i t y o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g c omprehension. Thomas (1976) examined t h e e x t e n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between - r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g o f 405 c o l l e g e freshmen. S u b t e s t s f o r r e a d i n g 14 comprehension and v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e Test were used t o measure r e a d i n g a chievement. Sentence m a t u r i t y and o v e r a l l w r i t i n g q u a l i t y were examined i n a 500 word w r i t i n g sample done by each s t u d e n t . Thomas found a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .128, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .028 l e v e l , between r e a d i n g comprehension and w r i t i n g a c hievement. Grobe and.rG.robe/ (1977) a l s o examined c o l l e g e freshmen t o see whether t h e r e was a c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and w r i t i n g . The d a t a showed t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e d among l e v e l s o f w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . C o r r e l a t i o n s showed t h a t t h o s e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s tended t o be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e h i g h e s t w r i t i n g l e v e l g r o up. Bebensee (1977) s t u d i e d 300 Grade F i v e s t u d e n t s from t h e i n n e r c i t y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g comprehension and achievement i n w r i t t e n c o m p o s i t i o n . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a chievement were not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d when w r i t i n g a b i l i t y was measured i n c o m p o s i t i o n c o n t e n t . Bebensee s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p urpose and p r o c e d u r e o f v a r i o u s measures o f w r i t i n g a b i l i t y c a used c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . Simmons (1977) s e l e c t e d 100 s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o r e a d i n g s c o r e s on t h e Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t t o d i s c o v e r whether s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - ences e x i s t e d i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s among s t u d e n t s who a r e h i g h , medium, and low i n r e a d i n g a chievement. A n a l y s i s o f t o t a l w r i t i n g s c o r e s d a t a r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between low and medium r e a d i n g a c h i e v e - ment g r o u p s , medium and h i g h g r o u p s , and between low and h i g h g roups. 15 A c o r r e l a t i o n o f .61 was o b t a i n e d between w r i t i n g mechanics s c o r e s and t o t a l r e a d i n g s c o r e s o f t h e 100 s t u d e n t s . H a m i l l and McNutt (1980) s u r v e y e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on language a b i l i t i e s and r e a d i n g as a b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t s f o r l i n k i n g t h e language p r o c e s s e s . They examined 20 j o u r n a l s on p s y c h o l o g y , r e a d i n g , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , and speech between 1950 and 1978. They had s t r i n g e n t c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . Each had t o have a t l e a s t 20 s u b j e c t s ; r e s e a r c h e r s had t o have used some t y p e o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e t o r e l a t e measures o f r e a d i n g t o measures o f l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g , o r w r i t i n g . They l o c a t e d 89 s t u d i e s which met t h e c r i t e r i a , a t o t a l o f 992 c o n c u r r e n t c o e f f i c i e n t s w hich had r e a d i n g as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , m e a n i n g f u l s p e a k i n g , m e a n i n g f u l w r i t i n g . However, i n ex a m i n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t s f o r m e a n i n g f u l w r i t i n g , s u f f i c i e n t d a t a w h i c h s a t i s f i e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' r e q u i r e m e n t s was found f o r o n l y t h e c o n - s t r u c t s o f s p e l l i n g and mechanics. These r e s u l t s c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e many s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s i n o t h e r c o n s t r u c t s o f m e a n i n g f u l w r i t i n g . Summary o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t s used-Gates B a s i c Reading T e s t , SAT, SRA, and t h e Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t - and t h e d i v e r s e a s p e c t s o f w r i t i n g t e s t e d - c r e a t i v i t y , c ommunication u n i t s , s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n s , usage, p u n c t u a t i o n , s p e l l i n g - c o r r e l a t i o n s were found among r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s i n a l l but one s t u d y . Reading and w r i t i n g were found t o be r e l a t e d . 16 Teaching Reading to Improve Writing S k i l l s Researchers have been attempting since 1931 to teach reading to improve writing s k i l l s , using as their rationale the assumed r e l a t i o n - ship between reading and writing s k i l l s . As early as f i f t y years ago, Eurich (1931) conducted a two-year study attempting to enhance s k i l l in written composition by improving reading at the college l e v e l . Eurich performed four twelve-week experiments i n which the 83 experimental group- students were taught vocabulary and paragraph reading s k i l l s while the 87 control group students studied the normal freshman composition course. The experi- mental groups showed s i g n i f i c a n t gains on two out of eleven measures, the two vocabulary measures. Both groups made equal gains on four other measures, one of which was reading comprehension. No conclusions could be drawn about reading-writing relationships. More recently, Schneider (1971) did a fifteen-week study of remedial students at a junior college. The experimental group had 20 hours out of a t o t a l of 75 hours of reading instruction. The control group had no reading instruction. The three measures used were a standardized reading test, a writing mechanics test, and an essay test. No s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found on growth i n either reading or writing a b i l i t y . No conclusion could be drawn on the relationship between growth i n read- ing and growth i n writing a b i l i t y . O'Donnell (1974) used two different methods of teaching reading to 42 black remedial college freshmen i n a one-month intensive course, a 17 t r a d i t i o n a l method and a. p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c t u t o r i a l method. N e i t h e r method r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y , c o m p o s i t i o n q u a l i t y , o r r e a d i n g comprehension as measured on a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t . C a m pbell (1976) t a u g h t an i n t e g r a t e d r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g c o u r s e t o two s e c t i o n s o f freshman c o m p o s i t i o n f o r 12 weeks. Two c o n t r o l groups s t u d i e d w r i t i n g s k i l l s o n l y . A s l i g h t , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f a v o u r e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group on t h e r e a d i n g comprehension measure. Campbell found t h a t r e a d i n g a b i l i t y c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d from a w r i t i n g sample. Maat (1977) asked whether improvement i n comprehension o f e x p o s i t o r y and a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o s e would be accompanied by improvement i n w r i t i n g such p r o s e . He s t u d i e d two groups o f Grade Twelve s t u d e n t s , h a v i n g 40 s u b j e c t s i n each group. For n i n e weeks t h e t r e a t m e n t group d i d n ot w r i t e any c o m p o s i t i o n s , but had i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d i n g . The c o n t r o l group wrote c o m p o s i t i o n s and had r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . A n a l y s i s o f r a t e r s ' s c o r e s showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h e t o t a l w r i t i n g o f a l l s t u d e n t s . S m a l l , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n g a i n were found i n t h e t o t a l w r i t i n g s c o r e s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t group and a s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n i n comprehension s c o r e s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t group, b u t no s i g n i f i - c a n t g a i n o r l o s s i n comprehension s c o r e s f o r t h e c o n t r o l group. B e l a n g e r (1978) asked whether a change i n r e a d i n g s k i l l would produce a consequent change i n w r i t i n g s k i l l . I n r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a r e a , B e l a n g e r e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e a t the s m a l l number o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s e x a m i n i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t . He n o t e d t h a t 18 most o f t h e s t u d i e s were i n c o n c l u s i v e because o f t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o a l t e r r e a d i n g s k i l l . In B e l a n g e r ' s own s t u d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) , he c o n f i r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes on t h e r e a d i n g measure b e f o r e a n a l y s i s o f t h e w r i t i n g samples was done. B e l a n g e r used 8 i n t a c t c l a s s e s o f Grades 9 and 10, 194 s t u d e n t s i n a l l . The D a v i s S e r i e s 2 Reading T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d and w r i t i n g samples on a s s i g n e d t o p i c s were c o l l e c t e d i n November, F e b r u a r y , and May, p r o v i d i n g t h r e e t e s t c o m p a r i s o n s - p r e - m i d , m i d - p o s t , and p r e - p o s t . The r e a d i n g t r e a t m e n t was t h e S.O.S. Reading Technique ( M a r t i n and M a r t i n , 1974), and g a i n s were c o n f i r m e d a t t h e end o f t r e a t m e n t . W r i t i n g samples were a n a l y s e d f o r o v e r a l l q u a l i t y , s y n t a c t i c d e n s i t y , t - u n i t l e n g t h , and f l u e n c y . A sub-sample o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s was a n a l y s e d f o r 4 major s e n t e n c e e r r o r s : run-on s e n t e n c e s , f r a g m e n t s , e r r o r s i n s u b j e c t - v e r b agreement, and e r r o r s i n pronoun agreement. A n a l y s i s o f t h e r e a d i n g measure showed t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were s u p e r i o r t o the c o n t r o l groups on b o t h p r e t e s t - m i d t e s t c o m p a r i s o n and p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t . A n a l y s i s o f t h e 4 major w r i t i n g measures showed d i f f e r e n c e s which were o n l y randomly s i g n i f i c a n t between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . S u b s i d i a r y a n a l y s i s o f major e r r o r s was t h e o n l y w r i t i n g measure t o show p r o m i s e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e a d i n g and q u a l i t y measures f o r the sample were above .47 (p ^ . 0 0 0 1 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g f l u e n c y measures ranged from .19 t o .27 ( p . 0 0 8 ) . C o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g and s y n t a c t i c d e n s i t y and r e a d i n g and t - u n i t l e n g t h measures were v e r y s l i g h t and o f t e n n e g a t i v e . When t h e mean 19 reading and writing scores of experimental and control boys and g i r l s were compared, no consistent relationship was evident. Belanger concluded that the study produced no evidence to suggest a causative relationship between reading s k i l l and writing s k i l l or that s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the reading measure produced s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n writing a b i l i t y . One possible explanation suggested by Belanger i s that one-half year's growth i n reading i s not s u f f i c i e n t to produce a change i n writing. Summary of studies teaching reading to improve_writinq[ sj<ills_. Teaching reading i n order to improve writing has frustrated many researchers because of the d i f f i c u l t y of s i g n i f i c a n t l y improving reading. In spite of overcoming that particular d i f f i c u l t y , Belanger was unable to show that improvement i n reading resulted i n improvement i n writing. Of the researchers cited here, only Maat (1977) found differences i n the writing scores of the treatment group, but the gains were small and non- s i g n i f i c a n t , despite the s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n comprehension scores for the treatment group. Teaching Writing to Improve Reading S k i l l s The studies investigating the effect on reading s k i l l s of teaching writing are subdivided into three categories: general composition and reading, syntax and reading, and sentence combining and reading. 20 General Composition and Reading Nagle (1972) examined the effects of a directed writing a c t i v i t y i n Grade 8 s o c i a l studies instruction on general reading achievement and on s o c i a l studies reading achievement. After giving the 371 students a series of writing assignments, he found that reading improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p^_.05). Oehlkers (1972) investigated the contribution of creative writing to reading achievement i n a language experience approach with Grade One pupils. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found on a reading measure between the creative writing group and the control group after one year. He concluded, however, that students who receive early training i n creative writing achieve equally as well i n word recognition as those who engage mainly i n reading a c t i v i t i e s i n the early part of Grade One, evidence that writing instruction may at times be substituted for direct reading in s t r u c t i o n . In examining the effect of writing i n the expressive mode on the general and s p e c i f i c reading comprehension of underprepared, college- l e v e l readers, DeLuca (1980) worked with two groups of remedial reading students. The experimental group of 25 did expressive writing exercises as both pre-and post-reading a c t i v i t i e s , while the control group of 25 took part i n discussions as pre-and post-reading a c t i v i t i e s . The Nelson- Denny Reading Test was used to measure reading improvement i n general reading a b i l i t y during the 15-week semester. Specific reading compre- hension was measured by specially designed cloze tests. While both 21 groups improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n reading comprehension, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between groups. The recommendation was made that studies should be conducted to see whether there were any f a c i l i - tating effects of different kinds of writing, transactional and persuasive, and longer expressive writing on the general and s p e c i f i c reading comprehension of college-level readers. Weiner (1979) evaluated the effectiveness of a writing programme on the accuracy of o r a l reading i n Grades 4-12. The average number of major errors dropped from six to one after treatment, evidence again that writing instruction may be substituted for direct reading in s t r u c t i o n . Summary of studies teaching general composition to improve reading. The studies reviewed covered a l l levels of instruction from Grade One to College. While a directed writing a c t i v i t y i n s o c i a l studies had a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on reading, attempts to teach creative writing appeared to have no effect on reading comprehension. Syntax and Reading Studies teaching syntax i n written composition i n an effect to improve reading have yielded more positive results. In examining reading and writing from the aspect of instruction i n syntax and paragraph structure and i t s effect on reading, Reed (1967) found that after 15 weeks, the Grade Seven experimental group showed gains i n comprehension superior to the control group (p £. .01). 22 Kuntz (1975) s t u d i e d 96 Grade Seven s t u d e n t s t o see i f t h e r e was any c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g achievement and t h e a b i l i t y t o make s e n t e n c e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . She r e p o r t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g from .68 t o .80 ( p f l . 0 0 1 ) between t o t a l s y n t a c t i c a t t a i n m e n t and t o t a l r e a d i n g a chievement as measured on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test and t h e Sentence C o n s t r u c t i o n T e s t . These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t t h e view t h a t t h e r e i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g achievement and w r i t t e n s y n t a c t i c a t t a i n m e n t . H e l l e r (1980) s i m i l a r l y i n v e s t i g a t e d r e a d i n g comprehension o f 34 u n i v e r s i t y freshmen i n r e l a t i o n t o 21 s y n t a c t i c e l ements a p p e a r i n g i n t h e i r e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g . H e l l e r chose e l e m e n t s f o r t h e i r known c o n t r i - b u t i o n t o s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y and p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e a d i n g c o m prehension. H i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d a t l e a s t 11 e l e m e n t s o f w r i t t e n l anguage a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g comprehension. These a r e number o f words p e r T - u n i t , T - u n i t s p e r s e n t e n c e , words per s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e , words p e r main c l a u s e , p a s s i v e v e r b s , p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s , g e r u n d s , p a r t i c i p l e s , i n t r a - T - u n i t c o - o r d i n a t o r s , f r e e f i n a l m o d i f i e r s , words per c l a u s e , and S y n t a c t i c D e n s i t y S c o r e , a c o m p o s i t e s c o r e r e f l e c t i n g t o t a l s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y . Good r e a d e r s ' w r i t i n g , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o n g T - u n i t s expanded t h r o u g h n o n c l a u s a l s t r u c t u r e s such as p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s , i n t r a - T - u n i t c o o r d i n a t i o n o f d e t a i l , and p a s s i v e v e r b p h r a s e s , c o n t a i n e d more d e l e t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h a n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e poor r e a d e r s . The low r e a d i n g groups produced s h o r t e r T - u n i t s expanded p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e a d d i t i o n 23 o f s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s . T h e i r w r i t i n g a l s o used more c o o r d i n a t e d main c l a u s e s and run-on s e n t e n c e s t h a n . t h e good r e a d e r s . D i s c u s s i o n o f p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e r e a d i n g - w r i t i n g c o n n e c t i o n c e n t e r e d around c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common t o b o t h language p r o c e s s e s . S t i l l e y (1982) d e s i g n e d a s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r o l e o f know- l e d g e about s y n t a x i n t h e r e a d i n g comprehension and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y o f 149 Grade Seven s t u d e n t s . Reading comprehension was measured by t h e Comprehension s u b - t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , t w e n t y 50- i t e m teacher-made c l o z e p a s s a g e s , and a s u b - t e s t o f t h e Tes t o f Reading Comprehension (TORC). W r i t i n g a b i l i t y was a n a l y z e d on t h e b a s i s o f a h o l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n f o r q u a l i t y and a T - u n i t a n a l y s i s o f a w r i t i n g sample t o a s s e s s s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y . S c o r e s from t h e P r e c i s i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s T e s t were used as a measure o f s y n t a c t i c competence. R e s u l t s o f a Pe a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was: 1. a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g comprehension as measured by a g l o b a l t e s t o f r e a d i n g comprehension and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . 2. a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g comprehension as measured by a c l o z e t e s t and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . 3. a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g comprehension as measured by a s e n t e n c e s i m i l a r i t i e s t e s t and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . 4. a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e v a r i o u s measures o f r e a d i n g c o m prehension. 5. a low t o moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e measures o f w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . 24 S t i l l e y concluded that a relationship between reading comprehension and writing a b i l i t y ; e x i s t s , but not a strong one. These findings suggest that knowledge of syntax i s only one aspect of the reading process. The results did not support the hypothesis that a cloze test of reading comprehension may be more sensitive than a standardized test i n measuring syntactic maturity. While a l l poor readers i n the study were also poor writers, a l l good readers were not good writers. S t i l l e y suggested that while reading and writing seem to have underlying processes i n common, there are also differences which must be kept i n mind. Johnson (1981) did a si m i l a r study to distinguish relationships between syntactic writing maturity and reading achievement. The sample was chosen from 283 students i n Grades 3, 4, 5 and 6. At each grade l e v e l , two Black females, ten White females, two Black males, and ten White males were selected for a t o t a l population of 96. The SRA Achieve- ment Series (1978) was used to measure reading achievement. Syntactic writing maturity was measured by a writing sample of at least 100 words from each student with each sample analyzed for number of words per T-unit, number of words per clause, and number of clauses per T-unit. For the t o t a l group, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were found for three syntactic measures. The syntactic measure that was s i g n i f i c a n t for each of the three reading scores was words per T-unit. Words per clause correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with reading vocabulary and with t o t a l reading. Clauses per T-unit correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with reading comprehension. Results for i n d i v i d u a l grades varied, with the following conclusions being drawn: 1. A l l three syntactic writing measures correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y 25 2. There were more s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s found between t h e w r i t i n g measure and v o c a b u l a r y t h a n between t h e w r i t i n g measure and comprehension. 3. The most s i g n i f i c a n t s y n t a c t i c w r i t i n g measures appeared t o be words per T - u n i t and words per c l a u s e . Summary o f s t u d i e s t e a c h i n g s y n t a x t o improve w r i t i n g . T e a c h i n g s y n t a x i n w r i t i n g appeared t o have more c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s i n i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . R e s e a r c h e r s have been a b l e t o i s o l a t e e l ements o f w r i t t e n language which a r e r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g comprehension. There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n s y n t a c t i c e l e m e n t s i n e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g c o mprehension. The r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t e f f o r t s t o improve s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y may l e a d t o improvement i n r e a d i n g s k i l l . A w r i t i n g programme i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y , t h r o u g h s e n t e n c e m a n i p u l a t i o n o r s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g , might produce such an improvement. T h i s a p p ears t o be a p r o m i s i n g a r e a o f r e s e a r c h . Sentence Combining and Reading Comprehension Sentence c o m b i n i n g as a p r a c t i c e was d e v e l o p e d i n i t i a l l y as a way o f i m p r o v i n g w r i t i n g . However, some r e s e a r c h e r s have h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t such p r a c t i c e , g i v e n c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s about t h e m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s r e q u i r e d , s h o u l d r e s u l t i n improved r e a d i n g comprehension and t h a t h y p o t h e s i s has been t e s t e d by K l e i n (1980) and S t e r n g l a s s ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Both K l e i n and S t e r n g l a s s have d i s c u s s e d s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e and have p r e s e n t e d t h e i r v i e w s about t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d . 26 K l e i n (1980) d e s c r i b e d s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g as t h e p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r o f s e v e r a l s h o r t s e n t e n c e s which have been d e r i v e d by t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . P o i n t i n g p u t t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o e l i m i n a t e r e d u n d a n t words and p h r a s e s w h i l e r e t a i n i n g key i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p a s s a g e s , K l e i n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e m e n t a l a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g i s c e n t r a l t o b o t h language p r o d u c t i o n a n d r i a n g u a g e a n a l y s i s and t h a t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e and s e n t e n c e c o n t e n t engages t h e s t u d e n t i n comprehension. S t e r n g l a s s (1980) has s u g g e s t e d t h e t y p e o f language used i n s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c model o f r e a d i n g t h a t c l a i m s f l u e n c y d e v e l o p s as r e a d e r s l e a r n t o p r o c e s s l a r g e r u n i t s o f l a n g u a g e . S t u d e n t s l e a r n t h a t t h e word groups i n s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g must be t r e a t e d as m e a n i n g - b e a r i n g u n i t s . The s t u d e n t must s e l e c t a r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e u n i t s o f r e a d i n g and a l s o c r e a t e s y n t a x f o r t h a t meaning. S t e r n g l a s s s u g g e s t e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f c h u n k i n g v e r b a l p a t t e r n s d e v e l o p s f l u e n c y i n r e a d i n g . L e v i n e (1976) t e s t e d 112 Grade Three s t u d e n t s on s e n t e n c e com- b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s showed g a i n s on t h e S.A.T. r e a d i n g t e s t (p •<£ .001), but not on a c l o z e t e s t . L e v i n e c o n c l u d e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t upon w r i t t e n c o m p o s i t i o n and r e a d i n g comprehension. McAfee (1981) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on r e a d i n g comprehension and w r i t i n g m a t u r i t y o f F i f t h Grade c h i l d r e n . She had 25 c h i l d r e n i n b o t h c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. The t r e a t m e n t l a s t e d s i x weeks and a t t e m p t e d t o examine q u e s t i o n s about 27 whether s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n improved r e a d i n g comprehension,, and w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n had s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s c o r e s . S i m i l a r l y , Combs (1977) found t h a t a f t e r e i g h t weeks o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g , e x p e r i m e n t a l Grade Seven c l a s s e s showed a g a i n i n r e a d i n g comprehension (p £ . 0 0 1 ) on a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t . Simmons (1981) c o n d u c t e d a t w e l v e week s t u d y o f 87 s t u d e n t s i n f o u r Grade Seven c l a s s e s , w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups d i v i d e d i n t o r e g u l a r and advanced language a r t s c l a s s e s by r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . Each o f two t e a c h e r s t a u g h t an e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l c l a s s . The t r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f 1% h ours per week o f b o t h t h e open and c l o s e d t y p e s o f w r i t t e n and o r a l s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s and s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g c l o z e a c t i v i t i e s . Two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups f o r r e a d i n g o r l i s t e n i n g com- p r e h e n s i o n . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t changes among r e a d i n g , l i s t e n i n g , and mean T - u n i t l e n g t h c o r r e l a t i o n s from p r e - t o p o s t - t e s t . Howie (1979) e v a l u a t e d t h e e f f e c t o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g on t h e w r i t i n g a b i l i t y and r e a d i n g l e v e l o f Grade Nine s t u d e n t s . The r e a d i n g t e s t was a c l o z e i n s t r u m e n t c o n s t r u c t e d on s i x passages o f t h e Gray O r a l Reading T e s t . The c o m p o s i t i o n a s s i g n m e n t s were i n two modes, d e s c r i p t i o n and e x p o s i t i o n . The s t u d y l a s t e d f o r f i f t e e n weeks w i t h 91 Grade Nine s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . R e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s y n t a c t i c w r i t i n g a b i l i t y between t h e groups 28 i n descriptive composition, favouring the experimental group ( p ^ . 0 0 1 ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between the two groups i n reading l e v e l . Howie suggests the transfer of combining s k i l l s i n writing to de-combining s k i l l s i n reading should be gtudied further. Straw (1978) hypothesized that instruction which affects growth i n one area of language processing a b i l i t y w i l l affect growth i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension and reading comprehension because of the high positive relationships found among tasks involving these three language processing a b i l i t i e s . One hundred and twenty-four students from a suburban high school were assigned one of two instructors and to one of three treatment groups. Treatment was for a five-week period, consisting of one group receiving sentence combining i n s t r u c t i o n , one sentence reduction i n - structi o n , and one instruction i n written composition from a language arts text. Three-way analysis of variance on post-test scores indicated that sentence combining had a s i g n i f i c a n t effect over the textbook approach on the four measures of syntactic fluency, the measure of l i s t e n i n g comprehension, and an experimenter-designed cloze test. Analysis of post-test scores on the standardized reading measure showed no s i g n i f i c a n t effect. Menendez (1979) examined the effects of sentence combining on remedial college students' syntactic a b i l i t y , punctuation s k i l l s , and reading a b i l i t y . While the experimental group showed gains i n syntactic a b i l i t y On two measures, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n writing 29 q u a l i t y or r e a d i n g comprehension. The purpose o f Ledesma's s t u d y (1981) was t o d e t e r m i n e whether s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g p r a c t i c e c o n t r i b u t e s t o r e a d i n g comprehension a t t h e l i t e r a l , r e a s o n i n g , and e v a l u a t i v e l e v e l s , and t o a c c u r a c y i n compre- he n d i n g m a t e r i a l a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y . The s u b j e c t were freshmen a t West V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y e n r o l l e d i n D e v e l o p m e n t a l E n g l i s h 1 d u r i n g t h e f a l l s e m e s t e r . They were randomly a s s i g n e d t o r e s e a r c h groups d e s i g n a t e d s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g ( s c ) and grammar l e s s o n s ( g l ) . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was t h e t r e a t m e n t : s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g v e r s u s grammar l e s s o n s . The 14 dependent v a r i a b l e s were 1) comprehensio s c o r e s on t h e Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t ( l i t e r a l , r e a s o n i n g , e v a l u a t i v e , and t o t a l ) ; 2) comprehension s c o r e s on t h e C o n s t r u c t e d Passages ( 6 t h , 1 0 t h , and a v e r a g e a d u l t s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t i e s , and a t l i t e r a l and r e a s o n i n g l e v e l s , and t h e t o t a l on t h e p a s s a g e s ) ; and 3) s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y s c o r e s i n f r e e and c o n t r o l l e d w r i t i n g measured by mean c l a u s e l e n g t h and mean T - u n i t l e n g t h . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e r e a s o n i n g l e v e l i n f a v o u r o f t h e s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g groups and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups f o r l i t e r a l and e v a l u a t i v e l e v e l s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e C o n s t r u c t e d Passages r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e l i t e r a l l e v e l i n f a v o u r o f t h e grammar l e s s o n s group. When pre-and p o s t - t e s t s were c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e was a s p e c i f i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p which showed t h a t among the s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g group, t h e more c l a u s e s and T - u n i t s t h e s t u d e n t 30 wrote i n controlled composition, the higher the reading comprehension scores on the Iowa Silent Reading Test. When pretests for writing and post-tests for reading were examined, the sentence combining group had more s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between reading and writing than the grammar lessons group. Also, more s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found between writing and reading on the Constructed Passages than reading on the Iowa Silent Reading Test and more relationships were found between controlled writing than on free writing and reading on the Constructed Passages. The results indicate a p o s s i b i l i t y that sentence combining may aid reasoning comprehension. On the Constructed Passages, the results seem to j u s t i f y a tentative conclusion that sentence combining aided students with the syntactic complexity element of reading comprehension. Tentative conclusions on the relationships of writing and reading are as follows: 1. Sentence combining may have contributed to more relationships for the sentence combining than for the grammar lessons group. 2. Reading and writing scores are more closely related when more reading i s required to complete the writing task. 3. The syntactic complexity element may be an important factor i n reading and writing. Summary of evidence on sentence combining practice and reading comprehension. With such equivocal r e s u l t s , d e f i n i t e relationships between sentence combining practice and reading improvement cannot be 31 stated conclusively. The research leads to examination of other components of a writing programme to determine the effect of writing on reading. Chapter Summary To provide a theoretical framework for the study, this chapter reviewed studies i n three areas related to reading-writing relationships. The f i r s t section reviewed co r r e l a t i o n a l and descriptive studies. Many different aspects of reading and writing were examined, with sample populations ranging from Kindergarten to college. Overall relationships were found to exist between reading and writing. Correlational studies continue to interest-educators for both theoretical and p r a c t i c a l reasons. It i s useful to investigate the inherent relationships among the language arts so that c u r r i c u l a based on sound educational theory can be developed. The second section of the review of l i t e r a t u r e dealt with e f f o r t s to improve writing s k i l l s through the teaching of reading. The d i f f i c u l t y of s i g n i f i c a n t l y improving reading i n r e l a t i o n to writing has resulted i n few studies reporting the teaching of reading to have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on writing a b i l i t y . The f i n a l section of the l i t e r a t u r e review examined studies which were the converse of those reviewed i n the preceding section: those tesching writing to improve reading s k i l l s . There has been l i t t l e research into the effect of creative writing on reading. Studies teaching syntax i n writing yielded more s i g n i f i c a n t results when reading 32 achievement was measured. Certain elements of written language have been i d e n t i f i e d as being related to reading comprehension. The research suggests improved syntactic fluency may improve reading comprehension. Studies i n the practice of sentence combining and i t s effect on written composition yielded varying r e s u l t s ; d e f i n i t e relationships between sentence combining practice and reading comprehension cannot be con- cl u s i v e l y stated. The research suggests that there may be elements i n a writing programme which may havet-an effect on reading s k i l l s . The chapters which follow i n the study examine a process-oriented writing programme and i t s effect on reading s k i l l s . CHAPTER I I I Rese a r c h D e s i g n and P r o c e d u r e s A f t e r d e t a i l i n g t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h i s c h a p t e r e x p l a i n s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , t r e a t m e n t , and c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e s . I t c o n c l u d e s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and r e c o r d i n g , and d a t a t r e a t m e n t . R e s e a r c h D e s i g n The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l , t h e s e t t i n g many d i f f e r e n t c l a s s r o o m s where i t was not p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l a l l t h e r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s . A randomized c o n t r o l - g r o u p p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t d e s i g n was used as shown below: r e f e r s t o t h e p r e t e s t t h e p o s t t e s t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group t h e c o n t r o l group random s e l e c t i o n 33 34 The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme; t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , r e a d i n g as measured by t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g one 19-week s e m e s t e r , September t o J a n u a r y , 1982-83. N u l l Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y : 1. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured by t h e G a t e s - M c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , Forms 1 and 2, L e v e l F, between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme and t h o s e who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e Programme f o r one s e m e s t e r . 2. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D, between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme and t h o s e who have not p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r one semester. 3. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between r e a d i n g comprehension as measured on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , Forms 1 and 2, L e v e l F and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D. S p e c i f i c a l l y : a. between w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t t e s t s . b. between w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and comprehension pre-and p o s t t e s t s . c. . between w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t and v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t t e s t s . 35 d. between w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t and comprehension pre-and p o s t t e s t s . Sample An e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f 25 s t u d e n t s was randomly s e l e c t e d from s i x Grade E l e v e n E n g l i s h c l a s s e s a t Ca r s o n Graham Secondary S c h o o l . A c o n t r o l group o f 25 s t u d e n t s was randomly s e l e c t e d from among t h o s e Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s not e n r o l l e d i n E n g l i s h 11 i n f i r s t s e m e s t e r . At Carson Graham, s t u d e n t s a r e p l a c e d on c l a s s l i s t s by computer. Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s i n Band who a r e t i m e t a b l e d as a gr o u p , w i t h Band a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h E n g l i s h t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , a r e not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , nor a r e r e m e d i a l s t u d e n t s . Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s f o r t h e sample were s e l e c t e d from a t a b l e o f random numbers, a f t e r b e i n g randomly a s s i g n e d t o E n g l i s h c l a s s e s by computer. The s t u d e n t s from C a r s o n Graham come from a wide v a r i e t y o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t which i s g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r e d by t h e D i s t r i c t , and the W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D. The r e s e a r c h e r had hoped t o use t h e h o l i s t i c a l l y marked w r i t i n g samples as a second measure, but t h e s t u d e n t s ' impromptu w r i t i n g samples were not a v a i l a b l e . The c o m p o s i t i o n s would have been used t o measure g a i n s i n s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y . 36 As a r e s u l t , t h e a n a l y s i s was r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e o b j e c t i v e t e s t . R eading The v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension s u b t e s t s from L e v e l F, p a r a l l e l Forms 1 and 2, o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t were used. The K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n Formula 20 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s .85 - .94 f o r v o c a b u l a r y and .85 - .92 f o r comprehension. Reading passages i n t h e t e s t a r e s a i d t o have been s e l e c t e d from p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e wide range o f m a t e r i a l s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r i n r e a d i n g . The p e r c e n t a g e s o f comprehension passages from v a r i o u s c o n t e n t a r e a s a r e N a r r a t i v e - D e s c r i p t i v e - 32.5 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s - 32.5 N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s - 25 The A r t s - 10 ( G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test Manual, 1979, p. 59) Reading t e s t s were marked by hand. W r i t i n g The W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t (see Appendix A) c o n s i s t s o f two p a r a l l e l f o r m s , each h a v i n g 100 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i t e m s . A l l t e s t i t e m s were w r i t t e n by D i s t r i c t 44 E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s and r e v i s e d where n e c e s s a r y t o ensure v a l i d i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e p a r a l l e l forms a r e .88 - .93. The D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s were s c o r e d by computer. The c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i s d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g - r e l a t e d 37 s k i l l s such as p u n c t u a t i o n s y s t e m , usage, d i c t i o n , and v o c a b u l a r y . The s t u d e n t s a r e p r e - t e s t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e m e s t e r ; weak- ne s s e s i n w r i t i n g s k i l l s a r e i d e n t i f i e d ; s p e c i f i c s k i l l s a r e p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o work on i n t h e w r i t i n g l a b ; t h e s t u d e n t s a r e p o s t - t e s t e d a t t h e end o f the s e m e s t e r t o measure improvement i n w r i t i n g s k i l l s . P o s t t e s t s c o r e s a r e used as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s ' subsequent w r i t i n g c o u r s e . Treatment The W r i t i n g 44 programme i s d e s c r i b e d as p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d . The s c h o o l week i s d i v i d e d i n t o workshop days, on which s t u d e n t s a r e t a u g h t composing s t r a t e g i e s , and l a b days, when t h e y improve i n t h e mechanics o f w r i t i n g . In t h e workshop, s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s o f the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s : p r e - w r i t i n g , w r i t i n g , r e v i s i n g , and p r e s e n t i n g . In t h e l a b , s t u d e n t s work on m a t e r i a l d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n weaknesses i n w r i t i n g which were p r e v i o u s l y d i a g n o s e d : b y t e s t i n g . Workshop Stage I - p r e - w r i t i n g . D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e a language e x p e r i e n c e approach i s used t o d e v e l o p and improve t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s . R e s e a r c h shows e m p h a s i z i n g p r e - w r i t i n g s t r a t e g i e s has s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on w r i t i n g (Emig, 1971; O d e l l , 1974; G r a v e s , 1975). P r e - w r i t i n g , o f t e n n e g l e c t e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g i e s : 38 Brainstorming and. Clustering^: generating ideas through free association. Analogy: developing metaphors Free Association: responding to cues on a given topic. Meditation/Introspection: v i s u a l i z i n g Games: playing simulation games to encourage discussion. Models: examining the works of l i t e r a r y figures for s t y l e . Role-Playing: engaging i n role-play to f a c i l i t a t e seeing another point of view or depicting character t r a i t s . Films, Recordings: viewing material to provide background for a topic or to provoke controversy. Heuristics: using problem solving to generate ideas. Journals: writing informally to explore thoughts and ideas. Stage II - writing. Stage II i n the writing process i s when the writer commits to paper the thoughts developed i n the pre-writing stage. A rough draft i s produced by the student to which peers or teachers respond. In t h i s stage, students learn to organize ideas by writing passages of different lengths, using appropriate formats for varying purposes and adjusting s t y l e and tone for different audiences. Stage I I I - revising. Revising i s an on-going process, using strategies of addition, deletion, substitution, and rearrangement. 1. Addition and Deletion: words, phrases, and sentences may be added to or deleted from the student's writing. 39 2. Substitution: words, phrases, sentences or longer units of discourse may be substituted for what has been written i n the f i r s t draft. 3. Rearrangement: sequence of words may be changed to make writing more fluent. Sentence combining, an integral part of the Writing 44 programme, i s practised both o r a l l y and i n written form at t h i s stage of the writing process i n order to develop s t y l e , variety, and sentence sense. These revision strategies are practised i n the workshop i n partners or small groups. Revision i s seen as a reformulation of ideas for c l a r i t y , tone, or s t y l e , with a s p e c i f i c audience i n mind. Proof-reading also occurs at t h i s stage when students apply editing s k i l l s to their own and to t h e i r partners' papers before presentation. Stage IV - presenting. Papers are presented to the teacher or to peers for evaluation. Writing 44 encourages publication of students' work i n class newspapers, school magazines, on b u l l e t i n boards so that the student may experience the effects of different audiences. Writing Lab Instruction i n the lab i s individualized. During one semester, a student may select three or four s k i l l packages on which to work, applying s k i l l s and information learned i n the lab to papers presented i n the workshop. 40 In t h e l a b t h e r e a r e n i n e t e e n packages o f s k i l l s m a t e r i a l from w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t may choose t o work. Each l a b package c o n t a i n s an i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t and a s e t o f p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s which a r e g r a d u a t e d i n d i f f i c u l t y . There i s a l s o a l i s t o f A-V m a t e r i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l games, and r e s o u r c e s t h a t a p p l y t o t h e t o p i c . Pre-and p o s t t e s t s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r each i n d i v i d u a l t o p i c . S t u d e n t s must a c h i e v e m astery on one t o p i c b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o a n o t h e r . T e s t s a r e m a c h i n e - s c o r e d i n t h e l a b . A Week's Programme A t y p i c a l week i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 programme would have t h e f o l l o w - i n g o u t l i n e : Day 1 - P r e - w r i t i n g - w r i t i n g i n t h e j o u r n a l , c l u s t e r i n g i d e a s r e l a t e d t o t h e t o p i c , b r a i n s t o r m i n g , o r a l s e n t e n c e combjining a c t i v i t i e s . Day 2 - W r i t i n g - d i s c u s s i n g t h e r u b r i c f o r t h e t o p i c , w r i t i n g about t h e t o p i c ; f i r s t d r a f t begun, c o m p l e t e d f o r homework. Day 3 - R e v i s i n g - w r i t i n g s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s , p r a c t i s i n g r e v i s i o n s t r a t e g i e s , peer c r i t i q u i n g o f f i r s t d r a f t . Day 4 - E d i t i n g - w o r k i n g i n t h e l a b on a p p r o p r i a t e s k i l l p ackages as i d e n t i f i e d by the D i a g n o s t i c T e s t . Day 3 - P r e s e n t i n g - r e a d i n g o f t h e paper by p e e r s o r t e a c h e r f o r e v a l u a t i o n . 41 Data C o l l e c t i o n The f o l l o w i n g t i m e t a b l e was used i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r t h e s t u d y : May, 1982: A l l Grade 10 s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g C a r s o n Graham i n September, 1982, were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form C, and t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 1. September, 1982: T w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s were randomly s e l e c t e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, t w e n t y - f i v e randomly s e l e c t e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l group. J a n u a r y , 1983: A l l s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g E n g l i s h 11 a t C a r s o n Graham were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2, and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D. F e b r u a r y , 1983: S t u d e n t s not e n r o l l e d i n E n g l i s h 11 September t o J a n u a r y a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2, and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D. Data P r o c e s s i n g and A n a l y s i s The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s were used t o examine t h e e f f e c t o f t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme on r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and c o mprehension: 1. Independent t - t e s t s were used t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s o f means between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups pre-and 42 p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on t h e s u b t e s t s o f v o c a b u l a r y and compre- h e n s i o n on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2. 2. A Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e , computer programme BMD P:2V ( D i x o n , 1983) was p e r f o r m e d on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, V o c a b u l a r y and Comprehension s u b t e s t s t o examine and compare growth i n r e a d i n g between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s were used t o measure d i f f e r e n c e s i n w r i t i n g between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s : 1. Independent t - t e s t s were used t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s o f means between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s ' pre-and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D. 2. A Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e , computer programme BMD P:2V ( D i x o n , 1983) was p e r f o r m e d on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D t o examine group d i f f e r e n c e s and t i m e d i f f e r e n c e s . I n o r d e r t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a d i n g c omprehension, v o c a b u l a r y , and w r i t i n g s c o r e s , an SS P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ( N i e e t a l , 1975) was computed on pre-and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D. CHAPTER IV A n a l y s i s o f Data T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y which i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme on s e l e c t e d Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a f t e r one s e m e s t e r . Both e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were p r e t e s t e d w i t h t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 1 and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form C. The e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d W r i t i n g 44 Programme f o r 19 weeks. The c o n t r o l group was n o t e n r o l l e d i n E n g l i s h 11 t h a t s e m e s t e r , but had i n s t r u c t i o n i n o t h e r academic and e l e c t i v e a r e a s . They d i d not r e c e i v e d i r e c t r e a d i n g o r w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . A t t h e end o f t h e s e m e s t e r , J a n u a r y , 1983, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was g i v e n t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2 as a p o s t - t e s t , as w e l l as t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D. One week l a t e r , F e b r u a r y , 1983, t h e c o n t r o l group was a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e same p o s t t e s t s . Independent t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e were used t o compare pre-and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e V o c a b u l a r y and Comprehension s u b t e s t s o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2, and t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D. 43 44 Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed to examine r e l a t i o n - s h i p s between p r e t e s t scores i n reading comprehension, vocabulary, and w r i t i n g and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p o s t t e s t scores. Reading Results Independent t - t e s t s were used with the r e s u l t s of the Gates- Ma c G i n i t i e Reading Test Level F, Forms 1 and 2, vocabulary and compre- hension subtests to t e s t the f i r s t hypothesis of t h i s study: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n reading a b i l i t y as measured by the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, between those students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme and those who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r one semester. Reading P r e t e s t Results Table 1 shows that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between experimental and c o n t r o l groups on t - t e s t s of independent samples on the Vocabulary measure of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Form 1. The mean f o r the experimental group was 30.32; the c o n t r o l group's 30.12. As both experimental and c o n t r o l groups were equal i n a b i l i t y on the p r e t e s t measure, no f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l 'procedure was necessary. I t should be noted that when both groups were pretested at the end of Grade Ten, i n May, 1982, the Grade Equivalent i n the Vocabulary 45 s u b t e s t f o r b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group was 11.4. T h i s would appear t o be an above average group o f s t u d e n t s as t h e p r e t e s t mean r a n k e d on t h e 62nd p e r c e n t i l e . In t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, 44?o s c o r e d above t h e p r e t e s t mean, 52?o above t h e p o s t t e s t mean. I n . t h e c o n t r o l group, 48% s c o r e d above t h e p r e t e s t mean, 60?o above t h e p o s t t e s t mean. In t h e Comprehension s u b t e s t , b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups s c o r e d a t t h e Grade E g u i v a l e n t o f 11.8 a t t h e end o f Grade Ten. These s c o r e s rank on t h e 66 t h p e r c e n t i l e and on S t a n i n e 6. In t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, 52% s c o r e d above t h e mean on t h e p r e t e s t , 64?o on t h e p o s t t e s t . I n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , 68% s c o r e d above t h e p r e t e s t mean, w h i l e 64% s c o r e d above t h e p o s t t e s t mean. TABLE 1 GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, FORM 1, LEVEL F VOCABULARY SUBTEST t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples on p r e t e s t s c o r e s Group Mean S.D. t - v a l u e d . f . C o n t r o l 30.12 4.6 .09 (N.S.) 48 E x p e r i m e n t a l 30.32 8 8 p < « 0 5 46 Ta b l e 2 shows t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on t - t e s t s o f i n d e p e n d e n t samples on t h e Comprehension s u b t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 1, as shown i n T a b l e 2. As t h e r e was e q u i v a l e n c e o f groups on t h e comprehension p r e t e s t , no f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t was n e c e s s a r y . TABLE 2 GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, FORM 1, LEVEL F COMPREHENSION SUBTEST t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples on p r e t e s t s c o r e s Group Mean S.D. t - v a l u e d . f . . C o n t r o l 34.60 3.8 .35(N.S.) 48 E x p e r i m e n t a l 35.04 4.7 p < .05 Reading P o s t t e s t R e s u l t s - V o c a b u l a r y On t h e t - t e s t s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples on t h e V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2 (as shown on T a b l e 3) t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n mean raw s c o r e s f a v o u r i n g t h e e x p e r i - m e n t a l group. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . Both groups improved o v e r t i m e , but t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group a p p e a r s t o show g r e a t e r growth i n v o c a b u l a r y a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e 47 W r i t i n g 44 Programme. The mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was 34.00; th e mean f o r t h e c o n t r o l group 32.76. TABLE 3 GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, FORM 2, LEVEL F VOCABULARY SUBTEST t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples on p o s t t e s t s c o r e s Group Mean S.D. t - v a l u e d . f . C o n t r o l 32.76 5.74 -.75 (N.S.) 48 E x p e r i m e n t a l 34.00 5.73 p £ .05 D i f f e r e n c e s : V o c a b u l a r y Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e was used on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2 V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s c o r e s . The r e s u l t shows no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s . However, on t h e V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t , t h e r e i s a t r i a l s e f f e c t , s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l , showing t h a t t h e p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f b o t h groups a r e g r e a t e r t h a n p r e t e s t s c o r e s . See Ta b l e 4. The mean f o r t h e e x p e r i - 48 m e n t a l group was 34.00; t h e mean f o r the c o n t r o l group was 32.76. TABLE 4 REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 AND 2, VOCABULARY SUBTESTS SCORES Source SS d f MS F Prob. Between group 12.96 1 12.96 0.19 0.67 W i t h i n group 3287.04 48 68.48 T o t a l 3300.00 49 Between t i m e s 249.64 1 249.64 32.60 0.0000 time x group 6.76 1 6.76 0.88 0.35 W i t h i n group 367.60 48 7.66 Reading P o s t t e s t r e s u l t s - Comprehension P o s t t e s t s c o r e s on t h e Comprehension s u b t e s t o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t , L e v e l F, Form 2, showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - e n c e s between g r o u p s on t h e t - t e s t s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples. As shown on T a b l e 5, t h e mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group i s 34.56 and 35.24 f o r 49 f o r t h e c o n t r o l group, a s l i g h t , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. TABLE 5 GATES-MacGiNITIE READING TEST, FORM 2, LEVEL F COMPREHENSION SUBTEST t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples on p o s t t e s t s c o r e s Group Mean S.D. t - v a l u e d . f . C o n t r o l 35.24 4.59 .46 (N.S.) 48 E x p e r i m e n t a l 34.56 5.49 P £ .05 D i f f e r e n c e s : Comprehension The T e s t o f Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e was performed on t h e Comprehension s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , Form F, L e v e l s 1 and 2, and showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e i t h e r w i t h i n o r between g r o u p s . The p r e t e s t mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was 35.04; f o r t h e c o n t r o l group, 34.60. The p o s t t e s t mean f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was 34.56; f o r t h e c o n t r o l group 35.24. W h i l e t h e c o n t r o l group showed s l i g h t improvement o v e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . The p o s t t e s t mean o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e o v e r t i m e . See Ta b l e 6. 50 The W r i t i n g 44- Programme appears t o have had no e f f e c t on r e a d i n g comprehension s c o r e s a f t e r one s e m e s t e r . TABLE 6 REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 and 2, COMPREHENSION SUBTEST SCORES Source SS d f MS F Prob. Between group 0.36 1 0.36 0.01 0.92 W i t h i n group 1680.68 48 35.01 T o t a l 1681.04 49 Between t i m e s 0.16 1 0.16 0.02 0.92 Time x group 7.84 1 7.84 0.75 0.38 W i t h i n 499.00 48 10.40 W r i t i n g R e s u l t s Independent t - t e s t s were used t o a n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D t o t e s t t h e second h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y . There w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D, between 51 those students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Wr i t i n g 44 Programme and those who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e f o r that semester. W r i t i n g p r e t e s t r e s u l t s Although the mean of the experimental group was greater than that of the c o n t r o l group on the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Form C, using the t - t e s t f o r independent samples as the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t , t h i s was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . Therefore the groups are considered equal f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. As shown i n Table 7, the smean f o r the c o n t r o l group i s 55.56 and 59.88 f o r the experimental group, r e s u l t i n g i n a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t-value of 1.3. . ; TABLE 7 WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORM C t - t e s t f o r independent samples on w r i t i n g p r e t e s t scores Group Mean S.D. t-value d.f. C o n t r o l 55.56 10.2 1.3 (N.S.) 48 Experimental 59.88 13.3 52 W r i t i n g p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Form D, p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 8. On t h e in d e p e n d e n t t - t e s t , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - ence between e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups (p -<C . 0 5 ) , showing t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group had g r e a t e r growth i n w r i t i n g s k i l l over t h e p e r i o d o f one s e m e s t e r . TABLE 8 WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORM D t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples on w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t s c o r e s Group Mean S.D. t - v a l u e d . f . C o n t r o l 64.76 8.3 -2.62 (S) 48 E x p e r i m e n t a l 73.00 13.0 p <C .05 D i f f e r e n c e s : W r i t i n g R e s u l t s o f t h e Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D s c o r e s show t h a t when s c o r e s from t h e two groups were c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i - c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l between t h e two groups i n t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e a t t i m e one and t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e a t t i m e two. The ti m e two mean s c o r e was h i g h e r t h a n t h e t i m e one mean s c o r e , 68.9 vs 57.7. 53 Ta b l e 9 shows t h a t when p r e t e s t s c o r e s and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D were c o n s i d e r e d f o r each g r o u p , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l between t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group and t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e f o r t h e c o n t r o l group. The mean s c o r e f o r t h e e x p e r i - m e n t a l group was l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , 66.4 vs 60.2. The W r i t i n g 44 Programme appears t o have had an e f f e c t on t h e w r i t i n g s k i l l s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f Grade E l e v e n s t u d e n t s . TABLE 9 REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORMS C AND D Source SS d f MS F Prob. Between group 985.96 1 985.96 5.07 .03 W i t h i n group 9341.04 48 194.61 T o t a l 10327.00 49 Between t i m e 3113.64 1 3113.64 40.94 .0000 t i m e x group 96.04 1 96.04 1.26 .27 W i t h i n 3650.32 • 48 76.05 54 Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and W r i t i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s A Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n Test was performed on pre- and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of experimental and c o n t r o l group scores of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D to examine p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reading and w r i t i n g , t e s t i n g the t h i r d hypothesis of the study: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between reading a b i l i t y as measured on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D. S p e c i f i c a l l y between c o n t r o l and experimental groups' a. w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and vocabulary pre-and p o s t t e s t s . b. w r i t i n g p r e t e s t and comprehension pre-and p o s t t e s t s . c. w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t and vocabulary pre-and p o s t t e s t s . d. w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t and comprehension pre-and p o s t t e s t s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s of Reading and W r i t i n g i n C o n t r o l Group, Table 10 shows the f o l l o w i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the c o n t r o l group scores between the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D, and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2: The w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with the vocabulary p o s t t e s t (r = .34), s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , with the vocabulary p r e t e s t (r = .26), with the comprehension p r e t e s t (r = .23) and with the comprehension p o s t t e s t (r = .16). Only the c o r r e l a t i o n with the vocabulary p o s t t e s t was s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 10 PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN READING AND WRITING SCORES OF THE CONTROL GROUP ON THE GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 and 2, AND THE WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORMS C AND D. P r e - P r e - P r e - • P o s t - P o s t - P o s t - w r i t i n g comprehension v o c a b u l a r y w r i t i n g comprehension v o c a b u l a r y P r e - w r i t i n g 1.00 P r e - comprehension .23 1.00 P r e - v o c a b u l a r y .26 ..62** 1.00 P o s t - w r i t i n g .64** .36** .47** 1.00 P o s t - comprehension .16 .39** Post v o c a b u l a r y .34* .51** .26 .37* 1.00 .79** .61** .37* 1.00 * p <.05 ** p < .01 The w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e comprehension p r e t e s t ( r = .36), s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05; w i t h t h e com- p r e h e n s i o n p o s t t e s t ( r = .37), s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05; w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y p r e t e s t ( r = . 4 7 ) , s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01; w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y p o s t t e s t ( r = .61) s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between Reading and W r i t i n g o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group S c o r e s T a b l e 11 shows t h e f o l l o w i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group s c o r e s between t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D, and t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l F, Forms 1 and 2: The w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e comprehension p r e t e s t ( r = . 7 6 ) ; w i t h t h e comprehension p o s t t e s t ( r = . 6 9 ) ; w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y p r e t e s t ( r = . 6 5 ) ; and w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y p o s t t e s t ( r = .46). A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . There were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t and t h e comprehension pre-and p o s t - t e s t and t h e v o c a b u l a r y pre-and p o s t t e s t . The c o r r e l a t i o n between w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g was reduced by t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g , I t would appear t h a t t h e w r i t i n g s c o r e s improved so much more t h a n t h e r e a d i n g s c o r e s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s no l o n g e r e x i s t e d between w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . TABLE 11 PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN READING AND WRITING SCORES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP ON THE GATES-MacGINITIE READING TEST, LEVEL F, FORMS 1 AND 2, AND THE WRITING 44 DIAGNOSTIC TEST, FORMS C AND D. P r e - P r e - P r e - P o s t - P o s t - P o s t - w r i t i n g comprehension v o c a b u l a r y w r i t i n g comprehension v o c a b u l a r y P r e - w r i t i n g 1.00 P r e - comprehension ,16** 1.00 P r e - v o c a b u l a r y .65** .82** 1.00 P o s t - w r i t i n g .34* .08 .08 1.00 P o s t - comprehension .69** ,66** .65** ,16 1.00 P o s t - v o c a b u l a r y .46** .69** .87** -.05 .67** 1.00 * p < .05 ** p < .01 -̂ 1 58 Summary In t e s t i n g the f i r s t hypothesis, There i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n reading a b i l i t y as measured by the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, between those students who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme and those who have not p a r t i c i - pated f o r one semester t - t e s t s f o r independent samples showed a d i f f e r e n c e i n mean raw scores favouring the experimental group i n the vocabulary subtest. This d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The Repeated Measures of A n a l y s i s of Variance showed no group d i f f e r e n c e s on the vocabulary subtest, but there was a s i g n i f i c a n t time e f f e c t (p£.01), showing p o s t t e s t scores greater than p r e t e s t scores. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t growth i n the comprehension subtest on e i t h e r t - t e s t s or Repeated Measures of A n a l y s i s of Variance. The post- t e s t mean of the experimental group showed a s l i g h t , n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t decrease over time. In t h i s study, the n u l l hypothesis i s not r e j e c t e d . In t e s t i n g the second hypothesis, There i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D, between those students who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Wr i t i n g 44 Programme and those who have not p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r one semester both t - t e s t s and Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance showed the experimental group made s i g n i f i c a n t gains a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the 59 W r i t i n g 44 Programme f o r one semester. The n u l l hypothesis i s r e j e c t e d . In t e s t i n g the t h i r d hypothesis, There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading a b i l i t y as measured on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y as measured on the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D, f o r e i t h e r experimental or c o n t r o l groups. Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n Tests showed varying c o r r e l a t i o n s between reading and w r i t i n g pre-and p o s t t e s t s of the c o n t r o l group and experimental group. In the c o n t r o l group scores, the w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with the vocabulary p o s t t e s t , s i g n i f i c a n t at .05; the w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with both comprehension and vocabulary pre-and p o s t t e s t s at the .01 l e v e l . In the experimental group, the w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with both comprehension and vocabulary pre-and p o s t t e s t s at the .01 l e v e l . However, the w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . The teaching of w r i t i n g appeared to reduce the c o r r e l a t i o n s between reading and w r i t i n g i n the p o s t t e s t scores of the experimental group. I t would appear that r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between some but not a l l the subtests of reading comprehension, vocabulary, and w r i t i n g as measured on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2 and the Wr i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Forms C and D. The t h i r d hypothesis i s , t h e r e f o r e , not t o t a l l y r e j e c t e d . CHAPTER V Re s u l t s , I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations The study examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between measured changes i n reading and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s of s e l e c t e d Grade Eleven students, h a l f of whom were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a nineteen-week semester w r i t i n g programme and h a l f of whom were e n r o l l e d i n other i n s t r u c t i o n . A standardized reading t e s t and a c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d o b j e c t i v e w r i t i n g t e s t were administered p r i o r to the w r i t i n g treatment. P a r a l l e l reading and w r i t i n g t e s t s were given to the treatment and c o n t r o l group at the end of the semester. T-tests f o r independent samples, the Test of Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance, and Pearon product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were used i n ana l y s i n g the data. Results Reading Changes r- Vocabulary Measure On the t - t e s t s f o r independent samples, using the Vocabulary subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, there was a s l i g h t and s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e favour- ing the experimental group on the p o s t t e s t . On the Vocabulary s u b t e s t , the Test of Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Variance revealed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups, although there was a t r i a l s e f f e c t , s i g n i f i c a n t at .01. 60 61 P o s t t e s t s c o r e s o b t a i n e d i n J a n u a r y , 1983, were g r e a t e r than p r e t e s t s c o r e s o f May, 1902. While b o t h groups .unproved d u r i n g the s e m e s t e r , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group a p p e a r e d to show g r e a t e r g a i n s i n v o c a b u l a r y a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme. The e x p e r i m e n t a l group made a g a i n i n v o c a b u l a r y growth e q u i v a l e n t t o 1.4 y e a r s , a c c o r d i n g to the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e norms. The e x p e r i m e n t a l group, a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the w r i t i n g t r e a t m e n t , had a Grade E q u i v a l e n t s c o r e o f 12.8. The c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s was 12.5. As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r IV (Page 4 4 ) , when b o t h g r o u p s were p r e t e s t e d , t h e Grade E q u i v a l e n t s c o r e f o r b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s was 11.4, above average" f o r a group o f Grade'Ten s t u d e n t s . For p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , r e m e d i a l s t u d e n t s were e x c l u d e d from the sample p o p u l a t i o n , thus p o s s i b l y skewing the r e s u l t s towards the h i g h end o f the s c a l e . When the s t u d e n t s a r e a l r e a d y s c o r i n g a Grade E q u i v a l e n t o f 11.4 a t the end o f Grade 10, t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y not as g r e a t an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes as the s t u d e n t s a r e above av e r a g e to b e g i n w i t h . Both c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t s c o r e s a r e on the s i x t h s t a n i n e . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ' s p o s t t e s t s c o r e s ranked on the 66th p e r c e n t i l e , w h i l e the c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s ranked on t h e 62nd p e r c e n t i l e . 62 Reading Changes - Comprehension Measure On the t-tests for independent samples on the Comprehension sub- test of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Forms 1 and 2, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between groups, although there was a s l i g h t , non-significant decrease i n mean for the experimental group. The Test of Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance showed no si g n i f i c a n t differences within or between groups on the Comprehension subtest. As noted i n Chapter IV (Page 45), the sample for the study was well above average i n reading a b i l i t y before the writing treatment was administered during the 1982-1983 school year. Possibly there was not as much opportunity for growth as there would have been had the sample been average or s l i g h t l y below average. Both groups showed a .9 year increase i n growth i n reading comprehension. Although there was a s l i g h t , non-significant decrease in mean for the experimental group on the posttest, the Grade Equivalent for both groups was 12.7 on the posttest, ranking at the 62nd percentile and on Stahine,6. • Thus, i n answer to the research question posed i n Chapter I, the Writing 44 Programme, a process-oriented writing programme, did not improve reading a b i l i t y as measured by a standardized group test for the selected group of Grade Eleven students during one semester. It would appear the Writing Programme had no effect on reading a b i l i t y i n t h i s study. 63 W r i t i n g Changes On t h e t - t e s t s f o r Independent samples on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p f i r . 0 5 ) f a v o u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. R e s u l t s o f t h e Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t , Forms C and D, show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l between t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e a t t i m e one and t i m e two, t h e t i m e two mean b e i n g h i g h e r . There was a l s o a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p.£..01) between t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group and t h e mean w r i t i n g s c o r e f o r t h e c o n t r o l group, f a v o u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group. As t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n w r i t i n g d u r i n g one s e m e s t e r , t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme appears t o have had an e f f e c t on t h e w r i t i n g s k i l l s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f Grade 11 s t u d e n t s . These r e s u l t s c o n c u r w i t h t h o s e o f J e r o s k i (1983) who a n a l y z e d W r i t i n g 44 t e s t d a t a f o r t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver. The Grade E l e v e n p o p u l a t i o n o f N o r t h Vancouver made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n w r i t i n g d u r i n g t h e 1982-1983 s c h o o l y e a r . J e r o s k i found a l l g r a d e s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p. 5^.001) i n c r e a s e s i n s t u d e n t s c o r e s when t h e d a t a was examined by r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e , c o n t r o l l i n g f o r s c h o o l and grade l e v e l . Changes i n t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Reading and W r i t i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s c o r e s were examined u s i n g Pearson p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s . The c o r r e l a t i o n a l d a t a , 64 with one important exception, supports that reported by previous researchers, that i s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s do e x i s t between reading and w r i t i n g . C o n t r o l group f i n d i n g s . The w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with only the vocabulary p o s t t e s t (r = .34), s i g n i f i c a n t at .05. I t d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the vocabulary p r e t e s t or compre- hension pre-and p o s t t e s t s . The w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t e d with the comprehension p r e t e s t (r = .36), s i g n i f i c a n t at .05; the comprehension p o s t t e s t (r = .37), s i g n i f i c a n t at .05; the vocabulary p r e t e s t (r = .47), s i g n i f i c a n t at .01, and the vocabulary p o s t t e s t (r = .61), s i g n i f i c a n t at .01. Apparently more c o r r e l a t i o n s occurred between reading and w r i t i n g at the end of the semester than at the beginning. Experimental group f i n d i n g s . The w r i t i n g p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i - c a n t l y with the comprehension p r e t e s t (r = .76); the comprehension p o s t t e s t (r = .69); the vocabulary p r e t e s t (r = .65); the vocabulary p o s t t e s t (r = .46). A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . The w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t had no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s with any of the measures of reading comprehension and vocabulary. The r e s u l t s of the w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t c o n t r a s t with the r e s u l t s of the w r i t i n g p r e t e s t . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between w r i t i n g and reading were reduced by the teaching of w r i t i n g . One explanation may be the f a c t that w r i t i n g scores improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f t e r the w r i t i n g treatment. Reading scores, already 65 showing a c e i l i n g e f f e c t at the p r e t e s t , d i d not have as much opportunity for showing growth. The r e s t r i c t e d range of reading scores i n the study may have l e d to a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t which r e p r e s e n t s an underestimate o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s . For the experimental group, t he c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the w r i t i n g p r e - t e s t with the comprehension and vocabulary subtests ranged from .46 to .76, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . In c o n t r a s t , the w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t had no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with the comprehension and vocabulary s u b t e s t s . This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n view of the research which supports the view that reading and w r i t i n g are r e l a t e d . The success of the W r i t i n g 44 Programme with t h i s s e l e c t e d group of Grade Eleven students r u l e d out the p o s s i b i l i t y of reading and w r i t i n g scores being r e l a t e d at the end of the study as the w r i t i n g scores improved so s i g n i f i c a n t l y compared to the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t change i n reading scores. I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations While w r i t i n g improved a f t e r one semester f o r the experimental group, a c o n c u r r e n t growth i n reading did not occur. Improvement i n 66 one a r e a o f language d i d not appear t o have an e f f e c t on t h e o t h e r . I n t h i s s t u d y , t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g d i d not appear t o have any e f f e c t on r e a d i n g as measured by a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t . Where r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s c o r e s showed c o r r e l a t i o n s b e f o r e t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme was t a u g h t , t h e r e were fewer c o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s a f t e r t h e Programme was t a u g h t . F i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y r e l a t e t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. T e a c h i n g r e a d i n g t o improve w r i t i n g s k i l l s Where E u r i c h ' s s t u d y (1931) was u n s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g i n o r d e r t o improve w r i t i n g , t h i s s t u d y was s u c c e s s f u l i n t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g , b u t u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t e m p t i n g t o improve r e a d i n g t h r o u g h t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g . R e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f S c h n e i d e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) , who a f t e r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g f o r f i f t e e n weeks c o u l d not s t a t e c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between growth i n r e a d i n g and growth i n w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . Where B e l a n g e r (1978) f a i l e d t o produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n w r i t i n g i n s p i t e o f change i n t h e r e a d i n g measure, t h i s s t u d y f a i l e d t o produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n r e a d i n g i n s p i t e o f change i n t h e w r i t i n g measure. B e l a n g e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i m p l e c a u s e - a n d - e f f e e t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two s k i l l s . R e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . 67 2. C o r r e l a t i o n a l and d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s Reading and w r i t i n g p r e t e s t r e s u l t s showed g e n e r a l l y that reading and w r i t i n g were c o r r e l a t e d . These r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r to previous c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s (Loban, 1963, 1966; Fishco, 1966; H a r r i s , 1975; Evanecho et a l , 1974; Lazdowski, 1976; D'Angelo, 1977; Bippus, 1977; Grobe and Grobe, 1977; Simmons, 1977, and Hamill and MacNutt, 1980). In t h i s study reading and w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of the experimental group d i d not show any s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s , contrary to the research c i t e d above. While there were f a c t o r s i n reading and w r i t i n g which showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p r e t e s t s , because of the great improvement i n w r i t i n g a f t e r the treatment, compared to no improvement i n reading, those f a c t o r s no longer bore any r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other. Had the reading improved, the reading and w r i t i n g p o s t t e s t scores of the experimental group might have shown c o r r e l a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those of the p r e t e s t s . The data revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n reading f o r the s e l e c t e d Grade Eleven students i n the W r i t i n g 44 Programme. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that the W r i t i n g Programme d i d l i t t l e to improve students' reading, although the Programme l e d to improved./writing r e s u l t s , as i t was designed to do. Programmes which suggest that improvement i n one area of language w i l l lead to improvement i n another, as W r i t i n g 44 does, should be monitored to determine i f they are producing the d e s i r e d e f f e c t . C o r r e l a t i o n a l p r e t e s t data revealed s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n 68 reading and w r i t i n g as measured on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, L e v e l F, Form 1 and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Form C. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r the experimental group i n reading and w r i t i n g as measured on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Level F, Form 2, and the W r i t i n g 44 Diagnostic Test, Form D. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s made that while two areas of language processing are r e l a t e d to each other, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a causal one.. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that while reading and w r i t i n g are r e l a t e d , improvement i n one area of language processing does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n improvement i n another. Suggestions f o r Research This e x p l o r a t o r y study i n d i c a t e s f u r t h e r research should be conducted to determine i f the claims made i n the W r i t i n g 44 Teachers' Manual (page 12) are r e a l i s t i c . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g recommendations be considered: 1. A l o n g i t u d i n a l study of reading and w r i t i n g development should be undertaken as the W r i t i n g 44 Programme i s now i n use i n the elementary schools, as w e l l as the secondary schools i n North Vancouver. While d e t a i l e d w r i t i n g data are c o l l e c t e d at the school and D i s t r i c t l e v e l , cumulative records of reading are not maintained. Standardized t e s t i n g of reading i s done on a sporadic b a s i s , except f o r students e n t e r i n g Grade Eight i n September. 69 2. In view o f t h e g r e a t amount o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g r e a d i n g c o m p rehension t o s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y i n w r i t i n g (Reed, 1967; K u n t z , 1975; H e l l e r , 1980; S t i l l e y , 1982; Johnson, 1981), a s t u d y o f s y n t a c t i c growth i n w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g comprehension would be w o r t h w h i l e . To do t h i s , t h e . D i s t r i c t would have t o r e t a i n s t u d e n t w r i t i n g samples. S t u d e n t c o m p o s i t i o n s a r e h o l i s t i c a l l y marked f o r c o n t e n t a t t h e D i s t r i c t l e v e l . They c o u l d be examined f o r s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y a t t h e same t i m e . 3. As s e n t e n c e - c o m b i n i n g i s such an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f W r i t i n g 44, r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n t o s t u d y i t s e f f e c t on r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e r e s u l t s o f such a s t u d y a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l w i t h t h o s e o f L e v i n e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , McAfee ( 1 9 8 1 ) , Combs ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and Simmons (1981) and a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l w i t h t h o s e o f Howie (1979) and Straw ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 4. A c o m p a r i s o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s on t h e s u b - s k i l l s t e s t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t and t h e r e a d i n g s c o r e s o f t h i s sample s h o u l d be made t o i n v e s t i g a t e which s k i l l s i n w r i t i n g appear t o c o r r e l a t e most h i g h l y w i t h r e a d i n g s k i l l s . 5. R e s e a r c h i s needed on t h e t r a i t s o f good r e a d e r s / p o o r w r i t e r s and poor r e a d e r s / g o o d w r i t e r s . I t would be w o r t h w h i l e t o examine t h e t r a i t s o f each i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p good r e m e d i a l programmes i n b o t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . 70 6. Other e v a l u a t i v e r e a d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , such as c l o z e , s h o u l d be used t o measure r e a d i n g a chievement. One r e a s o n f o r t h e s l i g h t d e c l i n e i n s c o r e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group on t h e r e a d i n g cdmprehension t e s t m i g ht be o v e r - f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . S t u d i e s i n s e n t e n c e - c o m b i n i n g (see Ch a p t e r 2) had i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s when s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s were used, but more d e f i n i t e r e s u l t s when c l o z e was used. 7. A s t u d y on how t h e r e a d i n g - w r i t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p r o s e and d i f f e r e n t modes o f w r i t i n g would be v a l u a b l e t o t e a c h e r s i n d e s i g n i n g w r i t i n g t o p i c s . T h i s s h o u l d be p a r t o f a m o n i t o r i n g system f o r r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . 8. A s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f o r a l l anguage on t h e W r i t i n g 44 Programme would be w o r t h w h i l e as so much o f t h e p r e - w r i t i n g s t a g e i s done o r a l l y . I t would be worth n o t i n g whether or n o t , as i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e W r i t i n g 44 Teacher's Manual (page 1 2 ) , o r a l language improved as a r e s u l t o f t h e Programme. I t would be o f i n t e r e s t t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s good d i s c u s s i o n s k i l l s a r e b e t t e r w r i t e r s t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who a r e l e s s v e r b a l . 9. As r e a d i n g d i d not improve as a r e s u l t o f t h e w r i t i n g programme, i t would appear t h a t p l a n n e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s s t i l l n e c e s s a r y a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d on r e a d i n g i n academic c o u r s e s as pro p o s e d i n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m changes made by t h e M i n i s t r y 71 of education. While t h i s exploratory study of reading and writing did not show that writing instruction had a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on reading a b i l i t y , i t did raise worthwhile research questions. As reading and writing are so closely linked i n the curriculum, i t i s imperative that teachers be made aware of the relationship i f they are to develop better methods of in s t r u c t i o n . 72 R e f e r e n c e s A p p l e b e e , A.N. W r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 1977, 20, 534-537. A r m s t r o n g , R.D. Language: The e s s e n c e o f r e a d i n e s s . E d u c a t i o n , 1967, 6. Beach, R. S e l f e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s o f e x t e n s i v e r e v i s e r s and non- r e v i s e r s . C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n and Communication, 1976, 27, 160-164. Bebensee, E.L. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n n e r c i t y f i f t h g r a d e r s ' r e a d - i n g comprehension and w r i t i n g a c hievement. ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Duke U n i v e r s i t y , 1977.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1978, 39, 166 A. 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( U n p u b l i s h e d d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t B u f f a l o , 1979.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1979, 40_j 5035 A. McAfee, D.C. E f f e c t o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g achievement o f f i f t h grade c h i l d r e n i n a suburban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Texas Women's U n i v e r s i t y , 1980.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1981, 42, 156 A. Menendez, D. The e f f e c t o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g p r a c t i c e on r e m e d i a l c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ' Syntactic a b i l i t y , p u n c t u a t i o n s k i l l s , and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . T e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g : a b s t r a c t s o f d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d i n D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1979, 39, ERIC C l e a r i n g House on Reading and communication s k i l l s . ED 176 320. M o f f e t t , J.A. A s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d language a r t s c u r r i c u l u m , g r a d e s K-6. B o s t o n : ' H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n , 1968. Na g l e , J.E. The e f f e c t s o f a d i r e c t e d w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y i n e i g h t h grade s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n s t r u c t i o n on g e n e r a l r e a d i n g achievement and on s o c i a l s t u d i e s r e a d i n g a chievement. ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Temple U n i v e r s i t y , 1972.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1972, ^33^ 1523 A. N i e , N. SPSS: S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . M c G r a w - H i l l , 1975. Obenchain, A. E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r e c i s e s s a y q u e s t i o n i n programming t h e s e q u e n t i a l development o f w r i t t e n c o m p o s i t i o n s k i l l s and the. s i m u l t a n e o u s development o f c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g s k i l l s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , George Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1971, i n Sandra L. S t o t s k y , Sentence c o m b i n i n g as a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y : i t s e f f e c t on w r i t t e n language development and r e a d i n g comprehension. R e s e a r c h i n t h e Teach i n g o f E n g l i s h , 1975, 9, 30-71. O ' D o n n e l l , J . F . An e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a s u p p l e m e n t a l use o f a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c r e m e d i a l t u t o r i a l program on t h e r e a d - i n g and w r i t i n g b e h a v i o u r s o f B l a c k , h i g h r i s k , c o l l e g e freshmen, and on t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and o t h e r c o l l e g e r e l a t e d s t i m u l i . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Temple U n i v e r s i t y , 1974.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 1974, 35, 1552,A. 76 O e h l k e r s , W. The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g t o r e a d i n g achievement i n t h e l anguage e x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1972.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1972, 32, 6689 A. P e r l , S. The composing p r o c e s s e s o f u n s k i l l e d c o l l e g e w o r k e r s . R e s e a r c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , 1979, 13, 317-336. P i a n k o , S. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e composing p r o c e s s e s o f c o l l e g e freshmen w r i t e r s . R e s e a r c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , 1979, 13, 5-22. Reed, E. I m p r o v i n g comprehension t h r o u g h s t u d y o f s y n t a x and p a r a g r a p h s t r u c t u r e i n s e v e n t h grade c l a s s e s . In J.A. F i g u r e l , (Ed.) F o r g i n g ahead i n r e a d i n g . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R eading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967, 12, 575-579. R o b i n s o n , A. and Burrows, A.T. Teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n e l e m e n t a r y language a r t s . Urbana, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on R e s e a r c h i n E n g l i s h , 1974. R o b i n s o n , H.M. V o c a b u l a r y : S p e a k i n g , l i s t e n i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . I n H. A l a n Robinson ( E d . ) , Reading and t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C hicago P r e s s , 1963. S c h n e i d e r , V.L. A s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e m p h a s i z i n g t h e t e a c h - i n g o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s t o improve c o m p o s i t i o n s k i l l s i n r e m e d i a l E n g l i s h c l a s s e s a t Kansas C i t y Community J u n i o r C o l l e g e . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, 1971.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1971, 31, 6369 A. Sedondary Guide t o t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h 8-12. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: P u b l i c a t i o n S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978. Shanahan, T. A c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e a d i n g - w r i t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p : an e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Delaware, 1980.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 198\L, 41, 1007 A. Simmons, R.J. An a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s o f t e n t h grade s t u d e n t s . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , West V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1977.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r - n a t i o n a l ^ 1978, 38^ 7127 A. Simmons, S.S. S e l e c t e d e f f e c t s o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s on t h e r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g comprehension and a t t i t u d e s o f s e v e n t h grade s t u d e n t s . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1981.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1981, 42, 2545 A. 77. S m i t h , F. U n d e r s t a n d i n g r e a d i n g . T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1971. Spache, G.D. and Spache, E.B. Reading i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l (2nd ed.) B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, 1969. S q u i r e , J.R. and A p p l e b e e , R.K. High s c h o o l E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n t o d a y . The N a t i o n a l s t u d y o f h i g h s c h o o l E n g l i s h programs, New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1968. S t e r n g l a s s , M. Sentence c o m b i n i n g and t h e r e a d i n g o f s e n t e n c e s . C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n and Communication, 1980, 31, 325-29. S t i l l e y , M.J. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n r e a d i n g compre- h e n s i o n and w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1981.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1982, 42_, 3529 A. S t o t s k y , S.L. S entence c o m b i n i n g as a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y : i t s r e l a t i o n - s h i p on w r i t t e n language development and r e a d i n g comprehension. R e s e a r c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , 1975, _9_, 30-71. Straw, S.B. The e f f e c t o f s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g and s e n t e n c e r e d u c t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n on measures o f s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y , r e a d i n g compre- h e n s i o n , and l i s t e n i n g comprehension i n f o u r t h grade s t u d e n t s . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1978. ) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1979, 4CL, 720 A. T e a c h e r s ' Manual t o W r i t i n g 44, N o r t h Vancouver, B.C: Programme and Development, S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #44 ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) , 1980. Thomas, F.L. The e x t e n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g achievement and w r i t i n g achievement among c o l l e g e freshmen. ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a , 1976.) D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1976, 37, 6320 A. Weiner, E.5. Improvement i n r e a d i n g t h r o u g h w r i t i n g . Academic Therapy, 1979, 14, 589-595. WRITING 44 IS UNIQUE The writing workshop will be a centre of action. Many words come to mind to describe its atmosphere: highly charged, noisy, messy, pur- posive, variable. Students will be busy exchanging ideas, sharing their efforts, experimenting with words, and, most important, writing — lots! As for us, we'll be madly changing hats — at one moment we'll be f a c i l i - tator and manager, at another mentor and consultant, and sometimes even writer and participant. Obviously, pacing and careful planning will be our keys to orchestrating and making meaningful what goes on: Clearly, the writing workshop differs from the traditional English classroom. It's more like an artist's studio or the Guild Hail in which apprentices learned their craft from a master. Although at the outset of Writing 44, we may feel more like amateurs than masters, workshop teaching offers us an exciting opportunity to at last make writing a craft. LAB MATERIALS 80 Nineteen packets of materials have been prepared to teach editing and related skills to students: 1. APOSTROPHES 2. CAPITALIZATION 3. COMMAS TO SEPARATE 4. COMMAS TO ENCLOSE 5. SEMI-COLON 6. COLON 7. DASHES, PARENTHESES, BRACKETS, THREE DOTS 8. QUOTATIONS AND RELATED PUNCTUATION 9. SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT 10. VERB USAGE 11. PRONOUN USAGE 12. PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT USAGE 13. PREPOSITION USAGE 14. DICTION AND VOCABULARY 15. SPELLING 16. USE OF DICTIONARIES AND THESAURUS 17. ENRICHMENT RESEARCH 18. VERBALS USAGE 19. MISPLACED MODIFIERS These nineteen topics were selected because they deal with "coherent systems," and, as such, are to be taught "as systems, not randomly. In other words, if a student can't punctuate, he or she needs to grasp the system of punctuation as a whole, not to correct random errors on this paper and that." (Winterowd) LEARNING OUTCOMES 81 TO GENERATE IDEAS The students will: * learn that there is a writing process, that it is unique to the individual, and that each writer can practise using it to advan- tage * learn and apply prewriting strategies * learn and seek new words from the dictionary and thesaurus * increase their vocabularies * develop and improve their thinking processes * develop their powers of observation * develop depth and imagination TO WRITE The students will: * understand the concept of audience and its implications for the writer * learn that writing has various purposes * learn and apply formats appropriate to audience and purpose * learn to adjust and vary style and tone for different audiences and writing purposes * learn to organize ideas into passages of various lengths * learn to organize ideas according to a variety of patterns and modes * learn about and practice writing in different genres * develop sentence sense * learn to manipulate sentences (expand, contract, and restructure) * learn to choose effective words to suit the tone, style, and purpose of writing * learn and apply transitional devices 82 * learn and apply strategies for writing introductions and conclu- sions * develop a sense of style and voice in writing TO REVISE AND CRITICIZE The students will: * learn and apply the four revision operations: addition, deletion substitution, and rearrangement * learn to read their own writing with a sense of detachment and objectivity * develop and expand their powers of discrimination * learn to recognize inconsistencies and strengths in a piece of writing * learn to recognize voice and style in writing * learn criteria for determining quality and aesthetics in writing, both their own and that of others TO EDIT The students will: * understand the purpose and learn the rules of punctuation * apply appropriate usage and punctuation to their writing accordin to the demands of audience and form * become effective proofreaders * learn rules and strategies for spelling correctly * use correct spelling in their final drafts ABOUT ATTITUDE The students will: * develop a tolerance for the views of others as expressed in their writing * develop self-confidence through expression in writing * learn to reduce concerns about mechanics in order to permit free expression * learn to be adventuresome in trying out new styles, methods, and forms of writing 83 * develop appreciation for writing as a reflective act and a means of getting in touch with themselves * develop an appreciation of writing as a creative act * learn that writing can provide pleasure and satisfaction OVERVIEW OF WRITING 44: TEACHER - STUDENT TASKS DURING THE WRITING PROCESS THE WRITING PROCESS: THE TEACHER PROVIDES: THE STUDENTS LEARN TO: * PREWRITING * STRATEGIES FOR GENERATING IDEAS * GET IDEAS * WRITING * COMPOSING STRATEGIES * FORMATS * WORK OUT, SHAPE, AND RECORD IDEAS * ADJUST FOR AUDIENCE AND PURPOSE REFORMULATING * REVISING EDITING AND PROOFREADING * REVISING STRATEGIES * IDENTIFICATION FOR THE STU- DENT OF SPECIFIC SKILL AREAS WHICH NEED ATTENTION * GUIDANCE IN LAB ACTIVITIES * REWORK A PIECE OF WRITING FOR STYLE, TONE, STRUCTURE, AND CONTENT * ACHIEVE A MASTERY LEVEL IN A SKILL * APPLY EDITING SKILLS * PRESENTING (as writer) * AVENUES FOR PUBLICATION * GAIN CONFIDENCE AS A WRITER * EXPERIENCE THE EFFECTS OF AUDIENCE * DESIRE EXCELLENCE * RESPONDING (as reader) * CRITICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATION * APPRECIATE AND DISCRIMINATE W R I T I N G 4 4 DIAGNOSTIC TEST II — FORM D (GRADES 10 § 1 1 ) TEST DIRECTIONS: TO STUDENTS: 1. Choose the answer which makes a c o r r e c t s e n t e n c e . 2. Darken the l e t t e r o f the c o r r e c t answer i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space on the answer sheet. 3. Use b l a c k l e a d p e n c i l o n l y . Do NOT use i n k , b a l l p o i n t or f e l t pens. 4. - Make heavy b l a c k marks t h a t f i l l the c i r c l e c o m p l e t e l y . t 5. Erase c l e a n l y any answer you wish to change. 6. Make no s t r a y marks on the answer sh e e t . P L E A S E DO N O T W R I T E I N T H I S B O O K L E T . B6 DIAGNOSTIC II (FORM D) GRADES 10 $ 11 SECTION I. APOSTROPHES, CAPITALIZATION §_ SPELLING Choose the answer which makes a c o r r e c t sentence. (a) (f i r s t ) It's, (second) i t ' s , else's 1. Its not theirs; i t s somebody elses. (b) (c) ( f i r s t ) It's, theirs ( f i r s t ) It's, (second) i t ' s (d) Theirs', else's (a) Would'nt, h e ' l l 2. Wouldnt you say h e l l succeed? (b) h e ' l l (c) Wouldn't, h e ' l l .(d) no apostrophes required (a) their's 3. This computer i s theirs, not ours. (b) our's (c) their's, our's (d) no apostrophes required (a)' i f ' s , but's 4. Your essay has more i f s and buts than Sams. (b) i f ' s , but's, Sam's (c) Sam's (d) no apostrophes required (a) sister's 5. My sisters boyfriends a superb soccer player. (b) s ist e r ' s , boyfriends' (c) sister's, boyfriend's (d) no apostrophes required APOSTROPHES / CAPITALIZATION §_ SPELLING 87 (a) somebody's, s i n g i n ' , f e e l i n ' 6. Somebodys singin the blues Im f e e l i n . (b) (c) (d) somebody's, si n g i n ' , I'm, f e e l i n s i n g i n ' , I'm, f e e l i n ' no apostrophes required (a) Gastown, Maple, Tree, Square 7 The merchants of gastown have planted (b) Maple, Tree, Azaleas maple tree square with small flowering azaleas. (c) (d) Merchants, Gastown, Maple, Tree, Square Gastown, Square (a) Rod, Stewart, Concert, Don 8. After attending the rod Stewart concert, don went home to work on his arrangement (b) Rod, Stewart, Concert, Don Gasoline, A l l e y of "gasoline a l l e y . " ' (c) (d) Rod, Stewart , Don, Gasoline, A l l e y Rod, Stewart, Don • (a) Pope, Security, Measures 9. A f t e r the attempted assassination of the (b) Pope, Vatican pope, the Vatican announced an increase in s e c u r i t y measures. (c) (d) Pope, Vatican, Security, Measures Vatican, Security, Measures (a) Smokey, Bear's 10. "Listen c a r e f u l l y , " bellowed the teacher, (b) Teacher, Smokey, The, Bear's, To "to smokey the bear's warnings about forest f i r e s . " (c) (d) Smokey's, The, Bear's, Forest, Fires Smokey, Bear's, To 88 APOSTROPHES, CAPITALIZATION § SPELLING 11. "How i s i t , " screamed the understudy; "that i've never been included in your tours of the south?" (a) Understudy, That (b) Understudy, South (c) Understudy, Tours (d) That, South (e) I've, South (a) Sumner, St. Paul's 12. Last summer the prince was married in s t . paul's. (b) Summer, Prince (cj Prince, St. Paul's (d) St. Paul's (a) measureable 13. Tom found a amount of water in the ram fuiglT 00 measurible (c) measurable (d) measerable (a) independant 14. I intend to become completely . (b) indipendent (c) indipendant (d) independent (a) convertable 15. His popularity depended upon his new . . (b) c o n v i r t i b l e (c) convertible (d) convirtable (a) p r o v i n c i a l 16. The government has raised the (b) p r o v i n s i a l taxes again / (c) provi n c i a l e (d) p r o v i n t i a l 89 APOSTROPHES, CAPITALIZATION § SPELLING (a) ocurrence 17. That disturbed me more than I can say. (b) occurence (c) occurrance (d) occurrence 18. Please v i s i t the c l a s s . at the end of this (a) (b) (c) (d) counsellor c o u n c i l l o r c o u n s i l l o r councellor (a) , af t e r "wish" 19. If you wish to win the scholarship you w i l l need (b) , a f t e r "scholarship" to review t h i s material. , . ... ,, , , , . ,, (c) , a f t e r scholarship" and "need" (d) , a f t e r "wish" and . "scholarship" (e) no commas required SECTION I_I_. 9 0 COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS §_ RELATED PUNCTUATION, SEMI-COLONS, COLONS 5 DASHES Choose the answer w h i c h makes a c o r r e c t l y p u n c t u a t e d s e n t e n c e . U) , a f t e r "Cachette' 20. One of the best restaurants in Vancouver is the Teahouse but The William T e l l La Cachette and Darios are also superb. (b (c Ce , a f t e r "but" , a f t e r "Teahouse" and , a f t e r "but" , a f t e r " T e l l " and , a f t e r "Cachette" no commas required 21. Class you must use your time e f f i c i e n t l y i f you are to complete t h i s assignment on time. (a (b (c (d; fe , a f t e r "Class" , a f t e r "Class" and , a f t e r " i f " , a f t e r "assignment" , a f t e r " c l a s s " and , a f t e r "assignment" no commas required 22. Once we had eaten the cat demanded her own food. (a (b (c (d (e , a f t e r "eaten" , a f t e r "once" and , a f t e r "demanded" , a f t e r "cat" , a f t e r "once" and , a f t e r "eaten" no commas required 23. Some c r i t i c s think Mozart's operas are the greatest; others Verdi's. (a (b (c (d Ce , a f t e r "think" , a f t e r "others" , a f t e r "think" and , a f t e r "others" , after."operas" and , a f t e r "Verdi's" no commas required 9.1 COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS § RELATED PUNCTUATION, SEMI -COLONS , COLONS d, DASHES (a) , a f t e r "Nova" and "Dallas" 24. After I watched the news I watched "Nova" "Dallas" "Mork and Mindy." f.b) , a f t e r "news" and and "Dall a s " and "Nova" "Mork" (c) , a f t e r "Nova" and and "Mork" "Dallas" (d) , a f t e r "news" and and "Dall a s " "Nova" Ce) no commas required (a) , a f t e r "Beethoven' 's" 25. Beethoven's Third Symphony i s now c a l l e d The Eroica not The Napoleonic Symphony. (b) (c) , a f t e r "Beethovin' and "Symphony" , a f t e r " E r o i c a " s" (d) , a f t e r "Eroica" and "not" Ce) no commas required (a) , a f t e r "thought" 26. Frank thought Meryl Streep should win (b) , a f t e r "thought" and " J i l l " best actress award; J i l l Diane Keaton. , s _ e ,,T. (.cj , art e r J i l l (d) , a f t e r "Streep" and ' / J i l l " fe) no commas required (a) , a f t e r "know" 17. I don't know Mom i f I w i l l be fi n i s h e d (b) , a f t e r "work" work by eleven or twelve. , . ,-„. ,„, ,, , ,, , (c) , a f t e r Mom and "eleven (d) , a f t e r "know" and "Mom" Ce) no commas required COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS § RELATED PUNCTIATION SEMI-COLONS, COLONS 5 DASHES (a) , a f t e r "happy" 28. The team excited and happy pushed the (b) , a f t e r "team" and "happy" coach into the pool. (c) , a f t e r "happy" and "coach" (d) , a f t e r "team" and "coach" (e) no commas required (a) , a f t e r "champion" 29. Mohammed A l i a former world champion (b) , a f t e r "become" • has become a t r a g i c f i g u r e . (c) , a f t e r " A l i " and "become" (d) , a f t e r " A l i " and "champion" (e) no commas required (a) , a f t e r "quiet" and "Robert" 30. Be quiet Robert or you'11 have to go (b) , a f t e r "Robert" to bed. (c) , a f t e r "or" (d) , a f t e r "Robert" and "have" (e) no commas required (a) , a f t e r "woman" 51. The woman who wishes to v i s i t the (b) , a f t e r "moon" moon must know her basic physics. (c) , a f t e r "woman" and "moon" (d) , a f t e r "know" (e) no commas required 93 COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS §_ RELATED PUNCTUATION, SEMI-COLONS, COLONS § DASHES 32. Freedom i s usually considered the opposite of tyranny; in fact both concepts have given mankind trouble e s p e c i a l l y during revolutions. (a) , af t e r " f a c t " (b) , a f t e r " f a c t " and "mankind" (c) , a f t e r "considered" and "trouble' (d) , a f t e r " f a c t " and "trouble" (e) no commas required 35. E x i s t e n t i a l i s m which i s a term applied to a 20th century philosophy was popularized by Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus. (a) , a f t e r "philosophy" (b) , a f t e r " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m " (c) , a f t e r " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m " and."philosophy" (d) , a f t e r " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m " and "philosophy" and "Sartre" (e) ) no commas required (a) , a f t e r " C h r i s t i a n i t y " 34. The Crux of C h r i s t i a n i t y i s found in the (b) , a f t e r "books" f i r s t four books of the New Testament. , , r. • . • .. ,, , (c) , af t e r C h r i s t i a n i t y " and books (d) , a f t e r "crux" (e) no commas required 94 COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS § RELATED PUNCTUATION SEMI-COLONS , COLONS §_ DASHES 35. Danny r e p l i e d , I don't own a Honda. I've never owned a Honda. I hate Hondas.. (a) Danny r e p l i e d , "I don't own a Honda." "I've never owned a Honda," I hate Hondas." (b) Danny r e p l i e d , "I don't own a Honda. I've never owned a Honda. I hate Hondas." (c) Danny r e p l i e d " , I don't own a Honda, I've never owned a Honda. I hate Hondas." (d) 56. To Lucy from Wordsworth's L y r i c a l Ballads i s a heartbreaking poem (a) "To Lucy" from Wordsworth's L y r i c a l Ballads i s a heartbreaking poem. ... (b) To Lucy from Wordsworth's " L y r i c a l Ballads" i s a heartbreaking poem. ... (c) 'To Lucy" from Wordsworth's L y r i c a l Ballads i s a heartbreaking poem. ... (d) 'To Lucy" from Wordsworth's " L y r i c a l Ballads" i s a heartbreaking poem. .. (e) 37. The heart i s a lonely hunter i s a quotation used as a t i t l e for a novel by Carson McCullers, who also wrote the play The Member of the Wedding. (a) The heart i s a lonely hunter i s a quotation used as a t i t l e f o r . a novel by Carson McCullers who also wrote the play 'The Member of the Wedding". (b) The heart i s a lonely hunter i s a quotation used as a t i t l e for a novel by Carson McCullers, who also wrote the play The Member of the Wedding. ' (c) 'The heart i s a lonely hunter" i s a quotation used as a t i t l e for a novel by Carson McCullers, who also wrote the play The Member of the Wedding. (d) "The heart i s a lonely hunter" i s a quotation used as a t i t l e for a novel by Carson McCullers, who also wrote the play The Member of the Wedding. (e) 95 COMMAS , QUOTATION MARKS § RELATED PUNCTUATION SEMI-COLONS, COLONS § DASHES 38. He's a reasonable fellow, Andy explained. That's what the s h e r i f f said It's us who ain't reasonable. (a) "He's a reasonable fellow," Andy explained. "That's what the s h e r i f f s a i d . " " i t ' s us who ain't reasonable." (b) "He's a reasonable fellow" Andy explained. "That's what the s h e r i f f said, " i t ' s us who ain't reasonable." (c) "He's a reasonable fellow," Andy explained. "That's what the s h e r i f f said. It's us who ai n ' t reasonable." (d) 39. When asked, for her favourite quotation, Moira r e p l i e d : Peanut's l i n e , "Drop dead." " (a) When asked for her favourite quotation Moira r e p l i e d , "Peanut's l i n e "Drop dead." (b) When asked for her favourite quotation, Moira r e p l i e d , "Peanut's l i n e : Drop dead." (c) When asked for her favourite quotation, Moira r e p l i e d , "Peanut's l i n e : 'Drop dead.'." (d) When asked for her favourite quotation, Moira r e p l i e d , Peanut's l i n e "Drop dead." (e) 40. The husband asked. Did Princess Diana use "obey" in her marriage vows? (a) The husband asked, "Did Princess Dianna use obey in her marriage vows? (b) The husband asked, "Did Princess Diana use "obey" i n her marriage vows?" (c) The husband asked, "Did Princess Diana use 'obey' i n her marriage vows"? (d) The husband asked, "Did Princess Diana use 'obey' i n her marriage vows?" (e) COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS 5 RELATED PUNCTUATION, 96 SEMI-COLONS, COLONS $ DASHES 41. The results of her exam came yesterday she hadn't expected them. la (b (c (d , a f t e r "yesterday" ; a f t e r "yesterday" : a f t e r "yesterday" no f u r t h e r punctuation required Much to his f r u s t r a t i o n , he l o s t another lure furthermore, he knew he could not get more. (a (b (c (d: ; a f t e r " l u r e " , a f t e r " l u r e " - a f t e r " l u r e " no further punctuation required 43. The following selections w i l l be played "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy," "The Dance of the Toy Soldiers," and "The L i t t l e Drummer Bov." (a (b (c (d ; a f t e r "played" : a f t e r "played" (j'Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy,' "The Dance of the Toy Soldiers,' and "The L i t t l e Drummer Boy , rJ no further punctuation required 44. Shakespeare t e l l s us " F r a i l t y , thy name is woman." .0 (b (c (d ( " F r a i l t y , thy name i s woman.") : a f t e r "us" ; a f t e r "us" no further punctuation required 45. Fred was spending Christmas i n Hawaii J o d i , at Whistler Chris, at Big White. (a (b (c (d , a f t e r "Hawaii" and "Whistler" ; a f t e r "Hawaii" and "Whistler" : a f t e r "Hawaii" and "Whistler" no further punctuation required 46. Her plans are as follows to graduate from high school, to work for s i x months, and to t r a v e l to South .America. (a (b (c (d — a f t e r "follows" ; a f t e r "follows" : a f t e r "follows" no further punctuation required 97 COMMAS, QUOTATION MARKS 5 RELATED PUNCTUATION, SEMI-COLONS, COLONS 5 DASHES 47. Did you know that Sea A t t l e s i c was named a f t e r a wonderful Indian c h i e f . (a) (sic) (b) Qsicl (c) (Sea Attle) (d) no further.punctuation required (a) ; a f t e r "kph" 48. The wind howled at over 80 kph trees f e l l (b) : a f t e r "kph" down, power l i n e s broke, creeks overflowed , ̂  ^ ,„ , „ t h e i r banks. l c J ' a t t e r K p R (d) no further punctuation required (a) (her) 49. In her Jane Fonda's performance I f e l t (b) (Jane Fonda's) r e a l pathos. ( c ) ̂  F o n d a, sj (d) no further punctuation required 50. One of your purposes i n studying i n Quebec i s to improve your fluency i n French i n addition, you should expand your awareness of French culture. (a) : a f t e r "French" (b) (in addition,) (c) ; a f t e r "French" (d) no further punctuation required (a) — he had s k i i e d since he was three — 51. Skiing he had s k i i e d since he was three (b) ; he had s k i i e d since he was his favourite sport. was three (c) , he had s k i i e d since he was three (d) no further punctuation required (a) .... $80 52. The sum of eighty d o l l a r s $80 was paid (b) C$80 1 to the Scouts for the wood. ^ ($gQ ) (d) no further punctuation required SECTION I I I : 9 8 SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT, VERB USAGE, PRONOUN USAGE, PREPOSITION USAGE, MISPLACED MODIFIERS Choose t h e answer which makes a c o r r e c t s e n t e n c e . (a) t a l k 53. Betsy i s one of those parrots who too much. (b) (c) (d) have talked to t a l k talks (a) has 54. Weather analyses suggested a coming new ice age. (b) (c) (d) did are have (a) v i s i t 55. Each of us who Paris finds something b e a u t i f u l . (b") (c) Cd) v i s i t i n g v i s i t s do v i s i t (a) are 56. Neither the employees nor the employer pleased with the wage settlement. (b) (c) (d) were i s being (a) hope 57. John, along with his twenty friends, to spend the summer with us. (b) (c) (d) hoping hopes hopefully (a) were 58. None of the passengers injured i n the t r a i n derailment. (b) (c) (d) are was wasn't 99 SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT, VERB USAGE, PRONOUN USAGE, PREPOSITION USAGE, MISPLACED MODIFIERS (a) i s 59. There an elephant and a crocodile on (b) be my bac k~~ porch. (c) (d) has been are (a) hanged 60. The convict knew he would be i n the (b) hunged morning. Cc) (d) hung hunging (a) l i e d 61. The young g i r l i n bed a l l day Sunday. (b) laved (c) lay (d) l a i d (a) l a i n 62. For the past week I have about the (b) l a i d house with nothing to do. (c) (d) laved l i e d (a) Set 63. the stewpot on the stove, Maisie. (b) S i t (c) Sat' (d) Setted (a) rung 64. She the truth from me by various (b) rang devious devices. (c) (d) wrunged wrung 100 SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT, VERB USAGE, PRONOUN USAGE, PREPOSITION USAGE, MISPLACED MODIFIERS (a) him 65. Michael and plan to run fi v e miles . (b) I each day. us Cc) Cd) me (a) me 66. Why aren't the coaches in favour of (b) us changing my t r a i n i n g regime? (c) mine Cd) my • (a) himself 67. Both Peter and Natalie play very w e l l , but she plays . (b) him more b e a u t i f u l l y than Cc) his Cd) he (a) who 68. The person I despise s i t s next to (b) that me i n the l i b r a r y . Cc) whom Cd) which (a) he 69. The school presented Fonz and the (b) me Nerd Award for 1982. Cc) I Cd) we (a) t h e i r 70. Everyone must bring donations to school (b) i t s tomorrow. Cc) his Cd) they're 101 SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT, VERB USAGE, PRONOUN USAGE, PREPOSITION USAGE, MISPLACED MODIFIERS (a) because her job i s so taxing. 71. I admire that policeman (b) because i t i s such a taxing job. (c) because t h e i r job is so taxing. (d) because you have such a taxing job. (a) . .This v i c t o r y 72. The team won the f i n a l league game (b) which meant i t would play i n the f i n a l s . (c) . This (d) . That (a) from 73. That idea i s c e r t a i n l y i n f e r i o r (b) to the l a s t one I heard. , , (c) as (d) between (a) to 74. It i s unwise for the student to compare her s e l f (b) besides o t h e r s w h 0 h a v e d i f f e r e n t ( c ) h e t w e e n i n t e r e s t s - (d) with 75. There i s l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y and yours. (a) among my tastes (b) between (c) from (d) as to v SUBJECT-PREDUCATE AGREEMENT, VERB USAGE, 102 PRONOUN USAGE, PREPOSITION USAGE, MISPLACED MODIFIERS (a) on 76. Most counsellors convince th e i r students to (b) with agree a regular routine of home , , f r o m study. Cd) to (a) to 77. Your opinion of the Premier's performance (b) with Cc) from Cd) than d i f f e r s quite r a d i c a l l y mine. ^ f r o m 78. In my pocket I looked for the keys I had lo s t . (a) I looked for the keys I had lost i n my pocket. Cb) I looked i n my pocket for the keys I had lost. Cc) I looked for the keys i n my pocket I had lost. Cd) 79. S t r i d i n g aggressively into the room, my eyes f e l l upon the figure cowering i n the corner. (a) My eyes, s t r i d i n g aggressively into the room, f e l l upon the figure cowering i n the corner. (b) S t r i d i n g aggressively into the room, I gazed upon the figure cowering i n the corner. Cc) S t r i d i n g , my eyes f e l l aggessively upon the figure cowering in the corner. Cd) SUBJECT-PREDICATE PRONOUN USAGE, AGREEMENT, PREPOSITION VERB USAGE, USAGE, MISPLACED 103 MODIFIERS 80. The Cheshire cat hid himself behind the T.V. with cunning. ' (a) With cunning behind the T.V. the Cheshire cat hid himself. •.. (b) The cunning Cheshire cat hid himself behind the T.V (c) The Cheshire cat behind the T.V. with cunning h i d himself. (d) 81. Romeo received news that J u l i e t was dead from another messenger (a) Romeo received news that J u l i e t from another messenger was dead (b) From another messenger, Romeo received news that J u l i e t was dead (c) Romeo received news from another messenger that J u l i e t was dead (d) 82. I only caught one salmon on that f i s h i n g t r i p (a) I caught one salmon only on that f i s h i n g t r i p (b) I caught only one salmon on that f i s h i n g t r i p (c) I caught one salmon on that f i s h i n g t r i p only (d) 83. The old gardener was only able to do part of the yardwork (a) The old" gardener was able only to do part of the yardwork (b) The old gardener was able to only do part of the yardwork (c) The o l d gardener was able to do only part of the yardwork (d) 84. Ten years ago g i r l s used to come to school where I was a teacher i n barefeet. (a) Ten years ago g i r l s used to come i n barefeet to the school where I was a teacher (b) Where I was a teacher i n barefeet, g i r l s used to come to school (c) In bare feet I used to be a teacher i n a school where g i r l s came. (d) 104 SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT, VERB USAGE PRONOUN USAGE, PREPOSITION USAGE, MISPLACED MODIFIERS 85. They had almost raked a l l of the leaves before t h e i r f o l k s got back. (a) They had raked a l l of the leaves almost before t h e i r f o l k s got back. (b) They had raked a l l of the leaves before t h e i r folks almost got back. (c) They had raked almost a l l of the leaves before t h e i r folks got back. (d) 86. Seeing V i v i e n Leigh, a f a i n t i n g s p e l l overcame me. (a) Seeing V i v i e n Leigh, I fainted. (b) Me seeing Vivien Leigh caused a f a i n t i n g s p e l l . , • (c) Seeing V i v i e n Leigh, the vapours occurred. (d) 87. The actor was asked to only repeat the l a s t l i n e . (a) The actor was asked to repeat only the l a s t l i n e . (b) The actor repeating only the l a s t l i n e was e f f e c t i v e . (c) Repeating only the l a s t l i n e , an e f f e c t i v e performance was given by the actor. (d) 88. The coach choosing Wayne Gretszky surprised me. (a) The coach's choosing Wayne Gretszky surprised me. (b) Choosing Wayne Gretszky, everyone was surprised by the coach. • .(c) Chosen by the coach, everyone was surprised by Wayne Gretszky. (d) 89. Considering a l l the suggestions, Handsworth should win the pennant (a) A l l i ndications suggest Handsworth winning the pennant. (b) A l l i ndications suggest Handsworth's winning the trophy (c) A l l suggestions considered, Handsworth should win the pennant (d) 105 SUBJECT-PREDICATE AGREEMENT, VERB USAGE, PRONOUN USAGE, PREPOSITION USAGE, MISPLACED MODIFIERS 90. Starring i n French Lieutenant's Woman, Meryl Streep gives a superb performance. • (a) Starring i n French Lieutenant's Woman, a superb performance i s given by Meryl Streep (b) Starring i n French Lieutenant's Woman, everyone admired Meryl Streep's performance. (c) Starring i n French Lieutenant's Woman, everyone praised Meryl Streep. (dj 106 SECTION IV. DICTIONARIES AND THESAURUS, VOCABULARY 91. A standard Thesaurus contains (a) pronunciation (b) word or i g i n s •(c) s y l l a b i c a t i o n id) correct usage (e) a l i s t of synonyms (a) ac - qui - s i - t i o n 92. The correct s y l l a b i c a t i o n of " a c q u i s i t i o n " i s (b) ac - qui - s i t i o n (c) acqui - s i - t i o n (d) acquis - i - t i o n (a) parts of speech 93. In the di c t i o n a r y the word "costume" i s (b) "new" and " v a r i a b l e " followed by the abbreviations (c) the o r i g i n s of the word "n." and "v." (d) the fact that the word These abbreviations ref e r to i s a proper noun (e) none of the above • (a) l e f t handed 94. The Latin root "manu" means "hand." (b) written by hand "Manuscript" means (c) medieval s c r i p t (d) carbon copy (e) none of the above DICTIONARIES AND THESAURUS, VOCABULARY 107 (a.) pronunciation, synonyms, history of the language . 95. A dictionary contains (b) word meanings, pronunciation, and s y l l a b i c a t i o n (c) word meanings, autobiography word origings (d) word o r i g i n s , biographies, parts of speech (e) a l l of the above (a) l i k e 96. Train your dog (b) how Barbara Wodehouse does. (c) as (d) by (a) exsept 97. I cannot his explanation (b) assept for being away from class again. (c) accept (d) except (a) implication 98. Y'our statement leads me to the (b) implying that the economy i s worse than I thought. (c) inference Cd) i n f e r r i n g (a) aggravates 99. Your constant complaining (b) i r r i t a t e s me. (c) e i t h e r "aggravates" or " i r r i t a t e s " (d) neither "aggravates" nor " i r r i t a t e s " (a) e f f e c t s 100. The v i s u a l were (b) a f f e c t s stunning. (c) e f f e c t i o n s Cd) e f f e c t a t i o n s

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